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Sample records for bulgarian livestock genetic

  1. Innovation in Livestock Genetic Improvement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mofakkarul Islam, M.; Renwick, A.; Lamprinopoulou, C.; Klerkx, L.W.A.

    2013-01-01

    The application of genetic selection technologies in livestock breeding offers unique opportunities to enhance the productivity, profitability and competitiveness of the livestock industry. However, there is a concern that the uptake of these technologies has been slower in the sheep and beef

  2. Current status and phenotypic characteristics of Bulgarian poultry genetic resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teneva, A.; Gerzilov, V.; Lalev, M.; Lukanov, H.; Mincheva, N.; Oblakova, M.; Petrov, P.; Hristakieva, P.; Dimitrova, I.; Periasamy, K.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: Poultry biodiversity conservation is a great challenge for many countries. Within the last several years, the number of endangered local breeds has increased, leading to a considerable loss of genetic resources. A similar trend was observed among the poultry breeds, including chicken, local turkey and goose breeds/lines established in Bulgaria, part of which is definitely lost. Currently these breeds/lines are at risk and/or threatened with extinction. The information obtained by phenotypic characterization of these breeds is the first step for planning the management of poultry genetic resources through setting up improved selection schemes and conservation strategies. In this paper, we reviewed the current state of knowledge regarding the morphological and phenotypic diversity of local poultry breeds and some old productive poultry lines in Bulgaria. (author)

  3. Perspectives of genomics for genetic conservation of livestock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Windig, J.J.; Engelsma, K.A.

    2010-01-01

    Genomics provides new opportunities for conservation genetics. Conservation genetics in livestock is based on estimating diversity by pedigree relatedness and managing diversity by choosing those animals that maximize genetic diversity. Animals can be chosen as parents for the next generation, as

  4. How does farmer connectivity influence livestock genetic structure?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berthouly, C; Do, Duy Ngoc; Thévenon, S

    2009-01-01

    Assessing how genes flow across populations is a key component of conservation genetics. Gene flow in a natural population depends on ecological traits and the local environment, whereas for a livestock population, gene flow is driven by human activities. Spatial organization, relationships between...... farmers and their husbandry practices will define the farmer's network and so determine farmer connectivity. It is thus assumed that farmer connectivity will affect the genetic structure of their livestock. To test this hypothesis, goats reared by four different ethnic groups in a Vietnamese province were......, ethnicity and husbandry practices. In this study, we clearly linked the livestock genetic pattern to farmer connectivity and showed the importance of taking into account spatial information in genetic studies....

  5. Using genomic information to conserve genetic diversity in livestock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eynard, Sonia E.

    2018-01-01

    Concern about the status of livestock breeds and their conservation has increased as selection and small population sizes caused loss of genetic diversity. Meanwhile, dense SNP chips and whole genome sequences (WGS) became available, providing opportunities to accurately quantify the impact of

  6. Invited review: Genetic and genomic mouse models for livestock research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Arends

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge about the function and functioning of single or multiple interacting genes is of the utmost significance for understanding the organism as a whole and for accurate livestock improvement through genomic selection. This includes, but is not limited to, understanding the ontogenetic and environmentally driven regulation of gene action contributing to simple and complex traits. Genetically modified mice, in which the functions of single genes are annotated; mice with reduced genetic complexity; and simplified structured populations are tools to gain fundamental knowledge of inheritance patterns and whole system genetics and genomics. In this review, we briefly describe existing mouse resources and discuss their value for fundamental and applied research in livestock.

  7. Genetic aspects of enteric methane emission in ruminants livestock

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    Martino Cassandro

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This review summarizes the importance of enteric methane (CH4 emission in ruminants and relevant to the current on knowledge relevant to genetic aspects of enteric CH4 production, highlighting future research needs and directions. Global average temperature has increased by about 0.7°C in the last century. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC reported that anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHG, including carbon dioxide (CO2, CH4, nitrous oxide (N2O and halocarbons, have been responsible for most of the observed temperature increase since the middle of the twentieth century. Agriculture, particularly livestock, is increasingly being recognized as both a contributor to the process and a potential victim of it. Policy interventions and technical solutions are required to address both the impact of livestock production on climate change and the effects of climate change on livestock production. Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO, declared that in the next 50 years, the world’s farmers will be called upon to produce more food than has been produced in the past 10,000 years, and to do so in environmentally sustainable ways. Therefore, the GHG reduction should be treated as a public good. The United States congress is prospecting to define a price on GHG emissions. Limiting the concentration of CO2 and other GHG in Earth’s atmosphere requires a technological and economic revolution. A cost-effective way could be the genetic improvement of livestock, which produces permanent and cumulative changes in performance. Animal variation in enteric CH4 emission has been reported in the literature, providing potential for improvement through genetic selection. 

  8. Prevalence and impacts of genetically engineered feedstuffs on livestock populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Eenennaam, A L; Young, A E

    2014-10-01

    Globally, food-producing animals consume 70 to 90% of genetically engineered (GE) crop biomass. This review briefly summarizes the scientific literature on performance and health of animals consuming feed containing GE ingredients and composition of products derived from them. It also discusses the field experience of feeding GE feed sources to commercial livestock populations and summarizes the suppliers of GE and non-GE animal feed in global trade. Numerous experimental studies have consistently revealed that the performance and health of GE-fed animals are comparable with those fed isogenic non-GE crop lines. United States animal agriculture produces over 9 billion food-producing animals annually, and more than 95% of these animals consume feed containing GE ingredients. Data on livestock productivity and health were collated from publicly available sources from 1983, before the introduction of GE crops in 1996, and subsequently through 2011, a period with high levels of predominately GE animal feed. These field data sets, representing over 100 billion animals following the introduction of GE crops, did not reveal unfavorable or perturbed trends in livestock health and productivity. No study has revealed any differences in the nutritional profile of animal products derived from GE-fed animals. Because DNA and protein are normal components of the diet that are digested, there are no detectable or reliably quantifiable traces of GE components in milk, meat, and eggs following consumption of GE feed. Globally, countries that are cultivating GE corn and soy are the major livestock feed exporters. Asynchronous regulatory approvals (i.e., cultivation approvals of GE varieties in exporting countries occurring before food and feed approvals in importing countries) have resulted in trade disruptions. This is likely to be increasingly problematic in the future as there are a large number of "second generation" GE crops with altered output traits for improved livestock

  9. Molecular genetics and livestock selection. Approaches, opportunities and risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, J.L.

    2005-01-01

    Following domestication, livestock were selected both naturally through adaptation to their environments and by man so that they would fulfil a particular use. As selection methods have become more sophisticated, rapid progress has been made in improving those traits that are easily measured. However, selection has also resulted in decreased diversity. In some cases, improved breeds have replaced local breeds, risking the loss of important survival traits. The advent of molecular genetics provides the opportunity to identify the genes that control particular traits by a gene mapping approach. However, as with selection, the early mapping studies focused on traits that are easy to measure. Where molecular genetics can play a valuable role in livestock production is by providing the means to select effectively for traits that are difficult to measure. Identifying the genes underpinning particular traits requires a population in which these traits are segregating. Fortunately, several experimental populations have been created that have allowed a wide range of traits to be studied. Gene mapping work in these populations has shown that the role of particular genes in controlling variation in a given trait can depend on the genetic background. A second finding is that the most favourable alleles for a trait may in fact. be present in animals that perform poorly for the trait. In the long term, knowledge of -the genes controlling particular traits, and the way they interact with the genetic background, will allow introgression between breeds and the assembly of genotypes that are best suited to particular environments, producing animals with the desired characteristics. If used wisely, this approach will maintain genetic diversity while improving performance over a wide range of desired traits. (author)

  10. Estimated values of the genetic and somatic radiation exposure of the Bulgarian population in 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poppitz, R.; Dobrev, D.

    1979-01-01

    The genetically and leukemia-significant doses (GSD and LSD) were calculated from the average gonad and bone marrow doses caused by the most frequently applied radiopharmaceuticals in Bulgaria in 1976. Because of the lack of information about the age groups of the patients examined assumptions have been made which led to estimated values of 0.97 mrad for GSD and 2.0 mrad for LSD which must be considered as the upper limit of the real GSD and LSD. The influence of the different radiopharmaceuticals on the average radiation exposure of the population is discussed. (author)

  11. Use of SNP markers to conserve genome-wide genetic diversity in livestock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelsma, K.A.

    2012-01-01

    Conservation of genetic diversity in livestock breeds is important since it is, both within and between breeds, under threat. The availability of large numbers of SNP markers has resulted in new opportunities to estimate genetic diversity in more detail, and to improve prioritization of animals

  12. Selection for uniformity in livestock by exploiting genetic heterogeneity of environmental variance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, H.A.; Bijma, P.; Hill, W.G.

    2008-01-01

    In some situations, it is worthwhile to change not only the mean, but also the variability of traits by selection. Genetic variation in residual variance may be utilised to improve uniformity in livestock populations by selection. The objective was to investigate the effects of genetic parameters,

  13. Selection for uniformity in livestock by exploiting genetic heterogeneity of residual variance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, H.A.; Veerkamp, R.F.; Vereijken, A.; Bijma, P.; Hill, W.G.

    2008-01-01

    some situations, it is worthwhile to change not only the mean, but also the variability of traits by selection. Genetic variation in residual variance may be utilised to improve uniformity in livestock populations by selection. The objective was to investigate the effects of genetic parameters,

  14. Health effects of feeding genetically modified (GM) crops to livestock animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, de Clazien J.; Swanenburg, Manon

    2017-01-01

    A large share of genetically modified (GM) crops grown worldwide is processed into livestock feed. Feed safety of GM crops is primarily based on compositional equivalence with near-isogenic cultivars and experimental trials in rodents. However, feeding studies in target animals add to the evaluation

  15. Ivan Zajc's Bulgarian Songs

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    Stefanka Georgieva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of newly discovered historiographic documents, this study traces the »biography« of Ivan Zajc’s Bulgarian songs. It specifies some disputed details with regard to the numbering and structure of two vocal cycles; it submits a transcript of a music sheet of the song Robstvo (The Yoke, op. 843a and the original of an unknown composition Majko kleta (Poor Mother on the verses of the Bulgarian poet Ivan Vazov which has not been registered by Hubert Pettan in Zajc’s catalogue of works. This exploration, together with the historiographic focus, highlights the connection of these opuses with the Bulgarian poetry which gained wide popularity through the anthology Bulgarian Songs by August Harambašić. Indeed, some details which Zajc indicated on the title pages of his scores, lead to this assumption. At the same time, the spread of the songs in Bulgaria indicates the connection of the Croatian composer with Bulgarian musicians, choral societies, schools etc., as a result of which in the first decade of the 20th century Zagreb’s Hrvatski glazbeni zavod became an attractive educational centre for many young Bulgarian people. Ivan Zajc’s Bulgarian Songs have not only enriched the artistic repertoire of Bulgarian choral societies. They outline one of the lines of active multicultural transfer between Bulgaria and Croatia on the border between the last decades of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th centuries. The melodies of his marches, creating the spirit of the struggles for national liberation of Bulgarian nation, have become part of the newly created national musical culture and have been often accepted as Bulgarian in their origin.

  16. Genetic and physiology basis of the quality of livestock products.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Mele

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The animal research gives more attention, for more than twenty years, to the improvement of food quality, because this aspect plays an important role in the consumer choice. In this paper are browsed the principal foods of animal origin (milk, meat and eggs, paying attention on the actual genetic and physiologic knowledge, which influence the quality characteristic. Particularly, we examined the role of Quantitative Genetic in bovine and swine and the growing knowledge about animal genomes and individuation of QTL. Information on genomic regions that control QTL, allow to organize genetic improvement programs, using Markers Assisted Selection (MAS and Markers Assisted Introgression (MAI. Moreover are reported the knowledge about metabolic processes that influence quality especially on lipid and protein component. About other productions are considered the physiology of eggs production and the genetic improvement of hens. Finally the qualitative aspects about poultry and rabbit meat and the actual genetic improvement strategy are reported.

  17. Health effects of feeding genetically modified (GM) crops to livestock animals: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vos, Clazien J; Swanenburg, Manon

    2017-08-31

    A large share of genetically modified (GM) crops grown worldwide is processed into livestock feed. Feed safety of GM crops is primarily based on compositional equivalence with near-isogenic cultivars and experimental trials in rodents. However, feeding studies in target animals add to the evaluation of GM crops with respect to animal health. This review aimed to evaluate the possible health effects of feeding GM crops to livestock by reviewing scientific publications on experimental studies in ruminants, pigs, and poultry in which at least one of the following health parameters was investigated: body condition score, organ weight, haematology, serum biochemistry, histopathology, clinical examination, immune response, or gastrointestinal microbiota. In most experiments, either Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) maize, Roundup Ready (RR) soybean, or both were fed to livestock animals. Significant differences (PGM crops has adverse effects on animal health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Hardship in Bulgarian Law

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    Silviya TSONEVA

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the legal treatment of hardship(change of circumstances in Bulgarian law trying to show where it stands in comparison with other legislations (Germany, England, USA and international legal instruments (Unidroit Principles on International Commercial Contracts and Principles of European Contract Law. An overall picture of the different approaches to hardship is concisely presented. Hardship prerequisites and effects are analyzed with a stress on specific problems identified in some recent Bulgarian court decisions. Attention is drawn to certain. concepts and reasoning in other legal systems that may be helpful to Bulgarian theory and practice when dealing with hardship cases.

  19. Genetic management strategies for controlling infectious diseases in livestock populations

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    Bishop Stephen C

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper considers the use of disease resistance genes to control the transmission of infection through an animal population. Transmission is summarised by R0, the basic reproductive ratio of a pathogen. If R0 > 1.0 a major epidemic can occur, thus a disease control strategy should aim to reduce R0 below 1.0, e.g. by mixing resistant with susceptible wild-type animals. Suppose there is a resistance allele, such that transmission of infection through a population homozygous for this allele will be R02 01, where R01 describes transmission in the wildtype population. For an otherwise homogeneous population comprising animals of these two groups, R0 is the weighted average of the two sub-populations: R0 = R01ρ + R02 (1 - ρ, where ρ is the proportion of wildtype animals. If R01 > 1 and R02 0 ≤ 1, i.e. ρ ≤ (R0 - R02/(R01 - R02. If R02 = 0, the proportion of resistant animals must be at least 1 - 1/R01. For an n genotype model the requirement is still to have R0 ≤ 1.0. Probabilities of epidemics in genetically mixed populations conditional upon the presence of a single infected animal were derived. The probability of no epidemic is always 1/(R0 + 1. When R0 ≤ 1 the probability of a minor epidemic, which dies out without intervention, is R0/(R0 + 1. When R0 > 1 the probability of a minor and major epidemics are 1/(R0 + 1 and (R0 - 1/(R0 + 1. Wherever possible a combination of genotypes should be used to minimise the invasion possibilities of pathogens that have mutated to overcome the effects of specific resistance alleles.

  20. Current issues connected with usage of genetically modified crops in production of feed and livestock feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiatek, K; Mazur, M; Sieradzki, Z

    2008-01-01

    Progress, which is brought by new advances in modern molecular biology, allowed interference in the genome of live organisms and gene manipulation. Introducing new genes to the recipient organism enables to give them new features, absent before. Continuous increase in the area of the biotech crops triggers continuous discussion about safety of genetically modified (GM) crops, including food and feed derived from them. Important issue connected with cultivation of genetically modified crops is a horizontal gene transfer and a bacterial antibiotic resistance. Discussion about safety of GM crops concerns also food allergies caused by eating genetically modified food. The problem of genetic modifications of GM crops used for livestock feeding is widely discussed, taking into account Polish feed law.

  1. Genome editing and genetic engineering in livestock for advancing agricultural and biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telugu, Bhanu P; Park, Ki-Eun; Park, Chi-Hun

    2017-08-01

    Genetic modification of livestock has a longstanding and successful history, starting with domestication several thousand years ago. Modern animal breeding strategies predominantly based on marker-assisted and genomic selection, artificial insemination, and embryo transfer have led to significant improvement in the performance of domestic animals, and are the basis for regular supply of high quality animal derived food. However, the current strategy of breeding animals over multiple generations to introduce novel traits is not realistic in responding to the unprecedented challenges such as changing climate, pandemic diseases, and feeding an anticipated 3 billion increase in global population in the next three decades. Consequently, sophisticated genetic modifications that allow for seamless introgression of novel alleles or traits and introduction of precise modifications without affecting the overall genetic merit of the animal are required for addressing these pressing challenges. The requirement for precise modifications is especially important in the context of modeling human diseases for the development of therapeutic interventions. The animal science community envisions the genome editors as essential tools in addressing these critical priorities in agriculture and biomedicine, and for advancing livestock genetic engineering for agriculture, biomedical as well as "dual purpose" applications.

  2. BULGARIAN TEACHERS’ CAREER MOTIVATORS

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    Stanislava Stoyanova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A review of several studies of teachers’ career motivation since Bulgarian Renaissance till nowadays is presented in this paper. 203 Bulgarian teachers in public schools were studied by means of a questionnaire created by Slavchov & Stoyanova (2007 measuring career motivational types, according to Moses’ typology (2003. The career motivational type of Authenticity seekers was the most preferred by the studied Bulgarian teachers, followed by Personal developers and Stability seekers. Career builders as a career motivational type was minor career motivator, the least preferred one by Bulgarian teachers. A lot of significant positive correlations existed between teachers’ career motivational types. Some social-demographic factors (such as gender, specialty, work experience, and age differentiated teachers’ career motivators. The type of Autonomy seekers was more preferred career motivator by male teachers than by female teachers in correspondence to the traditional stereotypes for men. Longer teachers’ work experience and teachers’ advance in age were related to more frequency of Stability seekers, but less frequency of Novelty seekers career motivator. Preschool and elementary school teachers preferred more strongly Authenticity seekers as a career motivator than teachers in natural sciences and mathematics. Establishing major career motivators for teachers may be related to opportunities for improvement of performance and work satisfaction.

  3. Molecular Epidemiological Survey and Genetic Characterization of Anaplasma Species in Mongolian Livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochirkhuu, Nyamsuren; Konnai, Satoru; Odbileg, Raadan; Murata, Shiro; Ohashi, Kazuhiko

    2017-08-01

    Anaplasma species are obligate intracellular rickettsial pathogens that cause great economic loss to the animal industry. Few studies on Anaplasma infections in Mongolian livestock have been conducted. This study examined the prevalence of Anaplasma marginale, Anaplasma ovis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and Anaplasma bovis by polymerase chain reaction assay in 928 blood samples collected from native cattle and dairy cattle (Bos taurus), yaks (Bos grunniens), sheep (Ovis aries), and goats (Capra aegagrus hircus) in four provinces of Ulaanbaatar city in Mongolia. We genetically characterized positive samples through sequencing analysis based on the heat-shock protein groEL, major surface protein 4 (msp4), and 16S rRNA genes. Only A. ovis was detected in Mongolian livestock (cattle, yaks, sheep, and goats), with 413 animals (44.5%) positive for groEL and 308 animals (33.2%) positive for msp4 genes. In the phylogenetic tree, we separated A. ovis sequences into two distinct clusters based on the groEL gene. One cluster comprised sequences derived mainly from sheep and goats, which was similar to that in A. ovis isolates from other countries. The other divergent cluster comprised sequences derived from cattle and yaks and appeared to be newly branched from that in previously published single isolates in Mongolian cattle. In addition, the msp4 gene of A. ovis using same and different samples with groEL gene of the pathogen demonstrated that all sequences derived from all animal species, except for three sequences derived from cattle and yak, were clustered together, and were identical or similar to those in isolates from other countries. We used 16S rRNA gene sequences to investigate the genetically divergent A. ovis and identified high homology of 99.3-100%. However, the sequences derived from cattle did not match those derived from sheep and goats. The results of this study on the prevalence and molecular characterization of A. ovis in Mongolian livestock can facilitate

  4. EU import restrictions on genetically modified feeds: impacts on Spanish, EU and global livestock sectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philippidis, G.

    2010-07-01

    Over the last decade, much controversy has surrounded the usage of genetically modified organism (GMO) technology in commercial agriculture. More specifically, it is feared that GMOs may introduce new allergens into the food chain or contribute to antibiotic resistance. At the current time, the European Union (EU) adopts a zero tolerance policy toward non-approved GMO imports, whilst the approval process has not kept pace with the proliferation of new GMO varieties. In the EU livestock sectors, this apparent mis-match threatens to interrupt supplies of high protein feed inputs (e.g., soy meal) from countries with more relaxed regulations regarding GMOs. Employing a well known multi-region computable general equilibrium framework, this study quantitatively assesses the impact of a hypothetical EU import ban on unapproved GMO varieties of soybean and maize imports on livestock, meat and dairy sectors. The model code is heavily modified to improve the characterisation of the agricultural sectors and land usage, whilst a realistic baseline is employed to update the global database to 2008, the year the hypothetical ban is implemented. In the worst case scenario, there are significant competitive losses in EU livestock, meat and dairy sectors. In Spain, the negative impacts are particularly pronounced given the importance of pig production in agriculture. In contrast, all non-EU regions trade balances improve, with notable trade gains in the USA and Brazil. To conclude, the EU must urgently find a long term strategy for GMOs if it is to reconcile political expediency with pragmatic economic concerns. (Author) 21 refs.

  5. The potential of shifting recombination hotspots to increase genetic gain in livestock breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonen, Serap; Battagin, Mara; Johnston, Susan E; Gorjanc, Gregor; Hickey, John M

    2017-07-04

    This study uses simulation to explore and quantify the potential effect of shifting recombination hotspots on genetic gain in livestock breeding programs. We simulated three scenarios that differed in the locations of quantitative trait nucleotides (QTN) and recombination hotspots in the genome. In scenario 1, QTN were randomly distributed along the chromosomes and recombination was restricted to occur within specific genomic regions (i.e. recombination hotspots). In the other two scenarios, both QTN and recombination hotspots were located in specific regions, but differed in whether the QTN occurred outside of (scenario 2) or inside (scenario 3) recombination hotspots. We split each chromosome into 250, 500 or 1000 regions per chromosome of which 10% were recombination hotspots and/or contained QTN. The breeding program was run for 21 generations of selection, after which recombination hotspot regions were kept the same or were shifted to adjacent regions for a further 80 generations of selection. We evaluated the effect of shifting recombination hotspots on genetic gain, genetic variance and genic variance. Our results show that shifting recombination hotspots reduced the decline of genetic and genic variance by releasing standing allelic variation in the form of new allele combinations. This in turn resulted in larger increases in genetic gain. However, the benefit of shifting recombination hotspots for increased genetic gain was only observed when QTN were initially outside recombination hotspots. If QTN were initially inside recombination hotspots then shifting them decreased genetic gain. Shifting recombination hotspots to regions of the genome where recombination had not occurred for 21 generations of selection (i.e. recombination deserts) released more of the standing allelic variation available in each generation and thus increased genetic gain. However, whether and how much increase in genetic gain was achieved by shifting recombination hotspots depended

  6. Bulgarians@cern.ch

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    The happy Bulgarian family. From left to right, last row to first row: Ilka Antcheva, Georgi Antchev, Dimitri Borilkov, Ivana Hristova, Petiu Petev, Peicho Petkov, Borislav Pavlov, Peter Hristov, Mihail Tchijov, Stefan Piperov, Ekaterina Ivanova, Dimitar Kolev, Roumen Tzenov. Bobby is striding along with his white sneakers, black trousers belted high at the waist and a blue shirt buttoned up to the top. He comes to the coffee table and sits down on the chair crossing his legs. While speaking he fiddles with his glasses and his black curly hair dangles on the sides of his head. Borislav Pavlov or Bobby is a 22 year old Bulgarian summer Physics student at Sofia University and came to CERN to work on ORCA reconstruction software for the CMS experiment. “I will do my thesis on ORCA and it is so good that I can be here, work here where the projects actually happen and exchange experience with the people working here,” he says. “It is an honor for me.” Bulgaria joined CERN as a member state in 1999 but Bulgar...

  7. Bulgarian INIS Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgieva, A.

    2007-01-01

    The International Nuclear Information System (INIS) is an international co-operative information system, operated by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in collaboration with 116 Member States and 22 International Organizations, with over 35 years of experience. INIS processes most of the world's scientific and technical literature on the peaceful application of nuclear science and technology. The bibliographic database currently contains over 2.7 million records and a comprehensive collection of over 700,000 of full texts of INIS scope publications not easily available through the commercial channels. Bulgaria is a member of INIS since its establishment in 1971. In Bulgaria INIS operates through the National INIS Centre and is represented by INIS Liaison Officer. In this paper an overview of INIS System operation and the information, which can be obtained from INIS database, and how that can be done in Bulgaria is presented. The main activities and services at Bulgarian INIS Centre as well as the input of information, published in Bulgaria, to the INIS database are discussed. (author)

  8. Genetically engineered livestock for agriculture: a generation after the first transgenic animal research conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, James D; Maga, Elizabeth A

    2016-06-01

    At the time of the first Transgenic Animal Research Conference, the lack of knowledge about promoter, enhancer and coding regions of genes of interest greatly hampered our efforts to create transgenes that would express appropriately in livestock. Additionally, we were limited to gene insertion by pronuclear microinjection. As predicted then, widespread genome sequencing efforts and technological advancements have profoundly altered what we can do. There have been many developments in technology to create transgenic animals since we first met at Granlibakken in 1997, including the advent of somatic cell nuclear transfer-based cloning and gene editing. We can now create new transgenes that will express when and where we want and can target precisely in the genome where we want to make a change or insert a transgene. With the large number of sequenced genomes, we have unprecedented access to sequence information including, control regions, coding regions, and known allelic variants. These technological developments have ushered in new and renewed enthusiasm for the production of transgenic animals among scientists and animal agriculturalists around the world, both for the production of more relevant biomedical research models as well as for agricultural applications. However, even though great advancements have been made in our ability to control gene expression and target genetic changes in our animals, there still are no genetically engineered animal products on the market for food. World-wide there has been a failure of the regulatory processes to effectively move forward. Estimates suggest the world will need to increase our current food production 70 % by 2050; that is we will have to produce the total amount of food each year that has been consumed by mankind over the past 500 years. The combination of transgenic animal technology and gene editing will become increasingly more important tools to help feed the world. However, to date the practical benefits of

  9. 150 Bulgarian students visit CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Alizée Dauvergne

    2010-01-01

    Between 27 March and 8 April 2010, 150 Bulgarian students from the Astronomical Observatory in Varna visited CERN as part of the “From Galileo to CERN” programme. Bulgarian students participating in the "From Galileo to CERN" educational programme. “It’s interesting to combine astronomy and particle physics”, explains Svejina Dimitrova, organiser of the programme and Director of Varna Astronomical Observatory. The three groups, each one comprising 50 students, first visited Pisa, Padua and other places in Italy  related to Galileo’s life. “Thanks to the visit, students understood telescopes and why Galileo is such an important scientist”, says Svejina. After Italy, they came to CERN for three days and visited several sites: Linac, the Computer Centre CCC, etc. Another group of Bulgarian students in their visit to CERN. “They became aware that particle physics is not only the...

  10. Bulgarian folk dances at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Roberto Cantoni

    2010-01-01

    On Sunday 29 August, the Bulgarian folklore dance group Rhythm visited CERN. After their visit to the ATLAS visitor centre and the SM18 hall, they performed a show in the Pump Room, introducing CERN people to the musical traditions of their country.   The visit of the Bulgarian dance group was organized by Zornitsa Zaharieva, a member of the Beams Department, and Svejina Dimitrova, Director of the Varna Astronomical Observatory. “The students were enthusiastic about the opportunity to visit CERN”, says Zornitsa. “The idea of the performance came from the dance group itself, who wanted to express their gratitude for being given this chance”. The group, comprising around 25 children aged between 11 and 16 from the city of Varna, was hosted by the CERN Dancing Club. For their show, the young dancers, choreographed by Tashka Pavlova, performed traditional dances and songs from different Bulgarian regions. “As a member of the CERN Dancing Club com...

  11. Traditional Bulgarian Hunter's Cuisine (Hunter's Cooking Book (1939 [In Bulgarian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Petrushev

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This very rare book was published in Belogradchik in 1939. The publisher is Stamen Kamenov. Stamen Kamenov owned a printing press, where several books of local and national importance were printed. This is a cookbook with recipes for cooking wild game. The book is relevant to modern man because it shows what has been the cuisine of old Bulgarians.

  12. Polish-Bulgarian-Russian, Bulgarian-Polish-Russian or Russian-Bulgarian-Polish dictionary?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violetta Koseska-Toszewa

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Polish-Bulgarian-Russian, Bulgarian-Polish-Russian or Russian-Bulgarian-Polish dictionary? The trilingual dictionary (M. Duszkin, V. Koseska, J. Satoła and A. Tzoneva is being elaborated based on a working Polish-Bulgarian-Russian electronic parallel corpus authored by Maksim Duszkin, Violetta Koseska-Toszewa and Joanna Satoła-Staśkowiak, and works by A. Tzoneva. It is the first corpus comparing languages belonging to three different Slavic language groups: western, southern and eastern. Works on the dictionary are based on Gramatyka konfrontatywna bułgarsko-polska (Bulgarian-Polish confrontative grammar and the proposed there semantic-oriented interlanguage. Two types of classifiers have been introduced into the dictionary: classic and semantic. The trilingual dictionary will present a consistent and homogeneous set of facts of grammar and semantics. The Authors point out that in a traditional dictionary it is not clear for example whether aspect should be understood as imperfective / perfective form of a verb or as its meaning. Therefore in the dictionary forms and meaning are separated in a regular way. Imperfective verb form has two meanings: state and configuration of states and events culminating in state. Also perfective verb form has two meanings: event and configuration of states and events culminating in event. These meanings are described by the semantic classifiers, respectively, state and event, state1 and event1. The way of describing language units, mentioned in the article, gives a possibility to present language material (Polish, Bulgarian, Russian in any required order, hence the article’s title.

  13. Bulgarian Heroes (Patsov & Mechkov, 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.V. Toshev

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This is a book for the participation of Bulgaria in the First World War (1915-1916. The compilers have collected a large number of stories for martial feats of Bulgarian officers and soldiers at the fronts of the war. These stories were published in different sources during or after the war.

  14. A Feast (Poem [In Bulgarian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Kachev

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This poem was written by Valentin Kachev in 1984 at the vineyard of Tsolo Todorov in Bashovitsa. Tsolo Todorov was one of the leaders of the Belogradchik uprising, murdered at the Belogradchik fortress in the summer of 1850. The poem has already been published in books in Bulgarian as well as in Russian.

  15. Assessment of Genetic Diversity of Zoonotic Brucella spp. Recovered from Livestock in Egypt Using Multiple Locus VNTR Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M. S. Menshawy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is endemic in most parts of Egypt, where it is caused mainly by Brucella melitensis biovar 3, and affects cattle and small ruminants in spite of ongoing efforts devoted to its control. Knowledge of the predominant Brucella species/strains circulating in a region is a prerequisite of a brucellosis control strategy. For this reason a study aiming at the evaluation of the phenotypic and genetic heterogeneity of a panel of 17 Brucella spp. isolates recovered from domestic ruminants (cattle, buffalo, sheep, and goat from four governorates during a period of five years (2002–2007 was carried out using microbiological tests and molecular biology techniques (PCR, MLVA-15, and sequencing. Thirteen strains were identified as B. melitensis biovar 3 while all phenotypic and genetic techniques classified the remaining isolates as B. abortus (n=2 and B. suis biovar 1 (n=2. MLVA-15 yielded a high discriminatory power (h=0.801, indicating a high genetic diversity among the B. melitensis strains circulating among domestic ruminants in Egypt. This is the first report of the isolation of B. suis from cattle in Egypt which, coupled with the finding of B. abortus, suggests a potential role of livestock as reservoirs of several zoonotic Brucella species in the region.

  16. The future of Bulgarian nuclear sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iordanov, I.; Yankov, I.

    2012-01-01

    The problems of the Bulgarian nuclear energy sector in Bulgaria and possible solutions are presented. The priorities are summarized as: extension of life for units 5 and 6 in NPP Kozloduy establishing of contacts with producers of SMR long‐term strategy for Bulgarian energy sector

  17. The gender in Bulgarian proverbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uzeneva Elena

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We have chosen the paremiology as the object of this article because it is the area where phraseology and folklore are closely related. This fact makes the study of proverbs significant from the lingua-cultural point of view. The subject of the Bulgarian proverbs is an important source of interpretation because most proverbs are "prescriptions-stereotypes of folk self-consciousness" (Telija. We can see proverbs as cultural stereotypes reflected in common language. The analysis of different proverbs (more then 5000 makes it possible to draw valid conclusions about the dominating tendencies and assessments. We concentrated on proverbs connected with the gender issues. They reflect the social aspects of relationships between a man and a woman. The analysis was seriously hampered by the natural semantic richness of proverbs. Our article focuses on the inner form of proverbs. Our first obvious conclusion will be as follows: the gender factor does not play the leading role in the majority of the Bulgarian proverbs. We can see in some proverbs the reflection of the masculine mentality and the power of man, which in itself is not the dominant factor. The negative female stereotype exists alongside the male one. At the same time the female character does not always have negative connotations. Very often the feminine beauty, mind, positive housewife image and patience are in focus. In addition, the indisputable fact of the presence of the „female“ voice, in which sorrow and suffering dominate, and the female consciousness becomes apparent in the understanding of the world created by Bulgarian proverbs. They characterize her emotional side and decisiveness, as well as her expression of resistance. The above in-depth analysis allows us to make the conclusion about certain independence of women even in those past times which are reflected in the proverbs. Confirmation of our main conclusion can be found in some historical facts such as: a married woman

  18. Current insights into the molecular genetic basis of dwarfism in livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boegheim, Iris J M; Leegwater, Peter A J; van Lith, Hein A; Back, Willem

    2017-06-01

    Impairment of bone growth at a young age leads to dwarfism in adulthood. Dwarfism can be categorised as either proportionate, an overall size reduction without changes in body proportions, or disproportionate, a size reduction in one or more limbs, with changes in body proportions. Many forms of dwarfism are inherited and result from structural disruptions or disrupted signalling pathways. Hormonal disruptions are evident in Brooksville miniature Brahman cattle and Z-linked dwarfism in chickens, caused by mutations in GH1 and GHR. Furthermore, mutations in IHH are the underlying cause of creeper achondroplasia in chickens. Belgian blue cattle display proportionate dwarfism caused by a mutation in RNF11, while American Angus cattle dwarfism is caused by a mutation in PRKG2. Mutations in EVC2 are associated with dwarfism in Japanese brown cattle and Tyrolean grey cattle. Fleckvieh dwarfism is caused by mutations in the GON4L gene. Mutations in COL10A1 and COL2A1 cause dwarfism in pigs and Holstein cattle, both associated with structural disruptions, while several mutations in ACAN are associated with bulldog-type dwarfism in Dexter cattle and dwarfism in American miniature horses. In other equine breeds, such as Shetland ponies and Friesian horses, dwarfism is caused by mutations in SHOX and B4GALT7. In Texel sheep, chondrodysplasia is associated with a deletion in SLC13A1. This review discusses genes known to be involved in these and other forms of dwarfism in livestock. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The combined use of embryos and semen for cryogenic conservation of mammalian livestock genetic resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pizzi Flavia

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of this empirical simulation study was to evaluate the use of a combination of semen and embryos in the creation of gene banks for reconstruction of an extinct breed. Such an approach was compared for banks with varying proportions of embryos on the basis of the amount of the material to be stored, time for reconstruction, maintenance of genetic variability, and probability of failure during reconstruction. Four types of populations were simulated, based on reproductive rate: single offspring, twinning, enhanced reproduction, and litter bearing. Reconstruction was simulated for banks consisting of different combinations of semen and reduced numbers of embryos (expressed as a percentage of the material needed for a bank containing exclusively embryos and ranging from 10 to 90%. The use of a combination of semen and embryos increased the number of insemination cycles needed for reconstruction and the level of genetic relatedness in the reconstructed population. The risk for extinction was unacceptably high when a very low proportion of embryos (

  20. New Bulgarian Work on Psychology of Creativity

    OpenAIRE

    Mariyana D. Nyagolova

    2012-01-01

    A new Bulgarian work on Psychology of Creativity has been published recently. This book focuses on theoretical and methodological approaches to creativity. The results from a study of students' creativity are presented. They are related to the motives for success.

  1. African Journal of Livestock Extension: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Original articles not published elsewhere are invited in the following areas relating to all species of livestock. • Breeding and Genetic improvements ... livestock husbandry e.g. cane rat, snail, guinea pig, honey bee, silkworm etc.

  2. Livestock Marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futrell, Gene; And Others

    This marketing unit focuses on the seasonal and cyclical patterns of livestock markets. Cash marketing, forward contracting, hedging in the futures markets, and the options markets are examined. Examples illustrate how each marketing tool may be useful in gaining a profit on livestock and cutting risk exposure. The unit is organized in the…

  3. Bulgarian National Digital Seismological Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrova, L.; Solakov, D.; Nikolova, S.; Stoyanov, S.; Simeonova, S.; Zimakov, L. G.; Khaikin, L.

    2011-12-01

    The Bulgarian National Digital Seismological Network (BNDSN) consists of a National Data Center (NDC), 13 stations equipped with RefTek High Resolution Broadband Seismic Recorders - model DAS 130-01/3, 1 station equipped with Quanterra 680 and broadband sensors and accelerometers. Real-time data transfer from seismic stations to NDC is realized via Virtual Private Network of the Bulgarian Telecommunication Company. The communication interruptions don't cause any data loss at the NDC. The data are backed up in the field station recorder's 4Mb RAM memory and are retransmitted to the NDC immediately after the communication link is re-established. The recorders are equipped with 2 compact flash disks able to save more than 1 month long data. The data from the flash disks can be downloaded remotely using FTP. The data acquisition and processing hardware redundancy at the NDC is achieved by two clustered SUN servers and two Blade Workstations. To secure the acquisition, processing and data storage processes a three layer local network is designed at the NDC. Real-time data acquisition is performed using REFTEK's full duplex error-correction protocol RTPD. Data from the Quanterra recorder and foreign stations are fed into RTPD in real-time via SeisComP/SeedLink protocol. Using SeisComP/SeedLink software the NDC transfers real-time data to INGV-Roma, NEIC-USA, ORFEUS Data Center. Regional real-time data exchange with Romania, Macedonia, Serbia and Greece is established at the NDC also. Data processing is performed by the Seismic Network Data Processor (SNDP) software package running on the both Servers. SNDP includes subsystems: Real-time subsystem (RTS_SNDP) - for signal detection; evaluation of the signal parameters; phase identification and association; source estimation; Seismic analysis subsystem (SAS_SNDP) - for interactive data processing; Early warning subsystem (EWS_SNDP) - based on the first arrived P-phases. The signal detection process is performed by

  4. ONE SEGMENT OF THE BULGARIAN-ENGLISH PAREMIOLOGICAL CORE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KOTOVA M.Y.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The English proverbial parallels of the Russian-Bulgarian paremiological core are analysed in the article. The comparison of current Bulgarian proverbs and their English proverbial parallels is based upon the material of the author’s multi-lingual dictionary and her collection of Bulgarian-Russian proverbial parallels published as a result of her sociolinguistic paremiological experiment from 2003 (on the basis of 100 questionnaires filled by 100 Bulgarian respondents and supported in 2013 with the current Bulgarian contexts from the Bulgarian Internet. The number of 'alive' Bulgarian-English proverbial parallels, constructed from the paremiological questionnaires (pointed out by 70 % - 100 % respondents is 62, the biggest part of which belongs to the proverbial parallels with a similar inner form (35, i.e. the biggest part of the segment of the current Bulgarian-English paremiological core (reflecting the Russian paremiological minimum contains proverbial parallels with a similar inner form.

  5. Surveying selected European feed and livestock production chains for features enabling the case-specific post-market monitoring of livestock for intake and potential health impacts of animal feeds derived from genetically modified crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleter, Gijs; McFarland, Sarah; Bach, Alex; Bernabucci, Umberto; Bikker, Paul; Busani, Luca; Kok, Esther; Kostov, Kaloyan; Nadal, Anna; Pla, Maria; Ronchi, Bruno; Terre, Marta; Einspanier, Ralf

    2017-10-06

    This review, which has been prepared within the frame of the European Union (EU)-funded project MARLON, surveys the organisation and characteristics of specific livestock and feed production chains (conventional, organic, GM-free) within the EU, with an emphasis on controls, regulations, traceability, and common production practices. Furthermore, an overview of the origin of animal feed used in the EU as well as an examination of the use of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in feed is provided. From the data, it shows that livestock is traceable at the herd or individual level, depending on the species. Husbandry practices can vary widely according to geography and animal species, whilst controls and checks are in place for notifiable diseases and general health symptoms (such as mortality, disease, productive performance). For feeds, it would be possible only to make coarse estimates, at best, for the amount of GM feed ingredients that an animal is exposed to. Labeling requirements are apparently correctly followed. Provided that confounding factors are taken into account, practices such as organic agriculture that explicitly involve the use of non-GM feeds could be used for comparison to those involving the use of GM feed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Bulgarian banking: looking for sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garabed Minassian

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we trace and analyze the emergence of the crisis in the Bulgarian banking system as well as the behavior of the central bank and other macroeconomic institutions. The average annual rate of growth in the net profits of the commercial banks for the period 2002-2008 amounted to 31.6%, which encouraged and accounted for the increase in credits. After 2008, the pendulum began to swing back as the difficulties in collecting loan repayments increased, the strain in financial balances tightened and assistance and support from the regulators were requested. The level of the financial and operating income was maintained primarily because of the high interest rates on the loans, but the structure of their distribution shifted substantially. Administrative costs and depreciation were nearly frozen up, and impairment and provisions grew at the expense of profit. This work shows that macroeconomic policies allowed the expansion of the lending boom and encouraged its irrational development. Poor operation and poor quality of the institutions not only allowed but also enabled direction of investments to financing of inefficient production structures. Underestimating the negative consequences shoring up a dysfunctional institutional environment is deemed a form of irrationality; however, not one of the immediate economic players acted to override the economic and political environment. The financial and economic crisis currently affecting the country has its roots in the deficiencies of the domestic macroeconomic policies, and therefore, the efforts toward overcoming these failures should be directed at improved domestic macroeconomic management.

  7. Livestock models in translational medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, James A; Tuggle, Christopher K

    2015-01-01

    This issue of the ILAR Journal focuses on livestock models in translational medicine. Livestock models of selected human diseases present important advantages as compared with rodent models for translating fundamental breakthroughs in biology to useful preventatives and therapeutics for humans. Livestock reflect the complexity of applying medical advances in an outbred species. In many cases, the pathogenesis of infectious, metabolic, genetic, and neoplastic diseases in livestock species more closely resembles that in humans than does the pathogenesis of rodent models. Livestock models also provide the advantage of similar organ size and function and the ability to serially sample an animal throughout the study period. Research using livestock models for human disease often benefits not only human health but animal health and food production as well. This issue of the ILAR Journal presents information on translational research using livestock models in two broad areas: microbiology and infectious disease (transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, mycobacterial infections, influenza A virus infection, vaccine development and testing, the human microbiota) and metabolic, neoplastic, and genetic disorders (stem cell therapy, male germ line cell biology, pulmonary adenocarcinoma, muscular dystrophy, wound healing). In addition, there is a manuscript devoted to Institutional Animal Care and Use Committees' responsibilities for reviewing research using livestock models. Conducting translational research using livestock models requires special facilities and researchers with expertise in livestock. There are many institutions in the world with experienced researchers and facilities designed for livestock research; primarily associated with colleges of agriculture and veterinary medicine or government laboratories. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute for Laboratory Animal Research. All rights reserved. For permissions

  8. Marker-assisted selection as a tool for genetic improvement of crops, livestock, forestry and fish in developing countries: an overview of the issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruane, R.; Sonnino, A.

    2007-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of the techniques, current status and issues involved in using marker-assisted selection (MAS) for genetic improvement in developing countries. Molecular marker maps, the necessary framework for any MAS programme, have been constructed for the majority of agriculturally important species, although the density of the maps varies considerably among species. Despite the considerable resources that have been invested in this field and despite the enormous potential it still represents, with few exceptions, MAS has not yet delivered its expected benefits in commercial breeding programmes for crops, livestock, forest trees or farmed fish in the developed world. When evaluating the potential merits of applying MAS as a tool for genetic improvement in developing countries, some of the issues that should be considered are its economic costs and benefits, its potential benefits compared with conventional breeding or with application of other biotechnologies, and the potential impact of intellectual property rights (IPRs) on the development and application of MAS. (author)

  9. European Citizenship and Youth in Bulgaria: A Qualitative Comparative Analysis between Bulgarians and Bulgarian Turks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranco Brusaporci

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available European citizenship is a new concept, which has evolved with the process of European integration. Starting from the younger generations, the EU seeks to establish a modern and innovative view of citizenship through three fundamental elements - rights, identity and participation - that could lead to new ways of conceiving the relationship of institutions-citizens and citizenscitizens. The idea of European citizenship tends to overcome the historical idea of national states and national identity. It does this by reinforcing its supranational nature and developing an attitude of tolerance towards diversity and human/minority rights. Thus, to verify the impact European citizenship has on the younger generation in Bulgaria, this research is based on an inter-ethnic sample of 30 interviews (16 Bulgarians, 14 Bulgarian Turks and applies a qualitative comparative analysis method. This research seeks to answer these two main questions: 1 How do young Bulgarians perceive the concept of EU citizenship? 2 How do young Bulgarians perceive the new European citizenship in regard to the inter-ethnic relations in their own country? The study suggests that the EU’s attempt to promote European citizenship is underachieving. On the one hand, young Bulgarian people tend to be well exposed to European citizenship, irrespective of their ethnic belonging. On the other hand, the majority of them are sceptical of the tangible value of European citizenship for the reinforcement of a more encompassing and shared notion of diversity and minority rights.

  10. Affirmation Modality in Bulgarian, Macedonian and Serbian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Grygiel

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Affirmation Modality in Bulgarian, Macedonian and Serbian In the case of affirmation modality the speakers transform their utterances by stressing or attributing a positive value as an additional component added to the semantic structure of a proposition. This type of affirmative polarization is triggered in opposition to negation or hypothetically negative contexts. The goal of the present paper is twofold: on the one hand to compare and contrast affirmative periphrastic constructions in Bulgarian, Macedonian and Serbian and, on the other hand, to ascertain what these constructions reveal regarding the organization of grammatical categories in general and the status of affirmation modality as a coherent and homogenous category with a linguistic validity.

  11. Bulgarian energy legislation. Status quo and problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denchev, P.

    1996-01-01

    The author gives a general survey of the present situation and the development tendencies in the Bulgarian nuclear legislation. The latest amendments of the Atomic Energy Act passed by the Bulgarian Parliament are discussed. Special attention is paid to the ratification of the following four groups of international documents: 1) The Convention on Nuclear Safety; 2) The Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage and the Joint Protocol on the Application of the Vienna Convention and the Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy; 3) The Convention for the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material, the Convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident and the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency; 4) The European Energy Charter and its Protocol on Energy Efficiency. The need of adoption of new legislative documents regulating the supply of radioactive materials according to the EURATOM Treaty is stressed

  12. Current problems of Bulgarian nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luk'yanov, A.A.; Vapirev, E.I.

    1996-01-01

    The main unsolved problems of Bulgarian nuclear power industry now are: a serious trouble that the WWER-440 units will have to be phased out before the end of their projected life since they do not meet contemporary safety requirements; heavy economic difficulties with the construction of the new NPP 'Belene'; accumulation of a considerable amount of spent fuel because of its interrupted export to Russia

  13. Exploration and conservation of bacterial genetic resources as bacteriocin producing inhibitory microorganisms to pathogen bacteria in livestock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chotiah S

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Exploration and conservation of microorganisms producing bacteriocin was done as the primary study towards the collection of potential bacteria and its application in improving livestock health condition and inhibit food borne pathogens. Diferent kinds of samples such as beef cattle rectal swab, rumen fluids, cow’s milk, chicken gut content, goat’s milk were collected at Bogor cattle slaughter houses, poultry slaughter houses, dairy cattle and goat farms. A total of 452 bacterial isolates consisted of 73 Gram negative bacteria and 379 Gram positive bacteria were isolated from samples collected and screened for bacteriocin activity. Determination of bacteriocin activity with bioassay using agar spot tests were carried out on liquid and semisolid medium assessing 8 kins of indicators of pathogenic bacteria and food borne pathogens. A total of 51 bacteriocin producing strains were collected and some of the strains had high inhibitory zone such as Lactobacillus casei SS14C (26 mm, Enterobacter cloacae SRUT (24mm, Enterococcus faecalis SK39 (21mm and Bifidobacterium dentium SS14T (20mm respectively, to Salmonella typhimurium BCC B0046/ATCC 13311, E. coli O157 hemolytic BCC B2717, Listeria monocytogenes BCC B2767/ATCC 7764 and Escherichia coli VTEC O157 BCC B2687. Evaluation after conservation ex situ to all bacterocin producing strain at 5oC for 1 year in freeze drying ampoules in vacuum and dry condition revealed the decreasing viability starting from log 0.8 CFU/ml for Lactococcus and Leuconostoc to log 2.2. CFU/ml for Streptococcus. Result of the study showed that the bacteriocin producing strains obtained were offered a potential resource for preventing disease of livestock and food borne diseases.

  14. Funeral and Commeration Customs at Bulgarians and Vlachs (Bizeranova, 2013 [In Bulgarian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Antova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2012 Sashka Biseranova defended successfully her PhD thesis. Later this extended study was transformed into a large book. The study is based on a new modern approach, covering the study of funeral customs and commemoration of both Bulgarians and Vlachs in the border region between North-West Bulgaria and the neighbour countries Romania and Serbia.

  15. Study of Ethnic Stereotype of Young Bulgarians

    OpenAIRE

    Z. Ganeva

    2015-01-01

    Ethnic stereotypes and prejudices as terms were examined from the point of view of the social identity theory (Tajfel, 1981). The results from a carried out longitudinal survey of stereotype and prejudices of young people of Bulgarian origin (n=1154; 453 men and 701 women; average age 21.7 years) in 6 time intervals: in 2004, 2006, 2008, 2010, 2012 and 2014, towards the in-group and the representatives of the main ethnic minorities: Turks, Roma and Jews, were presented. Through free associati...

  16. The interaction of host genetics and disease processes in chronic livestock disease: a simulation model of ovine footrot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, V N L; Green, L E; Bishop, S C; Medley, G F

    2013-03-01

    A stochastic, individual-based, simulation model of footrot in a flock of 200 ewes was developed that included flock demography, disease processes, host genetic variation for traits influencing infection and disease processes, and bacterial contamination of the environment. Sensitivity analyses were performed using ANOVA to examine the contribution of unknown parameters to outcome variation. The infection rate and bacterial death rate were the most significant factors determining the observed prevalence of footrot, as well as the heritability of resistance. The dominance of infection parameters in determining outcomes implies that observational data cannot be used to accurately estimate the strength of genetic control of underlying traits describing the infection process, i.e. resistance. Further work will allow us to address the potential for genetic selection to control ovine footrot. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Livestock metabolomics and the livestock metabolome: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldansaz, Seyed Ali; Guo, An Chi; Sajed, Tanvir; Steele, Michael A; Plastow, Graham S; Wishart, David S

    2017-01-01

    Metabolomics uses advanced analytical chemistry techniques to comprehensively measure large numbers of small molecule metabolites in cells, tissues and biofluids. The ability to rapidly detect and quantify hundreds or even thousands of metabolites within a single sample is helping scientists paint a far more complete picture of system-wide metabolism and biology. Metabolomics is also allowing researchers to focus on measuring the end-products of complex, hard-to-decipher genetic, epigenetic and environmental interactions. As a result, metabolomics has become an increasingly popular "omics" approach to assist with the robust phenotypic characterization of humans, crop plants and model organisms. Indeed, metabolomics is now routinely used in biomedical, nutritional and crop research. It is also being increasingly used in livestock research and livestock monitoring. The purpose of this systematic review is to quantitatively and objectively summarize the current status of livestock metabolomics and to identify emerging trends, preferred technologies and important gaps in the field. In conducting this review we also critically assessed the applications of livestock metabolomics in key areas such as animal health assessment, disease diagnosis, bioproduct characterization and biomarker discovery for highly desirable economic traits (i.e., feed efficiency, growth potential and milk production). A secondary goal of this critical review was to compile data on the known composition of the livestock metabolome (for 5 of the most common livestock species namely cattle, sheep, goats, horses and pigs). These data have been made available through an open access, comprehensive livestock metabolome database (LMDB, available at http://www.lmdb.ca). The LMDB should enable livestock researchers and producers to conduct more targeted metabolomic studies and to identify where further metabolome coverage is needed.

  18. Livestock metabolomics and the livestock metabolome: A systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, An Chi; Sajed, Tanvir; Steele, Michael A.; Plastow, Graham S.; Wishart, David S.

    2017-01-01

    Metabolomics uses advanced analytical chemistry techniques to comprehensively measure large numbers of small molecule metabolites in cells, tissues and biofluids. The ability to rapidly detect and quantify hundreds or even thousands of metabolites within a single sample is helping scientists paint a far more complete picture of system-wide metabolism and biology. Metabolomics is also allowing researchers to focus on measuring the end-products of complex, hard-to-decipher genetic, epigenetic and environmental interactions. As a result, metabolomics has become an increasingly popular “omics” approach to assist with the robust phenotypic characterization of humans, crop plants and model organisms. Indeed, metabolomics is now routinely used in biomedical, nutritional and crop research. It is also being increasingly used in livestock research and livestock monitoring. The purpose of this systematic review is to quantitatively and objectively summarize the current status of livestock metabolomics and to identify emerging trends, preferred technologies and important gaps in the field. In conducting this review we also critically assessed the applications of livestock metabolomics in key areas such as animal health assessment, disease diagnosis, bioproduct characterization and biomarker discovery for highly desirable economic traits (i.e., feed efficiency, growth potential and milk production). A secondary goal of this critical review was to compile data on the known composition of the livestock metabolome (for 5 of the most common livestock species namely cattle, sheep, goats, horses and pigs). These data have been made available through an open access, comprehensive livestock metabolome database (LMDB, available at http://www.lmdb.ca). The LMDB should enable livestock researchers and producers to conduct more targeted metabolomic studies and to identify where further metabolome coverage is needed. PMID:28531195

  19. Content of some microelements in Bulgarian quartz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostadinov, K.; Kuleff, I.; Djingova, R.; Todorovski, D.

    1982-01-01

    Data on the content of As, Au, Ba, Br, Ca, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, Hg, Ir, K, La, Lu, Mn, Nd, Na, Rb, Sb, Sm, Ta, Tb, Sc, Th, U, W, Yb, Zn obtained by instrumental neutron activation analysis are reported. The method is published elsewhere (Kuleff, I. et J. Radional. Chem. 62 (1981) 187). The results of other authors for the amount of Al, Li, Ti, obtained by atomic absorption spectrometry and Cu, P measured by destructive neutron activation analysis are also reported for 3 batches of electrothermal quartz glass, manufactured by ''Svetlina'' plant in Sliven, Bulgaria. The results for Bulgarian quartz glass are compared with literature and authors' data for similar quality glasses produced in England, France, FRG, GDR, USA and USSR. The results show that the amount of As, Au, Cd, Ce, Co, Cs, Eu, Hg, La, Ta, Yb in Bulgarian made quartz glass is lower than in a number of other similar glasses and the amount of the other impurities is close to the mean values. (authors)

  20. Presentation of the verbs in Bulgarian-Polish electronic dictionary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila Dimitrova

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Presentation of the verbs in Bulgarian-Polish electronic dictionary This paper briefly discusses the presentation of the verbs in the first electronic Bulgarian-Polish dictionary that is currently being developed under a bilateral collaboration between IMI-BAS and ISS-PAS. Special attention is given to the digital entry classifiers that describe Bulgarian and Polish verbs. Problems related to the correspondence between natural language phenomena and their presentations are discussed. Some examples illustrate the different types of dictionary entries for verbs.

  1. Bulgarian Contribution to World Science and Main Criteria for Assessing the Achievements of Scientists [In Bulgarian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.V. Toshev

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The status and the new developments in world science are both discussed. The transition from the ‘normal science’ (Kuhn to the ‘post-normal science’ (Funtowicz & Ravetz is commented. The integration processes in science, the mass higher education and its mcdonaldization are also considered. The difference between ‘science’ and ‘surrogate science’ is explained. The existence of marginal journals as an attribute of the surrogate science is discussed. Such a broad-based consideration allows a realistic assess of the contribution of Bulgarian scientists in the development of world science to be made. Some of the most important scientific achievements made by Bulgarians are listed.

  2. Study of Ethnic Stereotype of Young Bulgarians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Ganeva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Ethnic stereotypes and prejudices as terms were examined from the point of view of the social identity theory (Tajfel, 1981. The results from a carried out longitudinal survey of stereotype and prejudices of young people of Bulgarian origin (n=1154; 453 men and 701 women; average age 21.7 years in 6 time intervals: in 2004, 2006, 2008, 2010, 2012 and 2014, towards the in-group and the representatives of the main ethnic minorities: Turks, Roma and Jews, were presented. Through free associations, the relation between stereotypes and attitudes was studied in two social contexts: personal and community. The results show that the assessment of the minority groups is more positive in the former than in the latter context. The persons studied perceive most negatively the representatives of the Romani ethnos, more weakly negatively the Turks, and the attitudes towards the Jews are positive.

  3. BULGARIAN EMPLOYMENT POLICY: PRIORITIES AND DIRECTIONS 2017

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Arabska

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Development of labor market and employment policy in Bulgaria in contemporary dynamic conditions of social and economic life is in close relation to the European policies and programs and the needs of creating conditions for raising the level of employability of some special target groups on the labor market determined as the most vulnerable and needing particular measures of support. Current study makes analyses of priorities and directions in Bulgarian national employment policy for 2017 as set into the National action plan on employment considering a number of strategic and legislative documents on both national and European level. The general conclusions are focused on the systematization of actions and the importance of social dialogue.

  4. The Bulgarians believe in a nuclear solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, George.

    1988-01-01

    Power consumption and power generation in Bulgaria are considered. Coal production is insufficient to supply all the expected demand. Hydroelectricity has suffered because of recent droughts and accounts for only 7% of capacity. The alternative is nuclear power and Bulgaria is committed to a programme of nuclear reactor building. By 1990 nuclear-generated electricity should make up 40% of the country's total requirement. There are plans to raise this to 60% by the year 2000. The reactors under construction or planned are discussed. Nuclear power is also being planned for district heating. Although Chernobyl has caused a move against nuclear power in the West the Bulgarians feel they have no choice but to extend its use. (U.K.)

  5. Bulgarian electricity market and the large-scale industrial customers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popov, P.; Kanev, K.; Dyankov, M.; Minkov, N.

    2003-01-01

    The paper focuses on a brief overview of the Bulgarian Electricity Market Design and steps toward its development, as well as on preliminary analyses for market opening and influence of large industrial customers to system and market operation. (author)

  6. Television food advertising directed towards Bulgarian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galcheva, S V; Iotova, V M; Stratev, V K

    2008-10-01

    Childhood obesity is a serious health problem worldwide with a prevalence rising to epidemic proportions. Television viewing is suspected as an important contributor and along with food advertisements significantly influence children's unhealthy dietary habits, purchase requests and adiposity. To examine the exposure of Bulgarian children to television food advertising and to make a content analysis of the food/beverage advertisements during children's television programmes. 41.5 h of children's television programming on three national networks, were videotaped. All recorded food advertisements were evaluated to identify the marketing strategies used for the stimulation of children's purchase requests. Food/beverage advertisements accounted for 124 (33.4%) of all commercials, with 96.8% being for unhealthy foods. 57% of them were aimed specifically at children as the most advertised products were salty/sweetened snacks and cereals, sweets, soft drinks/carbohydrate juices and salty foods, with no fruit or vegetable commercials. Food advertisements used more themes of adventure, animation, music and gifts to attract children's attention, and gave information based on the product's taste, physical qualities, novelty, presence of premiums/prizes. Of all food/beverage advertisements, 27.4% contained health-related information about the products; three-quarters of the advertisements were shot with young normal-weight actors with a good/healthy appearance. Almost all recorded food advertisements do not support the Bulgarian dietary recommendations for healthy and balanced eating. More activities to reduce the unhealthy food promotion to children are mandatory as restrictions by type of advertised food, target group or limits on the advertisements' account and times shown, as well as parental/self-regulation.

  7. Motivation and elite performance : an exploratory investigation with Bulgarian athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Chantal, Yves; Guay, Frédéric; Dobreva-Martinova, Tzvetanka; Vallerand, Robert J.

    1996-01-01

    A sample of 98 Bulgarian top athletes (35 females and 63 males): canoeists, biathletes, figure skaters, boxers, tennis players and skiers, were investigated to explore the motivation of elite sport athletes and to determine the effects of motivation on performance. Participants' athletic performances in national and international events over 2 years (September 1990 to November 1992) was documented. Participants also completed the Bulgarian version of the Sport Motivation Scale (Brière, Valler...

  8. Exposure of livestock to GM feeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nadal, Anna; Giacomo, De Marzia; Einspanier, Ralf; Kleter, Gijs; Kok, Esther; McFarland, Sarah; Onori, Roberta; Paris, Alain; Toldrà, Mònica; Dijk, van Jeroen; Wal, Jean Michel; Pla, Maria

    2018-01-01

    This review explores the possibilities to determine livestock consumption of genetically modified (GM) feeds/ingredients including detection of genetically modified organism (GMO)-related DNA or proteins in animal samples, and the documentary system that is in place for GM feeds under EU

  9. Molecular characterization of Echinococcus granulosus isolates from Bulgarian human cystic echinococcosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinova, Irina; Spiliotis, Markus; Wang, Junhua; Muhtarov, Marin; Chaligiannis, Ilias; Sotiraki, Smaro; Rainova, Iskra; Gottstein, Bruno; Boubaker, Ghalia

    2017-03-01

    Although cystic echinococcosis (CE) is highly endemic in Bulgaria, there is still scarce information about species and/or genotypes of the Echinococcus granulosus complex that infect humans. Our study tackled the genetic diversity of E. granulosus complex in a cohort of 30 Bulgarian CE patients. Ten animal E. granulosus isolates from neighboring Greece were additionally included. Specimens were comparatively analyzed for partial sequences of five mitochondrial (mt) (cox I, nad I, rrnS, rrnL, and atp6) and three nuclear (nc) genes (act II, hbx 2, and ef-1α) using a PCR-sequencing approach. All 30 Bulgarian isolates were identified as E. granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.) and were showing identical sequences for each of the three examined partial nc gene markers. Based upon concatenated sequences from partial mtDNA markers, we detected 10 haplotypes: 6 haplotypes (H1-H6) clustering with E. granulosus s.s. (G1) and 4 haplotypes (H9-H13) grouping with E. granulosus s.s. (G3), with H1 and H10 being the most frequent in Bulgarian patients. The haplotypes H1, H4, and H11 were also present in Greek hydatid cyst samples of animal origin. In conclusion, E. granulosus s.s. (G1 and G3 genotypes) is the only causative agent found so far to cause human CE in Bulgaria. However, further studies including larger sample sizes and other additional geographic regions in Bulgaria will have to be performed to confirm our results.

  10. Environmental external radiation at some Bulgarian localities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spurny, F.; Turek, K.; Gelev, M.

    2004-01-01

    Studies of the environmental radiation background are important from several points of view. First, they permit to estimate the exposure of humans to natural radiation background as a function of different geographical and geophysical parameters. Second, such studies can give also relevant information concerning the consequences of human activities on the presence of ionizing radiation and its sources in the environment. Our both institutions have started since 2000 year common studies in the field of environmental radiation background and its variation with the locality considered. First we have decided to compare the measuring methods used. They were compared on the territory of the Institute of Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences (INRNE BAS), particularly in the surroundings of IRT 2000 research reactor. Further, they were compared also at the monitoring station on the territory of INRNE BAS. Finally, the studies were enlarged to the Moussala Observatory of the Institute at Rila Mountains. Several measuring instruments were used to characterize external environmental radiation exposure: Environmental radiation dose rate meter NB 3201 developed in the Czech Republic with a plastic scintillator with small NaI-TL crystal used to compensate the energy dependence to low energy photons; MDU-Liulin semiconductor spectrometer with Si-diode as the sensitive element able to characterize the radiation with both low and high LET; Thermoluminescent detectors (TLD) CaSO 4 :Dy, powder of this TLD material was filled to an Al dose. Results obtained are presented, analysed and discussed. A good agreement of the results obtained was observed, also when compared to the results of other experimental groups. (authors)

  11. Irradiation of the Bulgarian population with secondary cosmic radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasilev, G.

    1983-01-01

    The radiation of the Bulgarian population was estimated, the former being due to secondary space radiation. A method of calculation was applied using the values for dose powers at different heights, proposed by the Research Committee on Atomic Radiation Action (UNO, 1976). Parallelly with that comparative measurements were taken using counters for space radiation VA-Z-232. The stay of the population in different type buildings was taken into account. The mean annual dose of radiation of the Bulgarian population from the secondary space radiation is 245μGy, and the collective effective equivalent dose is 2, 2.10 3 hum sv. (authors)

  12. Interview of Erika Lazarova with Borislav Toshev [In Bulgarian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Lazarova

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2011 a book entitled “Golden Book of Bulgarian Science” was published (Lazarova, 2011. Many eminent Bulgarian scientists were interviewed about the course of their life and scientific achievements. The editor of “Venets”, Prof. Dr. B.V. Toshev, DSc, University of Sofia, was amongst them. The full text of his interview, where he shares with Doc. Dr. Erika Lazarova his opinion and reflections about science, research and education, is presented in this journal because the role of family, teachers and Belogradchik for creating the future scientist is specially emphasized.

  13. Implementation of the Bulgarian-Polish online dictionary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila Dimitrova

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Implementation of the Bulgarian-Polish online dictionary The paper describes the implementation of an online Bulgarian-Polish dictionary as a technological tool for applications in digital humanities. This bilingual digital dictionary is developed in the frame of the joint research project “Semantics and Contrastive Linguistics with a focus on a bilingual electronic dictionary” between IMI-BAS and ISS-PAS, supervised by L. Dimitrova (IMI-BAS and V. Koseska-Toszewa (ISS-PAS. In addition, the main software tools for web-presentation of the dictionary are described briefly.

  14. Livestock production: recent trends, future prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Philip K.

    2010-01-01

    The livestock sector globally is highly dynamic. In developing countries, it is evolving in response to rapidly increasing demand for livestock products. In developed countries, demand for livestock products is stagnating, while many production systems are increasing their efficiency and environmental sustainability. Historical changes in the demand for livestock products have been largely driven by human population growth, income growth and urbanization and the production response in different livestock systems has been associated with science and technology as well as increases in animal numbers. In the future, production will increasingly be affected by competition for natural resources, particularly land and water, competition between food and feed and by the need to operate in a carbon-constrained economy. Developments in breeding, nutrition and animal health will continue to contribute to increasing potential production and further efficiency and genetic gains. Livestock production is likely to be increasingly affected by carbon constraints and environmental and animal welfare legislation. Demand for livestock products in the future could be heavily moderated by socio-economic factors such as human health concerns and changing socio-cultural values. There is considerable uncertainty as to how these factors will play out in different regions of the world in the coming decades. PMID:20713389

  15. Prognosis for stochastic effects from the overbackground irradiation of the Bulgarian population due to the Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasilev, G.; Bajrakova, A.

    1990-01-01

    The doses received by the Bulgarian population as a result of the Chernobyl accident rule out the possibility for development of nonstochastic effects; under these irradiation conditions the health injuries can be manifested as stochastic effects. According to the basic prognostic equation of ICRP (Publications 27 and 45) the irradiation associated with the accident would be responsible for 441 cases of cancer with lethal outcome and of 816 cases of curable cancer during the next 50 years, as well as for 68 cases of severe hereditary injuries during the next two generations. This means an increment of the annual case fatality rate from cancer in this country by an average of 0.006% and of the morbidity by 0.02%. Taking into account the inaccuracy admitted in determining the mortality and morbility, the radiation induced cancerogenic effects will remain unprovable within the framework of a generation life duration. The same refers to the radiation-induced genetic effects as well: less than one case annually over a period of 100 years. The Bulgarian population as a whole will lose about 67.10 3 man-days annually for 50 years due to the induction of curable and lethal cancers and about 79.10 3 man-days because of severe hereditary defects. Brief discussion is presented on the expediency of epidemiologic studies and developing screening programs for assessing the sequelaes of the Chernobyl accident for the health of the Bulgarian population. 8 refs

  16. Livestock production and marketing:

    OpenAIRE

    Negassa, Asfaw; Rashid, Shahidur; Gebremedhin, Berhanu

    2011-01-01

    The livestock is an important sub-sector within Ethiopia’s economy in terms of its contributions to both agricultural value-added and national GDP. Between 1995/96 and 2005/06, the livestock sub-sector’s share averaged 24 percent of agricultural GDP and 11 percent of national GDP, with the highest shares recorded at 27 percent and 13 percent, respectively, at its peak (NBE 2005/06). The contribution of livestock and livestock product exports to foreign exchange earnings is also large. The ann...

  17. Gender Responsive Livestock Research

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Livestock researchers and development practitioners need to ... Qualitative approaches that integrate gender analysis frameworks and tools; Gender .... and social attitudes, which means multiple methods ... Combining quantitative tools that.

  18. Linguistic landscape of memorial spaces in multinational communities: The case of Banat Bulgarians in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sikimić Biljana Lj.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For the linguistic landscape analysis of private signs of Banat Bulgarians we chose two cemeteries, both of them multiethnic, since Banat Bulgarians in Serbia do not form a majority population in any village. The cemetery in Jaša Tomić/Modoš is religiously mixed, but the Catholic and Orthodox part are still divided. Banat Bulgarians in Konak village are buried in the Catholic cemetery; there is a separate Orthodox cemetery for the majority population. These two villages (Jaša Tomić and Konak were selected because they share a similar situation from the diachronic socio-linguistical point of view: apart for a brief time during World War II, the Bulgarian/Paulician language was hardly taught since the early 20th century; Bulgarian was used only in the family and the Catholic church (there are prayer books in Banat Bulgarian; there were many mixed marriages; there was no revival of language and culture As inscriptions on all existing Banat Bulgarian Cyrillic headstones are in Serbian and none of the cemeteries visited have inscriptions in Bulgarian, or rather in the Bulgarian Cyrillic, this indicates that the use and knowledge of standard Bulgarian is limited among the Banat Bulgarians. At the same time, the use of Banat Bulgarian in the Latin alphabet on a proportionally large number of headstones up to the end of the 20th century in the Serbian part of the Banat, and also actively today in Vinga in the Romanian part of Banat, indicates the great importance of the Banat Bulgarian language in preserving the identity of Banat Bulgarians.

  19. Radiological statuses of Bulgarian black see shore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Totzeva, R.; Badulin, V.; Tenev, J.; Kotova, R.; Ivanova, G.

    2013-01-01

    Full text: Introduction: In this paper own results of the radiation monitoring of the Black Sea coast - from village Shabla to village Resovo are presented. The study was carried out under a project funded by the BS ERA NET in FP7 of the European Commission, together with the project partners. Materials and Methods: Sampling was conducted in June 2012. 4 seawater samples (including depth of Varna Bay), 12 sand samples, 2 algae samples, 5 bottom sediments samples, 3 surface river water samples, 1 sea fish sample and 1 medical mud sample were examined. The samples were analyzed by gamma spectrometer for determination of the content technogenic and natural radionuclides and by radiochemical methods for defining the specific concentration of strontium- 90. A comparison between the specific activities of radionuclides in sea and river water, in the sands in sea bottom sediments in points and fractions, as well as in green and red algae. Results: The content of Cesium- 137 and Strontium -90 in the tested sea water ranged from 0.0041 (0.0007) to 0,0110 (0,0027) Bq/l and 0.00362 (0.00047) to 0,00409 (0,00049) Bq/l. The concentration of Cesium-137 in river water is ≤ 0,0012 Bq/l. The content of Potassium-40 in the sands is over a wide range from 4.9 (0.7) to 1152 (47) Bq/kg, a testament to their different origins. There is a difference in the contents of the radio-cesium into the upper and the lower fraction of the deep bottom sediment, and the various sampling points. It is clearly distinguished a selectivity of radio-cesium accumulation in red algae and they can be used for bio-indicator. Conclusion: The assessment of the radiological status of the Bulgarian Black Sea coast shows that with the exception of the beach in Vromos all investigated areas are safe from a radiological point of view. All studied coastal marine water as radiological indicators meet the quality standards set by Ordinance H-4/2012

  20. Ethnic identity and acculturation of Turkish-Bulgarian adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dimitrova, R.; Bender, M.; Chasiotis, A.; van de Vijver, A.J.R.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated associations of ethnic identity, acculturation orientations, and acculturation outcomes (psychological well-being and socio-cultural adjustment) in a sample of 279 Turkish-Bulgarian adolescents through self-reports and parent reports. This group has a long history of discrimination

  1. From a homemade to an industrial product : manufacturing Bulgarian yogurt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoilova, E.R.

    2013-01-01

    Changes in yogurt production in the first half of the twentieth century were related to the transformation of dairy manufacturing through the incorporation of science and technology into the production process. The modernization of the dairy industry affected yogurt, which Bulgarians considered a

  2. National Mythology and Its Linguistical Resources: The Bulgarian Case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aretov, Nikolay

    This paper discusses the concept of Bulgarian national mythology, a secondary mythology that emerged around the late 18th century based on the fundamental opposition Chaos-Cosmos, near-far, up-down, good-evil, God-Satan, and human-non-human. The new mythology redefined self-images and images of the Other, the main figures, and narratives about…

  3. Bulgarian energy sector: risks and policies for mitigation of consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manchev, B.; Halev, G.

    2010-01-01

    The presentation gives the general situation in Bulgarian economy and energy sector. The data and information are obtained from Eurostat. Data from the National Energy Operator's plan for development of the energy sector with minimum expenses are used. Three main accents are considered: 1. Assurance of energy balance; 2. Energy security; 3. Fulfillment of the Energy Union responsibilities

  4. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids from Bulgarian species of the genus Senecio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NADEZHDA KOSTOVA

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Nine Bulgarian species from the genus Senecio were studied phytochemically and/or by GC-MS analysis. Senecivernine-N-oxide was isolated and identified by spectral data for the first time. Different types of pyrrolizidine alkaloids were tested for cytotoxicity on murine lymphocytes. At a concentration of 100 µg/ml, the alkaloid retroisosenine showed immunosuppressive effect.

  5. Romanian-Bulgarian Religious Relations during the First World War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiu Cotan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available After the outbreak of the First World War, when Bulgaria joined the Central Powers through the alliance with Germany, and Romania joined the Entente, the religious relations had a few special times. The defeat of the Romanian army in Dobrudgea and its occupation by the German – Bulgarian troops brought about a real exodus of the Romanian Orthodox clergy who took refuge especially to Moldova. The war ruined a few churches of Dobrudgea and destroyed the houses of the priests who had left their parishes. The issue of the priests fled from Dobrudgea was discussed within a Council met in Iasi in the summer of 1918, when the participants tried to find solutions for their return to their parishes. I personally examined the documents of this council found today in the Archives of the Metropolitanate of Moldova and Bucovina, because they reveal the deficiencies of the Romanian Orthodox Church in regard to the administrative organisation both in Dobrudgea and in the Quadrilateral. Our study approaches two major events occurred in the Bucharest occupied by the German-Bulgarian troops: the Te-Deum service celebrated in the honour of the royal family of Bulgaria in the Metropolitan Cathedral and the attempt to steal the Holy Relics of Pious Dimitrios Basarabov. The German administration has also been involved in the two events, because the Primate metropolitan Conon asked them to resolve these religious Romanian- Bulgarian conflicts. The documents which mention the two events can be found in the Archives of the Holy Synod of Bucharest and have a special significance because they represent an aspect less examined of the First World War and of the Romanian-Bulgarian relations. The theme of this study has never been approached so far by the Romanian theologians and historians, the research covering a gap in the study of the history of the First World War and of the Romanian- Bulgarian relations.

  6. Resilience of livestock to changing environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Breeding and Genetics Symposium titled “Resilience of Livestock to Changing Environments” was held at the Joint Annual Meeting, July 19–24, 2016, Salt Lake City, UT. The objective of the symposium was to provide a broad overview of recent research on the effects of changing environmental conditi...

  7. Perspectives on why digital ecologies matter: combining population genetics and ecologically informed agent-based models with GIS for managing dipteran livestock pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Steven L

    2014-10-01

    It is becoming clear that handling the inherent complexity found in ecological systems is an essential task for finding ways to control insect pests of tropical livestock such as tsetse flies, and old and new world screwworms. In particular, challenging multivalent management programs, such as Area Wide Integrated Pest Management (AW-IPM), face daunting problems of complexity at multiple spatial scales, ranging from landscape level processes to those of smaller scales such as the parasite loads of individual animals. Daunting temporal challenges also await resolution, such as matching management time frames to those found on ecological and even evolutionary temporal scales. How does one deal with representing processes with models that involve multiple spatial and temporal scales? Agent-based models (ABM), combined with geographic information systems (GIS), may allow for understanding, predicting and managing pest control efforts in livestock pests. This paper argues that by incorporating digital ecologies in our management efforts clearer and more informed decisions can be made. I also point out the power of these models in making better predictions in order to anticipate the range of outcomes possible or likely. Copyright © 2014 International Atomic Energy Agency 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Neologisms in bilingual digital dictionaries (on the example of Bulgarian-Polish dictionary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila Dimitrova

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Neologisms in bilingual digital dictionaries (on the example of Bulgarian-Polish dictionary The paper discusses the presentation of neologisms in the recent version of the Bulgarian-Polish digital dictionary. We also continue the discussion of important problems related to the classifiers of the verbs as headwords of the digital dictionary entries. We analyze some examples from ongoing experimental version of the Bulgarian-Polish digital dictionary.

  9. Winter climate variability and classification in the Bulgarian Mountainous Regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petkova, Nadezhda; Koleva, Ekaterina

    2004-01-01

    The problems of snowiness and thermal conditions of winters are of high interest of investigations because of the more frequent droughts, occurred in the region. In the present study an attempt to reveal tendencies existing during the last 70 years of 20 th century in the course winter precipitation and,temperature as well as in some of the snow cover parameters. On the base of mean winter air temperature winters in the Bulgarian mountains were analyzed and classified. The main results of the study show that winter precipitation has decrease tendencies more significant in the highest parts of the mountains. On the other hand winter air temperature increases. It shows a relatively well-established maximum at the end of the studied period. In the Bulgarian mountains normal winters are about 35-40% of all winters. (Author)

  10. Bulgarian clusters under development: Political framework and results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bankova Yovka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The idea of clusters is not new but nowadays clusters are in a highlight again. Through cluster policies the countries aim at raising their national competitiveness. The paper deals with two objectives - discussion and evaluation of the strategic framework for clusters in Bulgaria and an analysis of the state of Bulgarian clusters. The paper presents briefly general issues concerning the national competitiveness and clusters as being one of the possible instruments to achieve a sustainable competitiveness. The practice of the policy in the EU in the field of clusters is the basis for conclusions about the role of the governments. The second part deals with the strategic framework for the cluster initiatives in Bulgaria and with a selection of indicators about the SMEs and clusters in the country. On this basis a conclusion about the development stage of Bulgarian clusters is derived.

  11. Institutional failures and transaction costs of Bulgarian private research institutes

    OpenAIRE

    Nozharov, Shteryo

    2016-01-01

    The paper analyses the reasons for poor performance of private research institutes in Bulgaria. In this regard the Institutional Economics methods are used. A connection between smart growth policy goals and Bulgarian membership in EU is made. The gaps in the institutional environment are identified as well as measures for their elimination are proposed. The main accent of the study is put on the identification of transaction costs, arisen as a result of the failures of the institutional envi...

  12. Romanian-Bulgarian Religious Relations during the First World War

    OpenAIRE

    Claudiu Cotan

    2015-01-01

    After the outbreak of the First World War, when Bulgaria joined the Central Powers through the alliance with Germany, and Romania joined the Entente, the religious relations had a few special times. The defeat of the Romanian army in Dobrudgea and its occupation by the German – Bulgarian troops brought about a real exodus of the Romanian Orthodox clergy who took refuge especially to Moldova. The war ruined a few churches of Dobrudgea and destroyed the houses of t...

  13. What Bulgarian Banks offer via Internet: an Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Bojidar Bojinov

    2003-01-01

    The new information technologies adoption and e-commerce emergence change the role of financial intermediaries in new E-conomy. During the last years, the bank started an expansion to the web – they offer broad range of traditional bank products and services via Internet. The remote banking become one of the main channels for bank services distribution. The Internet expansion of the Bulgarian banks is at its beginning. The showed results are based on the Internet research, which has aimed to ...

  14. What Bulgarian Banks offer via Internet: an Overview (v2)

    OpenAIRE

    Bojidar Bojinov

    2003-01-01

    The new information technologies adoption and e-commerce emergence change the role of financial intermediaries in new E-conomy. During the last years, the bank started an expansion to the web – they offer broad range of traditional bank products and services via Internet. The remote banking become one of the main channels for bank services distribution. The Internet expansion of the Bulgarian banks is at its beginning. The showed results are based on the Internet research, which has aimed to ...

  15. Livestock Anaerobic Digester Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Anaerobic Digester Database provides basic information about anaerobic digesters on livestock farms in the United States, organized in Excel spreadsheets. It includes projects that are under construction, operating, or shut down.

  16. The Bulgarian coal and the fluid bed technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konstantinov, M.; Georgiev, J.; Lebedov, K.; Petrov, N.

    2000-01-01

    Because of low-quality of the most of Bulgarian coal and more rigorous ecological restrictions for decreasing of greenhouse gases the fluidized bed technology is the most appropriate combustion technology. A study with a pilot plant aiming to establish the values of technological parameters in view to maintain stable process of fluidized bed combustion at the specific burning characteristics of the Bulgarian coal was carried out. Coal of different quality and particle size production of 'Marbas' LTD mines were used. Series of experiments with batches of strictly determined content were carried out at minimal, average and maximal load. The technological factors as: layer's aerodynamics, layer's height, fuel's quantity and quantity of inert material were changed at each batch. The ecological factors were optimized considering coal's quality, plant's parameters, limestone's dosing and layer's aerodynamics. A regressive model for optimization of technological and ecological factors was created. An average coefficient of performance was achieved, resp. 82.27 % at combustion of coal from mines 'Maritsa-West' and 90 % from mine 'Lev'. A coefficient of sulfur oxides' capture 70 % was obtained at coal with sulfur content 3.1-3.9 %. In conclusion the fluidized bed technology is very suitable for combustion's characteristics of the Bulgarian coal

  17. The Notion of the Foreign in Hungarian and Bulgarian Phraseologisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesnichkova Lilyana

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The confrontation between the native and the foreign is a problem that focuses research efforts on a number of humanities, e.g. cultural studies, anthropology, linguistics, ethnography, etc. The following report analyses the notion of the foreign, the other, the different, reflected in the phraseological wealth of the Hungarian and Bulgarian languages. The reviewed phrasemes concentrate the shock upon collision with the different or evaluation of the experience gained in the continuous communication with the other. The foreign is usually individualized by outlining and exaggerating some of its characteristics using parallels, oppositions, and metaphors. The negative attitudes and judgments prevail over the others: the fear of the collective “I” losing its own identity creates a negative attitude towards the foreign, distorted, or wrong notion of the other and the different. Many of the idioms reflect interethnic relations from times long gone, and so they are no longer a significant part of the active vocabulary of Hungarians and Bulgarians. Their analysis, however, is of great interest as they preserve the collective memory of the Hungarian and Bulgarian cultural communities and reveal their traditional notions and knowledge.

  18. Environmental sustainability of Alpine livestock farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Battaglini

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The 2006 FAO report concerning the environmental impact of the livestock sector has generated scientific debate, especially considering the context of global warming and the need to provide animal products to a growing world population. However, this sector differs widely in terms of environmental context, production targets, degree of intensification and cultural role. The traditional breeding systems in the Alps were largely based on the use of meadows and pastures and produced not only milk and meat but also other fundamental positive externalities and ecosystem services, such as conservation of genetic resources, water flow regulation, pollination, climate regulation, landscape maintenance, recreation and ecotourism and cultural heritage. In recent decades, the mountain livestock, mainly represented by dairy cattle, has been affected by a dramatic reduction of farms, a strong increase of animals per farm, an increase in indoor production systems, more extensive use of specialised non-indigenous cattle breeds and the increasing use of extra-farm concentrates instead of meadows and pastures for fodder. This paper firstly describes the livestock sector in the Italian Alps and analyses the most important factors affecting their sustainability. Secondly, it discusses the need to assess the ecosystem services offered by forage- based livestock systems in mountains with particular attention to greenhouse gas emission and its mitigation by carbon sequestration. In conclusion, comparison between the different elements of the environmental sustainability of mountain livestock systems must be based on a comprehensive overview of the relationships among animal husbandry, environment and socio-economic context.

  19. Livestock-Associated Methicillin Resistant and Methicillin Susceptible Staphylococcus aureus Sequence Type (CC1 in European Farmed Animals: High Genetic Relatedness of Isolates from Italian Cattle Herds and Humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Alba

    Full Text Available Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA Sequence Type (ST1, Clonal Complex(CC1, SCCmec V is one of the major Livestock-Associated (LA- lineages in pig farming industry in Italy and is associated with pigs in other European countries. Recently, it has been increasingly detected in Italian dairy cattle herds. The aim of this study was to analyse the differences between ST1 MRSA and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA from cattle and pig herds in Italy and Europe and human isolates. Sixty-tree animal isolates from different holdings and 20 human isolates were characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE, spa-typing, SCCmec typing, and by micro-array analysis for several virulence, antimicrobial resistance, and strain/host-specific marker genes. Three major PFGE clusters were detected. The bovine isolates shared a high (≥90% to 100% similarity with human isolates and carried the same SCCmec type IVa. They often showed genetic features typical of human adaptation or present in human-associated CC1: Immune evasion cluster (IEC genes sak and scn, or sea; sat and aphA3-mediated aminoglycoside resistance. Contrary, typical markers of porcine origin in Italy and Spain, like erm(A mediated macrolide-lincosamide-streptograminB, and of vga(A-mediated pleuromutilin resistance were always absent in human and bovine isolates. Most of ST(CC1 MRSA from dairy cattle were multidrug-resistant and contained virulence and immunomodulatory genes associated with full capability of colonizing humans. As such, these strains may represent a greater human hazard than the porcine strains. The zoonotic capacity of CC1 LA-MRSA from livestock must be taken seriously and measures should be implemented at farm-level to prevent spill-over.

  20. Livestock-Associated Methicillin Resistant and Methicillin Susceptible Staphylococcus aureus Sequence Type (CC)1 in European Farmed Animals: High Genetic Relatedness of Isolates from Italian Cattle Herds and Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alba, Patricia; Feltrin, Fabiola; Cordaro, Gessica; Porrero, María Concepción; Kraushaar, Britta; Argudín, María Angeles; Nykäsenoja, Suvi; Monaco, Monica; Stegger, Marc; Aarestrup, Frank M; Butaye, Patrick; Franco, Alessia; Battisti, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Sequence Type (ST)1, Clonal Complex(CC)1, SCCmec V is one of the major Livestock-Associated (LA-) lineages in pig farming industry in Italy and is associated with pigs in other European countries. Recently, it has been increasingly detected in Italian dairy cattle herds. The aim of this study was to analyse the differences between ST1 MRSA and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) from cattle and pig herds in Italy and Europe and human isolates. Sixty-tree animal isolates from different holdings and 20 human isolates were characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), spa-typing, SCCmec typing, and by micro-array analysis for several virulence, antimicrobial resistance, and strain/host-specific marker genes. Three major PFGE clusters were detected. The bovine isolates shared a high (≥90% to 100%) similarity with human isolates and carried the same SCCmec type IVa. They often showed genetic features typical of human adaptation or present in human-associated CC1: Immune evasion cluster (IEC) genes sak and scn, or sea; sat and aphA3-mediated aminoglycoside resistance. Contrary, typical markers of porcine origin in Italy and Spain, like erm(A) mediated macrolide-lincosamide-streptograminB, and of vga(A)-mediated pleuromutilin resistance were always absent in human and bovine isolates. Most of ST(CC)1 MRSA from dairy cattle were multidrug-resistant and contained virulence and immunomodulatory genes associated with full capability of colonizing humans. As such, these strains may represent a greater human hazard than the porcine strains. The zoonotic capacity of CC1 LA-MRSA from livestock must be taken seriously and measures should be implemented at farm-level to prevent spill-over.

  1. Prospects of Livestock Production in Balochistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Raziq*, M. Younas1 and Z. Rehman

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Balochistan is the largest province of Pakistan and makes about 44% of the total geographical area of the country. Most of the area is rangelands with only 5% arable. Animal agriculture is centuries old occupation of the people of Balochistan. Livestock are one of the major important sectors of the province having about 20% of the national stock. However, with little manufacturing facilities and under-developed infrastructure, the provincial economy lags far behind other parts of the country. This is the cradle of many precious livestock breeds and livestock make an important part of the socio-cultural and socioeconomic survival of its inhabitants. The biodiversity of animal genetic resources plays very pivotal role in the economy of the province and each breed has its own uniqueness and socioeconomic importance. The exact value of such precious animal genetic resource has never been realized as yet and no serious steps have been taken for its improvement. It is the utmost need of the time to rethink on the policies relating to livestock production in the province while keeping the needs of the growing population, socio-cultural change and the global warming issues in mind.

  2. 4th International Bulgarian Forum “Origins, Historical Development and Cultural Heritage of Bulgarian Civilization” (Varna, Bulgaria, 22-25 October 2012

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    Khuzin Fayaz Sh.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The work of the 4th International forum "Origins, historical development and cultural heritage of Bulgarian civilization" is highlighted in the article. The forum was organized by the Tatarstan Republican Fund "Vozrozhdenie", Ministries of Culture of the Republic of Bulgaria and the Republic of Tatarstan, the National Archaeological Institute and Museum with the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of History named after S. Mardjani, Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tatarstan, and Varna Regional Historical Museum. It was attended by more than 100 scholars from different research centers of Bulgaria, Russia, Ukraine, Romania, Hungary, and Switzerland. They discussed issues related to the ethnogenesis, ancient and medieval history of the peoples whose origin is connected with the history of the Bulgarians and their state, questions of mutual influence in the field of culture between the Bulgarians and the neighboring peoples, as well as actual problems of cultural heritage study and conservation.

  3. The example of Europe and the pedagogical ideas of the Bulgarian writers during the Bulgarian National Revival (XVIII – the first half of the XIX century

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    Milka Nikolova Terziyska-Stefanova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to explore and analyze the essence and nature of the pedagogical thought in Bulgaria during the Bulgarian National Revival as a basis for educational reform. Objectivity requires pedagogical ideas to be considered in the context of overall socio-political and cultural life in the country on the one hand, and amid universal spiritual revival in Europe on the other. These tasks could be undertaken by a major international study, which is why we consider some of the questions highlighting this topic – the positive example of Europe on educational thought in the country presented by Bulgarian writers in the 18th century through the first half of the 19th century. The achievements of free European nations developing in all spheres of life were perceived by Bulgarian Renaissance writers as an incentive to overcome the age-old material and spiritual backwardness of the Bulgarians by the power of knowledge. In their activity they proceeded from a clearly motivated purpose: to contribute by educating citizens about spiritual awakening and rise of the Bulgarian nation. According to them, mass secular education in their native language was the road that would take the Bulgarians from their present slavery and provide them with material and spiritual well-being, like in other European nations. The need for secular books and secular schools to be taught in the mother tongue was one of the main ideas of Bulgarian writers during the Renaissance. Their mouthpieces were mainly clergymen, who perceived their role as national leaders and educators. Alongside the emerging secular intelligentsia, they actively contributed to the spiritual and cultural advancement of the Bulgarian nation and its integration into European civilization. An enlightened, free and independent Bulgaria was the ideal of our Renaissance leaders P. Hilendarski, G. S. Rakovski and Hr. Botev. While the revolutionary figures from the late 19th century thought that this could

  4. Status and objectives of the Bulgarian nuclear energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouzmanov, K.

    1996-01-01

    A brief overview of the current situation and problems to be solved in the Bulgarian nuclear energy is presented. The main task is to increase the availability of the Kozloduy NPP in terms of time and power. The following technical solutions for reconstruction of units 1-4 (WWER-440) are discussed: defence against external events; emergency cooling of the primary and secondary circuits; reliability analysis used in probabilistic safety assessment; management of beyond design basis accident conditions. The necessity of retrofitting of units 5-6 (WWER-1000) and completion of the Belyane NPP project is also stressed

  5. Changes of Bulgarian Coastal Dune Landscape under Anthropogenic Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazov, A.; Young, R.; Stancheva, M.; Stanchev, H.

    2012-04-01

    At one time large sand dune formations were widely distributed along the Bulgarian coast. However, due to increased urbanization in the coastal zone, the areas of total dune landscape has been constantly reduced. Dunes presently comprise only 10% of the entire 412 km long coastline of Bulgaria: they embrace a total length of 38.57 km and a total area of 8.78 km2 Important tasks in dune protection are identification of landscape changes for a certain period of time and accurate delineation of sand dune areas. The present research traces sand dune changes along the Bulgarian Black Sea coast over a 27 year period (1983-2010). This period includes also the time of expanded tourist boom and overbuilding of the coastal zone, and respectively presents the largest dune changes and reductions. Based on the landscape change analyst in GIS environment the study also aims to explore the importance of different natural and human factors in driving the observed dune alterations and destruction. To detect and assess dune changes during the last 3 decades, we used data for sand dunes derived from several sources at different time periods in order to compare changes in shoreline positions, dune contours and areas: i) Topographic maps in 1:5,000 scale from 1983; ii) Modern Very High Resolution orthophotographs from 2006 and 2010; iii) QuickBird Very High Resolution satellite images from 2009; iv) Statistical information for population and tourist infrastructure is also used to consider the influence of human pressure and hotel developments on the dune dynamics. In addition, for more detailed description and visualization of main dune types, digital photos have been taken at many parts of the Bulgarian coast. The study was performed in GIS environment. Based on the results obtained the dunes along the Bulgarian coast were divided into three main groups with relation to the general factors responsible for their alterations: i) Dunes that have decreased in result of shoreline retreat

  6. MOST SOLD CATEGORIES FOOD SUPPLEMENTS IN BULGARIAN PHARMACIES - RESEARCH

    OpenAIRE

    Elina Petkova1, Kalin Ivanov2, Stanislava Ivanova2*, Stanislav Gueorguiev3, Radiana Staynova3

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate which are the most sold categories food supplements in Bulgarian pharmacies. The survey covers 820 pharmacies across the country. We have found that the leading category of food supplements is “Immune and digestive health” (41.5%). The second place is for the “Bone and joint health” (12.9%). The “Urology” category (consisted mainly by plant extracts) is about 7.9%. Food supplements in the “Urology” category are not only recommended by pharmacists but of...

  7. ELABORATION OF THE SUPERSTRUCTURE OF THE BULGARIAN HOTEL INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanya Dabeva

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to suggest some terms of reference for the elaboration of the superstructure of the Bulgarian hotel industry. The suggestions are based on the analysis of the superstructure at present. Its capacity, main types of accommodation establishments and their distribution by categories and territory are examined. An analysis is made of some resulting indices such as overnight stays and average stay. The main positive, respectively negative features of the superstructure have been analyzed. Concrete terms of reference have been given in order to overcome the problems specified.

  8. 10th Annual Meeting of the Bulgarian Section of SIAM

    CERN Document Server

    Todorov, Michail; Georgiev, Ivan

    2017-01-01

    This book presents recent research on Advanced Computing in Industrial Mathematics, which is one of the most prominent interdisciplinary areas and combines mathematics, computer science, scientific computations, engineering, physics, chemistry, medicine, etc. Further, the book presents the tools of Industrial Mathematics, which are based on mathematical models, and the corresponding computer codes, which are used to perform virtual experiments to obtain new data or to better understand the existing experimental results. The book gathers the peer-reviewed papers presented during the 10th Annual Meeting of the Bulgarian Section of SIAM (BGSIAM) from December 21 to 22, 2015 in Sofia, Bulgaria.

  9. Calreticulin Mutations in Bulgarian MPN Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlov, Ivan; Hadjiev, Evgueniy; Alaikov, Tzvetan; Spassova, Sylva; Stoimenov, Angel; Naumova, Elissaveta; Shivarov, Velizar; Ivanova, Milena

    2018-01-01

    Somatic mutations in JAK2, MPL and CALR are recurrently identified in most of the cases with Philadelphia chromosome negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs). We applied four molecular genetic methods for identification of CALR exon 9 mutations, including high resolution melt (HRM) analysis, Sanger sequencing, semiconductor target genes sequencing and whole exome sequencing. A total of 78 patients with myeloid malignancies were included in the study. We identified 14 CALR exon 9 mutated cases out of 78 studied patients with myeloid malignancies. All mutated patients were diagnosed with MPN being either PMF (n = 7) or ET (n = 7). Nine cases had type 1 mutations and 5 cases had type 2 mutations. CALR exon 9, MPL exon 10 and JAK2 p. V617F were mutually exclusive. There were no statistically significant differences in the hematological parameters between the cases with CALR and JAK2 or MPL mutations. Notably, all four techniques were fully concordant in the detection of CALR mutations. This is one of the few reports on the CALR mutations frequency in South-eastern populations. Our study shows that the frequency and patterns of these mutations is identical to those in the patients' cohorts from Western countries. Besides we demonstrated the utility of four different methods for their detection.

  10. WOMEN, LIVESTOCK OWNERSHIP AND MARKETS

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    3.6 Common means of livestock acquisition by women in Kenya ... 9.1 Prerequisite for a gender transformative approach in livestock research ..... of the data, describing the quantitative and qualitative methods used and the analysis employed.

  11. The role of reproductive technologies in breeding schemes for livestock populations in developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    The world is faced with the challenge to meet the increasing demand for livestock products while conserving animal genetic resource diversity and maintaining environmental integrity. Genetic improvement of local breeds can help to improve the livelihood of the livestock keepers, to increase the

  12. Animals & Livestock | National Agricultural Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    News Contact Us Search  Log inRegister Home Home Animals & Livestock NEWT: National Extension fisher occupancy of small, 1 km^2^ grid cells of forest habitat. Animals and Livestock html Data from consisting of IL-12Rβ1 and IL-23R, and activates the JAK/STAT signaling pathways. Animals and Livestock html

  13. Sustainability of Governing Structures in Bulgarian Farming Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrabrin Bachev

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The issue of assessment of absolute and comparative sustainability of major governing structures in agrarian and farming industries is among the most topical issues for researchers, farmers, investors, administrators, politicians, interests groups, and the public worldwide. Despite this issue, practically there are no assessments on the sustainability level of the major types of Bulgarian farming enterprises in the conditions of European Union Common Agricultural Policy implementation. This study applies a holistic framework and assesses the absolute and comparative sustainability of major governing structures in Bulgarian farming industry—unregistered holdings, sole traders, cooperatives, and companies of various types. In this paper, the method of the study is outlined, the inclusion of a novel “governance aspect” of sustainability is justified, and the overall characteristics of the surveyed farming enterprises are presented. Then, the integral, governance, economic, social, and environmental sustainability of the farming structures of different juridical types is assessed. Next, the structure of farming enterprises with different sustainability levels is analyzed. Finally, the conclusion from this study and the directions for further research and amelioration of sustainability assessments are presented.

  14. TRANSFORMATION IN BULGARIAN LABOR MARKET IN THE YEARS OF TRANSITION

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    Venelin Terziev

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the dependency of labor market on positive and negative effects of cyclic recurrence and economic development. Probable scenarios of the dynamics in employment and unemployment in dependence of changes in gross domestic product (GDP and productivity in conditions of recession and following the start of economic revival are analyzed in accordance to the open character of Bulgarian economy and the specificity of Bulgarian model of transition predetermined by the impacts of outer influences and additional inner ones on the labor market, which verification is on the basis of the data for state-of-art of labor market in years of transition to market economy. The factor predestining the level of unemployment are investigated on the basis of input flows unemployment relating to macroeconomic and other outer measures, as well as the impact which would lead to decrease in the average duration of unemployment. The accent is on the necessity of establishment of a consecutive and sustainable strategy of economic development having a clear vision about the structuring of economy and labor demand in middle-term aspect, as founding in the flexibility of labor market and employment in the country.

  15. Principal sources of irradiation of the Bulgarian population and the place and importance of medical irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasilev, G.

    1983-01-01

    From information relating to numbers of various types of diagnostic medical X-ray procedures annually performed over the period 1962-1981 and mean radiation doses thereby delivered to various organs, estimates were derived of mean annual effective dose equivalents to the Bulgarian population; they were found to have risen from 0.5 msv per capita for 1962 to 1.35 msv per capita for 1981. Also, taking into account information on population age distributions, genetically and leukemogenically significant doses were calculated and found to have increased from 0.3 and 0.45 msv per capita for 1962 to 0.96 and 1.15 msv per capita for 1981, respectively. Analysis of collective gonad dose equivalents for 1981 indicated medical applications and diagnostic X-rays in particular to be responsible for the bulk radiation exposure in excess of background. As of 1981, the absolute level of risk incurred through radiological diagnosis was estimated at 240 lethal cases (146 fatal malignant tumors and leukoses, and 94 severe genetic effects). The death rate from malignancies for this period being of the order of 13.5 x 10 3 cases, the additional 146 cases constitute less than 1% of spontaneous deaths. (authors)

  16. Livestock breeding for sustainability to mitigate global warming, with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, both genetic and epigenetic controls influence genetic expression and should be taken into account when formulating breeding programmes. Subsistence farmers keep livestock for multiple purposes and the formulation of breeding objectives/strategies will have to consider these dynamics. Keywords: Breeding ...

  17. Spatial dependence of genetic data related to human health and livestock disease resistance: a role for geography to support the One Health approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Joost

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The spatial dependence of located health and/or genetic data can be used to detect clusters likely to reveal disease prevalence or signatures of adaptation possibly associated with characteristics of the local environment (high temperatures, air or water pollution, be it in humans or animals (Murtaugh et al. 2017. Most often, geographic maps are produced to represent health data. Medical information is transmitted through thematic choropleth maps. For instance administrative units are colored according to the variable of interest. But it is key to analyse health and/or genetic data by explicitly including geographic characteristics (distances, co-location and also the potential and power of spatial statistics to detect specific patterns in the geographic distribution of disease occurrences (“make visible the invisible”. A classic example using clusters is the map produced by John Snow (Snow 1855 showing the number of deaths caused by a cholera outbreak in London. Looking at a detail of Snow's original map, it is possible to realize how he graphically represented the number of deaths, with short bold lines representing death occurrences (frequencies forming a kind of histogram placed on the street at the addresses where it happened - what we currently name georeferencing. A cluster of death people is an effect observed on the territory, and the existence of such a cluster depends on an infected water pump located at the same place (the cause. How can this spatial dependence be detected and measured? It is possible to identify spatial patterns in the geographic space by means of spatial statistics. We need to determine whether the variable of interest is randomly distributed or spatially dependent, and to check if the patterns observed are robust to random permutations. We also need to explore the data, to find out what is the range of influence of this spatial dependence. Here we focus on the functioning of one among several measures of

  18. Contemporary Marketing Tools Used from Bulgarian Private Dentists

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    Kazakova S

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study examines the use of different marketing tools among dentists for the development of private dental practices. Material and methods A phone call survey was conducted. The survey consisted of questions related to the use of different marketing tools used by dentists for the development of their practices. Results The most used contemporary marketing tools from Bulgarian dentist are the presence of web site (24.3% and social media advertisement (21.57%. The less used tools are media advertisement (0.68% and the use of flyers (1.36%. Conclusion Dentists are not well acquainted with the contemporary marketing tools. The internal marketing is most secure tool for attracting new patients. Internet technology gives opportunity for additional form of rapid communication and advertisement on a moderate price.

  19. Environmental impact and benefit from hydro-energy: Bulgarian case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vesselinov, V.; Iotova, A.

    1996-01-01

    The present hydro energy system in Bulgaria has been constructed mainly in the period 1950-1965. The currently utilized hydro-power potential, only 33% of the estimated technical potential, includes 87 HPP operating in 1991. A complex assessment of the environmental impact of the hydro energy objects as well as a comparative analysis of all energy sources in Bulgaria is made in the framework of Bulgarian Case Study of the DECADES Inter-Agency Project. The main types of environmental impact related to HPP operation are presented in 7 specific categories: land requirements, changes in the landscape, hydrological changes, micro-climatic changes, geodynamic changes, risk from man-made activities; generation of new ecosystems. A technique of expertise in ball is proposed as a suitable quantitative approach for more precise assessment of impact on climate factors from different energy sources. 2 tabs., 5 refs

  20. The correspondence between Miodrag Vasiljević and Bulgarian Musicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Jelena L.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The Serbian ethnomusicologist and music pedagogue Miodrag A. Vasiljević corresponded with colleagues from neighboring Bulgaria between 1934 and 1962. This exchange of letters went through three phases. The first phase was linked with his stay in Skopje until the breakout of World War II; during the second phase - in the course of the 1940's - he was active in the Department for Folk Music at Radio Belgrade and he founded his method of music teaching on traditional Serbian music; in the third phase (the 1950's and beginning of 1960's Vasiljević aimed at a closer cooperation with Bulgarian musicians. All the phases are characterized by his pronounced interest in the folk music heritage of Balkan peoples. At the beginning that interest was focused on popularizing art music that was based on folk music. Later, he enthusiastically carried out his reforms of music teaching in Serbia, as well as improvements of methods in Serbian ethnomusicology.

  1. Chromosomal aberrations and micronuclei frequencies in Bulgarian control population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popova, I.; Hadjidekova, V.; Hristova, R.; Atanasova, P.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this investigation is to represent the frequency of spontaneous chromosomal damages in peripheral blood lymphocytes of Bulgarian control population. Material and methods: The investigated group includes persons belonging to both sexes and different ages. Each of them is interviewed of their social and health status. Sixteen persons are examined using the chromosomal aberrations analysis and forty-five with micronucleus test. The frequency of chromosomal aberrations varied between 0 - 2.4 % and the mean value is 1.00 %. The frequency of cells with micronuclei varied between 4.5 - 24.5 % and the mean value 12,9 %. Further work on the investigation of spontaneous frequency of chromosomal damages is in progress. (authors)

  2. Contemporary Marketing Tools Used from Bulgarian Private Dentists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazakova S.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the use of different marketing tools among dentists for the development of private dental practices. Material and methods: A phone call survey was conducted. The survey consisted of questions related to the use of different marketing tools used by dentists for the development of their practices. Results: The most used contemporary marketing tools from Bulgarian dentist are the presence of web site (24.3% and social media advertisement (21.57%. The less used tools are media advertisement (0.68% and the use of flyers (1.36%. Conclusion: Dentists are not well acquainted with the contemporary marketing tools. The internal marketing is most secure tool for attracting new patients. Internet technology gives opportunity for additional form of rapid communication and advertisement on a moderate price.

  3. National Identity of Young Adolescents of Czech and Bulgarian Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Ganeva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the structure of national identity among young adolescents of Bulgarian and Czech origin. University students (N=161 completed the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure-Revised (MEIM-R (Phinney & Ong, 2007, four measures of psychological well-being and a measure of salience of ethnicity. Factor analyses of data for the two national groups yielded a two-factor structure that corresponded to two theoretical approaches to ethnic identity, as hypothesised. Similar patterns in magnitude of loadings were observed across groups, indicating that the MEIM-R could be used as a global composite index of national identity. National identity was related positively to measures of psychological well-being such as mastery, self-esteem and optimism, and negatively to measure of loneliness. MEIM-R scores were also moderately correlated with salience (the importance of a person's own national background in his or her life, across national groups.

  4. Pages from the Past: Part I [In Bulgarian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Stefanova Strigacheva

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Pages from the past are recollections written in 1970s by Ferdinanda - Venka Stefanova Strigacheva (1897-1976. A large period of time after 1910 is covered. She was born in the village of Targovishte, Belogradchik region. She graduated from the Secondary School for Girls in Vidin. Then she became a teacher. Later she studied agronomy in Wien and Berlin. Ferdinanda Strigacheva was an active and influential communist. However, when the communists became in power in Bulgaria in the autumn of 1944, she left aside from the policy disappointed from the actions of the Bulgarian Communist Party; nevertheless Strigacheva kept her loyality to the Party and beliefs into the communism. Strigacheva son Dr. Atanas Strigachev and his son Dr. Anton Strigachev prepared the text for publishing, mainly with changing the spelling into the modern one.

  5. Gardnerella vaginalis-associated bacterial vaginosis in Bulgarian women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raina T. Gergova

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Bacterial vaginosis (BV is the most common cause of vaginal discharge in women of reproductive age. The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency of BV in Bulgarian pregnant and nonpregnant women from several age ranges and to compare three different laboratory methods for Gardnerella vaginalis detection in patents suffering from BV. METHODS: Between September 2011 and June 2012, 809 women of 16-40 years of age separated in two major groups: nonpregnant - 469 (355 with and 114 without symptoms and pregnant - 340 (213 and 127 respectively were enrolled for the study. The women underwent three different laboratory tests simultaneously: scoring of Gram staining of vaginal smear, culture, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR assay for G. vaginalis. RESULTS: The microscopic method detected high frequency of BV in symptomatic (57% whereas only a minority of asymptomatic subjects (14% were detected. G. vaginalisassociated BV was diagnosed in approximately equal proportions when evaluated with PCR and microscopic method for both pregnant and nonpregnant women. The comparative analysis of microscopic evaluation, culture and PCR assays demonstrated greater concurrence (about 90% between Gram staining and PCR detection for BV, than both methods compared to culture. The combination of microscopy and PCR turned out to be very reliable and repeatable for detecting G. vaginalis-associated BV. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first comparative investigation on the epidemiology of G. vaginalisassociated BV in Bulgaria. The established highest frequency in the young Bulgarian women (21-30 years is alarming and should be considered in prophylaxis and reproductive programmes.

  6. Studies on the reference values of bone mineral content in Bulgarian women using single energy quantitative computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsvetkova, S.; Semova, R.; Lichev, A.; Delov, I.

    1995-01-01

    Quantitative CT assessment of bone mineral content (BMC) is widely used in clinical practice. The results obtained from the examination of every single patient are compared with the reference values for the corresponding age and sex. It is known that BMC shows well recognized genetic, racial, ethnic and other differences. On the other hand, the introduction of different techniques, calibration phantoms, algorithms for choosing the region of interest, statistical models etc. leads to some differences in reference values. The authors present their own studies on the reference values of BMC in Bulgarian women using single energy quantitative computed tomography and a liquid K 2 HPO 4 calibration phantom. Different statistical models for data processing are proposed. The results are compared to the studies of recognized foreign authors. 17 refs., 3 tabs., 5 figs. (author)

  7. African Journal of Livestock Extension

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Livestock Extension aims to bring to the fore the role and significance of livestock in maintaining rural, peri-urban and urban households, vis-à-vis its impact on poverty alleviation, household nutritional status, economic coping strategy and provision of employment. The focus of the journal relates to all ...

  8. Modelling Livestock Component in FSSIM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thorne, P.J.; Hengsdijk, H.; Janssen, S.J.C.; Louhichi, K.; Keulen, van H.; Thornton, P.K.

    2009-01-01

    This document summarises the development of a ruminant livestock component for the Farm System Simulator (FSSIM). This includes treatments of energy and protein transactions in ruminant livestock that have been used as a basis for the biophysical simulations that will generate the input production

  9. Livestock First Reached Southern Africa in Two Separate Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadr, Karim

    2015-01-01

    After several decades of research on the subject, we now know when the first livestock reached southern Africa but the question of how they got there remains a contentious topic. Debate centres on whether they were brought with a large migration of Khoe-speakers who originated from East Africa; or whether the livestock were traded down-the-line among hunter-gatherer communities; or indeed whether there was a long history of diverse small scale population movements in this part of the world, one or more of which 'infiltrated' livestock into southern Africa. A new analysis of the distribution of stone toolkits from a sizeable sample of sub-equatorial African Later Stone Age sites, coupled with existing knowledge of the distribution of the earliest livestock remains and ceramics vessels, has allowed us to isolate two separate infiltration events that brought the first livestock into southern Africa just over 2000 years ago; one infiltration was along the Atlantic seaboard and another entered the middle reaches of the Limpopo River Basin. These findings agree well with the latest results of genetic research which together indicate that multiple, small-scale infiltrations probably were responsible for bringing the first livestock into southern Africa.

  10. Continued Professional Education of Bulgarian Pharmacists: Second Registration Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrova G.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The continuing professional education prepares the pharmacists for the requirements of the changed role of pharmacists in the society. Different approaches to continuous professional education ranging from lectures to peer-mentoring work shops and web tools have been developed throughout the last 25 years. The goal of the current analysis is to systematize the trends in accredited education events for pharmacists by the Quality Committee of the BPhU during 2010-2013. This study is a retrospective database analysis. The information concerning the accredited forms of continuing education of pharmacists as well as other activities related to continuing education was extracted from the official protocols, issued by the Quality Commission of the Bulgarian Pharmaceutical Union (BPhU. The continuing postgraduate education of pharmacists in Bulgaria is developing with new elements which allow competence development through individual forms of self-development such as publication activities, delivering presentations, individual training, etc. In the educational programs accredited during the second registration period, still prevailed the short courses, with focus on the new medicinal products.

  11. Primacy analysis in the system of Bulgarian cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrova, Zlatinka I.; Ausloos, Marcel

    2015-07-01

    The concept of "primacy" as introduced by Jefferson in 1939 in urban geography leads to the notion of "dominant city" also known as the primate city. Practically, the notion was extended by Sheppard in view of discussing some "hierarchy". The type of dominance is not universal nor any hierarchy reversal. Both can be time and sample dependent. Thus, as an example taking into consideration the existence of both pieces of the puzzle, we consider and discuss the Bulgarian urban system. It is also interesting to compare data on two groups of cities in different time intervals: (i) the whole Bulgaria city system which contains about 250 cities, - studied in the time interval between 2004 and 2011, and (ii) a system of 33 cities, - studied over the time interval 1887 till 2010. These latter cities are selected because the population was already over 10 000 inhabitants in 1946. It is shown that new additional indices are interestingly introduced in order to compensate defects in the Sheppard index. Numerical illustrations are illuminated through a "length ratio" measure, which allows to distinguish the (often) observed departures from the hyperbolic ranking seen by Jefferson.

  12. Qualification of ISI for Bulgarian NPP: UK support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booler, R.

    2000-01-01

    UK Regulator (NII) Phare project provides an assistance to the Bulgarian Regulator in setting up the technical infrastructure for inspection qualification consistent with IAEA Guidelines and western European practice. The Strategy Document defines the methodology for inspection qualification and general roles and responsibilities of the involved organizations. The Qualification Inputs Document describes the information required for the Technical Specifications (component details, inspection aims and limitations). It applies the idea of qualification level - level 1(lowest) to level 3 (highest). The Qualification Procedure Document provides a guidance to the utility ('Kozloduy' NPP) on the preparation of Qualification Procedures (QP). The appendix provides a specific guidance on the performance of the all aspects of qualification at different levels and recommendations for technical justification. QB Method Working Document provides guidance for the Qualification Body. Facilities and Resources Document defines the facilities and resources required for the Qualification Body to perform the tasks described in the Method Working Document. High level QA Document defines the principles of quality control. Other issues and progress report are also presented

  13. JV Task - 129 Advanced Conversion Test - Bulgarian Lignite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Swanson; Everett Sondreal; Daniel Laudal; Douglas Hajicek; Ann Henderson; Brandon Pavlish

    2009-03-27

    The objectives of this Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) project were to evaluate Bulgarian lignite performance under both fluid-bed combustion and gasification conditions and provide a recommendation as to which technology would be the most technically feasible for the particular feedstock and also identify any potential operating issues (such as bed agglomeration, etc.) that may limit the applicability of a potential coal conversion technology. Gasification tests were run at the EERC in the 100-400-kg/hr transport reactor development unit (TRDU) on a 50-tonne sample of lignite supplied by the Bulgarian Lignite Power Project. The quality of the test sample was inferior to any coal previously tested in this unit, containing 50% ash at 26.7% moisture and having a higher heating value of 5043 kJ/kg after partial drying in preparation for testing. The tentative conclusion reached on the basis of tests in the TRDU is that oxygen-blown gasification of this high-ash Bulgarian lignite sample using the Kellogg, Brown, and Root (KBR) transport gasifier technology would not provide a syngas suitable for directly firing a gas turbine. After correcting for test conditions specific to the pilot-scale TRDU, including an unavoidably high heat loss and nitrogen dilution by transport air, the best-case heating value for oxygen-blown operation was estimated to be 3316 kJ/m{sup 3} for a commercial KRB transport gasifier. This heating value is about 80% of the minimum required for firing a gas turbine. Removing 50% of the carbon dioxide from the syngas would increase the heating value to 4583 kJ/m{sup 3}, i.e., to about 110% of the minimum requirement, and 95% removal would provide a heating value of 7080 kJ/m{sup 3}. Supplemental firing of natural gas would also allow the integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) technology to be utilized without having to remove CO{sub 2}. If removal of all nitrogen from the input gas streams such as the coal transport air were

  14. The Serbo-Bulgarian relations at the end of the 13th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mišić Siniša

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Relations between the Serbs and the Bulgarians at the end of the 13th century has been a part of global international relations in the Balkans and in the Danube region. The Tatars (Mongols as the powerful warring people represent external factor that highly influenced those relations. They also made powerful impact on the Serbian and Bulgarian states of the time. The relations between the Serbs and the Bulgarians had not been at the time determined by their attitude toward the Byzantine Empire which was of the Serbian state, while Bulgaria went through tough period of disintegration of the central power. The internal affaires of those two states influenced their mutual relations. During the war with the Byzantine Empire, king Milutin tried to keep Bulgaria on his side, which is the reason why he became related by the marriage to the Bulgarian imperial family. However, strong involvement of Nogay made this alliance non-useful. After 1299 Serbia lost interest for Bulgaria, and behavior toward the queen Ana made two states enter the 14th century as the enemies. The close relations would be maintained with Vidin. In the frame of those relations Milutin's marriage and release of the Bulgarian princess Ana should be regarded, while Stefan's marriage had been motivated differently and happened around 1305/1306.

  15. Gender, Livestock and Asset Ownership

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    measure of gender inequality and women's economic empowerment compared to indicators such as income. The role of livestock as an asset for women has been analysed in Kenya, Tanzania .... were a more common source in Tanzania and.

  16. 25 CFR 168.14 - Livestock trespass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Livestock trespass. 168.14 Section 168.14 Indians BUREAU... PARTITIONED LANDS AREA § 168.14 Livestock trespass. The owner of any livestock grazing in trespass on the Hopi... Hopi Partitioned Lands of any livestock without an approved grazing or crossing permit; (b) Allowing...

  17. 36 CFR 261.7 - Livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Livestock. 261.7 Section 261... Prohibitions § 261.7 Livestock. The following are prohibited: (a) Placing or allowing unauthorized livestock to... unauthorized livestock from the National Forest System or other lands under Forest Service control when...

  18. The Bulgarian Odonata database – current status, organisation and a case study new entries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yordan Kutsarov

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Bulgarian Odonata database is analysed for the period of the last 10 years. All new entries are summarised in individual species graphs representing the trends in data compilations. Special attention is paid on the role of communities in this process with a single study case which is evident of how a small contribution could elucidate important new information on some underexplored areas. It is concluded that for the past 10 years mountain areas and large Bulgarian rivers have been understudied. These should be the priority target areas in the investigations undertaken in near future.

  19. Radionuclide uptake in red macroalgae from the Bulgarian Black Sea coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nonova, Tz.; Strezov, A.

    2005-01-01

    Technogenic and natural radionuclide content in red macroalgae (Ceramium rubrum, Corallina officinalis and Callithamnion corymbosum) from the Bulgarian Black Sea coast, collected in the period 1992-2003, was studied by low-level gamma-spectrometry. The data show that the nuclide concentrations depend on macroalgae species and coast locations. The highest nuclide content was measured in Ceramium rubrum species. The 137 Cs mean value is 9.8 Bq/kg, 19.6 Bq/kg for 226 Ra and 17 Bq/kg for 210 Pb. The radionuclide pollution is considerably small due to the absence of nuclear facilities along the Bulgarian Black Sea coast. (author)

  20. Initial measurement of assets produced in Bulgarian companies – current state and ways for improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mincho Minev

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The initial evaluation of the production is one of the most complex tasks that accounting specialists face in their practice. The quality of the accounting information provided to the various internal and external users depends to a great extent on the way in which this task is resolved. In this article, using the results of an undertaken research, the practice of leading Bulgarian companies will be analyzed with regard to the costing of their production. The main purpose is to make recommendations for optimizing the process of costing in Bulgarian companies and to increase the quality of the accounting information produced as a result of this process.

  1. Journalists and Audience in Bulgarian Online Media – the New Roles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivaylo Yoshkov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The present paper analyses the changes in the traditional roles of journalists and audience in some of the most popular web sites of Bulgarian traditional media. It examines the levels of interactivity and personalization which enable the audience to create and share its own texts, recordings, news emissions, and also to set its own agenda and take part in the gatekeeping process, etc. The paper defines the status of Bulgarian “citizen journalism”, making the conclusion that the audience’s new role has some similarities with the traditional journalists’ role

  2. Impact of BSE on livestock production system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardone, A

    2003-09-01

    The small number of BSE cases diagnosed in Italy from January 2001 to 12 September 2001 (a total of 28, one every 9000 head) does not allow for a statistical analysis of the relationship between this disease and the livestock systems. However, some indications can be noted: (a) only dairy cattle, which represent three-quarters of the cattle raised in Italy, are involved; (b) 58% of the cases belong to medium-large farms that breed 27% of all head; (c) 13 out of 28 cases are 5-year-old animals and 26 out of 28 are between 5 and 7 years of age; (d) 15 of 28 cases come from Lombardia, where 27% of Italian dairy cattle are raised. The following factors may have affected the livestock system: (1) trends of beef meat consumption; (2) changes in livestock management; (3) changes in animal feeding; (4) possible effects on selection. A strong decline in beef meat consumption (4 kg/year) has been observed in the UK and other European countries since 1996 (the year of the discovery of the relationship between BSE and nvCJD). In Italy, from January 2001 the consumption of beef meat has declined as well as slaughter: a drop of 31% in the total slaughtered head in the period January-February, a drop of 14% in January-May. A fall in the price of calves has promoted, in some dairy farms, the start of the production of light beef less than one year old (advantages in the marketing of meat favour this initiative), a phenomenon which is not yet well established. Traceability and certification of meat have improved, thanks to breeders' associations and interprofessional agreements. The breeders associations have also started insurance initiatives against BSE risks. In Italy the employment of plant protein meals would increase the total feedstuff consumption by about 7%. Direct effects of BSE could slow down the genetic progress (GP) of cattle populations within breed and country. Indirect effects on GP may also happen as a consequence of an increase in the replacement rate (rr). This

  3. Evaluation of diversity in Bulgarian pepper cultivars by agronomical traits and ISSR markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsonev Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Information about the genetic variation among cultivars of vegetable crops is of vital importance for improvement of plant breeding programmes worldwide. The objectives of this study were to group 19 pepper (Capsicum annuum L. cultivars from the collection of Maritsa Vegetable Crops Research Institute, Plovdiv, Bulgariainto clusters according to their distances as estimated by agronomic traits and 9 di-and tri -nucleotide inter simple sequence repeat polymorphism (ISSR markers and to assess the relationships between them. The phenotypic characterization during 3 consecutive years revealed significant differences among Bulgarian cultivars for the studied 13 phenotypic traits. The biplot analysis of quantitative traits showed that the most strongly correlating traits with the first axis (55.6% of variance were fruit width, fruit weight and pericarp thickness (in the negative direction of the axis, and plant height (PH (in the positive direction. The most discriminative traits, considering the second axis (22.6% of variance were fruit length (FL and to a lesser extent the stem height (StH. The correspondence analysis of the qualitative traits showed that the intensity of the colour of the fruit (before and at maturity, fruit colourbefore maturity and fruit shape in longitudinal section were the most discriminative characteristics for the first two dimensions. The agronomic traits data and 7 dinucleotide ISSR primers were used to estimate the pairwise genetic distances. Higher mean phenotypic distance (0.414 in comparison to the genotypic ones (0.214 among the cultivars was observed, indicating higher phenotypic diversity among them. A highly significant, positive correlation between the agronomic data and ISSR marker-based matrices (r=0.41, p=0.001was detected. This indicates that ISSR distance tended to reflect that of the agronomics ones. However, additional molecular studies and large collection of highly diverse genotypes are needed to reveal

  4. Rapid Differentiation between Livestock-Associated and Livestock-Independent Staphylococcus aureus CC398 Clades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Jesper; Soldanova, Katerina; Aziz, Maliha; Contente-Cuomo, Tania; Petersen, Andreas; Vandendriessche, Stien; Jiménez, Judy N.; Mammina, Caterina; van Belkum, Alex; Salmenlinna, Saara; Laurent, Frederic; Skov, Robert L.; Larsen, Anders R.; Andersen, Paal S.; Price, Lance B.

    2013-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus clonal complex 398 (CC398) isolates cluster into two distinct phylogenetic clades based on single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) revealing a basal human clade and a more derived livestock clade. The scn and tet(M) genes are strongly associated with the human and the livestock clade, respectively, due to loss and acquisition of mobile genetic elements. We present canonical single-nucleotide polymorphism (canSNP) assays that differentiate the two major host-associated S. aureus CC398 clades and a duplex PCR assay for detection of scn and tet(M). The canSNP assays correctly placed 88 S. aureus CC398 isolates from a reference collection into the human and livestock clades and the duplex PCR assay correctly identified scn and tet(M). The assays were successfully applied to a geographically diverse collection of 272 human S. aureus CC398 isolates. The simple assays described here generate signals comparable to a whole-genome phylogeny for major clade assignment and are easily integrated into S. aureus CC398 surveillance programs and epidemiological studies. PMID:24244535

  5. Bulgarian Rila mountain forest ecosystems study site: site description and SO42-, NO3- deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karl Zeller; Christo Bojinov; Evgeny Donev; Nedialko Nikolov

    1998-01-01

    Bulgaria's forest ecosystems (31 percent of the country's area) are considered vulnerable to dry and wet pollution deposition. Coniferous forests that cover one-third of the total forest land are particularly sensitive to pollution loads. The USDA Forest Service, Sofia University, and the Bulgarian Forest Research Institute (FRI) established a cooperative...

  6. Radionuclide accumulation in green and brown macroalgae at the Bulgarian Black Sea coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strezov, A.; Nonova, T.

    2005-01-01

    The concentration of technogenic and natural radionuclides were measured in brown and green macroalgae from the Bulgarian Black Sea coast for the period 1996 and 2003 using low-level gamma spectroscopy. Mean values and concentration range for the studied species enables the comparison of the nuclide content in macroalgae showing that brown algae accumulate the studied radionuclides to a higher extent. (author)

  7. Protection of Bulgarian population in medical radiation diagnostic science after 1950. Some basic problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingilizova, Kr.

    2000-01-01

    The report presents summarized data on frequency and structure of X-ray and nuclear medical examinations carried out in Bulgaria during the period 1950-1995. The effective and the collective effective dose are calculated. Some on the basic problems concerning the protection of Bulgarian population during medical exposure are outlined

  8. Bulgarian fuel models developed for implementation in FARSITE simulations for test cases in Zlatograd area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nina Dobrinkova; LaWen Hollingsworth; Faith Ann Heinsch; Greg Dillon; Georgi Dobrinkov

    2014-01-01

    As a key component of the cross-border project between Bulgaria and Greece known as OUTLAND, a team from the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences and Rocky Mountain Research Station started a collaborative project to identify and describe various fuel types for a test area in Bulgaria in order to model fire behavior for recent wildfires. Although there have been various...

  9. Admissions Policies as a Mechanism for Social Engineering: The Case of the Bulgarian Communist Regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyadjieva, Pepka Alexandrova

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses admissions policies to higher education during the Communist regime in Bulgaria (1946-89). It argues that under the conditions of the Bulgarian Communist regime, admissions policies were not only a component of the higher education system--viewed as an institution--but part and parcel of the process through which power was…

  10. A Language without Borders: English Slang and Bulgarian Learners of English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charkova, Krassimira D.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the acquisition of English slang in a foreign language context. The participants were 101 Bulgarian learners of English, 58 high school students, and 43 university students. The instrument included knowledge tests of English slang terms and questions about attitudes, sources, reasons, and methods employed in learning…

  11. The Lived Experiences of Bulgarian Immigrants in the Chicagoland Area: Their Perceptions of Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelova, Iva Ventzislavova

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore Bulgarian immigrants' narratives with respect to their perceptions of immigrant work challenges; learning at work; work or occupational preferences; immigrant careers, including job transitions and professional development; strategies with respect to work; support at work; satisfaction gained from work; and…

  12. Radiation sterilization of livestock feeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawashima, Koji

    1984-01-01

    The radiation sterilization of livestock feeds is not much used presently because the process is not known well, and the cost is relatively high. However, its effect of sterilization is absolute, the radiation-sterilized feeds are safe in both nutrition and toxicity, and do not affect the appetite of livestocks, and the radiation energy required is small. In the future, as in the sterilization of medical supplies, feed radiation sterilization plants should be established, to stabilize livestock industry and to contribute to the health control of experimental animals. The following matters are described: radiation, comparison between radiation sterilization and other sterilization methods, the practice of feed radiation sterilization, the adverse effects of radiation sterilization, economic aspect, and the situation of feed radiation sterilization in various countries. (Mori, K.)

  13. 25 CFR 166.309 - Who determines livestock class and livestock ownership requirements on permitted Indian land?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Who determines livestock class and livestock ownership... livestock class and livestock ownership requirements on permitted Indian land? (a) Tribes determine the class of livestock and livestock ownership requirements for livestock that may be grazed on range units...

  14. Livestock Fadama users' access to information on selected livestock ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The FUGs members never had access to information on key livestock technologies like artificial insemination, automated feeding, feed formulation and creep feeding. Farmers' number of years of formal education (r = -0.09) and family size (r= 0.09) had no significant relationships with respondents' access to information on ...

  15. Zoonoses risk: AHWs and Livestock keepers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... loss of markets because of decreased consumer confidence (McDermott & Arimi, ..... Some of the traditional livestock keepers reported eating meat from animals .... G. & Nilsen, R. (2003) The role of livestock keeping in tuberculosis trends in ...

  16. Promoting Health, Livelihoods, and Sustainable Livestock Systems ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    These areas are experiencing zoonotic (animal to human and vice-versa) ... and shed light on interactions between disease risk, livestock and human health, and ... and social development to support safe food production, healthy livestock, ...

  17. Samoa : Livestock Production and Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2011-01-01

    This report was prepared to provide information and analysis of the Samoan livestock sub-sector for the Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries through a technical assistance assignment financed by the World Bank. The Word Bank contributed technical assistance support to the Government of Samoa to help identify measures to strengthen agriculture sector institutions, to improve the performanc...

  18. SIZE OF LIVESTOCK AGRICULTURAL OPERATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazbanela Stere

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the paper is to map the performance of Romanian farms from the perspective of livestock agricultural operations using principal component analysis technique (PCA and similarities between Romania and other countries from UE. The empirical results reveal that animal breedings farms are grouped into two categories :small and middle sized farms ; and the fact that Romania , one of Europe’s major forces in the field of livestock husbandry, has come to be one of the biggest importers of food products, although, by tradition, it is one of the continent’s countries with ideal conditions for breeding all species of animals. When clustering the countries we observ that in countries such as Greece, Italy, Portugal, Spain, cow farms, for example, do not exceed 10-16 heads and in Holland, England, Denmark, Belgium and France, the average farm size reaches 30-70 heads of milk cows. The cluster analysis revealed that in livestock operations, animal stock is the one that generates production, while the animal number indicates the size of the livestock unit.

  19. Time series livestock diet optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alqaisi, Othman; Ndambi, Oghaiki Asaah; Williams, Ryan Blake

    2017-01-01

    Sustainable feed formulation (defined here as nutritional and economic feed optimization) is substantial in feed chain production from crop farmers to livestock producers. Diet formulation employing a static linear programming (LP) approach, which is widely used in trading firms and feed production

  20. 25 CFR 167.15 - Control of livestock disease and introduction of livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Control of livestock disease and introduction of livestock. 167.15 Section 167.15 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER NAVAJO GRAZING REGULATIONS § 167.15 Control of livestock disease and introduction of livestock. (a) The...

  1. 76 FR 54072 - Emergency Assistance for Livestock, Honeybees, and Farm-Raised Fish Program, Livestock Indemnity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-31

    ... for Livestock, Honeybees, and Farm-Raised Fish Program, Livestock Indemnity Program, and General... clarifying amendments and corrections to the regulations for the Emergency Assistance for Livestock, Honeybees, and Farm-Raised Fish Program (ELAP) and the Livestock Indemnity Program (LIP) to clarify when...

  2. 50 CFR 35.9 - Livestock grazing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Livestock grazing. 35.9 Section 35.9... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM WILDERNESS PRESERVATION AND MANAGEMENT General Rules § 35.9 Livestock grazing. (a) The grazing of livestock, where established prior to the date of legislation which designates...

  3. 9 CFR 309.11 - Vaccine livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Vaccine livestock. 309.11 Section 309.11 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... CERTIFICATION ANTE-MORTEM INSPECTION § 309.11 Vaccine livestock. Vaccine livestock with unhealed lesions of...

  4. 25 CFR 700.77 - Livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Livestock. 700.77 Section 700.77 Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES General Policies and Instructions Definitions § 700.77 Livestock. The term livestock shall mean all domesticated animals of every...

  5. Mainstreaming gender issues in livestock research | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-06-06

    Jun 6, 2016 ... Providing equal access to and use of resources for men and women could also increase the productivity of livestock systems. Read more about how to mainstream gender considerations into livestock development projects in the Gender Responsive Livestock Research brief (PDF, 613KB, available in ...

  6. MODELING OF INDICATORS OF LIVESTOCK IN RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina S. Darda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of livestock in food without dangerous country. The analysis of the dynamics of production indicators waspsmainly livestock products. The problems offorecasting-ing performance of LivestockDevelopment of the Russian Federationon the basis of the a-analytical models ofalignment and connected series.

  7. 25 CFR 700.725 - Livestock trespass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... according to the range unit Range Management Plan. (c) The grazing of livestock upon any land withdrawn from... approved by the Commissioner. (e) Grazing of livestock whose brand is not recorded in the range unit Range Management Plan. The owner of any livestock grazing in trespass on the New Lands is liable to a civil penalty...

  8. Livestock Farming Under Climate Change Conditions

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Koelle, B

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This book is intended for livestock farmers, as well as others who are wanting to learn about livestock farming. It is not intended to be a comprehensive livestock farming manual, but is rather aimed at giving some guidance on how to plan...

  9. Temperature and Humidity Control in Livestock Stables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael; Andersen, Palle; Nielsen, Kirsten M.

    2010-01-01

    The paper describes temperature and humidity control of a livestock stable. It is important to have a correct air flow pattern in the livestock stable in order to achieve proper temperature and humidity control as well as to avoid draught. In the investigated livestock stable the air flow...

  10. Potential relationship between phenotypic and molecular characteristics in revealing livestock-associated Staphylococcus aureus in Chinese humans without occupational livestock contact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanping Fan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available While some studies have defined Staphylococcus aureus based on its clonal complex and resistance pattern, few have explored the relations between the genetic lineages and antibiotic resistance patterns and immune evasion cluster (IEC genes. Our aim was to investigate the potential relationship between phenotypic and molecular characteristics so as to reveal livestock-associated S. aureus in humans. The study participants were interviewed, and they provided two nasal swabs for S. aureus analysis. All S. aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA were tested for antibiotic susceptibility, multilocus sequence type and IEC genes. Of the 1162 participants, 9.3% carried S. aureus, including MRSA (1.4% and multidrug-resistant S. aureus (MDRSA, 2.8%. The predominant multidrug-resistant pattern among MDRSA isolates was nonsusceptibility to erythromycin, clindamycin and tetracycline. The most common S. aureus genotypes were ST7, ST6, ST188 and ST59, and the predominant MRSA genotype was ST7. Notably, the livestock-associated S. aureus isolates (IEC-negative CC9, IEC-negative tetracycline-resistant CC398, and IEC-negative tetracycline-resistant CC5 were found in people with no occupational livestock contact. These findings reveal a potential relationship between S. aureus CCs and IEC genes and antibiotic resistance patterns in defining livestock-associated S. aureus in humans and support growing concern about the potential livestock-to-human transmission of livestock-associated S. aureus by non-occupational livestock contact.

  11. Strategies, limitations and opportunities for marker-assisted selection in livestock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dekkers, J.C.M.; Werf, H.J. van der

    2007-01-01

    This chapter reviews the principles, opportunities and limitations for detection of quantitative trait loci (QTL) in livestock and for their use in genetic improvement programmes. Alternate strategies for QTL detection are discussed, as are methods for inclusion of marker and QTL information in genetic evaluation. Practical issues regarding implementation of marker-assisted selection (MAS) for selection in breed crosses and for selection within breeds are described, along with likely routes towards achieving that goal. Opportunities and challenges are also discussed for the use of molecular information for genetic improvement of livestock in developing countries. (author)

  12. DAIRY BUSINESS: THE CASE OF BULGARIAN DAIRY CATTLE FARMERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsvetana HARIZANOVA-METODIEVA

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to explore differences between dairy cattle farmers in Bulgaria, according to certain factors. Information about the social characteristics of the farmers (educational level, gender, and age, and about the farm characteristics (number of cows in the main herd, average milk yield, and the rate of return on investment was collected. Sixty percent of the farmers were up to 50 years of age. Fifty percent of the farmers had had a secondary education and the rest had gained a university degree. The study found that only one of the 20 farmers was a woman. It was found that the group of farmers with a university degree had lower average age than the group of farmers with secondary school. There was no significant difference in the rate of return between the two groups of farms in terms of the effectiveness of the farm. The difference in the number of cows in the main herd was not significant too. The research identified a need for additional training for farmers in order to reduce their dependence on hired workers. It was found that farmers attend basic courses in the field of agriculture and livestock breeding in order to fill the gap between the existing levels of knowledge of farmers and the necessary skills for the effective management of dairy farms.

  13. Labour Migrations of Bulgarians from Ukraine to the European Union Today and Tomorrow: Factors and Forecasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Ganchev

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Labour migrations from Ukraine to the European Union are closely connected with the issues of interrelations between EU metropolitan countries and their Diasporas in Ukraine. Labour migration developments in independent Ukraine after 1991 have been moving towards their intensification. Migration trends among the Bulgarian Diaspora of South-Western Ukraine gained specific characteristics in the period of the world economic crisis. The enlargement of the EU in 2004 and 2007 led to the transformations in the preferences and choice factors of labour migrants, representatives of the Bulgarian Diaspora, while choosing the destination country in the EU. As a metropolitan country, Bulgaria has focused its policy on attracting its Diaspora groups, seeing them as labour and demographic potential for further development. This point of view is justified in many respects, though metropolitan country efforts must also be directed to the support of the Diaspora and its social, psychological, cultural and linguistic features.

  14. Bulgarian wedding music between folk and chalg: Politics, markets and current directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silverman Kerol

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the performative relationship among folklore, the market, and the state through an analysis of the politics of Bulgarian wedding music. In the socialist period wedding music was condemned by the state and excluded from the category folk but was adored by thousands of fans as a counter-cultural manifestation. In the post-socialist period wedding music achieved recognition in the West but declined in popularity in Bulgarian as fusion music's, such as chalga (folk/pop, arose and as musicians faced challenges vis-à-vis capitalism. As the state withdrew and became weaker private companies with profit-making agendas arose. Although it inspired chalga, wedding music began to be seen in contrast to it, as folk music. Recently, fatigue with chalga and nationalistic ideologies are revitalizing wedding music.

  15. OPPORTUNITIES FOR ORGANISING CLUSTERS IN THE BULGARIAN GRAPE-WINE SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albena MITEVA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Bulgaria's membership in the European Union defines the development of clusters as a key element of the National Strategy for increasing the competitiveness. The role of the clusters becomes especially important at this time because SME do not have the capacity to meet EU requirements and to survive without uniting themselves. Moreover the National Strategy for Vine-wine Sector in Bulgaria stipulates the transformation of the sector in a leading one and securing a decent place of Bulgarian wines on international market which may be succeed through cluster introduction in the sector. In the paper is presented an overview of the initiatives for cluster development in the Bulgarian grape-wine sector and are disclosed the structure and role of cluster participants.

  16. INVESTIGATIONS ON THE RESISTANCE OF SOME BULGARIAN COMMON BEAN GENOTYPES TOWARDS BEAN WEEVIL (ACANTHOSCELIDES OBTECTUS SAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Dimitrova Apostolova

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The most effective, environmentally sound and safety way to fight pests with biological means is the use of resistant varieties to them. In the present study were indicated the reactions of 30 Bulgarian common bean genotypes to the most economically important enemy – bean weevil (Acanthoscelidis obtectus Say. For this purpose, the following indicators were traced – seed damages and young adult insects, which largely characterized the response of different common bean genotypes to that biological pest enemy. The results of this investigation present a sensitive response to the sustainability of different genotypes to the bean weevil. The Bulgarian common bean varieties Plovdiv 11M, Abritus, Crystal and Bulgari can be used in breeding programs as donors of resistance to the bean weevil.

  17. On the flood forecasting at the Bulgarian part of Struma River Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimitrov, Dobri

    2004-01-01

    Struma is a mountain river flowing from North to South, from Bulgaria through Greece up to the Aegean Sea. It generates flush floods of snow melt - rainfall type mainly in the late spring. Flood forecasting there is needed to improve the flood mitigation measures at the Bulgarian territory of the basin as well as for effective reservoir management downstream Bulgarian border, secure flood handling at Greek territory and generally decrease the flood hazard. The paper summarizes the range of activities in the basin including: - the installation of automatic telemetric hydro meteorological observation network; - review of the results of relevant past projects; - analysis of historical hydro meteorological data; - design and calibration of flood forecasting models; - demonstrating the possibility to issue flood warnings with certain lead time and accuracy; - recent efforts to increase the lead time of the hydrological forecasts, applying forecasts from High Resolution Limited Area meteorological models and other activities in the frame of the EC 5th FP EFFS project.(Author)

  18. „Model of Effective Management of Bulgarian Public Administration Managing EU Funds“

    OpenAIRE

    Nozharov, Shteryo

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: The paper analyzes the possibilities of constructing a model for the effective management of the Bulgarian public administration responsible for managing the EU funds amid the global financial crisis by using McKinsey’s 7S model. The change of the management model of the public administration in charge of the absorption of EU funds in Bulgaria would increase the absorption rate of the funds while streamlining budgetary costs on the maintenance of the administration. The aim of the s...

  19. Internal irradiation by radon daughters in Bulgarian uranium mines over the period 1956-1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimitrov, M.; Presiyanov, D.

    1993-01-01

    The results of over 30-years' radiation monitoring in Bulgarian uranium mines are summed up in retrospect. The overall organization and the parameters monitored during the different periods are discussed. A radiological characteristic of the working environment is presented which includes radon and its decay products. The internal irradiation levels during different time periods and in different mines have been estimated. The health costs of uranium mining in Bulgaria are discussed and conclusions and recommendations for radiological control are made. (author)

  20. Credit risk disclosure in the annual financial statements of Bulgarian banks

    OpenAIRE

    Anita Atanassova; Nadezhda Popova-Yosifova

    2018-01-01

    The paper analyzes the credit risk disclosure in the annual financial statements of Bulgarian banks for 2015 and 2016. Banks are ranked according to the level of credit risk disclosure, in accordance with the requirements of international accounting regulations and in relation to financial and regulatory ratios linked to capital adequacy. As a result of the conducted empirical study, it is concluded that banks' management is not particularly inclined to make full disclosures and actively to d...

  1. Some Tests of Random Walk Hypothesis for Bulgarian Foreign Exchange Rates

    OpenAIRE

    Nikolai Gueorguiev

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to check if the exchange rate in newly emerged, relatively thin foreign exchange markets, follows a random walk pattern. The findings of the current study cast doubts on random walk presence in Bulgarian exchange rates against major international currencies. It turns out that the series of daily returns are stationary but correlated and therefore can be modelled better by higher-order ARIMA processes than by random walk.

  2. Antitumor activity of Bulgarian herb Tribulus terrestris L. on human breast cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetla Angelova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants have been intensively studied as a source of antitumor compounds. Due to the beneficial climate conditions Bulgarian herbs have high pharmacological potential. Currently, the antitumor effect of the Bulgarian medicinal plant Tribulus terrestris L. on human cancer cell lines is not studied. The main active compounds of the plant are the steroid saponins.The present study aims to analyze the effect on cell viability and apoptotic activity of total extract and saponin fraction of Bulgarian Tribulus terrestris L. on human breast cancer (MCF7 and normal (MCF10A cell lines. Antitumor effect was established by МТТ cell viability assay and assessment of apoptotic potential was done through analysis of genomic integrity (DNA fragmentation assay and analysis of morphological cell changes (Fluorescence microscopy. The results showed that total extract of the herb has a marked dose-dependent inhibitory effect on viability of MCF7 cells (half maximal inhibitory concentration is 15 μg/ml. Cell viability of MCF10A was moderately decreased without visible dose-dependent effect. The saponin fraction has increased inhibitory effect on breast cancer cells compared to total extract. Morphological changes and DNA fragmentation were observed as markers for early and late apoptosis predominantly in tumor cells after treatment. Apoptotic processes were intensified with the increase of treatment duration.The obtained results are the first showing selective antitumor activity of Bulgarian Tribulus terrestris L. on human cancer cells in vitro. Apoptotic processes are involved in the antitumor mechanisms induced by the herb. This results give directions for future investigations concerning detailed assessment of its pharmacological potential.

  3. Livestock-Associated Methicillin Resistant and Methicillin Susceptible Staphylococcus aureus Sequence Type (CC)1 in European Farmed Animals: High Genetic Relatedness of Isolates from Italian Cattle Herds and Humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alba, Patricia; Feltrin, Fabiola; Cordaro, Gessica

    2015-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Sequence Type (ST)1, Clonal Complex( CC) 1, SCCmec V is one of the major Livestock-Associated (LA-) lineages in pig farming industry in Italy and is associated with pigs in other European countries. Recently, it has been increasingly detected...... in Italian dairy cattle herds. The aim of this study was to analyse the differences between ST1 MRSA and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) from cattle and pig herds in Italy and Europe and human isolates. Sixty-tree animal isolates from different holdings and 20 human isolates were characterized...... by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), spa-typing, SCCmec typing, and by micro-array analysis for several virulence, antimicrobial resistance, and strain/host-specific marker genes. Three major PFGE clusters were detected. The bovine isolates shared a high (>= 90% to 100%) similarity with human...

  4. TEXTILE DESIGN ON THE BASE OF THE GOLDEN GEOMETRY AND BULGARIAN NATIONAL TRADITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ILIEVA Julieta

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The Golden and Fibonacci geometry forms are symbols of beauty and harmony. The shapes and symbols in the national traditions are always a source of creative ideas. The paper presents textile designs on the base of creations from the Golden and Fibonacci geometry and Bulgarian national tradition. Fourteen textile design project are presented with the use of the Golden spiral in the Golden square, Fibonacci series tiling with equalitarian triangles named Fibonacci rose and the spiral square with four Golden spirals from the Golden and Fibonacci geometry, and the three turtles – symbols from Kolobar tradition in Bulgarian national culture. The forms from the Golden and Fibonacci geometry are used directly as ornaments, constructional elements for ornaments, or as frames for entered elements. The symbols from Kolobar tradition are used directly as ornaments. Every design is presented in suitable two, three or four color model. The used geometrical forms from the Golden geometry and the Bulgarian national tradition are the base for successful textile design using the mirror, radial and translated symmetry and the plain rhythms as result from their combinations. The design is more successful when the geometrical ornaments are combined with suitable colors according to the connections between colors and lines on the base of their meaning, the latest fashion trends, and national traditions.

  5. Bulgarian emergency response system in case of nuclear accident: description, performance and verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syrakov, D.; Prodanova, M.; Slavov, K.

    2004-01-01

    A PC-oriented Emergency Response System (ERS) is developed and works in National Institute of Meteorology and Hydrology with Bulgarian Academy of Science. The creation and the development of ERS was highly stimulated by the CEC/IAEA/WMO project ETEX (European Tracer EXperiment). ERS comprises of two main parts - operational and accidental ones, realized for both regions 'Europe' and 'Northern Hemisphere'. The operational part runs automatically. It consists of the following modules: selection of proper meteorological data (analyses and forecast) received via the Global Telecommunication System (GTS) of WMO; preparation of input meteorological files used by both trajectory and dispersion models (so called operational data base); completion of the respective meteorological archives, trajectory calculations for selected NPP in Europe and Northern Hemisphere; visualization of the results and putting the pictures in a specialized Web-site. The operational part runs every 12 hours, after new meteorological information is received. The accidental part is activated manually when a real radioactive releases in occurred or during emergency exercises. Two Bulgarian dispersion models - LED and EMAP are a core of the accidental part, LED (Lagrangean-Eulerian Diffusion) being a typical puff-model, wile EMAP (Eulerian Model for Air Pollution) is a 3-D dispersion model. The source input is specified by the user - Bulgarian emergency authorities, and the visualized output (pollution distribution maps) is sent back via fax and FTP. In the paper, the ERS overall structure and its modules are described and an ERS application in emergency management is shown. (authors)

  6. 3-Monochloro-1,2-propandiol (3-MCPD) in soy sauce from the Bulgarian market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christova-Bagdassarian, Valentina; Tishkova, Julieta A; Vrabcheva, Terry M

    2013-01-01

    The 3-monochloro-1,2-propandiol (3-MCPD) levels in soy sauces which contained hydrolysed vegetable protein were evaluated for the Bulgarian market. For analysis of 3-MCPD, a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method was applied with a linear range of 0.03-2.00 μg mL⁻¹ and a limit of detection (LOD) of 2.3 μg kg⁻¹ and a limit of quantification (LOQ) of 3.4 μg kg⁻¹. At these levels, the standard deviation was 5.1%, with recoveries between 81% and 102%. The method was applied to the analysis of 21 samples of soy sauce from the Bulgarian market. Results ranged from 3.7 to 185.6 μg kg⁻¹. Soy sauces produced from hydrolysed soy protein contained higher levels of 3-MCPD than naturally fermented sauces. In 38.4% of samples of Bulgarian origin, the 3-MCPD content was above the EU limit of 20 μg kg⁻¹. In all analysed samples, 33.3% had a 3-MCPD content above the EU limit.

  7. Development of germline manipulation technologies in livestock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitelaw, C.B.A.

    2005-01-01

    Genetic improvement by conventional breeding is restricted to those genetic loci present in the parental breeding individuals. Gene addition through transgenic technology offers a route to overcome this restriction. The transgene can be introduced into the germ cells or the fertilized zygote, using viral vectors, by simple co-culture or direct micro-injection. Alternatively, the transgene can be incorporated into a somatic cell, which is then incorporated into a developing embryo. This latter approach allows gene-targeting strategies to be employed. Using pronuclear injection methods, transgenic livestock have been generated with the aim of enhancing breeding traits of agricultural importance, or for biomedical applications. Neither has been taken beyond the development phase. Before they are, in addition to issues of commercial development, basic technological issues addressing inefficiency and complexity of the methodology need to be overcome, and appropriate gene targets identified. At the moment, perhaps the most encouraging development involves the use of viral vectors that offer increased simplicity and efficiency. By combining this new technology with transgenes that evoke the powerful intracellular machinery involved in RNA interference, pioneering applications to generate animals that are less susceptible to infectious disease may be possible. (author)

  8. Licensing of nuclear facilities according to the Bulgarian Act on the Safe Use of Nuclear Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoyanova-Todorova, P.

    2004-01-01

    The new Bulgarian Act on the Safe Use of Nuclear Energy /Nuclear Act/ has replaced the former Act on the Use of Nuclear Energy for Peaceful Purposes. The new Nuclear Act covers the activities involving nuclear energy and sources of ionising radiation mainly by establishing a consistent licensing regime. About 13 regulations specifying the provisions of the Nuclear Act have been recently adopted by the Council of Ministers, the most important one being the Regulation on the Procedure for Issue of Licenses and Permits for the Safe Use of Nuclear Energy. The Chairman of the Nuclear Regulatory Agency (NRA) is authorised by the law to consider any application for issue of a license or a permit under the Bulgarian Nuclear Act. The procedure starts with an application, filed with the NRA, and continues about nine months. The final decision could be for issuing of the license or permit or a refusal for issuing the claimed document. The denial must be grounded and is subject to appeal. The Nuclear Act prescribes the conditions for issuing of two types of licensing documents (authorisations): licenses and permits. From a legal point of view the two types of licensing documents have one and the same nature - they are individual administrative acts according to the Bulgarian law. That is why there is no difference between them in terms of the issuing procedure. The difference between licenses and permits could be explained as follows: while a license is issued for reiterated activities, a permit is issued for non-reoccurring activities, this division being a specific feature of the Bulgarian Nuclear Act. In the field of nuclear facilities usage only one type of license is provided for by the Nuclear Act - a license for operation of a nuclear facility unit. For the rest of the activities issuing of permits is envisaged, those permits being in compliance with the main stages of the authorisation process formulated by the IAEA, following the step-by-step approach - siting, design

  9. Eight challenges in modelling infectious livestock diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Brooks-Pollock

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The transmission of infectious diseases of livestock does not differ in principle from disease transmission in any other animals, apart from that the aim of control is ultimately economic, with the influence of social, political and welfare constraints often poorly defined. Modelling of livestock diseases suffers simultaneously from a wealth and a lack of data. On the one hand, the ability to conduct transmission experiments, detailed within-host studies and track individual animals between geocoded locations make livestock diseases a particularly rich potential source of realistic data for illuminating biological mechanisms of transmission and conducting explicit analyses of contact networks. On the other hand, scarcity of funding, as compared to human diseases, often results in incomplete and partial data for many livestock diseases and regions of the world. In this overview of challenges in livestock disease modelling, we highlight eight areas unique to livestock that, if addressed, would mark major progress in the area.

  10. Impact of livestock in uplifting rural livelihood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvi, J.; Ashraf, I.; Mehmood, K.; Iftikhar, M.

    2015-01-01

    The global population is increasing by creating high demand for food and improved livestock and crop farming initiatives. The livestock sector plays a key role in boosting the national economy and improving the citizens' livelihoods. The study focused on the potential contribution of the livestock sector in uplifting livelihoods. Data were collected through face to face interview using interview schedule from 120 randomly selected livestock producers in Sub- District Jaranwala of District Faisalabad. Data showed that, livestock farming on small level was found widely adopted for income generation. More than 22 percentage respondents earned a maximum income of more than Rs.15000. Livestock have dominant effect on domestic needs fulfillment. Farmers were spending income on family chores, education, health and other aspects of life. Informal discussions and observation dictated the lower productivity than the potential and inadequate awareness and adoption of precise dairy farming practices. Livestock keepers demanded provision of location specific best management practices, training on livestock management and market aspects. Essential veterinary services enabling the livestock extension should be disseminated on the door step to boost productivity. (author)

  11. Genetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubitschek, H.E.

    1975-01-01

    Progress is reported on the following research projects: genetic effects of high LET radiations; genetic regulation, alteration, and repair; chromosome replication and the division cycle of Escherichia coli; effects of radioisotope decay in the DNA of microorganisms; initiation and termination of DNA replication in Bacillus subtilis; mutagenesis in mouse myeloma cells; lethal and mutagenic effects of near-uv radiation; effect of 8-methoxypsoralen on photodynamic lethality and mutagenicity in Escherichia coli; DNA repair of the lethal effects of far-uv; and near uv irradiation of bacterial cells

  12. Livestock reproduction in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    Proceedings of the Final Research Co-ordination Meeting of the FAO/IAEA/ARCAL III Regional Network for Improving the Reproductive Management of Meat- and Milk-Producing Livestock in Latin America with the Aid of Radioimmunoassay, organized by the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture and held in Bogota, 19-23 September 1988. The general goals of this programme, which was part of the ARCAL (Arreglos Regionales Cooperativos para la promocion de la ciencia y la tecnologia nucleares en America Latina) project, were to characterize and improve the reproductive management of milk, meat and fibre producing livestock maintained under the diverse environmental and management conditions prevailing in the Latin America region. In particular, the programme addressed the efficacy of using radioimmunoassay methods of measuring reproductive performance based on breeding and production records, behaviour and clinical parameters. One of the major achievements of the programme was the establishment of viable RIA laboratories in each of the participant countries

  13. Genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Kaare; McGue, Matt

    2016-01-01

    The sequenced genomes of individuals aged ≥80 years, who were highly educated, self-referred volunteers and with no self-reported chronic diseases were compared to young controls. In these data, healthy ageing is a distinct phenotype from exceptional longevity and genetic factors that protect...

  14. Mapping the global distribution of livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Timothy P; Wint, G R William; Conchedda, Giulia; Van Boeckel, Thomas P; Ercoli, Valentina; Palamara, Elisa; Cinardi, Giuseppina; D'Aietti, Laura; Hay, Simon I; Gilbert, Marius

    2014-01-01

    Livestock contributes directly to the livelihoods and food security of almost a billion people and affects the diet and health of many more. With estimated standing populations of 1.43 billion cattle, 1.87 billion sheep and goats, 0.98 billion pigs, and 19.60 billion chickens, reliable and accessible information on the distribution and abundance of livestock is needed for a many reasons. These include analyses of the social and economic aspects of the livestock sector; the environmental impacts of livestock such as the production and management of waste, greenhouse gas emissions and livestock-related land-use change; and large-scale public health and epidemiological investigations. The Gridded Livestock of the World (GLW) database, produced in 2007, provided modelled livestock densities of the world, adjusted to match official (FAOSTAT) national estimates for the reference year 2005, at a spatial resolution of 3 minutes of arc (about 5×5 km at the equator). Recent methodological improvements have significantly enhanced these distributions: more up-to date and detailed sub-national livestock statistics have been collected; a new, higher resolution set of predictor variables is used; and the analytical procedure has been revised and extended to include a more systematic assessment of model accuracy and the representation of uncertainties associated with the predictions. This paper describes the current approach in detail and presents new global distribution maps at 1 km resolution for cattle, pigs and chickens, and a partial distribution map for ducks. These digital layers are made publically available via the Livestock Geo-Wiki (http://www.livestock.geo-wiki.org), as will be the maps of other livestock types as they are produced.

  15. Assessing water resource use in livestock production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ran, Y.; Lannerstad, M.; Herrero, M.; Middelaar, Van C.E.; Boer, De I.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper reviews existing methods for assessing livestock water resource use, recognizing that water plays a vital role in global food supply and that livestock production systems consumes a large amount of the available water resources. A number of methods have contributed to the development

  16. Livestock grazing, wildlife habitat, and rangeland values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul R. Krausman; David E. Naugle; Michael R. Frisina; Rick Northrup; Vernon C. Bleich; William M. Block; Mark C. Wallace; Jeffrey D. Wright

    2009-01-01

    Livestock managers make and implement grazing management decisions to achieve a variety of objectives including livestock production, sustainable grazing, and wildlife habitat enhancement. Assessed values of grazing lands and ranches are often based on aesthetics and wildlife habitat or recreational values, which can exceed agricultural values, thus providing...

  17. Livestock Husbandry and Snow Leopard Conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohammad, Ghulam; Mostafawi, Sayed Naqibullah; Dadul, Jigmet; Rosen, Tatjana; Mishra, Charudutt; Bhatnagar, Yash Veer; Trivedi, Pranav; Timbadia, Radhika; Bijoor, Ajay; Murali, Ranjini; Sonam, Karma; Thinley, Tanzin; Namgail, Tsewang; Prins, Herbert H.T.; Nawaz, Muhammad Ali; Ud Din, Jaffar; Buzdar, Hafeez

    2016-01-01

    Livestock depredation is a key source of snow leopard mortality across much of the species' range. Snow leopards break into livestock corrals, killing many domestic animals and thereby inflicting substantial economic damage. Locals may retaliate by killing the cat and selling its parts.

  18. Livestock: An alternative mosquito control measure | Yakubu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey was conducted to investigate the indigenous methods or measures adopted by urban livestock owners in the control of mosquito in Sokoto metropolis. Fifty (50) respondents who were engaged in urban livestock production were conveniently sampled, In addition, five (5) locations (Sidi farm, Kara market, Sokoto ...

  19. Gender and Livestock: Issues, Challenges and Opportunities

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    It is generally easier for women in developing countries to ... influence income management by women? • How do ... decision-making powers over livestock and livestock ... access to capital; their skills, capacities and ability to .... benefit from agricultural innovations. ... This research brief has a Creative Commons licence.

  20. Vocational Agriculture Education: Agricultural Livestock Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Greg

    Ten units of instruction are provided in this curriculum guide on agricultural livestock skills. Unit topics are as follow: (1) restraining, (2) vaccination, (3) livestock castration, (4) dehorning, (5) docking, (6) growth stimulants, (7) identification, (8) shearing, (9) hoof trimming, and (10) birth assistance. Each instructional unit generally…

  1. DETERMINATION OF WATER RESOURCES IN RIVERS IN THE BULGARIAN BASINS OF THE LOWER DANUBE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plamen Iliev Ninov

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Object of the study is surface water bodies from category “rivers” according to Water Framework Directive 2000/60/ЕС. Surface water assessment is important for number of activities such as: water management in the country, making reports to international agencies, determining the change of the resources in the light of upcoming climate changes. The determination of water resources is based on information of hydrometric stations from the monitoring network system in the National Institute of Meteorology and Hydrology — Bulgarian Academy of Sciences (NIMH-BAS in which real ongoing and available water flows that are subject of management are registered. In the study a technology for surface water bodies in the Bulgarian basins of the lower Danube is applied which has been developed in the frame of cooperative project together with the Ministry of Environment and Water. This is absolutely true for the Bulgarian section of the Danube River basin which is expressed in big number and variety of hydrological homogeneous sections. The river flow is characterized with annual and inter-annual variability determined by climatic factors and anthropogenic influences. The main obtained results of the present hydrologic studies are the usage of transferred information from gauged to ungauged watersheds and the estimation of the surface water bodies’ resources using original regression relationships based on multiannual hydrological information from the NIMH-BAS monitoring network. The relationships delineate the hydrological homogeneous areas with similar conditions of flow formation. The estimated resources have significant usefulness for all State institutions managing the water in the Danube basin and have already been introduced in the operative and management practice.

  2. State and Perspectives of Research in Bulgaria: Problems and Weacknesses in Science Policy [In Bulgarian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.V. Toshev

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The current status of the Bulgarian research sector is analyzed. There are alarming trends both in the system of higher education as well as in the research organizations; some of them are listed. The main problems and weaknesses of the educational and research policy in Bulgaria are under the critic. Phenomena as mcdonaldization of higher education, mass higher education, integration processes in science of XXth century, the transition from the normal to post-normal science, appearance and development of surrogate science, increasing the number of marginal scientific sources, are considered in details. The basic normative science documents are considered and their weak features are exhibited.

  3. Natural and anthropogenic impacts on historical heritage along the north Bulgarian Black Sea coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peev, Preslav; Palazov, Atanas; Stancheva, Margarita; Stanchev, Hristo; Krastev, Anton; Shtirkov, Ilko

    2014-05-01

    Bulgaria is rich in the remains of past human settlements and activity. For example, along northern part of the Bulgarian coast, numerous underwater and coastal archaeological sites from different periods have been discovered - Prehistory, Antiquity (ancient Greek, Hellenistic, Roman), Mediaeval (Early Byzantium, Bulgarian). The most significant of them are: Durankulak archaeological complex with the largest Prehistoric necropolis in the world, Prehistoric necropolis at the area of Lake Shablenska Tuzla, Antique settlements Caron Limen and Bizone, archeological reserve Yalata, Antique and Medieval castle at Cape Kaliakra etc. As, this north part of Bulgarian coast has a huge archaeological potential there is a ground for thinking that the remains of other periods as well as a brand new, previously unknown sites can be discovered in the near future. This does not exclude the probability of being randomly found individual objects that largely can be prevented from archaeological contexts. Therefore it is important that these archeological sites are protected properly and preserved for future generations. In Bulgaria such sites and monuments are legally protected under the Law of cultural heritage and managed by the Ministry of culture and local authorities. However, today most objects and sites, as part of common European historical and cultural heritage are posed to a variety of potential impacts and treats, both natural and human-induced. This study discusses the implications of natural factors, (such as climate change, extreme waves, erosion and shoreline changes) and human contributions (coastal infrastructures, tourism and insufficient management by decision-makers) to coastal and underwater cultural heritage along the north portion of Bulgarian coast. Major natural processes that seriously affect on coastal and maritime heritage environment are direct physical impact by global climate changes, sea level rise and caused increase of waves and storms, acceleration

  4. TRANSFER OF EMBROIDERY ELEMENTS FROM BULGARIAN NATIONAL FOLK COSTUME TO THE CONTEMPORARY FASHION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatin Zlatev

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this research is the analysis of two dimensional images of embroidery elements and the development of techniques for shape and color segmentation in the automation of embroidery designs. A document camera is used as a tool for obtaining of color digital images of embroidery elements from Bulgarian national folk costume. Also are devised some techniques for color restoration of elements and their skeletons. Files for embroidery machines are described and obtained then the results are checked with commercial software. A website is created for presentation of the results of this work

  5. Technogenic contamination of Bulgarian green leafy vegetation and its contribution to public exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlova, P.; Vasilev, G.

    2007-01-01

    Main sources of excessive background ionizing radiation exposure for the Bulgarian public are the following: medical radiation procedures; occupational radiation exposure; enhanced natural radiation exposure (uranium mining and milling, artificial fertilizers, non-radioactive sources of energy, building materials etc.); environmental technogenic radionuclide contamination from global fallouts (1950-1970) and Chernobyl accident depositions (1986-1996 and after). The green leafy vegetation, incl. forage plants used for feeding of farm animals (sheep and cows) as well as leafy vegetables (lettuce, dock, spinach, parsley etc.) are one of the main reservoirs of technogenic radionuclides. Bulgaria is situated in the middle northern latitude zone (40 north - 50 north) where the global radioactive fallout from nuclear experiments (1945-1962) were most intensive. Bulgaria is also one of the countries most affected by the Chernobyl NPP accident on 26 April 1986. Respectively, the Bulgarian population dose burden is high compared with the other European countries (excluding the population near the site, i.e. Ukraine, Russia and Byelorussian). Both the global and Chernobyl fallout (globally distributed) contaminated the green leafy vegetation with technogenic radionuclides of two groups: Short-lived, mainly Iodine-131; Long-lived, mainly Cesium-137 and partially Strontium- 90. The effects on the Bulgarian public from technogenic radionuclide contamination of green leafy vegetation were analyzed. The analyses show the following chain in motion of technogenic radionuclides (Iodine-131 and Cesium-137 are chosen as representative): 1) Iodine-131: (duration of transfer - less than 30 to 60 days since fallout); a) fallout - meadow grass - sheep and cows - milk and dairy products - person; b) fallout - leafy vegetables - person; 2) Cesium-137 (duration of transfer - several days) (based on Chernobyl experience); a) fallout - meadow grass - forage - sheep, cows, etc. - milk and dairy

  6. Observed and model N(h) profiles for the Bulgarian region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasheva, Ts.; Samardziev, D.

    1984-01-01

    In this paper, combined bottom- and topside ionospheric N(h)-profiles are presented for the Bulgarian region. The profiles were constructed using ground (ionospheric observatories Sofia and Michurin) and satellite (Interkosmos-19) observations. The observatories make quarter-hourly observations in order to connect bottom and upper parts of the N(h) profile, satellite orbits passing rather near to the observatory (zenith distance less than 100 km) are selected. Thus the time difference between ground station and satellite measurement was never more than 7.5 min

  7. Internal irradiation with radon daughters in some Bulgarian polymetal mines over the period 1962-1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Presiyanov, D.; Dimotrov, M.

    1993-01-01

    The results of radiation monitoring of the working environment in the Bulgarian metal mines are evaluated. The irradiation levels in the Burgas Copper Mines and their variations over the years have been estimated. A radiological characteristic of the working environment is provided together with a risk assessment for workers in different mines. A retrospective risk assessment is attempted for mines where increased radon 222 levels have been detected recently. The organization of radiometric monitoring and measures to limit the risk of internal irradiation are discussed. (author)

  8. TRANSITION OF BULGARIAN AGRICULTURE: PRESENT SITUATION, PROBLEMS AND PERSPECTIVES FOR DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelly BENCHEVA

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of the agrarian reform, the problems and results of the restructuring of Bulgarian agriculture during the transition period, also the impact of the European Common Agricultural Policy (CAP on overall policies in the period of preparation for accession to the EU have been reviewed in this article. The analysis demonstrates that the problems of restructuring of agriculture in Bulgaria are more specifi c compared to those of the other Central and West European countries. They can be solved through a sound comprehensive analysis of the economic, fi nancial, organizational, demographic, psychological and political factors in the context of CAP.

  9. Livestock Animal Displacement on Rural Tourism Destinations: Placing Livestock's “Pest” Role in the Background

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guorong Tang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Rural tourism is becoming increasingly embedded in the livestock animal management in rural areas. Drawing on a multi-methods approach, this exploratory research shows how to construct the livestock animal displacement actor-networks. As is found, human actors (local governments, tourists, and local residents, non-human animal (livestock and quasi-object (human dwellings construct an interaction network in a structured way. The critical action route of livestock animal displacement demonstrated in this research is aimed to improve residents' participation willingness and further to change the local livestock feeding model and traditional dwelling by rural environment governance and rural tourism landscape consumption. Through the process of translation, problematization, interest, enrollment, mobilization and opposition, the livestock displacement actor-networks were constructed to build a heterogeneous network of the local government, tourists, local residents, livestock and human dwelling. The ultimate goal is to change the traditional human dwelling to a dis-dwelling; the most important thing is to promote residents’ participation willingness in the livestock displacement actor-networks. This article attempts to perform compelling exploratory research to elucidate the livestock displacement actor-networks in hope to provide a meaningful contribution to the epistemology and methodology of livestock management on rural tourism destination and open a new path for research on rural livestock-human relations.

  10. BULGARIAN STATE AND THE TURKS (1878-1908 / BULGARİSTAN EMARETİ VE TÜRKLER (1878–1908

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assoc. Prof. Dr. Osman KÖSE

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Bulgaria emerged as an independent state in the Berlin treaty, which was signed after the 1877-1878 Ottoman-Russian war. After this, the Bulgarian administration began an anti-Muslim massacre campaign, like the Russians did before.The main aim of this article is to investigate the pressure, violence and massacres against the Muslim-Turks, organised by the Bulgarian gangs and the official administration. It is also proposed that the emigration of the Muslim-Turkish population began after this policy of violence.

  11. Livestock Origin for a Human Pandemic Clone of Community-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spoor, Laura E.; McAdam, Paul R.; Weinert, Lucy A.

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT The importance of livestock as a source of bacterial pathogens with the potential for epidemic spread in human populations is unclear. In recent years, there has been a global increase in community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) infections of healthy...... with the independent acquisition of mobile genetic elements encoding antimicrobial resistance and human-specific mediators of immune evasion, consistent with an important role for these genetic events in the capacity to survive and transmit among human populations. In conclusion, we provide evidence that livestock...... at the human-livestock interface. IMPORTANCE Animals are the major source of new pathogens affecting humans. However, the potential for pathogenic bacteria that originally were found in animals to switch hosts and become widely established in human populations is not clear. Here, we report the discovery...

  12. Livestock-Associated MRSA: The Impact on Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Cuny

    2015-11-01

    livestock was obviously associated with several genetic changes. Reversion of the genetic changes and readaptation to humans bears a potential health risk and requires tight surveillance. Although most LA-MRSA (>80% is resistant to several antibiotics, there are still sufficient treatment options.

  13. Agent Based Model of Livestock Movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miron, D. J.; Emelyanova, I. V.; Donald, G. E.; Garner, G. M.

    The modelling of livestock movements within Australia is of national importance for the purposes of the management and control of exotic disease spread, infrastructure development and the economic forecasting of livestock markets. In this paper an agent based model for the forecasting of livestock movements is presented. This models livestock movements from farm to farm through a saleyard. The decision of farmers to sell or buy cattle is often complex and involves many factors such as climate forecast, commodity prices, the type of farm enterprise, the number of animals available and associated off-shore effects. In this model the farm agent's intelligence is implemented using a fuzzy decision tree that utilises two of these factors. These two factors are the livestock price fetched at the last sale and the number of stock on the farm. On each iteration of the model farms choose either to buy, sell or abstain from the market thus creating an artificial supply and demand. The buyers and sellers then congregate at the saleyard where livestock are auctioned using a second price sealed bid. The price time series output by the model exhibits properties similar to those found in real livestock markets.

  14. Highly effective SNP-based association mapping and management of recessive defects in livestock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charlier, Carole; Coppieters, Wouter; Rollin, Frédéric

    2008-01-01

    The widespread use of elite sires by means of artificial insemination in livestock breeding leads to the frequent emergence of recessive genetic defects, which cause significant economic and animal welfare concerns. Here we show that the availability of genome-wide, high-density SNP panels, combi...

  15. Radiation related cancer risk after ionization radiation exposure to the Bulgarian population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chobanova, N.; Vasilev, G.; Hadjieva, T.

    2008-01-01

    Average annual individual effective dose of natural radiation background (NRB) for the Bulgarian population is estimated to be 2.33 mSv.a -1 (from 1.60 to 3.06). NRB has been considered nearly constant in time, but during the 20th century the radiation above NRB has gradually increased. It was mainly caused by the medical X-ray and radionuclide diagnostics, radiation treatment, occupational radiation, global radioactive fallout, Chernobyl accident, exploitation of thermal power and nuclear power stations, etc. For the years 1950-2000 collective dose from NRB represents 965 000 man.Sv and radiation over NRB gives 1 042 800 man.Sv. Population risk following radiation exposure is estimated mainly on stochastic health effect by implementation of the so-called Linear non-threshold model (LNM) dose-effect. It postulates no dose threshold for radiation-induced health effects. Using different models, assumptions and assessments, authors have determined the contribution of lethal radiogenic cancer to Bulgarian spontaneous cancer rate to be from 3.7% to 20.6%. Numerous contradictions and concepts about the LNM still persist, because from statistical point of view, LNM can neither be proved nor rejected. (authors)

  16. Basic exterior characteristics of body and head in Bulgarian scent hound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urošević Milivoje

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A group of dogs known as hounds is widespread and highly appreciated among the hunters on the Balkans. Hounds are referred to as hunting dogs that engage in loud pursuit of game along its trail. These dogs do not need to se the game in order to pursue it and begin to bark once they stumble upon game trail. First serious research along with zootechnical measurement was conducted in 1905, at which occasion three large groups of hounds that inhabit the Balkans were described. This undertaking provided a solid foundation for further research and standardization of certain hound breeds. Though a lot of field work and standardization efforts were undertaken since then, there are still groups of hounds not encompassed in previous research work that are well-spread on the field and frequently utilized as hunting companions. One of the variety among these non-standardized breeds are Bulgarian scent hound, which differ from described hound breeds by certain exterior characteristics. In this paper, processed and analyzed some of the basic exterior features of body and head of the Bulgarian Scent Hound. Measurements were performed in 21 males and 15 females of following parameters, the height at withers, back height, loin height, chest circumference, body length, head length, skull length, nozzle length, head width and nozzle width. The average height of males is 54.60 and female 51.73 cm. Head length of males, on average, was 23.95 cm and females 23, 53 cm.

  17. Some environmental aspects related to sulphur emissions during combustion of Bulgarian coals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vassileva, C.; Vassilev, S.

    2004-01-01

    The mechanism of S emissions and their capture during combustion of some Bulgarian coals (Maritza East, Maritza West, Sofia, Pernik, Bobov Dol, Balkan) was studied based on the phase-mineral transformations in the inorganic matter during gradual heating of these coals. It was found that: 1) the organic, elemental and sulphide S is released from coal at 200-700 0 C; 2) the volatile S is initially captured by intermediate Ca-, Mg-, K-, Na-, Fc-, and Ba-oxides (mainly from decomposed organic matter and carbonates) with formation of their sulphates at 200-1000 0 C; 3) the decomposition of original and newly-formed sulphates occurs at 800-1300 0 C and they are the major source of volatile SO 2 from stack emissions of thermoelectric power stations (TPSs). The described mechanism of S emissions and their capture indicates that the traditional pulverized combustion (1200-1600 0 C) of the high-sulphur Bulgarian coals in TPSs is inadequate from an environmental point of view and other alternatives should be applied. Some of them such as fluidized-bed combustion and selective blending of the coals are proposed

  18. Grouping of Bulgarian wines according to grape variety by using statistical methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milev, M.; Nikolova, Kr.; Ivanova, Ir.; Minkova, St.; Evtimov, T.; Krustev, St.

    2017-12-01

    68 different types of Bulgarian wines were studied in accordance with 9 optical parameters as follows: color parameters in XYZ and SIE Lab color systems, lightness, Hue angle, chroma, fluorescence intensity and emission wavelength. The main objective of this research is using hierarchical cluster analysis to evaluate the similarity and the distance between examined different types of Bulgarian wines and their grouping based on physical parameters. We have found that wines are grouped in clusters on the base of the degree of identity between them. There are two main clusters each one with two subclusters. The first one contains white wines and Sira, the second contains red wines and rose. The results from cluster analysis are presented graphically by a dendrogram. The other statistical technique used is factor analysis performed by the Method of Principal Components (PCA). The aim is to reduce the large number of variables to a few factors by grouping the correlated variables into one factor and subdividing the noncorrelated variables into different factors. Moreover the factor analysis provided the possibility to determine the parameters with the greatest influence over the distribution of samples in different clusters. In our study after the rotation of the factors with Varimax method the parameters were combined into two factors, which explain about 80 % of the total variation. The first one explains the 61.49% and correlates with color characteristics, the second one explains 18.34% from the variation and correlates with the parameters connected with fluorescence spectroscopy.

  19. Influence of macroalgae diversity on radionuclide and heavy metal accumulation in Bulgarian Black Sea ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nonova, Tz.; Strezov, A.; Ivanov, D.; Stankov, D.

    2006-01-01

    Radionuclides and toxic metals in Black Sea green, brown and red macroalgae were investigated using Low-level Gamma Spectroscopy and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry AAS (FAAS, ETAAS). All algae samples were collected along the whole Bulgarian coast during the period 1996 - 2004. The obtained data show that radionuclide and metal concentrations depend on the macrophytes type and are higher in red Ceramium species. Tendencies in the concentration pollutants variations during the studied period are examined and all data give information about different macrophytic species ability to accumulate certain elements from one and the same sampling location The possibilities to use Chlorophyta, Phaeophyta and Rhodophyta algae phylums as bioindicators in marine environment are investigated. All obtained results show that use of macroalgae reduces the need of complex studies on chemical speciation of aquatic contaminants and makes algae valuable indicators for the seawater quality assessment. Higher levels are obtained at the northern part of the Black Sea due to seawater current circulation, originating from Danube, Dnyeper and Dnester river outflow and also at the southern part of the coast. All data show that there is no serious contamination along the Bulgarian coast

  20. Bulgarian Youth and Europe. Multivariate Psycho-cultural Study of the Mobility Attitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail Matveev

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to examine the Bulgarian youths' mobility towards Europe. The investigation was carried out with 570 Bulgarian students. The data are presented as a questionnaire consisting of five parts. The first one deals with the motivations and is based on the Reversal Theory - predicting eight motivational states. The second part is based on the 2PAP theoretical model structuring the attitudes around four factors: Push, Pull, Anti Push and Anti Pull. The third one falls back on the Big Five Personality Test measuring five personality dimensions. And the concluding two parts are designed to obtain information about the degree of attraction and the intentions for mobility to the 25 destination countries of the European Union (EU. This has led to the hypothesis that a model of mobility exists based on these three theoretical models, as well as on emotional factors like attraction-repulsion to the country referred to. The hypothesis that was strongly supported by the statistical processing of the data will broaden our understanding of the youth's mobility. The present research is a part of a longitudinal study of the mobility intentions among young people. The investigation is of great interest from an educational, political and social point of view

  1. Cross-Cultural Validation of the Definition of Multimorbidity in the Bulgarian Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assenova, Radost S; Le Reste, Jean Yves; Foreva, Gergana H; Mileva, Daniela S; Czachowski, Slawomir; Sowinska, Agnieszka; Nabbe, Patrice; Argyriadou, Stella; Lazic, Djurdjica; Hasaganic, Melida; Lingner, Heidrun; Lygidakis, Harris; Muñoz, Miguel-Angel; Claveria, Ana; Doerr, Chista; Van Marwijk, Harm; Van Royen, Paul; Lietard, Claire

    2015-01-01

    Multimorbidity is a health issue with growing importance. During the last few decades the populations of most countries in the world have been ageing rapidly. Bulgaria is affected by the issue because of the high prevalence of ageing population in the country with multiple chronic conditions. The AIM of the present study was to validate the translated definition of multimorbidity from English into the Bulgarian language. The present study is part of an international project involving 8 national groups. We performed a forward and backward translation of the original English definition of multimorbidity using a Delphi consensus procedure. The physicians involved accepted the definition with a high percentage of agreement in the first round. The backward translation was accepted by the scientific committee using the Nominal group technique. Some of the GPs provided comments on the linguistic expressions which arose in order to improve understanding in Bulgarian. The remarks were not relevant to the content. The conclusion of the discussion, using a meta-ethnographic approach, was that the differences were acceptable and no further changes were required. A native version of the published English multimorbidity definition has been finalized. This definition is a prerequisite for better management of multimorbidity by clinicians, researchers and policy makers.

  2. Memories of Serbian victims under Bulgarian occupation in Leskovački glasnik (1915-1918

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antić Dejan D.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Serbian army was forced to retreat towards Metohija and Albania eventually due to the armed aggression and attacks from the north and east in October 1915 by the united forces of the German and Austro-Hungarian units against the Kingdom of Serbia. Together with the army, the monarch, executive and legislative branch, intellectuals and civilians also retreated, not wanting to fall in the hands of the incoming army formations of the Central Powers. Following the retreat of the government and army bodies, the territory of the Kingdom of Serbia found itself under the control of the enemy forces, which started the 3-year period of occupation. The subject of this paper are the texts written by the newspaper called Leskovački glasnik (Leskovac Messenger in the period between World War I and World War II, which dealt with the sufferings of the Serbian civilians in the Bulgarian occupied zone from 1915 to 1918. Special attention is paid to the Leskovački glasnik's reports about marking the anniversary of the Bulgarian terror and killings of Serbs, about opening and consecration of memorials, about the heroic deeds and the tragic destiny of the people in south Serbia.

  3. Bulgarian agriculture in the conditions of the EU Common Agricultural Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stela TODOROVA

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The agricultural sectors of the former centrally planned economies, including Bulgaria were in a state of economic crises in the period after socialist governments fell. The former system disappeared almost overnight while new market structures had not yet emerged. The outcome of this transition shocks was a sharp decline in both agricultural output and the sector's GDP in the early 1990s. Some countries of the Central and Eastern Europe (CEE recovered from this initial decline much faster. The principle reason for the difference appears to be the more resolute adherence of CEE governments to reform policies throughout their economies. The purpose of this study is to get more knowledge about the structure and possibilities of Bulgarian agriculture after the transition period and last but not least, about the effects of the EU CAP on the Bulgarian economy and farmers.That is why were made some interviews, and besides, it was carried out a questionnaire survey in order to get a picture about how farmers act in a new environment called the Common Agricultural Policy of EU. For collecting information, as well as confirming or rejecting the investigation hypotheses chi-square analysis was applied.

  4. Relations between Household Livestock Ownership, Livestock Disease, and Young Child Growth123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosites, Emily; Thumbi, Samuel M; Otiang, Elkanah; McElwain, Terry F; Njenga, MK; Rabinowitz, Peter M; Rowhani-Rahbar, Ali; Neuhouser, Marian L; May, Susanne; Palmer, Guy H; Walson, Judd L

    2016-01-01

    Background: In resource-limited settings in which child malnutrition is prevalent, humans live in close proximity to household livestock. However, the relation between household livestock and child nutrition represents a considerable knowledge gap. Objective: We assessed whether household livestock ownership or livestock disease episodes were associated with growth in young children in western Kenya. Methods: We incorporated monthly anthropometric measurements for children livestock ownership was related to baseline child height for age or prospective growth rate. We also evaluated whether livestock disease episodes were associated with child growth rate over 11 mo of follow-up. Results: We collected data on 925 children over the course of follow-up. Greater household livestock ownership at baseline was not related to baseline child height-for-age z score (adjusted β: 0.01 SD; 95% CI: −0.02, 0.04 SD) or child growth rate (adjusted β: 0.02 cm/y; 95% CI: −0.03, 0.07 cm/y). Livestock disease episodes were not significantly associated with child growth across the entire cohort (adjusted β: −0.007 cm/mo; 95% CI: −0.02, 0.006 cm/mo). However, children in households with livestock digestive disease between June and November gained less height than did children in households that did not report livestock disease (β: −0.063 cm/mo; 95% CI: −0.112, −0.016 cm/mo). Children livestock digestive disease gained less weight than did those who did not report disease (β: −0.033 kg/mo; 95% CI: −0.063, −0.003 kg/mo). Conclusion: In this cohort of young children in western Kenya, we did not find an association between ownership of livestock and child growth status. However, disease episodes in household livestock may be related to a lower child growth rate in some groups. PMID:27075911

  5. Relations between Household Livestock Ownership, Livestock Disease, and Young Child Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosites, Emily; Thumbi, Samuel M; Otiang, Elkanah; McElwain, Terry F; Njenga, M K; Rabinowitz, Peter M; Rowhani-Rahbar, Ali; Neuhouser, Marian L; May, Susanne; Palmer, Guy H; Walson, Judd L

    2016-05-01

    In resource-limited settings in which child malnutrition is prevalent, humans live in close proximity to household livestock. However, the relation between household livestock and child nutrition represents a considerable knowledge gap. We assessed whether household livestock ownership or livestock disease episodes were associated with growth in young children in western Kenya. We incorporated monthly anthropometric measurements for children livestock ownership was related to baseline child height for age or prospective growth rate. We also evaluated whether livestock disease episodes were associated with child growth rate over 11 mo of follow-up. We collected data on 925 children over the course of follow-up. Greater household livestock ownership at baseline was not related to baseline child height-for-age z score (adjusted β: 0.01 SD; 95% CI: -0.02, 0.04 SD) or child growth rate (adjusted β: 0.02 cm/y; 95% CI: -0.03, 0.07 cm/y). Livestock disease episodes were not significantly associated with child growth across the entire cohort (adjusted β: -0.007 cm/mo; 95% CI: -0.02, 0.006 cm/mo). However, children in households with livestock digestive disease between June and November gained less height than did children in households that did not report livestock disease (β: -0.063 cm/mo; 95% CI: -0.112, -0.016 cm/mo). Children livestock digestive disease gained less weight than did those who did not report disease (β: -0.033 kg/mo; 95% CI: -0.063, -0.003 kg/mo). In this cohort of young children in western Kenya, we did not find an association between ownership of livestock and child growth status. However, disease episodes in household livestock may be related to a lower child growth rate in some groups. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  6. Relative Importance Assigned to Health Care Rationing Principles at the Bedside: Evidence From a Portuguese and Bulgarian Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinho, Micaela Moreira; Pinto Borges, Ana

    Activity was undertaken to develop a Prioritization Scoring Index for Portugal and Bulgaria that weights the importance given to ethical rationing principles that should guide decisions at the bedside. Data from two random samples of 355 Portuguese and 298 Bulgarian members of the public were collected from an online questionnaire. Questions asked about the level of importance given to specific issues related to patient's prioritization criteria. Responses were analyzed quantitatively with the SPSS. In the process of selecting the patient to treat, Portuguese and Bulgarian respondents seem unanimous in giving greater importance to (i) the treatment outcomes, (ii) the severity of illness, (iii) children, and (iv) patients' fragility. In general, Portuguese and Bulgarian respondents allocate more than 50% of the prioritization weight to equity considerations, approximately 35% to efficiency considerations, and 5% to lottery selection. Even so, Bulgarian respondents rate highly the equity and less the efficiency consideration than Portuguese respondents. Although the pursuit of efficiency seems to be valued by respondents, their major concern seems to be with the reduction of inequalities in health.

  7. Current Trends in Name Giving among Bulgarians: A Study of the Names of Newborns in the Sofia Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya Vlahova-Angelova

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The article showcases a large-scale study of the modern Bulgarian anthroponymic system conducted by the Applied Onomastics section of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences Institute for the Bulgarian Language (IBL with the aim of revealing the current trends in the choice of personal names by the Bulgarians at the beginning of the 21st century. The study focuses on personal names of Bulgarians born in 2010 in the Sofia region, as extracted from the Unified System of Civil Registration and Administrative Services of the Population of the Republic of Bulgaria. The total number of births this year was 1,005, of which 51.5% were boys, 48.5% were girls. Statistical and linguistic analysis of names allowed to measure the popularity of both individual personal names and different name types. It shows the quantitative ratio between most commonly chosen names and those of a singular use in relation to the total number of anthroponyms in the corpus, and proves that the male names are more sustainable in terms of usage than female. The derivational and etymological analysis of personal names helped to identify the productive word-formation types of names and the so-called “unisex names,” to distinguish between the native Bulgarian and the borrowed foreign names, as well as to classify graphic and phonetic variants of the same anthroponym. A number of quantitative comparisons were made between certain categories of names, for example, between compound (two-stem personal names (such as Miroslav and simple names (such as Biser, showing the ratio of the two-component personal names (such as Anna-Maria to the rest of the anthroponyms. It was found that the Bulgarian anthroponymic system in the beginning of the 21st century is more open to the non-adapted foreign names (like Mishel, Nancy, shows wider usage of diminutive “unisex names” (Moni, Stephy, Toni, as well as the growing popularity of shortened forms used as official names (Alex, Boni, Pepi, and the

  8. Overview of Pigs and Poultry: Specific Livestock Industries, Livestock Diseases and Policies in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, Thomas; Tisdell, Clem

    1995-01-01

    The pigs and poultry industries are the major livestock sectors in terms of commercial livestock production in Thailand. The dramatic growth of the Thai economy since the 1960s was spearheaded by rapid expansion of agricultural industries such as the poultry sector and has since generated increased demand for other livestock commodities such as pork. While pigs have traditionally been an important part of the integrated farm system in Thailand, pork production has only recently developed into...

  9. Innovations to improve livestock vaccines | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The proposed research focuses on vaccine improvement for one or more of the ... of existing livestock vaccines in sub-Saharan Africa and South and Southeast Asia. ... partnering on a new initiative, aimed at reducing the emerging risk that.

  10. Application of biotechnology to improve livestock products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati Gupta

    Full Text Available Biotechnological achievements of recent years have emerged as powerful tool to improve quality attributes of livestock products including milk and meat products. Biotechnological approaches can be employed for improving productivity, economy, physicochemical and nutritional attributes of a wide range of livestock products. The target areas of biotechnological research in the field of livestock products can be envisaged as production of high yielding food animal, improvement in quality of their products, enhanced production of natural food grade preservatives, efficient byproduct utilization and so forth. Many of the biotechnological techniques can be explored in the area of quality assurance programmes, which would be of great help to produce livestock products of assured quality and public health safety. [Vet World 2012; 5(10.000: 634-638

  11. Call 1 - Innovations in Livestock Vaccines (ENG)

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Renee Larocque

    production, and commercialization of innovative vaccines against livestock ... These vaccines often have limited uptake, efficacy or safety profiles .... It is the policy of IDRC that research work involving human participants or animals be.

  12. Livestock Vaccine Innovation Fund | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... livestock diseases (including poultry) in sub-Saharan Africa, South and Southeast Asia. ... and studies, we aim to widen the impact of our investment and advance development research. View all. Video. Partners. Global Affairs Canada.

  13. Territorial Dioceses and Ethnic Episcopies in the Structure of the Church Organization of the First Bulgarian Kingdom (Canonical Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archpriest Alexander Zadornov

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The coexistence of ethnic and territorial principles in the structure of ecclesiastical organizations is a well known fact in church history. Both principles are equally legitimate from the point of view of canonical law. The “ethnic principle” was based on legal norms of the so-called 34th Apostolic Rule, and contrary to the opinion of scholars of the 19th century, it was still in use after the era of the Ecumenical Councils. This fact must be considered by students of the history of Church organizations in the First Bulgarian Kingdom, too. The observations regarding the structure of church organizations in Simeonic Bulgaria make it possible to assume the coexistence of ethnic and territorial principles of church organizations in his kingdom. As is known, Slavonic church schools were established in the southwestern part of the First Bulgarian Kingdom after 886. They were aimed at training the Slavonic clergy for the Slavonic church organization. In 893, the Bulgarian King Simeon was elevated to the throne, and a Slavonic eparchy headed by St. Clement of Ohrid was established in the southwestern territories of the First Bulgarian Kingdom. As a result, heterogeneous church organizations were established in the region, and church structures of ethnic and territorial types appeared. They differ from each other by the language of their church services. Old Church Slavonic must have been used as a liturgical language in the ethnic Slavonic eparchy. Since direct historical evidence for such heterogeneous church structure in the First Bulgarian Kingdom is absent, new interpretations of sources made on the basis of canonical law can be of importance for Slavonic studies.

  14. Climate change mitigation through livestock system transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havlík, Petr; Valin, Hugo; Herrero, Mario; Obersteiner, Michael; Schmid, Erwin; Rufino, Mariana C.; Mosnier, Aline; Thornton, Philip K.; Böttcher, Hannes; Conant, Richard T.; Frank, Stefan; Fritz, Steffen; Fuss, Sabine; Kraxner, Florian; Notenbaert, An

    2014-01-01

    Livestock are responsible for 12% of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. Sustainable intensification of livestock production systems might become a key climate mitigation technology. However, livestock production systems vary substantially, making the implementation of climate mitigation policies a formidable challenge. Here, we provide results from an economic model using a detailed and high-resolution representation of livestock production systems. We project that by 2030 autonomous transitions toward more efficient systems would decrease emissions by 736 million metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalent per year (MtCO2e⋅y−1), mainly through avoided emissions from the conversion of 162 Mha of natural land. A moderate mitigation policy targeting emissions from both the agricultural and land-use change sectors with a carbon price of US$10 per tCO2e could lead to an abatement of 3,223 MtCO2e⋅y−1. Livestock system transitions would contribute 21% of the total abatement, intra- and interregional relocation of livestock production another 40%, and all other mechanisms would add 39%. A comparable abatement of 3,068 MtCO2e⋅y−1 could be achieved also with a policy targeting only emissions from land-use change. Stringent climate policies might lead to reductions in food availability of up to 200 kcal per capita per day globally. We find that mitigation policies targeting emissions from land-use change are 5 to 10 times more efficient—measured in “total abatement calorie cost”—than policies targeting emissions from livestock only. Thus, fostering transitions toward more productive livestock production systems in combination with climate policies targeting the land-use change appears to be the most efficient lever to deliver desirable climate and food availability outcomes. PMID:24567375

  15. Grazing livestock are exposed to terrestrial cyanobacteria

    OpenAIRE

    McGorum , Bruce C; Pirie , R Scott; Glendinning , Laura; McLachlan , Gerry; Metcalf , James S; Banack , Sandra A; Cox , Paul A; Codd , Geoffrey A

    2015-01-01

    While toxins from aquatic cyanobacteria are a well-recognised cause of disease in birds and animals, exposure of grazing livestock to terrestrial cyanobacteria has not been described. This study identified terrestrial cyanobacteria, predominantly Phormidium spp., in the biofilm of plants from most livestock fields investigated. Lower numbers of other cyanobacteria, microalgae and fungi were present on many plants. Cyanobacterial 16S rDNA, predominantly from Phormidium spp., was detected in al...

  16. 9 CFR 313.1 - Livestock pens, driveways and ramps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Livestock pens, driveways and ramps... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION HUMANE SLAUGHTER OF LIVESTOCK § 313.1 Livestock pens, driveways and ramps. (a) Livestock pens, driveways and ramps shall be maintained in good repair. They shall be free from sharp or...

  17. 7 CFR 205.236 - Origin of livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Origin of livestock. 205.236 Section 205.236... livestock. (a) Livestock products that are to be sold, labeled, or represented as organic must be from livestock under continuous organic management from the last third of gestation or hatching: Except, That: (1...

  18. 36 CFR 293.7 - Grazing of livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grazing of livestock. 293.7...-PRIMITIVE AREAS § 293.7 Grazing of livestock. (a) The grazing of livestock, where such use was established..., shall be permitted to continue under the general regulations covering grazing of livestock on the...

  19. 29 CFR 780.615 - Raising of livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Raising of livestock. 780.615 Section 780.615 Labor... Agriculture and Livestock Auction Operations Under the Section 13(b)(13) Exemption Requirements for Exemption § 780.615 Raising of livestock. Livestock auction operations are within the 13(b)(13) exemption only...

  20. 29 CFR 780.616 - Operations included in raising livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Operations included in raising livestock. 780.616 Section... Employment in Agriculture and Livestock Auction Operations Under the Section 13(b)(13) Exemption Requirements for Exemption § 780.616 Operations included in raising livestock. Raising livestock includes such...

  1. 9 CFR 85.4 - Interstate movement of livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interstate movement of livestock. 85.4... Interstate movement of livestock. (a) Livestock showing clinical evidence of pseudorabies shall not be moved interstate. (b) Livestock that have been exposed to an animal showing clinical evidence of pseudorabies shall...

  2. 7 CFR 760.303 - Eligible livestock producer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eligible livestock producer. 760.303 Section 760.303... AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS INDEMNITY PAYMENT PROGRAMS Livestock Forage Disaster Program § 760.303 Eligible livestock producer. (a) To be considered an eligible livestock producer, the eligible producer on a farm...

  3. 25 CFR 167.14 - Movement of livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Movement of livestock. 167.14 Section 167.14 Indians... Movement of livestock. Annually, prior to the normal lamb buying season, the Central Grazing Committee... and the procedures and methods to be used in moving livestock to market. All movements of livestock...

  4. 9 CFR 309.17 - Livestock used for research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Livestock used for research. 309.17... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION ANTE-MORTEM INSPECTION § 309.17 Livestock used for research. (a) No livestock... of such biological product, drug, or chemical will not result in the products of such livestock being...

  5. 7 CFR 205.239 - Livestock living conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Livestock living conditions. 205.239 Section 205.239... PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Organic Production and Handling Requirements § 205.239 Livestock living conditions. (a) The producer of an organic livestock operation must establish and maintain livestock living...

  6. Livestock policy and trade issues in SADC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulman, B

    2009-03-01

    As from 2001, the Southern African Development Community (SADC) has embarked on a course to deepen regional integration through restructuring. Under the new structure SADC has centralised the coordination of its activities to the Secretariat in Gaborone. The former Sector Coordinating Units have been merged into four directorates, one of which is the Food, Agriculture and Natural Resources (FANR) Directorate, which comprises, amongst others, the Livestock Development Unit (LDU). The LDU, under the aegis of the FANR, formulates policies for regional livestock development in order to respond to the objectives of the Regional Indicative Strategic Development Plan (RISDP), and which are mainly to: Contribute to improved food security, Promote wealth creation, Enhance rural livelihood, Enhance livestock as a tradable and consumable commodity. Following the launch of the SADC Economic Partnership Agreement (EPA) negotiations, the eight SADC EPA member states identified sanitary and phytosanitary and technical barriers to trade to be major trade barriers for access to international markets, especially the EU market where standards are normally set beyond international standards. SADC has already brought some of the issues related to beef exports to the OIE Regional Commission for Africa as SADC member states feel that a few of the present requirements do not have a scientific basis. The paper discusses the process that the LDU follows in the formulation of policies and strategies in regional livestock development with the objective of bolstering intra and extra regional trade in livestock and livestock products.

  7. Gaia science alerts and the observing facilities of the Serbian-Bulgarian mini-network telescopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damljanović G.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The astrometric European Space Agency (ESA Gaia mission was launched in December 19, 2013. One of the tasks of the Gaia mission is production of an astrometric catalog of over one billion stars and more than 500000 extragalactic sources. The quasars (QSOs, as extragalactic sources and radio emitters, are active galactic nuclei objects (AGNs whose coordinates are well determined via Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI technique and may reach sub-milliarcsecond accuracy. The QSOs are the defining sources of the quasi-inertial International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF because of their core radio morphology, negligible proper motions (until sub-milliarcsecond per year, and apparent point-like nature. Compact AGNs, visible in optical domain, are useful for a direct link of the future Gaia optical reference frame with the most accurate radio one. Apart from the above mentioned activities, Gaia has other goals such as follow-up of transient objects. One of the most important Gaia's requirements for photometric alerts is a fast observation and reduction response, that is, submition of observations within 24 hours. For this reason we have developed a pipeline. In line with possibilities of our new telescope (D(cm/F(cm=60/600 at the Astronomical Station Vidojevica (ASV, of the Astronomical Observatory in Belgrade, we joined the Gaia-Follow-Up Network for Transients Objects (Gaia-FUN-TO for the photometric alerts. Moreover, in view of the cooperation with Bulgarian colleagues (in the frst place, SV, one of us (GD initiated a local mini-network of Serbian { Bulgarian telescopes useful for the Gaia-FUN-TO and other astronomical purposes. During the next year we expect a new 1.4 m telescope at ASV site. The speed of data processing (from observation to calibration server could be one day. Here, we present an overview of our activities in the Gaia-FUN-TO which includes establishing Serbian { Bulgarian mini-network (of five telescopes at three sites

  8. Proceedings of the VI Serbian-Bulgarian Astronomical Conference, May 7 - 11 2008, Belgrade, Serbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrijević, M. S.; Tsvetkov, M.; Popović, L. C.; Golev, V.

    2009-07-01

    The Sixth Serbian-Bulgarian Astronomical Conference was organized by Belgrade Astronomical Observatory, and held in Belgrade, in the building of Mathematical Faculty in Jagiceva Street, from 75th to 11th May 2008. Co-organizers were Mathematical Faculty, Astronomical Society "Rudjer Boskovic", Institute of Astronomy of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences (BAS), Space Research Institute of BAS and Department of Astronomy of the University of Sofia. Co-chairmen of the Scientific Organizing Committee were Milan Dimitrijevic and Milcho Tsvetkov and Co-vice chairmen Luka C. Popovic and Valeri Golev. Chair of the Local Organizing Committee was Andjelka Kovacevic. The conference [was] attended by 58 participants. From Serbia were 36, from Belgrade Astronomical Observatory, Mathematical Faculty, Faculty of Sciences from Nis, Institute of Physics from Zemum, High School for pedagogues of occupational studies from Aleksinac, Faculty of Sciences from Kragujevac, Mathematical Institute of Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts, Astronomical Society "Rudjer Boskovic" and Astronomical Society "Magellanic Cloud." From Bulgaria were present 17 colleagues: Svetlana Boeva, Ana Borisova, Momchil Dechev, Peter Duchlev, Lostadinka Koleva, Georgi Petrov, Vasil Popov, Konstatin Stavrev, Katya Ysvetkova and Milcho Tsvetkov from Institute of Astronomy of BAS, Rumen Bogdanovski and Krasmimira Ianova from Space Research Institute of BAS, Georgi R. Ivanov, Georgi Petrov and Grigor Nikolov from Department of Astronomy, Sofia University "St Kliment Ohridski,", Yavor Chapanov from Central Laboratory for Geodesy of BAS and Petya Pavlova from Technical University of Sofia, Branch Plovdiv. Besides participants from Serbia and Bulgaria the Conference [was] attended [by] Vlado Milicevic from Canada, Jan Vondrak from Czech Republic, Aytap Sezer from Turkey and Tetyana Sergeeva and Alexandr Sergeev from Ukraine. On the Conference were presented 13 invited lectures, 22 short talks and 35 posters, in total

  9. Therapy of ovarian inactivity in postpartum Bulgarian Murrah buffaloes by PRID and Ovsynch estrus synchronization protocols

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stanimir Yotov; Anatoli Atanasov; Yordanka Ilieva

    2012-01-01

    Objective:The aim of the present study was to assess therapeutical effect of modified Ovsynch and PRID estrus synchronization protocols in Bulgarian Murrah buffalo with inactive ovaries during the low-breeding season. Methods:The study was carried out in 46 Bulgarian Murrah buffaloes with small inactive ovaries established by two consecutive transrectal ultrasonographies on Day 40 and 50 postpartum. At the start of the therapy the buffaloes were randomly divided into three groups. Group I (n=18) was treated by PRID-based protocol;Group II (n=18) was treated by Ovsynch based protocol and Group III (control;n=10) was injected intramuscular with saline at the same days as in the first two groups and fertile bull was introduced after that. The animals in the different groups were submitted to ultrasound examination at day of artificial insemination or bull introduction. Ovulation was determined 7 days post insemination by ultrasound. The pregnancy diagnosis was done 30 days after insemination. Mean diameter of the largest follicles at the start of therapy and the day of AI was registered. In the hormonal treated buffaloes estrus clinical sings, ovulation rate and pregnancy rate after AI were determined. In the control group pregnancy rate after spontaneous estrus was established. The mean diameter of the largest follicles determined on Days 40 and 50 after calving was not over 9 mm for all buffaloes. Results:At day of AI the average diameters of the preo-vulatory follicles in PRID and Ovsynch treated buffaloes were significantly (P<0.01) greater than these on Day 0. The cases of a clear uterine mucus discharge during the induced estrus were significant more (P<0.05) for Group I (94.4%) than Group II (66.7%). The pregnancy rate after AI (56.6%and 38.8%) in PRID and Ovsynch program was significant higher (P<0.05) than pregnancy rate after spontaneous estrus (10%) in the control group. Conclusions:the treatment of buffalo ovarian inactivity could start on Day 50

  10. Improving livestock for agriculture - technological progress from random transgenesis to precision genome editing heralds a new era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laible, Götz; Wei, Jingwei; Wagner, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Humans have a long history in shaping the genetic makeup of livestock to optimize production and meet growing human demands for food and other animal products. Until recently, this has only been possible through traditional breeding and selection, which is a painstakingly slow process of accumulating incremental gains over a long period. The development of transgenic livestock technology offers a more direct approach with the possibility for making genetic improvements with greater impact and within a single generation. However, initially the technology was hampered by technical difficulties and limitations, which have now largely been overcome by progressive improvements over the past 30 years. Particularly, the advent of genome editing in combination with homologous recombination has added a new level of efficiency and precision that holds much promise for the genetic improvement of livestock using the increasing knowledge of the phenotypic impact of genetic sequence variants. So far not a single line of transgenic livestock has gained approval for commercialization. The step change to genome-edited livestock with precise sequence changes may accelerate the path to market, provided applications of this new technology for agriculture can deliver, in addition to economic incentives for producers, also compelling benefits for animals, consumers, and the environment. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Astronomical virtual observatory and the place and role of Bulgarian one

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Georgi; Dechev, Momchil; Slavcheva-Mihova, Luba; Duchlev, Peter; Mihov, Bojko; Kochev, Valentin; Bachev, Rumen

    2009-07-01

    , publications, news and so on. This large growth of astronomical data and the necessity of an easy access to those data led to the foundation of the International Virtual Observatory Alliance (IVOA). IVOA was formed in June 2002. By January 2005, the IVOA has grown to include 15 funded VO projects from Australia, Canada, China, Europe, France, Germany, Hungary, India, Italy, Japan, Korea, Russia, Spain, the United Kingdom, and the United States. At the time being Bulgaria is not a member of European Astronomical Virtual Observatory and as the Bulgarian Virtual Observatory is not a legal entity, we are not members of IVOA. The main purpose of the project is Bulgarian Virtual Observatory to join the leading virtual astronomical institutions in the world. Initially the Bulgarian Virtual Observatory will include: - BG Galaxian virtual observatory; - BG Solar virtual observatory; - Department Star clusters of IA, BAS; - WFPDB group of IA, BAS. All available data will be integrated in the Bulgarian centers of astronomical data, conducted by the Wide Field Plate Archive data centre. For the above purpose POSTGRESQL or/and MySQL will be installed on the server of BG-VO and SAADA tools, ESO-MEX or/and DAL ToolKit to transform our FITS files in standard format for VO-tools. A part of the participants was acquainted with the principles of these products during the "Days of virtual observatory in Sofia" January, 2008.

  12. In the Traces of History: To the Critics of Our Socialism [In Bulgarian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Strigachev

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to the history of the socialist movement in Bulgaria and, in particular, to the evolution of the Bulgarian Socialist Party, later called Communist Party. The reasons for the rise of the revolutionary movement that led to the anti-fascist uprising in 1923 and its inevitable end were discussed. The paper critically analyzes the policy of the party when it became a ruling one and its power became authoritarian, falling into the hands of its leader. The reasons for the failure of the Stalinist type of "communism" imposed in Bulgaria by external circumstances as a result of the Second World War were considered. The discrepancy between the theory of Marxism and the Party’s prac-tice is highlighted and theoretical and practical conclusions are made.

  13. Role of the Bulgarian nuclear regulatory body on the development of the Novi Han repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batandjieva, B.

    2000-01-01

    The state control over the safe atomic energy utilisation and nuclear material accounting, storage and transportation is carried out by the Committee on the Use of Atomic Energy for Peaceful Purposes, through the Inspectorate on Safe Use of Atomic Energy. The main responsibilities of the Bulgarian Nuclear Safety Authority in the field of radioactive waste management as: state policy; development of concept and programmes; co-ordination and financing of research studies; definition of requirements on the safe use of atomic energy; collection and provision of information on events, related to the radiation protection and nuclear safety; co-ordination of the control over the use of atomic energy; definition of measurements and leading remediation actions are described. The main achievements and the future challenges related to the Novi Han repository are also given

  14. Influence of macroalgal diversity on accumulation of radionuclides and heavy metals in Bulgarian Black Sea ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strezov, Alexander; Nonova, Tzvetana

    2009-01-01

    Radionuclides and heavy metals were studied in green, brown and red Black Sea macroalgae by low-level gamma spectrometry and atomic absorption spectrometry. The samples were collected along the whole Bulgarian coast from 1996 to 2004. The levels have been depending on algae species, locations and year of sampling. The highest 137 Cs levels were found in red Ceramium rubrum species from all studied locations, while 226 Ra and 210 Pb were up to three orders of magnitude higher in Bryopsis plumosa. The data showed that the red algae species (Rhodophyta) accumulate more heavy metals than the other phyla (except for Fe whose values were higher in green algae). The data confirmed that algae are valuable indicators of the environmental contamination. The observed elevated levels were mainly due to Danube, Dnieper and Dnester inputs in the NW corner of the Black Sea

  15. The effect of Bulgarian propolis against Trypanosoma cruzi and during its interaction with host cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia Pires Dantas

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Propolis has shown activity against pathogenic microorganisms that cause diseases in humans and animals. The ethanol (Et-Blg and acetone (Ket-Blg extracts from a Bulgarian propolis, with known chemical compositions, presented similar activity against tissue culture-derived amastigotes. The treatment of Trypanosoma cruzi-infected skeletal muscle cells with Et-Blg led to a decrease of infection and of the intracellular proliferation of amastigotes, while damage to the host cell was observed only at concentration 12.5 times higher than those affecting the parasite. Ultrastructural analysis of the effect of both extracts in epimastigotes revealed that the main targets were the mitochondrion and reservosomes. Et-Blg also affected the mitochondrion-kinetoplast complex in trypomastigotes, offering a potential target for chemotherapeutic agents.

  16. Influence of macroalgal diversity on accumulation of radionuclides and heavy metals in Bulgarian Black Sea ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strezov, Alexander [Laboratory of Radiochemistry and Radiopharmacy, Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Blvd. Tzarigradsko shosse 72, 1784 Sofia (Bulgaria)], E-mail: strezov@inrne.bas.bg; Nonova, Tzvetana [Laboratory of Radiochemistry and Radiopharmacy, Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Blvd. Tzarigradsko shosse 72, 1784 Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2009-02-15

    Radionuclides and heavy metals were studied in green, brown and red Black Sea macroalgae by low-level gamma spectrometry and atomic absorption spectrometry. The samples were collected along the whole Bulgarian coast from 1996 to 2004. The levels have been depending on algae species, locations and year of sampling. The highest {sup 137}Cs levels were found in red Ceramium rubrum species from all studied locations, while {sup 226}Ra and {sup 210}Pb were up to three orders of magnitude higher in Bryopsis plumosa. The data showed that the red algae species (Rhodophyta) accumulate more heavy metals than the other phyla (except for Fe whose values were higher in green algae). The data confirmed that algae are valuable indicators of the environmental contamination. The observed elevated levels were mainly due to Danube, Dnieper and Dnester inputs in the NW corner of the Black Sea.

  17. Bulgarian Emergency Response System (BERS) in case of nuclear accident with exposure doses’estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syrakov, M.; Prodanova, M.; Slavov, K.; Veleva, B.

    2015-07-01

    A PC-oriented Emergency Response System in case of nuclear accident (BERS) is developed and works operationally in the National Institute of Meteorology and Hydrology (NIMH). The creation and development of BERS was highly stimulated by the ETEX (European Tracer Experiment) project. BERS comprises two main parts - the operational and the accidental ones. The operational part, run automatically every 12 hours, prepares the input meteorological file used by both trajectory and dispersion models, runs the trajectory models, visualizes the results and uploads the maps of trajectories to a dedicated web-site. The accidental part is activated manually when a real radioactive releases occur or during emergency exercises. Its core is the Bulgarian dispersion models EMAP. Outputs are concentration, accumulated deposition and selected doses fields. In the paper, the BERS overall structure is described and examples of its products are presented. (Author)

  18. Bulgarian Emergency Response System (BERS) in case of nuclear accident with exposure doses estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syrakov, D.; Prodanova, M.; Slavov, K.; Veleva, B.

    2015-07-01

    A PC-oriented Emergency Response System in case of nuclear accident (BERS) is developed and works operationally in the National Institute of Meteorology and Hydrology (NIMH). The creation and development of BERS was highly stimulated by the ETEX (European Tracer Experiment) project. BERS comprises two main parts - the operational and the accidental ones. The operational part, run automatically every 12 hours, prepares the input meteorological file used by both trajectory and dispersion models, runs the trajectory models, visualizes the results and uploads the maps of trajectories to a dedicated web-site. The accidental part is activated manually when a real radioactive releases occur or during emergency exercises. Its core is the Bulgarian dispersion models EMAP. Outputs are concentration, accumulated deposition and selected doses fields. In the paper, the BERS overall structure is described and examples of its products are presented. Key words: nuclear accident, emergency response, early warning system, air dispersion models, radioactive exposure dose. (Author)

  19. Specificity in the licensing process of reduced enrichment in the Bulgarian research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitkova, Marietta; Gorinov, Ivan

    2005-01-01

    The presented paper considers some specific questions of the licensing process regarding the reconstruction of the Bulgarian IRT-2000 research reactor, which includes conversion to the low enriched fuel. This specificity has risen as a result of two facts. The design of the reactor reconstruction was made on the basis of the existing fresh 36% highly enriched fuel. But after finishing of the design process, this fresh highly enriched fuel was shipped back to Russia in the framework of the RERTR program. These facts have involved some changes in both - in the licensing and the design processes. Re-analysis of the neutronic and thermal-hydraulic calculations is required to be made on the base of the technical specifications of the new LEU fuel. To facilitate the licensing process the NRA has adopted regulatory acceptance criteria for approval of the reactor core design with LEU fuel. (author)

  20. Model for Determining the Consumption of Machinery, Tableware, Fuel, Oils and Lubricants with the Participation of Units from the Bulgarian Army in Humanitarian Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nichev Nikolay

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Regulating documents of the Bulgarian Army considered norms for support classic combat operations and in fact Bulgarian Army has no planning methods to be used for planning of humanitarian operations. Solving this problem can be achieved through the use of planning factors. Planning factors are generally based on experience or data on the use of resources from previous operations. The participation of units of the Bulgarian Army in humanitarian operations have failed to bring to the accumulation of data needed to create a suitable planning factors. The purpose of the study is to develop a model by which to bring out planning factors in determining the the consumption of machinery, tableware, fuel, oils and lubricants with the participation of units from the Bulgarian Army in humanitarian operations.

  1. Revised spatially distributed global livestock emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asrar, G.; Wolf, J.; West, T. O.

    2015-12-01

    Livestock play an important role in agricultural carbon cycling through consumption of biomass and emissions of methane. Quantification and spatial distribution of methane and carbon dioxide produced by livestock is needed to develop bottom-up estimates for carbon monitoring. These estimates serve as stand-alone international emissions estimates, as input to global emissions modeling, and as comparisons or constraints to flux estimates from atmospheric inversion models. Recent results for the US suggest that the 2006 IPCC default coefficients may underestimate livestock methane emissions. In this project, revised coefficients were calculated for cattle and swine in all global regions, based on reported changes in body mass, quality and quantity of feed, milk production, and management of living animals and manure for these regions. New estimates of livestock methane and carbon dioxide emissions were calculated using the revised coefficients and global livestock population data. Spatial distribution of population data and associated fluxes was conducted using the MODIS Land Cover Type 5, version 5.1 (i.e. MCD12Q1 data product), and a previously published downscaling algorithm for reconciling inventory and satellite-based land cover data at 0.05 degree resolution. Preliminary results for 2013 indicate greater emissions than those calculated using the IPCC 2006 coefficients. Global total enteric fermentation methane increased by 6%, while manure management methane increased by 38%, with variation among species and regions resulting in improved spatial distributions of livestock emissions. These new estimates of total livestock methane are comparable to other recently reported studies for the entire US and the State of California. These new regional/global estimates will improve the ability to reconcile top-down and bottom-up estimates of methane production as well as provide updated global estimates for use in development and evaluation of Earth system models.

  2. Cross-Border Landscape: Construction of Natural Heritage and Local Development at Bulgarian-Serbian Borderlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Markov

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Normally nature is examined as a phenomenon which is subject to natural laws; it belongs to the field of natural sciences. In constructivist perspective the environment is subsumed under the symbolism of humans’ tradition and culture. From such point of view the very notion of nature is unthinkable without taking into account its existence and understanding in a specific social, economic and cultural context of definite time, space and society. In the proposed paper I proceed from this paradigm in examination of a definite natural landscape which, however, is divided by the political border. The research attention is focused on a region of Bulgarian-Serbian borderlands – the area where the Erma River flows. The river takes its sources in Serbia and though it is not very long, it is notable for passing the Bulgarian-Serbian border twice, and for its two remarkable gorges – the Gorge of Tran in Bulgaria and the Gorge of Poganovo in Serbia. During the socialist period this border region was under strong military and police control. The crossing of the border was formally impossible; the borderlands remained peripheral industrially undeveloped areas and were putted under strong depopulation. However, the lands on either side of the border preserved its pristine nature. During the last two decades the preserved natural landscape and certain nature objects have been turned into more important landmarks and included in the value scale of local communities as symbols and heritage. In result, the above mentioned gorges have become more important part of strategic priorities in the local policies of revival of these economically undeveloped borderlands in the Western Bulgaria and Eastern Serbia. Nowadays the local efforts are uniting through different joint cross-border projects and activities in the sphere of nature preservation and eco-tourism.

  3. ROMANIAN PEASANTRY AND BULGARIAN AGRARIANISM IN THE INTERWAR PERIOD: BENCHMARKS FOR A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornel POPESCU

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This article is a comparative study that attempts to highlight the similarities and differences between Bulgarian agrarianism and Romanian peasants during the Interwar period, the Second World War and period of transition towards the Leninist-Stalinist totalitarian regimes. The objectives of our approach are integrated within the boundaries of the main research directions and concrete levels, namely: the general context from the two countries, early agrarian/peasants’ movements, the political program, election results, the promotion of certain legislative measures, and the relationship with other political and institutional entities. Without trying to offer an exhaustive view or reveal new aspects in the strict sense of the term, our contribution confronts, in a coherent whole, a series of data and information on the basis of which one could make value judgments. These judgments might help to shape a global, comparative image. Among the main sources of the article we included the monographic works signed by Ioan Scurtu, Pamfil Șeicaru, Apostol Stan, Dimitrina Petrova, John D. Bell, R.J. Crampton, supplemented by data from several other publications (encyclopedias, syntheses etc.. One can identify several distinct stages within the period under review (1918-1947. The broad picture is that the Bulgarian agrarian group was more popular and better organized than its Romanian counterpart, but more inclined towards Leftism and authoritarianism, which led to its political isolation in 1923 and subsequent fragmentation, whilst the Romanian peasants’ movement managed, after 1924, to remain at the forefront of the political scene, showing an interest for dialogue and sometimes for compromise, first with The National Party, then with the authoritarian monarchy, but also with the Antonescu regime and, to a lesser extent, with the communist regime.

  4. Dzuds, droughts, and livestock mortality in Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palat Rao, Mukund; Davi, Nicole K.; D'Arrigo, Rosanne D.; Skees, Jerry; Nachin, Baatarbileg; Leland, Caroline; Lyon, Bradfield; Wang, Shih-Yu; Byambasuren, Oyunsanaa

    2015-07-01

    Recent incidences of mass livestock mortality, known as dzud, have called into question the sustainability of pastoral nomadic herding, the cornerstone of Mongolian culture. A total of 20 million head of livestock perished in the mortality events of 2000-2002, and 2009-2010. To mitigate the effects of such events on the lives of herders, international agencies such as the World Bank are taking increasing interest in developing tailored market-based solutions like index-insurance. Their ultimate success depends on understanding the historical context and underlying causes of mortality. In this paper we examine mortality in 21 Mongolian aimags (provinces) between 1955 and 2013 in order to explain its density independent cause(s) related to climate variability. We show that livestock mortality is most strongly linked to winter (November-February) temperatures, with incidences of mass mortality being most likely to occur because of an anomalously cold winter. Additionally, we find prior summer (July-September) drought and precipitation deficit to be important triggers for mortality that intensifies the effect of upcoming winter temperatures on livestock. Our density independent mortality model based on winter temperature, summer drought, summer precipitation, and summer potential evaporanspiration explains 48.4% of the total variability in the mortality dataset. The Mongolian index based livestock insurance program uses a threshold of 6% mortality to trigger payouts. We find that on average for Mongolia, the probability of exceedance of 6% mortality in any given year is 26% over the 59 year period between 1955 and 2013.

  5. Seasonality constraints to livestock grazing intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetzel, Tamara; Havlik, Petr; Herrero, Mario; Erb, Karl-Heinz

    2017-04-01

    Increasing food production is essential to meet the future food demand of a growing world population. In light of pressing sustainability challenges such as climate change and the importance of the global livestock system for food security as well as GHG emissions, finding ways to increasing food production sustainably and without increasing competition for food crops is essential. Yet, many unknowns relate to livestock grazing, in particular grazing intensity, an essential variable to assess the sustainability of livestock systems. Here, we explore ecological limits to grazing intensity (GI; i.e. the fraction of net primary production consumed by grazing animals) by analysing the role of seasonality in natural grasslands. We estimate seasonal limitations to GI by combining monthly net primary production data and a map of global livestock distribution with assumptions on the length of nonfavourable periods that can be bridged by livestock (e.g. by browsing dead standing biomass, storage systems or biomass conservation). This allows us to derive a seasonality-limited potential GI, which we compare with the GI prevailing in 2000. We find that GI in 2000 lies below its potential on 39% of the total global natural grasslands, which has a potential for increasing biomass extraction of up to 181 MtC/yr. In contrast, on 61% of the area GI exceeds the potential, made possible by management. Mobilizing this potential could increase milk production by 5%, meat production by 4% or contribute to free up to 2.8 Mio km² of grassland area at the global scale if the numerous socio-ecological constraints can be overcome. We discuss socio-ecological trade-offs, which may reduce the estimated potential considerably and require the establishment of sound monitoring systems and an improved understanding of livestock system's role in the Earth system. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Exposure of the Bulgarian population from natural and manmade ionizing radiation sources in the mid 90-ies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasilev, G.; Bajrakova, A.; Ingilizova, Kh.; Khristova, M.; Karadzhov, A.

    1997-01-01

    The main radiation sources the Bulgarian population is exposed to, e.g. natural radiation background and manmade exposure such as occupational, medical, nuclear power engineering and the like, are analyzed. The study covers the period 1991-1994 but it also contains a number of retrospective assessments concerning the last few decades. It is prepared with a special reference to the forthcoming report of the United Nations Scientific Committee on the effect of atomic radiation scheduled for publication in 1998/1999. The Bulgarian population exposure presented as average annual effective collective doses amounts to 20240 mSv/a from natural background, 6400 mSv/a from x-ray diagnostics, 400 mSv/a from nuclear medicine, 17 mSv/a from occupational exposure (uranium mining excluded) etc. Total exposure in excess to background irradiation is about 40% of the background one

  7. Radiation exposure of the Bulgarian population exceeding the background as a result of mining and processing of uranium ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonchev, L.; Vasilev, G.

    1999-01-01

    The nearly 50-year-long history of researches, mining and processing and closure of uranium industry of researches, mining and processing and the closure of uranium industry sites in the country as well necessitate reassessment of the radiation exposure of the human population in the regions nearby such projects. Proceeding from the available data from expert examination reports the radiation exposure of the Bulgarian population in excess of the background as a result of mining and processing of uranium ores is analysed. The study covers about 135000 persons. The mean value of exposure above the background, attributable to the technologically increased background amounts to 3.04 mSv/a at effective background dose about 2.3 mSv/a. The collective effective dose is 410 mSv/a and represents about 5 per cent of the overall radiation exposure of the Bulgarian population

  8. The Bulgarian Emergency Response System for dose assessment in the early stage of accidental releases to the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syrakov, D.; Veleva, B.; Prodanova, M.; Popova, T.; Kolarova, M.

    2009-01-01

    The Bulgarian Emergency Response System (BERS) is being developed in the Bulgarian National Institute of Meteorology and Hydrology since 1994. BERS is based on numerical weather forecast meteorological information and a numerical long-range dispersion model accounting for the transport, dispersion, chemical and radioactive transformations of pollutants. In the present paper, the further development of this system for a mixture of radioactive gaseous and aerosol pollutants is described. The basic module for the BERS, the numerical dispersion model EMAP, is upgraded with a 'dose calculation block'. Two scenarios for hypothetical accidental atmospheric releases from two NPPs, one in Western, and the other in Eastern Europe, are numerically simulated. The effective doses from external irradiation, from air submersion and ground shinning, effective dose from inhalation and absorbed dose by thyroid gland formed by 37 different radionuclides, significant for the early stage of a nuclear accident, are calculated as dose fields for both case studies and discussed

  9. Prof. Elizaveta Karamihailova - The first lady of the Bulgarian physics (The contributions of prof. E. Karamihailova in radioactive studies)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balabanov, N.; Stoeva, M.; Lazarova, P.

    2012-01-01

    Prof. Elizaveta Karamihailova (1897-1968) is the first Bulgarian nuclear physicist and the first Bulgarian woman with an academic degree. Prof. Karamihajlova spent a significant period of time working at the Radium Institute in Vienna (1923-1935) and at the Cavendish Laboratory in Cambridge (1935-1939). She studies the nuclear reactions and the most up-to-date problems of the nuclear physics during the 1930's - neutron discovery, artificial radioactivity, split of atom nuclei. Following her return in Bulgaria (1939), E. Karamihailova continues the studies of Prof. P. Penchev to measure radioactivity of natural objects such as drinking and mineral water, soil, rocks, mud-curing. She also studies the radioactive pollution of the uranium mining regions, radioactivity due to nuclear tests. She is the founder of the first radiation protection activities in Bulgaria. (authors)

  10. The Characteristics Of Preferred Strategic Postures By Bulgarian Industrial Companies In The World Financial And Economic Crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Kiril Dimitrov

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the results of a survey of Bulgarian industrial organizations with respect to their clashes with the world financial and economic crisis’s effects on local economy. The crisis manifestations under business environment specificity factors and important cultural aspects of dominating managerial behavior in these companies are described and analyzed. The concrete research encompasses two groups of industrial companies, representing two opposite views to crisis – as a threat...

  11. The report of joint research over 20 years of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences and Hiroshima Institute of Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Tanaka,Takeshi; Vutova,Katia

    2014-01-01

    The Department of Electronics and Computer Engineering, Hiroshima Institute of Technology (EC-HIT) started the international joint research with the Laboratory “Physical Problems of Electron Beam technologies” of the Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences (IE-BAS) from 1994. 20 papers, included a book chapter, were published by implementing the international joint research under 5 Agreements for Academic Cooperation and Exchange between HIT and IEBAS. Our international joint ...

  12. Internal exposure to 222Rn progeny of the underground workers in Bulgarian uranian mines in 1958-1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimitrov, M.; Presiyanov, D.

    1998-01-01

    The results of more than 50000 measurements of 222 Rn and 22R n progeny measurements made in 1958-1989 in 9 large Bulgarian uranium mines (namely: '9 septemvri', 'Seslavci', 'Eleshnitsa 1, 2, 3', 'Smolyan', 'Byalata voda', 'Balkan' and 'Smolyanovtsi') have been summarized. The average WLM-exposures have been determined for each of the mines. The results make possible to estimate internal WLM exposure of any miner, provided that his underground working experience is known

  13. The role of leadership for shaping organizational culture and building employee engagement in the Bulgarian gaming industry

    OpenAIRE

    Stanislavov, Ivaylo; Ivanov, Stanislav

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this phenomenological study was to explore the impact of leadership styles on organizational culture and employee engagement, and gain understanding of how these conceptual variables influence organizational performance. Through in-depth interviews, the participants from three Bulgarian gaming enterprises revealed their perceptions of how their previous and current casino managers were able to form organizational culture and build employee engagement. The study revealed that th...

  14. Book Review: Lubańska Magdalena, Muslims and Christians in the Bulgarian Rhodopes. Studies on Religious (AntiSyncretism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Bielenin-Lenczowska

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Book Review: Lubańska Magdalena, Muslims and Christians in the Bulgarian Rhodopes. Studies on Religious (AntiSyncretism "Muslims and Christians in the Bulgarian Rhodopes. Studies on Religious (AntiSyncretism", a book by Magdalena Lubańska is a summary of her research carried out for many years among the Christian Orthodox and Muslim Pomaks in Rhodope mountains of Bulgaria. There Lubańska conducted in-depth interviews and carried out ethnographic observation about the knowledge regarding neighbours of different religion, their beliefs and religious practices.   Recenzja książki: Lubańska Magdalena, Muslims and Christians in the Bulgarian Rhodopes. Studies on Religious (AntiSyncretism Książka Magdaleny Lubańskiej jest podsumowaniem jej badań prowadzonych od wielu lat wśród prawosławnych oraz muzułmanów w Rodopach, w Bułgarii. Lubańska przeprowadziła pogłębione wywiady i obserwację etnograficzną, dotyczącą sąsiadowania mieszkańców różnych religii, ich wierzeń i praktyk religijnych.

  15. Experiencing historical time: Apocalypse and authoritarianism in inter-war Bulgarian existential philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Dimitrova

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Experiencing historical time: Apocalypse and authoritarianism in inter-war Bulgarian existential philosophy This article deals with the sense of the pace of time as reflected in the works of Bulgarian philosophers from the “philosophy of life” school, and of other thinkers active in the humanities. It is shown that the feeling of “condensed” time among the authors of the inter-war period is inevitably associated with Biblical imagery – the “reduction” of time foresees the end of time. Several authors left a lasting mark on Bulgarian intellectual history due to their sensitivity to the sharp turns of the age, and their awareness of the intense “flow” of time. The most prominent among tchem were Spiridon Kazandjiev and Yanko Yanev, authors with right-wing political leanings. This article reveals how the end of time provoked in them not only distress and anxiety but also exhilaration at what lay ahead, as if it were the realisation of a longcherished dream.   Doświadczanie czasu historycznego. Apokalipsa i autorytaryzm w bułgarskiej filozofii egzystencjalnej okresu międzywojennego Niniejszy artykuł poświęcony jest doświadczeniu tempa czasu, odzwierciedlonemu w twórczości bułgarskich filozofów sytuujących się w nurcie „filozofii życia” w najszerszym ze znaczeń, jak również innych myślicieli. Zostaje w nim pokazane, jak poczucie czasu „skon­densowanego” u autorów okresu międzywojennego nieodzownie kojarzone jest z obrazami biblijnymi – czas „zredukowany” zapowiada zbliżający się koniec. Myśliciele, którzy pozostawiają trwałe ślady w bułgarskiej historii intelektualistów właśnie w powodu swej wrażliwości na gwałtowne zwroty w czasie, na intensywność jego upływu, to m.in. Spirydon Kazandżijew [Спиридон Казанджиев], Janko Janew [Янко Янев], Najden Szejtanow [Найден Шейтанов] – autorzy o orientacji prawicowej. Artykuł ukazuje, jak

  16. Sublacustrine river valley in the shelf zone of the Black Sea parallel to the Bulgarian coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preisinger, A.; Aslanian, S.; Beigelbeck, R.; Heinitz, W.-D.

    2009-04-01

    The considered sublacustrine river valley is situated in the shelf zone of the Black Sea. It runs in parallel to the Bulgarian coast, was formed in the time period of the Younger Dryas (Preisinger et al., 2005), and features an inclination of about 0.5 m/km. An about 200 km long sediment wall separates the approximately 10 km broad river valley from the outside shelf zone. This wall was generated during the Older Dryas until the beginning of the Younger Dryas. Its shape was formed by transportation of water and sediment from the Strait of Kerch by a circulating rim current in the Black Sea and water as well as sediment flow of the Danube in direction to the Bosporus. New investigations of the sediments of this river valley were performed by utilizing a Sediment Echo Sounder (SES 2000). This Echo Sounder is a parametric sub-bottom profiler enabling a high resolution sub-bottom analyses. It is capable of penetrating sea beds up to more than 50 m of water depth. The received echo data are real-time processed. The signal amplitudes are valuated in context to a logarithmic scale and graphically visualized by means of a colorized echogram utilizing false colours ranging from red for a high to blue representing a low signal (W.-D. Heinitz et al., 1998). The highest signal (red) is given by the acoustic impedance of the boundary between sea water and river sediment. The echograms of the river valley depict spatially isolated (red) high-signal peaks, which are periodically repeated in vertical direction between the sediment surface and the bottom of the valley. The number of these high-signal parts increase with an increasing valley depth. Studying of the distribution of these peaks allows to draw conclusions regarding the content and composition of the sediment. This prediction of the sediment composition obtained by means of the SES 2000 was successfully verified by analyzing a gravity core taken near Nos Maslen (at 44 m water depth) with a particular focus on the water

  17. Women, Livestock Ownership and Markets: Bridging the gender gap ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2013-10-30

    Oct 30, 2013 ... The book further analyzes the role of livestock ownership, especially by women, ... access to resources, information, and financial services to enable women to more effectively participate in livestock production and marketing.

  18. Examining the links between livestock ownership, gender, and food ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-06-06

    Jun 6, 2016 ... ... women own assets, and to what extent they participate in making decisions about how to ... Examining the links between livestock ownership, gender, and food security ... Improving women's participation in livestock markets.

  19. Sustainable Livestock Production, Health, and Environment in the ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... including the burden of parasitic diseases in livestock and human exposure to ... for: -improving livestock production, animal, and human health; -supporting local ... Nutrition, health policy, and ethics in the age of public-private partnerships.

  20. Perceptions of livestock information credibility available through ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results in the study area depict that, majority of the livestock owners preferred mostly to access the information through Internet in local language and from bilingual web sites. The results prove that with the current pitfalls, the respondents that availed Internet services may not be in position to prove the good image and ...

  1. Best available technology for European livestock farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loyon, L.; Burton, C. H.; Misselbrook, T.

    2016-01-01

    Concerns over the negative environmental impact from livestock farming across Europe continue to make their mark resulting in new legislation and large research programs. However, despite a huge amount of published material and many available techniques, doubts over the success of national...

  2. Assessment of Indigenous Knowledge Application among Livestock ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the application of indigenous knowledge among livestock farmers in Southern Ijaw Local Government Area of Bayelsa State. A structured questionnaire was administered to one hundred and fifty four respondents in the study area. The data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics.

  3. Biological control of livestock pests: Pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interest in biological methods for livestock and poultry pest management is largely motivated by the development of resistance to most of the available synthetic pesticides by the major pests. There also has been a marked increase in organic systems, and those that promote animal welfare by reducing...

  4. Livestock Vaccine Innovation Fund | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Livestock Vaccine Innovation Fund was established in September 2015 as a partnership between the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Global Affairs Canada, and the International Development Research Centre. It represents a joint investment of $57 million over five years to support the development, production, and ...

  5. A moral Operating System of livestock farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gremmen, Bart

    2017-01-01

    Societal views about livestock production systems in Europe are changing dramatically in a negative direction. Based on the tradition of pragmatism in applied philosophy I develop a Moral Operating System of animal production systems in cooperating a plurality of ethical views. This moral operating

  6. Loomakasvatus, 2007 = Livestock farming, 2007 / Tiiu Tamm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tamm, Tiiu

    2007-01-01

    2007. aastal tapeti ning müüdi tapaks 105 000 tonni loomi ja linde, toodeti 689 700 tonni piima ning 155,8 miljonit muna. Diagramm. Tabelid. Vt. samas: Loomade ja piima kokkuost, 2007 = Purchase of livestock and milk, 2007

  7. Livestock sector in Zambia: Opportunities and limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daka, D.E.

    2002-01-01

    Zambia is endowed with a vast feed resource base for animal production purposes. However, the feed resource base is not fully utilised and this is manifested by low livestock productivity. The quality and production levels of animal products depend largely on the quality and quantity of feed, which is fed to the livestock. Among the constraints limiting livestock productivity in Zambia, insufficient and low quality of veld grass, particularly during the long dry season (March-November) is responsible for low production levels and poor reproductive performance in ruminants. The problem of inadequate veld grass can be overcome by feeding crop residues which are in abundance during the dry season. Zambia produces large quantities of sugarcane tops, bagasse and straws from maize, sorghum, wheat, millet and rice. These could sustain livestock productivity if supplemented with protein sources or treated with urea. Despite the production of large quantities of crop residues, these are wasted by burning or get destroyed by termites. There is a need, therefore, to develop feeding systems based on crop residues which are compatible with the farming systems in Zambia and to promote such feeding systems. (author)

  8. Research award: Livestock Vaccine Innovation Fund | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2017-09-06

    Sep 6, 2017 ... The Livestock Vaccine Innovation Fund (LVIF) is an initiative developed by ... to support the development, production, and commercialization of innovative ... of countries within a regional and/or sub-regional structure (e.g. the ...

  9. 7 CFR 205.237 - Livestock feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Organic Production and Handling Requirements § 205.237 Livestock feed. (a... specific stage of life; (3) Feed plastic pellets for roughage; (4) Feed formulas containing urea or manure...

  10. Research in Organic Animals and Livestock Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaarst, Mette

    2009-01-01

    developed in Western Europe and USA, where they are primarily niche products for consumers who give priority to environmental and animal welfare concerns. In these countries organic livestock production offers the option of establishing a niche product that can be sold at a higher price, e.g. as for milk...

  11. Livestock Vaccine Innovation Fund: Strengthening of Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project creates the authorization for capacity building support to develop and manage the Livestock Vaccine Innovation Fund (LVIF). The fund aims to support the ... Des chercheurs appuyés par le CRDI parlent de leurs expériences au Comité sur les ONG lors du forum de la Commission de la condition de la femme.

  12. Livestock-environment interactions: Methane emissions from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Livestock producers face a number of challenges including pressure from the public to be good environmental stewards and adopt welfare-friendly practices. However, environmental stewardship and animal welfare may have excitingly conflicting objectives. Examples include pasture-based dairy and beef cattle production ...

  13. Estimation of Airflow in livestock Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Rasmus

    1995-01-01

    The well-being of the animals (e.g. pigs) in livestock buildings is contingent on adequate ventilation. Depending on the construction of the ventilation system draught may be introduced into the buildings. Obviously this is an unwanted effect, that might lead to decreasing growth of and increasing...

  14. Inventory of coastal protected areas and historical heritage sites (North Bulgarian coast)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazov, Atanas; Stancheva, Margarita; Stanchev, Hristo; Krastev, Anton; Peev, Preslav

    2015-04-01

    Coastal protected areas and historical heritage sites in Bulgaria are established by national policy instruments/laws and EU Directives to protect a wide range of natural and cultural resources along the coast. Within the framework of HERAS Project (Submarine Archaeological Heritage of the Western Black Sea Shelf), financed by European Union under the CBC Program Romania-Bulgaria, we made an inventory and identification of protected areas, nature reserves, monuments, parks and onshore historical sites along the North Bulgarian coast (NUTS III level). The adjacent coastline is 96 km long between cape Sivriburun to the border of Romania on the north and cape Ekrene on the south. Coastal zone here is mostly undeveloped and low urbanized compared to other coastal regions in Bulgaria. It comprises of large sand beaches, vast sand dunes, up to 70 m spectacular high limestone cliffs, coastal fresh-water lakes, wetlands etc. This coastal section includes also one of the most important wetlands and it is migration corridor for many protected birds in Bulgaria, that host one of the rarest ecosystem types with national and international conservational value. Added to ecosystem values, the region is also an archeologically important area, where numerous underwater and coastal archaeological sites from different periods have been discovered - Prehistory, Antiquity (ancient Greek, Hellenistic, Roman), Mediaeval (Early Byzantium, Bulgarian). Research was made within 2100 m zone from the coastline (in accordance with zones defined by the Black Sea Coastal Development Act) for territories with protected status in the framework of many national laws and EU Directives. The total area of this strip zone is 182, 6 km2 and around 67% is under protection. There are 11 unique NATURA 2000 protected areas (6 Special Protection Areas (SPAs) and 5 Sites of Communities Importance (SCI), 2 nature reserves and 1 Nature Park. Some of them are also onshore historical sites. In Bulgaria such sites

  15. Contribution to atmospheric methane by natural seepages on the Bulgarian continental shelf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimitrov, L. [Bulgarian Academy of Science, Varna (Bulgaria). Inst. of Oceanology

    2002-07-01

    This paper provides an estimation of the atmospheric methane flux from Bulgarian Black Sea continental shelf. Potential gas source rocks include Holocene gas-charged sediments, Quaternary peats and sapropels, and deep-lying Palaeocene and Neogene clays, Cretaceous coals, and other sediments of late Jurassic to early Cretaceous age. These cover almost the whole continental shelf and slope and, together with irregularly developed seal rocks and widespread active and conducting faults, provide good conditions for upward gas migration. A total of 5 100 line kilometers of shallow seismic (boomer) and echo-sounder records acquired during the Institute of Oceanology's regional surveys, and several detailed side-scan sonar lines, have been reviewed for water column targets. Four hundred and eighty-two targets were assigned as gas seepage plumes. It is estimated that a total of 19,735 individual seeps exists on the open shelf. The number of seeps in coastal waters was estimated to be 6020; this is based on available public-domain data, specific research, and results of a specially made questionnaire which was distributed to a range of 'seamen'. More than 150 measurements of the seabed flux rates were made in the 'Golden sands' and 'Zelenka' seepage areas between 1976 and 1991. Indirect estimations of flux rates from video and photo materials, and a review of published data have also been undertaken. Based on these data, three types of seepages were identified as the most representative of Bulgarian coastal waters. These have flux rates of 0.4, 1.8, and 3.51/min. The contribution to atmospheric methane is calculated by multiplying the flux rates with the number of seepages, and entering corrections for methane concentration and the survival of gas bubbles as they ascend through seawater of the corresponding water depth. The estimation indicates that between 45,100,000 (0.03 Tg) and 210,650,000 m{sup 3} (0. 15 Tg) methane yr{sup -1} come

  16. Genetic markers and their application in livestock breeding in South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ultimate use of DNA markers would be to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) in order to practice genotypic selection. This paper reviews DNA markers (RAPD, DFP, RFLP AFLP, minisatellites, microsatellites, SNP) and provides a brief overview of the current application of these markers in animal breeding.

  17. Livestock and feed water productivity in the mixed crop-livestock system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekele, M; Mengistu, A; Tamir, B

    2017-10-01

    Recently with limited information from intensified grain-based farming systems in developed countries, livestock production is challenged as being huge consumer of freshwater. The smallholder mixed crop-livestock (MCL) system which is predominant in developing countries like Ethiopia, is maintained with considerable contributions of crop residues (CR) to livestock feeding. Inclusion of CR is expected to reduce the water requirement for feed production resulting improvement in livestock water productivity (LWP). This study was conducted to determine feed water productivity (FWP) and LWP in the MCL system. A multistage sampling procedure was followed to select farmers from different wealth status. Wealth status dictated by ownership of key farm resources such as size of cropland and livestock influenced the magnitude of livestock outputs, FWP and LWP. Significant difference in feed collected, freshwater evapotranspired, livestock outputs and water productivity (WP) were observed between wealth groups, where wealthier are relatively more advantaged. Water productivity of CR and grazing land (GL) analyzed separately showed contrasting differences where better-off gained more on CR, whereas vice versa on GL. These counterbalancing of variations may justify the non-significant difference in total FWP between wealth groups. Despite observed differences, low WP on GL indicates the need of interventions at all levels. The variation in WP of CR is attributed to availability of production factors which restrained the capacity of poor farmers most. A linear relationship between the proportion of CR in livestock feed and FWP was evident, but the relationship with LWP was not likely linear. As CR are inherently low in digestibility and nutritive values which have an effect on feed conversion into valuable livestock products and services, increasing share of CR beyond an optimum level is not a viable option to bring improvements in livestock productivity as expressed in terms of

  18. Managing conflict between large carnivores and livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Eeden, Lily M; Crowther, Mathew S; Dickman, Chris R; Macdonald, David W; Ripple, William J; Ritchie, Euan G; Newsome, Thomas M

    2018-02-01

    Large carnivores are persecuted globally because they threaten human industries and livelihoods. How this conflict is managed has consequences for the conservation of large carnivores and biodiversity more broadly. Mitigating human-predator conflict should be evidence-based and accommodate people's values while protecting carnivores. Despite much research into human and large-carnivore coexistence strategies, there have been few attempts to document the success of conflict-mitigation strategies on a global scale. We conducted a meta-analysis of global research on conflict mitigation related to large carnivores and humans. We focused on conflicts that arise from the threat large carnivores pose to livestock. We first used structured and unstructured searching to identify replicated studies that used before-after or control-impact design to measure change in livestock loss as a result of implementing a management intervention. We then extracted relevant data from these studies to calculate an overall effect size for each intervention type. Research effort and focus varied among continents and aligned with the histories and cultures that shaped livestock production and attitudes toward carnivores. Livestock guardian animals most effectively reduced livestock losses. Lethal control was the second most effective control, although its success varied the most, and guardian animals and lethal control did not differ significantly. Financial incentives have promoted tolerance of large carnivores in some settings and reduced retaliatory killings. We suggest coexistence strategies be location-specific, incorporate cultural values and environmental conditions, and be designed such that return on financial investment can be evaluated. Improved monitoring of mitigation measures is urgently required to promote effective evidence-based policy. © 2017 Society for Conservation Biology.

  19. 29 CFR 780.328 - Meaning of livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Meaning of livestock. 780.328 Section 780.328 Labor...) Statutory Provisions § 780.328 Meaning of livestock. The term “livestock” includes cattle, sheep, horses... § 780.120. Turkeys or domesticated fowl are considered poultry and not livestock within the meaning of...

  20. 25 CFR 141.14 - Trade in livestock restricted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Trade in livestock restricted. 141.14 Section 141.14... livestock restricted. (a) No person other than an enrolled member of the tribe or any association... livestock from tribal members without a special permit issued by the Commissioner. (b) The Commissioner...

  1. 25 CFR 168.7 - Kind of livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Kind of livestock. 168.7 Section 168.7 Indians BUREAU OF... LANDS AREA § 168.7 Kind of livestock. Unless determined otherwise by the Area Director for conservation purposes, the Hopi Tribe may determine, subject to the authorized carrying capacity, the kind of livestock...

  2. 7 CFR 53.15 - Accessibility to livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accessibility to livestock. 53.15 Section 53.15... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) LIVESTOCK (GRADING, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) Regulations Service § 53.15 Accessibility to livestock. (a) The applicant shall...

  3. 7 CFR 760.209 - Livestock payment calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Livestock payment calculations. 760.209 Section 760..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS INDEMNITY PAYMENT PROGRAMS Emergency Assistance for Livestock, Honeybees, and Farm-Raised Fish Program § 760.209 Livestock payment calculations. (a) Payments for an...

  4. 29 CFR 780.327 - Production of livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Production of livestock. 780.327 Section 780.327 Labor...) Statutory Provisions § 780.327 Production of livestock. For an employee to be engaged in the production of livestock, he must be actively taking care of the animals or standing by in readiness for that purpose. Thus...

  5. Interaction Between Livestock And Crop Farming In Northern Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study looked at the role of livestock and its interaction with crop production in an integrated crop-livestock farming system in Katsina State. Field data were collected through household survey of 120 respondent located in six villages in Katsina State. The result shows that there was a high level of crop-livestock ...

  6. Climate change and livestock: Impacts, adaptation, and mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Melissa Rojas-Downing

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Global demand for livestock products is expected to double by 2050, mainly due to improvement in the worldwide standard of living. Meanwhile, climate change is a threat to livestock production because of the impact on quality of feed crop and forage, water availability, animal and milk production, livestock diseases, animal reproduction, and biodiversity. This study reviews the global impacts of climate change on livestock production, the contribution of livestock production to climate change, and specific climate change adaptation and mitigation strategies in the livestock sector. Livestock production will be limited by climate variability as animal water consumption is expected to increase by a factor of three, demand for agricultural lands increase due to need for 70% growth in production, and food security concern since about one-third of the global cereal harvest is used for livestock feed. Meanwhile, the livestock sector contributes 14.5% of global greenhouse gas (GHG emissions, driving further climate change. Consequently, the livestock sector will be a key player in the mitigation of GHG emissions and improving global food security. Therefore, in the transition to sustainable livestock production, there is a need for: a assessments related to the use of adaptation and mitigation measures tailored to the location and livestock production system in use, and b policies that support and facilitate the implementation of climate change adaptation and mitigation measures.

  7. The Use of and Need for Livestock Market News.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haag, Herman M.

    This publication reports the practices of 46 livestock producers relating to their use of market news as reported in personal interviews made in September, 1969, in three counties in Illinois. The questionnaire provided for information for: volume of livestock, type, location, frequency of use of various media used to obtain livestock market news;…

  8. Social and ecological analysis of commercial integrated crop livestock systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garrett, R.D.; Niles, M.T.; Gil, J.D.B.; Gaudin, A.; Chaplin-Kramer, R.; Assmann, A.; Assmann, T.S.; Brewer, K.; Faccio Carvalho, de P.C.; Cortner, O.; Dynes, R.; Garbach, K.; Kebreab, E.; Mueller, N.; Peterson, C.; Reis, J.C.; Snow, V.; Valentim, J.

    2017-01-01

    Crops and livestock play a synergistic role in global food production and farmer livelihoods. Increasingly, however, crops and livestock are produced in isolation, particularly in farms operating at the commercial scale. It has been suggested that re-integrating crop and livestock systems at the

  9. Understanding the gender dimensions of livestock ownership | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-06-06

    Jun 6, 2016 ... Download the Gender, Livestock and Asset Ownership brief (PDF, 726 KB, available in English only). This document summarizes findings presented in the book “Women, Livestock Ownership and Markets: Bridging the Gender Gap in Eastern and Southern Africa” produced by the International Livestock ...

  10. Dynamics of macrozoobenthos in the Southern Bulgarian Black Sea coastal and open-sea areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. STOYKOV

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of analysis of 96 macrozoobenthic samples, collected on a seasonal basis in Bourgas Bay and in open-sea areas offshore Cape Emine (Bulgarian Black Sea in 1996 and 1998. In total 96 taxa were established, distributed in four groups: Polychaeta, Mollusca, Crustacea and “Diversa”. The average density of populations was 1756 ind.m-2 with a predominating abundance of Polychaeta species. The average biomass estimated was 183.02 g.m-2, formed mainly by representatives of Mollusca. The latter species were measured together with the shells, which appraised their individual weights. Seven of the species found had a coefficient of constancy more than 50%. These were the most adapted species to the environmental conditions of the investigated areas. The quantitative and qualitative assessments in this study demonstrate an increasing tendency in the parameters obtained (density, biomass, species diversity in comparison with previous investigations in the early 1990-s, when intensive anthropogenic influence was widely perceived to misbalance the Black Sea ecosystem. The method of Warwick (1986 applied to characterize the water quality of the studied areas allowed us to define them as rather clean or moderately polluted aquatories.

  11. Ionizing radiations used in medical diagnostics as a source of radiation exposure of the Bulgarian population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingilizova, K.; Vasilev, G.

    1998-01-01

    X-ray and radionuclide application in medical diagnosing is the major sources of Bulgarian population exposure to ionizing radiations exceeding the radiation background. The number of X-ray examination on a nationwide scale shows an increase from 1600 thousand annually in 1950 to 10300 thousand in 1980 and decreases to about 4700 thousand annually for the period 1992-1993. The frequency for the above mentioned time intervals varies in the range 0.22 to 1.17 examinations per capita annually and decreases to 0.56. The roentgenoscopy to roentgenography ratio varies from 2.5:1 to 0.9:1 (1975) and increases to 2.0:1 (1993). The number of radioisotope examinations increased from 34 thousand in 1970 to 170 thousand annually in 1985 and decreased to about thousand annually in 1992-1993 with a number of studies per capita varying from 0.004 to 0.020 and decreasing to 0.010. In 1993 the annual collective effective dose due to X-ray diagnostics amounts to about 7000 man-Sv/a which exceeds the radiation background exposure by 76%. Radioisotope diagnostics in the period reviewed accounted for nearly 700 man-Sv/a with an exposure exceeding the radiation background by 7.7%. The major problems relating to patient protection and benefit/risk ratio improvement are discussed. (author)

  12. Study of radioactivity among te Bulgarian Black Sea coastal zone - results from the NIMH monitoring program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veleva, B.; Kolarova, M.; Mungov, G. [National Institute of Meteorology and Hydrology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2011-07-01

    In the frame of the NIMH at BAS investigations of the Black sea radioactivity were initiated in 1978 with a development of a monitoring campaign. Samples of sea waters, sediments and algae were collected from several sampling sites along the coastal zone and measured by gamma-spectrometry. Results on gamma-emitting radio-nuclide's measurements in the Black sea coastal waters were published in the 80's. After the Chernobyl accident during the period between 1986-1989 seasonal-fields sampling campaigns were organised and radioactivity of algae and bottom sediments was estimated. Harmonized sampling strategies, analytical procedures and related data information exchange for radioactivity of seawater, sediment and biota in coastal areas of Black Sea countries were developed under the IAEA TCP Black Sea Project. The present work reports results of the monitoring programme of the NIMH of Bulgaria developed in the frame of the IAEA projects for the Black Sea basin. From 1993 to 2005 regular seasonal sampling was performed in 5 sampling sites along the Bulgarian Black Sea shore. Results of the dissolved '1'3'7Cs concentrations in sea water, sand, algae, and fish samples are discussed. The data for the different radio-isotopes measured in algae, fish and sea sediment samples are given in comparison with other investigations. A complex assessment of Cs-137 concentrations as important tracer and indicator of the marine processes is made on a long-term basis. (author)

  13. Biodiversity of the macrozoobenthos in some protected marine areas along Bulgarian Black Sea coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Petrova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The aim of this paper is to establish the biodiversity status of the macrozoobenthos in some protected marine areas (NATURA 2000 along the Bulgarian Black Sea coast. The observation stations in the period 2010-2012 were within the frames of the following habitats: 1160 – Large shallow inlets and bays; 1110 – Sandbanks, slightly covered by seawater and Sublittoral mussel banks on sediment. In general, the data shows steady state compared to the 1980s, except for the area near Kamchia River, characterized by low biodiversity due to water pollution from the river inflow (with contaminants from agricultural and industrial sources in the upper river stream and less salinity leading to marine mussel species reduction. In the border area, near the Emona zone, the black mussel catches varied between 160-600 kg in 2005, while only single specimens were detected in 2013. In the same field, the yield of Rapana venosa was within the limits of 5-40 kg in 2005 and between 80-160 kg in 2013. The established variability showed a dynamic balance between Mytilus galloprovicialis and Rapana venosa that pose a challenge for future stock of the black mussel and point the need of regular monitoring.

  14. IN LINE WITH BRUSSELS. ROMANIAN AND BULGARIAN POSITION ON THE UKRAINIAN CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta Mihaylova

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The Ukrainian crisis has been a test for the alignment of Romania and Bulgaria with the EU on the background of the Union’s new foreign policy instruments as redesigned by the Lisbon Treaty. This paper aims to present the positions of Bulgaria and Romania towards the events of 2013-2015 in Ukraine. Our research target is to identify the driving forces that shaped these positions, to analyse and describe the main foreign policy goals and actions of Bucharest and Sofia regarding the Russian-Ukrainian conflict, and to compare the attitude of these two countries toward the Ukrainian crisis. The paper analyses first the Romanian and the Bulgarian perspectives on the dramatic events in Ukraine in the first half of 2014. The positions of the two countries are further placed in the wider international context of the Ukrainian crisis – the UN resolutions, the EU sanctions against Russia, NATO activities, and the security in the Black Sea region. In the third part Romania and Bulgaria are viewed as a “playground” for the competing narratives and propaganda in regards to the Russian-Ukrainian conflict. We also examine the economic impact of the crisis on the two Balkan countries, as well as the efforts of both Bucharest and Sofia to protect their respective minorities in Ukraine. In conclusion, we summarize the results of our research and explain how the Ukrainian crisis has reshaped the foreign policy debates in Romania and Bulgaria.

  15. Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Bulgarian Patients with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and/or Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoaneta Gateva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS is one of the most common endocrine disturbances in women of reproductive age. Besides its well-known effects on reproductive health, it is also linked to increased cardiovascular risk in later life. The aim of this study is to investigate some classical cardiovascular risk factors in a crossectional study of Bulgarian women with PCOS and/or obesity. We performed a retrospective medical chart review of 375 women from an university endocrine clinic. We found significant differences in the indices of carbohydrate metabolism, blood pressure, lipid profile, rate of liver steatosis, and the levels liver enzymes and hematological results between the lean and obese PCOS women. Obese women without PCOS did not show significantly different results in their OGGT form obese PCOS women. Waist-to-stature-ratio (WSR correlated better with the baseline IRI levels and lipid profile than waist-to-hip-ratio (WHR that makes it a better marker for unfavorable metabolic profile.

  16. Credit risk disclosure in the annual financial statements of Bulgarian banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Atanassova

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the credit risk disclosure in the annual financial statements of Bulgarian banks for 2015 and 2016. Banks are ranked according to the level of credit risk disclosure, in accordance with the requirements of international accounting regulations and in relation to financial and regulatory ratios linked to capital adequacy. As a result of the conducted empirical study, it is concluded that banks' management is not particularly inclined to make full disclosures and actively to declare internal qualitative and quantitative information. However, the level of disclosure of credit risk for banks in Bulgaria is high. Banks with a low degree of capital adequacy tend to make a more complete disclosure of credit risk, and vice versa. There were no indications of a link between the size of the bank assets, the existence of the bank as a public company and the disclosure of credit risk. We believe that, in the context of increased competition, the disclosure of credit risk from a formal requirement may become one of the many tools to stabilize the position of certain banks and create a positive image of the bank for public information users.

  17. Room temperature zeolitization of boiler slag from a Bulgarian thermal power plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascova Radost D.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple and cost-effective method was applied for the synthesis of zeolite composites utilising wet bottom boiler slag from the Bulgarian coal-fired thermal power plant “Sviloza”, near the town of Svishtov. The method consisted of a prolonged alkali treatment at room temperature of this waste. Experimental techniques, such as scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray and X-ray diffraction analyses, are employed to characterize the initial slag and the final products with respect to their morphology, and elemental and mineral compositions. The composites synthesized in this way contained two Na-type zeolite phases: zeolite X (type FAU and zeolite Linde F (type EDI. The zeolited products and the starting slag were tested as adsorbents for a textile dye (Malachite Green from aqueous solutions. In comparison with the initial slag, the zeolite composite possessed substantially better adsorption properties: it almost completely adsorbs the dye in much shorter times. The results of this investigations revealed a new, easy and low cost route for recycling boiler slag into a material with good adsorption characteristics, which could find different applications, e.g., for purifying polluted waters, including those from the textile industry.

  18. Socio-Environmental Issues of Marginal Territories within the Romanian-Bulgarian Cross-Border Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GEORGIANA TOTH

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The territorial system overlapping cross-border areas shapes a particularly dynamic and complex functional area. This paper synthesises several research outcomes regarding the social and environmental dysfunctions and opportunities defining the marginal territories that were emphasised during the ‘Analysis and diagnosis of the current situation in the cross-border area’, a phase of the project ‘Common Strategy of Sustainable Territorial Development of the Romanian-Bulgarian Cross-Border Area’ (SPATIAL. The main indicators concerning the population structure and movement highlight a series of problematic aspects within the cross-border area: population decline, significant rural population concentration on the Romanian side, demographic ageing, increase in the age dependency ratio, and a negative natural growth and migration rate. The analysis also indicates areas of socio-demographic potential that are marked by population growth, a significant young population presence that is convergent with an important share of active population. In this perspective, the spatial analysis also focused on identifying natural drivers affecting development and restrictive factors, on the environmental quality evaluation, as well as on establishing areas exposed to natural and technological risks. Therefore, delineating and analysing components underlying social and environmental processes were intended to determine those issues and opportunities considered to influence the evolution of this potentially functional area.

  19. Study of radioactivity among te Bulgarian Black Sea coastal zone - results from the NIMH monitoring program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veleva, B.; Kolarova, M.; Mungov, G.

    2011-01-01

    In the frame of the NIMH at BAS investigations of the Black sea radioactivity were initiated in 1978 with a development of a monitoring campaign. Samples of sea waters, sediments and algae were collected from several sampling sites along the coastal zone and measured by gamma-spectrometry. Results on gamma-emitting radio-nuclide's measurements in the Black sea coastal waters were published in the 80's. After the Chernobyl accident during the period between 1986-1989 seasonal-fields sampling campaigns were organised and radioactivity of algae and bottom sediments was estimated. Harmonized sampling strategies, analytical procedures and related data information exchange for radioactivity of seawater, sediment and biota in coastal areas of Black Sea countries were developed under the IAEA TCP Black Sea Project. The present work reports results of the monitoring programme of the NIMH of Bulgaria developed in the frame of the IAEA projects for the Black Sea basin. From 1993 to 2005 regular seasonal sampling was performed in 5 sampling sites along the Bulgarian Black Sea shore. Results of the dissolved '1'3'7Cs concentrations in sea water, sand, algae, and fish samples are discussed. The data for the different radio-isotopes measured in algae, fish and sea sediment samples are given in comparison with other investigations. A complex assessment of Cs-137 concentrations as important tracer and indicator of the marine processes is made on a long-term basis. (author)

  20. SEGMENTATION OF MICROSCOPIC IMAGES OF BACTERIA IN BULGARIAN YOGHURT BY TEMPLATE MATCHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatin Zlatev

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The diagnosis of deviations in quality of yogurt is performed by approved methods set out in the Bulgarian national standard (BNS and its adjacent regulations. The basic method of evaluation of the microbiological quality of the product is the microscopic. The method is subjective and requires significant processing time of the samples. The precision of diagnosis is not high and depends on the qualifications of the expert. The systems for pattern recognition in the most natural way interpret this specific expert activity. The aim of this report is to assess the possibility of application of a method of processing and image analysis for determination of the microbiological quality of yogurt. Selected method is template matching. A comparative analysis is made of the methods for template matching. The comparative analysis of available algorithms showed that the known ones have certain disadvantages associated with their rapid-action, the use of simplified procedures, they are sensitive to rotation of the object in the template. It is developed algorithm that complement these known and overcome some of their disadvantages.

  1. Radiological indices of drinking waters on the north part of the bulgarian black sea coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todorov, P.T.; Rusev, R.; Chuturkova, R.

    2005-01-01

    Bulgaria is a country which is located in the Eastern Europe. A drinking water sources on the North part of Bulgarian Black Sea coast have different radiological indices. The sources of drinking water can be lakes, rivers, wells, dam lakes and so on. Property estimation of the contents of Uranium (Ur), Radium (Ra 226), and total Beta activity, shows that concentrations of investigated parameters vary around TDI (tolerable daily intake). To Uranium for example the TDI yields a guideline value are 2 μg/litre if a 60 kg adult consuming 2 litres of drinking water per day and the provisional guideline value of Uranium which shows the health significance in drinking waters is 0.002 mg/1. The situation with the full Beta activity and Radium concentrations is the same. All these qualitative and quantitative indices are close to the provisional guideline values, but in some cases it is higher than the limit concentrations. The full Beta activity is measured in Becquerel per litre and values are around 0.193+7-20% Bq/1. The Radium concentration takes the dimensions of Bq/1 and it is about 0.009 Bq/l. No matter of the source of drinking water, contents of radiological indices is a very important element of the health care control

  2. Estimation of differences in trace element composition of Bulgarian summer fruits using ICP-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Toncheva

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The content of potentially essential and toxic elements: chromium, manganese, iron, copper, nickel, cadmium and arsenic in Bulgarian fruits such as aronia, morello, cherry, raspberry, nectarine peach, apple type „akane” and pear type „early gold” were investigated. By using the ICP-MS we found that -1 -1 -1 raspberry has the highest content of iron (4635.9 ± 53.2 μg kg , manganese (5690.9 ± 31.7 μg kg and chromium (150.2 ± 2.5 μg kg , while the richest in -1 copper is the nectarine (887.5 ± 31.19 μg kg . The content of toxic elements (nickel, cadmium and arsenic is in amount significantly below the permissible standards. Single ANOVA and subsequent Dunkan's test were used to define the fruit and to estimate the significance of chemical elements. The test for multidirectional comparisons indicated that for five of the investigated seven elements: iron, copper, nickel, cadmium, and arsenic the fruits are statistically distinguishable According to hierarchical cluster analysis the fruits are into one cluster.

  3. Pathways for sustainable development of mixed crop livestock systems: Taking a livestock and pro-poor approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tarawali, S.A.; Herrero, M.; Descheemaeker, K.K.E.; Grings, E.; Blmmel, M.

    2011-01-01

    Mixed crop livestock systems provide the majority of the cereal and livestock domestic products for households in developing countries. We explore the question of whether such systems can respond to increasing demands for livestock products without compromising future livelihoods of the poor or the

  4. 9 CFR 309.7 - Livestock affected with anthrax; cleaning and disinfection of infected livestock pens and driveways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...; cleaning and disinfection of infected livestock pens and driveways. 309.7 Section 309.7 Animals and Animal... INSPECTION § 309.7 Livestock affected with anthrax; cleaning and disinfection of infected livestock pens and... followed immediately by a thorough disinfection of the exposed premises by soaking the ground, fences...

  5. 36 CFR 262.10 - Impoundment and disposal of unauthorized livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... unauthorized livestock. 262.10 Section 262.10 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... unauthorized livestock. Unauthorized livestock or livestock in excess of those authorized by a grazing permit... officer determines that such livestock use is occurring, has definite knowledge of the kind of livestock...

  6. REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT BASED ON CLUSTER IN LIVESTOCK DEVELOPMENT. CLUSTER IN LIVESTOCK SECTOR IN THE KYRGYZ REPUBLIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meerim SYDYKOVA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In most developing countries, where agriculture is the main economical source, clusters have been found as a booster to develop their economy. The Asian countries are now starting to implement agro-food clusters into the mainstream of changes in agriculture, farming and food industry. The long-term growth of meat production in the Kyrgyz Republic during the last decade, as well as the fact that agriculture has become one of the prioritized sectors of the economy, proved the importance of livestock sector in the economy of the Kyrgyz Republic. The research question is “Does the Kyrgyz Republic has strong economic opportunities and prerequisites in agriculture in order to implement an effective agro cluster in the livestock sector?” Paper focuses on describing the prerequisites of the Kyrgyz Republic in agriculture to implement livestock cluster. The main objective of the paper is to analyse the livestock sector of the Kyrgyz Republic and observe the capacity of this sector to implement agro-cluster. The study focuses on investigating livestock sector and a complex S.W.O.T. The analysis was carried out based on local and regional database and official studies. The results of research demonstrate the importance of livestock cluster for national economy. It can be concluded that cluster implementation could provide to its all members with benefits if they could build strong collaborative relationship in order to facilitate the access to the labour market and implicitly, the access to exchange of good practices. Their ability of potential cluster members to act as a convergence pole is critical for acquiring practical skills necessary for the future development of the livestock sector.

  7. Managing Livestock Species under Climate Change in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce McCarl

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the vulnerabilities of major livestock species raised in Australia to climate change using the regional livestock profile of Australia of around 1,400 regions. The number of each species owned, the number of each species sold, and the aggregate livestock revenue across all species are examined. The four major species analyzed are sheep, beef cattle, dairy cattle, and pigs. The analysis also includes livestock products such as wool and milk. These livestock production statistics are regressed against climate, geophysical, market and household characteristics. In contrast to crop studies, the analysis finds that livestock species are resilient to a hotter and more arid climate. Under the CSIRO climate scenario in which temperature increases by 3.4 °C, livestock revenue per farm increases significantly while the number of each species owned increases by large percentages except for dairy cattle. The precipitation reduction by about 8% in 2060 also increases the numbers of livestock species per farm household. Under both UKMO and GISS scenarios, livestock revenue is expected to increase by around 47% while the livestock population increases by large percentage. Livestock management may play a key role in adapting to a hot and arid climate in Australia. However, critical values of the climatic variables for the species analyzed in this paper are not obvious from the regional data.

  8. Application of Prebiotics and Probiotics in Livestock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, James W.; La Ragione, Roberto M.; Woodward, Martin J.; Searle, Laura E. J.

    The advent of antibiotics and their use for treatment of clinical manifestations of infections has had a profound impact on animal health and welfare. In addition to direct application in the control of infection, low concentrations of antibiotics given in animal feed has been shown to correlate with higher health status and improved performance in terms of feed conversion (productive weight gain). Thus it is that antibiotics have been used as “growth promoters” in feed for livestock since the 1940s (Cromwell, 2001). Since the inception of this growth promotion concept there has been a debate on precisely how low level antibiotics mediate their action and whether or not this contributes to the acquisition of resistance in the bacterial flora of livestock.

  9. Family Farming livestock data search in loco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maisa Benito Pimentel

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The creation and trading of livestock are potentially growing in the Brazil over the years so that there is an increase in the interest of producers to apply new technologies to be able to stay in this increasingly competitive market. The technologies that are being applied include both new production techniques as management tools, control and monitoring of animals. Thus, this work presents an application development proposal to enable livestock data transmission and retrieval through a mobile platform, informing characteristics such as origin, weight recorded in the last weighing, race, vaccination, among others. The use of a technology applied to mobile devices can solve the problems of farmers from having to carry computers or notepads to where the animals are arranged, offering convenience and speed in decision making.

  10. Mechanisms of natural ventilation in livestock buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rong, Li; Bjerg, Bjarne; Batzanas, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Studies on the mechanisms of natural ventilation in livestock buildings are reviewed and influences on discharge and pressure coefficients are discussed. Compared to studies conducted on buildings for human occupation and industrial buildings which focus on thermal comfort, ventilation systems......, indoor air quality, building physics and energy etc., our understanding of the mechanisms involved in natural ventilation of livestock buildings are still limited to the application of the orifice equation. It has been observed that the assumptions made for application of the orifice equation...... are not valid for wind-induced cross ventilation through large openings. This review identifies that the power balance model, the concept of stream tube and the local dynamic similarity model has helped in the fundamental understanding of wind-induced natural ventilation in buildings for human occupation...

  11. Grazing livestock are exposed to terrestrial cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGorum, Bruce C; Pirie, R Scott; Glendinning, Laura; McLachlan, Gerry; Metcalf, James S; Banack, Sandra A; Cox, Paul A; Codd, Geoffrey A

    2015-02-25

    While toxins from aquatic cyanobacteria are a well-recognised cause of disease in birds and animals, exposure of grazing livestock to terrestrial cyanobacteria has not been described. This study identified terrestrial cyanobacteria, predominantly Phormidium spp., in the biofilm of plants from most livestock fields investigated. Lower numbers of other cyanobacteria, microalgae and fungi were present on many plants. Cyanobacterial 16S rDNA, predominantly from Phormidium spp., was detected in all samples tested, including 6 plant washings, 1 soil sample and ileal contents from 2 grazing horses. Further work was performed to test the hypothesis that ingestion of cyanotoxins contributes to the pathogenesis of some currently unexplained diseases of grazing horses, including equine grass sickness (EGS), equine motor neuron disease (EMND) and hepatopathy. Phormidium population density was significantly higher on EGS fields than on control fields. The cyanobacterial neurotoxic amino acid 2,4-diaminobutyric acid (DAB) was detected in plant washings from EGS fields, but worst case scenario estimations suggested the dose would be insufficient to cause disease. Neither DAB nor the cyanobacterial neurotoxins β-N-methylamino-L-alanine and N-(2-aminoethyl) glycine were detected in neural tissue from 6 EGS horses, 2 EMND horses and 7 control horses. Phormidium was present in low numbers on plants where horses had unexplained hepatopathy. This study did not yield evidence linking known cyanotoxins with disease in grazing horses. However, further study is warranted to identify and quantify toxins produced by cyanobacteria on livestock fields, and determine whether, under appropriate conditions, known or unknown cyanotoxins contribute to currently unexplained diseases in grazing livestock.

  12. Managing Livestock Species under Climate Change in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, S. Niggol; McCarl, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    Simple Summary World communities are concerned about the impacts of a hotter and drier climate on future agriculture. By examining Australian regional livestock data on sheep, beef cattle, dairy cattle, and pigs, the authors find that livestock production will expand under such conditions. Livestock revenue per farm is expected to increase by more than 47% by 2060 under the UKMO, the GISS, and a high degree of warming CSIRO scenario. The existence of a threshold temperature for these species is not evident. Abstract This paper examines the vulnerabilities of major livestock species raised in Australia to climate change using the regional livestock profile of Australia of around 1,400 regions. The number of each species owned, the number of each species sold, and the aggregate livestock revenue across all species are examined. The four major species analyzed are sheep, beef cattle, dairy cattle, and pigs. The analysis also includes livestock products such as wool and milk. These livestock production statistics are regressed against climate, geophysical, market and household characteristics. In contrast to crop studies, the analysis finds that livestock species are resilient to a hotter and more arid climate. Under the CSIRO climate scenario in which temperature increases by 3.4 °C, livestock revenue per farm increases significantly while the number of each species owned increases by large percentages except for dairy cattle. The precipitation reduction by about 8% in 2060 also increases the numbers of livestock species per farm household. Under both UKMO and GISS scenarios, livestock revenue is expected to increase by around 47% while the livestock population increases by large percentage. Livestock management may play a key role in adapting to a hot and arid climate in Australia. However, critical values of the climatic variables for the species analyzed in this paper are not obvious from the regional data. PMID:26486620

  13. Reducing uncertainty in nitrogen budgets for African livestock systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rufino, M C; Brandt, P; Herrero, M; Butterbach-Bahl, K

    2014-01-01

    Livestock is poorly represented in N budgets for the African continent although some studies have examined livestock-related N flows at different levels. Livestock plays an important role in N cycling and therefore on N budgets including livestock-related flows. This study reviews the literature on N budgets for Africa to identify factors contributing to uncertainties. Livestock densities are usually modelled because of the lack of observational spatial data. Even though feed availability and quality varies across seasons, most studies use constant livestock excretion rates, and excreta are usually assumed to be uniformly distributed onto the land. Major uncertainties originate in the fraction of manure managed, and emission factors which may not reflect the situation of Africa. N budgets use coarse assumptions on production, availability, and use of crop residues as livestock feed. No flows between croplands–livestock and rangelands reflect the lack of data. Joint efforts are needed for spatial data collection of livestock data, crowdsourcing appears to be a promising option. The focus of the assessment of N budgets must go beyond croplands to include livestock and crop–livestock flows. We propose a nested systems definition of livestock systems to link local, regional level, and continental level and to increase the usefulness of point measurements of N losses. Scientists working at all levels should generate data to calibrate process-based models. Measurements in the field should not only concentrate on greenhouse gas emissions, but need to include crop and livestock production measurements, soil stock changes and other N loss pathways such as leaching, run-off and volatilization to assess management practices and trade-offs. Compared to the research done in other continents on N flows in livestock systems, there are few data for Africa, and therefore concerted effort will be needed to generate sufficient data for modelling. (paper)

  14. Epigenetic marks: regulators of livestock phenotypes and conceivable sources of missing variation in livestock improvement programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eveline M Ibeagha-Awemu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Improvement in animal productivity has been achieved over the years through careful breeding and selection programs. Today, variations in the genome are gaining increasing importance in livestock improvement strategies. Genomic information alone however explains only a part of the phenotypic variance in traits. It is likely that a portion of the unaccounted variance is embedded in the epigenome. The epigenome encompasses epigenetic marks such as DNA methylation, histone tail modifications, chromatin remodeling and other molecules that can transmit epigenetic information such as non-coding RNA species. Epigenetic factors respond to external or internal environmental cues such as nutrition, pathogens and climate, and have the ability to change gene expression leading to emergence of specific phenotypes. Accumulating evidence shows that epigenetic marks influence gene expression and phenotypic outcome in livestock species. This review examines available evidence of the influence of epigenetic marks on livestock (cattle, sheep, goat and pig traits and discusses the potential for consideration of epigenetic markers in livestock improvement programs. However, epigenetic research activities on farm animal species are currently limited partly due to lack of recognition, funding and a global network of researchers. Therefore, considerable less attention has been given to epigenetic research in livestock species in comparison to extensive work in humans and model organisms. Elucidating therefore the epigenetic determinants of animal diseases and complex traits may represent one of the principal challenges to use epigenetic markers for further improvement of animal productivity.

  15. Livestock in biomedical research: history, current status and future prospective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polejaeva, Irina A; Rutigliano, Heloisa M; Wells, Kevin D

    2016-01-01

    Livestock models have contributed significantly to biomedical and surgical advances. Their contribution is particularly prominent in the areas of physiology and assisted reproductive technologies, including understanding developmental processes and disorders, from ancient to modern times. Over the past 25 years, biomedical research that traditionally embraced a diverse species approach shifted to a small number of model species (e.g. mice and rats). The initial reasons for focusing the main efforts on the mouse were the availability of murine embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and genome sequence data. This powerful combination allowed for precise manipulation of the mouse genome (knockouts, knockins, transcriptional switches etc.) leading to ground-breaking discoveries on gene functions and regulation, and their role in health and disease. Despite the enormous contribution to biomedical research, mouse models have some major limitations. Their substantial differences compared with humans in body and organ size, lifespan and inbreeding result in pronounced metabolic, physiological and behavioural differences. Comparative studies of strategically chosen domestic species can complement mouse research and yield more rigorous findings. Because genome sequence and gene manipulation tools are now available for farm animals (cattle, pigs, sheep and goats), a larger number of livestock genetically engineered (GE) models will be accessible for biomedical research. This paper discusses the use of cattle, goats, sheep and pigs in biomedical research, provides an overview of transgenic technology in farm animals and highlights some of the beneficial characteristics of large animal models of human disease compared with the mouse. In addition, status and origin of current regulation of GE biomedical models is also reviewed.

  16. LivestockPlus — The sustainable intensification of forage-based agricultural systems to improve livelihoods and ecosystem services in the tropics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Rao

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available As global demand for livestock products (such as meat, milk and eggs is expected to double by 2050, necessary increases to future production must be reconciled with negative environmental impacts that livestock cause. This paper describes the LivestockPlus concept and demonstrates how the sowing of improved forages can lead to the sustainable intensification of mixed crop-forage-livestock-tree systems in the tropics by producing multiple social, economic and environmental benefits. Sustainable intensification not only improves the productivity of tropical forage-based systems but also reduces the ecological footprint of livestock production and generates a diversity of ecosystem services (ES such as improved soil quality and reduced erosion, sedimentation and greenhouse gas (GHG emissions. Integrating improved grass and legume forages into mixed production systems (crop-livestock, tree-livestock, crop-tree-livestock can restore degraded lands and enhance system resilience to drought and waterlogging associated with climate change. When properly managed tropical forages accumulate large amounts of carbon in soil, fix atmospheric nitrogen (legumes, inhibit nitrification in soil and reduce nitrous oxide emissions (grasses, and reduce GHG emissions per unit livestock product. The LivestockPlus concept is defined as the sustainable intensification of forage-based systems, which is based on 3 interrelated intensification processes: genetic intensification - the development and use of superior grass and legume cultivars for increased livestock productivity; ecological intensification - the development and application of improved farm and natural resource management practices; and socio-economic intensification - the improvement of local and national institutions and policies, which enable refinements of technologies and support their enduring use. Increases in livestock productivity will require coordinated efforts to develop supportive government, non

  17. Growth and activity of Bulgarian yogurt starter culture in iron-fortified milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simova, Emilina; Ivanov, Galin; Simov, Zhelyazko

    2008-10-01

    Bulgarian yogurts were manufactured and fortified with 8, 15 and 27 mg of iron kg(-1) of yogurt. The growth and acidifying activity of the starter culture bacteria Streptococcus thermophilus 13a and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus 2-11 were monitored during milk fermentation and over 15 days of yogurt storage at 4 degrees C. Fortifying milk with iron did not affect significantly the growth of the starter culture during manufacture and storage of yogurt. Counts of yogurt bacteria at the end of fermentation of iron-fortified milks were between 2.1 x 10(10) and 4.6 x 10(10) CFU ml(-1), which were not significantly different from numbers in unfortified yogurts. In all batches of yogurt, the viable cell counts of S. thermophilus 13a were approximately three times higher than those of L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus 2-11. Greater decrease in viable cell count over 15 days of storage was observed for S. thermophilus 13a compared to L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus 2-11. Intensive accumulation of lactic acid was observed during incubation of milk and all batches reached pH 4.5 +/- 0.1 after 3.0 h. At the end of fermentation process, lactic acid concentrations in iron-fortified yogurts were between 6.9 +/- 0.4 and 7.3 +/- 0.5 g l(-1). The acidifying activity of starter culture bacteria in the control and iron-fortified milks was similar. There was no increase in oxidized, metallic and bitter off-flavors in iron-fortified yogurts compared to the control. Iron-fortified yogurts did not differ significantly in their sensorial, chemical and microbiological characteristics with unfortified yogurt, suggesting that yogurt is a suitable vehicle for iron fortification and that the ferrous lactate is an appropriate iron source for yogurt fortification.

  18. Exploiting Bulgarian emergency response system for simulation of Fukushima nuclear accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syrakov, D.; Prodanova, M. [National Institute of Meteorology and Hydrology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2012-07-01

    The severe accident in Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) in 2011 causes serious anxiety among the population not only in the neighbourhood, but even in countries quite far from the accident location. On Friday, March 11, 2011, Japan experienced a natural disaster of inconceivable dimensions. At 2.46p.m. local time, a gigantic earthquake with the epicentre approx. 150 km east of the city of Sendai in the Pacific Ocean also shook the coastal region nearby. The seismic event was triggered by abrupt tectonic plate shifts some 20 to 30 km below sea level. The seaquake had an intensity of 9.0 on the logarithmic scale, which is O.S points above the severest earthquake of 8.2 so far registered in Japan. This unexpectedly high energy release caused a tsunami wave of a maximum height of 23 m which flooded the coastal region approximately one hour later, causing a large number of human casualties and extreme devastation of towns and villages, infrastructure, and the environment. Four nuclear power plants are located in the area directly affected by the disaster: Onagawa, Fukushima Daiichi, Fukushima Daini, and Toman. The site of Fukushima Daiichi was hit most severely. Bulgarian ERS (BERSJ was upgraded to be able to simulate the dispersion of nuclear materials from Fukushima Daiichi NPP, results presented in the specialised web-site of the system. In addition BERS took part in the respective ENSEMBLE exercises. Short BERS description as well as its results and comparisons with measurements and other model results are the object of this work. (author)

  19. Correlation between abnormal cytological findings and human papillomavirus infection of the uterine cervix in Bulgarian women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Miladinov Kovachev

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyse the correlation between cases of human papillomavirus (HPV+/− infection of the uterine cervix revealed through HPV typing and cytological results from Papanicolaou (Pap-stained cervical smears. Cervical smears of 421 Bulgarian women attending routine gynaecological examinations during the three-year study period were stained by the Pap technique and classified by the Bethesda system. GenoFlow HPV Array Test Kit was used to analyse the HPV status in the collected cervical samples. The results showed that, of the 421 women, 177 (42% were HPV(+ and 244 (58% were HPV(−; 334 (79.3% Pap smears were with normal morphology and 87 (20.7% had high/low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL/HSIL changes. Of the 87 women with LSIL/HSIL changes, 54% (47/87 were HPV(− and 46% (40/87 were HPV(+. There was no statistically significant correlation between the HPV(+ status and the cytological LSIL/HSIL findings (P > 0.05. Koilocytes were found in 30.4% (128/421 of the samples. Of the 128 women with koilocytosis, 59.4% (76/128 were HPV(− and 40.6% (52/128 were HPV(+. There was no significant correlation (P > 0.05 between the presence of koilocytes in cervical smears and HPV infection. Our results suggest that HPV infection is frequent even in women with negative Pap-smear results, and polymerase chain reaction seems to be the only reliable test to diagnose this infection. However, the results from this study cannot be considered to fully support the replacement of cytology and colposcopy examination in cervical cancer screening with HPV genotyping tests only.

  20. Linguistic Validation and Cultural Adaptation of Bulgarian Version of Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture (HSOPSC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoyanova, Rumyana; Dimova, Rositsa; Tarnovska, Miglena; Boeva, Tatyana

    2018-05-20

    Patient safety (PS) is one of the essential elements of health care quality and a priority of healthcare systems in most countries. Thus the creation of validated instruments and the implementation of systems that measure patient safety are considered to be of great importance worldwide. The present paper aims to illustrate the process of linguistic validation, cross-cultural verification and adaptation of the Bulgarian version of the Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture (B-HSOPSC) and its test-retest reliability. The study design is cross-sectional. The HSOPSC questionnaire consists of 42 questions, grouped in 12 different subscales that measure patient safety culture. Internal con-sistency was assessed using Cronbach's alpha. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test and the split-half method were used; the Spear-man-Brown coefficient was calculated. The overall Cronbach's alpha for B-HSOPSC is 0.918. Subscales 7 Staffing and 12 Overall perceptions of safety had the lowest coefficients. The high reliability of the instrument was confirmed by the Split-half method (0.97) and ICC-coefficient (0.95). The lowest values of Spearmen-Broun coefficients were found in items A13 and A14. The study offers an analysis of the results of the linguistic validation of the B-HSOPSC and its test-retest reliability. The psychometric characteristics of the questions revealed good validity and reliability, except two questions. In the future, the instrument will be administered to the target population in the main study so that the psychometric properties of the instrument can be verified.

  1. Palaeoecology and geoarchaeology of the Varna Lake, northern Bulgarian Black Sea coast

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    Mariana FILIPOVA-MARINOVA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The coastal lakes are rich sources of biostratigraphic information that is very useful in palaeoecological reconstructions of climate changes and human impact on the natural vegetation. This information is of great importance for the archaeological descriptions of submerged praehistorical settlements found in the northern Bulgarian Black sea area. There are 4 archaeological sites in this area that have been palynologically studied for the last 30 years: the Durankulak Lake, the Shabla-Ezeretz Lake system, the Lake Bolata, as well as the Varna-Beloslav Lake system. Because of the lack of AMS radiocarbon dates for these sites, it was not possible to correlate adequately all palaeoenvironmental results with the available archaeological chronology.Aimed to receive additional information on the Holocene vegetation dynamics and lake level changes, as well as on the anthropogenic impact during the Late Eneolithic and Early Bronze Age, the high-resolution spore-pollen analysis of AMS dated laminated sediments from a new Core 3 – Varna Lake was combined with analyses of dinoflagellate cysts, acritarchs, and other non-pollen palynomorphs.The location of the core is close to several sites of submerged praehistorical settlements and the Varna Late Eneolithic (Chalcolithic Necropolis, which is famous with the oldest hand-made gold treasure in the Worlds, and permits the palaeoenvironmental correlations of obtained results with available archaeological and geochronological data. The core is 995 cm long, but its palynologically investigated length is 870 cm. It contains dark grey clay and laminated sediments (varves. Seven samples of sediments were submitted for radiocarbon dating to the National Ocean Sciences Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (NOSAMS Facility of Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI. The dates have been calibrated using the program CALIB version 6.1.0 of using the IntCal09 curve. An Age Model for the sedimentation rate was created by the

  2. Khan Krum - ʺThe Fearsomeʺ: A Noble Bulgarian with Iris-Fibroma?

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    Georgi Tchernev

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A 40-year-old Caucasian, the otherwise healthy male patient, presented with 3-years history of a prominent tumor-like formation, located on his back, without subjective complaints. Initially, the lesion was 1-2 cm in size but gradually increased to a visible-pronounced tumor-like formation. No other dermatologic diseases, neither other known abnormalities were reported for the medical and family history.  Softly-elastic on palpation tumor-like formation was established in the left infrascapular area of the back, measuring 8/9 cm in diameter. The lesion was clinically suspected for lipoma or another soft-tissue tumour with benign nature, so the patient underwent planned surgical excision under local anaesthesia. A tumour was excited with deep elliptical excision and furthered for histological evaluation, while the wound edges were sutured with single cutaneous stitches. Additionally, a large black-colored tattoo of the Bulgarian historical noble Khan Krum was also observed within the clinical examination, covering almost the whole upper 1/3 part of the patient’s back Within the careful clinical observation of the tattoo, we noticed a fibroma-like lesion, affecting the noble’s right iris. Fibromas are common benign tumours in Caucasians, composed of fibrous or connective tissue. They can be seen in all organs from mesenchymal tissue, in varies size. Eyelids are often commonly affected in elderly. Although very commonly seen in every day dermatological practice, fibromas have been never reported, located in the iris. In the presented case, a small ʺiris-fibromaʺ, hidden within a black-colored tattoo was diagnosed in a patient with lipoma, as a sporadic clinical finding.

  3. CHANGES IN SOMATOTYPE CHARACTERISTICS IN THE MIDDLE-AGED BULGARIAN MEN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreenko, Emiliya; Mladenova, Silviya

    2015-12-01

    the objective of this cross-sectional research was to outline the different somatotypes and the trends in the changes of the three basic components (endomorphy, mesomorphy and ectomorphy) among the middle-aged Bulgarian men. the Heath-Carter method was used to identify the anthropometric somatotypes of 860 adult men, aged 30-50 years old, from the city of Plovdiv, located in Central Bulgaria. The men were divided into 4 age groups, in five-year intervals. In each case body height, weight and a series of skinfolds, circumferences and diameters were measured to calculate the somatotype. The SPSS package was used for the statistical analysis. the results show a prominent endo-mesomorphic model in the study sample of male population. We found age-related increase of the values of the musclebone component, retention of the level of the fatty component and a decline in the ectomorphy. Regardless the quantitative changes of the three components, the correlation between them remains constant and the mean somatotype is preserved. A greater variety of morphotypes is found in the group of men aged 30-35. The most homogeneous group is that of the 45-50 year old men. This group is entirely dominated by the mesomorphic component (strength), and the endomorphic component (obesity) is greater than the ectomorphic one (linearity). the study finds that in the years between 30 and 50 the men tend to build muscle rather than fat. The 50 year-old men are more mesomorphic than the men at the age of 30, but they are shorter and with less elongated body segments. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  4. Exploiting Bulgarian emergency response system for simulation of Fukushima nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syrakov, D.; Prodanova, M.

    2012-01-01

    The severe accident in Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) in 2011 causes serious anxiety among the population not only in the neighbourhood, but even in countries quite far from the accident location. On Friday, March 11, 2011, Japan experienced a natural disaster of inconceivable dimensions. At 2.46p.m. local time, a gigantic earthquake with the epicentre approx. 150 km east of the city of Sendai in the Pacific Ocean also shook the coastal region nearby. The seismic event was triggered by abrupt tectonic plate shifts some 20 to 30 km below sea level. The seaquake had an intensity of 9.0 on the logarithmic scale, which is O.S points above the severest earthquake of 8.2 so far registered in Japan. This unexpectedly high energy release caused a tsunami wave of a maximum height of 23 m which flooded the coastal region approximately one hour later, causing a large number of human casualties and extreme devastation of towns and villages, infrastructure, and the environment. Four nuclear power plants are located in the area directly affected by the disaster: Onagawa, Fukushima Daiichi, Fukushima Daini, and Toman. The site of Fukushima Daiichi was hit most severely. Bulgarian ERS (BERSJ was upgraded to be able to simulate the dispersion of nuclear materials from Fukushima Daiichi NPP, results presented in the specialised web-site of the system. In addition BERS took part in the respective ENSEMBLE exercises. Short BERS description as well as its results and comparisons with measurements and other model results are the object of this work. (author)

  5. IN DEFENSE OF BULGARIAN CONSUMERS AND PRODUCERS – THE PROBLEM OF SURPLUS CHARGES AND DISCOUNTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krasimir Davchev

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In a market economy the term "market price" should reflect the market opportunities of users (amount of income and not to violate the economic interests of the producers. Structure of the economy is such that the predominant not only in Bulgaria but also in the other European countries is the sector of trade and services, where the main income for the traders are the margins or surplus charges. The article contains an analysis of the surplus charges of three main commodity groups - white flour, oil and sugar based on official data from the Ministry of Agriculture and Food. The analysis covers margins of the three major sales markets of food - commodity markets, large retail chains and other stores for retail sale. The results suggest that in addition to the normal surplus charges for wholesale and retail, there are the so called by the author "parasitic surplus charges" that are not controlled nor penalized in any way. In this respect, the author proposes the adoption by the Council of Ministers Regulation on the surplus charges with which to resolve this problem. Moreover, the author notes, and there are plenty of discounts that major retailers impose on Bulgarian producers and suppliers. Since these traders do not fall under the legal concept of "dominant market position", they are not sanctioned by the Commission for Protection of Competition. In this regard, the author suggests introducing in the Law on Protection of Competition concept of "economic dependence" or the preparation of sectoral trade law with which to regulate not only this issue but also trade margins.

  6. Experimental investigations on drying behaviour of Bulgarian brown coal in steam fluidized bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buschsieweke, F.; Koenig, J.

    1999-01-01

    The main targets were: to investigate the parameters for optimizing the drying process as steam pressure, fluidization velocity and particle size; to identify the cost of drying and combustion processes considering the necessity of milling the coal (raw or dried). Test series with Bulgarian brown coal from Maritsa-East has been made. Two fractions with different particle size was got: A from 0 to 1.6 mm (0.5 mm average) and B, resp. 1.6 to 6.3 (1.7 mm). The particle size is depending on the coal moisture. The fluidized bed process with the both fractions was performed at variations of the following parameters: steam velocity (0.07 to 1.7 m/s); raw coal feed rate (4 to 16 kg/h); raw moisture (18 to 43 wt %) and pressure (1.3 and 5 bar). Also the shrinking behaviour of the coal in different pore sizes was tested. Comparing pore size of the oven dried coal to the fluidized bed dried coal, significantly higher inner surface for the oven dried coal was established. To indicate the pore size of raw coal samples were made by freeze drying. Ice expanding should cause higher inner surface compared to oven drying method but no significant difference was established. A significant increase of heat transfer of the particles from A fraction (300 to 350 W/m 2 K0 compared to B (200 to 230 W/m 2 K) was determined. The heat transfer coefficient increased at increasing of the raw coal feed rate, mostly significant for A, due to higher particle contact. In conclusion: the particle convective mechanism is predominant for the heat transfer; development of pressurized fluidized bed drying is not of interest and the question about the total expenditure for crushing and milling remains open

  7. Genetic analysis of infectious diseases: Estimating gene effects for susceptibility and infectivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anche, M.T.; Bijma, P.; Jong, de M.C.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Genetic selection of livestock against infectious diseases can complement existing interventions to control infectious diseases. Most genetic approaches that aim at reducing disease prevalence assume that individual disease status (infected/not-infected) is solely a function of its

  8. Relics, miracles and furta sacra: A contribution to the study of Serbo-Bulgarian relations in the 1230s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjanović-Dušanić Smilja

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A contribution to the study of Serbo-Bulgarian relations in the 1230s The enquiry into the cult of relics and its manifestations such as miracle working, transfer of mortal remains and the act of translatio that involves the topos of furta sacra relies on two lives of St Sava of Serbia, one penned by Domentijan (Domentianus, the other by Teodosije (Theodosius. The hagiographic episodes most relevant to this enquiry are certainly those describing Sava's stay in Tirnovo, his death (1236 and the translation of his remains to his homeland (1237. The narrative about the future saint's stay and death in Tirnovo gives conscious hints of the hero's sanctity using various hagiographic devices. Especially interesting to us is the account of the miracle Sava worked in Tirnovo while officiating the Epiphany service at the church of the Forty Martyrs. According to our analysis, the reference to the Epiphany service and the association of the miracle with that particular feast are certainly not an accident. The ideology of the Second Bulgarian Empire attached great importance to the epic victory over the Romaioi at the Battle of Tryavna in 1190, which was commemorated annually on the Day of Epiphany. The Byzantine historians Niketas Choniates and George Akropolites report that the Bulgarians seized the imperial insignia during the battle. It is irrelevant whether Sava's two hagiographers were aware of the importance of the feast or simply reiterated the well-known information about the service celebrated on that day at the church of the Forty Martyrs; what is quite certain is that the great honour of officiating the service-a celebration pregnant with symbolism-was bestowed upon the most distinguished guest and that it was then that, we believe not at all by chance, his miracle-working power was manifested in public-in front of the Bulgarian tsar, all clergy and the notables. As a natural consequence of the power of working miracles manifested in one

  9. Evaluation of the Nutrition of the Bulgarian Army Military Personnel During the Preparation for Participation in Expeditionary Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nichev Nikolay

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of the military art and of the rapidly changing security environment, define the developing and the formation of new capabilities for their management. The increasing importance of the Expeditionary Forces of NATO demands the developing of the national legislation, connected with the nutrition of the Bulgarian Army military personnel, participating in expeditionary operations. In response to the tasks, delegated to the armed forces during their participation in expeditionary operations, the provision of the units with food becomes a priority logistic capability.

  10. Molecular identification of livestock breeds: a tool for modern conservation biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaro, Mohammed; Munyard, Kylie A; Stear, Michael J; Groth, David M

    2017-05-01

    Global livestock genetic diversity includes all of the species, breeds and strains of domestic animals, and their variations. Although a recent census indicated that there were 40 species and over 8000 breeds of domestic animals; for the purpose of conservation biology the diversity between and within breeds rather than species is regarded to be of crucial importance. This domestic animal genetic diversity has developed through three main evolutionary events, from speciation (about 3 million years ago) through domestication (about 12000 years ago) to specialised breeding (starting about 200 years ago). These events and their impacts on global animal genetic resources have been well documented in the literature. The key importance of global domestic animal resources in terms of economic, scientific and cultural heritage has also been addressed. In spite of their importance, there is a growing number of reports on the alarming erosion of domestic animal genetic resources. This erosion of is happening in spite of several global conservation initiatives designed to mitigate it. Herein we discuss these conservation interventions and highlight their strengths and weaknesses. However, pivotal to the success of these conservation initiatives is the reliability of the genetic assignment of individual members to a target breed. Finally, we discuss the prospect of using improved breed identification methodologies to develop a reliable breed-specific molecular identification tool that is easily applicable to populations of livestock breeds in various ecosystems. These identification tools, when developed, will not only facilitate the regular monitoring of threatened or endangered breed populations, but also enhance the development of more efficient and sustainable livestock production systems. © 2016 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  11. On the Dictionary of Semantic Equivalents in Polish, Bulgarian and Russian"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Paweł Sosnowski

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available On the Dictionary of Semantic Equivalents in Polish, Bulgarian and Russian Leksykon odpowiedniości semantycznych w języku polskim, bułgarskim i rosyjskim [The Dictionary of Semantic Equivalents in Polish, Bulgarian and Russian] is the first Polish dictionary which compares semantic equivalents in the largest languages of each Slavic subgroup: The West Slavic group (Polish, the South Slavic group (Bulgarian and the East Slavic group (Russian. The content of the dictionary reflects the social processes, changes and trends which have taken place over recent years. The dictionary consists of 5 volumes, with approximately 5000 entries for each language. What sets it apart from other dictionaries is that it ventures beyond the standard vocabulary one might expect from a dictionary of this sort. Leksykon also contains neologisms as well as realogisms - words which do not often have perfect equivalents in other languages because they are so deeply embedded in a nation’s culture. Each entry in the dictionary offers state-of-the-art semantic and syntactic categorisers, developed by Polish experts in Slavic semantics and aspectology. We consider the dictionary to be an innovation in lexicography, because its open structure enables more languages to be added in the future, including non-Slavic languages. Developed with the use of the most recent methodologies available, the dictionary will constitute a sound basis for lexicographic research in the future, in particular for the development of multilingual electronic dictionaries. In the 21st century, we face two great challenges: to make academic research more interdisciplinary and to build an integrated multinational European community. We hope that our dictionary will help address these challenges by promoting multilingualism and facilitating intercultural communication.The primary language of the dictionary is Polish - the largest Slavic language in the European Union. During the Polish

  12. Greenhouse gas and livestock emissions and climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caro, Dario

    2018-01-01

    The paper summarizes the current knowledge about the impact of livestock sector on climate change. The main sources of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from livestock are described and the contribution of livestock sector to the global GHG emissions is presented on the basis of the latest results...... obtained from the scientific research. The most recent mitigation strategies for reducing greenhouse gas emissions from livestock sector are also discussed. The paper aims to provide a general overview of an emergent environmental issue such as the impact of livestock sector on climate change. While...... the paper is easy to understand for non-expert readers, it may also be a relevant reference point for academic researchers and for policy makers aimed at achieving the sustainability of livestock/food sector....

  13. Livestock production and manure management on animal farms in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, S.G.; Bui, H.H.; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2008-01-01

      The Vietnamese and Asian livestock production is increasing these years. In consequence large amounts of manure are produced, which may be a hazard to the environment because the traditional technology and the management practise of manure is not adapted to specialised livestock production.......  Further, there is little knowledge about the plant nutrient value of animal manure, and about technologies for environmentally-friendly manure management. This lack of knowledge enhances the risk of polluting the environment by inappropriate use of livestock manure and is also a potential risk...... for transferring pathogens between livestock and from livestock to humans (zoonoses). The objective of this article is to describe manure management at livestock farms in Vietnam. The focus is on presenting the most typical farming concepts, manure management on these farms, environmental and hygienic risks...

  14. LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION FOR A SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Maiorano

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The development of society is based on the existence of food resources. The past half-century has seen marked growth in food production, allowing for a dramatic decrease in the proportion of the world’s people that are hungry, despite a doubling of the total population. Recently, the FAO predicted a higher increase of the consumption of foods of animal origin by 2050. So far, the increased demand for food has been supplied by agriculture due to an improvement of techniques, an increase of cultivated land areas and an increase of water and energy consumption. The environmental assessment of human activities is presently a hot topic. It is not only important from an ecological perspective, but also from the view of efficient utilization of limited natural resources. The livestock sector that increasingly competes for scarce resources (land, water, and energy has a severe impact on air, water and soil quality because of its emissions. The environmental impact of food of animal origin is currently quantified by so-called CO2eq-footprints. Therefore, in the future, it will be necessary to achieve a sustainable supply of food, especially of animal origin, because land and other production factors are not unlimited resources. This lecture deals with related problems linked to the production of foods of animal origin and some possible sustainable solutions for the increasing demand of these products, by means of a detailed analysis of the carbon footprint by the livestock, as well as the land requirement, biodiversity, energy and water footprint in livestock production.

  15. Work environment and health among Swedish livestock workers

    OpenAIRE

    Kolstrup, Christina

    2008-01-01

    During the last decades, Swedish livestock farming has undergone considerable structural changes and technical development, which have influenced the work environment and health of the workers in several ways. The general aim of the studies was to investigate the work environment and health among Swedish livestock workers on large modern dairy and pig farms. The studies were mainly based on questionnaires. The results showed that the livestock workers reported high frequencies of musculoskele...

  16. Freshwater use in livestock production—To be used for food crops or livestock feed?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ran, Ylva; Middelaar, van Corina E.; Lannerstad, Mats; Herrero, Mario; Boer, de Imke J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Current approaches to estimate freshwater use in livestock production systems generally fail to consider the competition for water resources with alternative uses, such as production of food crops food or other ecosystem services. This article presents a new method to account for the competition for

  17. Crop and livestock enterprise integration: Livestock impacts on forage, stover, and grain production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enterprise diversity is the key to ensure productive and sustainable agriculture for the future. Integration of crops and livestock enterprises is one way to improve agricultural sustainability, and take advantage of beneficial enterprise synergistic effects. Our objectives were to develop cropping ...

  18. [Virtual water content of livestock products in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong-rui; Wang, Jun-hong

    2006-04-01

    The paper expatiated the virtual water content concept of livestock products and the study meaning on developing virtual water trade of livestock products in China, then summarized the calculation methods on virtual water and virtual water trade of livestock products. Based on these, the paper analyzed and researched every province virtual water content of livestock products in details, then elicited various situation of every province virtual water content of livestock products in China by year. Moreover, it compared virtual water content of livestock products with local water resources. The study indicated the following results: (1) The virtual water content of livestock products is increasing rapidly in China recently, especially poultry eggs and pork. (2) The distribution of virtual water content of livestock products is not balanced, mainly lies in North China, East China and so on; (3) The increasing production of livestock in Beijing City, Tianjin City, Hebei, Nei Monggol, Liaononing, Jilin, Shandong, Henan and Ningxia province and autonom ous region will bring pressure to local water shortage.

  19. Overview of the atmospheric ionizing radiation environment monitoring by Bulgarian build instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dachev, Tsvetan; Tomov, Borislav; Matviichuk, Yury; Dimitrov, Plamen; Spurny, Frantisek; Ploc, Ondrej; Uchihori, Yukio; Flueckiger, Erwin; Kudela, Karel; Benton, Eric

    2012-10-01

    Humans are exposed to ionizing radiation all the time, and it is known that it can induce a variety of harmful biological effects. Consequently, it is necessary to quantitatively assess the level of exposure to this radiation as the basis for estimating risks for their health. Spacecraft and aircraft crews are exposed to elevated levels of cosmic radiation of galactic and solar origin and to secondary radiation produced in the atmosphere, the vehicle structure and its contents. The aircraft crew monitoring is required by the following recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) (ICRP 1990), the European Union (EU) introduced a revised Basic Safety Standards Directive (EC 1997) which, inter alia, included the exposure to cosmic radiation. This approach has been also adopted in other official documents (NCRP 2002). In this overview we present the results of ground based, mountain peaks, aircraft, balloon and rocket radiation environment monitoring by means of a Si-diode energy deposition spectrometer Liulin type developed first in Bulgarian Academy of Sciences (BAS) for the purposes of the space radiation monitoring at MIR and International Space Station (ISS). These spectrometers-dosemeters are further developed, calibrated and used by scientific groups in different countries. Calibration procedures of them are performed at different accelerators including runs in the CERN high-energy reference field, simulating the radiation field at 10 km altitude in the atmosphere and with heavy ions in Chiba, Japan HIMAC accelerator were performed also. The long term aircraft data base were accumulated using specially developed battery operated instrument in 2001-2009 years onboard of A310-300 aircrafts of Czech Air Lines, during 24 about 2 months runs with more than 2000 flights and 13500 flight hours on routes over the Atlantic Ocean mainly. The obtained experimental data are compared with computational models like CARI and EPCARD. The

  20. Exposure of the bulgarian population from diagnostic radiology during 2001/2006 y

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostova-Lefterova, D.; Ingilizova, K.

    2008-01-01

    Each Member State of the European Union is currently committed to produce national legislation, demonstrating conformity with the European Directive on medical exposures. According to the Directive, each country shall estimate the medical exposure of its population. For this purpose it is necessary to calculate the individual effective dose from each type of diagnostic radiology examination and the frequency of the examinations. The collective effective dose (CED) is disputable indicator for the medical exposures but it is a criterion for the level of the country on the radiation protection of persons undergoing medical exposure. The individual effective doses from each type of diagnostic radiology examination will depend on the patient's age, sex, weight, the number and type of images, the screening time and also the equipment used. Some mean values can be obtained through surveys of patient dose and compared with the national or European reference doses for 'standard sized' patients. The aim of this investigation is to assess the exposure of Bulgarian population undergoing diagnostic radiology examinations. The diagnostic radiology procedures are in 30 positions, distributed in 3 age groups: 0 - 17 y., 17 - 45 y. and over 45 y. For the assessment of the CED the generally accepted formula has been applied. The individual effective doses have been established on the basis of standard tablegrams for the radiographic diagnostic examinations and the results from the national research project 'Phare' in 2002. Presented data are: average number of examinations 3848.92x10 3 , frequency in thousands 500, annual effective individual dose 0.89 mSv/y and average annual collective effective dose - 3314.59 man.Sv/y. The mean effective dose per caput of population for medical exposures can then be compared with that of other countries having similar levels of health care. Comparisons can also be made with exposure of the population from other sources of radiation. The dynamics

  1. Exarh of the Bulgarian Church metropolitan Stephen and the Moscow Patriarchy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostriukov Andrei

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The article covers the last period of church-administrative activity of the Sofia’s metropolitan Stephаn (Shokov. The author describes the testimonies of contemporaries about the character and personal qualities of this ambiguous hierarch. In 1945–1948 metropolitan Stephan was the exarch of the Bulgarian Orthodox Church and participated in the Meeting of heads and representatives of Autocephalous Orthodox Churches in 1948. The author considers the circumstances of the dismissal of metropolitan Stephаn and his exile as especially important and interesting ones. The meeting of 1948 became the critical event in the exarch’s destiny. Being the supporter of ecumenism, metropolitan Stephen tried unsuccessfully to convince Patriarch Alexis of his rightness in order not to allow the condemnation of ecumenical contacts by the Moscow meeting. However Moscow looked on ecumenism differently in those days. In Moscow the Soviet management aspired to establishment of the centre of World Orthodoxy and tried to cite the Moscow Patriarchy against Constantinople that was under the influence of the USA and the Great Britain. As the Constantinople Patriarchy approved the ecumenical movement, the Moscow Patriarchy has been forced to take of an opposite position. Therefore, the participation of the Russian Church and Churches of the socialist countries in the ecumenical movement was impossible. Metropolitan Stephan, supporting the superiority of the Moscow Patriarchy in the World Orthodoxy, supported the active participation of all Local Churches in the ecumenical movement. The communistic management applied the maximum force to the exarch in order he has not made undesirable statements at the meeting. The fate of metropolitan Stephan has been decided after this meeting. In 1948 he was fired and exiled. The Moscow Patriarchy did not exclude the possibility of moving of metropolitan Stephаn to Russia and his location in any monastery. However metropolitan

  2. Livestock Environment Prospects for the 90's

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. W. Thatcher

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available When projecting livestock environmental prospects for the 1990's. it is critical to recognize the multidimensional nature of managing livestock species under hot environments. This paper identifies potential critical physiological windows during the life cycle of the animal that are sensitive to heat stress and responsive to environmental modification. Ovarian follicular development appears to be sensitive to heat stress leading to reductions in intensity of oestrus and subsequent fertility. Periods of follicular development that are sensitive to heat stress have not been defined. With current improved systems to alter the microenvironment of animals. the period of embryonic sensitivity to heat stress has shifted so that early embryonic losses are less. Potential recombinant proteins that may enhance embryo survival and correct deficiencies in placental function that are induced by heat stress warrant additional investigation. The postpartum period is a critical period in which a multitude of factors interact to influence animal productivity and its sensitivity to heat stress. Nutritional strategies to improve animal performance with the use of fat-supplementation are discussed. Environmental modification and housing systems need to not only maximize the efficiency of animal production but need to consider the potential impact on the environment relative to water use. soil and water pollution. Animal production and management systems need to consider both animal health and well-being issues. To optimize profit under conditions of greater societal constraints and available management alternatives, computer assisted management systems will become a critical tool.

  3. Modeling of greenhouse gas emission from livestock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjo eJose

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The effects of climate change on humans and other living ecosystems is an area of on-going research. The ruminant livestock sector is considered to be one of the most significant contributors to the existing greenhouse gas (GHG pool. However the there are opportunities to combat climate change by reducing the emission of GHGs from ruminants. Methane (CH4 and nitrous oxide (N2O are emitted by ruminants via anaerobic digestion of organic matter in the rumen and manure, and by denitrification and nitrification processes which occur in manure. The quantification of these emissions by experimental methods is difficult and takes considerable time for analysis of the implications of the outputs from empirical studies, and for adaptation and mitigation strategies to be developed. To overcome these problems computer simulation models offer substantial scope for predicting GHG emissions. These models often include all farm activities while accurately predicting the GHG emissions including both direct as well as indirect sources. The models are fast and efficient in predicting emissions and provide valuable information on implementing the appropriate GHG mitigation strategies on farms. Further, these models help in testing the efficacy of various mitigation strategies that are employed to reduce GHG emissions. These models can be used to determine future adaptation and mitigation strategies, to reduce GHG emissions thereby combating livestock induced climate change.

  4. Danish experiences on EIA of livestock projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, Per

    2006-01-01

    Since its introduction into Danish planning in 1989, Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) has been widely discussed. At the centre of the debate has been the question of whether EIA actually offered anything new and there has been a great deal of scepticism about the efficacy of the instrument, especially when it comes to livestock projects. In an evaluation of the Danish EIA experience, we have looked more closely at how the EIA instruments function regarding livestock projects. This article addresses both the EIA process as well as the EIA screening. It is demonstrated that the EIA screening in its own right is a kind of regulatory instrument. Examining the assessments made during screening more closely, we conclude that there is still some way to go in order to make the assessment broader and more holistic in accordance with the ambitions set out in the EIA directive to contribute to a more sustainable development. Although the provisions laid down are the same the praxis related to the field has developed at a considerable speed. In order to understand this development we have closely examined how the decisions made by the Nature Protection Board of Appeal (NPBA) have been changed and conclude that these changes definitely address some of the shortcomings found in the evaluation

  5. Studies on antioxidant properties before and after UV- and γ-IR radiation of Bulgarian lavender essential oil isolated from Lavandula Angostifolia Mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karamalakova, Yanka; Nikolova, Galina; Gadjeva, Veselina; Zheleva, Antoaneta; Sharma, Jyoti; Stanev, Stanko; Arora, Rajesh

    2013-01-01

    At present there is not enough data about different types of radiation on Bulgarian essential oils isolated from medicinal plants. Here we report for the first time our studies on the effects of UV-radiation (290 nm to 320 nm) and γ-radiation (doses of 5 Gy, 10 Gy, 20 Gy and 30 Gy) on Bulgarian lavender essential oil isolated from Lavandulla angustifolia Mill. A spectrophotometry method was used for evaluation of the changes in the reducing power of the Bulgarian lavender oil before and after radiation. The electron donation potential of non-irradiated oil was found to be lower (0.268 ± 0.0244) than those of both, UV-irradiated (0.336 ± 0.0121) and γ-irradiated, oil samples (0.427 ± 0.0251 at 5 Gy radiation, 0.341 ± 0.0371 at 10 Gy; 0.328± 0.0173 at 20 Gy). By direct electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy, single almost symmetrical EPR signals with different values of the g-factor were registered in non-irradiated (g = 2.0047 ± 0.0002), UV-irradiated (g = 2.01050 ± 0.00005) and γ-irradiated oil samples (g = 2.0017 ± 0.0002), respectively. EPR spectroscopy was used for assessment of the radical scavenging capacity of the non-irradiated and UV- and γ-irradiated samples of the Bulgarian lavender oil towards the stable free radical 1,1-diphenyl- 2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). Excellent DPPH radical scavenging capacities were found for UV- and 30 Gy-irradiated lavender oil samples. Based on these preliminary results, we consider that, after proper UV- or γ-radiation treatment, Bulgarian lavender oil might find application as a good radioprotector and antioxidant in cosmetics and medicine

  6. The research progress of genomic selection in livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong-wei; Wang, Rui-jun; Wang, Zhi-ying; Li, Xue-wu; Wang, Zhen-yu; Yanjun, Zhang; Rui, Su; Zhihong, Liu; Jinquan, Li

    2017-05-20

    With the development of gene chip and breeding technology, genomic selection in plants and animals has become research hotspots in recent years. Genomic selection has been extensively applied to all kinds of economic livestock, due to its high accuracy, short generation intervals and low breeding costs. In this review, we summarize genotyping technology and the methods for genomic breeding value estimation, the latter including the least square method, RR-BLUP, GBLUP, ssGBLUP, BayesA and BayesB. We also cover basic principles of genomic selection and compare their genetic marker ranges, genomic selection accuracy and operational speed. In addition, we list common indicators, methods and influencing factors that are related to genomic selection accuracy. Lastly, we discuss latest applications and the current problems of genomic selection at home and abroad. Importantly, we envision future status of genomic selection research, including multi-trait and multi-population genomic selection, as well as impact of whole genome sequencing and dominant effects on genomic selection. This review will provide some venues for other breeders to further understand genome selection.

  7. Genomics to benefit livestock production: improving animal health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Stuart Plastow

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The primary principle underlying the application of genomics is that it has the most value for difficult and expensive to measure traits. These traits will differ between species and probably also between markets. Maintenance of health will be one of the biggest challenges for efficient livestock production in the next few decades. This challenge will only increase in the face of demand for animal protein, resistance to existing drugs, and the pressure to reduce the use of antibiotics in agriculture. There is probably genetic variation in susceptibility for all diseases but little has been done to make use of this variation to date. In part this is because it is very difficult as well as expensive to measure this variation. This suggests that genomics should provide one of the ways of tackling the challenge of improving animal health. This paper will discuss the concepts of resistance, variation in susceptibility, and resilience; provide examples and present some recent results in cattle and pigs; and briefly discuss the application of gene editing in relation to disease resistance.

  8. Biotechnology in livestock production: Overview of possibilities for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Livestock production is expected to grow tremendously in line with the projected demand for animal products. Therefore, the methods of livestock production must change to allow for efficiency and improvement in productivity. Biotechnology is important if the world is to respond to the pressure to produce more food from ...

  9. Livestock Judges Training Provides Hands-On Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Scott; Harrison, Steve; Packham, Joel; Sanchez, Dawn; Jensen, Jim; Kaysen, Brett; King, Marc

    2016-01-01

    The judging of a market animal at a fair is the highlight of a youth-owned livestock project. Livestock judges are hired to evaluate youth projects at fairs. They are critical ambassadors for agriculture and influence countless youths and adults. Judges must be knowledgeable about current animal evaluation methods that support youth development.…

  10. 19 CFR 4.71 - Inspection of livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inspection of livestock. 4.71 Section 4.71 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Foreign Clearances § 4.71 Inspection of livestock. A proper export...

  11. Developing a Mobile Extension Course for Youth Livestock Producers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitzenkamp, Deborah; Dam, Karna; Chichester, Lindsay

    2015-01-01

    The 4-H Livestock Quality Assurance course is a mobile Extension course for youth and youth leaders. In 3 years of implementation, over 6,600 participants from 16 states have learned about good production practices for animal agriculture through the innovative online Nebraska Livestock Quality Assurance course. By evaluating the needs of our youth…

  12. 36 CFR 1002.60 - Livestock use and agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Livestock use and agriculture. 1002.60 Section 1002.60 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 1002.60 Livestock use and agriculture. (a) The running-at-large, herding, driving...

  13. 36 CFR 2.60 - Livestock use and agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Livestock use and agriculture. 2.60 Section 2.60 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.60 Livestock use and agriculture. (a) The...

  14. A facilitated process towards finding options for improved livestock ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A participatory multi-stakeholder process of finding options for improving livestock production in the severely degraded communal grazing area of Sterkspruit in South Africa was conducted. Interviews were conducted with individual livestock keepers from two sites to gather data on their demographic characteristics, ...

  15. Ethno veterinary practices of small ruminant livestock farmers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data were collected from a total of 400 ruminant livestock farmers selected from Oyo, Ogun, Lagos, Ondo and Edo States of Nigeria using Multi-stage sampling technique. The data collected include the specific attributes of small ruminant livestock farmers in the area, ethno-veterinary practices of farmers in the treatment of ...

  16. Biogas production from livestock waste anaerobic digesters: evaluation and optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livestock wastes can serve as the feedstock for biogas production (mainly methane) that could be used as alternative energy source. The green energy derived from animal wastes is considered to be carbon neutral and offsetting those generated from fossil fuels. However, feedstocks from livestock re...

  17. Staple Food and Livestock Production among the Yoruba of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toshiba

    natural for a staple food farmer to also, essentially, own and raise livestock. No doubt .... whole, by 1945, agriculture in Ekiti had generally experienced ... fried plantain or processed dried powdered plantain, in form of amala .... There were, however, some dangers to livestock production in the ... goats, sheep, dogs and pigs.

  18. cyber livestock communication in rural india: a strategic model

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The cyber extension system focuses the overall development of the livestock farmers including production, management, marketing and other rural developmental activities, thus conceptualizing a livestock communication model and defining anything that can be fit into this model as Cyber Communication was felt ...

  19. The Way Forward for Livestock and the Environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herrero, M.; Thornton, P.K.; Gerber, P.; Zijpp, van der A.J.; Steeg, van de J.; Notenbaert, A.M.; Lecomte, P.; Tarawali, S.A.; Grace, D.

    2010-01-01

    Livestock provide many benefits to society, but at the same time, they generate considerable pressure on land, water and biomass resources and are responsible for 18 percent of total greenhouse gas emissions. The total demand for livestock products may almost double by 2050, mostly in the developing

  20. Feed resources and livestock production situation in the highland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey was conducted in the highland and mid altitude areas of Horro and Guduru districts of Horro Guduru Wollega Zone of Oromia Regional State, western Ethiopia with the objectives of assessing livestock production situation, livestock production constraints, major feed resources and their potential contribution.

  1. Modeling and Control of Livestock Ventilation Systems and Indoor Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Zhuang; Heiselberg, Per; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2005-01-01

    The hybrid ventilation systems have been widely used for livestock barns to provide optimum indoor climate by controlling the ventilation rate and air flow distribution within the ventilated building structure. The purpose of this paper is to develop models for livestock ventilation systems and i...

  2. 76 FR 50081 - Traceability for Livestock Moving Interstate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-11

    ... sovereignty, if a Tribe has its own system for identifying and tracing livestock, separate from those of a... that are needed for food, water, or rest en route if the animals are moved in any other manner. This... which it is contained, then, because of Tribal sovereignty, livestock movements taking place entirely...

  3. Carnivore-caused livestock mortality in Trans-Himalaya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Namgail, T.; Fox, J.L.; Bhatnagar, Y.V.

    2007-01-01

    The loss of livestock to wild predators is an important livelihood concern among Trans-Himalayan pastoralists. Because of the remoteness and inaccessibility of the region, few studies have been carried out to quantify livestock depredation by wild predators. In the present study, we assessed the

  4. Factors affecting livestock predation by lions in Cameroon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bommel, van L.; Vaate, bij de M.D.; Boer, de W.F.; Iongh, de H.H.

    2007-01-01

    Interviews were carried out in six villages south-west of Waza National Park, Cameroon, to investigate the impact of factors related to the occurrence of livestock raiding by lions. Data were analysed at the village and individual level. Livestock losses (cattle, sheep and/or goats) caused by lions

  5. Sustainability of the South African Livestock Sector towards 2050 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Products 120 - 130 ... This article aims to provide information on the worth and impact of the livestock sector; information and statistics providing a baseline to guiding sustainability towards 2050. Seventy percent of agricultural land in South Africa can be utilized only by livestock and game and species are found in all provinces ...

  6. Assessment of veterinary extension services to livestock farmers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined operational modes of providing veterinary extension services to livestock farmers in Egba-Division, Ogun-State Nigeria. Information was obtained from 120 livestock farmers and 8 extension agents selected through multi-stage random sampling technique with the use of both structured questionnaire ...

  7. Sustainability of the South African Livestock Sector towards 2050 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Challenges facing the livestock sector towards 2050 and the changes and ... In dairy plants the water usage to process the same product may vary by more than 100%, ... Efficiency of production should be on par with competitors if the livestock ...

  8. Ethno-veterinary practices amongst livestock farmers in Ngamiland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although the intervention of conventional veterinary medicine is pervasive in Toteng, and many livestock owners are resorting to it, there is evidence, however, of generalized ethno-veterinary knowledge used to treat and prevent livestock diseases. Local farmers and their herders in Ngamiland are not only knowledgeable ...

  9. Prevalence of brucellosis in livestock and incidences in humans in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Brucellosis is an emerging zoonotic disease that poses a threat to both livestock and public health in east Africa. There are several reports of occurrence of the disease in livestock populations especially in Tanzania and Kenya, suggesting chances of increased spread to humans, and the disease being misdiagnosed for ...

  10. Plant poisonings in livestock in Brazil and South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary-Louise Penrith

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Information on intoxication of livestock by plants in Brazil, in terms of cause, clinical signs and pathology, is compared with information on livestock poisoning by plants in South Africa. Plant poisoning, including mycotoxicosis, is considered to be one of three major causes of death in livestock in Brazil, which is one of the top beef producing countries in the world, with a cattle population of more than 200 million. Cattle production in South Africa is on a more modest scale, but with some 600 species of plants and fungi known to cause toxicity in livestock, as opposed to some 130 species in Brazil, the risk to livestock in South Africa appears to be much greater. The comparisons discussed in this communication are largely restricted to ruminants.

  11. Gender issues in livestock production: a case study of Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mupawaenda, Anna C; Chawatama, Shingirai; Muvavarirwa, Plaxidia

    2009-10-01

    The importance of main streaming gender issues in development programmes is now recognized by governments and development agents. This paper evaluates the role of gender in smallholder livestock production using Zimbabwe as a case study. It draws on several studies and assesses the gender dimension in terms of access and control, decision making and, division of labour. It is shown that for mainly traditional and historical reasons men continue to dominate livestock production although the situation is gradually changing. Men eclipse women in terms of ownership of more valuable stock, the making of decisions and the control of livestock production. This suggests that gender is important in livestock production and must be considered among other factors. The complexity of the system is noted but more gender disaggregated quantitative data is required if gender is to be effectively mainstreamed in livestock development programmes.

  12. Prebiotics in Companion and Livestock Animal Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Kathleen A.; Vester, Brittany M.; Fahey, George C.

    Prebiotic supplementation of animal diets began in an attempt to increase concentrations of beneficial intestinal microbiota. It was understood that prebiotics inhibited growth of intestinal pathogens and decreased concentrations of stool odor-causing metabolites. Since the use of prebiotics began, several countries have banned the use of antimicrobials in livestock animal feeds, and several more have placed restrictions on the quantity of antimicrobials that can be used. Prebiotic supplementation has become increasingly popular as the body of evidence supporting its use continues to grow. As this literature expands, the number of potential prebiotic substances has grown beyond those that are naturally occurring, such as those found in chicory and yeast products, to include a large number of synthetic or chemically/enzymatically manufactured prebiotics.

  13. Volatile Sulfur Compounds from Livestock Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasper, Pernille

    . Presently, the development of abatement technologies is limited by the lack of an accurate and reliable method for quantifying the effect on odor. To measure the impact of air cleaning techniques on perceived odor, common practice in Europe is to store odor samples in sample bags and quantify them......Volatile sulfur compounds, i.e. hydrogen sulfide, methanethiol and dimethyl sulfide have been identified as key odorants in livestock production due to their high concentration levels and low odor threshold values. At the same time their removal with abatement technologies based on mass transfer...... from a gas phase to a liquid phase, e.g. biotrickling filters, is decelerated due to their low partitioning coefficients. This can significantly limit the odor reduction obtained with these technologies. The present study examines the possibility of adding metal catalysts to enhance the mass transfer...

  14. Gene-based technologies for livestock industries in the 3rd millennium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunningham, E.P.

    2005-01-01

    The first complete genome sequence of an organism was for yeast, in 1996. Since then, the much larger task of doing a complete human sequence has been completed. Those of major domestic animals are following rapidly. It will always be impossible to foresee the full potential of such an explosion in knowledge, but aspects of gene-based technologies are already beginning to have an impact in the livestock sector. The first and most obvious area of impact concerns feed supply, which constitutes 50-75 percent of total costs in many livestock systems. Production costs for maize and soybean are being reduced by genetic modification of the crop for herbicide and insect resistance. Maize has been modified to reduce phosphorous and nitrogen excretion in swine and poultry, and also to provide a more valuable amino acid balance. Genetic modification of the animal is also possible. Most dramatically, the insertion of a growth hormone in the DNA of fish accelerates growth. However, in this and all other cases, the genetic modification (GM) of animals has produced profound physiological disturbances. At the same time, the administration of GM-produced growth hormone to dairy cows is now routine in the United States of America and several other countries. This is not permitted in Europe, where the attitude to all GM technologies has been much more cautious. Conventional selection programmes continue to deliver steady genetic improvement in all animal populations. New molecular methods offer the prospect of enhancing genetic gains, particularly for traits that are difficult or expensive to measure, or which have low heritability. Gene technologies have much to contribute to the control of disease in animals. As pressure to reduce antibiotic and drug use increases, genetically modified vaccines with proven specificity and distinguishable from natural infections are already in use. DNA typing is helping with rapid and precise diagnosis. In addition, the interaction of some pathogens

  15. Determinants of Livestock Prices in Ethiopian Pastoral Livestock Markets: Implications for Pastoral Marketing Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Belayneh, Hailemariam Teklewold; Feye, Getachew Legese; Alemu, Dawit; Negassa, Asfaw

    2009-01-01

    The major objective of this paper is to identify determinants of market prices for cattle, sheep and goat in the export market value chain starting from pastoral markets to export abattoirs and live animal exporters. The study is based on the information generated through a formal survey conducted in the major pastoral livestock markets of Ethiopia with 128 collectors, small and big traders, feedlot operators, live animal and meat exporters. Hedonic price formation model was used to analyze t...

  16. Conceptual Framework for the National Pilot Project on Livestock and the Environment, Livestock Series Report 2

    OpenAIRE

    Aziz Bouzaher; Stanley R. Johnson; Shannon Neibergs; Ron Jones; Larry Beran; Larry Frarey; Larry M. Hauck

    1993-01-01

    Assessing the effects of alternative policies that regulate nonpoint pollution from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) requires insight into the interactions of livestock production practices, waste management technologies, and their impacts on the environment. CAFOs have been identified as a source of nutrient loadings that impair ground and surface water quality, and they can emit intense odor that impairs air quality. This report describes the conceptual framework and the integ...

  17. Marker-assisted selection. Current status and future perspectives in crops, livestock, forestry and fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guimaraes, E.P.; Ruane, J.; Scherf, B.D.; Sonnino, A.; Dargie, J.D.

    2007-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive description and assessment of the use of marker-assisted selection for increasing the rate of genetic gain in crops, livestock, forestry and farmed fish, including the related policy, organizational and resource considerations. It continues FAO's tradition of dealing with issues of importance to agricultural and economic development in a multidisciplinary and cross-sectoral manner. As such it is hoped that the information and options presented and the suggestions made will provide valuable guidance to scientists and breeders in both the public and private sectors, as well as to government and institutional policy and decision-makers

  18. Possible multihazard events (tsunamis, earthquakes, landslides) expected on the North Bulgarian Black sea coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranguelov, B.; Gospodinopv, D.

    2009-04-01

    Earthquakes The area is famous with its seismic regime. The region usually shows non regular behavior of the strong events occurrence. There are episodes of activation and between them long periods of seismic quiescence. The most important one is at the I-st century BC when according to the chronicler Strabo, the ancient Greek colony "Bisone sank in the waters of the sea". The seismic source is known as Shabla-Kaliakra zone with the best documented seismic event of 31st March 1901. This event had a magnitude of 7.2 (estimated by the macroseismic transformation formula) with a source depth of about 10-20 km. The epicenter was located in the aquatory of the sea. The observed macroseismic intensity on the land reached the maximum value of X degree MSK. This event produced a number of secondary effects - landslides, rockfalls, subsidence, extensive destruction of the houses located around and tsunami (up to 3 meters height observed at Balchik port. This event is selected as referent one. Tsunamis Such earthquakes (magnitude greater then 7.0) almost always trigger tsunamis. They could be generated by the earthquake rupture process, or more frequently by the secondary triggered phenomena - landslides (submarine or surface) and/or other geodynamic phenomena - rock falls, degradation of gas hydrates, etc. the most famous water level change is described by Strabo - related to the great catastrophe. The area shows also some other expressions about tsunamis - the last one - a non seismic tsunami at 7th May, 2007 with maximum observed amplitudes of about 3 meters water level changes. Landslides The area on the north Bulgarian Black Sea coast is covered by many active landslides. They have different size, depth and activation time. Most of them are located near the coast line thus presenting huge danger about the beaches, tourist infrastructure, population and historical heritage. The most famous landslide (subsidence) is related with the I-st century BC seismic event, when a

  19. Application of the Bulgarian emergency response system in case of nuclear accident in environmental assessment study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syrakov, Dimiter; Veleva, Blagorodka; Georgievs, Emilia; Prodanova, Maria; Slavov, Kiril; Kolarova, Maria

    2014-05-01

    The development of the Bulgarian Emergency Response System (BERS) for short term forecast in case of accidental radioactive releases to the atmosphere has been started in the mid 1990's [1]. BERS comprises of two main parts - operational and accidental, for two regions 'Europe' and 'Northern Hemisphere'. The operational part runs automatically since 2001 using the 72 hours meteorological forecast from DWD Global model, resolution in space of 1.5o and in time - 12 hours. For specified Nuclear power plants (NPPs), 3 days trajectories are calculated and presented on NIMH's specialized Web-site (http://info.meteo.bg/ews/). The accidental part is applied when radioactive releases are reported or in case of emergency exercises. BERS is based on numerical weather forecast information and long-range dispersion model accounting for the transport, dispersion, and radioactive transformations of pollutants. The core of the accidental part of the system is the Eulerian 3D dispersion model EMAP calculating concentration and deposition fields [2]. The system is upgraded with a 'dose calculation module' for estimation of the prognostic dose fields of 31 important radioactive gaseous and aerosol pollutants. The prognostic doses significant for the early stage of a nuclear accident are calculated as follows: the effective doses from external irradiation (air submersion + ground shinning); effective dose from inhalation; summarized effective dose and absorbed thyroid dose [3]. The output is given as 12, 24, 36, 48, 60 and 72 hours prognostic dose fields according the updated meteorology. The BERS was upgraded to simulate the dispersion of nuclear materials from Fukushima NPP [4], and results were presented in NIMH web-site. In addition BERS took part in the respective ENSEMBLE exercises to model 131I and 137Cs in Fukushima source term. In case of governmental request for expertise BERS was applied for environmental impact assessment of hypothetical accidental transboundary

  20. Retinol, alpha-tocopherol and fatty acid content in Bulgarian black Sea fish species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stancheva, M.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to measure and evaluate the total lipids, fatty acid profile, retinol content and alpha-tocopherol content in the edible tissue of four commercially important fish species from the Bulgarian Black sea: Sprat (Sprattus sprattus, Round Goby (Neogobius rattan, Black Sea Horse Mackerel (Trahurus medditeraneus ponticus and Shad (Alosa pontica. Fat soluble vitamins were analyzed simultaneously using an HPLC system. The highest content of retinol was established in the Sprat (142.3 ± 4.4 μg/100g and the highest content of alphatocopherol was found in the Black Sea Horse Mackerel (1112.7 ± 39.2 μg/100g. The fatty acid (FA composition was analyzed by GC/MS. The content of omega 3 (n3 FAs was significantly higher (p , 0.001 than the content of omega 6 (n6 FAs in each of the analyzed fish samples. The n6/n3 FA ratio was within the recommended range (0.20–1.50 for Sprat, Round Goby and Shad. Relatively high levels of retinol and alpha-tocopherol, FA composition, n3/n6 FA and PUFA/SFA ratios indicate that these fish species have good nutritional quality.

    El objeto de la investigación presentada es definir y comparar los lípidos totales, el perfil de ácidos grasos y el contenido de retinol y alfa-tocoferol en el tejido comestible de cuatro especies de peces con importancia comercial del Mar Negro búlgaro —espadín (Sprattus Sprattus, gobio de boca negra (Neogobius Melanostomus, chicharro (Trachurus Trachurus y sábalo del Mar Negro (Caspialosa Pontica. Dos vitaminas liposolubles son analizadas simultáneamente mediante cromatografía líquida de alta eficacia (HPLC. El contenido mayor de retinol se encuentra en el espadín (142.3 ± 4.4 μg/100g, y de alfa-tocoferol en el chicharro (1112.7 ± 39.2 μg/100g. El contenido de ácidos grasos ha sido analizado mediante cromatografía gaseosa/espectrometría de masas (GC/MS. El contenido de ácidos grasos (AG

  1. Application of the spectrometric and radiochemical techniques in analyzing environmental samples from the Bulgarian Black Sea region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veleva, B.S.; Mungov, G.; Galabov, N.; Kolarova, M.; Guenchev, T.

    1999-01-01

    Development of the appropriate methods and techniques for marine and atmospheric radioactivity measurements in the NIMH-BAS during the last 5 years is presented. Approaches for pre-concentration of the radionuclides from the atmosphere and sea water samples followed with reliable radiochemical methods for radionuclides separation and low level counting are discussed. Dissolved radiocesium concentrations measured in a period of time starting in 1993 show some decrease with years and spatial variations probably due to the hydrophysical features of the sampling sides - the lower measured concentrations during 1995 and 1998 correspond to the lower salinity. Application of the radiochemical separation of Plutonium, Thorium, 90 Sr and Americium on the samples from the Bulgarian Black Sea coastal region is reported. (author)

  2. Mercury capture by selected Bulgarian fly ashes: Influence of coal rank and fly ash carbon pore structure on capture efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostova, I.J.; Hower, J.C.; Mastalerz, Maria; Vassilev, S.V.

    2011-01-01

    Mercury capture by fly ash C was investigated at five lignite- and subbituminous-coal-burning Bulgarian power plants (Republika, Bobov Dol, Maritza East 2, Maritza East 3, and Sliven). Although the C content of the ashes is low, never exceeding 1.6%, the Hg capture on a unit C basis demonstrates that the low-rank-coal-derived fly ash carbons are more efficient in capturing Hg than fly ash carbons from bituminous-fired power plants. While some low-C and low-Hg fly ashes do not reveal any trends of Hg versus C, the 2nd and, in particular, the 3rd electrostatic precipitator (ESP) rows at the Republika power plant do have sufficient fly ash C range and experience flue gas sufficiently cool to capture measurable amounts of Hg. The Republika 3rd ESP row exhibits an increase in Hg with increasing C, as observed in other power plants, for example, in Kentucky power plants burning Appalachian-sourced bituminous coals. Mercury/C decreases with an increase in fly ash C, suggesting that some of the C is isolated from the flue gas stream and does not contribute to Hg capture. Mercury capture increases with an increase in Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area and micropore surface area. The differences in Hg capture between the Bulgarian plants burning low-rank coal and high volatile bituminous-fed Kentucky power plants suggests that the variations in C forms resulting from the combustion of the different ranks also influence the efficiency of Hg capture. ?? 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Mercury capture by selected Bulgarian fly ashes: Influence of coal rank and fly ash carbon pore structure on capture efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostova, I.J.; Hower, J.C.; Mastalerz, M.; Vassilev, S.V. [University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Center of Applied Energy Research

    2011-01-15

    Mercury capture by fly ash C was investigated at five lignite- and subbituminous-coal-burning Bulgarian power plants (Republika, Bobov Dol, Maritza East 2, Maritza East 3, and Sliven). Although the C content of the ashes is low, never exceeding 1.6%, the Hg capture on a unit C basis demonstrates that the low-rank-coal-derived fly ash carbons are more efficient in capturing Hg than fly ash carbons from bituminous-fired power plants. While some low-C and low-Hg fly ashes do not reveal any trends of Hg versus C, the 2nd and, in particular, the 3rd electrostatic precipitator (ESP) rows at the Republika power plant do have sufficient fly ash C range and experience flue gas sufficiently cool to capture measurable amounts of Hg. The Republika 3rd ESP row exhibits an increase in Hg with increasing C, as observed in other power plants, for example, in Kentucky power plants burning Appalachian-sourced bituminous coals. Mercury/C decreases with an increase in fly ash C, suggesting that some of the C is isolated from the flue gas stream and does not contribute to Hg capture. Mercury capture increases with an increase in Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area and micropore surface area. The differences in Hg capture between the Bulgarian plants burning low-rank coal and high volatile bituminous-fed Kentucky power plants suggests that the variations in C forms resulting from the combustion of the different ranks also influence the efficiency of Hg capture.

  4. Managing genetic diversity and society needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur da Silva Mariante

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Most livestock are not indigenous to Brazil. Several animal species were considered domesticated in the pre-colonial period, since the indigenous people manage them as would be typical of European livestock production. For over 500 years there have been periodic introductions resulting in the wide range of genetic diversity that for centuries supported domestic animal production in the country. Even though these naturalized breeds have acquired adaptive traits after centuries of natural selection, they have been gradually replaced by exotic breeds, to such an extent, that today they are in danger of extinction To avoid further loss of this important genetic material, in 1983 Embrapa Genetic Resources and Biotechnology decided to include conservation of animal genetic resources among its priorities. In this paper we describe the effort to genetically characterize these populations, as a tool to ensure their genetic variability. To effectively save the threatened local breeds of livestock it is important to find a niche market for each one, reinserting them in production systems. They have to be utilized in order to be conserved. And there is no doubt that due to their adaptive traits, the Brazilian local breeds of livestock can play an important role in animal production, to meet society needs.

  5. Greenhouse gas mitigation potentials in the livestock sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, Mario; Henderson, Benjamin; Havlík, Petr; Thornton, Philip K.; Conant, Richard T.; Smith, Pete; Wirsenius, Stefan; Hristov, Alexander N.; Gerber, Pierre; Gill, Margaret; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus; Valin, Hugo; Garnett, Tara; Stehfest, Elke

    2016-05-01

    The livestock sector supports about 1.3 billion producers and retailers, and contributes 40-50% of agricultural GDP. We estimated that between 1995 and 2005, the livestock sector was responsible for greenhouse gas emissions of 5.6-7.5 GtCO2e yr-1. Livestock accounts for up to half of the technical mitigation potential of the agriculture, forestry and land-use sectors, through management options that sustainably intensify livestock production, promote carbon sequestration in rangelands and reduce emissions from manures, and through reductions in the demand for livestock products. The economic potential of these management alternatives is less than 10% of what is technically possible because of adoption constraints, costs and numerous trade-offs. The mitigation potential of reductions in livestock product consumption is large, but their economic potential is unknown at present. More research and investment are needed to increase the affordability and adoption of mitigation practices, to moderate consumption of livestock products where appropriate, and to avoid negative impacts on livelihoods, economic activities and the environment.

  6. Links between livestock production, the environment and sustainable development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradbre, J-P

    2014-12-01

    This study examines the prospects for strong growth in the supply and demand for animal products worldwide, especially in developing countries, where 80% of the world's population lives. Based on scientific publications, statistics and field observations, it reviews greenhouse gas emission levels from livestock, the ability of ruminant livestock systems to sequester carbon and the capacity of the livestock industry to meet the challenge of sustainable development and to share its benefits while minimising impacts to climate change. Special attention is paid to the situation of the 800 million livestock farmers in the world living at the extreme end of poverty. The study underlines the importance of improving livestock productivity and the interdependence of the economic, environmental and social components of sustainable development. It highlights how, in the least developed countries and most lower-middle-income countries, the pressure exerted by animal diseases hampers efforts to improve livestock productivity. Poor livestock farmers have not sufficiently benefited from development policies and need support to adopt technological advances to meet the challenges of sustainable development and poverty reduction.

  7. Water requirements for livestock production: a global perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlink, A C; Nguyen, M L; Viljoen, G J

    2010-12-01

    Water is a vital but poorly studied component of livestock production. It is estimated that livestock industries consume 8% of the global water supply, with most of that water being used for intensive, feed-based production. This study takes a broad perspective of livestock production as a component of the human food chain, and considers the efficiency of its water use. Global models are in the early stages of development and do not distinguish between developing and developed countries, or the production systems within them. However, preliminary indications are that, when protein production is adjusted for biological value in the human diet, no plant protein is significantly more efficient at using water than protein produced from eggs, and only soybean is more water efficient than milk and goat and chicken meat. In some regions, especially developing countries, animals are not used solely for food production but also provide draught power, fibre and fertiliser for crops. In addition, animals make use of crop by-products that would otherwise go to waste. The livestock sector is the fastest-growing agricultural sector, which has led to increasing industrialisation and, in some cases, reduced environmental constraints. In emerging economies, increasing involvement in livestock is related to improving rural wealth and increasing consumption of animal protein. Water usage for livestock production should be considered an integral part of agricultural water resource management, taking into account the type of production system (e.g. grain-fed or mixed crop-livestock) and scale (intensive or extensive), the species and breeds of livestock, and the social and cultural aspects of livestock farming in various countries.

  8. Searching for Symbolic Value of Cattle: Tropical Livestock Units, Market Price, and Cultural Value of Maasai Livestock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Quinlan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We examine metabolic, market, and symbolic values of livestock relative to cultural “positioning” by gender, marriage, and household production among Maasai people in Simanjiro, Tanzania to assess local “proximate currencies” relevant for “cultural success.” Data from mixed methods ethnographic research include qualitative interviews since 2012, observation of 85 livestock market sales in 2013 and 2015, and 37 short key informant interviews in 2015. We examine fit between market values, Tropical Livestock Units (TLU, weight-based species exchange ratio, and perceived value from interviews for moran (unmarried men, muruo (married men, and tɔmɔnɔ́k (married women. Hedonic regression using livestock species, sex, maturity, and size accounted for 90% of the local market price of livestock. We compared the market-based exchange ratio between cattle and smallstock (sheep and goats to TLU and perceived values situating symbolic value of cattle in terms of Maasai household production schema. One TLU model accurately predicted market exchange ratios, while another predicted hypothetical exchanges, suggesting need for improved livestock wealth estimation for pastoralists. Ritual context, subsistence work, and cultural position influenced perceived values: Moran overvalued cattle by 100% of the local market value. Tɔmɔnɔ́k accurately perceived the market exchange ratio despite never directly engaging in livestock market transactions. Muruo perceived exchange ratios intermediate between moran and tɔmɔnɔ́k. We argue that these perceptions of value reflect distinct labor responsibilities of moran, muruo, and tɔmɔnɔ́k in livestock management, differential value of bridewealth, and control of meat and milk.Attention to value of different livestock species in cultural models of production may prove useful for development efforts.

  9. Authorization process in the sphere of nuclear fuel utilization according to the Bulgarian Act on the Safe Use of Nuclear Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoyanova, P.; Vitkova, M.; Elenkov, D.; Vapirev, E.

    2003-01-01

    The new Bulgarian Act on the Safe Use of Nuclear Energy (ASUNE) was adopted in the year 2002. It replaced the former Act on the Use of Nuclear Energy for Peaceful Purposes, which was in force for about 17 years. The ASUNE covers the activities involving nuclear energy and sources of ionizing radiation mainly by establishing a consistent authorization regime. It is an up-to-date act, based on the IAEA requirements and standards, and yet fully in compliance with the Bulgarian legislative system. The newly adopted Act is based on the following main principles: Priority of safety over economic and other social needs; Occupational and public exposure to ionizing radiation to be kept as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA); Direct and personal liability of the licensee/permit holder; Independence of the regulatory body; Application of a less prescriptive approach; Issuing of authorizations under conditions of legal equality and transparency

  10. Biotechnology in livestock production: Overview of possibilities for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-29

    Dec 29, 2008 ... livestock production can be categorised as the biological, chemical and physical techniques ... the European industrial revolution in the 17th century that ..... Heterotypic protection induced by synthetic peptides corresponding.

  11. Livestock and land: trends, status and research opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, M.; Cecile, G.

    2017-12-01

    Livestock are one of the largest users of land. The use vast areas of rangelands and pasturelands and use a third of the global cropland for feed production. The demand of rlivestock products is growing at an accelerated rate due to large increases in income and urbanisation, primarily in the developing world. While most expansion is occuring the the poultry and pork sectors, ruminant meat and milk are also increasing significantly. There is concern as to how to manage the environmental footprints of these very dynamic systems. At the same, time, significnat opportunities to intensify land use in the the livestock sector exist, primarily in grasslands. This paper gives an overview of the trends in land use in the global livestock sector, assess the status of supply and demand of livestock products and how these might be met in the future and cocludes by proposing a research agenda with key areas that merit more attention from biophysical, social and economic scientists.

  12. Breaking the chain of zoonoses through biosecurity in livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layton, Daniel S; Choudhary, Anupma; Bean, Andrew G D

    2017-10-20

    Increases in global travel, trade and urbanisation are leading to greater incidence of zoonotic disease, and livestock are often a key link in the spread of disease to humans. As such, livestock vaccination strategies, as a part of broader biosecurity solutions, are critical to both animal and human health. Importantly, approaches that restrict infectious agents in livestock, not only protects their economic value but should reduce the potential for spill over infections in humans. Biosecurity solutions to livestock health can take a number of different forms and are generally heavily weighted towards prevention of infection rather than treatment. Therefore, vaccination can provide an effective component of a strategic approach, particularly as production economics dictate the use of cost effective solutions. Furthermore, in an evolving global environment there is a need for vaccines that accommodate for lower socioeconomic and rapidly emerging zoonotics. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Risk of adverse pregnancy outcome in women exposed to livestock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Stine Yde; Henriksen, T B; Hjøllund, Niels Henrik Ingvar

    2013-01-01

    outcome in women with self-reported occupational or domestic contact with livestock compared to pregnant women without such contact. The Danish National Birth Cohort collected information on pregnancy outcome from 100 418 pregnant women (1996-2002) from which three study populations with occupational and....../or domestic exposure to livestock and a reference group of women with no animal contact was sampled. Outcome measures were miscarriage, very preterm birth (before gestational week 32), preterm birth (before 37 gestational weeks), small for gestational age (SGA), and perinatal death. Adverse reproductive...... outcomes were assessed in four different exposure groups of women with occupational or domestic exposure to livestock with no association found between exposure to livestock and miscarriage, preterm birth, SGA or perinatal death. These findings should diminish general occupational health concerns...

  14. Department of Livestock and Wild.life Management, Faculty of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    95 % of the milk produced in the country (Chivandi,. 2001). ... livestock industry and health effects on humans. It causes adverse ... Brucella species are recovered from blood, bone marrow .... smallholder dairy farmers in order to protect people.

  15. GENDER ROLES IN LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION: THE CASE OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    livestock fell heavily on women and female children. Women ... Brain (1975), on the position of women in the Rural Settlement Schemes and others did not ... the extension system of the need to be gender sensitive in the development and.

  16. Novel Livestock Vaccines for Viral Diseases in Africa toward ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Africa's livestock industry The research will take place in Kenya and South Africa, where ... They will enhance food security by increasing production efficiency and ... provided through Foreign Affairs, Trade and Development Canada (DFATD).

  17. Five diseases, one vaccine - a boost for emerging livestock farmers

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    12 of the 16 most devastating animal diseases ... good use of livestock vaccines, emerging ... T Chetty, S Goga & A Mather (graphic design by C Lombard) .... Emerging farmers discussing an information pamphlet developed within the project.

  18. Fish silage as feed ingredient for fish and livestock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rurangwa, E.; Vuuren, van A.M.; Poelman, M.

    2014-01-01

    The present report analyses through a literature review the potential of fish silage to valorise fish processing by-products into economically relevant protein sources for fish and livestock feed production in East Africa.

  19. Economic efficiency of extensive livestock production in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nastić Lana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Various types of extensive livestock production are present worldwide, primarily in regions where natural resources such as pastures and meadows could be used. Extensive livestock production is common in the EU, as well. Therefore the goal of this research was to establish economic efficiency of extensive livestock production types and to compare their efficiency with some intensive livestock production types. In order to achieve that goal FADN (Farm Accountancy Data Network methodology was used. Source of information was FADN database as well as appropriate sector analysis and publications of European commission. It has been determined that sheep and goat production is competitive with intensive production types (dairy and granivores - pigs and poultry. Cattle production (other than dairy production proved to be economically inefficient due to low output level.

  20. The role of prostaglandins in livestock production | Okon | Global ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... synthesized) fashion. Prostaglandins are therefore regarded as essential mediators of female reproductive processes, hence, this paper seeks to review the role of Prostaglandins which is exploited in livestock production especially oestrus synchronization and induced parturition. KEYWORDS: Prostaglandins, Production ...

  1. LVIF Call 2 - Innovations to improve livestock vaccines

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Musa Mulongo

    production, and commercialization of innovative vaccines against livestock ... novel vaccine design/formulations that present significant improvements over ... and which can be transferred to vaccine manufacturers for subsequent registration of.

  2. Feed resources and livestock production situation in the highland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Feed resources and livestock production situation in the highland and mid altitude areas ... production constraints, major feed resources and their potential contribution. A single-visit multi subject formal survey method was used in the survey.

  3. Climate variability and impacts on east African livestock herders: the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Climate variability and impacts on east African livestock herders: the Maasai of ... and vulnerability to climate variability and climate change is assessed, using data ... Model results suggest that the ecosystem is quite resilient and suggests that ...

  4. A South African perspective on livestock production in relation to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    quality protein sources for human consumption, ruminant production systems are targeted as they are perceived to produce large quantities of GHG. Livestock is also accused of using large quantities of water, an allegation that is based on ...

  5. Livestock Husbandry and Economic-Sustainability of Small Farmers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management ... their engagement in different operations of livestock husbandry for economic sustainability. ... husbandry for barn and cleaning while men performed 71.5% marketing activities.

  6. Analysing Incentive and Cost Sharing Issues in Livestock Disease Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biira, Juliet

    This PhD thesis tackles two main issues in livestock health management: a) the incentives for animal disease prevention on Danish livestock farms and b) allocation of costs of animal disease outbreaks and animal disease preparedness, among stakeholders involved in the livestock sector. The main...... contributions of this thesis are firstly the investigation of incentives for Danish livestock farmers to prevent animal diseases at the farm level and recommendations on how they could be improved. Secondly, the exploration of a mutual fund as a possibility for risk pooling among farmers and how it can...... is used in paper 5. The thesis consists of two parts; first is the introduction section where I introduce the thesis in general and provide an overview of the objectives and main theories and the second part includes the 5 papers which address the thesis objectives. Paper 1 uses existing literature...

  7. Institutional failures and transaction costs of Bulgarian "private research institutes". Kiel und Hamburg : ZBW – Deutsche Zentralbibliothek für Wirtschaftswissenschaften, Leibniz-Informationszentrum Wirtschaft.

    OpenAIRE

    Nozharov, Shteryo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: The paper analyses the reasons for poor performance of private research institutes in Bulgaria. In this regard the Institutional Economics methods are used. A connection between smart growth policy goals and Bulgarian membership in EU is made. The gaps in the institutional environment are identified as well as measures for their elimination are proposed. The main accent of the study is put on the identification of transaction costs, arisen as a result of the failures of the institut...

  8. Climate Change Impact on the Southeastern Europe Security Environment and the Increasing Role of the Bulgarian Army as the World Warms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-10

    CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACT ON THE SOUTHEASTERN EUROPE SECURITY ENVIRONMENT AND THE INCREASING ROLE OF THE BULGARIAN ARMY AS THE WORLD WARMS...DD-MM-YYYY) 10-06-2016 2. REPORT TYPE Master’s Thesis 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) AUG 2015 – JUN 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Climate Change ...14. ABSTRACT Climate change impacts on the security environment are real and have the potential to create unprecedented levels of risk through

  9. Computer Prediction of Air Quality in Livestock Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svidt, Kjeld; Bjerg, Bjarne

    In modem livestock buildings the design of ventilation systems is important in order to obtain good air quality. The use of Computational Fluid Dynamics for predicting the air distribution makes it possible to include the effect of room geometry and heat sources in the design process. This paper...... presents numerical prediction of air flow in a livestock building compared with laboratory measurements. An example of the calculation of contaminant distribution is given, and the future possibilities of the method are discussed....

  10. IAEA Partners with FAO to Improve Livestock Productivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unger, Hermann

    2013-01-01

    Sound animal production and health activities contribute to the enhancement of global food security through the transfer and implementation of sustainable livestock production systems using nuclear and nuclear related techniques. FAO/IAEA partnered to help Member States improve their livestock productivity through the early and rapid diagnosis and control of transboundary animal diseases. Timely actions protect farmers’ livelihoods and prevent the spread of diseases

  11. Carnivore-caused livestock mortality in Trans-Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namgail, Tsewang; Fox, Joseph L; Bhatnagar, Yash Veer

    2007-04-01

    The loss of livestock to wild predators is an important livelihood concern among Trans-Himalayan pastoralists. Because of the remoteness and inaccessibility of the region, few studies have been carried out to quantify livestock depredation by wild predators. In the present study, we assessed the intensity of livestock depredation by snow leopard Uncia uncia, Tibetan wolf Canis lupus chanku, and Eurasian lynx Lynx l. isabellina in three villages, namely Gya, Rumtse, and Sasoma, within the proposed Gya-Miru Wildlife Sanctuary in Ladakh, India. The three villages reported losses of 295 animals to these carnivores during a period of 2.5 years ending in early 2003, which represents an annual loss rate of 2.9% of their livestock holdings. The Tibetan wolf was the most important predator, accounting for 60% of the total livestock loss because of predation, followed by snow leopard (38%) and lynx (2%). Domestic goat was the major victim (32%), followed by sheep (30%), yak (15%), and horse (13%). Wolves killed horses significantly more and goats less than would be expected from their relative abundance. Snow leopards also killed horses significantly more than expected, whereas they killed other livestock types in proportion to their abundance. The three villages combined incurred an estimated annual monetary loss of approximately $USD 12,120 amounting to approximately $USD 190/household/y. This relatively high total annual loss occurred primarily because of depredation of the most valuable livestock types such as yak and horse. Conservation actions should initially attempt to target decrease of predation on these large and valuable livestock species.

  12. Review: Animal health and sustainable global livestock systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, B D; Robinson, T P; Grace, D C

    2018-04-10

    This paper discusses the sustainability of livestock systems, emphasising bidirectional relations with animal health. We review conventional and contrarian thinking on sustainability and argue that in the most common approaches to understanding sustainability, health aspects have been under-examined. Literature review reveals deep concerns over the sustainability of livestock systems; we recognise that interventions are required to shift to more sustainable trajectories, and explore approaches to prioritising in different systems, focusing on interventions that lead to better health. A previously proposed three-tiered categorisation of 'hot spots', 'cold spots' and 'worried well' animal health trajectories provides a mental model that, by taking into consideration the different animal health status, animal health risks, service response needs and key drivers in each system, can help identify and implement interventions. Combining sustainability concepts with animal health trajectories allows for a richer analysis, and we apply this to three case studies drawn from North Africa and the Middle East; Bangladesh; and the Eastern Cape of South Africa. We conclude that the quest for sustainability of livestock production systems from the perspective of human and animal health is elusive and difficult to reconcile with the massive anticipated growth in demand for livestock products, mainly in low- and middle-income countries, as well as the aspirations of poor livestock keepers for better lives. Nevertheless, improving the health of livestock can contribute to health sustainability both through reducing negative health impacts of livestock and increasing efficiency of production. However, the choice of the most appropriate options must be under-pinned by an understanding of agro-ecology, economy and values. We argue that a new pillar of One Health should be added to the three traditional sustainability pillars of economics, society and environment when addressing

  13. Estimation of Water Requirements by Livestock in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    MUBAREKA Sarah; MAES JOACHIM; LAVALLE Carlo; DE ROO Arie

    2013-01-01

    The Blueprint to Safeguard Europe's Water aims to positively contribute to the European Union's Water Policy through a series of studies to assess the quantity and quality of this precious resource. An important part of that water balance is the accounting of water removed from rivers or aquifers by different sectorial needs. The map series presented here shows the water requirements for the livestock sector. These maps are calculated based on livestock density maps for 2005, normalized...

  14. IAEA Partners with FAO to Improve Livestock Productivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unger, Hermann

    2013-01-01

    Sound animal production and health activities contribute to the enhancement of global food security through the transfer and implementation of sustainable livestock production systems using nuclear and nuclear related techniques. FAO/IAEA partnered to help Member States improve their livestock productivity through the early and rapid diagnosis and control of transboundary animal diseases. Timely actions protect farmers’ livelihoods and prevent the spread of diseases. (author)

  15. 29 CFR 780.121 - What constitutes “raising” of livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What constitutes âraisingâ of livestock. 780.121 Section... General Scope of Agriculture Raising of Livestock, Bees, Fur-Bearing Animals, Or Poultry § 780.121 What constitutes “raising” of livestock. The term “raising” employed with reference to livestock in section 3(f...

  16. 9 CFR 325.20 - Transportation and other transactions concerning dead, dying, disabled, or diseased livestock...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... concerning dead, dying, disabled, or diseased livestock, and parts of carcasses of livestock that died... other transactions concerning dead, dying, disabled, or diseased livestock, and parts of carcasses of livestock that died otherwise than by slaughter. No person engaged in the business of buying, selling, or...

  17. 9 CFR 309.3 - Dead, dying, disabled, or diseased and similar livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... similar livestock. 309.3 Section 309.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... diseased and similar livestock. (a) Livestock found to be dead or in a dying condition on the premises of... § 309.13. (b) Livestock plainly showing on ante-mortem inspection any disease or condition that, under...

  18. Strategies for improving water use efficiency in livestock feed production in rain-fed systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kebebe, E.G.; Oosting, S.J.; Haileslassie, A.; Duncan, A.J.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Livestock production is a major consumer of fresh water, and the influence of livestock production on global fresh water resources is increasing because of the growing demand for livestock products. Increasing water use efficiency of livestock production, therefore, can contribute to the overall

  19. Global warming and livestock husbandry in Kenya. Impacts and adaptations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabubo-Mariara, Jane

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the economic impact of climate change on livestock production in Kenya. We estimate a Ricardian model of net livestock incomes and further estimate the marginal impacts of climate change. We also simulate the impact of different climate scenarios on livestock incomes. The Ricardian results show that livestock production in Kenya is highly sensitive to climate change and that there is a non-linear relationship between climate change and livestock productivity. The estimated marginal impacts suggest modest gains from rising temperatures and losses from increased precipitation. The predictions from atmospheric ocean general circulation models suggest that livestock farmers in Kenya are likely to incur heavy losses from global warming. The highest and lowest losses are predicted from the Hadley Centre Coupled model (HADCM) and Parallel Climate Model (PCM) respectively, based on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change A2 Special Report on Emissions Scenarios. The paper concludes that in the long term, climate change is likely to lead to increased poverty, vulnerability and loss of livelihoods. Several policy interventions are recommended to counter this impact. (author)

  20. Global warming and livestock husbandry in Kenya. Impacts and adaptations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabubo-Mariara, Jane [School of Economics, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 30197, 00100, Nairobi (Kenya)

    2009-05-15

    This paper examines the economic impact of climate change on livestock production in Kenya. We estimate a Ricardian model of net livestock incomes and further estimate the marginal impacts of climate change. We also simulate the impact of different climate scenarios on livestock incomes. The Ricardian results show that livestock production in Kenya is highly sensitive to climate change and that there is a non-linear relationship between climate change and livestock productivity. The estimated marginal impacts suggest modest gains from rising temperatures and losses from increased precipitation. The predictions from atmospheric ocean general circulation models suggest that livestock farmers in Kenya are likely to incur heavy losses from global warming. The highest and lowest losses are predicted from the Hadley Centre Coupled model (HADCM) and Parallel Climate Model (PCM) respectively, based on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change A2 Special Report on Emissions Scenarios. The paper concludes that in the long term, climate change is likely to lead to increased poverty, vulnerability and loss of livelihoods. Several policy interventions are recommended to counter this impact. (author)

  1. Effects of ionizing radiation on struvite crystallization of livestock wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Tak- Hyun; Nam, Yun-Ku; Joo Lim, Seung

    2014-01-01

    Livestock wastewater is generally very difficult to be treated by conventional wastewater treatment techniques because it contains high-strength organics (COD), ammonium (NH 4 + ), phosphate (PO 4 3− ) and suspended solids. Struvite crystallization has been recently studied for the simultaneous removal of NH 4 + and PO 4 3− . In this study, gamma ray irradiation was carried out prior to struvite crystallization of the anaerobically digested livestock wastewater. The effects of gamma ray irradiation on the struvite crystallization of livestock wastewater were investigated. As a result, gamma ray irradiation can decrease the concentration of COD, NH 4 + and PO 4 3− contained in the livestock wastewater. This results in not only an enhancement of the struvite crystallization efficiency but also a decrease in the chemical demands for the struvite crystallization of livestock wastewater. - Highlights: • Gamma ray was applied prior to struvite crystallization of livestock wastewater. • Gamma ray resulted in an enhancement of struvite crystallization efficiency. • This is due to the decrease of COD concentration by gamma ray irradiation

  2. Strategies to control odours in livestock facilities: a critical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Ubeda

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Odours generated in livestock buildings constitute one of the most relevant air quality issues of intensive livestock production. Reducing nuisance episodes related to odour exposure is therefore essential for a sustainable livestock production. In this study, the state-of-the-art on odour mitigation techniques in livestock housing is critically reviewed. Scientific advances in the last decade are revised and research needs are also identified. The complex nature of livestock odours is firstly reviewed and examined. Then, the most relevant odour control strategies are analyzed in terms of present knowledge and future needs. The strategies considered are: nutritional strategies, manure additives, building design, air filtration, manure covers, manure treatment systems and windbreaks. Finally, future research needs and priorities when establishing mitigation techniques are identified. Despite important recent advances, there are still some challenges for scientists, producers and regulators, particularly related to field evaluation of odours. Therefore, to control livestock odours effectively, using standardized field assessment techniques will be required. Also, investigating measurement and model errors may be useful to better understand the limitations of the current methods, as well as to identify research priorities.

  3. Estimate of livestock water use in Nebraska during 1980

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, E.K.

    1986-01-01

    The estimated volume of 148,120 acre-ft of water used by livestock in Nebraska during 1980 is the second largest (after Texas) volume used for livestock production in the fifty Sates. Although water used by livestock is a small percentage of the total water used in Nebraska, this use has a major impact on the farm economy of the State, as livestock sales accounted for 59% of the total farm market cash receipts in 1980. About 16%, or 23 ,590 acre-ft, of this use is estimated to be from surface water sources, with the remaining 124,530 acre-ft pumped from the State 's groundwater supply. The estimated livestock water use in Nebraska 's 93 counties during 1980 ranged from 340 acre-ft in Hooker County to 6,770 acre-ft in Cherry County. Livestock water use by Hydrologic Units ranged from 20 acre-ft in the Hat Creek basin 10120106) to 10,370 acre-ft in the Elkhorn River basin, and the Natural Resources Districts ' use ranged from 1 ,880 acre-ft in the South Platte NRD to 17,830 acre-ft in the Lower Elkhorn NRD. (Author 's abstract)

  4. National Livestock Policy of Nepal: Needs and Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upendra B. Pradhanang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes Nepal’s national livestock policies and considers how they can be improved to help meet the pressing national challenges of economic development, equity, poverty alleviation, gender mainstreaming, inclusion of marginalized and underprivileged communities, and climate vulnerability. Nepal is in the process of transforming its government from a unitary system to a federal democratic structure through the new constitution expected by 2015, offering the opportunity to bring a new set of priorities and stakeholders to policymaking. Nepal’s livestock subsector comes most directly within the purview of the National Agricultural Policy 2004, Agro-Business Policy, 2006 and Agricultural Sectoral Operating Policies of the Approach Paper to 13th Plan, 2012/13–2015/16 policy instruments. We systematically review these and other livestock-related national policies through analysis of their Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT. We conclude with the need to formulate a separate, integrated national livestock policy so that Nepal can sustainably increase livestock productivity and achieve diversification, commercialization and competitiveness of the livestock subsector within the changing national and international contexts.

  5. Larkspur (Delphinium spp.) poisoning in livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfister, J A; Gardner, D R; Panter, K E; Manners, G D; Ralphs, M H; Stegelmeier, B L; Schoch, T K

    1999-02-01

    Larkspurs (Delphinium spp.) are toxic plants that contain numerous diterpenoid alkaloids which occur as one of two structural types: (1) lycotonine, and (2) 7,8-methylenedioxylycoctonine (MDL-type). Among the lycoctonine type alkaloids are three N-(methylsuccinimido) anthranoyllycoctonine (MSAL-type) alkaloids which appear to be most toxic: methyllycaconitine (MLA), 14-deacetylnudicauline (DAN), and nudicauline. An ester function at C-18 is an important structural requirement for toxicity. Intoxication results from neuromuscular paralysis, as nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the muscle and brain are blocked by toxic alkaloids. Clinical signs include labored breathing, rapid and irregular heartbeat, muscular weakness, and collapse. Toxic alkaloid concentration generally declines in tall larkspurs with maturation, but alkaloid concentration varies over years and from plant to plant, and is of little use for predicting consumption by cattle. Knowledge of toxic alkaloid concentration is valuable for management purposes when cattle begin to eat larkspur. Cattle generally begin consuming tall larkspur after flowering racemes are elongated, and consumption increases as larkspur matures. Weather is also a major factor in cattle consumption, as cattle tend to eat more larkspur during or just after summer storms. Management options that may be useful for livestock producers include conditioning cattle to avoid larkspur (food aversion learning), grazing tall larkspur ranges before flowering (early grazing) and after seed shatter (late grazing), grazing sheep before cattle, herbicidal control of larkspur plants, and drug therapy for intoxicated animals. Some potentially fruitful research avenues include examining alkaloid chemistry in low and plains larkspurs, developing immunologic methods for analyzing larkspur alkaloids, developing drug therapy, and devising grazing regimes specifically for low and plains larkspur.

  6. Diagnosis of Brucellosis in Livestock and Wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfroid, Jacques; Nielsen, Klaus; Saegerman, Claude

    2010-01-01

    Aim To describe and discuss the merits of various direct and indirect methods applied in vitro (mainly on blood or milk) or in vivo (allergic test) for the diagnosis of brucellosis in animals. Methods The recent literature on brucellosis diagnostic tests was reviewed. These diagnostic tests are applied with different goals, such as national screening, confirmatory diagnosis, certification, and international trade. The validation of such diagnostic tests is still an issue, particularly in wildlife. The choice of the testing strategy depends on the prevailing brucellosis epidemiological situation and the goal of testing. Results Measuring the kinetics of antibody production after Brucella spp. infection is essential for analyzing serological results correctly and may help to predict abortion. Indirect ELISAs help to discriminate 1) between false positive serological reactions and true brucellosis and 2) between vaccination and infection. Biotyping of Brucella spp. provides valuable epidemiological information that allows tracing an infection back to the sources in instances where several biotypes of a given Brucella species are circulating. Polymerase chain reaction and new molecular methods are likely to be used as routine typing and fingerprinting methods in the coming years. Conclusion The diagnosis of brucellosis in livestock and wildlife is complex and serological results need to be carefully analyzed. The B. abortus S19 and B. melitensis Rev. 1 vaccines are the cornerstones of control programs in cattle and small ruminants, respectively. There is no vaccine available for pigs or for wildlife. In the absence of a human brucellosis vaccine, prevention of human brucellosis depends on the control of the disease in animals. PMID:20718082

  7. The Impact of Stakeholders' Roles within the Livestock Industry on Their Attitudes to Livestock Welfare in Southeast and East Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Michelle; Zito, Sarah; Phillips, Clive J C

    2017-01-25

    Stakeholders in the livestock industry are in a position to make critical choices that directly impact on animal welfare during slaughter and transport. Understanding the attitudes of stakeholders in livestock-importing countries, including factors that motivate the stakeholders to improve animal welfare, can lead to improved trade relations with exporting developed countries and improved animal welfare initiatives in the importing countries. Improving stakeholder attitudes to livestock welfare may help to facilitate the better welfare that is increasingly demanded by the public for livestock. Knowledge of the existing attitudes towards the welfare of livestock during transport and slaughter provides a starting point that may help to target efforts. This study aimed to investigate the animal welfare attitudes of livestock stakeholders (farmers, team leaders, veterinarians, business owners, business managers, and those working directly with animals) in selected countries in E and SE Asia (China, Thailand, Viet Nam, and Malaysia). The factors that motivated them to improve animal welfare (in particular their religion, knowledge levels, monetary gain, the availability of tools and resources, more pressing community issues, and the approval of their supervisor and peers) were assessed for their relationships to stakeholder role and ranked according to their importance. Stakeholder roles influenced attitudes to animal welfare during livestock transport and slaughter. Farmers were more motivated by their peers compared to other stakeholders. Business owners reported higher levels of motivation from monetary gain, while business managers were mainly motivated by what was prescribed by the company for which they worked. Veterinarians reported the highest levels of perceived approval for improving animal welfare, and all stakeholder groups were least likely to be encouraged to change by a 'western' international organization. This study demonstrates the differences in

  8. Searching for Symbolic Value of Cattle: Tropical Livestock Units, Market Price, and Cultural Value of Maasai Livestock

    OpenAIRE

    Robert J. Quinlan; Isaya Rumas; Godfrey Naiskye; Marsha Quinlan; Jonathan Yoder

    2016-01-01

    We examine metabolic, market, and symbolic values of livestock relative to cultural “positioning” by gender, marriage, and household production among Maasai people in Simanjiro, Tanzania to assess local “proximate currencies” relevant for “cultural success.” Data from mixed methods ethnographic research include qualitative interviews since 2012, observation of 85 livestock market sales in 2013 and 2015, and 37 short key informant interviews in 2015. We examine fit between market values, Tropi...

  9. Genetic variance components for residual feed intake and feed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Feeding costs of animals is a major determinant of profitability in livestock production enterprises. Genetic selection to improve feed efficiency aims to reduce feeding cost in beef cattle and thereby improve profitability. This study estimated genetic (co)variances between weaning weight and other production, reproduction ...

  10. Results of the joint efforts of Bulgarian and American specialists in the programme for energy efficiency in the industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spasov, Khr.; Folkenbury, H.

    1992-01-01

    The Program on Energy Efficiency in the Industry was initiated in 1991 by the US Agency for International Development in cooperation with the Bulgarian Ministry of the Industry and Commerce and the Committee for Energy (CE). Within this program a series of energy audits in 8 firms, representative for different sectors of the industry, was carried out. In 1992 the joint teams of CE, the firm Ekotekhproduct, Intern Resources Group (USA) and employees of the chosen firms completed an audit programme, aiming at facilitating the development of an energy conservation policy by providing data for establishing the measures and investment priorities for energy efficiency improvement. The measurements and the results of the carried out equipment set-ups undoubtedly proved the presence of vast recourses for energy conservation in low or zero investment procedures including measures in the following fields: setting of the combustion processes of the steam generators and water heating boilers; insulation repairs; elimination of leakages; condenser chambers repairs. The estimated gains in efficiency, the recourse conservation and the expected requites are presented for each case and for each site under study. 17 general causes for inefficient energy consumption in the industry are enumerated, among which: equipment run-down, careless operation and maintenance practice, lack of advanced control devices, lack of consistent concept for information flows, lack of control and maintenance and lack of incentives for actuation of energy conservation measures. 1 tab. (R.Ts.)

  11. Economic competitiveness of underground coal gasification combined with carbon capture and storage in the Bulgarian energy network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakaten, Natalie Christine

    2014-11-15

    Underground coal gasification (UCG) allows for exploitation of deep-seated coal seams not economically exploitable by conventional coal mining. Aim of the present study is to examine UCG economics based on coal conversion into a synthesis gas to fuel a combined cycle gas turbine power plant (CCGT) with CO2 capture and storage (CCS). Thereto, a techno-economic model is developed for UCG-CCGT-CCS costs of electricity (COE) determination which, considering sitespecific data of a selected target area in Bulgaria, sum up to 72 Euro/MWh in total. To quantify the impact of model constraints on COE, sensitivity analyses are undertaken revealing that varying geological model constraints impact COE with 0.4% to 4%, chemical with 13%, technical with 8% to 17% and market-dependent with 2% to 25%. Besides site-specific boundary conditions, UCG-CCGT-CCS economics depend on resources availability and infrastructural characteristics of the overall energy system. Assessing a model based implementation of UCG-CCGT-CCS and CCS power plants into the Bulgarian energy network revealed that both technologies provide essential and economically competitive options to achieve the EU environmental targets and a complete substitution of gas imports by UCG synthesis gas production.

  12. CAN A SMALL WINTER RESORT BE MANAGED AND MARKETED LIKE A LARGE ONE: A CASE OF BULGARIAN SKI RESORT BANSKO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filip Shabanski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Throughout the world today there are about 80 countries which practice various winter sports. Regardless of the wide geographical range demand in terms of existing infrastructure is highly concentrated in a few regions of the world. To be competitive ski resorts have to deliver good experiences and excellent value to tourists. Current community officials and destination managers of the Bulgarian ski resort of Bansko believe that the main weakness of this ski centre is the extensive waiting at the bottom gondola station and advocates expansion of the ski runs and lift capacity. The aim of the article is to research the strengths and weaknesses of the resort in regional and world context and to prove that further expansion will not forge a strong emotional connection with visitors and thus will not bring success in destination markets. The methodology used in this article follows three steps: 1 Literature review on the nature of the ski market in the world, as well as factors contributing to effective destination management; 2 International, national and regional data analysis of existing secondary data on winter sports market and 3 Qualitative study carried out with a purposive sample of key informants. The SWOT analysis based on the results of the qualitative study show that touristic shareholders in Bansko should apply an appropriate strategy for small winter resorts by offering a unique product that speaks to the world instead of trying to promote universal broad product for the mass market.

  13. Current problems of the Bulgarian energy industry against the background of global short-term energy demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batov, S.

    1999-01-01

    The energy demand during the next century due first of all to the expected growth of population necessitates more efficient technologies and huge investments. The production of nuclear energy requires higher safety as well as reduction of costs. A new form of partnership between the developed and developing countries is needed for transferring capital and technologies at special framework terms in order to avoid errors in the process of transition. The Energy Forum'99 highlights the current problems of Bulgarian energy branch and the projects for its future including better utilization of the existing energy resources, for development of new or renewable energy sources, not well utilized at present, and to harmonize the sector with better environmental protection. The most important problems discussed are: 1. Structure and restructuring strategy of the energy sector. Prices and tariffs. Privatization aspects. Construction of new replacement generating capacities; 2. Thermal power plants; 3. Nuclear power plants; 4. District heating and natural gas supply; 5. Efficient energy utilization; 6. Renewable energy sources; 7. Environmental protection and 8. Education

  14. Social and cultural resources for the setting up and functioning of family enterprises in a small Bulgarian town

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrova Ivanka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As a field of culture, the family enterprise shows that in the current European societies the economic operation does not proceed only from a purely rational point of view and that notwithstanding the common speaking of globalization, the local may be a prerequisite for successful economic development. My objective has been to show, proceeding from an example from a small Bulgarian town, that the family enterprise is a field of culture in which the observed phenomena are strongly influenced by the social inclusion of the enterprise and by its tie-up with the context of the urban environment. I shall investigate in what way local social and cultural resources are intensively used in the process of setting up and functioning of a family enterprise from the sphere of hoteldom and tourism in the town of Belogradchik. I intend to study whether these resources are conducive to the economic prosperity of the firm. Another research objective is to establish the manner of identification of the enterprise with the town, with the region and the local culture by way of the services provided (tourist and restaurant. I shall look for an answer to the question of how the enterprise’ working realm fits in the concrete cultural, historical and social context of the town.

  15. Economic competitiveness of underground coal gasification combined with carbon capture and storage in the Bulgarian energy network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakaten, Natalie Christine

    2014-01-01

    Underground coal gasification (UCG) allows for exploitation of deep-seated coal seams not economically exploitable by conventional coal mining. Aim of the present study is to examine UCG economics based on coal conversion into a synthesis gas to fuel a combined cycle gas turbine power plant (CCGT) with CO2 capture and storage (CCS). Thereto, a techno-economic model is developed for UCG-CCGT-CCS costs of electricity (COE) determination which, considering sitespecific data of a selected target area in Bulgaria, sum up to 72 Euro/MWh in total. To quantify the impact of model constraints on COE, sensitivity analyses are undertaken revealing that varying geological model constraints impact COE with 0.4% to 4%, chemical with 13%, technical with 8% to 17% and market-dependent with 2% to 25%. Besides site-specific boundary conditions, UCG-CCGT-CCS economics depend on resources availability and infrastructural characteristics of the overall energy system. Assessing a model based implementation of UCG-CCGT-CCS and CCS power plants into the Bulgarian energy network revealed that both technologies provide essential and economically competitive options to achieve the EU environmental targets and a complete substitution of gas imports by UCG synthesis gas production.

  16. Advanced biosensors for detection of pathogens related to livestock and poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidic, Jasmina; Manzano, Marisa; Chang, Chung-Ming; Jaffrezic-Renault, Nicole

    2017-02-21

    Infectious animal diseases caused by pathogenic microorganisms such as bacteria and viruses threaten the health and well-being of wildlife, livestock, and human populations, limit productivity and increase significantly economic losses to each sector. The pathogen detection is an important step for the diagnostics, successful treatment of animal infection diseases and control management in farms and field conditions. Current techniques employed to diagnose pathogens in livestock and poultry include classical plate-based methods and conventional biochemical methods as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). These methods are time-consuming and frequently incapable to distinguish between low and highly pathogenic strains. Molecular techniques such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and real time PCR (RT-PCR) have also been proposed to be used to diagnose and identify relevant infectious disease in animals. However these DNA-based methodologies need isolated genetic materials and sophisticated instruments, being not suitable for in field analysis. Consequently, there is strong interest for developing new swift point-of-care biosensing systems for early detection of animal diseases with high sensitivity and specificity. In this review, we provide an overview of the innovative biosensing systems that can be applied for livestock pathogen detection. Different sensing strategies based on DNA receptors, glycan, aptamers and antibodies are presented. Besides devices still at development level some are validated according to standards of the World Organization for Animal Health and are commercially available. Especially, paper-based platforms proposed as an affordable, rapid and easy to perform sensing systems for implementation in field condition are included in this review.

  17. Molecular characterization of Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto and Echinococcus canadensis in humans and livestock from Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zait, Houria; Kouidri, Mokhtaria; Grenouillet, Florence Elisabeth; Umhang, Gérald; Millon, Laurence; Hamrioui, Boussad; Grenouillet, Frédéric

    2016-06-01

    In Algeria, previous studies investigated genotypes of Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato in animals and identified E. granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.) genotypes G1 and G3 whereas Echinococcus canadensis genotype G6 was only reported from dromedary cysts. Molecular data on human cystic echinococcosis (CE) were limited. We implemented a large genotyping study of hydatid cysts from humans and livestock animals to specify CE's molecular epidemiology and the genetic diversity in Algeria. Fifty-four human CE cysts from patients predominantly admitted in surgical units from Mustapha Hospital, Algiers, and 16 cysts from livestock animals gathered in two geographically distinct slaughterhouses, Tiaret and Tamanrasset, were collected. Molecular characterization was performed using sequencing of two mitochondrial genes, cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) and NADH dehydrogenase subunit I (NDI). In humans, G1 of E. granulosus s.s. was the main genotype (90.7 %); four samples (7.4 %) were characterized as E. granulosus s.s. G3 and one cyst as E. canadensis G6 (1.8 %). This molecular confirmation of E. canadensis G6 human infection in Algeria was observed in a Tuareg female living in a desertic area in Tamanrasset. All cysts from sheep, cattle, and goat were identified as E. granulosus s.s. G1 and the two cysts originating from dromedary as E. canadensis G6. Twenty concatenated haplotypes (COI + NDI) were characterized. Among E. granulosus s.s., one haplotype (HL1) was highly predominant in both humans and animals cysts (71.6 %). This study revealed main occurrence of E. granulosus s.s. in humans and livestock animals, with description of a predominant shared haplotype corresponding to the main worldwide observed haplotype E.granulosus s.s. G1. E. canadensis G6 was limited to South Algeria, in dromedary as well as in human.

  18. Organic livestock production in Uganda: potentials, challenges and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalubwama, Sylvia Muwanga; Mugisha, Anthony; Vaarst, Mette

    2011-04-01

    Development in organic farming has been stimulated by farmers and consumers becoming interested in healthy food products and sustainable environment. Organic agriculture is a holistic production management system which is based on the principles of health, ecology, care, and fairness. Organic development in Uganda has focused more on the crop sector than livestock sector and has primarily involved the private sector, like organic products export companies and non-governmental organizations. Agriculture in Uganda and many African countries is predominantly traditional, less mechanized, and is usually associated with minimum use of chemical fertilizers, pesticides, and drugs. This low external input agriculture also referred to as "organic by default" can create basis for organic farming where agroecological methods are introduced and present an alternative in terms of intensification to the current low-input/low-output systems. Traditional farming should not be confused with organic farming because in some cases, the existing traditional practices have consequences like overstocking and less attention to soil improvement as well as to animal health and welfare, which is contrary to organic principles of ecology, fairness, health, and care. Challenges of implementing sustainable organic practices in the Ugandan livestock sector threaten its future development, such as vectors and vector-borne diseases, organic feed insufficiency, limited education, research, and support to organic livestock production. The prospects of organic livestock development in Uganda can be enhanced with more scientific research in organic livestock production under local conditions and strengthening institutional support.

  19. The Impact of Stakeholders’ Roles within the Livestock Industry on Their Attitudes to Livestock Welfare in Southeast and East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Michelle; Zito, Sarah; Phillips, Clive J. C.

    2017-01-01

    Simple Summary Improving stakeholder attitudes to livestock welfare may help to facilitate the better welfare that is increasingly demanded by the public for livestock. Knowledge of the existing attitudes towards the welfare of livestock during transport and slaughter provides a starting point that may help to target efforts. We compared the attitudes of different stakeholders within the livestock industries in east (E) and southeast (SE) Asia. Farmers were more motivated to improve animal welfare during transport and slaughter by peer pressure, business owners by monetary gain, and business managers by what is prescribed by their company. Veterinarians showed the most support for improving animal welfare. The results suggest that the role that stakeholders play in their sector of the livestock industry must be considered when attempting to change attitudes towards animal welfare during transport and slaughter. Abstract Stakeholders in the livestock industry are in a position to make critical choices that directly impact on animal welfare during slaughter and transport. Understanding the attitudes of stakeholders in livestock-importing countries, including factors that motivate the stakeholders to improve animal welfare, can lead to improved trade relations with exporting developed countries and improved animal welfare initiatives in the importing countries. Improving stakeholder attitudes to livestock welfare may help to facilitate the better welfare that is increasingly demanded by the public for livestock. Knowledge of the existing attitudes towards the welfare of livestock during transport and slaughter provides a starting point that may help to target efforts. This study aimed to investigate the animal welfare attitudes of livestock stakeholders (farmers, team leaders, veterinarians, business owners, business managers, and those working directly with animals) in selected countries in E and SE Asia (China, Thailand, Viet Nam, and Malaysia). The factors that

  20. Homocystein: A new biochemical marker in livestock sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suleyman Kozat

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The livestock sector is making great contributions to the world economy. Many different diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases, kidney and mineral substance insufficiency, cause huge losses in yield and production in the livestock sector. Early diagnosis is essential to combat these diseases. Today, homocysteine levels are used as biochemical markers in the diagnosis of the functions and diseases of many different organs in human medicine. Homocysteine is an amino acid that occurs in the process of methionine metabolism and does not enter the primary structure of proteins. Homocysteine is a biochemical marker used in the assessment of cardiovascular and renal diseases as well as other organ functions. In this review, homocysteine determination methods and detailed information about which organ and system diseases can be used in livestock sector will be given. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2017; 4(4.000: 319-332

  1. Modeling, Estimation and Control of Indoor Climate in Livestock Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Zhuang

    The main objective of this research is to design an efficient control system for the indoor climate of a large-scale partition-less livestock building, in order to maintain a healthy, comfortable and economically energy consuming indoor environment for the agricultural animals and farmers. In thi...... scale livestock buildings, and could be considered as an alternative solution to the current used decentralized PID controller.......The main objective of this research is to design an efficient control system for the indoor climate of a large-scale partition-less livestock building, in order to maintain a healthy, comfortable and economically energy consuming indoor environment for the agricultural animals and farmers....... With necessary assumptions and simplifications, the dominant air flow distributions are investigated and the phenomenon of horizontal variations is well depicted. The designed entire control system consists of an outer feedback closed-loop dynamic controller and an inner feed-forward redundancy optimization...

  2. CFD Modeling of Airflow in a Livestock Building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rong, Li; Elhadidi, B.; Khalifa, H. E.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a 2D simulation for a typical livestock building is performed to assess the ammonia emission removal rate to the atmosphere. Two geometry models are used and compared in order to represent the slatted floor. In the first model the floor is modeled as a slatted floor and in the second...... the accuracy of the porous jump assumption by comparing the velocity, and ammonia concentration in a 2D simulation, heated solid bodies are added to represent the livestock in the following simulations. The results of simulations with heat source also indicate that modeling the slatted floor with slats...... is necessary. Furthermore, the combination of low inlet velocity and heated objects causes the flow to be buoyancy dominated and unsteady. This unsteadiness can be common in similar buoyancy induced flows for high Rayleigh number flow. The paper concludes with tradeoffs suggested for simulation of livestock...

  3. Estimation of Airflow in Livestock Buildings using Image Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Rasmus

    1996-01-01

    of a livestock building, the airflow in a laser-illuminated plane may be visualized. Based on sequences of images recorded of this plane using a video camera, estimates of 2--D flow vectors are derived locally. The local estimates of velocity are found using a set of spatio-temporal convolution filters...... and camera may be placed so they do not disturb the airflow) for estimating air velocity in a 2--D plane.......In order to evaluate a given ventilation system in a livestock building and its sensitivity to wind, presence of heat sources (e.g. livestock) etc. it is of interest to estimate flow vector fields corresponding to the airflow. By introducing particles (e.g. smoke) into the air inlets of a model...

  4. The benefits of biogas as a livestock waste management technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Putra, Ahmad Romadhoni Surya; Liu, Zhen; Lund, Mogens

    2014-01-01

    neighbor matching (NNM) to measure the benefits of adopting biogas technology. The results indicated that the biogas adopters were the farmers who had a longer formal education; owned more cattle; had better access to information about the technology and better access to the biogas installation’s aid...... program; although, they had less access to formal credit. The estimation of treatment effects showed that farmers who adopted the biogas technology gained benefits through decreases in crops expenses and increases in the livestock and non-agricultural income. Furthermore, the results showed that adopting...... synergies between crop farming, livestock, and household in terms of mixed crop and livestock farming, as an Integrated Farming System (IFS) practice, at the farm household level. Although the biogas technology provided the alternative energy source for the household, the specific benefits as an energy...

  5. Improving animal health and livestock productivity to reduce poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradère, J-P

    2014-12-01

    This study is based on scientific publications, statistics and field observations. It shows the importance of livestock in the economy and in the risk management strategies implemented by poor farming households. A comparison of livestock performance trends with the evolution of rural poverty in developing countries indicates that growth in livestock production alone is not enough to reduce rural poverty. To help reduce poverty, sustainable production should be based on productivity gains. Prerequisites for improving productivity include better public policies, enhanced research and the reduction of animal disease risk. The study draws attention to the economic, social and environmental consequences of inadequate support for animal health and production in the least developed countries, especially those of sub-Saharan Africa.

  6. Nondestructive methods for quality evaluation of livestock products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narsaiah, K; Jha, Shyam N

    2012-06-01

    The muscles derived from livestock are highly perishable. Rapid and nondestructive methods are essential for quality assurance of such products. Potential nondestructive methods, which can supplement or replace many of traditional time consuming destructive methods, include colour and computer image analysis, NIR spectroscopy, NMRI, electronic nose, ultrasound, X-ray imaging and biosensors. These methods are briefly described and the research work involving them for products derived from livestock is reviewed. These methods will be helpful in rapid screening of large number of samples, monitoring distribution networks, quick product recall and enhance traceability in the value chain of livestock products. With new developments in the areas of basic science related to these methods, colour, image processing, NIR spectroscopy, biosensors and ultrasonic analysis are expected to be widespread and cost effective for large scale meat quality evaluation in near future.

  7. A correct enthalpy relationship as thermal comfort index for livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Valéria Cristina; da Silva, Iran José Oliveira; Vieira, Frederico Márcio Corrêa; Nascimento, Sheila Tavares

    2011-05-01

    Researchers working with thermal comfort have been using enthalpy to measure thermal energy inside rural facilities, establishing indicator values for many situations of thermal comfort and heat stress. This variable turned out to be helpful in analyzing thermal exchange in livestock systems. The animals are exposed to an environment which is decisive for the thermoregulatory process, and, consequently, the reactions reflect states of thermal comfort or heat stress, the last being responsable for problems of sanity, behavior and productivity. There are researchers using enthalpy as a qualitative indicator of thermal environment of livestock such as poultry, cattle and hogs in tropical regions. This preliminary work intends to check different enthalpy equations using information from classical thermodynamics, and proposes a direct equation as thermal comfort index for livestock systems.

  8. Integrated Constructed Wetlands (ICW) for livestock wastewater management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Rory; McInnes, Robert

    2009-11-01

    Social, economic and environmental coherence is sought in the management of livestock wastewater. Wetlands facilitate the biogeochemical processes that exploit livestock wastewater and provide opportunities to achieve such coherence and also to deliver on a range of ecosystem services. The Integrated Constructed Wetland (ICW) concept integrates three inextricably linked objectives: water quantity and quality management, landscape-fit to improve aesthetic site values and enhanced biodiversity. The synergies derived from this explicit integration allow one of the key challenges for livestock management to be addressed. An example utilizing twelve ICW systems from a catchment on the south coast of Ireland demonstrates that over an eight year period mean reduction of total and soluble phosphorus (molybdate reactive phosphorus) exceeded 95% and the mean removal of ammonium-N exceeded 98%. This paper reviews evidence regarding the capacity of ICWs to provide a coherent and sustainable alternative to conventional systems.

  9. Development of feeding strategy for ruminant livestock by nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozcan, H.; Cetinkaya, N.

    2002-01-01

    In tropical and subtropical areas crop residues and agro-industrial byproducts are used for feeding ruminant livestock under limited or zero grazing conditions. In order to increase feeding efficiency and livestock productivity supplementation are essential to meet deficient nutrients fbr the diets. For the assessment the impact by supplements or supplementation for feed utilization efficiency nuclear techniques like isotope dilution method are unique for the purpose. For the evaluation the impact by supplementation or supplements by various nitrogen sources together with salts and minerals for energy utilization efficiency carbon-14 labelled acetate was used for tracer to measure outflow rates for volatile fatty acids (VFAs) from rumen by Angora goat bucks.The supplemented diets led to increased VFAs outflow rates from rumen. The conclusion was that ruminant diets composed by crop residues and agro-industrial by-products need supplementation for deficient nutrients to increase feed energy utilization efficiency by ruminant livestock

  10. Effect of Bacillus subtilis microecological probiotics on livestock breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohui ZHOU

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available As a kind of green and healthy microecologics, Bacillus subtilis could balance the intestinal flora, promote the nutrient absorption and enhance immunity. Microecologics is one of the ideal antibiotics alternative, which are effective in preventing and treating animal disease and promoting the growth and development of the animal. Because of its advantages, such as no toxin side effect and no residual or drug-resistant, microecologics has been used in livestock breeding widely. Here, we concluded the characteristics and mechanism of Bacillus subtilis,elaborated application of microecologics on livestock breeding, discussed its problems and suggested its solved methods. In the end, the future of microecologics was expected in order to provide a reference for subsequent livestock breeding.

  11. Adoption of automated livestock production systems in Northern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Søren Marcus; Lind, Kim Martin Hjorth

    2014-01-01

    In the last decades the development of automated systems in livestock production has gained increasing interest among farmers. A combined use of computers and sensor systems has lead the development into new research areas with automated milking systems, grain drying systems and automated feeding...... on the relationship and adoption patterns among these countries. The paper presents the results of the surveyed population, demography, farm structure with livestock production characteristics and farmers use of selected automated systems in livestock production....... systems. The aim of this paper is to present the results of a farm survey and cluster analysis that have been made among 4 countries in Europe. This study is based on replies from 413 respondents in Germany (eastern part), Greece, Finland and Denmark, respectively, and the study comments...

  12. Infectious animal diseases: the wildlife/livestock interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengis, R G; Kock, R A; Fischer, J

    2002-04-01

    The long-standing conflict between livestock owners and animal health authorities on the one hand, and wildlife conservationists on the other, is largely based on differing attitudes to controlling diseases of livestock which are associated with wildlife. The authors have attempted to highlight the fact that these disease problems are frequently bi-directional at the wildlife/livestock interface. The different categories of diseases involved are presented. A new dimension being faced by veterinary regulatory authorities is the spectre of emerging sylvatic foci of diseases, such as bovine tuberculosis, bovine brucellosis and possibly rinderpest; these diseases threaten to undermine national and international eradication schemes, which have been implemented and executed with significant success, and at great cost. Conversely, wildlife-based ecotourism world-wide has expanded rapidly over the past decade and is the source of lacking foreign revenue for many developing countries. Traditional subsistence farming is still the largest source of much-needed protein on some continents and this, together with the growth and hunger of historically disadvantaged communities for land, is forcing enterprises and communities with markedly different objectives and land-use practices to operate effectively in close proximity. Some land-users rely exclusively on wildlife, others on livestock and/or agronomy, while yet others need to combine these activities. The net result may be an expansion or intensification of the interface between wildlife and domestic livestock, which will require innovative control strategies that permit differing types of wildlife/livestock interaction, and that do not threaten the land-use options of neighbours, or the ability of a country to market animals and animal products profitably.

  13. Direction of rational use of water at livestock facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potseluev, A. A.; Nazarov, I. V.

    2017-05-01

    The article notes the world water shortage problem. Against this background, Russia’s agricultural production is considered, in particular the livestock sector as the main consumer of water resources. The structure of the main technological processes at livestock facilities is given and possible technological damage is indicated in case of the lack of technological processes for servicing animals and poultry with water. The direction of rational use of water based on the introduction of new technical and technological solutions of water supply systems and means is substantiated. Constructive solutions of systems and facilities that help to reduce water consumption are presented, and as well a possible positive effect.

  14. Early Old Bulgarian Layer in the Office Menaion of Rostov Provenance of the 13th c. (RNL, F.p.I 37

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Роман Николаевич Кривко

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to the linguistic and textual peculiarities of the Festal Menaion F. p. I 37 preserved in Russian National Library (S.-Petersburg and dated to the beginning of the 13th c. Numerous linguistic features of the manuscript testify to Old West Bulgarian (Old Macedonian literary usage of the end of the 9th — beginning of the 10th c., on the basis of which the earliest Slavonic hymnographical translations were performed. Despite of such an archaic linguistic and textual layers observed in the manuscript, its calendar, structure and content were influenced by the monastic rite based on the Typicon of Patriarch Alexius the Studite which had been translated and introduced in Kievan Rus' at the second half of the 11th c. The linguistic features of the text version as attested by F. p. I 37 have been compared to the manuscripts testifying to the Alexius the Studite text version. It has been affirmed that adaptation of the Old Bulgarian hymnographic heritage in Kievan Rus' followed the unstable trend to neglect the most remarkable South (and South West Slavonic lingustic features and aimed at establishing “neutral” over dialectal Church Slavonic literary usage. The significant part of the article contains the edition of the earliest Slavonic, i.e., Old Bulgarian, translation of the Greek kanon Τάφῳ παρθενοδόχῳ dedicated to the Dormition of the Theotokos. The earliest Slavonic translation of this kanon has been preserved in the unique available manuscript, that is F. p. I 37. The publication of the Slavonic translation is supplied with the first critical edition of the Greek source performed on the basis of twelve manuscripts, the linguistic commentary of the Slavonic text, and remarks concerning some metric peculiarities of the original Greek version.

  15. The Impact of Stakeholders’ Roles within the Livestock Industry on Their Attitudes to Livestock Welfare in Southeast and East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Sinclair

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Stakeholders in the livestock industry are in a position to make critical choices that directly impact on animal welfare during slaughter and transport. Understanding the attitudes of stakeholders in livestock-importing countries, including factors that motivate the stakeholders to improve animal welfare, can lead to improved trade relations with exporting developed countries and improved animal welfare initiatives in the importing countries. Improving stakeholder attitudes to livestock welfare may help to facilitate the better welfare that is increasingly demanded by the public for livestock. Knowledge of the existing attitudes towards the welfare of livestock during transport and slaughter provides a starting point that may help to target efforts. This study aimed to investigate the animal welfare attitudes of livestock stakeholders (farmers, team leaders, veterinarians, business owners, business managers, and those working directly with animals in selected countries in E and SE Asia (China, Thailand, Viet Nam, and Malaysia. The factors that motivated them to improve animal welfare (in particular their religion, knowledge levels, monetary gain, the availability of tools and resources, more pressing community issues, and the approval of their supervisor and peers were assessed for their relationships to stakeholder role and ranked according to their importance. Stakeholder roles influenced attitudes to animal welfare during livestock transport and slaughter. Farmers were more motivated by their peers compared to other stakeholders. Business owners reported higher levels of motivation from monetary gain, while business managers were mainly motivated by what was prescribed by the company for which they worked. Veterinarians reported the highest levels of perceived approval for improving animal welfare, and all stakeholder groups were least likely to be encouraged to change by a ‘western’ international organization. This study demonstrates the

  16. Assessing admixture by multivariate analyses of phenotypic differentiation in the Algerian goat livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouchene-Khelifi, Nadjet-Amina; Ouchene, Nassim; Maftah, Abderrahman; Da Silva, Anne Blondeau; Lafri, Mohamed

    2015-10-01

    In Algeria, goat research has been largely neglected, in spite of the economic importance of this domestic species for rural livelihoods. Goat farming is traditional and cross-breeding practices are current. The phenotypic variability of the four main native breeds (Arabia, Makatia, M'zabite and Kabyle), and of two exotic breeds (Alpine and Saanen), was investigated for the first time, using multivariate discriminant analysis. A total of 892 females were sampled in a large area, including the cradle of the native breeds, and phenotyped with 23 quantitative measures and 10 qualitative traits. Our results suggested that cross-breeding practices have ever led to critical consequences, particularly for Makatia and M'zabite. The information reported in this study has to be carefully considered in order to establish governmental plan able to prevent the genetic dilution of the Algerian goat livestock.

  17. Air treatment techniques for abatement of emissions from intensive livestock production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melse, R.W.

    2009-01-01

    Keywords: Air treatment; Scrubber; Bioscrubber; Biofilter; Biotrickling filter; Ammonia; NH3; Odour; Livestock production; Animal husbandry; Pig; Poultry.

    Intensive livestock production is connected with a number of environmental effects, including emissions of ammonia (NH3), greenhouse

  18. Livestock and Hides and Skins Marketing in Kenya: Problems and investment needs

    OpenAIRE

    Jabbar, Mohammad A.

    2002-01-01

    The paper briefly summarises the historical perspective on the development of livestock marketing in Kenya, current problems of livestock and hides and skins marketing, and recommends investment opportunities to improve the situation.

  19. A comparison between urban livestock production strategies in Burkina Faso, Mali and Nigeria in West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amadou, Hamadoun; Dossa, Luc Hippolyte; Lompo, Désiré Jean-Pascal; Abdulkadir, Aisha; Schlecht, Eva

    2012-10-01

    We undertook a comparative analysis of (peri-)urban livestock production strategies across three West African cities. Using a semi-structured questionnaire, livestock-keeping households (HH) were interviewed in Kano/Nigeria (84 HH), Bobo Dioulasso/Burkina Faso (63 HH) and Sikasso/Mali (63 HH). Questions covered livestock species kept, herd sizes and structure, feeds used, manure management, livestock marketing and production constraints. Sheep and goats dominated (p livestock, whereas field cropping and livestock were integrated. There was no relation between the education of the HH head and the adoption of improved management practices (p > 0.05), but the proportion of HH heads with a long-term experience in UPA activities was higher in Kano and in Bobo Dioulasso than in Sikasso (p livestock keepers in West Africa does not threaten the acceptance of improved technologies and innovations supporting the sustainability of their livestock production.

  20. The economic implications of greater global trade in livestock and livestock products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, J; Upton, M

    1999-08-01

    The Uruguay Round of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) established the World Trade Organization to supervise the reduction of barriers to, and liberalisation of, world trade. The application of sanitary and phytosanitary measures will be standardised to avoid use for protectionist purposes by countries or regional trade blocks. Harmonisation of animal disease control measures within regional blocks is essential if benefits to freer trade are to occur, but this harmonisation must be balanced against potential disease risks and costs associated with disease outbreaks. World trade in livestock products is concentrated among developed countries, although developing countries are responsible for approximately a third of poultry meat imports and exports. Despite liberalisation, the share of global trade by developing countries is unlikely to increase greatly in the short term. The benefits of trade and of freer trade are emphasised. Examples are given of the impacts of trade barriers on developing countries and of the harmonisation of European Union animal health standards. Economic implications for the future of greater global trade are assessed.

  1. Poultry Houses, WI Livestock Consortium Livestock Premises; confidentiality protected by law; use for animal health emergencies only; some aggregated county data, Published in 2009, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Wisconsin Department of Agriculture, Trade & Consumer Protection.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — Poultry Houses dataset current as of 2009. WI Livestock Consortium Livestock Premises; confidentiality protected by law; use for animal health emergencies only; some...

  2. Cystatin C: A new biochemical marker in livestock sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pravas Ranjan Sahoo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The livestock sector contributes largely to the economy of India. Different systemic diseases like renal diseases, neurological and cardiovascular diseases cause huge loss in production and productive potential of livestock in India, which is considered as a major concern for both small and large ruminants. Early detection of diseseses is essential to combat the economic loss. An efficient biochemical marker can be developed which would provide more specific, sensitive and reliable measurement of functions of different organs. Determination of endogenous marker Cystatin C may fulfill the above need which can provide a detection platform not only for Kidney function but also for assaying other organs' function. Cystatin C is a low molecular weight protein which is removed from the bloodstream by glomerular filtration in the kidneys. Thus, it may act as a potential biological tool in diagnosis of renal and other systemic diseases in livestock. This mini-review focuses on the Cystatin C and its clinical importance which can be extensively employed in the livestock sector. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2016; 3(3.000: 200-205

  3. Corn residue utilization by livestock in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corn (Zea mays L.) residue grazing or harvest provides a simple and economical practice to integrate crops and livestock. Limited information is available on how widespread corn residue utilization is practiced by US producers. In 2010, the USDA-ERS surveyed producers from 19 states on corn grain ...

  4. Biomass requirements from natural pastures for livestock grazing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The problem of seasonal shortages of herbage production from natural pastures in the Ethiopian highlands was investigated. This was done by comparing the available biomass amounts on the pastures with biomass amounts required for livestock grazing and for protecting land slope from soil erosion within a given slope ...

  5. Environmental responsibilities of livestock feeding using trace mineral supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Brugger

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Trace elements are essential dietary components for livestock species. However, they also exhibit a strong toxic potential. Therefore, their fluxes through the animal organism are tightly regulated by a complex molecular machinery that controls the rate of absorption from the gut lumen as well as the amount of excretion via faeces, urine and products (e.g., milk in order to maintain an internal equilibrium. When supplemented in doses above the gross requirement trace elements accumulate in urine and faeces and, hence, manure. Thereby, trace element emissions represent a potential threat to the environment. This fact is of particular importance in regard to the widely distributed feeding practice of pharmacological zinc and copper doses for the purpose of performance enhancement. Adverse environmental effects have been described, like impairment of plant production, accumulation in edible animal products and the water supply chain as well as the correlation between increased trace element loads and antimicrobial resistance. In the light of discussions about reducing the allowed upper limits for trace element loads in feed and manure from livestock production in the European Union excessive dosing needs to be critically reconsidered. Moreover, the precision in trace element feeding has to be increased in order to avoid unnecessary supplementation and, thereby, heavy metal emissions from livestock production. Keywords: Trace element, Livestock, Homeostasis, Pharmacological supplementation, Accumulation, Environment

  6. Model Predictive Control of the Hybrid Ventilation for Livestock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Zhuang; Stoustrup, Jakob; Trangbæk, Klaus

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, design and simulation results of Model Predictive Control (MPC) strategy for livestock hybrid ventilation systems and associated indoor climate through variable valve openings and exhaust fans are presented. The design is based on thermal comfort parameters for poultry in barns...

  7. A method for livestock waste management planning in NE Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teira-Esmatges, M.R.; Flotats, X.

    2003-01-01

    A method of decision-making on livestock wastes management in areas with nutrient surplus due to high livestock density is applied in Catalonia (NE Spain). Nutrient balance is made considering soil nitrogen application as the limiting factor. Special attention is paid to the centralized treatment option. The method presented consists of: - minimizing livestock waste generation (at farm scale) as a step previous to any other, both in amount and limiting components,; - applying the nitrogen balance method at regional and municipal scale and providing enough storage capacity in order to apply wastes in an agronomically correct way,; - spatially refining the results of the nitrogen balance by a proposed method that allows precisely pinpointing the hotspots of livestock waste generation, where centralized treatment might be an interesting option, and; - deciding on the waste treatment objectives, provided that treatments be necessary. Knowledge about the wastes, meeting the interests and merging the efforts of the various actors, as well as an adequate budget are necessary ingredients for the success of any waste management plan

  8. Managing ammonia emissions from livestock production in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, J.; Menzi, H.; Pain, B.F.; Misselbrook, T.H.; Daemmgen, U.; Hendriks, H.; Doehler, H.

    2005-01-01

    Around 75% of European ammonia (NH 3 ) emissions come from livestock production. Emissions occur at all stages of manure management: from buildings housing livestock; during manure storage; following manure application to land; and from urine deposited by livestock on pastures during grazing. Ammoniacal nitrogen (total ammoniacal-nitrogen, TAN) in livestock excreta is the main source of NH 3 . At each stage of manure management TAN may be lost, mainly as NH 3 , and the remainder passed to the next stage. Hence, measures to reduce NH 3 emissions at the various stages of manure management are interdependent, and the accumulative reduction achieved by combinations of measures is not simply additive. This TAN-flow concept enables rapid and easy estimation of the consequences of NH 3 abatement at one stage of manure management (upstream) on NH 3 emissions at later stages (downstream), and gives unbiased assessment of the most cost-effective measures. We conclude that rapid incorporation of manures into arable land is one of the most cost-effective measures to reduce NH 3 emissions, while covering manure stores and applying slurry by band spreader or injection are more cost-effective than measures to reduce emissions from buildings. These measures are likely to rank highly in most European countries. - Reducing NH 3 emissions following spreading of manures to land ranks highly because of the large abatement potential and relatively small cost

  9. Methane and nitrous oxide emissions of monogastric livestock in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lindeque

    In this the greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) from South African pigs, ... The agricultural sector, including livestock, forest land and cropland (carbon .... utilizing intake data and diet dry matter digestibilities as: .... but are comparable with default values reported for developed countries such as North America, Canada and.

  10. Residual N effects from livestock manure inputs to soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schroder, J.J.; Bechini, L.; Bittman, S.; Brito, M.P.; Delin, S.; Lalor, S.T.J.; Morvan, T.; Chambers, B.J.; Sakrabani, R.; Sørensen, P.B.

    2013-01-01

    Organic inputs including livestock manures provide nitrogen (N) to crops beyond the year of their application. This so-called residual N effect should be taken into account when making decisions on N rates for individual fields, but also when interpreting N response trials in preparation of

  11. A review of the sustainability of global livestock production

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Judith L. Capper

    of livestock production, is that all foods have an environmental cost and that this is not ... only require the replacement of animal products with plant-based foods, but .... an ideological view of the perceived advantages of historical small-scale.

  12. Analysis of borrowing and repayment of credit among livestock ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined borrowing and repayment of credit among livestock farmers in Cross River State, Nigeria. Data for the study was obtained from the Bank of Agriculture (BOA), Calabar. Descriptive statistics such as percentage count, mean and tables were employed in the analysis. It was discovered that BOA in ...

  13. Assessment of Antibiotic Usage in Some Selected Livestock Farms ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey to assess the use of antibiotics was conducted in 120 livestock farms across the 4 agricultural zones of Oyo state, Nigeria. Data were collected through the use of structured questionnaires on respondents characteristics; educational status, usage, adherence to prescription and withdrawal periods and were ...

  14. Intestinal health: Key to maximise growth performance in livestock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verstegen, M.W.A.; Beever, D.E.; Collet, S.

    2007-01-01

    Livestock production is changing worldwide. It is also the case that the ban on antibiotic growth promoters in Europe, the shift in animal production centres to Brazil or Eastern Europe, increase in demand for traceability and natural production, and the emergence of new diseases, are all forcing

  15. livestock production systems for increased yield on resources

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ciples of business management to research and education programming is ... planning for livestock production research and education ... cultivated with the maximum potential of arable land being ... (3) Approximately 85/, of the land area receives ... trate feeds has had a great impact on the beef cattle in- ..... (45 days A.I.,.

  16. the economic benefits of extension services on livestock production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MRS FOLA AJAYI

    2007-06-08

    Jun 8, 2007 ... This study examined the impact of extension services on livestock output in six communities in .... Divorced. 3. 2.5. Widowed. 2. 1.7. Total. 120. 100. Educational ... status may be constraints on positive impact of extension on.

  17. Policies for Reintegrating Crop and Livestock Systems: A Comparative Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachael D. Garrett

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The reintegration of crop and livestock systems within the same land area has the potential to improve soil quality and reduce water and air pollution, while maintaining high yields and reducing risk. In this study, we characterize the degree to which federal policies in three major global food production regions that span a range of socioeconomic contexts, Brazil, New Zealand, and the United States, incentivize or disincentivize the use of integrated crop and livestock practices (ICLS. Our analysis indicates that Brazil and New Zealand have the most favorable policy environment for ICLS, while the United States provides the least favorable environment. The balance of policy incentives and disincentives across our three cases studies mirrors current patterns of ICLS usage. Brazil and New Zealand have both undergone a trend toward mixed crop livestock systems in recent years, while the United States has transitioned rapidly toward continuous crop and livestock production. If transitions to ICLS are desired, particularly in the United States, it will be necessary to change agricultural, trade, environmental, biofuels, and food safety policies that currently buffer farmers from risk, provide too few incentives for pollution reduction, and restrict the presence of animals in crop areas. It will also be necessary to invest more in research and development in all countries to identify the most profitable ICLS technologies in each region.

  18. Movement response patterns of livestock to rainfall variability in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Livestock movement patterns indicated that forage is the motivation for winter movements and water is the motivation for summer. The movement followed a predictable ... The latter can be considered as a 'key resource' area to sustain animal numbers through critical periods of low rainfall. Overall, seasonal movement ...

  19. Sustainable Livestock Production, Health, and Environment in the ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project aims to promote evidence-based policies for improving livestock production, environmental sustainability, and health in the Bolivian Altiplano's rural communities. Traditional farming under threat in Bolivia Raising sheep and llamas is a fundamental economic activity that is threatened by current agricultural ...

  20. Animal health in organic livestock production systems: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kijlstra, A.; Eijck, I.A.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Organic livestock production is a means of food production with a large number of rules directed towards a high status of animal welfare, care for the environment, restricted use of medical drugs and the production of a healthy product without residues (pesticides or medical drugs). The intentions