WorldWideScience

Sample records for bulgarian livestock genetic

  1. Innovation in Livestock Genetic Improvement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mofakkarul Islam, M.; Renwick, A.; Lamprinopoulou, C.; Klerkx, L.W.A.

    2013-01-01

    The application of genetic selection technologies in livestock breeding offers unique opportunities to enhance the productivity, profitability and competitiveness of the livestock industry. However, there is a concern that the uptake of these technologies has been slower in the sheep and beef sector

  2. Genetically engineered livestock for biomedical models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Christopher S

    2016-06-01

    To commemorate Transgenic Animal Research Conference X, this review summarizes the recent progress in developing genetically engineered livestock species as biomedical models. The first of these conferences was held in 1997, which turned out to be a watershed year for the field, with two significant events occurring. One was the publication of the first transgenic livestock animal disease model, a pig with retinitis pigmentosa. Before that, the use of livestock species in biomedical research had been limited to wild-type animals or disease models that had been induced or were naturally occurring. The second event was the report of Dolly, a cloned sheep produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer. Cloning subsequently became an essential part of the process for most of the models developed in the last 18 years and is stilled used prominently today. This review is intended to highlight the biomedical modeling achievements that followed those key events, many of which were first reported at one of the previous nine Transgenic Animal Research Conferences. Also discussed are the practical challenges of utilizing livestock disease models now that the technical hurdles of model development have been largely overcome. PMID:26820410

  3. Genetic Engineering and Competitiveness of Livestock Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl A.Pinkert

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Our ability to modify whole animal genetics has grown considerably in the last two decades. We have seen concerns regarding food safety and protection of breeding rights of genetically modified animals compel redirection of genetic engineering experimentation toward biomedical applications. Indeed, it has been nearly twenty years since the first transgenic livestock appeared in the literature, yet at this time, there are no commercially viable agricultural species. In contrast to commercialization concerns, in a variety of existing transgenic animal models, basic research into the regulation and function of specific genes (including both gain-of-function and ablation of potentially deleterious gene products has persevered. Pioneering efforts in transgenic animal technology have markedly influenced our appreciation of the factors that govern gene regulation and expression, and have contributed significantly to our understanding of the biology of mammalian development.

  4. Bulgarians: Costumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolar, Walter W.

    This booklet presents background information and descriptions of Bulgarian national costumes. The document is part of an ethnic heritage unit intended for use by elementary and secondary social studies classroom teachers as they develop and implement cultural awareness educational programs on Bulgaria. Costumes from 11 Bulgarian regions are…

  5. The Bulgarian Glory [In Bulgarian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Kachev

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This poem was written specially for the concert “Bulgarian Symbols”, held on 19th of December 2010 in the Great Hall of the National Palace of Culture in Sofia. It marks the most important moments in the Bulgaria history.

  6. Promoting collaboration between livestock and wildlife conservation genetics communities

    OpenAIRE

    Joost, S; Colli, L.; Bonin, A; Biebach, I; Allendorf, F W; Hoffmann, I; Hanotte, O.; Taberlet, P.; Bruford, M.W.

    2011-01-01

    The collaboration between livestock and wildlife conservation genetics communities has the potential to help promote shared priorities, with respect to emerging technologies and new analytical approaches such as next generation sequencing incorporating adaptive variation. The GLOBALDIV Consortium recently organized an international workshop held at the Ecole Polytechnique F,d,rale de Lausanne (Switzerland) including a whole-day session with contributions aimed at taking stock of the situation...

  7. Genetic aspects of enteric methane emission in ruminants livestock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martino Cassandro

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This review summarizes the importance of enteric methane (CH4 emission in ruminants and relevant to the current on knowledge relevant to genetic aspects of enteric CH4 production, highlighting future research needs and directions. Global average temperature has increased by about 0.7°C in the last century. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC reported that anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHG, including carbon dioxide (CO2, CH4, nitrous oxide (N2O and halocarbons, have been responsible for most of the observed temperature increase since the middle of the twentieth century. Agriculture, particularly livestock, is increasingly being recognized as both a contributor to the process and a potential victim of it. Policy interventions and technical solutions are required to address both the impact of livestock production on climate change and the effects of climate change on livestock production. Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO, declared that in the next 50 years, the world’s farmers will be called upon to produce more food than has been produced in the past 10,000 years, and to do so in environmentally sustainable ways. Therefore, the GHG reduction should be treated as a public good. The United States congress is prospecting to define a price on GHG emissions. Limiting the concentration of CO2 and other GHG in Earth’s atmosphere requires a technological and economic revolution. A cost-effective way could be the genetic improvement of livestock, which produces permanent and cumulative changes in performance. Animal variation in enteric CH4 emission has been reported in the literature, providing potential for improvement through genetic selection. 

  8. How does farmer connectivity influence livestock genetic structure?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berthouly, C; Do, Duy Ngoc; Thévenon, S;

    2009-01-01

    in a least-cost path approach. Genetic diversity in the Vietnamese goat population was low (0.508) compared to other local Asian breeds. Using a Bayesian approach, three clusters were identified. sPCA confirmed these three clusters and also that the genetic structure showed a significant spatial pattern...... farmers and their husbandry practices will define the farmer's network and so determine farmer connectivity. It is thus assumed that farmer connectivity will affect the genetic structure of their livestock. To test this hypothesis, goats reared by four different ethnic groups in a Vietnamese province were....... The least-cost path analysis showed that genetic differentiation was significantly correlated (0.131-0.207) to ethnic frequencies and husbandry practices. In brief, the spatial pattern observed in the goat population was the result of complex gene flow governed by the spatial distribution of ethnic groups...

  9. The prospects of selection for social genetic effects to improve welfare and productivity in livestock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther D. Ellen

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Social interactions between individuals living in a group can have both positive and negative effects on welfare, productivity, and health of these individuals. Negative effects of social interactions in livestock are easier to observe than positive effects. For example, laying hens may develop feather pecking, which can cause mortality due to cannibalism, and pigs may develop tail biting or excessive aggression. Several studies have shown that social interactions affect the genetic variation in a trait. Genetic improvement of socially-affected traits, however, has proven to be difficult until relatively recently. The use of classical selection methods, like individual selection, may result in selection responses opposite to expected, because these methods neglect the effect of an individual on its group mates (social genetic effects. It has become clear that improvement of socially-affected traits requires selection methods that take into account not only the direct effect of an individual on its own phenotype but also the social genetic effects, also known as indirect genetic effects, of an individual on the phenotypes of its group mates. Here, we review the theoretical and empirical work on social genetic effects, with a focus on livestock. First, we present the theory of social genetic effects. Subsequently, we evaluate the evidence for social genetic effects in livestock and other species, by reviewing estimates of genetic parameters for direct and social genetic effects. Then we describe the results of different selection experiments. Finally, we discuss issues concerning the implementation of social genetic effects in livestock breeding programs. In our opinion, this review demonstrates that selection for socially-affected traits, using methods that target both the direct and social genetic effects, is a promising, but sometimes difficult to use in practice, tool to simultaneously improve production and welfare in livestock.

  10. The prospects of selection for social genetic effects to improve welfare and productivity in livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellen, Esther D; Rodenburg, T Bas; Albers, Gerard A A; Bolhuis, J Elizabeth; Camerlink, Irene; Duijvesteijn, Naomi; Knol, Egbert F; Muir, William M; Peeters, Katrijn; Reimert, Inonge; Sell-Kubiak, Ewa; van Arendonk, Johan A M; Visscher, Jeroen; Bijma, Piter

    2014-01-01

    Social interactions between individuals living in a group can have both positive and negative effects on welfare, productivity, and health of these individuals. Negative effects of social interactions in livestock are easier to observe than positive effects. For example, laying hens may develop feather pecking, which can cause mortality due to cannibalism, and pigs may develop tail biting or excessive aggression. Several studies have shown that social interactions affect the genetic variation in a trait. Genetic improvement of socially-affected traits, however, has proven to be difficult until relatively recently. The use of classical selection methods, like individual selection, may result in selection responses opposite to expected, because these methods neglect the effect of an individual on its group mates (social genetic effects). It has become clear that improvement of socially-affected traits requires selection methods that take into account not only the direct effect of an individual on its own phenotype but also the social genetic effects, also known as indirect genetic effects, of an individual on the phenotypes of its group mates. Here, we review the theoretical and empirical work on social genetic effects, with a focus on livestock. First, we present the theory of social genetic effects. Subsequently, we evaluate the evidence for social genetic effects in livestock and other species, by reviewing estimates of genetic parameters for direct and social genetic effects. Then we describe the results of different selection experiments. Finally, we discuss issues concerning the implementation of social genetic effects in livestock breeding programs. This review demonstrates that selection for socially-affected traits, using methods that target both the direct and social genetic effects, is a promising, but sometimes difficult to use in practice, tool to simultaneously improve production and welfare in livestock. PMID:25426136

  11. Use of SNP markers to conserve genome-wide genetic diversity in livestock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelsma, K.A.

    2012-01-01

    Conservation of genetic diversity in livestock breeds is important since it is, both within and between breeds, under threat. The availability of large numbers of SNP markers has resulted in new opportunities to estimate genetic diversity in more detail, and to improve prioritization of animals for

  12. Selection for uniformity in livestock by exploiting genetic heterogeneity of environmental variance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, H.A.; Bijma, P.; Hill, W.G.

    2008-01-01

    In some situations, it is worthwhile to change not only the mean, but also the variability of traits by selection. Genetic variation in residual variance may be utilised to improve uniformity in livestock populations by selection. The objective was to investigate the effects of genetic parameters, b

  13. Enhancing livestock through genetic engineering--recent advances and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laible, G

    2009-03-01

    Transgenic technology allows for the stable introduction of exogenous genetic information into livestock genomes. With its ability to enhance existing or introduce entirely novel characteristics at unprecedented magnitude and speed this emerging technology is expected to have a profound impact on the genetic improvement of livestock in the future. The continual advances in animal genomics towards the identification of genes that influence livestock production traits and impact on human health will increase its ability and versatility for the purposeful modification of livestock animals to enhance their welfare, produce superior quality food and biomedical products and reduce the environmental impact of farming. In contrast to biomedicine, which has so far been the main driver for this technology platform, the potential opportunities for animal agriculture are more challenging because of the greater demands on cost, efficiency, consumer acceptance and relative value of the product. While various transgenic concepts for the genetic improvement of livestock animals for agriculture are being evaluated the integration of this technology into practical farming systems remains some distance in the future.

  14. Enhancing livestock through genetic engineering--recent advances and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laible, G

    2009-03-01

    Transgenic technology allows for the stable introduction of exogenous genetic information into livestock genomes. With its ability to enhance existing or introduce entirely novel characteristics at unprecedented magnitude and speed this emerging technology is expected to have a profound impact on the genetic improvement of livestock in the future. The continual advances in animal genomics towards the identification of genes that influence livestock production traits and impact on human health will increase its ability and versatility for the purposeful modification of livestock animals to enhance their welfare, produce superior quality food and biomedical products and reduce the environmental impact of farming. In contrast to biomedicine, which has so far been the main driver for this technology platform, the potential opportunities for animal agriculture are more challenging because of the greater demands on cost, efficiency, consumer acceptance and relative value of the product. While various transgenic concepts for the genetic improvement of livestock animals for agriculture are being evaluated the integration of this technology into practical farming systems remains some distance in the future. PMID:18243310

  15. What can livestock breeders learn from conservation genetics and vice versa?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torsten Nygaard Kristensen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The management of livestock breeds and threatened natural population share common challenges, including small effective population sizes, high risk of inbreeding, and the potential benefits and costs associated with mixing disparate gene pools. Here we consider what has been learnt about these issues, the ways in which the knowledge gained from one area might be applied to the other, and the potential of genomics to provide new insights. Although there are key differences stemming from the importance of artificial versus natural selection and the decreased level of environmental heterogeneity experienced by many livestock populations, we suspect that information from genetic rescue in natural populations could be usefully applied to livestock. This includes an increased emphasis on maintaining substantial population sizes at the expense of genetic uniqueness in ensuring future adaptability, and on emphasizing the way that environmental changes can influence the relative fitness of deleterious alleles and genotypes in small populations. We also suspect that information gained from cross-breeding and the maintenance of unique breeds will be increasingly important for the preservation of genetic variation in small natural populations. In particular, selected genes identified in domestic populations provide genetic markers for exploring adaptive evolution in threatened natural populations. Genomic technologies in the two disciplines will be important in the future in realizing genetic gains in livestock and maximizing adaptive capacity in wildlife, and particularly in understanding how parts of the genome may respond differently when exposed to population processes and selection.

  16. Methods to optimize livestock breeding programs with genotype by environment interaction and genetic heterogeneity of environmental variance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, H.A.

    2007-01-01

    Genotype by environment interaction (G × E) and genetic heterogeneity of environmental variance are both related to genetic variation in environmental sensitivity. Both phenomena can have consequences for livestock breeding programs. This thesis focuses on developing methods to optimize livestock br

  17. Genetic and physiology basis of the quality of livestock products.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Mele

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The animal research gives more attention, for more than twenty years, to the improvement of food quality, because this aspect plays an important role in the consumer choice. In this paper are browsed the principal foods of animal origin (milk, meat and eggs, paying attention on the actual genetic and physiologic knowledge, which influence the quality characteristic. Particularly, we examined the role of Quantitative Genetic in bovine and swine and the growing knowledge about animal genomes and individuation of QTL. Information on genomic regions that control QTL, allow to organize genetic improvement programs, using Markers Assisted Selection (MAS and Markers Assisted Introgression (MAI. Moreover are reported the knowledge about metabolic processes that influence quality especially on lipid and protein component. About other productions are considered the physiology of eggs production and the genetic improvement of hens. Finally the qualitative aspects about poultry and rabbit meat and the actual genetic improvement strategy are reported.

  18. THE EXPECTED VALUE OF GENETIC INFORMATION IN LIVESTOCK FEEDING

    OpenAIRE

    Lambert, David K.; DeVuyst, Eric A.; Moss, Charles B.

    2006-01-01

    Scientific inquiry is increasing our knowledge of plant and animal genomics. The ability to specify heterogeneous production processes, to sort agricultural inputs by genotype, or to guide breeding programs to satisfy specific markets based on genetic expression may potentially increase producer and consumer benefits. This research develops a decision analysis framework to assess the expected value of genetic information. Expected returns are evaluated both in the presence of, and without, ge...

  19. Molecular genetics and livestock selection: Approaches, opportunities and risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: There are over 1,200 million cattle worldwide that provide a source of food, motive power and clothing. Cattle were first domesticated about 12,000 years ago with both the archaeological and molecular evidence suggesting that this occurred in the Near East and that domesticated cattle then spread to Africa and Europe. Traditionally breeding was carried out at a local level, often using a limited number of shared bulls. The selection of individuals with particular characteristics suited to local environments, needs and preferences led to the emergence of distinct breeds with characteristic phenotypes. In 1993 there were 783 cattle breeds worldwide, although the definition of a breed is often vague. With the introduction of artificial insemination (AI) in the more developed countries during 1950s particular bulls with desirable characteristics were more widely used in preference to local bulls. The use of AI, coupled with improvements in management in Europe and North America, allowed rapid progress to be made in the improvement of simple production traits. Breed improvement has been further enhanced by the development of statistical methods to maximize genetic gain achieved by selection on traits that can be readily measured. Consequently, where the economic environment supports high input agriculture, there has been a dramatic increase in milk yield and meat produced from the improved stock. The unfortunate consequence of intensive selection in these areas has been the reduction of genetic diversity, both within the selected breeds, as the superior individuals within these breeds have been used as breeding stock, and also through the replacement of traditional breeds. While the use of improved breeds in areas advantaged by good environmental conditions and a favourable economic climate has allowed the increase in production, all-be-it with the penalty of lost diversity and damage to the environment occasioned by intensive farming practices, in less

  20. Genetic management strategies for controlling infectious diseases in livestock populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bishop Stephen C

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper considers the use of disease resistance genes to control the transmission of infection through an animal population. Transmission is summarised by R0, the basic reproductive ratio of a pathogen. If R0 > 1.0 a major epidemic can occur, thus a disease control strategy should aim to reduce R0 below 1.0, e.g. by mixing resistant with susceptible wild-type animals. Suppose there is a resistance allele, such that transmission of infection through a population homozygous for this allele will be R02 01, where R01 describes transmission in the wildtype population. For an otherwise homogeneous population comprising animals of these two groups, R0 is the weighted average of the two sub-populations: R0 = R01ρ + R02 (1 - ρ, where ρ is the proportion of wildtype animals. If R01 > 1 and R02 0 ≤ 1, i.e. ρ ≤ (R0 - R02/(R01 - R02. If R02 = 0, the proportion of resistant animals must be at least 1 - 1/R01. For an n genotype model the requirement is still to have R0 ≤ 1.0. Probabilities of epidemics in genetically mixed populations conditional upon the presence of a single infected animal were derived. The probability of no epidemic is always 1/(R0 + 1. When R0 ≤ 1 the probability of a minor epidemic, which dies out without intervention, is R0/(R0 + 1. When R0 > 1 the probability of a minor and major epidemics are 1/(R0 + 1 and (R0 - 1/(R0 + 1. Wherever possible a combination of genotypes should be used to minimise the invasion possibilities of pathogens that have mutated to overcome the effects of specific resistance alleles.

  1. Bulgarians@cern.ch

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    The happy Bulgarian family. From left to right, last row to first row: Ilka Antcheva, Georgi Antchev, Dimitri Borilkov, Ivana Hristova, Petiu Petev, Peicho Petkov, Borislav Pavlov, Peter Hristov, Mihail Tchijov, Stefan Piperov, Ekaterina Ivanova, Dimitar Kolev, Roumen Tzenov. Bobby is striding along with his white sneakers, black trousers belted high at the waist and a blue shirt buttoned up to the top. He comes to the coffee table and sits down on the chair crossing his legs. While speaking he fiddles with his glasses and his black curly hair dangles on the sides of his head. Borislav Pavlov or Bobby is a 22 year old Bulgarian summer Physics student at Sofia University and came to CERN to work on ORCA reconstruction software for the CMS experiment. “I will do my thesis on ORCA and it is so good that I can be here, work here where the projects actually happen and exchange experience with the people working here,” he says. “It is an honor for me.” Bulgaria joined CERN as a member state in 1999 but Bulgar...

  2. EU import restrictions on genetically modified feeds: impacts on Spanish, EU and global livestock sectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philippidis, G.

    2010-07-01

    Over the last decade, much controversy has surrounded the usage of genetically modified organism (GMO) technology in commercial agriculture. More specifically, it is feared that GMOs may introduce new allergens into the food chain or contribute to antibiotic resistance. At the current time, the European Union (EU) adopts a zero tolerance policy toward non-approved GMO imports, whilst the approval process has not kept pace with the proliferation of new GMO varieties. In the EU livestock sectors, this apparent mis-match threatens to interrupt supplies of high protein feed inputs (e.g., soy meal) from countries with more relaxed regulations regarding GMOs. Employing a well known multi-region computable general equilibrium framework, this study quantitatively assesses the impact of a hypothetical EU import ban on unapproved GMO varieties of soybean and maize imports on livestock, meat and dairy sectors. The model code is heavily modified to improve the characterisation of the agricultural sectors and land usage, whilst a realistic baseline is employed to update the global database to 2008, the year the hypothetical ban is implemented. In the worst case scenario, there are significant competitive losses in EU livestock, meat and dairy sectors. In Spain, the negative impacts are particularly pronounced given the importance of pig production in agriculture. In contrast, all non-EU regions trade balances improve, with notable trade gains in the USA and Brazil. To conclude, the EU must urgently find a long term strategy for GMOs if it is to reconcile political expediency with pragmatic economic concerns. (Author) 21 refs.

  3. Selection for uniformity in livestock by exploiting genetic heterogeneity of residual variance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hill William G

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In some situations, it is worthwhile to change not only the mean, but also the variability of traits by selection. Genetic variation in residual variance may be utilised to improve uniformity in livestock populations by selection. The objective was to investigate the effects of genetic parameters, breeding goal, number of progeny per sire and breeding scheme on selection responses in mean and variance when applying index selection. Genetic parameters were obtained from the literature. Economic values for the mean and variance were derived for some standard non-linear profit equations, e.g. for traits with an intermediate optimum. The economic value of variance was in most situations negative, indicating that selection for reduced variance increases profit. Predicted responses in residual variance after one generation of selection were large, in some cases when the number of progeny per sire was at least 50, by more than 10% of the current residual variance. Progeny testing schemes were more efficient than sib-testing schemes in decreasing residual variance. With optimum traits, selection pressure shifts gradually from the mean to the variance when approaching the optimum. Genetic improvement of uniformity is particularly interesting for traits where the current population mean is near an intermediate optimum.

  4. Bulgarian INIS Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Nuclear Information System (INIS) is an international co-operative information system, operated by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in collaboration with 116 Member States and 22 International Organizations, with over 35 years of experience. INIS processes most of the world's scientific and technical literature on the peaceful application of nuclear science and technology. The bibliographic database currently contains over 2.7 million records and a comprehensive collection of over 700,000 of full texts of INIS scope publications not easily available through the commercial channels. Bulgaria is a member of INIS since its establishment in 1971. In Bulgaria INIS operates through the National INIS Centre and is represented by INIS Liaison Officer. In this paper an overview of INIS System operation and the information, which can be obtained from INIS database, and how that can be done in Bulgaria is presented. The main activities and services at Bulgarian INIS Centre as well as the input of information, published in Bulgaria, to the INIS database are discussed. (author)

  5. 150 Bulgarian students visit CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Alizée Dauvergne

    2010-01-01

    Between 27 March and 8 April 2010, 150 Bulgarian students from the Astronomical Observatory in Varna visited CERN as part of the “From Galileo to CERN” programme. Bulgarian students participating in the "From Galileo to CERN" educational programme. “It’s interesting to combine astronomy and particle physics”, explains Svejina Dimitrova, organiser of the programme and Director of Varna Astronomical Observatory. The three groups, each one comprising 50 students, first visited Pisa, Padua and other places in Italy  related to Galileo’s life. “Thanks to the visit, students understood telescopes and why Galileo is such an important scientist”, says Svejina. After Italy, they came to CERN for three days and visited several sites: Linac, the Computer Centre CCC, etc. Another group of Bulgarian students in their visit to CERN. “They became aware that particle physics is not only the...

  6. Bulgarian folk dances at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Roberto Cantoni

    2010-01-01

    On Sunday 29 August, the Bulgarian folklore dance group Rhythm visited CERN. After their visit to the ATLAS visitor centre and the SM18 hall, they performed a show in the Pump Room, introducing CERN people to the musical traditions of their country.   The visit of the Bulgarian dance group was organized by Zornitsa Zaharieva, a member of the Beams Department, and Svejina Dimitrova, Director of the Varna Astronomical Observatory. “The students were enthusiastic about the opportunity to visit CERN”, says Zornitsa. “The idea of the performance came from the dance group itself, who wanted to express their gratitude for being given this chance”. The group, comprising around 25 children aged between 11 and 16 from the city of Varna, was hosted by the CERN Dancing Club. For their show, the young dancers, choreographed by Tashka Pavlova, performed traditional dances and songs from different Bulgarian regions. “As a member of the CERN Dancing Club com...

  7. Traditional Bulgarian Hunter's Cuisine (Hunter's Cooking Book (1939 [In Bulgarian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Petrushev

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This very rare book was published in Belogradchik in 1939. The publisher is Stamen Kamenov. Stamen Kamenov owned a printing press, where several books of local and national importance were printed. This is a cookbook with recipes for cooking wild game. The book is relevant to modern man because it shows what has been the cuisine of old Bulgarians.

  8. Polish-Bulgarian-Russian, Bulgarian-Polish-Russian or Russian-Bulgarian-Polish dictionary?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violetta Koseska-Toszewa

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Polish-Bulgarian-Russian, Bulgarian-Polish-Russian or Russian-Bulgarian-Polish dictionary? The trilingual dictionary (M. Duszkin, V. Koseska, J. Satoła and A. Tzoneva is being elaborated based on a working Polish-Bulgarian-Russian electronic parallel corpus authored by Maksim Duszkin, Violetta Koseska-Toszewa and Joanna Satoła-Staśkowiak, and works by A. Tzoneva. It is the first corpus comparing languages belonging to three different Slavic language groups: western, southern and eastern. Works on the dictionary are based on Gramatyka konfrontatywna bułgarsko-polska (Bulgarian-Polish confrontative grammar and the proposed there semantic-oriented interlanguage. Two types of classifiers have been introduced into the dictionary: classic and semantic. The trilingual dictionary will present a consistent and homogeneous set of facts of grammar and semantics. The Authors point out that in a traditional dictionary it is not clear for example whether aspect should be understood as imperfective / perfective form of a verb or as its meaning. Therefore in the dictionary forms and meaning are separated in a regular way. Imperfective verb form has two meanings: state and configuration of states and events culminating in state. Also perfective verb form has two meanings: event and configuration of states and events culminating in event. These meanings are described by the semantic classifiers, respectively, state and event, state1 and event1. The way of describing language units, mentioned in the article, gives a possibility to present language material (Polish, Bulgarian, Russian in any required order, hence the article’s title.

  9. The Bulgarian Experience of Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savova, Julieta

    1996-01-01

    An analysis of recent changes in Bulgarian secondary education looks at several major trends in: the structure of the formal education system; new curricula and conditions for implementation; financing and management of the system; and problems with school staffing. A period of transition characterized by some instability and occasional crises is…

  10. Bulgarian Heroes (Patsov & Mechkov, 2014

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    B.V. Toshev

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This is a book for the participation of Bulgaria in the First World War (1915-1916. The compilers have collected a large number of stories for martial feats of Bulgarian officers and soldiers at the fronts of the war. These stories were published in different sources during or after the war.

  11. A Feast (Poem [In Bulgarian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Kachev

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This poem was written by Valentin Kachev in 1984 at the vineyard of Tsolo Todorov in Bashovitsa. Tsolo Todorov was one of the leaders of the Belogradchik uprising, murdered at the Belogradchik fortress in the summer of 1850. The poem has already been published in books in Bulgarian as well as in Russian.

  12. Genetically engineered livestock for agriculture: a generation after the first transgenic animal research conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, James D; Maga, Elizabeth A

    2016-06-01

    At the time of the first Transgenic Animal Research Conference, the lack of knowledge about promoter, enhancer and coding regions of genes of interest greatly hampered our efforts to create transgenes that would express appropriately in livestock. Additionally, we were limited to gene insertion by pronuclear microinjection. As predicted then, widespread genome sequencing efforts and technological advancements have profoundly altered what we can do. There have been many developments in technology to create transgenic animals since we first met at Granlibakken in 1997, including the advent of somatic cell nuclear transfer-based cloning and gene editing. We can now create new transgenes that will express when and where we want and can target precisely in the genome where we want to make a change or insert a transgene. With the large number of sequenced genomes, we have unprecedented access to sequence information including, control regions, coding regions, and known allelic variants. These technological developments have ushered in new and renewed enthusiasm for the production of transgenic animals among scientists and animal agriculturalists around the world, both for the production of more relevant biomedical research models as well as for agricultural applications. However, even though great advancements have been made in our ability to control gene expression and target genetic changes in our animals, there still are no genetically engineered animal products on the market for food. World-wide there has been a failure of the regulatory processes to effectively move forward. Estimates suggest the world will need to increase our current food production 70 % by 2050; that is we will have to produce the total amount of food each year that has been consumed by mankind over the past 500 years. The combination of transgenic animal technology and gene editing will become increasingly more important tools to help feed the world. However, to date the practical benefits of

  13. Genetically engineered livestock for agriculture: a generation after the first transgenic animal research conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, James D; Maga, Elizabeth A

    2016-06-01

    At the time of the first Transgenic Animal Research Conference, the lack of knowledge about promoter, enhancer and coding regions of genes of interest greatly hampered our efforts to create transgenes that would express appropriately in livestock. Additionally, we were limited to gene insertion by pronuclear microinjection. As predicted then, widespread genome sequencing efforts and technological advancements have profoundly altered what we can do. There have been many developments in technology to create transgenic animals since we first met at Granlibakken in 1997, including the advent of somatic cell nuclear transfer-based cloning and gene editing. We can now create new transgenes that will express when and where we want and can target precisely in the genome where we want to make a change or insert a transgene. With the large number of sequenced genomes, we have unprecedented access to sequence information including, control regions, coding regions, and known allelic variants. These technological developments have ushered in new and renewed enthusiasm for the production of transgenic animals among scientists and animal agriculturalists around the world, both for the production of more relevant biomedical research models as well as for agricultural applications. However, even though great advancements have been made in our ability to control gene expression and target genetic changes in our animals, there still are no genetically engineered animal products on the market for food. World-wide there has been a failure of the regulatory processes to effectively move forward. Estimates suggest the world will need to increase our current food production 70 % by 2050; that is we will have to produce the total amount of food each year that has been consumed by mankind over the past 500 years. The combination of transgenic animal technology and gene editing will become increasingly more important tools to help feed the world. However, to date the practical benefits of

  14. Web presentation of bilingual corpora (Slovak-Bulgarian and Bulgarian-Polish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovan Garabík

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Web presentation of bilingual corpora (Slovak-Bulgarian and Bulgarian-PolishIn this paper we focus on the web-presentation of bilingual corpora in three Slavic languages and their possible applications. Slovak-Bulgarian and Bulgarian-Polish corpora are collected and developed as results of the collaboration in the frameworks of two joint research projects between Institute of Mathematics and Informatics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, from one side, and from the other side: Ľ. Štúr Institute of Linguistics, Slovak Academy of Sciences and Institute of Slavic Studies, Polish Academy of Sciences, coordinate by authors of this paper.

  15. Bulgarian corporate governance rules and institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Tchipev, Plamen D

    2001-01-01

    This short survey on the Bulgarian corporate governance issues follows the European Corporate Governance Survey guidelines as well as the structure and layout of the respective survey on Estonian case. The tables present just the legislative aspect of the problem.The following are some specifics for Bulgarian Corporate Governance which seem important for its understanding.

  16. What can livestock breeders learn from conservation genetics and vice versa?

    OpenAIRE

    Kristensen, Torsten N.; Hoffmann, Ary A.; Pertoldi, Cino; Stronen, Astrid V.

    2015-01-01

    The management of livestock breeds and threatened natural population share common challenges, including small effective population sizes, high risk of inbreeding, and the potential benefits and costs associated with mixing disparate gene pools. Here, we consider what has been learnt about these issues, the ways in which the knowledge gained from one area might be applied to the other, and the potential of genomics to provide new insights. Although there are key differences stemming from the i...

  17. The Bulgarian-Polish-Russian parallel corpus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksim Duškin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Bulgarian-Polish-Russian parallel corpusThe Semantics Laboratory Team of Institute of Slavic Studies of Polish Academy of Sciences is planning to begin work on the creation of a Bulgarian-Polish-Russian parallel corpus. The three selected languages are representatives of the main groups of Slavic languages: Bulgarian represents the southern group of Slavic languages, Polish – the western group of Slavic languages, Russian – the eastern group of Slavic languages. Our project will be the first parallel corpus of these three languages. The planned corpus will be based on material, dating from one period (the 20th century and will have a synchronous nature. The project will not constitute the sum of the separate corpora of selected languages.One of the problems with creating multilingual parallel corpora are different proportions of translated texts between the selected languages, for example, Polish literature is often translated into Bulgarian, but not vice versa.Bulgarian, Russian and Polish differ typologically – Bulgarian is an analytic language, Polish and Russian are synthetic. The parallel corpus should have compatible annotation, while taking into account the characteristic features of the selected languages.We hope that the Bulgarian-Polish-Russian parallel corpus will serve as a source of linguistic material of contrastive language studies and may prove to be a big help for linguists, translators, terminologists and students of linguistics. The results of our work will be available on the Internet.

  18. GOVERNING OF LABOR SUPPLY IN BULGARIAN FARMS

    OpenAIRE

    Hrabrin Bachev

    2005-01-01

    This is the second paper from a series of articles on governing of different types of transactions in Bulgarian farming applying the framework of New Institutional and Transaction Cost Economics. It is based on a large scale microeconomic data from 194 typical commercial farms of different sizes and types from all regions of the country. This study concentrates on factors and modes for organization of labor supply in Bulgarian farms. Structure of kind of labor (permanent, seasonal, irregular,...

  19. The Family Meeting - A Fantasy [In Bulgarian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Kachev

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This short story by Valentin Kachev, a member both of the Union of the Bulgarian Writers and the Union of the Russian Writers, describes an imaginery meeting of Tsolo Todorov, one of the leaders of the Belogradchik uprising of 1850, with his grandson (the author. The tale was published in Russian. Here its translation into Bulgarian is presented. A painted portrait of Tsolo Todorov (Historic Museum, Belogradchik is enclosed.

  20. An Economic Analysis of Genetic Improvement Within a Commercial Livestock Population

    OpenAIRE

    Max Stevenson

    1993-01-01

    This study builds and analyses a dynamic economic model which relates the cost of using a genetically superior sire from outside a base herd to increase the levels of genetic merit of the breeding females and their progeny within that herd. The questions of interest are the optimal length to time over the time horizon to use the genetically superior sire, and with how many females should he be at any different time? If the value of a unit of cost of using the genetically superior sire is smal...

  1. Assessment of Genetic Diversity of Zoonotic Brucella spp. Recovered from Livestock in Egypt Using Multiple Locus VNTR Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M. S. Menshawy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is endemic in most parts of Egypt, where it is caused mainly by Brucella melitensis biovar 3, and affects cattle and small ruminants in spite of ongoing efforts devoted to its control. Knowledge of the predominant Brucella species/strains circulating in a region is a prerequisite of a brucellosis control strategy. For this reason a study aiming at the evaluation of the phenotypic and genetic heterogeneity of a panel of 17 Brucella spp. isolates recovered from domestic ruminants (cattle, buffalo, sheep, and goat from four governorates during a period of five years (2002–2007 was carried out using microbiological tests and molecular biology techniques (PCR, MLVA-15, and sequencing. Thirteen strains were identified as B. melitensis biovar 3 while all phenotypic and genetic techniques classified the remaining isolates as B. abortus (n=2 and B. suis biovar 1 (n=2. MLVA-15 yielded a high discriminatory power (h=0.801, indicating a high genetic diversity among the B. melitensis strains circulating among domestic ruminants in Egypt. This is the first report of the isolation of B. suis from cattle in Egypt which, coupled with the finding of B. abortus, suggests a potential role of livestock as reservoirs of several zoonotic Brucella species in the region.

  2. Literary Toposes in the Contemporary Bulgarian Media: Empirical Data [In Bulgarian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Kantareva-Baruh

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article traces the emergence of a literary topos in contemporary Bulgarian public periodicals. The empirical material collected is expected to be of use for teaching practices in schools at all levels - from secondary to higher ones. It is also a snapshot of the contemporary Bulgarian journalism and society.

  3. Bulgarian National Digital Seismological Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrova, L.; Solakov, D.; Nikolova, S.; Stoyanov, S.; Simeonova, S.; Zimakov, L. G.; Khaikin, L.

    2011-12-01

    The Bulgarian National Digital Seismological Network (BNDSN) consists of a National Data Center (NDC), 13 stations equipped with RefTek High Resolution Broadband Seismic Recorders - model DAS 130-01/3, 1 station equipped with Quanterra 680 and broadband sensors and accelerometers. Real-time data transfer from seismic stations to NDC is realized via Virtual Private Network of the Bulgarian Telecommunication Company. The communication interruptions don't cause any data loss at the NDC. The data are backed up in the field station recorder's 4Mb RAM memory and are retransmitted to the NDC immediately after the communication link is re-established. The recorders are equipped with 2 compact flash disks able to save more than 1 month long data. The data from the flash disks can be downloaded remotely using FTP. The data acquisition and processing hardware redundancy at the NDC is achieved by two clustered SUN servers and two Blade Workstations. To secure the acquisition, processing and data storage processes a three layer local network is designed at the NDC. Real-time data acquisition is performed using REFTEK's full duplex error-correction protocol RTPD. Data from the Quanterra recorder and foreign stations are fed into RTPD in real-time via SeisComP/SeedLink protocol. Using SeisComP/SeedLink software the NDC transfers real-time data to INGV-Roma, NEIC-USA, ORFEUS Data Center. Regional real-time data exchange with Romania, Macedonia, Serbia and Greece is established at the NDC also. Data processing is performed by the Seismic Network Data Processor (SNDP) software package running on the both Servers. SNDP includes subsystems: Real-time subsystem (RTS_SNDP) - for signal detection; evaluation of the signal parameters; phase identification and association; source estimation; Seismic analysis subsystem (SAS_SNDP) - for interactive data processing; Early warning subsystem (EWS_SNDP) - based on the first arrived P-phases. The signal detection process is performed by

  4. Bulgarian Turkish emigration and return.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasileva, D

    1992-01-01

    The main factors which determined the 1989 migration of Turks in Bulgaria back to Turkey are discussed. Background history is provided. After World War I, Turks in bulgaria comprised 10% of the total population. Bulgarian policy had been, up to the 1980s to send Rumelian Turks back, but the policy after 1980 was one of a national revival process to integrate Turks into the developed socialist society. Muslim traditions, customs, and Turkish language were interfered with. International disfavor resulted. In May 1989, the Communist Party declared, in an effort to show democratic ideals, open borders. Thus began the new emigration wave. 369,839 people fled to the Turkish border. 43% of the 9.47 ethnic Turks in bulgaria went to Turkey within 4 months. The numbers decreased in November, and soon after the communist regime ended. New laws were adopted allowing Turks to assume their original Turkish names. The huge migration was clearly political, and as such, the emigrant Turks should be determined as refugees and asylum seekers. The provocation of ethnic Turks was used by the communist regime to solve potential social conflicts. Not only did Turks flee to escape from violence or for religious, cultural, and moral reasons but also due to free market initiatives begun in Turkey in the early 1980s which improved Turkish quality of life. Food and consumer goods were cheaper and economic advantages were perceived. Emigrants were primarily peasants with lower levels of education, professional qualifications, and labor skills. 154,937 (42%) returned to bulgaria and 58% stayed in Turkey to comprise 25% of the former Turkish population. During this period, tensions between countries was high.l Bulgarians actively encouraged emigration and Turkey welcomed it. The emigrants to Turkey were seen as foreigners (muhacir or gocmen) but were received with good will and were readily accepted into menial positions. Emigrants were confronted with political, linguistic, and cultural

  5. Bulgarian banking: looking for sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garabed Minassian

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we trace and analyze the emergence of the crisis in the Bulgarian banking system as well as the behavior of the central bank and other macroeconomic institutions. The average annual rate of growth in the net profits of the commercial banks for the period 2002-2008 amounted to 31.6%, which encouraged and accounted for the increase in credits. After 2008, the pendulum began to swing back as the difficulties in collecting loan repayments increased, the strain in financial balances tightened and assistance and support from the regulators were requested. The level of the financial and operating income was maintained primarily because of the high interest rates on the loans, but the structure of their distribution shifted substantially. Administrative costs and depreciation were nearly frozen up, and impairment and provisions grew at the expense of profit. This work shows that macroeconomic policies allowed the expansion of the lending boom and encouraged its irrational development. Poor operation and poor quality of the institutions not only allowed but also enabled direction of investments to financing of inefficient production structures. Underestimating the negative consequences shoring up a dysfunctional institutional environment is deemed a form of irrationality; however, not one of the immediate economic players acted to override the economic and political environment. The financial and economic crisis currently affecting the country has its roots in the deficiencies of the domestic macroeconomic policies, and therefore, the efforts toward overcoming these failures should be directed at improved domestic macroeconomic management.

  6. My Contribution to BulgarianScienceProblems in 2013 [In Bulgarian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.V. Toshev

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Bulgarianscienceproblems is the only e-mail discussion list, located at yahoogroups.com, moderated by Dr. Lazarin Lazarov, and dealing with the problems of the Bulgarian science and higher education. Its subscribers are currently 5194. This paper lists partly my contribution to the public discussion of the actual situations and challenges of the Bulgarian science in 2013. University/science policy and management and the problems with the failure of the Bulgarian Science Fund are among the main topics considered and discussed.

  7. Livestock models in translational medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, James A; Tuggle, Christopher K

    2015-01-01

    This issue of the ILAR Journal focuses on livestock models in translational medicine. Livestock models of selected human diseases present important advantages as compared with rodent models for translating fundamental breakthroughs in biology to useful preventatives and therapeutics for humans. Livestock reflect the complexity of applying medical advances in an outbred species. In many cases, the pathogenesis of infectious, metabolic, genetic, and neoplastic diseases in livestock species more closely resembles that in humans than does the pathogenesis of rodent models. Livestock models also provide the advantage of similar organ size and function and the ability to serially sample an animal throughout the study period. Research using livestock models for human disease often benefits not only human health but animal health and food production as well. This issue of the ILAR Journal presents information on translational research using livestock models in two broad areas: microbiology and infectious disease (transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, mycobacterial infections, influenza A virus infection, vaccine development and testing, the human microbiota) and metabolic, neoplastic, and genetic disorders (stem cell therapy, male germ line cell biology, pulmonary adenocarcinoma, muscular dystrophy, wound healing). In addition, there is a manuscript devoted to Institutional Animal Care and Use Committees' responsibilities for reviewing research using livestock models. Conducting translational research using livestock models requires special facilities and researchers with expertise in livestock. There are many institutions in the world with experienced researchers and facilities designed for livestock research; primarily associated with colleges of agriculture and veterinary medicine or government laboratories. PMID:25991694

  8. European Citizenship and Youth in Bulgaria: A Qualitative Comparative Analysis between Bulgarians and Bulgarian Turks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranco Brusaporci

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available European citizenship is a new concept, which has evolved with the process of European integration. Starting from the younger generations, the EU seeks to establish a modern and innovative view of citizenship through three fundamental elements - rights, identity and participation - that could lead to new ways of conceiving the relationship of institutions-citizens and citizenscitizens. The idea of European citizenship tends to overcome the historical idea of national states and national identity. It does this by reinforcing its supranational nature and developing an attitude of tolerance towards diversity and human/minority rights. Thus, to verify the impact European citizenship has on the younger generation in Bulgaria, this research is based on an inter-ethnic sample of 30 interviews (16 Bulgarians, 14 Bulgarian Turks and applies a qualitative comparative analysis method. This research seeks to answer these two main questions: 1 How do young Bulgarians perceive the concept of EU citizenship? 2 How do young Bulgarians perceive the new European citizenship in regard to the inter-ethnic relations in their own country? The study suggests that the EU’s attempt to promote European citizenship is underachieving. On the one hand, young Bulgarian people tend to be well exposed to European citizenship, irrespective of their ethnic belonging. On the other hand, the majority of them are sceptical of the tangible value of European citizenship for the reinforcement of a more encompassing and shared notion of diversity and minority rights.

  9. Combining gene-based methods and reproductive technologies to enhance genetic improvement of livestock in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    to be more useful in marker assisted introgression (MAI) compared with selection within breeds. Also in the case of MAI, reproductive technologies will be beneficial because they can help increase the number of animals with the desired genotype. Again, optimal strategies will have to consider genetic diversity as well as risk. No studies have looked at MAI scenarios in a complete framework for livestock production, but such studies would be warranted, as they would likely form an important basis for the use of genetic technologies in genetic improvement programs in developing countries

  10. Affirmation Modality in Bulgarian, Macedonian and Serbian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Grygiel

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Affirmation Modality in Bulgarian, Macedonian and Serbian In the case of affirmation modality the speakers transform their utterances by stressing or attributing a positive value as an additional component added to the semantic structure of a proposition. This type of affirmative polarization is triggered in opposition to negation or hypothetically negative contexts. The goal of the present paper is twofold: on the one hand to compare and contrast affirmative periphrastic constructions in Bulgarian, Macedonian and Serbian and, on the other hand, to ascertain what these constructions reveal regarding the organization of grammatical categories in general and the status of affirmation modality as a coherent and homogenous category with a linguistic validity.

  11. GOVERNING OF MARKETING IN BULGARIAN FARMS

    OpenAIRE

    Hrabrin Bachev

    2005-01-01

    Attempt has been made to identify dominant forms and factors for output realization in Bulgarian farms. New Institutional and Transaction Costs Economics framework is used to estimate comparative efficiency of various modes for realization of farm outputs in farms of different type (unregistered, cooperative, agro-firms) and various sizes (small, middle-size, large). Study is based on a large-scale microeconomic data collected through interviews with managers of 0.5% of commercial farms in th...

  12. Traffic Crimes under Bulgarian Criminal Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralitsa KOSTADINOVA

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper the problems related to the general description of traffic crimes under Bulgarian criminal law are subject of analysis. This is an attempt to explain the systematic place, the classification and the subject of this type of crime. Moreover, the pap traffic crimes. They are understood as constituting acts of public danger, which endanger or damage transport safety to a significant degree. Public relationships, related to transport safety, serve as their direct subject that is in particular the state of protecting road users (such as drivers, passengers, pedestrians as well as road workers from the cause of damage to their life and health. Public relationships, which guarantee safety in the sphere of all types of mechani subject of traffic crimes. The specific features of these crimes stem from the understanding that transport is both useful and especially important activity for any society and at the same time it is a source of increased danger for the life, health and property of citizens. paper is to explain in a clear and concise manner the concept of transport crime according to Bulgarian criminal law. Prior work: the findings in this paper form part of the au subject matter covers transport crimes under Bulgarian criminal law. The present paper reveals in a general manner some of the major characteristics of transport safety paper provides an analysis of t crimes. Results: provision of definition of transport crimes under Bulgarian criminal law and carrying out an analysis of their objective and subjective characteristics. constitute acts of common danger, which affect public relationships related to the safety in transport and which are the source of increased danger, the legal provisions with regard to these crimes guarantee the life and health of Therefore the notion about these crimes has significant implications to the life and safety of any individual. Value: this survey constitutes a first attempt in Bulgarian

  13. Alexei Scheludko (1920-1995: Bibliography [In Bulgarian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.V. Toshev

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available All publications, written by Prof. Dr. Alexei Scheludko (1920-1995, are listed. Prof. Scheludko, f. head of the Department of Physical Chemistry, University of Sofia, and an active member of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, is a founder of the scientific school of colloid science in Bulgaria. He is among the most eminent Bulgarian scholars.

  14. Marker-assisted selection as a tool for genetic improvement of crops, livestock, forestry and fish in developing countries: an overview of the issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter provides an overview of the techniques, current status and issues involved in using marker-assisted selection (MAS) for genetic improvement in developing countries. Molecular marker maps, the necessary framework for any MAS programme, have been constructed for the majority of agriculturally important species, although the density of the maps varies considerably among species. Despite the considerable resources that have been invested in this field and despite the enormous potential it still represents, with few exceptions, MAS has not yet delivered its expected benefits in commercial breeding programmes for crops, livestock, forest trees or farmed fish in the developed world. When evaluating the potential merits of applying MAS as a tool for genetic improvement in developing countries, some of the issues that should be considered are its economic costs and benefits, its potential benefits compared with conventional breeding or with application of other biotechnologies, and the potential impact of intellectual property rights (IPRs) on the development and application of MAS. (author)

  15. Exploration and conservation of bacterial genetic resources as bacteriocin producing inhibitory microorganisms to pathogen bacteria in livestock

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Exploration and conservation of microorganisms producing bacteriocin was done as the primary study towards the collection of potential bacteria and its application in improving livestock health condition and inhibit food borne pathogens. Diferent kinds of samples such as beef cattle rectal swab, rumen fluids, cow’s milk, chicken gut content, goat’s milk were collected at Bogor cattle slaughter houses, poultry slaughter houses, dairy cattle and goat farms. A total of 452 bacterial isolates con...

  16. Development of the Bulgarian Sea Level Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazov, Atanas

    2013-04-01

    Systematic sea level measurements have been started in Bulgaria in the beginning of 20th century and nowadays there are 16 coastal sea level stations in operation. Operators of sea level stations are: National Institute of Meteorology and Hydrology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences (NIMH) - 6 stations, Cadastre Agency, Ministry of Regional Development and Public Works (CA) - 4 stations, Port Infrastructure (PI) - 5 stations and Institute of Oceanology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences (IO-BAS) - 1 station. Six of them are able to provide real time data. The sea level observations in the network of NIMH, performed at six main Bulgarian ports using standard poles, started in 1910. The program, implemented on the NIMH stations, includes daily measurements of the sea level with water gauges (poles). The position of a zero mark of the water gauge is checked once per year. The sea level network of the CA consists of 4 stations: Varna and Burgas (operational since 1928), Irakly and Ahtopol (since 1971). These stations are equipped with stilling-well tide gauges and with mechanical writing devices which draws sea level changes on paper. A mechanical paper writing instruments were installed in Varna and Burgas during 1928 and in 1971, a new paper writing instruments of type SUM (Russian) were installed in the stations of Irakly and Ahtopol. A set of five sea level stations in the ports of Balchik, Varna west, Pomorie, Burgas and Oil port Burgas was build during 2009 in the frame of Port Operational Marine Observing System (POMOS), equipped with high accuracy microwave instruments and operated by PI. In 2010 a new sea level station was set up in the IO-BAS coastal research base Shkorpolovtci. The station is equipped with high accuracy microwave instrument. These six stations are providing real time data. According to the decision of the Council of Ministers in 2012 sea level stations in Varna, Irakly, Burgas and Ahtopol will be operated jointly by Bulgarian Academy of Sciences and

  17. Presentation of the verbs in Bulgarian-Polish electronic dictionary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila Dimitrova

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Presentation of the verbs in Bulgarian-Polish electronic dictionary This paper briefly discusses the presentation of the verbs in the first electronic Bulgarian-Polish dictionary that is currently being developed under a bilateral collaboration between IMI-BAS and ISS-PAS. Special attention is given to the digital entry classifiers that describe Bulgarian and Polish verbs. Problems related to the correspondence between natural language phenomena and their presentations are discussed. Some examples illustrate the different types of dictionary entries for verbs.

  18. Contrastive Analysis of Metatext. Expressing Polish "niemniej" in Bulgarian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Katarzyna Kisiel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Contrastive Analysis of Metatext. Expressing Polish niemniej in BulgarianThe author discusses possible ways of expressing meanings of Polish niemniej, tym niemniej and niemniej jednak in Bulgarian. A confrontative analysis of the equivalents gives grounds for a reflection on how to conduct a cross-linguistic examination of metatext. Two important questions are raised: whether it is methodologically justified to compare objects non-identical such as units and compositions, lexical and grammatical means, and what exactly equivalence within metatext class means. It is expected that analysis of metatext in Polish and Bulgarian will allow to discover mechanisms of creating metatextual units.

  19. Exploration and conservation of bacterial genetic resources as bacteriocin producing inhibitory microorganisms to pathogen bacteria in livestock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chotiah S

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Exploration and conservation of microorganisms producing bacteriocin was done as the primary study towards the collection of potential bacteria and its application in improving livestock health condition and inhibit food borne pathogens. Diferent kinds of samples such as beef cattle rectal swab, rumen fluids, cow’s milk, chicken gut content, goat’s milk were collected at Bogor cattle slaughter houses, poultry slaughter houses, dairy cattle and goat farms. A total of 452 bacterial isolates consisted of 73 Gram negative bacteria and 379 Gram positive bacteria were isolated from samples collected and screened for bacteriocin activity. Determination of bacteriocin activity with bioassay using agar spot tests were carried out on liquid and semisolid medium assessing 8 kins of indicators of pathogenic bacteria and food borne pathogens. A total of 51 bacteriocin producing strains were collected and some of the strains had high inhibitory zone such as Lactobacillus casei SS14C (26 mm, Enterobacter cloacae SRUT (24mm, Enterococcus faecalis SK39 (21mm and Bifidobacterium dentium SS14T (20mm respectively, to Salmonella typhimurium BCC B0046/ATCC 13311, E. coli O157 hemolytic BCC B2717, Listeria monocytogenes BCC B2767/ATCC 7764 and Escherichia coli VTEC O157 BCC B2687. Evaluation after conservation ex situ to all bacterocin producing strain at 5oC for 1 year in freeze drying ampoules in vacuum and dry condition revealed the decreasing viability starting from log 0.8 CFU/ml for Lactococcus and Leuconostoc to log 2.2. CFU/ml for Streptococcus. Result of the study showed that the bacteriocin producing strains obtained were offered a potential resource for preventing disease of livestock and food borne diseases.

  20. Geochemistry of beryllium in Bulgarian coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eskenazy, Greta M. [Geology Department, University of Sofia ' St. Kl. Ohridski' , Tzar Osvoboditel 15, Sofia 1504 (Bulgaria)

    2006-04-03

    The beryllium content of about 3000 samples (coal, coaly shales, partings, coal lithotypes, and isolated coalified woods) from 16 Bulgarian coal deposits was determined by atomic emission spectrography. Mean Be concentrations in coal show great variability: from 0.9 to 35 ppm for the deposits studied. There was no clear-cut relationship between Be content and rank. The following mean and confidence interval Be values were measured: lignites, 2.6+/-0.8 ppm; sub-bituminous coals, 8.2+/-3.3 ppm; bituminous coals, 3.0+/-1.2 ppm; and anthracites, 19+/-9.0 ppm. The Be contents in coal and coaly shales for all deposits correlated positively suggesting a common source of the element. Many samples of the coal lithotypes vitrain and xylain proved to be richer in Be than the hosting whole coal samples as compared on ash basis. Up to tenfold increase in Be levels was routinely recorded in fusain. The ash of all isolated coalified woods was found to contain 1.1 to 50 times higher Be content relative to its global median value for coal inclusions. Indirect evidence shows that Be occurs in both organic and inorganic forms. Beryllium is predominantly organically bound in deposits with enhanced Be content, whereas the inorganic form prevails in deposits whose Be concentration approximates Clarke values. The enrichment in Be exceeding the coal Clarke value 2.4 to 14.5 times in some of the Bulgarian deposits is attributed to subsynchronous at the time of coal deposition hydrothermal and volcanic activity. (author)

  1. Bulgarian electricity market and the large-scale industrial customers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper focuses on a brief overview of the Bulgarian Electricity Market Design and steps toward its development, as well as on preliminary analyses for market opening and influence of large industrial customers to system and market operation. (author)

  2. Fat mass and menarche in Bulgarian and Macedonian girls

    OpenAIRE

    Topоuzov, Ivan; Nikolovska, Lence

    2004-01-01

    The article summarizes the data about the important role of fat mass and sport on the sexual maturity and menarche in girls. The survey encompasses totally 701, 11 - 17 years old girls. The active training are 326 Bulgarian girls. Non-training are 264 Bulgarian and 111 Macedonian girls. Their sexual maturity, the appearance of menarche and the interdependence of these from the level of the fat tissue is examined. No acceleration has been found in their sexual maturity and in the appearance...

  3. Bulgarian-Polish Language Resources (Current State and Future Development)

    OpenAIRE

    Ludmila Dimitrova; Violetta Koseska-Toszewa

    2015-01-01

    Bulgarian-Polish Language Resources (Current State and Future Development)The paper briefly reviews the first Bulgarian-Polish digital bilingual resources: corpora and dictionaries, which are currently developed under bilateral collaboration between IMI-BAS and ISS-PAS: joint research project “Semantics and contrastive linguistics with a focus on a bilingual electronic dictionary”, coordinated by L. Dimitrova (IMI-BAS) and V. Koseska (ISS-PAS).

  4. Contrastive Analysis of Metatext. Expressing Polish "niemniej" in Bulgarian

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Katarzyna Kisiel

    2015-01-01

    Contrastive Analysis of Metatext. Expressing Polish niemniej in BulgarianThe author discusses possible ways of expressing meanings of Polish niemniej, tym niemniej and niemniej jednak in Bulgarian. A confrontative analysis of the equivalents gives grounds for a reflection on how to conduct a cross-linguistic examination of metatext. Two important questions are raised: whether it is methodologically justified to compare objects non-identical such as units and compositions, lexical and grammati...

  5. A Book on Bulgarian High Schools History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asen N. Kozhukharov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the book about the secondary education in Bulgaria during the period from the Bulgarian revival up to 1944, where the focus is on the government policy regarding the secondary education and the legislation of the secondary school as a part of the education system. The body of the book is supported with statistical data. There are three periods outlined within the development – the first one covers the time till the Liberation, from the Liberation until 1909 while the third one is from 1909 to 1944. The second period is characterized by a strive towards the leveling of the male and female secondary schools and their consolidation as a ground for higher education. During the third period the high school takes after the European one, it develops steadily and the short and ineffective changes do not bear any influence on the gradual expansion of the web of high schools (full – male, female, mixed or semigymnasium, with a real, half-classical or classical curriculum.

  6. [Current status in the commercialization and application of genetically modified plants and their effects on human and livestock health and phytoremediation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimatsu, Kayo; Kawano, Noriaki; Kawahara, Nobuo; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Teshima, Reiko; Nishijima, Masahiro

    2012-01-01

    Developments in the use of genetically modified plants for human and livestock health and phytoremediation were surveyed using information retrieved from Entrez PubMed, Chemical Abstracts Service, Google, congress abstracts and proceedings of related scientific societies, scientific journals, etc. Information obtained was classified into 8 categories according to the research objective and the usage of the transgenic plants as 1: nutraceuticals (functional foods), 2: oral vaccines, 3: edible curatives, 4: vaccine antigens, 5: therapeutic antibodies, 6: curatives, 7: diagnostic agents and reagents, and 8: phytoremediation. In total, 405 cases were collected from 2006 to 2010. The numbers of cases were 120 for nutraceuticals, 65 for oral vaccines, 25 for edible curatives, 36 for vaccine antigens, 36 for therapeutic antibodies, 76 for curatives, 15 for diagnostic agents and reagents, and 40 for phytoremediation (sum of each cases was 413 because some reports were related to several categories). Nutraceuticals, oral vaccines and curatives were predominant. The most frequently used edible crop was rice (51 cases), and tomato (28 cases), lettuce (22 cases), potato (18 cases), corn (15 cases) followed. PMID:22687699

  7. Gender, smallholder livestock production, improvement and conservation in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Never Assan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Policy makers, developmental agents and researchers are now aware of the need to incorporate gender  issues in smallholder livestock production  planning and development in order to improve livestock productivity in Africa. This discussion  attempt to explore  the role of gender in smallholder livestock production,genetic improvement and conservation.Strategies to improve livestock production and conservation within the smallholder livestock sector  will not be successful unless gender related issues are taken into account.Ownership of different livestock species by men and women in smallholder livestock production sector  has been documented, often cattle and larger animals are owned by men, while goat keeping and backyard poultry production are largely women's domains.  Therefore, it is assumed that taking cognizance of gender differentials in smallholder livestock production intervention programs will result in effectively implementation of livestockdevelopment programs ensuring more optimal outcomes. The rationale for gender integration in livestock improvement and conservation is driven by the fact that different household members typically hold different livestock responsibilities; they also may have different livestock priorities and livestock production constraints. Gender sensitive livestock policy initiatives such as training women in livestock improvement  and conservation in smallholder livestock production sector should be adopted in order to address specific concerns and priorities of women as major stakeholders in livestock production.Gendered asymmetries in access to livestock and  services not only do a great disservice to women and men livestock smallholder farmers, but they also stifle the potential for more sustainable and effective actions along a given livestock improvement program. In most cases , where  livestock improvement and conservation programs  are being carried out, the lack of gender consideration

  8. Implementation of the Bulgarian-Polish online dictionary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila Dimitrova

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Implementation of the Bulgarian-Polish online dictionary The paper describes the implementation of an online Bulgarian-Polish dictionary as a technological tool for applications in digital humanities. This bilingual digital dictionary is developed in the frame of the joint research project “Semantics and Contrastive Linguistics with a focus on a bilingual electronic dictionary” between IMI-BAS and ISS-PAS, supervised by L. Dimitrova (IMI-BAS and V. Koseska-Toszewa (ISS-PAS. In addition, the main software tools for web-presentation of the dictionary are described briefly.

  9. Trust and solidarity in Bulgarian cooperatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostova Dobrinka

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the strategies of people in agriculture, especially in the mountain regions where the fragmentation of land is significant. The quantity of land there is also limited. This leads to important consequences for the agrarian development. The culture of keeping the lands of the predecessors burdens the market of agricultural lands. The renting of lands depends on the types of plants to be cultivated as the law for renting lands allows contracts for the max of five years and for the farmers it is insecure to cultivate perennial plants on such lands. In this situation the survival of the small-scale farmers depends on their ability to coop and support each other. The article describes the emergence of a coop for bioproduction of roses, mint and milk in the "Valley of Roses", Karlovo and Gabrovo regions, the solidarity between the farmers, the stimuli and barriers to their activities. It reveals the culture of mutual support based not so much on economic but rather on other incentives such as love to nature and environment, strong desire to prove that bioproduction could develop in the country and that bioproducts are the future for Bulgarian agriculture. It is a different coop in comparison with the socialist collectives. The now established coop unites the farmers for education, qualification, market and mutual support for objectives, but each farmer produces his/her products alone. The farmers sell the products together and each one depends on the culture of others' conscious cultivation of bioproducts. Until now, the experience has been positive and the coop has sustainable development. This is also due to the creation of three professional organizations - the coop as a producing unit, organization for distributing knowledge on organic production and a certifying organization of bioproducts. The survival of the coop depends on farmers’ hard work and solidarity, the strong will to survive, the hope for future significant

  10. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids from Bulgarian species of the genus Senecio

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    NADEZHDA KOSTOVA

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Nine Bulgarian species from the genus Senecio were studied phytochemically and/or by GC-MS analysis. Senecivernine-N-oxide was isolated and identified by spectral data for the first time. Different types of pyrrolizidine alkaloids were tested for cytotoxicity on murine lymphocytes. At a concentration of 100 µg/ml, the alkaloid retroisosenine showed immunosuppressive effect.

  11. Impact of institutional modernization and EU integration on Bulgarian farms

    OpenAIRE

    Bachev, Hrabrin

    2008-01-01

    This paper incorporates achievements of a new inter-disciplinary methodology of the New Institutional and Transaction Costs Economics (integrating Economics, Organization, Law, Sociology, Behavioral and Political Sciences) into analysis of Bulgarian agriculture, and assess impact of institutional modernization and EU integration on farm structures and sustainability. Firstly, the new institutional and transacting costs economics framework is briefly presented concentrating on: evolution o...

  12. Skippers of the Sky: A Story [In Bulgarian

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    V. Kachev

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This story by Valentin Kachev, a Bulgarian writer, is for the first years of the astronomical observatory in Belogradchik. Then high school students were involved in recording the trajectories of the first artificial satellites of Earth. This information is transmitted by radio to the Soviet Space Center “Kosmos” in Moscow.

  13. National Mythology and Its Linguistical Resources: The Bulgarian Case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aretov, Nikolay

    This paper discusses the concept of Bulgarian national mythology, a secondary mythology that emerged around the late 18th century based on the fundamental opposition Chaos-Cosmos, near-far, up-down, good-evil, God-Satan, and human-non-human. The new mythology redefined self-images and images of the Other, the main figures, and narratives about…

  14. Semantic packaging in verb-based compounds in English and Bulgarian

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    Alexandra Bagasheva

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Semantic packaging in verb­ based compounds in English and BulgarianThe article contrasts the word­ formation types of (parasynthetic compound nouns and compound verbs in two genetically distantly related but typologically distinct languages Bulgarian and English. While the nature of synthetic compound nouns in both languages is comparable, compound verbs show greater contrasts in terms of types, restrictions and preferences for intra­ compound relations and semantic diversity. An explanation is sought in terms of the influence of word­ relevant syntactic properties on word­ formation phenomena in the two languages. An additional powerful factor is the ubiquity of conversion or syntactic promiscuity in English. A hypothesis is formulated that in Bulgarian the iconicity of word­ formation processes and products associated with the biuniqueness of the sign as understood by Natural Morphology accounts for restrictions on the absolute reign of word­ formation paradigms in Bulgarian, where the distinction between inflectional morphology and word­ formation is more sharply delineated. The typological character of the two languages is ultimately taken into account as a factor which determines the preferences for compounds in English and the prevalence of affixal derivation in Bulgarian. Kompresja semantyczna w złożeniach czasownikowych w językach bułgarskim i angielskimAutorzy artykułu dokonali porównania mechanizmów słowotwórczych wykorzystywanych przy derywacji (parasyntetycznych złożeń rzeczownikowych oraz czasownikowych w językach bułgarskim i angielskim. Badane języki wykazują dalekie pokrewieństwo genetyczne, lecz z typologicznego punktu widzenia są one od siebie różne. W odróżnieniu od mechanizmów tworzenia syntetycznych złożeń rzeczownikowych, które w obu językach są podobne, złożenia czasownikowe różnią się, jeżeli chodzi o ich typy, ograniczenia użycia oraz preferencje odnośnie relacji zawartych

  15. Winter climate variability and classification in the Bulgarian Mountainous Regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problems of snowiness and thermal conditions of winters are of high interest of investigations because of the more frequent droughts, occurred in the region. In the present study an attempt to reveal tendencies existing during the last 70 years of 20 th century in the course winter precipitation and,temperature as well as in some of the snow cover parameters. On the base of mean winter air temperature winters in the Bulgarian mountains were analyzed and classified. The main results of the study show that winter precipitation has decrease tendencies more significant in the highest parts of the mountains. On the other hand winter air temperature increases. It shows a relatively well-established maximum at the end of the studied period. In the Bulgarian mountains normal winters are about 35-40% of all winters. (Author)

  16. The French Interference in the Bulgarian of Bessarabia

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    Valentina Radkina

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The study on the position of the Bulgarian language field proves that it is part of the "national minorities" beside the other languages of Bessarabia (Moldova, Gagauz, Polish etc.. The result of the policy language and history in this region becomes the Russian who works as a filter to any language of national minorities in the former Soviet Union, including Bulgaria. Thus, very fast, the local languages are confined to the gregarious functions and the Russian is reserved for vehicular, official, scientific functions. Despite this policy the national minorities were able to develop their language by borrowing from other languages, including French. The interference from Russian and French has an historical past since the nineteenth century which explains the violence of the French lexicon in Bulgarian. Furthermore this process occurs surreptitiously - in semantic borrowings of lingual units.

  17. Neologisms in bilingual digital dictionaries (on the example of Bulgarian-Polish dictionary

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    Ludmila Dimitrova

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Neologisms in bilingual digital dictionaries (on the example of Bulgarian-Polish dictionary The paper discusses the presentation of neologisms in the recent version of the Bulgarian-Polish digital dictionary. We also continue the discussion of important problems related to the classifiers of the verbs as headwords of the digital dictionary entries. We analyze some examples from ongoing experimental version of the Bulgarian-Polish digital dictionary.

  18. What Bulgarian Banks offer via Internet: an Overview (v2)

    OpenAIRE

    Bojidar Bojinov

    2003-01-01

    The new information technologies adoption and e-commerce emergence change the role of financial intermediaries in new E-conomy. During the last years, the bank started an expansion to the web – they offer broad range of traditional bank products and services via Internet. The remote banking become one of the main channels for bank services distribution. The Internet expansion of the Bulgarian banks is at its beginning. The showed results are based on the Internet research, which has aimed to ...

  19. What Bulgarian Banks offer via Internet: an Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Bojidar Bojinov

    2003-01-01

    The new information technologies adoption and e-commerce emergence change the role of financial intermediaries in new E-conomy. During the last years, the bank started an expansion to the web – they offer broad range of traditional bank products and services via Internet. The remote banking become one of the main channels for bank services distribution. The Internet expansion of the Bulgarian banks is at its beginning. The showed results are based on the Internet research, which has aimed to ...

  20. LINKING ACCOUNTING INFORMATION WITH BUSINESS PLANNING IN BULGARIAN SMEs

    OpenAIRE

    Emil PAPAZOV; MIHAYLOVA, Lyudmila

    2014-01-01

    Observations of accountability and planning show that the best practices of leading foreign companies are poorly known and hardly used in Bulgarian small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). This fact is explained by the limited capacity and resources of the SMEs to conduct independent accountability in combination with an increased outsourcing of services to external specialized organizations (accounting and consulting firms). From an operational perspective this appears to be a relatively e...

  1. The problems of the complex sentences with complements in Bulgarian

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolova Ruselina

    2008-01-01

    The investigation of the complex sentences with complements in Bulgarian is a multifactor analysis, which has to take into account the following issues: a) the lexical meaning of the main predicate, which determines the meaning of the complement in general; b) the grammatical meanings of the main predicate - person (a special role plays the opposition between the speaker and the other participants in communication), number, tense, mood, evidentiality affirmativity or negation; c) the function...

  2. Hear-Say, Inference, Surprise: (Self-)Distancing in Bulgarian

    OpenAIRE

    Sonnenhauser, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Using examples of perfect-like forms in Bulgarian, this paper probes the linguistic potential of the notion of ‘distance’. It is shown how this conceptual metaphor can be semantically grounded and contribute to a systematic analysis of the semantics and interpretational range of the forms in question. By the contextual specification of their semantic components, the possible interpretations of the respective forms can be derived in a straightforward way. This provides evidence for a polysemy-...

  3. Most Important Work Values in Bulgarian University Students

    OpenAIRE

    Svetoslava Bayrakova

    2015-01-01

    This article aims to identify the most important work values of university students. For this purpose, data from an empirical study among students (N = 208), from different study programmes, are presented. Results obtained with the Bulgarian version of the questionnaire WIS/SVP (OS Bulgaria, 2007) revealed that in 2013 there were some gender significant differences in the respondents’ values. The students’ important values were Economic Security, Personal Development, Ability Utilization, Ach...

  4. Livestock production: recent trends, future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Philip K

    2010-09-27

    The livestock sector globally is highly dynamic. In developing countries, it is evolving in response to rapidly increasing demand for livestock products. In developed countries, demand for livestock products is stagnating, while many production systems are increasing their efficiency and environmental sustainability. Historical changes in the demand for livestock products have been largely driven by human population growth, income growth and urbanization and the production response in different livestock systems has been associated with science and technology as well as increases in animal numbers. In the future, production will increasingly be affected by competition for natural resources, particularly land and water, competition between food and feed and by the need to operate in a carbon-constrained economy. Developments in breeding, nutrition and animal health will continue to contribute to increasing potential production and further efficiency and genetic gains. Livestock production is likely to be increasingly affected by carbon constraints and environmental and animal welfare legislation. Demand for livestock products in the future could be heavily moderated by socio-economic factors such as human health concerns and changing socio-cultural values. There is considerable uncertainty as to how these factors will play out in different regions of the world in the coming decades.

  5. Ethical issues in livestock cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, P B

    1999-01-01

    Although cloning may eventually become an important technology for livestock production, four ethical issues must be addressed before the practice becomes widespread. First, researchers must establish that the procedure is not detrimental to the health or well-being of affected animals. Second, animal research institutions should evaluate the net social benefits to livestock producers by weighing the benefits to producers against the opportunity cost of research capacity lost to biomedical projects. Third, scientists should consider the indirect effects of cloning research on the larger ethical issues surrounding human cloning. Finally, the market structure for products of cloned animals should protect individual choice, and should recognize that many individuals find the prospect of cloning (or consuming cloned animals) repugnant. Analysis of these four issues is complicated by spurious arguments alleging that cloning will have a negative impact on environment and genetic diversity.

  6. Multidimensional identity among the youth Bulgarians in diaspora: Case study of Odessa, Ukraine

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    Hristov Petko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to present the results of research conducted in 2013, on the migration strategies among young Bulgarians from the historical Bulgarian diaspora in South Ukraine. The research is the result of a combined methodology - a survey among university students of Bulgarian origin in the city of Odessa and school graduates from high-schools with a Bulgarian Language education (city of Bolgrad and the village of Chiyshia, as well as individual interviews. The main results show a balanced ratio of those willing to temporarily migrate to the “Historic Motherland” (Bulgaria for education and work purposes, and those who do not declare any willingness for migration as such. The formation process of a certain malleable identities among the young representatives of the Bulgarian community in the Southwestern Ukraine is clearly evident from the represented results.

  7. Innovational management problems on Bulgarian mass equities markets

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    S.P. Petkova-Georgieva

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks at some longstanding underpinnings of some innovational management problems in Bulgarian mass equities markets: factors that helped turn the recent lapses of bankers, rating agencies, and mortgage brokers into a crisis of extraordinary proportions and scope. Finance, I will argue, has been on the wrong trajectory for more than half a century. Its defects derive from academic theories and regulatory for more than half a century. Its defects derive from academic theories and regulatory structures whose origins date from 1970s, which encouraged financiers to rely on blind diversification as a substitute for due diligence and ongoing relationships.

  8. FIRST BULGARIAN GAS HYDRATES: ASSESSMENT FROM PROBABLE BSRS

    OpenAIRE

    Vasilev, Atanas

    2010-01-01

    This article is a first attempt of gas hydrate study from probable bottom simulating reflectors (BSRs) for the Bulgarian part of the Black Sea. Eleven probable areas of GHs are found. The volumes of GH and methane in them are determined.The new results show the possibility of wide distribution of gas hydrates (GHs) in the area. Additionally the work introduces new challenging tasks concerning global warming impact on GHs and the role of main faults in forecasting oil and gas potential in the ...

  9. Changes of Bulgarian Coastal Dune Landscape under Anthropogenic Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazov, A.; Young, R.; Stancheva, M.; Stanchev, H.

    2012-04-01

    At one time large sand dune formations were widely distributed along the Bulgarian coast. However, due to increased urbanization in the coastal zone, the areas of total dune landscape has been constantly reduced. Dunes presently comprise only 10% of the entire 412 km long coastline of Bulgaria: they embrace a total length of 38.57 km and a total area of 8.78 km2 Important tasks in dune protection are identification of landscape changes for a certain period of time and accurate delineation of sand dune areas. The present research traces sand dune changes along the Bulgarian Black Sea coast over a 27 year period (1983-2010). This period includes also the time of expanded tourist boom and overbuilding of the coastal zone, and respectively presents the largest dune changes and reductions. Based on the landscape change analyst in GIS environment the study also aims to explore the importance of different natural and human factors in driving the observed dune alterations and destruction. To detect and assess dune changes during the last 3 decades, we used data for sand dunes derived from several sources at different time periods in order to compare changes in shoreline positions, dune contours and areas: i) Topographic maps in 1:5,000 scale from 1983; ii) Modern Very High Resolution orthophotographs from 2006 and 2010; iii) QuickBird Very High Resolution satellite images from 2009; iv) Statistical information for population and tourist infrastructure is also used to consider the influence of human pressure and hotel developments on the dune dynamics. In addition, for more detailed description and visualization of main dune types, digital photos have been taken at many parts of the Bulgarian coast. The study was performed in GIS environment. Based on the results obtained the dunes along the Bulgarian coast were divided into three main groups with relation to the general factors responsible for their alterations: i) Dunes that have decreased in result of shoreline retreat

  10. ELABORATION OF THE SUPERSTRUCTURE OF THE BULGARIAN HOTEL INDUSTRY

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    Tanya Dabeva

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to suggest some terms of reference for the elaboration of the superstructure of the Bulgarian hotel industry. The suggestions are based on the analysis of the superstructure at present. Its capacity, main types of accommodation establishments and their distribution by categories and territory are examined. An analysis is made of some resulting indices such as overnight stays and average stay. The main positive, respectively negative features of the superstructure have been analyzed. Concrete terms of reference have been given in order to overcome the problems specified.

  11. In vitro answer of Bulgarian pepper (Capsicum annuum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Rodeva Velichka; Grozeva Stanislava; Todorova Velichka

    2006-01-01

    Callusogenesis and regeneration ability of cotyledon and hypocotyl explants from three Bulgarian pepper varieties in MS basal medium supplemented with l-3mg/l BAP. l.0mg/1 IAA and 0.5mg/l GA3 was studied. In the different variants of culture medium was registered high level of callusogenesis and organogenesis in both type of explants from the all varieties. The highest percentage of plant-regenerants is established in cotyledon explants (from 3.3 to 18.3) in variant 3 of the culture medium co...

  12. Organic livestock production

    OpenAIRE

    Sundrum, Albert

    2001-01-01

    The development towards a sustainable agriculture has been a main objective of organic agriculture from the beginning (IFOAM, 1978), and a declared objective of the newly applied EC-Regulation (1804/1999) on organic livestock production which provides a clear framework for livestock production. The leading idea is based on the voluntary self-restriction in the use of specific means of production with the objectives to produce food of high quality in an animal appropriate and environmentally f...

  13. Behaviour of inorganic matter during heating of Bulgarian coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vassileva, Christina G.; Vassilev, Stanislav V. [Central Laboratory of Mineralogy and Crystallography, Acad. G. Bonchev Str., Bl. 107, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia 1113 (Bulgaria)

    2006-12-15

    Bulgarian subbituminous (Pernik, Bobov Dol) and bituminous (Balkan) coals were gradually heated under air from 100 {sup o}C to their fluid ash-fusion temperatures (1400-1600 {sup o}C) via 100 {sup o}C intervals and the behaviour of their inorganic matter (IM) was studied. The original minerals and newly formed inorganic phases in the oxidation and combustion products (OCPs) of these coals were identified and the behaviour of 33 minerals and phases was described. The coals studied reveal high detrital abundance and low authigenic mineralization with sulphide-sulphate, carbonate or mixed sulphide-sulphate and carbonate tendencies. The IM of coals is composed mainly of quartz, kaolinite, illite+muscovite, feldspars, pyrite, and calcite, while the other minerals identified have subordinate occurrence. The IM of OCPs includes various pre-existing minerals and newly formed phases. The latter phases are glass, quartz-cristobalite-tridymite, mullite, amorphous clay material, hematite-magnetite, anhydrite, and others originating from the heating of these coals or storage of their OCPs. The physico-chemical processes and temperatures that result in the formation of new phases in OCPs are described. The relationships between the ash-fusion behaviour and chemical and mineral composition of the coals are also discussed. A systematization of the physico-chemical transformations and some comparative characterizations, as well as prediction of certain technological and environmental problems related to the behaviour of IM during heating of Bulgarian lignites, subbituminous and bituminous coals are also described and summarized. (author)

  14. Environmental sustainability of Alpine livestock farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Battaglini

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The 2006 FAO report concerning the environmental impact of the livestock sector has generated scientific debate, especially considering the context of global warming and the need to provide animal products to a growing world population. However, this sector differs widely in terms of environmental context, production targets, degree of intensification and cultural role. The traditional breeding systems in the Alps were largely based on the use of meadows and pastures and produced not only milk and meat but also other fundamental positive externalities and ecosystem services, such as conservation of genetic resources, water flow regulation, pollination, climate regulation, landscape maintenance, recreation and ecotourism and cultural heritage. In recent decades, the mountain livestock, mainly represented by dairy cattle, has been affected by a dramatic reduction of farms, a strong increase of animals per farm, an increase in indoor production systems, more extensive use of specialised non-indigenous cattle breeds and the increasing use of extra-farm concentrates instead of meadows and pastures for fodder. This paper firstly describes the livestock sector in the Italian Alps and analyses the most important factors affecting their sustainability. Secondly, it discusses the need to assess the ecosystem services offered by forage- based livestock systems in mountains with particular attention to greenhouse gas emission and its mitigation by carbon sequestration. In conclusion, comparison between the different elements of the environmental sustainability of mountain livestock systems must be based on a comprehensive overview of the relationships among animal husbandry, environment and socio-economic context.

  15. Testing the usefulness of the molecular coancestry information to assess genetic relationships in livestock using a set of Spanish sheep breeds

    OpenAIRE

    Álvarez, Isabel; Gutiérrez, J. P.; Royo, L.J. (Luis); Fernández, Itziar; Gómez, Enrique; Arranz, J. J.; Goyache, Félix

    2005-01-01

    Recent studies have proposed the use of molecular coancestry coefficients as a measure of genetic variability and as a useful tool for conservation purposes. Using simulated data, molecular coancestry has been shown to become constant very quickly after separation of populations, leading to population diversity remaining constant. However, the use of molecular coancestry information to study the genetic relationships between breeds has not yet been widely explored. ...

  16. Development of germline manipulation technologies in livestock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breeding, based on conventional selection, has been the mainstay for livestock genetic improvement for more than 70 years, and is still so today. Sophisticated statistical and computing tools now enhance conventional genetic selection, nevertheless traits such as fertility and disease resistance have still proved difficult to improve. Gene transfer technology (transgenesis) offers the potential, as yet unproven, to modify these types of traits. A transgenic animal carries integrated DNA sequences in its genome. The introduced DNA can be derived from species other than the host and can be modified in vitro prior to being introduced into the germline. Therefore, transgenic livestock overcome some of the limitations of classical animal breeding regimes, where importation of genes by crossbreeding is limited to those traits already present within a given species. The most used method for introducing genes into the germline of animals involves the direct microinjection of DNA into the pronuclei of fertilised eggs. Pronuclear microinjection, although conceptually simple - a fine needle is used to pierce the pronucleus and the DNA is injected - requires special equipment and considerable dexterity on behalf of the person involved. By adapting the techniques employed for gene transfer in mice, pronuclear microinjection has been used to generate transgenic farm animals. The first attempts to genetically modify livestock owe much to pioneering experiments in mice, where the introduction of growth hormone gene dramatically increased the growth rate and final size of the animals. By contrast, the same approaches in livestock did not prove successful. Indeed, in terms of modifying livestock for agricultural purposes, most of the early expectations were not realised. Rather, it has been the development of novel uses of livestock, particularly for human medicine, that has led the way and advanced this technology. The majority of transgenic livestock have been produced using this

  17. Contemporary Trends in Pupils' Science Education [In Bulgarian

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    A. Tafrova-Grigorova

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The present review paper outlines three of the main trends in the field of the modern science education: the development of scientific literacy, formation of key competences, and constructivist approach. The concept of science literacy is considered in its historical development and contemporary meaning. A brief review of the international and national experience and perspectives in the achievement of a greater scientific literacy among population is done. Several strategies in implementing the key competences approach at school are presented. Based on information and research evidence on international and national studies, this paper provides also a view on the state-of-art of the science classroom environment. Both Bulgarian teachers and students surveyed describe the present classroom environment of blended, traditional-constructivist type whereas their attitudes and desire are in favour of an entirely constructivist-based education.

  18. The problems of the complex sentences with complements in Bulgarian

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    Nicolova Ruselina

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The investigation of the complex sentences with complements in Bulgarian is a multifactor analysis, which has to take into account the following issues: a the lexical meaning of the main predicate, which determines the meaning of the complement in general; b the grammatical meanings of the main predicate - person (a special role plays the opposition between the speaker and the other participants in communication, number, tense, mood, evidentiality affirmativity or negation; c the functions of the linking words - complementizers, particles, interrogatives, relatives; d the meaning of the complement and its related presuppositions or implications (if any, its modality, its illocutionary force, its formal structure, its syntactic position in the complex sentence; e the combinatorial potential of the matrix sentence and the complement in both aspects - semantic and formal.

  19. National Identity of Young Adolescents of Czech and Bulgarian Origin

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    Z. Ganeva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the structure of national identity among young adolescents of Bulgarian and Czech origin. University students (N=161 completed the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure-Revised (MEIM-R (Phinney & Ong, 2007, four measures of psychological well-being and a measure of salience of ethnicity. Factor analyses of data for the two national groups yielded a two-factor structure that corresponded to two theoretical approaches to ethnic identity, as hypothesised. Similar patterns in magnitude of loadings were observed across groups, indicating that the MEIM-R could be used as a global composite index of national identity. National identity was related positively to measures of psychological well-being such as mastery, self-esteem and optimism, and negatively to measure of loneliness. MEIM-R scores were also moderately correlated with salience (the importance of a person's own national background in his or her life, across national groups.

  20. Contemporary Marketing Tools Used from Bulgarian Private Dentists

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    Kazakova S.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the use of different marketing tools among dentists for the development of private dental practices. Material and methods: A phone call survey was conducted. The survey consisted of questions related to the use of different marketing tools used by dentists for the development of their practices. Results: The most used contemporary marketing tools from Bulgarian dentist are the presence of web site (24.3% and social media advertisement (21.57%. The less used tools are media advertisement (0.68% and the use of flyers (1.36%. Conclusion: Dentists are not well acquainted with the contemporary marketing tools. The internal marketing is most secure tool for attracting new patients. Internet technology gives opportunity for additional form of rapid communication and advertisement on a moderate price.

  1. The correspondence between Miodrag Vasiljević and Bulgarian Musicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Jelena L.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The Serbian ethnomusicologist and music pedagogue Miodrag A. Vasiljević corresponded with colleagues from neighboring Bulgaria between 1934 and 1962. This exchange of letters went through three phases. The first phase was linked with his stay in Skopje until the breakout of World War II; during the second phase - in the course of the 1940's - he was active in the Department for Folk Music at Radio Belgrade and he founded his method of music teaching on traditional Serbian music; in the third phase (the 1950's and beginning of 1960's Vasiljević aimed at a closer cooperation with Bulgarian musicians. All the phases are characterized by his pronounced interest in the folk music heritage of Balkan peoples. At the beginning that interest was focused on popularizing art music that was based on folk music. Later, he enthusiastically carried out his reforms of music teaching in Serbia, as well as improvements of methods in Serbian ethnomusicology.

  2. Old bulgarian architecture - an university of solar energy application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobrinova, Annie [Bulgarian Solar Energy Society, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2008-07-01

    The impressing involvement of the ancient Bulgarian houses in the surroundings and their composition reveal nearly all aspects of Solar Energy (SE) and energy efficiency(EE) tools' application. In this paper are concerned (and richly illustrated), namely: direct/indirect gains, thermal mass, convectional loops, sun spaces (atrium case), solar chimney, synthesis exterior/interior; etc. The joint effect is highly convincing in the SE and EE knowledge of ancient anonymous master-builder. The SE conception is obviously always well considered, readable, well planned and its combined effect is not accidental at all. Such investigation could be of great importance for a new meaning (not only in Bulgaria) to History of Architecture. Investigations like this could motivate a future unwritten yet Bioclimatic history of world architecture. (orig.)

  3. Pages from the Past: Part I [In Bulgarian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Stefanova Strigacheva

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Pages from the past are recollections written in 1970s by Ferdinanda - Venka Stefanova Strigacheva (1897-1976. A large period of time after 1910 is covered. She was born in the village of Targovishte, Belogradchik region. She graduated from the Secondary School for Girls in Vidin. Then she became a teacher. Later she studied agronomy in Wien and Berlin. Ferdinanda Strigacheva was an active and influential communist. However, when the communists became in power in Bulgaria in the autumn of 1944, she left aside from the policy disappointed from the actions of the Bulgarian Communist Party; nevertheless Strigacheva kept her loyality to the Party and beliefs into the communism. Strigacheva son Dr. Atanas Strigachev and his son Dr. Anton Strigachev prepared the text for publishing, mainly with changing the spelling into the modern one.

  4. Prospects of Livestock Production in Balochistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Raziq*, M. Younas1 and Z. Rehman

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Balochistan is the largest province of Pakistan and makes about 44% of the total geographical area of the country. Most of the area is rangelands with only 5% arable. Animal agriculture is centuries old occupation of the people of Balochistan. Livestock are one of the major important sectors of the province having about 20% of the national stock. However, with little manufacturing facilities and under-developed infrastructure, the provincial economy lags far behind other parts of the country. This is the cradle of many precious livestock breeds and livestock make an important part of the socio-cultural and socioeconomic survival of its inhabitants. The biodiversity of animal genetic resources plays very pivotal role in the economy of the province and each breed has its own uniqueness and socioeconomic importance. The exact value of such precious animal genetic resource has never been realized as yet and no serious steps have been taken for its improvement. It is the utmost need of the time to rethink on the policies relating to livestock production in the province while keeping the needs of the growing population, socio-cultural change and the global warming issues in mind.

  5. Projecting Livestock Numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Forbes, Rod; Gardiner, Peter

    2004-01-01

    The Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry (MAF) undertakes forecasts and projections of livestock numbers as part of the twice yearly contribution to The Treasury’s economic and fiscal updates. MAF’s Pastoral Supply Response Model (PSRM) was recently re-developed and used for the first time in the Budget Economic and Fiscal Update round of 2004. The PSRM projects annual inventory numbers as at 30 June, births and livestock numbers for slaughter. The paper discusses the PSRM, the post-model adj...

  6. Which Place for Bulgarian Literature in the “World Republic of Letters”?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Vrinat-Nikolov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the case of Bulgarian literature in France, Vrinat-Nikolov suggests that forming a general stereotype of the source-culture within the target-culture may be productive. She also argues for adopting a “foreignising” (L. Venuti, yet not “exoticising” strategy of translation, and implicitly links this translatology issue to the culturological concept of ‘self-colonisation’. Promoting Bulgarian literature abroad should rely on the cumulative effect of efforts by the different agents of the Bulgarian literary field, beginning with a translational strategy focused on recreating a poetics (after H. Meschonnic, which could enhance the appeal even of a literature as unappealing as Bulgarian literature in France.

  7. Livestock-Associated Methicillin Resistant and Methicillin Susceptible Staphylococcus aureus Sequence Type (CC1 in European Farmed Animals: High Genetic Relatedness of Isolates from Italian Cattle Herds and Humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Alba

    Full Text Available Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA Sequence Type (ST1, Clonal Complex(CC1, SCCmec V is one of the major Livestock-Associated (LA- lineages in pig farming industry in Italy and is associated with pigs in other European countries. Recently, it has been increasingly detected in Italian dairy cattle herds. The aim of this study was to analyse the differences between ST1 MRSA and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA from cattle and pig herds in Italy and Europe and human isolates. Sixty-tree animal isolates from different holdings and 20 human isolates were characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE, spa-typing, SCCmec typing, and by micro-array analysis for several virulence, antimicrobial resistance, and strain/host-specific marker genes. Three major PFGE clusters were detected. The bovine isolates shared a high (≥90% to 100% similarity with human isolates and carried the same SCCmec type IVa. They often showed genetic features typical of human adaptation or present in human-associated CC1: Immune evasion cluster (IEC genes sak and scn, or sea; sat and aphA3-mediated aminoglycoside resistance. Contrary, typical markers of porcine origin in Italy and Spain, like erm(A mediated macrolide-lincosamide-streptograminB, and of vga(A-mediated pleuromutilin resistance were always absent in human and bovine isolates. Most of ST(CC1 MRSA from dairy cattle were multidrug-resistant and contained virulence and immunomodulatory genes associated with full capability of colonizing humans. As such, these strains may represent a greater human hazard than the porcine strains. The zoonotic capacity of CC1 LA-MRSA from livestock must be taken seriously and measures should be implemented at farm-level to prevent spill-over.

  8. Livestock-Associated Methicillin Resistant and Methicillin Susceptible Staphylococcus aureus Sequence Type (CC)1 in European Farmed Animals: High Genetic Relatedness of Isolates from Italian Cattle Herds and Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alba, Patricia; Feltrin, Fabiola; Cordaro, Gessica; Porrero, María Concepción; Kraushaar, Britta; Argudín, María Angeles; Nykäsenoja, Suvi; Monaco, Monica; Stegger, Marc; Aarestrup, Frank M; Butaye, Patrick; Franco, Alessia; Battisti, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Sequence Type (ST)1, Clonal Complex(CC)1, SCCmec V is one of the major Livestock-Associated (LA-) lineages in pig farming industry in Italy and is associated with pigs in other European countries. Recently, it has been increasingly detected in Italian dairy cattle herds. The aim of this study was to analyse the differences between ST1 MRSA and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) from cattle and pig herds in Italy and Europe and human isolates. Sixty-tree animal isolates from different holdings and 20 human isolates were characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), spa-typing, SCCmec typing, and by micro-array analysis for several virulence, antimicrobial resistance, and strain/host-specific marker genes. Three major PFGE clusters were detected. The bovine isolates shared a high (≥90% to 100%) similarity with human isolates and carried the same SCCmec type IVa. They often showed genetic features typical of human adaptation or present in human-associated CC1: Immune evasion cluster (IEC) genes sak and scn, or sea; sat and aphA3-mediated aminoglycoside resistance. Contrary, typical markers of porcine origin in Italy and Spain, like erm(A) mediated macrolide-lincosamide-streptograminB, and of vga(A)-mediated pleuromutilin resistance were always absent in human and bovine isolates. Most of ST(CC)1 MRSA from dairy cattle were multidrug-resistant and contained virulence and immunomodulatory genes associated with full capability of colonizing humans. As such, these strains may represent a greater human hazard than the porcine strains. The zoonotic capacity of CC1 LA-MRSA from livestock must be taken seriously and measures should be implemented at farm-level to prevent spill-over.

  9. Antitumor activity of Bulgarian herb Tribulus terrestris L. on human breast cancer cells

    OpenAIRE

    Svetla Angelova; Zlatina Gospodinova; Maria Krasteva; Georgi Antov; Valentin Lozanov; Tsanko Markov; Stefan Bozhanov; Elena Georgieva; Vanio Mitev

    2013-01-01

    Medicinal plants have been intensively studied as a source of antitumor compounds. Due to the beneficial climate conditions Bulgarian herbs have high pharmacological potential. Currently, the antitumor effect of the Bulgarian medicinal plant Tribulus terrestris L. on human cancer cell lines is not studied. The main active compounds of the plant are the steroid saponins.The present study aims to analyze the effect on cell viability and apoptotic activity of total extract and saponin fraction o...

  10. Contemporary Contrastive Studies of Polish, Bulgarian and Russian Neologisms versus Language Corpora

    OpenAIRE

    Joanna Satoła-Staśkowiak

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary Contrastive Studies of Polish, Bulgarian and Russian Neologisms versus Language CorporaIn the field of Slavonic linguistics contrastive studies of neologisms occupy little place, the newest words are insufficiently described and classified. The aim of this article is to draw attention to the need for contrastive description of the newest lexis and checking exclusively one of many possibilities of obtaining Polish, Bulgarian and Russian neologisms. Language corpora, as this possib...

  11. ACTN3 and AMPD1 Polymorphism and Genotype Combinations in Bulgarian Athletes Performing Wingate Test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peter Atanasov[1; Trayana Djarova[2; Michael Kalinski[3; Lubomir Petrov[4; Radka Kaneva[5; Sam Mugandani[6; Gregori Watson[7; Monem Jemni[8

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate ACTN3 (ct-actinin-3) and AMPD1 (adenosine monophosphate deaminase) polymorphism and genotype combinations in Bulgarian athletes competing in various sports and the relation to peak power output. A mixed group of athletes (n = 52) competing at national and international level and a matching genetic control group (n = 109) of volunteers were recruited. Participants were genotyped for ACTN3 and AMPD1 by polymerase chain reaction. There were no significant differences in ACTN3 genotype distribution between athletes performing Wingate test (38% RR, 46% RX, 16% XX) and controls (41.2% RR, 46% RX, 12.8% XX). AMPD1 distribution was (73% CC, 27% CT, 0% TT) and in controls (73.2% CC, 25% CT, 1.8% TT). Athletes performing Wingate test showed equal 33% frequency of RR/CC and RX/CC combination, and 12% RX/CT. Significantly higher (P 〈 0.05) peak power output (11.10 W kg1) was found in athletes with RX/CT combination compared to other combinations (range: 8.83-9.71 W kg-1) and in R-power (RR + RX) and C-power (CC + CT) dominant models (9.91 W kgl). Mean power was higher (P 〈 0.05) in RX/CT combination (8.93 W kg-1) compared to RR/CC (7.75 W kg-1) and RR/CT (7.95 W kgl). In conclusion, the low frequency of T AMPD1 allele in Bulgarian athletes might indicate that this mutant allele is related to the physical performance. The prevalence of R ACTN3 and C AMPD1 alleles suggests that they could contribute to anaerobic performance. Higher peak power in Wingate test is associated with RX/CT genotype combination and R- and C-power dominant models.

  12. Bulgarian military neurosurgery: from Warsaw Pact to the North Atlantic Treaty Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enchev, Yavor; Eftimov, Tihomir

    2010-05-01

    After 45 years as a closest ally of the Soviet Union in the Warsaw Pact, founded mainly against the US and the Western Europe countries, and 15 years of democratic changes, since 2004 Bulgaria has been a full member of NATO and an equal and trusted partner of its former enemies. The unprecedented transformation has affected all aspects of the Bulgarian society. As a function of the Bulgarian Armed Forces, Bulgarian military medicine and in particular Bulgarian military neurosurgery is indivisibly connected with their development. The history of Bulgarian military neurosurgery is the history of the transition from the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics military system and military medicine to NATO standards in every aspect. The career of the military neurosurgeon in Bulgaria is in many ways similar to that of the civilian neurosurgeon, but there are also many peculiarities. The purpose of this study was to outline the background and the history of Bulgarian military neurosurgery as well as its future trends in the conditions of world globalization. PMID:20568931

  13. The Ranking of the Institutions of Higher Education in Bulgaria: Status, Problems and Prospects [In Bulgarian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Boyadjieva

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the main results from the first ranking system of Bulgarian higher education institutions. It adopts two perspectives: 1 from the point of view of higher education – What are the basic achievements, problems and perspectives of Bulgarian higher education as seen through the prism of the ranking system? 2 from the point of view of the ranking system – What are the strengths and weaknesses of the ranking systems and how it can be further developed and improved? The paper argues that ranking systems of higher education institutions are an inevitable result of massification, commercialization and growing competition in higher education. The analysis highlights the critical arguments against the first ranking system of Bulgarian higher education institutions and suggests some possibilities for its future development. On the basis of the results from the ranking system the paper outlines the main problems of the Bulgarian higher education. It discusses massification of Bulgarian higher education in the light of recent trends in other European countries and European educational policies. It is argued that Bulgarian higher education is in need of elaboration of strategic vision and new normative framework. It also needs changes, such as: establishment of new governance model and new model of financing of higher education; strengthening the relationship between teaching and research; development of the capacity of higher education institutions for innovative and strategic thinking; diversifying the system of higher education; development of strategic partnerships between higher education institutions and between them and non-academic partner.

  14. Livestock Update. January 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Greiner, Scott P.; McCann, Mark A.; Smith, Jason

    2015-01-01

    This issue of Livestock Update includes articles on dates to remember, herd management, selection for marbling in a cowherd, 2014 Culpeper Senior BCIA Bull Sale results, 2015 Stocker Cattle Summit to focus on forage management for optimal animal gain, sheep update, and the 48th Virginia Pork Industry Conference.

  15. Studies on the reference values of bone mineral content in Bulgarian women using single energy quantitative computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quantitative CT assessment of bone mineral content (BMC) is widely used in clinical practice. The results obtained from the examination of every single patient are compared with the reference values for the corresponding age and sex. It is known that BMC shows well recognized genetic, racial, ethnic and other differences. On the other hand, the introduction of different techniques, calibration phantoms, algorithms for choosing the region of interest, statistical models etc. leads to some differences in reference values. The authors present their own studies on the reference values of BMC in Bulgarian women using single energy quantitative computed tomography and a liquid K2HPO4 calibration phantom. Different statistical models for data processing are proposed. The results are compared to the studies of recognized foreign authors. 17 refs., 3 tabs., 5 figs. (author)

  16. Application of multilingual corpus in contrastive studies (on the example of the Bulgarian-Polish-Lithuanian parallel corpus)

    OpenAIRE

    Ludmila Dimitrova; Violetta Koseska-Toszewa; Danuta Roszko; Roman Roszko

    2015-01-01

    Application of multilingual corpus in contrastive studies (on the example of the Bulgarian-Polish-Lithuanian parallel corpus)In this paper we present applications of a trilingual corpus in language research. Comparative and contrastive studies of Polish and Bulgarian as well as Polish and Lithuanian have been already conducted, but up to the best of our knowledge no such studies exist for Bulgarian and Lithuanian. On the one hand, it is interesting to note that two Slavic languages are compar...

  17. Application of molecular markers in livestock improvement

    OpenAIRE

    Teneva A.; Petrović M.P.

    2010-01-01

    With recent developments in DNA technologies, a large number of genetic polymorphisms at DNA sequence level has been introduced over the last decades as named DNA-based markers. The discovery of new class of DNA profiling markers has facilitated the development of marker-based gene tags, mapbased cloning of livestock important genes, variability studies, phylogenetic analysis, synteny mapping, marker-assisted selection of favourable genotypes, etc. The most commonly used DNA-based markers hav...

  18. JV Task - 129 Advanced Conversion Test - Bulgarian Lignite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Swanson; Everett Sondreal; Daniel Laudal; Douglas Hajicek; Ann Henderson; Brandon Pavlish

    2009-03-27

    The objectives of this Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) project were to evaluate Bulgarian lignite performance under both fluid-bed combustion and gasification conditions and provide a recommendation as to which technology would be the most technically feasible for the particular feedstock and also identify any potential operating issues (such as bed agglomeration, etc.) that may limit the applicability of a potential coal conversion technology. Gasification tests were run at the EERC in the 100-400-kg/hr transport reactor development unit (TRDU) on a 50-tonne sample of lignite supplied by the Bulgarian Lignite Power Project. The quality of the test sample was inferior to any coal previously tested in this unit, containing 50% ash at 26.7% moisture and having a higher heating value of 5043 kJ/kg after partial drying in preparation for testing. The tentative conclusion reached on the basis of tests in the TRDU is that oxygen-blown gasification of this high-ash Bulgarian lignite sample using the Kellogg, Brown, and Root (KBR) transport gasifier technology would not provide a syngas suitable for directly firing a gas turbine. After correcting for test conditions specific to the pilot-scale TRDU, including an unavoidably high heat loss and nitrogen dilution by transport air, the best-case heating value for oxygen-blown operation was estimated to be 3316 kJ/m{sup 3} for a commercial KRB transport gasifier. This heating value is about 80% of the minimum required for firing a gas turbine. Removing 50% of the carbon dioxide from the syngas would increase the heating value to 4583 kJ/m{sup 3}, i.e., to about 110% of the minimum requirement, and 95% removal would provide a heating value of 7080 kJ/m{sup 3}. Supplemental firing of natural gas would also allow the integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) technology to be utilized without having to remove CO{sub 2}. If removal of all nitrogen from the input gas streams such as the coal transport air were

  19. The Serbo-Bulgarian relations at the end of the 13th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mišić Siniša

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Relations between the Serbs and the Bulgarians at the end of the 13th century has been a part of global international relations in the Balkans and in the Danube region. The Tatars (Mongols as the powerful warring people represent external factor that highly influenced those relations. They also made powerful impact on the Serbian and Bulgarian states of the time. The relations between the Serbs and the Bulgarians had not been at the time determined by their attitude toward the Byzantine Empire which was of the Serbian state, while Bulgaria went through tough period of disintegration of the central power. The internal affaires of those two states influenced their mutual relations. During the war with the Byzantine Empire, king Milutin tried to keep Bulgaria on his side, which is the reason why he became related by the marriage to the Bulgarian imperial family. However, strong involvement of Nogay made this alliance non-useful. After 1299 Serbia lost interest for Bulgaria, and behavior toward the queen Ana made two states enter the 14th century as the enemies. The close relations would be maintained with Vidin. In the frame of those relations Milutin's marriage and release of the Bulgarian princess Ana should be regarded, while Stefan's marriage had been motivated differently and happened around 1305/1306.

  20. Contemporary Contrastive Studies of Polish, Bulgarian and Russian Neologisms versus Language Corpora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Satoła-Staśkowiak

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary Contrastive Studies of Polish, Bulgarian and Russian Neologisms versus Language CorporaIn the field of Slavonic linguistics contrastive studies of neologisms occupy little place, the newest words are insufficiently described and classified. The aim of this article is to draw attention to the need for contrastive description of the newest lexis and checking exclusively one of many possibilities of obtaining Polish, Bulgarian and Russian neologisms. Language corpora, as this possibility is in question, are not the only source from which the author obtains her research material, yet a growing interest in corpora has inspired her to also use this method. The author wants to show the reader to what degree language corpora can help in building the thesaurus of Polish, Bulgarian and Russian neologisms. Making an attempt to confront a collection of neologisms of contemporary Polish, Bulgarian and Russian language, the author points out the need to standardize the description (identical for each of the analysed languages, which she intends to propose in another publications on neologisms in Polish, Bulgarian and Russian language. The application of contrastive method to three different but related languages from the Slavonic group will help, in her opinion, to discover more mechanisms of new words coming into existence and examine the newest derivative processes and their productivity.

  1. An archaeometric study of medieval glass from the first Bulgarian capital, Pliska (ninth to tenth century AD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glass finds from the first Bulgarian capital, Pliska, have been analysed by instrumental neutron activation analysis. The analytical data, together with previous results from analysis of glass samples from the second Bulgarian capital, Preslav, were subjected to cluster and discriminant analysis. The local origin of part of the analysed samples was proven and some conclusions about the technology of production were possible. (author)

  2. Impacts of European livestock production

    OpenAIRE

    Leip, Adrian; Billen, Gilles; Garnier, Josette; Grizzetti, Bruna; LASSALETTA, LUIS; Reis, Stefan; Simpson, David; Sutton, M. A.; Vries, de, H.J.C.; Weiss, Franz; Westhoek, Henk

    2015-01-01

    Livestock production systems currently occupy around 28% of the land surface of the European Union (equivalent to 65% of the agricultural land). In conjunction with other human activities, livestock production systems affect water, air and soil quality, global climate and biodiversity, altering the biogeochemical cycles of nitrogen, phosphorus and carbon. Here, we quantify the contribution of European livestock production to these major impacts. For each environmental effect, the contribution...

  3. Seabed pockmarks in the southern Bulgarian Black Sea zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimitrov, L.I. (Laboratory of Marine Geophysics, Varna (Bulgaria)); Dontcheva, V.G. (Department of Marine Geology Institute of Oceanology, Varna (Bulgaria))

    1994-03-01

    Pockmarks were discovered for the first time in the SE of the Bulgarian Black Sea zone in 1988. Echo sounder and shallow seismic data analyses of investigations conducted before and after 1988, allow the main pockmark area to be enlarged and given more details. A total of 305 pockmarks have been located within an area of more than 100 km[sup 2] (2-5 km wide and 41 km long). The bottom of the area is covered with holocene soft silty clay. The following trends are defined when moving from the northern part of the pockmark area to the southern part: (1) increase in seabed sediments thickness from 2.5 m to more than 3.2 m and decrease in mean sediment grain size; (2) increase in general water depth from 160-300 m to 230-340 m in areas where pockmarks occur; (3) increase in average individual pockmark size from 86 to 132 m in diameter and from 2 to 4 m in depth; (4) decrease of pockmark density from 8-9 p.m./km[sup 2] to 3-4 p.m./km[sup 2]. Similar trends are observed seaward where the pockmark profile shape change from a smooth U-shaped to a sharp V-shaped form, with pockmark wall slope angle reaching more than 10 deg. A variety of acoustic anomalies such as acoustic turbidity, bright spots, enhanced reflections etc., are recorded in many places within the pockmark area, indicating the presence of gas in the sediments. Water column anomalies have also been recorded. The paper discusses the origin of the gas (most likely to be a mixture of thermogenic and biogenic gas) and the time of pockmark formation. (au) (21 refs.)

  4. JV Task - 129 Advanced Conversion Test - Bulgarian Lignite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Swanson; Everett Sondreal; Daniel Laudal; Douglas Hajicek; Ann Henderson; Brandon Pavlish

    2009-03-27

    The objectives of this Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) project were to evaluate Bulgarian lignite performance under both fluid-bed combustion and gasification conditions and provide a recommendation as to which technology would be the most technically feasible for the particular feedstock and also identify any potential operating issues (such as bed agglomeration, etc.) that may limit the applicability of a potential coal conversion technology. Gasification tests were run at the EERC in the 100-400-kg/hr transport reactor development unit (TRDU) on a 50-tonne sample of lignite supplied by the Bulgarian Lignite Power Project. The quality of the test sample was inferior to any coal previously tested in this unit, containing 50% ash at 26.7% moisture and having a higher heating value of 5043 kJ/kg after partial drying in preparation for testing. The tentative conclusion reached on the basis of tests in the TRDU is that oxygen-blown gasification of this high-ash Bulgarian lignite sample using the Kellogg, Brown, and Root (KBR) transport gasifier technology would not provide a syngas suitable for directly firing a gas turbine. After correcting for test conditions specific to the pilot-scale TRDU, including an unavoidably high heat loss and nitrogen dilution by transport air, the best-case heating value for oxygen-blown operation was estimated to be 3316 kJ/m{sup 3} for a commercial KRB transport gasifier. This heating value is about 80% of the minimum required for firing a gas turbine. Removing 50% of the carbon dioxide from the syngas would increase the heating value to 4583 kJ/m{sup 3}, i.e., to about 110% of the minimum requirement, and 95% removal would provide a heating value of 7080 kJ/m{sup 3}. Supplemental firing of natural gas would also allow the integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) technology to be utilized without having to remove CO{sub 2}. If removal of all nitrogen from the input gas streams such as the coal transport air were

  5. The Bulgarian Odonata database – current status, organisation and a case study new entries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yordan Kutsarov

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Bulgarian Odonata database is analysed for the period of the last 10 years. All new entries are summarised in individual species graphs representing the trends in data compilations. Special attention is paid on the role of communities in this process with a single study case which is evident of how a small contribution could elucidate important new information on some underexplored areas. It is concluded that for the past 10 years mountain areas and large Bulgarian rivers have been understudied. These should be the priority target areas in the investigations undertaken in near future.

  6. Bulgarian Workers in Madrid: Legal Position and Performance on the Job Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia Markova

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the performance of illegal and legal Bulgarian immigrants on the Madrid job market, their propensity to integrate into the receiving society and their intention to return to Bulgaria. The performance of migrants is defined by their success in finding employment (and specifically by their first job and present job in the host country, by their competition with autochthonous workers for employment and by patterns of saving/ remittance sending. The article is based on a survey carried out in 2003/2004 on 202 Bulgarian immigrants residing in the Community of Madrid.

  7. Livestock and greenhouse gas emissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrero, M; Gerber, P; Vellinga, T;

    2011-01-01

    Estimates of global greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions attributable to livestock range from 8 to 51%. This variability creates confusion among policy makers and the public as it suggests that there is a lack of consensus among scientists with regard to the contribution of livestock to global GHG em...

  8. Impacts of European livestock production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leip, Adrian; Billen, Gilles; Garnier, Josette; Grizzetti, Bruna; Lassaletta, Luis; Reis, Stefan; Simpson, David; Sutton, M.A.; Vries, De Wim; Weiss, Franz; Westhoek, Henk

    2015-01-01

    Livestock production systems currently occupy around 28% of the land surface of the European Union (equivalent to 65% of the agricultural land). In conjunction with other human activities, livestock production systems affect water, air and soil quality, global climate and biodiversity, altering t

  9. Admissions Policies as a Mechanism for Social Engineering: The Case of the Bulgarian Communist Regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyadjieva, Pepka Alexandrova

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses admissions policies to higher education during the Communist regime in Bulgaria (1946-89). It argues that under the conditions of the Bulgarian Communist regime, admissions policies were not only a component of the higher education system--viewed as an institution--but part and parcel of the process through which power was…

  10. Did you say a BLUE banana? The prosody of contrast and abnormality in Bulgarian and Dutch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dimitrova, Diana V.; Redeker, Gisela; Hoeks, John C. J.; Uther, M.; Moore, R.; Cox, S.

    2009-01-01

    In a production experiment on Bulgarian that was based on a previous study on Dutch [1], we investigated the role of prosody when linguistic and extra-linguistic information coincide or contradict. Speakers described abnormally colored fruits in conditions where contrastive focus and discourse relat

  11. In the midst of political crisis, Bulgarians are searching for accountability and justice from their government

    OpenAIRE

    Rashkova, Ekaterina

    2013-01-01

    Bulgaria has experienced a wave of protests and demonstrations by those dissatisfied with endemic corruption and the lack of law and order in the country. These protests recently culminated in the resignation of Prime Minister Boyko Borisov. Ekaterina Rashkova writes that new elections are now highly likely, as the other Bulgarian parties will find it difficult to form a government in the current parliament.

  12. Some Issues Related to the Recreational Use of Bulgarian Sites of Ornithological Importance and Their Potential for Development of Ecotourism

    OpenAIRE

    Georgi Leonidov Georgiev

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyses the Bulgarian avifauna. It tracks the development of the idea and creation of the concept for important bird areas (IBAs) as well as their role as a resource for development of Bulgarian ecotourism. A special emphasis is laid upon the fact that Bulgarian territory accounts for only 1.06% of the European continent. At the very same time, 382 bird species have been reported within its boundaries, or 74 % of the bird species, recorded on the continent. In absolute numbers, th...

  13. Foundations, fallacies, and assumptions of science for livestock in development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molecular genetics is a new scientific discipline offering the technology to transfer exotic genes into livestock species. Scientific and business interests aim to apply this technology in the near future to make genetically modified (GM) livestock for the food chain. In Europe there is a strong move by citizens against milk and meat products from GM livestock. The possibility of using the technology on livestock in the developing world is under consideration as advocates claim that it would be a major contributor to world food security. This paper presents the opposite view. There are several sets of reasons against using this new technology at this time that are explored here. First, scientific knowledge of the mammalian genome is inadequate and a vast amount of research is needed before success will be ensured without negative consequences for humans and animals. Second, livestock are an essential resource for survival of billions of rural poor in the developing world and they should not be exposed to risk. Third, ethical considerations are not evident but are essential because the plans are so radical and affect public interest at many levels. Scientists today show lack of wisdom in failing to see the consequences of using their limited knowledge. Reasons for this absence of wisdom are explored in a brief review of the historic development of science. Livestock scientists need to learn lessons from the sagas of GM crops and mad cow disease (BSE). Other ways to empower the poor to increase food security are described. Scientists are urged to continue research and to seek a moratorium against GM livestock being used for food until objective and tested results enable stakeholders to decide. (author)

  14. Climate change in context: implications for livestock production and diversity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Climate change is predicted increasingly to affect the livestock sector in the coming decades, with potentially harmful consequences for production and for livestock genetic diversity. This paper considers mostly the indirect effects of climate change. It is expected that livestock production systems will face more frequent disastrous events and that higher temperatures will, in the absence of adaptive measures, increase physiological stress in livestock with negative consequences for production. Tropical breeds are often well adapted to high temperatures, but the wider diffusion of such breeds or their incorporation into breeding programmes is restricted by the limited extent to which they have been characterised and improved in structured breeding programmes, trade constraints and the difficulty involved in introducing a new breed if it possesses only one advantageous trait. It is, nonetheless, concluded that given the unpredictability of climate change and of the general development of the livestock sector, conservation of adapted breeds is important. The disruptive effects of climate change on breeds' agro-ecosystems of origin may mean that increasing attention has to be given to ex situ conservation. Exchange mechanisms are needed to ensure that if international transfers of genetic resources are required as part of adaptation strategies, they can take place efficiently and equitably. (author)

  15. Mobile Access to Specimens of Bulgarian Iconography Through QR Code in a GPS-Based Information System

    OpenAIRE

    Paneva-Marinova, Desislava; Luchev, Detelin; Márkus, Zsolt László; Szkaliczki, Tibor

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an application of QR code marking of digi tal iconographical collections from the Bulgarian Iconographical Digital Library (BIDL) for their outdoor mobile access and exploring through the GUIDE@HAND audio tourist guide.

  16. Livestock-Associated Methicillin Resistant and Methicillin Susceptible Staphylococcus aureus Sequence Type (CC)1 in European Farmed Animals: High Genetic Relatedness of Isolates from Italian Cattle Herds and Humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alba, Patricia; Feltrin, Fabiola; Cordaro, Gessica;

    2015-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Sequence Type (ST)1, Clonal Complex( CC) 1, SCCmec V is one of the major Livestock-Associated (LA-) lineages in pig farming industry in Italy and is associated with pigs in other European countries. Recently, it has been increasingly detected in ...

  17. DAIRY BUSINESS: THE CASE OF BULGARIAN DAIRY CATTLE FARMERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsvetana HARIZANOVA-METODIEVA

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to explore differences between dairy cattle farmers in Bulgaria, according to certain factors. Information about the social characteristics of the farmers (educational level, gender, and age, and about the farm characteristics (number of cows in the main herd, average milk yield, and the rate of return on investment was collected. Sixty percent of the farmers were up to 50 years of age. Fifty percent of the farmers had had a secondary education and the rest had gained a university degree. The study found that only one of the 20 farmers was a woman. It was found that the group of farmers with a university degree had lower average age than the group of farmers with secondary school. There was no significant difference in the rate of return between the two groups of farms in terms of the effectiveness of the farm. The difference in the number of cows in the main herd was not significant too. The research identified a need for additional training for farmers in order to reduce their dependence on hired workers. It was found that farmers attend basic courses in the field of agriculture and livestock breeding in order to fill the gap between the existing levels of knowledge of farmers and the necessary skills for the effective management of dairy farms.

  18. RNA Interference in livestock

    OpenAIRE

    Merkl, Claudia

    2010-01-01

    RNA Interference (RNAi) allows experimental reduction of gene expression, providing a tool for the investigation of gene function, disease therapy and the generation of animal models for human diseases. RNAi offers an opportunity to carry out precise genetic manipulations in a wide variety of species. This thesis describes the use of RNAi to downregulate two porcine genes, the whey protein Beta-Lactoglobulin (BLG) and the tumor suppressor protein p53. BLG is a major component in porcine and r...

  19. Safety Evaluation of Feeds from Genetically Modified Crops on Livestock and Poultry%转基因作物饲用安全性评价研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈亮; 黄庆华; 孟丽辉; 邢焕; 姚斌; 杨晓光; 张宏福

    2015-01-01

    The use of transferring foreign genes to plants has led to the dominant agronomic properties of crops, including insect resistance, herbicide tolerance, disease resistance and drought resistance. Since genetically modified (GM) crops were firstly cultivated in 1996, the cultivation area of GM crops has increased more than 100-fold reaching 175 million hectares worldwide in 2013. High portions of these GM crops and their by-products are fed to animals. The degradation and transportation of transgenic DNA and protein for GM feeds in the gastrointestinal tract and the possible effect of GM feeds or feed additive on animal nutrition, growth and health have been the focus of attention. The urgency and necessity of safety evaluation of GM feeds were proposed in the present paper. The difference of safety evaluation between the GM food and feeds were also analyzed. The scientific principles for safety evaluation and the characteristics of transgenic components in crops with insect-resistance, herbicide tolerance and phytase transgenic corn were discussed. This paper mainly reviewed the fate of transgenic DNA and protein, nutrient value and digestibility of GM feeds, and the effects of GM feeds on nutrition, immune response, reproduction performance and intestinal microbiota in livestock and poultry. Based on short-term, long-term, and multigenerational studies, there were no transfers of recombinant dietary DNA or protein to tissues, organs or blood, the transgenic components only presented in foregut digesta of animals, and no adverse effects of GM feeds on nutrition, immune response, reproduction performance and intestinal health of animals were found. The selected experimental materials, description of information, the method to assess the digestion and transportation of transgenic components of GM feeds, and the effects of GM feeds on immune response, reproduction performance and multigenerational effects on livestock and poultry were also analyzed synthetically to

  20. 转基因作物饲用安全性评价研究进展%Safety Evaluation of Feeds from Genetically Modified Crops on Livestock and Poultry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈亮; 黄庆华; 孟丽辉; 邢焕; 姚斌; 杨晓光; 张宏福

    2015-01-01

    The use of transferring foreign genes to plants has led to the dominant agronomic properties of crops, including insect resistance, herbicide tolerance, disease resistance and drought resistance. Since genetically modified (GM) crops were firstly cultivated in 1996, the cultivation area of GM crops has increased more than 100-fold reaching 175 million hectares worldwide in 2013. High portions of these GM crops and their by-products are fed to animals. The degradation and transportation of transgenic DNA and protein for GM feeds in the gastrointestinal tract and the possible effect of GM feeds or feed additive on animal nutrition, growth and health have been the focus of attention. The urgency and necessity of safety evaluation of GM feeds were proposed in the present paper. The difference of safety evaluation between the GM food and feeds were also analyzed. The scientific principles for safety evaluation and the characteristics of transgenic components in crops with insect-resistance, herbicide tolerance and phytase transgenic corn were discussed. This paper mainly reviewed the fate of transgenic DNA and protein, nutrient value and digestibility of GM feeds, and the effects of GM feeds on nutrition, immune response, reproduction performance and intestinal microbiota in livestock and poultry. Based on short-term, long-term, and multigenerational studies, there were no transfers of recombinant dietary DNA or protein to tissues, organs or blood, the transgenic components only presented in foregut digesta of animals, and no adverse effects of GM feeds on nutrition, immune response, reproduction performance and intestinal health of animals were found. The selected experimental materials, description of information, the method to assess the digestion and transportation of transgenic components of GM feeds, and the effects of GM feeds on immune response, reproduction performance and multigenerational effects on livestock and poultry were also analyzed synthetically to

  1. Bulgarian wedding music between folk and chalg: Politics, markets and current directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silverman Kerol

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the performative relationship among folklore, the market, and the state through an analysis of the politics of Bulgarian wedding music. In the socialist period wedding music was condemned by the state and excluded from the category folk but was adored by thousands of fans as a counter-cultural manifestation. In the post-socialist period wedding music achieved recognition in the West but declined in popularity in Bulgarian as fusion music's, such as chalga (folk/pop, arose and as musicians faced challenges vis-à-vis capitalism. As the state withdrew and became weaker private companies with profit-making agendas arose. Although it inspired chalga, wedding music began to be seen in contrast to it, as folk music. Recently, fatigue with chalga and nationalistic ideologies are revitalizing wedding music.

  2. Genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Inheritance; Heterozygous; Inheritance patterns; Heredity and disease; Heritable; Genetic markers ... The chromosomes are made up of strands of genetic information called DNA. Each chromosome contains sections of ...

  3. The assertive profile of the Bulgarian students in computer science and computer engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Peneva, Ivelina; Yordzhev, Krasimir

    2014-01-01

    Different points of view on the nature and content of the assertiveness are followed in this paper. The main purpose is to study the assertive profile of Bulgarian students in computer science and computer engineering by analyzing the components of assertiveness. Research was performed using testing methods. It was found that the level of expressivity of this personal quality among subjects were above-average level.

  4. A processability account of the L2 article acquisition by Bulgarian young learners of English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harakchiyska T. K.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper sheds a new light on the acquisition of English articles by L2 young learners of English. It focuses on the interplay between L1 interference and the applicability of a recent cognitive theoretical framework – the Processability theory which serve as a basis for outlining the possible difficulties in the English article acquisition by Bulgarian 9-10-year old learners of English as L2.

  5. Antitumor activity of Bulgarian herb Tribulus terrestris L. on human breast cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetla Angelova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants have been intensively studied as a source of antitumor compounds. Due to the beneficial climate conditions Bulgarian herbs have high pharmacological potential. Currently, the antitumor effect of the Bulgarian medicinal plant Tribulus terrestris L. on human cancer cell lines is not studied. The main active compounds of the plant are the steroid saponins.The present study aims to analyze the effect on cell viability and apoptotic activity of total extract and saponin fraction of Bulgarian Tribulus terrestris L. on human breast cancer (MCF7 and normal (MCF10A cell lines. Antitumor effect was established by МТТ cell viability assay and assessment of apoptotic potential was done through analysis of genomic integrity (DNA fragmentation assay and analysis of morphological cell changes (Fluorescence microscopy. The results showed that total extract of the herb has a marked dose-dependent inhibitory effect on viability of MCF7 cells (half maximal inhibitory concentration is 15 μg/ml. Cell viability of MCF10A was moderately decreased without visible dose-dependent effect. The saponin fraction has increased inhibitory effect on breast cancer cells compared to total extract. Morphological changes and DNA fragmentation were observed as markers for early and late apoptosis predominantly in tumor cells after treatment. Apoptotic processes were intensified with the increase of treatment duration.The obtained results are the first showing selective antitumor activity of Bulgarian Tribulus terrestris L. on human cancer cells in vitro. Apoptotic processes are involved in the antitumor mechanisms induced by the herb. This results give directions for future investigations concerning detailed assessment of its pharmacological potential.

  6. Motivation for luxury consumption in the fragrance industry: a study on Romanian and Bulgarian Millennials

    OpenAIRE

    Yaneva, Mihaela

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to generate valuable consumer insight about purchases in the luxury fragrance industry by Bulgarian and Romanian Millennials. The study also focuses on the concepts of acculturation and ethnic identification and their mediating effect on the purchase of luxury perfumes. The literature review examines the topic based on previous work in the fields of psychology, marketing, consumer behavior and economics and presents three conceptual frameworks for ...

  7. Production and comprehension of intersentential pronominal reference in early child Bulgarian : an experimental study

    OpenAIRE

    Kühnast, Milena

    2007-01-01

    The paper presents results from a combined production and comprehension study addressing some of the factors which guide the establishment of intersentential pronominal reference in child and adult Bulgarian. We investigate the time course and different stages in the acquisition of null, personal and demonstrative pro-nouns and their specific anaphoric functions. We target possible age-induced changes in the salience hierarchy of referent features such as animacy and grammatical role. Followi...

  8. Transformations of the Dissident Behaviour. Politics in Post-1989 Bulgarian Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Licheva, Amelia

    2014-01-01

    The essay follows the changes in the literary works of the Bulgarian dissidents immediately after 1989. It tries to take into account the disillusionment and the distorted perceptions, but also the satisfaction of freedom, which it discusses as subject matters in the poetry of two dissident authors, who were also active politically – Blaga Dimitrova and Edvin Sugarev. The second major line of thought in the essay is a rereading of socialism in the writings of the younger gener...

  9. 3-Monochloro-1,2-propandiol (3-MCPD) in soy sauce from the Bulgarian market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christova-Bagdassarian, Valentina; Tishkova, Julieta A; Vrabcheva, Terry M

    2013-01-01

    The 3-monochloro-1,2-propandiol (3-MCPD) levels in soy sauces which contained hydrolysed vegetable protein were evaluated for the Bulgarian market. For analysis of 3-MCPD, a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method was applied with a linear range of 0.03-2.00 μg mL⁻¹ and a limit of detection (LOD) of 2.3 μg kg⁻¹ and a limit of quantification (LOQ) of 3.4 μg kg⁻¹. At these levels, the standard deviation was 5.1%, with recoveries between 81% and 102%. The method was applied to the analysis of 21 samples of soy sauce from the Bulgarian market. Results ranged from 3.7 to 185.6 μg kg⁻¹. Soy sauces produced from hydrolysed soy protein contained higher levels of 3-MCPD than naturally fermented sauces. In 38.4% of samples of Bulgarian origin, the 3-MCPD content was above the EU limit of 20 μg kg⁻¹. In all analysed samples, 33.3% had a 3-MCPD content above the EU limit.

  10. TEXTILE DESIGN ON THE BASE OF THE GOLDEN GEOMETRY AND BULGARIAN NATIONAL TRADITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ILIEVA Julieta

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The Golden and Fibonacci geometry forms are symbols of beauty and harmony. The shapes and symbols in the national traditions are always a source of creative ideas. The paper presents textile designs on the base of creations from the Golden and Fibonacci geometry and Bulgarian national tradition. Fourteen textile design project are presented with the use of the Golden spiral in the Golden square, Fibonacci series tiling with equalitarian triangles named Fibonacci rose and the spiral square with four Golden spirals from the Golden and Fibonacci geometry, and the three turtles – symbols from Kolobar tradition in Bulgarian national culture. The forms from the Golden and Fibonacci geometry are used directly as ornaments, constructional elements for ornaments, or as frames for entered elements. The symbols from Kolobar tradition are used directly as ornaments. Every design is presented in suitable two, three or four color model. The used geometrical forms from the Golden geometry and the Bulgarian national tradition are the base for successful textile design using the mirror, radial and translated symmetry and the plain rhythms as result from their combinations. The design is more successful when the geometrical ornaments are combined with suitable colors according to the connections between colors and lines on the base of their meaning, the latest fashion trends, and national traditions.

  11. Radiation sterilization of livestock feeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiation sterilization of livestock feeds is not much used presently because the process is not known well, and the cost is relatively high. However, its effect of sterilization is absolute, the radiation-sterilized feeds are safe in both nutrition and toxicity, and do not affect the appetite of livestocks, and the radiation energy required is small. In the future, as in the sterilization of medical supplies, feed radiation sterilization plants should be established, to stabilize livestock industry and to contribute to the health control of experimental animals. The following matters are described: radiation, comparison between radiation sterilization and other sterilization methods, the practice of feed radiation sterilization, the adverse effects of radiation sterilization, economic aspect, and the situation of feed radiation sterilization in various countries. (Mori, K.)

  12. Managing livestock in degrading environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While overgrazing is often blamed for environmental degradation, there is clear evidence that livestock are not inherently damaging to rangelands or farming landscapes, and, in fact, may be required for their sustained health and profitability. Moderate to heavy grazing has, in some cases created highly resilient and ecologically sound systems while under-grazing has resulted in dense woody growth and reduced species diversity. Conversion of rangelands into intensive crop/fodder production has also led to progressive loss of diversity, species connectivity and ability to recover. Well-managed livestock in either a grassland or mixed crop/livestock system offer a highly efficient method of increasing the production of high quality food with minimal environmental impact. Although an ecological case can be established for the continued use of livestock in degrading landscapes, the reality is, livestock will only be grazed responsibly if the owner receives a benefit from the process. Importantly, by providing a potentially profitable option, the revegetation of degraded or partly degraded landscapes may take place through the expenditure of private rather than public funding. Given the vastness of the landscapes in question and the urban priorities in the expenditure of public funds, significant progress is only likely if profitable solutions are available. This use of livestock may or may not contribute to the return of the landscape to its original state. In some cases stable vegetation that provides some of the functional benefits of the original landscape, combined with the productive benefits of a profitable livestock system may be the best option available. This then provides an opportunity to design a landscape based on a range of predetermined objectives which include both profit and ecosystem services. For example, in Western Australia, the revegetation of 10% of the 1 million ha of saline land with halophytic shrubs and salt tolerant forage has resulted in a

  13. SIZE OF LIVESTOCK AGRICULTURAL OPERATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazbanela Stere

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the paper is to map the performance of Romanian farms from the perspective of livestock agricultural operations using principal component analysis technique (PCA and similarities between Romania and other countries from UE. The empirical results reveal that animal breedings farms are grouped into two categories :small and middle sized farms ; and the fact that Romania , one of Europe’s major forces in the field of livestock husbandry, has come to be one of the biggest importers of food products, although, by tradition, it is one of the continent’s countries with ideal conditions for breeding all species of animals. When clustering the countries we observ that in countries such as Greece, Italy, Portugal, Spain, cow farms, for example, do not exceed 10-16 heads and in Holland, England, Denmark, Belgium and France, the average farm size reaches 30-70 heads of milk cows. The cluster analysis revealed that in livestock operations, animal stock is the one that generates production, while the animal number indicates the size of the livestock unit.

  14. Strategies, limitations and opportunities for marker-assisted selection in livestock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter reviews the principles, opportunities and limitations for detection of quantitative trait loci (QTL) in livestock and for their use in genetic improvement programmes. Alternate strategies for QTL detection are discussed, as are methods for inclusion of marker and QTL information in genetic evaluation. Practical issues regarding implementation of marker-assisted selection (MAS) for selection in breed crosses and for selection within breeds are described, along with likely routes towards achieving that goal. Opportunities and challenges are also discussed for the use of molecular information for genetic improvement of livestock in developing countries. (author)

  15. The Bulgarian 'nationally responsible capital' on the eve of EU integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiril Alioshev Avramov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo examina las actitudes recientes de las élites económicas de Bulgaria hacia el proceso de ampliación europea y la integración de Bulgaria en la estructura de la UE. El acento del análisis recae sobre la actividad pública de los representantes de la llamada “Nationally responsable Capital" unidos en el Club búlgaro de Negocios "Renacimiento". La muestra explica la actitud de los "inversores estratégicos búlgaros" hacia la ampliación de la UE, ya que es simbólico para el gran capital búlgaro. Varias hipótesis se revisarán en el curso del análisis, en particular, qué las inversiones bulgaras pueden favorecer a los miembros búlgaros de la OTAN y también acercarse a  las  expectativas hacia su adhesión a la UE. Su retórica se basará en la calidad de su cooperación internacional con las grandes empresas extranjeras, como prueba de su legitimidad interna. Irán acompañadas por esfuerzos de lobbies continuo en busca de apoyo por parte de la administración para favorecer el capital “nacional”. Las conclusiones se basan en los resultados empíricos recientemente publicados de un estudio sobre la actitud de la empresa búlgara hacia la integración de la UE y el análisis del contenido de los discursos públicos, entrevistas e informes del grupo "Renacimiento" y de los miembros del grupo relacionados con el tema.____________ABSTRACT:This paper examines the recent attitudes of the Bulgarian economic elites towards the process of European enlargement and the integration of Bulgaria into the structure of EU. The accent of the analysis falls upon the public activity of the representatives of the so-called "nationally responsible capital" united in the Bulgarian Business Club "Renaissance". The sample is chosen to illustrate the attitudes of the "Bulgarian strategic investors" towards the EU enlargement, as it is symbolic for the Bulgarian large capital. Several hypotheses to be reviewed in the course of the

  16. STANDPOINTS OF SERBIAN LIBERALS FROM HUNGARY OF SERBO-BULGARIAN WAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Милош Савин

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Serbian liberal party in Hungary was divided into three fractions in 1884: Conservative, Radical and Liberal. Conservatives accepted a new program in Kikinda which made them closer to the Hungarian government. Radicals wanted to keep the old “Beckerek program”, but they also wanted to supplement it with some socialist ideas. Liberals, as a continuing political party, kept the name Serbian Liberal Party until the end of their existence and they held on to declarative “Beckerek program” and pure national and liberal political platform. From 1885, Serbian liberals from Hungary gathered around “Branik” magazine, which foundation coincided with prewar culmination of relations between Serbia and Bulgaria. There was a dispute between Serbia and Bulgaria due to Serbian emigrants, who escaped to Bulgaria after the failure of mutiny and agitated against the ascendancy of Serbian Kingdom from Bulgarian bordering areas. Moreover, the Timok River changed its course, so that a minor Serbian property near Bregovo belonged to Bulgaria. Russia’s earlier plans were to create “The Grat Bulgaria”, including some Turkish territories which Serbia claimed to it. The duke Aleksandar Betenberg ruled Bulgaria. Russians were against him, and Austrians were on the side of the Serbian government that was supporting Austria. There was a sudden amalgamation of Bulgaria in September 1885, when the Bulgarian patriots in the province of Eastern Rumelija deprived the Turkish governor of his duties. King Milan of Serbia and the chief of progressive government, Milutin Garašanin, were dissatisfied with Bulgarian amalgamation and had neither courage, nor support to get compensation from Turkish territories. Therefore they started a war against Bulgaria, which cause was not taking Bulgarian territories, but returning the Balkans into the previous state. Serbian Liberals from Hungary, Miša Dimitrijević, Paja Janković and Nikola Joksimović, criticized Serbia

  17. The challenges and importance of structural variation detection in livestock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek M Bickhart

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies in humans and other model organisms have demonstrated that structural variants (SVs comprise a substantial proportion of variation among individuals of each species. Many of these variants have been linked to debilitating diseases in humans, thereby cementing the importance of refining methods for their detection. Despite progress in the field, reliable detection of SVs still remains a problem even for human subjects. Many of the underlying problems that make SVs difficult to detect in humans are amplified in livestock species, whose lower quality genome assemblies and incomplete gene annotation can often give rise to false positive SV discoveries. Regardless of the challenges, SV detection is just as important for livestock researchers as it is for human researchers, given that several productive traits and diseases have been linked to Copy Number Variations (CNVs in cattle, sheep and pig. Already, there is evidence that many beneficial SVs have been artificially selected in livestock such as a duplication of the ASIP gene that causes white coat color in sheep. In this review, we will list current SV and CNV discoveries in livestock and discuss the problems that hinder routine discovery and tracking of these polymorphisms. We will also discuss the impacts of selective breeding on CNV and SV frequencies and mention how SV genotyping could be used in the future to improve genetic selection.

  18. Methane capture from livestock manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauseef, S M; Premalatha, M; Abbasi, Tasneem; Abbasi, S A

    2013-03-15

    It has been estimated that livestock manure contributes about 240 million metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalent of methane to the atmosphere and represents one of the biggest anthropogenic sources of methane. Considering that methane is the second biggest contributor to global warming after carbon dioxide, it is imperative that ways and means are developed to capture as much of the anthropogenic methane as possible. There is a major associated advantage of methane capture: its use as a source of energy which is comparable in 'cleanness' to natural gas. The present review dwells upon the traditional ways of methane capture used in India, China, and other developing countries for providing energy to the rural poor. It then reviews the present status of methane capture from livestock manure in developed countries and touches upon the prevalent trends.

  19. ROYALTY COLLECTION FOR PATENTED LIVESTOCK

    OpenAIRE

    Lesser, William H.

    1993-01-01

    Allowing animal patents provides potential benefits and costs for livestock producers. Costs, considered here, are royalty payments and collection mechanisms, made more complex by the unknown future distribution of multiple patented traits in the herd. This article evaluates three proposed collection systems, Qualified Sales, registration and pooled royalties. The first two are imposed only on breeding stock and at first sale, creating a cash flow and risk factor for producers. The third coll...

  20. TRANSITION OF BULGARIAN AGRICULTURE: PRESENT SITUATION, PROBLEMS AND PERSPECTIVES FOR DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelly BENCHEVA

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of the agrarian reform, the problems and results of the restructuring of Bulgarian agriculture during the transition period, also the impact of the European Common Agricultural Policy (CAP on overall policies in the period of preparation for accession to the EU have been reviewed in this article. The analysis demonstrates that the problems of restructuring of agriculture in Bulgaria are more specifi c compared to those of the other Central and West European countries. They can be solved through a sound comprehensive analysis of the economic, fi nancial, organizational, demographic, psychological and political factors in the context of CAP.

  1. Natural and anthropogenic impacts on historical heritage along the north Bulgarian Black Sea coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peev, Preslav; Palazov, Atanas; Stancheva, Margarita; Stanchev, Hristo; Krastev, Anton; Shtirkov, Ilko

    2014-05-01

    Bulgaria is rich in the remains of past human settlements and activity. For example, along northern part of the Bulgarian coast, numerous underwater and coastal archaeological sites from different periods have been discovered - Prehistory, Antiquity (ancient Greek, Hellenistic, Roman), Mediaeval (Early Byzantium, Bulgarian). The most significant of them are: Durankulak archaeological complex with the largest Prehistoric necropolis in the world, Prehistoric necropolis at the area of Lake Shablenska Tuzla, Antique settlements Caron Limen and Bizone, archeological reserve Yalata, Antique and Medieval castle at Cape Kaliakra etc. As, this north part of Bulgarian coast has a huge archaeological potential there is a ground for thinking that the remains of other periods as well as a brand new, previously unknown sites can be discovered in the near future. This does not exclude the probability of being randomly found individual objects that largely can be prevented from archaeological contexts. Therefore it is important that these archeological sites are protected properly and preserved for future generations. In Bulgaria such sites and monuments are legally protected under the Law of cultural heritage and managed by the Ministry of culture and local authorities. However, today most objects and sites, as part of common European historical and cultural heritage are posed to a variety of potential impacts and treats, both natural and human-induced. This study discusses the implications of natural factors, (such as climate change, extreme waves, erosion and shoreline changes) and human contributions (coastal infrastructures, tourism and insufficient management by decision-makers) to coastal and underwater cultural heritage along the north portion of Bulgarian coast. Major natural processes that seriously affect on coastal and maritime heritage environment are direct physical impact by global climate changes, sea level rise and caused increase of waves and storms, acceleration

  2. BULGARIAN STATE AND THE TURKS (1878-1908 / BULGARİSTAN EMARETİ VE TÜRKLER (1878–1908

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assoc. Prof. Dr. Osman KÖSE

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Bulgaria emerged as an independent state in the Berlin treaty, which was signed after the 1877-1878 Ottoman-Russian war. After this, the Bulgarian administration began an anti-Muslim massacre campaign, like the Russians did before.The main aim of this article is to investigate the pressure, violence and massacres against the Muslim-Turks, organised by the Bulgarian gangs and the official administration. It is also proposed that the emigration of the Muslim-Turkish population began after this policy of violence.

  3. Genetic selection and conservation of genetic diversity*.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, H D

    2012-08-01

    For 100s of years, livestock producers have employed various types of selection to alter livestock populations. Current selection strategies are little different, except our technologies for selection have become more powerful. Genetic resources at the breed level have been in and out of favour over time. These resources are the raw materials used to manipulate populations, and therefore, they are critical to the past and future success of the livestock sector. With increasing ability to rapidly change genetic composition of livestock populations, the conservation of these genetic resources becomes more critical. Globally, awareness of the need to steward genetic resources has increased. A growing number of countries have embarked on large scale conservation efforts by using in situ, ex situ (gene banking), or both approaches. Gene banking efforts have substantially increased and data suggest that gene banks are successfully capturing genetic diversity for research or industry use. It is also noteworthy that both industry and the research community are utilizing gene bank holdings. As pressures grow to meet consumer demands and potential changes in production systems, the linkage between selection goals and genetic conservation will increase as a mechanism to facilitate continued livestock sector development. PMID:22827378

  4. Managing livestock in degrading environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degraded environments are both widespread (being found on all continents on earth) and diverse. They have been broadly classified as: irrigated (and rain-fed) farmland with elevated water tables causing salinity; rain-fed farmland with soil erosion, loss of organic matter, nutrient depletion and weed invasion; and degraded rangeland. This review considers all these but with a focus on the first two, and particularly addresses options for simultaneous improvement in livestock production and landscape health. There is evidence that responsible grazing is consistent with ecosystem benefits and resilient land use systems; exclusion from grazing may reduce diversity and create management complexity. Responsible grazing however will only prevail if the land owner or user receives a financial benefit in the process. Solutions need to be profitable. In the development and management of grazing systems, expectations need to be realistic. The prescriptive approach to livestock feeding based on the selection and cultivation of a small range of improved plant species to meet predetermined energy, protein and mineral requirements is inappropriate. Degraded landscapes are often associated with a high edaphic and climatic variability that is best suited to a diverse range of plant species in an assembly that will fluctuate over time and space. This diversity means that under some circumstances degraded land may contribute to reduced risk within a whole farm business. Simultaneous objectives for livestock and landscape improvement may or may not contribute to the return of the landscape to its original state. In some cases stable vegetation that provides some of the functional benefits of the original landscape, such as improved biodiversity and soil health, combined with production benefits is the best option available. This provides an opportunity to establish a range of objectives in vegetation management and design. In Australia, such an approach is leading to the development

  5. Bulgarian agriculture in the conditions of the EU Common Agricultural Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stela TODOROVA

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The agricultural sectors of the former centrally planned economies, including Bulgaria were in a state of economic crises in the period after socialist governments fell. The former system disappeared almost overnight while new market structures had not yet emerged. The outcome of this transition shocks was a sharp decline in both agricultural output and the sector's GDP in the early 1990s. Some countries of the Central and Eastern Europe (CEE recovered from this initial decline much faster. The principle reason for the difference appears to be the more resolute adherence of CEE governments to reform policies throughout their economies. The purpose of this study is to get more knowledge about the structure and possibilities of Bulgarian agriculture after the transition period and last but not least, about the effects of the EU CAP on the Bulgarian economy and farmers.That is why were made some interviews, and besides, it was carried out a questionnaire survey in order to get a picture about how farmers act in a new environment called the Common Agricultural Policy of EU. For collecting information, as well as confirming or rejecting the investigation hypotheses chi-square analysis was applied.

  6. The Haemus Mountains and the geopolitics of the first Bulgarian empire: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinow Kirił

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of the Haemus Mountains (that is Stara Planina and Sredna Gora as a geographical factor is visible in the fact that between the close of the 7th century and the beginning of the 9th century, the eastern parts of that massif turned naturally into a political border between Bulgaria and Byzantium. Although in later times this border moved further to the south, even for longer periods, still the mountain ridge remained the most lasting demarcation element in the Byzantine-Bulgarian relations and the most certain determinant of the heart of the Bulgarian statehood (the so-called internal area of Bulgaria, which was concentrated in the years 680/681-971, i.e. excluding the period of the reign of the Komitopouloi, in the area between the mountains and the Danube valley. If the Haemus was the political border of Bulgaria for almost a half of the functioning of this state during the period of 7th-11th c., it proves irrefutably that the massif was of great significance for the political history of Bulgaria and its contacts with Byzantium.

  7. Basic exterior characteristics of body and head in Bulgarian scent hound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urošević Milivoje

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A group of dogs known as hounds is widespread and highly appreciated among the hunters on the Balkans. Hounds are referred to as hunting dogs that engage in loud pursuit of game along its trail. These dogs do not need to se the game in order to pursue it and begin to bark once they stumble upon game trail. First serious research along with zootechnical measurement was conducted in 1905, at which occasion three large groups of hounds that inhabit the Balkans were described. This undertaking provided a solid foundation for further research and standardization of certain hound breeds. Though a lot of field work and standardization efforts were undertaken since then, there are still groups of hounds not encompassed in previous research work that are well-spread on the field and frequently utilized as hunting companions. One of the variety among these non-standardized breeds are Bulgarian scent hound, which differ from described hound breeds by certain exterior characteristics. In this paper, processed and analyzed some of the basic exterior features of body and head of the Bulgarian Scent Hound. Measurements were performed in 21 males and 15 females of following parameters, the height at withers, back height, loin height, chest circumference, body length, head length, skull length, nozzle length, head width and nozzle width. The average height of males is 54.60 and female 51.73 cm. Head length of males, on average, was 23.95 cm and females 23, 53 cm.

  8. Palaeoseismic Events in Karst Terrains along the Northern Bulgarian Black Sea Coast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The study of the palaoseismic events in the karst terrains of the Bulgarian Black Sea coast is a very important up-to-date problem. The investigated region is one of the highest-energy regions in Bulgaria with established and recorded catastrophic historic and contemporary earthquakes. The terrain is subjected to the influence not only of its own earthquake foci but also of those in Romania and Russia. The palaeoearthquakes that caused considerable disturbances in the karst terrains along the Northern Bulgarian Black Sea coast have left significant traces. They caused disturbances in the environment and the relief (rearrangement of the surface and ground water karst basins, partially or entirely collapsed caves, deformed caves, oil, gas and salt intrusions and gravitationally formed caves). The ecological consequences in historic and contemporary aspects were catastrophic. The palaeoseismic dislocations were formed as a result of global,regional and local geodynamic events related with the destruction of the Moezian platform and the regional extension of the Black Sea basin. The time of their display and their spatial interrelations were established as a result of complex investigations accompanied by original documents.``

  9. Bulgarian Youth and Europe. Multivariate Psycho-cultural Study of the Mobility Attitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail Matveev

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to examine the Bulgarian youths' mobility towards Europe. The investigation was carried out with 570 Bulgarian students. The data are presented as a questionnaire consisting of five parts. The first one deals with the motivations and is based on the Reversal Theory - predicting eight motivational states. The second part is based on the 2PAP theoretical model structuring the attitudes around four factors: Push, Pull, Anti Push and Anti Pull. The third one falls back on the Big Five Personality Test measuring five personality dimensions. And the concluding two parts are designed to obtain information about the degree of attraction and the intentions for mobility to the 25 destination countries of the European Union (EU. This has led to the hypothesis that a model of mobility exists based on these three theoretical models, as well as on emotional factors like attraction-repulsion to the country referred to. The hypothesis that was strongly supported by the statistical processing of the data will broaden our understanding of the youth's mobility. The present research is a part of a longitudinal study of the mobility intentions among young people. The investigation is of great interest from an educational, political and social point of view

  10. Eight challenges in modelling infectious livestock diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Brooks-Pollock

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The transmission of infectious diseases of livestock does not differ in principle from disease transmission in any other animals, apart from that the aim of control is ultimately economic, with the influence of social, political and welfare constraints often poorly defined. Modelling of livestock diseases suffers simultaneously from a wealth and a lack of data. On the one hand, the ability to conduct transmission experiments, detailed within-host studies and track individual animals between geocoded locations make livestock diseases a particularly rich potential source of realistic data for illuminating biological mechanisms of transmission and conducting explicit analyses of contact networks. On the other hand, scarcity of funding, as compared to human diseases, often results in incomplete and partial data for many livestock diseases and regions of the world. In this overview of challenges in livestock disease modelling, we highlight eight areas unique to livestock that, if addressed, would mark major progress in the area.

  11. Chinese Consumers' Preferences for Livestock Products

    OpenAIRE

    Peng, Xuehua; Marchant, Mary A.; Qin, Xiang Dong; Zhuang, Jun

    2005-01-01

    This research surveyed over 784 Chinese consumers in Shanghai and Nanjing in 2001 and 2002, evaluating their preferences for livestock product attributes using ordered-probit models and factor analyses. Empirical results confirm the heterogeneity of Chinese livestock retail markets and suggest that livestock distributors should focus on Chinese female consumers and young consumers considering cooking convenience as a key attribute. Chinese consumers with higher incomes placed less importance ...

  12. BULGARIANS IN THE TERRITORY OF THE KUBAN COSSACKS IN THE LATE OF XVIII - THE EARLY OF XX CENTURIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhabchik S. V.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The study of the Russian-Slavic cultural, political and economic links is quite actual nowadays. At the turn of 18 – 20 centuries Russia was the only independent Slavic state that was a reason of special attention of foreign countries. The most intensive contacts in Slavic world can be found on a regional level. Both pre-revolutional and modern scientists actively explore such aspects as resettlement of Bulgarians to the Kuban, places of their compact location, main activities and further destiny of its members. There is a detailed specification of colonization of Bulagarian landowners from 18 until the beginning of 20 century in the article, based on the archive documents. Also described moments of first appearing of Bulgarians on the Russian territory and particularly in the Kuban. The article is focused on the main stages of economic familiarization and adaptation of settlers to the natural and social features of new locations. The conditions and forms of vital activities in labor, lifestyle, sociopolitical and cultural life that are typical for their social relations are marked in the article. There is also noted that main occupation of Bulgarian settlers was horticulture, where they achieved greatest successes thanks to mastery of artificial irrigation using a special mechanism for that (a big wheel with attached vessels; Hothouse economy, that allowed them to produce thermophilic crops; organization of teams, that assumed collective labor, labor relations and mutual support. To sum up, Bulgarian settlers harmoniously fitted into socio-cultural area of the Kuban region

  13. THE MODEL OF CROSS-BORDER COOPERATION IN THE ROMANIAN-BULGARIAN NEIGHBOURHOOD AREA BETWEEN DESIRE AND REALIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan\tVasile\tILEANU

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops some findings from the project entitled “Bulgarian-Romanian Area Identities: A Neighbourhood Study” (BRAINS, funded by the European Regional Development Fund under the auspices of the Romania-Bulgaria Trans-border Cooperation Programme 2007-2013, Priority Axis 3 – Economic and Social Development. More precisely, it aims to explore the manner in which the cross-border cooperation model perceived by the Romanian and Bulgarian citizens living in the cooperation area responds the current economic and social challenges. The main issue investigated is: does the local population – as a main actor in the Romanian-Bulgarian Neighbourhood Area (ROBULNA – connect its aspirations with the realities, possibilities and potential of this area? The correlation degree between these two aspects is established starting from the project sampled data connected with the official data from the Romanian and Bulgarian 2011 censuses. The analysis relates and comments upon aspects regarding human capital, unemployment, economic structure and their distribution in ROBULNA, revealing fields of both convergent and divergent opinions, which enhance or, on the contrary, create difficulties in constructing an integrated cross-border cooperation action.

  14. Researchers at the Institute of Mathematics and Informatics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences (IMI-BAS - Attestation Analysis - Results and Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Tabov

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2010 attestation of the academic staff of the Institute of Mathematics and Informatics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, was carried out. The attestation procedures and the results of their applying in practice are both described in the present paper. The level-drop in IMI-BAS is alarming. The main reason for it is the brain-drain, we suppose.

  15. Nutrient balance on Nebraska livestock confinement systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koelsch, R; Lesoing, G

    1999-01-01

    Managing the environmental risk associated with livestock production is a significant challenge. Nitrogen and phosphorus are commonly implicated as the sources of ground and surface water quality problems associated with livestock production. The degree of imbalance between these nutrient inputs and the managed nutrient outputs for a livestock operation defines the magnitude of potential environmental risk and provides insight as to the underlying causes of these challenges. A nitrogen and phosphorus balance was constructed for 33 Nebraska confinement livestock operations. Twenty-five and 17 of these operations experienced significant nitrogen and phosphorus imbalances, respectively (50% more nutrient inputs than outputs). Nutrient inputs on many livestock operations were observed to be two to four times greater than nutrient outputs as managed crop and livestock products. Size of the livestock operation and the degree of integration of livestock with a cropping operation provided only limited explanation of the variation in nutrient balance observed among the individual operations. Management options that contribute to a more favorable nutrient balance were also identified. Management decisions related to feeding program and exporting of manure nutrients to off-farm users were observed to have a substantial impact on the nutrient imbalance. For modern livestock production systems to successfully respond to nutrient-related environmental problems, management strategies must be implemented that address the commonly experienced imbalances of nitrogen and phosphorus. PMID:15526781

  16. Livestock wastewater treatment: ammonia removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livestock wastewater contains high concentration of ammonia. Removal of this inorganic species of nitrogen could be achieved through nitrification and de-nitrification. Nitrification process was conducted in the laboratory using activated sludge process with HRT of three and five days. After wastewater undergone nitrification process at Livestock Wastewater Treatment Plant the concentration of influent for N-NH4+ reduced from 400 mg/l to 0 mg/l and concentration of N-NO3- increased from 11 mg/l to 300 mg/l. Nitrification using lab-scale activated sludge process also recorded similar result. Concentration of N-NH4+ reduced from 400 mg/l to 2 mg/l and 380 mg/l to 1.1 mg/l for HRT=5 days and HRT=3 days respectively. N-NO3- was increased from 11 mg/l to 398 mg/l and 14 mg/l to 394 mg/l for HRT=5 days and HRT=3 days, respectively. However changes of N-NH4+ and N=NO3- were not observed using gamma irradiation. The combination of gamma irradiation with activated sludge process indicated difference and its contribution is still investigated

  17. Some Issues Related to the Recreational Use of Bulgarian Sites of Ornithological Importance and Their Potential for Development of Ecotourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgi Leonidov Georgiev

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the Bulgarian avifauna. It tracks the development of the idea and creation of the concept for important bird areas (IBAs as well as their role as a resource for development of Bulgarian ecotourism. A special emphasis is laid upon the fact that Bulgarian territory accounts for only 1.06% of the European continent. At the very same time, 382 bird species have been reported within its boundaries, or 74 % of the bird species, recorded on the continent. In absolute numbers, the total number of birds in Europe comes to 514 species and another 12, not included in the European list. Having in mid that 5.1 % of the world’s bird species can be found on the Old continent, their share in Bulgaria is 3.8 %, which makes Bulgaria, extremely important for bird protection in Europe and on the planet. The conducted analyses reveal that 142 bird species (36% of the Bulgarian ornithofauna have unfavourable conservation status and 21 of them are world-endangered species. The most important regions featuring highest bird concentration are indicated in this analysis. Attention is paid to the fact that two major migratory routes pass along the country – Via Pontica and Via Aristotelis. Under observation are the Bulgarian important bird areas, representing one of the most significant places for bird protection. The main purpose of these areas represents the establishment of a network at bio geographical scale, critical for the long-term survival of bird populations, regularly met in the country. The final part of the paper examines some of the specific features of ecotourism as well as the opportunity for integration of IBAs as a resource for development of this tourism form.

  18. Bulgarian Seismological and GPS/GNSS networks-current status and practical implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solakov, Dimcho; Simeonova, Stela; Georgiev, Ivan; Dimitrova, Lilia; Slavcheva, Krasimira; Raykova, Plamena

    2016-04-01

    The scientific information is the latest and one of the best bedrock on which effective policy to combat and cope with natural disasters have to be built. Understanding, monitoring and information for future natural disasters are the way to assist the government and society. Different types of networks provide reliable information on various natural disasters. For example, one of the main priorities of the networks are directed to study seismicity of the Earth, its physical phenomena and fields - with an emphasis on tectonic movements and related risk processes, global changes, rotation and position of the Earth in space. Therefore seismological network using advanced electronic systems and digital seismographs transmission of signals from seismic stations to the centres and the registration, processing and archiving of information is carried out by a specialized computer system. Thus improve the monitoring and analysis of seismicity in the whole plan. Another type networks as permanent GPS/GNSS networks are associated with processing and data analysis, as well as monitoring of recent movements of the earth crust. In this study we focus on Seismological and GPS/GNSS networks on the territory in Bulgaria. At present NIGGG-BAS runs both Bulgarian seismological and GPS/GNSS networks. The Bulgarian seismological network - NOTSSI (National Operative Telemetric System for Seismological Information) was founded at the end of 1980. The network comprises today 15 permanent seismic stations spanning the entire territory of the country and two local net works that are deployed around the town of Provadia and Kozloduy Nuclear Power Plant in Bulgaria. Since 2005-2006, real-time data exchange between Bulgaria and Greece, Romania, Serbia, Macedonia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Austria and other regional and national seismological data centers was implemented. NIGGG, respectively NOTSSI, is responsible for rapid earthquake determination, public information trough media, and information of

  19. Gaia science alerts and the observing facilities of the Serbian-Bulgarian mini-network telescopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damljanović G.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The astrometric European Space Agency (ESA Gaia mission was launched in December 19, 2013. One of the tasks of the Gaia mission is production of an astrometric catalog of over one billion stars and more than 500000 extragalactic sources. The quasars (QSOs, as extragalactic sources and radio emitters, are active galactic nuclei objects (AGNs whose coordinates are well determined via Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI technique and may reach sub-milliarcsecond accuracy. The QSOs are the defining sources of the quasi-inertial International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF because of their core radio morphology, negligible proper motions (until sub-milliarcsecond per year, and apparent point-like nature. Compact AGNs, visible in optical domain, are useful for a direct link of the future Gaia optical reference frame with the most accurate radio one. Apart from the above mentioned activities, Gaia has other goals such as follow-up of transient objects. One of the most important Gaia's requirements for photometric alerts is a fast observation and reduction response, that is, submition of observations within 24 hours. For this reason we have developed a pipeline. In line with possibilities of our new telescope (D(cm/F(cm=60/600 at the Astronomical Station Vidojevica (ASV, of the Astronomical Observatory in Belgrade, we joined the Gaia-Follow-Up Network for Transients Objects (Gaia-FUN-TO for the photometric alerts. Moreover, in view of the cooperation with Bulgarian colleagues (in the frst place, SV, one of us (GD initiated a local mini-network of Serbian { Bulgarian telescopes useful for the Gaia-FUN-TO and other astronomical purposes. During the next year we expect a new 1.4 m telescope at ASV site. The speed of data processing (from observation to calibration server could be one day. Here, we present an overview of our activities in the Gaia-FUN-TO which includes establishing Serbian { Bulgarian mini-network (of five telescopes at three sites

  20. Therapy of ovarian inactivity in postpartum Bulgarian Murrah buffaloes by PRID and Ovsynch estrus synchronization protocols

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stanimir Yotov; Anatoli Atanasov; Yordanka Ilieva

    2012-01-01

    Objective:The aim of the present study was to assess therapeutical effect of modified Ovsynch and PRID estrus synchronization protocols in Bulgarian Murrah buffalo with inactive ovaries during the low-breeding season. Methods:The study was carried out in 46 Bulgarian Murrah buffaloes with small inactive ovaries established by two consecutive transrectal ultrasonographies on Day 40 and 50 postpartum. At the start of the therapy the buffaloes were randomly divided into three groups. Group I (n=18) was treated by PRID-based protocol;Group II (n=18) was treated by Ovsynch based protocol and Group III (control;n=10) was injected intramuscular with saline at the same days as in the first two groups and fertile bull was introduced after that. The animals in the different groups were submitted to ultrasound examination at day of artificial insemination or bull introduction. Ovulation was determined 7 days post insemination by ultrasound. The pregnancy diagnosis was done 30 days after insemination. Mean diameter of the largest follicles at the start of therapy and the day of AI was registered. In the hormonal treated buffaloes estrus clinical sings, ovulation rate and pregnancy rate after AI were determined. In the control group pregnancy rate after spontaneous estrus was established. The mean diameter of the largest follicles determined on Days 40 and 50 after calving was not over 9 mm for all buffaloes. Results:At day of AI the average diameters of the preo-vulatory follicles in PRID and Ovsynch treated buffaloes were significantly (P<0.01) greater than these on Day 0. The cases of a clear uterine mucus discharge during the induced estrus were significant more (P<0.05) for Group I (94.4%) than Group II (66.7%). The pregnancy rate after AI (56.6%and 38.8%) in PRID and Ovsynch program was significant higher (P<0.05) than pregnancy rate after spontaneous estrus (10%) in the control group. Conclusions:the treatment of buffalo ovarian inactivity could start on Day 50

  1. 7 CFR 760.304 - Covered livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., adult or non-adult dairy cattle, alpacas, deer, elk, emus, equine, goats, llamas, poultry, reindeer... of the normal business operation of the eligible livestock producer, as determined by the Secretary... cattle, (14) Poultry, (15) Reindeer, (16) Sheep, and (17) Swine. (c) Livestock that are not...

  2. Livestock Husbandry and Snow Leopard Conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohammad, Ghulam; Mostafawi, Sayed Naqibullah; Dadul, Jigmet; Rosen, Tatjana; Mishra, Charudutt; Bhatnagar, Yash Veer; Trivedi, Pranav; Timbadia, Radhika; Bijoor, Ajay; Murali, Ranjini; Sonam, Karma; Thinley, Tanzin; Namgail, Tsewang; Prins, Herbert H.T.; Nawaz, Muhammad Ali; Ud Din, Jaffar; Buzdar, Hafeez

    2016-01-01

    Livestock depredation is a key source of snow leopard mortality across much of the species' range. Snow leopards break into livestock corrals, killing many domestic animals and thereby inflicting substantial economic damage. Locals may retaliate by killing the cat and selling its parts. Predator-

  3. Livestock waste-to-energy opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of animal manure and other organic-based livestock wastes as feedstocks for waste-to-energy production has the potential to convert the livestock waste treatment from a liability into a profit center that can generate annual revenues and diversify farm income. This presentation introduces tw...

  4. Eight challenges in modelling infectious livestock diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brooks-Pollock, E; de Jong, M C M; Keeling, M J; Klinkenberg, D; Wood, J L N

    2015-01-01

    The transmission of infectious diseases of livestock does not differ in principle from disease transmission in any other animals, apart from that the aim of control is ultimately economic, with the influence of social, political and welfare constraints often poorly defined. Modelling of livestock di

  5. Assessing water resource use in livestock production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ran, Y.; Lannerstad, M.; Herrero, M.; Middelaar, Van C.E.; Boer, De I.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper reviews existing methods for assessing livestock water resource use, recognizing that water plays a vital role in global food supply and that livestock production systems consumes a large amount of the available water resources. A number of methods have contributed to the development o

  6. The effect of Bulgarian propolis against Trypanosoma cruzi and during its interaction with host cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia Pires Dantas

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Propolis has shown activity against pathogenic microorganisms that cause diseases in humans and animals. The ethanol (Et-Blg and acetone (Ket-Blg extracts from a Bulgarian propolis, with known chemical compositions, presented similar activity against tissue culture-derived amastigotes. The treatment of Trypanosoma cruzi-infected skeletal muscle cells with Et-Blg led to a decrease of infection and of the intracellular proliferation of amastigotes, while damage to the host cell was observed only at concentration 12.5 times higher than those affecting the parasite. Ultrastructural analysis of the effect of both extracts in epimastigotes revealed that the main targets were the mitochondrion and reservosomes. Et-Blg also affected the mitochondrion-kinetoplast complex in trypomastigotes, offering a potential target for chemotherapeutic agents.

  7. Alexander Tomov (1930-2009: A Founder of the Astronomical Photoelectric Photometry in Bulgaria [In Bulgarian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Tomov

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the work of Dr. Alexander Tomov on establishment and equipment of the Astronomical Observatory of Belogradchik. Tomov’s research activity in that observatory is commented as well. The official opening of the observatory took place on July 21st, 1965. During the period 1966-1969 a monitoring program for determining the orbits of artificial satellites was successfully realized. Constructing a new building expanded later observatory. In mid-1969 the observatory was supplied by 60 cm reflector optical system ‘Cassegrain’, produced by Carl Zeiss in Germany; it was the biggest telescope in Bulgaria at that time. In the period 1970-1973 a modern single-channel photoelectric UBV photometer was constructed and put in operation. In 1976 the Belogradchik observatory joined with the Institute of Astronomy of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. In the second half of seventies and early eighties hundreds of galaxies were studied.

  8. Activity of Brazilian and Bulgarian propolis against different species of Leishmania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gérzia Maria de Carvalho Machado

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Extracts of propolis samples collected in Brazil and Bulgaria were assayed against four Leishmania species - Leishmania amazonensis, L. braziliensis, L. chagasi from the New World, and L. major from the Old World - associated to different clinical forms of leishmaniasis. The composition of the extracts has been previously characterized by high temperature high resolution gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Considering the chemical differences among the extracts and the behavior of the parasites, it was observed significant differences in the leishmanicidal activities with IC50/1 day values in the range of 2.8 to 229.3 µg/ml . An overall analysis showed that for all the species evaluated, Bulgarian extracts were more active than the ethanol Brazilian extract. As the assayed propolis extracts have their chemical composition determined it merits further investigation the effect of individual components or their combinations on each Leishmania species.

  9. Duct occurrence and characteristics for Bulgarian Black sea shore derived from ECMWF data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirkova, I.

    2015-12-01

    Non-standard propagation due to sharp gradients in tropospheric refraction is known to have significant impact on radar and communication systems working in microwave range. The formation of tropospheric ducts is the most severe deviation from the standard propagation conditions. The presented study reports results on the tropospheric ducts' occurrence and properties along the Bulgarian Black sea shore. The meteorology needed to reconstruct the refractivity profiles is derived from ECMWF current operational model, TL799L91, and refers to two-year period. Statistics of essential duct parameters for surface, surface-based and elevated ducts are reported for the summer months and overall duct statistics are given for the other seasons.

  10. Scientific Activity in Higher Education: Personal and Institutional Assessment [In Bulgarian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.V. Toshev

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Education and research belong together - this expresses the very university idea. Research should provide the new scientific results. These should be published. The system of scholarly journals is organized in two levels. The first level includes the primary research journals and scholarly journals with more expanded audience. The second level includes the secondary research journals. A few Bulgarian journals are presented there. Citation analysis is of an importance mainly because it is heavily used in science policy and research evaluation professionals. The most popular indicators in such considerations are the impact factor (IF, the immediacy index (II and the response time (t1. The meaning and application of these parameters are explained. The incorrect use of the impact factor in the Bulgarian evaluation practice is mentioned. The new indicators that would characterize quantitatively the scientific achievements of the researchers are proposed: efficiency e=nk, n and k - number of author's publications and thet citations, respectively, and personal impact factor PIF=q/m where q is the number of citations in a given year of m author's publications, published in two previous years. The problem of assessment of higher education institutions is considered in detail. The change of three indicators at least should be identified during the years. These are: S=Q/P (Q stands for the number of citations for a given year for the whole faculty N, which publishes in the year of question P publications, L/M and M/N, M,L - number of prospective/graduated students for a given school year.

  11. Cross-Border Landscape: Construction of Natural Heritage and Local Development at Bulgarian-Serbian Borderlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Markov

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Normally nature is examined as a phenomenon which is subject to natural laws; it belongs to the field of natural sciences. In constructivist perspective the environment is subsumed under the symbolism of humans’ tradition and culture. From such point of view the very notion of nature is unthinkable without taking into account its existence and understanding in a specific social, economic and cultural context of definite time, space and society. In the proposed paper I proceed from this paradigm in examination of a definite natural landscape which, however, is divided by the political border. The research attention is focused on a region of Bulgarian-Serbian borderlands – the area where the Erma River flows. The river takes its sources in Serbia and though it is not very long, it is notable for passing the Bulgarian-Serbian border twice, and for its two remarkable gorges – the Gorge of Tran in Bulgaria and the Gorge of Poganovo in Serbia. During the socialist period this border region was under strong military and police control. The crossing of the border was formally impossible; the borderlands remained peripheral industrially undeveloped areas and were putted under strong depopulation. However, the lands on either side of the border preserved its pristine nature. During the last two decades the preserved natural landscape and certain nature objects have been turned into more important landmarks and included in the value scale of local communities as symbols and heritage. In result, the above mentioned gorges have become more important part of strategic priorities in the local policies of revival of these economically undeveloped borderlands in the Western Bulgaria and Eastern Serbia. Nowadays the local efforts are uniting through different joint cross-border projects and activities in the sphere of nature preservation and eco-tourism.

  12. Use of Assisted Reproductive Technologies for Livestock Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikrama Chakravarthi. P and N. Sri Balaji

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Genetic improvement of farm animals is a prime concern over the years for researchers. Several reproductive technologies have been employed to achieve this. Assisted reproductive technologies like Artificial insemination, Superovulation, In vitro Fertilization, Embryo Transfer have been introduced to overcome reproductive problems, to increase the offspring from selected female’s and to reduce the generation intervals in farm animals. The progress achieved during the last few years in the assisted reproductive technologies field has been phenomenal. Artificial Insemination (AI is the most effective method being used for the genetic improvement of animals. Reproductive capacity and efficiency has been improved tremendously since the introduction of artificial insemination. The development of cloning using various cells from the animal body has created opening of a fascinating scientific arena. These technologies have been propounded as saviors of indigenous livestock breeds. These alternative reproductive techniques are available not only for manipulation of reproductive processes but also proven to be powerful tools in curbing the spread of vertically transmitted diseases. The successful reproductive technologies such as AI and Embryo transfer need be applied on a large scale, emerging biotechnogies such as MOET, IVF and Cloning provides powerful tool for rapidly changing the animal populations, genetically. This advanced reproduction technologies will definitely play an important role in the future perspective and visions for efficient reproductive performance in livestock. [Vet. World 2010; 3(5.000: 238-240

  13. Rhythm Analysis by Heartbeat Classification in the Electrocardiogram (Review article of the research achievements of the members of the Centre of Biomedical Engineering, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Jekova

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The morphological and rhythm analysis of the electrocardiogram (ECG is based on ventricular beats detection, wave parameters measurement, as amplitudes, widths, polarities, intervals and relations between them, and a subsequent classification supporting the diagnostic process. Number of algorithms for detection and classification of the QRS complexes have been developed by researchers in the Centre of Biomedical Engineering - Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, and are reviewed in this material. Combined criteria have been introduced dealing with the QRS areas and amplitudes, the waveshapes evaluated by steep slopes and sharp peaks, vectorcardiographic (VCG loop descriptors, RR intervals irregularities. Algorithms have been designed for application on a single ECG lead, a synthesized lead derived by multichannel synchronous recordings, or simultaneous multilead analysis. Some approaches are based on templates matching, cross-correlation or rely on a continuous updating of adaptive thresholds. Various beat classification methods have been designed involving discriminant analysis, the K-th nearest neighbors, fuzzy sets, genetic algorithms, neural networks, etc. The efficiency of the developed methods has been assessed using internationally recognized arrhythmia ECG databases with annotated beats and rhythm disturbances. In general, high values for specificity and sensitivity competitive to those reported in the literature have been achieved.

  14. Agent Based Model of Livestock Movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miron, D. J.; Emelyanova, I. V.; Donald, G. E.; Garner, G. M.

    The modelling of livestock movements within Australia is of national importance for the purposes of the management and control of exotic disease spread, infrastructure development and the economic forecasting of livestock markets. In this paper an agent based model for the forecasting of livestock movements is presented. This models livestock movements from farm to farm through a saleyard. The decision of farmers to sell or buy cattle is often complex and involves many factors such as climate forecast, commodity prices, the type of farm enterprise, the number of animals available and associated off-shore effects. In this model the farm agent's intelligence is implemented using a fuzzy decision tree that utilises two of these factors. These two factors are the livestock price fetched at the last sale and the number of stock on the farm. On each iteration of the model farms choose either to buy, sell or abstain from the market thus creating an artificial supply and demand. The buyers and sellers then congregate at the saleyard where livestock are auctioned using a second price sealed bid. The price time series output by the model exhibits properties similar to those found in real livestock markets.

  15. Adoption of GM technology in livestock production chains: an integrating framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Novoselova, T.; Meuwissen, M.P.M.; Huirne, R.B.M.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an integrating framework for analysing the adoption of new technologies in food chains. We review the literature on the adoption of genetic modification in livestock production chains and conclude that an integrated chain approach is currently lacking. Such an approach is, howeve

  16. Evidence for Human Adaptation and Foodborne Transmission of Livestock-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jesper; Stegger, Marc; Andersen, Paal S;

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the evolution and epidemiology of a novel livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strain, which colonizes and infects urban-dwelling Danes even without a Danish animal reservoir. Genetic evidence suggests both poultry and human adaptation, with poultry mea...

  17. Comparison of two approaches for calculation of the geometric and inertial characteristics of the human body of the Bulgarian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolova, Gergana; Toshev, Yuli

    2008-01-01

    On the basis of a representative anthropological investigation of 5290 individuals (2435 males and 2855 females) of the Bulgarian population at the age of 30-40 years (Yordanov et al. [1]) we proposed a 3D biomechanical model of human body of the average Bulgarian male and female and compared two different possible approaches to calculate analytically and to evaluate numerically the corresponding geometric and inertial characteristics of all the segments of the body. In the framework of the first approach, we calculated the positions of the centres of mass of the segments of human body as well as their inertial characteristics merely by using the initial original anthropometrical data, while in the second approach we adjusted the data by using the method based on regression equations. Wherever possible, we presented a comparison of our data with those available in the literature on other Caucasians and determined in which cases the use of which approach is more reliable.

  18. First attempt to understand the effect of pingers on static fishing gear in Bulgarian Black Sea coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZORNITSA ZAHARIEVA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Acoustic deterrent devices (pingers were used on static fishing gear called dalyans in an attempt to reduce bycatch of small cetaceans and/or to reduce depredation in the Bulgarian Black Sea coast. Between April and July 2015 dalyans were equipped with harbour porpoise pingers in the northern part of the coast. Observations were carried out on regular bases on active (with pingers and on control dalyans (without pingers. The preliminary results were positive in reducing damages on fishing gear.

  19. ECONOMIC CONSIDERATION OF PRODUCING FERTILIZER FROM COAL-FIRED FLUE GAS: APPLICATION OF BULGARIAN EXPERIENCE TO CASE STUDY OF PORTUGAL

    OpenAIRE

    KIKUCHI, Ryunosuke; Yontcho PELOVSKI; Santos, Sandra

    2006-01-01

    A Bulgarian project at Maritsa East power station demonstrated the proper transformation of air pollutants (SOx and NOx) into nitrogen fertilizer. Although this technology has not been put into practice in Bulgaria, it seems feasible on an industrial scale and so it may help to ease Portugal’s reliance on imports of nitrogen fertilizer and thereby contain the outfl ow of Portuguese funds. The data collected from the Maritsa East project are therefore applied to discuss a case study of Amarant...

  20. 7 CFR 205.237 - Livestock feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Organic Production and Handling Requirements § 205.237 Livestock feed....

  1. Adapting livestock behaviour to achieve management goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Using livestock to efficiently achieve management goals requires melding animal behavior with mechanical and electronic equipment. Practices such as autonomously obtaining individual animal liveweight when combined with individual animal electronic identification can produce numerous cost saving ad...

  2. Potential role of sirtuins in livestock production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghinis-Hozumi, Y; Antaramian, A; Villarroya, F; Piña, E; Mora, O

    2013-01-01

    Sirtuins are NAD(+)-dependent histone and protein deacetylases, which have been studied during the last decade with a focus on their role in lifespan extension and age-related diseases under normal and calorie-restricted or pathological conditions. However, sirtuins also have the ability to regulate energy homeostasis as they can sense the metabolic state of the cell through the NAD(+)/NADH ratio; hence, changes in the diet can modify the expression of these enzymes. Dietary manipulations are a common practice currently being used in livestock production with favorable results, probably due in part to the enhanced activity of sirtuins. Nevertheless, sirtuin expression in livestock species has not been a research target. For these reasons, the goal of this review is to awaken interest in these enzymes for future detailed characterization in livestock species by presenting a general introduction to what sirtuins are, how they work and what is known about their role in livestock. PMID:23031219

  3. Livestock and Climate Change: Two Views

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijpp, van der A.J.

    2008-01-01

    Livestock rearing contributes to climate change, but at the same time it brings many benefits to small-scale farmers. Do these benefits outweigh the disadvantages in terms of greenhouse gas emissions? And how can these emissions be reduced?

  4. Application of biotechnology to improve livestock products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati Gupta

    Full Text Available Biotechnological achievements of recent years have emerged as powerful tool to improve quality attributes of livestock products including milk and meat products. Biotechnological approaches can be employed for improving productivity, economy, physicochemical and nutritional attributes of a wide range of livestock products. The target areas of biotechnological research in the field of livestock products can be envisaged as production of high yielding food animal, improvement in quality of their products, enhanced production of natural food grade preservatives, efficient byproduct utilization and so forth. Many of the biotechnological techniques can be explored in the area of quality assurance programmes, which would be of great help to produce livestock products of assured quality and public health safety. [Vet World 2012; 5(10.000: 634-638

  5. Global Climate Change: Role of Livestock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M.K. Naqvi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is seen as a major threat to the survival of many species, ecosystems and the sustainability of livestock production systems in many parts of the world. Green house gases (GHG are released in the atmosphere both by natural sources and anthropogenic (human related activities. An attempt has been made in this article to understand the contribution of ruminant livestock to climate change and to identify the mitigation strategies to reduce enteric methane emission in livestock. The GHG emissions from the agriculture sector account for about 25.5% of total global radiative forcing and over 60% of anthropogenic sources. Animal husbandry accounts for 18% of GHG emissions that cause global warming. Reducing the increase of GHG emissions from agriculture, especially livestock production should therefore be a top priority, because it could curb warming fairly rapidly. Among the GHGs, CH4 is considered to be the largest potential contributor to the global warming phenomenon. Ruminant livestock such as cattle, buffalo, sheep and goats contributes the major proportion of total agricultural emission of methane. Indian livestock system is a large contributor to GHGs and therefore also to the global warming phenomenon. Methane emission from enteric fermentation from Indian livestock ranged from 7.26 to 10.4 MT/year. In India more than 90% of the total methane emission from enteric fermentation is being contributed by the large ruminants (cattle and buffalo and rest from small ruminants and others. Generally CH4 reduction strategies can be grouped under two broad categories such as management and nutritional strategies. Although the reduction in GHG emissions from livestock industries are seen as high priorities, strategies for reducing emissions should not reduce the economic viability of enterprises if they are to find industry acceptability.

  6. Matching Livestock Production Systems and Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becchetti, T.; Stackhouse, J.; Snell, L.; Lile, D.; George, H.; Harper, J. M.; Larson, S.; Mashiri, F.; Doran, M.; Barry, S.

    2015-12-01

    Livestock production systems vary greatly over the world. Producers try to match the resources they have with the demands of production, this can vary by species, class of animal, number of animals, and production goals, etc. Using California's diversity in production systems as an example, we explored how livestock producers best utilize the forage and feed found in different ecosystems and available in different parts of the state. Livestock grazing, the predominant land use in California and in much of the world, makes efficient use of the natural vegetation produced without additional water (irrigation), minimal inputs such as fertilizer while often supporting a variety of conservation objectives including vegetation management, fire fuels management, and habitat and open space conservation. The numerous by-products produced by other sectors of California's agriculture as well as food industries, such as brewer's grain, cottonseeds, and almond hulls are utilized as a feed source for livestock. These by-products are not only an important feed source especially in drought years but are diverted from our waste stream when utilized by livestock. The concept of matching available resources to livestock needs throughout the world is often overlooked and production systems are often over simplified in projects conducting a life cycle analysis or developing carbon foot prints for livestock production systems. This paper provides details on the various production systems found in California, the ecosystem they have adapted to, and how the producers use science and ecological knowledge to match the biological requirements of the livestock and conservation objectives to feed and forage resources.

  7. Research in Organic Animals and Livestock Production

    OpenAIRE

    Vaarst, Mette

    2009-01-01

    Over the last 80 years a wide range of diverse organic livestock systems have developed. The driving force behind these developments has mainly been the farmers, consumers and various movements; and it has happened more “despite research” than “because of research.” Most production methods have developed in Western Europe and USA, where they are primarily niche products for consumers who give priority to environmental and animal welfare concerns. In these countries organic livestock productio...

  8. Organic livestock farming – a critical review

    OpenAIRE

    Sundrum, Albert

    2001-01-01

    Based on production guidelines, organic livestock farming has set itself the goal to establish an environmentally friendly production, to sustain animals in good health, to realise high animal welfare standards, and to produce products of high quality. By striving for these goals, organic livestock farming meets the demands of an increasing number of consumers, which are critical towards the conventional production methods. The paper gives an overview of the present state of the art in the di...

  9. LIVESTOCK PRICING IN THE NORTHERN KENYAN RANGELANDS

    OpenAIRE

    Barrett, Christopher B.; Chabari, Francis; Bailey, DeeVon; Coppock, D. Layne; Little, Peter D.

    2001-01-01

    This paper uses detailed, transactions-level data and a structural-heteroskedasticity-in-mean model to identify the determinants of livestock producer prices for pastoralists in the drylands of northern Kenya. The empirical results confirm the importance of animal characteristics, periodic events that predictably shift local demand or supply, and especially rainfall on the prices pastoralists receive for animals. Price risk premia are consistently negative in these livestock markets. The impo...

  10. Livestock to 2020: the next food revolution

    OpenAIRE

    Delgado, Christopher L.; Rosegrant, Mark W.; Steinfeld, Henning; Ehui, Simeon K.; Courbois, Claude

    1999-01-01

    A team of researchers from the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI), the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations (FAO), and the International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) collaborated to produce this comprehensive and even-handed attempt at defining the nature, extent, scope, and implications of what they term the "Livestock Revolution” in developing countries. Looking forward to 2020, they argue convincingly that the structural shifts in world agricult...

  11. 9 CFR 313.2 - Handling of livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Handling of livestock. 313.2 Section 313.2 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... CERTIFICATION HUMANE SLAUGHTER OF LIVESTOCK § 313.2 Handling of livestock. (a) Driving of livestock from...

  12. Inventory of coastal protected areas and historical heritage sites (North Bulgarian coast)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazov, Atanas; Stancheva, Margarita; Stanchev, Hristo; Krastev, Anton; Peev, Preslav

    2015-04-01

    Coastal protected areas and historical heritage sites in Bulgaria are established by national policy instruments/laws and EU Directives to protect a wide range of natural and cultural resources along the coast. Within the framework of HERAS Project (Submarine Archaeological Heritage of the Western Black Sea Shelf), financed by European Union under the CBC Program Romania-Bulgaria, we made an inventory and identification of protected areas, nature reserves, monuments, parks and onshore historical sites along the North Bulgarian coast (NUTS III level). The adjacent coastline is 96 km long between cape Sivriburun to the border of Romania on the north and cape Ekrene on the south. Coastal zone here is mostly undeveloped and low urbanized compared to other coastal regions in Bulgaria. It comprises of large sand beaches, vast sand dunes, up to 70 m spectacular high limestone cliffs, coastal fresh-water lakes, wetlands etc. This coastal section includes also one of the most important wetlands and it is migration corridor for many protected birds in Bulgaria, that host one of the rarest ecosystem types with national and international conservational value. Added to ecosystem values, the region is also an archeologically important area, where numerous underwater and coastal archaeological sites from different periods have been discovered - Prehistory, Antiquity (ancient Greek, Hellenistic, Roman), Mediaeval (Early Byzantium, Bulgarian). Research was made within 2100 m zone from the coastline (in accordance with zones defined by the Black Sea Coastal Development Act) for territories with protected status in the framework of many national laws and EU Directives. The total area of this strip zone is 182, 6 km2 and around 67% is under protection. There are 11 unique NATURA 2000 protected areas (6 Special Protection Areas (SPAs) and 5 Sites of Communities Importance (SCI), 2 nature reserves and 1 Nature Park. Some of them are also onshore historical sites. In Bulgaria such sites

  13. ON THE ETYMOLOGY OF 20 WORDS. ADDITIONS AND CORRECTIONS TO «BULGARIAN ETYMOLOGICAL DICTIONARY»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Selimski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper concerns the origin, word formation patterns and primeval semantics of 20 Bulgarian  words in their alphabetical order. All these words have already been studied in «Bulgarian etymological dictionary». However, 6 of them were left as obscure (3. пекя / pekia ‘very good’; 4. пелдиса / peldissa  ‘pacify’;  12. рокмàк  / rokmak ‘rope (?’, 15. Соанàк / soanak ‘little time’; 18. сънда / synda ‘sit’; 20. сюмьòсан  / siumiosan  ‘maimed’,  and the other 7 have received explanations which  are not acceptable (2. митище / mitishte  ‘straw, chaff (?’; 6. плакна  / plakna ‘rinse’; 7. платник  / platnik ‘sickly’;  10. потирек / potirek  ‘belt’; 13. сетка / setka ‘net’; 14. сий / sii ‘this’; 17. сънàк / synak ‘moment’. The remaining 7 words are under consideration because they need certain additional explanations relating to their phonetic peculiarities (19. синор  /  sinor, сънър /  synyr ‘baulk, headland’, or concerning some word-formation and/or semantic particularities  (1. костàнски /  kostanski  ‘adjective from name of vil. Костанденец / Kostandenets’; 11. разтварям /  raztvariam ‘dissolve’;  16. суичмез  /  suich mez  ‘drunkard’. Some  of the discussed  words  can  be considered as calques from other languages: Russian  (5. изписвам /  izpisvam ‘discharge’, Croatian (9. покора/pokora ‘penance’ and Turkish (8. плява / pliava ‘galaxy’.

  14. 9 CFR 309.7 - Livestock affected with anthrax; cleaning and disinfection of infected livestock pens and driveways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Livestock affected with anthrax... INSPECTION § 309.7 Livestock affected with anthrax; cleaning and disinfection of infected livestock pens and driveways. (a) Any livestock found on ante-mortem inspection to be affected with anthrax shall be...

  15. Livestock and health: understanding the links between agriculture and health

    OpenAIRE

    Catelo, Maria Angeles

    2006-01-01

    "The linkages between livestock and health are significant, particularly for the poor, whether as livestock raisers or as consumers of meat and milk, or even as users of the environment. The processes of livestock production and consumption bring both benefits and problems for human health... Livestock production and consumption can lead to four main types of human health risks: (1) diseases transmitted from livestock to humans; (2) environmental pollution; (3) foodborne diseases and risks; a...

  16. Bulgarian Activities in the Project COSMOS: An Advanced Scientific Repository for Science Teaching and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchev, D.; Kyurkchieva, D.; Borisov, B.; Radeva, V.

    2010-09-01

    One of the main purposes of the European educational project COSMOS (co-funded by the European Commission under the program eContentplus), is to create an experimental laboratory for the school of tomorrow in order to improve the education in astronomy by expanding the resources for teaching and learning in schools and universities and by providing more challenging and authentic learning experiences for students. A large educational database was created as a result of the project activities made by 15 partner institutions. The unusual electronic "library" offers to students and teachers unique educational resources: learning scenarios, images, presentations, videos and animations (most of them are impossible to produce in any scientific laboratory). It is freely accessible to anyone, anywhere, anytime. Our poster presents the contribution of the Shumen university (the only partner from Bulgaria) in the project: uploading more than 12000 astronomical images in the COSMOS portal; creation of 45 learning scenarios; holding 5 teaching workshops at different places for more than 100 Bulgarian teachers to use the possibilities of the COSMOS portal (including creation of their own learning scenarios). Our analysis of the questionnaires filled-in by the participating teachers shows the necessity of such projects and workshops.

  17. Object-Oriented Programming in Bulgarian Universities' Informatics and Computer Science Curricula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivaylo DONCHEV

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Teaching object-oriented programming (OOP is related to many difficulties. There is no single view on their causes among the university teachers. The results of applying various methods of teaching - with early or late introduction of the objects, are controversial too. This work presents the results of a study designed to analyze and classify the difficulties encountered in the teaching of OOP in Bulgarian universities as well as the possibilities for dealing with them. Two viewpoints have been considered - of lecturers and of students. The issues under consideration are: when and what should be studied, what should be stressed, what languages and environments should be used, what examples are the most suitable, and what educational goals the programming courses should achieve. Our investigation was aimed also to confirm or cast aside our suppositions that important aspects in teaching/learning OOP are being underestimated: great attention is being paid to the data in a class at the expence of the behavior of the objects in a program; more than necessary is being stressed onto the syntactic peculiarities in defining classes and objects without detailed clarification why they are needed; the auxiliary didactic tools that are being used are insufficient.

  18. Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Bulgarian Patients with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and/or Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoaneta Gateva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS is one of the most common endocrine disturbances in women of reproductive age. Besides its well-known effects on reproductive health, it is also linked to increased cardiovascular risk in later life. The aim of this study is to investigate some classical cardiovascular risk factors in a crossectional study of Bulgarian women with PCOS and/or obesity. We performed a retrospective medical chart review of 375 women from an university endocrine clinic. We found significant differences in the indices of carbohydrate metabolism, blood pressure, lipid profile, rate of liver steatosis, and the levels liver enzymes and hematological results between the lean and obese PCOS women. Obese women without PCOS did not show significantly different results in their OGGT form obese PCOS women. Waist-to-stature-ratio (WSR correlated better with the baseline IRI levels and lipid profile than waist-to-hip-ratio (WHR that makes it a better marker for unfavorable metabolic profile.

  19. Improving livestock for agriculture - technological progress from random transgenesis to precision genome editing heralds a new era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laible, Götz; Wei, Jingwei; Wagner, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Humans have a long history in shaping the genetic makeup of livestock to optimize production and meet growing human demands for food and other animal products. Until recently, this has only been possible through traditional breeding and selection, which is a painstakingly slow process of accumulating incremental gains over a long period. The development of transgenic livestock technology offers a more direct approach with the possibility for making genetic improvements with greater impact and within a single generation. However, initially the technology was hampered by technical difficulties and limitations, which have now largely been overcome by progressive improvements over the past 30 years. Particularly, the advent of genome editing in combination with homologous recombination has added a new level of efficiency and precision that holds much promise for the genetic improvement of livestock using the increasing knowledge of the phenotypic impact of genetic sequence variants. So far not a single line of transgenic livestock has gained approval for commercialization. The step change to genome-edited livestock with precise sequence changes may accelerate the path to market, provided applications of this new technology for agriculture can deliver, in addition to economic incentives for producers, also compelling benefits for animals, consumers, and the environment. PMID:25515661

  20. Revised spatially distributed global livestock emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asrar, G.; Wolf, J.; West, T. O.

    2015-12-01

    Livestock play an important role in agricultural carbon cycling through consumption of biomass and emissions of methane. Quantification and spatial distribution of methane and carbon dioxide produced by livestock is needed to develop bottom-up estimates for carbon monitoring. These estimates serve as stand-alone international emissions estimates, as input to global emissions modeling, and as comparisons or constraints to flux estimates from atmospheric inversion models. Recent results for the US suggest that the 2006 IPCC default coefficients may underestimate livestock methane emissions. In this project, revised coefficients were calculated for cattle and swine in all global regions, based on reported changes in body mass, quality and quantity of feed, milk production, and management of living animals and manure for these regions. New estimates of livestock methane and carbon dioxide emissions were calculated using the revised coefficients and global livestock population data. Spatial distribution of population data and associated fluxes was conducted using the MODIS Land Cover Type 5, version 5.1 (i.e. MCD12Q1 data product), and a previously published downscaling algorithm for reconciling inventory and satellite-based land cover data at 0.05 degree resolution. Preliminary results for 2013 indicate greater emissions than those calculated using the IPCC 2006 coefficients. Global total enteric fermentation methane increased by 6%, while manure management methane increased by 38%, with variation among species and regions resulting in improved spatial distributions of livestock emissions. These new estimates of total livestock methane are comparable to other recently reported studies for the entire US and the State of California. These new regional/global estimates will improve the ability to reconcile top-down and bottom-up estimates of methane production as well as provide updated global estimates for use in development and evaluation of Earth system models.

  1. Genomic selection to improve livestock production in developing countries with a focus on India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kadarmideen, Haja; Do, Duy Ngoc

    2015-01-01

    not been fully explored. The future of livestock breeding focuses on both product quality and productivity, animal welfare, disease resistance and reducing environmental pollution. Among the breeding tools, molecular genetics and genomics and modern reproductive techniques such ovum-pick up and in vitro......Global livestock production has increased substantially during the last decades, in both number of animals and productivity. Meanwhile, the human population is projected to reach 9.6 billions by 2050 and most of the increase in the projection takes place in developing countries. Rapid population...... growth will increase the demand for food as well as animal products, particularly in emerging economic giants like India. Moreover, the urbanization has considerable impact on patterns of food consumption in general and on demand for livestock products, in particular and the increased income growth led...

  2. Dzuds, droughts, and livestock mortality in Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palat Rao, Mukund; Davi, Nicole K.; D'Arrigo, Rosanne D.; Skees, Jerry; Nachin, Baatarbileg; Leland, Caroline; Lyon, Bradfield; Wang, Shih-Yu; Byambasuren, Oyunsanaa

    2015-07-01

    Recent incidences of mass livestock mortality, known as dzud, have called into question the sustainability of pastoral nomadic herding, the cornerstone of Mongolian culture. A total of 20 million head of livestock perished in the mortality events of 2000-2002, and 2009-2010. To mitigate the effects of such events on the lives of herders, international agencies such as the World Bank are taking increasing interest in developing tailored market-based solutions like index-insurance. Their ultimate success depends on understanding the historical context and underlying causes of mortality. In this paper we examine mortality in 21 Mongolian aimags (provinces) between 1955 and 2013 in order to explain its density independent cause(s) related to climate variability. We show that livestock mortality is most strongly linked to winter (November-February) temperatures, with incidences of mass mortality being most likely to occur because of an anomalously cold winter. Additionally, we find prior summer (July-September) drought and precipitation deficit to be important triggers for mortality that intensifies the effect of upcoming winter temperatures on livestock. Our density independent mortality model based on winter temperature, summer drought, summer precipitation, and summer potential evaporanspiration explains 48.4% of the total variability in the mortality dataset. The Mongolian index based livestock insurance program uses a threshold of 6% mortality to trigger payouts. We find that on average for Mongolia, the probability of exceedance of 6% mortality in any given year is 26% over the 59 year period between 1955 and 2013.

  3. Lessons learned from past experience with intensive livestock management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, G M; Rault, J L; Glatz, P C

    2014-04-01

    The main impetus for 'modern' intensive animal production occurred after the Second World War, when Western governments developed policies to increase the availability of cheap, safe food for their populations. Livestock benefit under intensive husbandry by protection from environmental extremes and predators, and better nutritional and health management. Nevertheless, there are costs to the animal, such as impaired social behaviour, limited choice of living environment or pen mates, poor environmental stimulation and behavioural restrictions. The rapid progress in genetic selection of production traits has also, in some cases, adversely affected welfare by creating anatomical and metabolic problems. Above all, the intensively housed animal is heavily reliant on the stockperson and, therefore, inadequate care and husbandry practices by the stockperson may be the largest welfare risk. In a future in which the food supply may be limited as the world's population grows and land availability shrinks, intensive animal production is likely to expand. At the same time, ethical considerations surrounding intensive farming practices may also become more prominent. Novel technologies provide the opportunity to enhance both the productivity and welfare of intensively kept animals. Developing countries are also establishing more intensive commercial systems to meet their growing need for animal protein. Intensive livestock production in such countries has the potential for major expansion, particularly if such developments address the key constraints of poor welfare, inadequate nutrition, poor reproduction, poor housing, and high mortality often seen with traditional systems, and if farmer access to emerging market opportunities is improved. However, as shown by previous experience, inadequate regulation and staff who lack the appropriate training to care for the welfare of intensively housed livestock can be major challenges to overcome.

  4. [Genetics and disease resistance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiner, Gerald

    2008-07-01

    Genetic components of disease resistance have been described in most of important diseases in human as well as in laboratory and livestock animals. However the basic mechanisms have been established in a few examples only. The reasons herefore are the mostly polygenic inheritance of disease resistance traits, the missing of suitable animal models and the dominance of environmental effects like infection pressure, immune status, and stressors, limiting the view on responsible gene variants. Ethical and practical aspects may further hinder research on disease resistance in certain species. Livestock animals play a crucial role in disease resistance research, because of distinct genetic diversity within and between breeds, because of an often distinct metabolic congruency with humans, and aiming towards the improvement of hygiene and economy of production and animal welfare. The following sections will review disease resistance in livestock animals and their practical implications, completed by examples of our own research activities.

  5. Estimation of Airflow in livestock Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Rasmus

    1995-01-01

    sickness among the livestock. Therefore it is of interest to estimate flow vector fields corresponding to the airflow introduced by a given ventilation system. By introducing particles (e.g. smoke or soapbubles) into the air-inlets of a model of a livestock building, the airflow in an laser......The well-being of the animals (e.g. pigs) in livestock buildings is contingent on adequate ventilation. Depending on the construction of the ventilation system draught may be introduced into the buildings. Obviously this is an unwanted effect, that might lead to decreasing growth of and increasing......-illuminated plane may be visualized. Based of sequences of images recorded of this plane local measurements of the velocity field are obtained by analysis of the local energy distribution, which is sampled using a set of 3-D spatio-temporal Gabor filters. We will show how physically inspired a priori distribution...

  6. Temperature and Humidity Control in Livestock Stables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael; Andersen, Palle; Nielsen, Kirsten M.;

    2010-01-01

    The paper describes temperature and humidity control of a livestock stable. It is important to have a correct air flow pattern in the livestock stable in order to achieve proper temperature and humidity control as well as to avoid draught. In the investigated livestock stable the air flow is...... controlled using wall mounted ventilation flaps. In the paper an algorithm for air flow control is presented meeting the needs for temperature and humidity while taking the air flow pattern in consideration. To obtain simple and realisable controllers a model based control design method is applied. In the...... design dynamic models for temperature and humidity are very important elements and effort is put into deriving and testing the models. It turns out that non-linearities are dominating in both models making feedback linearization the natural design method. The air controller as well as the temperature and...

  7. Objectives, criteria and methods for using molecular genetic data in priority setting for conservation of animal genetic resources

    OpenAIRE

    Tixier Boichard, Michèle; Toro, M.A.; Simianer, H.; Eding, H.; G. Gandini; Joost, S; Garcia, D; Colli, L; Ajmone-Marsan, P.; GLOBALDIV Consortium,

    2010-01-01

    The genetic diversity of the world’s livestock populations is decreasing, both within and across breeds. A wide variety of factors has contributed to the loss, replacement or genetic dilution of many local breeds. Genetic variability within the more common commercial breeds has been greatly decreased by selectively intense breeding programmes. Conservation of livestock genetic variability is thus important, especially when considering possible future changes in production environments. The wo...

  8. Objectives, criteria and methods for using molecular genetic data in priority setting for conservation of animal genetic resources

    OpenAIRE

    Boettcher, P. J.; Tixier-Boichard, M; Toro, M.A.; Simianer, H.; Eding, H.; Globaldiv, Consortium

    2010-01-01

    The genetic diversity of the world's livestock populations is decreasing, both within and across breeds. A wide variety of factors has contributed to the loss, replacement or genetic dilution of many local breeds. Genetic variability within the more common commercial breeds has been greatly decreased by selectively intense breeding programmes. Conservation of livestock genetic variability is thus important, especially when considering possible future changes in production environments. The wo...

  9. Changing characteristics of livestock-associated meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolated from humans - emergence of a subclade transmitted without livestock exposure, the Netherlands, 2003 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Thijs; van Luit, Martijn; Pluister, Gerlinde N; Frentz, Dineke; Haenen, Anja; Landman, Fabian; Witteveen, Sandra; van Marm-Wattimena, Naomi; van der Heide, Han G; Schouls, Leo M

    2016-05-26

    Since 2007, livestock-associated meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) has become the predominant MRSA clade isolated from humans in the Netherlands. To assess possible temporal changes, we molecularly characterised over 9,000 LA-MRSA isolates submitted from 2003 to 2014 to the Dutch MRSA surveillance. After an initial rapid increase with a peak in 2009 (n = 1,368), the total number of submitted LA-MRSA isolates has been slowly decreasing to 968 in 2014 and over 80% of LA-MRSA belonged to one of three predominant MLVA/spa-types. Next generation sequencing (n=118) showed that MT569/t034 isolates were genetically more diverse than MT398/t011 and MT572/t108. Concurrent with the decrease in LA-MRSA, fewer people reported having contact with livestock and this was most prominent for people carrying MT569/t034 LA-MRSA. The proportion of LA-MRSA isolated from infection-related materials increased from 6% in 2009, to 13% in 2014 and most of these isolates originated from patients older than 50 years of age. Remarkably, 83% of these patients reported not having contact with livestock. The results reveal an ongoing change in the genotypic and epidemiological characteristics of Dutch LA-MRSA isolated from humans with the emergence of a LA-MRSA subclade independent of livestock exposure, suggesting LA-MRSA starts to resemble non-LA-MRSA in terms of transmissibility and pathogenicity. PMID:27254022

  10. Mitigating GHG emissions from ruminant livestock systems

    OpenAIRE

    Klumpp, Katja; Doreau, Michel; Faverdin, Philippe; Jeuffroy, Marie-Helene; Bamière, Laure; Pardon, Lenaïc; Soussana, Jean-François; Pellerin, Sylvain

    2015-01-01

    Improving the net GHG budget of ruminant livestock systems without a reduction in productivity and economic sustainability, requires effective mitigation options in terms of abatement potential and costs. Grasslands and grassland management have a large potential to mitigate livestock GHG emissions at a low (or even negative) cost. A synthesis of eddy flux covariance data (i.e. 189 site years) shows on a mean net carbon storage equal to 0.76 ±0.1 MgC m-2yr-1, indicating a significant carbon s...

  11. Internal parasite management in grazing livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Niranjan; Rao, Thakur Krishan Shankar; Varghese, Anju; Rathor, Veer Singh

    2013-10-01

    It is a challenging task to control internal parasites in grazing livestock even by applying multi label and multi directional approach. It is impossible to draw general recommendations to control parasitic diseases due to varied geo-climatic conditions and methods adopted for rearing the livestock in the country like India. In view of increasing incidence of anti-parasitic drug resistance in animals, there is an urgent need to design sustainable parasite control strategy which must include on the host as well as off the host control measures to harvest the maximum productivity from the animal for an indefinite period.

  12. Induction of ovarian activity in Bulgarian Murrah buffaloes by hormonal treatment in the early postpartum period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stanimir A Yotov; Anatoli S Atanasov; Yordanka Y Ilieva

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine the possibilities for induction of ovarian activity in Bulgarian Murrah buffaloes by hormonal treatment in the early postpartum period. Methods: Twenty six clinically healthy animals, weighing 480-520 kg, 3-5 years of age, with normal parturition, without clinical signs of endometritis during the entire experimental period were divided into 2 groups: control (n=10) and experimental (n=16). Primiparous and multiparous buffaloes were proportionally allotted into both groups. By 5, 21, and 28 postpartum days, control animals were intramuscularly treated with 2 mL physiological saline, whereas experimental buffaloes received 500 mg PGF2αby the 5th postpartum day, 100 μg GnRH by the 21st postpartum day and a second prostaglandin dose 7 days later. All buffaloes were submitted to transrectal ultrasound examination on days 5, 21 and 28 after calving. Evaluation of ovarian activity was made on the basis of follicle type and detection of a newly formed corpus luteum. The percentage of animals with small, medium or dominant follicle and corpus luteum after either spontaneous or induced ovulation was determined. Insemination management included introduction of two proven fertile bulls into the herd at the start of the treatment. Pregnancy ultrasound checks were performed on postpartum days 58, 68, 120 and 150. The proportion of buffaloes with clinical signs of spontaneous or induced oestrus until the 35th postpartum day, pregnancy rates by the 35th and 90th postpartum days and service periods 90 days were registered. Results: On the 5th day after calving, small follicles were predominating in the ovaries of buffaloes from both groups. Similar findings were established on the 21st day in the control group, whereas the share of experimental buffaloes with small follicles was significantly (P<0.01) lower. By the 21st day, there were no medium follicles in untreated animals, while in hormonally treated ones they were found out in 25% of cases. The

  13. Data quality at the Bulgarian National Cancer Registry: An overview of comparability, completeness, validity and timeliness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrova, Nadya; Parkin, Donald Maxwell

    2015-06-01

    Reporting of neoplasms in Bulgaria has been compulsory since a directive from the Ministry of Health in 1951. The quality of cancer registry data has been estimated rather infrequently in past years. We aimed to provide a comprehensive evaluation of the quality of the data at the Bulgarian National Cancer Registry (BNCR). Quantitative and semi-quantitative methods were applied for cancers diagnosed during the whole period 1993-2010, and also for cases diagnosed in 2006-2010. The methods used include historic data methods, mortality-to-incidence ratios (M:I), capture-recapture and death-certificate methods, proportions of morphologically verified cases (MV%), death-certificate-only cases (DCO%), and cases with missing information (primary site unknown, PSU%; stage unknown, SU%). The BNCR coding and classification systems follow international standards. The overall completeness was estimated at 92.6-94.7% for the period 2006-2010, with variations between cancer sites (86.7-98.5%). During the period 1993-2010, M:I decreased to 0.5 for males and 0.4 for females, MV increased to 87.4%, DCO and SU decreased to 4.8% and 18.8%, respectively, and PSU remained at the same level of about 4% for both sexes together. Sub-analysis revealed differences by site, sex and age groups. The comparison with other registries from the region showed similar incidence rates and directions of trends: M:I, MV% and DCO% that were not significantly different. The underreporting in 2008 and 2009 due to timely publication was estimated at an overall 0.8% and 0.5%, respectively. The present review showed that the BNCR yields internationally comparable data that are reasonably accurate, timely, and close to complete, especially in recent years. This is a prerequisite for the BNCR to expand its role to more areas of cancer control.

  14. Chronic hepatitis C virus infection: Prevalence of extrahepatic manifestations and association with cryoglobulinemia in Bulgarian patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To assess the prevalence of extrahepatic manifestations in Bulgarian patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and identify the clinical and biological manifestations associated with cryoglobulinemia.METHODS: The medical records of 136 chronically infected HCV patients were reviewed to assess the prevalence of extrahepatic manifestations. Association between cryoglobulin-positivity and other manifestations were identified using χ2 and Fisher's exact test. Risk factors for the presence of extrahepatic manifestations were assessed by logistic regression analysis.RESULTS: Seventy six percent (104/136) of the patients had at least one extrahepatic manifestation.Clinical manifestations included fatigue (59.6%),kidney impairment (25.0%), type 2 diabetes (22.8%),paresthesia (19.9%), arthralgia (18.4%), palpable purpura (17.6%), lymphadenopathy (16.2%), pulmonary fibrosis (15.4%), thyroid dysfunction (14.7%), Raynaud's phenomenon (11.8%), B-cell lymphoma (8.8%),sicca syndrome (6.6%), and lichen planus (5.9%).The biological manifestations included cryoglobulin production (37.5%), thrombocytopenia (31.6%), and autoantibodies: anti-nuclear (18.4%), anti-smooth muscle (16.9%), anti-neutrophil cytoplasm (13.2%) and anti-cardiolipin (8.8%). All extrahepatic manifestations showed an association with cryoglobulin-positivity, with the exception of thyroid dysfunction, sicca syndrome,and lichen planus. Risks factors for the presence of extrahepatic manifestations (univariate analysis) were:age ≥ 60 years, female gender, virus transmission by blood transfusions, longstanding infection (≥ 20 years), and extensive liver fibrosis. The most significant risks factors (multivariate analysis) were longstanding infection and extensive liver fibrosis.CONCLUSION: We observed a high prevalence of extrahepatic manifestations in patients with chronic HCV infection. Most of these manifestations were associated with impaired lymphoproliferation and cryoglobulin production

  15. Genetic diversity in farm animals - A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groeneveld, L. F.; Lenstra, J. A.; Eding, H.; Toro, M. A.; Scherf, B.; Pilling, D.; Negrini, R.; Finlay, E. K.; Jianlin, H.; Groeneveld, E.; Weigend, S.

    2010-01-01

    Domestication of livestock species and a long history of migrations, selection and adaptation have created an enormous variety of breeds. Conservation of these genetic resources relies on demographic characterization, recording of production environments and effective data management. In addition, m

  16. Current situation of the Bulgarian power sector and strategy of its development in the transition to a market economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulgaria's change from a centrally planned economy to a market oriented one has created a completely different approach to energy and electricity planning. This has been more noticeable at the level of the electrical utility which presently is confronted with some privatization initiatives. Because of on-going cooperative efforts with several international organizations, different models are being proposed for planning the expansion of the power system. This paper reviews the most important results of the application of these models to the Bulgarian conditions. (author). 5 figs, 4 tabs

  17. Improving the productivity of indigenous African livestock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document summarizes the results of two Co-ordinated Research Programs to improve the productivity of indigenous African livestock. After an introduction and a summary the reports of the participating countries are presented. The individual contributions have been indexed separately. Refs, figs and tabs

  18. Livestock and the promise of genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludu, Jagjit S; Plastow, Graham S

    2013-10-01

    The emergence of the middle class in countries such as Brazil, Russia, India, and China is resulting in increasing global demand for animal-based food products. This increase represents a unique opportunity for Canadian livestock producers to export their products to new markets and expand Canada's reputation as a global provider of safe and highest quality food items. This article has two major themes. First, current Canadian contributions to livestock genomics in the cattle and swine industries are outlined. Second, important future opportunities are discussed, including the high throughput collection of phenotypic data, development of environmentally friendly livestock, emergence of decision support software, and the use of Web 2.0. Through the use of genomic technologies, livestock producers can not only ensure that the nutritional demands of Canada are secured, but also play a pivotal role in ensuring the rest of the world is fed as well. Furthermore, investment through initiatives led by Genome Canada has ensured that Canada is favorably positioned to contribute cutting-edge solutions to meet this global challenge. Ultimately, genomic-based innovations will enable producers to increase efficiency, lower production costs, decrease the use of prophylactics, and limit the expenditure of resources.

  19. Loomakasvatus, 2007 = Livestock farming, 2007 / Tiiu Tamm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tamm, Tiiu

    2007-01-01

    2007. aastal tapeti ning müüdi tapaks 105 000 tonni loomi ja linde, toodeti 689 700 tonni piima ning 155,8 miljonit muna. Diagramm. Tabelid. Vt. samas: Loomade ja piima kokkuost, 2007 = Purchase of livestock and milk, 2007

  20. Livestock sector in Zambia: Opportunities and limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zambia is endowed with a vast feed resource base for animal production purposes. However, the feed resource base is not fully utilised and this is manifested by low livestock productivity. The quality and production levels of animal products depend largely on the quality and quantity of feed, which is fed to the livestock. Among the constraints limiting livestock productivity in Zambia, insufficient and low quality of veld grass, particularly during the long dry season (March-November) is responsible for low production levels and poor reproductive performance in ruminants. The problem of inadequate veld grass can be overcome by feeding crop residues which are in abundance during the dry season. Zambia produces large quantities of sugarcane tops, bagasse and straws from maize, sorghum, wheat, millet and rice. These could sustain livestock productivity if supplemented with protein sources or treated with urea. Despite the production of large quantities of crop residues, these are wasted by burning or get destroyed by termites. There is a need, therefore, to develop feeding systems based on crop residues which are compatible with the farming systems in Zambia and to promote such feeding systems. (author)

  1. An application of MeSH enrichment analysis in livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morota, G; Peñagaricano, F; Petersen, J L; Ciobanu, D C; Tsuyuzaki, K; Nikaido, I

    2015-08-01

    An integral part of functional genomics studies is to assess the enrichment of specific biological terms in lists of genes found to be playing an important role in biological phenomena. Contrasting the observed frequency of annotated terms with those of the background is at the core of overrepresentation analysis (ORA). Gene Ontology (GO) is a means to consistently classify and annotate gene products and has become a mainstay in ORA. Alternatively, Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) offers a comprehensive life science vocabulary including additional categories that are not covered by GO. Although MeSH is applied predominantly in human and model organism research, its full potential in livestock genetics is yet to be explored. In this study, MeSH ORA was evaluated to discern biological properties of identified genes and contrast them with the results obtained from GO enrichment analysis. Three published datasets were employed for this purpose, representing a gene expression study in dairy cattle, the use of SNPs for genome-wide prediction in swine and the identification of genomic regions targeted by selection in horses. We found that several overrepresented MeSH annotations linked to these gene sets share similar concepts with those of GO terms. Moreover, MeSH yielded unique annotations, which are not directly provided by GO terms, suggesting that MeSH has the potential to refine and enrich the representation of biological knowledge. We demonstrated that MeSH can be regarded as another choice of annotation to draw biological inferences from genes identified via experimental analyses. When used in combination with GO terms, our results indicate that MeSH can enhance our functional interpretations for specific biological conditions or the genetic basis of complex traits in livestock species.

  2. Global and regional trends in greenhouse gas emissions from livestock

    OpenAIRE

    Caro, D; Davis, SJ; Bastianoni, S.; Caldeira, K.

    2014-01-01

    © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. Following IPCC guidelines (IPCC 2006), we estimate greenhouse gas emissions related to livestock in 237 countries and 11 livestock categories during the period 1961–2010. We find that in 2010 emissions of methane and nitrous oxide related to livestock worldwide represented approximately 9 % of total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Global GHG emissions from livestock increased by 51 % during the analyzed period, mostly due to strong growth of ...

  3. Genetic improvement of livestock for organic farming systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boelling, D.; Groen, A.F.; Soerensen, P.; Madsen, P.; Jensen, J.

    2003-01-01

    Organic farming which experienced a constant rise over the last two decades is a system based on sustainability and on a concept tending towards functional integrity. Legislation as well as the wish to produce separately from conventional farming raise the question whether organic farming should be

  4. Greenhouse gas mitigation potentials in the livestock sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herrero, Mario; Henderson, Benjamin; Havlík, Petr; Thornton, Philip K.; Conant, Richard T.; Smith, Pete; Wirsenius, Stefan; Hristov, Alexander N.; Gerber, P.J.; Gill, Margaret; Butterbach-bahl, Klaus; Valin, Hugo; Garnett, Tara; Stehfest, Elke

    2016-01-01

    The livestock sector supports about 1.3 billion producers and retailers, and contributes 40–50% of agricultural GDP. We estimated that between 1995 and 2005, the livestock sector was responsible for greenhouse gas emissions of 5.6–7.5 GtCO2e yr–1. Livestock accounts for up to half of the technical m

  5. Livestock greenhouse gas emissions and mitigation potential in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bellarby, J.; Tirado, R.; Leip, A.; Weiss, F.; Lesschen, J.P.; Smith, P.

    2013-01-01

    The livestock sector contributes considerably to global greenhouse gas emissions (GHG). Here, for the year 2007 we examined GHG emissions in the EU27 livestock sector and estimated GHG emissions from production and consumption of livestock products; including imports, exports and wastage. We also re

  6. 9 CFR 313.1 - Livestock pens, driveways and ramps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Livestock pens, driveways and ramps. 313.1 Section 313.1 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION HUMANE SLAUGHTER OF LIVESTOCK § 313.1 Livestock pens, driveways and ramps....

  7. The occurrence of hazardous volatile elements and nanoparticles in Bulgarian coal fly ashes and the effect on human health exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Luis F.O., E-mail: lfsoliveira@univates.br [Centro Universitario Univates, Pro Reitoria de Pesquisa Estensao e Pos Graduacao, Programa de Pos Graduacao Ambiente e Desenvolvimento (Brazil); Environmental Science and Nanotechnology Department, Catarinense Institute of Environmental Research and Human Development - IPADHC, Capivari de Baixo, Santa Catarina (Brazil); DaBoit, Katia [Department of Environmental Medicine, Catarinense Institute of Environmental Research and Human Development - IPADHC, Capivari de Baixo, Santa Catarina (Brazil); Sampaio, Carlos H. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Escola de Engenharia, Departamento de Metalurgia, Centro de Tecnologia, Av. Bento Goncalves, 9500, Bairro Agronomia, CEP: 91501-970, Porto Alegre - RS (Brazil); Jasper, Andre [Centro Universitario Univates, Pro Reitoria de Pesquisa Estensao e Pos Graduacao, Programa de Pos Graduacao Ambiente e Desenvolvimento (Brazil); Andrade, Maria L. [Department of Plant Biology and Soil Science, University of Vigo, 36310 Vigo (Spain); Kostova, Irena J. [Sofia University ' St. Kliment Ohridski' , Department of Geology, Paleontology and Fossil Fuels, 15, Tzar Osvoboditel Blvd., 1000 Sofia (Bulgaria); and others

    2012-02-01

    Low-rank, high-mineral matter Bulgarian coals were studied using a variety of chemical, optical, and electron beam methods. The larger fly ash carbon phases include charred carbons in contrast to coked carbons present in the fly ashes of bituminous-coal-derived fly ashes. Nanoscale carbons include multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) encapsulating Hg, Se, and As, among other elements. In addition to the glass which dominates the fly ash, relatively coarse 'rock fragments', consisting of an unmelted to partially melted core surrounded by a glassy rim, are present in the fly ash. Nano-scale minerals can contain hazardous elements and, along with metal-bearing multiwalled nanotubes, can be a path for the entry of hazardous particles into the lungs and other organs. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We model Bulgarian power plants which have regulated minerals nanoparticles can contain hazardous elements. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We study changes in the level of information about nanominerals importance and the effect on human health exposure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Increasing information will increase quality if power plants procedures are similar.

  8. Association of mitochondrial function and feed efficiency in poultry and livestock species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottje, W G; Carstens, G E

    2009-04-01

    As grain prices have increased dramatically in the past year, understanding the fundamental genetic, cellular, and biochemical mechanisms responsible for feed efficiency (FE; g of gain/g of feed) or residual feed intake (RFI; an alternative feed efficiency trait that quantifies interanimal variation in DMI that is unexplained by differences in BW and growth rate) in livestock and poultry is extremely important with respect to maintaining viable meat production practices in the United States. Although breed and diet have long been known to affect mitochondrial function, few studies have investigated differences in mitochondrial function and biochemistry due to interanimal phenotypic differences in FE or RFI (i.e., variation among animals of the same breed and fed the same diet). This paper reviews existing literature on relationships of mitochondrial function and biochemistry with FE and RFI in poultry and livestock. The overall goal of all of this paper is to assist the development of tools (e.g., genetic markers or biomarkers) to aid commercial breeding companies in genetic selection that, in turn, will help maintain viable livestock and poultry industries in the United States and around the world. PMID:19028862

  9. Improving livestock production through co-operative societies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Umaru

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the positive role livestock Co-operatives can play in enhancing animal production. Livestock Co-operative Societies such as those for Artificial insemination, Dairy, Beef and Poultry production have been discussed. The paper also dwells on the benefits derivable from such organisations. The practice of Co-operative Societies in livestock production has been applied by different countries in different livestock sub-sectors. This paper concludes that establishing such Co-operatives will significantly improve livestock production in Nigeria.

  10. Application of Prebiotics and Probiotics in Livestock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, James W.; La Ragione, Roberto M.; Woodward, Martin J.; Searle, Laura E. J.

    The advent of antibiotics and their use for treatment of clinical manifestations of infections has had a profound impact on animal health and welfare. In addition to direct application in the control of infection, low concentrations of antibiotics given in animal feed has been shown to correlate with higher health status and improved performance in terms of feed conversion (productive weight gain). Thus it is that antibiotics have been used as “growth promoters” in feed for livestock since the 1940s (Cromwell, 2001). Since the inception of this growth promotion concept there has been a debate on precisely how low level antibiotics mediate their action and whether or not this contributes to the acquisition of resistance in the bacterial flora of livestock.

  11. Effects of Ochratoxin A on Livestock Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Pulina

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Ochratoxin A (OTA contamination often causes large economic losses on livestock production. The intake of feed contaminated by OTA also represents a potential risk for animal health and a food safety issue due to the transfer of the toxin through the food chain to humans. The aim of this paper is to review the available literature on: (1 the frequency and degree of occurrence of OTA in different feedstuffs; (2 the toxicological effects of OTA intake on the performance of the main livestock (i.e., poultry, swine, cattle, goats and sheep; and (3 the transfer of OTA, or its metabolites, from animal feed into animal products such as milk, meat and eggs.

  12. Research in Organic Animals and Livestock Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaarst, Mette

    2009-01-01

    Over the last 80 years a wide range of diverse organic livestock systems have developed. The driving force behind these developments has mainly been the farmers, consumers and various movements; and it has happened more "despite research" than "because of research." Most production methods have...... developed in Western Europe and USA, where they are primarily niche products for consumers who give priority to environmental and animal welfare concerns. In these countries organic livestock production offers the option of establishing a niche product that can be sold at a higher price, e.g. as for milk...... and eggs. In some cases, the potential of organic farming is associated with the adoption of organic principles into existing systems with the aim of improving sustainability, and achieving environmentally friendly production, food security and good food quality. In the US, government support for organic...

  13. The Future Role of Livestock Cooperatives

    OpenAIRE

    Hogeland, Julie A.

    1987-01-01

    In 1985, a total of 17 regional cooperatives marketed livestock. These cooperatives were created to provide greater competition, bargaining power, and market access for producers. Growth in direct marketing, bypassing the services of cooperatives, has occurred because the number of buyers has decreased and producers want to improve marketing efficiency or lower explicit costs. Less emphasis on providing convenient markets, more competitive service charges, supplementing buy-sell operations wi...

  14. Grazing livestock are exposed to terrestrial cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGorum, Bruce C; Pirie, R Scott; Glendinning, Laura; McLachlan, Gerry; Metcalf, James S; Banack, Sandra A; Cox, Paul A; Codd, Geoffrey A

    2015-01-01

    While toxins from aquatic cyanobacteria are a well-recognised cause of disease in birds and animals, exposure of grazing livestock to terrestrial cyanobacteria has not been described. This study identified terrestrial cyanobacteria, predominantly Phormidium spp., in the biofilm of plants from most livestock fields investigated. Lower numbers of other cyanobacteria, microalgae and fungi were present on many plants. Cyanobacterial 16S rDNA, predominantly from Phormidium spp., was detected in all samples tested, including 6 plant washings, 1 soil sample and ileal contents from 2 grazing horses. Further work was performed to test the hypothesis that ingestion of cyanotoxins contributes to the pathogenesis of some currently unexplained diseases of grazing horses, including equine grass sickness (EGS), equine motor neuron disease (EMND) and hepatopathy. Phormidium population density was significantly higher on EGS fields than on control fields. The cyanobacterial neurotoxic amino acid 2,4-diaminobutyric acid (DAB) was detected in plant washings from EGS fields, but worst case scenario estimations suggested the dose would be insufficient to cause disease. Neither DAB nor the cyanobacterial neurotoxins β-N-methylamino-L-alanine and N-(2-aminoethyl) glycine were detected in neural tissue from 6 EGS horses, 2 EMND horses and 7 control horses. Phormidium was present in low numbers on plants where horses had unexplained hepatopathy. This study did not yield evidence linking known cyanotoxins with disease in grazing horses. However, further study is warranted to identify and quantify toxins produced by cyanobacteria on livestock fields, and determine whether, under appropriate conditions, known or unknown cyanotoxins contribute to currently unexplained diseases in grazing livestock.

  15. Mali - A Participatory Approach to Livestock Development

    OpenAIRE

    Metzel, Jeffrey; Menudier, N.

    1997-01-01

    The livestock sector in Mali accounts for 43 percent of cattle exports in the Sahel sub-region. However, while the sub-sector accounted for 28.6 percent of agriculture's contribution to Gross Domestic Product (GDP), investment in it amounted to only 10.7 percent of the total budget allocation to rural development. The African Financial Community (CFA) devaluation in January 1994 increased ...

  16. Measurement of Odour Concentration from Livestock Farm

    OpenAIRE

    Lukman Ismail; Zaini Sakawi; Mohamad Khalil Saipi

    2014-01-01

    Odourpollution originated from livestock farms is a form of harmful air pollution.Odour pollution causes health issues to the surrounding local communities. Yet, odour pollution issues have not been given deserving attention by the relevant authorities and the Malaysian public. To raise the awareness, this study highlights a case of odour pollution generated from cattle and buffalo farms in Bandar Baru Bangi, Selangor.Odour measurement was taken using an instrument called Concentration Meter ...

  17. India's Export of Livestock and Allied Products

    OpenAIRE

    J K Sachdeva

    2005-01-01

    One of the main objectives of the governments’ export policy is to maximise agricultural exports in order to earn foreign exchange. It also seeks to provide remunerative prices to the farmers while ensuring adequate availability of essential commodities to the domestic consumers at reasonable prices. This paper analyses the India’s exports of livestock and allied products to principal groups of countries in the light of world trade. The direction of trade has been analysed to explore the area...

  18. Relics, miracles and furta sacra: A contribution to the study of Serbo-Bulgarian relations in the 1230s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjanović-Dušanić Smilja

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A contribution to the study of Serbo-Bulgarian relations in the 1230s The enquiry into the cult of relics and its manifestations such as miracle working, transfer of mortal remains and the act of translatio that involves the topos of furta sacra relies on two lives of St Sava of Serbia, one penned by Domentijan (Domentianus, the other by Teodosije (Theodosius. The hagiographic episodes most relevant to this enquiry are certainly those describing Sava's stay in Tirnovo, his death (1236 and the translation of his remains to his homeland (1237. The narrative about the future saint's stay and death in Tirnovo gives conscious hints of the hero's sanctity using various hagiographic devices. Especially interesting to us is the account of the miracle Sava worked in Tirnovo while officiating the Epiphany service at the church of the Forty Martyrs. According to our analysis, the reference to the Epiphany service and the association of the miracle with that particular feast are certainly not an accident. The ideology of the Second Bulgarian Empire attached great importance to the epic victory over the Romaioi at the Battle of Tryavna in 1190, which was commemorated annually on the Day of Epiphany. The Byzantine historians Niketas Choniates and George Akropolites report that the Bulgarians seized the imperial insignia during the battle. It is irrelevant whether Sava's two hagiographers were aware of the importance of the feast or simply reiterated the well-known information about the service celebrated on that day at the church of the Forty Martyrs; what is quite certain is that the great honour of officiating the service-a celebration pregnant with symbolism-was bestowed upon the most distinguished guest and that it was then that, we believe not at all by chance, his miracle-working power was manifested in public-in front of the Bulgarian tsar, all clergy and the notables. As a natural consequence of the power of working miracles manifested in one

  19. Diffuse pollution from livestock production in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiaoyan

    2005-01-01

    With economic development and living standard improvement, livestock and poultry production has grown up rapidly, also has become the leading source of pollution in vast rural areas in China. The estimated annual loss amount of COD, BOD, NH3-N from manure in 2001 is 7.28 million ton, 4.99 million ton and 1.32 million ton, respectively. The COD loss amount from manure is close to the sum of COD from industrial and domestic wastewater. Because animal waste and wastewater can enter water bodies from spills or breaks of waste storage structures (due to accidents or excessive rain), and non-agricultural application of manure to cropland, this contamination has resulted in quality degradation of surface and underground drinking water supplies. Areas with concentrated livestock operations are showing elevated nutrients and organic pollutant contents in surface waters. This widespread contamination of water has prompted governments at various levels to adopt regulations and measures to control the spreading of livestock pollution.

  20. Measurement of Odour Concentration from Livestock Farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukman Ismail

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Odourpollution originated from livestock farms is a form of harmful air pollution.Odour pollution causes health issues to the surrounding local communities. Yet, odour pollution issues have not been given deserving attention by the relevant authorities and the Malaysian public. To raise the awareness, this study highlights a case of odour pollution generated from cattle and buffalo farms in Bandar Baru Bangi, Selangor.Odour measurement was taken using an instrument called Concentration Meter Xp-369 Series III. Measurement was taken during various weather and times, usually on normal days and after rains. Observationswere conducted at different times inthe mornings, evenings and nights. Ten stations were selected as locations for measuring the odour concentration within two kilometres from the livestock farms. The results indicated that after rain odour concentration gave higher readings compared to those of normal days.This phenomenon was caused by the meteorological factors such as temperature, comparative humidity; and variation in wind speed and directions on normal days and after rains.Enhancement of livestock management is suggested for mitigating the odour pollution.

  1. Population genetic structure in the paddyfield warbler (Acrocephalus agricola Jerd.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pavel ZEHTINDJIEV; Mihaela ILIEVA; Bengt HANSSON; Olga OPARINA; Mihail OPARIN; Staffan BENSCH

    2011-01-01

    Population genefc structure was studied in paddyfield warblers Acrocephalus agricola breeding in NE Bulgaria, SE Russia and S Kazakhstan. We were particularly interested in the degree of genetic differentiation and gene flow of the Bulgarian population due to its geographical isolation, recent origin and unique migratory strategy. Analyses of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) showed that there was no divergence between Bulgarian and Russian populations (FST = 0.007), whereas those in Kazakhstan differed significantly from the European breeding populations (Russia: FST = 0.058; Bulgaria: Fsr = 0.114). The degree of differentiation between populations at nuclear markers (five microsatellite loci; FsT ≈ 0) was weaker than for mtDNA. We suggest that this relatively weak differentiation over the range of this species reflects a recent postglacial expansion, and results from mismatch distribution analyses and Fu's Fs tests are in agreement. Preservation of small and geographically isolated populations which may contain individuals with unique adaptive traits, such as the studied Bulgarian population of paddyfield warbler,is valuable for the long-term conservation of expanding migratory bird species.

  2. Livestock in biomedical research: history, current status and future prospective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polejaeva, Irina A; Rutigliano, Heloisa M; Wells, Kevin D

    2016-01-01

    Livestock models have contributed significantly to biomedical and surgical advances. Their contribution is particularly prominent in the areas of physiology and assisted reproductive technologies, including understanding developmental processes and disorders, from ancient to modern times. Over the past 25 years, biomedical research that traditionally embraced a diverse species approach shifted to a small number of model species (e.g. mice and rats). The initial reasons for focusing the main efforts on the mouse were the availability of murine embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and genome sequence data. This powerful combination allowed for precise manipulation of the mouse genome (knockouts, knockins, transcriptional switches etc.) leading to ground-breaking discoveries on gene functions and regulation, and their role in health and disease. Despite the enormous contribution to biomedical research, mouse models have some major limitations. Their substantial differences compared with humans in body and organ size, lifespan and inbreeding result in pronounced metabolic, physiological and behavioural differences. Comparative studies of strategically chosen domestic species can complement mouse research and yield more rigorous findings. Because genome sequence and gene manipulation tools are now available for farm animals (cattle, pigs, sheep and goats), a larger number of livestock genetically engineered (GE) models will be accessible for biomedical research. This paper discusses the use of cattle, goats, sheep and pigs in biomedical research, provides an overview of transgenic technology in farm animals and highlights some of the beneficial characteristics of large animal models of human disease compared with the mouse. In addition, status and origin of current regulation of GE biomedical models is also reviewed.

  3. Comparative sequence analysis in the exon 5 of growth hormone gene in the various livestock species of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Lakshya Veer; Sharma, Anurodh; Kumari, Namita; Kaur, Navneet; Jayakumar, S; Dixit, S P; Gupta, Neelam; Gupta, S C

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to identify genetic polymorphism in growth hormone (GH) gene locus of six different livestock species using PCR-Direct DNA sequencing method. In exon 5 of GH gene, 10 SNPs variants were identified in all livestock species studied, namely Bubalus bubalis, Bos indicus, Bos frontalis, Bos grunniens, Ovis aries, and Capra hircus. Four SNPs were observed in Bubalus bubalis, two SNPs in Bos indicus, one SNP in Ovis aries, and three SNPs in Capra hircus. No changes were observed in Bos grunniens and Bos frontalis when compared with the template sequence and the SNPs observed in the present investigation may be useful in the marker assisted selection.

  4. Retinol, alpha-tocopherol and fatty acid content in Bulgarian black Sea fish species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stancheva, M.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to measure and evaluate the total lipids, fatty acid profile, retinol content and alpha-tocopherol content in the edible tissue of four commercially important fish species from the Bulgarian Black sea: Sprat (Sprattus sprattus, Round Goby (Neogobius rattan, Black Sea Horse Mackerel (Trahurus medditeraneus ponticus and Shad (Alosa pontica. Fat soluble vitamins were analyzed simultaneously using an HPLC system. The highest content of retinol was established in the Sprat (142.3 ± 4.4 μg/100g and the highest content of alphatocopherol was found in the Black Sea Horse Mackerel (1112.7 ± 39.2 μg/100g. The fatty acid (FA composition was analyzed by GC/MS. The content of omega 3 (n3 FAs was significantly higher (p , 0.001 than the content of omega 6 (n6 FAs in each of the analyzed fish samples. The n6/n3 FA ratio was within the recommended range (0.20–1.50 for Sprat, Round Goby and Shad. Relatively high levels of retinol and alpha-tocopherol, FA composition, n3/n6 FA and PUFA/SFA ratios indicate that these fish species have good nutritional quality.

    El objeto de la investigación presentada es definir y comparar los lípidos totales, el perfil de ácidos grasos y el contenido de retinol y alfa-tocoferol en el tejido comestible de cuatro especies de peces con importancia comercial del Mar Negro búlgaro —espadín (Sprattus Sprattus, gobio de boca negra (Neogobius Melanostomus, chicharro (Trachurus Trachurus y sábalo del Mar Negro (Caspialosa Pontica. Dos vitaminas liposolubles son analizadas simultáneamente mediante cromatografía líquida de alta eficacia (HPLC. El contenido mayor de retinol se encuentra en el espadín (142.3 ± 4.4 μg/100g, y de alfa-tocoferol en el chicharro (1112.7 ± 39.2 μg/100g. El contenido de ácidos grasos ha sido analizado mediante cromatografía gaseosa/espectrometría de masas (GC/MS. El contenido de ácidos grasos (AG

  5. Evaluation of the Main Polyphenolic Compounds in Aromatic Plants of Asteraceae and Solanaceae Families of Bulgarian Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Docheva

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Bulgarian specimens of Asteraceae and Solanaceae families are very scarce studied concerning the polyphenolic compounds. The aim of this investigation was to obtain fingerprint chromatographic profiles and to quantify the main polyphenols. HPLC–PDA on Kromasil and Purospher columns was employed for the separation of the components by applying two methods (TFA and AcAc. Better separation and reliable quantification of the polyphenols in Achillea species were obtained by the TFA method on Kromasil column. Chromatographic profiling and quantification of polyphenols in A. campestris was successful by using the TFA method on both columns. The polyphenols of A. vulgaris were better separated by AcAc method on Purospher column. Caffeoylquinic acids and rutin were present in higher quantities in Achillea asplenifolia and tobacco (Djebel. Fingerprint chromatographic profiles and reliable quantification of the polyphenolic compounds were achieved by considering the differences in the polyphenol complex and the specificity of the plant matrix.

  6. ECONOMIC CONSIDERATION OF PRODUCING FERTILIZER FROM COAL-FIRED FLUE GAS: APPLICATION OF BULGARIAN EXPERIENCE TO CASE STUDY OF PORTUGAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryunosuke KIKUCHI

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available A Bulgarian project at Maritsa East power station demonstrated the proper transformation of air pollutants (SOx and NOx into nitrogen fertilizer. Although this technology has not been put into practice in Bulgaria, it seems feasible on an industrial scale and so it may help to ease Portugal’s reliance on imports of nitrogen fertilizer and thereby contain the outfl ow of Portuguese funds. The data collected from the Maritsa East project are therefore applied to discuss a case study of Amarante thermal power station in Portugal, which annually imports 27 million Euro of nitrogen fertilizer. The agricultural sector indicates it is willing to support 20% of the plant installation cost and 100% of the operating cost at a thermal power station. Thus, a Portuguese farmer can obtain by-product fertilizer that is cheaper than commercial fertilizer at current prices as compensation for fi nancial support of fertilizer production at a thermal power station.

  7. Mercury capture by selected Bulgarian fly ashes: Influence of coal rank and fly ash carbon pore structure on capture efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostova, I.J.; Hower, J.C.; Mastalerz, Maria; Vassilev, S.V.

    2011-01-01

    Mercury capture by fly ash C was investigated at five lignite- and subbituminous-coal-burning Bulgarian power plants (Republika, Bobov Dol, Maritza East 2, Maritza East 3, and Sliven). Although the C content of the ashes is low, never exceeding 1.6%, the Hg capture on a unit C basis demonstrates that the low-rank-coal-derived fly ash carbons are more efficient in capturing Hg than fly ash carbons from bituminous-fired power plants. While some low-C and low-Hg fly ashes do not reveal any trends of Hg versus C, the 2nd and, in particular, the 3rd electrostatic precipitator (ESP) rows at the Republika power plant do have sufficient fly ash C range and experience flue gas sufficiently cool to capture measurable amounts of Hg. The Republika 3rd ESP row exhibits an increase in Hg with increasing C, as observed in other power plants, for example, in Kentucky power plants burning Appalachian-sourced bituminous coals. Mercury/C decreases with an increase in fly ash C, suggesting that some of the C is isolated from the flue gas stream and does not contribute to Hg capture. Mercury capture increases with an increase in Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area and micropore surface area. The differences in Hg capture between the Bulgarian plants burning low-rank coal and high volatile bituminous-fed Kentucky power plants suggests that the variations in C forms resulting from the combustion of the different ranks also influence the efficiency of Hg capture. ?? 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  8. STUDIES ON THE DYNAMICS OF LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Mariana Dincu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In the agricultural production in our country, zootechnics currently holds second place. For the future, provided that the share of livestock production to exceed 50% of the total production achieved in the sphere of agriculture. Expanding livestock production is necessary for several reasons, some of which are generally valid for all forms of ownership, while others require especially in private-family holdings. Livestock industries provide higher quality food as compared with those of plant origin, they are characterized by higher energy value per unit weight and volume, high quality protein and raw materials as very valuable for manufacturing industries (food, light. In the present paper we analyzed the dynamics of livestock production in Romania, finding that the livestock were negative trends characterized by a reduction of livestock with an impact on animal production.

  9. Livestock production and manure management on animal farms in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, S.G.; Bui, H.H.; Dalsgaard, Anders;

    .  Further, there is little knowledge about the plant nutrient value of animal manure, and about technologies for environmentally-friendly manure management. This lack of knowledge enhances the risk of polluting the environment by inappropriate use of livestock manure and is also a potential risk......  The Vietnamese and Asian livestock production is increasing these years. In consequence large amounts of manure are produced, which may be a hazard to the environment because the traditional technology and the management practise of manure is not adapted to specialised livestock production...... for transferring pathogens between livestock and from livestock to humans (zoonoses). The objective of this article is to describe manure management at livestock farms in Vietnam. The focus is on presenting the most typical farming concepts, manure management on these farms, environmental and hygienic risks...

  10. LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION FOR A SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Maiorano

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The development of society is based on the existence of food resources. The past half-century has seen marked growth in food production, allowing for a dramatic decrease in the proportion of the world’s people that are hungry, despite a doubling of the total population. Recently, the FAO predicted a higher increase of the consumption of foods of animal origin by 2050. So far, the increased demand for food has been supplied by agriculture due to an improvement of techniques, an increase of cultivated land areas and an increase of water and energy consumption. The environmental assessment of human activities is presently a hot topic. It is not only important from an ecological perspective, but also from the view of efficient utilization of limited natural resources. The livestock sector that increasingly competes for scarce resources (land, water, and energy has a severe impact on air, water and soil quality because of its emissions. The environmental impact of food of animal origin is currently quantified by so-called CO2eq-footprints. Therefore, in the future, it will be necessary to achieve a sustainable supply of food, especially of animal origin, because land and other production factors are not unlimited resources. This lecture deals with related problems linked to the production of foods of animal origin and some possible sustainable solutions for the increasing demand of these products, by means of a detailed analysis of the carbon footprint by the livestock, as well as the land requirement, biodiversity, energy and water footprint in livestock production.

  11. NEW ACTORS IN THE LIVESTOCK SECTOR IN THE KILIMANJARO REGION

    OpenAIRE

    IKEGAMI, Koichi

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes the challenges and potential of the livestock sector in the Kilimanjaro region of Tanzania using fi eld research conducted in Maua village, which is situated on the southern slope of Mt. Kilimanjaro. The Maua people keep every livestock in a hutch, which should suggest to policy makers the magnitude of the problems they and other pastoralists face with the shift from a grazing to a form of feedlot system. Indeed, smallholder livestock farmers face major problems related to...

  12. Living with Livestock: Dealing with Pig Waste in the Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Catelo, Ma. Angeles O.; Moises A. Dorado; Elpidio Agbisit, Jr

    2001-01-01

    As livestock production increases worldwide, livestock waste is becoming a serious environmental hazard. In some cases, the damages have been spectacular and even tragic. In June 1995, the artificial waste lagoon at a hog farm in North Carolina burst. The sudden release of nearly 100 million litres of hog urine and feces polluted neighbouring communities and killed millions of fish in nearby rivers (Worldwatch, March/April, 2001). In 2000, drinking water contaminated by livestock waste led to...

  13. The Burden of Livestock Parasites on the Poor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rist, Cassidy L; Garchitorena, Andres; Ngonghala, Calistus N; Gillespie, Thomas R; Bonds, Matthew H

    2015-11-01

    Parasitic diseases of humans and livestock are ubiquitous in the developing world and have substantial impacts on human wellbeing. For the estimated one billion people living in poverty who rely on livestock for their livelihoods, parasites steal valuable nutritional resources through multiple pathways. This diversion of nutrients ultimately contributes to chronic malnutrition, greater human disease burdens, and decreased productivity of both humans and livestock. PMID:26604161

  14. Precision livestock farming technologies for welfare management in intensive livestock systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berckmans, D

    2014-04-01

    The worldwide demand for meat and animal products is expected to increase by at least 40% in the next 15 years. The first question is how to achieve high-quality, sustainable and safe meat production that can meet this demand. At the same time, livestock production is currently facing serious problems. Concerns about animal health in relation to food safety and human health are increasing. The European Union wants improved animal welfare and has made a significant investment in it. At the same time, the environmental impact of the livestock sector is a major issue. Finally, it is necessary to ask how the farmer, who is the central figure in this process, will make a living from more sustainable livestock production systems. One tool that might provide real opportunities is precision livestock farming (PLF). In contrast to previous approaches, PLF systems aim to offer a real-time monitoring and management system that focuses on improving the life of the animals by warning when problems arise so that the farmer may take immediate action. Continuous, fully automatic monitoring and improvement of animal health and welfare, product yields and environmental impacts should become possible. This paper presents examples of systems that have already been developed in order to demonstrate the potential benefits of this technology.

  15. Integration of molecular genetic technology with quantitative genetic technology for maximizing the speed of genetic improvement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jack; C.M.; DEKKERS

    2005-01-01

    To date,most genetic progress for quantita-tive traits in livestock has been made by selec-tion on phenotype or on estimates of breedingvalues(BBV)derived from phenotype,withoutknowledge of the number of genes that affect thetrait or the effects of each gene.In this quantita-tive genetic approach to genetic improvement,the genetic architecture of traits of interest hasessentially been treated as a‘black box’.De-spite this,the substantial rates of genetic im-provement that have been and continue to be a-chie...

  16. Modeling of greenhouse gas emission from livestock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjo eJose

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The effects of climate change on humans and other living ecosystems is an area of on-going research. The ruminant livestock sector is considered to be one of the most significant contributors to the existing greenhouse gas (GHG pool. However the there are opportunities to combat climate change by reducing the emission of GHGs from ruminants. Methane (CH4 and nitrous oxide (N2O are emitted by ruminants via anaerobic digestion of organic matter in the rumen and manure, and by denitrification and nitrification processes which occur in manure. The quantification of these emissions by experimental methods is difficult and takes considerable time for analysis of the implications of the outputs from empirical studies, and for adaptation and mitigation strategies to be developed. To overcome these problems computer simulation models offer substantial scope for predicting GHG emissions. These models often include all farm activities while accurately predicting the GHG emissions including both direct as well as indirect sources. The models are fast and efficient in predicting emissions and provide valuable information on implementing the appropriate GHG mitigation strategies on farms. Further, these models help in testing the efficacy of various mitigation strategies that are employed to reduce GHG emissions. These models can be used to determine future adaptation and mitigation strategies, to reduce GHG emissions thereby combating livestock induced climate change.

  17. On the Aerosol Source Livestock Raising

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, F. E.; Brüggemann, E.; Gnauk, T.; Lammel, G.; Müller, F.; Plewka, A.; Röhrl, A.; Wieser, P. H.

    2002-12-01

    Agriculture is a prime stakeholder in the atmospheric and climate changes as on one hand side it will be strongly affected by a changing climate and yet is today by air pollution while on the other hand, through her emissions agriculture is also driving these changes. Particulate matter is important for air pollution / human health. Very little is known about the mass flux and composition of the particulate matter emitted from livestock farming. We report on the design and results of a pilot study investigating the aerosol source livestock farming undertaken at the experimental farm Talgut Lindenhof of the University of Hohenheim, in a hilly region in Southern Germany. Particulate matter was sampled for off-line chemical analyses and physically characterized in-situ close to the animal housings as well as through simultaneous measurements upwind and downwind of the farm. Off-line analyses comprised particulate matter mass, inorganic ion content, carbon fractions, total element content, single particle analyses, besides other. Estimates on the emission term are made.

  18. The farm animal genetic resources of Montenegro

    OpenAIRE

    Marković Božidarka; Marković M.; Adžić N.

    2007-01-01

    The review of farm animal genetic resources, degree of danger of extinction and way of preservation of certain autochthonous breeds of livestock in Montenegro was the aim of this article. Origin, geographical distribution, population size, morphological and productive traits of the important populations of livestock, as brachyceros breed of cattle - Busha, coarse wool domestic breeds of sheep (Pivska, Zetska zuja, Ljaba, Bardoka), domestic hilly horse breed and donkey were presented. .

  19. Authorization process in the sphere of nuclear fuel utilization according to the Bulgarian Act on the Safe Use of Nuclear Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The new Bulgarian Act on the Safe Use of Nuclear Energy (ASUNE) was adopted in the year 2002. It replaced the former Act on the Use of Nuclear Energy for Peaceful Purposes, which was in force for about 17 years. The ASUNE covers the activities involving nuclear energy and sources of ionizing radiation mainly by establishing a consistent authorization regime. It is an up-to-date act, based on the IAEA requirements and standards, and yet fully in compliance with the Bulgarian legislative system. The newly adopted Act is based on the following main principles: Priority of safety over economic and other social needs; Occupational and public exposure to ionizing radiation to be kept as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA); Direct and personal liability of the licensee/permit holder; Independence of the regulatory body; Application of a less prescriptive approach; Issuing of authorizations under conditions of legal equality and transparency

  20. The concentrations of phthalates in settled dust in Bulgarian homes in relation to building characteristic and cleaning habits in the family

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolarik, Barbara; Bornehag, Carl-Gustaf; Naydenov, Kiril Georgiev;

    2008-01-01

    Phthalate esters are chemical compounds with a broad range of applications. Recently, we have shown that significantly higher dust concentration of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) was found in Bulgarian homes of children with asthma or allergies compared to healthy children. The concentration...... of DEHP was found to be significantly associated with wheezing in the last 12 months as reported by parents. The objective of the current study was to examine the associations between concentrations of phthalates in settled dust collected in Bulgarian homes and building characteristics and cleaning habits....... Dust samples from the child's bedroom were collected in 177 homes and analysed for the content of dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), butyl benzyl phthalate (BBzP), di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP) and DEHP. Information on building characteristics and family...

  1. Towards a system for sea state forecasts in the Bulgarian Black Sea coastal zone: the case of the storm of 07-08 february 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Galabov, Vasko; Kortcheva, Anna; Dimitrova, Marieta

    2012-01-01

    The paper describes the existing operational sea state forecast system of NIMH- BAS for sea state in the Black Sea and our current progress on the implementation of an additional component for the forecasts of wind waves in the Bulgarian coastal zone. Wind Waves and especially the extreme ones, occurring during severe storms are a major hazard for the coastal zone, causing significant damages to the infrastructure, threat for the human lives and also causing significant damages to the protect...

  2. Water Requirements for Livestock Production: A Global Perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The following article is an Abstract of the paper jointly written by the two above Subprogrammes of the Joint FAO/IAEA Programme. This article will be published in Scientific and Technical Review of the Office International des Epizooties, 2010, 29 (3). It highlights the importance of water management for sustainable livestock production. Water is a vital but poorly studied component of livestock production. It is estimated that livestock industries consume 8% of the global water supply, with most of that water being used for intensive, feed-based production. This study takes a broad perspective of livestock production as a component of the human food chain, and considers the efficiency of its water use. Global models are in the early stages of development and do not distinguish between developing and developed countries, or the production systems within them. However, preliminary indications are that, when protein production is adjusted for biological value in the human diet, no plant protein is significantly more efficient at using water than protein produced from eggs, and only soybean is more water efficient than milk and goat and chicken meat. In some regions, especially developing countries, animals are not used solely for food production but also provide draught power and fertiliser for crops, as well as using fibre and crop by-products that would otherwise go to waste. The livestock sector is the fastest-growing agricultural sector, which has led to increasing industrialisation and, in some cases, reduced environmental constraints. In emerging economies, increasing involvement in livestock is related to improving rural wealth and increasing consumption of animal protein. Water usage for livestock production should be considered an integral part of agricultural water resource management, taking into account the type of production system (e.g. grain-fed or mixed crop-livestock) and scale (intensive or extensive), the species and breeds of livestock

  3. Genomics to benefit livestock production: improving animal health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Stuart Plastow

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The primary principle underlying the application of genomics is that it has the most value for difficult and expensive to measure traits. These traits will differ between species and probably also between markets. Maintenance of health will be one of the biggest challenges for efficient livestock production in the next few decades. This challenge will only increase in the face of demand for animal protein, resistance to existing drugs, and the pressure to reduce the use of antibiotics in agriculture. There is probably genetic variation in susceptibility for all diseases but little has been done to make use of this variation to date. In part this is because it is very difficult as well as expensive to measure this variation. This suggests that genomics should provide one of the ways of tackling the challenge of improving animal health. This paper will discuss the concepts of resistance, variation in susceptibility, and resilience; provide examples and present some recent results in cattle and pigs; and briefly discuss the application of gene editing in relation to disease resistance.

  4. Integrated Crop/Livestock Systems Research: Practical research considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are many reasons for the paucity of integrated crop/livestock research and associated publications. Integrated/crop livestock experiments that involve adequate treatments and replications, as perceived by both crop and animal scientists, require large acreages, many animals, considerable labor...

  5. 36 CFR 2.60 - Livestock use and agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Livestock use and agriculture. 2.60 Section 2.60 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.60 Livestock use and agriculture. (a)...

  6. 36 CFR 1002.60 - Livestock use and agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Livestock use and agriculture. 1002.60 Section 1002.60 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 1002.60 Livestock use and agriculture. (a) The running-at-large, herding,...

  7. Wolf-livestock interactions in the northern Rocky Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since reintroduction in 1995, gray wolf populations in the northern Rocky Mountains have increased dramatically. Although rough tallies of livestock death/injury losses resulting from wolf predation are made each year, we know almost nothing about the indirect effects of wolf-livestock interactions...

  8. Carnivore-caused livestock mortality in Trans-Himalaya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Namgail, T.; Fox, J.L.; Bhatnagar, Y.V.

    2007-01-01

    The loss of livestock to wild predators is an important livelihood concern among Trans-Himalayan pastoralists. Because of the remoteness and inaccessibility of the region, few studies have been carried out to quantify livestock depredation by wild predators. In the present study, we assessed the int

  9. Plant poisonings in livestock in Brazil and South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary-Louise Penrith

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Information on intoxication of livestock by plants in Brazil, in terms of cause, clinical signs and pathology, is compared with information on livestock poisoning by plants in South Africa. Plant poisoning, including mycotoxicosis, is considered to be one of three major causes of death in livestock in Brazil, which is one of the top beef producing countries in the world, with a cattle population of more than 200 million. Cattle production in South Africa is on a more modest scale, but with some 600 species of plants and fungi known to cause toxicity in livestock, as opposed to some 130 species in Brazil, the risk to livestock in South Africa appears to be much greater. The comparisons discussed in this communication are largely restricted to ruminants.

  10. Prebiotics in Companion and Livestock Animal Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Kathleen A.; Vester, Brittany M.; Fahey, George C.

    Prebiotic supplementation of animal diets began in an attempt to increase concentrations of beneficial intestinal microbiota. It was understood that prebiotics inhibited growth of intestinal pathogens and decreased concentrations of stool odor-causing metabolites. Since the use of prebiotics began, several countries have banned the use of antimicrobials in livestock animal feeds, and several more have placed restrictions on the quantity of antimicrobials that can be used. Prebiotic supplementation has become increasingly popular as the body of evidence supporting its use continues to grow. As this literature expands, the number of potential prebiotic substances has grown beyond those that are naturally occurring, such as those found in chicory and yeast products, to include a large number of synthetic or chemically/enzymatically manufactured prebiotics.

  11. Spatio-Temporal Statistical Modeling of Livestock Waste in Streams. Livestock Series Report 5

    OpenAIRE

    Noel Cressie; James J. Majure

    1996-01-01

    Surface water runoff from large livestock operations finds its way into streams, rivers, and ultimately the larger watershed area. In this paper, the model measures the nitrate concentrations in the upper North Bosque (Texas) watershed, which is a region of concentrated dairy operations. Using 15 months of daily data collected at 17 stream monitoring sites allows the authors to obtain optimal predictions of unknown nitrate concentration at all stream locations at any given time, along with a ...

  12. A vision of gene-based technologies for the livestock industries in the third millennium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: While knowledge of DNA structure is now fifty years old, technologies for intervening in genetic structure effectively date back just a decade. From small beginnings with restriction enzymes, we have in the last ten years had an explosion of techniques for isolating, amplifying, reading and inserting DNA. These techniques have been scaled up and automated to make possible mass genotyping. Coupled with developments in information management, this wealth of data facilitates prediction of genetic structure and function, and thus accelerates the pace of knowledge accumulation. This explosion in knowledge has been compared in significance to the development of the Periodic Table one hundred years ago, and to the expansion of horizons to encompass the whole globe in the 16th century. The first complete genome sequence of an organism was for yeast in 1996. Since then, the much larger task of doing a complete human sequence has been completed. Those of all domestic animals are following rapidly. It will always be impossible to foresee the full potential, both positive and negative, of such an explosion in knowledge. However, already aspects of gene-based technologies are beginning to have an impact in the livestock sector. The first, and most obvious, concerns the feed supply, which constitutes 50-75% of total costs in many livestock systems. Production costs for corn and soya bean are being reduced by genetic modification of the crop for herbicide and insect resistance. Corn has also been modified with the effect of reducing phosphorous and nitrogen excretion in swine and poultry, and also to provide more valuable amino acid balance. Genetic modification of the animal is also possible. Most dramatically, the insertion of the grown hormone DNA in fish accelerates growth. However, in this and all other cases the genetic modification of animals had produced profound physiological disturbances. On the other hand, the administration of GM-produced growth hormone to

  13. Genetic analysis of haemophilia A in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kremensky Ivo

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Haemophilias are the most common hereditary severe disorders of blood clotting. In families afflicted with heamophilia, genetic analysis provides opportunities to prevent recurrence of the disease. This study establishes a diagnostical strategy for carriership determination and prenatal diagnostics of haemophilia A in Bulgarian haemophilic population. Methods A diagnostical strategy consisting of screening for most common mutations in the factor VIII gene and analysis of a panel of eight linked to the factor VIII gene locus polymorphisms was established. Results Polymorphic analysis for carrier status determination of haemophilia A was successful in 30 families out of 32 (94%. Carrier status was determined in 25 of a total of 28 women at risk (89%. Fourteen prenatal diagnoses in women at high risk of having a haemophilia A – affected child were performed, resulting in 6 healthy boys and 5 girls. Conclusion The compound approach proves to be a highly informative and cost-effective strategy for prevention of recurrence of haemophilia A in Bulgaria. DNA analysis facilitates carriership determination and subsequent prenatal diagnosis in the majority of Bulgarian families affected by haemophilia A.

  14. Molecular-Genetic Aspects of Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krasteva M.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most frequent malignancy among women. Advances in breast cancer knowledge have deciphered the involvement of a number of tumor suppressor genes and proto-oncogenes in disease pathogenesis. These genes are part of the complex biochemical pathways, which enable cell cycle control and maintenance of genome integrity. Their function may be disrupted as a result of alterations in gene sequence or misregulation of gene expression including alterations in DNA methylation pattern. The present review summarizes the main findings on major breast cancer related genes BRCA1/2, p53, ATM, CHEK2, HER2, PIK3CA and their tumorigenic inactivation/activation. The potential clinical importance of these genes with respect to patients’ prognosis and therapy are also discussed. The possible implication of other putative breast cancer related genes is also outlined. The first elaborate data on the genetic and epigenetic status of the above mentioned genes concerning Bulgarian patients with the sporadic form of the disease are presented. The studies indicate for a characteristic mutational spectrum in some of the genes for the Bulgarian patients and specific correlation between the status of different genes and clinicopathological characteristics.

  15. Gene-based technologies for livestock industries in the 3rd millennium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first complete genome sequence of an organism was for yeast, in 1996. Since then, the much larger task of doing a complete human sequence has been completed. Those of major domestic animals are following rapidly. It will always be impossible to foresee the full potential of such an explosion in knowledge, but aspects of gene-based technologies are already beginning to have an impact in the livestock sector. The first and most obvious area of impact concerns feed supply, which constitutes 50-75 percent of total costs in many livestock systems. Production costs for maize and soybean are being reduced by genetic modification of the crop for herbicide and insect resistance. Maize has been modified to reduce phosphorous and nitrogen excretion in swine and poultry, and also to provide a more valuable amino acid balance. Genetic modification of the animal is also possible. Most dramatically, the insertion of a growth hormone in the DNA of fish accelerates growth. However, in this and all other cases, the genetic modification (GM) of animals has produced profound physiological disturbances. At the same time, the administration of GM-produced growth hormone to dairy cows is now routine in the United States of America and several other countries. This is not permitted in Europe, where the attitude to all GM technologies has been much more cautious. Conventional selection programmes continue to deliver steady genetic improvement in all animal populations. New molecular methods offer the prospect of enhancing genetic gains, particularly for traits that are difficult or expensive to measure, or which have low heritability. Gene technologies have much to contribute to the control of disease in animals. As pressure to reduce antibiotic and drug use increases, genetically modified vaccines with proven specificity and distinguishable from natural infections are already in use. DNA typing is helping with rapid and precise diagnosis. In addition, the interaction of some pathogens

  16. Highly effective SNP-based association mapping and management of recessive defects in livestock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charlier, Carole; Coppieters, Wouter; Rollin, Frédéric;

    2008-01-01

    The widespread use of elite sires by means of artificial insemination in livestock breeding leads to the frequent emergence of recessive genetic defects, which cause significant economic and animal welfare concerns. Here we show that the availability of genome-wide, high-density SNP panels, combi...... (CMD) types 1 and 2 in Belgian Blue cattle and ichthyosis fetalis in Italian Chianina cattle. Identification of these causative mutations has an immediate translation into breeding practive, allowing marker assisted selection against the defects through avoidance of at-risk matings....

  17. Current problems of the Bulgarian energy industry against the background of global short-term energy demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The energy demand during the next century due first of all to the expected growth of population necessitates more efficient technologies and huge investments. The production of nuclear energy requires higher safety as well as reduction of costs. A new form of partnership between the developed and developing countries is needed for transferring capital and technologies at special framework terms in order to avoid errors in the process of transition. The Energy Forum'99 highlights the current problems of Bulgarian energy branch and the projects for its future including better utilization of the existing energy resources, for development of new or renewable energy sources, not well utilized at present, and to harmonize the sector with better environmental protection. The most important problems discussed are: 1. Structure and restructuring strategy of the energy sector. Prices and tariffs. Privatization aspects. Construction of new replacement generating capacities; 2. Thermal power plants; 3. Nuclear power plants; 4. District heating and natural gas supply; 5. Efficient energy utilization; 6. Renewable energy sources; 7. Environmental protection and 8. Education

  18. From the Secondary School to the Technical University, Or One Difficult Year for the First-Year Students [In Bulgarian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Dishlieva

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The transition from the secondary school to the university has been always a problem period, linked to the various changes and difficulties for the most first year students in different universities. Lack of experience of self-training and weak knowledge base and skills of the students on one hand, and the higher level of mathematics and new organization of the teaching process on the other hand, provoke serious difficulties. Some of the prospective students do not know what they really know and what they need to know. It is not clear why they should learn exactly these math topics and they do not know how to learn what they should know. The present paper attempts to clarify the key problems and their possible reasons and sources in the learning and teaching process. A set of measures is identified that would contribute to overcoming the difficulties during this transitional for the students period. The results are based on the review of foreign experience and as well as the Bulgarian one demonstrated by extensive interviews with lecturers in mathematics of three technical universities. We believe that this situation is similar (maybe with minor differences and additions in almost all tertiary schools where mathematics is learned as a basic subject.

  19. Social and cultural resources for the setting up and functioning of family enterprises in a small Bulgarian town

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrova Ivanka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As a field of culture, the family enterprise shows that in the current European societies the economic operation does not proceed only from a purely rational point of view and that notwithstanding the common speaking of globalization, the local may be a prerequisite for successful economic development. My objective has been to show, proceeding from an example from a small Bulgarian town, that the family enterprise is a field of culture in which the observed phenomena are strongly influenced by the social inclusion of the enterprise and by its tie-up with the context of the urban environment. I shall investigate in what way local social and cultural resources are intensively used in the process of setting up and functioning of a family enterprise from the sphere of hoteldom and tourism in the town of Belogradchik. I intend to study whether these resources are conducive to the economic prosperity of the firm. Another research objective is to establish the manner of identification of the enterprise with the town, with the region and the local culture by way of the services provided (tourist and restaurant. I shall look for an answer to the question of how the enterprise’ working realm fits in the concrete cultural, historical and social context of the town.

  20. Investigation Of The Hydro-Meteorological Hazards Along The Bulgarian Coast Of The Black Sea By Reconstructions Of Historical Storms

    CERN Document Server

    Galabov, Vasko; Bogatchev, Andrey; Tsenova, Boryana

    2015-01-01

    Information about the hydro-meteorological parameters during the extreme sea storms is of significant importance for the sustainable development in the context of flood risk for the coastal areas. Usually there is a lack of sufficiently long history of instrumental measurements of the extreme winds, waves and storm surges. Simulation of historical storms is an important tool to evaluate the potential coastal hazards. In the absence of measured data hindcasts can satisfy the need for historical data. The wave and storm-surge regional numerical simulations have been carried out for the ten most severe storms over the Bulgarian coast of the Black Sea from the period 1972-2012. The ERA-Interim and ERA-40 reanalysis of wind at 10 m and mean sea level pressure have been downscaled with a high resolution atmospheric model ALADIN to the horizontal and time scales suitable for precise evaluation of hydro-meteorological parameters during the storms. The downscaled fields of wind and sea level pressure have been used as...

  1. Links between livestock production, the environment and sustainable development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradbre, J-P

    2014-12-01

    This study examines the prospects for strong growth in the supply and demand for animal products worldwide, especially in developing countries, where 80% of the world's population lives. Based on scientific publications, statistics and field observations, it reviews greenhouse gas emission levels from livestock, the ability of ruminant livestock systems to sequester carbon and the capacity of the livestock industry to meet the challenge of sustainable development and to share its benefits while minimising impacts to climate change. Special attention is paid to the situation of the 800 million livestock farmers in the world living at the extreme end of poverty. The study underlines the importance of improving livestock productivity and the interdependence of the economic, environmental and social components of sustainable development. It highlights how, in the least developed countries and most lower-middle-income countries, the pressure exerted by animal diseases hampers efforts to improve livestock productivity. Poor livestock farmers have not sufficiently benefited from development policies and need support to adopt technological advances to meet the challenges of sustainable development and poverty reduction.

  2. Greenhouse gas mitigation potentials in the livestock sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, Mario; Henderson, Benjamin; Havlík, Petr; Thornton, Philip K.; Conant, Richard T.; Smith, Pete; Wirsenius, Stefan; Hristov, Alexander N.; Gerber, Pierre; Gill, Margaret; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus; Valin, Hugo; Garnett, Tara; Stehfest, Elke

    2016-05-01

    The livestock sector supports about 1.3 billion producers and retailers, and contributes 40-50% of agricultural GDP. We estimated that between 1995 and 2005, the livestock sector was responsible for greenhouse gas emissions of 5.6-7.5 GtCO2e yr-1. Livestock accounts for up to half of the technical mitigation potential of the agriculture, forestry and land-use sectors, through management options that sustainably intensify livestock production, promote carbon sequestration in rangelands and reduce emissions from manures, and through reductions in the demand for livestock products. The economic potential of these management alternatives is less than 10% of what is technically possible because of adoption constraints, costs and numerous trade-offs. The mitigation potential of reductions in livestock product consumption is large, but their economic potential is unknown at present. More research and investment are needed to increase the affordability and adoption of mitigation practices, to moderate consumption of livestock products where appropriate, and to avoid negative impacts on livelihoods, economic activities and the environment.

  3. Water requirements for livestock production: a global perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlink, A C; Nguyen, M L; Viljoen, G J

    2010-12-01

    Water is a vital but poorly studied component of livestock production. It is estimated that livestock industries consume 8% of the global water supply, with most of that water being used for intensive, feed-based production. This study takes a broad perspective of livestock production as a component of the human food chain, and considers the efficiency of its water use. Global models are in the early stages of development and do not distinguish between developing and developed countries, or the production systems within them. However, preliminary indications are that, when protein production is adjusted for biological value in the human diet, no plant protein is significantly more efficient at using water than protein produced from eggs, and only soybean is more water efficient than milk and goat and chicken meat. In some regions, especially developing countries, animals are not used solely for food production but also provide draught power, fibre and fertiliser for crops. In addition, animals make use of crop by-products that would otherwise go to waste. The livestock sector is the fastest-growing agricultural sector, which has led to increasing industrialisation and, in some cases, reduced environmental constraints. In emerging economies, increasing involvement in livestock is related to improving rural wealth and increasing consumption of animal protein. Water usage for livestock production should be considered an integral part of agricultural water resource management, taking into account the type of production system (e.g. grain-fed or mixed crop-livestock) and scale (intensive or extensive), the species and breeds of livestock, and the social and cultural aspects of livestock farming in various countries. PMID:21309458

  4. Viral diagnosis in Indian livestock using customized microarray chips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Brijesh S; Pokhriyal, Mayank; Ratta, Barkha; Kumar, Ajay; Saxena, Meeta; Sharma, Bhaskar

    2015-01-01

    Viral diagnosis in Indian livestock using customized microarray chips is gaining momentum in recent years. Hence, it is possible to design customized microarray chip for viruses infecting livestock in India. Customized microarray chips identified Bovine herpes virus-1 (BHV-1), Canine Adeno Virus-1 (CAV-1), and Canine Parvo Virus-2 (CPV-2) in clinical samples. Microarray identified specific probes were further confirmed using RT-PCR in all clinical and known samples. Therefore, the application of microarray chips during viral disease outbreaks in Indian livestock is possible where conventional methods are unsuitable. It should be noted that customized application requires a detailed cost efficiency calculation.

  5. Managing genetic diversity and society needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur da Silva Mariante

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Most livestock are not indigenous to Brazil. Several animal species were considered domesticated in the pre-colonial period, since the indigenous people manage them as would be typical of European livestock production. For over 500 years there have been periodic introductions resulting in the wide range of genetic diversity that for centuries supported domestic animal production in the country. Even though these naturalized breeds have acquired adaptive traits after centuries of natural selection, they have been gradually replaced by exotic breeds, to such an extent, that today they are in danger of extinction To avoid further loss of this important genetic material, in 1983 Embrapa Genetic Resources and Biotechnology decided to include conservation of animal genetic resources among its priorities. In this paper we describe the effort to genetically characterize these populations, as a tool to ensure their genetic variability. To effectively save the threatened local breeds of livestock it is important to find a niche market for each one, reinserting them in production systems. They have to be utilized in order to be conserved. And there is no doubt that due to their adaptive traits, the Brazilian local breeds of livestock can play an important role in animal production, to meet society needs.

  6. Livestock rabies outbreaks in Shanxi province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Ye; Shi, Yanyan; Yu, Mingyang; Xu, Weidi; Gong, Wenjie; Tu, Zhongzhong; Ding, Laixi; He, Biao; Guo, Huancheng; Tu, Changchun

    2016-10-01

    Dogs play an important role in rabies transmission throughout the world. In addition to the severe human rabies situation in China, spillover of rabies virus from dogs in recent years has caused rabies outbreaks in sheep, cattle and pigs, showing that there is an increasing threat to other domestic animals. Two livestock rabies outbreaks were caused by dogs in Shanxi province, China from April to October in 2015, resulting in the deaths of 60 sheep, 10 cattle and one donkey. Brain samples from one infected bovine and the donkey were determined to be rabies virus (RABV) positive by fluorescent antibody test (FAT) and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The complete RABV N genes of the two field strains, together with those of two previously confirmed Shanxi dog strains, were amplified, sequenced and compared phylogenetically with published sequences of the N gene of RABV strains from Shanxi and surrounding provinces. All of the strains from Shanxi province grouped closely, sharing 99.6 %-100 % sequence identity, indicating the wide distribution and transmission of dog-mediated rabies in these areas. This is the first description of donkey rabies symptoms with phylogenetic analysis of RABVs in Shanxi province and surrounding regions. The result emphasizes the need for mandatory dog rabies vaccination and improved public education to eradicate dog rabies transmission. PMID:27422397

  7. Cryptosporidium parvum infection following contact with livestock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Suler

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Scours, or calf diarrhea, is an infectious gastrointestinal disease commonly found in the calves of dairy farms. It primarily presents with diarrhea that can be life threatening to the animal and is also contagious and threatening to the other livestock. Cryptosporidium is one of the major causes of scours and can be transmitted to humans via fecal-oral route, resulting in diarrheal illnesses. Cryptosporidiosis infection usually occurs as a waterborne outbreak with the potential to affect many people at once. Case Report: We report a case of a 24-year-old female farmer who presented to the emergency department with diarrhea after taking care of ill cattle with similar symptoms. Fecal cultures were positive for Cryptosporidium parvum. Given the patient was immunocompetent, no further treatment was warranted. Conclusion: Confirmed cases should be reported, however, treatment is only recommended in children and immunocompromised adults. Clinicians should educate patients on the importance of proper hygiene and handling techniques in order to decrease transmission and recurrence of the protozoan infection.

  8. The Development and Impact of the Livestock Guru: Meeting the Knowledge Needs of Poor Livestock Keepers in Tamil Nadu, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Yu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Livestock keepers comprise 2/3rds of the 2.8 billion households living on less than two dollars per day. However, as a group they tend to be marginalised and excluded from formal service provision, particularly in relation to animal health. Therefore, the following paper describes the development of the Livestock Guru, a multi-media learning programme created to meet the knowledge needs of poor livestock keepers in Tamil Nadu, India. The findings from the study illustrate the importance of both appropriate visuals, voice-overs but also the need for addressing issues in the environment in which learning will take place.

  9. Livestock-Associated MRSA Carriage in Patients without Direct Contact with Livestock

    OpenAIRE

    van Rijen, Miranda M. L.; Bosch, Thijs; Verkade, Erwin J. M.; Schouls, Leo; Kluytmans, Jan A. J. W.; ,

    2014-01-01

    Background Livestock-associated MRSA (MC398) has emerged and is related to an extensive reservoir in pigs and veal calves. Individuals with direct contact with these animals and their family members are known to have high MC398 carriage rates. Until now it was assumed that MC398 does not spread to individuals in the community without pig or veal calf exposure. To test this, we identified the proportion of MC398 in MRSA positive individuals without contact with pigs/veal calves or other known ...

  10. 7 CFR 205.238 - Livestock health care practice standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Organic Production and Handling... as organic. (c) The producer of an organic livestock operation must not: (1) Sell, label,...

  11. 7 CFR 205.239 - Livestock living conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Organic Production and Handling Requirements § 205.239 Livestock...

  12. Organic livestock production systems as a model of sustainability development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano Pauselli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic farming and livestock production offer effective means of satisfying consumer demand for healthy and safe foods and reducing the environmental pressure of agricultural production. In Mediterranean areas organic livestock production could be considered a feasible systems to improve rural development in unfavourable areas and to maintain rural landscape. Constrains, like pasture availability during the year, determine the evolution of different strategies in livestock rearing to improve or maintain net income of population. Moreover the evaluation of the sustainability using a holistic approach using assessment criteria like Life Cycle Assessment (LCA and Emergy Assessment could be considered models to evaluate organic and conventional livestock production sustainability and at the same time new research fields.

  13. Human anthrax outbreak associated with livestock exposure: Georgia, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navdarashvili, A; Doker, T J; Geleishvili, M; Haberling, D L; Kharod, G A; Rush, T H; Maes, E; Zakhashvili, K; Imnadze, P; Bower, W A; Walke, H T; Shadomy, S V

    2016-01-01

    Human anthrax cases reported in the country of Georgia increased 75% from 2011 (n = 81) to 2012 (n = 142). This increase prompted a case-control investigation using 67 culture- or PCR-confirmed cases and 134 controls matched by residence and gender to investigate risk factor(s) for infection during the month before case onset. Independent predictors most strongly associated with disease in the multivariable modelling were slaughtering animals [odds ratio (OR) 7·3, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2·9-18·1, P 1 km; 15 (12%) of 125 had sick livestock; and 11 (9%) of 128 respondents reported finding dead livestock. We recommend joint public health and veterinary anthrax case investigations to identify areas of increased risk for livestock anthrax outbreaks, annual anthrax vaccination of livestock in those areas, and public awareness education.

  14. LITHUANIAN CONSUMERS’ ATTITUDES AND PURCHASING BEHAVIOUR TOWARDS DOMESTIC LIVESTOCK PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidija EIČAITĖ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify and analyze Lithuanian consumers’ attitudes and purchasing behaviour towards domestic livestock products. In order to get necessary information, Lithuanian residents were interviewed. A multi-stage stratified random sampling was used to select the respondents. This study draws on a survey of 1009 respondents. The analysis of collected data was performed using the methods of mathematical statistics. The results suggest that the vast majority of Lithuanian consumers regularly buy domestic livestock products. Among this group of respondents, the top reasons for purchasing are freshness, good taste and favourable prices. Only a small share of Lithuanian consumers rarely or never buys domestic livestock products. Among this group of respondents, the top reasons for not purchasing are unfavourable prices, short shelf-life and insufficient range of products. Domestic livestock products buyers tend to be older, higher educated and have higher level of income than non-buyers.

  15. Disaggregation of Statistical Livestock Data Using the Entropy Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    António Xavier

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A process of agricultural data disaggregation is developed to address the lack of updated disaggregated data concerning main livestock categories at subregional and county level in the Alentejo Region, southern Portugal. The model developed considers that the number of livestock units is a function of the agricultural and forest occupation, and data concerning the existing agricultural and forest occupation, as well as the conversion of livestock numbers into normal heads, are needed in order to find this relation. The weight of each livestock class is estimated using a dynamic process based on a generalized maximum entropy model and on a crossentropy minimization model, which comprises two stages. The model was applied to the county of Castelo de Vide and their results were validated in cross reference to real data from different sources.

  16. Role of parasitic vaccines in integrated control of parasitic diseases in livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Neelu; Singh, Veer; Shyma, K P

    2015-05-01

    Parasitic infections adversely affect animal's health and threaten profitable animal production, thus affecting the economy of our country. These infections also play a major role in the spread of zoonotic diseases. Parasitic infections cause severe morbidity and mortality in animals especially those affecting the gastrointestinal system and thus affect the economy of livestock owner by decreasing the ability of the farmer to produce economically useful animal products. Due to all these reasons proper control of parasitic infection is critically important for sustained animal production. The most common and regularly used method to control parasitic infection is chemotherapy, which is very effective but has several disadvantages like drug resistance and drug residues. Integrated approaches to control parasitic infections should be formulated including grazing management, biological control, genetic resistance of hosts, and parasitic vaccines. India ranks first in cattle and buffalo population, but the majority of livestock owners have fewer herds, so other measures like grazing management, biological control, genetic resistance of hosts are not much practical to use. The most sustainable and economical approach to control parasitic infection in our country is to vaccinate animals, although vaccines increase the initial cost, but the immunity offered by the vaccine are long lived. Thus, vaccination of animals for various clinical, chronic, subclinical parasitic infections will be a cheaper and effective alternative to control parasitic infection for long time and improve animal production.

  17. Optimal livestock diet formulation with farm environmental compliance consequences

    OpenAIRE

    Hadrich, Joleen C.; Wolf, Christopher A.; Harsh, Stephen B.

    2005-01-01

    The current method to derive livestock diets is to optimize cost performance subject to animal performance and resulting nutritional requirements via a linear programming model. In contrast, we examine the livestock diet formulation problem as a multi-criteria decision model with the criteria being cost performance, feed efficiency, and environmental compliance costs. We find that there are many situations where farm financial situations are improved by feeding products with higher costs per ...

  18. The logic of livestock and deforestation in Amazonia

    OpenAIRE

    Hecht, S.

    1993-01-01

    Metadata only record This article analyzes the logic and the economics of livestock in Amazonia by evaluating the various means of making profits from land and natural-resource capital. I also elaborate how the Amazonian livestock sector is closely linked to virtually every other rural development activity. These links establish a framework for analyzing deforestation patterns. The analysis qualifies some of the current explanations of deforestation. Finally, I focus on current approaches ...

  19. Emerging viral diseases of livestock in the developing world

    OpenAIRE

    Bayry, Jagadeesh

    2013-01-01

    Emerging and reemerging viral diseases of livestock and human beings are in sharp rise in recent years. Importantly, many of these viruses, including influenza, Hendra, Nipah and corona are of zoonotic importance. Several viral diseases of livestock such as bluetongue, peste des petits ruminants, camel pox, equine infectious anaemia, chicken anaemia and sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever are crossing their traditional boundaries. Emergence of new serotypes and variant forms of viruses...

  20. Selenium Nanoparticles for Stress-Resilient Fish and Livestock

    OpenAIRE

    Sarkar, Biplab; Bhattacharjee, Surajit; Daware, Akshay; Tribedi, Prosun; Krishnani, K. K.; P S Minhas

    2015-01-01

    The fisheries and livestock sectors capture the highest share of protein-rich animal food and demonstrate accelerated growth as an agriculture subsidiary. Environmental pollution, climate change, as well as pathogenic invasions exert increasing stress impacts that lead the productivity momentum at a crossroads. Oxidative stress is the most common form of stress phenomenon responsible for the retardation of productivity in fisheries and livestock. Essential micronutrients play a determinant ro...

  1. Is livestock research unproductive? Separating health maintenance from improvement research

    OpenAIRE

    Townsend, Robert; Thirtle, Colin

    2001-01-01

    Studies of the rates of return to research have usually been based on the implicit assumption that if there were no research, then there would be neither growth nor decline in output or productivity. In the case of livestock, particularly in southern Africa, which has a sub-tropical disease ecology and a long history of disastrous losses due to disease, the assumption is especially unreasonable. It ignores the losses that would have occurred in the absence of livestock health research, result...

  2. LIVESTOCK INSURANCE AS A RISK MANAGEMENT TOOL ON DAIRY FARMS

    OpenAIRE

    Njavro, M.; V. Par; Draženka Pleško

    2007-01-01

    Faced with fast changing environment, livestock epidemics and EU accession, risk management is of utmost importance for Croatian farmers. Insurance is risk management strategy which enables risk transfer from farmer to insurance company. It has a positive effect on income stabilization and consequently could lead to higher level of specialization, credit access and competitiveness. Nevertheless, livestock insurance is relatively unimportant on dairy farms. Reasons are twofold. Uncompleted req...

  3. Computer Prediction of Air Quality in Livestock Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svidt, Kjeld; Bjerg, Bjarne

    In modem livestock buildings the design of ventilation systems is important in order to obtain good air quality. The use of Computational Fluid Dynamics for predicting the air distribution makes it possible to include the effect of room geometry and heat sources in the design process. This paper...... presents numerical prediction of air flow in a livestock building compared with laboratory measurements. An example of the calculation of contaminant distribution is given, and the future possibilities of the method are discussed....

  4. Reducing the Livestock related green house gases emission

    OpenAIRE

    Indira, D; G Srividya

    2012-01-01

    Cattle rearing generate more global warming green house gases than driving cars. These green house gases leads to changes in the climate. This climate change affects the livestock, man and natural environment continuously. For this reason it is important for livestock farmers to find the ways which minimize these gases emission. In this article the causes of climate change and effects, measures to be taken by farmers and their efficiency in reducing green house gases emission were reviewed br...

  5. Crop-Livestock Interaction in Sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    McIntire, J.; Bourzat, D.; P Prabhu

    1992-01-01

    Despite the theoretical benefits of crop-livestock interaction, crop and animal production are not well integrated in sub-Saharan Africa. The transition from separate, extensive crop and animal production to integrated, more intensive forms has been difficult to achieve via projects. The mixed record of projects suggests that the way to achieve greater interaction is not well understood. In attempting to understand crop livestock relations, three basic ideas are proposed in this study: (1) cr...

  6. NATIONAL IMPACTS OF CHANGES IN LIVESTOCK DISEASE SURVEILLANCE

    OpenAIRE

    Ann Hillberg Seitzinger; Paarlberg, Philip L.; Kenneth H. Mathews, Jr.

    2010-01-01

    This research estimates the U.S. economic welfare effects of livestock disease surveillance. One type of surveillance considers livestock diseases already in the United States. Annual national economic welfare increases $1.4 billion on average compared with a Federal surveillance budget for endemic diseases of $300 million annually. Other surveillance deals with reducing the risk of foreign animal diseases entering and becoming established. The estimated annual gain to producers from surveill...

  7. Prevalence of Hydatid Cysts in Livestock Animals in Xinjiang, China

    OpenAIRE

    Qingling, Meng; Guanglei, Wang; Jun, Qiao; Xinquan, Zhu; Tianli, Liu; Xuemei, Song; Jinsheng, Zhang; Huisheng, Wang; Kuojun, Cai; Chuangfu, Chen

    2014-01-01

    Hydatid worms, hosted by humans and animals, impose serious human health risk and cause significant livestock production loss. To better understand the disease infection status in Xinjiang, China, we investigated the disease epidemics in 4 livestock animals, i.e., cattle, sheep (both sheep and goat), camels, and horses, slaughtered at the abattoirs in Urumqi, Yining, Tacheng, and Altay areas. The results showed that the animals were infected at different rates, in the order of sheep (9.8%), c...

  8. Livestock-Associated MRSA: The Impact on Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Christiane Cuny; Lothar H Wieler; Wolfgang Witte

    2015-01-01

    During the past 25 years an increase in the prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (HA-MRSA) was recorded worldwide. Additionally, MRSA infections may occur outside and independent of hospitals, caused by community associated MRSA (CA-MRSA). In Germany, we found that at least 10% of these sporadic infections are due to livestock-associated MRSA (LA-MRSA), which is initially associated with livestock. The majority of these MRSA cases are attributed to clonal complex CC398. L...

  9. Biotechnology developments in the livestock sector in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onteru, Suneel; Ampaire, Agatha; Rothschild, Max

    2010-01-01

    Global meat and milk consumption is exponentially increasing due to population growth, urbanization and changes in lifestyle in the developing world. This is an excellent opportunity for developing countries to improve the livestock sector by using technological advances. Biotechnology is one of the avenues for improved production in the "Livestock revolution". Biotechnology developments applied to livestock health, nutrition, breeding and reproduction are improving with a reasonable pace in developing countries. Simple bio-techniques such as artificial insemination have been well implemented in many parts of the developing world. However, advanced technologies including transgenic plant vaccines, marker assisted selection, solid state fermentation for the production of fibrolytic enzymes, transgenic fodders, embryo transfer and animal cloning are confined largely to research organizations. Some developing countries such as Taiwan, China and Brazil have considered the commercialization of biotechnology in the livestock sector. Organized livestock production systems, proper record management, capacity building, objective oriented research to improve farmer's income, collaborations with the developed world, knowledge of the sociology of an area and research on new methods to educate farmers and policy makers need to be improved for the creation and implementation of biotechnology advances in the livestock sector in the developing world.

  10. Global warming and livestock husbandry in Kenya. Impacts and adaptations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabubo-Mariara, Jane [School of Economics, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 30197, 00100, Nairobi (Kenya)

    2009-05-15

    This paper examines the economic impact of climate change on livestock production in Kenya. We estimate a Ricardian model of net livestock incomes and further estimate the marginal impacts of climate change. We also simulate the impact of different climate scenarios on livestock incomes. The Ricardian results show that livestock production in Kenya is highly sensitive to climate change and that there is a non-linear relationship between climate change and livestock productivity. The estimated marginal impacts suggest modest gains from rising temperatures and losses from increased precipitation. The predictions from atmospheric ocean general circulation models suggest that livestock farmers in Kenya are likely to incur heavy losses from global warming. The highest and lowest losses are predicted from the Hadley Centre Coupled model (HADCM) and Parallel Climate Model (PCM) respectively, based on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change A2 Special Report on Emissions Scenarios. The paper concludes that in the long term, climate change is likely to lead to increased poverty, vulnerability and loss of livelihoods. Several policy interventions are recommended to counter this impact. (author)

  11. Global warming and livestock husbandry in Kenya. Impacts and adaptations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper examines the economic impact of climate change on livestock production in Kenya. We estimate a Ricardian model of net livestock incomes and further estimate the marginal impacts of climate change. We also simulate the impact of different climate scenarios on livestock incomes. The Ricardian results show that livestock production in Kenya is highly sensitive to climate change and that there is a non-linear relationship between climate change and livestock productivity. The estimated marginal impacts suggest modest gains from rising temperatures and losses from increased precipitation. The predictions from atmospheric ocean general circulation models suggest that livestock farmers in Kenya are likely to incur heavy losses from global warming. The highest and lowest losses are predicted from the Hadley Centre Coupled model (HADCM) and Parallel Climate Model (PCM) respectively, based on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change A2 Special Report on Emissions Scenarios. The paper concludes that in the long term, climate change is likely to lead to increased poverty, vulnerability and loss of livelihoods. Several policy interventions are recommended to counter this impact. (author)

  12. International trade in livestock and livestock products: the need for a commodity-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, G R; Tambi, E N; Hargreaves, S K; Leyland, T J; Catley, A P; van 't Klooster, G G M; Penrith, M L

    2004-10-01

    International animal health standards designed to facilitate safe trade in livestock and livestock products are set by the Office International des Epizooties (OIE) under the Sanitary and Phytosanitary Agreement of the World Trade Organization (WTO) and documented in the OIE's Terrestrial Animal Health Code. A core principle of the Code is the need for countries to eradicate important transboundary animal diseases (TADs) to reduce the risk of exporting disease to trading partners. International food safety standards are set by the Codex Alimentarius Commission, administered jointly by the World Health Organization and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. The goal of global eradication of most TADs is unachievable for the foreseeable future, other than in the case of rinderpest, and this prevents many countries, especially developing nations, from engaging in international trade under WTO rules. This paper proposes an alternative, commodity-based approach to the formulation of international animal health and food safety standards, based on the fact that different commodities pose very different risks when it comes to the spread of human and animal pathogens. Therefore, the risk mitigation strategies required are equally commodity-dependent. The authors conclude that more focused commodity standards would improve access to international markets for all countries, especially those in the developing world. For this objective to be realised, credible and independent certification is required. PMID:15508847

  13. Study on Measures and Policies to Reduce Pollution in Raising Livestock and Poultry in Jiangsu Province

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Yonghong; GUAN, Yongxiang; Wu, Hao; Wang, Zichen

    2013-01-01

    As a developed province in China, Jiangsu Province is competitive in the livestock and poultry production industry. With the development and growing intensity of livestock and poultry industry, animal pollution has become the major source of panel agricultural pollution. This paper studied the characteristics of livestock and poultry industry in Jiangsu Province: large amount of livestock poultry, imbalanced development of livestock and regional differences, large pollution, large amount of p...

  14. Precision livestock farming '09 : papers presented at the 4th European conference on precision livestock farming, Wageningen, The Netherlands, 6-8 July 2009

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lokhorst, C.; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G.

    2009-01-01

    These proceedings contain the reviewed papers from the 4th European Conference on Precision Livestock Farming. The papers reflect the wide range of disciplines that impinge upon precision livestock farming including feeding dairy, data quality, poultry and pig applications, livestock environment, wi

  15. Removal of phosphorus from livestock effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szogi, Ariel A; Vanotti, Matias B

    2009-01-01

    For removal of phosphorus (P) from swine liquid manure before land application, we developed a treatment process that produces low P effluents and a valuable P by-product with minimal chemical addition and ammonia losses. The new wastewater process included two sequential steps: (i) biological nitrification and (ii) increasing the pH of the nitrified wastewater to precipitate P. We hypothesized that by reduction of inorganic buffers (NH(4)(+) and carbonate alkalinity) via nitrification, P could be selectively removed by subsequent hydrated lime [Ca(OH)(2)] addition. The objective of the study was to assess if this new treatment could consistently reduce inorganic buffer capacity with varied initial concentrations of N (100-723 mg NH(4)(+) L(-1)), P (26-85 mg TP L(-1)), and alkalinity (953-3063 mg CaCO(3) L(-1)), and then efficiently remove P from swine lagoon liquid. The process was tested with surface lagoon liquids from 10 typical swine farms in North Carolina. Each lagoon liquid received treatment in a nitrification bioreactor, followed by chemical treatment with Ca(OH)(2) at Ca rates of 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 mmol L(-1) to precipitate P. This configuration was compared with a control that received the same Ca rates but without the nitrification pretreatment. The new process significantly reduced >90% the inorganic buffers concentrations compared with the control and prevented ammonia losses. Subsequent lime addition resulted in efficient pH increase to > or = 9.5 for optimum P precipitation in the nitrified liquid and significant reduction of effluent total P concentration versus the control. With this new process, the total P concentration in treated liquid effluent can be adjusted for on-farm use with up to >90% of P removal. The recovered solid Ca phosphate material can be easily exported from the farm and reused as P fertilizer. Therefore, the new process can be used to reduce the P content in livestock effluents to levels that would diminish problems of

  16. Livestock-associated MRSA carriage in patients without direct contact with livestock.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miranda M L van Rijen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Livestock-associated MRSA (MC398 has emerged and is related to an extensive reservoir in pigs and veal calves. Individuals with direct contact with these animals and their family members are known to have high MC398 carriage rates. Until now it was assumed that MC398 does not spread to individuals in the community without pig or veal calf exposure. To test this, we identified the proportion of MC398 in MRSA positive individuals without contact with pigs/veal calves or other known risk factors (MRSA of unknown origin; MUO. METHODS: In 17 participating hospitals, we determined during two years the occurrence of MC398 in individuals without direct contact with livestock and no other known risk factor (n = 271 and tested in a post analysis the hypothesis whether hospitals in pig-dense areas have higher proportions of MC398 of all MUO. RESULTS: Fifty-six individuals (20.7% without animal contact carried MC398. In hospitals with high pig-densities in the adherence area, the proportion of MC398 of all MUO was higher than this proportion in hospitals without pigs in the surroundings. CONCLUSIONS: One fifth of the individuals carrying MUO carried MC398. So, MC398 is found in individuals without contact to pigs or veal calves. The way of transmission from the animal reservoir to these individuals is unclear, probably by human-to-human transmission or by exposure to the surroundings of the stables. Further research is needed to investigate the way of transmission.

  17. FIRST STEPS IN URBAN PLANNING OF BULGARIAN CITIES WITH PARTICIPATION OF CZECH ARCHITECTS AND ENGINEERS AT THE TURN OF 19TH AND 20TH CENTURIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay Brankov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on beginnings of the urban planning and first organized planning activities of Bulgarian cities at the turn of 19th and 20th centuries when many Czech engineers and architects participated in significantly. A common feature of all Bulgarian cities was irregular structure and build-up area. The main task of the Czech engineers was to cope with this situation and to design modern cities. In general, the original structure did not make planning easy and unambiguous. Planning of the cities destroyed in the Russian-Turkish war in 1877-78 was easier. A possibility to apply a new city structure freely existed in Stara Zagora and partially in Nova Zagora. A usual principle was straightening of the streets where the engineers used original street network and the new modern streets were built according to it, e.g. the centre of Kystendil and the old part of Nova Zagora. These principles were used also in some central parts of Sofia and Plovdiv. The city of Sofia itself is a distinctive example. Although the original structure was preserved during the war and in the first steps the principle of straightening of the streets in the centre was applied, the other parts of Sofia were designed with a new structure and the old city disappeared. Plovdiv is in contrary to Sofia and its original structure was preserved as an old city and the new one was joined to it in neighbourhoods.

  18. Attitudes and Prerequisites for the Establishment of an Integrated Cultural Identity within Romanian-Bulgarian Cross-Border Region along the Danube River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Popova

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: On the basis of the results from an empirical study this research aims at exploration of the prerequisites for the establishment of an integrated cultural identity within Romanian-Bulgarian Cross-Border Region along the Danube River (RBCBR. Prior Work: The paper is trying to prove the necessity of identity re-negotiation process within RBCBR. The theoretical background of the research is related to some of the most topical considerations in this scientific field. Approach: The research uses an interdisciplinary approach and combines the perspectives of regional studies, cross-cultural psychology and intercultural communication. A representative survey is the main instrument of the research. Results: Among the citizens of the RBCBR there exist favourable attitudes towards closer relations with their neighbours which can serve as a key element of the identity re-negotiation process within the region. Implications: The research results can be used by policy makers and regional authorities in the process of establishment of a new policy for territorial cooperation as well as by researchers in further development of this topic area. Value: the importance of the research is in its new approach towards the establishment of integrated regional identity as well as in the comparison of the Romanian and Bulgarian attitudes towards cooperation in the neighbourhood area.

  19. Impact of animal diseases on livestock productivity and economic losses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most serious impact of animal disease on livestock productivity in developing countries derives from its effect on overall livestock production and trade development rather than from the direct losses it causes. The global importance of major infectious diseases such as foot and mouth disease, rinderpest and African swine fever is reviewed. The impact of major livestock diseases in tropical Africa on livestock productivity and economic losses is analysed, and the importance of in-depth analysis of the disease impact on livestock and rural development is stressed. Lack of diagnosis facilities that are needed to acquire reliable information on the distribution of disease is often a major constraint to cost-benefit analysis of control options. However, enough evidence exists to substantiate the fact that improved disease control is a prerequisite for progress towards increased productivity based on the adoption of more intensive production systems and use of animals of improved genotype. Veterinary services in developing countries are at various stages of development, and the priority order of infra-structure, manpower and technological development for disease control programmes should be carefully planned and be based on socio-economic, cost-benefit and feasibility studies. (author)

  20. Molecular characterization of Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto and Echinococcus canadensis in humans and livestock from Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zait, Houria; Kouidri, Mokhtaria; Grenouillet, Florence Elisabeth; Umhang, Gérald; Millon, Laurence; Hamrioui, Boussad; Grenouillet, Frédéric

    2016-06-01

    In Algeria, previous studies investigated genotypes of Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato in animals and identified E. granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.) genotypes G1 and G3 whereas Echinococcus canadensis genotype G6 was only reported from dromedary cysts. Molecular data on human cystic echinococcosis (CE) were limited. We implemented a large genotyping study of hydatid cysts from humans and livestock animals to specify CE's molecular epidemiology and the genetic diversity in Algeria. Fifty-four human CE cysts from patients predominantly admitted in surgical units from Mustapha Hospital, Algiers, and 16 cysts from livestock animals gathered in two geographically distinct slaughterhouses, Tiaret and Tamanrasset, were collected. Molecular characterization was performed using sequencing of two mitochondrial genes, cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) and NADH dehydrogenase subunit I (NDI). In humans, G1 of E. granulosus s.s. was the main genotype (90.7 %); four samples (7.4 %) were characterized as E. granulosus s.s. G3 and one cyst as E. canadensis G6 (1.8 %). This molecular confirmation of E. canadensis G6 human infection in Algeria was observed in a Tuareg female living in a desertic area in Tamanrasset. All cysts from sheep, cattle, and goat were identified as E. granulosus s.s. G1 and the two cysts originating from dromedary as E. canadensis G6. Twenty concatenated haplotypes (COI + NDI) were characterized. Among E. granulosus s.s., one haplotype (HL1) was highly predominant in both humans and animals cysts (71.6 %). This study revealed main occurrence of E. granulosus s.s. in humans and livestock animals, with description of a predominant shared haplotype corresponding to the main worldwide observed haplotype E.granulosus s.s. G1. E. canadensis G6 was limited to South Algeria, in dromedary as well as in human.

  1. Molecular characterization of Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto and Echinococcus canadensis in humans and livestock from Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zait, Houria; Kouidri, Mokhtaria; Grenouillet, Florence Elisabeth; Umhang, Gérald; Millon, Laurence; Hamrioui, Boussad; Grenouillet, Frédéric

    2016-06-01

    In Algeria, previous studies investigated genotypes of Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato in animals and identified E. granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.) genotypes G1 and G3 whereas Echinococcus canadensis genotype G6 was only reported from dromedary cysts. Molecular data on human cystic echinococcosis (CE) were limited. We implemented a large genotyping study of hydatid cysts from humans and livestock animals to specify CE's molecular epidemiology and the genetic diversity in Algeria. Fifty-four human CE cysts from patients predominantly admitted in surgical units from Mustapha Hospital, Algiers, and 16 cysts from livestock animals gathered in two geographically distinct slaughterhouses, Tiaret and Tamanrasset, were collected. Molecular characterization was performed using sequencing of two mitochondrial genes, cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) and NADH dehydrogenase subunit I (NDI). In humans, G1 of E. granulosus s.s. was the main genotype (90.7 %); four samples (7.4 %) were characterized as E. granulosus s.s. G3 and one cyst as E. canadensis G6 (1.8 %). This molecular confirmation of E. canadensis G6 human infection in Algeria was observed in a Tuareg female living in a desertic area in Tamanrasset. All cysts from sheep, cattle, and goat were identified as E. granulosus s.s. G1 and the two cysts originating from dromedary as E. canadensis G6. Twenty concatenated haplotypes (COI + NDI) were characterized. Among E. granulosus s.s., one haplotype (HL1) was highly predominant in both humans and animals cysts (71.6 %). This study revealed main occurrence of E. granulosus s.s. in humans and livestock animals, with description of a predominant shared haplotype corresponding to the main worldwide observed haplotype E.granulosus s.s. G1. E. canadensis G6 was limited to South Algeria, in dromedary as well as in human. PMID:27021186

  2. Spatial trends of genetic variation of domestic ruminants in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laloë, Denis; Moazami-Goudarzi, Katayoun; Lenstra, Johannes A.; Ajmone Marsan, Paolo; Azor, Pedro; Baumung, Roswitha; Bradley, Daniel G.; Bruford, Michael W.; Cañón, Javier; Dolf, Gaudenz; Dunner, Susana; Erhardt, Georg; Hewitt, Godfrey; Kantanen, Juha; Obexer-Ruff, Gabriela; Olsaker, Ingrid; Rodellar, Clemen; Valentini, Alessio; Wiener, Pamela

    2010-01-01

    The introduction of livestock species in Europe has been followed by various genetic events, which created a complex spatial pattern of genetic differentiation. Spatial principal component (sPCA) analysis and spatial metric multidimensional scaling (sMDS) incorporate geography in multivariate analys

  3. The benefits of biogas as a livestock waste management technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Putra, Ahmad Romadhoni Surya; Liu, Zhen; Lund, Mogens

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present some preliminary results from a study of biogas as a livestock waste technology in supporting mixed crop and livestock farming. Specific emphasizesis made on the effects of biogas technology adoption among smallholder farmers. The study used a cross sectional...... neighbor matching (NNM) to measure the benefits of adopting biogas technology. The results indicated that the biogas adopters were the farmers who had a longer formal education; owned more cattle; had better access to information about the technology and better access to the biogas installation’s aid...... program; although, they had less access to formal credit. The estimation of treatment effects showed that farmers who adopted the biogas technology gained benefits through decreases in crops expenses and increases in the livestock and non-agricultural income. Furthermore, the results showed that adopting...

  4. Livestock waste and its impact on the environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.P. Ogbuewu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Livestock industries produce meat, milk and egg, and also generate large volumes of wastes that could be harmful to the environment if not well managed. The demand for animal products is driven by increasing per capital incomes, urbanization, changing lifestyles as well as rapid population growth. These increases in demand for animal products are expected to continue in the years to come. Livestock keepers on the quest of optimizing the benefit of the ever increasing demand for their products have resorted in the production and accumulation of large volumes of wastes. However, the disposal of these wastes continues to be a challenge from the standpoints of cost, environmental safety, and biosecurity. The question remains how would these livestock wastes be managed without detrimental effects on food security, natural resources and health? This review was necessitated in an attempt to answer these questions.

  5. Parasitological measures to characterize different livestock production systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thamsborg, Stig M.; Mejer, H.; Enemark, Heidi

    2013-01-01

    in the livestock sector but the local farming systems may represent the ‘hidden world of OF’ (Parrott et al., 2005) e.g. as low input sustainable agriculture based on local resources and processes and traditional farming (food grown without chemicals or organic by default). Some of the problems and perhaps also....... Several on-farm surveys have indicated that, despite large farm-to-farm variation, levels and diversity of parasite infections may reflect differences in production systems. In developed countries, organic farming (OF) as a certified livestock production system with a given set of standards, has gained...... some of the solutions in these systems are parallel to challenges related to organic livestock production in developed countries. This paper will consider how parasitological research may bridge the systems and cross-fertilize one another, and so far there are several good examples, e.g. the extensive...

  6. Wildfire: It's Economic Impact on Grazing Livestock in Northern Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honeycutt, S.

    2015-12-01

    As the climate changes and Nevada experiences long severe drought, a key understanding of the economic impacts of wildfire on grazing livestock is essential in the assurance of livestock production in future management of Nevada's rangeland. The focus of this research is to determine the economic impact in the reduction of rangeland available for livestock grazing due to wildfires. The datasets utilized in this research are from 2007 & 2012 and include Bureau of Land Management wildfire, grazing allotments and herd management area geospatial data along with USDA Census of Agriculture, Inventory & Sales Information for cattle & calves, sheep & lambs, and goats. Presented in the results will be the direct, indirect, and induced economic effects of wildfires on rangeland production.

  7. Genetic architecture of gene expression in ovine skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kogelman, Lisette Johanna Antonia; Byrne, Keren; Vuocolo, Tony;

    2011-01-01

    Background: In livestock populations the genetic contribution to muscling is intensively monitored in the progeny of industry sires and used as a tool in selective breeding programs. The genes and pathways conferring this genetic merit are largely undefined. Genetic variation within a population ...... insight into mechanisms, presumably subject to strong artificial selection, that underpin enhanced muscling in sheep populations. © 2011 Kogelman et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.......Background: In livestock populations the genetic contribution to muscling is intensively monitored in the progeny of industry sires and used as a tool in selective breeding programs. The genes and pathways conferring this genetic merit are largely undefined. Genetic variation within a population...... has potential, amongst other mechanisms, to alter gene expression via cis- or trans-acting mechanisms in a manner that impacts the functional activities of specific pathways that contribute to muscling traits. By integrating sire-based genetic merit information for a muscling trait with progeny...

  8. Generation and applications of monoclonal antibodies for livestock production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Der Lende, T

    1994-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (MCAs) have found widespread applications in livestock production. Although the generation of murine MCAs is at present a routine, the production of homologous MCAs, especially important for in vivo applications, is still hampered by the lack of efficient homologous fusion partners for immortalization of antibody producing lymphocytes of livestock species. At present, MCAs are used in immunodiagnostic tests e.g. to monitor livestock reproduction and quality of livestock products. In the future MCAs will also be used in immunosensors for real-time and on-site applications in the same areas. The commercial application of MCAs for the immunomodulation of (pharmacologically induced) physiological processes underlying important (re)production traits is at present limited to the use of anti-PMSG MCAs in PMSG-induced superovulation. However, many potentially interesting applications are under investigation (e.g. immunopotentiation of growth hormone to enhance growth; immunocytolysis of adipocytes to increase lean meat production; immunoneutralization of GnRH for immunocastration; immunoimitation of hormone activity with anti-idiotype antibodies). Attempts to use specific MCAs for the sexing of embryos have been disappointing, mainly because of the relatively low accuracy. In the future, MCAs against membrane proteins which are specific for X- or Y-chromosome bearing spermatozoa might be used for bulk separation of livestock sperm. In general, it is expected that engineered (homologous) recombinant MCAs will largely contribute to the development of a new generation of rapid immunodiagnostic tests and effective immunomodulation applications. They will further increase the use of MCAs in livestock production.

  9. Infectious animal diseases: the wildlife/livestock interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengis, R G; Kock, R A; Fischer, J

    2002-04-01

    The long-standing conflict between livestock owners and animal health authorities on the one hand, and wildlife conservationists on the other, is largely based on differing attitudes to controlling diseases of livestock which are associated with wildlife. The authors have attempted to highlight the fact that these disease problems are frequently bi-directional at the wildlife/livestock interface. The different categories of diseases involved are presented. A new dimension being faced by veterinary regulatory authorities is the spectre of emerging sylvatic foci of diseases, such as bovine tuberculosis, bovine brucellosis and possibly rinderpest; these diseases threaten to undermine national and international eradication schemes, which have been implemented and executed with significant success, and at great cost. Conversely, wildlife-based ecotourism world-wide has expanded rapidly over the past decade and is the source of lacking foreign revenue for many developing countries. Traditional subsistence farming is still the largest source of much-needed protein on some continents and this, together with the growth and hunger of historically disadvantaged communities for land, is forcing enterprises and communities with markedly different objectives and land-use practices to operate effectively in close proximity. Some land-users rely exclusively on wildlife, others on livestock and/or agronomy, while yet others need to combine these activities. The net result may be an expansion or intensification of the interface between wildlife and domestic livestock, which will require innovative control strategies that permit differing types of wildlife/livestock interaction, and that do not threaten the land-use options of neighbours, or the ability of a country to market animals and animal products profitably.

  10. Genome Analysis of Staphylococcus aureus ST291, a Double Locus Variant of ST398, Reveals a Distinct Genetic Lineage

    OpenAIRE

    Marc Stegger; Maliha Aziz; Tomasz Chroboczek; Lance B Price; Troels Ronco; Kristoffer Kiil; Skov, Robert L.; Frederic Laurent; Andersen, Paal S.

    2013-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus ST291 has been reported as a homologue recombinant double locus variant of the livestock associated S. aureus ST398. However, whole genome sequencing show that ST291 is a unique genetic lineage with highly variable content within its accessory genome compared to both human and livestock associated genome sequenced CC398s.

  11. Genome analysis of Staphylococcus aureus ST291, a double locus variant of ST398, reveals a distinct genetic lineage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Stegger

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus ST291 has been reported as a homologue recombinant double locus variant of the livestock associated S. aureus ST398. However, whole genome sequencing show that ST291 is a unique genetic lineage with highly variable content within its accessory genome compared to both human and livestock associated genome sequenced CC398s.

  12. Genetically modified foods, trade, and developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Nielsen, Chantal Pohl; Thierfelder, Karen; Robinson, Sherman

    2001-01-01

    This paper analyzes price, production and trade consequences of changing consumer preferences regarding the use of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in food production. The analytical framework used is an empirical global general equilibrium model, in which the entire food processing chain - from primary crops through livestock feed to processed foods - is segregated into genetically modified (GM) and non-GM lines of production. This model is used to analyze the implications of widespread...

  13. Using the economic surplus model to measure potential returns to international livestock research : the case of trypanosomosis vaccine research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kristjanson, P.; Rowlands, J.; Swallow, B.

    1999-01-01

    This report addresses issues surrounding measurement of the potential productivity gains from new livestock technologies and the returns to international livestock research. The approach, applicable to many livestock production constraints and technologies, integrates a herd simulation model to meas

  14. [Prediction of retained heterosis and evaluation on breeding effects of composite livestock populations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wen-Zhong

    2009-08-01

    A composite population is a breed made up of two or more component breeds and designed to benefit from hybrid vigor without crossing with other breeds, and is thus regarded as an alternative method for heterosis utilization. The breeding effects depend on retained heterosis in livestock composites. This paper reviews prediction methods of retained heterosis, relative production efficiency and production performance, and evaluation methods of breeding effects of composite populations. A composite population contains all three types of heterosis. If inbreeding can be avoided, it can retain heterosis to a certain extent. The retained heterosis depends on the number of contributing breeds and their proportions in the composite. The production performance rests both on average breeding values of contributing breeds and on retained heterosis of the composite itself. Breeding effects of composite population can be evaluated by theoretical prediction, actual estimation of retained heterosis, examination of genetic variation and/or comparison with other relevant breeds. PMID:19689939

  15. Solutions of Transgenic Livestock's Safety%转基因家畜安全性的解决方案

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏庆信; 郑新民

    2012-01-01

    建立安全的转基因家畜生产技术体系是保障人体健康和动物安全、保护生态环境、促进农业转基因生物研究和产业化的需要.从食品安全、环境安全以及家畜自身安全等3个方面分析了转基因家畜各生产环节可能影响安全性的诸因素,并从技术和管理的角度提出了解决方案.%The establishment of transgenic livestock's safe producing system was to protect human health, animal safety, protect ecological environment, and to promote the research and industrialization of agricultural genetically modified organisms technology. The possible influencing factors in transgenic livestock producting processes from three aspects of food safety, environmental safety, as well as livestock own safety were analyzed, and solutions from the perspective of technology and management were proposed.

  16. Strengthening Livestock Rearing Practices of Marginalized Indian Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, Andy

    1987-01-01

    The case study examines the work of a coalition between certain women's groups in India and a nongovernmental charitable trust. The mission of the coalition is to empower Indian women, who generally possess neither land nor power, to care for their livestock. (CH)

  17. Livestock wealth and social capital as insurance against climate risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nganga, Stanley; Bulte, Erwin H.; Giller, Ken E.; Ndiwa, Nicholas N.; Kifugo, Shem C.; McIntire, John M.; Herrero, Mario; Rufino, Mariana C.

    2016-01-01

    We use data from 500 households in Samburu County (Kenya) to explore how natural environment and market accessibility affect coping and adaptation strategies of pastoralists. In particular, we ask whether households accumulate livestock wealth and invest in structural and cognitive social capital

  18. Managing ammonia emissions from livestock production in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb, J. [ADAS Research, Woodthorne, Wergs Road, Wolverhampton WV6 8TQ (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: jim.webb@adas.co.uk; Menzi, H. [Swiss College of Agriculture, Laenggasse 85, CH-3052 Zollikofen (Switzerland); Pain, B.F. [Institute of Grassland and Environmental Research, North Wyke, Okehampton, Devon EX20 2SB (United Kingdom); Misselbrook, T.H. [Institute of Grassland and Environmental Research, North Wyke, Okehampton, Devon EX20 2SB (United Kingdom); Daemmgen, U. [Federal Agricultural Research Centre, Institute of Agroecology, Bundesallee 50, 38116 Braunschweig (Germany); Hendriks, H. [National Reference Centre, Ministry of Agriculture, Nature and Food Quality, Ede (Netherlands); Doehler, H. [KTBL, Bartningstrasse 49, D-64289 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2005-06-15

    Around 75% of European ammonia (NH{sub 3}) emissions come from livestock production. Emissions occur at all stages of manure management: from buildings housing livestock; during manure storage; following manure application to land; and from urine deposited by livestock on pastures during grazing. Ammoniacal nitrogen (total ammoniacal-nitrogen, TAN) in livestock excreta is the main source of NH{sub 3}. At each stage of manure management TAN may be lost, mainly as NH{sub 3}, and the remainder passed to the next stage. Hence, measures to reduce NH{sub 3} emissions at the various stages of manure management are interdependent, and the accumulative reduction achieved by combinations of measures is not simply additive. This TAN-flow concept enables rapid and easy estimation of the consequences of NH{sub 3} abatement at one stage of manure management (upstream) on NH{sub 3} emissions at later stages (downstream), and gives unbiased assessment of the most cost-effective measures. We conclude that rapid incorporation of manures into arable land is one of the most cost-effective measures to reduce NH{sub 3} emissions, while covering manure stores and applying slurry by band spreader or injection are more cost-effective than measures to reduce emissions from buildings. These measures are likely to rank highly in most European countries. - Reducing NH{sub 3} emissions following spreading of manures to land ranks highly because of the large abatement potential and relatively small cost.

  19. Measuring airborne microorganisms and dust from livestock houses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang Zhao, Yang

    2011-01-01

      Airborne transmission has been suspected to be responsible for epidemics of highly infectious disease in livestock production. In such transmission, the pathogenic microorganisms may associate with dust particles. However, the extent to which airborne transmission plays a role in the spread

  20. Database Application for a Youth Market Livestock Production Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horney, Marc R.

    2013-01-01

    This article offers an example of a database designed to support teaching animal production and husbandry skills in county youth livestock programs. The system was used to manage production goals, animal growth and carcass data, photos and other imagery, and participant records. These were used to produce a variety of customized reports to help…

  1. Adoption of automated livestock production systems in Northern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Søren Marcus; Lind, Kim Martin Hjorth

    2014-01-01

    In the last decades the development of automated systems in livestock production has gained increasing interest among farmers. A combined use of computers and sensor systems has lead the development into new research areas with automated milking systems, grain drying systems and automated feeding...

  2. Recent Developments in Livestock and Wildlife Brucellosis Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Live attenuated brucellosis vaccines have been available for protecting domestic livestock against B. melitensis or B. abortus for more than 60 years. Current vaccines are effective in preventing abortion and transmission of brucellosis, but poor at preventing infection or seroconversion. In addit...

  3. CFD Simulation of Air Velocity Distribution in Occupied Livestock Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svidt, Kjeld; Zhang, G.; Bjerg, B.

    In modem livestock buildings the design of the ventilation systems is important in order to obtain good air distribution. The use of Computational Fluid Dynamics for predicting the air flow and air quality makes it possible to include the effect of room geometry, equipment and occupants in the de...

  4. ANALYSIS OF MAINTENANCE AND REPAIR SYSTEMS IN LIVESTOCK

    OpenAIRE

    KOVALEV L.I.; I.L. Kovalev

    2015-01-01

    In article the analysis of various systems of technical service is carried out and a number of tasks of improvement of the organization of maintenance and repair on livestock farms and complexes in modern conditions of the market is defined. Efficiency of practical application of system of scheduled preventive maintenance and maintenance of cars and the equipment of animal husbandry locates.

  5. Analysis of maintenance and repair systems in livestock production

    OpenAIRE

    KOVALEV L.I.; I.L. Kovalev

    2015-01-01

    In article the analysis of various systems of technical service is carried out and a number of tasks of improvement of the organization of maintenance and repair on livestock farms and complexes in modern conditions of the market is defined. Efficiency of practical application of system of scheduled preventive maintenance and maintenance of cars and the equipment of animal husbandry locates.

  6. Ammonia recovery from livestock waste using gas permeable membrane technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation shows new methods and systems being developed for reducing ammonia emissions from livestock waste and recovering concentrated liquid nitrogen that could be sold as fertilizer. These systems use gas-permeable membranes as components of new processes to capture and recover the ammoni...

  7. Emergency management of disasters involving livestock in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, S E; Kenyon, S J; Zepeda Sein, C A

    1999-04-01

    Different disasters have similar consequence on the health and welfare of livestock. Numerous geophysical disasters can exacerbate epizootics, resulting in the deaths of many animals and the reduction of production efficiency. These disasters also present a considerable threat of spoilage of processed foods, endangering public health. Furthermore, large-scale disasters involving animals can modify the long-term stability of national economies, the environment and social structures. The authors discuss the vulnerability of the livestock industry to natural disasters and the impact of floods, droughts and transboundary diseases and pests on national economies. Examples are given on how some losses can be avoided, evaluated and compensated. The role of the veterinarian is presented in relation to work conducted by other relief organisations in cases of emergency. In developing countries, mitigation programmes should focus on strengthening global animal health services. Preparedness needs to be community based, with education provided in a timely manner. Effective recovery from disasters should be based on mitigation programmes, including international trade and mutual aid agreements between neighbouring countries to supply appropriate goods and environmentally and culturally appropriate breeds of livestock. Disaster relief for the care of livestock should be recognised as a form of humanitarian assistance, given the benefits to be derived for public health and the socio-economic implications of successful intervention. PMID:10190219

  8. Animal health in organic livestock production systems: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kijlstra, A.; Eijck, I.A.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Organic livestock production is a means of food production with a large number of rules directed towards a high status of animal welfare, care for the environment, restricted use of medical drugs and the production of a healthy product without residues (pesticides or medical drugs). The intentions o

  9. Managing ammonia emissions from livestock production in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Around 75% of European ammonia (NH3) emissions come from livestock production. Emissions occur at all stages of manure management: from buildings housing livestock; during manure storage; following manure application to land; and from urine deposited by livestock on pastures during grazing. Ammoniacal nitrogen (total ammoniacal-nitrogen, TAN) in livestock excreta is the main source of NH3. At each stage of manure management TAN may be lost, mainly as NH3, and the remainder passed to the next stage. Hence, measures to reduce NH3 emissions at the various stages of manure management are interdependent, and the accumulative reduction achieved by combinations of measures is not simply additive. This TAN-flow concept enables rapid and easy estimation of the consequences of NH3 abatement at one stage of manure management (upstream) on NH3 emissions at later stages (downstream), and gives unbiased assessment of the most cost-effective measures. We conclude that rapid incorporation of manures into arable land is one of the most cost-effective measures to reduce NH3 emissions, while covering manure stores and applying slurry by band spreader or injection are more cost-effective than measures to reduce emissions from buildings. These measures are likely to rank highly in most European countries. - Reducing NH3 emissions following spreading of manures to land ranks highly because of the large abatement potential and relatively small cost

  10. Profitability of Dairy Cattle Through Precision Livestock Farming Management Practices

    OpenAIRE

    Salim, Juma K.; Dillon, Carl R.; Saghaian, Sayed H.; McAllister, Jack; Amaral-Phillips, Donna M.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare and contrast the profitability of different dairy management practices through precision livestock farming. Feed analysis and crop yields were simulated. Mathematical model was used for profit maximization. The results indicated that the proposed modification had a higher profit than the base plan.

  11. Estimation of Airflow in Livestock Buildings using Image Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Rasmus

    1996-01-01

    of a livestock building, the airflow in a laser-illuminated plane may be visualized. Based on sequences of images recorded of this plane using a video camera, estimates of 2--D flow vectors are derived locally. The local estimates of velocity are found using a set of spatio-temporal convolution filters...

  12. Climate change effects on plant growth, crop yield and livestock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rötter, R.P.; Geijn, van de S.C.

    1999-01-01

    A review is given of the state of knowledge in the field of assessing climate change impacts on agricultural crops and livestock. Starting from the basic processes controlling plant growth and development, the possible impacts and interactions of climatic and other biophysical variables in different

  13. Pyrrolizidine alkaloid toxicity in livestock: A paradigm for human poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livestock poisoning, primarily liver damage, caused by consumption of plants containing 1,2-dehydropyrro-lizidine ester alkaloids (dehydroPAs), and the corresponding N-oxides, is a relatively common occurrence worldwide. Because of the economic impact, extensive investigations...

  14. The Idea of 'Ethical Accounting' for a Livestock Farm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten Klint; Sørensen, Jan Tind

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents the idea of a decision-support system for a livestock farm, called “ethical accounting”, to be used as an extension of traditional cost accounting. “Ethical accounting” seeks to make available to the farmer information about how his decisions affect the interests of farm animals...

  15. Productive Spillovers of the Take-Up of Index-Based Livestock Insurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Does the provision of livestock insurance raise the unintended consequence of stimulating excessive herd accumulation and less environmentally-sustainable herd movement patterns? The impact of insurance is theoretically ambiguous: if precautionary savings motives for holding livestock assets domina...

  16. The rumen: a unique source of enzymes for enhancing livestock production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selinger, L B; Forsberg, C W; Cheng, K J

    1996-10-01

    Increasing competition in the livestock industry has forced producers to cut costs by adopting new technologies aimed at increasing production efficiency. One particularly promising technology is feeding enzymes as supplements for animal diets. Supplementation of diets for non-ruminants (e.g., swine and poultry) with fibrolytic enzymes, such as cellulases, xylanases and beta-glucanases, increases the feed conversion efficiency and growth rate of the animals. Enzymatic hydrolysis of plant cell wall polymers (e.g., cellulose, xylan, beta-glucans) releases glucose and xylose and eliminates the antinutritional effects of beta-glucans and arabinoxylans. Enzyme supplementation of diets for ruminants has also been shown to improve growth performance, even though the rumen itself represents the most potent fibrolytic fermentation system known. Implementation of this technology in the livestock industry has been limited largely because of the cost of development and production of enzymes. Over the last decade, however, developments in recombinant DNA technology have increased the efficiency of existing microbial production systems and facilitated exploitation of alternative sources of industrial enzymes. The ruminal ecosystem is among the novel enzyme sources currently being explored. Understanding the role of enzymes in feed digestion through characterization of the enzymology and genetics involved in digestion of feedstuffs by ruminants will provide insight required to improve the products currently available to producers. Characterization of genes encoding a variety of hydrolytic enzymes, such as cellulases, xylanases, beta-glucanases, amylases, pectinases, proteases, phytases and tannases, will foster the development of more efficacious enzyme supplements and enzyme expression systems for enhancing nutrient utilization by domestic animals. Characteristics of the original source organism need no longer restrict the production of a useful enzyme. Recent reports of

  17. Natural cross chlamydial infection between livestock and free-living bird species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús A Lemus

    Full Text Available The study of cross-species pathogen transmission is essential to understanding the epizootiology and epidemiology of infectious diseases. Avian chlamydiosis is a zoonotic disease whose effects have been mainly investigated in humans, poultry and pet birds. It has been suggested that wild bird species play an important role as reservoirs for this disease. During a comparative health status survey in common (Falco tinnunculus and lesser (Falco naumanni kestrel populations in Spain, acute gammapathies were detected. We investigated whether gammapathies were associated with Chlamydiaceae infections. We recorded the prevalence of different Chlamydiaceae species in nestlings of both kestrel species in three different study areas. Chlamydophila psittaci serovar I (or Chlamydophila abortus, an ovine pathogen causing late-term abortions, was isolated from all the nestlings of both kestrel species in one of the three studied areas, a location with extensive ovine livestock enzootic of this atypical bacteria and where gammapathies were recorded. Serovar and genetic cluster analysis of the kestrel isolates from this area showed serovars A and C and the genetic cluster 1 and were different than those isolated from the other two areas. The serovar I in this area was also isolated from sheep abortions, sheep faeces, sheep stable dust, nest dust of both kestrel species, carrion beetles (Silphidae and Orthoptera. This fact was not observed in other areas. In addition, we found kestrels to be infected by Chlamydia suis and Chlamydia muridarum, the first time these have been detected in birds. Our study evidences a pathogen transmission from ruminants to birds, highlighting the importance of this potential and unexplored mechanism of infection in an ecological context. On the other hand, it is reported a pathogen transmission from livestock to wildlife, revealing new and scarcely investigated anthropogenic threats for wild and endangered species.

  18. Natural Cross Chlamydial Infection between Livestock and Free-Living Bird Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemus, Jesús A.; Fargallo, Juan A.; Vergara, Pablo; Parejo, Deseada; Banda, Eva

    2010-01-01

    The study of cross-species pathogen transmission is essential to understanding the epizootiology and epidemiology of infectious diseases. Avian chlamydiosis is a zoonotic disease whose effects have been mainly investigated in humans, poultry and pet birds. It has been suggested that wild bird species play an important role as reservoirs for this disease. During a comparative health status survey in common (Falco tinnunculus) and lesser (Falco naumanni) kestrel populations in Spain, acute gammapathies were detected. We investigated whether gammapathies were associated with Chlamydiaceae infections. We recorded the prevalence of different Chlamydiaceae species in nestlings of both kestrel species in three different study areas. Chlamydophila psittaci serovar I (or Chlamydophila abortus), an ovine pathogen causing late-term abortions, was isolated from all the nestlings of both kestrel species in one of the three studied areas, a location with extensive ovine livestock enzootic of this atypical bacteria and where gammapathies were recorded. Serovar and genetic cluster analysis of the kestrel isolates from this area showed serovars A and C and the genetic cluster 1 and were different than those isolated from the other two areas. The serovar I in this area was also isolated from sheep abortions, sheep faeces, sheep stable dust, nest dust of both kestrel species, carrion beetles (Silphidae) and Orthoptera. This fact was not observed in other areas. In addition, we found kestrels to be infected by Chlamydia suis and Chlamydia muridarum, the first time these have been detected in birds. Our study evidences a pathogen transmission from ruminants to birds, highlighting the importance of this potential and unexplored mechanism of infection in an ecological context. On the other hand, it is reported a pathogen transmission from livestock to wildlife, revealing new and scarcely investigated anthropogenic threats for wild and endangered species. PMID:20976071

  19. Linking human health and livestock health: a "one-health" platform for integrated analysis of human health, livestock health, and economic welfare in livestock dependent communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S M Thumbi

    Full Text Available For most rural households in sub-Saharan Africa, healthy livestock play a key role in averting the burden associated with zoonotic diseases, and in meeting household nutritional and socio-economic needs. However, there is limited understanding of the complex nutritional, socio-economic, and zoonotic pathways that link livestock health to human health and welfare. Here we describe a platform for integrated human health, animal health and economic welfare analysis designed to address this challenge. We provide baseline epidemiological data on disease syndromes in humans and the animals they keep, and provide examples of relationships between human health, animal health and household socio-economic status.We designed a study to obtain syndromic disease data in animals along with economic and behavioral information for 1500 rural households in Western Kenya already participating in a human syndromic disease surveillance study. Data collection started in February 2013, and each household is visited bi-weekly and data on four human syndromes (fever, jaundice, diarrhea and respiratory illness and nine animal syndromes (death, respiratory, reproductive, musculoskeletal, nervous, urogenital, digestive, udder disorders, and skin disorders in cattle, sheep, goats and chickens are collected. Additionally, data from a comprehensive socio-economic survey is collected every 3 months in each of the study households.Data from the first year of study showed 93% of the households owned at least one form of livestock (55%, 19%, 41% and 88% own cattle, sheep, goats and chickens respectively. Digestive disorders, mainly diarrhea episodes, were the most common syndromes observed in cattle, goats and sheep, accounting for 56% of all livestock syndromes, followed by respiratory illnesses (18%. In humans, respiratory illnesses accounted for 54% of all illnesses reported, followed by acute febrile illnesses (40% and diarrhea illnesses (5%. While controlling for household

  20. The happy Bulgarian family

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    From left to right, last row to first row: Ilka Antcheva, Georgi Antchev, Dimitri Borilkov, Ivana Hristova, Petiu Petev, Peicho Petkov, Borislav Pavlov, Peter Hristov, Mihail Tchijov, Stefan Piperov, Ekaterina Ivanova, Dimitar Kolev, Roumen Tzenov.

  1. Alternatives for Bulgarian forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Päivinen, R.; Nabuurs, G.J.

    2001-01-01

    The European Forest Information Scenario Model (EFISCEN) is an area-based forest matrix model, which is especially suitable for projections of forest resources of large areas under assumptions of total national felling. EFISCEN uses time steps of five years and national forest inventory data. The in

  2. Bulgarian energy strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The creation of a competitive energy market in Bulgaria is one of the top priorities in the government policy. To achieve this goal the following conditions are necessary: normalizing of the energy prices; financial healing; well working regulatory institutions and mechanisms; market rules and structures; appropriate legal framework. The main topics discussed in connection with the new energy strategy are: 1) General energy policy - competitive energetics; private investments and privatization; security of the energy supply, environment, energy efficiency; social protection and guarantees; 2) Sector policy - market regulation; licensing; effective use of the available power facilities; nuclear safety; 3) Gasification; 4) Heating; 5) Coal production. According to the strategy framework documents in the following aspects should be developed: integrated long-term plan 'Energetics-Environment'; price policy; market rules and structures; privatization strategies; healing programmes

  3. Bloody Days [In Bulgarian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Minkov

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available “Bloody Days” is a novel published in 1943 by Tsvetan Minkov (1891 – 1967. This journal version of the book contains four of its chapters. These chapters provide a description of the preparation of the Belogradchik uprising of 1850 – the meeting of the Belogradchik leaders with the Russian Great Duкe Constantine Nikolaevich at Athos monastery; the activity of the Belogradchik conspirators before the uprising; the first national assembly in the winter of 1849 at the Monastery of Rakovitsa.

  4. Bulgarian Trace in Scientix

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanova, Krassimira; Sendova, Evgenia; Chehlarova, Toni

    2015-01-01

    Report published in the Proceedings of the National Conference on "Education and Research in the Information Society", Plovdiv, May, 2015 The paper deals with the Scientix project and its contributions to the establishment of a European network for exchange of ideas, good practices and experience, crucial for the contemporary development of STEM education in inquiry based style. Some events held in Bulgaria in the frames of Scientix are discussed. Options for using the repository ...

  5. Genomic contributions in livestock gene introgression programmes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hospital Frédéric

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The composition of the genome after introgression of a marker gene from a donor to a recipient breed was studied using analytical and simulation methods. Theoretical predictions of proportional genomic contributions, including donor linkage drag, from ancestors used at each generation of crossing after an introgression programme agreed closely with simulated results. The obligate drag, the donor genome surrounding the target locus that cannot be removed by subsequent selection, was also studied. It was shown that the number of backcross generations and the length of the chromosome affected proportional genomic contributions to the carrier chromosomes. Population structure had no significant effect on ancestral contributions and linkage drag but it did have an effect on the obligate drag whereby larger offspring groups resulted in smaller obligate drag. The implications for an introgression programme of the number of backcross generations, the population structure and the carrier chromosome length are discussed. The equations derived describing contributions to the genome from individuals from a given generation provide a framework to predict the genomic composition of a population after the introgression of a favourable donor allele. These ancestral contributions can be assigned a value and therefore allow the prediction of genetic lag.

  6. Estimation of Production Amount of Livestock and Poultry Manure and Environmental Impact Assessment in Guangxi

    OpenAIRE

    Liao, Qing; Huang, Dongliang; Jiang, Zepu; Wei, Guangpo; Liang, Panxia; Wang, Yuning; LI, Yangrui

    2013-01-01

    This study was intended to estimate production of major livestock and poultry manure and contaminant content, and find out current situation of manure pollution, so as to provide reference for pollution control of livestock and poultry breeding industry in Guangxi. Based on the related statistic data in 2010 and the excretion coefficient of different livestock and poultry, the manure and its contaminant production amount of main livestock and poultry in Guangxi were estimated. Then the annual...

  7. Risk assessment and cost-effectiveness of animal health certification methods for livestock export in Somalia

    OpenAIRE

    Knight-Jones, T. J. D.; Njeumi, F.; Elsawalhy, A.; Wabacha, J.; Rushton, J.

    2014-01-01

    Livestock export is vital to the Somali economy. To protect Somali livestock exports from costly import bans used to control the international spread of disease, better certification of livestock health status is required. We performed quantitative risk assessment and cost-effectiveness analysis on different health certification protocols for Somali livestock exports for six transboundary diseases. Examining stock at regional markets alone without port inspection and quarantine was inexpensiv...

  8. The present role and the future of small and medium sized reactors in the Bulgarian electricity generation industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the moment, six PWR units WWER type are in operation in the Bulgarian electric grid, located in Kozloduy NPP. All of these units operate in the basic load diagram. There are four reactors of 440 MWel and 2 reactors of 1000 MWel. During the last ten years the total demand of power in the national grid varies between 3500 MW during the summer and 7500 MW in the winter. For certain periods the capacity even of a single reactor WWER-440 has exceeded more than 10% the total system demand. This fact has imposed some restrictions on reactor operation, but the reactors nevertheless operate in the load diagram basis. More often these restrictions are in form of operation at reduced power. For WWER-440 reactors this means operation at 50-55% (with one turbine). This fact leads to some negative consequences as for example unbalanced fuel burning and increased core peaking factors. Another sensitive problem for the plant is the case when due to technical specification operational limits and conditions violation one unit has to be shutdown and put in a cooldown condition for a period of time for different reasons (forced outage, maintenance,etc.). In some cases, this is not desirable for the grid dispatchers due to lack of redundant generating capacities. As far as Kozloduy NPP is concerned, since April 2000 it has been separated from the National Electric Company (NEC) as a stand-alone electricity generating company, it suffers some penalties applied by NEC, based on the contract for purchase of the electricity between NEC and the plant. The scheduled modernizations of the units will lead to some extensions of the outages, which will force NEC to put into operation less profitable power plants in the country. In order to cope with the problems of the grid frequency regulations and the backup of the power generation capacity of the biggest unit in the national grid, which is WWER-1000 MW, a pumping accumulation hydrostation with capacity 840 MW in turbine mode was

  9. Supporting Mongolian pastoralists by using GIS to identify grazing limitations and opportunities from livestock census and remote sensing data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Michael Schultz; James, Robert; Adiyasuren, Ts.;

    1999-01-01

    Mongolian pastoralists, GIS, grazing limitations, livestock census, remote sensing, range management......Mongolian pastoralists, GIS, grazing limitations, livestock census, remote sensing, range management...

  10. No evidence of association between 118A>G OPRM1 polymorphism and heroin dependence in a large Bulgarian case-control sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolov, Momchil A; Beltcheva, Olga; Galabova, Antoaneta; Ljubenova, Anna; Jankova, Elena; Gergov, Galin; Russev, Atanas A; Lynskey, Michael T; Nelson, Elliot C; Nesheva, Eleonora; Krasteva, Dorita; Lazarov, Philip; Mitev, Vanio I; Kremensky, Ivo M; Kaneva, Radka P; Todorov, Alexandre A

    2011-08-01

    The μ-opioid receptor is the primary site of action of most opioids. The 118A>G (rs1799971) polymorphism in exon 1 of the μ-opioid receptor gene (OPRM1) leads to an Asn40Asp amino acid change that affects a putative N-glycosylation site. It has been widely investigated for association with alcohol and drug dependence and pain sensitivity, with mixed results. The aim of the current study was to examine whether this polymorphism was associated with heroin dependence in a large Bulgarian cohort of 1842 active users and 1451 population controls. SNP genotyping was done using Real-Time PCR TaqMan technology. Association analyses were conducted, separately for Roma and non-Roma participants. Our results suggest that there is no direct effect of 118A>G genotype on the risk for heroin dependence among active heroin users.

  11. Molecular epidemiology and antibiotic susceptibility of livestock Brucella melitensis isolates from Naryn Oblast, Kyrgyzstan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joldoshbek Kasymbekov

    Full Text Available The incidence of human brucellosis in Kyrgyzstan has been increasing in the last years and was identified as a priority disease needing most urgent control measures in the livestock population. The latest species identification of Brucella isolates in Kyrgyzstan was carried out in the 1960s and investigated the circulation of Brucella abortus, B. melitensis, B. ovis, and B. suis. However, supporting data and documentation of that experience are lacking. Therefore, typing of Brucella spp. and identification of the most important host species are necessary for the understanding of the main transmission routes and to adopt an effective brucellosis control policy in Kyrgyzstan. Overall, 17 B. melitensis strains from aborted fetuses of sheep and cattle isolated in the province of Naryn were studied. All strains were susceptible to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, gentamicin, rifampin, ofloxacin, streptomycin, doxycycline, and ciprofloxacin. Multilocus variable number tandem repeat analysis showed low genetic diversity. Kyrgyz strains seem to be genetically associated with the Eastern Mediterranean group of the Brucella global phylogeny. We identified and confirmed transmission of B. melitensis to cattle and a close genetic relationship between B. melitensis strains isolated from sheep sharing the same pasture.

  12. Comparing environmental impacts for livestock products: A review of life cycle assessments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de M.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Livestock production has a major impact on the environment. Choosing a more environmentally-friendly livestock product in a diet can mitigate environmental impact. The objective of this research was to compare assessments of the environmental impact of livestock products. Twenty-five peer-reviewed s

  13. LivestockPlus: Forages, sustainable intensification, and food security in the tropics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rudel, T.K.; Paul, B.K.; White, D.

    2015-01-01

    The increased use of grain-based feed for livestock during the last two decades has contributed, along with other factors, to a rise in grain prices that has reduced human food security. This circumstance argues for feeding more forages to livestock, particularly in the tropics where many livestock

  14. Analyses of Livestock Production, Waste Storage, and Pathogen Levels and Prevalences in Farm Manures

    OpenAIRE

    Hutchison, M. L.; Walters, L. D.; Avery, S. M.; Munro, F.; Moore, A

    2005-01-01

    Survey results describing the levels and prevalences of zoonotic agents in 1,549 livestock waste samples were analyzed for significance with livestock husbandry and farm waste management practices. Statistical analyses of survey data showed that livestock groups containing calves of

  15. Countering the livestock-targeted bioterrorism threat and responding with an animal health safeguarding system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, J-Y; Lee, J-H; Park, J-Y; Cho, Y S; Cho, I-S

    2013-08-01

    Attacks against livestock and poultry using biological agents constitute a subtype of agroterrorism. These attacks are defined as the intentional introduction of an animal infectious disease to strike fear in people, damage a nation's economy and/or threaten social stability. Livestock bioterrorism is considered attractive to terrorists because biological agents for use against livestock or poultry are more readily available and difficult to monitor than biological agents for use against humans. In addition, an attack on animal husbandry can have enormous economic consequences, even without human casualties. Animal husbandry is vulnerable to livestock-targeted bioterrorism because it is nearly impossible to secure all livestock animals, and compared with humans, livestock are less well-guarded targets. Furthermore, anti-livestock biological weapons are relatively easy to employ, and a significant effect can be produced with only a small amount of infectious material. The livestock sector is presently very vulnerable to bioterrorism as a result of large-scale husbandry methods and weaknesses in the systems used to detect disease outbreaks, which could aggravate the consequences of livestock-targeted bioterrorism. Thus, terrorism against livestock and poultry cannot be thought of as either a 'low-probability' or 'low-consequence' incident. This review provides an overview of methods to prevent livestock-targeted bioterrorism and respond to terrorism involving the deliberate introduction of a pathogen-targeting livestock and poultry.

  16. Increased respiratory symptoms in COPD patients living in the vicinity of livestock farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borlée, Floor; Yzermans, C Joris; van Dijk, Christel E; Heederik, Dick; Smit, Lidwien A M

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have investigated the effect of livestock farm emissions on the respiratory health of local residents, but results are inconsistent. This study aims to explore associations between the presence of livestock farms and respiratory health in an area of high-density livestock farming in

  17. Love and death of cattle : the paradox in Suri attitudes toward livestock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbink, J.

    2003-01-01

    Livestock herding peoples are known for their close involvement with their animals, valuing them in multiple ways. This paper addresses the issue of the nature of emotional and moral commitment to livestock animals, particularly cattle, among a group of livestock herders in southwest Ethiopia, the S

  18. 25 CFR 168.15 - Control of livestock diseases and parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Control of livestock diseases and parasites. 168.15... REGULATIONS FOR THE HOPI PARTITIONED LANDS AREA § 168.15 Control of livestock diseases and parasites. Whenever... parasites or have been exposed thereto, such livestock must be treated and the movement thereof...

  19. 25 CFR 700.723 - Control of livestock disease and parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Control of livestock disease and parasites. 700.723... RELOCATION PROCEDURES New Lands Grazing § 700.723 Control of livestock disease and parasites. Whenever livestock within the New Lands become infected with contagious or infectious disease or parasites or...

  20. The concentrations of phthalates in settled dust in Bulgarian homes in relation to building characteristic and cleaning habits in the family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolarik, Barbara; Bornehag, Carl-Gustaf; Naydenov, Kiril; Sundell, Jan; Stavova, Petra; Nielsen, Ole Faurskov

    Phthalate esters are chemical compounds with a broad range of applications. Recently, we have shown that significantly higher dust concentration of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) was found in Bulgarian homes of children with asthma or allergies compared to healthy children. The concentration of DEHP was found to be significantly associated with wheezing in the last 12 months as reported by parents. The objective of the current study was to examine the associations between concentrations of phthalates in settled dust collected in Bulgarian homes and building characteristics and cleaning habits. Dust samples from the child's bedroom were collected in 177 homes and analysed for the content of dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), butyl benzyl phthalate (BBzP), di- n-octyl phthalate (DnOP) and DEHP. Information on building characteristics and family habits were collected from parental reports in questionnaires and from inspectors' observations in the homes. Significantly higher concentrations of BBzP, DEHP and DnOP in indoor dust were found in homes where polishing agents were used, compared to homes where such products were not used. The highest concentrations of DEHP, BBzP and DnOP were found in homes with the combination of a low frequency of dusting and the use of polish. There was no difference in phthalate concentrations between inspector-observed balatum flooring (PVC or linoleum) and wood flooring as well as between PVC, as determined by Raman spectra, and wood flooring. However, in a sub-group of homes with no use of polish, the concentration of DEHP was higher in homes with inspector-observed balatum compared with wood flooring but the difference was not significant may be due to a too small sample size.

  1. Objectives, criteria and methods for using molecular genetic data in priority setting for conservation of animal genetic resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boettcher, P J; Tixier-Boichard, M; Toro, M A; Simianer, H; Eding, H; Gandini, G; Joost, S; Garcia, D; Colli, L; Ajmone-Marsan, P

    2010-05-01

    The genetic diversity of the world's livestock populations is decreasing, both within and across breeds. A wide variety of factors has contributed to the loss, replacement or genetic dilution of many local breeds. Genetic variability within the more common commercial breeds has been greatly decreased by selectively intense breeding programmes. Conservation of livestock genetic variability is thus important, especially when considering possible future changes in production environments. The world has more than 7500 livestock breeds and conservation of all of them is not feasible. Therefore, prioritization is needed. The objective of this article is to review the state of the art in approaches for prioritization of breeds for conservation, particularly those approaches that consider molecular genetic information, and to identify any shortcomings that may restrict their application. The Weitzman method was among the first and most well-known approaches for utilization of molecular genetic information in conservation prioritization. This approach balances diversity and extinction probability to yield an objective measure of conservation potential. However, this approach was designed for decision making across species and measures diversity as distinctiveness. For livestock, prioritization will most commonly be performed among breeds within species, so alternatives that measure diversity as co-ancestry (i.e. also within-breed variability) have been proposed. Although these methods are technically sound, their application has generally been limited to research studies; most existing conservation programmes have effectively primarily based decisions on extinction risk. The development of user-friendly software incorporating these approaches may increase their rate of utilization. PMID:20500756

  2. Oxidizable carbon and humic substances in rotation systems with brachiaria/livestock and pearl millet/no livestock in the Brazilian Cerrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Loss

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The crop-livestock integration system significantly increases the carbon content in chemical fractions of soil organic matter (SOM. This study aimed to evaluate chemical indicators of SOM attributes for sites under brachiaria/livestock and pearl millet/no livestock in Goias, Brazil. A third area covered with natural Cerrado vegetation (Cerradão served as reference. Soil was randomly sampled at 0-5, 5-10, 10-20 and 20-40 cm. Total organic carbon stocks (TOC, oxidizable carbon fractions (OCF (F1>F2>F3>F4, carbon content in the humin (C-HUM, humic acid (C-HAF and fulvic acid (C-FAF fractions were evaluated. F1/F4, F1+F2/F3+F4, C-HAF/C-FAF and (C-HAF+C-FAF/C-HUM indices were calculated, as well as stocks chemical SOM fractions. Brachiaria/livestock produced greater TOC stocks than pearl millet/no livestock (0-5, 5-10 and 10-20 cm. In terms of OCF, brachiaria/livestock generally exhibited higher levels in F1, F2, F4 and F1/F4 than pearl millet/no livestock. C-HUM (0-10 cm and C-HAF (0-20 cm stocks were larger in brachiaria/livestock than pearl millet/no livestock. Compared to the Cerradão, brachiaria/livestock locations displayed higher values for TOC (5-10 and 10-20 cm, C-HAF and C-HAF/C-FAF (5-10 cm stocks. TOC, C-HAF stock and OCF show that land management with brachiaria/livestock was more efficient in increasing SOM than pearl millet/no livestock. Moreover, when compared with pearl millet/no livestock, brachiaria/livestock provided a more balanced distribution of very labile (F1 and recalcitrant (F4 carbon throughout soil layers, greater SOM humification. Brachiaria/livestock leads to higher values of F1 and F4 in depth when compared to pearl millet/livestock and provides a more homogeneous distribution of C-FAF and C-HAF in depth compared to Cerradão.

  3. The Economic Impact of Global Warming on Livestock Husbandry in Kenya: A Ricardian Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabubo-Mariara, Jane (School of Economics, Univ. of Nairobi, Nairobi (Kenya))

    2008-07-01

    This paper examines the economic impact of climate change on livestock production in Kenya. We estimate a Ricardian model of net livestock incomes and further estimate the marginal impacts of climate change. We also simulate the impact of different climate scenarios on livestock incomes. The results show that livestock production in Kenya is highly sensitive to climate change and that there is a non-linear relationship between climate change and livestock productivity. The results further suggest possible gains from rising temperatures; losses from increased precipitation, but gains in net revenues resulting from a combined effect of rising temperatures and increased precipitation

  4. Importance of information and communication technology tools among livestock farmers: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.R. Meena

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural extension services in most of the developing countries including India are usually designed around crop husbandry, while public sector initiatives towards animal husbandry are often dominated by animal breeding and health services (Morton and Matthewman 1996.ICT has been used in abroad widely for the study and improvement of various aspects of livestock production, research and education. Mainly the ICT is playing a greater role in livestock disease control, dairy herd management, livestock production and for marketing of livestock and livestock produce.

  5. Implicit prices of traits of indigenous cattle - Implications for sustainable livestock production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Both revealed and stated preference approaches were employed to determine the values attached to the different features of indigenous cattle in central Ethiopia. For the revealed preference analysis a hedonic model was employed to examine the determinants of cattle prices in the primary rural markets of central Ethiopia. Transaction level data of cattle farmers and farmer-traders were used in the analyses. Data collected in rural markets to identify cattle price determinants result in estimates with standard errors that are mostly heteroscedastic. We employed SHM estimations to account for heteroscedastic errors. The empirical estimation of revealed preferences showed that market place, seasonal differences, sex and function based classification of cattle, body size, and age were very important factors influencing the market prices cattle sellers receive. The significance of the characteristics of animals in influencing prices paid for the animals reveals the importance of the preferences for traits in the decision-making process related to buying and selling of cattle. These preferences at the farmers and farmer-traders levels are the ones that matter most in shaping up the diversity of animals kept at farm level. This diversity of the cattle genetic resources is essential for generating or identifying best-suited breeds of cattle in the context of the livelihood objectives of the target community. Thus, the cattle breeding strategies and activities should duly consider the preferences expressed through the prices paid for animals in such markets, where the cattle keepers are the main sellers and buyers. For the stated preference analysis the study employed choice experiments (CE) and random parameters logit to elicit and analyze cattle trait preferences of buyers in the semi-subsistence livelihood systems of rural central Ethiopia. The results of the cows CE revealed that in areas where livestock serve multitude of purposes and where the production and

  6. Characterization of enterococci populations in livestock manure using BIOLOG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Alexandria; Weaver, R W; Entry, James

    2009-01-01

    The BIOLOG system was used to generate knowledge of enterococci populations found in fresh and dry manure of livestock (cattle (Bos taurus), horse (Equus caballus), and sheep (Ovis aires)). Six-hundred and forty Enterococcus isolates from the host sources were observed as a combined fresh manure unit and a combined dry manure unit, E. casseliflavus and E. mundtii were predominant in fresh manure (36% and 35%, respectively) as well as in dry manure (51% and 28%, respectively). The other species were found at a frequency of less than 10%. A chi-square test of the two most predominant Enterococcus sp. indicated that there were some significant differences among the frequency of E. casseliflavus and E. mundtii in cattle and sheep, but not horse. Despite these differences, these two species were overwhelmingly predominant among all three livestock sources.

  7. Solar thermal application for the livestock industry in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Mei Liu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Solar water heating systems have proven reliable and economical. In Taiwan, the cumulative area of installed solar collectors at the end of 2014 was approximately 2.39 million m2 and approximately 98% of those systems were installed in the domestic sector. Preheating water for livestock processing plants is cost-effective since heated water can be used for evisceration, sanitation during processing and for daily cleanup of plant. In this case study, detailed measurements are reported for parallel combined solar thermal and heat pump systems that are installed in a livestock processing plant. These results confirm that the hot water consumption, the mass flow rate and the operation of circulation and heat pumps affect the system's thermal efficiency. The combined operational effect is a factor in system design. The estimated payback period is less than the expected service period of the system, which validates the financial viability.

  8. Livestock farmer perceptions of successful collaborative arrangements for manure exchange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asai, Masayasu; Langer, Vibeke; Frederiksen, Pia;

    2014-01-01

    for the manure received. Despite the potential for improved efficiency of manure use, few studies have examined livestock farmers’ perceptions of coordinated arrangements with recipient farms and factors in successful arrangements. A total of 644 manure exporters were asked about factors they consider important...... concerned about the characteristics of the partner with respect to his/her professional skills and business expertise. Social aspects, e.g. previous knowledge of the partner, were perceived as more important by older than by younger farmers, while this aspects appeared to be less important for farmers...... with large business units as their primary aim of making agreements seems to comply with the regulations. These findings are applicable in intensive livestock production areas in other European countries....

  9. Management options to reduce the carbon footprint of livestock products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermansen, John Erik; Kristensen, Troels

    2011-01-01

    Livestock products carry a large carbon footprint compared with other foods, and thus there is a need to focus on how to reduce it. The major contributing factors are emissions related to feed use and manure handling as well as the nature of the land required to produce the feed in question. We can....... Basically, it is important to make sure that all beneficial interactions in the livestock system are optimized instead of focusing only on animal productivity. There is an urgent need to arrive at a sound framework for considering the interaction between land use and carbon footprints of foods....... conclude that the most important mitigation options include - better feed conversion at the system level, - use of feeds that increase soil carbon sequestration versus carbon emission, - ensure that the manure produced substitutes for synthetic fertilizer, and - use manure for bio-energy production...

  10. Fatigue: a major cause of commercial livestock truck accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Woods

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The author outlines the principles underlying the standards employed by the Australian Marine Safety Authority to regulate live animal carriers, vessels used for sea transport of livestock, that operate from Australia. The standards are contained in regulations adopted by the Australian Maritime Safety Authority known as Marine Orders. The Cargo and Cargo Handling — Livestock Marine Order has evolved over time with subsequent ‘issues’ of the order as a consequence of operational experience and specific research. Recent changes have focused on the need to have adequate redundancy in systems and equipment of ships. A history of the development of these regulations is given and is followed by a description of the principles employed to develop the provisions contained in the regulations.

  11. Modeling and Control of Livestock Ventilation Systems and Indoor Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Zhuang; Heiselberg, Per; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2005-01-01

    constraints and random disturbances is designed through system linearization. The well designed control systems are able to determine the demand ventilation rate and airflow pattern, improve and optimize the indoor Thermal Comfort (TC), Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) and energy use.......The hybrid ventilation systems have been widely used for livestock barns to provide optimum indoor climate by controlling the ventilation rate and air flow distribution within the ventilated building structure. The purpose of this paper is to develop models for livestock ventilation systems...... and indoor environments with a major emphasis on the prediction of indoor horizontal variation of temperature and concentration adapted to the design of appropriate controlling strategy and control systems. The Linear Quadratic (LQ) optimal control method taking into account of the effect of necessary...

  12. LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION PLANNING UNDER ENVIRONMENTAL RISKS AND UNCERTAINTIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Günther FISCHER; Tatiana ERMOLIEVA; Yuri ERMOLIEV; Harrij van VELTHUIZEN

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we demonstrate the need for risk-adjusted approaches to planning expansion of livestock production. In particular, we illustrate that under exposure to risk, a portfolio of producers is needed where more efficient producers co-exist and cooperate with less efficient ones given that the latter are associated with lower, uncorrelated or even negatively correlated contingencies. This raises important issues of cooperation and risk sharing among diverse producers.For large-scale practical allocation problems when information on the contingencies may be disperse, not analytically tractable, or be available on aggregate levels, we propose a downscaling procedure based on behavioral principles utilizing spatial risk preference structure. It allows for estimation of production allocation at required resolutions accounting for location specific risks and suitability constraints. The approach provides a tool for harmonization of data from various spatial levels. We applied the method in a case study of livestock production allocation in China to 2030.

  13. CFD Modeling of Airflow in a Livestock Building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rong, Li; Elhadidi, B.; Khalifa, H. E.;

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a 2D simulation for a typical livestock building is performed to assess the ammonia emission removal rate to the atmosphere. Two geometry models are used and compared in order to represent the slatted floor. In the first model the floor is modeled as a slatted floor and in the second...... model the traditional porous media is used. The results show that the porous floor modeling over predicts the ammonia emission by a factor of 2 compared to the slatted floor modeling. The results also show different velocity distribution under slatted floor. This suggests that modeling the slatted floor...... the accuracy of the porous jump assumption by comparing the velocity, and ammonia concentration in a 2D simulation, heated solid bodies are added to represent the livestock in the following simulations. The results of simulations with heat source also indicate that modeling the slatted floor with slats...

  14. Evolution of livestock farming systems and landscape changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Ramanzin

    Full Text Available In the last fifty years, the rural landscape of vast areas, historically modelled by livestock farming, has experienced radical changes. The marginalisation of traditional farming systems resulted in a shift towards intensive systems in the more favourable areas, and in the abandoning of farming in the less favourable areas. Consequences of these trends are numerous: intensification and abandoning concurred in determining the disappearance of traditional architectural styles and in disrupting the historical links between local landscape, way of farming, and variety of products; intensification of farming caused local excesses of nutrients releases and/or land degradation; abandoning has permitted an extensive natural reforestation, which in turn has greatly modified the aesthetic value and biodiversity richness of landscape. Research for a sustainable “livestock farming landscape” will need the ability to integrate a systemic and geographic description of the interactions of farming systems with landscape quality and biodiversity with the definition of consequent technologies and farm management options.

  15. Reducing the Livestock related green house gases emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Indira

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Cattle rearing generate more global warming green house gases than driving cars. These green house gases leads to changes in the climate. This climate change affects the livestock, man and natural environment continuously. For this reason it is important for livestock farmers to find the ways which minimize these gases emission. In this article the causes of climate change and effects, measures to be taken by farmers and their efficiency in reducing green house gases emission were reviewed briefly to make the farmers and students aware of the reduction of global warming green house gases and measures to be taken for reducing these gases. [Vet. World 2012; 5(4.000: 244-247

  16. Application study of developmental engineering for livestock production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushijima, Hitoshi

    2005-02-01

    This paper describes several technical improvements in developmental engineering for livestock production, including their practical utility in the field. The artificial production of monozygotic twins via embryo splitting is shown to increase embryo productivity, while embryo sexing capability provides added value without compromising offspring productivity, with both techniques being adequate for practical field applications. It is also shown that: (1) the development of nuclear transfer utilizing oocytes collected from slaughtered ovaries and matured in vitro enables producing a large number of cloned embryos, (2) the intracytoplasmic injection of somatic cell improves the productivity of nuclear transplantation, and (3) the injection of sperm increases the rate of normal oocytes with male and female pronuclei allowing further preimplantation development. Finally, the removal of cytoplasmic lipid droplets from embryos following centrifugation alters an embryo's intrinsic sensitivity to low temperature allowing long-term preservation. Collectively, these techniques have clearly provided improvements in developmental engineering for livestock production.

  17. A BIOPHYSIOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF SETTLED LIVESTOCK AND POULTRY HOUSING DUSTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carresse Gerald

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The levels and composition of agricultural dusts are influenced by animal species, production strategy, housing type and ventilation efficiency. Agricultural dust within animal houses is complex and consists of feed particles, microbes and their products, dander, fecal matter, gases, metals and other organic and inorganic components. Livestock and poultry production facilities may be categorized as confinement, semi-confinement or pasture-based. Characterization of animal husbandry building dust will provide insight into understanding exposures experienced by animals, workers and farm visitors. The goal was to characterize biophysiochemical features of livestock dusts from swine, small ruminant, equine, poultry and cattle husbandry units. Settled dust samples were collected from livestock and poultry housing units at the University Farm and other livestock farms across the state. Morphological features were determined by electron microscopy and gravimetry. Biochemical evaluation consisted of pH determination and trace metal detection via mass spectrometry. Biological assessment centered on bacterial characterization via selective media, DNA analysis and endotoxin quantitation. Morphological analyses revealed higher levels of respirable and thoracic particles in poultry, swine, small ruminant and equine units compared to the dairy unit (p<0.01. Dusts were slightly acidic with the exception of the NCAT small ruminant unit (p<0.05. Dust endotoxin levels were consistent and bacterial species detected include Listeria and Escherichia coli. These findings suggest animal husbandry buildings harbor higher levels of smaller respirable and thoracic dust particles compared to inhalable particles. This information may be helpful in understanding dust exposures experienced by animals, farmers and agricultural workers.

  18. Mixed grazing systems benefit both upland biodiversity and livestock production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariecia D Fraser

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: With world food demand expected to double by 2050, identifying farming systems that benefit both agricultural production and biodiversity is a fundamentally important challenge for the 21(st century, but this has to be achieved in a sustainable way. Livestock grazing management directly influences both economic outputs and biodiversity on upland farms while contributing to potentially damaging greenhouse gas emissions, yet no study has attempted to address these impacts simultaneously. METHODS: Using a replicated, landscape-scale field experiment consisting of five management 'systems' we tested the effects of progressively altering elements within an upland farming system, viz i incorporating cattle grazing into an upland sheep system, ii integrating grazing of semi-natural rough grazing into a mixed grazing system based on improved pasture, iii altering the stocking ratio within a mixed grazing system, and iv replacing modern crossbred cattle with a traditional breed. We quantified the impacts on livestock productivity and numbers of birds and butterflies over four years. RESULTS CONCLUSION AND SIGNIFICANCE: We found that management systems incorporating mixed grazing with cattle improve livestock productivity and reduce methane emissions relative to sheep only systems. Systems that also included semi-natural rough grazing consistently supported more species of birds and butterflies, and it was possible to incorporate bouts of summer grazing of these pastures by cattle to meet habitat management prescriptions without compromising cattle performance overall. We found no evidence that the system incorporating a cattle breed popular as a conservation grazer was any better for bird and butterfly species richness than those based on a mainstream breed, yet methane emissions from such a system were predicted to be higher. We have demonstrated that mixed upland grazing systems not only improve livestock production, but also benefit

  19. Contributions of livestock holdings to the environment objectives improvement

    OpenAIRE

    Chetroiu, Rodica; Iurchevici, Lidia

    2014-01-01

    The complexity of the relations between agriculture and environment has created the need to introduce environmental issues into the CAP. The principle of good agricultural practices is essential to understand this relation between agriculture and environment. Environmental measures in agriculture aim at the animal farm activity takes place in accordance with the recommended technologies and livestock waste management in conditions of minimum impact on the environment factors. In this paper, i...

  20. GROWTH INHIBITION OF FUSARIUM SP. IN LIVESTOCK FEED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella Kanižai Šarić

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Contamination with phytopathogenic forms of Fusarium, besides field crops, may also occur in stored products. Addition of antifungal substances to stored livestock feed is therefore common. This paper examined the effectiveness of a mixture of synthetic and natural antioxidants against the growth of Fusarium graminearum and F. verticillioides in a concentrate mixture. The most effective inhibition of growth was achieved with a mixture of butylated hydroxyanisole, propyl paraben and thymol.

  1. Risk based culling for highly infectious diseases of livestock

    OpenAIRE

    te Beest Dennis E; Hagenaars Thomas J; Stegeman J; Koopmans Marion PG; van Boven Michiel

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The control of highly infectious diseases of livestock such as classical swine fever, foot-and-mouth disease, and avian influenza is fraught with ethical, economic, and public health dilemmas. Attempts to control outbreaks of these pathogens rely on massive culling of infected farms, and farms deemed to be at risk of infection. Conventional approaches usually involve the preventive culling of all farms within a certain radius of an infected farm. Here we propose a novel culling strat...

  2. A systems approach for assessing sustainability in livestock farms

    OpenAIRE

    Kristensen, E.S.; Halberg, N.

    1997-01-01

    The concept of sustainability is widely used in agriculture. There i, however, a large variability in the interpretation of the meaning of sustainability. The broad understanding in conjunction with the complexity of livestock farming calls for a systems approach. In this paper different interpretation of sustainable agriculture id described and discussed. It is concluded that sustainable agriculture has a major normative dimension and obviously has different meanings for different groups ...

  3. A BIOPHYSIOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF SETTLED LIVESTOCK AND POULTRY HOUSING DUSTS

    OpenAIRE

    Carresse Gerald; Christi McPherson; Tha’Mes McDaniel; Zhigang Xu; Bryce Holmes; Leonard Williams; Niki Whitley; Jenora Turner Waterman

    2014-01-01

    The levels and composition of agricultural dusts are influenced by animal species, production strategy, housing type and ventilation efficiency. Agricultural dust within animal houses is complex and consists of feed particles, microbes and their products, dander, fecal matter, gases, metals and other organic and inorganic components. Livestock and poultry production facilities may be categorized as confinement, semi-confinement or pasture-based. Characterization of animal husbandry building d...

  4. Simulation of Livestock Breeding Economics in Conditions of the EU

    OpenAIRE

    Foltyn, Ivan; Kopecek, Petr

    2005-01-01

    In the paper there are described mathematical principles of biological, technological and economic model relations and connections in animal breeding on which the mathematical model AGRO-ZV is based. With the model it is possible to simulate impacts of the agricultural policy on livestock breeding economics and commodity economics in dependence on different agricultural policy variants. In the article there is illustrated a usage of the model for simulation of dairy cattle economics before (2...

  5. Residual N effects from livestock manure inputs to soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Jaap; Bechini, Luca; Bittman, Shabtai;

    Organic inputs including livestock manures provide nitrogen (N) to crops beyond the year of their application. This so-called residual N effect should be taken into account when making decisions on N rates for individual fields, but also when interpreting N response trials in preparation...... of recommendations. This paper addresses general principles of residual N effects, gives literature-based estimates of them, and reviews to which extent residual N effects are included in ecommendations and regulations in selected countries....

  6. Lessons from the flood: will Floyd change livestock farming?

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, C W

    2000-01-01

    When Hurricane Floyd struck eastern North Carolina in September 1999, as many as 50 waste lagoons, many of them several acres in size, were inundated by flood waters. Five lagoons breached, and waterborne animal waste produced nutrient pollution and raised the potential for exposure to pathogens and the risk of disease. As the state recovers, a common question being asked is whether state livestock regulations, particularly regarding facility siting and waste management methods, will be revis...

  7. Nitrates in drinking water: relation with intensive livestock production

    OpenAIRE

    GIAMMARINO, M.; Quatto, P

    2015-01-01

    Summary Introduction. An excess of nitrates causes environmental pollution in receiving water bodies and health risk for human, if contaminated water is source of drinking water. The directive 91/676/ CEE [1] aims to reduce the nitrogen pressure in Europe from agriculture sources and identifies the livestock population as one of the predominant sources of surplus of nutrients that could be released in water and air. Directive is concerned about cattle, sheep, pigs and poultry and their territ...

  8. Do organic livestock farms in Switzerland earn higher work incomes?

    OpenAIRE

    Lips, Dr. Markus

    2008-01-01

    In order to analyse the influence of organic farming on work income per standard working day, a multiple regression is carried out for Swiss farms engaged in livestock production, using farm accounts as a data basis. The work income of organic farms is CHF 24 (20%) higher per standard working day than that of farms participating in the “Proof of Ecological Performance” programme.

  9. Probiotic, a tool in livestock and aquaculture production

    OpenAIRE

    Edgar Alberto López-Acevedo; Gabriel Aguirre-Guzmán; María de la Luz Vázquez-Sauceda

    2013-01-01

    The probiotics are products based on different microorganism strains, those products have evolved from a just simple mixture of active bacteria to products with specific properties of adherence, colonization, synergies, antibacterial activity, etc. Probiotic products for livestock and aquaculture production are designed with strains developed to operate under specific conditions and which need to be understood and taken into account by the producers because different results can be observed d...

  10. Livestock poisoning from oil field drilling fluids, muds and additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, W C; Gregory, D G

    1991-10-01

    The use and potential toxicity of various components of oil well drilling fluids, muds and additives are presented. Many components are extremely caustic resulting in rumenitis. Solvent and petroleum hydrocarbon components may cause aspiration pneumonia and rumen dysfunction. Some additives cause methemoglobinemia. The most frequently encountered heavy metals are lead, chromium, arsenic, lithium and copper. Considerations for investigating livestock poisoning cases and several typical cases are reviewed.

  11. Livestock Subsidies and Rangeland Degradation in Central Crete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Hostert

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Marginal and unstable environmental conditions force stockbreeders in drylands to develop adaptive strategies to ensure stability of production. In intensive market-oriented pastoral systems, the partial substitution of rangeland forage production by external feed increases the influence of commodity prices in stockbreeders’ decisions, which become increasingly decoupled from environmental constraints. In Mediterranean countries of the European Union (EU, Common Agricultural Policy (CAP subsidies also influence agricultural practices, potentially increasing environmental impacts. By modeling subsidy allocation to sheep and goat breeders in Crete, we showed that livestock subsidies for Less Favoured Areas (LFA stimulated flock growth up to a point. By linking interviews of farmers to remote-sensing data in four village communities in central Crete, we tested statistically alternative hypotheses explaining the links between CAP subsidies, livestock-husbandry practices, and land degradation at the farm level. The flock growth stimulated by livestock subsidies was accompanied by the intensification of herd management, and decreasing yields and profits, with no statistical association to vegetation degradation. Farms with larger flocks became more sensitive to market fluctuations.

  12. Economic losses occurring due to brucellosis in Indian livestock populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, B B; Dhand, N K; Gill, J P S

    2015-05-01

    Brucellosis is a serious public health issue in India. Estimation of economic losses occurring due to brucellosis is required to help formulate prevention and control strategies, but has not been done in India. We estimated economic losses due to brucellosis by sourcing prevalence data from epidemiological surveys conducted in India. Data for livestock populations were obtained from official records. Probability distributions were used for many of the input parameters to account for uncertainty and variability. The analysis revealed that brucellosis in livestock is responsible for a median loss of US $ 3.4 billion (5th-95th percentile 2.8-4.2 billion). The disease in cattle and buffalo accounted for 95.6% of the total losses occurring due to brucellosis in livestock populations. The disease is responsible for a loss of US $ 6.8 per cattle, US$18.2 per buffalo, US $ 0.7 per sheep, US $ 0.5 per goat and US $ 0.6 per pig. These losses are additional to the economic and social consequences of the disease in humans. The results suggest that the disease causes significant economic losses in the country and should be controlled on a priority basis.

  13. Selenium Nanoparticles for Stress-Resilient Fish and Livestock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Biplab; Bhattacharjee, Surajit; Daware, Akshay; Tribedi, Prosun; Krishnani, K. K.; Minhas, P. S.

    2015-09-01

    The fisheries and livestock sectors capture the highest share of protein-rich animal food and demonstrate accelerated growth as an agriculture subsidiary. Environmental pollution, climate change, as well as pathogenic invasions exert increasing stress impacts that lead the productivity momentum at a crossroads. Oxidative stress is the most common form of stress phenomenon responsible for the retardation of productivity in fisheries and livestock. Essential micronutrients play a determinant role in combating oxidative stress. Selenium, one of the essential micronutrients, appears as a potent antioxidant with reduced toxicity in its nanoscale form. In the present review, different methods of synthesis and characterization of nanoscale selenium have been discussed. The functional characterization of nano-selenium in terms of its effect on growth patterns, feed digestibility, and reproductive system has been discussed to elucidate the mechanism of action. Moreover, its anti-carcinogenic and antioxidant potentiality, antimicrobial and immunomodulatory efficacy, and fatty acid reduction in liver have been deciphered as the new phenomena of nano-selenium application. Biologically synthesized nano-selenium raises hope for pharmacologically enriched, naturally stable nanoscale selenium with high ecological viability. Hence, nano-selenium can be administered with commercial feeds for improvising stress resilience and productivity of fish and livestock.

  14. Exogenous enzymes upgrade transgenesis and genetic engineering of farm animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Pablo; Forcato, Diego O; Alustiza, Fabrisio E; Alessio, Ana P; Fili, Alejandro E; Olmos Nicotra, María F; Liaudat, Ana C; Rodríguez, Nancy; Talluri, Thirumala R; Kues, Wilfried A

    2015-05-01

    Transgenic farm animals are attractive alternative mammalian models to rodents for the study of developmental, genetic, reproductive and disease-related biological questions, as well for the production of recombinant proteins, or the assessment of xenotransplants for human patients. Until recently, the ability to generate transgenic farm animals relied on methods of passive transgenesis. In recent years, significant improvements have been made to introduce and apply active techniques of transgenesis and genetic engineering in these species. These new approaches dramatically enhance the ease and speed with which livestock species can be genetically modified, and allow to performing precise genetic modifications. This paper provides a synopsis of enzyme-mediated genetic engineering in livestock species covering the early attempts employing naturally occurring DNA-modifying proteins to recent approaches working with tailored enzymatic systems.

  15. Biosecurity risks associated with current identification practices of producers trading live pigs at livestock sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Jover, M; Schembri, N; Toribio, J-A L M L; Holyoake, P K

    2008-11-01

    Approximately 5% of pigs produced in Australia is believed to be traded at livestock sales. Interviews and focus group discussions were conducted with producers (106 and 30 producers, respectively), who traded pigs at livestock sales. The purpose of the study was to gather information on how producers identified their pigs in order to evaluate how these practices may impact the ability to trace pig movements in the event of an emergency animal disease outbreak or food safety hazard. Results were analyzed according to herd size (0 to 150 sows, 150+ sows) and location (peri-urban, regional) as prior studies suggested a higher biosecurity risk among smaller farms and due to perceptions that peri-urban farms pose additional risk. Most producers (91.5%) had less than 150 sows and a high proportion (70.8%) resided in regional areas compared with only 29.2% residing in peri-urban areas. A higher proportion of large-scale producers identified their pigs than small-scale producers. A third of small-scale producers reported not identifying breeding stock and most did not identify progeny. The most common forms of on-farm identification used were ear tags for breeding stock and ear notches for progeny. Producers identified breeding stock to assist with mating management and genetic improvement. Ear notches were used to determine the litter of origin of progeny. All large-scale producers owned a registered swine brand and used the official body tattoo for post-farm-gate identification. However, approximately 15% of small-scale producers did not own a registered swine brand, and an additional 8% did not identify their pigs post-farm-gate. Producers were satisfied with tattoos as a methodology for post-farm-gate identification of pigs and considered other methodologies cost-prohibitive. However, variations in the maintenance of the branding equipment, the type of ink used and the time of tattoo application in relation to the animal sale were highlighted during focus group

  16. Biosecurity risks associated with current identification practices of producers trading live pigs at livestock sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Jover, M; Schembri, N; Toribio, J-A L M L; Holyoake, P K

    2008-11-01

    Approximately 5% of pigs produced in Australia is believed to be traded at livestock sales. Interviews and focus group discussions were conducted with producers (106 and 30 producers, respectively), who traded pigs at livestock sales. The purpose of the study was to gather information on how producers identified their pigs in order to evaluate how these practices may impact the ability to trace pig movements in the event of an emergency animal disease outbreak or food safety hazard. Results were analyzed according to herd size (0 to 150 sows, 150+ sows) and location (peri-urban, regional) as prior studies suggested a higher biosecurity risk among smaller farms and due to perceptions that peri-urban farms pose additional risk. Most producers (91.5%) had less than 150 sows and a high proportion (70.8%) resided in regional areas compared with only 29.2% residing in peri-urban areas. A higher proportion of large-scale producers identified their pigs than small-scale producers. A third of small-scale producers reported not identifying breeding stock and most did not identify progeny. The most common forms of on-farm identification used were ear tags for breeding stock and ear notches for progeny. Producers identified breeding stock to assist with mating management and genetic improvement. Ear notches were used to determine the litter of origin of progeny. All large-scale producers owned a registered swine brand and used the official body tattoo for post-farm-gate identification. However, approximately 15% of small-scale producers did not own a registered swine brand, and an additional 8% did not identify their pigs post-farm-gate. Producers were satisfied with tattoos as a methodology for post-farm-gate identification of pigs and considered other methodologies cost-prohibitive. However, variations in the maintenance of the branding equipment, the type of ink used and the time of tattoo application in relation to the animal sale were highlighted during focus group

  17. Attitudes of livestock farmers and sensitivity of livestock farming systems to drought conditions in the French Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Dobremez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Livestock farming systems in the French Alps are particularly exposed to the predicted climate change and most of them have already experienced periods of drought since the beginning of the 2000s. Faced with this risk, livestock farmers have put in place a certain number of measures and envisage introducing others in the future. For the present study, surveys were conducted among livestock farmers to identify these measures and analyses were carried out to characterise the attitudes of livestock farmers to drought conditions and to evaluate changes in the sensitivity of their livestock farming systems. With the exception of those farms with extensive irrigated areas, all the farms are seeking solutions to deal with the risks arising from droughts. One solution is to purchase fodder to compensate for the decrease in the harvests that normally provide animal feed in the winter; the amounts purchased vary with the length of wintering required. For the grazing periods, the high mountain livestock breeders and the dairy systems of the Northern Alps rely above all on extending and over-sizing the pasture areas in relation to the needs of the herds. The livestock farms of the Southern Alps also rely on the diversity of vegetation areas and a certain flexibility in the practices used to adapt to conditions experienced during the year. A succession of dry years could result in more radical breakdowns in the livestock systems. It should also be remembered that climate change is only one of the factors influencing the types of changes taking place on farms.Les systèmes d'élevage des Alpes françaises sont fortement exposés au changement climatique annoncé et la plupart subissent déjà des épisodes de sécheresse depuis le début des années 2000. Face à ces aléas, les éleveurs ont mis en œuvre un certain nombre de leviers et envisagent d'en activer d'autres à l'avenir. Des enquêtes en exploitation ont permis d’identifier ces leviers. Leur

  18. Livestock Predation by Puma ( Puma concolor) in the Highlands of a Southeastern Brazilian Atlantic Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmeira, Francesca Belem Lopes; Trinca, Cristiano Trapé; Haddad, Claudio Maluf

    2015-10-01

    We evaluated local opinion about reducing livestock losses to puma ( Puma concolor) and the potential for conflict among livestock breeders inside a protected area in the highlands of a southeastern Brazilian Atlantic forest. We also quantified the number and type of livestock losses, and determined if predation by puma was correlated with property profile and landscape characteristics. We conducted semistructured interviews with 42 livestock breeders sampled in 36 rural properties. When asked how to reduce predation, 33 % of livestock breeders refused to answer, 26 % suggested improving livestock husbandry practices, 19 % stated that there was no appropriate action, 17 % favored removing the "problem" individual, and 5 % suggested killing the puma. Opinion on how to solve predation was independent of herd size and history of losses, and was correlated with respondent age class. Older respondents tended to suggest removing or killing pumas. Attitudes toward predation represented high potential for conflict among livestock breeders who demonstrated high discordance among responses. Horses were the most common prey (51 %), followed by cattle (28 %), sheep (17 %), and goats (4 %); totaling 47 animals attacked between 2004 and 2007. Annual predation was approximately 12 ± 5 animals, equivalent to 0.4 % of the total livestock. Property elevation and distance from the urban center were the main predictors of predation probability. This survey used a novel approach that has not been addressed directly in other studies on livestock predation and demonstrated that the high potential for conflict among livestock breeders should be considered before implementing management actions.

  19. The Global Livestock Impact Mapping System (GLIMS as a tool for animal health applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Franceschini

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent concerns expressed by various national and international organisations about global livestock sector development and its consequences on the environment and on human and animal health suggest the need to reinforce efforts to monitor and collect more accurate and detailed statistics on livestock. Modern technologies for the organisation, analysis, dissemination and presentation of data and results enhance the contribution that these statistics can make towards the planning of efficient and sustainable animal production and health interventions. To this end, the Food and Agriculture Organization Animal Production and Health Division (FAO-AGA has developed the Global Livestock Impact Mapping System (GLIMS. GLIMS provides a repository for sub-national data pertaining to the livestock sector and produces and distributes, through various channels and formats, a number of global public products, namely: the Gridded Livestock of the World (GLW, mapping the spatial distribution of the main livestock species, the Global Livestock Production and Health Atlas (GLiPHA, disseminating sub-national geo-referenced statistics, and the AGA Livestock Sector Briefs, which are concise national reports on the livestock sector. These products have a variety of applications. The authors focus attention on applications in the field of animal health, both to increase knowledge of the occurrence of livestock diseases and to assess their impact.

  20. Livestock Predation by Puma (Puma concolor) in the Highlands of a Southeastern Brazilian Atlantic Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmeira, Francesca Belem Lopes; Trinca, Cristiano Trapé; Haddad, Claudio Maluf

    2015-10-01

    We evaluated local opinion about reducing livestock losses to puma (Puma concolor) and the potential for conflict among livestock breeders inside a protected area in the highlands of a southeastern Brazilian Atlantic forest. We also quantified the number and type of livestock losses, and determined if predation by puma was correlated with property profile and landscape characteristics. We conducted semistructured interviews with 42 livestock breeders sampled in 36 rural properties. When asked how to reduce predation, 33% of livestock breeders refused to answer, 26% suggested improving livestock husbandry practices, 19% stated that there was no appropriate action, 17% favored removing the "problem" individual, and 5 % suggested killing the puma. Opinion on how to solve predation was independent of herd size and history of losses, and was correlated with respondent age class. Older respondents tended to suggest removing or killing pumas. Attitudes toward predation represented high potential for conflict among livestock breeders who demonstrated high discordance among responses. Horses were the most common prey (51%), followed by cattle (28%), sheep (17%), and goats (4%); totaling 47 animals attacked between 2004 and 2007. Annual predation was approximately 12 ± 5 animals, equivalent to 0.4% of the total livestock. Property elevation and distance from the urban center were the main predictors of predation probability. This survey used a novel approach that has not been addressed directly in other studies on livestock predation and demonstrated that the high potential for conflict among livestock breeders should be considered before implementing management actions. PMID:26092051

  1. Controlling malaria using livestock-based interventions: a one health approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana O Franco

    Full Text Available Where malaria is transmitted by zoophilic vectors, two types of malaria control strategies have been proposed based on animals: using livestock to divert vector biting from people (zooprophylaxis or as baits to attract vectors to insecticide sources (insecticide-treated livestock. Opposing findings have been obtained on malaria zooprophylaxis, and despite the success of an insecticide-treated livestock trial in Pakistan, where malaria vectors are highly zoophilic, its effectiveness is yet to be formally tested in Africa where vectors are more anthropophilic. This study aims to clarify the different effects of livestock on malaria and to understand under what circumstances livestock-based interventions could play a role in malaria control programmes. This was explored by developing a mathematical model and combining it with data from Pakistan and Ethiopia. Consistent with previous work, a zooprophylactic effect of untreated livestock is predicted in two situations: if vector population density does not increase with livestock introduction, or if livestock numbers and availability to vectors are sufficiently high such that the increase in vector density is counteracted by the diversion of bites from humans to animals. Although, as expected, insecticide-treatment of livestock is predicted to be more beneficial in settings with highly zoophilic vectors, like South Asia, we find that the intervention could also considerably decrease malaria transmission in regions with more anthropophilic vectors, like Anopheles arabiensis in Africa, under specific circumstances: high treatment coverage of the livestock population, using a product with stronger or longer lasting insecticidal effect than in the Pakistan trial, and with small (ideally null repellency effect, or if increasing the attractiveness of treated livestock to malaria vectors. The results suggest these are the most appropriate conditions for field testing insecticide-treated livestock in an

  2. Comparative screening of single nucleotide polymorphisms in β-casein and κ-casein gene in different livestock breeds of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Lakshya Veer; Jayakumar, S; Sharma, Anurodh; Gupta, Shishir Kumar; Dixit, S P; Gupta, Neelam; Gupta, S C

    2015-06-01

    The most polymorphic milk protein gene is β-casein; 13 protein variants are known in cattle. Milk protein genetic polymorphism has received considerable research interest in recent years because of possible associations between milk protein and economically important traits in livestock. The present study was undertaken to explore the genetic polymorphisms in exon 7 of β-casein and exon 4 of κ-casein genes in Arunachali yaks (Bos grunniens), Sahiwal (Bos indicus) cattle, malpura sheep (Ovis aries) and Gaddi goat (Capra hircus). Results of the study revealed presence of 11 SNP variants in all livestock species. Four SNPs were observed in Bos indicus; two SNPs in Bos grunniens; three SNPs in Ovis aries and three SNPs in Capra hircus. These variations are found to be synonymous in nature as these variations do not result in their corresponding amino acids. A total of five polymorphic sites have been described at the κ-casein (CSN3) locus in the Indian domestic Gaddi goat (Capra hircus) when compared with exotic goat (X60763) while sequence analysis of κ-casein gene in sheep showed three novel nucleotide changes in malpura sheep when compared with the exotic sheep (AY237637). These results highlight the importance of taking into consideration the CSN3 SNPs when performing selection for milk composition in dairy livestock breeds.

  3. Climate change impacts and adaptations on small-scale livestock production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taruvinga, A.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper estimated the impacts of climate change and adaptations on small-scale livestock production. The study is based on a survey of 1484 small-scale livestock rural farmers across the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. Regression estimates finds that with warming, the probability of choosing the following species increases; goats, dual purpose chicken (DPC, layers, donkeys and ducks. High precipitation increases the probability of choosing the following animals; beef, goats, DPC and donkeys. Further, socio-economic estimates indicate that livestock selection choices are also conditioned by gender, age, marital status, education and household size. The paper therefore concluded that as climate changes, rural farmers switch their livestock combinations as a coping strategy. Unfortunately, rural farmers face a limited preferred livestock selection pool that is combatable to harsh climate which might translate to a bleak future for rural livestock farmers.

  4. LivestockPlus: Forages, sustainable intensification, and food security in the tropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudel, Thomas K; Paul, Birthe; White, Douglas; Rao, I M; Van Der Hoek, Rein; Castro, Aracely; Boval, Maryline; Lerner, Amy; Schneider, Laura; Peters, Michael

    2015-11-01

    The increased use of grain-based feed for livestock during the last two decades has contributed, along with other factors, to a rise in grain prices that has reduced human food security. This circumstance argues for feeding more forages to livestock, particularly in the tropics where many livestock are reared on small farms. Efforts to accomplish this end, referred to as the 'LivestockPlus' approach, intensify in sustainable ways the management of grasses, shrubs, trees, and animals. By decoupling the human food and livestock feed systems, these efforts would increase the resilience of the global food system. Effective LivestockPlus approaches take one of two forms: (1) simple improvements such as new forage varieties and animal management practices that spread from farmer to farmer by word of mouth, or (2) complex sets of new practices that integrate forage production more closely into farms' other agricultural activities and agro-ecologies.

  5. [Genetics and genetic counseling].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izzi, Claudia; Liut, Francesca; Dallera, Nadia; Mazza, Cinzia; Magistroni, Riccardo; Savoldi, Gianfranco; Scolari, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease (ADPKD) is the most frequent genetic disease, characterized by progressive development of bilateral renal cysts. Two causative genes have been identified: PKD1 and PKD2. ADPKD phenotype is highly variable. Typically, ADPKD is an adult onset disease. However, occasionally, ADPKD manifests as very early onset disease. The phenotypic variability of ADPKD can be explained at three genetic levels: genic, allelic and gene modifier effects. Recent advances in molecular screening for PKD gene mutations and the introduction of the new next generation sequencing (NGS)- based genotyping approach have generated considerable improvement regarding the knowledge of genetic basis of ADPKD. The purpose of this article is to provide a comprehensive review of the genetics of ADPKD, focusing on new insights in genotype-phenotype correlation and exploring novel clinical approach to genetic testing. Evaluation of these new genetic information requires a multidisciplinary approach involving a nephrologist and a clinical geneticist. PMID:27067213

  6. Maintaining ecosystem services through continued livestock production on California rangelands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, S.; Becchetti, T.

    2015-12-01

    Nearly 40% of California is rangeland comprising the largest land type in California and providing forage for livestock, primarily beef cattle. In addition to forage, rangelands provide a host of ecosystem systems services, including habitat for common and endangered species, fire fuels management, pollination services, clean water, viewsheds, and carbon sequestration. Published research has documented that most of these ecosystem services are positively impacted by managed livestock grazing and rancher stewardship. Ranchers typically do not receive any monetary reimbursement for their stewardship in providing these ecosystem services to the public. Markets have been difficult to establish with limited ability to adequately monitor and measure services provided. At the same time, rangelands have been experiencing rapid conversion to urbanization and more profitable and intensive forms of agriculture such as almond and walnut orchards. To prevent further conversion of rangelands and the loss of the services they provide, there needs to be a mechanism to identify and compensate landowners for the value of all products and services being received from rangelands. This paper considers two methods (opportunity cost and avoided cost) to determine the value of Payment for Ecosystem Services (PES) for rangelands. PES can raise the value of rangelands, making them more competitive financially. Real estate values and University of California Cooperative Extension Cost Studies, were used to demonstrate the difference in value (lost opportunity cost) between the primary products of rangelands (livestock production) and the products of the converted rangelands (almond and walnut orchards). Avoided costs for vegetation management and habitat creation and maintenance were used to establish the value of managed grazing. If conversion is to be slowed or stopped and managed grazing promoted to protect the ecosystem services rangelands provide, this value could be compensated through

  7. Feral livestock threatens landscapes dominated by columnar cacti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malo, J. E.; Acebes, P.; Giannoni, S. M.; Traba, J.

    2011-05-01

    The introduction and naturalization of alien species represents a serious threat to many natural protected areas. One such case of worldwide concern is the impact of feral livestock on arid ecosystems. Damage suffered by Echinopsis (= Trichocereus) terscheckii dominating the landscape of rocky slopes was surveyed in seven locations within the Ischigualasto-Talampaya World Heritage Site (Argentina) by measuring the frequency, position on the plant and extent of damage. At the same time we employed transects to estimate the abundance of autochtonous and feral large herbivores ( Lama guanicoe, Bos taurus, Equus asinus) from their dung. Our results show relatively high damage levels (40-77% of individuals damaged, more than 5 dm 3 removed by plant in some sites), particularly within 0.50-1.75 m above the ground, showing herbivores to be the main responsible for them. We also found significant differences between sites in variables measuring damage level and in the intensity of use by the two feral livestock species but not by guanacos. The frequency of damaged cacti below 1.75 m (but not above) was significantly positively correlated among locations with the frequencies of cattle and donkey dung, and the damage suffered by individual cacti was also correlated with donkey and cattle dung in their surroundings after correcting for spatial effects. However, all correlations were non-significant in the case of guanacos. We conclude that the continued presence of feral livestock, particularly donkeys, leads to damages to columnar cacti with potential effects on their populations and the physiognomy of this protected landscape.

  8. A longitudinal study on enteropathogenic infections of livestock in Trinidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adesiyun A.A.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A longitudinal study was conducted on selected livestock farms to determine the prevalence of enteropathogens in diarrhoeic and non-diarrhoeic animals. The enteropathogens assayed from faecal samples and rectal swabs were bacteria (Escherichia coli, Campylobacter spp. Salmonella spp. and Yersinia enterocolitica, parasites (coccidia, gastrointestinal nematodes and Cryptosporidium spp. and viruses (group A rotavirus and parvovirus. The prevalence of the enteropathogens in various animal species was related to age and month of the year. Generally, younger animals presented a higher prevalence of infection by enteropathogens than older animals while most infections occurred between the months of January and April.

  9. Numerical Prediction of Buoyant Air Flow in Livestock Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svidt, Kjeld

    not include the effect of room geometry, obstacles or heat sources. This paper describes the use of Computational Fluid Dynamics to predict air flow patterns and temperature distribution in a ventilated space. Good agreement is found when results of numerical predictions are compared with experimental data.......In modern livestock buildings air distribution and air quality are important parameters to animal welfare and to the health of full-tithe employees in animal production. Traditional methods for calculating air distribution in farm buildings are mainly based on formulas for air jets which do...

  10. CFD Simulation of Air Velocity Distribution in Occupied Livestock Buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Svidt, Kjeld; Zhang, G.; Bjerg, B.

    1998-01-01

    In modem livestock buildings the design of the ventilation systems is important in order to obtain good air distribution. The use of Computational Fluid Dynamics for predicting the air flow and air quality makes it possible to include the effect of room geometry, equipment and occupants in the design of ventilation systems. However, it is not appropriate to include the detailed geometry of a large group of lying or standing animals affecting the air flow in the building.It is necessary to hav...

  11. Model Predictive Control of the Hybrid Ventilation for Livestock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Zhuang; Stoustrup, Jakob; Trangbæk, Klaus;

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, design and simulation results of Model Predictive Control (MPC) strategy for livestock hybrid ventilation systems and associated indoor climate through variable valve openings and exhaust fans are presented. The design is based on thermal comfort parameters for poultry in barns...... and performing off-set free tracking. The purpose of this paper is to apply MPC taking into account of the random disturbances from animals and weather condition to calculate the optimal ventilation rate and air flow distribution and the prediction of indoor horizontal variation of temperature through an optimum...... energy approach....

  12. Organic livestock production in Uganda: potentials, challenges and prospects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nalubwama, Sylvia Muwanga; Mugisha, Anthony; Vaarst, Mette

    2011-01-01

    development in Uganda has focused more on the crop sector than livestock sector and has primarily involved the private sector, like organic products export companies and non-governmental organizations. Agriculture in Uganda and many African countries is predominantly traditional, less mechanized...... to the current low-input/low-output systems. Traditional farming should not be confused with organic farming because in some cases, the existing traditional practices have consequences like overstocking and less attention to soil improvement as well as to animal health and welfare, which is contrary to organic...

  13. Quantifying livestock responses for heat stress management: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nienaber, J. A.; Hahn, G. L.; Eigenberg, R. A.

    Hot weather challenges livestock production but technology exists to offset the challenge if producers have made appropriate strategic decisions. Key issues include understanding the hazards of heat stress, being prepared to offer relief from the heat, recognizing when an animal is in danger, and taking appropriate action. This paper describes our efforts to develop biological response functions; assesses climatic probabilities and performs associated risk analyses; provides inputs for computer models used to make environmental management decisions; and evaluates threshold temperatures as estimates of critical temperature limits for swine, cattle and sheep.

  14. Impact of livestock-associated MRSA in a hospital setting

    OpenAIRE

    van de Sande-Bruinsma, Nienke; Leverstein van Hall, Maurine A; Janssen, Maria; Nagtzaam, Nynke; Leenders, Sander; Sabine C de Greeff; Schneeberger, Peter M

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The Netherlands is known for a stringent search and destroy policy to prevent spread of MRSA. In the hospital setting, livestock-associated MRSA (LA-MRSA) is frequently found in patients coming from the high density farming area in the south of the Netherlands. The aim of the study was to determine the contribution of LA-MRSA in the epidemiology of MRSA in cases found following the Dutch search and destroy policy. Patients and methods From two hospitals serving a population of 550,...

  15. Time, costs and farmers’ perceptions: The case of livestock service delivery in tamilnadu

    OpenAIRE

    G kathiravan; M. Thirunavukkarasu1 and S. Selvam

    2011-01-01

    A study was undertaken in southern peninsular State of India, the Tamil Nadu State, (i) to ascertain the time costs of animal health care and bovine breeding services, and (ii) to comprehend the perceptions of farmers on the livestock services rendered by different service providers. The districts of the state were categorized as 'Livestock Developed' (LD) and 'Livestock Under Developed' (LUD) based on initial base line developed. Travel, waiting and service time were among the primary non-pr...

  16. Activities and Effects of Ergot Alkaloids on Livestock Physiology and Production

    OpenAIRE

    Klotz, James L.

    2015-01-01

    Consumption of feedstuffs contaminated with ergot alkaloids has a broad impact on many different physiological mechanisms that alters the homeostasis of livestock. This change in homeostasis causes an increased sensitivity in livestock to perturbations in the ambient environment, resulting in an increased sensitivity to such stressors. This ultimately results in large financial losses in the form of production losses to livestock producers around the world. This review will focus on the under...

  17. Cross-Sector Relationships Between the Corn Feed Grains and Livestock and Poultry Economies

    OpenAIRE

    Marsh, John M.

    2007-01-01

    A systems econometric model of the livestock (beef and pork), poultry (broiler), and corn sectors was estimated to evaluate cross-sector relationships. The equilibrium multipliers and comparative statics indicate unequal cross-effect of market disturbances, e.g., shocks in the livestock and poultry markets impact corn demand and supply more than shocks in the corn market impact livestock and poultry demands and supplies. Recent 2003 mad cow disease (BSE) problems in Canada and the United Stat...

  18. Livestock in a changing climate: production system transitions as an adaptation strategy for agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    I. Weindl; Lotze-Campen, H.; Popp, A; C. Müller; Havlik, P.; Herrero, M.; Schmitz, C; S. Rolinski

    2015-01-01

    Livestock farming is the world's largest land use sector and utilizes around 60% of the global biomass harvest. Over the coming decades, climate change will affect the natural resource base of livestock production, especially the productivity of rangeland and feed crops. Based on a comprehensive impact modeling chain, we assess implications of different climate projections for agricultural production costs and land use change and explore the effectiveness of livestock system transitions a...

  19. Needs Assessment for Promoting Livestock and Equine Safety for Diné Youth

    OpenAIRE

    Shumway, Karah L

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the research was a formative assessment of Diné (Navajo) parents and community leaders' needs for a training program for the prevention of livestock injuries including those that are horse-related. The research objectives were to identify parents' perceived livestock and horse related injury risks to Diné children and describe Diné community stake holder input on prevention interventions for reducing injury risks to children associated with livestock and horse-related activitie...

  20. Pathways Into and Out of Poverty and the Role of Livestock in the Peruvian Andes

    OpenAIRE

    Kristjanson, Patricia; Krishna, Anirudh; Radeny, Maren; Kuan, Judith

    2006-01-01

    In many rural areas, livestock are a critical asset for poor households, acting as a bank account, insurance policy and a source of income. Research methods leading to a better understanding of the role of livestock in household poverty dynamics are scarce, however, and are needed for better formulation of targeted pro-poor policies and interventions in regions where livestock are a key element of rural livelihood strategies. We utilized multiple methods, including Stages of Progress and hous...

  1. Livestock, the Environment and Sustainable Development with Illustrations of Issues from Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Tisdell, Clem; Harrison, Steve

    1995-01-01

    There has been mounting environmental criticism of the livestock industry. Ruminants such as cattle have been implicated as significant contributors to greenhouse gases and it is argued that it is less food efficient to feed plant matter to livestock rather than have humans consume it directly. Furthermore, in many cases, livestock destroy natural vegetation and cause accelerated soil erosion as a result of overstocking often for socio-economic reasons. In other cases, such as in the Amazon r...

  2. A COMPARISON OF NUTRIENT APPLICATION TRENDS ON LIVESTOCK FARMS IN CORN AND COTTON GROWING REGIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Nehring, Richard F.; Christensen, Lee A.; O'Donoghue, Erik J.; Sandretto, Carmen L.

    2004-01-01

    Recent trends in livestock concentration suggest that there may be an increasing risk of water pollution from manure applications. These trends in livestock operations may be offsetting improvements in commercial fertilizer management that have the potential to reduce the risk of water pollution. This conclusion was derived by tracking excess nutrient trends between 1996 and 2002 and by examining measures of economic performance for livestock farms. First, a link was established between the e...

  3. A Methodological Approach to Evaluate Livestock Innovations on Small-Scale Farms in Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Antón García-Martínez; José Rivas-Rangel; Jaime Rangel-Quintos; José Antonio Espinosa; Cecilio Barba; Carmen de-Pablos-Heredero

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was deepening the knowledge of livestock innovations knowledge on small-scale farms in developing countries. First, we developed a methodology focused on identifying potential appropriate livestock innovations for smallholders and grouped them in innovation areas, defined as a set of well-organized practices with a business purpose. Finally, a process management program (PMP) was evaluated according to the livestock innovation level and viability of the small-scale farms....

  4. Property rights, risk, and livestock development in Africa: Issues and a project approach

    OpenAIRE

    Swallow, B M; McCarthy, N

    2000-01-01

    Metadata only record In 1996, the International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI), the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI), and the Institute for Rural Development at the University of Goettingen began a research project aimed at providing information to improve the efficiency, equity, and environmental sustainability of livestock production and land use in Sub-Saharan Africa. The project focused on semi-arid areas where mobile livestock-production and mixed crop-livesto...

  5. Activities and Effects of Ergot Alkaloids on Livestock Physiology and Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James L. Klotz

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Consumption of feedstuffs contaminated with ergot alkaloids has a broad impact on many different physiological mechanisms that alters the homeostasis of livestock. This change in homeostasis causes an increased sensitivity in livestock to perturbations in the ambient environment, resulting in an increased sensitivity to such stressors. This ultimately results in large financial losses in the form of production losses to livestock producers around the world. This review will focus on the underlying physiological mechanisms that are affected by ergot alkaloids that lead to decreases in livestock production.

  6. Activities and Effects of Ergot Alkaloids on Livestock Physiology and Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klotz, James L

    2015-08-01

    Consumption of feedstuffs contaminated with ergot alkaloids has a broad impact on many different physiological mechanisms that alters the homeostasis of livestock. This change in homeostasis causes an increased sensitivity in livestock to perturbations in the ambient environment, resulting in an increased sensitivity to such stressors. This ultimately results in large financial losses in the form of production losses to livestock producers around the world. This review will focus on the underlying physiological mechanisms that are affected by ergot alkaloids that lead to decreases in livestock production. PMID:26226000

  7. Towards a system for sea state forecasts in the Bulgarian Black Sea coastal zone: the case of the storm of 07-08 february 2012

    CERN Document Server

    Galabov, Vasko; Dimitrova, Marieta

    2012-01-01

    The paper describes the existing operational sea state forecast system of NIMH- BAS for sea state in the Black Sea and our current progress on the implementation of an additional component for the forecasts of wind waves in the Bulgarian coastal zone. Wind Waves and especially the extreme ones, occurring during severe storms are a major hazard for the coastal zone, causing significant damages to the infrastructure, threat for the human lives and also causing significant damages to the protected areas around the coast. The numerical model WAVEWATCH III is in use for wind waves forecasts for the entire Black Sea with horizontal resolution of 1/8 degree (roughly 14 kilometers), which is sufficient for the open Sea, but not enough for a detailed coastal forecast. For the purposes of the coastal forecasts and early warnings in case of severe storms we decided to implement SWAN (Simulating the Waves Near Shore)- development of TU- DELFT. In this paper we will describe the brief details about the coastal sea state f...

  8. New Genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home > Science Education > The New Genetics The New Genetics Living Laboratories Classroom Poster Order a Free Copy ... Piece to a Century-Old Evolutionary Puzzle Computing Genetics Model Organisms RNA Interference The New Genetics is ...

  9. Integrated Parasite Management for Livestock - Alternative control methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souvik Paul1

    Full Text Available Internal parasites are considered by some to be one of the most economically important constraints in raising livestock. The growing concern about the resistance of internal parasites to all classes of dewormers has caused people to look for alternatives. As dewormers lose their effectiveness, the livestock community fears increasing economic losses from worms. There is no one thing that can be given or done to replace chemical dewormers. It will take a combination of extremely good management techniques and possibly some alternative therapies. It is not wise to think that one can just stop deworming animals with chemical dewormers. It is something one will need to change gradually, observing and testing animals and soil, in order to monitor the progress. Alternative parasite control is an area that is receiving a lot of interest and attention. Programs and research will continue in the pursuit of parasite control, using alternative and more management-intensive methods. [Veterinary World 2010; 3(9.000: 431-435

  10. Multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis of sheep livestock prices in origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavón-Domínguez, P.; Serrano, S.; Jiménez-Hornero, F. J.; Jiménez-Hornero, J. E.; Gutiérrez de Ravé, E.; Ariza-Villaverde, A. B.

    2013-10-01

    The multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA) is used to verify whether or not the returns of time series of prices paid to farmers in original markets can be described by the multifractal approach. By way of example, 5 weekly time series of prices of different breeds, slaughter weight and market differentiation from 2000 to 2012 are analyzed. Results obtained from the multifractal parameters and multifractal spectra show that the price series of livestock products are of a multifractal nature. The Hurst exponent shows that these time series are stationary signals, some of which exhibit long memory (Merino milk-fed in Seville and Segureña paschal in Jaen), short memory (Merino paschal in Cordoba and Segureña milk-fed in Jaen) or even are close to an uncorrelated signals (Merino paschal in Seville). MF-DFA is able to discern the different underlying dynamics that play an important role in different types of sheep livestock markets, such as degree and source of multifractality. In addition, the main source of multifractality of these time series is due to the broadness of the probability function, instead of the long-range correlation properties between small and large fluctuations, which play a clearly secondary role.

  11. Perspectives of Livestock Farmers in an Urbanized Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel Paniagua

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture and its conflicts is a traditional debate in contemporary rural geography, associated with the organization and transformation of cultural landscapes by social groups. One of the most important areas of research is the perspectives and responses of farmers on the urban-rural fringe. The problems associated with land use change and the varying influences on new uses of traditional landscape introduce renovating and permanent elements to the management, responses and perspectives of farmers: extensification, changes in the organization of farm, relocation, etc. The purpose of this research is to analyze the conflicts, key responses and perspectives over farmland uses and their coexistence with the main dynamics of local and regional land use governance in the metropolitan rural area of Madrid, Spain. This contribution presents the main results of an empirical research in a key area in the north of the Madrid region: the municipalities of Colmenar Viejo and Tres Cantos. The methodology is mainly qualitative, based on an ethno geographical approach concerning livestock farmers directly affected by the urbanization process. The main results reflect the relevance of local politics and the individual livestock farmers’ strategies.

  12. Potency Of Clitoria Ternatea As Forage For Livestock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endang Sutedi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Availability of forage is one of the factors determining the success of ruminant livestock production, especially during drought that resulting in poor livestock condition. Forage legume is an important group of forage plants, containing high nutritive value. One of the legume plants which potential as ruminant feed is Clitoria ternatea. This plant can grow well in all types of soil and dry conditions, also produces seed continously. The production of forage was 25-29 ton DM/ha with seed production was 2.2 ton DM/ha per harvest (42 day cutting interval. The crude protein and crude fiber contents of C. ternatea leaf were 21.5 and 29%, respectively. Meanwhile, the crude protein, crude fat and sugar contents of C. ternatea seed were 25-38,10 and 5%, respectively. This plant can be fed to ruminant as fresh forage or hay with no negative effect on growth performance of animal. The average daily gain of cattle grazing on mixture of Brachiaria mutica grass and C. ternatea was 680 g/day. The value of DM and OM digestibilities of C. ternatea in cattle were 50.15 and 53.47%, respectively. Feeding C. ternatea to dairy cow impoved the content of fat and total solid of milk, meanwhile feeding it to male sheep improved quality of semen.

  13. Genetic diversity of Sardinian goat population based on microsatellites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Carta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last century, the selection for production traits of the main livestock species has led to a reduction in number of local populations with consequent loss of genetic variability. In Sardinia, the genetic improvement strategy has been based on selection for the local pure breed in sheep, whereas in the other species (cattle, swine and goat, an often unplanned crossbreeding with improved breeds has been applied.

  14. Estimation of genetic parameters and genetic trends for weight and body measurements at birth in sheep populations in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    China Supakorn; Winai Pralomkarn; Suwit Anothaisinthawee

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to estimate the genetic parameters and genetic trends for birth weight (BW),heart girth (HG), and body length (BL) at birth of sheep populations in Thailand. Data were collected during 1998 to 2011 fromfour livestock research and testing stations. Fixed effect testing showed that sex, herd, contemporary group and breed groupgreatly influenced on the investigated traits (P

  15. Climate change and broadacre livestock production across southern Australia. 1. Impacts of climate change on pasture and livestock productivity, and on sustainable levels of profitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Andrew D; Ghahramani, Afshin

    2013-05-01

    Broadacre livestock production is a major but highly diverse component of agriculture in Australia that will be significantly exposed to predicted changes in climate over coming decades. We used the GRAZPLAN simulation models to assess the impacts of climate change under the SRES A2 scenario across southern Australia. Climate change impacts were examined across space (25 representative locations) and time (1970-99, 2030, 2050 and 2070 climate) for each of five livestock enterprises. Climate projection uncertainty was considered by analysing projections from four global circulation models (GCMs). Livestock production scenarios were compared at their profit-maximizing stocking rate, constrained to ensure that risks of soil erosion were acceptable. Impacts on net primary productivity (ANPP) varied widely between GCM projections; the average declines from historical climate were 9% in 2030, 7% in 2050 and 14% in 2070. Declines in ANPP were larger at lower-rainfall locations. Sensitivity of ANPP to changes in rainfall ranged from 0.4 to 1.7, to temperature increase from -0.15 to +0.07 °C(-1) and to CO2 increase from 0.11 to 0.32. At most locations the dry summer period lengthened, exacerbating the greater erosion risk due to lower ANPP. Transpiration efficiency of pastures increased by 6-25%, but the proportion of ANPP that could safely be consumed by livestock fell sharply so that operating profit (at constant prices) fell by an average of 27% in 2030, 32% in 2050 and 48% in 2070. This amplification of ANPP reductions into larger profitability declines is likely to generalize to other extensive livestock systems. Profit declines were most marked at drier locations, with operating losses expected at 9 of the 25 locations by 2070. Differences between livestock enterprises were smaller than differences between locations and dates. Future research into climate change impacts on Australian livestock production needs to emphasise the dry margin of the cereal-livestock zone.

  16. Livestock in the rice-based economy of Office du Niger: The development potential for increased crop–livestock integration through multi-actor processes

    OpenAIRE

    Doumbia, D.; Paassen, van, AHC; Oosting, S.J.; Zijpp, van der, A.J.

    2012-01-01

    A diagnostic study of the development potential of livestock for the rice-based economy of the Office du Niger (ON) was conducted in Mali. The functioning of selected farming systems and value chains were studied by means of interviews, surveys and farmer group discussions. The findings show that in the ON rice remains the prime agricultural activity; although half of the farm households own cattle (for capital insurance and draught power), livestock management is troublesome because of a lac...

  17. Pathogenicity and phenotypic sulfadiazine resistance ofToxoplasma gondii isolates obtained from livestock in northeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Claudio BS; Meurer, Ywlliane SR; Andrade, Joelma MA; Costa, Maria ESM; Andrade, Milena MC; Silva, Letícia A; Lanza, Daniel CF; Vítor, Ricardo WA; Andrade-Neto, Valter F

    2016-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is the causative protozoan agent of toxoplasmosis, which is a common infection that is widely distributed worldwide. Studies revealed stronger clonal strains in North America and Europe and genetic diversity in South American strains. Our study aimed to differentiate the pathogenicity and sulfadiazine resistance of three T. gondiiisolates obtained from livestock intended for human consumption. The cytopathic effects of the T. gondii isolates were evaluated. The pathogenicity was determined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) using a CS3 marker and in a rodent model in vivo. Phenotypic sulfadiazine resistance was measured using a kinetic curve of drug activity in Swiss mice. IgM and IgG were measured by ELISA, and the dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS) gene sequence was analysed. The cytopathic effects and the PCR-RFLP profiles from chickens indicated a different infection source. The Ck3 isolate displayed more cytopathic effects in vitro than the Ck2 and ME49 strains. Additionally, the Ck2 isolate induced a differential humoral immune response compared to ME49. The Ck3 and Pg1 isolates, but not the Ck2 isolate, showed sulfadiazine resistance in the sensitivity assay. We did not find any DHPS gene polymorphisms in the mouse samples. These atypical pathogenicity and sulfadiazine resistance profiles were not previously reported and served as a warning to local health authorities. PMID:27276184

  18. Importance of silvopastoral systems on caloric stress reduction in tropical livestock productions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Navas Panadero

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Livestock systems in Colombia have been developed taking concepts and technologies from the green revolution, where gramineous monocrop is privileged over arboreal cover in grazing lands. This model has not taken into account the climatic conditions of the different tropical ecosystems, in which variables as temperature, relative humidity and evaporation can limit the animal´s productive and reproductive efficiency, besides being a risk factor for illness occurrence in the herd. Bos Taurus and Bos Indicus breeds show termoneutral ranges where its genetic potential can be express. However, out of this comfort area animals can enter in caloric stress which in consequence reduces its performance and sometimes can end up causing death. Silvopastoral systems comprise several functions; it contributes to lessen caloric stress since temperature under the tree canopy can reach between 2 and 9°C lower in comparison to open pastures. Differences in temperature reduction have been found among silvopastoral systems and species, being the tree group arrangements and the species with high density canopy, those with superior effect. Interactions among components should be analyzed in order to design systems that incorporate enough arboreal cover to achieve caloric stress reductions, but without affecting forage production in pastures. Silvopastoral systems contribute to improve animal welfare.

  19. Pathogenicity and phenotypic sulfadiazine resistance of Toxoplasma gondii isolates obtained from livestock in northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Claudio Bs; Meurer, Ywlliane Sr; Andrade, Joelma Ma; Costa, Maria Esm; Andrade, Milena Mc; Silva, Letícia A; Lanza, Daniel Cf; Vítor, Ricardo Wa; Andrade-Neto, Valter F

    2016-06-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is the causative protozoan agent of toxoplasmosis, which is a common infection that is widely distributed worldwide. Studies revealed stronger clonal strains in North America and Europe and genetic diversity in South American strains. Our study aimed to differentiate the pathogenicity and sulfadiazine resistance of three T. gondii isolates obtained from livestock intended for human consumption. The cytopathic effects of the T. gondii isolates were evaluated. The pathogenicity was determined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) using a CS3 marker and in a rodent model in vivo. Phenotypic sulfadiazine resistance was measured using a kinetic curve of drug activity in Swiss mice. IgM and IgG were measured by ELISA, and the dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS) gene sequence was analysed. The cytopathic effects and the PCR-RFLP profiles from chickens indicated a different infection source. The Ck3 isolate displayed more cytopathic effects in vitro than the Ck2 and ME49 strains. Additionally, the Ck2 isolate induced a differential humoral immune response compared to ME49. The Ck3 and Pg1 isolates, but not the Ck2 isolate, showed sulfadiazine resistance in the sensitivity assay. We did not find any DHPS gene polymorphisms in the mouse samples. These atypical pathogenicity and sulfadiazine resistance profiles were not previously reported and served as a warning to local health authorities.

  20. Environmental potentials of policy instruments to mitigate nutrient emissions in Chinese livestock production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, C.; Liu, Y.; Bluemling, B.; Mol, A.P.J.; Chen, J.

    2015-01-01

    To minimize negative environmental impact of livestock production, policy-makers face a challenge to design and implement more effective policy instruments for livestock farmers at different scales. This research builds an assessment framework on the basis of an agent-based model, named ANEM, to exp

  1. A Model of Incentive Compatibility under Moral Hazard in Livestock Disease Outbreak Response

    OpenAIRE

    Gramig, Benjamin M.; Horan, Richard D.; Wolf, Christopher A.

    2005-01-01

    This paper uses a principal-agent model to examine incentive compatibility in the presence of information asymmetry between the government and individual producers. Prior models of livestock disease have not incorporated information asymmetry between livestock managers and social planners. By incorporating the asymmetry, we investigate the role of incentives in producer behavior that influences the duration and magnitude of a disease epidemic.

  2. Feed resources, livestock production and soil carbon dynamics in Teghane, Northern Highlands of Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abegaz Yimer, A.; Keulen, van H.; Oosting, S.J.

    2007-01-01

    In the Northern Highlands of Ethiopia, integrated crop-livestock production within smallholder farms is the dominant form of agricultural production. Feed availability and quality are serious constraints to livestock production in Ethiopia in general, and in its Northern Highlands in particular. The

  3. 26 CFR 1.1231-2 - Livestock held for draft, breeding, dairy, or sporting purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Livestock held for draft, breeding, dairy, or... Losses § 1.1231-2 Livestock held for draft, breeding, dairy, or sporting purposes. (a)(1) In the case of..., regardless of age, held by the taxpayer for draft, breeding, dairy, or sporting purposes, and held by him:...

  4. Breeding Livestock. A Unit for Teachers of Vocational Agriculture. Production Agriculture Curriculum Materials Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Bryan, Robert C.

    Designed to provide instructional materials for use by vocational agriculture teachers, this unit on breeding livestock contains materials for use in teaching the importance of breeding, the physiology of livestock breeding, reproductive processes, sire selection, and breeding systems. Lessons on each of these competencies contain the following:…

  5. 9 CFR 201.82 - Care and promptness in weighing and handling livestock and live poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... handling livestock and live poultry. 201.82 Section 201.82 Animals and Animal Products GRAIN INSPECTION... handling livestock and live poultry. (a) Each stockyard owner, market agency, dealer, packer and live poultry dealer shall exercise reasonable care and promptness with respect to loading,...

  6. Farmers Engaged in Deliberative Practice; An Ethnographic Exploration of the Mosaic of Concerns in Livestock Agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, C.P.G.

    2012-01-01

    A plethora of ethical issues in livestock agriculture has emerged to public attention in recent decades, of which environmental and animal welfare concerns are but two, albeit prominent, themes. For livestock agriculture to be considered sustainable, somehow these interconnected themes need to be ad

  7. Habitat shift and time budget of the Tibetan argali: the influence of livestock grazing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Namgail, T.; Fox, J.L.; Bhatnagar, Y.V.

    2007-01-01

    Livestock production is the primary source of livelihood and income in most of the high steppe and alpine regions of the Indian Trans-Himalaya. In some areas, especially those established or proposed for biodiversity conservation, recent increases in populations of domestic livestock, primarily shee

  8. Issues and options in addressing the environmental consequences of the livestock sector's growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerber, P.J.; Vellinga, Th.V.; Steinfeld, H.

    2010-01-01

    The growth of the livestock sector is being achieved at substantial environmental costs. Today, livestock are a major stressor of the global environmental, occupying a quarter of emerged land (including a third of arable land), contributing close to a fifth of the anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissi

  9. Perceptions of Texas 4-H Livestock Ambassadors on Career Development, Higher Education, and Leadership Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanolini, William F.; Rayfield, John; Ripley, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    Selected 4-H youth participated in the Texas 4-H Livestock Ambassador program. Forty-five youth participated in the 3-day program delivered by university professors and staff, Texas AgriLife Extension faculty and industry representatives. An instrument was developed and administered to the Texas 4-H Livestock Ambassadors at the end of their first…

  10. Airborne pariculate matter from livestock production systems: A review of an air pollution problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cambra-Lopez, M.; Aarnink, A.J.A.; Zhao, Y.; Calvet, S.; Torres, A.G.

    2010-01-01

    Livestock housing is an important source of emissions of particulate matter (PM). High concentrations of PM can threaten the environment, as well as the health and welfare of humans and animals. Particulate matter in livestock houses is mainly coarse, primary in origin, and organic; it can adsorb an

  11. Reproductive Biotechnology and Gene Mapping: Tools for Conserving Rare Breeds of Livestock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Approximately 40 livestock species, shaped by a long history of domestication and development, contribute to today’s agriculture and food production. During the past 100 years, however, there has been a net loss of diversity because of an increased rate of extinction of livestock breeds and varieti...

  12. A Web-Based Collaborative System for Remote Monitoring and Analysis of Livestock Farm Odours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, R.; Pan, L. L.; Yang, S. X.

    2009-01-01

    Monitoring and analysis of livestock farm environments require collection and management of large amount of data from distributed farms. There is an increasing demand for collaboration among livestock producers, environment agencies and governments. This paper presents a collaborative system for mon

  13. Roaming livestock distribution, densities and population estimates for St. Eustatius, 2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Debrot, A.O.; Hazenbosch, J.C.J.; Piontek, S.; Kraft, C.; Belle, van J.; Strijkstra, A.

    2015-01-01

    The problem of roaming livestock is a major impediment to agricultural development and nature conservation on St. Eustatius, as it also typically is on other islands in the region. In support of a government-led culling program, we here conducted a baseline study of livestock abundance and distribut

  14. Roaming livestock distribution, densities and population estimates for St. Eustatius, 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Debrot, A.O.; Hazenbosch, J.C.J.; Piontek, S.; Kraft, C.*, Kijanska, M.*, Kalie, E; Belle, Van, G.; Strijkstra, A.

    2015-01-01

    The problem of roaming livestock is a major impediment to agricultural development and nature conservation on St. Eustatius, as it also typically is on other islands in the region. In support of a government-led culling program, we here conducted a baseline study of livestock abundance and distribution on the island in the final quarter of 2013.

  15. Air pollution from livestock farms, and asthma, allergic rhinitis and COPD among neighbouring residents.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, L.A.M.; Hooiveld, M.; Sman-de Beer, F. van der; Opstal-van Winden, A.W.J.; Beekhuizen, J.; Wouters, I.M.; Yzermans, J.; Heederik, D.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: There is an ongoing debate regarding environmental health risks of exposures to dust and microbial agents from livestock farming in the Netherlands. The aims of the study were (1) to investigate associations between indicators of air pollution from livestock farms and asthma, allergic rh

  16. Air pollution from livestock farms, and asthma, allergic rhinitis and COPD among neighbouring residents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Lidwien A M; Hooiveld, Mariëtte; van der Sman-de Beer, Femke; Opstal-van Winden, Annemieke W J; Beekhuizen, Johan; Wouters, Inge M; Yzermans, C Joris; Heederik, Dick

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: There is an ongoing debate regarding environmental health risks of exposures to dust and microbial agents from livestock farming in the Netherlands. The aims of the study were (1) to investigate associations between indicators of air pollution from livestock farms and asthma, allergic rh

  17. 26 CFR 1.451-7 - Election relating to livestock sold on account of drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of drought. 1.451-7 Section 1.451-7 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Included § 1.451-7 Election relating to livestock sold on account of drought. (a) In general. Section 451(e... or exchange of that number of livestock sold or exchanged solely on account of a drought which...

  18. Challenges of conversion to organic livestock production in smallholder farms in kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odhong, Charles; Vaarst, Mette; Wahome, Raphael

    Certified organic livestock production in Kenya nearly does not exist despite the fact that livestock production forms an integral part of many organic farms, because of its role in nutrient recycling on the farm. The purpose of the study was to indentify and document the challenges of conversion......, education and extension. These factors should therefore be considered when planning strategies to develop organic livestock production in smallholder farming systems.......Certified organic livestock production in Kenya nearly does not exist despite the fact that livestock production forms an integral part of many organic farms, because of its role in nutrient recycling on the farm. The purpose of the study was to indentify and document the challenges of conversion...... cattle, goat and chicken owners were female and were more involved in routine livestock management, with farming as their major source of income. 40% of the farmers have practiced crop-livestock integration for more than 7 years and have considered managing their livestock organically. Results suggest...

  19. Agroterrorism targeting livestock: a review with a focus on early detection systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbers, A.R.W.; Knutsson, R.

    2013-01-01

    Agroterrorism targeting livestock can be described as the intentional introduction of an animal disease agent against livestock with the purpose of causing economic damage, disrupting socioeconomic stability of a country, and creating panic and distress. This type of terrorism can be alluring to ter

  20. Implications of livestock feeding management on soil fertility in smallholder farming systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delve, R.J.; Cadisch, G.; Tanner, J.C.; Thorpe, W.; Thorne, P.J.; Giller, K.E.

    2001-01-01

    The role of livestock in nitrogen cycling in mixed crop–livestock farming systems of sub-Saharan Africa was explored. Cattle were fed a range of diets to investigate the effects on partitioning of nitrogen between urine and faeces and on the chemical composition of the manures produced. The trade-of