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Sample records for bulgarian livestock genetic

  1. Pluripotent stem cells and livestock genetic engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Delia A; Ross, Pablo J

    2016-06-01

    The unlimited proliferative ability and capacity to contribute to germline chimeras make pluripotent embryonic stem cells (ESCs) perfect candidates for complex genetic engineering. The utility of ESCs is best exemplified by the numerous genetic models that have been developed in mice, for which such cells are readily available. However, the traditional systems for mouse genetic engineering may not be practical for livestock species, as it requires several generations of mating and selection in order to establish homozygous founders. Nevertheless, the self-renewal and pluripotent characteristics of ESCs could provide advantages for livestock genetic engineering such as ease of genetic manipulation and improved efficiency of cloning by nuclear transplantation. These advantages have resulted in many attempts to isolate livestock ESCs, yet it has been generally concluded that the culture conditions tested so far are not supportive of livestock ESCs self-renewal and proliferation. In contrast, there are numerous reports of derivation of livestock induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), with demonstrated capacity for long term proliferation and in vivo pluripotency, as indicated by teratoma formation assay. However, to what extent these iPSCs represent fully reprogrammed PSCs remains controversial, as most livestock iPSCs depend on continuous expression of reprogramming factors. Moreover, germline chimerism has not been robustly demonstrated, with only one successful report with very low efficiency. Therefore, even 34 years after derivation of mouse ESCs and their extensive use in the generation of genetic models, the livestock genetic engineering field can stand to gain enormously from continued investigations into the derivation and application of ESCs and iPSCs.

  2. Microsatellite analysis to estimate genetic relationships among five bulgarian sheep breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szilvia Kusza

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Herein, genetic relationships among five breeds of Bulgarian sheep were estimated using microsatellite markers. The total number of alleles identified was 226 at the 16 loci examined. D A distance values were used for phylogenetic tree construction with the UPGMA algorithm. The two Tsigai and two Maritza populations were found to be geneticallvery closely related to each other y (0.198, and 0.258 respectively. The Pleven Black Head population was distinct from the other four. These results could be useful for preserving genes in these breeds, thereby ensuring their preservation in Bulgaria.

  3. Bulgarians: Songs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolar, Walter W., Comp.

    Words and sheet music for 21 Bulgarian songs are presented. The document is part of an ethnic heritage teaching unit on folk arts and music of the Bulgarian people. The objective of the project is to help American students in elementary, junior high, and high schools understand and appreciate Bulgarians and their culture. Songs are presented in…

  4. Thai pigs and cattle production, genetic diversity of livestock and strategies for preserving animal genetic resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kesinee Gatphayak

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the current situation of livestock production in Thailand, genetic diversity and evaluation, as well as management strategies for animal genetic resources focusing on pigs and cattle. Sustainable conservation of indigenous livestock as a genetic resource and vital components within the agricultural biodiversity domain is a great challenge as well as an asset for the future development of livestock production in Thailand.

  5. How does farmer connectivity influence livestock genetic structure?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berthouly, C; Do, Duy Ngoc; Thévenon, S

    2009-01-01

    Assessing how genes flow across populations is a key component of conservation genetics. Gene flow in a natural population depends on ecological traits and the local environment, whereas for a livestock population, gene flow is driven by human activities. Spatial organization, relationships between...... farmers and their husbandry practices will define the farmer's network and so determine farmer connectivity. It is thus assumed that farmer connectivity will affect the genetic structure of their livestock. To test this hypothesis, goats reared by four different ethnic groups in a Vietnamese province were......, ethnicity and husbandry practices. In this study, we clearly linked the livestock genetic pattern to farmer connectivity and showed the importance of taking into account spatial information in genetic studies....

  6. Genetic markers and their application in livestock breeding in South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The development of molecular biological techniques has created new possibilities for the selection and genetic improvement of livestock. The discovery of the PCR had a major impact on the research of eukaryotic genomes and contributed to the development and application of various DNA markers. DNA markers have ...

  7. Livestock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mottet, Anne; Haan, de Cees; Falcucci, Alessandra; Tempio, Giuseppe; Opio, Carolyn; Gerber, P.J.

    2017-01-01

    Livestock contribute to food security by supplying essential macro- and micro-nutrients, providing manure and draught power, and generating income. But they also consume food edible by humans and graze on pastures that could be used for crop production. Livestock, especially ruminants, are often

  8. Genetic aspects of enteric methane emission in ruminants livestock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martino Cassandro

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This review summarizes the importance of enteric methane (CH4 emission in ruminants and relevant to the current on knowledge relevant to genetic aspects of enteric CH4 production, highlighting future research needs and directions. Global average temperature has increased by about 0.7°C in the last century. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC reported that anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHG, including carbon dioxide (CO2, CH4, nitrous oxide (N2O and halocarbons, have been responsible for most of the observed temperature increase since the middle of the twentieth century. Agriculture, particularly livestock, is increasingly being recognized as both a contributor to the process and a potential victim of it. Policy interventions and technical solutions are required to address both the impact of livestock production on climate change and the effects of climate change on livestock production. Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO, declared that in the next 50 years, the world’s farmers will be called upon to produce more food than has been produced in the past 10,000 years, and to do so in environmentally sustainable ways. Therefore, the GHG reduction should be treated as a public good. The United States congress is prospecting to define a price on GHG emissions. Limiting the concentration of CO2 and other GHG in Earth’s atmosphere requires a technological and economic revolution. A cost-effective way could be the genetic improvement of livestock, which produces permanent and cumulative changes in performance. Animal variation in enteric CH4 emission has been reported in the literature, providing potential for improvement through genetic selection. 

  9. Prevalence and impacts of genetically engineered feedstuffs on livestock populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Eenennaam, A L; Young, A E

    2014-10-01

    Globally, food-producing animals consume 70 to 90% of genetically engineered (GE) crop biomass. This review briefly summarizes the scientific literature on performance and health of animals consuming feed containing GE ingredients and composition of products derived from them. It also discusses the field experience of feeding GE feed sources to commercial livestock populations and summarizes the suppliers of GE and non-GE animal feed in global trade. Numerous experimental studies have consistently revealed that the performance and health of GE-fed animals are comparable with those fed isogenic non-GE crop lines. United States animal agriculture produces over 9 billion food-producing animals annually, and more than 95% of these animals consume feed containing GE ingredients. Data on livestock productivity and health were collated from publicly available sources from 1983, before the introduction of GE crops in 1996, and subsequently through 2011, a period with high levels of predominately GE animal feed. These field data sets, representing over 100 billion animals following the introduction of GE crops, did not reveal unfavorable or perturbed trends in livestock health and productivity. No study has revealed any differences in the nutritional profile of animal products derived from GE-fed animals. Because DNA and protein are normal components of the diet that are digested, there are no detectable or reliably quantifiable traces of GE components in milk, meat, and eggs following consumption of GE feed. Globally, countries that are cultivating GE corn and soy are the major livestock feed exporters. Asynchronous regulatory approvals (i.e., cultivation approvals of GE varieties in exporting countries occurring before food and feed approvals in importing countries) have resulted in trade disruptions. This is likely to be increasingly problematic in the future as there are a large number of "second generation" GE crops with altered output traits for improved livestock

  10. Three novel SLC2A1 mutations in Bulgarian patients with different forms of genetic generalized epilepsy reflecting the clinical and genetic diversity of GLUT1-deficiency syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Nevyana; Peycheva, Valentina; Kamenarova, Kunka; Kancheva, Dalia; Tsekova, Irina; Aleksandrova, Iliana; Hristova, Dimitrina; Litvinenko, Ivan; Todorova, Diana; Sarailieva, Gergana; Dimova, Petya; Tomov, Veselin; Bozhinova, Veneta; Mitev, Vanio; Kaneva, Radka; Jordanova, Albena

    2018-01-01

    GLUT1-deficiency syndrome (GLUT1-DS) is a metabolic brain disorder with a great clinical heterogeneity underlined by various mutations in the SLC2A1 gene which make the clinical and genetic diagnosis complicated. The purpose of our study is to investigate the genetic defects affecting the SLC2A1 gene in a group of Bulgarian patients with genetic generalized epilepsy (GGE), and to bring new insights into the molecular pathology of GLUT1-DS that would strengthen the genotype-phenotype correlations and improve the diagnostic procedure. We have performed sequencing analysis of the SLC2A1 gene in thirty-eight Bulgarian patients with different forms of GGE having emerged in childhood followed by array comparative genome (aCGH) hybridization in patients with severe forms of GLUT1-DS who display extraneurological features. We have detected three novel SLC2A1 gene mutations that are predicted to have different impacts on the GLUT1 protein structure and function - one being to cause the amino acid substitution p.H160Q, another leading to the truncation p.Q360*, and also a 1p34.2 microdeletion. The overall frequency of the SLC2A1 mutations in the studied group is 8.1%. They have been found in clinical cases that differ notably by their severity. Our study enriches the mutation spectrum of the SLC2A1 gene by 3 novel cases that reflect the genetic and phenotypic diversity of GLUT1-DS and brings new insights into the molecular pathology of that disorder. The clinical data showed that the SLC2A1 genetic defects should be considered equally in the entire range of the clinical manifestations of GGE paying attention to the extraneurological features. The aCGH analysis should be considered as an ultimate step during the diagnostic procedure of GLUT1-DS in patients with a complex clinical picture of intractable epilepsy involving neuropsychological impairments and accompanied by extraneurological features. Copyright © 2017 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All

  11. Methods to optimize livestock breeding programs with genotype by environment interaction and genetic heterogeneity of environmental variance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, H.A.

    2007-01-01

    Genotype by environment interaction (G × E) and genetic heterogeneity of environmental variance are both related to genetic variation in environmental sensitivity. Both phenomena can have consequences for livestock breeding programs. This thesis focuses on developing methods to optimize livestock

  12. Ivan Zajc's Bulgarian Songs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanka Georgieva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of newly discovered historiographic documents, this study traces the »biography« of Ivan Zajc’s Bulgarian songs. It specifies some disputed details with regard to the numbering and structure of two vocal cycles; it submits a transcript of a music sheet of the song Robstvo (The Yoke, op. 843a and the original of an unknown composition Majko kleta (Poor Mother on the verses of the Bulgarian poet Ivan Vazov which has not been registered by Hubert Pettan in Zajc’s catalogue of works. This exploration, together with the historiographic focus, highlights the connection of these opuses with the Bulgarian poetry which gained wide popularity through the anthology Bulgarian Songs by August Harambašić. Indeed, some details which Zajc indicated on the title pages of his scores, lead to this assumption. At the same time, the spread of the songs in Bulgaria indicates the connection of the Croatian composer with Bulgarian musicians, choral societies, schools etc., as a result of which in the first decade of the 20th century Zagreb’s Hrvatski glazbeni zavod became an attractive educational centre for many young Bulgarian people. Ivan Zajc’s Bulgarian Songs have not only enriched the artistic repertoire of Bulgarian choral societies. They outline one of the lines of active multicultural transfer between Bulgaria and Croatia on the border between the last decades of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th centuries. The melodies of his marches, creating the spirit of the struggles for national liberation of Bulgarian nation, have become part of the newly created national musical culture and have been often accepted as Bulgarian in their origin.

  13. Selection for uniformity in livestock by exploiting genetic heterogeneity of environmental variance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, H.A.; Bijma, P.; Hill, W.G.

    2008-01-01

    In some situations, it is worthwhile to change not only the mean, but also the variability of traits by selection. Genetic variation in residual variance may be utilised to improve uniformity in livestock populations by selection. The objective was to investigate the effects of genetic parameters,

  14. Hardship in Bulgarian Law

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    Silviya TSONEVA

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the legal treatment of hardship(change of circumstances in Bulgarian law trying to show where it stands in comparison with other legislations (Germany, England, USA and international legal instruments (Unidroit Principles on International Commercial Contracts and Principles of European Contract Law. An overall picture of the different approaches to hardship is concisely presented. Hardship prerequisites and effects are analyzed with a stress on specific problems identified in some recent Bulgarian court decisions. Attention is drawn to certain. concepts and reasoning in other legal systems that may be helpful to Bulgarian theory and practice when dealing with hardship cases.

  15. Enhancing livestock through genetic engineering--recent advances and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laible, G

    2009-03-01

    Transgenic technology allows for the stable introduction of exogenous genetic information into livestock genomes. With its ability to enhance existing or introduce entirely novel characteristics at unprecedented magnitude and speed this emerging technology is expected to have a profound impact on the genetic improvement of livestock in the future. The continual advances in animal genomics towards the identification of genes that influence livestock production traits and impact on human health will increase its ability and versatility for the purposeful modification of livestock animals to enhance their welfare, produce superior quality food and biomedical products and reduce the environmental impact of farming. In contrast to biomedicine, which has so far been the main driver for this technology platform, the potential opportunities for animal agriculture are more challenging because of the greater demands on cost, efficiency, consumer acceptance and relative value of the product. While various transgenic concepts for the genetic improvement of livestock animals for agriculture are being evaluated the integration of this technology into practical farming systems remains some distance in the future.

  16. Health effects of feeding genetically modified (GM) crops to livestock animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, de Clazien J.; Swanenburg, Manon

    2017-01-01

    A large share of genetically modified (GM) crops grown worldwide is processed into livestock feed. Feed safety of GM crops is primarily based on compositional equivalence with near-isogenic cultivars and experimental trials in rodents. However, feeding studies in target animals add to the evaluation

  17. Genetic and physiology basis of the quality of livestock products.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Mele

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The animal research gives more attention, for more than twenty years, to the improvement of food quality, because this aspect plays an important role in the consumer choice. In this paper are browsed the principal foods of animal origin (milk, meat and eggs, paying attention on the actual genetic and physiologic knowledge, which influence the quality characteristic. Particularly, we examined the role of Quantitative Genetic in bovine and swine and the growing knowledge about animal genomes and individuation of QTL. Information on genomic regions that control QTL, allow to organize genetic improvement programs, using Markers Assisted Selection (MAS and Markers Assisted Introgression (MAI. Moreover are reported the knowledge about metabolic processes that influence quality especially on lipid and protein component. About other productions are considered the physiology of eggs production and the genetic improvement of hens. Finally the qualitative aspects about poultry and rabbit meat and the actual genetic improvement strategy are reported.

  18. Extended Bulgarian keyboard layouts

    OpenAIRE

    Zinoviev, Anton

    2009-01-01

    The old Bulgarian keyboard standard BDS 5237-78 was developed for use mostly on typewriter machines. The wide distribution of the computers forced the update of this standard. On one hand this is because of the need to support symbols such as the Bulgarian quotation marks, the Cyrillic letter I with grave accent, the long dash, etc. On the other hand the so called "phonetic layout" became popular and this layout is not standartized by BDS. In this work we are analyzing the possibilities to im...

  19. Health effects of feeding genetically modified (GM) crops to livestock animals: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vos, Clazien J; Swanenburg, Manon

    2017-08-31

    A large share of genetically modified (GM) crops grown worldwide is processed into livestock feed. Feed safety of GM crops is primarily based on compositional equivalence with near-isogenic cultivars and experimental trials in rodents. However, feeding studies in target animals add to the evaluation of GM crops with respect to animal health. This review aimed to evaluate the possible health effects of feeding GM crops to livestock by reviewing scientific publications on experimental studies in ruminants, pigs, and poultry in which at least one of the following health parameters was investigated: body condition score, organ weight, haematology, serum biochemistry, histopathology, clinical examination, immune response, or gastrointestinal microbiota. In most experiments, either Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) maize, Roundup Ready (RR) soybean, or both were fed to livestock animals. Significant differences (PGM crops has adverse effects on animal health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Potential of gene drives with genome editing to increase genetic gain in livestock breeding programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonen, Serap; Jenko, Janez; Gorjanc, Gregor; Mileham, Alan J; Whitelaw, C Bruce A; Hickey, John M

    2017-01-04

    This paper uses simulation to explore how gene drives can increase genetic gain in livestock breeding programs. Gene drives are naturally occurring phenomena that cause a mutation on one chromosome to copy itself onto its homologous chromosome. We simulated nine different breeding and editing scenarios with a common overall structure. Each scenario began with 21 generations of selection, followed by 20 generations of selection based on true breeding values where the breeder used selection alone, selection in combination with genome editing, or selection with genome editing and gene drives. In the scenarios that used gene drives, we varied the probability of successfully incorporating the gene drive. For each scenario, we evaluated genetic gain, genetic variance [Formula: see text], rate of change in inbreeding ([Formula: see text]), number of distinct quantitative trait nucleotides (QTN) edited, rate of increase in favourable allele frequencies of edited QTN and the time to fix favourable alleles. Gene drives enhanced the benefits of genome editing in seven ways: (1) they amplified the increase in genetic gain brought about by genome editing; (2) they amplified the rate of increase in the frequency of favourable alleles and reduced the time it took to fix them; (3) they enabled more rapid targeting of QTN with lesser effect for genome editing; (4) they distributed fixed editing resources across a larger number of distinct QTN across generations; (5) they focussed editing on a smaller number of QTN within a given generation; (6) they reduced the level of inbreeding when editing a subset of the sires; and (7) they increased the efficiency of converting genetic variation into genetic gain. Genome editing in livestock breeding results in short-, medium- and long-term increases in genetic gain. The increase in genetic gain occurs because editing increases the frequency of favourable alleles in the population. Gene drives accelerate the increase in allele frequency

  1. The use of genetic markers to measure genomic response to selection in livestock.

    OpenAIRE

    Gomez-Raya, Luis; Olsen, Hanne Gro; Lingaas, Frode; Klungland, Helge; Våge, Dag Inge; Olsaker, Ingrid; Talle, Seblewengel Bekele; Aasland, Monica; Lien, Sigbjørn

    2002-01-01

    A method to measure genomic response to natural and artificial selection by means of genetic markers in livestock is proposed. Genomic response through several levels of selection was measured using sequential testing for distorted segregation of alleles among selected and nonselected sons, single-sperm typing, and a test with records for growth performance. Statistical power at a significance level of 0.05 was >0.5 for a marker linked to a QTL with recombination fractions 0, 0.10, and 0.20 f...

  2. Bulgarians@cern.ch

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    The happy Bulgarian family. From left to right, last row to first row: Ilka Antcheva, Georgi Antchev, Dimitri Borilkov, Ivana Hristova, Petiu Petev, Peicho Petkov, Borislav Pavlov, Peter Hristov, Mihail Tchijov, Stefan Piperov, Ekaterina Ivanova, Dimitar Kolev, Roumen Tzenov. Bobby is striding along with his white sneakers, black trousers belted high at the waist and a blue shirt buttoned up to the top. He comes to the coffee table and sits down on the chair crossing his legs. While speaking he fiddles with his glasses and his black curly hair dangles on the sides of his head. Borislav Pavlov or Bobby is a 22 year old Bulgarian summer Physics student at Sofia University and came to CERN to work on ORCA reconstruction software for the CMS experiment. “I will do my thesis on ORCA and it is so good that I can be here, work here where the projects actually happen and exchange experience with the people working here,” he says. “It is an honor for me.” Bulgaria joined CERN as a member state in 1999 but Bulgar...

  3. EU import restrictions on genetically modified feeds: impacts on Spanish, EU and global livestock sectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philippidis, G.

    2010-07-01

    Over the last decade, much controversy has surrounded the usage of genetically modified organism (GMO) technology in commercial agriculture. More specifically, it is feared that GMOs may introduce new allergens into the food chain or contribute to antibiotic resistance. At the current time, the European Union (EU) adopts a zero tolerance policy toward non-approved GMO imports, whilst the approval process has not kept pace with the proliferation of new GMO varieties. In the EU livestock sectors, this apparent mis-match threatens to interrupt supplies of high protein feed inputs (e.g., soy meal) from countries with more relaxed regulations regarding GMOs. Employing a well known multi-region computable general equilibrium framework, this study quantitatively assesses the impact of a hypothetical EU import ban on unapproved GMO varieties of soybean and maize imports on livestock, meat and dairy sectors. The model code is heavily modified to improve the characterisation of the agricultural sectors and land usage, whilst a realistic baseline is employed to update the global database to 2008, the year the hypothetical ban is implemented. In the worst case scenario, there are significant competitive losses in EU livestock, meat and dairy sectors. In Spain, the negative impacts are particularly pronounced given the importance of pig production in agriculture. In contrast, all non-EU regions trade balances improve, with notable trade gains in the USA and Brazil. To conclude, the EU must urgently find a long term strategy for GMOs if it is to reconcile political expediency with pragmatic economic concerns. (Author) 21 refs.

  4. Genetic Evolution of Mycobacterium bovis Causing Tuberculosis in Livestock and Wildlife in France since 1978

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauer, Amandine; De Cruz, Krystel; Cochard, Thierry; Godreuil, Sylvain; Karoui, Claudine; Henault, Sylvie; Bulach, Tabatha; Bañuls, Anne-Laure; Biet, Franck; Boschiroli, María Laura

    2015-01-01

    To study the dynamics of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in France, 4,654 M. bovis strains isolated mainly from livestock and wildlife since 1978 were characterized by spoligotyping and MLVA based on MIRU-VNTR. In our study spoligotyping allowed the discrimination of 176 types although 3 spoligotypes are predominant and account for more than half of the total strain population: SB0120 (26%), SB0134 (11%) and SB0121 (6%). In addition, 11% of the isolates, principally from Southern France, showing close spoligotypes and MIRU-VNTR types have been gathered in a family designated as the “F4-family”. MLVA typing allowed extensive discrimination, particularly for strains with predominant spoligotypes, with a total of 498 genotypes, several of which were highly regionalized. The similarity of the strains’ genetic relationships based on spoligotyping and MIRU-VNTR markers supports the co-existence of different clonal populations within the French M. bovis population. A genetic evolution of the strains was observed both geographically and in time. Indeed, as a result of the reduction of bTB due to the national control campaigns, a large reduction of the strains’ genetic variability took place in the last ten years. However, in the regions were bTB is highly prevalent at present, cases in both livestock and in wildlife are due to the spread of unique local genotype profiles. Our results show that the highly discriminating genotyping tools used in this study for molecular studies of bTB are useful for addressing pending questions, which would lead to a better insight into the epidemiology of the disease, and for finding proper solutions for its sustainable control in France. PMID:25658691

  5. Selection for uniformity in livestock by exploiting genetic heterogeneity of residual variance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hill William G

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In some situations, it is worthwhile to change not only the mean, but also the variability of traits by selection. Genetic variation in residual variance may be utilised to improve uniformity in livestock populations by selection. The objective was to investigate the effects of genetic parameters, breeding goal, number of progeny per sire and breeding scheme on selection responses in mean and variance when applying index selection. Genetic parameters were obtained from the literature. Economic values for the mean and variance were derived for some standard non-linear profit equations, e.g. for traits with an intermediate optimum. The economic value of variance was in most situations negative, indicating that selection for reduced variance increases profit. Predicted responses in residual variance after one generation of selection were large, in some cases when the number of progeny per sire was at least 50, by more than 10% of the current residual variance. Progeny testing schemes were more efficient than sib-testing schemes in decreasing residual variance. With optimum traits, selection pressure shifts gradually from the mean to the variance when approaching the optimum. Genetic improvement of uniformity is particularly interesting for traits where the current population mean is near an intermediate optimum.

  6. Bulgarian folk dances at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Roberto Cantoni

    2010-01-01

    On Sunday 29 August, the Bulgarian folklore dance group Rhythm visited CERN. After their visit to the ATLAS visitor centre and the SM18 hall, they performed a show in the Pump Room, introducing CERN people to the musical traditions of their country.   The visit of the Bulgarian dance group was organized by Zornitsa Zaharieva, a member of the Beams Department, and Svejina Dimitrova, Director of the Varna Astronomical Observatory. “The students were enthusiastic about the opportunity to visit CERN”, says Zornitsa. “The idea of the performance came from the dance group itself, who wanted to express their gratitude for being given this chance”. The group, comprising around 25 children aged between 11 and 16 from the city of Varna, was hosted by the CERN Dancing Club. For their show, the young dancers, choreographed by Tashka Pavlova, performed traditional dances and songs from different Bulgarian regions. “As a member of the CERN Dancing Club com...

  7. 150 Bulgarian students visit CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Alizée Dauvergne

    2010-01-01

    Between 27 March and 8 April 2010, 150 Bulgarian students from the Astronomical Observatory in Varna visited CERN as part of the “From Galileo to CERN” programme. Bulgarian students participating in the "From Galileo to CERN" educational programme. “It’s interesting to combine astronomy and particle physics”, explains Svejina Dimitrova, organiser of the programme and Director of Varna Astronomical Observatory. The three groups, each one comprising 50 students, first visited Pisa, Padua and other places in Italy  related to Galileo’s life. “Thanks to the visit, students understood telescopes and why Galileo is such an important scientist”, says Svejina. After Italy, they came to CERN for three days and visited several sites: Linac, the Computer Centre CCC, etc. Another group of Bulgarian students in their visit to CERN. “They became aware that particle physics is not only the...

  8. Population structure and genetic differentiation of livestock guard dog breeds from the Western Balkans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceh, E; Dovc, P

    2014-08-01

    Livestock guard dog (LGD) breeds from the Western Balkans are a good example of how complex genetic diversity pattern observed in dog breeds has been shaped by transition in dog breeding practices. Despite their common geographical origin and relatively recent formal recognition as separate breeds, the Karst Shepherd, Sarplaninac and Tornjak show distinct population dynamics, assessed by pedigree, microsatellite and mtDNA data. We genotyped 493 dogs belonging to five dog breeds using a set of 18 microsatellite markers and sequenced mtDNA from 94 dogs from these breeds. Different demographic histories of the Karst Shepherd and Tornjak breeds are reflected in the pedigree data with the former breed having more unbalanced contributions of major ancestors and a realized effective population size of less than 20 animals. The highest allelic richness was found in Sarplaninac (5.94), followed by Tornjak (5.72), whereas Karst Shepherd dogs exhibited the lowest allelic richness (3.33). Similarly, the highest mtDNA haplotype diversity was found in Sarplaninac, followed by Tornjak and Karst Shepherd, where only one haplotype was found. Based on FST differentiation values and high percentages of animals correctly assigned, all breeds can be considered genetically distinct. However, using microsatellite data, common ancestry between the Karst Shepherd and Sarplaninac could not be reconstructed, despite pedigree and mtDNA evidence of their historical admixture. Using neighbour-joining, STRUCTURE or DAPC methods, Sarplaninac and Caucasian Shepherd breeds could not be separated and additionally showed close proximity in the NeighborNet tree. STRUCTURE analysis of the Tornjak breed demonstrated substructuring, which needs further investigation. Altogether, results of this study show that the official separation of these dog breeds strongly affected the resolution of genetic differentiation and thus suggest that the relationships between breeds are not only determined by breed

  9. Traditional Bulgarian Hunter's Cuisine (Hunter's Cooking Book (1939 [In Bulgarian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Petrushev

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This very rare book was published in Belogradchik in 1939. The publisher is Stamen Kamenov. Stamen Kamenov owned a printing press, where several books of local and national importance were printed. This is a cookbook with recipes for cooking wild game. The book is relevant to modern man because it shows what has been the cuisine of old Bulgarians.

  10. Polish-Bulgarian-Russian, Bulgarian-Polish-Russian or Russian-Bulgarian-Polish dictionary?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violetta Koseska-Toszewa

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Polish-Bulgarian-Russian, Bulgarian-Polish-Russian or Russian-Bulgarian-Polish dictionary? The trilingual dictionary (M. Duszkin, V. Koseska, J. Satoła and A. Tzoneva is being elaborated based on a working Polish-Bulgarian-Russian electronic parallel corpus authored by Maksim Duszkin, Violetta Koseska-Toszewa and Joanna Satoła-Staśkowiak, and works by A. Tzoneva. It is the first corpus comparing languages belonging to three different Slavic language groups: western, southern and eastern. Works on the dictionary are based on Gramatyka konfrontatywna bułgarsko-polska (Bulgarian-Polish confrontative grammar and the proposed there semantic-oriented interlanguage. Two types of classifiers have been introduced into the dictionary: classic and semantic. The trilingual dictionary will present a consistent and homogeneous set of facts of grammar and semantics. The Authors point out that in a traditional dictionary it is not clear for example whether aspect should be understood as imperfective / perfective form of a verb or as its meaning. Therefore in the dictionary forms and meaning are separated in a regular way. Imperfective verb form has two meanings: state and configuration of states and events culminating in state. Also perfective verb form has two meanings: event and configuration of states and events culminating in event. These meanings are described by the semantic classifiers, respectively, state and event, state1 and event1. The way of describing language units, mentioned in the article, gives a possibility to present language material (Polish, Bulgarian, Russian in any required order, hence the article’s title.

  11. BULGARIAN COMPATIBILITY WITH NATO AIR POWER

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-16

    of the most serious and at the same time wicked problems that will find its solution through the new fighter project is overcoming the Bulgarian Air...Air Force in a position to undergo a serious test. The problems of transition deprived the Bulgarian Armed Forces, and in particular the Air Force...between the Bulgarian Air Force and the forces of NATO partners exists, and it is a problem which has to be urgently solved. The overall intent of the

  12. Genetically engineered livestock for agriculture: a generation after the first transgenic animal research conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, James D; Maga, Elizabeth A

    2016-06-01

    At the time of the first Transgenic Animal Research Conference, the lack of knowledge about promoter, enhancer and coding regions of genes of interest greatly hampered our efforts to create transgenes that would express appropriately in livestock. Additionally, we were limited to gene insertion by pronuclear microinjection. As predicted then, widespread genome sequencing efforts and technological advancements have profoundly altered what we can do. There have been many developments in technology to create transgenic animals since we first met at Granlibakken in 1997, including the advent of somatic cell nuclear transfer-based cloning and gene editing. We can now create new transgenes that will express when and where we want and can target precisely in the genome where we want to make a change or insert a transgene. With the large number of sequenced genomes, we have unprecedented access to sequence information including, control regions, coding regions, and known allelic variants. These technological developments have ushered in new and renewed enthusiasm for the production of transgenic animals among scientists and animal agriculturalists around the world, both for the production of more relevant biomedical research models as well as for agricultural applications. However, even though great advancements have been made in our ability to control gene expression and target genetic changes in our animals, there still are no genetically engineered animal products on the market for food. World-wide there has been a failure of the regulatory processes to effectively move forward. Estimates suggest the world will need to increase our current food production 70 % by 2050; that is we will have to produce the total amount of food each year that has been consumed by mankind over the past 500 years. The combination of transgenic animal technology and gene editing will become increasingly more important tools to help feed the world. However, to date the practical benefits of

  13. Web presentation of bilingual corpora (Slovak-Bulgarian and Bulgarian-Polish

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    Radovan Garabík

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Web presentation of bilingual corpora (Slovak-Bulgarian and Bulgarian-Polish In this paper we focus on the web-presentation of bilingual corpora in three Slavic languages and their possible applications. Slovak-Bulgarian and Bulgarian-Polish corpora are collected and developed as results of the collaboration in the frameworks of two joint research projects between Institute of Mathematics and Informatics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, from one side, and from the other side: Ľ. Štúr Institute of Linguistics, Slovak Academy of Sciences and Institute of Slavic Studies, Polish Academy of Sciences, coordinate by authors of this paper.

  14. The gender in Bulgarian proverbs

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    Uzeneva Elena

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We have chosen the paremiology as the object of this article because it is the area where phraseology and folklore are closely related. This fact makes the study of proverbs significant from the lingua-cultural point of view. The subject of the Bulgarian proverbs is an important source of interpretation because most proverbs are "prescriptions-stereotypes of folk self-consciousness" (Telija. We can see proverbs as cultural stereotypes reflected in common language. The analysis of different proverbs (more then 5000 makes it possible to draw valid conclusions about the dominating tendencies and assessments. We concentrated on proverbs connected with the gender issues. They reflect the social aspects of relationships between a man and a woman. The analysis was seriously hampered by the natural semantic richness of proverbs. Our article focuses on the inner form of proverbs. Our first obvious conclusion will be as follows: the gender factor does not play the leading role in the majority of the Bulgarian proverbs. We can see in some proverbs the reflection of the masculine mentality and the power of man, which in itself is not the dominant factor. The negative female stereotype exists alongside the male one. At the same time the female character does not always have negative connotations. Very often the feminine beauty, mind, positive housewife image and patience are in focus. In addition, the indisputable fact of the presence of the „female“ voice, in which sorrow and suffering dominate, and the female consciousness becomes apparent in the understanding of the world created by Bulgarian proverbs. They characterize her emotional side and decisiveness, as well as her expression of resistance. The above in-depth analysis allows us to make the conclusion about certain independence of women even in those past times which are reflected in the proverbs. Confirmation of our main conclusion can be found in some historical facts such as: a married woman

  15. Y-chromosome diversity in modern Bulgarians: new clues about their ancestry.

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    Sena Karachanak

    Full Text Available To better define the structure and origin of the Bulgarian paternal gene pool, we have examined the Y-chromosome variation in 808 Bulgarian males. The analysis was performed by high-resolution genotyping of biallelic markers and by analyzing the STR variation within the most informative haplogroups. We found that the Y-chromosome gene pool in modern Bulgarians is primarily represented by Western Eurasian haplogroups with ∼ 40% belonging to haplogroups E-V13 and I-M423, and 20% to R-M17. Haplogroups common in the Middle East (J and G and in South Western Asia (R-L23* occur at frequencies of 19% and 5%, respectively. Haplogroups C, N and Q, distinctive for Altaic and Central Asian Turkic-speaking populations, occur at the negligible frequency of only 1.5%. Principal Component analyses group Bulgarians with European populations, apart from Central Asian Turkic-speaking groups and South Western Asia populations. Within the country, the genetic variation is structured in Western, Central and Eastern Bulgaria indicating that the Balkan Mountains have been permeable to human movements. The lineage analysis provided the following interesting results: (i R-L23* is present in Eastern Bulgaria since the post glacial period; (ii haplogroup E-V13 has a Mesolithic age in Bulgaria from where it expanded after the arrival of farming; (iii haplogroup J-M241 probably reflects the Neolithic westward expansion of farmers from the earliest sites along the Black Sea. On the whole, in light of the most recent historical studies, which indicate a substantial proto-Bulgarian input to the contemporary Bulgarian people, our data suggest that a common paternal ancestry between the proto-Bulgarians and the Altaic and Central Asian Turkic-speaking populations either did not exist or was negligible.

  16. Optimization problems in the Bulgarian electoral system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinov, Mihail; Yanev, Kostadin; Pelova, Galina; Boneva, Juliana

    2013-12-01

    In this paper we consider several optimization problems for the Bulgarian bi-proportional electoral systems. Experiments with data from real elections are presented. In this way a series of previous investigations of the authors is further developed.

  17. Poetry and Family Photographs [In Bulgarian

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    E. Tosheva

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Evdokia Tosheva was born in 1942 in Lom, NW Bulgaria. She is retired as a hospital nurse. Her mother belonged to a rich Lom family. Her father was a cavalry officer from Belogradchik. The family was put under repression in the communist era. Now Evdokia is fond of writing poems, she loves Bulgarian landscapes, Belogradchik, and Bulgarian customs and folk traditions. The paper presents some of her poetry attempts for children and for adults. Beloved family photos illustrate her poems.

  18. Assessment of genetic diversity of zoonotic Brucella spp. recovered from livestock in Egypt using multiple locus VNTR analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menshawy, Ahmed M S; Perez-Sancho, Marta; Garcia-Seco, Teresa; Hosein, Hosein I; García, Nerea; Martinez, Irene; Sayour, Ashraf E; Goyache, Joaquín; Azzam, Ragab A A; Dominguez, Lucas; Alvarez, Julio

    2014-01-01

    Brucellosis is endemic in most parts of Egypt, where it is caused mainly by Brucella melitensis biovar 3, and affects cattle and small ruminants in spite of ongoing efforts devoted to its control. Knowledge of the predominant Brucella species/strains circulating in a region is a prerequisite of a brucellosis control strategy. For this reason a study aiming at the evaluation of the phenotypic and genetic heterogeneity of a panel of 17 Brucella spp. isolates recovered from domestic ruminants (cattle, buffalo, sheep, and goat) from four governorates during a period of five years (2002-2007) was carried out using microbiological tests and molecular biology techniques (PCR, MLVA-15, and sequencing). Thirteen strains were identified as B. melitensis biovar 3 while all phenotypic and genetic techniques classified the remaining isolates as B. abortus (n = 2) and B. suis biovar 1 (n = 2). MLVA-15 yielded a high discriminatory power (h = 0.801), indicating a high genetic diversity among the B. melitensis strains circulating among domestic ruminants in Egypt. This is the first report of the isolation of B. suis from cattle in Egypt which, coupled with the finding of B. abortus, suggests a potential role of livestock as reservoirs of several zoonotic Brucella species in the region.

  19. Assessment of Genetic Diversity of Zoonotic Brucella spp. Recovered from Livestock in Egypt Using Multiple Locus VNTR Analysis

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    Ahmed M. S. Menshawy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is endemic in most parts of Egypt, where it is caused mainly by Brucella melitensis biovar 3, and affects cattle and small ruminants in spite of ongoing efforts devoted to its control. Knowledge of the predominant Brucella species/strains circulating in a region is a prerequisite of a brucellosis control strategy. For this reason a study aiming at the evaluation of the phenotypic and genetic heterogeneity of a panel of 17 Brucella spp. isolates recovered from domestic ruminants (cattle, buffalo, sheep, and goat from four governorates during a period of five years (2002–2007 was carried out using microbiological tests and molecular biology techniques (PCR, MLVA-15, and sequencing. Thirteen strains were identified as B. melitensis biovar 3 while all phenotypic and genetic techniques classified the remaining isolates as B. abortus (n=2 and B. suis biovar 1 (n=2. MLVA-15 yielded a high discriminatory power (h=0.801, indicating a high genetic diversity among the B. melitensis strains circulating among domestic ruminants in Egypt. This is the first report of the isolation of B. suis from cattle in Egypt which, coupled with the finding of B. abortus, suggests a potential role of livestock as reservoirs of several zoonotic Brucella species in the region.

  20. Bulgarian Turkish emigration and return.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasileva, D

    1992-01-01

    The main factors which determined the 1989 migration of Turks in Bulgaria back to Turkey are discussed. Background history is provided. After World War I, Turks in bulgaria comprised 10% of the total population. Bulgarian policy had been, up to the 1980s to send Rumelian Turks back, but the policy after 1980 was one of a national revival process to integrate Turks into the developed socialist society. Muslim traditions, customs, and Turkish language were interfered with. International disfavor resulted. In May 1989, the Communist Party declared, in an effort to show democratic ideals, open borders. Thus began the new emigration wave. 369,839 people fled to the Turkish border. 43% of the 9.47 ethnic Turks in bulgaria went to Turkey within 4 months. The numbers decreased in November, and soon after the communist regime ended. New laws were adopted allowing Turks to assume their original Turkish names. The huge migration was clearly political, and as such, the emigrant Turks should be determined as refugees and asylum seekers. The provocation of ethnic Turks was used by the communist regime to solve potential social conflicts. Not only did Turks flee to escape from violence or for religious, cultural, and moral reasons but also due to free market initiatives begun in Turkey in the early 1980s which improved Turkish quality of life. Food and consumer goods were cheaper and economic advantages were perceived. Emigrants were primarily peasants with lower levels of education, professional qualifications, and labor skills. 154,937 (42%) returned to bulgaria and 58% stayed in Turkey to comprise 25% of the former Turkish population. During this period, tensions between countries was high.l Bulgarians actively encouraged emigration and Turkey welcomed it. The emigrants to Turkey were seen as foreigners (muhacir or gocmen) but were received with good will and were readily accepted into menial positions. Emigrants were confronted with political, linguistic, and cultural

  1. Implementation of a genetic algorithm for energy design optimization of livestock housing using a dynamic thermal simulator

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    Maria Elena Menconi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A Genetic Algorithm (GA is an optimization process inspired by natural systems ability of surviving in many different environments through the mechanisms of natural selection and genetics. The pairing of GA-based optimization techniques with dynamic energy models is a common and effective practice to find energy efficient design solutions. In this paper is implemented an optimization tool that use a GA and a dynamic energy model. Efficiency of GAs depends largely on the coding strategy and on the parameters selection. In order to test the code and to find the best combination of parameters, a parametric analysis of GA's performances is carried out. The algorithm, coded in Matlab, works with populations of strings. Each string, that represents a complete design solution, is initially randomly generated by the GA and evaluated in terms of energy performances by the dynamic thermal simulator. A new population is then generated using three different GA stochastic operators: reproduction, crossover and mutation, by selecting, mixing and randomly modifying the fittest solutions of the previous generation. Each generation is energetically evaluated and thus the fitness of the strings, that represent the energy efficiency of the design solutions, improves every cycle till eventually converge to the best solution. This whole methodology is well documented and applied in residential buildings design but can be easily extended to livestock housing. In this paper the algorithm is coded to be applied on a simple sheepfold model in order to optimize only passive design solutions.

  2. Bulgarian banking: looking for sustainability

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    Garabed Minassian

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we trace and analyze the emergence of the crisis in the Bulgarian banking system as well as the behavior of the central bank and other macroeconomic institutions. The average annual rate of growth in the net profits of the commercial banks for the period 2002-2008 amounted to 31.6%, which encouraged and accounted for the increase in credits. After 2008, the pendulum began to swing back as the difficulties in collecting loan repayments increased, the strain in financial balances tightened and assistance and support from the regulators were requested. The level of the financial and operating income was maintained primarily because of the high interest rates on the loans, but the structure of their distribution shifted substantially. Administrative costs and depreciation were nearly frozen up, and impairment and provisions grew at the expense of profit. This work shows that macroeconomic policies allowed the expansion of the lending boom and encouraged its irrational development. Poor operation and poor quality of the institutions not only allowed but also enabled direction of investments to financing of inefficient production structures. Underestimating the negative consequences shoring up a dysfunctional institutional environment is deemed a form of irrationality; however, not one of the immediate economic players acted to override the economic and political environment. The financial and economic crisis currently affecting the country has its roots in the deficiencies of the domestic macroeconomic policies, and therefore, the efforts toward overcoming these failures should be directed at improved domestic macroeconomic management.

  3. Song's Bare Feet [In Bulgarian

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    R. Pankova-Karadjov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This is a snapshot story of a young woman life in the North-West Bulgarian villages during the late 1930s. Venah Milova is on her way to visit her husband Yordan, who works at a windmill near Belogradchik. She has to walk 18 kilometres to get there, and to save her single pair of shoes, she tucks them in her bag and goes barefoot. Venah manages to hitchhike a ride in the carriage of the district constable and captivates him with her sense of humour and the words: I am a district person too. She honestly shares with him the difficulties of the poor peasant’s life her own and other families go through, hoping for a change. Impressed with the young woman’s conduct, her sincerity, confidence and her openly expressed vision, the district constable makes a special detour to deliver Venah to her destination. He then congratulates her husband Yordan for his beautiful, open-minded and hard-working wife. This is a true story, written out as part of “The history of my family” – started by Yordan, continued by their daughter Vetka Pankova and retold here by their granddaughter Rostislava Pankova-Karadjova.

  4. My Contribution to BulgarianScienceProblems in 2013 [In Bulgarian

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    B.V. Toshev

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Bulgarianscienceproblems is the only e-mail discussion list, located at yahoogroups.com, moderated by Dr. Lazarin Lazarov, and dealing with the problems of the Bulgarian science and higher education. Its subscribers are currently 5194. This paper lists partly my contribution to the public discussion of the actual situations and challenges of the Bulgarian science in 2013. University/science policy and management and the problems with the failure of the Bulgarian Science Fund are among the main topics considered and discussed.

  5. Mitochondrial DNA Suggests a Western Eurasian Origin for Ancient (Proto-) Bulgarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesheva, D V; Karachanak-Yankova, S; Lari, M; Yordanov, Y; Galabov, A; Caramelli, D; Toncheva, D

    2015-01-01

    Ancient (proto-) Bulgarians have long been thought of as a Turkic population. However, evidence found in the past three decades shows that this is not the case. Until now, this evidence has not included ancient mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) analysis. To fill this void, we collected human remains from the 8th to the 10th century AD located in three necropolises in Bulgaria: Nojarevo (Silistra region) and Monastery of Mostich (Shumen region), both in northeastern Bulgaria, and Tuhovishte (Satovcha region) in southwestern Bulgaria. The phylogenetic analysis of 13 ancient DNA samples (extracted from teeth) identified 12 independent haplotypes, which we further classified into mtDNA haplogroups found in present-day European and western Eurasian populations. Our results suggest a western Eurasian matrilineal origin for proto-Bulgarians, as well as a genetic similarity between proto- and modern Bulgarians. Our future work will provide additional data that will further clarify proto-Bulgarian origins, thereby adding new clues to the current understanding of European genetic evolution.

  6. The combined use of embryos and semen for cryogenic conservation of mammalian livestock genetic resources

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    Pizzi Flavia

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of this empirical simulation study was to evaluate the use of a combination of semen and embryos in the creation of gene banks for reconstruction of an extinct breed. Such an approach was compared for banks with varying proportions of embryos on the basis of the amount of the material to be stored, time for reconstruction, maintenance of genetic variability, and probability of failure during reconstruction. Four types of populations were simulated, based on reproductive rate: single offspring, twinning, enhanced reproduction, and litter bearing. Reconstruction was simulated for banks consisting of different combinations of semen and reduced numbers of embryos (expressed as a percentage of the material needed for a bank containing exclusively embryos and ranging from 10 to 90%. The use of a combination of semen and embryos increased the number of insemination cycles needed for reconstruction and the level of genetic relatedness in the reconstructed population. The risk for extinction was unacceptably high when a very low proportion of embryos (

  7. Pentecostal Youth Organization and the Bulgarian Komsomol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homan, Robert

    1977-01-01

    Draws certain comparisons between the organization, methods and objectives of two youth movements seldom viewed in respect of each other: the one serves a religious faith and is known as the pentecostal youth movement, the other serves a political ideology and is known as the Bulgarian komsomol. (Author/RK)

  8. Surveying selected European feed and livestock production chains for features enabling the case-specific post-market monitoring of livestock for intake and potential health impacts of animal feeds derived from genetically modified crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleter, Gijs; McFarland, Sarah; Bach, Alex; Bernabucci, Umberto; Bikker, Paul; Busani, Luca; Kok, Esther; Kostov, Kaloyan; Nadal, Anna; Pla, Maria; Ronchi, Bruno; Terre, Marta; Einspanier, Ralf

    2017-10-06

    This review, which has been prepared within the frame of the European Union (EU)-funded project MARLON, surveys the organisation and characteristics of specific livestock and feed production chains (conventional, organic, GM-free) within the EU, with an emphasis on controls, regulations, traceability, and common production practices. Furthermore, an overview of the origin of animal feed used in the EU as well as an examination of the use of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in feed is provided. From the data, it shows that livestock is traceable at the herd or individual level, depending on the species. Husbandry practices can vary widely according to geography and animal species, whilst controls and checks are in place for notifiable diseases and general health symptoms (such as mortality, disease, productive performance). For feeds, it would be possible only to make coarse estimates, at best, for the amount of GM feed ingredients that an animal is exposed to. Labeling requirements are apparently correctly followed. Provided that confounding factors are taken into account, practices such as organic agriculture that explicitly involve the use of non-GM feeds could be used for comparison to those involving the use of GM feed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. European Citizenship and Youth in Bulgaria: A Qualitative Comparative Analysis between Bulgarians and Bulgarian Turks

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    Gianfranco Brusaporci

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available European citizenship is a new concept, which has evolved with the process of European integration. Starting from the younger generations, the EU seeks to establish a modern and innovative view of citizenship through three fundamental elements - rights, identity and participation - that could lead to new ways of conceiving the relationship of institutions-citizens and citizenscitizens. The idea of European citizenship tends to overcome the historical idea of national states and national identity. It does this by reinforcing its supranational nature and developing an attitude of tolerance towards diversity and human/minority rights. Thus, to verify the impact European citizenship has on the younger generation in Bulgaria, this research is based on an inter-ethnic sample of 30 interviews (16 Bulgarians, 14 Bulgarian Turks and applies a qualitative comparative analysis method. This research seeks to answer these two main questions: 1 How do young Bulgarians perceive the concept of EU citizenship? 2 How do young Bulgarians perceive the new European citizenship in regard to the inter-ethnic relations in their own country? The study suggests that the EU’s attempt to promote European citizenship is underachieving. On the one hand, young Bulgarian people tend to be well exposed to European citizenship, irrespective of their ethnic belonging. On the other hand, the majority of them are sceptical of the tangible value of European citizenship for the reinforcement of a more encompassing and shared notion of diversity and minority rights.

  10. Affirmation Modality in Bulgarian, Macedonian and Serbian

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    Marcin Grygiel

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Affirmation Modality in Bulgarian, Macedonian and Serbian In the case of affirmation modality the speakers transform their utterances by stressing or attributing a positive value as an additional component added to the semantic structure of a proposition. This type of affirmative polarization is triggered in opposition to negation or hypothetically negative contexts. The goal of the present paper is twofold: on the one hand to compare and contrast affirmative periphrastic constructions in Bulgarian, Macedonian and Serbian and, on the other hand, to ascertain what these constructions reveal regarding the organization of grammatical categories in general and the status of affirmation modality as a coherent and homogenous category with a linguistic validity.

  11. The stellar sky in Bulgarian folk tradition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolev, D.; Koleva, V.

    The authors present the names of and some myths and beliefs connected with the most popular among the Bulgarian people stars and constellations. Only the names of "key" objects that are, due to their position and seasonal visibility, of great importance for the economic calendar and social life have been preserved in people's memory. This importance is illustrated by the legends and the calendar practices of the old Bulgarians. The most impressive are the beliefs connected with the Pleiades, the Great Bear, Orion, Lyra and the Milky Way as well. The authors suppose, and make an attempt to show this, that the roots of some of the preserved astronomical beliefs can be found in the very ancient times (up to 11th - 13th millennia BC).

  12. Annex. Bulgarian Gender Research Foundation (BGRF)

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The Bulgarian Gender Research Foundation was founded in June 1998 in Sofia by women committed to work in the field of women’s rights and all of them with previous experience in advocacy, education, monitoring violations of human rights, lobbying for legislative changes, preparing publications, networking. The group consists of lawyers, university professors and women’s rights activists. The group was formed because all the founders strongly felt that there was a need for specific research, ed...

  13. BULGARIAN TRADITIONAL FOODS – SOURCES OF ANTIOXIDANTS

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    Silvia Tsanova-Savova

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Many scientific studies are focused on antioxidant activities in prevention, on their beneficial role for health status and age retardation. The main source of antioxidants for humans is the diet. The aim of the study was to present data for antioxidant compounds in traditional Bulgarian foods, typical of Bulgarian diet. The traditional foods selected for this study were: onion, pepper, tomatoes, green beans, apples, and wild fruit varieties – blueberries, blackberries, raspberries. Antioxidant vitamins E and C were determined by RP-HPLC/fluorescence and UV detection. Total phenolics were determined by the Folin–Ciocalteu assay. Total flavonoids were measured by the aluminum chloride assay. Total carotenoids were determined by RP-HPLC/UV-Vis. The results showed that the highest amount of vitamin E was found in red peppers (2.94 mg/100g, and in raspberries (1.47 mg/100g, comparable with the level in sesame (2.4 mg/100g. Red peppers were evidenced to be the richest source of vitamin C (102 mg/100g. Total phenolics and total flavonoids as a marker of food antioxidant potential had the highest level in blueberries (670 mgGAE/100g, 190.3 mgCE/100g and blackberries (355mgGAE/100g, 55.5 mgCE/100g. Total carotenoids are mostly detected in tomatoes (7.70 mg/100g, followed by spring onion (3.50 mg/100g. The modern analytical techniques enable the assessment of antioxidant constituents in some foods typical of the Bulgarian diet, and furthermore, on the basis of the results the assumption could be made that the Bulgarian longevity is associated not only with yogurt consumption, but with the abundance of antioxidants in the traditional diet as well.

  14. Funeral and Commeration Customs at Bulgarians and Vlachs (Bizeranova, 2013 [In Bulgarian

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    S. Antova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2012 Sashka Biseranova defended successfully her PhD thesis. Later this extended study was transformed into a large book. The study is based on a new modern approach, covering the study of funeral customs and commemoration of both Bulgarians and Vlachs in the border region between North-West Bulgaria and the neighbour countries Romania and Serbia.

  15. Development of the Bulgarian Sea Level Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazov, Atanas

    2013-04-01

    Systematic sea level measurements have been started in Bulgaria in the beginning of 20th century and nowadays there are 16 coastal sea level stations in operation. Operators of sea level stations are: National Institute of Meteorology and Hydrology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences (NIMH) - 6 stations, Cadastre Agency, Ministry of Regional Development and Public Works (CA) - 4 stations, Port Infrastructure (PI) - 5 stations and Institute of Oceanology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences (IO-BAS) - 1 station. Six of them are able to provide real time data. The sea level observations in the network of NIMH, performed at six main Bulgarian ports using standard poles, started in 1910. The program, implemented on the NIMH stations, includes daily measurements of the sea level with water gauges (poles). The position of a zero mark of the water gauge is checked once per year. The sea level network of the CA consists of 4 stations: Varna and Burgas (operational since 1928), Irakly and Ahtopol (since 1971). These stations are equipped with stilling-well tide gauges and with mechanical writing devices which draws sea level changes on paper. A mechanical paper writing instruments were installed in Varna and Burgas during 1928 and in 1971, a new paper writing instruments of type SUM (Russian) were installed in the stations of Irakly and Ahtopol. A set of five sea level stations in the ports of Balchik, Varna west, Pomorie, Burgas and Oil port Burgas was build during 2009 in the frame of Port Operational Marine Observing System (POMOS), equipped with high accuracy microwave instruments and operated by PI. In 2010 a new sea level station was set up in the IO-BAS coastal research base Shkorpolovtci. The station is equipped with high accuracy microwave instrument. These six stations are providing real time data. According to the decision of the Council of Ministers in 2012 sea level stations in Varna, Irakly, Burgas and Ahtopol will be operated jointly by Bulgarian Academy of Sciences and

  16. Presentation of the verbs in Bulgarian-Polish electronic dictionary

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    Ludmila Dimitrova

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Presentation of the verbs in Bulgarian-Polish electronic dictionary This paper briefly discusses the presentation of the verbs in the first electronic Bulgarian-Polish dictionary that is currently being developed under a bilateral collaboration between IMI-BAS and ISS-PAS. Special attention is given to the digital entry classifiers that describe Bulgarian and Polish verbs. Problems related to the correspondence between natural language phenomena and their presentations are discussed. Some examples illustrate the different types of dictionary entries for verbs.

  17. Bulgarian-Polish parallel digital corpus and quantification of time

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    Ludmila Dimitrova

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Bulgarian-Polish parallel digital corpus and quantification of time The paper presents the current state of the first Bulgarian-Polish parallel and aligned corpus, prepared in the frame of the joint research project “Semantics and Contrastive linguistics with a focus on a bilingual electronic dictionary” between the Institute of Mathematics and Informatics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences and the Institute of Slavic Studies, Polish Academy of Sciences, coordinated by L. Dimitrova and V. Koseska-Toszewa. In particular, problems related to tense quantification are also discussed

  18. Brucellosis vaccines for livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Zakia I; Pascual, David W

    2016-11-15

    Brucellosis is a livestock disease responsible for fetal loss due to abortions. Worldwide, this disease has profound economic and social impact by reducing the ability of livestock producers to provide an adequate supply of disease-free meat and dairy products. In addition to its presence in domesticated animals, brucellosis is harbored in a number of wildlife species creating new disease reservoirs, which adds to the difficulty of eradicating this disease. Broad and consistent use of the available vaccines would contribute in reducing the incidence of brucellosis. Unfortunately, this practice is not common. In addition, the current brucellosis vaccines cannot provide sterilizing immunity, and in certain circumstances, vaccinated livestock are not protected against co-mingling Brucella-infected wildlife. Given that these vaccines are inadequate for conferring complete protection for some vaccinated livestock, alternatives are being sought, and these include genetic modifications of current vaccines or their reformulations. Alternatively, many groups have sought to develop new vaccines. Subunit vaccines, delivered as a combination of soluble vaccine plus adjuvant or the heterologous expression of Brucella epitopes by different vaccine vectors are currently being tested. New live attenuated Brucella vaccines are also being developed and tested in their natural hosts. Yet, what is rarely considered is the route of vaccination which could improve vaccine efficacy. Since Brucella infections are mostly transmitted mucosally, mucosal delivery of a vaccine has the potential of eliciting a more robust protective immune response for improved efficacy. Hence, this review will examine these questions and provide the status of new vaccines for livestock brucellosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Exploration and conservation of bacterial genetic resources as bacteriocin producing inhibitory microorganisms to pathogen bacteria in livestock

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    Chotiah S

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Exploration and conservation of microorganisms producing bacteriocin was done as the primary study towards the collection of potential bacteria and its application in improving livestock health condition and inhibit food borne pathogens. Diferent kinds of samples such as beef cattle rectal swab, rumen fluids, cow’s milk, chicken gut content, goat’s milk were collected at Bogor cattle slaughter houses, poultry slaughter houses, dairy cattle and goat farms. A total of 452 bacterial isolates consisted of 73 Gram negative bacteria and 379 Gram positive bacteria were isolated from samples collected and screened for bacteriocin activity. Determination of bacteriocin activity with bioassay using agar spot tests were carried out on liquid and semisolid medium assessing 8 kins of indicators of pathogenic bacteria and food borne pathogens. A total of 51 bacteriocin producing strains were collected and some of the strains had high inhibitory zone such as Lactobacillus casei SS14C (26 mm, Enterobacter cloacae SRUT (24mm, Enterococcus faecalis SK39 (21mm and Bifidobacterium dentium SS14T (20mm respectively, to Salmonella typhimurium BCC B0046/ATCC 13311, E. coli O157 hemolytic BCC B2717, Listeria monocytogenes BCC B2767/ATCC 7764 and Escherichia coli VTEC O157 BCC B2687. Evaluation after conservation ex situ to all bacterocin producing strain at 5oC for 1 year in freeze drying ampoules in vacuum and dry condition revealed the decreasing viability starting from log 0.8 CFU/ml for Lactococcus and Leuconostoc to log 2.2. CFU/ml for Streptococcus. Result of the study showed that the bacteriocin producing strains obtained were offered a potential resource for preventing disease of livestock and food borne diseases.

  20. Polyphenols and antioxidant capacity of Bulgarian medicinal plants

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ivanova, D; Gerova, D; Chervenkov, T; Yankova, T

    2005-01-01

    Extracts of 21 plants used in Bulgarian phytotherapy for the treatment of respiratory, gastrointestinal and other inflammatory disorders were screened in vitro for antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds content...

  1. Study of Ethnic Stereotype of Young Bulgarians

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    Z. Ganeva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Ethnic stereotypes and prejudices as terms were examined from the point of view of the social identity theory (Tajfel, 1981. The results from a carried out longitudinal survey of stereotype and prejudices of young people of Bulgarian origin (n=1154; 453 men and 701 women; average age 21.7 years in 6 time intervals: in 2004, 2006, 2008, 2010, 2012 and 2014, towards the in-group and the representatives of the main ethnic minorities: Turks, Roma and Jews, were presented. Through free associations, the relation between stereotypes and attitudes was studied in two social contexts: personal and community. The results show that the assessment of the minority groups is more positive in the former than in the latter context. The persons studied perceive most negatively the representatives of the Romani ethnos, more weakly negatively the Turks, and the attitudes towards the Jews are positive.

  2. Mathematics of the Bulgarian Electoral System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinov, Mihail M.; Pelova, Galina B.; Boneva, Juliana K.

    2009-11-01

    In this paper we consider the mathematical aspects of the Bulgarian proportional electoral systems used since 1990. They are variants of a proportional system at a nationwide level with 4-percent barrier such that the party seats are personified from a number of regional party lists. This system is unique in the world electoral practice and may lead to severe inter-party distortions. These distortions although formally correct are hardly accepted by the public and by local party activists in particular. Methods to overcome these difficulties as well as the status-quo of the problem are considered. Finally new paradoxes are studied which are generalizations of the well known paradoxes for the plain proportional systems.

  3. Bulgarian Spatial Prefixes and Event Structure

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    Marina Pantcheva

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I explore the combination possibilities of Bulgarian directional prefixes with various motion verbs. Adopting Ramchand’s (in press event decomposition, Zwarts’ (2005 vector space semantics for directional prepositions, and drawing on various discussions regarding the manner component in the verbal meaning, I propose an analysis that captures the distribution of Goal and Source prefixes. I show how this proposal accounts for the change in the syntactic behavior of prefixed motion verbs compared to their unprefixed counterparts. The proposal also explains the syntactic properties exhibited by verbs when prefixed by different prefixes. I offer a unified treatment of path structure and event structure and suggest that directional prepositions and directional prefixes are semantically identical and originate in the extended PP. The differences between them are due to the syntactic structure in which they participate.

  4. Motivation and elite performance : an exploratory investigation with Bulgarian athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Chantal, Yves; Guay, Frédéric; Dobreva-Martinova, Tzvetanka; Vallerand, Robert J.

    1996-01-01

    A sample of 98 Bulgarian top athletes (35 females and 63 males): canoeists, biathletes, figure skaters, boxers, tennis players and skiers, were investigated to explore the motivation of elite sport athletes and to determine the effects of motivation on performance. Participants' athletic performances in national and international events over 2 years (September 1990 to November 1992) was documented. Participants also completed the Bulgarian version of the Sport Motivation Scale (Brière, Valler...

  5. Bulgarian-Polish Language Resources (Current State and Future Development

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    Ludmila Dimitrova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Bulgarian-Polish Language Resources (Current State and Future Development The paper briefly reviews the first Bulgarian-Polish digital bilingual resources: corpora and dictionaries, which are currently developed under bilateral collaboration between IMI-BAS and ISS-PAS: joint research project “Semantics and contrastive linguistics with a focus on a bilingual electronic dictionary”, coordinated by L. Dimitrova (IMI-BAS and V. Koseska (ISS-PAS.

  6. Television food advertising directed towards Bulgarian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galcheva, S V; Iotova, V M; Stratev, V K

    2008-10-01

    Childhood obesity is a serious health problem worldwide with a prevalence rising to epidemic proportions. Television viewing is suspected as an important contributor and along with food advertisements significantly influence children's unhealthy dietary habits, purchase requests and adiposity. To examine the exposure of Bulgarian children to television food advertising and to make a content analysis of the food/beverage advertisements during children's television programmes. 41.5 h of children's television programming on three national networks, were videotaped. All recorded food advertisements were evaluated to identify the marketing strategies used for the stimulation of children's purchase requests. Food/beverage advertisements accounted for 124 (33.4%) of all commercials, with 96.8% being for unhealthy foods. 57% of them were aimed specifically at children as the most advertised products were salty/sweetened snacks and cereals, sweets, soft drinks/carbohydrate juices and salty foods, with no fruit or vegetable commercials. Food advertisements used more themes of adventure, animation, music and gifts to attract children's attention, and gave information based on the product's taste, physical qualities, novelty, presence of premiums/prizes. Of all food/beverage advertisements, 27.4% contained health-related information about the products; three-quarters of the advertisements were shot with young normal-weight actors with a good/healthy appearance. Almost all recorded food advertisements do not support the Bulgarian dietary recommendations for healthy and balanced eating. More activities to reduce the unhealthy food promotion to children are mandatory as restrictions by type of advertised food, target group or limits on the advertisements' account and times shown, as well as parental/self-regulation.

  7. Livestock metabolomics and the livestock metabolome: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldansaz, Seyed Ali; Guo, An Chi; Sajed, Tanvir; Steele, Michael A; Plastow, Graham S; Wishart, David S

    2017-01-01

    Metabolomics uses advanced analytical chemistry techniques to comprehensively measure large numbers of small molecule metabolites in cells, tissues and biofluids. The ability to rapidly detect and quantify hundreds or even thousands of metabolites within a single sample is helping scientists paint a far more complete picture of system-wide metabolism and biology. Metabolomics is also allowing researchers to focus on measuring the end-products of complex, hard-to-decipher genetic, epigenetic and environmental interactions. As a result, metabolomics has become an increasingly popular "omics" approach to assist with the robust phenotypic characterization of humans, crop plants and model organisms. Indeed, metabolomics is now routinely used in biomedical, nutritional and crop research. It is also being increasingly used in livestock research and livestock monitoring. The purpose of this systematic review is to quantitatively and objectively summarize the current status of livestock metabolomics and to identify emerging trends, preferred technologies and important gaps in the field. In conducting this review we also critically assessed the applications of livestock metabolomics in key areas such as animal health assessment, disease diagnosis, bioproduct characterization and biomarker discovery for highly desirable economic traits (i.e., feed efficiency, growth potential and milk production). A secondary goal of this critical review was to compile data on the known composition of the livestock metabolome (for 5 of the most common livestock species namely cattle, sheep, goats, horses and pigs). These data have been made available through an open access, comprehensive livestock metabolome database (LMDB, available at http://www.lmdb.ca). The LMDB should enable livestock researchers and producers to conduct more targeted metabolomic studies and to identify where further metabolome coverage is needed.

  8. Livestock metabolomics and the livestock metabolome: A systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Ali Goldansaz

    Full Text Available Metabolomics uses advanced analytical chemistry techniques to comprehensively measure large numbers of small molecule metabolites in cells, tissues and biofluids. The ability to rapidly detect and quantify hundreds or even thousands of metabolites within a single sample is helping scientists paint a far more complete picture of system-wide metabolism and biology. Metabolomics is also allowing researchers to focus on measuring the end-products of complex, hard-to-decipher genetic, epigenetic and environmental interactions. As a result, metabolomics has become an increasingly popular "omics" approach to assist with the robust phenotypic characterization of humans, crop plants and model organisms. Indeed, metabolomics is now routinely used in biomedical, nutritional and crop research. It is also being increasingly used in livestock research and livestock monitoring. The purpose of this systematic review is to quantitatively and objectively summarize the current status of livestock metabolomics and to identify emerging trends, preferred technologies and important gaps in the field. In conducting this review we also critically assessed the applications of livestock metabolomics in key areas such as animal health assessment, disease diagnosis, bioproduct characterization and biomarker discovery for highly desirable economic traits (i.e., feed efficiency, growth potential and milk production. A secondary goal of this critical review was to compile data on the known composition of the livestock metabolome (for 5 of the most common livestock species namely cattle, sheep, goats, horses and pigs. These data have been made available through an open access, comprehensive livestock metabolome database (LMDB, available at http://www.lmdb.ca. The LMDB should enable livestock researchers and producers to conduct more targeted metabolomic studies and to identify where further metabolome coverage is needed.

  9. Agroecology : integration with livestock

    OpenAIRE

    Tichit, Muriel; Lecompte, Philippe; Dumont, Bertrand

    2014-01-01

    Livestock systems are a large global asset contributing to food security and poverty alleviation, but livestock supply chains have major environmental impacts at global scale. The scientific literature on agroecology has not yet integrated livestock systems; only 5 percent of the indexed studies concerning agroecology deal with livestock. Following Dumont et al. (2013), we review five principles for integrating livestock systems within the agroecology debate: (i) adopting management practices...

  10. Physical work capacity of Bulgarian Air Force pilots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nancheva, R; Minkovski, L

    1994-01-01

    A thorough study was performed on physical work capacity (PWC) of 135 males from the Bulgarian Air Force, aged 18 to 59 years. VO2max was measured directly by means of maximum cycle ergometry testing. The following mean values were obtained: 2.94, 3.03, 3.18 and 2.78 l.min-1 for the age groups 18-25, 35-40, 41-50 and above 50 years, respectively. The relative VO2max mean values per kg BW for the above age groups were 46.15, 35.89, 39.57 and 34.15 ml.kg-1.min-1, respectively. The obtained data, even though not definitive, helped to develop standards for the evaluation of the physical work capacity of pilots. Comparison of our results with those of Bulgarian and foreign investigators has shown that the PWC of Bulgarian pilots is greater than the PWC of some heavy physical workers. It is similar to the norms of Andersen /1/ and Shvartz and Reibold /2/. In accordance the PWC of Bulgarian pilots below 29 years old and 40-49 years old is greater than the working norms for US Air Force personnel. For unknown reasons, the PWC of pilots 35-40 years old is lower than the generally accepted norms for this age group. Testing of the PWC of air force personnel has two general aeromedical goals--establishment of the cardiovascular fitness level and establishment of a baseline for comparison and improvement of PWC by implementation of physical fitness training programs. In the last few years a thorough study was carried out at the Bulgarian Institute of Aviation Medicine for determination of the PWC of Bulgarian Air Force personnel.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. The derivation of diminutives from abstract noun bases in Bulgarian

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    Nicolova Ruselina L.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper reviews the formal and semantic characteristics of the formation of diminutives in Bulgarian, where the process affects nouns, adjectives, numerals, adverbs, verbs and pronouns. The derivation of diminutives from abstract nouns is analyzed on the basis of material excerpted from blogs and forums in the Bulgarian Google, in which significant activation of the process in the language practices of young speakers is observed. The factors which facilitate or constrain the derivation of diminutives from abstract nouns are studied, as well as the semantic interaction between diminutive suffixes and certain semantic components (both denotative and connotative of base words.

  12. Interview of Erika Lazarova with Borislav Toshev [In Bulgarian

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    E. Lazarova

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2011 a book entitled “Golden Book of Bulgarian Science” was published (Lazarova, 2011. Many eminent Bulgarian scientists were interviewed about the course of their life and scientific achievements. The editor of “Venets”, Prof. Dr. B.V. Toshev, DSc, University of Sofia, was amongst them. The full text of his interview, where he shares with Doc. Dr. Erika Lazarova his opinion and reflections about science, research and education, is presented in this journal because the role of family, teachers and Belogradchik for creating the future scientist is specially emphasized.

  13. Implementation of the Bulgarian-Polish online dictionary

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    Ludmila Dimitrova

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Implementation of the Bulgarian-Polish online dictionary The paper describes the implementation of an online Bulgarian-Polish dictionary as a technological tool for applications in digital humanities. This bilingual digital dictionary is developed in the frame of the joint research project “Semantics and Contrastive Linguistics with a focus on a bilingual electronic dictionary” between IMI-BAS and ISS-PAS, supervised by L. Dimitrova (IMI-BAS and V. Koseska-Toszewa (ISS-PAS. In addition, the main software tools for web-presentation of the dictionary are described briefly.

  14. The Modern Science of Education and Its Place in the Bulgarian Classification of Scientific Areas and Topics [In Bulgarian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.V. Toshev

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The Higher Attestation Commission (VAK is responsible for the promotion and career development of the Bulgarian scientists. There are two scientific degrees (Doctor and Doctor of Science and two academic ranks (Associate Professor/Senior Research Fellow II Degree and Professor/Senior Research Fellow I Degree. VAK’s activity is based on the “Classification of Scientific Areas and Topics” (1990. However this document does not take into account the new processes and changes in the world science. For instance the old pedagogical disciplines have recently amalgamated in a new science – the Science of Education with interdisciplinary, multidisciplinary and transdisciplinary character. Generally in the science, strong processes of subjects’ integration replaced the previous trends to subjects’ diversification. These new phenomena are not rendered in the Bulgarian Classification of Scientific Areas and Topics. Therefore, difficulties arise when attempting to shape in an adequate manner the new Bulgarian researchers community.

  15. Linguistic landscape of memorial spaces in multinational communities: The case of Banat Bulgarians in Serbia

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    Sikimić Biljana Lj.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For the linguistic landscape analysis of private signs of Banat Bulgarians we chose two cemeteries, both of them multiethnic, since Banat Bulgarians in Serbia do not form a majority population in any village. The cemetery in Jaša Tomić/Modoš is religiously mixed, but the Catholic and Orthodox part are still divided. Banat Bulgarians in Konak village are buried in the Catholic cemetery; there is a separate Orthodox cemetery for the majority population. These two villages (Jaša Tomić and Konak were selected because they share a similar situation from the diachronic socio-linguistical point of view: apart for a brief time during World War II, the Bulgarian/Paulician language was hardly taught since the early 20th century; Bulgarian was used only in the family and the Catholic church (there are prayer books in Banat Bulgarian; there were many mixed marriages; there was no revival of language and culture As inscriptions on all existing Banat Bulgarian Cyrillic headstones are in Serbian and none of the cemeteries visited have inscriptions in Bulgarian, or rather in the Bulgarian Cyrillic, this indicates that the use and knowledge of standard Bulgarian is limited among the Banat Bulgarians. At the same time, the use of Banat Bulgarian in the Latin alphabet on a proportionally large number of headstones up to the end of the 20th century in the Serbian part of the Banat, and also actively today in Vinga in the Romanian part of Banat, indicates the great importance of the Banat Bulgarian language in preserving the identity of Banat Bulgarians.

  16. National Mythology and Its Linguistical Resources: The Bulgarian Case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aretov, Nikolay

    This paper discusses the concept of Bulgarian national mythology, a secondary mythology that emerged around the late 18th century based on the fundamental opposition Chaos-Cosmos, near-far, up-down, good-evil, God-Satan, and human-non-human. The new mythology redefined self-images and images of the Other, the main figures, and narratives about…

  17. Learning Science at Internet Cafes: Reflections on a Bulgarian Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunne, Mick; Smith, Malcolm

    2004-01-01

    In-service education using information and communication technology (ICT) to teach science is particularly demanding when working in under-resourced locations or where resources are in heavy demand. This article is based on Inset carried out by the authors working with teachers and a university lecturer in a Bulgarian Internet cafe. The use of…

  18. Ethnic identity and acculturation of Turkish-Bulgarian adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dimitrova, R.; Bender, M.; Chasiotis, A.; van de Vijver, A.J.R.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated associations of ethnic identity, acculturation orientations, and acculturation outcomes (psychological well-being and socio-cultural adjustment) in a sample of 279 Turkish-Bulgarian adolescents through self-reports and parent reports. This group has a long history of discrimination

  19. Romanian-Bulgarian Religious Relations during the First World War

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    Claudiu Cotan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available After the outbreak of the First World War, when Bulgaria joined the Central Powers through the alliance with Germany, and Romania joined the Entente, the religious relations had a few special times. The defeat of the Romanian army in Dobrudgea and its occupation by the German – Bulgarian troops brought about a real exodus of the Romanian Orthodox clergy who took refuge especially to Moldova. The war ruined a few churches of Dobrudgea and destroyed the houses of the priests who had left their parishes. The issue of the priests fled from Dobrudgea was discussed within a Council met in Iasi in the summer of 1918, when the participants tried to find solutions for their return to their parishes. I personally examined the documents of this council found today in the Archives of the Metropolitanate of Moldova and Bucovina, because they reveal the deficiencies of the Romanian Orthodox Church in regard to the administrative organisation both in Dobrudgea and in the Quadrilateral. Our study approaches two major events occurred in the Bucharest occupied by the German-Bulgarian troops: the Te-Deum service celebrated in the honour of the royal family of Bulgaria in the Metropolitan Cathedral and the attempt to steal the Holy Relics of Pious Dimitrios Basarabov. The German administration has also been involved in the two events, because the Primate metropolitan Conon asked them to resolve these religious Romanian- Bulgarian conflicts. The documents which mention the two events can be found in the Archives of the Holy Synod of Bucharest and have a special significance because they represent an aspect less examined of the First World War and of the Romanian-Bulgarian relations. The theme of this study has never been approached so far by the Romanian theologians and historians, the research covering a gap in the study of the history of the First World War and of the Romanian- Bulgarian relations.

  20. Exposure of livestock to GM feeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nadal, Anna; Giacomo, De Marzia; Einspanier, Ralf; Kleter, Gijs; Kok, Esther; McFarland, Sarah; Onori, Roberta; Paris, Alain; Toldrà, Mònica; Dijk, van Jeroen; Wal, Jean Michel; Pla, Maria

    2017-01-01

    This review explores the possibilities to determine livestock consumption of genetically modified (GM) feeds/ingredients including detection of genetically modified organism (GMO)-related DNA or proteins in animal samples, and the documentary system that is in place for GM feeds under EU

  1. Semantic packaging in verb-based compounds in English and Bulgarian

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    Alexandra Bagasheva

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Semantic packaging in verb­ based compounds in English and Bulgarian The article contrasts the word­ formation types of (parasynthetic compound nouns and compound verbs in two genetically distantly related but typologically distinct languages Bulgarian and English. While the nature of synthetic compound nouns in both languages is comparable, compound verbs show greater contrasts in terms of types, restrictions and preferences for intra­ compound relations and semantic diversity. An explanation is sought in terms of the influence of word­ relevant syntactic properties on word­ formation phenomena in the two languages. An additional powerful factor is the ubiquity of conversion or syntactic promiscuity in English. A hypothesis is formulated that in Bulgarian the iconicity of word­ formation processes and products associated with the biuniqueness of the sign as understood by Natural Morphology accounts for restrictions on the absolute reign of word­ formation paradigms in Bulgarian, where the distinction between inflectional morphology and word­ formation is more sharply delineated. The typological character of the two languages is ultimately taken into account as a factor which determines the preferences for compounds in English and the prevalence of affixal derivation in Bulgarian.   Kompresja semantyczna w złożeniach czasownikowych w językach bułgarskim i angielskim Autorzy artykułu dokonali porównania mechanizmów słowotwórczych wykorzystywanych przy derywacji (parasyntetycznych złożeń rzeczownikowych oraz czasownikowych w językach bułgarskim i angielskim. Badane języki wykazują dalekie pokrewieństwo genetyczne, lecz z typologicznego punktu widzenia są one od siebie różne. W odróżnieniu od mechanizmów tworzenia syntetycznych złożeń rzeczownikowych, które w obu językach są podobne, złożenia czasownikowe różnią się, jeżeli chodzi o ich typy, ograniczenia użycia oraz preferencje odnośnie relacji

  2. Neologisms in bilingual digital dictionaries (on the example of Bulgarian-Polish dictionary

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    Ludmila Dimitrova

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Neologisms in bilingual digital dictionaries (on the example of Bulgarian-Polish dictionary The paper discusses the presentation of neologisms in the recent version of the Bulgarian-Polish digital dictionary. We also continue the discussion of important problems related to the classifiers of the verbs as headwords of the digital dictionary entries. We analyze some examples from ongoing experimental version of the Bulgarian-Polish digital dictionary.

  3. Bulgarian clusters under development: Political framework and results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bankova Yovka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The idea of clusters is not new but nowadays clusters are in a highlight again. Through cluster policies the countries aim at raising their national competitiveness. The paper deals with two objectives - discussion and evaluation of the strategic framework for clusters in Bulgaria and an analysis of the state of Bulgarian clusters. The paper presents briefly general issues concerning the national competitiveness and clusters as being one of the possible instruments to achieve a sustainable competitiveness. The practice of the policy in the EU in the field of clusters is the basis for conclusions about the role of the governments. The second part deals with the strategic framework for the cluster initiatives in Bulgaria and with a selection of indicators about the SMEs and clusters in the country. On this basis a conclusion about the development stage of Bulgarian clusters is derived.

  4. Livestock production: recent trends, future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Philip K

    2010-09-27

    The livestock sector globally is highly dynamic. In developing countries, it is evolving in response to rapidly increasing demand for livestock products. In developed countries, demand for livestock products is stagnating, while many production systems are increasing their efficiency and environmental sustainability. Historical changes in the demand for livestock products have been largely driven by human population growth, income growth and urbanization and the production response in different livestock systems has been associated with science and technology as well as increases in animal numbers. In the future, production will increasingly be affected by competition for natural resources, particularly land and water, competition between food and feed and by the need to operate in a carbon-constrained economy. Developments in breeding, nutrition and animal health will continue to contribute to increasing potential production and further efficiency and genetic gains. Livestock production is likely to be increasingly affected by carbon constraints and environmental and animal welfare legislation. Demand for livestock products in the future could be heavily moderated by socio-economic factors such as human health concerns and changing socio-cultural values. There is considerable uncertainty as to how these factors will play out in different regions of the world in the coming decades.

  5. Materials about the Belogradchik Uprising (1937 [In Bulgarian

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    K. Panov

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In 1907 a Committee "The Summer of 1850" was established. The goal of this Committee was to collect full information about the Belogradchik uprising of 1850 and, in this way, to immortalize the heros of the revolt against the Turkish authority for the Bulgarian liberty. The booklet containing this information was published in 1911. The present publication reproduces the second edition of Panov's book (1937.

  6. Bulgarian Standardization of Morris Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Margarita Dilova; Eva Papazova; Metodi Koralov

    2017-01-01

    ...Research Articles БЪЛГАРСКА СТАНДАРТИЗАЦИЯ НА СКАЛАТА ЗА СЕБЕОЦЕНКА НА МОРИС РОЗЕНБЕРГ Bulgarian Standardization of Morris Rosenberg’s Self-Esteem Scale...

  7. The Notion of the Foreign in Hungarian and Bulgarian Phraseologisms

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    Lesnichkova Lilyana

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The confrontation between the native and the foreign is a problem that focuses research efforts on a number of humanities, e.g. cultural studies, anthropology, linguistics, ethnography, etc. The following report analyses the notion of the foreign, the other, the different, reflected in the phraseological wealth of the Hungarian and Bulgarian languages. The reviewed phrasemes concentrate the shock upon collision with the different or evaluation of the experience gained in the continuous communication with the other. The foreign is usually individualized by outlining and exaggerating some of its characteristics using parallels, oppositions, and metaphors. The negative attitudes and judgments prevail over the others: the fear of the collective “I” losing its own identity creates a negative attitude towards the foreign, distorted, or wrong notion of the other and the different. Many of the idioms reflect interethnic relations from times long gone, and so they are no longer a significant part of the active vocabulary of Hungarians and Bulgarians. Their analysis, however, is of great interest as they preserve the collective memory of the Hungarian and Bulgarian cultural communities and reveal their traditional notions and knowledge.

  8. The example of Europe and the pedagogical ideas of the Bulgarian writers during the Bulgarian National Revival (XVIII – the first half of the XIX century

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    Milka Nikolova Terziyska-Stefanova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to explore and analyze the essence and nature of the pedagogical thought in Bulgaria during the Bulgarian National Revival as a basis for educational reform. Objectivity requires pedagogical ideas to be considered in the context of overall socio-political and cultural life in the country on the one hand, and amid universal spiritual revival in Europe on the other. These tasks could be undertaken by a major international study, which is why we consider some of the questions highlighting this topic – the positive example of Europe on educational thought in the country presented by Bulgarian writers in the 18th century through the first half of the 19th century. The achievements of free European nations developing in all spheres of life were perceived by Bulgarian Renaissance writers as an incentive to overcome the age-old material and spiritual backwardness of the Bulgarians by the power of knowledge. In their activity they proceeded from a clearly motivated purpose: to contribute by educating citizens about spiritual awakening and rise of the Bulgarian nation. According to them, mass secular education in their native language was the road that would take the Bulgarians from their present slavery and provide them with material and spiritual well-being, like in other European nations. The need for secular books and secular schools to be taught in the mother tongue was one of the main ideas of Bulgarian writers during the Renaissance. Their mouthpieces were mainly clergymen, who perceived their role as national leaders and educators. Alongside the emerging secular intelligentsia, they actively contributed to the spiritual and cultural advancement of the Bulgarian nation and its integration into European civilization. An enlightened, free and independent Bulgaria was the ideal of our Renaissance leaders P. Hilendarski, G. S. Rakovski and Hr. Botev. While the revolutionary figures from the late 19th century thought that this could

  9. Polyphenols and antioxidant capacity of Bulgarian medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, D; Gerova, D; Chervenkov, T; Yankova, T

    2005-01-04

    Extracts of 21 plants used in Bulgarian phytotherapy for the treatment of respiratory, gastrointestinal and other inflammatory disorders were screened in vitro for antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds content. Plant extracts were prepared as herbal teas following the ethnic use. The water-phase TEAC (Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity) of the teas were compared to that of the famous tea-like beverages mate, rooibos and honeybush, and to that of green and black tea, well known for their high antioxidant potential. The content of total phenolics in the teas was determined spectrometrically according to the Folin-Ciocalteu procedure and calculated as quercetin equivalents (QE). Seven Bulgarian medicinal plants were with high phenolics content and antioxidant properties: Pulmonaria officinalis L. (Boraginaceae) (TEAC 2.02+/-0.14 mM/QE 673.39+/-9.92 microM), Hypericum perforatum L. (Hypericaceae) (TEAC 3.75+/-0.14 mM/QE 881.93+/-6.68 microM), Agrimonia eupatoria L. (Rosaceae) (TEAC 3.76+/-0.5mM/QE 702.29+/-6.82 microM), Origanum vulgare L. (Lamiaceae) (TEAC 5.87+/-0.2mM/QE 1653.61+/-11.52 microM), Melissa officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) (TEAC 4.06+/-0.31 mM/QE 1370.09+/-41.38 microM), Rubus sp. diversa (Rosaceae) (TEAC 4.23+/-0,12 mM/QE 608.95+/-5.95 microM), Cotinus coggygria Scop. (Anacardiaceae) (TEAC 7.05+/-0.19 mM/QE 923.33+/-14.19 microM). Therefore, Bulgarian herbs can be considered to be a rich source of water-soluble antioxidants and/or phenolic compounds as compared to studied foreign plants.

  10. Resilience of livestock to changing environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Breeding and Genetics Symposium titled “Resilience of Livestock to Changing Environments” was held at the Joint Annual Meeting, July 19–24, 2016, Salt Lake City, UT. The objective of the symposium was to provide a broad overview of recent research on the effects of changing environmental conditi...

  11. ELABORATION OF THE SUPERSTRUCTURE OF THE BULGARIAN HOTEL INDUSTRY

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    Tanya Dabeva

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to suggest some terms of reference for the elaboration of the superstructure of the Bulgarian hotel industry. The suggestions are based on the analysis of the superstructure at present. Its capacity, main types of accommodation establishments and their distribution by categories and territory are examined. An analysis is made of some resulting indices such as overnight stays and average stay. The main positive, respectively negative features of the superstructure have been analyzed. Concrete terms of reference have been given in order to overcome the problems specified.

  12. Changes of Bulgarian Coastal Dune Landscape under Anthropogenic Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazov, A.; Young, R.; Stancheva, M.; Stanchev, H.

    2012-04-01

    At one time large sand dune formations were widely distributed along the Bulgarian coast. However, due to increased urbanization in the coastal zone, the areas of total dune landscape has been constantly reduced. Dunes presently comprise only 10% of the entire 412 km long coastline of Bulgaria: they embrace a total length of 38.57 km and a total area of 8.78 km2 Important tasks in dune protection are identification of landscape changes for a certain period of time and accurate delineation of sand dune areas. The present research traces sand dune changes along the Bulgarian Black Sea coast over a 27 year period (1983-2010). This period includes also the time of expanded tourist boom and overbuilding of the coastal zone, and respectively presents the largest dune changes and reductions. Based on the landscape change analyst in GIS environment the study also aims to explore the importance of different natural and human factors in driving the observed dune alterations and destruction. To detect and assess dune changes during the last 3 decades, we used data for sand dunes derived from several sources at different time periods in order to compare changes in shoreline positions, dune contours and areas: i) Topographic maps in 1:5,000 scale from 1983; ii) Modern Very High Resolution orthophotographs from 2006 and 2010; iii) QuickBird Very High Resolution satellite images from 2009; iv) Statistical information for population and tourist infrastructure is also used to consider the influence of human pressure and hotel developments on the dune dynamics. In addition, for more detailed description and visualization of main dune types, digital photos have been taken at many parts of the Bulgarian coast. The study was performed in GIS environment. Based on the results obtained the dunes along the Bulgarian coast were divided into three main groups with relation to the general factors responsible for their alterations: i) Dunes that have decreased in result of shoreline retreat

  13. 10th Annual Meeting of the Bulgarian Section of SIAM

    CERN Document Server

    Todorov, Michail; Georgiev, Ivan

    2017-01-01

    This book presents recent research on Advanced Computing in Industrial Mathematics, which is one of the most prominent interdisciplinary areas and combines mathematics, computer science, scientific computations, engineering, physics, chemistry, medicine, etc. Further, the book presents the tools of Industrial Mathematics, which are based on mathematical models, and the corresponding computer codes, which are used to perform virtual experiments to obtain new data or to better understand the existing experimental results. The book gathers the peer-reviewed papers presented during the 10th Annual Meeting of the Bulgarian Section of SIAM (BGSIAM) from December 21 to 22, 2015 in Sofia, Bulgaria.

  14. Livestock biodiversity and sustainability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoffmann, I.

    2011-01-01

    Sustainable development equally includes environmental protection including biodiversity, economic growth and social equity, both within and between generations. The paper first reviews different aspects related to the sustainable use of livestock biodiversity and property regimes that influence

  15. TRANSFORMATION IN BULGARIAN LABOR MARKET IN THE YEARS OF TRANSITION

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    Venelin Terziev

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the dependency of labor market on positive and negative effects of cyclic recurrence and economic development. Probable scenarios of the dynamics in employment and unemployment in dependence of changes in gross domestic product (GDP and productivity in conditions of recession and following the start of economic revival are analyzed in accordance to the open character of Bulgarian economy and the specificity of Bulgarian model of transition predetermined by the impacts of outer influences and additional inner ones on the labor market, which verification is on the basis of the data for state-of-art of labor market in years of transition to market economy. The factor predestining the level of unemployment are investigated on the basis of input flows unemployment relating to macroeconomic and other outer measures, as well as the impact which would lead to decrease in the average duration of unemployment. The accent is on the necessity of establishment of a consecutive and sustainable strategy of economic development having a clear vision about the structuring of economy and labor demand in middle-term aspect, as founding in the flexibility of labor market and employment in the country.

  16. Sustainability of Governing Structures in Bulgarian Farming Industry

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    Hrabrin Bachev

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The issue of assessment of absolute and comparative sustainability of major governing structures in agrarian and farming industries is among the most topical issues for researchers, farmers, investors, administrators, politicians, interests groups, and the public worldwide. Despite this issue, practically there are no assessments on the sustainability level of the major types of Bulgarian farming enterprises in the conditions of European Union Common Agricultural Policy implementation. This study applies a holistic framework and assesses the absolute and comparative sustainability of major governing structures in Bulgarian farming industry—unregistered holdings, sole traders, cooperatives, and companies of various types. In this paper, the method of the study is outlined, the inclusion of a novel “governance aspect” of sustainability is justified, and the overall characteristics of the surveyed farming enterprises are presented. Then, the integral, governance, economic, social, and environmental sustainability of the farming structures of different juridical types is assessed. Next, the structure of farming enterprises with different sustainability levels is analyzed. Finally, the conclusion from this study and the directions for further research and amelioration of sustainability assessments are presented.

  17. In vitro answer of Bulgarian pepper (Capsicum annuum L.

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    Rodeva Velichka

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Callusogenesis and regeneration ability of cotyledon and hypocotyl explants from three Bulgarian pepper varieties in MS basal medium supplemented with l-3mg/l BAP. l.0mg/1 IAA and 0.5mg/l GA3 was studied. In the different variants of culture medium was registered high level of callusogenesis and organogenesis in both type of explants from the all varieties. The highest percentage of plant-regenerants is established in cotyledon explants (from 3.3 to 18.3 in variant 3 of the culture medium containing 3mg/l BA. In the process of micropropagation by stem explants of the same studied pepper varieties the addition of the vitamins C. B12. Casein hydrolysate and Ferulic acid had a stimulation effect on the plant growth in height and rooting. In result of anther cultivation from three pepper varieties and four breeding lines the highest percentage of embryo structure formation was registered in varieties Albena and Strjama (12.0 and 13.8 respectively. The Bulgarian peppers are recalcitrant and their in vitro answer is different depending from the explants type, genotype and the culture media composition.

  18. An annotated checklist and key to the Bulgarian cockroaches (Dictyoptera: Blattodea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hristov, Georgi H; Chobanov, Dragan P

    2016-08-23

    An annotated checklist of the Bulgarian species of cockroaches is prepared based on a full published scientific record and own unpublished data. According to the current state of knowledge the Bulgarian cockroach fauna includes 17 species and subspecies. One synonymization is established-Phyllodromica marginata erythronota Br. v. W., syn. n. = Ph. marginata. Two species (Capraiellus tamaninii and Supella longipalpa) are recorded for the first time for this country and other three (Ectobius punctatissimus, Phyllodromica subaptera and Phyllodromica pallida) are eliminated from the list of the Bulgarian fauna. The list is complemented with maps and full locality data and a dichotomic identification key for the studied taxa is presented.

  19. Translation equivalence of demonstrative pronouns in Bulgarian-Slovak parallel texts

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    Ludmila Dimitrova

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Translation equivalence of demonstrative pronouns in Bulgarian-Slovak parallel texts In this paper we describe our automatic analysis of several parallel Bulgarian-Slovak texts with the goal to obtain useful information about Slovak translation equivalents of (definite articles and demonstrative pronouns in Bulgarian. Rather than focusing on individual translation equivalents, we present a method for automatic extraction and visualization of the translations. This can serve as a guide for pinpointing interesting features in specific translated documents and could be extended for other parts of speech or otherwise identifiable textual units.

  20. Extraction and Presentation of Bilingual Correspondences from Slovak-Bulgarian Parallel Corpus

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    Radovan Garabík

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Extraction and Presentation of Bilingual Correspondences from Slovak-Bulgarian Parallel Corpus In this paper the results of the automatic extraction and presentation of bilingual correspondences from Slovak-Bulgarian Parallel corpus are described. The equivalent phrases are extracted from sentence and word level automatically aligned corpus, filtered, indexed and presented in a dictionary-like interface. The bilingual dictionary database contains 80 thousand phrase pairs consisting of approximately 350 thousand words (per each language. Counting unique word forms, the size is 31 thousand in the Slovak part of the dictionary, 26 thousand in the Bulgarian part.

  1. The diversity of lexical functions in Bulgarian and Russian: an approach to compatible digital comparative lexicography

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    Svetlana Timoshenko

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The diversity of lexical functions in Bulgarian and Russian: an approach to compatible digital comparative lexicography This paper presents an approach to the creation of Russian-Bulgarian digital dictionary of collocations using the apparatus of lexical functions. The project is aimed not only at the high-quality translation and word sense disambiguation but also at the cross-linguistic analysis and at comparing the semantics and compatibility of the words in Slavic languages (here: Russian and Bulgarian by means of digital lexicographical data. Another important application is computer-assisted language learning: Bulgarian data can be incorporated in the educational project being developed for Russian and English at the Institute for Information Transmission Problems of the Russian Academy of Sciences.

  2. Contemporary Marketing Tools Used from Bulgarian Private Dentists

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    Kazakova S.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the use of different marketing tools among dentists for the development of private dental practices. Material and methods: A phone call survey was conducted. The survey consisted of questions related to the use of different marketing tools used by dentists for the development of their practices. Results: The most used contemporary marketing tools from Bulgarian dentist are the presence of web site (24.3% and social media advertisement (21.57%. The less used tools are media advertisement (0.68% and the use of flyers (1.36%. Conclusion: Dentists are not well acquainted with the contemporary marketing tools. The internal marketing is most secure tool for attracting new patients. Internet technology gives opportunity for additional form of rapid communication and advertisement on a moderate price.

  3. National Identity of Young Adolescents of Czech and Bulgarian Origin

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    Z. Ganeva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the structure of national identity among young adolescents of Bulgarian and Czech origin. University students (N=161 completed the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure-Revised (MEIM-R (Phinney & Ong, 2007, four measures of psychological well-being and a measure of salience of ethnicity. Factor analyses of data for the two national groups yielded a two-factor structure that corresponded to two theoretical approaches to ethnic identity, as hypothesised. Similar patterns in magnitude of loadings were observed across groups, indicating that the MEIM-R could be used as a global composite index of national identity. National identity was related positively to measures of psychological well-being such as mastery, self-esteem and optimism, and negatively to measure of loneliness. MEIM-R scores were also moderately correlated with salience (the importance of a person's own national background in his or her life, across national groups.

  4. Pages from the Past: Part I [In Bulgarian

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    F. Stefanova Strigacheva

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Pages from the past are recollections written in 1970s by Ferdinanda - Venka Stefanova Strigacheva (1897-1976. A large period of time after 1910 is covered. She was born in the village of Targovishte, Belogradchik region. She graduated from the Secondary School for Girls in Vidin. Then she became a teacher. Later she studied agronomy in Wien and Berlin. Ferdinanda Strigacheva was an active and influential communist. However, when the communists became in power in Bulgaria in the autumn of 1944, she left aside from the policy disappointed from the actions of the Bulgarian Communist Party; nevertheless Strigacheva kept her loyality to the Party and beliefs into the communism. Strigacheva son Dr. Atanas Strigachev and his son Dr. Anton Strigachev prepared the text for publishing, mainly with changing the spelling into the modern one.

  5. The correspondence between Miodrag Vasiljević and Bulgarian Musicians

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    Jovanović Jelena L.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The Serbian ethnomusicologist and music pedagogue Miodrag A. Vasiljević corresponded with colleagues from neighboring Bulgaria between 1934 and 1962. This exchange of letters went through three phases. The first phase was linked with his stay in Skopje until the breakout of World War II; during the second phase - in the course of the 1940's - he was active in the Department for Folk Music at Radio Belgrade and he founded his method of music teaching on traditional Serbian music; in the third phase (the 1950's and beginning of 1960's Vasiljević aimed at a closer cooperation with Bulgarian musicians. All the phases are characterized by his pronounced interest in the folk music heritage of Balkan peoples. At the beginning that interest was focused on popularizing art music that was based on folk music. Later, he enthusiastically carried out his reforms of music teaching in Serbia, as well as improvements of methods in Serbian ethnomusicology.

  6. Contemporary Marketing Tools Used from Bulgarian Private Dentists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazakova S

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study examines the use of different marketing tools among dentists for the development of private dental practices. Material and methods A phone call survey was conducted. The survey consisted of questions related to the use of different marketing tools used by dentists for the development of their practices. Results The most used contemporary marketing tools from Bulgarian dentist are the presence of web site (24.3% and social media advertisement (21.57%. The less used tools are media advertisement (0.68% and the use of flyers (1.36%. Conclusion Dentists are not well acquainted with the contemporary marketing tools. The internal marketing is most secure tool for attracting new patients. Internet technology gives opportunity for additional form of rapid communication and advertisement on a moderate price.

  7. Immunological markers contributing to successful aging in Bulgarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumova, Elissaveta; Mihaylova, Anastasia; Ivanova, Milena; Michailova, Snejina; Penkova, Kalina; Baltadjieva, Daniela

    2004-04-01

    In order to clarify immunogenetic markers contributing to successful aging, HLA and cytokine gene profiles were analyzed in healthy elderly Bulgarians. Family segregation analysis was performed to define combined effect of haplotypes and immunophenotype profiles. The results of this study did not reveal any statistically significant allele and haplotype frequency differences between elderly and control group. In families with two generations longevity members we did not observed HLA alleles and haplotypes associated with autoimmunity. IL-10 genotype -1082G/A, -819 C/C, -592 C/C, related to the intermediate production, was positively associated, while genotype -1082A/A, -819 C/T, -592 C/A, related to the low level of production, was negatively associated with longevity in Bulgarians. This effect was modulated by IL-6 and IFNgamma genotypes associated with the low level of these pro-inflammatory cytokines. Immunophenotypic studies indicated lower relative and absolute numbers of CD3+8+, CD8+28+ and CD8+57+ cells in elderly people. Analysis in families showed that although most pronounced in the elderly group, lower numbers of CD8+ T cells were also found in middle aged and young members of the families compared to the age matched controls. A progressive CD8+28+ cell subsets decline was seen with aging. In addition, we did not observed the 'immune risk phenotype' which is a marker of an increased inflammatory activity. Based on the results of this study, it seems reasonable to suggest that a combination of specific immunogenetic and immunophenotype profiles could contribute to the successful aging and to maintaining healthy status in elderly.

  8. Gardnerella vaginalis-associated bacterial vaginosis in Bulgarian women

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    Raina T. Gergova

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Bacterial vaginosis (BV is the most common cause of vaginal discharge in women of reproductive age. The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency of BV in Bulgarian pregnant and nonpregnant women from several age ranges and to compare three different laboratory methods for Gardnerella vaginalis detection in patents suffering from BV. METHODS: Between September 2011 and June 2012, 809 women of 16-40 years of age separated in two major groups: nonpregnant - 469 (355 with and 114 without symptoms and pregnant - 340 (213 and 127 respectively were enrolled for the study. The women underwent three different laboratory tests simultaneously: scoring of Gram staining of vaginal smear, culture, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR assay for G. vaginalis. RESULTS: The microscopic method detected high frequency of BV in symptomatic (57% whereas only a minority of asymptomatic subjects (14% were detected. G. vaginalisassociated BV was diagnosed in approximately equal proportions when evaluated with PCR and microscopic method for both pregnant and nonpregnant women. The comparative analysis of microscopic evaluation, culture and PCR assays demonstrated greater concurrence (about 90% between Gram staining and PCR detection for BV, than both methods compared to culture. The combination of microscopy and PCR turned out to be very reliable and repeatable for detecting G. vaginalis-associated BV. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first comparative investigation on the epidemiology of G. vaginalisassociated BV in Bulgaria. The established highest frequency in the young Bulgarian women (21-30 years is alarming and should be considered in prophylaxis and reproductive programmes.

  9. Gardnerella vaginalis-associated bacterial vaginosis in Bulgarian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gergova, Raina T; Strateva, Tanya V; Mitov, Ivan G

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is the most common cause of vaginal discharge in women of reproductive age. The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency of BV in Bulgarian pregnant and nonpregnant women from several age ranges and to compare three different laboratory methods for Gardnerella vaginalis detection in patents suffering from BV. Between September 2011 and June 2012, 809 women of 16-40 years of age separated in two major groups: nonpregnant - 469 (355 with and 114 without symptoms) and pregnant - 340 (213 and 127 respectively) were enrolled for the study. The women underwent three different laboratory tests simultaneously: scoring of Gram staining of vaginal smear, culture, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for G. vaginalis. The microscopic method detected high frequency of BV in symptomatic (57%) whereas only a minority of asymptomatic subjects (14%) were detected. G. vaginalis-associated BV was diagnosed in approximately equal proportions when evaluated with PCR and microscopic method for both pregnant and nonpregnant women. The comparative analysis of microscopic evaluation, culture and PCR assays demonstrated greater concurrence (about 90%) between Gram staining and PCR detection for BV, than both methods compared to culture. The combination of microscopy and PCR turned out to be very reliable and repeatable for detecting G. vaginalis-associated BV. This is the first comparative investigation on the epidemiology of G. vaginalis-associated BV in Bulgaria. The established highest frequency in the young Bulgarian women (21-30 years) is alarming and should be considered in prophylaxis and reproductive programmes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  10. The Bulgarian-Romanian language boundary: anthroponymical data

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    Красимира [Krasimira] Колева [Koleva

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Bulgarian-Romanian language boundary: anthroponymical data The topic is Balkan anthroponymy. The area is the Lower Danube – the Bulgarian-Romanian language boundary. In this contact zone there is a distribution of family names, formed from urbonyms. They signal a specific regional belonging, and they show the link with the common area: the Danube river. We are referring to family names of the type: Vidinliev, Kalafatov, Beketov, Svishtovliev, Ruschukliev, Kalarashev, Tutrakanov, (meaning ‘from Vidin’, ‘from Calafat’, ‘from Bechet’, ‘from Svishtov’, ‘from Ruse’, ‘from Calarashi’, ‘from Tutrakan’. This phenomenon is widespread on both banks of the river.   Bułgarsko-rumuńska granica językowa. Dane antroponimiczne Artykuł dotyczy bałkańskiej antroponimii w regionie dolnego Dunaju, stanowiącego bułgarsko-rumuńską granicę i jednocześnie strefę kontaktu. W tym regionie częste są nazwiska derywowane od nazw miejscowości. Sygnalizują one pochodzenie, wskazując jednocześnie na rodowód miejscowy, tj. z regionu naddunajskiego. Są to nazwiska takie jak: Vidinliev, Kalafatov, Beketov, Svištovliev, Rusčukliev, Kalarašev, Tutrakanov (oznaczające: 'z Vidinu, z Kalafatu, z Svištova, z Ruse, z Kalaraši, z Tutrakanu'. Zjawisko to występuje po obu stronach Dunaju.

  11. Livestock-Associated Methicillin Resistant and Methicillin Susceptible Staphylococcus aureus Sequence Type (CC)1 in European Farmed Animals: High Genetic Relatedness of Isolates from Italian Cattle Herds and Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alba, Patricia; Feltrin, Fabiola; Cordaro, Gessica; Porrero, María Concepción; Kraushaar, Britta; Argudín, María Angeles; Nykäsenoja, Suvi; Monaco, Monica; Stegger, Marc; Aarestrup, Frank M; Butaye, Patrick; Franco, Alessia; Battisti, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Sequence Type (ST)1, Clonal Complex(CC)1, SCCmec V is one of the major Livestock-Associated (LA-) lineages in pig farming industry in Italy and is associated with pigs in other European countries. Recently, it has been increasingly detected in Italian dairy cattle herds. The aim of this study was to analyse the differences between ST1 MRSA and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) from cattle and pig herds in Italy and Europe and human isolates. Sixty-tree animal isolates from different holdings and 20 human isolates were characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), spa-typing, SCCmec typing, and by micro-array analysis for several virulence, antimicrobial resistance, and strain/host-specific marker genes. Three major PFGE clusters were detected. The bovine isolates shared a high (≥90% to 100%) similarity with human isolates and carried the same SCCmec type IVa. They often showed genetic features typical of human adaptation or present in human-associated CC1: Immune evasion cluster (IEC) genes sak and scn, or sea; sat and aphA3-mediated aminoglycoside resistance. Contrary, typical markers of porcine origin in Italy and Spain, like erm(A) mediated macrolide-lincosamide-streptograminB, and of vga(A)-mediated pleuromutilin resistance were always absent in human and bovine isolates. Most of ST(CC)1 MRSA from dairy cattle were multidrug-resistant and contained virulence and immunomodulatory genes associated with full capability of colonizing humans. As such, these strains may represent a greater human hazard than the porcine strains. The zoonotic capacity of CC1 LA-MRSA from livestock must be taken seriously and measures should be implemented at farm-level to prevent spill-over.

  12. Livestock-Associated Methicillin Resistant and Methicillin Susceptible Staphylococcus aureus Sequence Type (CC1 in European Farmed Animals: High Genetic Relatedness of Isolates from Italian Cattle Herds and Humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Alba

    Full Text Available Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA Sequence Type (ST1, Clonal Complex(CC1, SCCmec V is one of the major Livestock-Associated (LA- lineages in pig farming industry in Italy and is associated with pigs in other European countries. Recently, it has been increasingly detected in Italian dairy cattle herds. The aim of this study was to analyse the differences between ST1 MRSA and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA from cattle and pig herds in Italy and Europe and human isolates. Sixty-tree animal isolates from different holdings and 20 human isolates were characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE, spa-typing, SCCmec typing, and by micro-array analysis for several virulence, antimicrobial resistance, and strain/host-specific marker genes. Three major PFGE clusters were detected. The bovine isolates shared a high (≥90% to 100% similarity with human isolates and carried the same SCCmec type IVa. They often showed genetic features typical of human adaptation or present in human-associated CC1: Immune evasion cluster (IEC genes sak and scn, or sea; sat and aphA3-mediated aminoglycoside resistance. Contrary, typical markers of porcine origin in Italy and Spain, like erm(A mediated macrolide-lincosamide-streptograminB, and of vga(A-mediated pleuromutilin resistance were always absent in human and bovine isolates. Most of ST(CC1 MRSA from dairy cattle were multidrug-resistant and contained virulence and immunomodulatory genes associated with full capability of colonizing humans. As such, these strains may represent a greater human hazard than the porcine strains. The zoonotic capacity of CC1 LA-MRSA from livestock must be taken seriously and measures should be implemented at farm-level to prevent spill-over.

  13. Livestock-Associated Methicillin Resistant and Methicillin Susceptible Staphylococcus aureus Sequence Type (CC)1 in European Farmed Animals: High Genetic Relatedness of Isolates from Italian Cattle Herds and Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alba, Patricia; Feltrin, Fabiola; Cordaro, Gessica; Porrero, María Concepción; Kraushaar, Britta; Argudín, María Angeles; Nykäsenoja, Suvi; Monaco, Monica; Stegger, Marc; Aarestrup, Frank M.; Butaye, Patrick; Franco, Alessia; Battisti, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Sequence Type (ST)1, Clonal Complex(CC)1, SCCmec V is one of the major Livestock-Associated (LA-) lineages in pig farming industry in Italy and is associated with pigs in other European countries. Recently, it has been increasingly detected in Italian dairy cattle herds. The aim of this study was to analyse the differences between ST1 MRSA and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) from cattle and pig herds in Italy and Europe and human isolates. Sixty-tree animal isolates from different holdings and 20 human isolates were characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), spa-typing, SCCmec typing, and by micro-array analysis for several virulence, antimicrobial resistance, and strain/host-specific marker genes. Three major PFGE clusters were detected. The bovine isolates shared a high (≥90% to 100%) similarity with human isolates and carried the same SCCmec type IVa. They often showed genetic features typical of human adaptation or present in human-associated CC1: Immune evasion cluster (IEC) genes sak and scn, or sea; sat and aphA3-mediated aminoglycoside resistance. Contrary, typical markers of porcine origin in Italy and Spain, like erm(A) mediated macrolide-lincosamide-streptograminB, and of vga(A)-mediated pleuromutilin resistance were always absent in human and bovine isolates. Most of ST(CC)1 MRSA from dairy cattle were multidrug-resistant and contained virulence and immunomodulatory genes associated with full capability of colonizing humans. As such, these strains may represent a greater human hazard than the porcine strains. The zoonotic capacity of CC1 LA-MRSA from livestock must be taken seriously and measures should be implemented at farm-level to prevent spill-over. PMID:26322785

  14. Bulgarian military neurosurgery: from Warsaw Pact to the North Atlantic Treaty Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enchev, Yavor; Eftimov, Tihomir

    2010-05-01

    After 45 years as a closest ally of the Soviet Union in the Warsaw Pact, founded mainly against the US and the Western Europe countries, and 15 years of democratic changes, since 2004 Bulgaria has been a full member of NATO and an equal and trusted partner of its former enemies. The unprecedented transformation has affected all aspects of the Bulgarian society. As a function of the Bulgarian Armed Forces, Bulgarian military medicine and in particular Bulgarian military neurosurgery is indivisibly connected with their development. The history of Bulgarian military neurosurgery is the history of the transition from the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics military system and military medicine to NATO standards in every aspect. The career of the military neurosurgeon in Bulgaria is in many ways similar to that of the civilian neurosurgeon, but there are also many peculiarities. The purpose of this study was to outline the background and the history of Bulgarian military neurosurgery as well as its future trends in the conditions of world globalization.

  15. Genetic features of livestock-associated Staphylococcus aureus ST9 isolates from Chinese pigs that carry the lsa(E) gene for quinupristin/dalfopristin resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yan, Xiaomei; Li, Zongwei; Chlebowicz, Monika A.; Tao, Xiaoxia; Ni, Ming; Hu, Yuan; Li, Zhen; Grundmann, Hajo; Murray, Susan; Pascoe, Ben; Sheppard, Samuel K.; Bo, Xiaochen; van Dijl, Jan Maarten; Du, Pengcheng; Zhang, Minli; You, Yuanhai; Yu, Xiaojie; Meng, Fanliang; Wang, Shengqi; Zhang, Jianzhong

    2016-01-01

    Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) was used to investigate the genetic features of the recently identified lsa(E) gene in porcine S. aureus ST9 isolates. Three quinupristin/dalfopristin-resistant isolates harboring the lsa(E) gene (two MRSA and one MSSA) were sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis of 184 S.

  16. The role of reproductive technologies in breeding schemes for livestock populations in developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    The world is faced with the challenge to meet the increasing demand for livestock products while conserving animal genetic resource diversity and maintaining environmental integrity. Genetic improvement of local breeds can help to improve the livelihood of the livestock keepers, to increase the

  17. Anaplasma phagocytophilum in livestock and small rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Lin; Cao, Wu-Chun; Jiang, Jia-Fu; Zhang, Xiao-Ai; Wu, Xiao-Ming; Zhang, Wen-Yi; Liu, Wei; Zuo, Shu-Qing; Cao, Zhi-Wei; Yang, Hong; Richardus, Jan H; Habbema, J Dikf

    2010-08-26

    To identify the prevalence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in both wild rodents and domestic animals and to make clear the genetic characteristics of the agents from different animals in China, a total of 105 livestock and 159 small rodents were analyzed by real-time-PCR and sequence analysis. The prevalence rate was 6.7% (7/105) and 14.5% (23/159), respectively. The nucleotide sequences of 16S rRNA (rrs) from the positive livestock and rodents were identical to each other. The phylogenetic analysis based on partial A. phagocytophilum p44ESup1 gene revealed that A. phagocytophilum identified in this study was placed on a separate clade distinct from those in other continents. These findings indicated A. phagocytophilum in rodents might be able to infect livestock and intensified the threats of anaplasmosis to livestock in the area. Further studies on public health significance of the agent are worth investigation in future. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Spatial dependence of genetic data related to human health and livestock disease resistance: a role for geography to support the One Health approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Joost

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The spatial dependence of located health and/or genetic data can be used to detect clusters likely to reveal disease prevalence or signatures of adaptation possibly associated with characteristics of the local environment (high temperatures, air or water pollution, be it in humans or animals (Murtaugh et al. 2017. Most often, geographic maps are produced to represent health data. Medical information is transmitted through thematic choropleth maps. For instance administrative units are colored according to the variable of interest. But it is key to analyse health and/or genetic data by explicitly including geographic characteristics (distances, co-location and also the potential and power of spatial statistics to detect specific patterns in the geographic distribution of disease occurrences (“make visible the invisible”. A classic example using clusters is the map produced by John Snow (Snow 1855 showing the number of deaths caused by a cholera outbreak in London. Looking at a detail of Snow's original map, it is possible to realize how he graphically represented the number of deaths, with short bold lines representing death occurrences (frequencies forming a kind of histogram placed on the street at the addresses where it happened - what we currently name georeferencing. A cluster of death people is an effect observed on the territory, and the existence of such a cluster depends on an infected water pump located at the same place (the cause. How can this spatial dependence be detected and measured? It is possible to identify spatial patterns in the geographic space by means of spatial statistics. We need to determine whether the variable of interest is randomly distributed or spatially dependent, and to check if the patterns observed are robust to random permutations. We also need to explore the data, to find out what is the range of influence of this spatial dependence. Here we focus on the functioning of one among several measures of

  19. Contemporary Contrastive Studies of Polish, Bulgarian and Russian Neologisms versus Language Corpora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Satoła-Staśkowiak

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary Contrastive Studies of Polish, Bulgarian and Russian Neologisms versus Language Corpora In the field of Slavonic linguistics contrastive studies of neologisms occupy little place, the newest words are insufficiently described and classified. The aim of this article is to draw attention to the need for contrastive description of the newest lexis and checking exclusively one of many possibilities of obtaining Polish, Bulgarian and Russian neologisms. Language corpora, as this possibility is in question, are not the only source from which the author obtains her research material, yet a growing interest in corpora has inspired her to also use this method. The author wants to show the reader to what degree language corpora can help in building the thesaurus of Polish, Bulgarian and Russian neologisms. Making an attempt to confront a collection of neologisms of contemporary Polish, Bulgarian and Russian language, the author points out the need to standardize the description (identical for each of the analysed languages, which she intends to propose in another publications on neologisms in Polish, Bulgarian and Russian language. The application of contrastive method to three different but related languages from the Slavonic group will help, in her opinion, to discover more mechanisms of new words coming into existence and examine the newest derivative processes and their productivity.

  20. Continued Professional Education of Bulgarian Pharmacists: Second Registration Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrova G.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The continuing professional education prepares the pharmacists for the requirements of the changed role of pharmacists in the society. Different approaches to continuous professional education ranging from lectures to peer-mentoring work shops and web tools have been developed throughout the last 25 years. The goal of the current analysis is to systematize the trends in accredited education events for pharmacists by the Quality Committee of the BPhU during 2010-2013. This study is a retrospective database analysis. The information concerning the accredited forms of continuing education of pharmacists as well as other activities related to continuing education was extracted from the official protocols, issued by the Quality Commission of the Bulgarian Pharmaceutical Union (BPhU. The continuing postgraduate education of pharmacists in Bulgaria is developing with new elements which allow competence development through individual forms of self-development such as publication activities, delivering presentations, individual training, etc. In the educational programs accredited during the second registration period, still prevailed the short courses, with focus on the new medicinal products.

  1. JV Task - 129 Advanced Conversion Test - Bulgarian Lignite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Swanson; Everett Sondreal; Daniel Laudal; Douglas Hajicek; Ann Henderson; Brandon Pavlish

    2009-03-27

    The objectives of this Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) project were to evaluate Bulgarian lignite performance under both fluid-bed combustion and gasification conditions and provide a recommendation as to which technology would be the most technically feasible for the particular feedstock and also identify any potential operating issues (such as bed agglomeration, etc.) that may limit the applicability of a potential coal conversion technology. Gasification tests were run at the EERC in the 100-400-kg/hr transport reactor development unit (TRDU) on a 50-tonne sample of lignite supplied by the Bulgarian Lignite Power Project. The quality of the test sample was inferior to any coal previously tested in this unit, containing 50% ash at 26.7% moisture and having a higher heating value of 5043 kJ/kg after partial drying in preparation for testing. The tentative conclusion reached on the basis of tests in the TRDU is that oxygen-blown gasification of this high-ash Bulgarian lignite sample using the Kellogg, Brown, and Root (KBR) transport gasifier technology would not provide a syngas suitable for directly firing a gas turbine. After correcting for test conditions specific to the pilot-scale TRDU, including an unavoidably high heat loss and nitrogen dilution by transport air, the best-case heating value for oxygen-blown operation was estimated to be 3316 kJ/m{sup 3} for a commercial KRB transport gasifier. This heating value is about 80% of the minimum required for firing a gas turbine. Removing 50% of the carbon dioxide from the syngas would increase the heating value to 4583 kJ/m{sup 3}, i.e., to about 110% of the minimum requirement, and 95% removal would provide a heating value of 7080 kJ/m{sup 3}. Supplemental firing of natural gas would also allow the integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) technology to be utilized without having to remove CO{sub 2}. If removal of all nitrogen from the input gas streams such as the coal transport air were

  2. High rates of Escherichia coli transmission between livestock and humans in rural Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rwego, Innocent B; Gillespie, Thomas R; Isabirye-Basuta, Gilbert; Goldberg, Tony L

    2008-10-01

    Escherichia coli is a zoonotic bacterium that is important to both public health and livestock economics. To date, most studies of zoonotic E. coli transmission have been conducted in developed nations with industrialized agricultural economies. In this study, E. coli bacteria were collected from people and livestock in two communities in rural western Uganda in order to investigate patterns of interspecific bacterial transmission in a developing rural economy characterized by very close human-livestock associations. Six hundred seventy-two E. coli isolates were genotyped using repetitive element-PCR (Rep-PCR) fingerprinting, and genetic distances between populations of bacteria from different hosts and locations were calculated. Genetic distances between human and livestock bacteria were generally very low, indicating high rates of bacterial gene flow among host species. Bacteria from humans and livestock in the same communities were virtually indistinguishable genetically. Data from surveys administered at the time of sample collection showed that people who did not regularly wash their hands before eating harbored bacteria approximately twice as similar genetically to bacteria of their livestock as did people who regularly washed their hands before eating. These results suggest that both rates of human-livestock interactions and patterns of human hygiene affect human-livestock bacterial transmission in this setting. This conclusion has implications not only for human and livestock health in subsistence-based agricultural economies but also for the emergence of zoonotic diseases out of such areas as a result of increasing globalization.

  3. Blood-group characteristics of the contemporary Bulgarian population from Midddle Mizia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todorov Velislav

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this investigation we studied the blood group affiliation of the Bulgarian population from Middle Mizia according to the ABO systems and Rhesus factor in connection with the complicated ethnos of the Bulgarians. The sample comprised 769 individuals of both sexes. The defined distribution of the groups from the ABO system was established in the studied population. The comparison with a control group from the Bulgarian population was made. The following differences were established - a decreased presence of the blood group A and an increasing of the blood group B and of the blood group AB The differences by the blood group A are significant. There are no differences by the Rhesus factor. According to the group from Troyan, however, the data shows a presence of a mongoloid admixture. A significant decreasing of the blood group A was observed and weak presence of the negative Resus factor.

  4. [The TRH test using the Bulgarian preparation Protilerin in the diagnosis of hyperthyroidism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manolov, D; Zakharieva, B; Lazarov, G; Manov, A; Vŭrbanov, V

    1989-01-01

    The stimulation test--TRH test was carried out with the Bulgarian drug "Protilerin" in 63 patients (Basedow's disease--53 patients, basedoid goiter--5 patients, infiltrative ophthalmopathy--5 patients) and in 20 healthy controls. The healthy controls showed normal reaction to the stimulation. All patients with hyperthyroidism showed a suppressed response to the stimulation. In two of the patients with euthyroid infiltrative ophthalmopathy the response was similar to that of the healthy controls. The Bulgarian drug Protilerin is suitable for the performance of the TRH test in the diagnosis of hyperthyroidism.

  5. The Ranking of the Institutions of Higher Education in Bulgaria: Status, Problems and Prospects [In Bulgarian

    OpenAIRE

    P. Boyadjieva

    2012-01-01

    The paper discusses the main results from the first ranking system of Bulgarian higher education institutions. It adopts two perspectives: 1) from the point of view of higher education – What are the basic achievements, problems and perspectives of Bulgarian higher education as seen through the prism of the ranking system? 2) from the point of view of the ranking system – What are the strengths and weaknesses of the ranking systems and how it can be further developed and improved? The paper a...

  6. The Bulgarian Odonata database – current status, organisation and a case study new entries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yordan Kutsarov

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Bulgarian Odonata database is analysed for the period of the last 10 years. All new entries are summarised in individual species graphs representing the trends in data compilations. Special attention is paid on the role of communities in this process with a single study case which is evident of how a small contribution could elucidate important new information on some underexplored areas. It is concluded that for the past 10 years mountain areas and large Bulgarian rivers have been understudied. These should be the priority target areas in the investigations undertaken in near future.

  7. Initial measurement of assets produced in Bulgarian companies – current state and ways for improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mincho Minev

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The initial evaluation of the production is one of the most complex tasks that accounting specialists face in their practice. The quality of the accounting information provided to the various internal and external users depends to a great extent on the way in which this task is resolved. In this article, using the results of an undertaken research, the practice of leading Bulgarian companies will be analyzed with regard to the costing of their production. The main purpose is to make recommendations for optimizing the process of costing in Bulgarian companies and to increase the quality of the accounting information produced as a result of this process.

  8. African Journal of Livestock Extension

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Livestock Extension aims to bring to the fore the role and significance of livestock in maintaining rural, peri-urban and urban households, vis-à-vis its impact on poverty alleviation, household nutritional status, economic coping strategy and provision of employment. The focus of the journal relates to all ...

  9. Women's Participation in Livestock Markets

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Women's participation in marketing of live animals. (cattle, sheep and goats) tends to be much lower than their participation in the milk market. Generally, they have far more rights over livestock products. Women's Participation in Livestock Markets. Elizabeth Waithanji, Jemimah Njuki and Nabintu Bagalwa. With training and ...

  10. Impacts of European livestock production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leip, Adrian; Billen, Gilles; Garnier, Josette; Grizzetti, Bruna; Lassaletta, Luis; Reis, Stefan; Simpson, David; Sutton, M.A.; Vries, De Wim; Weiss, Franz; Westhoek, Henk

    2015-01-01

    Livestock production systems currently occupy around 28% of the land surface of the European Union (equivalent to 65% of the agricultural land). In conjunction with other human activities, livestock production systems affect water, air and soil quality, global climate and biodiversity, altering

  11. Modelling Livestock Component in FSSIM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thorne, P.J.; Hengsdijk, H.; Janssen, S.J.C.; Louhichi, K.; Keulen, van H.; Thornton, P.K.

    2009-01-01

    This document summarises the development of a ruminant livestock component for the Farm System Simulator (FSSIM). This includes treatments of energy and protein transactions in ruminant livestock that have been used as a basis for the biophysical simulations that will generate the input production

  12. Educational Practices of Bulgarians in the Period of Separatist Movement from the Ottoman Empire in Kosovo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurdogan, Arzu M.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the research was to provide an unpretentious sample and contribution to the evaluations that education and schooling politics played a leading role for Bulgarian nationalist movement to gain a mass dimension like other separatist movements. With this purpose in mind, the efforts were made to address to modern education in native…

  13. Did you say a BLUE banana? The prosody of contrast and abnormality in Bulgarian and Dutch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dimitrova, Diana V.; Redeker, Gisela; Hoeks, John C. J.; Uther, M.; Moore, R.; Cox, S.

    2009-01-01

    In a production experiment on Bulgarian that was based on a previous study on Dutch [1], we investigated the role of prosody when linguistic and extra-linguistic information coincide or contradict. Speakers described abnormally colored fruits in conditions where contrastive focus and discourse

  14. Bulgarian fuel models developed for implementation in FARSITE simulations for test cases in Zlatograd area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nina Dobrinkova; LaWen Hollingsworth; Faith Ann Heinsch; Greg Dillon; Georgi Dobrinkov

    2014-01-01

    As a key component of the cross-border project between Bulgaria and Greece known as OUTLAND, a team from the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences and Rocky Mountain Research Station started a collaborative project to identify and describe various fuel types for a test area in Bulgaria in order to model fire behavior for recent wildfires. Although there have been various...

  15. A Language without Borders: English Slang and Bulgarian Learners of English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charkova, Krassimira D.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the acquisition of English slang in a foreign language context. The participants were 101 Bulgarian learners of English, 58 high school students, and 43 university students. The instrument included knowledge tests of English slang terms and questions about attitudes, sources, reasons, and methods employed in learning…

  16. The Lived Experiences of Bulgarian Immigrants in the Chicagoland Area: Their Perceptions of Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelova, Iva Ventzislavova

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore Bulgarian immigrants' narratives with respect to their perceptions of immigrant work challenges; learning at work; work or occupational preferences; immigrant careers, including job transitions and professional development; strategies with respect to work; support at work; satisfaction gained from work; and…

  17. The economic context of past and future Bulgarian fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, E

    1994-01-01

    The central thesis is that relative cohort size is an important and useful predictor of period fertility and is a root cause around which female labor force participation, secular trends in inflation, and other economic conditions revolve. Easterlin's theory specifies that large cohorts entering the work force will increase period fertility. Bulgaria is used as to show the interplay between small and large work cohorts and period fertility, as the country changed historically from state socialism to a demand-constrained market economy. The Easterlin theory of the economic determinants of fertility in self-sustaining cycles is synthesized and applied to Bulgarian fertility with the Kornai paradigm about classical socialist systems. Easterlin's requirements are that there is a competitive labor market, that older and younger workers are not substitutable for each other, that government and fiscal intervention help to maintain a steady economic background, and labor migration does not fill the jobs made available during economic expansion. Kornai adds another condition that, in socialist economic systems, large cohorts are absorbed and may contribute to expansion, while small cohorts may lead to stagnation. Period variations in fertility appear to be more important than cohort variations in fertility averaged over time. The standard Easterlin measure is the division of the older labor force by the younger labor force (men aged 30-59 plus women aged 30-54 divided by men and women aged 15-29 years). The Easterlin-Kornai ratio inverts the Easterlin measure (young adults in the numerator and older men and women in the denominator). Other factors affecting fertility such as the pronatalist incentives, world market factors, and availability of contraceptives are viewed as indirect effects on economic circumstances and fertility decisions. A formal model is constructed to test the way socialist and market controlled systems could impact on fertility. Population projections

  18. Diversity in livestock resources in pastoral systems in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, B A; Lelea, M A; Hulsebusch, C G

    2016-11-01

    Pastoral systems are important producers and repositories of livestock diversity. Pastoralists use variability in their livestock resources to manage high levels of environmental variability in economically advantageous ways. In pastoral systems, human-animal-environment interactions are the basis of production and the key to higher productivity and efficiency. In other words, pastoralists manage a production system that exploits variability and keeps production costs low. When differentiating, characterising and evaluating pastoral breeds, this context-specific, functional dimension of diversity in livestock resources needs to be considered. The interaction of animals with their environment is determined not only by morphological and physiological traits but also by experience and socially learned behaviour. This high proportion of non-genetic components determining the performance of livestock means that current models for analysing livestock diversity and performance, which are based on genetic inheritance, have limited ability to describe pastoral performance. There is a need for methodological innovations to evaluate pastoral breeds and animals, since comparisons based on performance 'under optimal conditions' are irrelevant within this production system. Such innovations must acknowledge that livestock or breed performance is governed by complex human-animal-environment interactions, and varies through time and space due to the mobile and seasonal nature of the pastoral system. Pastoralists' breeding concepts and selection strategies seem to be geared towards improving their animals' capability to exploit variability, by - among other things - enhancing within-breed diversity. In-depth studies of these concepts and strategies could contribute considerably towards developing methodological innovations for the characterisation and evaluation of pastoral livestock resources.

  19. African Lineage Brucella melitensis Isolates from Omani Livestock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey T. Foster

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is a common livestock disease in the Middle East and North Africa, but remains poorly described in the region both genetically and epidemiologically. Traditionally found in goats and sheep, Brucella melitensis is increasingly recognized as infecting camels. Most studies of brucellosis in camels to date have focused on serological surveys, providing only limited understanding of the molecular epidemiology of circulating strains. We genotyped B. melitensis isolates from Omani camels using whole genome SNP assays and VNTRs to provide context for regional brucellosis cases. We identified a lineage of B. melitensis circulating in camels as well as in goats, sheep, and cattle in Oman. This lineage is genetically distinct from most genotypes from the Arabian Peninsula and from isolates from much of the rest of the Middle East. We then developed diagnostic assays that rapidly identify strains from this lineage. In analyses of genotypes from throughout the region, Omani isolates were genetically most closely related to strains from brucellosis cases in humans and livestock in North Africa. Our findings suggest an African origin for B. melitensis in Oman that has likely occurred through the trade of infected livestock. Moreover, African lineages of B. melitensis appear to be undersampled and consequently are underrepresented in genetic databases for Brucella. As we begin to more fully understand global genomic diversity of B. melitensis, finding and characterizing these unique but widespread lineages is essential. We predict that increased sampling of humans and livestock in Africa will reveal little known diversity in this important zoonotic pathogen.

  20. Feed resources and livestock production situation in the highland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Feed shortage, health problem, poor genetic potential, labour and water shortage were listed as major constraints for livestock production. Natural pasture, cop residues, stubble grazing were listed as major feed resources, with minimal contribution of improved forages and local beverage by products (Diqi or atela).

  1. 1992 Livestock Grazing Action Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The plan outlines a grazing program involving intensive amounts of livestock to achieve specific wildlife habitat goals and objectives during the 1993 growing...

  2. Salix ×velchevii and S. ×ardana (Salicaceae) - two new willow hybrids from the Bulgarian Rhodope Mts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jerzy Zieliński; Ana Petrova; Zhivka Pancheva

    2011-01-01

    Two previously unknown willow hybrids, Salix × velchevii (S. amplexicaulis Bory × S. xanthicola K.I. Chr.) and S. × ardana (S. alba L. × S. xanthicola K.I. Chr.), are described from the Bulgarian Rhodope Mts...

  3. Chlamydial infections in Chinese livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, L; Kalmar, I D; Boden, J; Vanrompay, D

    2013-12-01

    The occurrence and impact of chlamydial infections in Western livestock is well documented in the international literature, but less is known aboutthese infections in livestock in the People's Republic of China. China's livestock production and its share in the global market have increased significantly in recent decades. In this review, the relevant English and Chinese literature on the epidemiology of chlamydial infections in Chinese livestock is considered, and biosecurity measures, prophylaxis and treatment of these infections in China's livestock are compared with Western practices. Chlamydial infections are highly prevalent in Chinese livestock and cause important economic losses, as they do in the rest of the world. Surveillance data and diagnostic results of abortion outbreaks in cattle, sheep and goats highlight the importance of virulent chlamydial infections in China's major ruminant species in many of China's provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities. Data from many of China's provincial divisions also indicate the widespread presence of chlamydial infections in industrially reared swine across the country. Less is known about chlamydial infections in yak, buffalo and horses, but available reports indicate a high prevalence in China's populations. In these reports, chlamydiosis was related to abortions in yak and pneumonia in horses. In Western countries, chlamydial infections are principally treated with antibiotics. In China, however, traditional medicine is often used in conjunction with antibiotics or used as an alternative treatment.

  4. Livestock-Associated Methicillin Resistant and Methicillin Susceptible Staphylococcus aureus Sequence Type (CC)1 in European Farmed Animals: High Genetic Relatedness of Isolates from Italian Cattle Herds and Humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alba, Patricia; Feltrin, Fabiola; Cordaro, Gessica

    2015-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Sequence Type (ST)1, Clonal Complex( CC) 1, SCCmec V is one of the major Livestock-Associated (LA-) lineages in pig farming industry in Italy and is associated with pigs in other European countries. Recently, it has been increasingly detected in ...

  5. Impact of intensification of different types of livestock production in smallholder crop-livestock systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Udo, H.M.J.; Aklilu, H.A.; Phong, L.T.; Bosma, R.H.; Budisatria, I.G.S.; Patil, B.R.; Samdup, T.; Bebe, B.O.

    2011-01-01

    Intensification of livestock production is widely advocated to meet the increasing demands for livestock products and to contribute to improving the livelihoods of rural households. This paper discusses the impact of livestock intensification on smallholder farms using village poultry, integrated

  6. Labour Migrations of Bulgarians from Ukraine to the European Union Today and Tomorrow: Factors and Forecasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Ganchev

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Labour migrations from Ukraine to the European Union are closely connected with the issues of interrelations between EU metropolitan countries and their Diasporas in Ukraine. Labour migration developments in independent Ukraine after 1991 have been moving towards their intensification. Migration trends among the Bulgarian Diaspora of South-Western Ukraine gained specific characteristics in the period of the world economic crisis. The enlargement of the EU in 2004 and 2007 led to the transformations in the preferences and choice factors of labour migrants, representatives of the Bulgarian Diaspora, while choosing the destination country in the EU. As a metropolitan country, Bulgaria has focused its policy on attracting its Diaspora groups, seeing them as labour and demographic potential for further development. This point of view is justified in many respects, though metropolitan country efforts must also be directed to the support of the Diaspora and its social, psychological, cultural and linguistic features.

  7. Turnovo: Principles and means of constructing the sacral topography of a medieval Bulgarian capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdeljan Jelena

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the principles and means of constructing the identity and sacral topography of Trnovo as the capital of the Second Bulgarian Empire (XII-XIV centuries. The image of Trnovo as the ideal city, one whose fate is (predestined by Divine Providence, is constructed by employing a number of hierotopic instruments - texts of different genres, reliquary programs and spatial disposition of churches and monasteries in the city and its immediate environs as well as on elements of visual culture. This endeavor relies on the (universal model of the capital of the Byzantine Empire Constantinople, as well as on that set by Preslav, the capital of the First Bulgarian Empire.

  8. OPPORTUNITIES FOR ORGANISING CLUSTERS IN THE BULGARIAN GRAPE-WINE SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albena MITEVA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Bulgaria's membership in the European Union defines the development of clusters as a key element of the National Strategy for increasing the competitiveness. The role of the clusters becomes especially important at this time because SME do not have the capacity to meet EU requirements and to survive without uniting themselves. Moreover the National Strategy for Vine-wine Sector in Bulgaria stipulates the transformation of the sector in a leading one and securing a decent place of Bulgarian wines on international market which may be succeed through cluster introduction in the sector. In the paper is presented an overview of the initiatives for cluster development in the Bulgarian grape-wine sector and are disclosed the structure and role of cluster participants.

  9. Machine componential analysis of Bulgarian kinship terminology and more on the problem of multiple solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Pericliev

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Machine componential analysis of Bulgarian kinship terminology and more on the problem of multiple solutions The Bulgarian kin terms of reference and address are subjected to componential analysis, using the sophisticated computer program KINSHIP. It is shown that an unconstrained and separate analysis of the two sets of terms yields an astronomical number of alternative componential models for each, threatening to compromise the componential method as a whole. However, after combining the set of reference and the set of address terms into a unitary kin term domain and applying the program to this new enlarged data set, further employing appropriate simplicity criteria on overall features (=dimensions and components of kin term definitions, yields a unique componential model. This result is evaluated in the context of a famous debate on the problems of multiple solutions of kinship systems. It is concluded that componential analysis properly used is an indispensable tool for revealing the structuring of semantic domains.

  10. Bulgarian wedding music between folk and chalg: Politics, markets and current directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silverman Kerol

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the performative relationship among folklore, the market, and the state through an analysis of the politics of Bulgarian wedding music. In the socialist period wedding music was condemned by the state and excluded from the category folk but was adored by thousands of fans as a counter-cultural manifestation. In the post-socialist period wedding music achieved recognition in the West but declined in popularity in Bulgarian as fusion music's, such as chalga (folk/pop, arose and as musicians faced challenges vis-à-vis capitalism. As the state withdrew and became weaker private companies with profit-making agendas arose. Although it inspired chalga, wedding music began to be seen in contrast to it, as folk music. Recently, fatigue with chalga and nationalistic ideologies are revitalizing wedding music.

  11. SUSTAINABILITY OF BULGARIAN AND TURKISH VARIETIES AND LINES OF WINTER BARLEY TO ABIOTIC STRESS

    OpenAIRE

    Valchev, Dragomir Gospodinov; VALCHEVA, Darina Dimitrova; Popova, Toshka Milkova; Dimova, Darina Mincheva; Ozturk, Irfan; Kaya, Recep

    2016-01-01

    Cold resistance, drought resistance and water and temperature regime of 43 Bulgarian and Turkish winter barley varieties and lines were determined in field and laboratory conditions during the period 2005-2009. 50% of the study material was found to have a good and high resistance to cold. The highest coefficient of drought resistance was found in 9 of the studied lines. Among the tested winter barley varieties and lines those with high and medium cold resistance were found to dominate the st...

  12. ALGORITHMIC TRAINING PROGRAM FOR SWIMMING I - IV CLASS IN THE BULGARIAN SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petya Kutincheva

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The study consists in the application of an alternative program for swimming for 1-4 class in Bulgarian schools. The experiment was conducted with children (7-8 years old at two schools in Sofia with the styles crawl and back crawl. The results show that the developed programs can be used as for mandatory training and in elective. These forms are regulated under the governmental educational requirements for learning the physical education and sport (swimming.

  13. DAIRY BUSINESS: THE CASE OF BULGARIAN DAIRY CATTLE FARMERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsvetana HARIZANOVA-METODIEVA

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to explore differences between dairy cattle farmers in Bulgaria, according to certain factors. Information about the social characteristics of the farmers (educational level, gender, and age, and about the farm characteristics (number of cows in the main herd, average milk yield, and the rate of return on investment was collected. Sixty percent of the farmers were up to 50 years of age. Fifty percent of the farmers had had a secondary education and the rest had gained a university degree. The study found that only one of the 20 farmers was a woman. It was found that the group of farmers with a university degree had lower average age than the group of farmers with secondary school. There was no significant difference in the rate of return between the two groups of farms in terms of the effectiveness of the farm. The difference in the number of cows in the main herd was not significant too. The research identified a need for additional training for farmers in order to reduce their dependence on hired workers. It was found that farmers attend basic courses in the field of agriculture and livestock breeding in order to fill the gap between the existing levels of knowledge of farmers and the necessary skills for the effective management of dairy farms.

  14. 3-Monochloro-1,2-propandiol (3-MCPD) in soy sauce from the Bulgarian market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christova-Bagdassarian, Valentina; Tishkova, Julieta A; Vrabcheva, Terry M

    2013-01-01

    The 3-monochloro-1,2-propandiol (3-MCPD) levels in soy sauces which contained hydrolysed vegetable protein were evaluated for the Bulgarian market. For analysis of 3-MCPD, a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method was applied with a linear range of 0.03-2.00 μg mL⁻¹ and a limit of detection (LOD) of 2.3 μg kg⁻¹ and a limit of quantification (LOQ) of 3.4 μg kg⁻¹. At these levels, the standard deviation was 5.1%, with recoveries between 81% and 102%. The method was applied to the analysis of 21 samples of soy sauce from the Bulgarian market. Results ranged from 3.7 to 185.6 μg kg⁻¹. Soy sauces produced from hydrolysed soy protein contained higher levels of 3-MCPD than naturally fermented sauces. In 38.4% of samples of Bulgarian origin, the 3-MCPD content was above the EU limit of 20 μg kg⁻¹. In all analysed samples, 33.3% had a 3-MCPD content above the EU limit.

  15. Humoral autoimmune response against specific collagen type II epitopes in Bulgarian patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsvetelina Batsalova

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Collagen type II (CII is a strong candidate autoantigen for rheumatoid arthritis (RA pathogenesis. CII is the main structural protein of synovial cartilage and it is attacked by both antibodies and T-cells during RA disease course. Experiments with mouse models have identified an immunodominant T-cell epitope from CII as well as several epitopes that are recognized by the majority of CII-specific autoantibodies. It has been shown that some epitope-specific anti-CII antibodies are arthritogenic and are associated with development of chronic arthritis. In addition, the immunodominant CII epitopes could be posttranslationally modified and these modified epitopes might be involved in induction and/or perpetuation of autoimmune humoral response and arthritic pathology. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the CII epitope- specific humoral response in a subgroup of Bulgarian patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Our results demonstrate that RA patients have significantly increased levels of anti-CII antibodies compared to healthy individuals and patients with other type of autoimmune disease. The majority of anti-CII antibodies in Bulgarian patients are directed against the U1 and J1 conserved epitopes. We show that D8 epitope-specific antibodies react to the triple-helical structure of the epitope and thus recognize both the native and the posttranslationally citrullinated D8. This is the first article presenting an evaluation of CII-specific humoral autoimmune response in Bulgarian patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

  16. Collective identity and well-being of Bulgarian Roma adolescents and their mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrova, Radosveta; Chasiotis, Athanasios; Bender, Michael; van de Vijver, Fons J R

    2014-03-01

    In Europe and specifically in Bulgaria, Roma represent the largest indigenous ethnic minority exposed to severe discrimination, social exclusion, poverty, and compromised well-being. To improve their conditions, identifying sources of psychological well-being for Roma is theoretically relevant and practically important. This study investigated the relation between ethnic, familial, and religious identities as salient collective identity components for psychological well-being among 194 Roma adolescents (age: M = 16.11 years, SD = 1.36) and their mothers (age: M = 35.95 years, SD = 3.54). The results indicated that in line with marginalization models of acculturation, Roma youth and their mothers showed a low endorsement of both Bulgarian mainstream and Roma ethnic identity. The average scores of well-being were also low. For both groups, familial identity was stronger compared to Roma, Bulgarian, and religious identity. A path model showed that collective identity was a positive predictor of well-being in both adolescents and mothers and that the mothers' collective identity was a predictor of adolescent well-being. Bulgarian mainstream identity had the strongest relationship with collective identity. It is concluded that, for Roma youth and their mothers, family is an important identity domain as it represents the most salient identification source that is not challenged in their environment.

  17. Livestock Fadama users' access to information on selected livestock ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The FUGs members never had access to information on key livestock technologies like artificial insemination, automated feeding, feed formulation and creep feeding. Farmers' number of years of formal education (r = -0.09) and family size (r= 0.09) had no significant relationships with respondents' access to information on ...

  18. LIVESTOCK MARKETS IN JIGAWA STATE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    *Department of Parasitology and Entomology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine,. Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria. *"Department of Veterinary and Livestock Services,. Ministry of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Kano State. SUMMARY. A survey was conducted between October 1995 and September 2000 in which a total of ...

  19. SIZE OF LIVESTOCK AGRICULTURAL OPERATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazbanela Stere

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the paper is to map the performance of Romanian farms from the perspective of livestock agricultural operations using principal component analysis technique (PCA and similarities between Romania and other countries from UE. The empirical results reveal that animal breedings farms are grouped into two categories :small and middle sized farms ; and the fact that Romania , one of Europe’s major forces in the field of livestock husbandry, has come to be one of the biggest importers of food products, although, by tradition, it is one of the continent’s countries with ideal conditions for breeding all species of animals. When clustering the countries we observ that in countries such as Greece, Italy, Portugal, Spain, cow farms, for example, do not exceed 10-16 heads and in Holland, England, Denmark, Belgium and France, the average farm size reaches 30-70 heads of milk cows. The cluster analysis revealed that in livestock operations, animal stock is the one that generates production, while the animal number indicates the size of the livestock unit.

  20. Gender, Livestock and Asset Ownership

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    can easily own and are not bound by complex property rights. • Women may own livestock, acquired through the market or inheritance before or during marriage .... depending on the cultural context as well as the production system. To cope with this complexity, compiling information on the rights that women have over their ...

  1. Preferences of Bulgarian consumers for quality, access and price attributes of healthcare services-result of a discrete choice experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Schoot, Thijs; Pavlova, Milena; Atanasova, Elka; Groot, Wim

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study is to determine the preferences of Bulgarian citizens regarding the provision of healthcare services. A survey was carried out in Bulgaria among a nationally representative sample of 1003 respondents. Both a discrete choice experiment and a self-explicated ranking of outpatient and inpatient service attributes were included in the survey. The data are analyzed to elicit the preferences of Bulgarian healthcare consumers for service attributes and to compare them with previous studies in Bulgaria and other countries in Central and Eastern Europe. The reputation and skills of the care provider appear to be relatively most important to the respondents, followed by the state of the equipment, the condition of the facility and the attitude of the staff. The fee-level and access-related attributes (waiting and traveling time) emerged as less important. Overall, consumers in Bulgaria value the quality of healthcare provision very highly. Yet, there are some statistically significant differences between socio-demographic groups. In general, Bulgarian healthcare consumers are willing to accept higher prices for the services they use, when this comes with improved quality of services. These findings comply with findings in previous studies in Bulgaria and in the region. Given the quality problems in the Bulgarian healthcare sector, our findings indicate that priority has to be given to the improvement of healthcare quality when the Bulgarian government invests in this sector. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Livestock Vaccine Innovation Fund | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Livestock Vaccine Innovation Fund (LVIF) seeks to improve the health of livestock and the livelihoods of farmers by supporting the development, production, and commercialization of innovative vaccines against neglected livestock diseases (including poultry) in sub-Saharan Africa, South and Southeast Asia.

  3. Livestock Farming Under Climate Change Conditions

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Koelle, B

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This book is intended for livestock farmers, as well as others who are wanting to learn about livestock farming. It is not intended to be a comprehensive livestock farming manual, but is rather aimed at giving some guidance on how to plan...

  4. Sustainable livestock farming as normative practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rademaker, Corné J.; Glas, Gerrit; Jochemsen, Henk

    2017-01-01

    We argue that an understanding of livestock farming as normative practice clarifies how sustainability is to be understood in livestock farming. The sustainability of livestock farming is first approached by investigating its identity. We argue that the economic aspect qualifies and the formative

  5. 25 CFR 700.725 - Livestock trespass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... according to the range unit Range Management Plan. (c) The grazing of livestock upon any land withdrawn from... approved by the Commissioner. (e) Grazing of livestock whose brand is not recorded in the range unit Range Management Plan. The owner of any livestock grazing in trespass on the New Lands is liable to a civil penalty...

  6. MODELING OF INDICATORS OF LIVESTOCK IN RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina S. Darda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of livestock in food without dangerous country. The analysis of the dynamics of production indicators waspsmainly livestock products. The problems offorecasting-ing performance of LivestockDevelopment of the Russian Federationon the basis of the a-analytical models ofalignment and connected series.

  7. Mainstreaming gender issues in livestock research | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-06-06

    Jun 6, 2016 ... Read more about how to mainstream gender considerations into livestock development projects in the Gender Responsive Livestock Research brief (PDF, 613KB, available in English only). This document summarizes findings presented in the book “Women, Livestock Ownership and Markets: Bridging the ...

  8. Potential relationship between phenotypic and molecular characteristics in revealing livestock-associated Staphylococcus aureus in Chinese humans without occupational livestock contact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanping Fan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available While some studies have defined Staphylococcus aureus based on its clonal complex and resistance pattern, few have explored the relations between the genetic lineages and antibiotic resistance patterns and immune evasion cluster (IEC genes. Our aim was to investigate the potential relationship between phenotypic and molecular characteristics so as to reveal livestock-associated S. aureus in humans. The study participants were interviewed, and they provided two nasal swabs for S. aureus analysis. All S. aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA were tested for antibiotic susceptibility, multilocus sequence type and IEC genes. Of the 1162 participants, 9.3% carried S. aureus, including MRSA (1.4% and multidrug-resistant S. aureus (MDRSA, 2.8%. The predominant multidrug-resistant pattern among MDRSA isolates was nonsusceptibility to erythromycin, clindamycin and tetracycline. The most common S. aureus genotypes were ST7, ST6, ST188 and ST59, and the predominant MRSA genotype was ST7. Notably, the livestock-associated S. aureus isolates (IEC-negative CC9, IEC-negative tetracycline-resistant CC398, and IEC-negative tetracycline-resistant CC5 were found in people with no occupational livestock contact. These findings reveal a potential relationship between S. aureus CCs and IEC genes and antibiotic resistance patterns in defining livestock-associated S. aureus in humans and support growing concern about the potential livestock-to-human transmission of livestock-associated S. aureus by non-occupational livestock contact.

  9. Developments in Bulgarian Education: from the Ottoman Empire to the Nation-State and beyond, 1800-1940s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krassimira Daskalova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article aims at presenting the major developments of modern Bulgarian education during the 19th and early 20th centuries. It relies on statistical and other primary sources, and on secondary materials, and uses both quantitative and qualitative methods. The first part follows the development of the educational movement among Bulgarians, stimulated by the modernizing Tanzimat reforms (1839-1876 of the Ottoman Empire; the second part – tells the story of the state supported education after the establishment of the Bulgarian nation-state in 1878 up until 1944 when the communist came into power. The article pays special attention to the differences in women’s and men’s education and the gradual move towards greater gender equality in education during the second half of the 20th century.

  10. What is known about Cyanoprokaryota and the algal blooms along the Bulgarian Black Sea coast: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IVANKA TENEVA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a summary of the research related to the taxonomic composition, algal blooms and toxic potential of representatives from Cyanoprokaryota (Cyanobacteria, Cyanophyta in the coastal waters of the Bulgarian Black Sea area. Main strands of the algal research, including Cyanoprokaryota, are presented in a chronological order. The taxonomic composition of cyanoprokaryotic microorganisms, their importance as a part from the algal flora of the Bulgarian Black Sea coast and the main problems caused by this group organisms are discussed. This information could be used as a basis for future investigations related to the taxonomy, diversity, distribution and evaluation of the biological activity of cyanoprokaryotic species in the Black Sea and particularly in the Bulgarian coast area.

  11. The Bulgarian 'nationally responsible capital' on the eve of EU integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiril Alioshev Avramov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo examina las actitudes recientes de las élites económicas de Bulgaria hacia el proceso de ampliación europea y la integración de Bulgaria en la estructura de la UE. El acento del análisis recae sobre la actividad pública de los representantes de la llamada “Nationally responsable Capital" unidos en el Club búlgaro de Negocios "Renacimiento". La muestra explica la actitud de los "inversores estratégicos búlgaros" hacia la ampliación de la UE, ya que es simbólico para el gran capital búlgaro. Varias hipótesis se revisarán en el curso del análisis, en particular, qué las inversiones bulgaras pueden favorecer a los miembros búlgaros de la OTAN y también acercarse a  las  expectativas hacia su adhesión a la UE. Su retórica se basará en la calidad de su cooperación internacional con las grandes empresas extranjeras, como prueba de su legitimidad interna. Irán acompañadas por esfuerzos de lobbies continuo en busca de apoyo por parte de la administración para favorecer el capital “nacional”. Las conclusiones se basan en los resultados empíricos recientemente publicados de un estudio sobre la actitud de la empresa búlgara hacia la integración de la UE y el análisis del contenido de los discursos públicos, entrevistas e informes del grupo "Renacimiento" y de los miembros del grupo relacionados con el tema.____________ABSTRACT:This paper examines the recent attitudes of the Bulgarian economic elites towards the process of European enlargement and the integration of Bulgaria into the structure of EU. The accent of the analysis falls upon the public activity of the representatives of the so-called "nationally responsible capital" united in the Bulgarian Business Club "Renaissance". The sample is chosen to illustrate the attitudes of the "Bulgarian strategic investors" towards the EU enlargement, as it is symbolic for the Bulgarian large capital. Several hypotheses to be reviewed in the course of the

  12. Measures of Energy Economy in Livestock Housing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreslins, Andris; Ramata, Anna [Riga Technical University - Institute of Heat, Gas and Water Technology, Riga (Lithuania)

    2009-07-01

    body. Receive energy from food provide common energy balance of organism and it number are similar to heat energy quantity, what animal return to environment. The microclimate of livestock housing must provide footing thermodynamic balance between animals of heat-moisture exchange with environment. Optimal environment of piggeries on recommendations of zoohygienics are substantially depend at physiology position of swine, age, exploitation group. They fluctuations of temperature from 5 oC to 27 oC for finishing pigs and 22 oC to 32 oC for piglets to 3 week age, relative humidity fluctuated from 60 % to 80 %. Study of heat-moisture balance at model pig farms we are establish that consume of energy in various air supply schemes are depend of heat and mass transfer device working and kind, of heat transfer efficiency, intensity of moisture exchange. Many factors besides the diet including ambient temperature and air quality, housing and grouping conditions, breed or genetics line can influence the nutrient needs of pigs. The feed intake, metabolic rate, and the efficiency of growth are inversely related to ambient temperature.

  13. DETERMINATION OF WATER RESOURCES IN RIVERS IN THE BULGARIAN BASINS OF THE LOWER DANUBE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plamen Iliev Ninov

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Object of the study is surface water bodies from category “rivers” according to Water Framework Directive 2000/60/ЕС. Surface water assessment is important for number of activities such as: water management in the country, making reports to international agencies, determining the change of the resources in the light of upcoming climate changes. The determination of water resources is based on information of hydrometric stations from the monitoring network system in the National Institute of Meteorology and Hydrology — Bulgarian Academy of Sciences (NIMH-BAS in which real ongoing and available water flows that are subject of management are registered. In the study a technology for surface water bodies in the Bulgarian basins of the lower Danube is applied which has been developed in the frame of cooperative project together with the Ministry of Environment and Water. This is absolutely true for the Bulgarian section of the Danube River basin which is expressed in big number and variety of hydrological homogeneous sections. The river flow is characterized with annual and inter-annual variability determined by climatic factors and anthropogenic influences. The main obtained results of the present hydrologic studies are the usage of transferred information from gauged to ungauged watersheds and the estimation of the surface water bodies’ resources using original regression relationships based on multiannual hydrological information from the NIMH-BAS monitoring network. The relationships delineate the hydrological homogeneous areas with similar conditions of flow formation. The estimated resources have significant usefulness for all State institutions managing the water in the Danube basin and have already been introduced in the operative and management practice.

  14. Phenotypic and molecular characterization of 18 Bulgarian newly bred grapevine varieties in relation to their resistance to downy mildew

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalin Kosev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Eighteen Bulgarian newly bred grapevine varieties obtained by interspecific crossing were analysed through microsatellite markers in order to determine their genetic identity as well as the presence of resistance-related alleles linked to Rpv3, Rpv10 and Rpv12 loci. The levels of resistance of the investigated cultivars to downy mildew were assessed by leaf disk assay and were scored according to OIV descriptor 452. Seven isolates of Plasmopara viticola collected in different regions of Bulgaria were characterized and discriminated with seven microsatellite markers and were used in the assays. Analysis of variance showed significant differences in resistance to downy mildew among the analysed varieties. A clear correlation between the presence of particular Rpvs and the level of resistance was determined. Five cultivars, ‘Droujba’, ‘Garant’ and ‘Plevenska rosa’ harbouring Rpv3 and Rpv12, ‘Kajlashki rubin’ harbouring Rpv12 and ‘Slava’, Rpv10 and Rpv3, showed high level of resistance with mean OIV452 values ranging from 6.5 to 8.25 over all seven P. viticola isolates. The level of resistance of the remaining 14 cultivars, which carry only Rpv3 inherited from cultivar Villard Blanc, was found to vary significantly among the isolates with mean OIV452 values between 1.75 and 4.8 over all used P. viticola isolates. The results obtained in this study favoured five genotypes remarkable for their high resistance to downy mildew and very good quality of grape and wine. These varieties represent a valuable material for pyramiding of resistance through marker-assisted selection.

  15. BULGARIAN STATE AND THE TURKS (1878-1908 / BULGARİSTAN EMARETİ VE TÜRKLER (1878–1908

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assoc. Prof. Dr. Osman KÖSE

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Bulgaria emerged as an independent state in the Berlin treaty, which was signed after the 1877-1878 Ottoman-Russian war. After this, the Bulgarian administration began an anti-Muslim massacre campaign, like the Russians did before.The main aim of this article is to investigate the pressure, violence and massacres against the Muslim-Turks, organised by the Bulgarian gangs and the official administration. It is also proposed that the emigration of the Muslim-Turkish population began after this policy of violence.

  16. TRANSFER OF EMBROIDERY ELEMENTS FROM BULGARIAN NATIONAL FOLK COSTUME TO THE CONTEMPORARY FASHION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatin Zlatev

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this research is the analysis of two dimensional images of embroidery elements and the development of techniques for shape and color segmentation in the automation of embroidery designs. A document camera is used as a tool for obtaining of color digital images of embroidery elements from Bulgarian national folk costume. Also are devised some techniques for color restoration of elements and their skeletons. Files for embroidery machines are described and obtained then the results are checked with commercial software. A website is created for presentation of the results of this work

  17. Natural and anthropogenic impacts on historical heritage along the north Bulgarian Black Sea coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peev, Preslav; Palazov, Atanas; Stancheva, Margarita; Stanchev, Hristo; Krastev, Anton; Shtirkov, Ilko

    2014-05-01

    Bulgaria is rich in the remains of past human settlements and activity. For example, along northern part of the Bulgarian coast, numerous underwater and coastal archaeological sites from different periods have been discovered - Prehistory, Antiquity (ancient Greek, Hellenistic, Roman), Mediaeval (Early Byzantium, Bulgarian). The most significant of them are: Durankulak archaeological complex with the largest Prehistoric necropolis in the world, Prehistoric necropolis at the area of Lake Shablenska Tuzla, Antique settlements Caron Limen and Bizone, archeological reserve Yalata, Antique and Medieval castle at Cape Kaliakra etc. As, this north part of Bulgarian coast has a huge archaeological potential there is a ground for thinking that the remains of other periods as well as a brand new, previously unknown sites can be discovered in the near future. This does not exclude the probability of being randomly found individual objects that largely can be prevented from archaeological contexts. Therefore it is important that these archeological sites are protected properly and preserved for future generations. In Bulgaria such sites and monuments are legally protected under the Law of cultural heritage and managed by the Ministry of culture and local authorities. However, today most objects and sites, as part of common European historical and cultural heritage are posed to a variety of potential impacts and treats, both natural and human-induced. This study discusses the implications of natural factors, (such as climate change, extreme waves, erosion and shoreline changes) and human contributions (coastal infrastructures, tourism and insufficient management by decision-makers) to coastal and underwater cultural heritage along the north portion of Bulgarian coast. Major natural processes that seriously affect on coastal and maritime heritage environment are direct physical impact by global climate changes, sea level rise and caused increase of waves and storms, acceleration

  18. Genetic analysis of haemophilia A in Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Kremensky Ivo; Chakarov Stoian; Petkova Rumena

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Background Haemophilias are the most common hereditary severe disorders of blood clotting. In families afflicted with heamophilia, genetic analysis provides opportunities to prevent recurrence of the disease. This study establishes a diagnostical strategy for carriership determination and prenatal diagnostics of haemophilia A in Bulgarian haemophilic population. Methods A diagnostical strategy consisting of screening for most common mutations in the factor VIII gene and analysis of a...

  19. Nutritional Influence on Epigenetic Marks and Effect on Livestock Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdoch, Brenda M; Murdoch, Gordon K; Greenwood, Sabrina; McKay, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    Nutrition represents one of the greatest environmental determinants of an individual's health. While nutrient quantity and quality impart direct effects, the interaction of nutrition with genetic and epigenetic modifications is often overlooked despite being shown to influence biological variation in mammals. Dissecting complex traits, such as those that are diet or nutrition related, to determine the genetic and epigenetic contributions toward a phenotype can be a formidable process. Epigenetic modifications add another layer of complexity as they do not change the DNA sequence itself but can affect transcription and are important mediators of gene expression and ensuing phenotypic variation. Altered carbohydrate metabolism and rates of fat and protein deposition resulting from diet-induced hypo- or hyper-methylation highlight the capability of nutritional epigenetics to influence livestock commodity quality and quantity. This interaction can yield either products tailored to consumer preference, such as marbling in meat cuts, or potentially increasing productivity and yield both in terms of carcass yield and/or offspring performance. Understanding how these and other desirable phenotypes result from epigenetic mechanisms will facilitate their inducible potential in livestock systems. Here, we discuss the establishment of the epigenome, examples of nutritional mediated alterations of epigenetics and epigenetic effects on livestock production.

  20. Nutritional Influence on Epigenetic Marks and Effect on Livestock Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda Murdoch

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Nutrition represents one of the greatest environmental determinants of an individual’s health. While nutrient quantity and quality impart direct effects, the interaction of nutrition with genetic and epigenetic modifications is often overlooked despite being shown to influence biological variation in mammals. Dissecting complex traits, such as those that are diet or nutrition related, to determine the genetic and epigenetic contributions towards a phenotype can be a formidable process. Epigenetic modifications add another layer of complexity as they do not change the DNA sequence itself but can affect transcription and are important mediators of gene expression and ensuing phenotypic variation. Altered carbohydrate metabolism and rates of fat and protein deposition resulting from diet-induced hypo- or hyper-methylation highlight the capability of nutritional epigenetics to influence livestock commodity quality and quantity. This interaction can yield either products tailored to consumer preference, such as marbling in meat cuts, or potentially increasing productivity and yield both in terms of carcass yield and/or offspring performance. Understanding how these and other desirable phenotypes result from epigenetic mechanisms will facilitate their inducible potential in livestock systems. Here, we discuss the establishment of the epigenome, examples of nutritional mediated alterations of epigenetics and epigenetic effects on livestock production.

  1. Reproduction biotechnologies in germplasm banking of livestock species: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrell, J M; Mayer, I

    2017-10-01

    Many biotechnologies are currently used in livestock breeding with the aim of improving reproductive efficiency and increasing the rate of genetic progress in production animals. Semen cryopreservation is the most widely used cryobiotechnology, although vitrification techniques now allow embryos and oocytes to be banked in ever-increasing numbers. Cryopreservation of other types of germplasm (reproductive tissue in general) is also possible, although the techniques are still in the early stages of development for use in livestock species. Although still in their infancy, these techniques are increasingly being used in aquaculture. Germplasm conservation enables reproductive tissues from both animals and fish to be preserved to generate offspring in the future without having to maintain large numbers of living populations of these species. However, such measures need careful planning and coordination. This review explains why the preservation of genetic diversity is needed for livestock and fish, and describes some of the issues involved in germplasm banking. Furthermore, some recent developments in semen handling leading to improved semen cryopreservation and biosecurity measures are also discussed.

  2. Genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Heterozygous; Inheritance patterns; Heredity and disease; Heritable; Genetic markers ... mother and medications). These include: Asthma Cancer Coronary heart disease Diabetes Hypertension Stroke MITOCHONDRIAL DNA-LINKED DISORDERS Mitochondria ...

  3. Technology and safety assessment for lactic acid bacteria isolated from traditional Bulgarian fermented meat product "lukanka"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetoslav Dimitrov Todorov

    Full Text Available Abstract The present work discusses the technological and new selection criteria that should be included for selecting lactic acid bacteria for production of fermented meat. Lactic acid bacteria isolated from Bulgarian traditional fermented "lulanka" salami was studied regarding some positive technological parameters (growth at different temperature, pH, and proteolytic activity. The presence of genes related to the virulence factors, production of biogenic amines, and vancomycin resistance were presented in low frequency in the studied lactic acid bacteria. On the other hand, production of antimicrobial peptides and high spread of bacteriocin genes were broadly presented. Very strong activity against L. monocytogenes was detected in some of the studied lactic acid bacteria. In addition, the studied strains did not present any antimicrobial activity against tested closely related bacteria such as Lactobacillus spp., Lactococcus spp., Enterococcus spp. or Pediococcus spp. To our knowledge this is the first study on the safety and antimicrobial properties of lactic acid bacteria isolated from Bulgarian lukanka obtained by spontaneous fermentation.

  4. Basic exterior characteristics of body and head in Bulgarian scent hound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urošević Milivoje

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A group of dogs known as hounds is widespread and highly appreciated among the hunters on the Balkans. Hounds are referred to as hunting dogs that engage in loud pursuit of game along its trail. These dogs do not need to se the game in order to pursue it and begin to bark once they stumble upon game trail. First serious research along with zootechnical measurement was conducted in 1905, at which occasion three large groups of hounds that inhabit the Balkans were described. This undertaking provided a solid foundation for further research and standardization of certain hound breeds. Though a lot of field work and standardization efforts were undertaken since then, there are still groups of hounds not encompassed in previous research work that are well-spread on the field and frequently utilized as hunting companions. One of the variety among these non-standardized breeds are Bulgarian scent hound, which differ from described hound breeds by certain exterior characteristics. In this paper, processed and analyzed some of the basic exterior features of body and head of the Bulgarian Scent Hound. Measurements were performed in 21 males and 15 females of following parameters, the height at withers, back height, loin height, chest circumference, body length, head length, skull length, nozzle length, head width and nozzle width. The average height of males is 54.60 and female 51.73 cm. Head length of males, on average, was 23.95 cm and females 23, 53 cm.

  5. Cross-Cultural Validation of the Definition of Multimorbidity in the Bulgarian Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assenova, Radost S; Le Reste, Jean Yves; Foreva, Gergana H; Mileva, Daniela S; Czachowski, Slawomir; Sowinska, Agnieszka; Nabbe, Patrice; Argyriadou, Stella; Lazic, Djurdjica; Hasaganic, Melida; Lingner, Heidrun; Lygidakis, Harris; Muñoz, Miguel-Angel; Claveria, Ana; Doerr, Chista; Van Marwijk, Harm; Van Royen, Paul; Lietard, Claire

    2015-01-01

    Multimorbidity is a health issue with growing importance. During the last few decades the populations of most countries in the world have been ageing rapidly. Bulgaria is affected by the issue because of the high prevalence of ageing population in the country with multiple chronic conditions. The AIM of the present study was to validate the translated definition of multimorbidity from English into the Bulgarian language. The present study is part of an international project involving 8 national groups. We performed a forward and backward translation of the original English definition of multimorbidity using a Delphi consensus procedure. The physicians involved accepted the definition with a high percentage of agreement in the first round. The backward translation was accepted by the scientific committee using the Nominal group technique. Some of the GPs provided comments on the linguistic expressions which arose in order to improve understanding in Bulgarian. The remarks were not relevant to the content. The conclusion of the discussion, using a meta-ethnographic approach, was that the differences were acceptable and no further changes were required. A native version of the published English multimorbidity definition has been finalized. This definition is a prerequisite for better management of multimorbidity by clinicians, researchers and policy makers.

  6. Technology and safety assessment for lactic acid bacteria isolated from traditional Bulgarian fermented meat product "lukanka".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorov, Svetoslav Dimitrov; Stojanovski, Saso; Iliev, Ilia; Moncheva, Penka; Nero, Luis Augusto; Ivanova, Iskra Vitanova

    The present work discusses the technological and new selection criteria that should be included for selecting lactic acid bacteria for production of fermented meat. Lactic acid bacteria isolated from Bulgarian traditional fermented "lulanka" salami was studied regarding some positive technological parameters (growth at different temperature, pH, and proteolytic activity). The presence of genes related to the virulence factors, production of biogenic amines, and vancomycin resistance were presented in low frequency in the studied lactic acid bacteria. On the other hand, production of antimicrobial peptides and high spread of bacteriocin genes were broadly presented. Very strong activity against L. monocytogenes was detected in some of the studied lactic acid bacteria. In addition, the studied strains did not present any antimicrobial activity against tested closely related bacteria such as Lactobacillus spp., Lactococcus spp., Enterococcus spp. or Pediococcus spp. To our knowledge this is the first study on the safety and antimicrobial properties of lactic acid bacteria isolated from Bulgarian lukanka obtained by spontaneous fermentation. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  7. Grouping of Bulgarian wines according to grape variety by using statistical methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milev, M.; Nikolova, Kr.; Ivanova, Ir.; Minkova, St.; Evtimov, T.; Krustev, St.

    2017-12-01

    68 different types of Bulgarian wines were studied in accordance with 9 optical parameters as follows: color parameters in XYZ and SIE Lab color systems, lightness, Hue angle, chroma, fluorescence intensity and emission wavelength. The main objective of this research is using hierarchical cluster analysis to evaluate the similarity and the distance between examined different types of Bulgarian wines and their grouping based on physical parameters. We have found that wines are grouped in clusters on the base of the degree of identity between them. There are two main clusters each one with two subclusters. The first one contains white wines and Sira, the second contains red wines and rose. The results from cluster analysis are presented graphically by a dendrogram. The other statistical technique used is factor analysis performed by the Method of Principal Components (PCA). The aim is to reduce the large number of variables to a few factors by grouping the correlated variables into one factor and subdividing the noncorrelated variables into different factors. Moreover the factor analysis provided the possibility to determine the parameters with the greatest influence over the distribution of samples in different clusters. In our study after the rotation of the factors with Varimax method the parameters were combined into two factors, which explain about 80 % of the total variation. The first one explains the 61.49% and correlates with color characteristics, the second one explains 18.34% from the variation and correlates with the parameters connected with fluorescence spectroscopy.

  8. Bulgarian Youth and Europe. Multivariate Psycho-cultural Study of the Mobility Attitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail Matveev

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to examine the Bulgarian youths' mobility towards Europe. The investigation was carried out with 570 Bulgarian students. The data are presented as a questionnaire consisting of five parts. The first one deals with the motivations and is based on the Reversal Theory - predicting eight motivational states. The second part is based on the 2PAP theoretical model structuring the attitudes around four factors: Push, Pull, Anti Push and Anti Pull. The third one falls back on the Big Five Personality Test measuring five personality dimensions. And the concluding two parts are designed to obtain information about the degree of attraction and the intentions for mobility to the 25 destination countries of the European Union (EU. This has led to the hypothesis that a model of mobility exists based on these three theoretical models, as well as on emotional factors like attraction-repulsion to the country referred to. The hypothesis that was strongly supported by the statistical processing of the data will broaden our understanding of the youth's mobility. The present research is a part of a longitudinal study of the mobility intentions among young people. The investigation is of great interest from an educational, political and social point of view

  9. Chromosome polymorphism in Bulgarian populations of the striped field mouse (Apodemus agrarius Pallas 1771

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    T Chassovnikarova

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Chromosome polymorphism in Bulgarian populations of the striped field mouse (Apodemus agrarius Pallas, 1771 has been described. The diploid chromosome number is 2n=48 (NFa = 54. In the karyotype of 3 specimens from the Iskar region, the presence of an additional B chromosome has been established for the first time. The autosomes are 19 acrocentric pairs, continuously decreasing in size, and 4 pairs of bi-armed chromosomes, barely distinguishable by size and location of the centromere. Specimens with 3 pairs of metacentric chromosomes were firstly described in Bulgaria for the regions of Iskar and Omurtag. The localization of heterochromatin in the centromeric regions of the chromosomes, blocks of heterochromatin of different sizes, as well as intercalated bands, distinguishable in weakly spiraled chromosomes are found. Telomeric heterochromatin is present in the largest autosomal pair and in two of the middle-sized autosomal pairs. The largest and smallest pairs of be-armed chromosomes do not have centromeric heterochromatin, whereas all the other autosomal pairs do. The presence of a NOR in 6 chromosomal pairs is established. Two of the pairs exhibited pericentromeric NORs, whereas the other 4 displayed telomeric NORs. The karyotype analysis illustrates the chromosome and genome polymorphism of A. agrarius in Bulgarian populations.

  10. GC-MS based metabolite profiling of five Bulgarian Fumaria species

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    Radka Z. Vrancheva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was profiling of primary metabolites of five Bulgarian Fumaria species (F. officinalis L., F. thuretii Boiss., F. kralikii Jord., F. rostellata Knaf. and F. schrammii Velen. by GC-MS analyses. In polar fractions ten carbohydrates, one polyol, ten amino acids and six organic acids were identified. Apolar (lipid fractions showed the presence of four free fatty acids, two esters of fatty acids with glycerol and two fatty alcohols. Sucrose and fructose were in the highest relative concentrations of identified carbohydrates. Citric acid was the dominant organic acid in polar fractions of five Fumaria species. Predominant compounds in lipid fractions were palmitic acid and 1-stearoyl-glycerol. Principal component analysis (PCA of GC-MS data of polar and apolar fractions of five Bulgarian Fumaria species differentiates them in two groups (F. officinalis and F. thuretii; F. rostellata and F. schrammii, respectively, while F. kralikii had phythochemical similarity with plants of both distinguished groups. The obtained results of PCA of primary metabolites could be proposed as chemotaxonomic markers for plants of the genus Fumaria.

  11. The future of livestock breeding: genomic selection for efficiency, reduced emissions intensity, and adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Ben J; Lewin, Harris A; Goddard, Michael E

    2013-04-01

    As the global population and global wealth both continue to increase, so will the demand for livestock products, especially those that are highly nutritious. However, competition with other uses for land and water resources will also intensify, necessitating more efficient livestock production. In addition, as climate change escalates, reduced methane emissions from cattle and sheep will be a critical goal. Application of new technologies, including genomic selection and advanced reproductive technologies, will play an important role in meeting these challenges. Genomic selection, which enables prediction of the genetic merit of animals from genome-wide SNP markers, has already been adopted by dairy industries worldwide and is expected to double genetic gains for milk production and other traits. Here, we review these gains. We also discuss how the use of whole-genome sequence data should both accelerate the rate of gain and enable rapid discovery and elimination of genetic defects from livestock populations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Eight challenges in modelling infectious livestock diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Brooks-Pollock

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The transmission of infectious diseases of livestock does not differ in principle from disease transmission in any other animals, apart from that the aim of control is ultimately economic, with the influence of social, political and welfare constraints often poorly defined. Modelling of livestock diseases suffers simultaneously from a wealth and a lack of data. On the one hand, the ability to conduct transmission experiments, detailed within-host studies and track individual animals between geocoded locations make livestock diseases a particularly rich potential source of realistic data for illuminating biological mechanisms of transmission and conducting explicit analyses of contact networks. On the other hand, scarcity of funding, as compared to human diseases, often results in incomplete and partial data for many livestock diseases and regions of the world. In this overview of challenges in livestock disease modelling, we highlight eight areas unique to livestock that, if addressed, would mark major progress in the area.

  13. Inbreeding depression in livestock species: review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroy, G

    2014-10-01

    Inbreeding, by virtue of its consequence on traits of interest, is a topic of major interest for geneticists and animal breeders. Based on meta-analysis conducted on 57 studies and seven livestock species considering a wide variety of selected traits, it was estimated that inbreeding depression corresponds to on average a decrease of 0.137 percent of the mean of a trait per 1 percent of inbreeding. The decrease was larger for production traits (reduction of 0.351%) than for other trait categories. For populations raised as purebreds, inbreeding depression may impact the economic income of breeders. There is a need for studies assessing the existence of an inbreeding purge phenomenon as well as the impact of inbreeding on adaptation capacities of livestock species. Promises brought by the development of dense genotyping as well as functional genomics will increase the capacities to improve our understanding and management of the phenomenon. © 2014 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  14. Relative Importance Assigned to Health Care Rationing Principles at the Bedside: Evidence From a Portuguese and Bulgarian Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinho, Micaela Moreira; Pinto Borges, Ana

    Activity was undertaken to develop a Prioritization Scoring Index for Portugal and Bulgaria that weights the importance given to ethical rationing principles that should guide decisions at the bedside. Data from two random samples of 355 Portuguese and 298 Bulgarian members of the public were collected from an online questionnaire. Questions asked about the level of importance given to specific issues related to patient's prioritization criteria. Responses were analyzed quantitatively with the SPSS. In the process of selecting the patient to treat, Portuguese and Bulgarian respondents seem unanimous in giving greater importance to (i) the treatment outcomes, (ii) the severity of illness, (iii) children, and (iv) patients' fragility. In general, Portuguese and Bulgarian respondents allocate more than 50% of the prioritization weight to equity considerations, approximately 35% to efficiency considerations, and 5% to lottery selection. Even so, Bulgarian respondents rate highly the equity and less the efficiency consideration than Portuguese respondents. Although the pursuit of efficiency seems to be valued by respondents, their major concern seems to be with the reduction of inequalities in health.

  15. Researchers at the Institute of Mathematics and Informatics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences (IMI-BAS - Attestation Analysis - Results and Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Tabov

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2010 attestation of the academic staff of the Institute of Mathematics and Informatics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, was carried out. The attestation procedures and the results of their applying in practice are both described in the present paper. The level-drop in IMI-BAS is alarming. The main reason for it is the brain-drain, we suppose.

  16. Relations between Household Livestock Ownership, Livestock Disease, and Young Child Growth123

    OpenAIRE

    Mosites, Emily; Thumbi, Samuel M.; Otiang, Elkanah; McElwain, Terry F.; Njenga, MK; Rabinowitz, Peter M.; Rowhani-Rahbar, Ali; Neuhouser, Marian L.; May, Susanne; Palmer, Guy H.; Walson, Judd L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: In resource-limited settings in which child malnutrition is prevalent, humans live in close proximity to household livestock. However, the relation between household livestock and child nutrition represents a considerable knowledge gap.

  17. Association of Sp1 Collagen Type Iα1 Gene Polymorphisms with Bone Mineral Density in Bulgarian Women Referred for Bone Densitometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andon K. Toshev

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To investigate the association between bone mineral density (BMD and collagen type Iα1 (COLIA1 gene polymorphisms in a case-control study.Materials and Methods: 400 unrelated postmenopausal Bulgarian women participated - 180 with normal BMD and 220 with low BMD. BMD was measured at the forearm, lumbar spine and femoral neck by X-ray absorptiometry. A PCR product of 261 bp was digested and electrophoresed. The prevalence of S and s alleles as well as the different genotypes was determined. All analyses were tested for statistical significance (c2-test.Results: 408 s and 392 S alleles were found. Of the 220 women with low BMD, 20 had the SS genotype, 94 – the Ss genotype, and 106 – the ss genotype. Among the 180 controls with normal BMD, 93 had the SS genotype, 76 - the Ss, and 11 – the ss genotype. The SS genotype was associated with higher BMD and the ss – with lower BMD at all sites. The odds ratio for low BMD in the presence of the ss genotype was 10.69.Conclusion: In our study sample, the COLIA1 polymorphism was associated with low BMD. This particular genetic polymorphism may become a useful genetic screening tool for osteoporosis. Türk Jem 2011; 15: 66-70

  18. Territorial Dioceses and Ethnic Episcopies in the Structure of the Church Organization of the First Bulgarian Kingdom (Canonical Aspects

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    Archpriest Alexander Zadornov

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The coexistence of ethnic and territorial principles in the structure of ecclesiastical organizations is a well known fact in church history. Both principles are equally legitimate from the point of view of canonical law. The “ethnic principle” was based on legal norms of the so-called 34th Apostolic Rule, and contrary to the opinion of scholars of the 19th century, it was still in use after the era of the Ecumenical Councils. This fact must be considered by students of the history of Church organizations in the First Bulgarian Kingdom, too. The observations regarding the structure of church organizations in Simeonic Bulgaria make it possible to assume the coexistence of ethnic and territorial principles of church organizations in his kingdom. As is known, Slavonic church schools were established in the southwestern part of the First Bulgarian Kingdom after 886. They were aimed at training the Slavonic clergy for the Slavonic church organization. In 893, the Bulgarian King Simeon was elevated to the throne, and a Slavonic eparchy headed by St. Clement of Ohrid was established in the southwestern territories of the First Bulgarian Kingdom. As a result, heterogeneous church organizations were established in the region, and church structures of ethnic and territorial types appeared. They differ from each other by the language of their church services. Old Church Slavonic must have been used as a liturgical language in the ethnic Slavonic eparchy. Since direct historical evidence for such heterogeneous church structure in the First Bulgarian Kingdom is absent, new interpretations of sources made on the basis of canonical law can be of importance for Slavonic studies.

  19. Territorial Dioceses and Ethnic Episcopies in the Structure of the Church Organization of the First Bulgarian Kingdom (Canonical Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archpriest Alexander Zadornov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The coexistence of ethnic and territorial principles in the structure of ecclesiastical organizations is a well known fact in church history. Both principles are equally legitimate from the point of view of canonical law. The “ethnic principle” was based on legal norms of the so-called 34th Apostolic Rule, and contrary to the opinion of scholars of the 19th century, it was still in use after the era of the Ecumenical Councils. This fact must be considered by students of the history of Church organizations in the First Bulgarian Kingdom, too. The observations regarding the structure of church organizations in Simeonic Bulgaria make it possible to assume the coexistence of ethnic and territorial principles of church organizations in his kingdom. As is known, Slavonic church schools were established in the southwestern part of the First Bulgarian Kingdom after 886. They were aimed at training the Slavonic clergy for the Slavonic church organization. In 893, the Bulgarian King Simeon was elevated to the throne, and a Slavonic eparchy headed by St. Clement of Ohrid was established in the southwestern territories of the First Bulgarian Kingdom. As a result, heterogeneous church organizations were established in the region, and church structures of ethnic and territorial types appeared. They differ from each other by the language of their church services. Old Church Slavonic must have been used as a liturgical language in the ethnic Slavonic eparchy. Since direct historical evidence for such heterogeneous church structure in the First Bulgarian Kingdom is absent, new interpretations of sources made on the basis of canonical law can be of importance for Slavonic studies.

  20. Mapping the global distribution of livestock.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy P Robinson

    Full Text Available Livestock contributes directly to the livelihoods and food security of almost a billion people and affects the diet and health of many more. With estimated standing populations of 1.43 billion cattle, 1.87 billion sheep and goats, 0.98 billion pigs, and 19.60 billion chickens, reliable and accessible information on the distribution and abundance of livestock is needed for a many reasons. These include analyses of the social and economic aspects of the livestock sector; the environmental impacts of livestock such as the production and management of waste, greenhouse gas emissions and livestock-related land-use change; and large-scale public health and epidemiological investigations. The Gridded Livestock of the World (GLW database, produced in 2007, provided modelled livestock densities of the world, adjusted to match official (FAOSTAT national estimates for the reference year 2005, at a spatial resolution of 3 minutes of arc (about 5×5 km at the equator. Recent methodological improvements have significantly enhanced these distributions: more up-to date and detailed sub-national livestock statistics have been collected; a new, higher resolution set of predictor variables is used; and the analytical procedure has been revised and extended to include a more systematic assessment of model accuracy and the representation of uncertainties associated with the predictions. This paper describes the current approach in detail and presents new global distribution maps at 1 km resolution for cattle, pigs and chickens, and a partial distribution map for ducks. These digital layers are made publically available via the Livestock Geo-Wiki (http://www.livestock.geo-wiki.org, as will be the maps of other livestock types as they are produced.

  1. Effects of wolf mortality on livestock depredations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert B Wielgus

    Full Text Available Predator control and sport hunting are often used to reduce predator populations and livestock depredations, but the efficacy of lethal control has rarely been tested. We assessed the effects of wolf mortality on reducing livestock depredations in Idaho, Montana and Wyoming from 1987-2012 using a 25 year time series. The number of livestock depredated, livestock populations, wolf population estimates, number of breeding pairs, and wolves killed were calculated for the wolf-occupied area of each state for each year. The data were then analyzed using a negative binomial generalized linear model to test for the expected negative relationship between the number of livestock depredated in the current year and the number of wolves controlled the previous year. We found that the number of livestock depredated was positively associated with the number of livestock and the number of breeding pairs. However, we also found that the number of livestock depredated the following year was positively, not negatively, associated with the number of wolves killed the previous year. The odds of livestock depredations increased 4% for sheep and 5-6% for cattle with increased wolf control--up until wolf mortality exceeded the mean intrinsic growth rate of wolves at 25%. Possible reasons for the increased livestock depredations at ≤25% mortality may be compensatory increased breeding pairs and numbers of wolves following increased mortality. After mortality exceeded 25%, the total number of breeding pairs, wolves, and livestock depredations declined. However, mortality rates exceeding 25% are unsustainable over the long term. Lethal control of individual depredating wolves may sometimes necessary to stop depredations in the near-term, but we recommend that non-lethal alternatives also be considered.

  2. Gaia science alerts and the observing facilities of the Serbian-Bulgarian mini-network telescopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damljanović G.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The astrometric European Space Agency (ESA Gaia mission was launched in December 19, 2013. One of the tasks of the Gaia mission is production of an astrometric catalog of over one billion stars and more than 500000 extragalactic sources. The quasars (QSOs, as extragalactic sources and radio emitters, are active galactic nuclei objects (AGNs whose coordinates are well determined via Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI technique and may reach sub-milliarcsecond accuracy. The QSOs are the defining sources of the quasi-inertial International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF because of their core radio morphology, negligible proper motions (until sub-milliarcsecond per year, and apparent point-like nature. Compact AGNs, visible in optical domain, are useful for a direct link of the future Gaia optical reference frame with the most accurate radio one. Apart from the above mentioned activities, Gaia has other goals such as follow-up of transient objects. One of the most important Gaia's requirements for photometric alerts is a fast observation and reduction response, that is, submition of observations within 24 hours. For this reason we have developed a pipeline. In line with possibilities of our new telescope (D(cm/F(cm=60/600 at the Astronomical Station Vidojevica (ASV, of the Astronomical Observatory in Belgrade, we joined the Gaia-Follow-Up Network for Transients Objects (Gaia-FUN-TO for the photometric alerts. Moreover, in view of the cooperation with Bulgarian colleagues (in the frst place, SV, one of us (GD initiated a local mini-network of Serbian { Bulgarian telescopes useful for the Gaia-FUN-TO and other astronomical purposes. During the next year we expect a new 1.4 m telescope at ASV site. The speed of data processing (from observation to calibration server could be one day. Here, we present an overview of our activities in the Gaia-FUN-TO which includes establishing Serbian { Bulgarian mini-network (of five telescopes at three sites

  3. Bulgarian Seismological and GPS/GNSS networks-current status and practical implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solakov, Dimcho; Simeonova, Stela; Georgiev, Ivan; Dimitrova, Lilia; Slavcheva, Krasimira; Raykova, Plamena

    2016-04-01

    The scientific information is the latest and one of the best bedrock on which effective policy to combat and cope with natural disasters have to be built. Understanding, monitoring and information for future natural disasters are the way to assist the government and society. Different types of networks provide reliable information on various natural disasters. For example, one of the main priorities of the networks are directed to study seismicity of the Earth, its physical phenomena and fields - with an emphasis on tectonic movements and related risk processes, global changes, rotation and position of the Earth in space. Therefore seismological network using advanced electronic systems and digital seismographs transmission of signals from seismic stations to the centres and the registration, processing and archiving of information is carried out by a specialized computer system. Thus improve the monitoring and analysis of seismicity in the whole plan. Another type networks as permanent GPS/GNSS networks are associated with processing and data analysis, as well as monitoring of recent movements of the earth crust. In this study we focus on Seismological and GPS/GNSS networks on the territory in Bulgaria. At present NIGGG-BAS runs both Bulgarian seismological and GPS/GNSS networks. The Bulgarian seismological network - NOTSSI (National Operative Telemetric System for Seismological Information) was founded at the end of 1980. The network comprises today 15 permanent seismic stations spanning the entire territory of the country and two local net works that are deployed around the town of Provadia and Kozloduy Nuclear Power Plant in Bulgaria. Since 2005-2006, real-time data exchange between Bulgaria and Greece, Romania, Serbia, Macedonia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Austria and other regional and national seismological data centers was implemented. NIGGG, respectively NOTSSI, is responsible for rapid earthquake determination, public information trough media, and information of

  4. Chapter 2: Livestock and Grazed Lands Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    A total of 342 MMT CO2 eq. of greenhouse gasses (GHGs) were emitted from livestock, managed livestock waste, and grazed land in 2013. This represents about 66% of total emissions from the agricultural sector, which totaled 516 MMT CO2 eq. Compared to the base line year (1990), emissions from livesto...

  5. Precision Livestock Farming: het dier centraal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lokhorst, C.

    2010-01-01

    Dit essay gaat over het concept Precision Livestock Farming (PLF). Voor de melkveehouderij is dit beschreven in het Wageningen UR Livestock rapport 358 (Kees Lokhorst, Bert Ipema, Edwin Bleumer, 2010. Haalbaarheid precisielandbouw voor de Melkveehouderij, ISSN 1570 – 8616, 21pp). Het PLF-concept is

  6. Eight challenges in modelling infectious livestock diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brooks-Pollock, E.; Jong, de M.; Keeling, M.J.; Klinkenberg, D.; Wood, J.L.N.

    2015-01-01

    The transmission of infectious diseases of livestock does not differ in principle from disease transmission in any other animals, apart from that the aim of control is ultimately economic, with the influence of social, political and welfare constraints often poorly defined. Modelling of livestock

  7. Livestock Husbandry and Snow Leopard Conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohammad, Ghulam; Mostafawi, Sayed Naqibullah; Dadul, Jigmet; Rosen, Tatjana; Mishra, Charudutt; Bhatnagar, Yash Veer; Trivedi, Pranav; Timbadia, Radhika; Bijoor, Ajay; Murali, Ranjini; Sonam, Karma; Thinley, Tanzin; Namgail, Tsewang; Prins, Herbert H.T.; Nawaz, Muhammad Ali; Ud Din, Jaffar; Buzdar, Hafeez

    2016-01-01

    Livestock depredation is a key source of snow leopard mortality across much of the species' range. Snow leopards break into livestock corrals, killing many domestic animals and thereby inflicting substantial economic damage. Locals may retaliate by killing the cat and selling its parts.

  8. Women, Livestock Markets and Income Management

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    decisions about spending of their earnings. Even when women have control over income, commercialisation of production can erode income management. This is an increasing concern, with rising demand for livestock and livestock products, particularly among urban consumers, changing markets and marketing systems.

  9. Livestock: An alternative mosquito control measure | Yakubu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey was conducted to investigate the indigenous methods or measures adopted by urban livestock owners in the control of mosquito in Sokoto metropolis. Fifty (50) respondents who were engaged in urban livestock production were conveniently sampled, In addition, five (5) locations (Sidi farm, Kara market, Sokoto ...

  10. Livestock farming with care : summaries of essays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijsackers, H.J.P.; Scholten, M.C.T.

    2011-01-01

    Wageningen UR is the country’s major research organisation in the field of livestock farming, providing the knowledge base for innovative livestock farming in our country and beyond and, as such, keen to play a role in the above mentioned debate. To this end an interdisciplinary task force was

  11. 50 CFR 35.9 - Livestock grazing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Livestock grazing. 35.9 Section 35.9 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE..., reconstruction or relocation of only those livestock management improvements and structures which existed within...

  12. Airborne microorganisms and dust from livestock houses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, Y.; Aarnink, A.J.A.; Jong, de M.C.M.; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiencies and suitability of samplers for airborne microorganisms and dust, which could be used in practical livestock houses. Two studies were performed: 1) Testing impaction and cyclone pre-separators for dust sampling in livestock houses; 2)

  13. Assessment of Indigenous Knowledge Application among Livestock ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of Indigenous Knowledge Application among Livestock Farmers in Southern Ijaw Local Government Area of Bayelsa State. ... It is therefore suggested that farmers' level of education should be improved while efforts should be made to blend the traditional and conventional (improved) technologies livestock ...

  14. Gender and Livestock: Issues, Challenges and Opportunities

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Securing current and future assets. • Sustaining and improving the productivity of agricultural systems in ... However, studies have shown that women do sometimes manage income from the sale of livestock products even when they do not own the livestock. In Tanzania, for example, women manage 49% of income from the.

  15. Skeletal muscle proteomics in livestock production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picard, Brigitte; Berri, Cécile; Lefaucheur, Louis; Molette, Caroline; Sayd, Thierry; Terlouw, Claudia

    2010-05-01

    Proteomics allows studying large numbers of proteins, including their post-translational modifications. Proteomics has been, and still are, used in numerous studies on skeletal muscle. In this article, we focus on its use in the study of livestock muscle development and meat quality. Changes in protein profiles during myogenesis are described in cattle, pigs and fowl using comparative analyses across different ontogenetic stages. This approach allows a better understanding of the key stages of myogenesis and helps identifying processes that are similar or divergent between species. Genetic variability of muscle properties analysed by the study of hypertrophied cattle and sheep are discussed. Biological markers of meat quality, particularly tenderness in cattle, pigs and fowl are presented, including protein modifications during meat ageing in cattle, protein markers of PSE meat in turkeys and of post-mortem muscle metabolism in pigs. Finally, we discuss the interest of proteomics as a tool to understand better biochemical mechanisms underlying the effects of stress during the pre-slaughter period on meat quality traits. In conclusion, the study of proteomics in skeletal muscles allows generating large amounts of scientific knowledge that helps to improve our understanding of myogenesis and muscle growth and to control better meat quality.

  16. Model for Determining the Consumption of Machinery, Tableware, Fuel, Oils and Lubricants with the Participation of Units from the Bulgarian Army in Humanitarian Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nichev Nikolay

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Regulating documents of the Bulgarian Army considered norms for support classic combat operations and in fact Bulgarian Army has no planning methods to be used for planning of humanitarian operations. Solving this problem can be achieved through the use of planning factors. Planning factors are generally based on experience or data on the use of resources from previous operations. The participation of units of the Bulgarian Army in humanitarian operations have failed to bring to the accumulation of data needed to create a suitable planning factors. The purpose of the study is to develop a model by which to bring out planning factors in determining the the consumption of machinery, tableware, fuel, oils and lubricants with the participation of units from the Bulgarian Army in humanitarian operations.

  17. Livestock Animal Displacement on Rural Tourism Destinations: Placing Livestock's “Pest” Role in the Background

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guorong Tang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Rural tourism is becoming increasingly embedded in the livestock animal management in rural areas. Drawing on a multi-methods approach, this exploratory research shows how to construct the livestock animal displacement actor-networks. As is found, human actors (local governments, tourists, and local residents, non-human animal (livestock and quasi-object (human dwellings construct an interaction network in a structured way. The critical action route of livestock animal displacement demonstrated in this research is aimed to improve residents' participation willingness and further to change the local livestock feeding model and traditional dwelling by rural environment governance and rural tourism landscape consumption. Through the process of translation, problematization, interest, enrollment, mobilization and opposition, the livestock displacement actor-networks were constructed to build a heterogeneous network of the local government, tourists, local residents, livestock and human dwelling. The ultimate goal is to change the traditional human dwelling to a dis-dwelling; the most important thing is to promote residents’ participation willingness in the livestock displacement actor-networks. This article attempts to perform compelling exploratory research to elucidate the livestock displacement actor-networks in hope to provide a meaningful contribution to the epistemology and methodology of livestock management on rural tourism destination and open a new path for research on rural livestock-human relations.

  18. Piroplasmids of livestock in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darghouth, M A

    2004-01-01

    Several species of piroplasms of livestock are present in Tunisia; some of them are of high veterinary importance. This paper reviews the species already reported in Tunisia on the basis of clinical observations, parasitological routine diagnostic and serological surveys, as well as those considered as potentially present according to epidemiological argumentations. The genus Theileria includes four species reported in Tunisia: T. annulata, T. buffeli, T. ovis, and T. equi. The ovine malignant theileriosis agent, T. lestoquardi, appears to be absent in Tunisia. Five species belonging to the genus Babesia were reported in the country, namely B. hovis, B. bigemina, B. divergens, B. caballi, and B. ovis. Furthermore, two more species, B. major and B. motasi, are potentially present in zones where their vectors of the genus Haemaphysalis occur.

  19. New records of millipedes and centipedes from Bulgaria, with an annotated checklist of the Bulgarian myriapods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachvarova, Darina; Vagalinski, Boyan; Doichinov, Aleksandar; Stoev, Pavel

    2017-05-10

    The present paper records new and poorly known myriapods (Diplopoda, Chilopoda) collected in Bulgaria in the last 10 years. Four new species are reported as new to the Bulgarian fauna: Lithobius melanops Newport, 1845 (Chilopoda: Lithobiomorpha: Lithodiidae), Polydesmus collaris C.L. Koch, 1847, Polydesmus inconstans Latzel, 1884 and Polydesmus schaessburgensis Verhoeff, 1898 (Diplopoda: Polydesmida: Polydesmidae). Scanning electron micrographs of the gonopods and male leg-pairs 5 and 6 are provided for the first time for Bulgarosoma superficiei Strasser, 1975, a species hitherto known only from its original description. This article presents also an updated list of Myriapoda in Bulgaria. The list includes a total of 251 (sub-)species of the classes Diplopoda (127), Chilopoda (104), Pauropoda (18) and Symphyla (2).

  20. Alexander Tomov (1930-2009: A Founder of the Astronomical Photoelectric Photometry in Bulgaria [In Bulgarian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Tomov

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the work of Dr. Alexander Tomov on establishment and equipment of the Astronomical Observatory of Belogradchik. Tomov’s research activity in that observatory is commented as well. The official opening of the observatory took place on July 21st, 1965. During the period 1966-1969 a monitoring program for determining the orbits of artificial satellites was successfully realized. Constructing a new building expanded later observatory. In mid-1969 the observatory was supplied by 60 cm reflector optical system ‘Cassegrain’, produced by Carl Zeiss in Germany; it was the biggest telescope in Bulgaria at that time. In the period 1970-1973 a modern single-channel photoelectric UBV photometer was constructed and put in operation. In 1976 the Belogradchik observatory joined with the Institute of Astronomy of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. In the second half of seventies and early eighties hundreds of galaxies were studied.

  1. The effect of Bulgarian propolis against Trypanosoma cruzi and during its interaction with host cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia Pires Dantas

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Propolis has shown activity against pathogenic microorganisms that cause diseases in humans and animals. The ethanol (Et-Blg and acetone (Ket-Blg extracts from a Bulgarian propolis, with known chemical compositions, presented similar activity against tissue culture-derived amastigotes. The treatment of Trypanosoma cruzi-infected skeletal muscle cells with Et-Blg led to a decrease of infection and of the intracellular proliferation of amastigotes, while damage to the host cell was observed only at concentration 12.5 times higher than those affecting the parasite. Ultrastructural analysis of the effect of both extracts in epimastigotes revealed that the main targets were the mitochondrion and reservosomes. Et-Blg also affected the mitochondrion-kinetoplast complex in trypomastigotes, offering a potential target for chemotherapeutic agents.

  2. Bulgarian Emergency Response System (BERS) in case of nuclear accident with exposure doses’estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syrakov, M.; Prodanova, M.; Slavov, K.; Veleva, B.

    2015-07-01

    A PC-oriented Emergency Response System in case of nuclear accident (BERS) is developed and works operationally in the National Institute of Meteorology and Hydrology (NIMH). The creation and development of BERS was highly stimulated by the ETEX (European Tracer Experiment) project. BERS comprises two main parts - the operational and the accidental ones. The operational part, run automatically every 12 hours, prepares the input meteorological file used by both trajectory and dispersion models, runs the trajectory models, visualizes the results and uploads the maps of trajectories to a dedicated web-site. The accidental part is activated manually when a real radioactive releases occur or during emergency exercises. Its core is the Bulgarian dispersion models EMAP. Outputs are concentration, accumulated deposition and selected doses fields. In the paper, the BERS overall structure is described and examples of its products are presented. (Author)

  3. Bulgarian Emergency Response System (BERS) in case of nuclear accident with exposure doses estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syrakov, D.; Prodanova, M.; Slavov, K.; Veleva, B.

    2015-07-01

    A PC-oriented Emergency Response System in case of nuclear accident (BERS) is developed and works operationally in the National Institute of Meteorology and Hydrology (NIMH). The creation and development of BERS was highly stimulated by the ETEX (European Tracer Experiment) project. BERS comprises two main parts - the operational and the accidental ones. The operational part, run automatically every 12 hours, prepares the input meteorological file used by both trajectory and dispersion models, runs the trajectory models, visualizes the results and uploads the maps of trajectories to a dedicated web-site. The accidental part is activated manually when a real radioactive releases occur or during emergency exercises. Its core is the Bulgarian dispersion models EMAP. Outputs are concentration, accumulated deposition and selected doses fields. In the paper, the BERS overall structure is described and examples of its products are presented. Key words: nuclear accident, emergency response, early warning system, air dispersion models, radioactive exposure dose. (Author)

  4. ROMANIAN PEASANTRY AND BULGARIAN AGRARIANISM IN THE INTERWAR PERIOD: BENCHMARKS FOR A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornel POPESCU

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This article is a comparative study that attempts to highlight the similarities and differences between Bulgarian agrarianism and Romanian peasants during the Interwar period, the Second World War and period of transition towards the Leninist-Stalinist totalitarian regimes. The objectives of our approach are integrated within the boundaries of the main research directions and concrete levels, namely: the general context from the two countries, early agrarian/peasants’ movements, the political program, election results, the promotion of certain legislative measures, and the relationship with other political and institutional entities. Without trying to offer an exhaustive view or reveal new aspects in the strict sense of the term, our contribution confronts, in a coherent whole, a series of data and information on the basis of which one could make value judgments. These judgments might help to shape a global, comparative image. Among the main sources of the article we included the monographic works signed by Ioan Scurtu, Pamfil Șeicaru, Apostol Stan, Dimitrina Petrova, John D. Bell, R.J. Crampton, supplemented by data from several other publications (encyclopedias, syntheses etc.. One can identify several distinct stages within the period under review (1918-1947. The broad picture is that the Bulgarian agrarian group was more popular and better organized than its Romanian counterpart, but more inclined towards Leftism and authoritarianism, which led to its political isolation in 1923 and subsequent fragmentation, whilst the Romanian peasants’ movement managed, after 1924, to remain at the forefront of the political scene, showing an interest for dialogue and sometimes for compromise, first with The National Party, then with the authoritarian monarchy, but also with the Antonescu regime and, to a lesser extent, with the communist regime.

  5. THE FIRST BULGARIAN STANDARDIZED SERIES FOR EPICUTANEOUS PATCH TESTING FOR ALLERGIES TO DENTAL MATERIALS AND ALLOYS

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    Maria Dencheva

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The teeth and teeth rows restoration in the maxillofacial area is the last stage of the ongoing patient treatment and a basic purpose for the dental doctors. For this purpose a different set of modern and classic contemporary dental materials is used. The choice of each material during the treatment of every patient with proven allergy to different kind of allergens is very specific and strictly individual. In the everyday oral diagnostics a standardized set of allergens for diagnostics is used for proving the allergy to dental materials. The set has been developed on the base of all existing and permitted by the Bulgarian authorities dental materials, as well as professional series.The difference between the developed and standardized allergens for diagnostics used in our country and the existing ready-for-use series is that the first are made of the final product (material in the form introduced to the oral cavity and persisting there for a different period of time, sometimes for tenths of years. This enables the possibility for early or late contact allergic reactions with symptoms in the oral cavity and on the skin, maxillofacial area, head and neck, as well as the entire organism.The current article introduces the readers to the results obtained by the realization of the research project №28/2011 “Research on the type of sensibilisation to contemporary dental materials and development of set of allergens for its diagnosing through epicutaneous patch testing” funded by the Committee of Medical science of MU Sofia (CMC. Through the project became possible the creation and the initial research of the first Bulgarian series for epicutaneous testing whose aim is to prove the allergenic potential of the most frequently used by the dental doctors dental materials.

  6. Scientific Activity in Higher Education: Personal and Institutional Assessment [In Bulgarian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.V. Toshev

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Education and research belong together - this expresses the very university idea. Research should provide the new scientific results. These should be published. The system of scholarly journals is organized in two levels. The first level includes the primary research journals and scholarly journals with more expanded audience. The second level includes the secondary research journals. A few Bulgarian journals are presented there. Citation analysis is of an importance mainly because it is heavily used in science policy and research evaluation professionals. The most popular indicators in such considerations are the impact factor (IF, the immediacy index (II and the response time (t1. The meaning and application of these parameters are explained. The incorrect use of the impact factor in the Bulgarian evaluation practice is mentioned. The new indicators that would characterize quantitatively the scientific achievements of the researchers are proposed: efficiency e=nk, n and k - number of author's publications and thet citations, respectively, and personal impact factor PIF=q/m where q is the number of citations in a given year of m author's publications, published in two previous years. The problem of assessment of higher education institutions is considered in detail. The change of three indicators at least should be identified during the years. These are: S=Q/P (Q stands for the number of citations for a given year for the whole faculty N, which publishes in the year of question P publications, L/M and M/N, M,L - number of prospective/graduated students for a given school year.

  7. Use of Assisted Reproductive Technologies for Livestock Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikrama Chakravarthi. P and N. Sri Balaji

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Genetic improvement of farm animals is a prime concern over the years for researchers. Several reproductive technologies have been employed to achieve this. Assisted reproductive technologies like Artificial insemination, Superovulation, In vitro Fertilization, Embryo Transfer have been introduced to overcome reproductive problems, to increase the offspring from selected female’s and to reduce the generation intervals in farm animals. The progress achieved during the last few years in the assisted reproductive technologies field has been phenomenal. Artificial Insemination (AI is the most effective method being used for the genetic improvement of animals. Reproductive capacity and efficiency has been improved tremendously since the introduction of artificial insemination. The development of cloning using various cells from the animal body has created opening of a fascinating scientific arena. These technologies have been propounded as saviors of indigenous livestock breeds. These alternative reproductive techniques are available not only for manipulation of reproductive processes but also proven to be powerful tools in curbing the spread of vertically transmitted diseases. The successful reproductive technologies such as AI and Embryo transfer need be applied on a large scale, emerging biotechnogies such as MOET, IVF and Cloning provides powerful tool for rapidly changing the animal populations, genetically. This advanced reproduction technologies will definitely play an important role in the future perspective and visions for efficient reproductive performance in livestock. [Vet. World 2010; 3(5.000: 238-240

  8. Livestock-Associated MRSA: The Impact on Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuny, Christiane; Wieler, Lothar H.; Witte, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    During the past 25 years an increase in the prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (HA-MRSA) was recorded worldwide. Additionally, MRSA infections may occur outside and independent of hospitals, caused by community associated MRSA (CA-MRSA). In Germany, we found that at least 10% of these sporadic infections are due to livestock-associated MRSA (LA-MRSA), which is initially associated with livestock. The majority of these MRSA cases are attributed to clonal complex CC398. LA-MRSA CC398 colonizes the animals asymptomatically in about half of conventional pig farms. For about 77%–86% of humans with occupational exposure to pigs, nasal carriage has been reported; it can be lost when exposure is interrupted. Among family members living at the same farms, only 4%–5% are colonized. Spread beyond this group of people is less frequent. The prevalence of LA-MRSA in livestock seems to be influenced by farm size, farming systems, usage of disinfectants, and in-feed zinc. LA-MRSA CC398 is able to cause the same kind of infections in humans as S. aureus and MRSA in general. It can be introduced to hospitals and cause nosocomial infections such as postoperative surgical site infections, ventilator associated pneumonia, septicemia, and infections after joint replacement. For this reason, screening for MRSA colonization at hospital admittance is recommended for farmers and veterinarians with livestock contacts. Intrahospital dissemination, typical for HA-MRSA in the absence of sufficient hygiene, has only rarely been observed for LA-MRSA to date. The proportion of LA-MRSA among all MRSA from nosocomial infections is about 3% across Germany. In geographical areas with a comparatively high density of conventional farms, LA-MRSA accounts for up to 10% of MRSA from septicemia and 15% of MRSA from wound infections. As known from comparative genome analysis, LA-MRSA has evolved from human-adapted methicillin-susceptible S. aureus, and the jump to livestock was

  9. Livestock-Associated MRSA: The Impact on Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Cuny

    2015-11-01

    livestock was obviously associated with several genetic changes. Reversion of the genetic changes and readaptation to humans bears a potential health risk and requires tight surveillance. Although most LA-MRSA (>80% is resistant to several antibiotics, there are still sufficient treatment options.

  10. Genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Kaare; McGue, Matt

    2016-01-01

    The sequenced genomes of individuals aged ≥80 years, who were highly educated, self-referred volunteers and with no self-reported chronic diseases were compared to young controls. In these data, healthy ageing is a distinct phenotype from exceptional longevity and genetic factors that protect...

  11. Genome editing in livestock: Are we ready for a revolution in animal breeding industry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Jinxue; Xu, Jie; Chen-Tsai, Ruby Yanru; Li, Kui

    2017-12-01

    Genome editing is a powerful technology that can efficiently alter the genome of organisms to achieve targeted modification of endogenous genes and targeted integration of exogenous genes. Current genome-editing tools mainly include ZFN, TALEN and CRISPR/Cas9, which have been successfully applied to all species tested including zebrafish, humans, mice, rats, monkeys, pigs, cattle, sheep, goats and others. The application of genome editing has quickly swept through the entire biomedical field, including livestock breeding. Traditional livestock breeding is associated with rate limiting issues such as long breeding cycle and limitations of genetic resources. Genome editing tools offer solutions to these problems at affordable costs. Generation of gene-edited livestock with improved traits has proven feasible and valuable. For example, the CD163 gene-edited pig is resistant to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS, also referred to as "blue ear disease"), and a SP110 gene knock-in cow less susceptible to tuberculosis. Given the high efficiency and low cost of genome editing tools, particularly CRISPR/Cas9, it is foreseeable that a significant number of genome edited livestock animals will be produced in the near future; hence it is imperative to comprehensively evaluate the pros and cons they will bring to the livestock breeding industry. Only with these considerations in mind, we will be able to fully take the advantage of the genome editing era in livestock breeding.

  12. Relations between Household Livestock Ownership, Livestock Disease, and Young Child Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosites, Emily; Thumbi, Samuel M; Otiang, Elkanah; McElwain, Terry F; Njenga, M K; Rabinowitz, Peter M; Rowhani-Rahbar, Ali; Neuhouser, Marian L; May, Susanne; Palmer, Guy H; Walson, Judd L

    2016-05-01

    In resource-limited settings in which child malnutrition is prevalent, humans live in close proximity to household livestock. However, the relation between household livestock and child nutrition represents a considerable knowledge gap. We assessed whether household livestock ownership or livestock disease episodes were associated with growth in young children in western Kenya. We incorporated monthly anthropometric measurements for children livestock ownership was related to baseline child height for age or prospective growth rate. We also evaluated whether livestock disease episodes were associated with child growth rate over 11 mo of follow-up. We collected data on 925 children over the course of follow-up. Greater household livestock ownership at baseline was not related to baseline child height-for-age z score (adjusted β: 0.01 SD; 95% CI: -0.02, 0.04 SD) or child growth rate (adjusted β: 0.02 cm/y; 95% CI: -0.03, 0.07 cm/y). Livestock disease episodes were not significantly associated with child growth across the entire cohort (adjusted β: -0.007 cm/mo; 95% CI: -0.02, 0.006 cm/mo). However, children in households with livestock digestive disease between June and November gained less height than did children in households that did not report livestock disease (β: -0.063 cm/mo; 95% CI: -0.112, -0.016 cm/mo). Children livestock digestive disease gained less weight than did those who did not report disease (β: -0.033 kg/mo; 95% CI: -0.063, -0.003 kg/mo). In this cohort of young children in western Kenya, we did not find an association between ownership of livestock and child growth status. However, disease episodes in household livestock may be related to a lower child growth rate in some groups. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  13. Relations between Household Livestock Ownership, Livestock Disease, and Young Child Growth123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosites, Emily; Thumbi, Samuel M; Otiang, Elkanah; McElwain, Terry F; Njenga, MK; Rabinowitz, Peter M; Rowhani-Rahbar, Ali; Neuhouser, Marian L; May, Susanne; Palmer, Guy H; Walson, Judd L

    2016-01-01

    Background: In resource-limited settings in which child malnutrition is prevalent, humans live in close proximity to household livestock. However, the relation between household livestock and child nutrition represents a considerable knowledge gap. Objective: We assessed whether household livestock ownership or livestock disease episodes were associated with growth in young children in western Kenya. Methods: We incorporated monthly anthropometric measurements for children livestock ownership was related to baseline child height for age or prospective growth rate. We also evaluated whether livestock disease episodes were associated with child growth rate over 11 mo of follow-up. Results: We collected data on 925 children over the course of follow-up. Greater household livestock ownership at baseline was not related to baseline child height-for-age z score (adjusted β: 0.01 SD; 95% CI: −0.02, 0.04 SD) or child growth rate (adjusted β: 0.02 cm/y; 95% CI: −0.03, 0.07 cm/y). Livestock disease episodes were not significantly associated with child growth across the entire cohort (adjusted β: −0.007 cm/mo; 95% CI: −0.02, 0.006 cm/mo). However, children in households with livestock digestive disease between June and November gained less height than did children in households that did not report livestock disease (β: −0.063 cm/mo; 95% CI: −0.112, −0.016 cm/mo). Children livestock digestive disease gained less weight than did those who did not report disease (β: −0.033 kg/mo; 95% CI: −0.063, −0.003 kg/mo). Conclusion: In this cohort of young children in western Kenya, we did not find an association between ownership of livestock and child growth status. However, disease episodes in household livestock may be related to a lower child growth rate in some groups. PMID:27075911

  14. The role of leadership for shaping organizational culture and building employee engagement in the Bulgarian gaming industry

    OpenAIRE

    Stanislavov, Ivaylo; Ivanov, Stanislav

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this phenomenological study was to explore the impact of leadership styles on organizational culture and employee engagement, and gain understanding of how these conceptual variables influence organizational performance. Through in-depth interviews, the participants from three Bulgarian gaming enterprises revealed their perceptions of how their previous and current casino managers were able to form organizational culture and build employee engagement. The study revealed that th...

  15. Book Review: Lubańska Magdalena, Muslims and Christians in the Bulgarian Rhodopes. Studies on Religious (AntiSyncretism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Bielenin-Lenczowska

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Book Review: Lubańska Magdalena, Muslims and Christians in the Bulgarian Rhodopes. Studies on Religious (AntiSyncretism "Muslims and Christians in the Bulgarian Rhodopes. Studies on Religious (AntiSyncretism", a book by Magdalena Lubańska is a summary of her research carried out for many years among the Christian Orthodox and Muslim Pomaks in Rhodope mountains of Bulgaria. There Lubańska conducted in-depth interviews and carried out ethnographic observation about the knowledge regarding neighbours of different religion, their beliefs and religious practices.   Recenzja książki: Lubańska Magdalena, Muslims and Christians in the Bulgarian Rhodopes. Studies on Religious (AntiSyncretism Książka Magdaleny Lubańskiej jest podsumowaniem jej badań prowadzonych od wielu lat wśród prawosławnych oraz muzułmanów w Rodopach, w Bułgarii. Lubańska przeprowadziła pogłębione wywiady i obserwację etnograficzną, dotyczącą sąsiadowania mieszkańców różnych religii, ich wierzeń i praktyk religijnych.

  16. Environmental control for confinement livestock housing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, D.D.; Friday, W.H.; DeForest, S.S.

    1980-06-01

    Advantages and disadvantages of mechanical ventilation systems for livestock housing are discussed. Various principles involved in environmental control are reviewed. The design, operation, maintenance, and management of the equipment needed for environmental control are discussed. (JGB)

  17. Application of biotechnology to improve livestock products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati Gupta

    Full Text Available Biotechnological achievements of recent years have emerged as powerful tool to improve quality attributes of livestock products including milk and meat products. Biotechnological approaches can be employed for improving productivity, economy, physicochemical and nutritional attributes of a wide range of livestock products. The target areas of biotechnological research in the field of livestock products can be envisaged as production of high yielding food animal, improvement in quality of their products, enhanced production of natural food grade preservatives, efficient byproduct utilization and so forth. Many of the biotechnological techniques can be explored in the area of quality assurance programmes, which would be of great help to produce livestock products of assured quality and public health safety. [Vet World 2012; 5(10.000: 634-638

  18. Livestock and Climate Change: Two Views

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijpp, van der A.J.

    2008-01-01

    Livestock rearing contributes to climate change, but at the same time it brings many benefits to small-scale farmers. Do these benefits outweigh the disadvantages in terms of greenhouse gas emissions? And how can these emissions be reduced?

  19. Adapting livestock behaviour to achieve management goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Using livestock to efficiently achieve management goals requires melding animal behavior with mechanical and electronic equipment. Practices such as autonomously obtaining individual animal liveweight when combined with individual animal electronic identification can produce numerous cost saving ad...

  20. Mechanisms of natural ventilation in livestock buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rong, Li; Bjerg, Bjarne Schmidt; Batzanas, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Studies on the mechanisms of natural ventilation in livestock buildings are reviewed and influences on discharge and pressure coefficients are discussed. Compared to studies conducted on buildings for human occupation and industrial buildings which focus on thermal comfort, ventilation systems...

  1. Matching Livestock Production Systems and Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becchetti, T.; Stackhouse, J.; Snell, L.; Lile, D.; George, H.; Harper, J. M.; Larson, S.; Mashiri, F.; Doran, M.; Barry, S.

    2015-12-01

    Livestock production systems vary greatly over the world. Producers try to match the resources they have with the demands of production, this can vary by species, class of animal, number of animals, and production goals, etc. Using California's diversity in production systems as an example, we explored how livestock producers best utilize the forage and feed found in different ecosystems and available in different parts of the state. Livestock grazing, the predominant land use in California and in much of the world, makes efficient use of the natural vegetation produced without additional water (irrigation), minimal inputs such as fertilizer while often supporting a variety of conservation objectives including vegetation management, fire fuels management, and habitat and open space conservation. The numerous by-products produced by other sectors of California's agriculture as well as food industries, such as brewer's grain, cottonseeds, and almond hulls are utilized as a feed source for livestock. These by-products are not only an important feed source especially in drought years but are diverted from our waste stream when utilized by livestock. The concept of matching available resources to livestock needs throughout the world is often overlooked and production systems are often over simplified in projects conducting a life cycle analysis or developing carbon foot prints for livestock production systems. This paper provides details on the various production systems found in California, the ecosystem they have adapted to, and how the producers use science and ecological knowledge to match the biological requirements of the livestock and conservation objectives to feed and forage resources.

  2. Climate change mitigation through livestock system transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havlík, Petr; Valin, Hugo; Herrero, Mario; Obersteiner, Michael; Schmid, Erwin; Rufino, Mariana C; Mosnier, Aline; Thornton, Philip K; Böttcher, Hannes; Conant, Richard T; Frank, Stefan; Fritz, Steffen; Fuss, Sabine; Kraxner, Florian; Notenbaert, An

    2014-03-11

    Livestock are responsible for 12% of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. Sustainable intensification of livestock production systems might become a key climate mitigation technology. However, livestock production systems vary substantially, making the implementation of climate mitigation policies a formidable challenge. Here, we provide results from an economic model using a detailed and high-resolution representation of livestock production systems. We project that by 2030 autonomous transitions toward more efficient systems would decrease emissions by 736 million metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalent per year (MtCO2e⋅y(-1)), mainly through avoided emissions from the conversion of 162 Mha of natural land. A moderate mitigation policy targeting emissions from both the agricultural and land-use change sectors with a carbon price of US$10 per tCO2e could lead to an abatement of 3,223 MtCO2e⋅y(-1). Livestock system transitions would contribute 21% of the total abatement, intra- and interregional relocation of livestock production another 40%, and all other mechanisms would add 39%. A comparable abatement of 3,068 MtCO2e⋅y(-1) could be achieved also with a policy targeting only emissions from land-use change. Stringent climate policies might lead to reductions in food availability of up to 200 kcal per capita per day globally. We find that mitigation policies targeting emissions from land-use change are 5 to 10 times more efficient--measured in "total abatement calorie cost"--than policies targeting emissions from livestock only. Thus, fostering transitions toward more productive livestock production systems in combination with climate policies targeting the land-use change appears to be the most efficient lever to deliver desirable climate and food availability outcomes.

  3. A South African perspective on livestock production in relation to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The general perception that livestock is a major contributor to global warming resulted mainly from the FAO publication, Livestock's Long Shadow, in 2006, which ... An effective way to reduce the carbon and water footprint of livestock is to decrease livestock numbers and increase production per animal, thereby improving ...

  4. Policy opportunities to enhance the role of smallholder livestock ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Very few livestock projects were funded. The success rate of institutional interventions was low. We argue that smallholder livestock systems offer policy opportunities to realise post-apartheid reform goals in the smallholder livestock sector. The premises are; there are more livestock in communal smallholder sector than in ...

  5. Estimating influence of stocking regimes on livestock grazing distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew J. Rinella; Marty Vavra; Bridgett J. Naylor; Jennifer M. Boyd

    2011-01-01

    Livestock often concentrate grazing in particular regions of landscapes while partly or wholly avoiding other regions. Dispersing livestock from the heavily grazed regions is a central challenge in grazing land management. Position data gathered from GPS-collared livestock hold potential for increasing knowledge of factors driving livestock aggregation patterns, but...

  6. livestock husbandry and economic-sustainability of small farmers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    The study attempts livestock husbandry and sustainability of small farmers in West Gojjam region, Ethiopia where a ... and their engagement in different operations of livestock husbandry for economic sustainability. Systematic random sampling was ..... sell and purchase livestock from the livestock markets and within village ...

  7. Effect of two low-dose gestodene containing monophasic oral contraceptives on hemostasis in Bulgarian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchikova, Ekaterina; Pehlivanov, Blagovest

    2008-08-01

    To compare the effects of two monophasic oral contraceptives upon coagulation, fibrinolysis and the system of natural inhibitors (anticoagulant pathways) in Bulgarian women. This prospective, open clinical study lasted 12 months and included 70 women, divided into two equal groups of 35 each. The women from group A received a contraceptive containing 20 microg ethinylestradiol/75 microg gestodene. The women from group B received a contraceptive containing 30 microg ethinylestradio l/75 microg gestodene. At the beginning and again at the end of the study, the following values were determined: prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastic time (aPTT), thrombin time (TT), fibrinogen (F), Factor VII (FVII), Factor X (FX), plasminogen, alpha 2-antiplasmin, tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA), D-dimers, protein C (Pr C), total Protein S (TPr S), antithrombin III (AT III) and heparin Cofactor II (HC II). We did not find any statistically significant differences in the global tests of hemostasis (PT, aPTT, TT) in either group compared with the baseline values. At the end of the study there was an increase in the levels of fibrinogen, FX, PrC and H II, and also diminution of t-PA in both groups in comparison with the baseline values. At the end of the study the activity of FVII, alpha2-antiplasmin and AT III was elevated only in group B. Although certain alterations in hemostasis parameters were observed, all of them were within the reference range. We did not observe or suspect any cases of vascular, thrombotic or other incidence in the observed groups of 840 cycles of hormonal contraception over the 12-month period. There is an increase in both procoagulant and fibrinolytic activity when using low-dose gestodene containing monophasic oral contraceptives. This can be interpreted as a shift to a higher equilibrium. There is no need for screening for thrombofilia in healthy, non-obese, non-smoking Bulgarian females, aged between 18 to 35 years, without a

  8. ON THE ETYMOLOGY OF 20 WORDS. ADDITIONS AND CORRECTIONS TO «BULGARIAN ETYMOLOGICAL DICTIONARY»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Selimski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper concerns the origin, word formation patterns and primeval semantics of 20 Bulgarian  words in their alphabetical order. All these words have already been studied in «Bulgarian etymological dictionary». However, 6 of them were left as obscure (3. пекя / pekia ‘very good’; 4. пелдиса / peldissa  ‘pacify’;  12. рокмàк  / rokmak ‘rope (?’, 15. Соанàк / soanak ‘little time’; 18. сънда / synda ‘sit’; 20. сюмьòсан  / siumiosan  ‘maimed’,  and the other 7 have received explanations which  are not acceptable (2. митище / mitishte  ‘straw, chaff (?’; 6. плакна  / plakna ‘rinse’; 7. платник  / platnik ‘sickly’;  10. потирек / potirek  ‘belt’; 13. сетка / setka ‘net’; 14. сий / sii ‘this’; 17. сънàк / synak ‘moment’. The remaining 7 words are under consideration because they need certain additional explanations relating to their phonetic peculiarities (19. синор  /  sinor, сънър /  synyr ‘baulk, headland’, or concerning some word-formation and/or semantic particularities  (1. костàнски /  kostanski  ‘adjective from name of vil. Костанденец / Kostandenets’; 11. разтварям /  raztvariam ‘dissolve’;  16. суичмез  /  suich mez  ‘drunkard’. Some  of the discussed  words  can  be considered as calques from other languages: Russian  (5. изписвам /  izpisvam ‘discharge’, Croatian (9. покора/pokora ‘penance’ and Turkish (8. плява / pliava ‘galaxy’.

  9. Inventory of coastal protected areas and historical heritage sites (North Bulgarian coast)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazov, Atanas; Stancheva, Margarita; Stanchev, Hristo; Krastev, Anton; Peev, Preslav

    2015-04-01

    Coastal protected areas and historical heritage sites in Bulgaria are established by national policy instruments/laws and EU Directives to protect a wide range of natural and cultural resources along the coast. Within the framework of HERAS Project (Submarine Archaeological Heritage of the Western Black Sea Shelf), financed by European Union under the CBC Program Romania-Bulgaria, we made an inventory and identification of protected areas, nature reserves, monuments, parks and onshore historical sites along the North Bulgarian coast (NUTS III level). The adjacent coastline is 96 km long between cape Sivriburun to the border of Romania on the north and cape Ekrene on the south. Coastal zone here is mostly undeveloped and low urbanized compared to other coastal regions in Bulgaria. It comprises of large sand beaches, vast sand dunes, up to 70 m spectacular high limestone cliffs, coastal fresh-water lakes, wetlands etc. This coastal section includes also one of the most important wetlands and it is migration corridor for many protected birds in Bulgaria, that host one of the rarest ecosystem types with national and international conservational value. Added to ecosystem values, the region is also an archeologically important area, where numerous underwater and coastal archaeological sites from different periods have been discovered - Prehistory, Antiquity (ancient Greek, Hellenistic, Roman), Mediaeval (Early Byzantium, Bulgarian). Research was made within 2100 m zone from the coastline (in accordance with zones defined by the Black Sea Coastal Development Act) for territories with protected status in the framework of many national laws and EU Directives. The total area of this strip zone is 182, 6 km2 and around 67% is under protection. There are 11 unique NATURA 2000 protected areas (6 Special Protection Areas (SPAs) and 5 Sites of Communities Importance (SCI), 2 nature reserves and 1 Nature Park. Some of them are also onshore historical sites. In Bulgaria such sites

  10. Livestock and health: understanding the links between agriculture and health

    OpenAIRE

    Catelo, Maria Angeles

    2006-01-01

    "The linkages between livestock and health are significant, particularly for the poor, whether as livestock raisers or as consumers of meat and milk, or even as users of the environment. The processes of livestock production and consumption bring both benefits and problems for human health... Livestock production and consumption can lead to four main types of human health risks: (1) diseases transmitted from livestock to humans; (2) environmental pollution; (3) foodborne diseases and risks; a...

  11. Climate change and livestock: Impacts, adaptation, and mitigation

    OpenAIRE

    M. Melissa Rojas-Downing; A. Pouyan Nejadhashemi; Timothy Harrigan; Sean A. Woznicki

    2017-01-01

    Global demand for livestock products is expected to double by 2050, mainly due to improvement in the worldwide standard of living. Meanwhile, climate change is a threat to livestock production because of the impact on quality of feed crop and forage, water availability, animal and milk production, livestock diseases, animal reproduction, and biodiversity. This study reviews the global impacts of climate change on livestock production, the contribution of livestock production to climate change...

  12. Revised spatially distributed global livestock emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asrar, G.; Wolf, J.; West, T. O.

    2015-12-01

    Livestock play an important role in agricultural carbon cycling through consumption of biomass and emissions of methane. Quantification and spatial distribution of methane and carbon dioxide produced by livestock is needed to develop bottom-up estimates for carbon monitoring. These estimates serve as stand-alone international emissions estimates, as input to global emissions modeling, and as comparisons or constraints to flux estimates from atmospheric inversion models. Recent results for the US suggest that the 2006 IPCC default coefficients may underestimate livestock methane emissions. In this project, revised coefficients were calculated for cattle and swine in all global regions, based on reported changes in body mass, quality and quantity of feed, milk production, and management of living animals and manure for these regions. New estimates of livestock methane and carbon dioxide emissions were calculated using the revised coefficients and global livestock population data. Spatial distribution of population data and associated fluxes was conducted using the MODIS Land Cover Type 5, version 5.1 (i.e. MCD12Q1 data product), and a previously published downscaling algorithm for reconciling inventory and satellite-based land cover data at 0.05 degree resolution. Preliminary results for 2013 indicate greater emissions than those calculated using the IPCC 2006 coefficients. Global total enteric fermentation methane increased by 6%, while manure management methane increased by 38%, with variation among species and regions resulting in improved spatial distributions of livestock emissions. These new estimates of total livestock methane are comparable to other recently reported studies for the entire US and the State of California. These new regional/global estimates will improve the ability to reconcile top-down and bottom-up estimates of methane production as well as provide updated global estimates for use in development and evaluation of Earth system models.

  13. An Overview of Mitigation and Adaptation Needs and Strategies for the Livestock Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuquan W. Zhang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The livestock sector is vulnerable to climate change and related policy in two ways. First, livestock production and performance are directly impacted by climate with many projected effects being negative. Second, the sector may need to alter operations to limit the effects of climate change through adaptation and mitigation. Potential adaptation strategies involve land use decisions, animal feeding changes, genetic manipulation and alterations in species and/or breeds. In terms of mitigation, livestock is a substantial contributor to global non-CO2 greenhouse gas emissions. Mitigation opportunities involve altered land use for grazing and feed production, feeding practices, manure treatment and herd size reduction. In addition, strengthening institutions that promote markets and trade, as well as local support programs can help both mitigation and adaptation. Previous literature has summarized the options available to individual producers. This overview extends the literature by including sector-level response as well as the relationships between adaptation and mitigation activities.

  14. Improving livestock for agriculture - technological progress from random transgenesis to precision genome editing heralds a new era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laible, Götz; Wei, Jingwei; Wagner, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Humans have a long history in shaping the genetic makeup of livestock to optimize production and meet growing human demands for food and other animal products. Until recently, this has only been possible through traditional breeding and selection, which is a painstakingly slow process of accumulating incremental gains over a long period. The development of transgenic livestock technology offers a more direct approach with the possibility for making genetic improvements with greater impact and within a single generation. However, initially the technology was hampered by technical difficulties and limitations, which have now largely been overcome by progressive improvements over the past 30 years. Particularly, the advent of genome editing in combination with homologous recombination has added a new level of efficiency and precision that holds much promise for the genetic improvement of livestock using the increasing knowledge of the phenotypic impact of genetic sequence variants. So far not a single line of transgenic livestock has gained approval for commercialization. The step change to genome-edited livestock with precise sequence changes may accelerate the path to market, provided applications of this new technology for agriculture can deliver, in addition to economic incentives for producers, also compelling benefits for animals, consumers, and the environment. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Sustainability of livestock production systems : a comparing conventional and organic livestock husbandry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagenberg, van C.P.A.; Haas, de Y.; Hogeveen, H.; Krimpen, van M.M.; Meuwissen, M.P.M.; Middelaar, van C.E.; Rodenburg, T.B.

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable livestock production systems are needed to feed the larger, more urban, richer and older world population in 2050. Quantitative information about the sustainability performance of existing livestock production systems can aid the debate of which actions could be developed and

  16. On the role of the nomads in development of material culture of the Volga Bulgaria and the bulgarian ulus of the Golden Horde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin A. Rudenko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Archaeological findings of the last decades (from 1970s till recently are used to examine ethnic and cultural interaction between the settled and the nomadic population, on the one hand, and different groups of nomads between themselves, on the other hand, in Volga Bulgaria and the Bulgarian Ulus of the Golden Horde. The study showed that the Turk- and Ugrian-speaking nomads were an important ethnic component of these state formations. At the same time, presence of nomads in the region and their influence on the culture of the settled Bulgarian population was different at different stages in history of the Volga Bulgaria. In pre-Mongol time, the nomads would use peripheries of the Bulgarian state, while the settled Bulgarians and their nomadic neighbors would build their relations as “us – them”. During the Golden Horde time, the nomads started exploring central areas (the Turkic groups and eastern territories (the Ugrian groups, and thus the nomadic element, either autonomous or integrated, became a permanent element in the Bulgarian Ulus in the 13th – 14th centuries.

  17. Metagenomic profiling of the microbial freshwater communities in two Bulgarian reservoirs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliev, Ivan; Yahubyan, Galina; Marhova, Mariana; Apostolova, Elena; Gozmanova, Mariyana; Gecheva, Gana; Kostadinova, Sonya; Ivanova, Angelina; Baev, Vesselin

    2017-08-01

    Microorganisms inhabiting freshwater environments are an integral part of the aquatic ecosystems. Very few data are available regarding the profiles of the microbial communities in the reservoirs in Bulgaria, despite their key role in the biogeochemical processes. In the present study, we provide the first comprehensive metagenomic analysis on the planktonic bacterial diversity of two large and economically important Bulgarian reservoirs (Batak and Tsankov Kamak) using next-generation sequencing of 16S ribosomal RNA gene (16S rRNA). Analysis of the metagenomic amplicon datasets, including quality filtering, clustering of Operational Taxonomic Units and taxonomy assignment revealed that 78.45% of the microbial communities between the two reservoirs were overlapping. The diversity (H) and Pielou's evenness (J) indices declined along the longitudinal axis of both reservoirs. The estimated values for the Shannon diversity index are typically observed in oligotrophic lakes. The microbial communities of both reservoirs were dominated by Proteobacteria, followed by Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes all comprised over 95% of the relative abundance, regardless of the reservoir's large hydrogeological differences. The bacterioplankton was characterized by high phylogenetic heterogeneity in the taxonomic structure, being distributed among 211 genera. The genera Limnohabitans and Rhodoferax held the absolute predominance, implying their significance in the aquatic food webs. The obtained data can contribute to the better systematic understanding of the microbial diversity of freshwater environments. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Status of wild birds in Bulgarian zoos with regard to orthomyxovirus and paramyxovirus type 1 infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrov, Kiril M; Manvell, Ruth J; Goujgoulova, Gabriela V

    2010-03-01

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and avian influenza virus (AIV) are pathogens of major economic and social importance, and the diseases they cause are often devastating, particularly in domestic poultry. Both viruses are naturally found in a wide variety of wild birds, particularly aquatic species, where asymptomatic infection typically occurs. Wild birds are therefore considered to be a natural reservoir for both viruses. Wild birds kept in captivity are in an environment that promotes transmission of infection with both influenza and Newcastle disease viruses. This report describes a survey for the detection of antibodies against Newcastle disease and avian influenza A viruses using the hemagglutination inhibition test in samples from 88 wild birds from 38 species in four Bulgarian zoos. Samples with positive results against NDV were also tested against avian paramyxovirus type 3 (APMV-3). Real-time reverse-transcriptase PCR was also performed to detect viral RNA of NDV and AIV among 127 wild birds from 57 species from the same zoos. In 13 samples from seven avian species (ten birds from the family Phasianidae, two from the family Numidae, and one from the family Columbidae), antibodies against APMV-1 were detected. Seven birds, whose sera were APMV-1 positive, had been vaccinated. The other six birds (five Phasianidae representatives and one of the Columbidae family) had no immunization history. No antibodies against both H5 and H7 AIV and against APMV-3 were detected, and no RNA of NDV and AIV were detected.

  19. Room temperature zeolitization of boiler slag from a Bulgarian thermal power plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascova Radost D.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple and cost-effective method was applied for the synthesis of zeolite composites utilising wet bottom boiler slag from the Bulgarian coal-fired thermal power plant “Sviloza”, near the town of Svishtov. The method consisted of a prolonged alkali treatment at room temperature of this waste. Experimental techniques, such as scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray and X-ray diffraction analyses, are employed to characterize the initial slag and the final products with respect to their morphology, and elemental and mineral compositions. The composites synthesized in this way contained two Na-type zeolite phases: zeolite X (type FAU and zeolite Linde F (type EDI. The zeolited products and the starting slag were tested as adsorbents for a textile dye (Malachite Green from aqueous solutions. In comparison with the initial slag, the zeolite composite possessed substantially better adsorption properties: it almost completely adsorbs the dye in much shorter times. The results of this investigations revealed a new, easy and low cost route for recycling boiler slag into a material with good adsorption characteristics, which could find different applications, e.g., for purifying polluted waters, including those from the textile industry.

  20. SEGMENTATION OF MICROSCOPIC IMAGES OF BACTERIA IN BULGARIAN YOGHURT BY TEMPLATE MATCHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatin Zlatev

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The diagnosis of deviations in quality of yogurt is performed by approved methods set out in the Bulgarian national standard (BNS and its adjacent regulations. The basic method of evaluation of the microbiological quality of the product is the microscopic. The method is subjective and requires significant processing time of the samples. The precision of diagnosis is not high and depends on the qualifications of the expert. The systems for pattern recognition in the most natural way interpret this specific expert activity. The aim of this report is to assess the possibility of application of a method of processing and image analysis for determination of the microbiological quality of yogurt. Selected method is template matching. A comparative analysis is made of the methods for template matching. The comparative analysis of available algorithms showed that the known ones have certain disadvantages associated with their rapid-action, the use of simplified procedures, they are sensitive to rotation of the object in the template. It is developed algorithm that complement these known and overcome some of their disadvantages.

  1. IN LINE WITH BRUSSELS. ROMANIAN AND BULGARIAN POSITION ON THE UKRAINIAN CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta Mihaylova

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The Ukrainian crisis has been a test for the alignment of Romania and Bulgaria with the EU on the background of the Union’s new foreign policy instruments as redesigned by the Lisbon Treaty. This paper aims to present the positions of Bulgaria and Romania towards the events of 2013-2015 in Ukraine. Our research target is to identify the driving forces that shaped these positions, to analyse and describe the main foreign policy goals and actions of Bucharest and Sofia regarding the Russian-Ukrainian conflict, and to compare the attitude of these two countries toward the Ukrainian crisis. The paper analyses first the Romanian and the Bulgarian perspectives on the dramatic events in Ukraine in the first half of 2014. The positions of the two countries are further placed in the wider international context of the Ukrainian crisis – the UN resolutions, the EU sanctions against Russia, NATO activities, and the security in the Black Sea region. In the third part Romania and Bulgaria are viewed as a “playground” for the competing narratives and propaganda in regards to the Russian-Ukrainian conflict. We also examine the economic impact of the crisis on the two Balkan countries, as well as the efforts of both Bucharest and Sofia to protect their respective minorities in Ukraine. In conclusion, we summarize the results of our research and explain how the Ukrainian crisis has reshaped the foreign policy debates in Romania and Bulgaria.

  2. Estimation of differences in trace element composition of Bulgarian summer fruits using ICP-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Toncheva

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The content of potentially essential and toxic elements: chromium, manganese, iron, copper, nickel, cadmium and arsenic in Bulgarian fruits such as aronia, morello, cherry, raspberry, nectarine peach, apple type „akane” and pear type „early gold” were investigated. By using the ICP-MS we found that -1 -1 -1 raspberry has the highest content of iron (4635.9 ± 53.2 μg kg , manganese (5690.9 ± 31.7 μg kg and chromium (150.2 ± 2.5 μg kg , while the richest in -1 copper is the nectarine (887.5 ± 31.19 μg kg . The content of toxic elements (nickel, cadmium and arsenic is in amount significantly below the permissible standards. Single ANOVA and subsequent Dunkan's test were used to define the fruit and to estimate the significance of chemical elements. The test for multidirectional comparisons indicated that for five of the investigated seven elements: iron, copper, nickel, cadmium, and arsenic the fruits are statistically distinguishable According to hierarchical cluster analysis the fruits are into one cluster.

  3. Lessons learned from past experience with intensive livestock management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, G M; Rault, J L; Glatz, P C

    2014-04-01

    The main impetus for 'modern' intensive animal production occurred after the Second World War, when Western governments developed policies to increase the availability of cheap, safe food for their populations. Livestock benefit under intensive husbandry by protection from environmental extremes and predators, and better nutritional and health management. Nevertheless, there are costs to the animal, such as impaired social behaviour, limited choice of living environment or pen mates, poor environmental stimulation and behavioural restrictions. The rapid progress in genetic selection of production traits has also, in some cases, adversely affected welfare by creating anatomical and metabolic problems. Above all, the intensively housed animal is heavily reliant on the stockperson and, therefore, inadequate care and husbandry practices by the stockperson may be the largest welfare risk. In a future in which the food supply may be limited as the world's population grows and land availability shrinks, intensive animal production is likely to expand. At the same time, ethical considerations surrounding intensive farming practices may also become more prominent. Novel technologies provide the opportunity to enhance both the productivity and welfare of intensively kept animals. Developing countries are also establishing more intensive commercial systems to meet their growing need for animal protein. Intensive livestock production in such countries has the potential for major expansion, particularly if such developments address the key constraints of poor welfare, inadequate nutrition, poor reproduction, poor housing, and high mortality often seen with traditional systems, and if farmer access to emerging market opportunities is improved. However, as shown by previous experience, inadequate regulation and staff who lack the appropriate training to care for the welfare of intensively housed livestock can be major challenges to overcome.

  4. Inbreeding levels in swine: Ramifications for Genetic Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Globally, genetic diversity of livestock populations is contracting. Knowing the true extent of the contraction is needed to develop effective conservation strategies. While contractions of genetic diversity have been documented at the breed level, little within breed documentation has occurred. ...

  5. Temperature and Humidity Control in Livestock Stables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael; Andersen, Palle; Nielsen, Kirsten M.

    2010-01-01

    The paper describes temperature and humidity control of a livestock stable. It is important to have a correct air flow pattern in the livestock stable in order to achieve proper temperature and humidity control as well as to avoid draught. In the investigated livestock stable the air flow...... is controlled using wall mounted ventilation flaps. In the paper an algorithm for air flow control is presented meeting the needs for temperature and humidity while taking the air flow pattern in consideration. To obtain simple and realisable controllers a model based control design method is applied....... In the design dynamic models for temperature and humidity are very important elements and effort is put into deriving and testing the models. It turns out that non-linearities are dominating in both models making feedback linearization the natural design method. The air controller as well as the temperature...

  6. Seasonality constraints to livestock grazing intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetzel, Tamara; Havlik, Petr; Herrero, Mario; Erb, Karl-Heinz

    2017-04-01

    Increasing food production is essential to meet the future food demand of a growing world population. In light of pressing sustainability challenges such as climate change and the importance of the global livestock system for food security as well as GHG emissions, finding ways to increasing food production sustainably and without increasing competition for food crops is essential. Yet, many unknowns relate to livestock grazing, in particular grazing intensity, an essential variable to assess the sustainability of livestock systems. Here, we explore ecological limits to grazing intensity (GI; i.e. the fraction of net primary production consumed by grazing animals) by analysing the role of seasonality in natural grasslands. We estimate seasonal limitations to GI by combining monthly net primary production data and a map of global livestock distribution with assumptions on the length of nonfavourable periods that can be bridged by livestock (e.g. by browsing dead standing biomass, storage systems or biomass conservation). This allows us to derive a seasonality-limited potential GI, which we compare with the GI prevailing in 2000. We find that GI in 2000 lies below its potential on 39% of the total global natural grasslands, which has a potential for increasing biomass extraction of up to 181 MtC/yr. In contrast, on 61% of the area GI exceeds the potential, made possible by management. Mobilizing this potential could increase milk production by 5%, meat production by 4% or contribute to free up to 2.8 Mio km² of grassland area at the global scale if the numerous socio-ecological constraints can be overcome. We discuss socio-ecological trade-offs, which may reduce the estimated potential considerably and require the establishment of sound monitoring systems and an improved understanding of livestock system's role in the Earth system. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Population genetic structure in the paddyfield warbler (Acrocephalus agricola Jerd.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel ZEHTINDJIEV, Mihaela ILIEVA, Bengt HANSSON, Olga OPARINA,Mihail OPARIN, Staffan BENSCH

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Population genetic structure was studied in paddyfield warblers Acrocephalus agricola breeding in NE Bulgaria, SE Russia and S Kazakhstan. We were particularly interested in the degree of genetic differentiation and gene flow of the Bulgarian population due to its geographical isolation, recent origin and unique migratory strategy. Analyses of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA showed that there was no divergence between Bulgarian and Russian populations (FST = 0.007, whereas those in Kazakhstan differed significantly from the European breeding populations (Russia: FST = 0.058; Bulgaria: FST = 0.114. The degree of differentiation between populations at nuclear markers (five microsatellite loci; FST ≈ 0 was weaker than for mtDNA. We suggest that this relatively weak differentiation over the range of this species reflects a recent postglacial expansion, and results from mismatch distribution analyses and Fu’s FS tests are in agreement. Preservation of small and geographically isolated populations which may contain individuals with unique adaptive traits, such as the studied Bulgarian population of paddyfield warbler, is valuable for the long-term conservation of expanding migratory bird species [Current Zoology 57 (1: 63–71, 2011].

  8. Danish experiences on EIA of livestock projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Per

    2006-01-01

    , especially when it comes to livestock projects. In an evaluation of the Danish EIA experience, we have looked more closely at how the EIA instruments function regarding livestock projects. This article addresses both the EIA process as well as the EIA screening. It is demonstrated that the EIA screening......Since its introduction into Danish planning in 1989, Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) has been widely discussed. At the centre of the debate has been the question of whether EIA actually offered anything new and there has been a great deal of scepticism about the efficacy of the instrument...... that these changes definitely address some of the shortcomings found in the evaluation....

  9. Study of the Microbiological Quality of Bulgarian Bottled Water in Terms of Its Contamination with Pseudomonas Aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgieva, Vesela; Dimitrova, Yulia

    2016-12-01

    Due to the widespread use of bottled water, it is important from a hygienic point of view to ensure that these products have good quality and meet the requirements set out in regulations. In the period 2000-2013, a large-scale study (2,500 samples) was carried out on the quality of Bulgarian bottled water as per the microbiological parameters laid down in the European and Bulgarian legislation. Standard microbiological methods were applied. There is strong evidence that the most frequently isolated contaminant in these products was Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This agent was found in 274 samples out of a total of 2,500 analysed bottled waters. Because of the absolute prohibition of the presence of this microorganism in the finished product, the manufacturers should not allow their products with compromised quality to reach the market. They are obliged to check the quality of each batch by conducting an internal monitoring of production. When any inconsistencies are established in microbiological parameters, the producers must detect the critical point and apply more effective decontamination measures of the bottling lines. Given the importance of this fact for the health of consumers, the study also included determination of the antimicrobial resistance of P. aeruginosa strains isolated from Bulgarian bottled water. Ten strains of P. aeruginosa, isolated from bottled water and other water habitats in the environment, were tested for the effect of 13 antimicrobial agents by applying the Kirby-Bauer's method. The investigation found that Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains isolated from bottled water are sensitive to Ceftazidime, Amikacin, Ciprofloxacin, and Cefepime and one of them is resistant to Meropenem and Piperacillin. Another important conclusion is that there is no specific behaviour of P. aeruginosa strains originating from different sources to the test antimicrobials. The authors consider that drinking tap water is perhaps a more appropriate way for newborns

  10. Bulgarian Scholars and Clerics in the European Politics at the end of the 14th Century and the beginning of the 15th Century

    OpenAIRE

    Tsvetana Cholova

    2014-01-01

    The events in the last decades of the 14th century and the first of the 15th century related with the conquests of the Ottoman Empire changed the map of Europe. The Bulgarian scholars and clerics: the last patriarchs of Tarnovo - Theodosius and Euthymius, Cyprian – “Metropolitan of Kiev and Moscow and whole Russia”, Gregory Tsamblak – “Wallach-Moldovan Metropolitan” and “Metropolitan of Kiev, Russia and Lithuania”, Gregory the Bulgarian “Metropolitan of Kiev and Lithuania”, Constantine of Kos...

  11. Translation, cross-cultural adaptation, and validation of the Bulgarian version of the Liverpool Adverse Event Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmanova, Rumyana; Stefanova, Irina; Velcheva, Irena; Stambolieva, Katerina

    2014-10-01

    Adverse effects (AEs) of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) affect the quality of life of patients with epilepsy and their outcomes. There are no questionnaires or studies on the reliability and validity of instruments measuring AEs of AEDs in patients with epilepsy in Bulgarian language. The aim of the present study was the translation, cross-cultural adaptation, and validation of the LAEP in the Bulgarian language in order to use it in the Bulgarian-speaking population in providing a reliable instrument for the clinical monitoring of patients with epilepsy. One hundred thirty-one patients (57 men and 74 women, mean age: 40.13±13.37 years) took part in the investigation. The internal consistency and test-retest reliability were tested by Cronbach's α and ICC estimations. The convergent construct validity was tested by estimating the correlation of the LAEP-BG with the QOLIE-89 and the discriminant validity by evaluating the difference between LAEP-BG scores and clinical parameters such as the type of epilepsy using Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA. The LAEP-BG showed high internal consistency and reliability. The Cronbach's α of the total scale was 0.86. No significant differences between the Cronbach's α coefficients of the total LAEP-BG and original English, Chinese, Spanish, Korean, and Portuguese-Brazilian versions of the questionnaire were observed. The ICCs, which evaluate the test-retest reliability, were higher than the recommended value of 0.75 and determined the strong positive correlations between the first and second examinations. The creation of two subscales "Neurological and psychiatric side effects" and "Non neurological side effects" of the LAEP-BG proposed by us showed good internal consistency (Cronbach's α of 0.85 and 0.71, respectively). The LAEP-BG scores significantly correlated with other questionnaires such as the Quality of Life in Epilepsy Inventory-89 (QOLIE-89) and showed a good discriminative validity between groups with different levels of self

  12. Relics, miracles and furta sacra: A contribution to the study of Serbo-Bulgarian relations in the 1230s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjanović-Dušanić Smilja

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A contribution to the study of Serbo-Bulgarian relations in the 1230s The enquiry into the cult of relics and its manifestations such as miracle working, transfer of mortal remains and the act of translatio that involves the topos of furta sacra relies on two lives of St Sava of Serbia, one penned by Domentijan (Domentianus, the other by Teodosije (Theodosius. The hagiographic episodes most relevant to this enquiry are certainly those describing Sava's stay in Tirnovo, his death (1236 and the translation of his remains to his homeland (1237. The narrative about the future saint's stay and death in Tirnovo gives conscious hints of the hero's sanctity using various hagiographic devices. Especially interesting to us is the account of the miracle Sava worked in Tirnovo while officiating the Epiphany service at the church of the Forty Martyrs. According to our analysis, the reference to the Epiphany service and the association of the miracle with that particular feast are certainly not an accident. The ideology of the Second Bulgarian Empire attached great importance to the epic victory over the Romaioi at the Battle of Tryavna in 1190, which was commemorated annually on the Day of Epiphany. The Byzantine historians Niketas Choniates and George Akropolites report that the Bulgarians seized the imperial insignia during the battle. It is irrelevant whether Sava's two hagiographers were aware of the importance of the feast or simply reiterated the well-known information about the service celebrated on that day at the church of the Forty Martyrs; what is quite certain is that the great honour of officiating the service-a celebration pregnant with symbolism-was bestowed upon the most distinguished guest and that it was then that, we believe not at all by chance, his miracle-working power was manifested in public-in front of the Bulgarian tsar, all clergy and the notables. As a natural consequence of the power of working miracles manifested in one

  13. Khan Krum - ʺThe Fearsomeʺ: A Noble Bulgarian with Iris-Fibroma?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgi Tchernev

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A 40-year-old Caucasian, the otherwise healthy male patient, presented with 3-years history of a prominent tumor-like formation, located on his back, without subjective complaints. Initially, the lesion was 1-2 cm in size but gradually increased to a visible-pronounced tumor-like formation. No other dermatologic diseases, neither other known abnormalities were reported for the medical and family history.  Softly-elastic on palpation tumor-like formation was established in the left infrascapular area of the back, measuring 8/9 cm in diameter. The lesion was clinically suspected for lipoma or another soft-tissue tumour with benign nature, so the patient underwent planned surgical excision under local anaesthesia. A tumour was excited with deep elliptical excision and furthered for histological evaluation, while the wound edges were sutured with single cutaneous stitches. Additionally, a large black-colored tattoo of the Bulgarian historical noble Khan Krum was also observed within the clinical examination, covering almost the whole upper 1/3 part of the patient’s back Within the careful clinical observation of the tattoo, we noticed a fibroma-like lesion, affecting the noble’s right iris. Fibromas are common benign tumours in Caucasians, composed of fibrous or connective tissue. They can be seen in all organs from mesenchymal tissue, in varies size. Eyelids are often commonly affected in elderly. Although very commonly seen in every day dermatological practice, fibromas have been never reported, located in the iris. In the presented case, a small ʺiris-fibromaʺ, hidden within a black-colored tattoo was diagnosed in a patient with lipoma, as a sporadic clinical finding.

  14. CHANGES IN SOMATOTYPE CHARACTERISTICS IN THE MIDDLE-AGED BULGARIAN MEN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreenko, Emiliya; Mladenova, Silviya

    2015-12-01

    the objective of this cross-sectional research was to outline the different somatotypes and the trends in the changes of the three basic components (endomorphy, mesomorphy and ectomorphy) among the middle-aged Bulgarian men. the Heath-Carter method was used to identify the anthropometric somatotypes of 860 adult men, aged 30-50 years old, from the city of Plovdiv, located in Central Bulgaria. The men were divided into 4 age groups, in five-year intervals. In each case body height, weight and a series of skinfolds, circumferences and diameters were measured to calculate the somatotype. The SPSS package was used for the statistical analysis. the results show a prominent endo-mesomorphic model in the study sample of male population. We found age-related increase of the values of the musclebone component, retention of the level of the fatty component and a decline in the ectomorphy. Regardless the quantitative changes of the three components, the correlation between them remains constant and the mean somatotype is preserved. A greater variety of morphotypes is found in the group of men aged 30-35. The most homogeneous group is that of the 45-50 year old men. This group is entirely dominated by the mesomorphic component (strength), and the endomorphic component (obesity) is greater than the ectomorphic one (linearity). the study finds that in the years between 30 and 50 the men tend to build muscle rather than fat. The 50 year-old men are more mesomorphic than the men at the age of 30, but they are shorter and with less elongated body segments. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  15. Khan Krum - "The Fearsome": A Noble Bulgarian with Iris-Fibroma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchernev, Georgi; Mangarov, Hristo; Chokoeva, Anastasiya Atanasova

    2017-08-15

    A 40-year-old Caucasian, the otherwise healthy male patient, presented with 3-years history of a prominent tumor-like formation, located on his back, without subjective complaints. Initially, the lesion was 1-2 cm in size but gradually increased to a visible-pronounced tumor-like formation. No other dermatologic diseases, neither other known abnormalities were reported for the medical and family history. Softly-elastic on palpation tumor-like formation was established in the left infrascapular area of the back, measuring 8/9 cm in diameter. The lesion was clinically suspected for lipoma or another soft-tissue tumour with benign nature, so the patient underwent planned surgical excision under local anaesthesia. A tumour was excited with deep elliptical excision and furthered for histological evaluation, while the wound edges were sutured with single cutaneous stitches. Additionally, a large black-colored tattoo of the Bulgarian historical noble Khan Krum was also observed within the clinical examination, covering almost the whole upper 1/3 part of the patient's back Within the careful clinical observation of the tattoo, we noticed a fibroma-like lesion, affecting the noble's right iris. Fibromas are common benign tumours in Caucasians, composed of fibrous or connective tissue. They can be seen in all organs from mesenchymal tissue, in varies size. Eyelids are often commonly affected in elderly. Although very commonly seen in every day dermatological practice, fibromas have been never reported, located in the iris. In the presented case, a small "iris-fibroma", hidden within a black-colored tattoo was diagnosed in a patient with lipoma, as a sporadic clinical finding.

  16. Genetic diversity in farm animals - A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groeneveld, L. F.; Lenstra, J. A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/067852335; Eding, H.; Toro, M. A.; Scherf, B.; Pilling, D.; Negrini, R.; Finlay, E. K.; Jianlin, H.; Groeneveld, E.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/315030267; Weigend, S.

    2010-01-01

    Domestication of livestock species and a long history of migrations, selection and adaptation have created an enormous variety of breeds. Conservation of these genetic resources relies on demographic characterization, recording of production environments and effective data management. In addition,

  17. Evaluation of Crop-Livestock Integration Systems among Farm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    ... of crops and livestock. Keywords: Crop-livestock integration systems, adopted village, farm family. .... crop is planted at about the time when the first crop is being harvested. Crop residues ..... Agronomy Monograph, 54. Madison, WI.

  18. Livestock Vaccine Innovation Fund: Strengthening of Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project creates the authorization for capacity building support to develop and manage the Livestock Vaccine Innovation Fund (LVIF). The fund aims to support the development of quality vaccines that are more affordable, available, and acceptable to small-scale farmers. It will also help ensure their use at scale.

  19. Research award: Livestock Vaccine Innovation Fund | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2017-09-06

    Sep 6, 2017 ... The Livestock Vaccine Innovation Fund (LVIF) is an initiative developed by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Global Affairs Canada, and IDRC. It represents a joint investment of CA$57 million over five years to support the development, production, and commercialization of innovative vaccines against ...

  20. Innovations to improve livestock vaccines | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This call is open to applicants from research-focused organizations from the private sector, academia, and research institutes around the world. The proposed research focuses on vaccine improvement for one or more of the eligible livestock diseases as specified in Annex 1.

  1. Livestock Vaccine Innovation Fund | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Livestock Vaccine Innovation Fund was established in September 2015 as a partnership between the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Global Affairs Canada, and the International Development Research Centre. It represents a joint investment of $57 million over five years to support the development, production, and ...

  2. Baccharis Pteronioides Toxicity in Livestock and Hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since the early 1900’s, Baccharis pteronioides DC has been intermittently associated with livestock poisoning in the southwestern United States. In 2004, nearly 100 free ranging cows were reported poisoned by B. pteronioides in southern New Mexico. Initial field studies and post mortem examination...

  3. Call 1 - Innovations in Livestock Vaccines (ENG)

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Renee Larocque

    3.1 The Challenge and Opportunities. Vaccines are the most cost-effective means available for managing infectious diseases in animals. However, the vaccines that are available for prevention or control of diseases with the greatest impact on poor livestock smallholders are often not designed with the developing country.

  4. 7 CFR 205.237 - Livestock feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Livestock feed. 205.237 Section 205.237 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Organic...

  5. Global Cryptosporidium Loads from Livestock Manure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen-Henstra, Lucie; Benders, Jorien; Medema, Gertjan; Hofstra, Nynke

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the environmental pathways of Cryptosporidium is essential for effective management of human and animal cryptosporidiosis. In this paper we aim to quantify livestock Cryptosporidium spp. loads to land on a global scale using spatially explicit process-based modeling, and to explore the

  6. Livestock-environment interactions: Methane emissions from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Livestock account for 35-40% of global anthropogenic emissions of methane, via enteric fermentation and manure, which together account for about 80% of the agricultural emissions. Recent estimates indicate that the methane emissions from African cattle, goats, and sheep are likely to increase from their current level of ...

  7. Perceptions of livestock information credibility available through ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results in the study area depict that, majority of the livestock owners preferred mostly to access the information through Internet in local language and from bilingual web sites. The results prove that with the current pitfalls, the respondents that availed Internet services may not be in position to prove the good image and ...

  8. Loomakasvatus, 2007 = Livestock farming, 2007 / Tiiu Tamm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tamm, Tiiu

    2007-01-01

    2007. aastal tapeti ning müüdi tapaks 105 000 tonni loomi ja linde, toodeti 689 700 tonni piima ning 155,8 miljonit muna. Diagramm. Tabelid. Vt. samas: Loomade ja piima kokkuost, 2007 = Purchase of livestock and milk, 2007

  9. Livestock extension practice and competency among agricultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The challenge of meeting the ever-increasing demand for animal products in Nigeria has become keen over the years. A major factor is low technology input by the bulk of animal producers. Because Extension has a crucial role to play, the purpose of this study was to investigate livestock extension (LE) activities and ...

  10. Policies for reintegrating crop and livestock systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garrett, Rachael D.; Niles, Meredith; Dias Bernardes Gil, Juliana; Dy, Philip; Reis, Julio; Valentim, Judson

    2017-01-01

    The reintegration of crop and livestock systems within the same land area has the potential to improve soil quality and reduce water and air pollution, while maintaining high yields and reducing risk. In this study, we characterize the degree to which federal policies in three major global food

  11. THE ROLE OF PROSTAGLANDINS IN LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-05-05

    May 5, 2015 ... important regulators of female productive functions (ovulation, uterine receptivity, Implantation and parturition) and associated with ... reproductive processes, hence, this paper seeks to review the role of Prostaglandins which is exploited in livestock .... ovarian oxytocin form part of the physiological stimulus.

  12. Best available technology for European livestock farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loyon, L.; Burton, C.H.; Misselbrook, T.; Webb, J.; Philippe, F.X.; Aguilar, M.; Doreau, M.; Hassouna, M.; Veldkamp, T.; Dourmad, J.Y.; Bonmati, A.; Grimm, E.; Sommer, S.G.

    2016-01-01

    Concerns over the negative environmental impact from livestock farming across Europe continue to make their mark resulting in new legislation and large research programs. However, despite a huge amount of published material and many available techniques, doubts over the success of national and

  13. Assessing unconsciousness in livestock at slaughter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, Merel

    2016-01-01

    Assessing unconsciousness in livestock at different stages of the slaughter process is a legal requirement according to EU legislation. The assessment can be based on absence of readily observable indicators (behavioural indicators, physical signs and reflexes) or, under experimental conditions, by

  14. PERCEIVED CAUSES OF LIVESTOCK INVOLVEMENT IN ROAD ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AGROSEARCH UIL

    having an average monthly income of N12,250.00; 73.3% had one form of education or the other; 68.3% were ... Nigeria‟s agricultural Gross Domestic Product (GDP), providing income, employment, food, energy .... This distribution showed very clearly the participation of rural women only in small livestock production ...

  15. Managing conflict between large carnivores and livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Eeden, Lily M; Crowther, Mathew S; Dickman, Chris R; Macdonald, David W; Ripple, William J; Ritchie, Euan G; Newsome, Thomas M

    2018-02-01

    Large carnivores are persecuted globally because they threaten human industries and livelihoods. How this conflict is managed has consequences for the conservation of large carnivores and biodiversity more broadly. Mitigating human-predator conflict should be evidence-based and accommodate people's values while protecting carnivores. Despite much research into human and large-carnivore coexistence strategies, there have been few attempts to document the success of conflict-mitigation strategies on a global scale. We conducted a meta-analysis of global research on conflict mitigation related to large carnivores and humans. We focused on conflicts that arise from the threat large carnivores pose to livestock. We first used structured and unstructured searching to identify replicated studies that used before-after or control-impact design to measure change in livestock loss as a result of implementing a management intervention. We then extracted relevant data from these studies to calculate an overall effect size for each intervention type. Research effort and focus varied among continents and aligned with the histories and cultures that shaped livestock production and attitudes toward carnivores. Livestock guardian animals most effectively reduced livestock losses. Lethal control was the second most effective control, although its success varied the most, and guardian animals and lethal control did not differ significantly. Financial incentives have promoted tolerance of large carnivores in some settings and reduced retaliatory killings. We suggest coexistence strategies be location-specific, incorporate cultural values and environmental conditions, and be designed such that return on financial investment can be evaluated. Improved monitoring of mitigation measures is urgently required to promote effective evidence-based policy. © 2017 Society for Conservation Biology.

  16. Physiological and behavioural responses of livestock to road ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physiological and behavioural responses of livestock to road transportation stress are reviewed. Livestock transported by road in most part of the world are predisposed to many stressors which affect the haematological, hormonal function as well as the behavioural activities of the livestock thereby disrupting body ...

  17. Livestock greenhouse gas emissions and mitigation potential in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bellarby, J.; Tirado, R.; Leip, A.; Weiss, F.; Lesschen, J.P.; Smith, P.

    2013-01-01

    The livestock sector contributes considerably to global greenhouse gas emissions (GHG). Here, for the year 2007 we examined GHG emissions in the EU27 livestock sector and estimated GHG emissions from production and consumption of livestock products; including imports, exports and wastage. We also

  18. Livestock versus Wildlife Ranching in Kenyan Rangelands: A Case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Livestock versus Wildlife Ranching in Kenyan Rangelands: A Case Study of Laikipia District Ranches. ... The results reveal a web of interactive factors involving land tenur, livestock development, disease control, marketing and environmental conservation that need to be considered if the newly emerging mixed -livestock ...

  19. Comparative returns from livestock and crops among the agro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These pastoralists were considered generally wealthy with an average livestock holding of 232 heads of livestock and annual total profit margins of Kshs 436,300 from both livestock and crops, demonstrating their complementarity and livelihood diversification for risk aversion. Cost of inputs and value of income were ...

  20. Interaction Between Livestock And Crop Farming In Northern Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study looked at the role of livestock and its interaction with crop production in an integrated crop-livestock farming system in Katsina State. Field data were collected through household survey of 120 respondent located in six villages in Katsina State. The result shows that there was a high level of crop-livestock ...

  1. Optimizing resource use in integrated crop-livestock farming ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The development of measures for improved crop-livestock integration requires an assessment of the present state of crop-livestock interaction and the potential for its improvement. This paper presents a mixed-integer programming model to determine the mix of crop and livestock activities that maximize gross return.

  2. Livestock Husbandry and Economic-Sustainability of Small Farmers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study attempts livestock husbandry and sustainability of small farmers in West Gojjam region, Ethiopia where a large number of livestock are reared due to the favorable climatic conditions. The mainstay of the population (those with holding of less than 3 ha) practices mixed crop-livestock farming. It discovers issues of ...

  3. Health and Environmental Hazards Posed by Urban Livestock ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Livestock's contribution to climate change is now an established fact and closeness of livestock to human beings in urban areas portends many health and environmental implications. The study ascertained farmer's perception of health and environmental hazards posed by livestock keeping in Enugu Urban, Nigeria and its ...

  4. Understanding the gender dimensions of livestock ownership | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-06-06

    Jun 6, 2016 ... Download the Gender, Livestock and Asset Ownership brief (PDF, 726 KB, available in English only). This document summarizes findings presented in the book “Women, Livestock Ownership and Markets: Bridging the Gender Gap in Eastern and Southern Africa” produced by the International Livestock ...

  5. Issues, challenges and opportunities related to gender and livestock ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    28 févr. 2014 ... It recommends three strategies for livestock research to benefit women and the poor: Securing current and future assets. Sustaining and improving the productivity of agricultural systems in which livestock are important. Facilitating greater participation of the poor in livestock-related markets.

  6. Greenhouse gas mitigation potentials in the livestock sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herrero, Mario; Henderson, Benjamin; Havlík, Petr; Thornton, Philip K.; Conant, Richard T.; Smith, Pete; Wirsenius, Stefan; Hristov, Alexander N.; Gerber, P.J.; Gill, Margaret; Butterbach-bahl, Klaus; Valin, Hugo; Garnett, Tara; Stehfest, Elke

    2016-01-01

    The livestock sector supports about 1.3 billion producers and retailers, and contributes 40–50% of agricultural GDP. We estimated that between 1995 and 2005, the livestock sector was responsible for greenhouse gas emissions of 5.6–7.5 GtCO2e yr–1. Livestock accounts for up to half of the technical

  7. Sustainability of the South African Livestock Sector towards 2050 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Products 120 - 130 ... Since this is the average for the country with consumption by the rich and poor often differing tenfold, consumption of livestock foods by the poor is of concern, given the many health attributes of livestock foods. The livestock sector in South Africa is a major role player in the conservation of biodiversity ...

  8. Climate change and livestock: Impacts, adaptation, and mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Melissa Rojas-Downing

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Global demand for livestock products is expected to double by 2050, mainly due to improvement in the worldwide standard of living. Meanwhile, climate change is a threat to livestock production because of the impact on quality of feed crop and forage, water availability, animal and milk production, livestock diseases, animal reproduction, and biodiversity. This study reviews the global impacts of climate change on livestock production, the contribution of livestock production to climate change, and specific climate change adaptation and mitigation strategies in the livestock sector. Livestock production will be limited by climate variability as animal water consumption is expected to increase by a factor of three, demand for agricultural lands increase due to need for 70% growth in production, and food security concern since about one-third of the global cereal harvest is used for livestock feed. Meanwhile, the livestock sector contributes 14.5% of global greenhouse gas (GHG emissions, driving further climate change. Consequently, the livestock sector will be a key player in the mitigation of GHG emissions and improving global food security. Therefore, in the transition to sustainable livestock production, there is a need for: a assessments related to the use of adaptation and mitigation measures tailored to the location and livestock production system in use, and b policies that support and facilitate the implementation of climate change adaptation and mitigation measures.

  9. Genetic markers and their application in livestock breeding in South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ultimate use of DNA markers would be to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) in order to practice genotypic selection. This paper reviews DNA markers (RAPD, DFP, RFLP AFLP, minisatellites, microsatellites, SNP) and provides a brief overview of the current application of these markers in animal breeding.

  10. Genetic improvement of livestock for organic farming systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boelling, D.; Groen, A.F.; Soerensen, P.; Madsen, P.; Jensen, J.

    2003-01-01

    Organic farming which experienced a constant rise over the last two decades is a system based on sustainability and on a concept tending towards functional integrity. Legislation as well as the wish to produce separately from conventional farming raise the question whether organic farming should be

  11. Bulgarian Geomagnetic Reference Field (BulGRF for 2015.0 and secular variation prediction model up to 2020

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Metodiev

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The Bulgarian Geomagnetic Reference Field (BulGRF for 2015.0 epoch and its secular variation model prediction up to 2020.0 is produced and presented in this paper. The main field model is based on the well-known polynomial approximation in latitude and longitude of the geomagnetic field elements. The challenge in our modelling strategy was to update the absolute field geomagnetic data from 1980.0 up to 2015.0 using secular measurements unevenly distributed in time and space. As a result, our model gives a set of six coefficients for the horizontal H, vertical Z, total field F, and declination D elements of the geomagnetic field. The extrapolation of BulGRF to 2020 is based on an autoregressive forecasting of the Panagyurishte observatory annual means. Comparison of the field values predicted by the model with Panagyurishte (PAG observatory annual mean data and two vector field measurements performed in 2015 shows a close match with IGRF-12 values and some difference with the real (measured values, which is probably due to the influence of crustal sources. BulGRF proves to be a reliable alternative to the global geomagnetic field models which together with its simplicity makes it a useful tool for reducing magnetic surveys to a common epoch carried out over the Bulgarian territory up to 2020.

  12. The occurrence of hazardous volatile elements and nanoparticles in Bulgarian coal fly ashes and the effect on human health exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Luis F.O., E-mail: lfsoliveira@univates.br [Centro Universitario Univates, Pro Reitoria de Pesquisa Estensao e Pos Graduacao, Programa de Pos Graduacao Ambiente e Desenvolvimento (Brazil); Environmental Science and Nanotechnology Department, Catarinense Institute of Environmental Research and Human Development - IPADHC, Capivari de Baixo, Santa Catarina (Brazil); DaBoit, Katia [Department of Environmental Medicine, Catarinense Institute of Environmental Research and Human Development - IPADHC, Capivari de Baixo, Santa Catarina (Brazil); Sampaio, Carlos H. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Escola de Engenharia, Departamento de Metalurgia, Centro de Tecnologia, Av. Bento Goncalves, 9500, Bairro Agronomia, CEP: 91501-970, Porto Alegre - RS (Brazil); Jasper, Andre [Centro Universitario Univates, Pro Reitoria de Pesquisa Estensao e Pos Graduacao, Programa de Pos Graduacao Ambiente e Desenvolvimento (Brazil); Andrade, Maria L. [Department of Plant Biology and Soil Science, University of Vigo, 36310 Vigo (Spain); Kostova, Irena J. [Sofia University ' St. Kliment Ohridski' , Department of Geology, Paleontology and Fossil Fuels, 15, Tzar Osvoboditel Blvd., 1000 Sofia (Bulgaria); and others

    2012-02-01

    Low-rank, high-mineral matter Bulgarian coals were studied using a variety of chemical, optical, and electron beam methods. The larger fly ash carbon phases include charred carbons in contrast to coked carbons present in the fly ashes of bituminous-coal-derived fly ashes. Nanoscale carbons include multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) encapsulating Hg, Se, and As, among other elements. In addition to the glass which dominates the fly ash, relatively coarse 'rock fragments', consisting of an unmelted to partially melted core surrounded by a glassy rim, are present in the fly ash. Nano-scale minerals can contain hazardous elements and, along with metal-bearing multiwalled nanotubes, can be a path for the entry of hazardous particles into the lungs and other organs. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We model Bulgarian power plants which have regulated minerals nanoparticles can contain hazardous elements. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We study changes in the level of information about nanominerals importance and the effect on human health exposure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Increasing information will increase quality if power plants procedures are similar.

  13. Pathways for sustainable development of mixed crop livestock systems: Taking a livestock and pro-poor approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tarawali, S.A.; Herrero, M.; Descheemaeker, K.K.E.; Grings, E.; Blmmel, M.

    2011-01-01

    Mixed crop livestock systems provide the majority of the cereal and livestock domestic products for households in developing countries. We explore the question of whether such systems can respond to increasing demands for livestock products without compromising future livelihoods of the poor or the

  14. DETERMINING KEY COMPETENCIES AS A STARTING BASE OF THE COMPETENCE MODEL IN THE PROCESS OF SOCIAL ADAPTATION OF EXEMPTED MILITARIES FROM BULGARIAN ARMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venelin Terziev

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Scientific study in the paper is directed towards determining key competences of exempted militaries from Bulgarian army and substantiating of a mathematical competence model for making estimations of those competences, and creation of a theoretical and practical algorithm for the application of the model.

  15. From Mythology to History: The Transformation of the Symbols (Dragon, Giant, Authorized Person Or Logical Change of the Prevailing Anthropomorphic Forms [In Bulgarian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Simeonova

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In traditional Bulgarian culture the similarity between the dragon, the giant and the king, as a ruler set by God, is based on the notions of origin, relationship and similar functions. All these circumstances are analyzed in details in the present paper: in the core is the logical change in the prevailing anthropomorphic forms.

  16. Livestock production and manure management on animal farms in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, S.G.; Bui, H.H.; Dalsgaard, Anders

      The Vietnamese and Asian livestock production is increasing these years. In consequence large amounts of manure are produced, which may be a hazard to the environment because the traditional technology and the management practise of manure is not adapted to specialised livestock production...... for transferring pathogens between livestock and from livestock to humans (zoonoses). The objective of this article is to describe manure management at livestock farms in Vietnam. The focus is on presenting the most typical farming concepts, manure management on these farms, environmental and hygienic risks...

  17. Overview of the atmospheric ionizing radiation environment monitoring by Bulgarian build instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dachev, Tsvetan; Tomov, Borislav; Matviichuk, Yury; Dimitrov, Plamen; Spurny, Frantisek; Ploc, Ondrej; Uchihori, Yukio; Flueckiger, Erwin; Kudela, Karel; Benton, Eric

    2012-10-01

    Humans are exposed to ionizing radiation all the time, and it is known that it can induce a variety of harmful biological effects. Consequently, it is necessary to quantitatively assess the level of exposure to this radiation as the basis for estimating risks for their health. Spacecraft and aircraft crews are exposed to elevated levels of cosmic radiation of galactic and solar origin and to secondary radiation produced in the atmosphere, the vehicle structure and its contents. The aircraft crew monitoring is required by the following recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) (ICRP 1990), the European Union (EU) introduced a revised Basic Safety Standards Directive (EC 1997) which, inter alia, included the exposure to cosmic radiation. This approach has been also adopted in other official documents (NCRP 2002). In this overview we present the results of ground based, mountain peaks, aircraft, balloon and rocket radiation environment monitoring by means of a Si-diode energy deposition spectrometer Liulin type developed first in Bulgarian Academy of Sciences (BAS) for the purposes of the space radiation monitoring at MIR and International Space Station (ISS). These spectrometers-dosemeters are further developed, calibrated and used by scientific groups in different countries. Calibration procedures of them are performed at different accelerators including runs in the CERN high-energy reference field, simulating the radiation field at 10 km altitude in the atmosphere and with heavy ions in Chiba, Japan HIMAC accelerator were performed also. The long term aircraft data base were accumulated using specially developed battery operated instrument in 2001-2009 years onboard of A310-300 aircrafts of Czech Air Lines, during 24 about 2 months runs with more than 2000 flights and 13500 flight hours on routes over the Atlantic Ocean mainly. The obtained experimental data are compared with computational models like CARI and EPCARD. The

  18. Phenolic Profile and In vitro Antioxidant Activity of Endemic Bulgarian Carduus Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrova-Dyulgerova, Ivanka; Zhelev, Iliya; Mihaylova, Dasha

    2015-01-01

    Background: Plant species from genus Carduus are widely distributed in the world and represented in Bulgaria by 14 species. Previous investigations on this genus demonstrated a strong antioxidant potential of extract from some Bulgarian Carduus species. Objective: The present study investigates the phenolic profile and the antioxidant potential of different extracts obtained from four endemic Compositae herbs, growing wild in Bulgaria: Carduus armatus Boiss and Heldr., Carduus candicans Waldst. et Kit ssp. globifer (Velen.) Kazmi., Carduus rhodopaeus Velen. and Carduus thracicus (Velen.) Hayek. Materials and Methods: Antioxidant capacity of the obtained extracts was estimated with 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, 2,2’-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid), and ferric reducing antioxidant power and copper reduction antioxidant assays. Phenolic profile was estimated by high performance liquid chromatography. Results: Eleven phenolic acids and eight flavonoids were quantified in the inflorescences. Sinapic (2760.72 ± 15.68 μg/g dry weight [dw]), chlorogenic (2564.50 ± 19.73 μg/g dw) and ferulic acids (1648.71 ± 19.57 μg/g dw), as well as luteolin (2345.45 ± 18.61 μg/g dw) and apigenin (1332.75 ± 12.05 μg/g dw) were found to be the predominant compounds. The above contents are the highest values found in C. candicans ssp. globifer. The highest established antioxidant activity (AOA) was in favor of the ethanolic extracts, and the extract of C. rhodopaeus affirmed with the highest AOA among the investigated plant species. Conclusion: All identified phenolic compounds were reported for the 1st time in the studied endemic Carduus species, as well as their antioxidant capacities. The present study revealed that these plant species could be used as sources of antioxidants with potential medicinal properties. SUMMARY Phenolic acids and flavonoid profiles of four endemic compositae herbs, growing wild in Bulgaria: Carduus armatus, Carduus candicans ssp

  19. Managing Livestock Species under Climate Change in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, S Niggol; McCarl, Bruce

    2011-10-19

    This paper examines the vulnerabilities of major livestock species raised in Australia to climate change using the regional livestock profile of Australia of around 1,400 regions. The number of each species owned, the number of each species sold, and the aggregate livestock revenue across all species are examined. The four major species analyzed are sheep, beef cattle, dairy cattle, and pigs. The analysis also includes livestock products such as wool and milk. These livestock production statistics are regressed against climate, geophysical, market and household characteristics. In contrast to crop studies, the analysis finds that livestock species are resilient to a hotter and more arid climate. Under the CSIRO climate scenario in which temperature increases by 3.4 °C, livestock revenue per farm increases significantly while the number of each species owned increases by large percentages except for dairy cattle. The precipitation reduction by about 8% in 2060 also increases the numbers of livestock species per farm household. Under both UKMO and GISS scenarios, livestock revenue is expected to increase by around 47% while the livestock population increases by large percentage. Livestock management may play a key role in adapting to a hot and arid climate in Australia. However, critical values of the climatic variables for the species analyzed in this paper are not obvious from the regional data.

  20. Managing Livestock Species under Climate Change in Australia

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    Bruce McCarl

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the vulnerabilities of major livestock species raised in Australia to climate change using the regional livestock profile of Australia of around 1,400 regions. The number of each species owned, the number of each species sold, and the aggregate livestock revenue across all species are examined. The four major species analyzed are sheep, beef cattle, dairy cattle, and pigs. The analysis also includes livestock products such as wool and milk. These livestock production statistics are regressed against climate, geophysical, market and household characteristics. In contrast to crop studies, the analysis finds that livestock species are resilient to a hotter and more arid climate. Under the CSIRO climate scenario in which temperature increases by 3.4 °C, livestock revenue per farm increases significantly while the number of each species owned increases by large percentages except for dairy cattle. The precipitation reduction by about 8% in 2060 also increases the numbers of livestock species per farm household. Under both UKMO and GISS scenarios, livestock revenue is expected to increase by around 47% while the livestock population increases by large percentage. Livestock management may play a key role in adapting to a hot and arid climate in Australia. However, critical values of the climatic variables for the species analyzed in this paper are not obvious from the regional data.

  1. Livestock and microbiological risk (a review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zicari, Giuseppe; Soardo, Vincenzo; Rivetti, Daniela; Cerrato, Elena; Russo, Domenico

    2013-01-01

    The presence of pathogens in animal manure depends on several factors such as, for example, the species, age, type of power supply, state of health, methods and times of storage, treatments administered. Currently there are no specific requirements for the minimum sanitary standards of livestock manure to be used in agriculture, or even of the digestate resulting from anaerobic digestion, such as cattle slurry and plant matrices (e.g. maize). While there are some indications for products fermented aerobically (compost deriving also from manure) and the sludge resulting from wastewater treatment and intended for use as fertilizers. In this paper we sum up the information given in the scientific literature on the viability of some microorganisms and on the effects of the anaerobic digestion of livestock manure and plant matter, such as maize, on the microbial concentrations.

  2. Family Farming livestock data search in loco

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    Maisa Benito Pimentel

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The creation and trading of livestock are potentially growing in the Brazil over the years so that there is an increase in the interest of producers to apply new technologies to be able to stay in this increasingly competitive market. The technologies that are being applied include both new production techniques as management tools, control and monitoring of animals. Thus, this work presents an application development proposal to enable livestock data transmission and retrieval through a mobile platform, informing characteristics such as origin, weight recorded in the last weighing, race, vaccination, among others. The use of a technology applied to mobile devices can solve the problems of farmers from having to carry computers or notepads to where the animals are arranged, offering convenience and speed in decision making.

  3. Application of Prebiotics and Probiotics in Livestock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, James W.; La Ragione, Roberto M.; Woodward, Martin J.; Searle, Laura E. J.

    The advent of antibiotics and their use for treatment of clinical manifestations of infections has had a profound impact on animal health and welfare. In addition to direct application in the control of infection, low concentrations of antibiotics given in animal feed has been shown to correlate with higher health status and improved performance in terms of feed conversion (productive weight gain). Thus it is that antibiotics have been used as “growth promoters” in feed for livestock since the 1940s (Cromwell, 2001). Since the inception of this growth promotion concept there has been a debate on precisely how low level antibiotics mediate their action and whether or not this contributes to the acquisition of resistance in the bacterial flora of livestock.

  4. Grazing livestock are exposed to terrestrial cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGorum, Bruce C; Pirie, R Scott; Glendinning, Laura; McLachlan, Gerry; Metcalf, James S; Banack, Sandra A; Cox, Paul A; Codd, Geoffrey A

    2015-02-25

    While toxins from aquatic cyanobacteria are a well-recognised cause of disease in birds and animals, exposure of grazing livestock to terrestrial cyanobacteria has not been described. This study identified terrestrial cyanobacteria, predominantly Phormidium spp., in the biofilm of plants from most livestock fields investigated. Lower numbers of other cyanobacteria, microalgae and fungi were present on many plants. Cyanobacterial 16S rDNA, predominantly from Phormidium spp., was detected in all samples tested, including 6 plant washings, 1 soil sample and ileal contents from 2 grazing horses. Further work was performed to test the hypothesis that ingestion of cyanotoxins contributes to the pathogenesis of some currently unexplained diseases of grazing horses, including equine grass sickness (EGS), equine motor neuron disease (EMND) and hepatopathy. Phormidium population density was significantly higher on EGS fields than on control fields. The cyanobacterial neurotoxic amino acid 2,4-diaminobutyric acid (DAB) was detected in plant washings from EGS fields, but worst case scenario estimations suggested the dose would be insufficient to cause disease. Neither DAB nor the cyanobacterial neurotoxins β-N-methylamino-L-alanine and N-(2-aminoethyl) glycine were detected in neural tissue from 6 EGS horses, 2 EMND horses and 7 control horses. Phormidium was present in low numbers on plants where horses had unexplained hepatopathy. This study did not yield evidence linking known cyanotoxins with disease in grazing horses. However, further study is warranted to identify and quantify toxins produced by cyanobacteria on livestock fields, and determine whether, under appropriate conditions, known or unknown cyanotoxins contribute to currently unexplained diseases in grazing livestock.

  5. Horizons of Bulgarian Onomastics. Review of the book: Choleva-Dimitrova, A. (Ed. (2014. Izsledovatelski khorizonti na balgarskata lingvistika: Materiali ot Natsionalna nauchna konferentsiia, posvetena na 90-godishninata ot rozhdenieto na prof. dfn Iordan Zaimov [Horizons of Bulgarian Linguistics: Proceedings of the National Conference Dedicated to Prof. Yordan Zaimov’s 90th Anniversary]. Sofia: Institut za balgarski ezik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya Vlahova-Angelova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The author reviews the works on onomastics published in the proceedings of the conference Horizons of Bulgarian Linguistics dedicated to the 90th anniversary of the noted Bulgarian linguist Prof. Yordan Zaimov. The reviewed articles focus on the study of toponymy (including microtoponymy and urbanonymy and anthroponymy and present the main directions of contemporary Bulgarian onomastics: “traditional” toponymic research based on the collection, classification and etymologization of names of a specific linguistic area; creation of electronic data bases and corpora and description of their applicability to onomastic research; comparative onomastics; socio-onomastics, etc. A number of papers presented in the reviewed collection of articles is based on Prof. Zaimov’s works or continue his research.

  6. Reducing uncertainty in nitrogen budgets for African livestock systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rufino, M. C.; Brandt, P.; Herrero, M.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.

    2014-10-01

    Livestock is poorly represented in N budgets for the African continent although some studies have examined livestock-related N flows at different levels. Livestock plays an important role in N cycling and therefore on N budgets including livestock-related flows. This study reviews the literature on N budgets for Africa to identify factors contributing to uncertainties. Livestock densities are usually modelled because of the lack of observational spatial data. Even though feed availability and quality varies across seasons, most studies use constant livestock excretion rates, and excreta are usually assumed to be uniformly distributed onto the land. Major uncertainties originate in the fraction of manure managed, and emission factors which may not reflect the situation of Africa. N budgets use coarse assumptions on production, availability, and use of crop residues as livestock feed. No flows between croplands-livestock and rangelands reflect the lack of data. Joint efforts are needed for spatial data collection of livestock data, crowdsourcing appears to be a promising option. The focus of the assessment of N budgets must go beyond croplands to include livestock and crop-livestock flows. We propose a nested systems definition of livestock systems to link local, regional level, and continental level and to increase the usefulness of point measurements of N losses. Scientists working at all levels should generate data to calibrate process-based models. Measurements in the field should not only concentrate on greenhouse gas emissions, but need to include crop and livestock production measurements, soil stock changes and other N loss pathways such as leaching, run-off and volatilization to assess management practices and trade-offs. Compared to the research done in other continents on N flows in livestock systems, there are few data for Africa, and therefore concerted effort will be needed to generate sufficient data for modelling.

  7. Domestic livestock resources of Turkey: water buffalo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Orhan; Ertugrul, Mehmet; Wilson, Richard Trevor

    2012-04-01

    Water buffalo are an ancient component of Turkey's domestic livestock resources. Commonly referred to as the Anatolian buffalo the animal is part of the Mediterranean group which includes Syrian, Egyptian and Southeast European animals. Once quite numerous, there have been drastic reductions in their numbers since the 1970s due to intensification of dairy activities, agricultural mechanization and changing consumer preferences. The main areas of distribution are in northwest Turkey in the Marmara and Black Sea Regions. Buffalo are kept in small herds by livestock and mixed crop-livestock farmers. Milk is the main product, meat is largely a by-product of the dairy function and provision of the once-important draught power is now a minor output. Buffalo milk is used to prepare a variety of speciality products but output of both milk and meat is very low in comparison to cattle. Conditions of welfare and health status are not optimal. Internal parasites are a constraint on productivity. Some buffalo are being used for conservation grazing in the Black Sea area to maintain optimal conditions for bird life in a nature reserve. Long neglected by government there are recent activities to establish conservation herds, set up in vitro banks and undertake molecular characterization. More effort is needed by government to promote buffalo production and to engage the general public in conservation of their national heritage.

  8. Epigenetic marks: regulators of livestock phenotypes and conceivable sources of missing variation in livestock improvement programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibeagha-Awemu, Eveline M; Zhao, Xin

    2015-01-01

    Improvement in animal productivity has been achieved over the years through careful breeding and selection programs. Today, variations in the genome are gaining increasing importance in livestock improvement strategies. Genomic information alone, however, explains only a part of the phenotypic variance in traits. It is likely that a portion of the unaccounted variance is embedded in the epigenome. The epigenome encompasses epigenetic marks such as DNA methylation, histone tail modifications, chromatin remodeling, and other molecules that can transmit epigenetic information such as non-coding RNA species. Epigenetic factors respond to external or internal environmental cues such as nutrition, pathogens, and climate, and have the ability to change gene expression leading to emergence of specific phenotypes. Accumulating evidence shows that epigenetic marks influence gene expression and phenotypic outcome in livestock species. This review examines available evidence of the influence of epigenetic marks on livestock (cattle, sheep, goat, and pig) traits and discusses the potential for consideration of epigenetic markers in livestock improvement programs. However, epigenetic research activities on farm animal species are currently limited partly due to lack of recognition, funding and a global network of researchers. Therefore, considerable less attention has been given to epigenetic research in livestock species in comparison to extensive work in humans and model organisms. Elucidating therefore the epigenetic determinants of animal diseases and complex traits may represent one of the principal challenges to use epigenetic markers for further improvement of animal productivity.

  9. Livestock in biomedical research: history, current status and future prospective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polejaeva, Irina A; Rutigliano, Heloisa M; Wells, Kevin D

    2016-01-01

    Livestock models have contributed significantly to biomedical and surgical advances. Their contribution is particularly prominent in the areas of physiology and assisted reproductive technologies, including understanding developmental processes and disorders, from ancient to modern times. Over the past 25 years, biomedical research that traditionally embraced a diverse species approach shifted to a small number of model species (e.g. mice and rats). The initial reasons for focusing the main efforts on the mouse were the availability of murine embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and genome sequence data. This powerful combination allowed for precise manipulation of the mouse genome (knockouts, knockins, transcriptional switches etc.) leading to ground-breaking discoveries on gene functions and regulation, and their role in health and disease. Despite the enormous contribution to biomedical research, mouse models have some major limitations. Their substantial differences compared with humans in body and organ size, lifespan and inbreeding result in pronounced metabolic, physiological and behavioural differences. Comparative studies of strategically chosen domestic species can complement mouse research and yield more rigorous findings. Because genome sequence and gene manipulation tools are now available for farm animals (cattle, pigs, sheep and goats), a larger number of livestock genetically engineered (GE) models will be accessible for biomedical research. This paper discusses the use of cattle, goats, sheep and pigs in biomedical research, provides an overview of transgenic technology in farm animals and highlights some of the beneficial characteristics of large animal models of human disease compared with the mouse. In addition, status and origin of current regulation of GE biomedical models is also reviewed.

  10. LivestockPlus — The sustainable intensification of forage-based agricultural systems to improve livelihoods and ecosystem services in the tropics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Rao

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available As global demand for livestock products (such as meat, milk and eggs is expected to double by 2050, necessary increases to future production must be reconciled with negative environmental impacts that livestock cause. This paper describes the LivestockPlus concept and demonstrates how the sowing of improved forages can lead to the sustainable intensification of mixed crop-forage-livestock-tree systems in the tropics by producing multiple social, economic and environmental benefits. Sustainable intensification not only improves the productivity of tropical forage-based systems but also reduces the ecological footprint of livestock production and generates a diversity of ecosystem services (ES such as improved soil quality and reduced erosion, sedimentation and greenhouse gas (GHG emissions. Integrating improved grass and legume forages into mixed production systems (crop-livestock, tree-livestock, crop-tree-livestock can restore degraded lands and enhance system resilience to drought and waterlogging associated with climate change. When properly managed tropical forages accumulate large amounts of carbon in soil, fix atmospheric nitrogen (legumes, inhibit nitrification in soil and reduce nitrous oxide emissions (grasses, and reduce GHG emissions per unit livestock product. The LivestockPlus concept is defined as the sustainable intensification of forage-based systems, which is based on 3 interrelated intensification processes: genetic intensification - the development and use of superior grass and legume cultivars for increased livestock productivity; ecological intensification - the development and application of improved farm and natural resource management practices; and socio-economic intensification - the improvement of local and national institutions and policies, which enable refinements of technologies and support their enduring use. Increases in livestock productivity will require coordinated efforts to develop supportive government, non

  11. Exposure of livestock to GM feeds: Detectability and measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadal, Anna; De Giacomo, Marzia; Einspanier, Ralf; Kleter, Gijs; Kok, Esther; McFarland, Sarah; Onori, Roberta; Paris, Alain; Toldrà, Mònica; van Dijk, Jeroen; Wal, Jean-Michel; Pla, Maria

    2017-08-25

    This review explores the possibilities to determine livestock consumption of genetically modified (GM) feeds/ingredients including detection of genetically modified organism (GMO)-related DNA or proteins in animal samples, and the documentary system that is in place for GM feeds under EU legislation. The presence and level of GMO-related DNA and proteins can generally be readily measured in feeds, using established analytical methods such as polymerase chain reaction and immuno-assays, respectively. Various technical challenges remain, such as the simultaneous detection of multiple GMOs and the identification of unauthorized GMOs for which incomplete data on the inserted DNA may exist. Given that transfer of specific GMO-related DNA or protein from consumed feed to the animal had seldom been observed, this cannot serve as an indicator of the individual animal's prior exposure to GM feeds. To explore whether common practices, information exchange and the specific GM feed traceability system in the EU would allow to record GM feed consumption, the dairy chain in Catalonia, where GM maize is widely grown, was taken as an example. It was thus found that this system would neither enable determination of an animal's consumption of specific GM crops, nor would it allow for quantitation of the exposure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Molecular identification of livestock breeds: a tool for modern conservation biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaro, Mohammed; Munyard, Kylie A; Stear, Michael J; Groth, David M

    2017-05-01

    Global livestock genetic diversity includes all of the species, breeds and strains of domestic animals, and their variations. Although a recent census indicated that there were 40 species and over 8000 breeds of domestic animals; for the purpose of conservation biology the diversity between and within breeds rather than species is regarded to be of crucial importance. This domestic animal genetic diversity has developed through three main evolutionary events, from speciation (about 3 million years ago) through domestication (about 12000 years ago) to specialised breeding (starting about 200 years ago). These events and their impacts on global animal genetic resources have been well documented in the literature. The key importance of global domestic animal resources in terms of economic, scientific and cultural heritage has also been addressed. In spite of their importance, there is a growing number of reports on the alarming erosion of domestic animal genetic resources. This erosion of is happening in spite of several global conservation initiatives designed to mitigate it. Herein we discuss these conservation interventions and highlight their strengths and weaknesses. However, pivotal to the success of these conservation initiatives is the reliability of the genetic assignment of individual members to a target breed. Finally, we discuss the prospect of using improved breed identification methodologies to develop a reliable breed-specific molecular identification tool that is easily applicable to populations of livestock breeds in various ecosystems. These identification tools, when developed, will not only facilitate the regular monitoring of threatened or endangered breed populations, but also enhance the development of more efficient and sustainable livestock production systems. © 2016 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  13. ECONOMIC CONSIDERATION OF PRODUCING FERTILIZER FROM COAL-FIRED FLUE GAS: APPLICATION OF BULGARIAN EXPERIENCE TO CASE STUDY OF PORTUGAL

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    Ryunosuke KIKUCHI

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available A Bulgarian project at Maritsa East power station demonstrated the proper transformation of air pollutants (SOx and NOx into nitrogen fertilizer. Although this technology has not been put into practice in Bulgaria, it seems feasible on an industrial scale and so it may help to ease Portugal’s reliance on imports of nitrogen fertilizer and thereby contain the outfl ow of Portuguese funds. The data collected from the Maritsa East project are therefore applied to discuss a case study of Amarante thermal power station in Portugal, which annually imports 27 million Euro of nitrogen fertilizer. The agricultural sector indicates it is willing to support 20% of the plant installation cost and 100% of the operating cost at a thermal power station. Thus, a Portuguese farmer can obtain by-product fertilizer that is cheaper than commercial fertilizer at current prices as compensation for fi nancial support of fertilizer production at a thermal power station.

  14. Application of the Bulgarian emergency response system in case of nuclear accident in environmental assessment study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syrakov, Dimiter; Veleva, Blagorodka; Georgievs, Emilia; Prodanova, Maria; Slavov, Kiril; Kolarova, Maria

    2014-05-01

    The development of the Bulgarian Emergency Response System (BERS) for short term forecast in case of accidental radioactive releases to the atmosphere has been started in the mid 1990's [1]. BERS comprises of two main parts - operational and accidental, for two regions 'Europe' and 'Northern Hemisphere'. The operational part runs automatically since 2001 using the 72 hours meteorological forecast from DWD Global model, resolution in space of 1.5o and in time - 12 hours. For specified Nuclear power plants (NPPs), 3 days trajectories are calculated and presented on NIMH's specialized Web-site (http://info.meteo.bg/ews/). The accidental part is applied when radioactive releases are reported or in case of emergency exercises. BERS is based on numerical weather forecast information and long-range dispersion model accounting for the transport, dispersion, and radioactive transformations of pollutants. The core of the accidental part of the system is the Eulerian 3D dispersion model EMAP calculating concentration and deposition fields [2]. The system is upgraded with a 'dose calculation module' for estimation of the prognostic dose fields of 31 important radioactive gaseous and aerosol pollutants. The prognostic doses significant for the early stage of a nuclear accident are calculated as follows: the effective doses from external irradiation (air submersion + ground shinning); effective dose from inhalation; summarized effective dose and absorbed thyroid dose [3]. The output is given as 12, 24, 36, 48, 60 and 72 hours prognostic dose fields according the updated meteorology. The BERS was upgraded to simulate the dispersion of nuclear materials from Fukushima NPP [4], and results were presented in NIMH web-site. In addition BERS took part in the respective ENSEMBLE exercises to model 131I and 137Cs in Fukushima source term. In case of governmental request for expertise BERS was applied for environmental impact assessment of hypothetical accidental transboundary

  15. Retinol, alpha-tocopherol and fatty acid content in Bulgarian black Sea fish species

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    Stancheva, M.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to measure and evaluate the total lipids, fatty acid profile, retinol content and alpha-tocopherol content in the edible tissue of four commercially important fish species from the Bulgarian Black sea: Sprat (Sprattus sprattus, Round Goby (Neogobius rattan, Black Sea Horse Mackerel (Trahurus medditeraneus ponticus and Shad (Alosa pontica. Fat soluble vitamins were analyzed simultaneously using an HPLC system. The highest content of retinol was established in the Sprat (142.3 ± 4.4 μg/100g and the highest content of alphatocopherol was found in the Black Sea Horse Mackerel (1112.7 ± 39.2 μg/100g. The fatty acid (FA composition was analyzed by GC/MS. The content of omega 3 (n3 FAs was significantly higher (p , 0.001 than the content of omega 6 (n6 FAs in each of the analyzed fish samples. The n6/n3 FA ratio was within the recommended range (0.20–1.50 for Sprat, Round Goby and Shad. Relatively high levels of retinol and alpha-tocopherol, FA composition, n3/n6 FA and PUFA/SFA ratios indicate that these fish species have good nutritional quality.

    El objeto de la investigación presentada es definir y comparar los lípidos totales, el perfil de ácidos grasos y el contenido de retinol y alfa-tocoferol en el tejido comestible de cuatro especies de peces con importancia comercial del Mar Negro búlgaro —espadín (Sprattus Sprattus, gobio de boca negra (Neogobius Melanostomus, chicharro (Trachurus Trachurus y sábalo del Mar Negro (Caspialosa Pontica. Dos vitaminas liposolubles son analizadas simultáneamente mediante cromatografía líquida de alta eficacia (HPLC. El contenido mayor de retinol se encuentra en el espadín (142.3 ± 4.4 μg/100g, y de alfa-tocoferol en el chicharro (1112.7 ± 39.2 μg/100g. El contenido de ácidos grasos ha sido analizado mediante cromatografía gaseosa/espectrometría de masas (GC/MS. El contenido de ácidos grasos (AG

  16. Mercury capture by selected Bulgarian fly ashes: Influence of coal rank and fly ash carbon pore structure on capture efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostova, I.J.; Hower, J.C.; Mastalerz, Maria; Vassilev, S.V.

    2011-01-01

    Mercury capture by fly ash C was investigated at five lignite- and subbituminous-coal-burning Bulgarian power plants (Republika, Bobov Dol, Maritza East 2, Maritza East 3, and Sliven). Although the C content of the ashes is low, never exceeding 1.6%, the Hg capture on a unit C basis demonstrates that the low-rank-coal-derived fly ash carbons are more efficient in capturing Hg than fly ash carbons from bituminous-fired power plants. While some low-C and low-Hg fly ashes do not reveal any trends of Hg versus C, the 2nd and, in particular, the 3rd electrostatic precipitator (ESP) rows at the Republika power plant do have sufficient fly ash C range and experience flue gas sufficiently cool to capture measurable amounts of Hg. The Republika 3rd ESP row exhibits an increase in Hg with increasing C, as observed in other power plants, for example, in Kentucky power plants burning Appalachian-sourced bituminous coals. Mercury/C decreases with an increase in fly ash C, suggesting that some of the C is isolated from the flue gas stream and does not contribute to Hg capture. Mercury capture increases with an increase in Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area and micropore surface area. The differences in Hg capture between the Bulgarian plants burning low-rank coal and high volatile bituminous-fed Kentucky power plants suggests that the variations in C forms resulting from the combustion of the different ranks also influence the efficiency of Hg capture. ?? 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  17. STUDIES ON THE DYNAMICS OF LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION IN ROMANIA

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    Ana Mariana Dincu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In the agricultural production in our country, zootechnics currently holds second place. For the future, provided that the share of livestock production to exceed 50% of the total production achieved in the sphere of agriculture. Expanding livestock production is necessary for several reasons, some of which are generally valid for all forms of ownership, while others require especially in private-family holdings. Livestock industries provide higher quality food as compared with those of plant origin, they are characterized by higher energy value per unit weight and volume, high quality protein and raw materials as very valuable for manufacturing industries (food, light. In the present paper we analyzed the dynamics of livestock production in Romania, finding that the livestock were negative trends characterized by a reduction of livestock with an impact on animal production.

  18. Staphylococcus aureus CC398: host adaptation and emergence of methicillin resistance in livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Lance B; Stegger, Marc; Hasman, Henrik; Aziz, Maliha; Larsen, Jesper; Andersen, Paal Skytt; Pearson, Talima; Waters, Andrew E; Foster, Jeffrey T; Schupp, James; Gillece, John; Driebe, Elizabeth; Liu, Cindy M; Springer, Burkhard; Zdovc, Irena; Battisti, Antonio; Franco, Alessia; Zmudzki, Jacek; Schwarz, Stefan; Butaye, Patrick; Jouy, Eric; Pomba, Constanca; Porrero, M Concepción; Ruimy, Raymond; Smith, Tara C; Robinson, D Ashley; Weese, J Scott; Arriola, Carmen Sofia; Yu, Fangyou; Laurent, Frederic; Keim, Paul; Skov, Robert; Aarestrup, Frank M

    2012-01-01

    Since its discovery in the early 2000s, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) clonal complex 398 (CC398) has become a rapidly emerging cause of human infections, most often associated with livestock exposure. We applied whole-genome sequence typing to characterize a diverse collection of CC398 isolates (n = 89), including MRSA and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) from animals and humans spanning 19 countries and four continents. We identified 4,238 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) among the 89 core genomes. Minimal homoplasy (consistency index = 0.9591) was detected among parsimony-informative SNPs, allowing for the generation of a highly accurate phylogenetic reconstruction of the CC398 clonal lineage. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that MSSA from humans formed the most ancestral clades. The most derived lineages were composed predominantly of livestock-associated MRSA possessing three different staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec element (SCCmec) types (IV, V, and VII-like) including nine subtypes. The human-associated isolates from the basal clades carried phages encoding human innate immune modulators that were largely missing among the livestock-associated isolates. Our results strongly suggest that livestock-associated MRSA CC398 originated in humans as MSSA. The lineage appears to have undergone a rapid radiation in conjunction with the jump from humans to livestock, where it subsequently acquired tetracycline and methicillin resistance. Further analyses are required to estimate the number of independent genetic events leading to the methicillin-resistant sublineages, but the diversity of SCCmec subtypes is suggestive of strong and diverse antimicrobial selection associated with food animal production. Modern food animal production is characterized by densely concentrated animals and routine antibiotic use, which may facilitate the emergence of novel antibiotic-resistant zoonotic pathogens. Our findings strongly support the idea

  19. Parasite problems in organic livestock and options for control

    OpenAIRE

    Thamsborg, Stig Milan; Roepstorff, Allan

    2003-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Organic livestock production has increased dramatically in recent years in Europe and other parts of the world. The aim of producing livestock under more natural conditions has led to a reversion to primarily outdoor production systems and less intensive housing when indoor, more forage-based diets, and a reduced reliance on external inputs like antiparasiticides. These major changes in livestock production systems may potentially result in re-emergence (or emergence) of parasitic i...

  20. A Study on Livestock and Land Management in Kyrgyzstan

    OpenAIRE

    Zhumanova, Munavar

    2011-01-01

    Kyrgyzstan is a mountainous country with the livelihood condition of its population determined by climate, landscape, soil, water resources, biodiversity, as well as social and economic conditions. Most of its population derives a substantial proportion of its income from livestock rearing and farming. Moreover, mountainous pastures, which consist 86% of total agricultural land, favour livestock in Kyrgyzstan. The population of all livestock species has been constantly increasing over the yea...

  1. Research in Organic Animals and Livestock Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaarst, Mette

    2009-01-01

    developed in Western Europe and USA, where they are primarily niche products for consumers who give priority to environmental and animal welfare concerns. In these countries organic livestock production offers the option of establishing a niche product that can be sold at a higher price, e.g. as for milk...... and eggs. In some cases, the potential of organic farming is associated with the adoption of organic principles into existing systems with the aim of improving sustainability, and achieving environmentally friendly production, food security and good food quality. In the US, government support for organic...

  2. Precision livestock farming technologies for welfare management in intensive livestock systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berckmans, D

    2014-04-01

    The worldwide demand for meat and animal products is expected to increase by at least 40% in the next 15 years. The first question is how to achieve high-quality, sustainable and safe meat production that can meet this demand. At the same time, livestock production is currently facing serious problems. Concerns about animal health in relation to food safety and human health are increasing. The European Union wants improved animal welfare and has made a significant investment in it. At the same time, the environmental impact of the livestock sector is a major issue. Finally, it is necessary to ask how the farmer, who is the central figure in this process, will make a living from more sustainable livestock production systems. One tool that might provide real opportunities is precision livestock farming (PLF). In contrast to previous approaches, PLF systems aim to offer a real-time monitoring and management system that focuses on improving the life of the animals by warning when problems arise so that the farmer may take immediate action. Continuous, fully automatic monitoring and improvement of animal health and welfare, product yields and environmental impacts should become possible. This paper presents examples of systems that have already been developed in order to demonstrate the potential benefits of this technology.

  3. 76 FR 54072 - Emergency Assistance for Livestock, Honeybees, and Farm-Raised Fish Program, Livestock Indemnity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-31

    ... to the Supplemental Agricultural Disaster Assistance Programs, authorized by the Food, Conservation... Agricultural Disaster Assistance Programs AGENCY: Farm Service Agency, USDA. ACTION: Final rule, technical... This rule makes a technical correction to 7 CFR 760, subpart C, ``Emergency Assistance for Livestock...

  4. ANALYSIS OF LIVESTOCK AT REGIONAL LEVEL IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silviu BECIU

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In Romania the livestock sector generates significant outputs for the agricultural and the national economy. Geographical distribution of the livestock production systems varies between regions of development, due local traditions, production conditions, and consumer choices options. This paper analysis the livestock sector at regional level for all animal species considered for production. For the research method, based on regional analysis has been considered statistical approach, based of national database for year 2011. The results indicates different concentration of livestock at regional level, even if animal density per 100 ha was calculate in order to consider the different dimension of agriculture land of each region.

  5. Modeling of greenhouse gas emission from livestock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjo eJose

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The effects of climate change on humans and other living ecosystems is an area of on-going research. The ruminant livestock sector is considered to be one of the most significant contributors to the existing greenhouse gas (GHG pool. However the there are opportunities to combat climate change by reducing the emission of GHGs from ruminants. Methane (CH4 and nitrous oxide (N2O are emitted by ruminants via anaerobic digestion of organic matter in the rumen and manure, and by denitrification and nitrification processes which occur in manure. The quantification of these emissions by experimental methods is difficult and takes considerable time for analysis of the implications of the outputs from empirical studies, and for adaptation and mitigation strategies to be developed. To overcome these problems computer simulation models offer substantial scope for predicting GHG emissions. These models often include all farm activities while accurately predicting the GHG emissions including both direct as well as indirect sources. The models are fast and efficient in predicting emissions and provide valuable information on implementing the appropriate GHG mitigation strategies on farms. Further, these models help in testing the efficacy of various mitigation strategies that are employed to reduce GHG emissions. These models can be used to determine future adaptation and mitigation strategies, to reduce GHG emissions thereby combating livestock induced climate change.

  6. Bulgarian Scholars and Clerics in the European Politics at the end of the 14th Century and the beginning of the 15th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsvetana Cholova

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The events in the last decades of the 14th century and the first of the 15th century related with the conquests of the Ottoman Empire changed the map of Europe. The Bulgarian scholars and clerics: the last patriarchs of Tarnovo - Theodosius and Euthymius, Cyprian – “Metropolitan of Kiev and Moscow and whole Russia”, Gregory Tsamblak – “Wallach-Moldovan Metropolitan” and “Metropolitan of Kiev, Russia and Lithuania”, Gregory the Bulgarian “Metropolitan of Kiev and Lithuania”, Constantine of Kostenets, etc. actively participated in the church and secular policies in Europe. Even though they were among the most passionate supporters of the mystical teachings of hesychasm, through their life they were also representatives of the so-called “political hesychasm”, as a response to the turning point of their time.

  7. Catholic proselytism on the territories of Constantinople Patriarchy in the second half of the 19th century (the case of the Greek-Bulgarian church contradictions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venediktov Vadim Yuriyevich

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The author of the article analyzes the church conflicts between Greeks and Bulgarians in the second half of the 19th century. We can see a very sad picture how the two antagonistic orthodox communities of Constantinople Patriarchy separate from each other. The author bases on the documents from the Russian State Library Fund of Manuscripts and Archive of Foreign Policy of the Russian Empire. The church conflict ended with schism of 1872 and gave stimulus for Catholic proselytism.

  8. Climate Change Impact on the Southeastern Europe Security Environment and the Increasing Role of the Bulgarian Army as the World Warms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-10

    farmers and pastoralists with minimal capital in semi - arid regions. Risk of loss of marine and coastal ecosystems, biodiversity, and the ecosystem... CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACT ON THE SOUTHEASTERN EUROPE SECURITY ENVIRONMENT AND THE INCREASING ROLE OF THE BULGARIAN ARMY AS THE WORLD WARMS...DD-MM-YYYY) 10-06-2016 2. REPORT TYPE Master’s Thesis 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) AUG 2015 – JUN 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Climate Change

  9. RESEARCH ON THE COMPETITIVE PERFORMANCE OF THE BULGARIAN NATIONAL TEAM OF UNDER – 16 FEMALE PLAYERS IN THE EUROPEAN CHAMPIONSHIP, DIVISION B IN 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Tsanko Tsankov; Jasmine Tsankova

    2013-01-01

    In today's basketball, the opinion that achieving high and stable sports results can be realized only by science-based long-term preparation is gaining more and more popularity. A major part of this preparation is the participation of adolescent female players in European Championships for the respective age group. The purpose of this study is to analyze the competitive performance of the Bulgarian National basketball team, consisting of female players up to 16 years of age, who took part in ...

  10. cyber livestock communication in rural india: a strategic model

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... marketing and other rural developmental activities, thus conceptualizing a livestock communication model and defining anything that can be fit into this model as Cyber Communication was felt necessary to explain the framework for the study of Internet communication. The Cyber Livestock Communication model centers ...

  11. Virtual herding for flexible livestock management - a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Free-ranging livestock play a pivotal role globally in the conversion of plant tissue into products and services that support man’s many and changing lifestyles. With domestication came the task of providing livestock with an adequate plane of nutrition while simultaneously managing vegetation for s...

  12. 9 CFR 313.2 - Handling of livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., would cause injury or unnecessary pain to the animal shall not be used to drive livestock. (d) Disabled... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Handling of livestock. 313.2 Section 313.2 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY...

  13. Carnivore-caused livestock mortality in Trans-Himalaya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Namgail, T.; Fox, J.L.; Bhatnagar, Y.V.

    2007-01-01

    The loss of livestock to wild predators is an important livelihood concern among Trans-Himalayan pastoralists. Because of the remoteness and inaccessibility of the region, few studies have been carried out to quantify livestock depredation by wild predators. In the present study, we assessed the

  14. Correlates of perceived benefits of livestock farming through internet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... farmers and place of access of information has not shown any influence on the perceptions of livestock farmers, while computer literacy and information intensity has shown positive relationship with that of benefits of Internet as perceived by the livestock farmers. Keywords: Perceived benefits and Internet communication

  15. Prevalence of brucellosis in livestock and incidences in humans in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Brucellosis is an emerging zoonotic disease that poses a threat to both livestock and public health in east Africa. There are several reports of occurrence of the disease in livestock populations especially in Tanzania and Kenya, suggesting chances of increased spread to humans, and the disease being misdiagnosed for ...

  16. 78 FR 2039 - Traceability for Livestock Moving Interstate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-09

    ... National Poultry Improvement Plan (NPIP) and that receive chicks from a hatchery or redistributor from the... beef and dairy cattle industries. These enterprises are likely to be most affected operationally by the... other livestock producers and producers' associations, livestock marketers and marketing associations...

  17. Assessment Of The Impact Of Extension Services On Livestock ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment Of The Impact Of Extension Services On Livestock Production In Omuma Local Government Area Of Rivers State. ... to increase their awareness so that when the technologies are fully adapted and integrated as part of their practices, they can be sustained in our local environment to boost livestock productivity

  18. Biogas production from livestock waste anaerobic digesters: evaluation and optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livestock wastes can serve as the feedstock for biogas production (mainly methane) that could be used as alternative energy source. The green energy derived from animal wastes is considered to be carbon neutral and offsetting those generated from fossil fuels. However, feedstocks from livestock re...

  19. Methane and nitrous oxide emission from livestock manure | Prusty ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Livestock contribute 18% of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Apart from enteric emission, decomposition of livestock manure under anaerobic conditions is also a source of methane. The later condition arises in confined management system. There is difficulty in disposing off the excreta and wastes produced on a ...

  20. Ethno-veterinary practices amongst livestock farmers in Ngamiland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We carried out a study to determine ethno-veterinary knowledge used to treat and prevent livestock diseases in Toteng Village in Ngamiland District, northwestern Botswana. Primary data were collected through simple random sampling of 45 households in Toteng. Respondents were either livestock owners or cattle ...

  1. Veterinary Extension Services Provided To Livestock Farmers In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the differences in the veterinary services provided by university and ministry based officers to livestock farmers in Oyo State. Simple random sampling technique was used to select veterinary clinics and livestock farmers who visited the clinics. One hundred and twenty five farmers were selected and ...

  2. Crop-Livestock Farming Systems Varying with Different Altitudes in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Sub-Saharan Africa, rangeland is increasingly converted to cropland, creating diverse crop-livestock practices in different environments. As these practices lead to highly adapted livestock production systems using resources that vary locally and seasonally, not much is known about their similarities and differences.

  3. Indigenous management of Dystocia in ruminant livestock of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study, conducted in Bauchi and Zaria areas of the northern guinea savanna zone of Nigeria involved livestock that encountered problems during parturition Ninety eight Hausa-Fulani livestock holdings involving cattle, sheep and goats were investigated. The study focused on causes of and remedies for dystocia.

  4. Livestock husbandry and its impact on employment generation in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Livestock husbandry is an important sector of agriculture economy. It plays a vital role in household nutritional security, increased income, and employment generation. Livestock farming, however, has been one of the most important value adding farming systems adopted in different countries. The animal husbandry and ...

  5. Cow power : stepping stones towards sustainable livestock husbandry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, A.P.; Cornelissen, J.M.R.; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G.

    2009-01-01

    Realising sustainable livestock husbandry is a practical quest in the end. Many parties and initiatives are already aiming at sustainability in dairy husbandry. In interaction with livestock farmers, trade and industry, and policy makers, the Animal Sciences Group of Wageningen UR has produced

  6. Feeding ecology of four livestock species under different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assessed how the management (herding and free-ranging) of different livestock herds affects their feeding ecology during the wet and dry seasons in a semi-arid shrubland. By using direct observations of livestock grazing in the field, we established their habitat preferences, diet selection and resources overlap.

  7. Employment generation through livestock and crop enterprises as a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted in Andhra Pradesh state to find out employment generation through livestock and crop enterprises as a means of livelihood. Three districts, one from each region and three mandals from each district were selected for the study. 258 livestock farmers who were also holding crop enterprises were ...

  8. Issues, challenges and opportunities related to gender and livestock ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-06-06

    Jun 6, 2016 ... Read more in the Gender and Livestock: Issues, Challenges and Opportunities brief (PDF, 726KB, available in English only). This document summarizes findings presented in the book “Women, Livestock Ownership and Markets: Bridging the Gender Gap in Eastern and Southern Africa” produced by the ...

  9. Examining the links between livestock ownership, gender, and food ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-06-06

    Jun 6, 2016 ... Livestock ownership plays a vital role in ensuring that households have a more diversified, higher-protein diet. But research has shown that the extent to ... Read more in the Women, Livestock Ownership and Food Security brief (PDF, 719 KB, available in English only). This document summarizes findings ...

  10. Assessment of the Effects of Climate Change on Livestock ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The investigation of the effects of climate change on livestock husbandry and practices in Jigawa State, Nigeria, was aimed at assessing the level of awareness of climate change by nomads and also determine the effect of climate change on livestock husbandry and practices. Using random sampling method, data were ...

  11. Climate change mitigation and productivity gains in livestock supply chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mottet, Anne; Henderson, Benjamin; Opio, Carolyn; Falcucci, Alessandra; Tempio, Giuseppe; Silvestri, Silvia; Chesterman, Sabrina; Gerber, Pierre J.

    2016-01-01

    Livestock can contribute to climate change mitigation by reducing their greenhouse gas emissions and by increasing soil carbon sequestration. Packages of mitigation techniques can bring large environmental benefits as illustrated in six case studies modeled in the Global Livestock Environmental

  12. prevalence of brucellosis in livestock and incidences in humans

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Records 700 - 1600 ... There are several reports of occurrence of the disease in livestock populations especially in Tanzania and Kenya, suggesting chances ... of this study was to determine brucellosis prevalence in livestock and incidence in humans among pastoralists and .... The advice targeted to control further spread of ...

  13. Veterinary services needs of rural livestock farmers in imo state ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study ascertained veterinary services needed by rural livestock farmers in Imo State, Nigeria. Data were collected from 80 randomly selected livestock farmers in the study area with the aid of questionnaire and interview schedule. Data analysis was by frequency, percentage, mean, and Ordinary Least Square Multiple ...

  14. Assessment of veterinary extension services to livestock farmers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined operational modes of providing veterinary extension services to livestock farmers in Egba-Division, Ogun-State Nigeria. Information was obtained from 120 livestock farmers and 8 extension agents selected through multi-stage random sampling technique with the use of both structured questionnaire ...

  15. Radiation effects on livestock: physiological effects, dose response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, M C

    1985-06-01

    Farm livestock show no measurable effects from being exposed to ionizing radiation unless the level is greatly in excess of the natural background radiation. Possible sources of ionizing radiation which might affect livestock or contribute to radioactivity in the food chain to humans are reactor accidents, fuel reprocessing plant accidents and thermonuclear explosions. Most data on ionizing radiation effects on livestock are from whole body gamma doses near the LD 50/60 level. However, grazing livestock would be subjected to added beta exposure from ingested and skin retained radioactive particles. Results of attempts to simulate exposure of the Hereford cattle at Alamogardo, NM show that cattle are more sensitive to ingested fallout radiation than other species. Poultry LD 50/60 for gamma exposure is about twice the level for mammals, and swine appear to have the most efficient repair system being able to withstand the most chronic gamma exposure. Productivity of most livestock surviving an LD 50/60 exposure is temporarily reduced and longterm effects are small. Livestock are good screeners against undesirables in our diet and with the exception of radiosotopes of iodine in milk, very little fission product radioactivity would be expected to be transferred through the food chain in livestock products for humans. Feeding of stored feed or moving livestock to uncontaminated pastures would be the best protective action to follow.

  16. Restoring community livelihoods and food security through livestock ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some of the world's poor and most disaster-vulnerable communities are also those most reliant on livestock. Whenever disasters strike, in addition to the immediate devastation, food insecurity and loss of life, the loss of livestock can leave a secondary legacy of economic instability, debt and dependency. In 2011, a ...

  17. Small - Scale Livestock Farming in Developing Areas of Swaziland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... shortage of feed, poor breading practice, lack of production skills, poor infrastructure, livestock theft, inadequate veterinary services, poor marketing services, and poor extension services. Keywords: Small scale farmer, livestock farming, agricultural development, socio-economic development, developing areas, Swaziland ...

  18. Climate Change and Livestock Production in Nigeria: Issues and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Climate Change and Livestock Production in Nigeria: Issues and Concerns. ... A number of adaptation schemes which include environmental modification, selective breeding and modifications in the nutritional environment of animals were suggested. The integration of these adaptive measures in livestock production ...

  19. Biotechnology in livestock production: Overview of possibilities for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Livestock production is expected to grow tremendously in line with the projected demand for animal products. Therefore, the methods of livestock production must change to allow for efficiency and improvement in productivity. Biotechnology is important if the world is to respond to the pressure to produce more food from ...

  20. 36 CFR 2.60 - Livestock use and agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Livestock use and agriculture. 2.60 Section 2.60 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.60 Livestock use and agriculture. (a) The...

  1. 36 CFR 1002.60 - Livestock use and agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Livestock use and agriculture. 1002.60 Section 1002.60 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 1002.60 Livestock use and agriculture. (a) The running-at-large, herding, driving...

  2. Genomics to benefit livestock production: improving animal health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Stuart Plastow

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The primary principle underlying the application of genomics is that it has the most value for difficult and expensive to measure traits. These traits will differ between species and probably also between markets. Maintenance of health will be one of the biggest challenges for efficient livestock production in the next few decades. This challenge will only increase in the face of demand for animal protein, resistance to existing drugs, and the pressure to reduce the use of antibiotics in agriculture. There is probably genetic variation in susceptibility for all diseases but little has been done to make use of this variation to date. In part this is because it is very difficult as well as expensive to measure this variation. This suggests that genomics should provide one of the ways of tackling the challenge of improving animal health. This paper will discuss the concepts of resistance, variation in susceptibility, and resilience; provide examples and present some recent results in cattle and pigs; and briefly discuss the application of gene editing in relation to disease resistance.

  3. The research progress of genomic selection in livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong-wei; Wang, Rui-jun; Wang, Zhi-ying; Li, Xue-wu; Wang, Zhen-yu; Yanjun, Zhang; Rui, Su; Zhihong, Liu; Jinquan, Li

    2017-05-20

    With the development of gene chip and breeding technology, genomic selection in plants and animals has become research hotspots in recent years. Genomic selection has been extensively applied to all kinds of economic livestock, due to its high accuracy, short generation intervals and low breeding costs. In this review, we summarize genotyping technology and the methods for genomic breeding value estimation, the latter including the least square method, RR-BLUP, GBLUP, ssGBLUP, BayesA and BayesB. We also cover basic principles of genomic selection and compare their genetic marker ranges, genomic selection accuracy and operational speed. In addition, we list common indicators, methods and influencing factors that are related to genomic selection accuracy. Lastly, we discuss latest applications and the current problems of genomic selection at home and abroad. Importantly, we envision future status of genomic selection research, including multi-trait and multi-population genomic selection, as well as impact of whole genome sequencing and dominant effects on genomic selection. This review will provide some venues for other breeders to further understand genome selection.

  4. Plant poisonings in livestock in Brazil and South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary-Louise Penrith

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Information on intoxication of livestock by plants in Brazil, in terms of cause, clinical signs and pathology, is compared with information on livestock poisoning by plants in South Africa. Plant poisoning, including mycotoxicosis, is considered to be one of three major causes of death in livestock in Brazil, which is one of the top beef producing countries in the world, with a cattle population of more than 200 million. Cattle production in South Africa is on a more modest scale, but with some 600 species of plants and fungi known to cause toxicity in livestock, as opposed to some 130 species in Brazil, the risk to livestock in South Africa appears to be much greater. The comparisons discussed in this communication are largely restricted to ruminants.

  5. Genetic analysis of haemophilia A in Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkova, Rumena; Chakarov, Stoian; Kremensky, Ivo

    2004-01-01

    Haemophilias are the most common hereditary severe disorders of blood clotting. In families afflicted with heamophilia, genetic analysis provides opportunities to prevent recurrence of the disease. This study establishes a diagnostical strategy for carriership determination and prenatal diagnostics of haemophilia A in Bulgarian haemophilic population. A diagnostical strategy consisting of screening for most common mutations in the factor VIII gene and analysis of a panel of eight linked to the factor VIII gene locus polymorphisms was established. Polymorphic analysis for carrier status determination of haemophilia A was successful in 30 families out of 32 (94%). Carrier status was determined in 25 of a total of 28 women at risk (89%). Fourteen prenatal diagnoses in women at high risk of having a haemophilia A - affected child were performed, resulting in 6 healthy boys and 5 girls. The compound approach proves to be a highly informative and cost-effective strategy for prevention of recurrence of haemophilia A in Bulgaria. DNA analysis facilitates carriership determination and subsequent prenatal diagnosis in the majority of Bulgarian families affected by haemophilia A.

  6. Genetic analysis of haemophilia A in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kremensky Ivo

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Haemophilias are the most common hereditary severe disorders of blood clotting. In families afflicted with heamophilia, genetic analysis provides opportunities to prevent recurrence of the disease. This study establishes a diagnostical strategy for carriership determination and prenatal diagnostics of haemophilia A in Bulgarian haemophilic population. Methods A diagnostical strategy consisting of screening for most common mutations in the factor VIII gene and analysis of a panel of eight linked to the factor VIII gene locus polymorphisms was established. Results Polymorphic analysis for carrier status determination of haemophilia A was successful in 30 families out of 32 (94%. Carrier status was determined in 25 of a total of 28 women at risk (89%. Fourteen prenatal diagnoses in women at high risk of having a haemophilia A – affected child were performed, resulting in 6 healthy boys and 5 girls. Conclusion The compound approach proves to be a highly informative and cost-effective strategy for prevention of recurrence of haemophilia A in Bulgaria. DNA analysis facilitates carriership determination and subsequent prenatal diagnosis in the majority of Bulgarian families affected by haemophilia A.

  7. Prebiotics in Companion and Livestock Animal Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Kathleen A.; Vester, Brittany M.; Fahey, George C.

    Prebiotic supplementation of animal diets began in an attempt to increase concentrations of beneficial intestinal microbiota. It was understood that prebiotics inhibited growth of intestinal pathogens and decreased concentrations of stool odor-causing metabolites. Since the use of prebiotics began, several countries have banned the use of antimicrobials in livestock animal feeds, and several more have placed restrictions on the quantity of antimicrobials that can be used. Prebiotic supplementation has become increasingly popular as the body of evidence supporting its use continues to grow. As this literature expands, the number of potential prebiotic substances has grown beyond those that are naturally occurring, such as those found in chicory and yeast products, to include a large number of synthetic or chemically/enzymatically manufactured prebiotics.

  8. Volatile Sulfur Compounds from Livestock Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasper, Pernille

    and, thus, odor removal in these systems. In this context, two processes based on the absorptive oxidation of sulfur compounds in trickling filters containing metal catalysts were examined. One process with iron chelated by ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) was shown to remove hydrogen sulfide...... that the original sample composition was significantly impaired due to adsorption and diffusion at the walls of the measuring equipment. Generally, sulfur compounds were best preserved in both olfactometers and sample bags, while carboxylic acids, 4-methylphenol and trimethylamine were found to undergo substantial......Volatile sulfur compounds, i.e. hydrogen sulfide, methanethiol and dimethyl sulfide have been identified as key odorants in livestock production due to their high concentration levels and low odor threshold values. At the same time their removal with abatement technologies based on mass transfer...

  9. Best available technology for European livestock farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loyon, L.; Burton, C. H.; Misselbrook, T.

    2016-01-01

    Concerns over the negative environmental impact from livestock farming across Europe continue to make their mark resulting in new legislation and large research programs. However, despite a huge amount of published material and many available techniques, doubts over the success of national...... and European initiatives remain. Uptake of the more cost-effective and environmentally-friendly farming methods (such as dietary control, building design and good manure management) is already widespread but unlikely to be enough in itself to ensure that current environmental targets are fully met. Some......, the efficacies of many of the current BAT-listed options are modest, difficult to regulate and in some cases they may even be counterproductive with respect to other objectives ie pollution swapping. Evaluation of the existing and new BAT technologies is a key to a successful abatement of pollution from...

  10. Livestock Density as Risk Factor for Livestock-associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus, the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silbergeld, Ellen K.; Curriero, Frank C.; van Cleef, Brigite A.G.L.; Heck, Max E.O.C.; Kluytmans, Jan A.J.W.

    2012-01-01

    To determine whether persons living in areas of high animal density are at increased risk for carrying livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA), we used an existing dataset of persons in the Netherlands with LA-MRSA carriage and controls who carried other types of MRSA. Results of running univariate and multivariate logistic regression models indicated that living in livestock-dense areas increases the odds of nasal carriage of LA-MRSA. We found that doubling pig, cattle, and veal calf densities per municipality increased the odds of LA-MRSA carriage over carriage of other types of MRSA by 24.7% (95% CI 0.9%–54.2%), 76.9% (95% CI 11.3%–81.3%), and 24.1% (95% CI 5.5%–45.9%), respectively, after adjusting for direct animal contact, living in a rural area, and the probable source of MRSA carriage. Controlling the spread of LA-MRSA thus requires giving attention to community members in animal-dense regions who are unaffiliated with livestock farming. PMID:23092646

  11. Highly effective SNP-based association mapping and management of recessive defects in livestock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charlier, Carole; Coppieters, Wouter; Rollin, Frédéric

    2008-01-01

    The widespread use of elite sires by means of artificial insemination in livestock breeding leads to the frequent emergence of recessive genetic defects, which cause significant economic and animal welfare concerns. Here we show that the availability of genome-wide, high-density SNP panels, combi...... (CMD) types 1 and 2 in Belgian Blue cattle and ichthyosis fetalis in Italian Chianina cattle. Identification of these causative mutations has an immediate translation into breeding practive, allowing marker assisted selection against the defects through avoidance of at-risk matings....

  12. Indicators for livestock and crop biodiversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eaton, D.J.F.; Windig, J.J.; Hiemstra, S.J.; Veller, van M.G.P.; Trach, N.X.; Hao, P.X.; Doan, D.H.; Hu, R.

    2006-01-01

    The focus of this study is on indicators for genetic resources, relevant for food and agriculture, for future food security and other functions of genetic resources or agro-biodiversity. The is one small area in the range of levels and sectors. It is recognized that there are many interrelationships

  13. Links between livestock production, the environment and sustainable development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradbre, J-P

    2014-12-01

    This study examines the prospects for strong growth in the supply and demand for animal products worldwide, especially in developing countries, where 80% of the world's population lives. Based on scientific publications, statistics and field observations, it reviews greenhouse gas emission levels from livestock, the ability of ruminant livestock systems to sequester carbon and the capacity of the livestock industry to meet the challenge of sustainable development and to share its benefits while minimising impacts to climate change. Special attention is paid to the situation of the 800 million livestock farmers in the world living at the extreme end of poverty. The study underlines the importance of improving livestock productivity and the interdependence of the economic, environmental and social components of sustainable development. It highlights how, in the least developed countries and most lower-middle-income countries, the pressure exerted by animal diseases hampers efforts to improve livestock productivity. Poor livestock farmers have not sufficiently benefited from development policies and need support to adopt technological advances to meet the challenges of sustainable development and poverty reduction.

  14. Water requirements for livestock production: a global perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlink, A C; Nguyen, M L; Viljoen, G J

    2010-12-01

    Water is a vital but poorly studied component of livestock production. It is estimated that livestock industries consume 8% of the global water supply, with most of that water being used for intensive, feed-based production. This study takes a broad perspective of livestock production as a component of the human food chain, and considers the efficiency of its water use. Global models are in the early stages of development and do not distinguish between developing and developed countries, or the production systems within them. However, preliminary indications are that, when protein production is adjusted for biological value in the human diet, no plant protein is significantly more efficient at using water than protein produced from eggs, and only soybean is more water efficient than milk and goat and chicken meat. In some regions, especially developing countries, animals are not used solely for food production but also provide draught power, fibre and fertiliser for crops. In addition, animals make use of crop by-products that would otherwise go to waste. The livestock sector is the fastest-growing agricultural sector, which has led to increasing industrialisation and, in some cases, reduced environmental constraints. In emerging economies, increasing involvement in livestock is related to improving rural wealth and increasing consumption of animal protein. Water usage for livestock production should be considered an integral part of agricultural water resource management, taking into account the type of production system (e.g. grain-fed or mixed crop-livestock) and scale (intensive or extensive), the species and breeds of livestock, and the social and cultural aspects of livestock farming in various countries.

  15. From the Secondary School to the Technical University, Or One Difficult Year for the First-Year Students [In Bulgarian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Dishlieva

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The transition from the secondary school to the university has been always a problem period, linked to the various changes and difficulties for the most first year students in different universities. Lack of experience of self-training and weak knowledge base and skills of the students on one hand, and the higher level of mathematics and new organization of the teaching process on the other hand, provoke serious difficulties. Some of the prospective students do not know what they really know and what they need to know. It is not clear why they should learn exactly these math topics and they do not know how to learn what they should know. The present paper attempts to clarify the key problems and their possible reasons and sources in the learning and teaching process. A set of measures is identified that would contribute to overcoming the difficulties during this transitional for the students period. The results are based on the review of foreign experience and as well as the Bulgarian one demonstrated by extensive interviews with lecturers in mathematics of three technical universities. We believe that this situation is similar (maybe with minor differences and additions in almost all tertiary schools where mathematics is learned as a basic subject.

  16. Economic competitiveness of underground coal gasification combined with carbon capture and storage in the Bulgarian energy network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakaten, Natalie Christine

    2014-11-15

    Underground coal gasification (UCG) allows for exploitation of deep-seated coal seams not economically exploitable by conventional coal mining. Aim of the present study is to examine UCG economics based on coal conversion into a synthesis gas to fuel a combined cycle gas turbine power plant (CCGT) with CO2 capture and storage (CCS). Thereto, a techno-economic model is developed for UCG-CCGT-CCS costs of electricity (COE) determination which, considering sitespecific data of a selected target area in Bulgaria, sum up to 72 Euro/MWh in total. To quantify the impact of model constraints on COE, sensitivity analyses are undertaken revealing that varying geological model constraints impact COE with 0.4% to 4%, chemical with 13%, technical with 8% to 17% and market-dependent with 2% to 25%. Besides site-specific boundary conditions, UCG-CCGT-CCS economics depend on resources availability and infrastructural characteristics of the overall energy system. Assessing a model based implementation of UCG-CCGT-CCS and CCS power plants into the Bulgarian energy network revealed that both technologies provide essential and economically competitive options to achieve the EU environmental targets and a complete substitution of gas imports by UCG synthesis gas production.

  17. Investigation Of The Hydro-Meteorological Hazards Along The Bulgarian Coast Of The Black Sea By Reconstructions Of Historical Storms

    CERN Document Server

    Galabov, Vasko; Bogatchev, Andrey; Tsenova, Boryana

    2015-01-01

    Information about the hydro-meteorological parameters during the extreme sea storms is of significant importance for the sustainable development in the context of flood risk for the coastal areas. Usually there is a lack of sufficiently long history of instrumental measurements of the extreme winds, waves and storm surges. Simulation of historical storms is an important tool to evaluate the potential coastal hazards. In the absence of measured data hindcasts can satisfy the need for historical data. The wave and storm-surge regional numerical simulations have been carried out for the ten most severe storms over the Bulgarian coast of the Black Sea from the period 1972-2012. The ERA-Interim and ERA-40 reanalysis of wind at 10 m and mean sea level pressure have been downscaled with a high resolution atmospheric model ALADIN to the horizontal and time scales suitable for precise evaluation of hydro-meteorological parameters during the storms. The downscaled fields of wind and sea level pressure have been used as...

  18. Risk of adverse pregnancy outcome in women exposed to livestock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Stine Yde; Henriksen, T B; Hjøllund, Niels Henrik Ingvar

    2013-01-01

    /or domestic exposure to livestock and a reference group of women with no animal contact was sampled. Outcome measures were miscarriage, very preterm birth (before gestational week 32), preterm birth (before 37 gestational weeks), small for gestational age (SGA), and perinatal death. Adverse reproductive...... outcomes were assessed in four different exposure groups of women with occupational or domestic exposure to livestock with no association found between exposure to livestock and miscarriage, preterm birth, SGA or perinatal death. These findings should diminish general occupational health concerns...

  19. Searching for Symbolic Value of Cattle: Tropical Livestock Units, Market Price, and Cultural Value of Maasai Livestock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Quinlan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We examine metabolic, market, and symbolic values of livestock relative to cultural “positioning” by gender, marriage, and household production among Maasai people in Simanjiro, Tanzania to assess local “proximate currencies” relevant for “cultural success.” Data from mixed methods ethnographic research include qualitative interviews since 2012, observation of 85 livestock market sales in 2013 and 2015, and 37 short key informant interviews in 2015. We examine fit between market values, Tropical Livestock Units (TLU, weight-based species exchange ratio, and perceived value from interviews for moran (unmarried men, muruo (married men, and tɔmɔnɔ́k (married women. Hedonic regression using livestock species, sex, maturity, and size accounted for 90% of the local market price of livestock. We compared the market-based exchange ratio between cattle and smallstock (sheep and goats to TLU and perceived values situating symbolic value of cattle in terms of Maasai household production schema. One TLU model accurately predicted market exchange ratios, while another predicted hypothetical exchanges, suggesting need for improved livestock wealth estimation for pastoralists. Ritual context, subsistence work, and cultural position influenced perceived values: Moran overvalued cattle by 100% of the local market value. Tɔmɔnɔ́k accurately perceived the market exchange ratio despite never directly engaging in livestock market transactions. Muruo perceived exchange ratios intermediate between moran and tɔmɔnɔ́k. We argue that these perceptions of value reflect distinct labor responsibilities of moran, muruo, and tɔmɔnɔ́k in livestock management, differential value of bridewealth, and control of meat and milk.Attention to value of different livestock species in cultural models of production may prove useful for development efforts.

  20. Occurrence of phtalates in livestock fodder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alžbeta Jarošová

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Contamination level by phtalic acid esters (PAE, such as di-n-butyl phtalate (DBP and di-2-ethylhexyl phtalate (DEPH, was detected in fodder samples from industrial fodder producers within the Czech Republic (CR in 2007. Samples were taken from additives, premixes, and fodder base materials (n = 52. The highest phtalates concentrations were detected in samples including fat matrices of plant as well as animal origin. Concentration achieved level of 148.2 mg . kg−1 in soyabean oil, 22.73 in coleseed oil, 12.22 in palm fat, 11.29 in fish oil, 23.32 in animal fat as summation of phtalates (DBP and DEHP. High levels of summation of both phtalates were also detected in vitamin samples within the range from 1.06 (nicotinic acid to 32.74 (vitamin E mg . kg−1. The lowest concentration of DBP and DEHP sum was detected in samples from grain crops, fodder base materials of plant origin (wheat, barley, oat, corn and it was within the range of 0.06–2.08 mg . kg−1 of the original weight. Although concentrations detected in samples of plant origin are significantly lower than in fodder base ma­te­rials of animal origin, it presents a serious discovery since cereals represent the biggest part in fodder mixtures for livestock.

  1. Molecular typing of Leptospira interrogans serovar Hardjo isolates from leptospirosis outbreaks in Brazilian livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosate, Maria Raquel V; Sakamoto, Tetsu; de Oliveira Mendes, Tiago Antônio; Moreira, Élvio C; Regis da Silva, Carlos G; Brasil, Bruno S A F; Oliveira, Camila S F; de Azevedo, Vasco Ariston; Ortega, José Miguel; Leite, Rômulo C; Haddad, João Paulo

    2017-06-15

    Leptospirosis is caused by pathogenic spirochetes of the genus Leptospira spp. This zoonotic disease is distributed globally and affects domestic animals, including cattle. Leptospira interrogans serogroup Sejroe serovar Hardjo and Leptospira borgpetersenii serogroup Sejroe serovar Hardjo remain important species associated with this reproductive disease in livestock production. Previous studies on Brazilian livestock have reported that L. interrogans serovar Hardjo is the most prevalent leptospiral agent in this country and is related to clinical signs of leptospirosis, which lead to economic losses in production. Here, we described the isolation of three clinical strains (Norma, Lagoa and Bolivia) obtained from leptospirosis outbreaks that occurred in Minas Gerais state in 1994 and 2008. Serological and molecular typing using housekeeping (secY and 16SrRNA) and rfb locus (ORF22 and ORF36) genes were applied for the identification and comparative analysis of Leptospira spp. Our results identified the three isolates as L. interrogans serogroup Sejroe serovar Hardjo and confirmed the occurrence of this bacterial strain in Brazilian livestock. Genetic analysis using ORF22 and ORF36 grouped the Leptospira into serogroup Sejroe and subtype Hardjoprajitno. Genetic approaches were also applied to compare distinct serovars of L. interrogans strains by verifying the copy numbers of the IS1500 and IS1533 insertion sequences (ISs). The IS1500 copy number varied among the analyzed L. interrogans strains. This study provides evidence that L. interrogans serogroup Sejroe serovar Hardjo subtype Hardjoprajitno causes bovine leptospirosis in Brazilian production. The molecular results suggested that rfb locus (ORF22 and ORF36) could improve epidemiological studies by allowing the identification of Leptospira spp. at the serogroup level. Additionally, the IS1500 and IS1533 IS copy number analysis suggested distinct genomic features among closely related leptospiral strains.

  2. The Development and Impact of the Livestock Guru: Meeting the Knowledge Needs of Poor Livestock Keepers in Tamil Nadu, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Yu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Livestock keepers comprise 2/3rds of the 2.8 billion households living on less than two dollars per day. However, as a group they tend to be marginalised and excluded from formal service provision, particularly in relation to animal health. Therefore, the following paper describes the development of the Livestock Guru, a multi-media learning programme created to meet the knowledge needs of poor livestock keepers in Tamil Nadu, India. The findings from the study illustrate the importance of both appropriate visuals, voice-overs but also the need for addressing issues in the environment in which learning will take place.

  3. Policy options in addressing livestock's contribution to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, P; Key, N; Portet, F; Steinfeld, H

    2010-03-01

    There is a great potential to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions related to livestock production. For achieving this potential will require new initiatives at national and international levels that include promoting research and development on new mitigation technologies; deploying, diffusing and transferring technologies to mitigate emissions; and enhancing capacities to monitor, report and verify emissions from livestock production. This study describes the sources of livestock-related GHG emissions and reviews available mitigation technologies and practices. We assess the main policy instruments available to curb emissions and promote carbon sinks, and discuss the relative merits of alternative approaches. We discuss recent experiences in countries that have enacted mitigation strategies for the livestock sector to illustrate some of the key issues and constraints in policy implementation. Finally, we explore the main issues and challenges surrounding international efforts to mitigate GHG emissions and discuss some possible ways to address these challenges in future climate agreements.

  4. African Journal of Livestock Extension - Vol 3 (2004)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ENHANCING INCOME GENERATION AND NUTRITION SECURITY THROUGH THE TRANSFER OF SHORT CUT SNAIL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY IN NIGERIA · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL ... CYBER LIVESTOCK COMMUNICATION IN RURAL INDIA: A STRATEGIC MODEL · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  5. Intensification of smallholder livestock production, is it sustainable?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Udo, H.M.J.; Steenstra, F.A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses sustainability perspectives of intensification of different types of smallholder livestock production. A main sustainability issue of intensification is its contribution to household incomes. Smallholder dairying substantially increases incomes, despite pressing technical

  6. Analysing Incentive and Cost Sharing Issues in Livestock Disease Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biira, Juliet

    This PhD thesis tackles two main issues in livestock health management: a) the incentives for animal disease prevention on Danish livestock farms and b) allocation of costs of animal disease outbreaks and animal disease preparedness, among stakeholders involved in the livestock sector. The main....... Paper 5 uses a theoretical approach to analyse the normative foundation of allocation rules that can be used in sharing costs related to animal disease preparedness. We assume that effort incurred by the relevant government authority cannot be observed by the farmers and construct a liability index...... be arranged and lastly, a theoretical contribution to how disease preparedness costs could be shared. An exploration of literature on issues regarding animal disease prevention in the Danish livestock sector is used in paper 1, while an empirical approach is used in paper 2, 3 and 4. A theoretical approach...

  7. Greenhouse gas emission profiles of European livestock sectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lesschen, J.P.; Berg, van den M.; Westhoek, H.J.; Witzke, H.P.; Oenema, O.

    2011-01-01

    There are increasing concerns about the ecological footprint of global animal production. Expanding livestock sectors worldwide contribute to expansion of agricultural land and associated deforestation, emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG), eutrophication of surface waters and nutrient imbalances.

  8. An education and training programme for livestock transporters in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen S. Schwartzkopf-Genswein

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The transport of live animals is known to be stressful and therefore can have a direct impact on animal welfare and on food safety and quality. The livestock production and transport industries are increasingly interested in improving animal well-being. This can be accomplished through the use of careful animal handling and good driving practices before, during and after transport. The recently developed Certified Livestock Transporter (CLT training programme in Canada is aimed at ensuring livestock transporters are educated and have access to up-to-date information regarding the humane handling of animals. An overview of the CLT includes examples from the main training manual and species-specific modules. The relationship between education and improved animal welfare is discussed and possible future directions proposed. The examples provided may be modified by other users to develop new education and training programmes relevant to their geographic locations and livestock industries.

  9. On Conditions Instantiating Tip Effects of Epistemic and Evidential Meanings in Bulgarian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björn Wiemer

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with tip effects between evidential and epistemic components in the meaning potential of evidential markers in Bulgarian, the focus being on sentential adverbs with inferential functions. We justify (and start with the following assumptions: (i for any unit we should distinguish its stable semantic meaning from its pragmatic potential which can be favored (or disfavored by appropriate discourse conditions; (ii there is a trade off between evidential and epistemic meaning components that are related to each other on the basis of mutual or one-sided implicatures; (iii one-sided implicatures occur with certain hearsay markers whose epistemic implicatures can be captured as Generalized Conversational Implicatures (GCIs. On this basis, we show that (iv GCIs work also with inferential markers; they can be classified depending on which component (the inferential or the epistemic one can be downgraded more easily. A crucial factor favoring the inferential meaning is a perceptual basis of the inference. In general, (v the more complicated the reconstruction of the cognitive (or communicative basis leading to an inference, the clearer the epistemic function emerges while the evidential function remains in the background, and vice versa. The study is corpus-driven and also includes an attempt at classifying micro- and macro-contextual conditions that (disfavor a highlighting of the evidential function. ____________________ Статья посвящена условиям, при которых происходит попеременная актуализация то эвиденциального, то эпистемического компонента в семантическом потенциале эвиденциальных показателей болгарского языка. Сосредоточиваясь на сентенциальных наречиях с инферентивными функциями, мы

  10. Carnivore-caused livestock mortality in Trans-Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namgail, Tsewang; Fox, Joseph L; Bhatnagar, Yash Veer

    2007-04-01

    The loss of livestock to wild predators is an important livelihood concern among Trans-Himalayan pastoralists. Because of the remoteness and inaccessibility of the region, few studies have been carried out to quantify livestock depredation by wild predators. In the present study, we assessed the intensity of livestock depredation by snow leopard Uncia uncia, Tibetan wolf Canis lupus chanku, and Eurasian lynx Lynx l. isabellina in three villages, namely Gya, Rumtse, and Sasoma, within the proposed Gya-Miru Wildlife Sanctuary in Ladakh, India. The three villages reported losses of 295 animals to these carnivores during a period of 2.5 years ending in early 2003, which represents an annual loss rate of 2.9% of their livestock holdings. The Tibetan wolf was the most important predator, accounting for 60% of the total livestock loss because of predation, followed by snow leopard (38%) and lynx (2%). Domestic goat was the major victim (32%), followed by sheep (30%), yak (15%), and horse (13%). Wolves killed horses significantly more and goats less than would be expected from their relative abundance. Snow leopards also killed horses significantly more than expected, whereas they killed other livestock types in proportion to their abundance. The three villages combined incurred an estimated annual monetary loss of approximately $USD 12,120 amounting to approximately $USD 190/household/y. This relatively high total annual loss occurred primarily because of depredation of the most valuable livestock types such as yak and horse. Conservation actions should initially attempt to target decrease of predation on these large and valuable livestock species.

  11. Evaluation of Crop-Livestock Integration Systems among Farm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    livestock production. The major cropping system among rural farm families in the study area is mixed cropping (70%). However, many farmers (72.5%) in .... Vegetables. 12.5. 10.0. 7.5. 10.0. Forage and pastures. 2.5. 0.0. 5.0. 2.5. Livestock production system. Extensive. 40.0. 50.0. 32.5. 40.8. Semi intensive. 57.5. 50.0. 55.0.

  12. Sangadzhi Kononov, About Livestock Breeding and Kalmyk Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Churyumov, Anton; Kovaeva, Bair

    2016-01-01

    Sangadzhi says that the traditions, lifestyle and folklore of the Kalmyks are closely connected to their livestock breeding practices. Not only was livestock treated with respect but nothing of animal origin was supposed to go to waste. Intestines, skin, etc. were all used in the nomadic household. Traditionally, the Kalmyks had a good knowledge of the anatomy and behavior of each animal, including sheep, horses, camels and cattle. Horses were used mainly as a means of transport. In the past...

  13. An Intelligent Ammonia Sensor for Livestock Breeding Monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yang; Fu, Zetian; Zhang, Lingxian; Li, Xinxing; Xu, Dan; Zeng, Lihua; Ma, Juncheng; Peng, Fa

    2013-01-01

    International audience; Ammonia concentration is the major parameter to evaluate livestock breeding farms atmosphere quality and it also is regarded as the key indicator to describe the production of livestock breeding farms. Based on the oxidation characteristics of ammonia, this paper presented a new intelligent detecting instrument, the intelligent ammonia sensor, for the measurement of ammonia concentration, which used the microcontroller STM8L152 as the key control module. However, the T...

  14. The nexus of environmental quality and livestock welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Place, Sara E; Mitloehner, Frank M

    2014-02-01

    In recent years, the livestock production industry has been receiving pressure to assess and improve production practices in two seemingly unrelated areas: environmental quality and animal welfare. In this article, we argue that the nexus of these two areas of study should be a priority for future research and that the integration of these disciplines in research, extension, and education efforts has the potential to improve the sustainability of production livestock agriculture.

  15. Computer Prediction of Air Quality in Livestock Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svidt, Kjeld; Bjerg, Bjarne

    In modem livestock buildings the design of ventilation systems is important in order to obtain good air quality. The use of Computational Fluid Dynamics for predicting the air distribution makes it possible to include the effect of room geometry and heat sources in the design process. This paper...... presents numerical prediction of air flow in a livestock building compared with laboratory measurements. An example of the calculation of contaminant distribution is given, and the future possibilities of the method are discussed....

  16. Biotechnology developments in the livestock sector in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onteru, Suneel; Ampaire, Agatha; Rothschild, Max

    2010-01-01

    Global meat and milk consumption is exponentially increasing due to population growth, urbanization and changes in lifestyle in the developing world. This is an excellent opportunity for developing countries to improve the livestock sector by using technological advances. Biotechnology is one of the avenues for improved production in the "Livestock revolution". Biotechnology developments applied to livestock health, nutrition, breeding and reproduction are improving with a reasonable pace in developing countries. Simple bio-techniques such as artificial insemination have been well implemented in many parts of the developing world. However, advanced technologies including transgenic plant vaccines, marker assisted selection, solid state fermentation for the production of fibrolytic enzymes, transgenic fodders, embryo transfer and animal cloning are confined largely to research organizations. Some developing countries such as Taiwan, China and Brazil have considered the commercialization of biotechnology in the livestock sector. Organized livestock production systems, proper record management, capacity building, objective oriented research to improve farmer's income, collaborations with the developed world, knowledge of the sociology of an area and research on new methods to educate farmers and policy makers need to be improved for the creation and implementation of biotechnology advances in the livestock sector in the developing world.

  17. National Livestock Policy of Nepal: Needs and Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upendra B. Pradhanang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes Nepal’s national livestock policies and considers how they can be improved to help meet the pressing national challenges of economic development, equity, poverty alleviation, gender mainstreaming, inclusion of marginalized and underprivileged communities, and climate vulnerability. Nepal is in the process of transforming its government from a unitary system to a federal democratic structure through the new constitution expected by 2015, offering the opportunity to bring a new set of priorities and stakeholders to policymaking. Nepal’s livestock subsector comes most directly within the purview of the National Agricultural Policy 2004, Agro-Business Policy, 2006 and Agricultural Sectoral Operating Policies of the Approach Paper to 13th Plan, 2012/13–2015/16 policy instruments. We systematically review these and other livestock-related national policies through analysis of their Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT. We conclude with the need to formulate a separate, integrated national livestock policy so that Nepal can sustainably increase livestock productivity and achieve diversification, commercialization and competitiveness of the livestock subsector within the changing national and international contexts.

  18. Integrating crops and livestock in subtropical agricultural systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Iain A; Tarawali, Shirley; Blümmel, Michael; Gerard, Bruno; Teufel, Nils; Herrero, Mario

    2012-03-30

    As the demand for livestock products increases, and is expected to continue to increase over the next few decades, especially in developing countries, smallholder mixed systems are becoming more intensive. However, with limited land and water resources and concern about the environmental impact of agricultural practices and climate change, the challenge is to find ways of increasing productivity that do not compromise household food security, but rather increase incomes equitably and sustain or enhance the natural resource base. In developed countries there has been increased specialisation of crop and livestock production. In contrast, the majority of livestock in developing countries is kept in mixed crop/livestock systems. Crops (cereal grains and pulses) and crop residues provide the basis of the diet for animals, e.g. cereal straw fed to dairy cattle or sweet potato vines fed to pigs. Animal manure can provide significant nutrient inputs to crops. Water productivity is higher in mixed crop/livestock systems compared with growing crops alone. Mixed systems allow for a more flexible and profitable use of family labour where employment opportunities are limited. They also spread risks across several enterprises, a consideration in smallholder systems that may become even more important under certain climate change scenarios. Integrated crop/livestock systems can play a significant role in improving global food security but will require appropriate technological developments, institutional arrangements and supportive policy environments if they are to fulfil that potential in the coming decades. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Genetic engineering of mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Kevin D

    2016-01-01

    Historically, genetic engineering for mammalian reproductive questions has been accomplished primarily in the mouse. However, all the genetic manipulations that can be done in the mouse can now be accomplished in most domesticated mammals. Random integration of transgenes, homologous recombination and gene editing are now routine for several mammalian species. For livestock, queries related to fertility can be asked directly for the species in question, without a need for a mouse model. For human clinical concerns, the most appropriate model should be selected based on physiology, anatomy, or even size. The mouse will continue to be a useful genetically engineered model. However, other species are now amenable to the full range of genetic manipulations and should be considered as possible models for human conditions when appropriate.

  20. Diagnosis of Brucellosis in Livestock and Wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfroid, Jacques; Nielsen, Klaus; Saegerman, Claude

    2010-01-01

    Aim To describe and discuss the merits of various direct and indirect methods applied in vitro (mainly on blood or milk) or in vivo (allergic test) for the diagnosis of brucellosis in animals. Methods The recent literature on brucellosis diagnostic tests was reviewed. These diagnostic tests are applied with different goals, such as national screening, confirmatory diagnosis, certification, and international trade. The validation of such diagnostic tests is still an issue, particularly in wildlife. The choice of the testing strategy depends on the prevailing brucellosis epidemiological situation and the goal of testing. Results Measuring the kinetics of antibody production after Brucella spp. infection is essential for analyzing serological results correctly and may help to predict abortion. Indirect ELISAs help to discriminate 1) between false positive serological reactions and true brucellosis and 2) between vaccination and infection. Biotyping of Brucella spp. provides valuable epidemiological information that allows tracing an infection back to the sources in instances where several biotypes of a given Brucella species are circulating. Polymerase chain reaction and new molecular methods are likely to be used as routine typing and fingerprinting methods in the coming years. Conclusion The diagnosis of brucellosis in livestock and wildlife is complex and serological results need to be carefully analyzed. The B. abortus S19 and B. melitensis Rev. 1 vaccines are the cornerstones of control programs in cattle and small ruminants, respectively. There is no vaccine available for pigs or for wildlife. In the absence of a human brucellosis vaccine, prevention of human brucellosis depends on the control of the disease in animals. PMID:20718082

  1. Experimenting seismological and GNSS equipment in extreme conditions in preparation for complex studies in the area of the Bulgarian Antarctic Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrova, Liliya; Georgieva, Gergana; Raykova, Reneta; Gurev, Vasil; Georgiev, Ivan

    2015-04-01

    Study of seismicity and Earth's structure on Livingston Island and surrounding area is carrying out in the frame of the project "Creating an information base for study of seismicity and Earth's structure on Livingston island and surroundings through complex research in the Bulgarian Arctic Base area" supported by the Science Research Fund to Bulgarian Ministry of Education and Science for a period of 2 years including two Antarctic expeditions. The main goal of the project is to carry out a complex seismological and geodetic research based on data recorded by broadband seismic station and 2 GNSS receivers, which will be installed near the Bulgarian Antarctic Base on Livingston Island. Additionally, the velocity of the Perunica glassier (Livingston Island) will be estimated by processing and analyzing of GNSS data. The seismic station and GNSS receivers were installed on Vitosha Mountain, near Sofia, and were working during the winter to test the performance of the equipment in extreme weather conditions similar to the Antarctic climate. The seismological equipment included CMT40T seismometer and Reftek 130 digitizer. A thermo isolating cover was used to protect the seismic station. The power was supplied by a set of special batteries. The recorded seismological and geodetic data were stored into memory cards inside the apparatus. McNamara method was used to study ambient seismic noise. Effects of harsh weather conditions (wind, snowing, reining, low temperatures) and absence of man-made noise on the distribution of the noise power are investigated. Registered signals and noise power distribution were compared with records and noise power distribution of seismic station Vitosha (VTS). The result was used to estimate and improve the performance of the equipment. Registered seismic events were localized by application of Gallitzin method. A software for localization of the events on the base of three component registration was developed and tested. . Software was

  2. Psychometric properties of the Bulgarian translation of Noise Sensitivity Scale Short Form (NSS-SF): Implementation in the field of noise control

    OpenAIRE

    Angel M Dzhambov; Donka D Dimitrova

    2014-01-01

    The Noise Sensitivity Scale Short Form (NSS-SF), developed in English as a more practical form of the classical Weinstein NSS, has not to date been validated in other cultures, and its validity and reliability have not yet been confirmed. This study aimed to validate NSS-SF in Bulgarian and to demonstrate its applicability. The study comprised test-retest (n = 115) and a field-testing (n = 71) of the newly validated scale. Its construct validity was examined with confirmatory factor analysis,...

  3. The Impact of Stakeholders' Roles within the Livestock Industry on Their Attitudes to Livestock Welfare in Southeast and East Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Michelle; Zito, Sarah; Phillips, Clive J C

    2017-01-25

    Stakeholders in the livestock industry are in a position to make critical choices that directly impact on animal welfare during slaughter and transport. Understanding the attitudes of stakeholders in livestock-importing countries, including factors that motivate the stakeholders to improve animal welfare, can lead to improved trade relations with exporting developed countries and improved animal welfare initiatives in the importing countries. Improving stakeholder attitudes to livestock welfare may help to facilitate the better welfare that is increasingly demanded by the public for livestock. Knowledge of the existing attitudes towards the welfare of livestock during transport and slaughter provides a starting point that may help to target efforts. This study aimed to investigate the animal welfare attitudes of livestock stakeholders (farmers, team leaders, veterinarians, business owners, business managers, and those working directly with animals) in selected countries in E and SE Asia (China, Thailand, Viet Nam, and Malaysia). The factors that motivated them to improve animal welfare (in particular their religion, knowledge levels, monetary gain, the availability of tools and resources, more pressing community issues, and the approval of their supervisor and peers) were assessed for their relationships to stakeholder role and ranked according to their importance. Stakeholder roles influenced attitudes to animal welfare during livestock transport and slaughter. Farmers were more motivated by their peers compared to other stakeholders. Business owners reported higher levels of motivation from monetary gain, while business managers were mainly motivated by what was prescribed by the company for which they worked. Veterinarians reported the highest levels of perceived approval for improving animal welfare, and all stakeholder groups were least likely to be encouraged to change by a 'western' international organization. This study demonstrates the differences in

  4. Direct and indirect impacts of crop-livestock organization on mixed crop-livestock systems sustainability: a model-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sneessens, I; Veysset, P; Benoit, M; Lamadon, A; Brunschwig, G

    2016-11-01

    Crop-livestock production is claimed more sustainable than specialized production systems. However, the presence of controversial studies suggests that there must be conditions of mixing crop and livestock productions to allow for higher sustainable performances. Whereas previous studies focused on the impact of crop-livestock interactions on performances, we posit here that crop-livestock organization is a key determinant of farming system sustainability. Crop-livestock organization refers to the percentage of the agricultural area that is dedicated to each production. Our objective is to investigate if crop-livestock organization has both a direct and an indirect impact on mixed crop-livestock (MC-L) sustainability. In that objective, we build a whole-farm model parametrized on representative French sheep and crop farming systems in plain areas (Vienne, France). This model permits simulating contrasted MC-L systems and their subsequent sustainability through the following indicators of performance: farm income, production, N balance, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (/kg product) and MJ consumption (/kg product). Two MC-L systems were simulated with contrasted crop-livestock organizations (MC20-L80: 20% of crops; MC80-L20: 80% of crops). A first scenario - constraining no crop-livestock interactions in both MC-L systems - permits highlighting that crop-livestock organization has a significant direct impact on performances that implies trade-offs between objectives of sustainability. Indeed, the MC80-L20 system is showing higher performances for farm income (+44%), livestock production (+18%) and crop GHG emissions (-14%) whereas the MC20-L80 system has a better N balance (-53%) and a lower livestock MJ consumption (-9%). A second scenario - allowing for crop-livestock interactions in both MC20-L80 and MC80-L20 systems - stated that crop-livestock organization has a significant indirect impact on performances. Indeed, even if crop-livestock interactions permit

  5. Foodborne illness associated with Cryptosporidium and Giardia from livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budu-Amoako, Ebo; Greenwood, Spencer J; Dixon, Brent R; Barkema, Herman W; McClure, J T

    2011-11-01

    Waterborne outbreaks caused by Cryptosporidium and Giardia are well documented, while the public health implications for foodborne illness from these parasites have not been adequately considered. Cryptosporidium and Giardia are common in domestic livestock, where young animals can have a high prevalence of infection, shedding large numbers of oocysts and cysts. Molecular epidemiological studies have advanced our knowledge on the distribution of Cryptosporidium and Giardia species and genotypes in specific livestock. This has enabled better source tracking of contaminated foods. Livestock generate large volumes of fecal waste, which can contaminate the environment with (oo)cysts. Evidence suggests that livestock, particularly cattle, play a significant role in food contamination, leading to outbreaks of cryptosporidiosis. However, foodborne giardiasis seems to originate primarily from anthroponotic sources. Foodborne cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis are underreported because of the limited knowledge of the zoonotic potential and public health implications. Methods more sensitive and cheaper are needed to detect the often-low numbers of (oo)cysts in contaminated food and water. As the environmental burden of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts from livestock waste increases with the projected increase in animal agriculture, public health is further compromised. Contamination of food by livestock feces containing Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts could occur via routes that span the entire food production continuum. Intervention strategies aimed at preventing food contamination with Cryptosporidium and Giardia will require an integrated approach based on knowledge of the potential points of entry for these parasites into the food chain. This review examines the potential for foodborne illness from Cryptosporidium and Giardia from livestock sources and discusses possible mechanisms for prevention and control.

  6. Precision livestock farming '09 : papers presented at the 4th European conference on precision livestock farming, Wageningen, The Netherlands, 6-8 July 2009

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lokhorst, C.; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G.

    2009-01-01

    These proceedings contain the reviewed papers from the 4th European Conference on Precision Livestock Farming. The papers reflect the wide range of disciplines that impinge upon precision livestock farming including feeding dairy, data quality, poultry and pig applications, livestock environment,

  7. Micronutrients in Soils, Crops, and Livestock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Umesh C.; Wu, Kening; Liang, Siyuan

    in forages, which are sufficient for optimum crop yields, are not adequate to meet the needs of livestock. Selenium is a trace mineral, which is not required by plants, and maximum forage yields can be obtained on soils with very low amounts of soil Se. However, if animals are fed feed crops and forages with low Se, they could suffer from serious muscular disorders and other diseases. White muscle disease caused by Se deficiency is the most common disorder and is found in calves and lambs. Sufficiency levels of micronutrients for crops have been discussed in relation to the animal requirement.

  8. Removal of phosphorus from livestock effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szogi, Ariel A; Vanotti, Matias B

    2009-01-01

    For removal of phosphorus (P) from swine liquid manure before land application, we developed a treatment process that produces low P effluents and a valuable P by-product with minimal chemical addition and ammonia losses. The new wastewater process included two sequential steps: (i) biological nitrification and (ii) increasing the pH of the nitrified wastewater to precipitate P. We hypothesized that by reduction of inorganic buffers (NH(4)(+) and carbonate alkalinity) via nitrification, P could be selectively removed by subsequent hydrated lime [Ca(OH)(2)] addition. The objective of the study was to assess if this new treatment could consistently reduce inorganic buffer capacity with varied initial concentrations of N (100-723 mg NH(4)(+) L(-1)), P (26-85 mg TP L(-1)), and alkalinity (953-3063 mg CaCO(3) L(-1)), and then efficiently remove P from swine lagoon liquid. The process was tested with surface lagoon liquids from 10 typical swine farms in North Carolina. Each lagoon liquid received treatment in a nitrification bioreactor, followed by chemical treatment with Ca(OH)(2) at Ca rates of 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 mmol L(-1) to precipitate P. This configuration was compared with a control that received the same Ca rates but without the nitrification pretreatment. The new process significantly reduced >90% the inorganic buffers concentrations compared with the control and prevented ammonia losses. Subsequent lime addition resulted in efficient pH increase to > or = 9.5 for optimum P precipitation in the nitrified liquid and significant reduction of effluent total P concentration versus the control. With this new process, the total P concentration in treated liquid effluent can be adjusted for on-farm use with up to >90% of P removal. The recovered solid Ca phosphate material can be easily exported from the farm and reused as P fertilizer. Therefore, the new process can be used to reduce the P content in livestock effluents to levels that would diminish problems of

  9. Mitigating climate change: the role of domestic livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, M; Smith, P; Wilkinson, J M

    2010-03-01

    Livestock contribute directly (i.e. as methane and nitrous oxide (N2O)) to about 9% of global anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and around 3% of UK emissions. If all parts of the livestock production lifecycle are included (fossil fuels used to produce mineral fertilizers used in feed production and N2O emissions from fertilizer use; methane release from the breakdown of fertilizers and from animal manure; land-use changes for feed production and for grazing; land degradation; fossil fuel use during feed and animal production; fossil fuel use in production and transport of processed and refrigerated animal products), livestock are estimated to account for 18% of global anthropogenic emissions, but less than 8% in the UK. In terms of GHG emissions per unit of livestock product, monogastric livestock are more efficient than ruminants; thus in the UK, while sheep and cattle accounted for 32% of meat production in 2006, they accounted for 48% of GHG emissions associated with meat production. More efficient management of grazing lands and of manure can have a direct impact in decreasing emissions. Improving efficiency of livestock production through better breeding, health interventions or improving fertility can also decrease GHG emissions through decreasing the number of livestock required per unit product. Increasing the energy density of the diet has a dual effect, decreasing both direct emissions and the numbers of livestock per unit product, but, as the demands for food increase in response to increasing human population and a better diet in some developing countries, there is increasing competition for land for food v. energy-dense feed crops. Recalculating efficiencies of energy and protein production on the basis of human-edible food produced per unit of human-edible feed consumed gave higher efficiencies for ruminants than for monogastric animals. The policy community thus have difficult decisions to make in balancing the negative contribution of

  10. Transmission of antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli between cattle, humans and the environment in peri-urban livestock keeping communities in Morogoro, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupindu, Athumani M; Dalsgaard, Anders; Msoffe, Peter L M; Ngowi, Helena A; Mtambo, Madundo M; Olsen, John E

    2015-03-01

    Urban and peri-urban livestock farming is expanding world-widely because of increased urbanization and demands for food of animal origin. Such farming practices pose a public health risk as livestock are reservoirs of several zoonotic pathogens. In an attempt to determine the fecal transmission between livestock and people, 100 household clusters keeping cattle in close proximity of humans were selected in urban and peri-urban areas of Morogoro in Tanzania. One hundred eighteen ampicillin and tetracycline resistant Escherichia coli (40 from human stool, 50 from cattle feces, 21 from soil and seven from water samples) were isolated from 44 different clusters. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) of XbaI digested chromosomal DNA was used to compare the genetic relatedness of the ampicillin- and tetracycline-resistant E. coli isolates. Indistinguishable PFGE band patterns of the ampicillin- and tetracycline-resistant E. coli isolates were found in samples from 23 (52%) clusters. This suggests that transfer of fecal microorganisms between cattle, humans, water and soils within the farms and from livestock farms to the neighborhood occurred commonly. Logistic regression showed that animal housing infrastructures (Odd Ratio=11.2, 95% CI=1.1-119.3) were associated with E. coli showing identical PFGE types within and between clusters. There is a need to improve animal husbandry and manure management practices to reduce risks of transmission of enteropathogens between livestock and humans in urban and peri-urban farming. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Carbapenemase Production of Clinical Isolates Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa from a Bulgarian University Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrova, Atanaska P; Stanimirova, Irina D; Ivanov, Ivan N; Petrov, Michael M; Miteva-Katrandzhieva, Tsonka M; Grivnev, Vasil I; Kardjeva, Velichka S; Kantardzhiev, Todor V; Murdjeva, Mariana A

    2017-12-20

    Production of Bla OXA-23, OXA-24, OXA-58 and hyperexpression of OXA-51 due to ISAba1 insertion sequence are the leading causes of carbapenem resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii. The loss of OprD transmembrane protein and the overexpression of some effl ux pumps are considered to be the main factors for carbapenem resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa whereas metallo-enzymes' production has a secondary role. Тo examine the carbapenem resistance due to carbapenemase production among clinically signifi cant Gram-negative non-fermenters from St George University hospital, Plovdiv: A. baumannii and P. aeruginosa. Forty three A. baumannii and 43 P. aeruginosa isolates, resistant or with intermediate resistance to imipenem and/or meropenem were included in the study. They were collected from patients admitted in 14 various hospital wards between 2010 and 2014. Both phenotypic and genetic methods were used for identifi cation and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. All A. baumannii demonstrated carbapenemase production determined by a modifi ed Hodge test whereas P. aeruginosa isolates did not show this phenomenon. OXA-23 genes were determined in 97.7% (42 out of 43) of A. baumannii isolates indistinguishable from the sequence of the classical ARI-1 gene. OXA-24, OXA-58 and overexpression of OXA-51 were not registered in any of the isolates. All P. aeruginosa were negative for blaVIM and blaIMP genes. The leading cause of carbapenem resistance in A. baumannii isolates from our hospital is the carbapenemase production due to the expression of OXA- 23 gene, whereas in P. aeruginosa - the loss of transmembrane OprD protein and the effl ux pumps' hyperexpression are suspected to be the main mechanisms.

  12. Culture-specific influences on body image and eating distress in a sample of urban Bulgarian women: the roles of faith and traditional fasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelova, Rosa Angelova; Utermohlen, Virginia

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of local culture on body image and eating distress in a sample of urban Bulgarian women. Specifically, we focused on two affiliated factors unique to the Bulgarian context: faith and traditional fasting. Findings revealed that women could be divided into two groups who behaved differently based on the severity of their eating disorder symptomatology. For women with higher EAT-40 scores (i.e., vulnerable women), faith seemed to have harmful effects, perhaps by virtue of motivating or reinforcing asceticism and dietary restraint. For these women fasting was likely but one strategy for weight management and the achievement of a desired thin figure consistent with the socio-cultural models. In contrast, among women with lower EAT-40 scores, faith seemed to have a protective effect against excessive dieting. These women were more likely to use fasting in the way intended by religious scripture, for faith-related reasons that have nothing to do with body image. This study contributes to the literature by emphasizing the importance of culturally unique factors that may be implicated in the relationship between body dissatisfaction and overt eating distress in the trans-cultural context. When expanded, this research can be of use in helping formulate custom interventions and public health policies aimed at preventing such conditions in Bulgaria and possibly in similar post-communist cultures. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Attitudes and Prerequisites for the Establishment of an Integrated Cultural Identity within Romanian-Bulgarian Cross-Border Region along the Danube River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Popova

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: On the basis of the results from an empirical study this research aims at exploration of the prerequisites for the establishment of an integrated cultural identity within Romanian-Bulgarian Cross-Border Region along the Danube River (RBCBR. Prior Work: The paper is trying to prove the necessity of identity re-negotiation process within RBCBR. The theoretical background of the research is related to some of the most topical considerations in this scientific field. Approach: The research uses an interdisciplinary approach and combines the perspectives of regional studies, cross-cultural psychology and intercultural communication. A representative survey is the main instrument of the research. Results: Among the citizens of the RBCBR there exist favourable attitudes towards closer relations with their neighbours which can serve as a key element of the identity re-negotiation process within the region. Implications: The research results can be used by policy makers and regional authorities in the process of establishment of a new policy for territorial cooperation as well as by researchers in further development of this topic area. Value: the importance of the research is in its new approach towards the establishment of integrated regional identity as well as in the comparison of the Romanian and Bulgarian attitudes towards cooperation in the neighbourhood area.

  14. Use of headspace mulberry paper bag micro solid phase extraction for characterization of volatile aromas of essential oils from Bulgarian rose and Provence lavender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Mi-Mi; Cha, Eun-Ju; Yoon, Ok-Kyung; Kim, Nam-Sun; Kim, Kun; Lee, Dong-Sun

    2009-01-05

    In this study, a new sampling method called headspace mulberry paper bag micro solid phase extraction (HS-MPB-mu-SPE) combined to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry has been applied for the analysis of volatile aromas of liquid essential oils from Bulgarian rose and Provence lavender. The technique uses an adsorbent (Tenax TA) contained in a mulberry paper bag, minimal amount of organic solvent. Linearities for the six-points calibration curves were excellent. LOD values were in the rage from 0.38 ng mL(-1) to 0.77 ng mL(-1). Overall, precision and recovery were generally good. Phenethyl alcohol and citronellol were the main components in the essential oil from Bulgarian rose. Linalyl acetate and linalool were the most abundant components in the essential oils from true lavender or lavandin. Additionally, the relative extraction efficiencies of proposed method have been compared with HS-SPME. The overall extraction efficiency was evaluated by the relative concentration factors (CF) of the several characteristic components. CF values by HS-MPB-mu-SPE were lower than those by headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME). The HS-MPB-mu-SPE method is very simple to use, inexpensive, rapid, requires small sample amounts and solvent consumption. In addition, this method allowed combining of extraction, enrichment, and clean-up in a single step. HS-MPB-mu-SPE and GC/MS is a promising technique for the characterization of volatile aroma compounds from liquid essential oils.

  15. Cytogenetic index and functional genome alterations in Chironomus piger Strenzke (Diptera, Chironomidae) in the assessment of sediment pollution: a case study of Bulgarian and UK rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michailova, P; Ilkova, J; Dean, A P; White, K N

    2015-01-01

    The genotoxicity of trace metals in the sediments from a number of polluted sites on UK and Bulgarian rivers to Chironomus piger was assessed by an examination of genome instability as demonstrated by structural and functional changes to the salivary glands chromosomes. Based on the metal assays, the sediments were characterized to range from 'extremely' to 'strongly contaminated'. The cytogenetic index calculated on the basis of somatic structural chromosome alterations in the polytene chromosomes indicates a high level of pollution (0.07-0.06 in Bulgarian and 0.10-0.13 in UK stations). Exposure of C. piger to contaminated sediments resulted in a high level of chromosome damage as indicated by a somatic index of between 1.96 and 4.0. The transcription mechanism of the Balbiani rings and nucleolar organizer was damaged as their activity was either partially or completely suppressed. We have demonstrated that the C. piger genome is a sensitive sublethal indicator of sediment contamination, and is a highly suitable candidate for ecotoxicological monitoring of running waters. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The effects of Brazilian and Bulgarian propolis in vitro against Salmonella Typhi and their synergism with antibiotics acting on the ribosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsi, R O; Fernandes, A; Bankova, V; Sforcin, J M

    2012-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi is the causative agent of typhoid fever in humans, and the use of antibiotics is essential for controlling this infection; however, the excessive use of antibiotics may select resistant strains. Propolis is a honeybee product and its antimicrobial activity has been intensively investigated. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate a possible synergism between propolis (collected in Brazil and Bulgaria) and antibiotics acting on the ribosome (chloramphenicol, tetracycline and neomycin) against Salmonella Typhi in vitro. The synergism was investigated by using ½ and ¼ of the minimum inhibitory concentration for propolis and these antimicrobial agents, evaluating the number of viable cells according to the incubation time. Brazilian propolis showed a bacteriostatic action against S. Typhi, while Bulgarian propolis showed a bactericidal activity and a synergistic effect with the three antibiotics. Variations in the biological assays might be due to the differences in their chemical compositions. Based on the results, one may conclude that Bulgarian propolis showed an important antibacterial action, as well as a synergistic effect with antibiotics acting on the ribosome, which points out a possible therapeutic strategy evaluating the use of propolis preparations for the treatment of Salmonella Typhi infection.

  17. Advanced biosensors for detection of pathogens related to livestock and poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidic, Jasmina; Manzano, Marisa; Chang, Chung-Ming; Jaffrezic-Renault, Nicole

    2017-02-21

    Infectious animal diseases caused by pathogenic microorganisms such as bacteria and viruses threaten the health and well-being of wildlife, livestock, and human populations, limit productivity and increase significantly economic losses to each sector. The pathogen detection is an important step for the diagnostics, successful treatment of animal infection diseases and control management in farms and field conditions. Current techniques employed to diagnose pathogens in livestock and poultry include classical plate-based methods and conventional biochemical methods as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). These methods are time-consuming and frequently incapable to distinguish between low and highly pathogenic strains. Molecular techniques such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and real time PCR (RT-PCR) have also been proposed to be used to diagnose and identify relevant infectious disease in animals. However these DNA-based methodologies need isolated genetic materials and sophisticated instruments, being not suitable for in field analysis. Consequently, there is strong interest for developing new swift point-of-care biosensing systems for early detection of animal diseases with high sensitivity and specificity. In this review, we provide an overview of the innovative biosensing systems that can be applied for livestock pathogen detection. Different sensing strategies based on DNA receptors, glycan, aptamers and antibodies are presented. Besides devices still at development level some are validated according to standards of the World Organization for Animal Health and are commercially available. Especially, paper-based platforms proposed as an affordable, rapid and easy to perform sensing systems for implementation in field condition are included in this review.

  18. Vegetation on the Soil Infiltration System Treating Livestock Wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Shinji; Fujikawa, Yoko; Fukui, Masami; Hamasaki, Tastuhide; Sugahara, Masataka

    In the overland flow wastewater treatments and the constructed wetlands, the purification by soil infiltration units is enhanced using vegetation. However, wetland plants (i.e. cattail (Typha latifolia)) and trees, rather than agronomic crops, have been used in conventional systems. We carried out laboratory-scale soil infiltration experiments using two forage crops, tall fescue (Festuca araundinacea) and white clover (Trifolium repens) while using livestock wastewater for irrigation. The purpose of the study was to clarify the amount of accumulation of available phosphorus and exchangeable cations in the soil and its effect on the plant growth. The application of livestock wastewater increased available phosphorus, and exchangeable potassium and sodium in the upper soil. The soil sodification, examined based on exchangeable sodium ratio and plant growth, was not very significant after 10 months of livestock wastewater application. Growing forage crops on the soil infiltration system may be a promising technology to improve crop production and treatment efficacy.

  19. CFD Modeling of Airflow in a Livestock Building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rong, Li; Elhadidi, B.; Khalifa, H. E.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a 2D simulation for a typical livestock building is performed to assess the ammonia emission removal rate to the atmosphere. Two geometry models are used and compared in order to represent the slatted floor. In the first model the floor is modeled as a slatted floor and in the second...... the accuracy of the porous jump assumption by comparing the velocity, and ammonia concentration in a 2D simulation, heated solid bodies are added to represent the livestock in the following simulations. The results of simulations with heat source also indicate that modeling the slatted floor with slats...... is necessary. Furthermore, the combination of low inlet velocity and heated objects causes the flow to be buoyancy dominated and unsteady. This unsteadiness can be common in similar buoyancy induced flows for high Rayleigh number flow. The paper concludes with tradeoffs suggested for simulation of livestock...

  20. Wildfire: It's Economic Impact on Grazing Livestock in Northern Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honeycutt, S.

    2015-12-01

    As the climate changes and Nevada experiences long severe drought, a key understanding of the economic impacts of wildfire on grazing livestock is essential in the assurance of livestock production in future management of Nevada's rangeland. The focus of this research is to determine the economic impact in the reduction of rangeland available for livestock grazing due to wildfires. The datasets utilized in this research are from 2007 & 2012 and include Bureau of Land Management wildfire, grazing allotments and herd management area geospatial data along with USDA Census of Agriculture, Inventory & Sales Information for cattle & calves, sheep & lambs, and goats. Presented in the results will be the direct, indirect, and induced economic effects of wildfires on rangeland production.

  1. Parasitological measures to characterize different livestock production systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thamsborg, Stig M.; Mejer, H.; Enemark, Heidi

    2013-01-01

    . Several on-farm surveys have indicated that, despite large farm-to-farm variation, levels and diversity of parasite infections may reflect differences in production systems. In developed countries, organic farming (OF) as a certified livestock production system with a given set of standards, has gained...... in the livestock sector but the local farming systems may represent the ‘hidden world of OF’ (Parrott et al., 2005) e.g. as low input sustainable agriculture based on local resources and processes and traditional farming (food grown without chemicals or organic by default). Some of the problems and perhaps also......Worldwide, livestock is produced and managed very differently, reflecting climatic, topographical, cultural and economical differences between regions. Even within regions, a diverse range of systems exists due to different availability of resources, local conditions, and farmers’ attitudes...

  2. Effect of Bacillus subtilis microecological probiotics on livestock breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohui ZHOU

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available As a kind of green and healthy microecologics, Bacillus subtilis could balance the intestinal flora, promote the nutrient absorption and enhance immunity. Microecologics is one of the ideal antibiotics alternative, which are effective in preventing and treating animal disease and promoting the growth and development of the animal. Because of its advantages, such as no toxin side effect and no residual or drug-resistant, microecologics has been used in livestock breeding widely. Here, we concluded the characteristics and mechanism of Bacillus subtilis,elaborated application of microecologics on livestock breeding, discussed its problems and suggested its solved methods. In the end, the future of microecologics was expected in order to provide a reference for subsequent livestock breeding.

  3. Creating the Livestock Guru: ICTs to enhance livestock-related knowledge among poor households in Orissa, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yibo; Heffernan, Claire

    2010-10-01

    The following paper details the creation and dissemination of a multi-media learning program for poor livestock keepers in Orissa, India: the Livestock Guru. To devise the learning content, interviews were held with 240 poor livestock-keeping households in four districts in Orissa State. Methods for measuring user demand and assessing disease priorities are detailed in addition to a description of the software content, design, and dissemination strategy. The software was based on situated learning theory. Following this approach, the Livestock Guru was created to be contextually specific to the learning environment of the users. Further, to support a demand-led paradigm, the software was designed to be fully inter-active, where users have a choice over the learning material on offer. The results demonstrate that appropriately designed information and communication technologies can help alleviate barriers to knowledge acquisition by poor livestock keepers at the community level. As such, the overall aim of the paper is to enable the software to be replicated in other contexts.

  4. Case studies on genetically modified organisms (GMOs)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santis, De Barbara; Stockhofe, Norbert; Wal, Jean Michel; Weesendorp, Eefke; Lallès, Jean Paul; Dijk, van Jeroen; Kok, Esther; Giacomo, De Marzia; Einspanier, Ralf; Onori, Roberta; Brera, Carlo; Bikker, Paul; Meulen, van der Jan; Kleter, Gijs

    2017-01-01

    Within the frame of the EU-funded MARLON project, background data were reviewed to explore the possibility of measuring health indicators during post-market monitoring for potential effects of feeds, particularly genetically modified (GM) feeds, on livestock animal health, if applicable. Four case

  5. Genetic characterization of native southern African chicken ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unknown

    for the genetic conservation of poultry resources (Scherf, 1995). Similar projects have since been undertaken for all the major livestock species (Mason & Crawford, 1993). To date, native South African chicken lines have received very little scientific attention, and research projects have been directed primarily towards ...

  6. Indigenous chicken genetic resources in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    1ARC-Animal Production Institute, Private Bag X2, Irene, 0062, South Africa. 2Department of Animal Science, Stellenbosch University, Private Bag X1, Matieland, 7602, South Africa. 3Institute of Farm Animal Genetics, Friedrich Loeffler Institut, Höltystr.10, 31535 Neustadt-Mariensee, Germany. 4Department of Livestock and ...

  7. Adaptation to hot climate and strategies to alleviate heat stress in livestock production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renaudeau, D; Collin, A; Yahav, S; de Basilio, V; Gourdine, J L; Collier, R J

    2012-05-01

    Despite many challenges faced by animal producers, including environmental problems, diseases, economic pressure, and feed availability, it is still predicted that animal production in developing countries will continue to sustain the future growth of the world's meat production. In these areas, livestock performance is generally lower than those obtained in Western Europe and North America. Although many factors can be involved, climatic factors are among the first and crucial limiting factors of the development of animal production in warm regions. In addition, global warming will further accentuate heat stress-related problems. The objective of this paper was to review the effective strategies to alleviate heat stress in the context of tropical livestock production systems. These strategies can be classified into three groups: those increasing feed intake or decreasing metabolic heat production, those enhancing heat-loss capacities, and those involving genetic selection for heat tolerance. Under heat stress, improved production should be possible through modifications of diet composition that either promotes a higher intake or compensates the low feed consumption. In addition, altering feeding management such as a change in feeding time and/or frequency, are efficient tools to avoid excessive heat load and improve survival rate, especially in poultry. Methods to enhance heat exchange between the environment and the animal and those changing the environment to prevent or limit heat stress can be used to improve performance under hot climatic conditions. Although differences in thermal tolerance exist between livestock species (ruminants > monogastrics), there are also large differences between breeds of a species and within each breed. Consequently, the opportunity may exist to improve thermal tolerance of the animals using genetic tools. However, further research is required to quantify the genetic antagonism between adaptation and production traits to evaluate

  8. Genetic diversity in Chinese natural zoysiagrass based on inter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Zoysiagrass (Zoysia sp.) is extensively used in turf establishment and livestock herbage due to its many outstanding characters. Native Zoysia sp. are widely distributed in China. Inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers were used to investigate the genetic diversity and genetic relationships of 81 Chinese wild ...

  9. Genetic variance components for residual feed intake and feed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Feeding costs of animals is a major determinant of profitability in livestock production enterprises. Genetic selection to improve feed efficiency aims to reduce feeding cost in beef cattle and thereby improve profitability. This study estimated genetic (co)variances between weaning weight and other production, reproduction ...

  10. Population structure and genetic diversity of Sudanese native chickens

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2013-11-06

    1995). Development of a genetic map of the chicken with markers of high utility. Poult. Sci. 74:1855-1874. Dalvit C, De Marchi M, Cassandro M (2007). Genetic traceability of livestock products: A review. Meat Sci. 77:437-449.

  11. Generation and applications of monoclonal antibodies for livestock production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Der Lende, T

    1994-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (MCAs) have found widespread applications in livestock production. Although the generation of murine MCAs is at present a routine, the production of homologous MCAs, especially important for in vivo applications, is still hampered by the lack of efficient homologous fusion partners for immortalization of antibody producing lymphocytes of livestock species. At present, MCAs are used in immunodiagnostic tests e.g. to monitor livestock reproduction and quality of livestock products. In the future MCAs will also be used in immunosensors for real-time and on-site applications in the same areas. The commercial application of MCAs for the immunomodulation of (pharmacologically induced) physiological processes underlying important (re)production traits is at present limited to the use of anti-PMSG MCAs in PMSG-induced superovulation. However, many potentially interesting applications are under investigation (e.g. immunopotentiation of growth hormone to enhance growth; immunocytolysis of adipocytes to increase lean meat production; immunoneutralization of GnRH for immunocastration; immunoimitation of hormone activity with anti-idiotype antibodies). Attempts to use specific MCAs for the sexing of embryos have been disappointing, mainly because of the relatively low accuracy. In the future, MCAs against membrane proteins which are specific for X- or Y-chromosome bearing spermatozoa might be used for bulk separation of livestock sperm. In general, it is expected that engineered (homologous) recombinant MCAs will largely contribute to the development of a new generation of rapid immunodiagnostic tests and effective immunomodulation applications. They will further increase the use of MCAs in livestock production.

  12. Direction of rational use of water at livestock facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potseluev, A. A.; Nazarov, I. V.

    2017-05-01

    The article notes the world water shortage problem. Against this background, Russia’s agricultural production is considered, in particular the livestock sector as the main consumer of water resources. The structure of the main technological processes at livestock facilities is given and possible technological damage is indicated in case of the lack of technological processes for servicing animals and poultry with water. The direction of rational use of water based on the introduction of new technical and technological solutions of water supply systems and means is substantiated. Constructive solutions of systems and facilities that help to reduce water consumption are presented, and as well a possible positive effect.

  13. Modeling and Control of Livestock Ventilation Systems and Indoor Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Zhuang; Heiselberg, Per; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2005-01-01

    The hybrid ventilation systems have been widely used for livestock barns to provide optimum indoor climate by controlling the ventilation rate and air flow distribution within the ventilated building structure. The purpose of this paper is to develop models for livestock ventilation systems and i...... constraints and random disturbances is designed through system linearization. The well designed control systems are able to determine the demand ventilation rate and airflow pattern, improve and optimize the indoor Thermal Comfort (TC), Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) and energy use....

  14. Residual N effects from livestock manure inputs to soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Jaap; Bechini, Luca; Bittman, Shabtai

    Organic inputs including livestock manures provide nitrogen (N) to crops beyond the year of their application. This so-called residual N effect should be taken into account when making decisions on N rates for individual fields, but also when interpreting N response trials in preparation of recom......Organic inputs including livestock manures provide nitrogen (N) to crops beyond the year of their application. This so-called residual N effect should be taken into account when making decisions on N rates for individual fields, but also when interpreting N response trials in preparation...

  15. Molecular surveillance of Theileria parasites of livestock in Oman

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Fahdi, Amira; Alqamashoui, Badar; Al-Hamidhi, Salama; Kose, Onur; Mohammed H Tageldin; Bobade, Patrick; Eugene H. Johnson; Hussain, Abdel-Rahim; Karagenc, Tulin; Tait, Andy; Shiels, Brian; Bilgic, Huseyin Bilgin; Babiker, Hamza

    2017-01-01

    Background: Theileriosis is one of the most prevalent infectious diseases of livestock in the Arabian Peninsula,\\ud and causes high rates of mortality and morbidity in sheep and cattle. However, there is a paucity of information\\ud on the distribution of Theileria spp. over the whole region and their impact on different hosts. The present study\\ud carried out a country-wide molecular survey for Theileria spp. of livestock in Oman across four governorates. The\\ud aim of the survey was to defin...

  16. Genetic differentiation of the Western Capercaillie highlights the importance of South-eastern Europe for understanding the species phylogeography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Bajc

    Full Text Available The Western Capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus L. is a grouse species of open boreal or high altitude forests of Eurasia. It is endangered throughout most mountain range habitat areas in Europe. Two major genetically identifiable lineages of Western Capercaillie have been described to date: the southern lineage at the species' southernmost range of distribution in Europe, and the boreal lineage. We address the question of genetic differentiation of capercaillie populations from the Rhodope and Rila Mountains in Bulgaria, across the Dinaric Mountains to the Slovenian Alps. The two lineages' contact zone and resulting conservation strategies in this so-far understudied area of distribution have not been previously determined. The results of analysis of mitochondrial DNA control region sequences of 319 samples from the studied populations show that Alpine populations were composed exclusively of boreal lineage; Dinaric populations of both, but predominantly (96% of boreal lineage; and Rhodope-Rila populations predominantly (>90% of southern lineage individuals. The Bulgarian mountains were identified as the core area of the southern lineage, and the Dinaric Mountains as the western contact zone between both lineages in the Balkans. Bulgarian populations appeared genetically distinct from Alpine and Dinaric populations and exhibited characteristics of a long-term stationary population, suggesting that they should be considered as a glacial relict and probably a distinct subspecies. Although all of the studied populations suffered a decline in the past, the significantly lower level of genetic diversity when compared with the neighbouring Alpine and Bulgarian populations suggests that the isolated Dinaric capercaillie is particularly vulnerable to continuing population decline. The results are discussed in the context of conservation of the species in the Balkans, its principal threats and legal protection status. Potential conservation strategies should

  17. The Impact of Stakeholders’ Roles within the Livestock Industry on Their Attitudes to Livestock Welfare in Southeast and East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Sinclair

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Stakeholders in the livestock industry are in a position to make critical choices that directly impact on animal welfare during slaughter and transport. Understanding the attitudes of stakeholders in livestock-importing countries, including factors that motivate the stakeholders to improve animal welfare, can lead to improved trade relations with exporting developed countries and improved animal welfare initiatives in the importing countries. Improving stakeholder attitudes to livestock welfare may help to facilitate the better welfare that is increasingly demanded by the public for livestock. Knowledge of the existing attitudes towards the welfare of livestock during transport and slaughter provides a starting point that may help to target efforts. This study aimed to investigate the animal welfare attitudes of livestock stakeholders (farmers, team leaders, veterinarians, business owners, business managers, and those working directly with animals in selected countries in E and SE Asia (China, Thailand, Viet Nam, and Malaysia. The factors that motivated them to improve animal welfare (in particular their religion, knowledge levels, monetary gain, the availability of tools and resources, more pressing community issues, and the approval of their supervisor and peers were assessed for their relationships to stakeholder role and ranked according to their importance. Stakeholder roles influenced attitudes to animal welfare during livestock transport and slaughter. Farmers were more motivated by their peers compared to other stakeholders. Business owners reported higher levels of motivation from monetary gain, while business managers were mainly motivated by what was prescribed by the company for which they worked. Veterinarians reported the highest levels of perceived approval for improving animal welfare, and all stakeholder groups were least likely to be encouraged to change by a ‘western’ international organization. This study demonstrates the

  18. Using the economic surplus model to measure potential returns to international livestock research : the case of trypanosomosis vaccine research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kristjanson, P.; Rowlands, J.; Swallow, B.

    1999-01-01

    This report addresses issues surrounding measurement of the potential productivity gains from new livestock technologies and the returns to international livestock research. The approach, applicable to many livestock production constraints and technologies, integrates a herd simulation model to

  19. Hippopotamus and livestock grazing : Influences on riparian vegetation and facilitation of other herbivores in the Mara Region of Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kanga, Erustus M.; Ogutu, Joseph O.; Piepho, Hans-Peter; Olff, Han

    Riparian savanna habitats grazed by hippopotamus or livestock experience seasonal ecological stresses through the depletion of herbaceous vegetation, and are often points of contacts and conflicts between herbivores, humans and their livestock. We investigated how hippopotamus and livestock grazing

  20. Air treatment techniques for abatement of emissions from intensive livestock production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melse, R.W.

    2009-01-01

    Keywords: Air treatment; Scrubber; Bioscrubber; Biofilter; Biotrickling filter; Ammonia; NH3; Odour; Livestock production; Animal husbandry; Pig; Poultry. Intensive livestock production is connected with a number of environmental effects, including emissions of ammonia (NH3), greenhouse gases (CH4

  1. Accounting for monogastric livestock as a driver in global land use and cover change assessments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eitelberg, David A.; Van Vliet, Jasper; Verburg, Peter H.

    2017-01-01

    Land systems are described based on various characteristics, including land cover composition and agricultural production. However, it is uncertain to what extent livestock, particularly monogastric livestock, determines land systems. We included monogastrics in a land system classification, and

  2. Productive Spillovers of the Take-Up of Index-Based Livestock Insurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Does the provision of livestock insurance raise the unintended consequence of stimulating excessive herd accumulation and less environmentally-sustainable herd movement patterns? The impact of insurance is theoretically ambiguous: if precautionary savings motives for holding livestock assets domina...

  3. 76 FR 48796 - Plan for Estimating Daily Livestock Slaughter Under Federal Inspection; Request for Extension of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-09

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service Plan for Estimating Daily Livestock Slaughter Under Federal Inspection; Request... information collection used to compile and generate the Federally Inspected Estimated Daily Slaughter [email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Plan for Estimating Daily Livestock Slaughter...

  4. Poultry Houses, WI Livestock Consortium Livestock Premises; confidentiality protected by law; use for animal health emergencies only; some aggregated county data, Published in 2009, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Wisconsin Department of Agriculture, Trade & Consumer Protection.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — Poultry Houses dataset current as of 2009. WI Livestock Consortium Livestock Premises; confidentiality protected by law; use for animal health emergencies only; some...

  5. Integrated Crop-Livestock Systems in Newly Resettled Areas of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A semi- structured questionnaire was administered to collect information on household demography, level of education, farming history, livestock and crop management. Data were analyzed using the statistical package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 16. The youngest respondent was 27 while the oldest was over ...

  6. Risk assessment framework for emerging vector-borne livestock diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, de C.J.; Hoek, M.R.; Fischer, E.A.J.; Koeijer, de A.A.; Bremmer, J.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this project was to develop a framework for risk assessment of introduction, establishment, spread and persistence of vector-borne livestock diseases by integrating the essential elements of different approaches. This framework will help risk analysts to assess the risk of

  7. problems of livestock production in the black states of southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutrition. Malnutrition is undoubtedly the most important cause of high mortality and low reproduction rates. (Bishop & Stampa, 197 5). Du Casse (1974) re- ported that .... 8), except some- times to meet educational obligations for their children. Therefore, it is quite clear that the be- haviour of peasant livestock owners is quite.

  8. LVIF Call 2 - Innovations to improve livestock vaccines

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Musa Mulongo

    IDRC Call for Research Proposals: Livestock Vaccine Innovation Fund. 2017. 4 | P a g e will be successful. In addition, it is essential for research teams to demonstrate strong capacity to generate timely results based on specific milestones and within the allocated budget. It is important to emphasize that approaches ...

  9. Animal Health Management perspectives of rural livestock farmers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Animal Health Management perspectives of rural livestock farmers in Southwest Nigeria: The place of community based Animal Health Workers. ... The major health and production problems identified were Pestes des petit ruminants (PPR) (30.0% of respondents), mange (23.0%) and crop destruction (20.0%); while ...

  10. Livestock breeding for sustainability to mitigate global warming, with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Livestock breeding for sustainability to mitigate global warming, with the emphasis on developing countries. ... Proper definition of breeding objectives and trait definition is essential in implementing efficient breeding systems to cope with climate change. Sophisticated statistical models continue to support animal breeding ...

  11. Five diseases, one vaccine - a boost for emerging livestock farmers ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    socioeconomic analysis of livestock farming practices. The results of this analysis may be used to advise policymakers on ways to address gender inequalities; this will be in collaboration with gender experts from Canada, Kenya and South. Africa. Central to the analysis is the idea that empowering women farmers, through ...

  12. Biomass requirements from natural pastures for livestock grazing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biomass requirements from natural pastures for livestock grazing and soil protection in the Eastern African highlands. ... Herbage production could further be improved through fertilizer application, provision of feed supplements during times of shortfall in biomass, and/or by leaving animal dung on the pasturelands instead ...

  13. Database Application for a Youth Market Livestock Production Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horney, Marc R.

    2013-01-01

    This article offers an example of a database designed to support teaching animal production and husbandry skills in county youth livestock programs. The system was used to manage production goals, animal growth and carcass data, photos and other imagery, and participant records. These were used to produce a variety of customized reports to help…

  14. Sustainable Livestock Production, Health, and Environment in the ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project aims to promote evidence-based policies for improving livestock production, environmental sustainability, and health in the Bolivian Altiplano's rural communities. Traditional farming under threat in Bolivia Raising sheep and llamas is a fundamental economic activity that is threatened by current agricultural ...

  15. Sustainability of the South African Livestock Sector towards 2050 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Challenges facing the livestock sector towards 2050 and the changes and management considerations required to maintain sustainability are discussed. Major challenges are associated with climate change and the environmental impact of the sector. Southern Africa is predicted to become drier and the average ...

  16. Biotechnology in livestock production: Overview of possibilities for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-29

    Dec 29, 2008 ... produce more food from animals for the ever-growing human population. In general, biotechnology in livestock production ... through strategic packaging. Public concerns on food safety, environment and ... prevention is probably the most active faculty in animal heath technologies that has resulted in the ...

  17. Livestock Nutrition and Feeding. Student Manual. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridenour, Harlan E.

    This manual is designed to help agricultural education students and teachers to apply scientific facts and principles to problem-solving procedures in determining nutritious and economical livestock feeding programs. The manual provides applied scientific activities in biological science and chemistry, mathematics, and communication skills. It…

  18. Hmong women, opium cultivation and livestock production in Lao PDR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oparaocha, S

    1998-01-01

    This article analyzes the effects on Hmong women of a Laotian government policy to replace production of opium by upland farmers with other cash crops by the year 2000. In 1996, 15% of the population relied on opium as a cash crop. This project aimed to include Hmong women in small livestock production in 2 villages: Ban Kampanien and Ban Pha Ven in Nong Het district, Xieng Khouang province, near the Vietnamese border. Interviews were conducted among 33 families using the Harvard Gender Analytical Tools (1991) to determine gender roles in livestock production. Participatory assessment relied on matrix ranking, resource maps, and trend charts. In Nong Het, White Hmong dominate. Average family size is 7 persons. Polygamy is allowed, but declining. The birthrate is high. Swidden agriculture is practiced. Agricultural production meets demand. Patriarchal authority dominates; men and women have separate public and private spheres. Education favors boys. Women are involved in all aspects of agricultural production. The author describes women's role in small livestock production and gender roles in feed management. Women exercise autonomy only through raising livestock and poultry. Women's production is constrained by limited access to extension services, feed resources, labor saving technology, and credit. In order to offset the loss of income from opium, Hmong women need to increase their income by increasing the product output per animal using selective breeding, and decreasing time spent on preparing and processing food. Assistance should be provided to improve women's resources and knowledge.

  19. Analysis of borrowing and repayment of credit among livestock ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined borrowing and repayment of credit among livestock farmers in Cross River State, Nigeria. Data for the study was obtained from the Bank of Agriculture (BOA), Calabar. Descriptive statistics such as percentage count, mean and tables were employed in the analysis. It was discovered that BOA in ...

  20. Livestock Update: Beef-Horse-Poultry-Sheep-Swine

    OpenAIRE

    Greiner, Scott Patrick; Roper, David

    2017-01-01

    This issue provides information on herd management of calves and cows, including concerns of health, nutrition, forages, and reproduction. Three articles about the care of sheep and goats focus on feeds, vaccinations, parasite management, as well as on age and weight as considerations in selecting new livestock.

  1. 9 CFR 313.1 - Livestock pens, driveways and ramps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... protruding objects which may, in the opinion of the inspector, cause injury or pain to the animals. Loose... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Livestock pens, driveways and ramps. 313.1 Section 313.1 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  2. Supporting the production of quality livestock vaccines for ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    It is estimated that Kenya has 18.2 million cattle, 16.3 million sheep, and 24.6 million goats. The majority of these animals (80%) are held by smallholder farmers who depend on livestock for their livelihoods. About a quarter of these animals succumb to various preventable diseases causing significant economic and social ...

  3. Serological survey of Brucellosis in livestock animals and workers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A serological survey of brucellosis in livestock animals and workers was conducted in Ibadan, Southwestern Nigeria between May and August 2004. A total of 1,210 cattle, 54 sheep, 496 goats, 200 pigs and 21 humans (i.e. butchers and herdsmen) were screened using the Rose Bengal test (RBT).From the results ...

  4. Impact Of Ethnic Conflicts On Livestock Production In Africa: The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rampant ethnic conflicts and civil wars in the northern parts of most African countries have destroyed and continue to destroy the economies of such regions which are usually pastoral and dependent on livestock. This has resulted in a vicious cycle of poverty and under-development among the people of such regions.

  5. Capripoxvirus-vectored vaccines against livestock diseases in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boshra, Hani; Truong, Thang; Nfon, Charles; Gerdts, Volker; Tikoo, Suresh; Babiuk, Lorne A; Kara, Pravesh; Mather, Arshad; Wallace, David; Babiuk, Shawn

    2013-05-01

    Five different viral diseases of livestock, lumpy skin disease (LSD), sheep pox (SPP), goat pox (GTP), Rift Valley fever (RVF) and peste des petits ruminants (PPR), circulate in the same regions of Africa, imposing a major burden on economic activity and public health. While commercial vaccines against these viruses are available, the cost of implementing regular vaccination regimens against multiple diseases is prohibitive for most African farmers. A single, affordable multivalent vaccine that simultaneously protects against all 5 diseases would therefore be of significant benefit to the livestock sector in Africa. It could also serve as a platform for the development of new vaccines of significance to other developing countries around the world. In this paper, we present an overview of the economic importance of livestock in Africa, the pathogens responsible for RVF, PPR, SPP, GTP and LSD and the vaccination strategies currently used to combat them. We then review experience with the development of attenuated capripoxviruses as vaccines against LSD, SPP and GTP and of recombinant capripoxvirus-vectored vaccines against RVF and PPR. We conclude the article by presenting the rationale for a single, multivalent capripoxvirus-vectored vaccine that would protect against all 5 diseases of livestock, and describe the approach being taken by a consortium of Canadian and South African researchers to develop such a vaccine. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The Role of Livestock Keeping in Human Brucellosis Trends in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross-sectional survey was carried out in Karatu and Ngorongoro districts in Arusha region and Babati, Hanang and Mbulu districts in Manyara region involving 20 agro-pastoral and 9 pastoral villages, to establish the magnitude of human brucellosis in relation to livestock brucellosis. A multistage random sampling was ...

  7. 7 CFR 205.239 - Livestock living conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Livestock living conditions. 205.239 Section 205.239 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM...

  8. 7 CFR 205.306 - Labeling of livestock feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Labeling of livestock feed. 205.306 Section 205.306 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM...

  9. Policies for Reintegrating Crop and Livestock Systems: A Comparative Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachael D. Garrett

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The reintegration of crop and livestock systems within the same land area has the potential to improve soil quality and reduce water and air pollution, while maintaining high yields and reducing risk. In this study, we characterize the degree to which federal policies in three major global food production regions that span a range of socioeconomic contexts, Brazil, New Zealand, and the United States, incentivize or disincentivize the use of integrated crop and livestock practices (ICLS. Our analysis indicates that Brazil and New Zealand have the most favorable policy environment for ICLS, while the United States provides the least favorable environment. The balance of policy incentives and disincentives across our three cases studies mirrors current patterns of ICLS usage. Brazil and New Zealand have both undergone a trend toward mixed crop livestock systems in recent years, while the United States has transitioned rapidly toward continuous crop and livestock production. If transitions to ICLS are desired, particularly in the United States, it will be necessary to change agricultural, trade, environmental, biofuels, and food safety policies that currently buffer farmers from risk, provide too few incentives for pollution reduction, and restrict the presence of animals in crop areas. It will also be necessary to invest more in research and development in all countries to identify the most profitable ICLS technologies in each region.

  10. Livestock odors: implications for human health and well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffman, S S

    1998-05-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the potential effects of livestock odors on the health and well-being of neighbors. Complaints of odor nuisance have become more frequent in communities surrounding areas with high concentrations of livestock. This increase in complaints from livestock odors parallels increased complaints of odor in general, including ammonia, diesel exhaust, beauty products, cleaners, and paints. Persons who report symptoms from odors generally find problems with many different types of odorous compounds. A review of recent studies suggests that the main complaints of health symptoms from odors are eye, nose, and throat irritation, headache, and drowsiness. Sensory irritation (pungency) can be produced by a broad range of odorous volatile organic compounds from trees, flowers, foods (pepper and ginger) as well as emissions from livestock operations. Odors can also potentially affect mood and memory. Further research is required to assess fully the health impact of odors in order to establish recommendations for air quality guidelines based on scientific data.

  11. Vaccines to Combat Livestock Diseases in Sub-Saharan Africa ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    An easy-to-use vaccine that is inexpensive, safe, and easily stored and transported would reduce losses by small-scale livestock keepers in rural Africa, particularly women whose livelihoods rely heavily on small animals. This project is applying modern biotechnology to engineer a thermostable, single dose vaccine that ...

  12. Prevalence And Intensity Of Ectoparasites Of Livestock In Lagos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... intensity of livestock ectoparasites was highest in Mushin and Badagry areas. Health education was carried out as a strategy to control the prevalence of ectoparasites in Lagos areas. There was compliance to the health interventions. Keywords: kEctoparasites, Lagos, Ticks, Lice, prevalence, intensity. The Zoologist Vol.

  13. The future of animal feeding: towards sustainable precision livestock farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, den L.A.

    2011-01-01

    In the future, production will increasingly be affected by globalization of the trade in feed commodities and livestock products, competition for natural resources, particularly land and water, competition between feed, food and biofuel, and by the need to operate in a carbonconstrained economy,

  14. 9 CFR 201.73-1 - Instructions for weighing livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... 201.73-1 Section 201.73-1 Animals and Animal Products GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARDS ADMINISTRATION (PACKERS AND STOCKYARDS PROGRAMS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS UNDER THE PACKERS AND STOCKYARDS ACT Services § 201.73-1 Instructions for weighing livestock. Stockyard operators, market agencies...

  15. Castration of male livestock and the potential of immunocastration to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Growing consumer awareness about animal welfare has led to the assessment of the impact of common farming practices, such as physical castration, on animal well-being under production conditions. Physical castration is used in livestock industries to prevent indiscriminate breeding, control aggression, and improve ...

  16. Investing in Livestock to Drive Economic Growth in Africa: Rationale ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Investing in Livestock to Drive Economic Growth in Africa: Rationale and Priorities. S Nouala, U Pica-Ciamarra, J Otte, A N'guetta. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers ...

  17. Cereal straws form important part of livestock feeding in developing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kamran

    E-mail: agrotech@brain.net.pk. Introduction. In developing countries, livestock is usually fed high fibrous crop residues (wheat straw, rice straw, stovers, etc.) characterized by high .... urea up to 5% level of urea is safe, economical and had a significant (P <0.01) effect on increasing the crude protein content of wheat straw.

  18. Seasonal in market prices of livestock products in Ibadan Metropolis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The myriads of problems confronting the agricultural sector in general and the livestock industry in particular is hardly seen from the effect of efficient marketing structures for its products especially in relation to price behavior over time. This study thus examined the trend of seasonality in the market prices of some selected ...

  19. Informal crossborder livestock trade restrictions in eastern Africa: is ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The informal channel accounts for an estimated 71% of total value of live animal exports and 78% of consumer goods and productive inputs imported into the area. It is found that cross border livestock trade restrictions could lead to substantial drops in pastoral household welfare. In the case of Ethio-Kenyan borderlands, ...

  20. Supporting the production of quality livestock vaccines for ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2017-08-11

    Supporting the production of quality livestock vaccines for enterotoxaemia, pasteurella and Rift Valley fever in Kenya ... Researchers and practitioners gathered in Montreal on August 11, 2017 to discuss the potential of child care to benefit women through improved economic opportunities and empowerment as part of a.