WorldWideScience

Sample records for bulgaria

  1. Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document provides information on the status of institutional and financial arrangements in Bulgaria for the long term management of HLW and SNF, It includes the following elements: A consistent set of requirements for the technical and legal infrastructure including: funding, liability, institutional control, records management, and research activities; An organizational structure with clearly defined responsibilities; and Provisions for participation by interested parties in decisions and outcomes

  2. Economics - Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitrov, Mitko

    2002-01-01

    This paper outlines the overall picture of the state of economic science in Bulgaria in the early 21st century, achieved as a result of changes in it since 1989. The analysis is carried out in five main areas - redefining the discipline, basic theoretical and methodological orientations, thematic orientation and funding, public space and academic debates and views on further development. The situation before 1989 is briefly presented, in order to understand more clearly the problems and proce...

  3. Bulgaria : Poverty Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2002-01-01

    The sharp reduction in poverty in Bulgaria since the 1997 crisis highlights the role of effective economic stabilization policies and the social safety nets in improving the living conditions of the population. The nature of poverty in Bulgaria has changed since 1997, when poverty for many households was a transient phenomenon resulting from the immediate shock of hyperinflation and sharpl...

  4. Bulgaria : Accounting and Auditing

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2008-01-01

    An assessment of accounting and auditing practices in Bulgaria is a part of the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund (IMF) joint initiative on reports on the Observance of Standards and Codes (ROSC). The assessment focused on the strengths and weaknesses of the accounting and auditing environment that influences the quality of corporate financial reporting. It used the Internatio...

  5. Pharmacy in medieval Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonova, J

    2007-06-01

    A survey of the state of pharmacy in medieval Bulgaria is done, analyzing written records of various origin and content. Written documents are reviewed separately in chronological order. They all seem to lend support to the conclusion that realism is a characteristic feature of pharmacy in medieval Bulgaria. Mysticism and superstition are relatively rarely resorted to, precedence is given to real treatment with suitable and not so suitable medical plants, minerals and animal products. Relatively weak is the impact of West-European medicine and pharmacy because of the different influence of the Eastern and the Western Orthodox religion, and partly because of the territorial remoteness. During the High Middle Ages Bulgarian pharmacy developed under the influence of Hellenic ancient culture. Later, after the 15 century, the influence of the Arabian culture and medicine is also felt as a result of the complex compilation between the Bulgarian and Ottoman culture during the 500-year Turkish yoke. PMID:17663197

  6. Restructuring in SMEs: Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Krastenova, Elena; PAVLOV, Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    Based on information derived from 85 case studies across all EU Member States and other sources, the project outlines the features peculiar to SMEs in their anticipation and management of restructuring, explores the main drivers of change and analyses the factors influencing successful restructuring. It offers some insight into how restructuring impacts on workers and the company itself and sets out several policy pointers for future action. This is the country report for Bulgaria.

  7. Thysanoptera of Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olia Karadjova

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The present checklist includes data on the species composition, geographic distribution and feeding preferences of thrips species in Bulgaria. In total, 155 species in 48 genera are listed. Of these, 125 species belong to suborder Terebrantia and include 103 species of 33 genera in family Thripidae, 14 species of two genera in Aeolothripidae, seven species of two genera in Melanthripidae and one species in Fauriellidae. In suborder Tubulifera, 30 species of 10 genera in the single family Phlaeothripidae are listed. Of the 155 Bulgarian thrips species, 87.7% are phytophagous, 4.5% are obligate predators, 5.8% are mycophagous and 1.9% are with unknown feeding preferences. Fourteen pest species are listed for Bulgaria, of which Frankliniella occidentalis, Thrips tabaci and Haplothrips tritici are of economic importance. The list provides detailed information on the horizontal and vertical distribution of Thysanoptera in 5 regions and 45 subregions of Bulgaria. The present paper also includes an evaluation of the biodiversity of Thysanoptera and the extent to which each region of the country has been studied.

  8. Thysanoptera of bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadjova, Olia; Krumov, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    The present checklist includes data on the species composition, geographic distribution and feeding preferences of thrips species in Bulgaria. In total, 155 species in 48 genera are listed. Of these, 125 species belong to suborder Terebrantia and include 103 species of 33 genera in family Thripidae, 14 species of two genera in Aeolothripidae, seven species of two genera in Melanthripidae and one species in Fauriellidae. In suborder Tubulifera, 30 species of 10 genera in the single family Phlaeothripidae are listed. Of the 155 Bulgarian thrips species, 87.7% are phytophagous, 4.5% are obligate predators, 5.8% are mycophagous and 1.9% are with unknown feeding preferences. Fourteen pest species are listed for Bulgaria, of which Frankliniellaoccidentalis, Thripstabaci and Haplothripstritici are of economic importance. The list provides detailed information on the horizontal and vertical distribution of Thysanoptera in 5 regions and 45 subregions of Bulgaria. The present paper also includes an evaluation of the biodiversity of Thysanoptera and the extent to which each region of the country has been studied. PMID:26019678

  9. Bulgaria health system review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimova, Antoniya; Rohova, Maria; Moutafova, Emanuela; Atanasova, Elka; Koeva, Stefka; Panteli, Dimitra; van Ginneken, Ewout

    2012-01-01

    In the last 20 years, demographic development in Bulgaria has been characterized by population decline, a low crude birth rate, a low fertility rate, a high mortality rate and an ageing population. A stabilizing political situation since the early 2000s and an economic upsurge since the mid-2000s were important factors in the slight increase of the birth and fertility rates and the slight decrease in standardized death rates. In general, Bulgaria lags behind European Union (EU) averages in most mortality and morbidity indicators. Life expectancy at birth reached 73.3 years in 2008 with the main three causes of death being diseases of the circulatory system, malignant neoplasms and diseases of the respiratory system. One of the most important risk factors overall is smoking, and the average standardized death rate for smoking-related causes in 2008 was twice as high as the EU15 average. The Bulgarian health system is characterized by limited statism. The Ministry of Health is responsible for national health policy and the overall organization and functioning of the health system and coordinates with all ministries with relevance to public health. The key players in the insurance system are the insured individuals, the health care providers and the third party payers, comprising the National Health Insurance Fund, the single payer in the social health insurance (SHI) system, and voluntary health insurance companies (VHICs). Health financing consists of a publicprivate mix. Health care is financed from compulsory health insurance contributions, taxes, outofpocket (OOP) payments, voluntary health insurance (VHI) premiums, corporate payments, donations, and external funding. Total health expenditure (THE) as a share of gross domestic product (GDP) increased from 5.3% in 1995 to 7.3% in 2008. At the latter date it consisted of 36.5% OOP payments, 34.8% SHI, 13.6% Ministry of Health expenditure, 9.4% municipality expenditure and 0.3% VHI. Informal payments in the health

  10. Bulgaria health system review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimova, Antoniya; Rohova, Maria; Moutafova, Emanuela; Atanasova, Elka; Koeva, Stefka; Panteli, Dimitra; van Ginneken, Ewout

    2012-01-01

    In the last 20 years, demographic development in Bulgaria has been characterized by population decline, a low crude birth rate, a low fertility rate, a high mortality rate and an ageing population. A stabilizing political situation since the early 2000s and an economic upsurge since the mid-2000s were important factors in the slight increase of the birth and fertility rates and the slight decrease in standardized death rates. In general, Bulgaria lags behind European Union (EU) averages in most mortality and morbidity indicators. Life expectancy at birth reached 73.3 years in 2008 with the main three causes of death being diseases of the circulatory system, malignant neoplasms and diseases of the respiratory system. One of the most important risk factors overall is smoking, and the average standardized death rate for smoking-related causes in 2008 was twice as high as the EU15 average. The Bulgarian health system is characterized by limited statism. The Ministry of Health is responsible for national health policy and the overall organization and functioning of the health system and coordinates with all ministries with relevance to public health. The key players in the insurance system are the insured individuals, the health care providers and the third party payers, comprising the National Health Insurance Fund, the single payer in the social health insurance (SHI) system, and voluntary health insurance companies (VHICs). Health financing consists of a publicprivate mix. Health care is financed from compulsory health insurance contributions, taxes, outofpocket (OOP) payments, voluntary health insurance (VHI) premiums, corporate payments, donations, and external funding. Total health expenditure (THE) as a share of gross domestic product (GDP) increased from 5.3% in 1995 to 7.3% in 2008. At the latter date it consisted of 36.5% OOP payments, 34.8% SHI, 13.6% Ministry of Health expenditure, 9.4% municipality expenditure and 0.3% VHI. Informal payments in the health

  11. Shipment summary of Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lessons learned (major differences from previous shipments): - The use of an experienced carrier (Kozloduy NPP) with experience in shipping nuclear materials to and from the Russian Federation was a great advantage and avoided problems; - Signing road and river carriers and security contracts in advance minimized last-minute delays at shipment time; - Shipping papers that were drafted and reviewed in advance with the help of representatives from Kozloduy NPP and PA 'Mayak' avoided last-minute delays; - Have all permits and licenses in place as far in advance as possible; - Procure nuclear liability, cargo, and personnel insurance in advance of the shipment; - Provide a senior technical person with the authority to resolve issues en-route to accompany the shipment; - Pre-arrange a method for 24-hour monitoring and reporting during shipment to provide 'Need-to-Know' information to the appropriate personnel to provide immediate additional technical support, if needed; - Develop a coded tracking system in advance to allow monitoring reports to DOE without compromising security; - Having communications equipment, a laptop computer and a printer on the barge was very useful for the technical person accompanying the shipment; - Very good cooperation with the Bulgarian nuclear safety authorities helped with planning and implementation; - Very good cooperation with other important partners in Bulgaria - Kozloduy NPP, Bulgarian Police and Gendarme, Bulgarian Fire and Rescue Corps, helped with shipment planning and provided appropriate support during the shipment; - Assure that all interested and involved organizations have a sufficient security level (Secret and Confidential level) for their main points of contact personnel

  12. Spent Fuel Management in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report presents the legislative framework in the Republic of Bulgaria for spent fuel (SF) management; storage facilities for spent fuel (at reactor spent fuel storage/reactor pond, away from reactor spent fuel storage facility (SFSF) and the dry storage facility), as well as the SF transportation back to Russia. The policy of the Republic of Bulgaria regarding the management of SF and radioactive wastes (RAW) has been based on the moral principle of avoiding to impose undue burdens on future generations. (author)

  13. Fieldwork Coastal Engineering: Varna (Bulgaria)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, C.; Burgers, J.J.; Van Dijk, M.; Heeringa, E.; Van den Hengel, D.; Lausman, R.; Oortman, N.; Poot, R.; Segboer, T.; De Sonneville, B.

    2004-01-01

    Research has been carried out in St. Konstantin, Varna, Bulgaria. In the second chapter of this report an Analysis of the Tetra pods on breakwater of the “Sunny Day Marina is presented, where the damage is determined and different approaches are used and compared to determine the significant wave he

  14. ERAWATCH Country Reports 2013: Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Chobanova, Rossitsa

    2014-01-01

    The Republic of Bulgaria has been a Member State of the European Union since 2007. Its economic development has been framed by a Currency Board Arrangement (binding the national currency to the euro) since 1997. Recent development is characterised by slow economic growth. Preliminary GDP data for 2013 indicates a slight pick-up in growth in the second half of the year. Growth was driven by net exports and a surge in public expenditure, whereas household consumption contracted. Annual growth i...

  15. Information Society Development in Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Chobanova, Rossitsa

    2003-01-01

    The rapidly changing nature of modern societies needs to enable the benchmarking of progress through statistical indicators. The book is taking up the challenge of using newly developed innovative information society indicators, tested and piloted in a representative survey held in all EU Member States, Switzerland and the United States in 2002 and in ten new associated states in 2003. The first part of the book concerns benchmarking Information society development in Bulgaria. The topics...

  16. Catalog of Investment Projects in Bulgaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-10-15

    This catalog includes information about 129 potential investment projects in Bulgaria and was developed by a team of experts from InvestBulgaria Agency in cooperation with municipalities and private companies. The document presents in brief general facts about the regions in Bulgaria. Projects are divided into the following categories: Tourism, Manufacturing, Urban Planning, Real Estate, Environment and renewable energy sources, Commerce, and Innovative and creative projects. The catalog provides detailed information about each project such as: status of the project, location, ownership, infrastructure, estimated value, contact information, etc.

  17. Flora of the Mediterranean Rivers in Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Yordanka G. Hristeva; Gana M. Gecheva; Karin Pall

    2015-01-01

    Species composition and distribution of aquatic bryophytes and vascular plants assemblages in Mediteranean Rivers in Bulgaria are presented in this work. Aquatic macrophytes were studied at thirteen rivers in South Bulgaria during 2014, together with abiotic factors (flow velocity, shading, and substrate type), mean depth and altitude. In total, 73 species were registered, of them 13 bryophytes and 60 vascular plants were identified. Aquatic bryophytes included 10 mosses and 3 liverworts. The...

  18. WRF-Fire Applied in Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Dobrinkova, Nina; Jordanov, Georgi; Mandel, Jan

    2010-01-01

    WRF-Fire consists of the WRF (Weather Research and Forecasting Model) coupled with a fire spread model, based on the level-set method. We describe a preliminary application of WRF-Fire to a forest fire in Bulgaria, oportunities for research of forest fire models for Bulgaria, and plans for the development of an Environmental Decision Support Systems which includes computational modeling of fire behavior.

  19. Stakeholder analysis for coppice forestry in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IvayloVelichkov

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The study analyzes the state of coppice forestry in Bulgaria during last 18 years. Stakeholders and their interests and preferences in coppice forests are explored and assessed. Forests restitution process in Bulgaria started in 1997 and has not been finished yet. Nevertheless, significant further changes of the current ownershipdistribution are not expected. By the end of 2007, the state was the biggest coppice forest owner/stakeholder in Bulgaria with 71.3% of all coppice forests being state property. The other two important stakeholders are the municipalities (14.0% and private owners (12.0%. Currently, forest owners' number in Bulgaria exceeds 1million, the average holding area being smaller than 1 ha. Only 150 individual plots are larger than 50 ha. The majority of private owners aim at taking maximum and immediate profit from their recently restituted forest properties. In most cases that reflects in clearcuts. Coppice forests management has been one of the problematicissues of Bulgarian forestry for decades. Despite of forest authorities significant efforts, the area of coppice forests in Bulgaria (1.78 million ha in 2007 remained unchanged for a period of 50 years. The official forest policy is still aimed at conversionof coppice forests into seed ones through different silvicultural methods. That policy is applied to almost all coppice forests regardless of their ownership.

  20. Stakeholder analysis for coppice forestry in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivaylo Velichkov

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The study analyzes the state of coppice forestry in Bulgaria during last 18 years. Stakeholders and their interests and preferences in coppice forests are explored and assessed. Forests restitution process in Bulgaria started in 1997 and has not been finished yet. Nevertheless, significant further changes of the current ownership distribution are not expected. By the end of 2007, the state was the biggest coppice forest owner/stakeholder in Bulgaria with 71.3% of all coppice forests being state property. The other two important stakeholders are the municipalities (14.0% and private owners (12.0%. Currently, forest owners' number in Bulgaria exceeds 1 million, the average holding area being smaller than 1 ha. Only 150 individual plots are larger than 50 ha. The majority of private owners aim at taking maximum and immediate profit from their recently restituted forest properties. In most cases that reflects in clearcuts. Coppice forests management has been one of the problematic issues of Bulgarian forestry for decades. Despite of forest authorities significant efforts, the area of coppice forests in Bulgaria (1.78 million ha in 2007 remained unchanged for a period of 50 years. The official forest policy is still aimed at conversion of coppice forests into seed ones through different silvicultural methods. That policy is applied to almost all coppice forests regardless of their ownership.

  1. Circulation factors affecting precipitation over Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nojarov, Peter

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this paper is to determine the influence of circulation factors on precipitation in Bulgaria. The study succeeds investigation on the influence of circulation factors on air temperatures in Bulgaria, as the focus here is directed toward precipitation amounts. Circulation factors are represented through two circulation indices, showing west-east or south-north transport of air masses over Bulgaria and four teleconnection indices (patterns)—North Atlantic Oscillation, East Atlantic, East Atlantic/Western Russia, and Scandinavian. Omega values at 700-hPa level show vertical motions in the atmosphere. Annual precipitation trends are mixed and not statistically significant. A significant decrease of precipitation in Bulgaria is observed in November due to the strengthening of the eastward transport of air masses (strengthening of EA teleconnection pattern) and anticyclonal weather (increase of descending motions in the atmosphere). There is also a precipitation decrease in May and June due to the growing influence of the Azores High. An increase of precipitation happens in September. All this leads to a redistribution of annual precipitation course, but annual precipitation amounts remain the same. However, this redistribution has a negative impact on agriculture and winter ski tourism. Zonal circulation has a larger influence on precipitation in Bulgaria compared to meridional. Eastward transport throughout the year leads to lower than the normal precipitation, and vice versa. With regard to the four teleconnection patterns, winter precipitation in Bulgaria is determined mainly by EA/WR teleconnection pattern, spring and autumn by EA teleconnection pattern, and summer by SCAND teleconnection pattern.

  2. Addressing Unfair Trading Practices in Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2014-01-01

    The Government of Bulgaria (GoB) is concerned that large retail chains may be using their superior bargaining position to dictate the terms of contractual relations with their suppliers. The Government believes that this constitutes unfair trading practices (UTP) and remedies should be found in the nation's competition policy framework. The GoB is considering the introduction of the concep...

  3. Bulgaria. A relatively short organic history

    OpenAIRE

    Apostolov, Stoylko; Heeb, Marlene

    2003-01-01

    Organic agriculture in Bulgaria has a relatively short history. The concept of organic agriculture was only introduced after the fall of the communist regime in 1990, when the process of land restitution started. Below is an account of developments over the following thirteen years and a report on the current status of organic agriculture in the country.

  4. CERN exhibition a big hit in Bulgaria

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    The first CERN exhibition in Bulgaria attracted many visitors. In the first ever CERN exhibition to be held in Bulgaria, over 1,400 visitors, many of them students and young physicists, visited the 10-day event in Sofia. The CERN mini-exhibition took place at the National Earth and Mankind Museum between 8 and 17 November. Permanently staffed by young physicists from Sofia University, there were exhibits on display about research activities at CERN, as well as four additional posters describing Bulgaria's participation. The inauguration took place on the morning of 8 November in the presence of the Vice-Minister for Science and Education, Mrs. Vanya Dobreva, and some 200 guests. A series of short speeches were followed by a visit to the exhibition. CERN's representative at the event, Ray Lewis, was then asked by Professor Matey Mateev, President of the Union of Physicists in Bulgaria, to say a few words on behalf of the Organization. Numerous journalists were also present at the inauguration. A painting enti...

  5. Marketing approaches for OTC analgesics in Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Petkova, Valentina; Valchanova, Velislava; Ibrahim, Adel; NIKOLOVA, IRINA; Benbasat, Niko; Dimitrov, Milen

    2014-01-01

    The marketing management includes analysis of market opportunities, selection of target markets, planning, developing and implementing of marketing strategies, monitoring and result control. The object of the present study was to analyse the marketing approaches applied for non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in Bulgaria. The performed SWOT(planning method used to evaluate the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats) analysis for one of the leading Bulgarian manufacturers...

  6. Flexible Working Time Arrangements in Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Beleva, Iskra

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to analyze the flexible working time arrangements in Bulgaria, using a life-course perspective. Two important features have to be outlined, namely: underdeveloped flexible forms of employment in the country, including working time arrangement, and lack of previous analysis on flexible working time arrangements from the angle of life-course perspective. The author describes the regulatory framework, collective agreements at national and company level as a frame w...

  7. IMPLEMENTATION OF ISO 14001 IN BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hristina HARIZANOVA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In the last years, the Bulgarian business organizations and government bodies were facing with the increased needs to implement new standards which could bring a higher benefit for companies and also not to affect the environment. The ISO 14 000 Family is based on standards for environmental management and gives the possibility to be applied in any type of organization, public or private sectors, administrations, etc . The main aim of the publication is to trace the implementation of ISO 14001 in Bulgaria by sectors and type of activities. As well this research offers the main reasons to the Bulgarian firms to implement ISO 14001. For reaching the aim, the study made a review of a Evolution of ISO 14001 and its flexibility, in compliance with changes in the environment and business; b Research of the firms which implemented ISO 14001 in Bulgaria, c Content of the activities in the certification cycle. The used methods are according to the research system of the Bulgarian firms which implemented ISO 14001. Finally, some conclusions were drawn about the development of the ISO 14 001 in Bulgaria.

  8. Out of America: Exploring Collaborative Mural Teaching in Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Kong

    2012-01-01

    In February 2010, the author arrived in the city of Sofia, Bulgaria, to teach mural painting at the National Academy of Art for his five-month Fulbright U.S. Scholarship Program lecturing award. He targeted Bulgaria as his host country in his 2009-2010 Fulbright U.S. Scholarship Program application because of its rich mural painting culture. He…

  9. Temporal characteristics of some aftershock sequences in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Solakov

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available We apply statistical analysis to study the temporal distribution of aftershocks in aftershock sequences of five earthquakes which occurred in Bulgaria. We use the maximum likelihood method to estimate the parameters of the modified Omori formula for aftershock sequences which is directly based on a time series. We find that: the maximum likelihood estimates of the parameter p show a regional variation, with lower values of the decay rate in North Bulgaria; the modified Omori formula provides an appropriate representation of temporal variation of the aftershock activity in North Bulgaria; the aftershock sequences in South Bulgaria are best modeled by the combination of an ordinary aftershock sequence with secondary aftershock activity. A plot of the cumulative number of events versus the frequency-linearized time t clearly demonstrates a transition from aftershock to foreshock activity prior to the second 1986 Strazhitsa (North Bulgaria earthquake.

  10. Simulation of the 2009 Harmanli fire (Bulgaria)

    CERN Document Server

    Jordanov, Georgi; Dobrinkova, Nina; Kochanski, Adam K; Mandel, Jan; Sousedík, Bedřich

    2011-01-01

    We use a coupled atmosphere-fire model to simulate a fire that occurred on August 14--17, 2009, in the Harmanli region, Bulgaria. Data was obtained from GIS and satellites imagery, and from standard atmospheric data sources. Fuel data was classified in the 13 Anderson categories. For correct fire behavior, the spatial resolution of the models needed to be fine enough to resolve the essential micrometeorological effects. The simulation results are compared to available incident data. The code runs faster than real time on a cluster. The model is available from openwfm.org and it extends WRF-Fire from WRF 3.3 release.

  11. The Contribution of Bulgaria to CERN

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    Following the discussions in the Committee of Council on 14th December 2000, concerning the request by Bulgaria for a reduction of its contribution to CERN for 2000 and 2001, the Bulgarian Minister of Education & Science expressed on 26 January 2001 his readiness to accept the scheme of reductions that emerged from these discussions. The Management considers that this scheme constitutes a reasonable solution and invites the Committee of Council to recommend the Council to take note of this document and to approve the annexed draft Resolution (Annex VI).

  12. Science and technology in the new Bulgaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denchev, S.

    1993-01-01

    For decades, the field of science and technology in Bulgaria existed as a system based on immorality, avidity, unscrupulousness, and political maneuvering. Links between science and industry were broken. The main reasons were the feudal structure in science and technology, which still exists, and the chaos in the production system. Bulgaria is a country with one of the highest percentages of scientists and research workers in relation to the total number of citizens. Fairly good research centers have been created in the fields of industry and agriculture over the past several decades, but even so the existing scientific and research personnel do not possess the necessary innovative ability. The main reason for that is the Soviet model of science and technology development, which emphasized fundamental studies wholly funded by the State. Despite the fact that some of these research institutions have been acknowledge worldwide for their activities and scientific results, the majority of them have been managed bureaucratically and never realized their full potential. In order to overcome the negative consequences of totalitarianism, a radical restructuring of the Bulgarian science and technological sector is required. This restructuring should be realized simultaneously and in conformity with the building up of both markets and democratic society. Critical and unconventional decisions are required. 6 refs., 1 tab.

  13. Flora of the Mediterranean Rivers in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yordanka G. Hristeva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Species composition and distribution of aquatic bryophytes and vascular plants assemblages in Mediteranean Rivers in Bulgaria are presented in this work. Aquatic macrophytes were studied at thirteen rivers in South Bulgaria during 2014, together with abiotic factors (flow velocity, shading, and substrate type, mean depth and altitude. In total, 73 species were registered, of them 13 bryophytes and 60 vascular plants were identified. Aquatic bryophytes included 10 mosses and 3 liverworts. The recorded bryophytes species refer to 7 families and 12 genera. The most frequently distributed species was Leptodictyum riparium (Hedw. Warnst., followed by Cratoneuron filicinum (Hedw. Spruce and Platyhypnidium riparioides (Hedw. Dixon, Brachythecium rivulare Schimp. and Hygroamblystegium tenax (Hedw. Jenn. The recorded 60 species of vascular plants refer to 25 families and 43 genera. The most common hydrophyte species was Lemna minor L., followed by Ranunculus trichophyllus Chaix, Myriophyllum spicatum L. and Potamogeton nodosus Poir. The most abundant species from the group of helophytes and amphiphytes was Mentha aquatica L., followed by Agrostis stolonifera L. Mentha spicata L., Berula erecta (Huds. Coville, Juncus effusus L., Lycopus europaeus L., Lythrum salicaria L., Phalaris arundinacea L., Ranunculus repens L., Sparganium erectum L., Typha latifolia L., and Veronica anagalis-aquatica L. The majority of studied rivers sites were sunny, with moderate velocity, stony bottom, average depth up to 0.3 m and altitude between 100 and 500 m a.s.l.

  14. Induced Mutagenesis for Crop Improvement in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental mutagenesis has been investigated and applied in crop breeding in various Bulgarian agricultural research institutes during the last half century. In this paper some major accomplishments achieved in Bulgaria are highlighted. Both, physical mutagens (mainly gamma rays) and chemical mutagens (mainly EMS, NMU, NEU), have been used and their proper doses have been established. According to the information available to the author, there are more than 76 new cultivars developed using induced mutants in Bulgaria, namely: barley (5), wheat (5), durum wheat (9), maize (26), sunflower (3), lentil (4), bean (2), pea (1), chickpea and vetch (2), soybean (5), tomato (6), pepper (4), cotton (2), tobacco (2). Some of the mutant cultivars such as maize hybrid Kneja 509 and durum wheat cultivar Gergana have become leading cultivars occupying up to 50% of the growing area of the crop concerned. In durum wheat, mutant cultivars have not only covered almost all the growing areas but also doubled the yield in the past 30 years. The achievements in mutation breeding programmes have also had a significant impact on the progress of genetic research by elucidating the underlying mechanisms of induced mutations and the training of many young researchers and university students through their involvement in various research projects. A number of mutant lines with novel characteristics and mutant cultivars of economical importance together with relevant techniques used in the development and characterization of those mutant lines/cultivars are described in this paper. (author)

  15. CAS Introduction to Accelerator Physics in Bulgaria

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    The CERN Accelerator School (CAS) and the Institute for Nuclear Research & Nuclear Energy (INRNE – Bulgarian Academy of Sciences) jointly organised a course on Introduction to Accelerators, at the Grand Hotel Varna, Bulgaria, from 19 September to 1 October, 2010.   CERN Accelerator School group photo. The course was extremely well attended with 109 participants representing 34 different nationalities, coming from countries as far away as Australia, Canada and Vietnam. The intensive programme comprised 39 lectures, 3 seminars, 4 tutorials where the students were split into three groups, a poster session where students could present their own work, and 7 hours of guided and private study. Feedback from the participants was extremely positive, praising the expertise and enthusiasm of the lecturers, as well as the high standard and excellent quality of their lectures. For the first time at CAS, the CERN Director-General, Rolf Heuer, visited the school and presented a seminar entitled...

  16. Marketing approaches for OTC analgesics in Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkova, Valentina; Valchanova, Velislava; Ibrahim, Adel; Nikolova, Irina; Benbasat, Niko; Dimitrov, Milen

    2014-01-01

    The marketing management includes analysis of market opportunities, selection of target markets, planning, developing and implementing of marketing strategies, monitoring and result control. The object of the present study was to analyse the marketing approaches applied for non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in Bulgaria. The performed SWOT(planning method used to evaluate the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats) analysis for one of the leading Bulgarian manufacturers marked the complex corporative strategy for stimulating the sales of NSAIDs. The study results show that the legislation frame in the country gives an opportunity for regulation of the NSAID market in order that incorrect marketing approaches such as disloyal competition are avoided. PMID:26019521

  17. Options for Bulgaria power system extension planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under the existing transition to market economy in Bulgaria, the planning of development of electricity generation is among the priorities of the national policy of restructuring and renovation of electricity system in the country. Optimal plans for development of the generation capacity are worked out by means of optimization procedure part of ENPEP package (ELECTRIC module) based on the dynamic programming technique. The optimal plans study three main strategies for development of energy capacities, which have to do with the priority of some type of natural resources--Coal, Natural Gas and Nuclear Energy. The Hydro Power Plant construction and loading schedule for each scenario is different and it harmonized with the maneuverability of other capacities. Coal scenario emphasizes the opportunities for the maximizing of local coal mining, substitution of black coal (energy and coke) import by mining of local coal fields and implementation of efficient and environmentally sound technologies when constructing new thermal power plants. Gas scenario envisages natural gas consumption within the limit of existing capacities of the national and transit pipelines. In this connection, the share of the new generating capacities using combined cycle increases their share. Nuclear scenario assumes increased share of the nuclear units at the expense of local coal mining and natural gas. This is due to the rehabilitation of 1,000 MW units in NPP Kozloduy, completion of a 1,000 MW unit in new NPP and construction of 1--2 new units 600 MW after 2010. The data obtained outlines the perspectives for development of energy generation capacities in Bulgaria for the period 2000--2020, tendencies in the generation structure and the share of each different type of generation units in the structure of electricity generation system. Output information serves as a sound base for conclusions on the advantages and disadvantages of the three strategies

  18. PROBLEMS WITH MEASURING LABOUR INTEGRATION OF THE IMMIGRANTS IN BULGARIA

    OpenAIRE

    Slavyanska, V.

    2015-01-01

    Labour integration of the immigrants is very important for them, as well as for the receiving society. The present paper is devoted to the problems, connected with the indicators used for its measuring in Bulgaria.

  19. Public expenditure and drug policies in Bulgaria in 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Toni Yonkov Vekov; Silviya Aleksandrova-Yankulovska

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The objective of this study was to provide an analysis of the factors which have a significant impact on the growth of public expenditure on medical products in Bulgaria. Methods: This research work consists of a critical analysis of the data reported by the National Health Insurance Fund in Bulgaria on the stability of the healthcare insurance model and the implementation of the budget for 2014. Results: The results from the current analysis indicate that the growth of public...

  20. Bulgaria ,Boosting Energy Cooperation with China Interview with Deputy Minster Yaneva, Ministry of Economy and Energy, the Republic of Bulgaria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Deputy Minister Yaneva of Economy and Energy, the Republic of Bulgaria, a nice lady with outstanding talents, headed a delegation of Bulgaria to visit China in late June, for the participation at the 13th Bulgarian-Chinese Intergovernmental Commission for Economic, Trade, Scientific and Technical Cooperation. As an important instrument, the Joint Commission played a significant role in promoting the overall development of the bilateral economic relations.

  1. The Kresna earthquake of 1904 in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. N. Ambraseys

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The Kresna earthquake in 1904 in Bulgaria is one of the largest shallow 20th century events on land in the Balkans. This event, which was preceded by a large foreshock, has hitherto been assigned a range of magnitudes up to M S = 7.8 but the reappraisal of instrumental data yields a much smaller value of M S = 7.2 and a re-assement of the intensity distribution suggests 7.1. Thus both instrumental and macroseismic data appear consistent with a magnitude which is also compatible with the fault segmentation and local morphology of the region which cannot accommodate shallow events much larger than about 7.0. The relatively large size of the main shock suggests surface faulting but the available field evidence is insufficient to establish the dimensions, attitude andamount of dislocation, except perhaps in the vicinity of Krupnik. This downsizing of the Kresna earthquake has important consequences for tectonics and earthquake hazard estimates in the Balkans.

  2. Genetic analysis of haemophilia A in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kremensky Ivo

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Haemophilias are the most common hereditary severe disorders of blood clotting. In families afflicted with heamophilia, genetic analysis provides opportunities to prevent recurrence of the disease. This study establishes a diagnostical strategy for carriership determination and prenatal diagnostics of haemophilia A in Bulgarian haemophilic population. Methods A diagnostical strategy consisting of screening for most common mutations in the factor VIII gene and analysis of a panel of eight linked to the factor VIII gene locus polymorphisms was established. Results Polymorphic analysis for carrier status determination of haemophilia A was successful in 30 families out of 32 (94%. Carrier status was determined in 25 of a total of 28 women at risk (89%. Fourteen prenatal diagnoses in women at high risk of having a haemophilia A – affected child were performed, resulting in 6 healthy boys and 5 girls. Conclusion The compound approach proves to be a highly informative and cost-effective strategy for prevention of recurrence of haemophilia A in Bulgaria. DNA analysis facilitates carriership determination and subsequent prenatal diagnosis in the majority of Bulgarian families affected by haemophilia A.

  3. Financial Decentralization in Bulgaria: An Outlook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desislava Stoilova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is intended to provide a critical overview of the localgovernment finance reform and analyze the process of strengtheningfinancial decentralization in Bulgaria. First of all, the specificsof government structure and the main components of the legalbase in the scope of local self-government are presented. Thequantitative analysis is focused on dynamics of the public expenditureindicators and the structure of local revenues, based onfact figures for the period 1990–2011 and forecast for 2012. Theinfluence of economic crises on local government finance is discussedand estimated. A comparison is drawn between the threemost severe downturns of Bulgarian economy during the last 20years, namely the price liberalization in the beginning of transition(1991–1993, the credit crunch and series of bank bankruptcies,which caused the financial crisis in 1996–1997, and the currentworldwide crisis. Some of the most important actions, takenby the government in order to consolidate the crisis are describedand evaluated on the base of their effects on the local finance.The conclusion is that although the current crisis reached Bulgariaat comparatively mature stage of financial decentralizationreform, municipalities can do very little without active centralgovernment support and cannot substitute for it in regard of thebasic anti-crisis measures.

  4. Shakespeare arean hypertexts in communist Bulgaria Shakespeare arean hypertexts in communist Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Shurbanov

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Since the first days of the reception of Shakespeare’s work in Bulgaria during the second half of the nineteenth century down to the present time two of his tragedies, Romeo and Juliet and Hamlet, have held an unrivalled sway on the national stage and over the people’s minds. Another one, Othello, was produced very frequently in the beginning, though often by non-Bulgarian troupes, and yet another, Macbeth, was a set text at the schools for many decades but rarely took the fancy of theatre directors and audiences. Since the first days of the reception of Shakespeare’s work in Bulgaria during the second half of the nineteenth century down to the present time two of his tragedies, Romeo and Juliet and Hamlet, have held an unrivalled sway on the national stage and over the people’s minds. Another one, Othello, was produced very frequently in the beginning, though often by non-Bulgarian troupes, and yet another, Macbeth, was a set text at the schools for many decades but rarely took the fancy of theatre directors and audiences.

  5. Bulgaria: Novi Han radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Novi Han radioactive waste repository is the only national radioactive waste disposal site in Bulgaria. It is located in Losen mountain, 6.5 km from the small village of Novi Han and 35 km from the capital, Sofia. The repository accepts radioactive waste generated from nuclear applications in industry, medicine, research and education. The facility was constructed according to a modified Soviet design (type TP-4891). Its construction licence was issued in 1959 and that for commissioning in 1964. The repository was specially built for the needs of the IRT-2000 research reactor operated by the Institute of Physics and other academic and medical facilities. In 1959, the Government appointed the Physical Institute of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, whose successor is now the Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy (INRNE), as the central authority for the collection and disposal of radioactive waste from nuclear applications. The Novi Han repository site covers an area of 4.25 ha.1 The site is divided into two areas separated by a fence. One area contains the administrative buildings, garage and maintenance shops. The other contains the disposal facilities, radiochemical laboratory and decontamination station. The repository consists of (1) a concrete vault for low and intermediate level solid wastes, which consists of 3 separate cells with a total volume of 237 m3, (2) a concrete vault for biological wastes with a volume of 80 m3, (3) four steel tanks for storage of low level liquid wastes with a total volume of 48 m3, (4) a special 1 m3 concrete vault for spent sealed sources and (5) a concrete trench for solid waste, which consists of 7 separate units with a total volume of 200 m3. Waste acceptance criteria follow Regulation No. 7 of the Committee on the Use of Atomic Energy for Peaceful Purposes on Collection, Treatment, Storage, Transport and Disposal of Radioactive Wastes in the Territory of the Republic of Bulgaria. They take into account origin

  6. Assesment of opportunities for landfill gas utilisation in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Bulgaria, about 14 million tons annually of municipal solid waste (MSW) are collected and disposed of in landfills - about 618 kg/capita annually. The implementation of Landfill Gas (LFG) energy recovery/utilization projects in Bulgaria serves as an essential landfill management strategy, and can also reduce greenhouse gases and air pollutants, leading to improved local air quality and reduced health risks. Results of assesment landfill tests of several municipalities, made by the team of Encon Services for estimation of the potential of their sites are shown in this paper. (authors)

  7. ANKYLOSING SPONDYLITIS IN THE VOLGA BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. I. Abdulganieva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There is much evidence that ankylosing spondylitis (AS is a disease that is also much older than early human civilizations and man as a whole. Until now, the Russia's earliest (14th c ntury archaeological finding of such a patient remains a Volga Bulgaria inhabitant suffering with AS during his life. In the Republic of Tatarstan, at the site of an ancient Bulgar settlement appearing in the early ninth century, archaeologists have discovered an unusual grave: the deceased sitting with his back against the western wall of a tomb pitand having a bronze crosslet under his fingers. According to a historical source, it was the way of burying Christian hierarchs as pastors sitting on the altar and anticipating the great assize during which the destinies of human souls should be ruled. Anthropological analysis showed that the bones belonged to a 35–45-year-old man who was 158–163 cm tall. During the examination of the remains,attention was called to the following features of the spinal structure: ankylosis of the inferior cervical and superior thoracic vertebrae (СV–ThI and inferior thoracic and lumbar spine (ThIV–LII predominantly due to ossification of the anterior longitudinal ligament. Facet vertebral joints and costotransverse joints were also ankylosed at the same levels. The man's neck was fixed in a bent-over position with the head down, the chin touching the breast bone – the socalled soliciting posture. By and large, the vertebral changes are characteristic of late (X-ray stage III spondylitis. Spinal and pelvic photos and X-films are given for demonstration. The studies conducted by historical scientists and forensic medical experts suggest that the found remains are most likely to belong to Christian Theodore nicknamed Jerusaleman, also further known as Holy Theodore philosopher Kamsky (Bulgarian, who was mentioned in the Nikon chronicle in 1323.

  8. TRENDS IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF ORGANIC FARMING IN BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina AGAPIEVA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to follow trends in the development of organic farming in Bulgaria, and to identify the factors’ strength and direction of their impact on organic production of agricultural products. The study covers the period from 2003 to 2013 and is based on information from official statistics of the Ministry of Agriculture and Food, and the author's own research. There are distinct rates of increase in both areas and organic agricultural production in Bulgaria. While in 2003 the areas under organic management are 8,364 ha by 2013 they numbered 56, 287 ha. Bulgaria has a high potential for production and export of organic agricultural products fresh and processed, but significantly lags behind other European countries. However, there is increasing momentum in organic farming, driven by a group of economic, market, social and legislative initiatives. The main reason for this growth is consumer demand of organic products in Bulgaria. In general, the motivations of Bulgarian consumers of organic products are related to the benefits for health and the environment, to the improvement of food quality and to the support of local small farmers, communities and markets.

  9. New Trends in Initial Vocational Education and Training in Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganova, Penka

    2007-01-01

    Despite a fall in the percentage of young people choosing this course between 1993 and 1994 (58.17%) and 2003 and 2004 (55.23%), vocational training remains the main path chosen by young people in Bulgaria. The national programme for developing pre-school, school education and training (2006-15), adopted in 2006 due to major public interest in…

  10. Market Report : The electrical power markets in Romania and Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romania and Bulgaria want to attract foreign investment for the rehabilitation of their electric power sectors to meet the requirements for membership to the European Union. In 2000, world exports of power equipment to both countries reached $857 million, an increase of 23 per cent from 1999. This report describes the potential for Canadian exports of electric power equipment and services to work in Romania and Bulgaria. In Romania, the electric power market is expected to growth by almost 20 per cent to $550 million by the end of 2001. The major current investment is in the completion of the second unit of the Cernavoda nuclear power plant, the completion of unfinished hydroelectric power plants, and the rehabilitation of the country's power transmission and distribution system. In Bulgaria, the market is also expected to grow as the infrastructure for the thermal and hydroelectric power plant is upgraded. Bulgaria is also launching a nuclear energy program which includes modernizing older units and the construction of one new plant to increase generation capacity. Opportunities for Canadian companies will lie in the areas of cogeneration equipment, modernizing coal-fired power plants, boilers and turbines. Other opportunities lie in the areas of hydroelectric and nuclear power plants, including their control devices, voltage breakers, and equipment related to power distribution and transmission. It is recommended that Canadian companies work in cooperation with the Canadian Embassy in Bucharest and the Canadian Consulate General in Sofia. refs., tabs

  11. NATO Expansion: Romania and Bulgaria within the Larger Context. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad, 1997. (Romania and Bulgaria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Thomas M.

    This paper analyzes the issues regarding current expansion of NATO membership to include Romania and Bulgaria. The perspective given is that of the United States and places the Romanian and Bulgarian cases within the context of those issues. Sections of the paper include: (1) "The Road to Madrid: Expansion of NATO"; (2) "No Easy Answers: The…

  12. Public expenditure and drug policies in Bulgaria in 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toni Yonkov Vekov

    2015-11-01

    National Health Insurance Fund in Bulgaria on the stability of the healthcare insurance model and the implementation of the budget for 2014. Results: The results from the current analysis indicate that the growth of public expenditure is directly proportional to the number of reimbursed medical products and that the pattern of prescriptions including the innovative medical products mainly for the treatment of oncological and rare diseases has a significant impact on it. Conclusion: The reasons for the increase of public expenditure in Bulgaria include the non-transparent decisions in pricing and reimbursement of the products, the lack of guidelines for presenting pharmacological evidence and the lack of legislatively-defined drug policies for the management and control of the patterns of medical prescriptions.

  13. Revisiting the conceptualization of “Turks” in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Fatková

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The information presented in this paper is based on repeated ethnographic fieldwork carried out in Bulgaria between 2008 and 2011. The aim of this study is to highlight the conceptual field of the ‘minority’ category and, in particular, of the construction of a ‘problematic minority’ in Bulgarian public discourse. First, the article focuses on the broad context of the concept of minority in Bulgaria illustrated by stereotypical statements of the Prime Minister Boyko Borissov. Next, the construction of a ‘problematic minorities’ category will be examined. We closely observe the stereotypes linked to the image of ‘Turks’, with particular attention to their presence in everyday speech.

  14. Review of the status of mammals in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Peshev

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the territory of Bulgaria are found 97 species of mammals, belonging to 8 orders. 37 of them are protected. 19 mammalian species are included in the Bulgarian Red Data Book. Two of them are extinct, 8 are endangered and 9 are rare. In Bulgaria there are no endemic mammals. Three species are extinct: Eliomys quercinus, Mustela lutreola and Lynx lynx. 5 species are introduced: Ondatra zibethica, Oryctolagus cuniculus, Cervus nippon, Cervus dama and Ovis ammon. The raccon dog (Nyctereustes procyonoides appeared by natural colonisation.

  15. Evidences for the Lynx recovery in Bulgaria: the Lynx discovered in Western Rhodopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NIKOLAI SPASSOV

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available On photographs taken by a camera trap in the region of Yagodina village, Western Rhodopes, (Bulgaria the presence of the Eurasian Lynx Lynx lynx L. has been registered in the summer of 2014. This is the most reliable to date argument for the presence in Rhodope mountains of this critically endangered species in Bulgaria and for its gradual dispersal from the western mountainous border region of Bulgaria to more appropriate country habitats inland.

  16. The Impact of Structural Reforms on Employment Growth and Labour Productivity: Evidence from Bulgaria and Romania

    OpenAIRE

    Dimova, Ralitza

    2003-01-01

    Using firm-level data from Bulgaria and Romania, this paper addresses a lacuna in the transition literature, namely, the link of firm-level employment turnover with firm-level growth in labour productivity. The results suggest that while net job creation at the firm level was affected by privatization in Bulgaria, privatization in Romania did not have any effect on firm-level employment growth. Further, Olley-Pakes (1996) decomposition indicates that in Bulgaria, over time, resources moved fr...

  17. Social Studies and Humanities Textbooks in Post-Socialist Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Psifidou, Irene

    2012-01-01

    As Bulgaria went through a radical socioeconomic transition involving democratization and integration in the European Union, school textbooks and curricular contents were progressively reviewed to reduce traces of bias, value judgments, ideological content and opinions, which were thought to inflame passions and sustain mistrust and misunderstandings. The present paper discusses important changes made in Bulgarian social studies and humanities textbooks since 1989, which involved discharging ...

  18. DEVELOPMENT AND PROBLEMS OF THE TOURISM IN BULGARIA

    OpenAIRE

    Vania Kuzdova Banabakova

    2007-01-01

    This study follows the development of the Bulgarian tourism, researches its problems and gives suggestion for improvement. The tourism in Bulgaria is one of the most developing branches during the past years. Despite of that, this research shows the existence of many problems. Mainly the problems are connected with the weak marketing and advertising national politics. The improvement of the tourist product and tourist services can be reached by segmentation of the tourist market, choice of su...

  19. Analysing and Monitoring Surveillance Data of Mumps in Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Mitova-Bobcheva, M.; Slavtchova-Bojkova, M.; Kojouharova, M; Kurchatova, A.

    2011-01-01

    2000 Mathematics Subject Classification: 62P10. This paper aims to present the applicability of the Bayesian methodology for monitoring surveillance data collected for vaccine-preventable diseases, like mumps, measles and possibly others. We investigate the ability of implemetation of the R-Package "surveillance" especially written for monitoring surveillance data to the mumps data kindly provided by the National Center of Infectious and Parasitic Diseases in Bulgaria. The research was ...

  20. Decision making pattern of subsistence farmers in Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Plamen Mishev; Philip Kostov

    2004-01-01

    Economic research by and large is dominated by a ‘rationality’ paradigm. Economic decision making within this paradigm is viewed as a maximising procedure. In general the latter represents the decision-making as a choice amongst a well defined set of alternatives. In this paper we question this and analyse the options of the small-scale subsistence farmers in Bulgaria in the way they see them. By applying mental accounting methodology we deduce some significant characteristics of Bulgarian su...

  1. Municipal Solid Waste Management in Bulgaria from a Systems Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Kolev, Aleksandar

    2007-01-01

    The European Union membership of Bulgaria since January 2007 imposes higher requirements to the national waste management system and demands changes in the current waste management practices. In this context it is of great interest to study the contemporary and possible future development of the Bulgarian municipal solid waste management system. A systems analysis was carried out to provide better understanding of the Bulgarian municipal solid waste management and to analyze the possibilities...

  2. Corporate Social Responsibility Activities Of Business Organizations In Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Kiril DIMITROV

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the results of a survey of corporate social responsibility activities, under-taken by a group of business entities in Bulgaria in the context of great political, economical and cultural changes that the country has been passing through from 1990 up to date, and that affected the organizational behaviour of locally operating companies, as well as the beliefs, values and underlying assumptions of the individuals, working there. Environmental factors, influencing the initia...

  3. Opportunities for developing communist heritage tourism in Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanov, Stanislav

    2009-01-01

    The paper analyses the possibilities to develop communist heritage tourism in Bulgaria. After a review of related literature, the paper identifies five characteristics of communist heritage tourism: ideologically overburdened type of tourism, controversial, represents a limited time period of history, represents a personality cult, concentration of resources in places related with communist history in the country (in cities and the countryside). The paper summarizes some of the most important...

  4. Corporate Governance Transformation in Transition Economies: Evidence from Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Peev, Evgeni

    2001-01-01

    The paper presents study of corporate governance evolution in Bulgaria and its convergence to EU structures. The author discusses the traditional approach to separation of ownership and control in transition economies and modern ideas about the need for changing corporate governance paradigm. The study analyses main ownership and control structures in the Bulgarian industry and specific property-rights structures in corporatized state-owned firms, privatized firms and established de novo priv...

  5. POLLEN MORPHOLOGY OF CROCUS L.(IRIDACEAE) IN BULGARIA

    OpenAIRE

    UZUNDZHALIEVA KATYA SPASOVA; Maria POPOVA TODOROVA

    2012-01-01

    The pollen of the wild species from the genus Crocus L., spread in Bulgaria has been analyzed. The investigations, made by light microscope show that the pollen of these species is spherical in shape and round in outlines, comparatively big. These morphological characteristics of the pollen of the wild Bulgarian Crocuses define it as a primitive one [6]. The Scanning Electron Microscope investigations, made by Beug [1], established two types of pollen morphology. The results of our investigat...

  6. The Decline in Intergenerational Mobility in Post-Socialist Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Tom Hertz; Mieke Meurs; Sibel Selcuk

    2007-01-01

    Economists studying developing and transition economies have recently drawn attention to the problem of intergenerational immobility, or the high rate of transmission of inequality from parent to child (World Bank 2005). One readily estimable measure of this intergenerational persistence of economic status is the degree of association between the educational attainment of parents and children. This paper documents that the strength of this association has doubled in Bulgaria since the end of ...

  7. THE TOURISM REGIONS IN BULGARIA – CONCEPTS AND CHALLENGES

    OpenAIRE

    Stankova, Mariya

    2010-01-01

    Bulgaria’s recent experience as tourism country raised the question about the importance of its tourism regions, and the effectiveness of marketing and advertising strategies. Very weak results were achieved about the “new” tourism region planning. The priority based in 2007 NTA (National Tourism Agency) – the regulator which is controlling the tourism policies in Bulgaria, defined the plan for contemporary needs about tourism planning of regions and the usage of that regions for observ...

  8. Computer simulations of the atmospheric composition climate of Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some extensive numerical simulations of the atmospheric composition fields in Bulgaria have been recently performed. The US EPA Model-3 system was chosen as a modelling tool. As the NCEP Global Analysis Data with 1 degree resolution was used as meteorological background, the MM5 and CMAQ nesting capabilities were applied for downscaling the simulations to a 3 km resolution over Bulgaria. The TNO emission inventory was used as emission input. Special pre-processing procedures are created for introducing temporal profiles and speciation of the emissions. The biogenic emissions of VOC are estimated by the model SMOKE. The simulations were carried out for years 2000-2007. The numerical experiments have been carried out for different emission scenarios, which makes it possible the contribution of emissions from different source categories to be evaluated. The Models-3 Integrated Process Rate Analysis option is applied to discriminate the role of different dynamic and chemical processes for the air pollution formation. The obtained ensemble of numerical simulation results is extensive enough to allow statistical treatment calculating not only the mean concentrations and different source categories contribution mean fields, but also standard deviations, skewness, etc. with their dominant temporal modes (seasonal and/or diurnal variations). Thus some basic facts about the atmospheric composition climate of Bulgaria can be retrieved from the simulation ensemble. (Author)

  9. [New materials on the history of veterinary medicine in Bulgaria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, M

    1979-01-01

    Several tens of ritual plates are preserved in Bulgaria on which elements of glorification are found of god Mithras who gained popularity particularly in the 1st-IIIrd century in the regions of Thrace and today's North Bulgaria, then provinces of the Eastern Roman Empire. Mithras seemed to be respected by slaves, soldiers, and merchants alike, but was also an exemplar to the Roman emperors, being considered by them as Sol invictus or Deo invicto. The central scene in all plates is that of Mithras tauroctonus (Mithras, the killer of bulls). This scene is likewise of interest to veterinarians as it shows that in such early epoch the people that lived within the territory of Bulgaria of today used a method for the felling of large animals, the elements of which--fixing the head and bending it backwards, fastening the thorax with a belt or another loop, loading the animal's back--are still existing and are used in a number of modern methods of felling (that of Hess, the Caucasian way of felling, the Chinese one of Dou-Chan-Than, etc.) Besides, the people of ancient time knew that ruminants have an incomplete upper dentition. They skilfully employed this to bring animals that had to be felled into an unusual nonphysiologic posture. Not sooner than 16 centuries prior to the preformists (the spermists) they supported the concept that the testes were the source of life.

  10. Contribution to the butterfly species of Belasitsa Mountain (SW Bulgaria and second record of Gonepteryx cleopatra (Linnaeus, 1767 from Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liuben Domozetski

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available At present, according to the literature data for Belasitsa Mountain are published 139 butterfly species. This article contributes to the knowleage of the butterfly fauna of the mountain by adding five more species. With this supplement the number of the butterflies’ fauna of Belasitsa Mountain increase to 144 species. This article also presents information about the second record of Gonepteryx cleopatra (Linnaeus, 1767 in Bulgaria.

  11. Contribution to the butterfly species of Belasitsa Mountain (SW Bulgaria) and second record of Gonepteryx cleopatra (Linnaeus, 1767) from Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Liuben Domozetski

    2013-01-01

    At present, according to the literature data for Belasitsa Mountain are published 139 butterfly species. This article contributes to the knowleage of the butterfly fauna of the mountain by adding five more species. With this supplement the number of the butterflies’ fauna of Belasitsa Mountain increase to 144 species. This article also presents information about the second record of Gonepteryx cleopatra (Linnaeus, 1767) in Bulgaria.

  12. 76 FR 50283 - Finding Regarding Foreign Social Insurance or Pension System-Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-12

    ... ADMINISTRATION Finding Regarding Foreign Social Insurance or Pension System-- Bulgaria AGENCY: Social Security Administration (SSA). ACTION: Notice of finding regarding foreign social insurance or pension system--Bulgaria... Commissioner of Social Security finds has in effect a social insurance or pension system which is of...

  13. Bulgaria's Policy for Regulatory Reform in the European Union : Converging with Europe's Best Regulatory Environments

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2007-01-01

    Bulgaria's entry into the EU Single Market raises new opportunities and new risks for the national economy. As shown in the rest of Europe, a program of regulatory reform offers an effective strategy for managing the risks of more intense competition while preparing Bulgarian companies to prosper within the largest economy in the world. Bulgaria has already made significant progress in reg...

  14. Nationalism and Declining Population in Bulgaria after 1990

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana Kotzeva

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Dieser Beitrag liegt nur in englischer Sprache vor.This paper aims to illuminate and provide a critical assessment of the nationalist discourse on declining population in Bulgaria. Nationalist discourse is one of the mainstream approaches in Bulgaria and is widely spread through mass media having been voiced by renowned intellectuals, policy experts, scholars and media celebrities. It can be recognised in the political programmes of left-wing and nationalist parties, but also in governmental documents at both national as well as regional levels. The nationalistically oriented advocates articulate current concerns regarding the declining birth rates and declining population in the country labelling the demographic situation as “Bulgarian national catastrophe” and “Bulgaria’s collapse”. They place an emphasis on the decreasing proportion of ethnic Bulgarians and the growth of the ethnic minorities, especially Roma. The latter trend was labelled by the derogatory term “gypsyisation”, i.e. a distortion of the Bulgarian nation and shrinkage of its core ethnicity – ethnic Bulgarians. The threat of the “gypsyisation” of the Bulgarian nation has not only been viewed in quantitative terms, but also through the lens of an alleged worsening of the national human capital (e.g. level of education, professional skills and civic culture of the population. Another set of arguments exploited in the nationalist discourse is the diminishing size of the Bulgarian nation as a threat to national sovereignty, territorial unity and economic stability. We use a qualitative content analysis and thematic analysis of media textual materials in order to reconstruct the main ideas, arguments and strategies of the proponents of the nationalist discourse regarding the consequences of the declining population in Bulgaria, its social policy implications and future demographic prospects.

  15. Managing uncertainty of young people's transitions to adulthood in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovacheva Siyka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the strategies of young people in Bulgaria for responding to and dealing with uncertainty in the passage to autonomy. It focuses on the active engagement of the young in the processes of identity formation and gaining independence, thus initiating a change in the common patterns of growing up. The biographical choices that the young make are analysed as embedded in a multilayered social context involving the interplay of macro societal changes, shifts in organisational policies and practices and restructuring of gender and generational relations in the family. Theoretically this paper builds upon the concept of uncertainty in understanding the dilemma of structure and agency in youth transitions. The analysis is based upon official statistical information about economic and demographic trends in 21st century Bulgaria and the findings of an organisational case study of a social service agency and biographical interviews with young working parents, which were conducted within the framework of the international Transitions project. Two case studies of individual strategies of young women - one from a working class family and the other from an ethnic minority - are presented in more detail in order to examine the agency they apply in coping with uncertainty and the resources they mobilize in devising (everyday and short-term life projects. The combination of quantitative and qualitative data allows a reflection on the process of managing uncertainty with regards to the past experiences, present meanings and future aspirations of young people as influenced by the contracting state support and contradictory company policies in Bulgaria.

  16. Hazard assessment for Romania–Bulgaria crossborder region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among the many kinds of natural and man-made disasters, earthquakes dominate with regard to their social and economical impact on the urban environment. Global seismic hazard and vulnerability to earthquakes are steadily increasing as urbanisation and development occupy more areas that are prone to effects of strong earthquakes. The assessment of the seismic hazard is particularly important, because it provides valuable information for seismic safety and disaster mitigation, and it supports decision making for the benefit of society. The main objective of this study is to assess the seismic hazard for Romania-Bulgaria cross-border region on the basis of integrated basic geo-datasets

  17. The design of the Bulgaria rad waste repository; Diseno del centro de almacenamiento de residuos radiactivos de Bulgaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefonova, I.; Petrov, I.; Navarro, M.; Sanchez, M.; Medinilla, G.

    2012-11-01

    In October 2011 a consortium composed by Westinghouse Engineering Spain SAU, ENRESA and DBE Technology GmbH was awarded a contract for the design of the Bulgaria rad waste repository. The facility, inspired in the spanish centre of El Cabril owned by ENRESA, will consist of a 66 reinforced concrete cells surface repository capable of receiving 18600 already conditioned waste containers of 20 t each, during 60 years, and the related auxiliary facilities and buildings. The project, representing a challenge because of the schedule and required level of detail, goes on fulfilling main milestones and getting customer satisfaction. (Author)

  18. Prerequisites to promote energy efficiency investments in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The PHARE Energy Programme's team observation and advice to the Committee of Energy in Bulgaria are outlined. In comparison to the Western European countries energy intensity in Bulgaria is 2-3 times higher. It is explained by the energy intensive industrial structure and the old and depreciated capital equipment. Cost-covering energy prices would make energy efficiency investment financially feasible and would attract financiers. But the lesson from Western European experience is that availability of finance capital and cost reflecting energy prices is not at all a necessary prerequisite for energy efficiency improvement. This improvement can be achieved with no cost or low cost measures. The potential for energy efficiency in industry (consuming more than 50% of the energy) is 11%-20%; in buildings - 6%; in transport - 4%. There are other obstacles, as lack of information, other business interests and no internal expertise, especially for small and medium size industries. The basic prerequisite to improve energy efficiency is raising of awareness and change of management culture, as well as radical change in organisational and management structures. (orig.)

  19. Asbestos exposure and mesothelioma incidence and mortality in Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vangelova, Katya; Dimitrova, Irina

    2016-06-01

    Bulgaria totally banned the import, production and use of asbestos in 2005, but produced and used asbestos products during the last 3-4 decades of the 20th century. The aim of this study was to follow the incidence and mortality of mesothelioma in Bulgaria in relation to past occupational exposures. A literature search between 1960 and 2014 was conducted to obtain information on asbestos consumption, occupational exposure and asbestos-related diseases (ARDs). Data on registered mesotheliomas were provided by the National Cancer Register and data for recognized occupational ARDs were provided by the National Social Security Institute. An increase in the incidence of mesothelioma from 5 to 58 from 1993 to 2013, with 666 cases in the 21-year period, was registered. Incidence, mortality rates, deaths and male-to-female ratios and were lower in comparison to industrialized countries. The increase in mesothelioma incidence is considered as a consequence of more recent production and use of asbestos and asbestos products and the high occupational exposure between 1977 and 1989, while the lower rate of mesothelioma deaths and male-to-female ratio need to be investigated further. PMID:27180335

  20. Derecho-like event in Bulgaria on 20 July 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gospodinov, Ilian; Dimitrova, Tsvetelina; Bocheva, Lilia; Simeonov, Petio; Dimitrov, Rumen

    2015-05-01

    In this work we analyze the development of a severe-convective-storm system in northwestern Bulgaria on 20 July 2011 which exhibited derecho-like characteristics. Prior to this event, a derecho had never been documented in Bulgaria. The convective system was associated with a cold front. We present a synoptic-scale analysis of the evolution of the cold front and an overview of the wind and the damage that has occurred in the region with the strongest impact. The convective system consisted of two multi-cell thunderstorms that are analyzed in some detail, based on radar data. The two storms merged and the convective system evolved into a bow-shape reflectivity structure with two rear inflow notches. The analysis of the radar data revealed cloud top heights of 17 km, with the formation of а bounded weak echo region, a maximum radar reflectivity factor of 63 dBZ, and wind speeds above 30 m/s. The field investigation revealed patterns in the damaged crops typical of strong wind gusts.

  1. Population genetic structure of Platanus orientalis L. in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grueva M

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the results of a genetic survey on population structure of Platanus orientalis L. in Bulgaria. Nine populations from southern Bulgaria were investigated by using isozyme gene markers. Nine of the enzyme systems were polymorphic. The populations revealed minor polymorphism, which indicates that the predominant allele was the same for all populations and its frequencies were higher than 0.5. The average number of alleles varied from 2.2 to 2.3, and the effective number of alleles ranged from 1.294 to 1.406. The percent of polymorphic loci ranged from 53.8% to 76.9%. Heterozygosity in the populations (average: 0.242; range: 0.229-0.289 was higher than the mean values reported for broad-leaved species (0.183. The expected and observed heterozygosities had similar values. The results showed that genetic diversity among populations measured by FST (0.077 and genetic distances (mean 0.029 was within the range of the values for Angiosperm tree species. The information could be used for designing proper gene conservation strategies.

  2. Aphids (Hemiptera, Aphididae on ornamental plants in greenhouses in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariya Yovkova

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Investigations on the species composition and host range of aphids on ornamental greenhouse plants in Bulgaria was conducted over a period of five years, from 2008 to 2012. Twenty greenhouses, growing ornamentals for landscaping, plant collections and other purposes were observed. They were located in the regions of Sofia, Plovdiv, Smolyan, Pavlikeni, Varna and Burgas. The total number of collected aphid samples was 279. Their composition included 33 aphid species and one subspecies from 13 genera and 5 subfamilies. Twenty-eight species were found to belong to subfamily Aphidinae. Almost 70 % of all recorded species were polyphagous. The most widespread aphid species was Myzus persicae, detected in 13 greenhouses all year round, followed by Aulacorthum solani (10 greenhouses and Aphis gossypii (9 greenhouses. The widest host range was shown by Myzus persicae (43 hosts, Aulacorthum solani (32 hosts and Aulacorthum circumflexum (23 hosts.The list of host plants includes 114 species from 95 genera and 58 families. The greatest variety of aphid species was detected on Hibiscus (9 species. Out of all aphid samples 12.9 % were collected on Hibiscus and 6.8 %, on Dendranthema. The greatest variety of aphid species was detected on Hibiscus (9 species.Periphyllus californiensis and Aphis (Aphis fabae mordvilkoi are reported for the first time for Bulgaria. Furthermore, Aphis spiraecola has been found in new localities and has widened its host range in this country.

  3. Detection of Dobrava hantavirus RNA in Apodemus mice in Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christova, Iva; Plyusnina, Angelina; Gladnishka, Teodora; Kalvatchev, Nikolay; Trifonova, Iva; Dimitrov, Hristo; Mitkovska, Vesela; Mohareb, Emad; Plyusnin, Alexander

    2015-02-01

    Several Hantaviruses cause hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in Europe: Dobrava-Belgrade virus (DOBV), Puumala, Saaremaa, Sochi, and Seoul virus. Although HFRS is endemic in Bulgaria, genome sequences of hantaviruses have never been detected in wild rodents. To identify rodent reservoirs, a total of 691 rodents from three endemic regions were trapped in 2011-2012 and screened by TaqMan RT-PCR for detection of hantaviral genomic RNA. Partial small (S) and/or large (L)-segment sequences were recovered from six Apodemus mice: five of the species A. flavicollis and one A. agrarius. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that all recovered sequences belonged to DOBV. On the phylogenetic trees, the novel Bulgarian hantavirus sequences clustered together with sequences of established previously DOBV variants recovered from Bulgarian HFRS patients and also with variants found in wild rodents trapped in Slovenia, Greece, and Slovakia. One of the novel Bulgarian DOBV S-sequences from A. agrarius was related closely to DOBV sequences recovered from A. flavicollis, suggesting a spillover of DOBV from its natural host to A. agrarius mice. The results of this study confirmed the circulation of DOBV in wild rodents in Bulgaria. The complexity of the epidemiological situation in the Balkans requires further studies of hantaviruses in rodent hosts and human HFRS cases. PMID:25521059

  4. Performance of some sunflower genotypes grown under dry weather conditions in south Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurettin Tahsin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Information on yield and agricultural performance of new sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. hybrids grown under dry weather conditions in South Bulgaria is limited. The objectives of this field study is to acquire information on seed yield and other agricultural characteristics of five sunflower hybrids and their parental lines in South Bulgaria. This research was carried out on the Experimental farm at the Agricultural University in Plovdiv, Bulgaria in the seasons of 2008 and 2009. Statistical analysis revealed that the differences among genotypes for all studied characters were significant in both seasons as well as in the combined one.

  5. Essential oil composition of Achillea clusiana from Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trendafilova, Antoaneta; Todorova, Milka; Vitkova, Antonina

    2010-01-01

    The essential oil compositon of Achillea clusiana Tausch from Bulgaria has been studied by GC and GC/MS. Fifty-four components were registered, representing 92.5% of the oil. The oil was characterized by the presence of oxygenated mono- and sesquiterpenoids. The main components were beta-thujone (17.2%), 1,8-cineole (11.2%), camphor (11.1%) and alpha-thujone (7.8%). Farnesol (3.1%), nerolidol (2.7%) and oxygenated nerolidol derivatives (cabreuva oxides A-D, isohumbertiols A-D, bejarol and 7-hydroxy-6,7-dihydro-5,6E-dehydronerolidol) were the main sesquiterpenoids in the oil. PMID:20184037

  6. The economic crisis and energy consumption in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The economic crisis in Bulgaria is manifested already before 1989 and has strong impact on energy consumption in 1989-1992. The generalized picture of economic development in this period gives the dynamics of the gross national product (GNP). The drop in GNP is about 23% and is accompanied by significant structural changes in different sectors. The final energy consumption decreased with about 50%. Based on the analysis of the economy-energy consumption interaction in different sectors, detailed economic data are given on the structure of the final energy consumption and dynamics of energy intensity by sectors. Some conclusions are drown and proposals for radical changes and long-term measures for improvement the situation are outlined. 2 refs., 3 tabs., 4 figs. (author)

  7. Chromosome study of three species of Dormice from Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Peshev

    1995-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The karyotypes of three species of dormice were studied. The fat dormouse Myoxus glis is reported with 2n=62. The forest dormouse Dryomys nitedula has 2n=48 and the hazel dormouse Muscardinus avellanarius is reported with 2n=46. A secondary constriction is well visible in all three species. Riassunto Studio cromosomico di tre specie di Mioxidi in Bulgaria - Sono stati studiati i cariotipi di tre specie di mioxidi. M. glis è caratterizzato da 2n=62, D. nitedula da 2n=48 e M. avellanarius da 2n=46. Una costrizione secondaria è ben visibile in tutte e tre le specie.

  8. Scenarios of energy demand and efficiency potential for Bulgaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tzvetanov, P.; Ruicheva, M.; Denisiev, M.

    1996-12-31

    The paper presents aggregated results on macroeconomic and final energy demand scenarios developed within the Bulgarian Country Study on Greenhouse Gas Emissions Mitigation, supported by US Country Studies Program. The studies in this area cover 5 main stages: (1) {open_quotes}Baseline{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}Energy Efficiency{close_quotes} socioeconomic and energy policy philosophy; (2) Modeling of macroeconomic and sectoral development till 2020; (3) Expert assessments on the technological options for energy efficiency increase and GHG mitigation in the Production, Transport and Households and Services Sectors; (4) Bottom-up modeling of final energy demand; and (5) Sectoral and overall energy efficiency potential and policy. Within the Bulgarian Country Study, the presented results have served as a basis for the final integration stage {open_quotes}Assessment of the Mitigation Policy and Measures in the Energy System of Bulgaria{close_quotes}.

  9. POLLEN MORPHOLOGY OF CROCUS L.(IRIDACEAE IN BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    UZUNDZHALIEVA KATYA SPASOVA

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The pollen of the wild species from the genus Crocus L., spread in Bulgaria has been analyzed. The investigations, made by light microscope show that the pollen of these species is spherical in shape and round in outlines, comparatively big. These morphological characteristics of the pollen of the wild Bulgarian Crocuses define it as a primitive one [6]. The Scanning Electron Microscope investigations, made by Beug [1], established two types of pollen morphology. The results of our investigation led to the conclusion that the same types are also presented in Bulgarian species: – C.biflorus –type, or syncolpate and C.vernus – type, or inaperturate. Eight of the species belong to the first type and only C. pallasii belongs to the second. The pollen of C. reticulatus is with quite unclear aperture – maybe transition to the inaperturate type.

  10. Measurement of indoor radon concentration in kindergartens in Sofia, Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Kremena; Stojanovska, Zdenka; Tsenova, Martina; Badulin, Viktor; Kunovska, Bistra

    2014-11-01

    As a part of the systematic survey of indoor radon in Bulgaria, the indoor radon concentration was measured in 296 kindergarten buildings of Sofia city during 3 months (February to April 2013) using the CR-39 nuclear tract detectors. In 256 buildings at least two frequently occupied rooms (mainly playrooms) were observed. Altogether, 922 measurements were performed. The frequency distribution was well described by the lognormal function. The measured radon concentrations range between 9 and 1415 Bq m(-3) with a geometric mean of 101 Bq m(-3) (2.08) and an arithmetic mean 132 Bq m(-3) with a standard deviation of 118 Bq m(-3). The radon concentrations obtained in this survey were compared with that in Sofia city dwellings obtained from a previous study. A detailed statistical analysis of the building factors was presented.

  11. Genetic heterogeneity of polycystic kidney disease in Bulgaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogdanova, N. [Faculty of Medicine, Sofia (Bulgaria)]|[Westfaelische Wihelms-Universitaet, Muenster (Germany); Dragova, D.; Kalaydiieva, L. [Faculty of Medicine, Sofia (Bulgaria)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is a common genetic disorder whose frequency in Bulgaria has been estimated at 1 in 950. One gene (PKD1) causing this disease has been mapped to the short arm of chromosome 16 in 1985. Linkage analysis showed that in a considerable proportion of PKD families (approximately 14% in Europe) the disease is not linked to this locus, suggesting the existance of mutations in additional genes. In 1993 a PKD2-gene has been mapped to the long arm of chromosome 4. Here we report data of the first extensive investigation of PKD in Bulgaria. Initially 35 families with 341 individuals (178 affected, 89 unaffected family members, 74 spouses) were included in the study. Clinical diagnosis, mainly based on ultrasonographic examination of the kidneys, has been performed for all individuals. Linkage analysis was performed on 22 large pedigrees with microsatellites 16SC2.5 (D16S291) and SM7 (D16S283), which are closely linked to the PKD1 locus, as well as microsatellites D4S392, D4S400, D4S231 (proximal to the PDK2 locus) and D4S423, D4S414, D4S411 (distal to PKD2 locus). The study showed that the disease is caused in 14 families by mutations within the PKD1 gene and was clearly linked to the PDK2 locus in 5 families. In 3 families no clear conclusions about the linkage could be reached and analysis of additional markers from this region is in progress. The investigation has revealed the highest proportion of PKD2 families reported so far in Europe (23%). In addition, comparison of the severity of the clinical course of PKD1 and PKD2 families failed to confirm statistically significant differences which have been reported.

  12. Leadership training in science, technology, engineering and mathematics education in Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bairaktarova, Diana; Cox, Monica F.; Evangelou, Demetra

    2011-12-01

    This synthesis paper explores current leadership training in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) education in Bulgaria. The analysis begins with discussion of global factors influencing the implementation of leadership training in STEM education in general and then presents information about the current status of leadership training in Bulgaria with emphases on the country's economics, politics and geographical location as specific factors influencing leadership education. A short background of Bulgaria is presented with regard to population, gross domestic product, educational system, engineering force and possible need for leaders in industry in Bulgaria and the European Union. The paper provides an overall view about the current status of leadership training in all Bulgarian universities offering STEM education and concentrates specifically on two major universities by examining their currently offered programmes. As part of the discussion, similar training elements in other European countries and the USA are presented.

  13. Presentations at TENCompetence Workshop in Sofia, Bulgaria. March 30th-31st, 2006

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Several

    2006-01-01

    Several (2006). Presentations at International Workshop in Learning Networks for Lifelong Competence Development. March, 30-31, 2006, Sofia, Bulgaria: TENCompetence Conference. The full proceedings can be downloaded at: http://hdl.handle.net/1820/836.

  14. Origin-labeled Products - Food Quality and Food Safety in Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Plamen Mishev; Emilia Valcheva

    2005-01-01

    Bulgaria has complicated systems for food quality and food safety control. Responsibility for them is divided among several institutions. The control system is still overstaffed and insufficient co-ordination between its different parts prevail; the current control system does not meet the requirements of the new EU approach: traceability and transparency. In the last years the improvement of food quality and food safety systems in Bulgaria has been substantial - both from legislative and ins...

  15. A new outbreak of brucellosis in Bulgaria detected in July 2015--preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nenova, Rumiana; Tomova, Iskra; Saparevska, Raina; Kantardjiev, Todor

    2015-01-01

    During July 2015 a brucellosis outbreak was detected in Kyustendil district, west Bulgaria. As of 15 August, 31 patients have been diagnosed all with an epidemiological connection to Rila town. Patients have not travelled/worked abroad. Breeding family-owned goats and/or improper use of their milk appear to be the main risk factors for transmission of the infection. This second autochthonous brucellosis outbreak in Bulgaria since 2006, affects the western part of the country.

  16. Business Cycle Accounting: Bulgaria after the introduction of the currency board arrangement (1999-2014)

    OpenAIRE

    Vasilev, Aleksandar

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on explaining the economic fluctuations in Bulgaria after the introduction of the currency board arrangement in 1997, the period of macroeconomic stability that ensued, the EU accession, and the episode of the recent global financial crisis. This paper follows Chari et al. (2002) and performs business cycle accounting (BCA) for Bulgaria during the period 1999-2014. As in Cavalcanti (2007), who studies the Portuguese business cycles, most of the volatility in output per capi...

  17. A case of integration of organic dairy sheep farm in value chains in Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Bachev, Hrabrin

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the state of integration of small scale dairy farms in value chains in Bulgaria and a case study on organic farming as a new prospective approach for market inclusion. It outlines the evolution of dairy sheep farming and organic production; analyzes the pace, factors and impacts of development of a successful organic dairy sheep farm from North-West Bulgaria; specifies driving factors and prospects of small-scale organic farming development; assesses possibilities for repl...

  18. ODONATA FROM BULGARIA IN THE COLLECTION OF NATIONAL MUSEUM OF BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA

    OpenAIRE

    Kulijer, Dejan; Marinov, Milen

    2010-01-01

    The entomological collection of the National Museum of Bosnia and Herzegovina is one of the oldest Balkan insect collections. Eighty-seven (87) dragonfly specimens from 19 species that originate from Bulgaria were found in this collection. In this paper we present the oldest and till now unknown records of dragonflies from Bulgaria from this collection. Some interesting and new distribution data on several species are also presented and discussed.

  19. PROFILES AND PREFERENCES OF ON-LINE MILLENIAL SHOPPERS IN BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia R. Loubeau

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This research seeks to develop a better understanding of the factors affecting on-line purchasing behavior among Generation Y (Gen Y consumers in Bulgaria. Also called millenials and born between the mid-1970s and late 1990s, this generation is especially active on-line and will be a dominant influence shaping e-commerce. An empirical study was conducted based on a written survey of a sample consisting of 367 high school and university students in Bulgaria. The most important reason why Bulgarian young people shop on-line is the pursuit of unique products not locally available, followed by convenience and better pricing, and their favorite category of internet purchases is “Apparel and Accessories.” Bulgarian millennials are using the internet to shop for trendy fashion and to obtain a variety of brands that are unavailable locally. Like other regions of the world, concern about financial transactions security is a major barrier limiting the willingness to shop on-line in Bulgaria. Unlike other markets where on-line music purchases are growing, high levels of digital piracy in Bulgaria strongly discourage Bulgarian students from purchasing music on-line. One limitation of this study arises because of its reliance on a convenience sample of students from medium sized cities in Southern Bulgaria. Further research employing stratified random sampling across Bulgaria is needed to assess whether the findings are broadly generalizable for the Gen Y population.

  20. Simulator training and human factor reliability in Kozloduy NPP, Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is a PowerPoint presentation. Situated in North Bulgaria, in the vicinity of the town of Kozloduy, near the Danube River bank, there is the Bulgarian Kozloduy Nuclear Power plant operating four WWER-440 and two WWER-1000 units. Units 1 and 2 were commissioned in July, 1974 and November, 1975, respectively. These were shut down at the end of 2003. Units 3 and 4 were commissioned in December, 1980 and May, 1982. They were shut down at the end of 2006 as a precondition for Bulgaria's accession to the European Union. The 1000 MW units 5 and 6 of Kozloduy NPP were commissioned in September, 1988 and December, 1993, respectively. Large-scale modernization have been implemented and now the units meet all international safety standards. The paper describes the multifunctional simulator Kozloduy NPP for the operational staff training. The training stages are as follows: - Preparatory; -Theoretical studies; - Training at the Training Centre by means of technical devices; - Preparation and sitting for an exam before a Kozloduy NPP expert commission; - Simulator training ; - Preparation to obtain a permit for a license, corresponding to the position to begin work at the NPP; - Exams before the Nuclear Regulatory Agency (NRA) and licensing; - Shadow training at the working place; - Permission for unaided operation. The following positions are addressed by the simulator training: - Chief Plant Supervisor; - Shift Unit Supervisor; - Senior Reactor Operator; - Simulator Instructor; - Controller physicist; -Senior Turbine Operator; - Senior Operator of Turbine Feedwater Pumps of Kozloduy NPP. Improving of training method led to a reduction of number of significant events while worldwide practice proves that improvement of engineering resulted in an increase in the percentage of events, related to human factor. Analysis of human reliability in 2005 and 2006 in cooperation with representatives from Great Britain and the Technical University in Sofia were worked on the DTI NSP B

  1. An ethnobotanical study of wild edible plants in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anely Nedelcheva

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study focuses on the wild vascular plants traditionally used for human consumption in Bulgaria and its aim is to present data about the richness and diversity of plants used as a nutrition source, about folk botanical knowledge and to give an impression about their contemporary state and development in relation to natural plant resources and traditional food culture. The study covers the period from the end of 19th to the middle of the 20th century. Materials and Methods: The study gathered data from more than 30 ethnobotanical and ethnographical sources which provide information for the end of 19th to the middle of the 20th century, in addition to field data collected through semi-structured interviews. Results: A total of 88 wild plant species, 25 families and 52 genera were identified as edible plants. Prevailing are representatives of Rosaceae, Amaranthaceae, Amaryllidaceae, Brassicaceae, Compositae and Polygonaceae. The largest numbers of species are from Allium, Rumex and Chenopodium. Similar in number are the species which are used as leaves (43 and fruits (38, followed by young shoots (9, seeds (7, roots (4, bulbs (4 and inflorescences (2. The largest group is from plants whose aboveground parts are gathered mainly during the spring and used as vegetables. Important species are Urtica dioica, Rumex acetosa, Rumex patientia, Chenopodium album, Atriplex prostrata and Amaranthus retroflexus. The fruits are mostly gathered from Rosaceae, Adoxaceae, Ericaceae and Vitaceae shrubs and trees. The study determined eight major food groups: fresh greens and fruits, stuffed pies, stewed and boiled greens, boiled cereals, sweets (boiled fruit products, dried fruits, snacks and lacto-fermented products. The predominant taste is salty-sour-spicy. Some of wild foods are also used for medicinal purposes and included in preventing or healing diets. Conclusion: Today’s traditional diet is very different from the past. Bulgaria provides a

  2. Comparative mineralogical characteristics of red soils from South Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlena Yaneva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to compare mineralogical composition of red soils, formed on marbles in South Bulgaria. We used mineralogical analysis of heavy and light mineral fraction in immersion under polarizing microscope and X-ray diffraction analysis of bulk sample and clay fraction. Three test polygons, located in South Bulgaria were examined: Petrovo, Nova Lovcha and Dobrostan, which are characterized with different latitude, altitude, and exposition. Three or more sites from each polygon were sampled and analyzed. The red soils are formed on white and gray calcite and calcite-dolomite marbles, impure silicate-rich marbles and only in one site – on marble breccias. We determined the following mineral phases in red soils: calcite, dolomite, quarts, and feldspars, mica, illite-type mica, illite, smectite, vermiculite-smectite, and kaolinite. Heavy minerals are represented by amphibole, titanite and epidote, and minor amounts of zircon, garnet, tourmaline, rutile, pyroxene, andalusite, kyanite, sillimanite and apatite. Opaque minerals are predominantly goethite and hematite. Plant tissue is abundant in light fraction from the uppermost soil horizons. Analyses of heavy mineral fraction show presence of metamorphic and igneous minerals which indicate participation of weathering products from other rock types in the nearby area. The types of heavy minerals in soils depend more on composition of parent rocks and geomorphic position than on climate type. Soils from Nova Lovcha show similar composition, but the quantity of goethite and hematite significantly increase in soil from plain. Typical high-metamorphic minerals as andalusite, kyanite and sillimanite present only in Nova Lovcha, while garnet dominates in Petrovo and opaque minerals - in Dobrostan. Red soils, formed on slopes, where erosion prevails over accumulation, contain more illite, smectite and vermiculite-smectite, and very few or no kaolinite, whereas the kaolinite is dominant in soils

  3. Advances in molecular surveillance of Clostridium difficile in Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobreva, Elina G; Ivanov, Ivan N; Vathcheva-Dobrevska, Rossitza S; Ivanova, Katucha I; Asseva, Galina D; Petrov, Petar K; Kantardjiev, Todor V

    2013-09-01

    The increasing incidence of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in Bulgaria has indicated the need to implement better surveillance approaches. The aim of the present work was to improve the current surveillance of CDI in Bulgaria by introducing innovative methods for identification and typing. One hundred and twenty stool samples obtained from 108 patients were studied over 4 years from which 32 C. difficile isolates were obtained. An innovative duplex EvaGreen real-time PCR assay based on simultaneous detection of the gluD and tcdB genes was developed for rapid C. difficile identification. Four toxigenic profiles were distinguished by PCR: A(+)B(+)CDT(-) (53.1 %, 17/32), A(-)B(+)CDT(-) (28.1 %, 9/32), A(+)B(+)CDT(+) (9.4 %, 3/32) and A(-)B(-)CDT(-) (9.4 %, 3/32). PCR ribotyping and multilocus variable number of tandem repeat analysis (MLVA7) were used for molecular characterization of the isolates. In total, nine distinct ribotypes were confirmed and the most prevalent for Bulgarian hospitals was 017 followed by 014/020, together accounting for 44 % of all isolates. Eighteen per cent of the isolates (6/32) did not match any of the 25 reference ribotypes available in this study. Twenty-four MLVA7 genotypes were detected among the clinical C. difficile isolates, distributed as follows: five for 017 ribotype, two for 014/020, 001, 002, 012 and 046 each, and one each for ribotypes 023, 070 and 078. The correlation between the typing methods was significant and allowed the identification of several clonal complexes. These results suggest that most C. difficile cases in the eight Bulgarian hospitals studied were associated with isolates belonging to the outbreak ribotypes 017 and 014/20, which are widely distributed in Europe. The real-time PCR protocol for simultaneous detection of gluD and tcdB proved to be very effective and improved C. difficile identification and confirmation of clinical C. difficile isolates. PMID:23598377

  4. Tourism Competitiveness Index – An Empirical Analysis Romania vs. Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai CROITORU

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In the conditions of the current economic downturn, many specialists consider tourism as one of the sectors with the greatest potential to provide worldwide economic growth and development. A growing tourism sector can contribute effectively to employment, increase national income, and can also make a decisive mark on the balance of payments. Thus, tourism can be an important driving force for growth and prosperity, especially in emerging economies, being a key element in reducing poverty and regional disparities. Despite its contribution to economic growth, tourism sector development can be undermined by a series of economic and legislative barriers that can affect the competitiveness of this sector. In this context, the World Economic Forum proposes, via the Tourism Competitiveness Index (TCI, in addition to a methodology to identify key factors that contribute to increasing tourism competitiveness, tools for analysis and evaluation of these factors. In this context, this paper aims to analyze the underlying determinants of TCI from the perspective of two directly competing states, Romania and Bulgaria in order to highlight the effects of communication on the competitiveness of the tourism sector. The purpose of this analysis is to provide some answers, especially in terms of communication strategies, which may explain the completely different performances of the two national economies in the tourism sector.

  5. ECONOMIC AND FINANCIAL ANALYSIS OF PEANUT PRODUCTION IN BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelly BENCHEVA

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Peanut is not listed as one of the major crops in the Bulgarian agricultural sector, but its economic and fi nancial viability is promising, but unknown. We use enterprise budgets, capital budgeting techniques, risk analysis and logistic regression models to examine the fi nancial and economic structure of peanut farms and to evaluate the factors infl uencing short and long-term profi tability. The results show that peanut production is a profi table venture for most peanut farmers in Bulgaria. Long-run analyses show that peanut production may be economically feasible and producers engaged in production for a period of seven years, and at a discount rate of 13%, may generate internal rates of return (IRR that vary from -20.57% to 67.39%. About 70% of the farms studied had IRRs greater than the discount rate. Sensitivity analyses show that profi tability of peanut production was infl uenced by yield and variable costs. There were risks at the village level associated with peanut production.

  6. Polonium 210 content in foodstuffs produced in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study of the content of polonium-210 in a variety of foodstuffs produced in Bulgaria in 1970 revealed peak radionuclide concentration in wheat - 6.7 pCi/kg, followed by prunes - 2.2 pCi/kg, cabbage - 1.86 pCi/kg, peppers - 1.64 pCi/kg. The content of polonium-210 in onions, meat and potatoes was low (0.5, 0.8 and 0.9 pCi/kg accordingly). All other food products studied - milk, bread, beans, eggs, tomatoes, apples, pears, grapes and drinking water - appeared to have approximately equal polonium-210 concentration - from 1.21 to 1.35 pCi/kg. The daily intake of polonium-210 with food and water amounted accordingly to 1.61, 1.79 and 2.08 pCi/kg in preschool children, in school children and in senile individuals. The major part (68 - 82 per cent) of incorporated polonium-210 was eliminated with the stools. In all age groups the amount of polonium-210 removed daily from the body with the excreta corresponded to the intake, i.e. the balance of polonium-210 was in a state of equilibrium. The age factor in all three groups exerted no effect on the radionuclide intake and elimination from the body. (Ch.K.)

  7. 76 FR 63985 - Notice of Receipt of Cultural Property Request From the Government of the Republic of Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Notice of Receipt of Cultural Property Request From the Government of the Republic of Bulgaria Bulgaria, concerned that its cultural heritage is in jeopardy from pillage, made a request to the Government of...

  8. Fresh and Spent Nuclear Fuel Repatriation from the IRT-2000 Research Reactor Facility, Sofia, Bulgaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. J. Allen; T. G. Apostolov; I. S. Dimitrov

    2009-03-01

    The IRT 2000 research reactor, operated by the Bulgarian Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy (INRNE), safely shipped all of their Russian-origin nuclear fuel from the Republic of Bulgaria to the Russian Federation beginning in 2003 and completing in 2008. These fresh and spent fuel shipments removed all highly enriched uranium (HEU) from Bulgaria. The fresh fuel was shipped by air in December 2003 using trucks and a commercial cargo aircraft. One combined spent fuel shipment of HEU and low enriched uranium (LEU) was completed in July 2008 using high capacity VPVR/M casks transported by truck, barge, and rail. The HEU shipments were assisted by the Russian Research Reactor Fuel Return Program (RRRFR) and the LEU spent fuel shipment was funded by Bulgaria. This report describes the work, approvals, organizations, equipment, and agreements required to complete these shipments and concludes with several major lessons learned.

  9. Assessment of the mitigation options in the energy system in Bulgaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christov, C.; Vassilev, C.; Simenova, K. [and others

    1996-12-31

    Bulgaria signed the Framework Convention on Climate Change at the UNCEP in Rio in June 1992. The parliament ratified the Convention in March 1995. In compliance with the commitments arising under the Convention, Bulgaria elaborates climate change polity. The underlying principles in this policy are Bulgaria to joint the international efforts towards solving climate change problems to the extent that is adequate to both the possibilities of national economy and the options to attract foreign investments. All policies and measures implemented should be as cost-effective as possible. The Bulgarian GHG emission profile reveals the energy sector as the most significant emission source and also as an area where the great potential for GHG emissions reduction exists. This potential could be achieved in many cases by relatively low cost or even no-cost options. Mitigation analysis incorporates options in energy demand and energy supply within the period 1992-2020.

  10. First records of Laboulbeniales (Ascomycota on ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albena Lapeva-Gjonova

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The myrmecophilous fungi Rickia wasmannii Cavara, 1899 and Laboulbenia camponoti S. W. T. Batra, 1963 (Ascomycota: Laboulbeniales are reported for the first time from Bulgaria. Rickia wasmannii was found on Myrmica scabrinodis Nylander, 1846 ant workers (Hymenoptera: Formicidae in South-eastern Bulgaria near to the Black Sea coast. This is the easternmost record of Rickia wasmannii in Europe. Laboulbenia camponoti was found in six different localities in Bulgaria on the carpenter ants Camponotus aethiops (Latreille, 1798, C. universitatis Forel, 1890 and C. pilicornis (Roger, 1859. Camponotus aethiops and C. universitatis are new hosts for the fungus. For both fungi species the known distribution and host ranges summarized. This is the first record of the ant species Camponotus pilicornis for the Bulgarian fauna.

  11. National magnetic database for the topsoil samples from Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordanova, Diana; Jordanova, Neli; Petrov, Petar

    2015-04-01

    Establishment of topsoil magnetic database on a national scale provides important source of information, necessary for the purposes of soil classification; soil drainage; as an indirect estimate of the total soil carbon and initial planning in precision agriculture. Five hundred and ten topsoil samples from the upper 20cm of natural unpolluted soils from the territory of Bulgaria have been characterized by detailed magnetic measurements, including mass-specific magnetic susceptibility; frequency dependent magnetic susceptibility, Anhysteretic remanence, Isothermal remanence and their ratios; hysteresis parameters and ratios; as well as soil reaction (pH). Histograms of the measured parameters per soil type and for the whole database reveal specific peculiarities and dependence from different factors. According to the results from the factor analysis, 77% from the total variance can be explained by four factors. The main factor is dominated by the contribution from concentration-dependent magnetic parameters. The second factor reflects the role of fine-grained pedogenic magnetic fraction; while the third one is determined by the properties of the parent material. The fourth factor is governed by the effects from the internal structural peculiarities of the magnetic particles. The results from cluster analysis reveal the role of soil type and geology for the observed magnetic characteristics. The first two clusters separate soils, developed on volcanogenic/volcanic rocks and loess sediments. The third cluster is dominated by the soil type variable and includes mainly Cambisols, developed on different parent rocks. The fourth cluster separates soils developed on sedimentary rocks. The results emphasize the major role of geology (parent material) for the magnetic signature of topsoil samples on a national scale using sampling density of 1sample/200km2.

  12. UNMET NEEDS FOR HEALTH CARE SERVICES IN BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elka Atanasova

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: In all European countries, an important policy objective is the equity of access to health care. The factors that affect access to health care can differ as the demand- and supply-side factors. Moreover, there are many tools to assess the extent of inequity in access to services. One simple tool is the assessing reports of unmet needs for health care. Purpose: The study has two objectives: to examine the evidence of self-reported unmet needs and to analyze the relationship between foregone medical care and both type of residence and socioeconomic status. Materials and Methods: We use data from the European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions. The access to health care is measured using the concept of unmet need for medical examination or treatment during the last 12 months. The relationship between foregone medical care and both type of residence and socioeconomic status is examined through the representative survey conducted in 2014. Results: The Eurostat results show that treatment costs are the most common reason for foregone medical care in Bulgaria. We observe a gradual decrease in the share of people who reported having unmet needs due to being too expensive. According to the 2014 survey, significant differences between urban and rural areas as well as among the income groups are identified. The results show the problems in access to health care services mainly in small towns and villages. Conclusion: Although major essential changes were made in the Bulgarian health care system, the equity problems remain an important challenge to policy-makers.

  13. [Retrospections on medical ethics and deontology in Bulgaria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radanov, Stoycho

    2002-01-01

    The paper reviews the emergence and the development of the medical ethics and deontology from the foundations of the Bulgarian state till today. With the foundation of the Bulgarian state / 7th century / the traditions and the culture of Thracians, Slavs and Proto-Bulgarians have mixed, the ethnic rules at the beginning being traditional, closely connected with the customs and the beliefs of the ethnical groups taking part in the ethnogenesis of the Bulgarian people. After the baptizing the Christian faith is in the basis of the moral virtues of the folk healers. After the Liberation from the Turkish yoke the major legal and medical norms are being worked out, the first professional and ethical rules obligatory for all doctors and dentists have been adopted, lecturing on medical deontology and taking a Hippocratic oath have been introduced. During the totalitarian period - immediately after the Second World War the medical ethics and deontology are underestimated to a great extent. A correction is made later on after the Moral Code of the doctor in the Peoples' Republic of Bulgaria, taking of the Hippocratic oath is being renewed, and etc. In the period of democracy fundamental legal and deontological sources are established which are the key means to carry out the health reform, incl. also the deontological aspects of health care. A Code of the professional ethics of the doctors and dentists is adopted, lecturing in medical ethics is introduced, lecturing in deontology is renewed, the Hippocratic oath is being taken, various conventions are being conducted, and etc. PMID:16060044

  14. Climate change impacts on cereal crops in Northeast Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrov, V.

    2009-09-01

    Global climate change will impact all economic sectors to some degree, but agricultural production is perhaps the most sensitive and vulnerable. World agriculture, whether in developing or developed countries, remains very dependent on climate resources. For example, agriculture in Europe only accounts for a small part of the GDP, and the vulnerability in the overall economy to changes that affect agriculture is therefore low, however the local effects on society might be large. This study shows some model results on climate change impacts on crops in Northeast Bulgaria. Changes in phenological dates and crop yields of winter wheat and maize are simulated by a crop model. RoIMPEL model dynamically calculates the variables with a time step of 1 day as it has functions to derive daily weather data) from monthly values. A screening of soil/climate conditions to evaluate the land suitability for a given crop is first performed. For suitable land, the daily dynamics of the crop development stages up to harvest, and of water-, temperature-, and nitrogen-stresses are the main crop processes simulated in RoIMPEL for each crop. The accumulation of biomass is based on the radiation use efficiency and the net photosynthetically active radiation. The radiation use efficiency is CO2 concentration sensitive. The radiation-potential daily biomass increase is corrected by temperature, water and nitrogen stresses. Additional penalties on crop yields are included through alarm criteria (unfavourable weather parameters during the most sensitive development stages) based on crop specific physiology. The model results are presented in various maps, etc.

  15. WiN-Bulgaria - work with young people to promote nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the main activities concerning work with youth is the establishment of high school section as a part of WiN - Bulgaria. The nuclear application and achievements of the nuclear industry and new nuclear technology are presented to young people by direct contact with them. WiN - Bulgaria organizes events, competitions and various forums on topics related to nuclear technology and its applications with the high school students participation. Emergency preparedness and how to react in case of radiological accident are also activities with young generation

  16. First report of Idiopterus nephrelepidis Davis, 1909 (Hemiptera: Aphididae from Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Tasheva-Terzieva

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Idiopterus nephrelepidis (Hemiptera: Aphididae is reported for the first time in Bulgaria on ornamental ferns in four greenhouses in Sofia and Varna. Dense colonies of apterous viviparous females and larvae were observed. The established host plants are Nephrolepis exaltata, Asplenium nidus and Pteris cretica. Infested ferns exhibit leaf deformation. The aphids were reared in laboratory conditions for four months. A morphometric study of apterae was carried out. Taking into account the presence of host plants of I. nephrelepidis in Bulgaria which are native to the local flora and the reports of the aphid from the Balkan area, it may spread in the country outdoors.

  17. PROFILES AND PREFERENCES OF ON-LINE MILLENIAL SHOPPERS IN BULGARIA

    OpenAIRE

    Loubeau, Patricia R.; Robert Jantzen; Elitsa Alexander

    2014-01-01

    This research seeks to develop a better understanding of the factors affecting on-line purchasing behavior among Generation Y (Gen Y) consumers in Bulgaria. Also called millenials and born between the mid-1970s and late 1990s, this generation is especially active on-line and will be a dominant influence shaping e-commerce. An empirical study was conducted based on a written survey of a sample consisting of 367 high school and university students in Bulgaria. The most important reason why Bulg...

  18. Published data and new records to the fauna of Eupelmidae (Insecta: Hymenoptera in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIROSLAV ANTOV

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study presents information about published data on eupelmid fauna of Bulgaria and new records of 16 species distributed in the country. Some of them are reared from Cynipidae (Hymenoptera galls on Quercus, Rosa, Hypecoum, as well as from Cecidomyiidae (Diptera developing in stems of Eryngium campestre L. Other species are reared from pods of Astragalus glycyphyllos L. and seeds of Dianthus giganteus dʼUrv. New host associations are established. As a result of the study 4 species and 1 genus are new to the fauna of Bulgaria.

  19. A new cyanobacterial species of Anabaena genus (Nostocales, Cyanobacteria) from Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Kirilov Kirjakov, Ivan; Naneva Velichkova, Katya

    2016-01-01

    Una nueva especie de cianobacteria del género Anabaena (Nostocales, Cyanobacteria) de Bulgaria Se describe una nueva especie del género de Cyanobacterias, Anabaena Bory ex Born. et Flah. (Nostocales) de las montañas Ródope de Bulgaria. Anabaena rhodopensis sp. nova. tiene acinetas con paredes celulares esculpidas. Se dan los datos biométricos para el tamaño de las células vegetativas, heterocistos y acinetos. Abstract: A new species of cyanobacterial genus Anabaena Bo...

  20. Treatment of renal stones in Bulgaria in ancient times ('Hissarya' baths).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nenov, D; Nenov, V; Lazarov, G; Tchepilev, A

    1999-01-01

    Well-known mineral baths in Bulgaria, 'Hissarya', are described. Their existence dates back more than 25 centuries. 'Hissarya' is an Arabic word meaning 'siege of a castle'. Remains of castle walls are the symbol of 'Hissarya' today. Every year more than 100,000 patients from Bulgaria and other countries visit 'Hissarya'. From the time of the Thracians and the Roman Empire until now renal stones have been successfully treated by drinking the mineral water and by taking baths. The Roman Emperor Septimius Severus (193-211) visited 'Hissarya' every spring to treat his renal disease. PMID:10213812

  1. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF DEMAND FOR LOCAL AND FOREIGN WINES IN BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petyo BOSHNAKOV

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We use a semantic differential based instrument to assess the main factors in demand attitudes of Bulgarian customers. We aim to find out whether specific marketing techniques could alter the demand for such a traditional product as the wine in Bulgaria. Given the fact that the Bulgarian customer only recently received the possibility to know them, we find that foreign wines are evaluated mainly with a prejudice of past knowledge, not linked to the actual product. We discover a rigidity in such prejudice and adhering to "standard" definitions of "prestige" and quality of wines. Most likely demanded in Bulgaria will continue to be mainly Bulgarian wines.

  2. Phytophthora Root and Crown Rot on Apples in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Nakova

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytophthora is a genus of Oomycota responsible for some of the most serious diseases with great economic impact (Judelson and Blanco, 2005. While 54 species were found in the 20th century (Erwin and Ribeiro, 1996 another 51-54 new species have been identified(Brasier, 2008 since the year 2000. They are spread worldwide and have broad range of host plants – fruit trees, citrus, forest and park species. Phytophthora can cause serious damages in orchards and nurseries of apples, cherries, etc. In Bulgaria they have been found first on young apples and cherries (1998-1999 in Plovdiv region (Nakova, 2003. Surveys have been done for discovering disease symptoms in Plovdiv and Kjustendil regions. Isolates have been obtained from infected plant material (roots and stem bases applying baiting bioassay (green apples, variety Granny Smith and/or PARP 10 selective media. Phytophthora strains were identified based on standard morphology methods – types of colonies on PDA, CMA, V 8, type and size of sporangia, oogonia and antheridia, andoospores. Cardial temperatures for their growth were tested on CMA and PDA.For molecular studies, DNA was extracted from mycelium using the DNA extraction kit.DNA was amplified using universal primers ITS 6 and ITS 4. Amplification products concentrations were estimated by comparison with the standard DNA. Sequencing was done at the Scottish Crop Research Institute (SCRI, Dundee, Scotland. Phytophthora root and crown rot symptoms first appear in early spring. Infected trees show bud break delay, have small chlorotic leaves, and branches die all of a sudden. Later symptoms are found in August-September. Leaves of the infected trees show reddish discoloration and drop down. Both symptoms are connected with lesions (wet, necrotic in appearance at stem bases of the trees.Disease spread was 2-3% in most gardens, only in an apple orchard in Bjaga (Plovdiv region it was up to 8-10%. Morphologically, the isolates acquired from

  3. Taxonomic status of the roses (Rosa) described by S.G. Dimitrov from Bulgaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zielinski, J.; Petrova, A; Tan, Kit

    2004-01-01

    The original herbarium vouchers for six species of Rosa (Rosaceae) described by S. G. Dimitrov from Bulgaria are taxonomically evaluated. Two species (R. balcanica, R. orphei) are considered hybrids, four other names (R. bulgarica, R. parilica, R. pontica and R. rhodopaea) are taxonomic synonyms...

  4. Efficiency analysis of producers’ organizations (Case of South Eastern and Central planning regions of Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darina Zaimova

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this paper is to compare two alternative methods for estimating frontier functions and measuring efficiency in production. The application of Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA and Stochastic Frontier Analysis (SFA to the same data panel provides insights in estimating technical efficiency of producers’ organizations in selected regions in Bulgaria.

  5. Interculturalizing Education in Bulgaria: The Contribution of the National Helpdesk for Intercultural Learning Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fay, Richard; Davcheva, Leah

    2005-01-01

    Whilst there has been extensive discussion of the models and policies concerning intercultural education in Bulgaria, there has been to date surprisingly little work undertaken regarding the potential contribution of Bulgarian school textbooks across the curriculum towards the objectives of intercultural education. The National Helpdesk for…

  6. Holy Places and Pilgrimage in the Post-Socialist Bulgaria (Karamihova, 2014 [In Bulgarian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Antova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available After the communist regime in Bulgaria, the interest of the people to religion was revived. Many of anthropological dimensions with religious nature are considered in Karamihova’s book (2014. Religious tourism and places of pilgrimages are described. The dynamics of this new social development is studied.

  7. Holy Places and Pilgrimage in the Post-Socialist Bulgaria (Karamihova, 2014) [In Bulgarian

    OpenAIRE

    S. Antova

    2014-01-01

    After the communist regime in Bulgaria, the interest of the people to religion was revived. Many of anthropological dimensions with religious nature are considered in Karamihova’s book (2014). Religious tourism and places of pilgrimages are described. The dynamics of this new social development is studied.

  8. Sustainable Coastal Development and Open Planning? Transferring the Integrated Area Approach to Bulgaria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dieperink, C.; Boesten, R.; Hovens, J.; Tonkes, H.

    2012-01-01

    Sustainable development asks for open planning processes. Such open planning processes have become common practice in the Netherlands and other Western countries. Since EU accession, new member states such as Bulgaria also have to face the challenge of organizing more open planning processes in thei

  9. How Can Bulgaria Improve Its Education System? An Analysis of PISA 2012 and Past Results

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2012-01-01

    Bulgaria's performance on all three disciplines of the program for international student assessment (PISA) 2012 was slightly better than its PISA 2000 performance, after having dropped between 2000 and 2006. The improvements in performance between 2006 and 2012 promoted shared prosperity, but equality of opportunities is still a major challenge. In fact, disaggregating students' PISA score...

  10. Leadership Training in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics Education in Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bairaktarova, Diana; Cox, Monica F.; Evangelou, Demetra

    2011-01-01

    This synthesis paper explores current leadership training in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) education in Bulgaria. The analysis begins with discussion of global factors influencing the implementation of leadership training in STEM education in general and then presents information about the current status of leadership…

  11. Antioxidant activity screening of extracts from Sideritis species (Labiatae) grown in Bulgaria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koleva, I.; Linssen, J.P.H.; Beek, van T.A.; Evstatieva, L.N.; Kortenska, V.; Handjieva, N.

    2003-01-01

    Plant samples from several species and populations of the genus Sideritis (Labiatae) grown in Bulgaria (S scardica, S syriaca and S montana) were extracted with different solvents. Their antioxidant activities were determined by the -carotene bleaching test (BCBT), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPP

  12. In search of a homogeneous nation: the assimilation of Bulgaria's Turkish minority, 1984-1985

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesselin Dimitrov

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the causes of the most extreme nationalist undertaking in Eastern Europe in the 1980s - the Bulgarian government's attempt to change the names of nearly one million Turks in the space of a few weeks in 1984-1985. The article argues that the assimilation campaign emerged as a result of a combination of threats and opportunities on a number of levels. Domestically, the failure of alternative strategies of dealing with the ethnic minorities created a temptation to resort to a radical solution, whilst the political and economic resources which the communist leadership commanded and which reached their high point in the mid-1980s gave it the means to undertake such a policy. Internationally, the Soviet Union, Bulgaria's main strategic ally, was powerful enough to protect it against possible Turkish and Western reprisals, but not strong enough to impose its own more tolerant nationalities policy on Bulgaria. Turkey, Bulgaria's historical enemy and the perceived patron of the Turkish minority, was seen as both posing a threat to Bulgaria after the invasion of Cyprus, and as suffering from weaknesses which would prevent it from undertaking serious counteractions. There thus existed in 1984-1985 a false 'window of opportunity' which encouraged the Bulgarian communist leadership to obliterate once and for all the problem of ethnic diversity with which they were increasingly unable to deal by other means.

  13. Challenges and Perspectives of the Adult Vocational Training System in Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrova, Elka

    2007-01-01

    This article provides a brief review of recent developments and problems in adult training of the employed and unemployed in Bulgaria. It is presented in three parts: information on legislation and the institutions; information on current problems with vocational training of the employed and unemployed; and some future measures for improving…

  14. Fathers in Context: Comparative Analysis of Father Involvement in Bulgaria and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.A. Conkova (Nina); B.E. Ory (Brett)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractThis report compares father involvement with their children in Bulgaria and the Netherlands by examining country differences in family formation patterns, policy context, and cultural prescriptions regarding family life. In studying the time fathers spend with their children, it is i

  15. International Trends in Health Science Librarianship Part 19: The Balkan States (Bulgaria and Croatia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirilova, Savina; Skoric, Lea

    2016-09-01

    This is the 19th in a series of articles exploring international trends in health science librarianship in the 21st century. The focus of the present issue is the Balkan Region (Bulgaria and Croatia). The next regular feature column will investigate two other Balkan states - Serbia and Slovenia. JM. PMID:27384106

  16. Fieldwork Coastal Engineering: Preliminary design of an artificial island in the Black Sea, Varna, Bulgaria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Bemmel, M.; Bénit, M.; Croonen, K.; Mulders, P.; Hiemstra, B.; Hillen, M.; Hoyng, C.; Karamperidou, A.; Schoutens, P.; Sluijsmans, R.; Smits, M.; Valk, A.; Vanidis, G.; Verduin, F.; De Winter, R.; Vanlishout, V.

    2007-01-01

    From Sunday September 30th until October 7th, a group of 16 Hydraulic engineering students and one teacher went to Bulgaria. Three Bulgarian students and two Bulgarian teachers from Sofia University of Architecture, Civil Engineering and Geology joined them at their arrival in Varna. The students we

  17. Does the genetic structure of spring snail Bythinella (Caenogastropoda, Truncatelloidea) in Bulgaria reflect geological history?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osikowski, Artur; Georgiev, Dilian; Hofman, Sebastian; Falniowski, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Bythinella is a minute dioecious caenogastropod that inhabits springs in central and southern Europe. In the Balkans, previous studies have addressed its morphological and genetic differentiation within Greece and Romania while the Bulgarian species have remained poorly known. The aim of the present paper has been to expand the knowledge on the subject in Bulgaria. Shell morphology and anatomy of the reproductive organs were examined, and a fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) gene and the nuclear ribosomal Internal Transcribed Spacer 1 (ITS-1) were sequenced from 15 populations. Additional sequences from eight previously studied populations were included in our analyses. Phylogenetic analyses revealed five main mitochondrial DNA clades, which were partly confirmed by analyses of the ITS-1 sequences. The genetic differentiation between the clades was found to be in the range p=2.4-11.8%. Most of the populations belonged to clade I, representing Bythinella hansboetersi, and were distributed in SW Bulgaria. Clades II and III inhabit areas adjacent to clade I and were most closely related with the latter clade. Much more distinct were clade V, found at one locality in NW Bulgaria, and clade IV, found at one locality in SE Bulgaria, close to the sea. Four populations were found in caves, but only one of these represented a distinct clade. Considering the observed pattern of interpopulation differentiation of Bythinella in Bulgaria, we can suppose that isolation between clades I, II and III may have been caused by glaciations during the Pleistocene. The time of isolation between the above three clades and clade IV coincides with the Messinian Salinity Crisis, and the time of isolation between the clade V and the other four most probably reflects the isolation of the Rhodopes from western Balkan Mts by the seawater of the Dacic Basin. PMID:26448701

  18. Motivational factors for the adoption of ISO 9001 standards in Eastern Europe: the case of Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetoslav Georgiev

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study analyzes the motivational factors for ISO 9001 certification in Bulgaria from the internal/external motivations perspective, or the so-called dual model.Design/methodology/approach: This study is based on a mixed method research approach, which employed two interviews with experts in the field of quality management at the exploratory stage, and a survey involving 127 companies at the descriptive stage.Findings: This study claims that enhanced company image and competitiveness – an external motivation - is the leading motivational factor for ISO 9001 certification in Bulgaria. At the same time, our primary investigation reveals that Bulgarian firms are not predominantly externally driven, for internal motivations including process improvement and product quality improvement seem to be an important driver for ISO 9001 certification. Last but not least, this research asserts that enhanced company image and competitiveness has a stronger impact on the motivations for ISO 9001 certification than customer and supplier pressure, which is in line with previous research works on developing economy economies such as Bulgaria. Finally, our study indicates a moderate, yet positive correlation between motivations for and benefits of ISO 9001 certification.Social implications: This research work casts some light on the evolution of quality management in Bulgaria since the end of communism, which can serve as an important foundation for the better understanding of quality management in former communist economies in general and Eastern European states in particular.Originality/value: Derived from the acute gap between ISO studies in Western and former communist economies, this research work presents one of the first official, international studies in the field of ISO certification in Bulgaria, and more precisely, a paper describing the motives for ISO 9001 certification among Bulgarian businesses.

  19. Porphyry-copper mineralisation in the central Srednogorie zone, Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strashimirov, Strashimir; Petrunov, Rumen; Kanazirski, Milko

    2002-08-01

    The porphyry-copper systems in the central part of the Srednogorie zone (Bulgaria) are represented by three major deposits (Elatsite, Medet and Assarel) and several smaller deposits and occurrences, all of them within the Panagyurishte ore district. The hydrothermal systems are related to Late Cretaceous calc-alkaline igneous complexes. Ore mineralisation is developed predominantly in the apical parts of subvolcanic and intrusive bodies as well as within the volcanic and basement metamorphic rocks. Several of the porphyry systems are spatially associated with shallow-level intermediate and high-sulphidation volcanic-hosted epithermal deposits of economic importance, such as the major gold-copper mine at Chelopech located 10 km from the Elatsite porphyry-copper deposit. Mineralisation processes in the porphyry deposits start with intensive hydrothermal alteration of the wall rocks. K-silicate alteration is characteristic for pre-ore hydrothermal activity in all of them, and it is located mostly in their central parts. Propylitic alteration is prominent in the Medet and Assarel deposits. The Assarel deposit is located in the central part of a palaeovolcanic structure and shows a large spectrum of pre-ore alterations, including propylitic, sericitic, and advanced argillic assemblages. The initial stages of the hydrothermal systems are characterised by high temperatures (>550-500 °C) and highly saline (50-20 wt% NaCl equiv.) and vapour-rich fluids of likely magmatic origin. The composition of the fluids gradually changes from H2O-NaCl±FeCl2 to H2O-NaCl-KCl and H2O-NaCl-dominated as the fluids cool, react with wall rocks, and may become diluted with meteoric water. Fe-Ti-oxide mineral associations were formed early in all deposits, later followed, in the Elatsite deposit, by an assemblage of bornite, chalcopyrite, platinum group element (PGE) phases, Co-Ni thiospinels, Ag- and Bi-tellurides, and selenides. The main ore stage in all deposits is dominated by

  20. Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assesment for Bulgaria as a Basis for a new National Building Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solakov, D.; Simeonova, S.; Christoskov, L.; Trifonova, P.; Aleksandrova, I.

    2012-04-01

    The territory of Bulgaria represents a typical example of high seismic risk area in the eastern part of the Balkan Peninsula. Bulgaria contains important industrial areas that face considerable earthquake risk. Moreover, the seismicity of the neighboring countries, like Greece, Turkey, former Yugoslavia and Romania (especially Vrancea-Romania intermediate earthquakes involving the non-crustal lithosphere), influences the seismic hazard in Bulgaria. Seismic hazard maps proposed as part of a new building code for Bulgaria based on the recommendations in EUROCODE 8 are presented in the study. The probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) carries out integration over the total expected seismicity during a given exposure period to provide the estimate of a strong-motion parameter of interest with a specified confidence level. The basic approach used for the creation of ground motion maps combines via GIS, source-geometry, earthquake occurrence model, the strength of the earthquake sources, and the appropriate attenuation relations. In the study seismic hazard maps for Bulgaria are presented in terms of Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) in agreement with EC8. As recommended in EC8, the maps are calculated for a 475 years return period (probability of exceedance of 10% in 50 years) for the design earthquake and for a 95 years return period (probability of exceedance of 10% in 10 years) for weaker earthquakes with higher frequency of occurrence. The PSHA was performed, using the Bulgarian version of computer code EQRISK. For the sensitivity analysis on the characterization of the seismicity in the seismic sources a PSHA for 500 randomly chosen models was run. The results suggested that uncertainties in seismic characteristics have relatively small effect on the final seismic hazard. A procedure called disaggregation has been applied to examine the spatial and magnitude dependence of PSHA results. The aim is to determine the magnitudes and distances that contribute to the

  1. TECHNOLOGICAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP OF SMALL AND MEDIUM BUSINESS IN THE REPUBLIC OF BULGARIA AS A FACTOR FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Angel Mirchev; Vesela Dicheva

    2013-01-01

    In the context of deepening economic and social crisis the importance of small and medium enterprises in the Republic of Bulgaria is steadily increasing. They have provided significant number of jobs on the labour market and have created much of the gross domestic product of Bulgaria. Our thesis is that technological entrepreneurship is a factor for the sustainable development of small and medium business in the country as a whole and stimulates overcoming the crisis in the country. This rese...

  2. Vegetative and Productive Behaviors of Cape Gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.), Grown by Direct Sowing Outside Under Conditions of Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    PANAYOTOV, Nikolay; POPOVA, Ani

    2014-01-01

    Cape gooseberry is a new crop for Bulgaria. Therefore, the establishment of appropriate technology is important. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different date of direct sowing outside under Bulgarian condition on the morphological development and on the productivity of cape gooseberry. The experiments were carried out with two varieties cape gooseberry - first Bulgarian variety Plovdiv and Columbian ecotype Obrazec 1 in region of Plovdiv, Bulgaria. Three dates of dir...

  3. Bulgaria; 2008 Article IV Consultation: Staff Report; Staff Statement; Public Information Notice on the Executive Board Discussion; and Statement by the Executive Director for Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2009-01-01

    This 2008 Article IV Consultation discusses that Bulgaria has been hit by the global financial crisis, with clear signs that the country’s capital inflows-driven boom has come to an end and that the real economy is slowing down. Executive Directors have commended the Bulgarian authorities for their prudent policies that have built strong balance sheets in the public sector. Directors have also welcomed the authorities’ commitment to maintaining prudent fiscal policies, which will provide ...

  4. New Results from Air Pollution Studies in Bulgaria (Moss Survey 2000-2001)

    CERN Document Server

    Stamenov, J N; Vachev, B; Gueleva, E; Yurukova, L; Ganeva, A; Mitrikov, M; Antonov, A; Srentz, A; Varbanov, Z; Batov, I V; Damov, K; Marinova, E; Frontasyeva, M V; Pavlov, S S; Strelkova, L P

    2002-01-01

    New results of moss survey 2000 of systematic study of air pollution with heavy metals and other toxic elements in Bulgaria are reported. The moss samples collected at 103 sites in Bulgaria, along the borders with Yugoslavia, Macedonia, Greece and Turkey were analyzed by instrumental activation analysis using epithermal neutrons (ENAA) at the IBR-2 pulsed fast reactor for a wide set of elements including heavy metals and rare earth elements (Na, Mg, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, As, Se, Br, Rb, Sr, Mo, Sb, I, Cs, Ba, La, Sm, Tb, Yb, Hf, Ta, W, Au, Th, and U). The results obtained are consistent with the mean European values for most of elements. The principle component analysis is applied to distinguish heavy and light crust elements and vegetation ones from those of anthropogenic origin.

  5. Socio-economic restructuring and vulnerability to environmental hazards in Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarnal, B

    1994-06-01

    The restructuring of Bulgaria's social, economic and political system includes a change in the way it handles disaster preparation and response. During the Cold War, the entire country drilled regularly in civil defense, which was under the control of the army. A recent decree and pending legislation transfers civil defense from the military to the Council of Ministers, which has developed a national plan for defense against environmental hazards. This research shows that the transformation from command to market economy, plus the country's severe economic crisis, is degrading existing civil defense structures, preventing the implementation of the proposed new organization and increasing the population's vulnerability to hazards. Case studies of a small city, a petrochemical complex, coastal-zone hazards management, earthquake hazards regulation and the Kozloduy nuclear facility demonstrate Bulgaria's increasing vulnerability to environmental hazards. PMID:8076162

  6. RUSSIAN-ORIGIN HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL SHIPMENT FROM BULGARIA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly Cummins; Igor Bolshinsky; Ken Allen; Tihomir Apostolov; Ivaylo Dimitrov

    2009-07-01

    In July 2008, the Global Threat Reduction Initiative and the IRT 2000 research reactor in Sofia, Bulgaria, operated by the Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy (INRNE), safely shipped 6.4 kilograms of Russian origin highly enriched uranium (HEU) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) to the Russian Federation. The shipment, which resulted in the removal of all HEU from Bulgaria, was conducted by truck, barge, and rail modes of transport across two transit countries before reaching the final destination at the Production Association Mayak facility in Chelyabinsk, Russia. This paper describes the work, equipment, organizations, and approvals that were required to complete the spent fuel shipment and provides lessons learned that might assist other research reactor operators with their own spent nuclear fuel shipments.

  7. 'Mafia Baroque': post-socialist architecture and urban planning in Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holleran, Max

    2014-03-01

    This paper traces the reception of the architectural style known as 'Mafia Baroque' within the professions of architecture and urban planning in Bulgaria. The debate within these professions was strongly linked to the general decline of power among former intellectual elites and the specific decline of architects and planners, who were sidelined as arbiters of 'good taste' and disempowered as regulators of urban growth. The reaction to this style also highlights the rise in public concern over corruption and organized crime and dissatisfaction with post-socialist urbanization. This paper chronicles the extent of changes in construction and regulation in Bulgaria during the 1990s and argues that planners and architects were challenged not only by their professional marginalization but also by a deeper embarrassment over cultural change. It then relates this debate to broader post-socialist anxieties over insufficient regulation of urbanization and fear of failing to meet Western European goals for economic and political change. PMID:24697714

  8. 'Mafia Baroque': post-socialist architecture and urban planning in Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holleran, Max

    2014-03-01

    This paper traces the reception of the architectural style known as 'Mafia Baroque' within the professions of architecture and urban planning in Bulgaria. The debate within these professions was strongly linked to the general decline of power among former intellectual elites and the specific decline of architects and planners, who were sidelined as arbiters of 'good taste' and disempowered as regulators of urban growth. The reaction to this style also highlights the rise in public concern over corruption and organized crime and dissatisfaction with post-socialist urbanization. This paper chronicles the extent of changes in construction and regulation in Bulgaria during the 1990s and argues that planners and architects were challenged not only by their professional marginalization but also by a deeper embarrassment over cultural change. It then relates this debate to broader post-socialist anxieties over insufficient regulation of urbanization and fear of failing to meet Western European goals for economic and political change.

  9. Seismic Hazard and risk assessment for Romania -Bulgaria cross-border region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simeonova, Stela; Solakov, Dimcho; Alexandrova, Irena; Vaseva, Elena; Trifonova, Petya; Raykova, Plamena

    2016-04-01

    Among the many kinds of natural and man-made disasters, earthquakes dominate with regard to their social and economical impact on the urban environment. Global seismic hazard and vulnerability to earthquakes are steadily increasing as urbanization and development occupy more areas that are prone to effects of strong earthquakes. The assessment of the seismic hazard and risk is particularly important, because it provides valuable information for seismic safety and disaster mitigation, and it supports decision making for the benefit of society. Romania and Bulgaria, situated in the Balkan Region as a part of the Alpine-Himalayan seismic belt, are characterized by high seismicity, and are exposed to a high seismic risk. Over the centuries, both countries have experienced strong earthquakes. The cross-border region encompassing the northern Bulgaria and southern Romania is a territory prone to effects of strong earthquakes. The area is significantly affected by earthquakes occurred in both countries, on the one hand the events generated by the Vrancea intermediate-depth seismic source in Romania, and on the other hand by the crustal seismicity originated in the seismic sources: Shabla (SHB), Dulovo, Gorna Orjahovitza (GO) in Bulgaria. The Vrancea seismogenic zone of Romania is a very peculiar seismic source, often described as unique in the world, and it represents a major concern for most of the northern part of Bulgaria as well. In the present study the seismic hazard for Romania-Bulgaria cross-border region on the basis of integrated basic geo-datasets is assessed. The hazard results are obtained by applying two alternative approaches - probabilistic and deterministic. The MSK64 intensity (MSK64 scale is practically equal to the new EMS98) is used as output parameter for the hazard maps. We prefer to use here the macroseismic intensity instead of PGA, because it is directly related to the degree of damages and, moreover, the epicentral intensity is the original

  10. Recently revised diagnostic reference levels in nuclear medicine in Bulgaria and in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korpela, H; Bly, R; Vassileva, J; Ingilizova, K; Stoyanova, T; Kostadinova, I; Slavchev, A

    2010-01-01

    An EU twinning project entitled 'Strengthening of administrative structures for radiation protection and safe use of ionising radiation in diagnostics and therapy' was established between Bulgaria and Finland, lasting from June 2008 to May 2009. One component of the project was to improve the optimisation of patient protection in nuclear medicine (NM) through revising diagnostic reference levels (DRLs). The revised DRLs are based on national surveys on the numbers of NM procedures and activities given to the patients in different procedures. The survey in Bulgaria was carried out in 2008 and that in Finland in 2007. National DRLs were established for the most frequent and dose-relevant examinations. The proposed DRLs in both countries are in good agreement with other national recommendations in Europe.

  11. Smalholders’ Market Inclusion through Improved Eco-management – The Case of Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    BACHEV, Hrabrin Ianouchev

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. Enhancing environmental performance is a prospective way for increasing market inclusion, effectiveness and sustainability of small-scale farms around the globe. With a very few exceptions, there are no studies on forms, factors and efficiency of “eco-driven” market inclusion of smallholders in modern supply chains in Bulgaria. This paper presents findings of a first large-scale study on state, driving forces, and efficiency of market inclusion of farms through enhanced eco-manageme...

  12. DIVERSITY AND MORPHOMETRIC DATA OF BLOOD FILARIAL lARVAE IN CARNIVOROUS FROM BULGARIA

    OpenAIRE

    Panayotova–Pencheva M.; Trifonova A.; Mirchev R.; Movsesyan S.

    2014-01-01

    During the period 2012-2013 investigations of blood samples from domestic dogs ( Canis familiaris ), goldon jackals ( Canis aureus ) and red foxes ( Vulpes vulpes ) originated from different regions of Bulgaria were performed aiming to document diversity and morphometric characteristics of established filarial larvae. Following features of microfilariae were analyzed: peculiarities in the shape, body length and maximum body width. According to the morphological characteristics three types of ...

  13. Labour Market Policies for Increasing Economic Activity and Labour Productivity in Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Beleva, Iskra

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to present the recent active labour market policies for encouraging labour market participation and increasing labour productivity. It points out that a number of different programs and labour market measures have been implemented in Bulgaria in the last twenty years. The achievements of the analysis point out both positive and negative features. The programs contribute for increasing labour market inclusion and employment participation in a short run and this is the main po...

  14. Labour Market Policies for Encouraging Economic Activity and Labour Productivity in Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Beleva, Iskra

    2016-01-01

    This article aims to present the recent labour market policies for encouraging economic activity of working age population, labour market inclusion and increasing labour productivity. It points out that a number of different programs and labour market measures have been implemented in Bulgaria in the last twenty years. The results of the analysis show up both positive and negative features of the implemented policies. These policies contribute to increasing labour market inclusion in the shor...

  15. Union formation and fertility in Bulgaria and Russia: A life table description of recent trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiva Jasilioniene

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides an extensive descriptive analysis and comparison of recent trends in union formation and fertility in Bulgaria and Russia. The analysis is based on data from the Generation and Gender Surveys (GGS carried out in 2004. We generate a large number of single- and multi-decrement life tables describing various life course events: leaving home and separation from the parental family, entry into union, first and second childbirth, divorce. Life tables are constructed for real cohorts as well as for synthetic cohorts. We study four real cohorts, born in 1940-44, 1950-54, 1960-64 and 1970-74. Synthetic-cohort life tables are constructed for three periods of time, referring to the pre-transitional demographic situation (1985-1989, the beginning of the transition (1990-1994 and recent demographic developments (1999-2003. We study also Roma and Turkish ethnic groups in Bulgaria. The life tables deliver detailed information that is otherwise unavailable. Our tentative findings indicate that societal transformation had a stronger impact on family-related behavior in the Bulgarian population than in the population of Russia. There is evidence that in some aspects Bulgaria is lagging behind other former socialist and Western European countries where the second demographic transition is more advanced. Evidence also suggests that Russia is lagging behind Bulgaria. However, certain specific features distinctive to Russia, such as the low level of childlessness, a drastic drop in second and subsequent births, and very high divorce rates even compared to Western European countries (it is a long-standing, not just recent trend, lead us to think that Russia may have a model of change particular to the country.

  16. MICROECONOMETRIC MODELING OF HOUSEHOLD FOOD DEMAND: THE CASE OF TRANSITION BULGARIA

    OpenAIRE

    Goodwin, Barry K.; Phaneuf, Daniel J.

    2001-01-01

    Considerable optimism has been expressed about the outlook for increased exports of food products to Central and Eastern Europe. A clear understanding of the potential for increased exports to this region requires comprehension of consumers' demands for food products. This analysis resents detailed elasticity estimate for food commodities in transition Bulgaria. The analysis is conducted in two segments. The first considers demand for five aggregate food commodities---cereals, fruits and vege...

  17. Measurements of outdoor radon concentration over 24-hour periods in different settlements in Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Kunovska, Bistra; Ivanova, Kremena; STOJANOVSKA Zdenka; Badulin, Viktor

    2014-01-01

    This work presents the results of continuous radon measurements in open atmosphere, including measurements of air humidity, temperature, pressure and gamma dose rate, in 11 different settlements of Bulgaria. Using AlphaGuard equipment, measurements were made in mountain, spas, plain, sea level and uranium mining environments in the summer period, in series of 10-min intervals over 24 hours., . The analysis of results showed different daily variation among the outdoor radon meas...

  18. THE SOCIAL ORIENTATION OF THE ACTIVITY OF THE LABOUR WORKING COOPERATIVES FOR DISABLED PEOPLE IN BULGARIA

    OpenAIRE

    Albena MITEVA; Zornitsa STOYANOVA

    2014-01-01

    Bulgaria's membership in the European Union defines the orientation of our country in line with the key strategic priorities of Europe 2020, which aims to achieve smart, sustainable and inclusive growth. The role of the cooperative system becomes especially important at this time when the EU itself is constructed as a union of equal socially oriented states. In the paper is depicted the role of the labour working producer cooperatives for disabled people as one of the main actors of the socia...

  19. CONCEPTUALIZATION AND CLASSIFICATION OF BALNEO, SPA AND WELLNESS ESTABLISHMENTS IN BULGARIA

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Trifonova Vasileva; Georgi Georgiev

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzes the origin, the process of development and consolidation of the health, SPA and wellness tourism in different regions of the world as well as in Bulgaria. Special attention is paid to the etymology of the words “wellness” and “SPA”, used as a basis for differentiation of their structural elements as tourism segments. Under observations are some theoretical issues, including the significant need of term clarification of these forms of tourism. Other matters of high importan...

  20. Conceptualization and classification of balneo, SPA and wellness establichments in Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Georgiev, Georgi; Vasileva, Maria Trifonova

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzes the origin, the process of development and consolidation of the health, SPA and wellness tourism in different regions of the world as well as in Bulgaria. Special attention is paid to the etymology of the words 'wellness' and 'SPA', used as a basis for differentiation of their structural elements as tourism segments. Under observations are some theoretical issues, including the significant need of term clarification of these forms of tourism. Other matters of high importan...

  1. Investigating the opportunities of using mobile learning by young children in Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Kraleva, Radoslava; Stoimenovski, Aleksandar; Kostadinova, Dafina; Kralev, Velin

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides an analysis of literature related to the use of mobile devices in teaching young children. For this purpose, the most popular mobile operating systems in Bulgaria are considered and the functionality of the existing mobile applications with Bulgarian interface is discussed. The results of a survey of parents' views regarding the mobile devices as a learning tool are presented and the ensuing conclusions are provided.

  2. Effects of the Trilemma Policies on Inflation, Growth and Volatility in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu HSING

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper finds evidence of the trilemma for Bulgaria, suggesting that exchange rate stability, monetary independence and free capital mobility are binding and constrained. The policy combination of exchange rate stability and monetary independence has been prevalent. More exchange rate stability increases the growth rate of real GDP whereas more monetary independence or free capital mobility reduces the growth rate. The inflation rate, inflation volatility and output volatility are not affected by either one of the three trilemma policies.

  3. CROSS-NATIONAL DIFFERENCES IN GLOBAL CITIZENSHIP: COMPARISON OF BULGARIA, INDIA, AND THE UNITED STATES

    OpenAIRE

    Katzarska-miller, Iva; Reysen, Stephen; Kamble, Shanmukh; Vithoji, Nandini

    2012-01-01

    In the article we explore the meaning and associations of global citizenship in three countries (namely, the USA, Bulgaria, and India). Cross-national differences of the definition of global citizenship, global citizenship identification, and endorsement of pro-social values (e.g., social justice, intergroup helping, and concern for the environment) were observed. However, the association between global citizenship identification and pro-social values was similar regardless of nationality. Pa...

  4. ANALYSIS OF INTENSITY OF COMPETITION IN MILK AND MILK PRODUCTS SECTOR IN BULGARIA

    OpenAIRE

    Radev, Radko

    2013-01-01

    The following paper presents the results of an analysis of the intensity of competition in the milk and milk products sector in Bulgaria. The analysis is performed by adapting the Porter’s five forces model and based on the specific features of the sector concerned. For this purpose the author accepts the industrial concept of interpretation of competition: two levels of consideration of the competition intensity are differentiated - product class as a whole and separate product categories. A...

  5. Comparative analysis of the prices of essential medicines among Bulgaria and Macedonia

    OpenAIRE

    Angelovska, Bistra; Bukilica, M; Todorov, Todor; Petrova, Guenka

    2005-01-01

    The prices of medicines differ because of many reasons as the sector that is purchasing medicines, distribution channel, patent status, trade mark and methodology of pricing. The current study aims at comparing the manufactoring, wholesale and retail prices of 30 30 INN essential medicines in Bulgaria and Macedonia as well their affordability to the population. There are presented the results for amoxicillin and glibenclamid. The collection, verification and data analysis are following the ne...

  6. Macrophyte-Based Assessment of the Ecological Status of Lakes in Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Gana M. Gecheva

    2011-01-01

    The aquatic macrophytes of lakes, situated in the whole territory of Bulgaria, were monitored during 2009. Six lake groups were established using differences in characteristics reflecting altitude, high calcium content and salinity, and altered hydromorphology and/or artificial origin. Abundance and species composition were assessed at each lake according to the requirements of the EU Water Framework Directive, using the assessment procedure of macrophyte-based assessment system, proposed by ...

  7. 14 October 2014 - R. Plevneliev President of the Republic of Bulgaria

    CERN Multimedia

    Brice, Maximilien

    2014-01-01

    His Excellency Mr Rosen Plevneliev President Republic of Bulgaria welcoming by CERN Director-General at CMS (Point 5); visiting the CMS cavern with CMS Spokesperson T. Camporesi; visiting the LHC tunnel at Point 5 with Technology Department Head J.M. Jiménez; signing the Guest-Book; assisting to a meeting with Bulgarians at CERN and family photograph with Bulgarians at CERN.

  8. Attitudes, norms and perceived behavioural control: explaining fertility intentions in Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Billari, Francesco C.; Philipov, Dimiter; Testa, Maria Rita

    2009-01-01

    Abstract In this article, we study fertility decision-making through timing parity-progression intentions. The theoretical framework builds on Ajzen?s social-psychological ?Theory of Planned Behavior?: intentions are seen as directly dependent on three components: attitudes, norms and perceived behavioural control. We study the case of Bulgaria, a ?lowest-low? fertility country. In 2002, a sample survey containing a specially designed module was conducted. This module included an i...

  9. Filamentous cyanoprokaryotes (Cyanoprokaryota/Cyanobacteria in standing waters of Bulgaria: diversity and ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PLAMEN STOYANOV

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Cyanoprokaryotes are widespread organisms, which dominate in different water basins. In the present study, we have investigated the diversity of this group and related physicochemical parameters in 35 standing water basins in Bulgaria. We found 29 cyanoprokaryotic species, which belong to 13 genera from the orders Synechococcales, Spirulinales and Oscillatoriales. The frequency quotient of each species was calculated. Information about the distribution of the identified species and typology of the water basins is also provided.

  10. Investigation about the presence of organochlorine pollutants in mussels from the Black Sea, Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgieva Stanislava

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, organochlorine pesticides (HCB, DDT and its metabolites and HCBD in mussels from Bulgarian Black Sea coast. Mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis are aquatic organisms which are immobile so that the concentration of pollutants should primarily be considered as an indication of local levels of organochlorine compounds. Samples were collected from three areas of Black Sea coast of Bulgaria in summer 2015.

  11. Antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory potential of Arnica montana cultivated in Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Zheleva-Dimitrova, Dimitrina; BALABANOVA, Vessela

    2012-01-01

    The antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory potential of methanol extract from Arnica montana cultivated in Bulgaria was evaluated. For the determination of antioxidant activity 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) di-ammonium salt (ABTS) free radicals, and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay were used. Modified Ellman's colorimetric method was used for quantitative assessment of acetylcholinesterase inhibiti...

  12. Inclusive education in Bulgaria and Bosnia and Herzegovina: policy and practice

    OpenAIRE

    Tsokova, Diana; Becirevic, Majda

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines developments in inclusive education in Bulgaria (BG) and Bosnia and Herzegovina (B&H) in the context of actual and desired accession to the European Union respectively. It seeks to provide insights into the national special education traditions in these countries and aims to establish how these have influenced current developments in inclusive education together with and alongside powerful external change agents. This research focuses on policy makers' perspectives on chan...

  13. Observable Effects of Atmospheric Pollution on Outpatient and Inpatient Morbidity in Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    PLATIKANOVA, Magdalena; PENKOVA-RADICHEVA, Mariana

    2016-01-01

    Background: One of Europe’s most well-developed industrial regions is found in the Republic of Bulgaria. The industrialization of the region has a big impact on air pollution. Thermal power plant “Maritza East” (the largest of its kind in southeastern Europe), the army training range, machine manufacturers, household heating and high volume of automobile traffic are all major sources of pollution in the region. Methods: A five year study (2009–2013) followed yearly concentrations of principal...

  14. Improvisation and Variation: Post-Communist Bulgaria Challenges National Folklore Tradition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elka Agoston-Nikolova

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the tension in post-totalitarian Bulgaria betweenthe national folklore tradition of Communist times with government sanctioned state ensembles and festivals and age-old Balkan multiculturalism now represented in a westernized free-market consumer society, where spontaneity and improvisation bridge the urban and the rural, the local and the global. Folk pop, folk jazz or other mixed genres reverberate with humor , parody and, above all, freedom and love of improvisation.

  15. Analysis of the Logistics Systems in Bulgaria under the Requirements of the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caner Cebeci

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The new EU member countries will participate actively in the growing freight development (Beckmann and Baum, 2002. The new EU member Bulgaria forms the ultimate frontier of the EU and because of its geographical location an important transit country for the transport between Europe and Asia. Because of numerous deficiencies in the Bulgarian transport infrastructure, the Bulgarian sections of the Trans-European road network cannot be used efficiently and thus Bulgaria loses large shares of the transit transport. To meet the challenges of the globalization and to benefit from the growing Euro-Asian logistics services in the future, the Bulgarian government has set the main objectives in the national transport policy in a master plan, which should be implemented by the year 2020. The aim of this study is to analyze the transport situation and the national strategic reference framework in the transport sector of the Eastern European EU member Bulgaria and based on the EU requirements for efficiency and sustainability of the European transport systems, to derive recommendations for the future development of the logistics systems in the accession country.

  16. Isolation and characterization of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus from plants in Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaylova, Michaela; Minkova, Svetlana; Kimura, Katsunori; Sasaki, Takashi; Isawa, Kakuhei

    2007-04-01

    One of the traditional ways of preparation of yogurt starter in Bulgaria is placing a branch of a particular plant species into boiled sheep's milk maintained at about 45 degrees C, which is further incubated until a dense coagulum is obtained. To investigate the possible origin of the yogurt starter bacteria, Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus (L. bulgaricus) and Streptococcus thermophilus (S. thermophilus), the traditional way of yogurt-starter preparation was followed. Hundreds of plant samples were collected from four regions in Bulgaria and incubated in sterile skim milk. The two target bacteria at low frequencies from the plant samples collected were successfully isolated. Phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of these bacterial isolates revealed that they were identified as L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus. Twenty isolates of L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus, respectively, were selected from the isolated strains and further characterized with regard to their performance in yogurt production. Organoleptic and physical properties of yogurt prepared using the isolated strains from plants were not significantly different from those prepared using commercial yogurt-starter strains. It was therefore suggested that L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus strains widely used for commercial yogurt production could have originated from plants in Bulgaria. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the isolation and characterization of L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus strains from plants.

  17. TRADITIONAL WOMEN’S APPARELS OF BULGARIA N IMMIGRANTS LIVING IN ESKİŞEHİR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Başak BOĞDAY SAYĞILI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available As part of culture, clothing is a phenomenon which develops with humanity, which is specific to communities, being shap ed according to the ir taste, and reflecting the community’s living conditions and li fe styles . T he Turks who e migrated changed their clothing to adapt to the geo graphical and physical features as well as the living conditions at the places they migrated to, and through being influenced by the people in their region. Bulgaria is one of the countries to which great e migrations from the Ottoman empire took place. Having lived together for many years, the Turks and the Bulgarians were influenced by each other in clothing culture just as in every other field. These migrations , which took place intensively from time to time , are still co ntinuing. This research aims to reveal the traditional women’s apparels of immigrants from Bulgaria living in Eskişehir and the characteristics of their apparel . Historical and review methods were used in the research. From the sources reached using the survey form prepared as data collection tool, apparels reflecting general characteristics of the traditional women’s apparels of the immigrants from Bulgaria livi ng in Eskişehir were examined.

  18. Current status, surveillance and control of avian influenza in domestic and wild bird populations in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the history and current status of avian influenza (AI) infection and control in Bulgaria. The country has a unique geographic position in Europe with regard to wild bird populations and their migration routes which pass through its territory. In recent years, Bulgaria did not remain free from AI. The region with the highest rate of isolation of H5N1 virus strains were the Black Sea coast and wet territories connected with the Via Pontica migration pathway in the administrative districts of Dobrich, Varna and Bourgas. Low pathogenic (LP) AI strains isolated from ducks were subtypes H3, H4 and H6 from the areas of Plovdiv, Pazardjik, St. Zagora, Yambol, Sliven and Haskovo. Raising ducks for liver production is a popular practice in south and southeast Bulgaria. From an epidemiological standpoint, controlling circulation of AI viruses among duck flocks, especially before their gathering in larger farms for fattening is a mandatory requirement of official authorities. To prevent the spread of highly pathogenic (HP) AI, surveillance of domestic poultry as well as wild birds should be strengthened in countries at risk, especially along bird migration routes. Monitoring, sampling and analysis of the viral subtypes of AI found in wild birds needs to be carried out to fully understand their role in the propagation and spread of HPAI viruses. (author)

  19. A detailed study of the Pernik (Bulgaria) seismic sequence of 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raykova, Plamena; Solakov, Dimcho; Simeonova, Stela; Dimitrova, Liliya

    2014-05-01

    A detailed study of the Pernik (Bulgaria) seismic sequence of 2012 D.Solakov, S.Simeonova ,I. Georgiev, P.Raykova, L.Dimitrova and V.Protopopova National Institute of Geophysics, Geodesy and Geography-BAS, Sofia, Bulgaria The spatial and temporal clustering of aftershocks is the dominant non-random element of seismicity, so that when aftershocks are removed, the remaining activity can be modelled (as first approximation) as a Poisson process. The properties of aftershock sequences (distinct cluster, for example; even aftershocks can have aftershocks) allow time-dependent prediction of aftershock probabilities. Consideration of recent earthquake sequences suggests that aftershocks to large earthquakes although they are still, by definition, smaller events, can be very damaging and should be addressed in emergence planning scenarios. Because of the factors such as location and radiation pattern and the cumulative nature of building damage, aftershocks can cause more damage than the main shock. An earthquake of moment magnitude 5.6 hit Sofia seismic zone, on May 22nd, 2012. The earthquake occurred in the vicinity of Pernik city, at about 25 km south west of the city of Sofia (the capital of Bulgaria). The event was followed by intensive activity. The active area is situated in the central part of western Bulgaria. That is the most populated (more than 1.2 mil. inhabitants), industrial and cultural region of Bulgaria. Seismicity in the zone is related to the marginal neotectonic faults of Sofia graben. The boundaries of the graben are represented by SE-NW fault system with expressive neotectonic activity. This zone is characterized by shallow earthquakes. The strongest known event in the region is the 1858 quake with intensity I0=9-10 MSK. The 1858 earthquake caused heavy destruction in the city of Sofia and the appearance of thermal spring. It is worth mentioning that the seismic sequence of May 2912 occurred in an area characterized by a long quiescence (of 95 years

  20. Why do ethno-national conflicts reach different degrees of violence? Insights from Kosovo, Macedonia, and Bulgaria during the 1990s

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Koinova

    2009-01-01

    Why did ethnonational conflicts reach different degrees of violence during the 1990s: high in Kosovo, middle-ranged in Macedonia, and low in Bulgaria? This article analyzes the relationship between the Albanians of Macedonia and Kosovo, the Turks of Bulgaria, and their respective states. Challenging

  1. INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL DETERMINANTS OF COMMERCIAL BANKS PROFITABILITY: EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE FROM BULGARIA AND ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FIRTESCU BOGDAN

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Our study focuses on commercial banks which are operating in Bulgaria and Romania, two countries whose banking sectors have registered major structural changes in the transition to a market economy and which are showing some similarities. Similar to other EU countries, the financial system from Bulgaria and Romania is dominated by the banking sector, which holds the largest share of total assets. Thus, we can say that health, strength and performance of the banking sector are of major importance for the sustainable economic development of states, but also for efficient transmission of monetary policy decisions on the real economy. The paper aims to identify the key factors that affect bank profitability and to evaluate empirically their contribution to a sample of 29 commercial banks in Bulgaria and Romania, for the period 2003-2012. Our research is based on data from the Bureau Van Dijk database, the World Bank and the European Central Bank and uses panel data estimation techniques. The dependent variable used in our study is the bank profitability, which is measured by two representative indicators the Return on Average Assets (ROAA and Return on Average Equity (ROAE. Regarding the independent variables, our analysis includes capital adequacy, the loan loss reserve rate, cost to income ratio, the ratio of liquid assets to total assets, the interest expenses to deposits ratio, the non-interest income over total gross revenues, bank size, the GDP per capita growth, inflation rate, domestic bank credit to private sector and banking industry concentration. The results of our empirical study shows that among the variables considered, the loan loss reserve rate, the ratio of cost to income, GDP per capita growth and domestic bank credit to the private sector, have a significant impact on bank profitability, results in line with our expectations, but also with the results of other empirical studies.

  2. Advantages and Disadvantages of Fiscal Discipline in Bulgaria in Times of Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasil S. Petkov

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The global economic crisis of 2008 has posed serious challenges to the Bulgarian economy and was reflected in worsened macroeconomic indicators. The subsequent sovereign debt crisis in Europe further aggravated the situation and blocked its path to recovery. In line with the overall sentiment in the European Union (the EU, Bulgaria made maintaining fiscal stability a priority that it set out to accomplish by following a policy of austerity. The country managed to achieve the desired effect relatively quickly. It became one of the best performers in terms of budget deficit and government debt as a share of GDP (which are among the lowest in the EU. These accomplishments underlie international institutions’ greater confidence in Bulgaria, which has led to an increase in its credit rating. Nevertheless, the state has not managed to reap the maximum benefits that this type of policy offers. Fiscal sustainability was accomplished at the expense of economic growth, the slow pace of which was accompanied by impoverishment of the population, high unemployment, restricted consumption, and operational difficulties faced by real-sector companies. These problems fueled doubts about the adequacy of strict budget discipline, especially in times of crisis. They provoked the author to examine in greater depth the benefits and the drawbacks that such a policy ultimately offers to Bulgaria. The results show that the strict fiscal measures have put additional pressure on the already fragile economic growth and have a high social cost as well. All this justifies the need for the government to take on a new course to achieve economic recovery by means of more active state support that would stimulate a pickup in consumption and production activity.

  3. Radioactivity in Virgin Soils and Soils from Some Areas with Closed Uranium Mining Facilities in Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yordanova, I.; Staneva, D.; Misheva, L.; Bineva, Ts.; Banov, M.

    2012-04-01

    The soil radioecology is an important part of the environmental research in the country. Since the beginning of the 1970's regular monitoring of the content of different radionuclides in Bulgarian soils has been done. Objective of the studies were virgin soils from high mountain areas, hills and plains (the region of Kozloduy NPP and the Danube river valley). Natural and men-made radionuclides were observed. In the 25-year period after the the contamination with radionuclides due to the 1986 Chernobyl NPP accident a rich data base has been collected, recording the radiation status of the soils in Bulgaria. Special attention has been paid to the contamination with the long-lived technogenic radionuclides caesium-137 and strontium-90. This paper presents a summary of the obtained results. Caesium-137 and strontium-90 were the main men-made radionuclides detected in the examined Bulgarian soils few years after the Chernobyl NPP accident. Their content in the soils from high mountain areas (Rodopa and Rila mountains) is several times higher than that in the soils from North Bulgaria and Sofia fields. High non-homogenity in the pollution within small areas (even as small as several square meters) has been observed. Natural radioactivity was also studied. Averaged values for natural radionuclides like uranium-238, thorium-232, and radium-226 in virgin soils from different areas in the country are presented. A comparison of the dynamics of their behavior throughout the years is done. Bulgaria is a country with intensive uranium mining activities in the past years. That is why radiological monitoring of closed uranium mining facilities in different regions of the country are obligatory and of great interest. This work presents results from such investigations made in regions where remediation has been done. The results have been evaluated according to the Bulgarian radionuclide environment contamination legislation. The necessity of permanent environmental monitoring is

  4. Morphological and molecular characterization of Colletotrichum coccodes isolated from pepper cultivated in Bulgaria and Macedonia

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    Stojanova Zornica B.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Colletotrichum coccodes has been recognized as one of the causal agents of pepper fruit anthracnose in Bulgaria. Recently, this species has been recorded in pepper fruits in Macedonia. In Bulgaria, the fungus has also been isolated from roots of premature senescent pepper plants but in Macedonia it has not been isolated yet. The purpose of the investigation was to make comparative morphological, cultural and molecular characterization of C. coccodes isolates obtained from pepper fruits and roots in Bulgaria and Macedonia. Additionally, a technique was applied to differentiate among the C. coccodes isolates obtained from roots and other microsclerotia-producing fungi. On the host tissue, C. coccodes developed acervular conidiomata with cup-shaped fruiting bodies accompanied with dark-pigmented, unbranched, thick-walled sterile hyphae called setae. A slimy mass of hyaline, straight, unicellular, fusiform conidia appeared on nutrient media. In a short time, numerous small dark globose setose microsclerotia emerged in the colony starting from its centre and distributing proportionally throughout agar plates. Two PCR primer sets were used to sequences of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS1 and ITS2 regions. Single products of ~450 bp and ~350 bp were amplified by the genus-specific (Cc1F1/Cc2R1 and the species-specific primers (Cc1NF1/Cc2NR1, respectively. Morphological, cultural and molecular characterization of the isolates from roots and fruits showed that root rot and fruit anthracnose of pepper were caused by one and the same causal agent determined as C. coccodes. The isolates from roots showed rapid mycelial growth, gave rise to numerous minute microsclerotia and produced conidia only on SSPA. SSPA supported significantly more mycelium growth and sporulation than all other media tested and could be recommended for production of large quantity of conidia. No pattern of genetic variation associated with the organ or geographic origin

  5. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL REGISTRY OF NEUROENDOCRINE TUMORS IN BULGARIA--A PILOT SURVEY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanov, R; Miteva-Katrandjieva, Ts; Iskrov, G; Damyanov, D; Korukov, B; Kermedchiev, M; Terziev, I; Madjov, R; Ivanov, K; Kolev, N; Chenopolski, P; Tsaneva, M; Dimitrova, V; Todorov, G; Hristova, S; Tosheva, E; Grozdev, K; Vladov, N; Mihova, A; Stoyanova, R; Cholakov, O; Haralanov, S; Draganov, K; Marinov, V; Radionov, M; Dimitrov, O; Kurtev, P; Angelova, E; Hadjiev, B; Murdjev, K; Dermendjieva, T; Deliisky, T; Valcheva-Petrova, G; Popovska, S; Julianov, A; Georgiev, I

    2014-01-01

    The National registry of patients with neuroendocrine tumors (NET) in Bulgaria was established in 2013 as a joint initiative of the Bulgarian Surgical Society and the Institute for Rare Diseases. The register aims to explore the epidemiology of NET in Bulgaria, as well as the different diagnostic and treatment approaches for the disease throughout the country. This the first of its kind retrospective study of NET in the country is covering the period January 2012 - January 2013. A total of 127 patients with NET were identified. At the time of the survey the average age of patients with NET was 58.61 ± 15.59 years. The data show almost equal distribution between the genders with a slight predominance of women. The largest relative part of NET is those of NET located in the gastrointestinal tract (54.10 ± 4.51%), followed by those located in the pancreas (12.30 ± 2.97%) and in the lungs (10.66 ± 2.79%). In 72.44 ± 3.96% of the patients a immunohistochemical diagnosis was performed. The study confirmed the leading role of the surgery method of the NET management. In 65.83 ± 4.33% of the patients a radical removal of the tumor was conducted, while the relative part of the undertaken partial resection was 7.50 ± 2.40%. A statistically significant association between the type of surgical treatment and during the follow-up of patients was found. An update of the information in the register will allow a more precise determining of the distribution and management of NET in Bulgaria.

  6. STUDY ON THE BEHAVIOUR OF THE DIFFERENT ORIGIN SILKWORM HYBRIDS UNDER THE CLIMATIC CONDITIONS OF BULGARIA

    OpenAIRE

    ALEXANDRA MATEI; P. TZENOV; Petkov, N.; Petkov, Z.; YOLANDA VASILEVA

    2013-01-01

    Romania, Ukraine, Turkey and Uzbekistan as countries placed in the Black, Caspian Seasand Central Asia (BACSA) region, in comparison with hybrids from China, Japan, Italy andKorea has been carried out in Sericulture Station Vratza – Bulgaria.The study pointed out the superiority of the Japanese hybrid Shunrei + Shogetsu which hadthe highest cocoon yield by one box of eggs (41,10 kg) and the highest raw silk productivity(7,05 kg/box of eggs).The silkworm hybrids produced in BACSA members count...

  7. METHODS OF CALCULATING THE EMISSIONS OF ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS FROM PIG MANURE WASTES IN BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimo PENKOV

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available An attempt was made to systemize the data and to develop a methodology for a reliable evaluation of the nitrogen emissions and other ecological pollutants from pig manure wastes in the Republic of Bulgaria. The authors find the suggested methodology to be precise enough and easy to be managed as it combines the use of the available official statistical sources and the possibility of its integration into comparatively popular software products (EXCEL. The methodology could be taught in practical seminars for students and specialists in the area of agroecology.

  8. The Sardinian type underground well temple at Garlo, Bulgaria: an architectural and astronomical survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsonev, Lyubomir; Kolev, Dimiter

    2014-07-01

    In this paper we describe a rare but relatively well-preserved Sardinian type underground well temple located at the village of Garlo, in Bulgaria. This dates to the fourteenth or thirteenth century BCE, and contains some unique architectural features. We postulate that the Garlo temple was used during the winter solstice for rituals associated with the 'newly-born Sun', underground water and the start of the new annual cycle of life. Solar and water cults are known from ancient Thrace, but previously they have never been combined in this way.

  9. Education of logopedists or speech-language pathologists in Bulgaria, Greece, Macedonia, Poland and Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgieva, Dobrinka

    2010-01-01

    This article provides an overview of student training programs in logopedics in Bulgaria, Greece, Macedonia, Poland and the Russian Federation. The data were collected using a special questionnaire developed by Söderpalm in 2006 and supplemented by the author. Bachelor's, master's and PhD programs in the field of pure logopedics no longer exist in some countries. In other locations, logopedics is included as a part of special education student training. In all cases, student education in logopedics is centralized in the universities. Educational programs are accredited by national agencies for accreditation or evaluation or by the respective Ministries of Education.

  10. Accounting interpretation of concession rights in the Republic of Bulgaria – topical issues  

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rumiana Pozharevska

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this paper covers the topical problems for the Republic of Bulgaria on the recognition, presentation and disclosure of concession rights and transactions for accounting purposes. The issues identified by the authors have a regulatory, theoretical character and concern their practical application. The aspects studied within this paper are: recognition of concession rights as intangible assets and their positioning in the total amount of assets of concessionaire enterprises; requirement and readiness for disclosure of information relating to concession agreements. The authors seek to suggest solutions in the specified directions.

  11. Xiphinema pirinense n. sp. (Nematoda: Dorylaimida: Longidoridae), a new species from Bulgaria with a digitate tail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mincheva, Yordanka; Lazarova, Stela; Peneva, Vlada

    2008-07-01

    A description of Xipinema pirinense n. sp. is provided. This is a parthenogenetic nematode found associated with Fragaria sp. and Alchemilla sp. (Rosaceae) close to pine trees in the Pirin Mountains, Bulgaria. The species is characterised by its medium body length (3.2-3.9 mm), rounded head region slightly demarcated by a shallow depression, long odontostyle (116-134.5 microm), tripartite uterus with a Z-differentiation consisting of 4-7 irregular moderately refractive bodies with a clear central part, and a digitate tail with a ventral peg. The new species is most similar to X. index Thorne & Allen, 1950 and X. diversicaudatum (Micoletzky, 1927) Thorne, 1939.

  12. Measurements of radon concentration in soil gas of urban areas, Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Kunovska, Bistra; Ivanova, Kremena; STOJANOVSKA Zdenka; Vuchkov, Daniel; Zaneva, Nadia

    2013-01-01

    These work present results of preliminary study of radon concentration in soil gas at 64 locations within 13 urban areas of Bulgaria using AlphaGuard equipment. The measuring period was from 2008 to 2012. The temperature and humidity has been measured as well, including the gamma dose rate. The radon concentration in soil gas was found to be log-normally distributed within the range from 3–97kBq m−3, with arithmetic mean of 26 kBq.m−3. The influence of the meteorological and geological fac...

  13. HIGHER EDUCATION INTERVENTIONS IN THE EU FUNDING CONTEXT DURING 2007 – 2013 PROGRAMING PERIOD IN BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Ivanov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an analysis of the interventions supporting specific public policies, in the field of higher education, in Bulgaria. These fall within the framework of the European Union structural funds of the 2007 – 2013 program. The paper identifies the types of operations and financial allocations according to their mode of intervention, and reports on the impact of their implementation. It concludes with recommendations for the new operational program, “Science and education for smart growth 2014 – 2020.”

  14. Agaricus chionodermus Pilát, a species new to Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Nikolova Lacheva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the first record of Agaricus chionoderma Pilát in Bulgaria. Basidiomata of the species were found on June 2004, September 2010, and September 2011 in the Thracian Lowland floristic region. The article brings closer taxonomic profile, ecological requirements and distribution pattern of the species. Differences from similar species are discussed. It also describes macroscopic and microscopic characteristics of the discovered specimens and presents the specification of habitat the fungus concerned. The species are described and illustrated by photographs of macroscopic and microscopic features on the basis of Bulgarian specimens.

  15. Opportunities of Establishment of Destination Management and Marketing Organizations in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venelin Terziev

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines tourism sector development in the Republic of Bulgaria in the context of the country’s strategic priorities till 2020 of knowledge-based economy, sustainable growth and smart specialization, the opportunities for its integration with agri-food sector and potential contribution to balanced rural development. The principles and roles of destination management and marketing organizations are discussed and the opportunities for their application in the national conditions are explored. A framework for of establishment, management and functioning of such organizations is proposed based on integrated and participatory approaches, planning, coordination and communication activities, permanent monitoring and controlling.

  16. Programming EU funds in Bulgaria: Challenges, Opportunities and the Role of Civil Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desislava Hristova Kurzydlowski

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available While expectations were high for Bulgaria’s EU membership, it has been marked by numerous domestic challenges. This article explores the application of the principle of partnership in Bulgaria in programming EU funds for 2007-2013 as a litmus test for the capacity of the civil society and the preparedness of the state’s institutions for full-fledged membership. The article displays evidence that unsuitable adaptation and the remnants of the previous institutional establishment filter the EU leverage in the country. Furthermore, the article maps the role of civil society organisations in the process and identifies the main challenges and opportunities for their inclusion.

  17. Anti-Semitism and Islamofobia in Bulgaria. Actual legal and sociological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Ilieva

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This article is based on the lecture held on 23rd September 2011 at the Law faculty of the University of Bologna.SOMMARIO: 1. Introduction – 2. Statistical data – 3. The Muslim community – 4. The Jewish community – 5. General overview of the relevant law provisions in Bulgaria – 6. Anti-Semitism and Islamophobia and the political rights according to the domestic legislation – 7. The Law on Protection against Discrimination, the concept of “positive” discrimination and some new case-laws - 8. Religious Rights and Freedoms – 9. Criminal Law – 10. Some conclusions.

  18. Journalists' Perceptions of Nomenklatura Networks and Media Ownership in Post-communist Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lada Trifonova Price

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the role of the former communist party elite (the nomenklatura in the Bulgarian post-communist media landscape in relation to media ownership and the origin of media outlets’ capital. The spotlight is on Bulgarian journalists’ perceptions explored in semi-structured interviews with media professionals from the capital city, Sofia. The findings indicate that Bulgarian journalists are strongly interested in, and concerned with, the influence of members of the former nomenklatura and their informal networks on the Bulgarian media landscape and particularly on the way Bulgarian media in Bulgaria have been owned and financed since 1989.

  19. RATIONAL PHARMACOTHERAPY BASED ON PHARMACOECONOMIC DATA AUDIT: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATION IN BULGARIA

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    T. Vekov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The theoretical foundations of the application of pharmacoeconomic evaluations of pharmacotherapies in order to improve their economic efficiency and support the process of taking decisions on their payment from public funds are examined. An algorithm is presented for the pharmacoeconomic audit, which is applicable for assessing the objectivity and reliability of the proposed pharmacoeconomic data from pharmaceutical manufacturers in the application process for inclusion in the positive list of medicines in Bulgaria and the reimbursement of economically rational pharmacotherapies from the public health fund.

  20. TOURISM INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT IN THE EMERGING ECONOMIES OF CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE (HUNGARY, BULGARIA, ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina-Petronela HALLER

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Emerging Economies from Central and Eastern Europe take steps to ensure growth through tourism. Although they do not have the cultural, historical and artistic potential of the most famous tourist destinations, these economies promote forms of tourism for which they have suitable conditions. For example, Hungary is famous for health tourism, Bulgaria has made progress in terms of coastal tourism and Romania tries to make known the rural area although it has all conditions for practicing a wide diversified range of tourism forms. In this paper we present statistics showing how the tourism industry looks for three Central and Eastern European countries and we do a brief comparative analysis.

  1. Gas demand growth and trade in South-East Europe: What perspectives for Bulgaria?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gas demand and trade are said to grow in South-East Europe, and inter-regional gas transit is believed to gain importance. Despite a 5 to 10 year delay in economics and energy reforms compared to EU accession countries, prospects for economic recovery and a sustained growth of gas demand around 3.9%/year to 2020 in the region and 6.7% in Bulgaria appear real. Growth is contained by investment needs, vested interests in, and competition from, coal and nuclear as well as concerns about future gas prices, and import dependence. The densification of national and regional gas systems will proceed. Inter-regional (North-South and East-West) high-capacity gas pipeline will emerge as a tempting business perspective. While these perspectives are medium- and long-term, competition among pipeline projects is already waging at present. Bulgaria, Romania and Greece position themselves so as to safeguard future transit revenues, the latter country, in cooperation with Turkey, appearing to move fast with the support of the EU. A region wide optimisation of infrastructure projects appears desirable, however national strategic interests may conflict. (author)

  2. The use of plants in ritual context during Antiquity in Bulgaria: overview of the archaeobotanical evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanka Hristova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Botanical remains from sanctuaries and necropolises provide valuable information about ancient religious practices. The current paper discusses old and new archaeobotanical data from Bulgaria and the use of plants in ritual context from Antiquity. The time span of the 44 considered sites (sanctuaries and necropolises is between the 6th century BC and the 3rd century AD. Most of the sanctuaries in Bulgaria, where archaeobotanical remains have been studied, date to the Bronze and Iron Ages, and a large proportion represents the so called “pit fields”. Information concerning later periods is almost completely lacking. Some evidence on plant offerings is available from the necropolises of the Hellenistic and Roman periods. Although the archaeobotanical data from these sites are quite scarce, their increasing number allows the observation of some common tendencies. Cereals and pulses are most commonly identified at sanctuaries, while fruits are typical remains in the necropolises. Very often imported species (like stone pine, pistachio and olive are found which testifies to existing contacts with adjacent regions (mainly the Mediterranean area and North Africa.

  3. Probabilistic safety analyses developments resurgence in Bulgaria-Kozloduy nuclear power plant example

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marinova, Bozhana, E-mail: Bozhana.Marinova@riskeng.b [Risk engineering Plc, Sofia (Bulgaria); Groudev, Pavlin, E-mail: pavlinpg@inrne.bas.b [Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Sofia (Bulgaria); Papazov, Valentin, E-mail: valentin.papazov@worleyparsons.co [Kozloduy NPP Plc, Kozloduy (Bulgaria)

    2010-04-15

    This paper presents some of the main technical features and insights of the Kozloduy nuclear power plant (NPP) units 5 and 6 probabilistic safety analysis (PSA) level 1. Probabilistic analyses and their applications in Bulgaria were given further impetus in recent years. More than 17 years after the first PSA study in Bulgaria in 1992 today probabilistic analyses receive increasing attention and application than ever before. The Bulgarian regulatory body (BNRA) is also interested in expanding their capability of reviewing and using PSA in plant safety assessments. In November 2008 within the framework of the program financed by European Union (PHARE), a project for assisting the BNRA in establishing the regulatory requirements on the base of PSA was completed. One of the objectives of this project was performance of the independent review of Kozloduy NPP units 5 and 6 PSA. This review was a new impulse for the authors to present in more details of Kozloduy NPP probabilistic assessment studies in the present paper.

  4. Safety Assessment for the Kozloduy National Disposal Facility in Bulgaria - 13507

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biurrun, E.; Haverkamp, B. [DBE TECHNOLOGY GmbH, Eschenstr. 55, D-31224 Peine (Germany); Lazaro, A.; Miralles, A. [Westinghouse Electric Spain SAR, Padilla 17, E-28006 Madrid (Spain); Stefanova, I. [SERAW, 52 A Dimitrov Blvd, 6 Fl., 1797 Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2013-07-01

    Due to the early decommissioning of four Water-Water Energy Reactors (WWER) 440-V230 reactors at the Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) near the city of Kozloduy in Bulgaria, large amounts of low and intermediate radioactive waste will arise much earlier than initially scheduled. In or-der to manage the radioactive waste from the early decommissioning, Bulgaria has intensified its efforts to provide a near surface disposal facility at Radiana with the required capacity. To this end, a project was launched and assigned in international competition to a German-Spanish consortium to provide the complete technical planning including the preparation of the Intermediate Safety Assessment Report. Preliminary results of operational and long-term safety show compliance with the Bulgarian regulatory requirements. The long-term calculations carried out for the Radiana site are also a good example of how analysis of safety assessment results can be used for iterative improvements of the assessment by pointing out uncertainties and areas of future investigations to reduce such uncertainties in regard to the potential radiological impact. The computer model used to estimate the long-term evolution of the future repository at Radiana predicted a maximum total annual dose for members of the critical group, which is carried to approximately 80 % by C-14 for a specific ingestion pathway. Based on this result and the outcome of the sensitivity analysis, existing uncertainties were evaluated and areas for reasonable future investigations to reduce these uncertainties were identified. (authors)

  5. CLASSIFICATION OF SEMI-NATURAL GRASSLANDS IN NORTH-EASTERN BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IVA APOSTOLOVA

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the syntaxonomic diversity of the semi-natural grasslands in NorthEastern Bulgaria following the principles of the Ziirich-Montpellier School. A total number of 172 releves, collected during 2002-2004, is used. TWINSPAN clustering is applied for determination vegetation types. The diagnostic species groups for the associations and subassociations are created by Cocktail method using the phi-coefficient with values above 0.3 within the JUICE software. As a result class Fesluco-Brometea is established with the alliances Festucion valesiacae, Pimpinello-Thymion and Chrysopogoni-Danthonion. The originally described Botriochloetum ischaemi Pop 1977 association is considered as typical on the subassociation level and a part of our releves are referred to it. Following the nomenclature rules we determined the subassotiation typicum. One new subassociation named Thymefosum pannonici of more xerophytic character, as compared to typical one, and well represented by differential species is established. The geographical distribution of Agropyro-Thymetum zygoidi and Agrostideto-Chrysopogonetum grylli associations is extended to the territory of Bulgaria. Class Molinio-Arrhenalherefea is represented by Cynosurion alliance and Festuco-Agrostidetum association is established by its probably most eastern area of distribution.

  6. FORECAST FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE TOTAL ENERGY BALANCE IN BULGARIA TILL 2025

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velkov, L.; Papazyan, M.; Kanchovsky, S.; Kanev, D.

    2007-07-01

    The paper comprises a long-term energy forecast for the Republic of Bulgaria in the prospective by the year 2025. This forecast aims to ensure a normal functioning of the national economy and meeting the energy demand in the households, while keeping in conformity with the environmental requirements. It evaluates the possibility and the necessity to decrease the energy dependency on foreign suppliers, without making any compromise concerning the security of supplies and the competitiveness of the national energy market. The forecast evaluates also which policy will permit for Bulgaria to fulfill the commitments undertaken as per the Kyoto Protocol and shows the role of the energy efficiency enhancement and the use of the RES potential, as well as the role of the development of a safe and reliable nuclear energy sector. The paper provides also a detailed analysis of the main trends in the development of the total energy balance of the country in the period 1997-2004, as it is considered that the trends, which appear in this period will have an important impact on the development of the energy sector in the next years. (auth)

  7. CURRENT STATUS OF RESEARCH PROJECT ACTIVITIES IN MEDICAL UNIVERSITIES IN BULGARIA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetoslav Garov

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In Bulgaria there are five medical universities: in the cities of Sofia, Plovdiv, Varna, Pleven and Stara Zagora. Their main mission is training specialists in the fields of medicine and health care, increasing their qualification by means of postgraduate education and performing research activities. One of medical universities’ top priorities is encouraging research activities mainly aimed at preparation and implementation of research projects. Aim: The purpose of our study is to examine the current status of research project activities in Bulgarian medical universities.Material and methods: In order to define the science competitions related to Bulgarian medical universities we have applied a documentary and sociological approach. Results: Research projects that Bulgarian medical universities can apply for are divided into two groups – national and international. The most significant international projects are European ones since Bulgaria is an EU member state and this allows us to participate in such projects. Conclusion: Universities should strive for establishing even better conditions for encouraging application for research projects aimed at developing competent and experienced staff, even though the majority of them may not obtain approval for financing.The changes in the situation regarding Bulgarian science require the implementation and development of more research staff motivated to improve their knowledge and skills in the relevant dynamically changing competition and project field.

  8. Forest-biological erosion control on coal-mine spoil banks in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The forest fallowing of coal-mine spoils helps re-establish the processes of natural, self-sustaining, soil formation. Environmental monitoring in Bulgaria demonstrates that forestation can moderate soil pH (from ph> 3.0 to pH 1.3 g/cm3 in the 0-5 cm layer) in the case of coal briquette spoils at Pernik, near Sofia. Ground losses from forested, 16-17 degree slope, coal briquette-spoils at Pernik are a quarter of those from an entirely unvegetated section of the same embankment (48.5 vs 12. 1 mm in the period 1988-1994) despite the absence of ground cover beneath the trees. On lignite spoil banks, at Maritsa-Iztok, central Bulgaria, forestation increases the organic content of the soil to greater depths than revegetation with grass, and to a greater degree than conventional agricultural cultivation. On Pinus nigra forested crest sites at Pernik, and in Robinia pseudacacia forested groves on the lignite minespoil banks at Maritsa-Iztok, slopes showed ground advance rather than ground retreat. Slopes protected by mechanical means alone did not allow soil growth and, where the structure broke down, they suffered as much erosion as untreated sites. In sum, the forest fallowing of surface coal-mine disturbed land accelerates organic matter accumulation in the soil, helps improve soil structure, reduces erosion, and may transform soil loss into soil gain, even on steeply sloping sites. 17 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  9. STATE AND EFFICIENCY OF MANAGEMENT OF AGROECOSYSTEM SERVICES – THE CASE OF BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HRABRIN BACHEV

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper incorporates New Institutional Economics and analyzes the state and efficiency of management of agro-ecosystem services in Bulgaria. Firstly, it presents framework of analyses of management of agro-ecosystem services including: definition of agroecosystem services and its management; specification of management needs and spectrum of governing modes (institutions, market, private, public, hybrid; assessment of efficiency of different form of management in terms of potential to protect eco-rights and investments, assure socially desirable level of agro-ecosystem services, minimize costs, coordinate and stimulate eco-activities, meet preferences and reconcile conflicts of related agents. Secondly, it identifies and assesses the management of agro-ecosystem services in Bulgaria. Transition and EU integration have brought about significant changes in the state and management of agroecosystems services in the country. Newly evolved market, private and public governance have led to a significant improvement of a part of agro-ecosystems services introducing modern ecostandards and public support, enhancing environmental stewardship, disintensifyingproduction, recovering landscape and traditional productions, diversifying quality, products,and services. At the same time, the novel eco-management is associated with new challenges such as unsustainable exploitation, lost biodiversity, land degradation, water and air contamination. Moreover, implementation of EU common policies would have no desired impact on agro-ecosystem services unless special measures are taken to improve management of public programs, and extend public support to dominating small-scale and subsistence farms.

  10. Plans for environmental restoration of uranium mining and milling sites in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1992, uranium mining and milling industry in Bulgaria was closed down by Decree No. 163 of the Council of Ministers of the Republic of Bulgaria which defined the procedure for development of liquidation plans, their approval and the procedure for funding from the national budget. The 1994 Decree No. 56 of the Council of Ministers assigned the organization of the liquidation and rehabilitation activities to the Committee of Energy (later, in 1996, transformed to the Ministry of Energy and Energy Resources). An Interdepartmental Board of Experts including representatives of all concerned ministries and agencies was established to coordinate the above activities and to approve work plans. The main stages of liquidation of the uranium industry and its after-effects were defined as follows: (1) environmental status (maintenance of a minimized service mode in order to preserve the state of the site- environment system); (2) technical liquidation; (3) technical recultivation; (4) biological recultivation; (5) purification of contaminated waters; and (6) monitoring. In 1992 and 1993, preparation for the above activities was carried out by development of detailed preliminary studies and work plans for the first stage - the stage of technical liquidation. Their implementation was launched by evacuation of mining and drilling machinery, haulage and processing of finished products etc. (author)

  11. Diversity and biosynthetic potential of culturable aerobic heterotrophic bacteria isolated from Magura Cave, Bulgaria

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    Tomova Iva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Biocapacity of bacteria inhabiting karstic caves to produce valuable biologically active compounds is still slightly investigated. A total of 46 culturable heterotrophic bacteria were isolated under aerobic conditions from the Gallery with pre-historical drawings in Magura Cave, Bulgaria. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that most of bacterial isolates aff iliated with Proteobacteria (63%, followed by Actinobacteria (10.9%, Bacteroidetes (10.9%, and Firmicutes (6.5%. A strong domination of Gram-negative bacteria (total 81% belonging to nine genera: Serratia, Pseudomonas, Enterobacter, Sphingobacterium, Stenotrophomonas, Commamonas, Acinetobacter, Obesumbacterium, and Myroides, was observed. Gram-positive isolates were represented by the genera Bacillus, Arthrobacter, and Micrococcus. One isolate showed a signif icant phylogenetic distance to the closest neighbor and could represent а novel species. Heterotrophic bacterial isolates from Magura Cave were investigated for hydrolytic enzymes production, antimicrobial and hemolytic activity. Predominance of producers of protease (87%, followed by xanthan lyase (64%, lipase (40%, β-glycosidase (40%, and phytase (21% was observed. Over 75% of the isolates demonstrated antimicrobial and hemolytic activity. The results suggest that heterotrophic bacteria isolated from Magura Cave could be a valuable source of industrially relevant psychrotolerant enzymes and bioactive metabolites. This study is a f irst report on the taxonomic composition and biological activity of culturable bacteria inhabiting a cave in Bulgaria.

  12. The town in Serbia and Bulgaria: A comparative reading of current processes. Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatanović Sanja

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The topic of this volume is a result from The Contemporary City in Serbia and Bulgaria: Processes and Changes, a bilateral project of the Institute of Ethnography of the Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts and the Institute of Ethnology and Folklore Studies with Ethnographic Museum of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences (2014-2016. The six papers offer a comparative view of current social processes in two neighbouring Balkan countries, linked by numerous historical and political experiences. Comparative research into societal trends enables a more thorough understanding and monitoring of global processes. In today’s increasingly globalised and glocalised world, towns experience sudden changes and it is in the towns that these changes are most vividly to be seen. The focus of our research is on the dynamism of the contemporary town, on processuality and changes in societal practices. Ana Luleva examines life in the small town of Nessebar in southeast Bulgaria, which has been on the UNESCO World Heritage list since 1983. The protection, management and presentation of Nessebar’s cultural heritage are highly complex issues, further complicated by the problem of collision with the interests of the inhabitants. The author analyses the relations between the various factors - the state administration, municipal authorities and the local population. Here the tourist industry, investment interests, corrupt institutions and civil society all play their part. Ivanka Petrova chose to research Belogradchik, a small town in northwest Bulgaria. Petrova investigates how local social and cultural resources are used in the work of a family tourist enterprise. The author looks for answers to questions such as: how its members identify with the town and its culture and how the work of the enterprise fits into the Belogradchik local context. At the focus of her paper are current societal practices: the local urban economy and the production of images and symbols

  13. CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY IN BUSINESS AND MANAGEMENT UNIVERSITY EDUCATION: THE RELEVANCY TO THE BUSINESS PRACTICES IN BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Slavova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades corporate social responsibility (CSR has forcefully and irreversibly become a part of the corporate actions of a growing number of companies and continues to provoke the interest of governments, international institutions, scientists and researchers. The new imperatives on CSR have increased the requirements of companies towards the education and preparation of experts with the requisite skills and competences. The objective of the paper is to discuss how business universities meet the demand for new business models and management skills in order to help companies in Bulgaria to develop socially responsible practices.The study is based on a web-content analysis of the curricula and study programs of all Bulgarian universities training business and management students in Bachelor and Master programs. The obtained results regarding the current status of CSR education are interpreted in the context of CSR in businesses in Bulgaria. To this end, results were used from a large-scale study by the authors on the status and trends of development of CSR in Bulgaria, thus uncovering the needs of companies operating on the Bulgarian market in terms of employees with CSR skills and competences, and showing the gap between the demand and supply of CSR education for business and management graduates in Bulgarian universities (Bachelor and Master programs. The conclusions delineate the directions in which teaching CSR-related issues should develop in higher education institutions in Bulgaria.

  14. Work with young people - a priority in the activities if WIN Bulgaria for popularization of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the main goals of WIN Bulgaria is is the promotion of the developments in the nuclear technologies in the education system and to direct and coordinate the participation of young people in the learning and applying of these technologies

  15. Bulgaria - Environmental Sequencing Strategies for EU Accession : Priority Public Investments for Wastewater Treatment and Landfill of Waste

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2004-01-01

    Despite Bulgaria's progress to act in accordance with European Union (EU) environmental directives, full compliance with the Union's environmental acquis remains a challenge and requires a substantial investment program in environmental infrastructure and implementation activities in pollution abatement, waste management, and financing the associated operation and maintenance costs. The re...

  16. Views and beliefs of social studies teachers on citizenship education: a comparative study of the Netherlands, Bulgaria and Croatia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeliazkova, Margarita; Cunningham, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on a comparative study of high school social science teachers in three European countries: the Netherlands, Bulgaria, and Croatia, and presents data from teacher interviews using Q methodology. An aim of the study is to make explicit the link between teachers’ views on citizenship

  17. Insurance against Climate Change : Financial Disaster Risk Management and Insurance Options for Climate Change Adaptation in Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2014-01-01

    Bulgaria is exposed to nearly all types of climate extremes, including floods, droughts, and others, as well as earthquakes. The combination of insurance products, early warning systems, information campaigns, infrastructure adaptation measures, and strict regulations can be very useful in tackling the negative climate change impacts. This note provides an overview of the insurance sector ...

  18. International Expert Team Concludes IAEA Peer Review of Bulgaria's Regulatory Framework for Nuclear and Radiation Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: An international team of senior nuclear safety and radiation protection experts today concluded a 12-day mission to review the regulatory framework for nuclear and radiation safety in Bulgaria. The Integrated Regulatory Review Service (IRRS) mission, conducted at the request of the Government of Bulgaria, identified a series of good practices and made recommendations to help enhance the overall performance of the regulatory system. IRRS missions, which were initiated in 2006, are peer reviews based on the IAEA Safety Standards; they are not inspections or audits. ''Bulgaria has a clear national policy and strategy for safety, which are well in line with international standards and practices and contribute to a high level of nuclear safety,'' said Mission Team Leader Marta Ziakova, Chairperson of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic. The mission team, which conducted the review from 8 to 19 April, was made up of 16 senior regulatory experts from 16 nations, and six IAEA staff. ''The results of the IRRS mission will be valuable for the future development and reinforcement of the Bulgarian Nuclear Safety Agency (BNRA). The use of international standards and good practices helps to improve global harmonization in all areas of nuclear safety and radiation protection,'' said Sergey Tzotchev, Chairman of the BNRA. Among the main observations in its preliminary report, the IRRS mission team found that BNRA operates as an independent regulatory body and conducts its regulatory processes in an open and transparent manner. In line with the IAEA Action Plan on Nuclear Safety, the mission reviewed the regulatory implications for Bulgaria of the March 2011 accident at TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station in Japan. It found that the BNRA's response to the lessons learned from that accident was both prompt and effective. Strengths and good practices identified by the IRRS team include the following: A no-blame policy is enshrined in law for

  19. Exploring the effects of energy consumption on output per worker: A study of Albania, Bulgaria, Hungary and Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this article, we explore the long-run cointegration between output, capital and energy consumption, in per worker terms, for Albania, Bulgaria, Hungary and Romania. We use the augmented Solow (1956) model and the ARDL bounds procedure (Pesaran et al., 2001) to examine the short-run and long-run effects of energy and capital on output (in per worker terms). We also conduct causality test using the Toda and Yamamoto (1995) non-causality procedure. Our results show the existence of long-run cointegration between output per worker and energy per worker for all the four countries. We find that energy per worker have a dynamic short-run positive effect in Albania (0.37%), Bulgaria (0.25%), Hungary (0.36%) and Romania (0.68%), and a long-run positive effect in Bulgaria (0.32%) and Romania (0.63%) which duly indicate that energy consumption has a momentous long-run effect in these two countries. The causality results indicate a unidirectional causation from output per worker to energy per worker for all the four countries, and from capital per worker to energy per worker for Albania and Romania. Consequently, a balance between effective energy consumption and sound energy conservation policies are likely to support economic growth in the four countries. - Highlights: • Energy has a short-run positive effect in Albania, Bulgaria, Hungary and Romania. • A long-run positive elasticity is noted in Bulgaria and Romania. • Output per worker cause energy per worker in the four countries. • A unidirectional causality from capital to energy is noted for Albania and Romania

  20. Total Petroleum Systems of the Carpathian - Balkanian Basin Province of Romania and Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlewicz, Mark

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey defined the Moesian Platform Composite Total Petroleum System and the Dysodile Schist-Tertiary Total Petroleum System, which contain three assessment units, in the Carpathian-Balkanian Basin Province of Romania and Bulgaria. The Moesian Platform Assessment Unit, contained within the Moesian Platform Composite Total Petroleum System, is composed of Mesozoic and Cenozoic rocks within the Moesian platform region of southern Romania and northern Bulgaria and also within the Birlad depression in the northeastern platform area. In Romania, hydrocarbon sources are identified as carbonate rocks and bituminous claystones within the Middle Devonian, Middle Jurassic, Lower Cretaceous, and Neogene stratigraphic sequences. In the Birlad depression, Neogene pelitic strata have the best potential for generating hydrocarbons. In Bulgaria, Middle and Upper Jurassic shales are the most probable hydrocarbon sources. The Romania Flysch Zone Assessment Unit in the Dysodile Schist-Tertiary Total Petroleum System encompasses three structural and paleogeographic subunits within the Pre-Carpathian Mountains region: (1) the Getic depression, a segment of the Carpathian foredeep; (2) the flysch zone of the eastern Carpathian Mountains (also called the Marginal Fold nappe); and (3) the Miocene zone (also called the Sub-Carpathian nappe). Source rocks are interpreted to be Oligocene dysodile schist and black claystone, along with Miocene black claystone and marls. Also part of the Dysodile Schist-Tertiary Total Petroleum System is the Romania Ploiesti Zone Assessment Unit, which includes a zone of diapir folds. This zone lies between the Rimnicu Sarat and Dinibovita valleys and between the folds of the inner Carpathian Mountains and the external flanks of the Carpathian foredeep. The Oligocene Dysodile Schist is considered the main hydrocarbon source rock and Neogene black marls and claystones are likely secondary sources; all are thought to be at their maximum

  1. Formation conditions of paleovalley uranium deposits hosted in upper Eocene-lower Oligocene rocks of Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinokurov, S. F.; Strelkova, E. A.

    2016-03-01

    The uranium deposits of Bulgaria related to the Late Alpine tectonomagmatic reactivation are subdivided into two groups: exogenic-epigenetic paleovalley deposits related to the basins filled with upper Eocene-lower Oligocene volcanic-sedimentary rocks and the hydrothermal deposits hosted in the coeval depressions. The geological and lithofacies conditions of their localization, the epigenetic alteration of rocks, mineralogy and geochemistry of uranium ore are exemplified in thoroughly studied paleovalley deposits of the Maritsa ore district. Argumentation of the genetic concepts providing insights into both sedimentation-diagenetic and exogenic-epigenetic mineralization with development of stratal oxidation zones is discussed. A new exfiltration model has been proposed to explain the origin of the aforementioned deposits on the basis of additional analysis with consideration of archival factual data and possible causes of specific ningyoite uranium ore composition.

  2. On the structural value of children and its implication on intended fertility in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Bühler

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Personal networks are receiving increasing recognition as structural determinants of fertility. However, the network perspective also helps to explain personal motivations for having children. Using theories of interpersonal exchange, social capital, and the value of children, it is argued in this article that children can substantively improve their parents' social networks. Individuals perceive this potential advantageous development as a structural benefit and consider this value in their reproductive decisions. This argument is empirically explored with data from Bulgaria, collected in 2002. The results document the presence of structural evaluations among subjectively perceived child-related benefits. Moreover, structural evaluations matter for the reproductive decision-making of Bulgarian citizens. Women's fertility intentions are supported by the prospect that a child will bring their parents and relatives closer or will improve their security at old age. Males' intentions are closely associated with the expectation that a child will provide support when they are old.

  3. Institutionalizing Local Government as an Instrument of Democratic Consolidation: The Cases of Bulgaria and Paraguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsamunska Polya

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Multi-level governance is widely used throughout the world, especially in more economically developed countries. In part, this is due to the presumed benefits of decentralization in terms of public-service delivery, and in part, it is due to a desire to disperse political power and governmental authority. Thus, 25 years ago, when major governmental reform initiatives were begun in many countries around the world, especially in Central and Eastern Europe and Latin America, much attention was devoted to establishing and / or strengthening local governments. This was the case in Bulgaria and Paraguay, two countries from different parts of the world, but similar in size, economic development and a history of highly centralized and authoritarian regimes. The purpose of this paper is to examine and better understand the processes of decentralization as they took place in those two countries and those factors which facilitated and / or hindered efforts to initiate effective local government.

  4. Implementation of the best practices for greenhouse gases inventory in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conditions for applying the 'best practices' are analyzed/or their collection and analysis of the information for the preparation of the GHG emission Inventory in Bulgaria. On the basis of the new methodological requirements of the Good Practice IPCC/OECD Guidance, 2000 methodological instructions for implementation of a system for collecting, processing and saving the data for the GHG Inventory have been projected and elaborated. The information for the inventories is updated and the tables for the Common Reporting Format (CRF) of UNFCCC are completed. A large-scale recalculation has been done for all of the inventories up to now. In the preparation of the annual National GHG Inventory Reports new form and structure of the reports are applied which improve the completeness and transparency of the reached results. The last result for 2003 GHG inventory are shown

  5. THE ECONOMICS OF PEANUT PRODUCTION IN BULGARIA DURING THE TRANSITION PERIOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelly BENCHEVA

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available We examined peanut production systems and selected factors affecting the development of commercial peanut enterprises in Bulgaria. A survey of 220 individual farms and farm cooperatives engaged in the cultivation of peanuts was conducted during 2000 and 2002. Poor farm structure, low level of technology, and nonconformity to farm decision making impede the financial and economic development of Bulgarian peanut production and farm growth, thus limiting farm enterprises emergence into competitive economic units financially operative in a freemarket economy. The underlying cost structure, couple with small farms, averaging 0.8 ha in size, prevent farmers from capturing economies of scale, limit farm profitability and hence farm modernization. The lack of owned farm machinery, equipment and storage facilities renders the restructuring and specialization extremely difficult. However, peanut production is still a viable farm enterprise for Bulgarian farmers.

  6. A contibution to the knowledge of the trophic spectrum of three lacertid lizards from Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivelin Mollov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A study on the trophic spectrum of three species of lacertid lizards (Lacerta agilis, Lacerta trilineata and Podarcis muralis was carried out, based on 20 specimens collected in the period 1967-1973 in various localities in Bulgaria. The analyzed data showed that the insects (Insecta are the most numerous and the most frequently met among the alimentary components of the total amount of food of the studied stomachs (except for Lacerta agilis, where spiders are slightly predominating. The non-insect components consisted spiders and isopods. The largest niche breadth was recorded in Lacerta trilineata (8.25, followed by Podarcis muralis (5.20 and Lacerta agilis (3.44. The niche overlap between the three species (pair-wise comparison showed medium values and in our opinion there should not be any serious competition for food resources at the places withsympatric distribution.

  7. Palaeobotanical data for climate change during the late Miocene - early Pliocene in Western Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Coexistence Approach (CA) analysis was applied to plant macro- and microfossils from the Late Miocene to Early Pliocene sites in western Bulgaria to obtain quantitative climate data and reconstruct climate dynamics. Calculated new values for the Sofia macro flora confirmed a warm-temperate and humid climate with mean annual temperature (MAT) between 12–170C, mean temperature of the warmest month (WMT) 23.6–280C, mean temperature of the coldest month (CMT) 0–50C and mean annual precipitation (MAP) 843–1179 mm. This is consistent with the climatic parameters obtained from the microflora – MAT 13.6–16, WMT 23.6–27.9, CMT 3.7–6 and MAP 803–1308mm. All presented data are in good accordance with other regional palaeoclimate reconstructions from Bulgarian and Europaean floras. Key words: Late Miocene–Early Pliocene, palaeoclimate, Sofia Basin

  8. Does management improve the state of chestnut (Castanea sativa L. on Belasitsa Mountain, southwest Bulgaria?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatanov T

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Chestnut forests in the Belasitsa Mountain region of southwest Bulgaria were traditionally intensively managed as orchard-like stands for nut production. More recently, management intensity has been sharply reduced as a result of rural abandonment, which combined with the effects of chestnut blight has led to marked structural changes in these forests. The focus of this paper is on the seed-based regeneration potential and seedling survival of chestnut in mixed stands managed over the past 15 years. Results suggest that management of stands under a high-forest system is appropriate, and regeneration from seed has advantages over coppicing if competing species can be controlled. An investigation into “sanitation cutting” performed since the 1990s shows that this had not a successful response to blight infestations.

  9. Supporting the Co-operative Organisation of Rational Energy Use (SCORE). Bulgaria Country Document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SCORE stands for Supporting the Co-operative Organisation of Rational Energy Use. It aims at assisting the social transformation in the Central and Eastern European countries by creating self-supporting structures that are able to stimulate the efficient use of energy in end-user sectors. This document aims at presenting an in-depth institutional analysis of the energy efficiency situation in Bulgaria, including the current situation with regard to energy supply, consumption and environmental aspects, as well as an analysis of energy efficiency policies, instruments and organisations. Also, the document identifies problems related to energy efficiency in Bulgaria and indicates the areas of actions for an integrated SCORE programme in Bulgaria. The input for this process was provided by a survey among the main actors in the field, consisting of a questionnaire and interviews and a review of available information. The results were discussed in a workshop attended by the main stakeholders. The main characteristics of the Bulgarian energy sector are summarised in chapter 2. They indicate a high dependency on imported resources, a low quality of domestic fuels, a relatively high energy intensity of production and a low efficiency at supply and demand side with consider able potential for improvement. The restructuring of the sector has started but the process is far from completed. In the main towns heat is mainly supplied by district heating generated partly in co-generation plants. Gas distribution for public and residential buildings is quickly developing. In Chapter 3 the existing policies and actors are described and a 'roadmap' for energy efficiency actors is given. This provides the basis for defining the priorities for energy efficiency improvements presented in Chapter 4, by analysing the tools, policy instruments and organisations. Barriers and priority actions were defined in relation to the national policy level, the institutional structure, financial and

  10. CONCEPTUALIZATION AND CLASSIFICATION OF BALNEO, SPA AND WELLNESS ESTABLISHMENTS IN BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Trifonova Vasileva

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the origin, the process of development and consolidation of the health, SPA and wellness tourism in different regions of the world as well as in Bulgaria. Special attention is paid to the etymology of the words “wellness” and “SPA”, used as a basis for differentiation of their structural elements as tourism segments. Under observations are some theoretical issues, including the significant need of term clarification of these forms of tourism. Other matters of high importance comprise of the classification of health, spa and wellness resorts, the vocational training of managerial and executive staff and etc. Based on the conducted research and analysis some recommendations are made in the aim to the further development of health, spa and wellness tourism.

  11. THE SOCIAL ORIENTATION OF THE ACTIVITY OF THE LABOUR WORKING COOPERATIVES FOR DISABLED PEOPLE IN BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albena MITEVA

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Bulgaria's membership in the European Union defines the orientation of our country in line with the key strategic priorities of Europe 2020, which aims to achieve smart, sustainable and inclusive growth. The role of the cooperative system becomes especially important at this time when the EU itself is constructed as a union of equal socially oriented states. In the paper is depicted the role of the labour working producer cooperatives for disabled people as one of the main actors of the social economy in the EU which contribute to solving many economic and social problems of a substantial part of the Bulgarian population and to implement the priorities of the strategy "Europe 2020". In line with this aim, are given suggestion for the trends in improving their activity. So that they could provide better labour rehabilitation, strengthen the social integration of their members, promotion of production, improvement of working conditions, proposals for changes in legislation.

  12. Alexander Tomov (1930-2009: A Founder of the Astronomical Photoelectric Photometry in Bulgaria [In Bulgarian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Tomov

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the work of Dr. Alexander Tomov on establishment and equipment of the Astronomical Observatory of Belogradchik. Tomov’s research activity in that observatory is commented as well. The official opening of the observatory took place on July 21st, 1965. During the period 1966-1969 a monitoring program for determining the orbits of artificial satellites was successfully realized. Constructing a new building expanded later observatory. In mid-1969 the observatory was supplied by 60 cm reflector optical system ‘Cassegrain’, produced by Carl Zeiss in Germany; it was the biggest telescope in Bulgaria at that time. In the period 1970-1973 a modern single-channel photoelectric UBV photometer was constructed and put in operation. In 1976 the Belogradchik observatory joined with the Institute of Astronomy of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. In the second half of seventies and early eighties hundreds of galaxies were studied.

  13. National organization for management and disposal of radioactive wastes in Bulgaria -- Roles and responsibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The final product of almost every usage of radioactive substances is a radioactive waste in some form: reprocessed nuclear fuel sources; radioactive solutions; materials which are contaminated by radioactive substances; by-products of biological tests and etc. All these substances are subject to temporary storage either till their radioactivity fully vanished and treated after that as a usual waste, or till their final collection for reprocessing and disposal in a final radioactive waste repository. The paper presented here deals with the Bulgarian organization for radioactive inspection of the registration and movement of the radioactive substances and their disposal as radioactive wastes in the country. It is important to note that the reprocessed nuclear fuel obtained from NPP ''Kozloduy'' is not kept on the territory of Republic of Bulgaria

  14. South-East Region in Bulgaria: Economic Performance and Key Sectors Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoaneta GOLEMANOVA

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper attempts to provide insight into the economicperformance of the South-east region (SER of Bulgaria by presenting quantitativerelationships between sectors in the regional economy. Methodologically it is basedon the construction of the regional Input–Output model. It was carried out troughapplying the non-servey GRIT technique, based on Flegg & Webber locationquotient (2000. The dirived Rasmussen & Hirschman backward linkages andMattas & Shrestha input-output elasticities from the model enable to identify thekey economic sectors within the region. This could be considered as a starting pointfor the future impact assesment of different EU policies, as well as designing ofbetter regional development strategies, assuring better economic performance.

  15. Parametric time-series analysis of daily air pollutants of city of Shumen, Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, A.; Voynikova, D.; Gocheva-Ilieva, S.; Boyadzhiev, D.

    2012-10-01

    The urban air pollution is one of the main factors determining the ambient air quality, which affects on the human health and the environment. In this paper parametric time series models are obtained for studying the distribution over time of primary pollutants as sulphur and nitrogen oxides, particulate matter and a secondary pollutant ground level ozon in the town of Shumen, Bulgaria. The methods of factor analysis and ARIMA are used to carry out the time series analysis based on hourly average data in 2011 and first quarter of 2012. The constructed models are applied for a short-term air pollution forecasting. The results are estimated on the basis of national and European regulation indices. The sources of pollutants in the region and their harmful effects on human health are also discussed.

  16. Modelling the water budget and the riverflows of the Maritsa basin in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Artinyan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfer model coupled with a macroscale distributed hydrological model was used to simulate the water cycle for a large region in Bulgaria. To do so, an atmospheric forcing was built for two hydrological years (1 October 1995 to 30 September 1997, at an eight km resolution. The impact of the human activities on the rivers (especially hydropower or irrigation was taken into account. An improvement of the hydrometeorological model was made: for better simulation of summer riverflow, two additional reservoirs were added to simulate the slow component of the runoff. Those reservoirs were calibrated using the observed data of the 1st year, while the 2nd year was used for validation. 56 hydrologic stations and 12 dams were used for the model calibration while 41 river gauges were used for the validation of the model. The results compare well with the daily-observed discharges, with good results obtained over more than 25% of the river gauges. The simulated snow depth was compared to daily measurements at 174 stations and the evolution of the snow water equivalent was validated at 5 sites. The process of melting and refreezing of snow was found to be important in this region. The comparison of the normalized values of simulated versus measured soil moisture showed good correlation. The surface water budget shows large spatial variations due to the elevation influence on the precipitation, soil properties and vegetation variability. An inter-annual difference was observed in the water cycle as the first year was more influenced by Mediterranean climate, while the second year was characterised by continental influence. The energy budget shows a dominating sensible heat component in summer, due to the fact that the water stress limits the evaporation. This study is a first step for the implementation of an operational hydrometeorological model that could be used for real time monitoring and forecasting of water budget

  17. Adverse effects of maternal age, weight and smoking during pregnancy in Pleven, Bulgaria

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    Mariela Stefanova Kamburova

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This paper aims to study the relationship between mothers’ age, body mass index (BMI, gestational weight gain (GWG and smoking and the risk for premature birth in Pleven, Bulgaria. Methods: A case-control study was conducted in Pleven in 2007. The study was comprehensive for all premature children (N=58 and representative for full-term infants (N=192, or 10.4% of all of the 1827 full-term children born in 2007 at the University Hospital of Pleven and resident in the city of Pleven. Retrospective data on determinants under study were collected from all the mothers included in this study (N=250. Results: Mothers of premature children were more likely to be above 35 years old (27.6%, with a BMI ≥25 kg/m2 (23.1%, GWG below the recommended value (38.5% and to smoke during pregnancy (37.9%. The odds of being a smoker during pregnancy were five times higher among mothers with low birth weight (LBW newborns compared with their counterparts with normal birth weight newborns (OR=5.1, 95%CI=2.4-10.6. There was a positive association between BMI and LBW in infants whose mothers were overweight (OR=2.1, 95%CI=1.0-4.0. The risk of LBW increased when GWG was less than recommended (OR=1.8, 95%CI=1.0-3.1. Conclusion: Our results indicate that pre-pregnancy BMI ≥25 kg/m2, less than recommended GWG and smoking during pregnancy are risk factors for premature birth in Pleven region. Findings from this study suggest the need for active health and educational actions by health professionals in order to avoid premature births in Bulgaria.

  18. New data on the paleocene section in Blateshnitsa Graben (Kraishte region, Western Bulgaria)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blateshnitsa Graben is superimposed upon a basement of allohtonous Palaeozoic anhimetamorphics and paraautohtonous Triassic and Jurassic sediments. According to the data from the Zemen borehole, the Graben is filled mainly by alluvial conglomerates and breccia conglomerates (in the lower part of the section) with rare interbeds, of sandstones, fine layered shales and three acid (to intermediate?) pyroclastic beds (in the upper part). K-Ar age of biotite crystalloclasts from the upper part (1.2 m) of the first pyroclastic bed was used to date the Blateshnitsa section. The data obtained (33.12 ± 1.50 Ma) indicate a Late Priabonian, Early Rupelian (or close to Priabonian - Rupelian boundary) age of the pyroclastic emission and accumulation. This first direct dating confirms the existing ideas on the age of Blateshnitsa Graben fill. The dated pyroclastics are transformed into zeolite rocks containing up to 35 % zeolite of heulandite type. They are formed at the expense of acid (to intermediate?) fine ash pumice fragments and glass shards, containing also a high amount (20-40 %) of crystalloclasts (mainly plagioclase and biotite, together with amphibole and quartz) and rare lithic fragments. The source of the pyroclastic component is under discussion. Redeposition of a loose fresh ash tephra by winds or current water is the most probable mechanism of its accumulation in fresh water Paleogene lake. It is supposed that the zeolitization took place in a hydrologically open system at shallow burial depths and in conditions, of humid and moderately warm climate. The Blateshnitsa zeolite rocks are a new find of such type of rocks for the territory of Bulgaria and the first Bulgarian occurrence formed in fresh water environment. Some problems on the Western Bulgaria Paleogene chrono- and lithostratigraphy are discussed. (Original)

  19. Crop Monitoring Using SPOT-VGT NDVIs S10 Time-Series Product for the Arable Land of Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassilev, Vassil

    2013-12-01

    The objects of investigation are the major crops in Bulgaria (winter wheat, winter barley, sunflower and maize). The purpose of this paper is to 1) identify major crops using satellite data with low spatial resolution of 1000 m using agro-phenological information; 2) monitoring based on NDVI time-series values for the years 2007, 2008 and 2010, where anomaly events occur based on the information in the National Institute of Meteorology and Hydrology at the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences (NIMH-BAS) agrometeorological monthly bulletins. The current paper shows the massive potential of using low spatial resolution satellite data in identfying crops and monitoring the development anomalies on crops. This research will contribute in applying and elaborating JRC MARS methodology in Bulgaria by using low resolution SPOT-VGT NDVIs S10 satellite product.

  20. Soon, later, or ever? The impact of anomie and social capital on fertility intentions in Bulgaria (2002) and Hungary (2001).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philipov, Dimiter; Spéder, Zsolt; Billari, Francesco C

    2006-11-01

    We use survey data from Bulgaria and Hungary to investigate the determinants of whether women intend to have a first or a second child and, if so, whether they intend to have the child within the ensuing 2 years or later. These determinants differ significantly by the order and timing of the intended birth. The variables used include measures of anomie and social capital and these appear to be among the factors that determine both whether to have a child and when. There is some evidence that these measures and economic factors are relatively more important in Bulgaria than in Hungary, and that ideational factors are more important in Hungary, particularly in the case of voluntary childlessness.

  1. Success as a Cultural Value: a Comparison Between the Notions of Success and Well-being in Bulgaria and Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hristina Sokolova

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to compare the notions of personal well-being and individual success in Bulgaria and Hungary. Such comparison has not been studied yet in social and cultural sciences. The analysis is based on the results from the 3rd, 4th and 5th Round of the European Social Survey, the 2011řs Eurobarometer Qualitative Survey on attitudes to well-being and a small survey on the notions of individual success conducted by the author of this paper in Bulgaria and Hungary in January 2012. Results of this paper shed light on the most important motivating force of oneřs existence and could be used as guidance for creating problem-solving practices in business and entrepreneurship, based on cultural values.

  2. Notes on autumn-winter stomach contents of the Stone Marten (Martes foina in the Balkan Mountains, Central Bulgaria

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    Masumi Hisano

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We studied autumn-winter food (November-February, 1997-2003 of the Stone Marten in the Balkan Mountains, Central Bulgaria. A total of 26 stomachs (18 of males and eight of females were examined, of which contents was expressed as the number of occurrence and relative frequency of occurrence. The result clearly showed that rodents are primary prey for the Stone Marten. Birds and insects were the following categories consumed. The edible dormouse was detected as a prey for the first time in Bulgaria. Besides, wild ungulates and domestic animals were occasionally scavenged, while neither fruits nor artificial materials were detected in the marten stomachs. Thus, our study showed that the Stone Marten in the Balkan Mountains tended to be more carnivorous in winter.

  3. Horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) as a biomonitor of air pollution in the town of Plovdiv (Bulgaria)

    OpenAIRE

    ILIANA VELCHEVA; SLAVEYA PETROVA; LILYANA YURUKOVA

    2012-01-01

    The present study is a small part of a program for application the methods of passive and active phytomonitoring with herbaceous species, trees, mosses and lichens for assessment of the anthropogenic factor in urban conditions. Aesculus hippocastanum L. was studied as a possible biomonitor of air pollution with heavy metals and toxic elements in the town of Plovdiv (Bulgaria). Concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, V and U in leaf samples from urban areas with different anthropogenic impact were c...

  4. Ecological relations and temporal changes in the pelagial of the high mountain lakes in the Rila Mountains (Bulgaria)

    OpenAIRE

    TRICHKOVA Teodora; Dobrina TEMNISKOVA-TOPALOVA; Maya STOYNEVA; Galerida RAIKOVA-PETROVA; Wesselin NAIDENOW†; Milena HRISTOZOVA; Botev, Ivan; Roumen KALCHEV

    2004-01-01

    The high mountain lakes in the Rila Mountains (Bulgaria) were studied in the years 2000 and 2001 considering the following groups of variables: geography, geology, morphology, hydrology, water chemistry of the pelagial, biomass and size structure of bacterio- phyto- and zooplankton, and occurrence of three fish species. Multivariate analysis (RDA) revealed that the nutrient concentrations in the lakes were significantly influenced by the soil percentage coverage of the catchment area. The exp...

  5. The Fall of Communism in the Spanish Press (Abc and La Vanguardia, 1989-1990): Romania and Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Azcona Pastor, José Manuel; Torregrosa Carmona, Juan Francisco

    2012-01-01

    The article discusses Spanish press coverage of the fall of communism in Eastern Europe in 1989 and 1990. Particular focus is given to coverage of events in Romania and Bulgaria in the newspapers "Abc" and "La Vanguardia". According to the authors, the fall of communism was covered extensively in the Spanish press, with an emphasis on economic and military security issues as well as the global diplomatic consequences of political events. It is suggested that the newspapers usually relied on t...

  6. Prehistoric cereal foods from Greece and Bulgaria: investigation of starch microstructure in experimental and archaeological charred remains

    OpenAIRE

    Valamoti, Soultana-Maria; Samuel, Delwen; Bayram, Mustafa; Elena MARINOVA

    2008-01-01

    Abstract In order to investigate ancient cereal cooking practices, the microstructure of preserved starch in charred ground cereal remains recovered from prehistoric sites in Greece and Bulgaria has been analysed. A comparative modern set of cooked and subsequently charred cereals was produced. By scanning electron microscopy it is demonstrated that, under some conditions, distinctive cooked starch structure survives the charring process. Charring alone can occasionall...

  7. RESEARCH ON THE GERMPLASM OF PRUNUS ARMENIACA L. AT THE REGIONAL CENTRE FOR APPLIED SCIENCE, SILISTRA, BULGARIA

    OpenAIRE

    A. LYUBENOV

    2005-01-01

    The selection of individuals adaptable to environment and with high fruit quality in the case of apricot-trees is the main aim presented in this paper. The study of the rich genetic resources (3600 of seedlings) created in the Regional Centre of Applied Science - Silistra, Bulgaria, allows us to enrich the genetic fund of that plant species. By primary estimation of 1217 apricot seedlings are selected apricot elites that are studied through comparative assay with reference cultivars. The next...

  8. Discipline, Good Faith and Payment’s Loyalty –Main Factors for Reducing the Corporate Indebtness in Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Slavena Stoyanova

    2014-01-01

    As a member of the European Union Bulgaria is subject to monitoring, including in the field of ecomomy. Our country complies with the rules and procedures imposed by the common European policy. Although recent analyses indicate a slight decline in corporate indebtedness, it also maintains the same high levels, thus it hides certain risks for businesses in all sectors of the economy. The delayed payment to a counterparty leads to an avalanche of delayed payments. The need for discipline, good ...

  9. THE ELECTRONIC COMMERCE IN THE TRAVEL AGENCIES’ ACTIVITIES IN BULGARIA AND TERMS OF REFERENCE FOR ITS ELABORATION

    OpenAIRE

    Velina Kazandzhieva

    2010-01-01

    The data used in the paper and the sources of information studied, show regaining of the positions and the role of travel agencies in the distribution system of tourism. The main trends and special features of the European on-line tourist market have been analyzed, as well as the state of the electronic commerce in travel agencies in Bulgaria. Alternatives and values-generating strategies for the intermediary business through efficient use of the advantages of е-commerce have been poin...

  10. Problems and tendencies in management optimisation of hospital sector within health care system of Republic of Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.G. Stoycheva

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article. The purpose of this article is to analyze the specifics, priorities and tendencies of the reforms in hospital sector management within the health care system of Republic of Bulgaria, the hospital care organization practices in relation to the National discussions on issues of hospital sector of the health care system.The results of the analysis. The accession of Republic of Bulgaria to the EU has created new conditions in defining the priorities in the area of public health care, including hospital medical aid. Summarizing, accumulation and transfer of experience in reforming of health care systems of the European Union member states, development of unified requirements, harmonization of legislation, financing, structure of functioning and management of hospital care within the health care system, lead to the need of deep analysis of situation, strategic priorities renewal, management optimization of whole health care system, and in particular the hospital care system in Republic of Bulgaria.In the article the author analyses the research and publications of some major materials, regulations and documents, which provided the basis for the reforms in the health care management system in Republic of Bulgaria in its continuing integration into the pan-European system. Illustrating current situation analysis, the author shares the opinion that the most important part in the organization of common management system in health care is the sector responsible for the development of hospital financing.The author pays special attention to the issues of economic activity of health care institutions.The author cites a number of documents of the National Centre for Medical Information (NCMI noting that leading specialists of the Centre: .Dikov, R.Kolarova, T.Hundurzhievhave prepared detailed reports on economics 2001-2008 and comparative analysis of the medical institutions operation as well as those for outpatient care in Republic of

  11. TECHNOLOGICAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP OF SMALL AND MEDIUM BUSINESS IN THE REPUBLIC OF BULGARIA AS A FACTOR FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

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    Angel Mirchev

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In the context of deepening economic and social crisis the importance of small and medium enterprises in the Republic of Bulgaria is steadily increasing. They have provided significant number of jobs on the labour market and have created much of the gross domestic product of Bulgaria. Our thesis is that technological entrepreneurship is a factor for the sustainable development of small and medium business in the country as a whole and stimulates overcoming the crisis in the country. This research paper reviews the results of a study of the conceptual apparatus of technological entrepreneurship. Based on the results, the relationship of technological entrepreneurship with sustainable development of Small and Medium Enterprises in Bulgaria is determined. The author's conclusions and definition of technological entrepreneurship as a factor for sustainable development are made on the basis of the analysis of the development of Small and Medium Enterprises in key sectors of Bulgarian economy such as tourism, power engineering, transport and industry. An attempt has been made for taking defining measures for development stimulating the technological entrepreneurship in these sectors of the national economy.

  12. Future state of the climate change, mitigation and development of sustainable agriculture in Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazandjiev, V.; Georgieva, V.; Moteva, M.; Marinova, T.; Dimitrov, P.

    2010-09-01

    The farming is one of the most important branches that bring the increase to the gross internal production in Bulgaria. At the same time, the agriculture is the only branch, as in home, so in world scale in which the made as well direct production spending and investing regenerating (or not) only in the frameworks to one vegetative season. In addition on this, development of the intensive farming without using the most advanced technologies such as irrigation, automation, selection - for obtaining stable cultivars and hybrids, permanent weather monitoring and agroclimatic zoning and integrated and biochemical protection to the cultures and plantations had not possible. Analysis of long-term meteorological data from different regions shows clear tendencies to warming and drying for the period of contemporary climate (1971-2000) as well in Bulgaria. Hydro-meteorological conditions in the country are worsened. The most entire estimate is made from the Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change (IPCC) 2007. Most of authors proven that the last decades are really warmest for last century, even for the entire period of the most instrumental observations. The causes for global warming was long time debatable, but the last investigations prove it anthropogenetic derive. The main goal of the paper is framing in conditions of the expected climate changes in our country for period 2020-2050-2070 and the most likely impacts on the agriculture with inspection padding to the consequences in them and making physical conditions for development of proof farming in production regions of the country. By the means of the systematized database of meteorological and agrometeorological data which we have at disposition for the period of this survey (1971-2000); Provide assignment of the expected climatic changes according to the scenarios in the centers for observing and investigations of climatic changes in Europe, US., Canada and Australia (ECHAM 4, HadCM 2, CGCM 1, CSIRO-MK2 Bs and

  13. Multitemporal Monitoring of the Air Quality in Bulgaria by Satellite Based Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolov, Hristo; Borisova, Denitsa

    2015-04-01

    Nowadays the effect on climate changes on the population and environment caused by air pollutants at local and regional scale by pollution concentrations higher than allowed is undisputable. Main sources of gas releases are due to anthropogenic emissions caused by the economic and domestic activities of the inhabitants, and to less extent having natural origin. Complementary to pollutants emissions the local weather parameters such as temperature, precipitation, wind speed, clouds, atmospheric water vapor, and wind direction control the chemical reactions in the atmosphere. It should be noted that intrinsic property of the air pollution is its "transboundary-ness" and this is why the air quality (AQ) is not affecting the population of one single country only. This why the exchange of information concerning AQ at EU level is subject to well established legislation and one of EU flagship initiatives for standardization in data exchange, namely INSPIRE, has to cope with. It should be noted that although good reporting mechanism with regard to AQ is already established between EU member states national networks suffer from a serious disadvantage - they don't form a regular grid which is a prerequisite for verification of pollutants transport modeling. Alternative sources of information for AQ are the satellite observations (i.e. OMI, TOMS instruments) providing daily data for ones of the major contributors to air pollution such as O3, NOX and SO2. Those data form regular grids and are processed the same day of the acquisition so they could be used in verification of the outputs generated by numerical modeling of the AQ and pollution transfer. In this research we present results on multitemporal monitoring of several regional "hot spots" responsible for greenhouse gases emissions in Bulgaria with emphasis on satellite-based instruments. Other output from this study is a method for validation of the AQ forecasts and also providing feedback to the service that prepares

  14. Content of Phenolic Compounds in the Genus Carduus L. from Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iliya Zhelev

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemical screening of the content of total polyphenols, flavonoids, phenolic acids and anthocyanins in Bulgarian Carduus L. species was carried out. The plant materials (inflorescences from all of the 14 species found in Bulgaria has been collected from natural habitats from different floristic regions, during the period 2011-2013. Chemical analysis of the specimens was carried out in accordance with 11 Russian and 7 European Pharmacopoeia. For some of the plant species the obtained results are the first published data about content of phenolic compounds. The content of flavonoids (1,8-3,2% and total phenols(1,7-2,3% was higher in comparison with this of phenolic acids (0,6-2,4% and anthocyanins (0,5-1,5%. The highest content of total phenols and antocyanins was determined in the Carduus thracicus. The three species Carduus thoermeri, Carduus nutans and Carduus candicans ssp. globifer were characterized with the highest content of flavonoids. The highest content of phenolic acids was determined in the Carduus armatus.

  15. European Citizenship and Youth in Bulgaria: A Qualitative Comparative Analysis between Bulgarians and Bulgarian Turks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranco Brusaporci

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available European citizenship is a new concept, which has evolved with the process of European integration. Starting from the younger generations, the EU seeks to establish a modern and innovative view of citizenship through three fundamental elements - rights, identity and participation - that could lead to new ways of conceiving the relationship of institutions-citizens and citizenscitizens. The idea of European citizenship tends to overcome the historical idea of national states and national identity. It does this by reinforcing its supranational nature and developing an attitude of tolerance towards diversity and human/minority rights. Thus, to verify the impact European citizenship has on the younger generation in Bulgaria, this research is based on an inter-ethnic sample of 30 interviews (16 Bulgarians, 14 Bulgarian Turks and applies a qualitative comparative analysis method. This research seeks to answer these two main questions: 1 How do young Bulgarians perceive the concept of EU citizenship? 2 How do young Bulgarians perceive the new European citizenship in regard to the inter-ethnic relations in their own country? The study suggests that the EU’s attempt to promote European citizenship is underachieving. On the one hand, young Bulgarian people tend to be well exposed to European citizenship, irrespective of their ethnic belonging. On the other hand, the majority of them are sceptical of the tangible value of European citizenship for the reinforcement of a more encompassing and shared notion of diversity and minority rights.

  16. Risk of flooding: Activities, parameters and regional peculiarities, Case study: Varbitsa watershed basin, Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lubenov Todor

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available An overview of the activities overtaken during risk of flooding situations, in one of the more often flooding region - the watershed of Varbitsa river (Southeastern part of Bulgaria - has been performed. The main cognitive parameters for risk perception and risk definition, depending on regional, social and historical factors have been examined. The existing information and instructions for mass media communication in relation to the process of interaction in a disaster situation have been discussed. In connection to determination of the risky segments in the basin and plans for announcement, the prevention communication measures have been outlined. On the basis of the Bulgarian normative legislation, the activities concerning organization of communications in a risk-of-disaster situation and mutual aid between authorities, which are part of the Integrated Help System have been indicated. It has been accented on the necessity of a more effective realization of the action plans during natural disasters and especially flooding, in order to improve the partnership between authorities and participants in the communication process during risk-of-flooding situations.

  17. ANALYSIS OF INTENSITY OF COMPETITION IN MILK AND MILK PRODUCTS SECTOR IN BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radko RADEV

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The following paper presents the results of an analysis of the intensity of competition in the milk and milk products sector in Bulgaria. The analysis is performed by adapting the Porter’s five forces model and based on the specific features of the sector concerned. For this purpose the author accepts the industrial concept of interpretation of competition: two levels of consideration of the competition intensity are differentiated - product class as a whole and separate product categories. Although not going into greater depth, the study reports the need of deepening the analysis by individual product groups, price levels and specific segments. The author proposes a methodological framework by which an analysis of the intensity of competition is conducted. Due to volume limitations of the publication, the emphasis of the paper is on the intensity of competition between existing companies; the barriers to enter and exit the sector are also presented; substitute products are marked briefly. The remaining forces from the five forces model are marked without going into details.

  18. Decommissioning of units 1 - 4 at Kozloduy nuclear power plant in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear safety and security are absolute priorities for the European Union countries and this applies not only to nuclear power plants in operation but also to decommissioning. In terms of my technical background and my working experience in the field of licensing and environmental impact assessment during the decommissioning of Units 1 to 4 at Kozloduy Nuclear Power Plant (KNPP) in Bulgaria, I decided to present the strategy for decommissioning of Units 1 to 4 at KNPP which was selected and followed to achieve safe and effective decommissioning process. The selected strategy in each case must meet the legislative framework, to ensure safe management of spent fuel and radioactive waste, to provide adequate funding and to lead to positive socio-economic impact. The activities during the decommissioning generate large volume of waste. In order to minimize their costs and environmental impact it should be given a serious consideration to the choice, the development and the implementation of the most adequate process for treatment and the most appropriate measurement techniques. The licensing process of the decommissioning activities is extremely important and need to cope with all safety concerns and ensure optimal waste management. (authors)

  19. Soil degradation by sulfuric acid disposition on uranium producing sites in south Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study assesses the damage of soils caused by spills of sulfuric acid solutions used for in situ leaching of uranium at eight uranium producing (by open-cast method) sites (total area of approximately 220 ha) in the region of Momino-Rakovski (South Bulgaria). The upper soil layer is cinnamonic pseudopodzolic ( or Eutric Planosols by FAO Legend, 1974). The results of the investigation show that the sulfuric acid spills caused strong acidification of upper (0-20 cm) and subsurface (20-60 cm) soil horizons which is expressed as decreasing of pH (H2O) to 2.9-3.5 and increasing of exchangeable H+ and Al3+ to 18 and 32% from CEC. Acid degradation of soils is combined with reducing of organic matter content. The average concentration of the total heavy metal content in the upper soil horizon (in ppm) is: Cd=1.5; Cu=30; Pb=25; Zn=40 and U=8. No significant differences were detected between the upper and subsurface soil layers . The heavy metal concentration did not exceed the Bulgarian standards for heavy metals and uranium content of soils. But the coarse texture of the top soil layers, the lack of carbonates, The low CEC and strong acidity determine a low buffering capacity of the investigated soils and this can be considered as hazardous for plants. This indicates that a future soil monitoring should be carried out in the region together with measures for neutralizing of soil acidity

  20. PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS - PCBs AND DDTs IN FISH FROM DANUBE RIVER AND FROM BLACK SEA, BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Stancheva

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs and DDT residues (DDTs can still be a problem for the aquatic environment and the human health. PCBs and DDTs were determined in three freshwater fish species: common carp (Cyprinus carpio, catfish (Silurus glanis, pike-perch (Sander lucioperca and two marine fish: shad (Alosa pontica pontica and grey mullet (Mugil cephalus. The freshwater fish samples were collected from the Danube River and from Black Sea, Bulgaria in 2010. The POPs were analyzed in order to investigate the presence of PCBs and DDTs in fish species from Danube River and compared the results to the levels in marine fish species from Black Sea. The fifteen congeners of PCBs, p,p’-DDT and its two main metabolites p,p’-DDE and p,p’-DDD were determined by capillary gas chromatography system with mass spectrometry detection. DDTs were the predominant contaminants in investigated species, with the p,p’- DDE contributing to more than 67% to the total DDTs. In freshwater fish concentrations of DDTs were found from 19.2 to 30.3 ng/g ww and PCBs concentrations - from 6.2 to 12.6 ng/g ww. The highest levels of PCBs and DDTs were determined in shad. The levels of DDTs and PCBs were determined lower than those found in similar fish species from other aquatic ecosystems.

  1. A Ten-Year Molecular Survey on Parvoviruses Infecting Carnivores in Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipov, C; Desario, C; Patouchas, O; Eftimov, P; Gruichev, G; Manov, V; Filipov, G; Buonavoglia, C; Decaro, N

    2016-08-01

    Parvoviruses represent the most important infectious agents that are responsible for severe to fatal disease in carnivores. This study reports the results of a 10-year molecular survey conducted on carnivores in Bulgaria (n = 344), including 262 dogs and 19 cats with gastroenteritis, and 57 hunted wild carnivores. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), followed by virus characterization by minor groove binder (MGB) probe assays, detected 216 parvovirus positive dogs with a predominance of canine parvovirus type 2a (CPV-2a, 79.17%) over CPV-2b (18.52%) and CPV-2c (2.31%). Rottweilers and German shepherds were the most frequent breeds among CPV-positive pedigree dogs (n = 96). Eighteen cats were found to shed parvoviruses in their faeces, with most strains being characterized as FPLV (n = 17), although a single specimen tested positive for CPV-2a. Only two wild carnivores were parvovirus positive, a wolf (Canis lupus) and a red fox (Vulpes vulpes), both being infected by CPV-2a strains. PMID:25382194

  2. Impacts of climate variability on the runoff in the South Eastern part of Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basic climatic factors, which affect the river runoff, are atmospheric precipitation and temperature. On the basis of the set of data from some hydro-meteorological gauging stations with more than 45 years observations have been studied the effect of meteorological conditions on runoff in the southeastern region of Bulgaria. The change of the temperature, precipitation and runoff over the southeastern Bulgarian catchments are investigated and analyzed. During the application of several statistical tests was found that there are changes in the runoff, which are not caused by the man's activity. The features in the variations of above mentioned hydro-meteorological elements and their inherent trends are determined. The results of this study show that the runoff decreases considerably all over the studied region in the last years. An attempt to find a cause of the changes was done. The significant tendency to gradual reduction of runoff in the region is due to considerably decrease of the precipitation all over the Balkans. The study shows that high temperatures and low precipitation conduct to drought in the region and appears unsuitable conditions for the river runoff feeding and development of plants. (Author)

  3. Soil tillage erosion estimated by using magnetism of soils--a case study from Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordanova, Diana; Jordanova, Neli; Atanasova, Anna; Tsacheva, Tsenka; Petrov, Petar

    2011-12-01

    A detailed field and laboratory study on small 0.84-ha test site of agricultural land near Sofia (Bulgaria) has been carried out in order to test the applicability of magnetic methods in soil erosion estimation in the particular case of strongly magnetic parent material. Field measurements of magnetic susceptibility were carried out with grid size of 6 m, resulting in 258 data points. Bulk soil material was gathered from 78 grid points. Natural, non-disturbed soil section was sampled near the agricultural field for reference profile of complete undisturbed soil. Surface susceptibility measurements reveal well-defined maxima down slope which, however, cannot be assigned directly to a certain depth interval, corresponding with susceptibilities along the non-disturbed soil profile. This is caused by the high magnetic susceptibility of the lithogenic coarse-grained magnetic fraction. Non-uniqueness is resolved by using magnetic susceptibility of coarse (1 mm > d > 63 μm) and fine (d soil profile, which corresponds to a certain part of the studied area. After the application of an empirical model to predict the values of magnetic parameter after tillage homogenization and removal of soil material from the surface, the amount of soil loss is estimated.

  4. Public hearings for EIAs in post-communist Bulgaria: do they work?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The participatory practices required as part of the established systems of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) practiced in the United States, Canada, Western Europe as well as several international agencies are more recent to the countries of Eastern Europe. The most common official forum for citizen participation in EIAs is the public hearing, which can provide important benefits. However, public hearings have been criticized as exhibiting several problems that preclude meaningful citizen input. This research explores three cases of public hearings held for EIA projects in Bulgaria. It argues that the public participation process and the public hearing in particular share the same problems that have been observed in other countries (including the United States and Canada). At the same time, however, Bulgarian public hearings do provide important indirect benefits that can contribute to the capacity for democratic governance and an active civil society. In the face of substantial economic obstacles and dramatic governmental reforms the country has endured since the end of communism, forums such as the public hearing are important means to foster institutional restructuring of a newly democratized country

  5. Subaqueous environment and volcanic evolution of the Late Cretaceous Chelopech Au-Cu epithermal deposit, Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambefort, Isabelle; Moritz, Robert

    2014-12-01

    A detailed field and petrographic study constrains the volcanic evolution and environment setting of the volcano-sedimentary-hosted Chelopech Cu-Au epithermal deposit, Bulgaria. Magmatic activity and associated high-sulfidation epithermal mineralization occurred at about 91 Ma in the Panagyurishte ore district of the Eastern European Banat-Timok-Srednogorie metallogenic belt. Volcanic and hydrothermal activity took place in a complex subaqueous setting, resulting in the intercalation of quartz sandstone with andesitic volcanic and volcaniclastic breccia. There are also hypabyssal andesite intrusion, phreatomagmatic breccia and interbeds of pyroclastic, oolithic and bioclastic rocks. The presence of altered cerebroid ooid-bearing sedimentary units characteristic of salty environment is in accordance with a lagoon environment predating the mineralization at Chelopech. Four principal stages of evolution for the Chelopech district are proposed based on field and petrographic observations. Initial volcanism occurred in a lake or in a coastal, shallow lagoon environment above crystalline basement. The Chelopech "phreatomagmatic" breccia and subsurface andesites were emplaced at this time. Subsequent hydrothermal activity produced the different hydrothermal breccia types, advanced argillic and quartz-phyllic alteration, and Au-Cu vein and replacement mineralization. The end of volcanism and hydrothermal activity was associated with opening of a pull-apart basin that covered the Chelopech environment with a sedimentary flysch. Tertiary compression faulting juxtaposed various rocks and tilted the ore deposit during the Alpine orogeny.

  6. Comparative Analysis of the Evolution of Business Travel Romania – Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Gabriela Turtureanu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The authors aim to analyze the evolution of the main tourism indicators in the two neighboringcountries Romania and Bulgaria. Current development of tourism is characterized by a profound renewal ofthe world tourism offer, in particular by developing a range of new tourism products, superior bothqualitatively and quantitatively. Romanian tourism revival will involve reshaping the development of tourismproducts based incentives at national and international tourism. Currently, the Romanian tourism, asotherwise the world is characterized by fierce competition between destinations. Tourist destinations, be theystate or country itself, are becoming increasingly need a new model of tourism policy which influence theircompetitive position in the current competition. A special role in perception destination in the competition ofsimilar offers in the country is playing tourist brand or regional. Tourists and demanding consumers are animportant factor for competitive advantage of a destination. Adapt to offer the consumer needs to be spottednew trends and new opportunities to the tourism product. In the spatial extent of tourism development policy,most have a national or regional scope (in that country. Outside Europe, where international cooperation intourism development is emphasized through the integration of countries within the EU, internationalcooperation is early, sometimes reduced to statements of intent. The competitive position of a destinationdepends on the type thereof, namely the socio-economic development, landscape features, climate, culture,political factors etc. The success of tourist destinations is determined by how it manages to ensure at the sametime to ensure visitors throughout its entire offer experience to match or exceed many alternative destinations.

  7. Latest Cretaceous mosasaurs and lamniform sharks from Labirinta cave, Vratsa District (northwest Bulgaria: A preliminary note

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagt John W.M.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Preliminary descriptions are given of selected specimens from an assemblage of >65 isolated vertebrate remains, collected in 1985 at the Labirinta cave situated between the villages of Drashan and Breste, east of Cherven Briag (Vratsa district, northwest Bulgaria, from strata of late Maastrichtian age (Kajlâka Formation. Recorded are a fragmentary lower jaw of a mosasaurine squamate, Mosasaurus cf. hoffmanni (MANTELL, 1829, with two teeth preserved in situ, as well as two isolated teeth of lamniform sharks, assigned to Squalicorax pristodontus (AGASSIZ, 1843 and Anomotodon sp. Other vertebrate remains in this assemblage include rather poorly preserved fragments of skull and appendicular skeleton of mosasaurs, but it cannot be ruled out that other vertebrate groups (elasmosaurid plesiosaurs are represented as well. To establish this, the additional material needs to be studied in detail and compared with existing collections; it will be described in full at a later date. A partial phragmocone of a scaphitid ammonite, found associated, is here assigned to Hoploscaphites constrictus (J. SOWERBY, 1817 and briefly described as well. This record dates the Labirinta cave sequence as Maastrichtian, as does the echinoid Hemipneustes striatoradiatus (LESKE 1778; tooth morphology of Squalicorax pristodontus and a find of the pachydiscid ammonite Anapachydiscus (Menuites cf. terminus WARD and KENNEDY 1993 from correlative strata nearby narrow this down to late, or even latest Maastrichtian. Finally, some remarks on mosasaur and plesiosaur distribution during the Campanian-Maastrichtian across Europe are added.

  8. Eurasian Otters in Micro Dams of Southern Bulgaria: Where to Place the Monitoring Zones?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilian Georgiev

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Ten micro dam sites were studied in Southern Bulgaria between 2005 and 2007. They were situated below 700 metres above sea level in the Upper Thracian Valley and the Sredna Gora mountain. All the bank perimeters, totaling 24.72 kilometres, were walked searching for otter spraint sites. Most of them were found in the area around the river inflow (n=53, 40.5% followed by those near the wall of the dam (n=39, 29.8%. The other spraint sites were found in the two other zones of equal length in the middle part of the basins. The average levels of preference index showed the highest levels in the river inlet and dam wall zones. They were highest at the river inflow end, 1.6 (min-max=0.7–4.0 and a little lower near the wall, 1.2 (min-max=0.0–3.0. The middle zones of the basin were not so preferentially selected as spraint sites by otters, having index values about three times lower. We recommend otter monitoring at such basins to be focused on the areas close to the main river filling them.

  9. Corrosion monitoring in the oil refinery LUKoil-Neftochim-Burgas AD, Bulgaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoyanov, V.; Papazov, B. [Laboratory Corrosion Protection, LUKoil-Neftochim Burgas AD, Strandsha str. 20 A, 8001-Burgas (Bulgaria)

    2004-07-01

    A great variety of corrosion processes are observed on the territory of the Oil Refinery LUKoil-Neftochim Burgas AD, Bulgaria. They are a result of aggressive action of wide range of chemical active reagents and environments, industrial atmosphere with sea climate influence and underground water with varied composition. Substantial corrosion monitoring is used in oil distillation plant, petrochemical and other refinery units. A part of the most important cases of successfully solved corrosion problems are included in this paper - corrosion in Ethyl-benzene unit alcilators, corrosion protection of equipment and floors in concentrated sulfuric acid in the Sulfuric Acid Alkylation plant, corrosion protection of electro-filters in the Chemical Cleaning of Service Water System, chemical resistant floor in PAN and AN plant, outside varnish protection of tanks, vessels, pumps, steelworks etc. There are many proper solutions suggested, including wide range of coatings and new resistant materials offered by well-known companies - Hempel, Chesterton, Permatex DuPont, Paint International and many others which work in close collaboration with our laboratory. Those problems are typical of all oil refineries and petrochemical plants and are possible to be applied successfully. (authors)

  10. Macrophyte-Based Assessment of the Ecological Status of Lakes in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gana M. Gecheva

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aquatic macrophytes of lakes, situated in the whole territory of Bulgaria, were monitored during 2009. Six lake groups were established using differences in characteristics reflecting altitude, high calcium content and salinity, and altered hydromorphology and/or artificial origin. Abundance and species composition were assessed at each lake according to the requirements of the EU Water Framework Directive, using the assessment procedure of macrophyte-based assessment system, proposed by the Bavarian Environment Agency. The procedure included calculation of the ‘ecological quality ratio’ (EQR for each of 78 water bodies, based on transect monitoring data. For 31 of these lakes, a macrophyte assessment system was applied, for the remaining 47 lakes macrophyte quantity was insufficient or depopulation was assessed. Ecological status classification of lakes is based on the calculation of a Reference Index value. The Reference Index quantifies the deviation of species composition and abundance from reference conditions and classifies sites as one of the five possible ecological quality classes specified in the Directive. The EQR indicating Good and High (Maximum Ecological Status/Potential for macrophytes was achieved in 12 of the 31 lakes which fulfilled the criteria for assessment. The water quality parameters in lake types were discussed.

  11. Influence of Vegetation on the Avifauna in Two Urban Parks in Plovdiv, Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanitsa Petrova

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study is related to the investigation of the impact that vegetation caused on the avifauna of the parks “Lauta” and “Tsar Simeon Garden” located in the city of Plovdiv, Bulgaria. As a result of the study, we found that the biodiversity of the vegetation in park “Tsar Simeon Garden” is highly significant in comparison with the same in park “Lauta”. In the park “Tsar Simeon Garden” introduced plant species dominate over indigenous species, as compared with the park “Lauta”. The differences in the vegetation are caused by different management approaches carried out in the both parks. The degree of similarity between trees and bushes in both parks is low. The vegetation also had a significant influence on the avifauna living within the parks. The avian biodiversity in park “Lauta” is two times higher in comparison with the avian biodiversity in park “Tsar Simeon Garden”. The degree of similarity in the avifauna between both parks is significant, due the fact that all of the species, except one documented in “Tsar Simeon Garden” being documented in park “Lauta” as well. Eighteen new species of birds were recorded and described for the first time in the city of Plovdiv. The conservation status of the avifauna in park “Lauta” is quite significant in comparison with the same in park “Tsar Simeon Garden”.

  12. Impact of Climate Change on Water Supply of Winter Wheat in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Kazandjiev

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available From an agricultural point of view Bulgaria has insuffi cient and uncertain water resources. For the last decades, the potential vegetation period temperature sums submit to a positive tendency and the rainfall sums – to a negative one almost all over the country. This is evidence for the current drought processes determined by the global climate change. The increasing atmospheric drought impacts negatively water content in soil, especially that one available for plants. The paper deals with the impact of the contemporary climate changes upon the available soil water under winter wheat - one of the most important of our country crops for the food balance. The data processed have been gathered from 24 sites and refer to six soil types all over the agricultural territory. They cover the period of the “contemporary climate” (1961-2000. Actualized zoning of the soil water resources and maps of the changes in the availability of soil water have been elaborated. The results obtained allow development of adaptation farming strategies for management of the irrigation scheduling and maintaining of the other agricultural practices according to the climate changes. They will also be used for working out new standards for irrigation network design.

  13. SOLUTIONS FOR INCREASING PUBLIC BUDGET REVENUE IN BULGARIA, CROATIA, CZECH REPUBLIC, POLAND AND ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narcisa Roxana MOSTEANU

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The research paper is a comparative analysis of the budget revenue in Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Poland and Romania, taking into account the main features in light of the contribution of indirect and direct taxes and social contributions to the achievement of public revenues. Theme presents a topic of great interest, both theoretically and practically, given possible solution to increase public budget revenue in these countries, most of them being new member stated of European Union and who wants to catch up all the lost period within socialism time. As a common conclusion it can be seen that all countries need to improve their judicial system and combating crime and tax evasion. It is necessary to increase the independence of the judiciary, reducing bribery, reducing undeclared work and the establishment of independent anti-corruption institutions. Also the analyzed countries must improve public expenditure system, reducing bureaucracy and pay attention on profitable investments in order to increase budget revenues and encourage employment and unemployed university graduates, this is possible also by improving the mechanism of attraction and use of EU funds for investment within public and private sector.

  14. Lunar cycle on an Eneolithic bone artifact from the town of Karnobat, Southeast Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koleva, Vesselina

    This article presents a well preserved bone artifact found in a prehistoric settlement mound near Karnobat, Bulgaria, and dated to the end of the V millennium BC. It has the shape of a shovel or shallow spoon with a short handle decorated with holes and notches (Figs.3,4). The author assumes that this is not a utilitarian object but rather a cultic one. It can be interpreted as both phallic shaped and as a stylized female figure. The total number of the holes and the long notches (31) is close to the number of days in a synodical lunar month: the notches on the "handle" can be used to count down the days in the waning and waxing moon phases, while the holes and the pits on the oval part correspond to the days around the full moon phase. The author brings out parallels from the Palaeolithic period in Ukraine (Fig. 5) and Italy (Fig. 6) with lunar calendar symbology on stylized anthropomorphic figures.

  15. Clinical and pathological characteristics, and prognostic factors for gastric cancer survival in 155 patients in Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelov, Kostadin Georgiev; Vasileva, Mariela Borisova; Grozdev, Konstantin Savov; Sokolov, Manol Bonev; Todorov, Georgi

    2014-01-01

    Almost one million new cases of gastric cancer were estimated to have occurred in 2012, making it the fifth most common malignancy in the world. It is also the third leading cause of cancer death of people of both genders worldwide. The aim of this study is to evaluate the significance of some prognostic factors for gastric cancer survival in 155 patients treated at Aleksandrovska University Hospital, Sofia, Bulgaria. This retrospective study includes patients diagnosed and treated at Department of Surgery of Aleksandrovska University Hospital for the 9-years period of time between January 2005 and December 2013. We classified the prognostic factors as patient-related (age at diagnosis specification, gender, and blood type), tumor-related (N-stage, tumor differentiation, process localization), and treatment related (patients who had radical surgery and adjuvant therapy). We found that blood type is the only statistically significant prognostic factor for overall survival from the patients-related group of factors (p = 0.030). The only prognostic factor from the ones in the tumor related group remains the N-stage according to the TNM classification (p = 0.003). Adjuvant could not prove its value for overall survival (p = 0.675).

  16. Data on the Trophic Spectrum of Young Imperial Eagles (Aquila heliaca Savigny, 1809 in South Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlin V. Zhelev

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The current publication presents the results of a research on the food spectrum of young Imperial eagles (juvennes, immaturus (Aquilaheliaca, SAVIGNY, 1809 in South Bulgaria. Dispersal sites and temporary settlement areas were identified tracking two young eagles marked with radio-transmitters. The birds were tagged in 2007 by the team of Green Balkans Federation. The feeding and behaviour of over 20 young Imperial eagles was observed in a total of 6 regions, including vulture feeding sites. A total of 32 pellets were collected from the trees used by those birds for roosting. Thus the feeding spectrum of young imperial eagles in their roaming period just after fledgling was identified. A total of 13 feeding components, comprising 101 specimens were identified. These were mainly small mammals, dominated by *- (Microtus arvalis, P. - complex (n= 56 specimens, 55,45% and significant presence of House mouse (Mus musculus, L. – 18 specimens or 17,82 %. The observations prove the presence of carcass among the food items taken by the wintering eagles and the particular use of the existing artificial feeding sites for vultures. The study proves the food opportunism of the species.

  17. The measles outbreak in Bulgaria, 2009-2011: An epidemiological assessment and lessons learnt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscat, Mark; Marinova, Lili; Mankertz, Annette; Gatcheva, Nina; Mihneva, Zafira; Santibanez, Sabine; Kunchev, Angel; Filipova, Radosveta; Kojouharova, Mira

    2016-01-01

    Measles re-emerged in a nationwide outbreak in Bulgaria from 2009 to 2011 despite reported high vaccination coverage at national level. This followed an eight-year period since the last indigenous cases of measles were detected. The Bulgarian National Centre of Infectious and Parasitic Diseases collated measles surveillance data for 2009-2011. We analysed data for age group, sex, ethnicity, diagnosis confirmation, vaccination, hospitalisation, disease complications, and death and describe the outbreak control measures taken. The outbreak started in April 2009 following an importation of measles virus and affected 24,364 persons, predominantly Roma. Most cases (73%) were among children children 1-14 years old, 22% (n = 1,769) were unvaccinated and 70% (n = 5,518) had received one dose of a measles-containing vaccine. Twenty-four measles-related deaths were reported. The Roma ethnic group was particularly susceptible to measles. The magnitude of the outbreak resulted primarily from the accumulation of susceptible children over time. This outbreak serves as a reminder that both high vaccination coverage and closing of immunity gaps across all sections of the population are crucial to reach the goal of measles elimination. PMID:26967661

  18. Negative Impacts of the Neo-liberal Policies on the Banking Sector in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossitsa Rangelova Pavlova

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available From the beginning of the 1970s until the last global financial and economic crisis in 2008-2009, neo-liberal ideas guided economic policy development. It is worth noting that the Central and Eastern European countries transformed their economies from centrally planned to а market type at the peak of the liberal policies. Bulgaria offers a particularly interesting example because the country encountered a very difficult transition from one extreme of an economic system organization to another. The paper considers the reforms in the Bulgarian banking sector during the transition period from a centrally planned to a market type economy (from 1989 onward through the implementation of neo-liberal policies. The development of the banking sector and its transformation is analyzed throughout the two main periods: before and after the transition. The latter is divided into two sub-periods (phases beginning with the early 1990s, followed by the financial and bank crisis in the country, the introduction of a currency board regime in 1997, and stabilization, and ending with the global crisis in 2008-2009. This article summarizes that during the transition period, a modern banking system was established to accumulate profit rather than to promote economic growth. Following a chronological order, the negative effects of the liberalization of the Bulgarian banking sector are specified: the exportation of ownership (and control upon banking system assets, unfair asset redistribution, the emergence of the local oligarchy, the weak protection of the taxpayers and others.

  19. Information technologies in radioactive waste management, applied in NPP-Kozloduy, Bulgaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeliazkov, J.; Jeliazkova, L.; Atanasov, Sv. [BALBOK Co., Sofia (Bulgaria)

    1994-12-31

    Radioactive waste (RAW) management in NPP is a complex problem, that can be considered as a combination of sub problems, for example scientific, administrative, social, economical, etc. The separate examination of these sub problems does not lead to creation of overall system for optimal RAW management. There`s no doubt that such an administrative system, supported by information technologies, should present in every one existing and planned nuclear power plant to optimize its operation as a whole, not only separate elements. The aim is to avoid the fallacy of the single and the complex. This paper presents a basic part of the whole information management system as defined above that concerns RAW management. The information management system is prepared for NPP-Kozloduy, Bulgaria by means of modern concepts and technological schemes and is aimed to help the administrative personnel in this very important activity - RAW management. On the base of objective data about the available waste and prognoses about arisings in the future, on the base of chosen technologies and equipment the system gives multi-variant plan for treatment, processing and disposal of waste, after the choice of a variant it monitors its application in the practice.

  20. Naturally-Occurring Entomopathogenic Fungi on Three Bark Beetle Species (Coleoptera: Curculionidae in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavimira A. Draganova

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae belong to one of the most damaging groups of forest insects and the activity of their natural enemies –pathogens, parasitoids,parasites or predators suppressing their population density,is of great importance. Biodiversity of entomopathogenic fungi on bark beetles in Bulgaria has been investigated sporadically. The aim of this preliminary study was to find, identify and study morphological characteristics of fungal entomopathogens naturally-occurring in populations of three curculionid species – Ips sexdentatus Boern, Ips typographus (L. and Dryocoetes autographus (Ratz.. Dead pest adults were found under the bark of Pinus sylvestris and Picea abies trees collectedfrom forests in the Maleshevska and Vitosha Mountains. Fungal pathogens were isolated into pure cultures on SDAY (Sabouraud dextrose agar with yeast extract and were identified based on morphological characteristics both on the host and in a culture.Morphological characteristics of the isolates were studied by phenotypic methods. The fungal isolates obtained from dead adults of Ips sexdentatus, Ips typographus and D. autographus were found to belong to the species Beauveria bassiana (Bals. – Criv. Vuillemin,Beauveria brongniartii (Saccardo Petch and Isaria farinosa (Holmsk. Fries (anamorph Ascomycota, Sordariomycetes: Hypocreales, Cordycipitaceae. Morphological traits of the isolates are described.

  1. MUSICAL INTERESTS AND ACTIVITIES IN CHILDREN’S LEISURE TIME IN HUNGARY AND BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MILENA STEFANOWA VELIKOVA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Beneficial use of leisure time is extremely important as it helps to expand the horizons for intellectual growth, emotional experiences, and personal enrichment. The aim of this study is to establish the interests and needs for music in children’s leisure time. Music is very close to the emotional nature of children and therefore could stimulate and develop their mental and physical abilities. This report focuses on the place of music and art in students’ life and discusses how much of their free time is taken up with these pursuits. It also analyses the needs of such activities. Here the results from a study in which children between 9 to 17 years of age from Bulgaria and Hungary took part are presented. The type of musical activities preferred by the children in their leisure time and the correlation between the activities of choice and cultural differences are also studied. Understanding what music activities children favour in their leisure time is important because learning combined with the arts builds long lasting social skills and educates on tolerance, creativity and discipline. This combination when used in work with children, helps children to develop ability for better self-expression, building up confidence, concentration, integration in the group, developing imagination, recognizing the good and beautiful, and increases their chances for success in life.

  2. ‘Balkan Flint’ – fiction and/or trajectory to Neolithization: Evidence from Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Gurova

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the current state of research and knowledge about ‘Balkan flint’ (hereinafter BF and trajectories flowing from the BF problem to the bigger and increasingly complex problem of the Neolithization of the eastern Balkans. The emergence and consolidation of the BF problem within the research agenda of specialists working on Balkan prehistory is briefly traced, as well as the confusing and inconsistently repetitive use of the term BF leading to some ‘mythologisation’ of the topic.A particular section of the paper represents the thoughts of the author on the conceptual meaning of BF in the context of the Balkan Neolithization debate, because until now its role has not been fully appreciated and recognized. Several theories and scenarios of the emergence and spread of the Neolithic in present-day Bulgaria are reviewed through the evidence of the particular Early Neolithic flint toolkits consisting in representative (retouched blades made from BF and attributed to the diagnostic features of the Early Neolithic package/culture.

  3. Seasonal variations of schizophrenic patients in emergency departments in Sofia, Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zornitsa Spasova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study was to reveal the seasonal distribution of emergency department visits of schizophrenic patients in Sofia, Bulgaria. Methods: We collected daily data for visits of patients with schizophrenia, schizotypal and delusional disorders in the emergency center of the regional dispenser for mental disorders in the city of Sofia for the period 1998-2003. The total number of emergency visits was 5723 (mean daily visits: 5.04±2.4. T-test was used to compare the monthly and seasonal distribution of visits. Results: The season with the highest levels of emergency visits was summer, and the lowest levels were observed in winter (P<0.0001. Spring and autumn had intermediate values close to the mean value, and significantly differentiated from winter values. The month with the highest admission rates was September, followed by May and the three summer’s months. The lowest levels were observed in December, October and January, with statistically significant differences observed between the values of all the three months. Differences between July values compared with December and October values were significant, but not with January values. Conclusion: The study showed significant seasonal and monthly differences in emergency schizophrenics’ visits. The data confirm the outcome of similar studies conducted in countries with temperate climate in the Northern Hemisphere. These results could prove useful for psychiatrists, public health specialists, and governmental authorities dealing with team planning and prevention programs in the field of psychiatry.

  4. University for Mining and Geology - Sofia, extended history and tradition in the area of mining in Bulgaria; Universitaet fuer Bergbau und Geologie - Sofia, lange Geschichte und Tradition im Bergbauwesen in Bulgarien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vladkova, Blagovesta; Kriltchev, Alexander; Vlaseva, Elena [Universitaet fuer Bergbau und Geologie, Sofia (Bulgaria). Lehrstuhl ' Bergbaulueftung und Arbeitssicherheit'

    2009-12-15

    Since 1953, the University for Mining and Geology Sofia (Bulgaria) exists as an independent institute of education. It is the only university in the range of the mining in Bulgaria. Engineering graduates are trained in geosciences, in the mining and in mining -electromechanical subjects. Until today, more than 15,000 Bulgarian and foreign students were trained.

  5. The Notions of "A Border", "A Foreign Country (Abroad" and "A Foreigner": In the Relations between the USSR (Russia and Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Sedakova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A border and related concepts of “abroad” and “a foreigner” are analyzed from the linguistic, semiotic and socio-cultural points of view with regard to the USSR (Russia –Bulgaria relations. In spite of being very close to, even regarded as the 16th republic of the USSR and imitating many Soviet ideas, Bulgaria was a foreign country. The reasons for that on the lingua-cultural data partly of biographical character are discussed in the paper. The border can be a synonym to the language barrier, which exists or does not exist between native speakers of Bulgarian and Russian. The new developments of mutual Russian-Bulgarian language communication on the Bulgaria seashore provide us new data of the symbolism of temporal and spatial borders.

  6. Approaches in setting up a system for certification of the Medical Physicists in some European Countries - possibilities for application in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Europe there are different approaches for harmonization with the Medical Exposure Directive (MED) and the EFOMP recommendations concerning the medical physicists' certification. The two most appropriate types are: 1) Based on folder with evidences and 2) Based on continuous professional development (CPD) evidences assessed by credit points system. An example for certification type 1 is the Radiation Protection Advisers (RPA) certification made by RPA2000 in the UK, which is described in the report. The experience of the Netherlands, Germany, Switzerland, Austria and Belgium are also presented. The situation in Bulgaria is analysed and proposal for further improvement and harmonization with the EC and EFOMP are given. A conclusion is made efforts should be done for establishing of modern accreditation and registration scheme of the MP and MPE in Bulgaria. In Bulgaria there is an urgent need for education, training and official certification of new specialists in this field

  7. Climate change, agroclimatic resources and agroclimatic zoning of agriculture in Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazandjiev, V.; Moteva, M.; Georgieva, V.

    2009-09-01

    The important factors for the agrarian output in Bulgaria are only thermal and water probability. From the two factors the component related to soil moisture is more limited. As well water and temperatures probabilities in the agrarian output are estimated trough sums of temperatures and rainfalls or by derivatives indicators (most frequently named as coefficients or indices). The heat conditions and the heat resources are specified by the continuousness of the vegetative period. Duration of vegetative season is limited for each type of plant, between the spring and autumn steady pass of air temperature across the biological minimum. For the agricultural crops in Bulgaria the three biological minimums: in 5°C are taken for wheat and barley, oat, pea, lentil and sunflower; 10°C for corn, haricot, and soybean and in 15°C for the cotton, vegetables and other spring cultures). The cold and warm period duration are mutually related characteristics. The first period define number of days with the snow fall and days with the snow cover, that are in the basis in the formation of soil moisture reserves after the spring snow melt. Definition of the regions with temperature stress conditions during vegetative season is one of the most important parameters of agroclimatic conditions. The values indicating for the limitations are one or more periods from at least 10 consecutive days with maximal air temperature over 35 °С. More from the agricultures, character for the moderate continental climatic zone are developed normally under temperatures 25-28°С. Temperatures over 28°C are ballast slowing the growth and destroying plants due to the heat tension. The component, limiting in greatest degree growth, development and formation of yields from the agricultural crops are the conditions of moisturizing, present trough atmospheric and soil moisture. The most apparent indicator is the year sum of the rains or their sum by the periods with the average daily temperatures of

  8. Gardening the City: Neighbourliness and Appropriation of the Common Spaces in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meglena Ivanova Zlatkova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Gardening the City: Neighbourliness and Appropriation of the Common Spaces in BulgariaThe paper discusses the forms of public-private space division in a postcosialist Bulgarian city as everyday practices of inhabiting and appropriation of the common spaces in one neighborhood of Plovdiv. The anthropological research of the urban spaces includes a long term observation of the everyday practices in the city of socialism, the city in transition and the changed cities nowadays, following the line of the changing boundaries, distinction and expression of the public and private, common and individual.The cases of particular interest in my research are the forms of transgression of the physical borders and social boundaries as well as establishing new ones, according to the changing identities, social hierarchies, power relations, forms of social solidarity and networking and investment in social capital. The paper presents cases of blurring borders and boundaries as urban discourses – of the socialist city, the city in transition and the other – the city after 2007 when Bulgaria joined the EU. These cases are studied on the base of the everyday practices of urban gardening in common spaces – around block of flats, on the windowed balconies and small gardens (vegetable plots in the town outskirts. Uprawianie miasta: sąsiedzkość i zawłaszczanie przestrzeni wspólnej w BułgariiArtykuł omawia formy publiczno-prywatnego podziału przestrzeni w postsocjalistycznym mieście bułgarskim jako codzienne praktyki zamieszkiwania i zawłaszczania przestrzeni wspólnej na jednym z osiedli w Płowdiw. Antropologiczne badanie przestrzeni miejskiej koncentruje się na długookresowej obserwacji codziennych praktyk w mieście socjalistycznym, następnie przechodzącym okres transformacji, a wreszcie w mieście współczesnym, idąc za zmieniającą się linią granic, rozróżnieniem i wyrażaniem się publicznego i prywatnego, wspólnego i

  9. Exposures to road traffic, noise, and air pollution as risk factors for type 2 diabetes: A feasibility study in Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzhambov, Angel M; Dimitrova, Donka D

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a growing public health problem in Bulgaria. While individual and lifestyle determinants have been researched; till date there has been no study on environmental risks such as road traffic, noise, and air pollution. As a first step toward designing a large-scale population-based survey, we aimed at exploring the overall associations of prevalent T2DM with exposures to road traffic, noise, and air pollution. A total of 513 residents of Plovdiv city, Bulgaria were recruited. Individual data on self-reported doctor-diagnosed T2DM and confounding factors were linked to objective and self-rated exposure indicators. Logistic and log-link Poisson regressions were conducted. In the fully adjusted logistic models, T2DM was positively associated with exposures to Lden 71-80 dB (odds ratio (OR) = 4.49, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.38, 14.68), fine particulate matter (PM)2.5 25.0-66.8 μg/m3 (OR = 1.32, 95% CI: 0.28, 6.24), benzo alpha pyrene 6.0-14.02 ng/m3 (OR = 1.76, 95% CI: 0.52, 5.98) and high road traffic (OR = 1.40, 95% CI: 0.48, 4.07). Lden remained a significant risk factor in the: Poisson regression model. Other covariates with consistently high multivariate effects were age, gender, body mass index, family history of T2DM, subjective sleep disturbance, and especially bedroom location. We concluded that residential noise exposure might be associated with elevated risk of prevalent T2DM. The inferences made by this research and the lessons learned from its limitations could guide the designing of a longitudinal epidemiological survey in Bulgaria. PMID:27157686

  10. Trans-border (north-east Serbia/north-west Bulgaria correlations of the Jurassic lithostratigraphic units

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    Tchoumatchenco Platon

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Herein, correlations of the Jurassic sediments from NE Serbia with those of NW Bulgaria are made. The following Jurassic palaeogeographic units: the Eastern Getic, the Infra-Getic and the Moesian Platform are included in the study. The East Getic was studied in the outcrops near Rgotina, where the sedimentation started in the Hettangian and continued during the Callovian-Late Jurassic and is represented by platform carbonates. The Infra-Getic is documented by the sections of Dobra (Pesača and the allochtonous sediments near the Štubik. Very important for the Infra-Getic are the Late Jurassic volcano-sedimentary deposits of the Vratarnica Series, which crop out near Vratarnica Village. The Jurassic Moesian platform was studied in the sections near D. Milanovac and Novo Korito (Serbia and in their prolongation in NW Bulgaria into the Gornobelotintsi palaeograben. Very important are the correlation in the region of Vrška Čuka (Serbia and Vrashka Chuka (Bulgaria - Rabisha Village (Magura Cave. A revision of the Jurassic sediments on the Vidin palaeohorst, which were studied in the Belogradchik palaeohorst, Gorno-Belotintsi palaeograben, Belimel palaeohorst and the Mihaylovgrad palaeograben, is made. The sedimentation on the Vidin palaeohorst started during different parts of the Middle Jurassic, and in the Mihaylovgrad palaeograben during the Hettangian (Lower Jurassic where the sediments were deposited in relatively deeper water conditions. To south, the relatively shallow water sediments deposited on the Jurassic Vratsa palaeohorst on the southern board of the Mihaylovgrad palaeograben are described.

  11. Cultural cross-border co-operation among Balkan's countries with the case of Serbia and Bulgaria

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    Stojkov Borislav

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Cultural cross-border cooperation includes all fields of cross-border cooperation and gives base for main connections and interactions. Without strengthening cultural cross-border cooperation, it is impossible to build significant relations between neighbors. Culture, as a foundation, an activator and a purpose of development in cross-border regions, represents a cardinal and conditional factor of cross-border cooperation. Today's situation in the Balkans reveals ethnic diversity of this region and territorial dispersion of ethnic groups. This implies at the same time great cultural diversity as well as dispersal of various national cultures over the Balkan's states. During the 20th century Serbia and Bulgaria have very complex political and intrastate relations. But in the last 10 years there have been significant improvements in the cross-border cooperation between Serbia and Bulgaria. The results of these improvements are established Euro-regions and implemented cross-border projects between these two countries. Existing Euro-regions between Serbia and Bulgaria created links between various local authorities and made excellent basis for cross-border initiatives and joint projects to promote common interests across the border and cooperation for the common good of the border areas populations. The well managed cultural cross-border cooperation between these two countries will provide a clear view of common features and raise common identity for the region, contribute to tolerance and understanding between people in this area and enable them to overcome the peripheral status of the border region in their countries and improve the living conditions of the population.

  12. Exposures to road traffic, noise, and air pollution as risk factors for type 2 diabetes: A feasibility study in Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzhambov, Angel M; Dimitrova, Donka D

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a growing public health problem in Bulgaria. While individual and lifestyle determinants have been researched; till date there has been no study on environmental risks such as road traffic, noise, and air pollution. As a first step toward designing a large-scale population-based survey, we aimed at exploring the overall associations of prevalent T2DM with exposures to road traffic, noise, and air pollution. A total of 513 residents of Plovdiv city, Bulgaria were recruited. Individual data on self-reported doctor-diagnosed T2DM and confounding factors were linked to objective and self-rated exposure indicators. Logistic and log-link Poisson regressions were conducted. In the fully adjusted logistic models, T2DM was positively associated with exposures to L(den) 71-80 dB (odds ratio (OR) = 4.49, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.38, 14.68), fine particulate matter (PM) 2.5 25.0-66.8 μg/m 3 (OR = 1.32, 95% CI: 0.28, 6.24), benzo alpha pyrene 6.0-14.02 ng/m 3 (OR = 1.76, 95% CI: 0.52, 5.98) and high road traffic (OR = 1.40, 95% CI: 0.48, 4.07). L(den) remained a significant risk factor in the: Poisson regression model. Other covariates with consistently high multivariate effects were age, gender, body mass index, family history of T2DM, subjective sleep disturbance, and especially bedroom location. We concluded that residential noise exposure might be associated with elevated risk of prevalent T2DM. The inferences made by this research and the lessons learned from its limitations could guide the designing of a longitudinal epidemiological survey in Bulgaria. PMID:27157686

  13. STUDY ON THE BEHAVIOUR OF THE DIFFERENT ORIGIN SILKWORM HYBRIDS UNDER THE CLIMATIC CONDITIONS OF BULGARIA

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    ALEXANDRA MATEI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Romania, Ukraine, Turkey and Uzbekistan as countries placed in the Black, Caspian Seasand Central Asia (BACSA region, in comparison with hybrids from China, Japan, Italy andKorea has been carried out in Sericulture Station Vratza – Bulgaria.The study pointed out the superiority of the Japanese hybrid Shunrei + Shogetsu which hadthe highest cocoon yield by one box of eggs (41,10 kg and the highest raw silk productivity(7,05 kg/box of eggs.The silkworm hybrids produced in BACSA members countries had ahatching percentage ranged from 77,50% to 98,50%, a high pupation percentage (72,86 –96,91%, cocoon weight (1,892 – 2,319 g and fresh cocoon yield by one box of silkwormvaried from 29,894 kg to 40,982 kg.The Romanian hybrids had high values of the rawcocoon weight (2,307 g Record and 2,194 g Baneasa Super, the appreciable values of thecocoon yield/box of eggs (36,135 kg Record and 39,168 kg Baneasa Super, but low valuesof the silk content (20,38% Record and 20,51% Baneasa Super and of the raw silkproductivity/box of eggs (4,33 kg Record and 4,80 kg Baneasa Super.The breeding works inthe BACSA member countries, should be directed towards improvement of the silkproductivity of the hybrids and the qualities of the silk fibre, by the same time preservingtheir comparatively high pupation rate and cocoon yield.

  14. Age Structure and Historical Development of Forests in "Bistrishko branishte" Biosphere Reserve in Vitosha Mountain (Bulgaria

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    Nikolay A. Tsvetanov

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In 2001 the territory of the Bistrishko Branishte reserve of the Vitosha Mountain (Bulgaria was affected by wind throw. Almost 100% of the Picea abies trees on an area of 60 ha were overthrown. After 2003 in the periphery of the wind throw an outbreak of Ips typographus has started, which developed at high speed and by 2008 affected 200 ha of the forests in the reserve. These natural disturbances raised questions about the past of the ecosystem and possible relation of these events to the previous history of the forest. To study the age structure and historical development we extracted 165 samples with increment borer from different parts of the forest of the water-catchment of Bistrishka River. Samples were taken from trees representing various diameter classes and perhaps different cohorts. The samples were prepared following standard dendrochronological methodology consisting of gluing to wooden holders, sanding with sandpaper No. 250 and 600, scanning at 1200 dpi and measuring the tree-ring widths with the CooRecorder software. The resulting series were cross-dated using visual characteristics of the tree rings and statistical similarity with the CDendro software. Our data showed that regardless of the location the age of trees is similar. The majority of dominant trees germinated after the 1870-s. Trees that are visually distinguishable with their larger sizes, had similar ages to neighboring dominants. There is no evidence for large-scale disturbances except for a known wind throw in 1956 in the tree line zone under Skoparnika peak. Over the past 100 years the forest has been affected primarily by small-scale disturbances. The similar age of dominant trees and forest structure are probably a consequence of fast forest recovery after reduced human activity by the end of the 19th century.

  15. [Effect of monensin (USA, Czechoslovakia, Bulgaria) on fermentation of animal feed in an artificial rumen (Rusitec)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalc, D; Baran, M; Petkov, A I; Oblakov, N C; Enev, E I

    1992-01-01

    An experiment was made with the Rumen Simulation Technique (Rusitec) in which the fermentation of a mixed ration of hay (12.8 g/d) and bruised barley (3.2 g/d) was compared with the fermentation of the same diet in the presence of 5 mg monensin/d from the USA, CSFR and Bulgaria. The fermentation of the mixed ration was significantly affected by all three kinds of monensin. The digestibility of dry matter (DM) in the rations declined in the presence of monensin from 48% to 40% (tab. I). The digestibility of detergent fibre, cellulose and hemicellulose also declined in the presence of monensin (tab. I). The production of methane decreased (-70%) and CO2 production dropped too, but this decrease could be accounted for by the changes in the production of volatile fatty acids and redistribution of metabolic hydrogen (tab. I). Monensin decreased the production of total volatile fatty acids (-21%), the production of acetic (-35%), n-butyric, n-valeric and isovaleric acids (tab. II) and increased the production of propionic acid (+60%). The production, utilization and recovery of metabolic hydrogen were significantly increased in the presence of all three kinds of monensin (tab. IV). The end products of fermentation were affected by an addition of monensin to the mixed ration. All three kinds of monensin increased energic efficiency of volatile fatty acids, decreased adenosinetriphosphate (ATP) production, the amounts of fermented hexose, organic matter fermented and utilization of glucose (tab. III).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1641932

  16. QUESTIONNAIRE SURVEY ON CRANIOMANDIBULAR DISORDER ISSUES IN STUDENTS' AND POST-GRADUATE TRAINING IN BULGARIA.

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    Mariana Dimova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of craniomandibular disorders (CMD among the Bulgarian population as well as the risk factors for unlocking bruxism and bruxomania mechanisms pose a demand for education on these issues reflecting modern science. The authors' aim is to examine the subjective assessment of participants in “DAYS OF PROSTHETICS, Sofia, 15 -16 March 2014”, regarding: 1.Prevelance of CMD in the country; 2. Education and training of students and post-graduates in the issues related to diagnostics and treatment of craniomandibular disorders; 3. Theoretical background for successful treatment of patients with bruxism and bruxomania. Materials and methods: For the purpose of the present research 192 participants have been surveyed - among them 163 are dentists and 29 are students in the 4th and 5th year of study. The survey feedback has been obtained via an anonymous questionnaire consisting of 8 questions targeted at dentists' assessment of CMD prevalence and distribution, training in CMD issues in Bulgaria and the treatment of patients with bruxism and bruxomania. The results obtained indicate that 84.0% - 93.1% (95% CI of respondents, working as dentists in the country, expressed the view that students' curriculum lacks an overall concept for training them in the diagnostics and treatment of CMD. 79.6% - 90.2% (95% CI of participants, dentists in the country, define post-graduate training in CMD as insufficient or lacking. Conclusion: The development and promotion of a working platform for early screening, diagnostics and treatment of CMD for timely referral to a specialized treatment is necessary and expected by the professional community in our country.

  17. Carbon storage and soil property changes following afforestation in mountain ecosystems of the Western Rhodopes, Bulgaria

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    Zhiyanski M

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Land-use changes and afforestation activities are widely recognized as possible measures for mitigating climate change through carbon sequestration. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of afforestation on (i soil physical and chemical properties and soil carbon stocks in four mountain ecosystems and (ii whole ecosystem carbon storage. The four experimental sites, situated in the Western Rhodope Mountains (Bulgaria were characterized by typical forest-related land-use conversions. The four sites were a Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii [Mirb.] Franco plantation (Rd1 established on former cropland, a mixed black pine (Pinus nigra Arn. with Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. plantation (Rd2 established on former cropland, a cropland (RdA1 and an abandoned land with uncontrolled extensive grazing (RdA2 historically used as cropland. Soil parameters, i.e., sand content, pH, organic C and N contents, C/N ratio and soil organic carbon (SOC stocks, were significantly affected by land use and land-use history. Conversion from cropland into forestland significantly reduced soil bulk density and coarse fragments at 0-10 cm depth. Compared with adjacent cropland and abandoned land, soils in coniferous plantations were acidified in their upper layers. Sites Rd2 and RdA2 contained the least SOC owing to the previous long-term arable cultivation (>100 years. Analysis of the ecosystem C stock distribution revealed that most of C in forests was stored in the aboveground tree biomass. Our study confirmed that afforestation of cropland turned the soil into a C sink for the selected mountain region, but showed conflicting results when afforestation occurred on abandoned cropland.

  18. The intermediate effect of geographic proximity on intergenerational support: A comparison of France and Bulgaria

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    Leen Heylen

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The geographic proximity of parents and adult children is a key element of intergenerational solidarity. Many studies have identified geographical distance as an important determinant of intergenerational support: living nearby increases the amount of mutual support provided. It can, however, also be regarded as a dimension of intergenerational solidarity: the current degree of proximity is the result of past migration decisions made by both generations, in which present and future care demands potentially played a key role. OBJECTIVE We take this endogenous nature of geographical distance into account by examining theindirect effect of the determinants of the actual level of support through geographical distance. Both upward support (personal care provided to mother and downward support (help with childcare received from mother are considered. METHODS Path analyses are performed on data from the Generations and Gender Survey for France and Bulgaria using a general latent-variable modelling framework in multiple-group models. RESULTS In addition to strongly affecting the level of support provided and received, geographical distance itself is affected by several individual and family-related variables, which in turn have an indirect effect on the level of intergenerational support. The results suggest that proximity can be used as an adaptive strategy: e.g., working adult children in France receive more help with childcare because of their greater proximity to their mothers. Having a greater care need may have triggered this choice of residence. Similarly, single parents with no partner to rely on tend to live closer to their mothers, and therefore receive more help. CONCLUSIONS Geographic proximity can be considered a latent form of solidarity that functions as a mediator between background factors and manifest, functional solidarity.

  19. A new earthquake catalogue for Bulgaria and the conterminous Balkan high hazard region

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    T. J. Bayliss

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A new homogenous earthquake catalogue covering Bulgaria and the surrounding Balkan area has been created with intention of performing a consistent seismic hazard assessment across the region. In keeping with modern requirements of cataloguing seismicity, this catalogue has been made homogenous as far as possible with regards to magnitude, which has been provided on any of four different reported scales for each event; mb, Ms, Mw and ML. A key historical catalogue for the region has been used to represent the early instrumental period of earthquake recording (1900 to 1963, whilst data have been obtained from the International Seismological Centre (ISC, National Earthquake Information Center (NEIC and National Observatory of Athens (NOA to cover the instrumental period of earthquake recording (1964 to 2004. ISC data have also been used to develop a new mb→Ms magnitude conversion equation for the catalogued region. Application of this new magnitude conversion relation, in combination with other selected magnitude scale correlations, ensures reported magnitudes can be systematically rendered onto homogenized Ms and Mw scales for all earthquakes. This catalogue contains 3681 events with homogenized magnitudes ≥4.0 Mw, for the time interval 1900 to 2004 (inclusive, located in the region bounded by 39°–45° N, 19°–29° E, at focal depths of 0.0 km to 401.0 km and in a magnitude range 4.0≤Mw≤7.2. Selected large magnitude (M≥6.0 Ms earthquakes have had their reported magnitudes reassessed – and adjusted if necessary – in light of work by other authors. Applied statistical approaches aimed at determining the lower threshold to magnitude completeness suggest this catalogue is complete down to a homogenized surface-wave magnitude of 4.6 Ms.

  20. Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Activating Mutations in Squamous Histology of Lung Cancer Patients of Southern Bulgaria

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    Genova Silvia N.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available There is only limited data on the prevalence of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR activating mutations in squamous cell carcinomas and adenosquamous carcinomas of the lung in patients of the Southern Bulgarian region and the efficacy of EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors. AIM: Previous reports for Bulgarian population showed high incidence of EGFR mutations in the squamous cell carcinomas, so we set the goal to investigate their frequency in Southern Bulgaria, after precise immunohistochemical verification of lung cancers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two hundred and thirty-six lung carcinomas were included in this prospective study. All biopsies were initially analysed with p63, TTF1, Napsin A, CK7, CK34βE12, synaptophysin, CK20 and CDX2. Two hundred and twenty-five non-small cell lung carcinomas were studied with real-time PCR technology to assess the status of the EGFR gene. RESULTS: We detected 132 adenocarcinomas (58.7%, 89 squamous cell carcinomas (39.2%, 4 adenosquamous carcinomas (1.8%, 9 large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas (3.8% and 2 metastatic colorectal adenocarcinomas (0.8%. Activating mutations in the EGF receptor had 3 out of 89 squamous cell carcinomas (3.37%. We have established mutations in L858R, deletion in exon 19 and rare mutation in S7681. One out of four adenosquamous carcinomas had a point mutation in the L858R (25%. CONCLUSIONS: The frequency of EGFR mutations we found in lung squamous cell carcinomas in a Southern Bulgarian region is lower than that in European countries. Ethnic diversity in the region does not play role of an independent predictive factor in terms of mutation frequency.

  1. Proximate composition of seeds and seed oils from melon (Cucumis melo L. cultivated in Bulgaria

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    Zhana Petkova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The seeds of three varieties of melon (Cucumis melo L. from Bulgaria were analyzed for their chemical composition and a detailed study of their lipids was carried out. Chemical composition values were as follows: fat content ranged from 41.6 to 44.5%, protein 34.4 to 39.8%, crude fiber 4.5 to 8.5%, carbohydrates 8.2 to 12.7%, soluble sugars 3.7 to 4.2%, and minerals 4.6 to 5.1%. The content of sterols, phospholipids, and tocopherols in the oils was 0.6, 0.7–1.7%, and 435–828 mg/kg, respectively. The major fatty acid in lipids was linoleic (51.1–58.5%, followed by oleic acid (24.8–25.6%. The trilinolein (31.3–32.2%, oleo dilinolein (31.0–34.0%, and palmitoyl dilinolein (14.9–22.3% have represented 80.0% from the total triglyceride composition of the melon seeds oil. β-Sitosterol predominated in both free and esterified sterols, being, respectively, 52.9–70.8 and 50.4–58.4%. Phosphatidylinositol (24.4–33.9%, phosphatidylcholine (23.0–33.1%, and phosphatidylethanolamine (8.4–17.1% were the main phospholipids. Palmitic acid (34.4–61.7% was the major fatty acid of the phospholipids, followed by oleic acid (8.9–27.2%. Linoleic acid (32.7–39.1% was the main component among the fatty acids of the sterol esters, followed by oleic acid (25.1–30.7%. In the tocopherol fraction of melon seed oils, the main component γ-tocopherol varied from 71.4 to 91.5%.

  2. Spectroscopic study of barite from the Kremikovtsi Deposit (Bulgaria with implication for its origin

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    Dimova Maya

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Different genetic types (endogene and supergene of barite from the Kremikovtsi deposit (Bulgaria were studied by Laser-induced time-resolved luminescence (LITRL, Infrared (IR and Raman spectroscopy. The IR spectra of the endogene barites are quite similar to those reported in the literature and do not show appreciable differences among them. The IR spectra of the supergene barites are almost identical to those of the endogene ones in respect to the positions of the vibrational modes ν1, ν2 and ν4 of SO4 2 except for a shift of 3 cm-1 for the ν 3 band. They displayed a presence of additional bands, which are close to the ν3 and ν1 modes of CO3 2- in calcite. The Raman studies support the suggestion that the supergene barite contains traces of calcite. The modern LITRL technique allowed the detection of several luminescent centers in the endogene barite. Eu3+ luminescence was identified for the first time in barite. The different emission spectra at 266 and 532 nm excitations suggest there are at least 2 structural positions for Eu3+ in the barite crystal lattice. The luminescent spectra also revealed a rather unusual violet-blue Nd3+ emission, which usually occurs in the IR spectral range, as well as emissions of Ce3+, Eu2+, Tb3+, Ag+, Sn2+(? and UO2 2+. The oxidation state of cations isomorphically present in the barite crystal lattice suggests the endogene barite in the Kremikovtsi deposit precipitated from reduced fluids supposedly subjected to cooling (conductive/convective and oxidation (mixing with seawater.

  3. Bulgaria and Serbia in the historical works of George Akropolites and George Pachymeres

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    Stanković Vlada

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the well-known historical works of George Akropolites and George Pachymeres from the viewpoint of their literary composition structure, lexica and narrative techniques used for describing events and personalities from Bulgaria and Serbia. An attempt is made to surpass the 'traditional' methodology and the usually applied standard approach that focuses almost exclusively to the search for the 'strong' historical facts in these literary works par excellence, in that way overlooking their strong literary character, careful expressions, sometimes evident and sometimes more subtle style differences whose purpose was to underline the focal points and the conclusions of the content of the stories - in short, the information and the stories about Bulgaria and Serbia by Akropolites and Pachymeres are analyzed in their entirety, viewed as the integral parts of the complex literary works, and not as isolated episodes, divided from the rest of the narrative. The ways in which George Akropolites depicted and described deaths of the Bulgarian rulers were studied as one of the best examples of his conscious endeavors to bring the literary style of his History in accord with his own judgments about the rulers of the neighboring country. Scenes of death, conspicuously frequent in Akropolites' relatively short historical work, play an important role in characterizing personalities, and the same principle which Akropolites uses for judging the Byzantines is applied to the Bulgarians as well: generally positive opinion about somebody's life and achievements is emphasized with a depiction of his death in a positive way (Ivan II Asen, and vice versa, Akropolites' 'villains' receive their horrible deaths as a deserved punishment for their bad deeds (Kalojan's death. On the other hand, Akropolites' scarce information about Serbs is supplemented with his depiction of the Serbian king Uroš (1243-1276, and his stance after the death of John Batatzes

  4. An Examination of Teacher's Pedagogical Philosophical Beliefs of Secondary Science Teachers in Sofia Public Schools, Sofia, Bulgaria

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    E. Boiadjieva

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This investigation sought understand of the pedagogical philosophies of Bulgarian secondary science teachers in public schools in Sofia, Bulgaria, using the instrument that derived information for this study was an interview protocol consisting of six open-ended questions, with a numerical scoring analysis: the Teachers Pedagogical Philosophy Interview (TPPI. A review of literature shows there is no research on the pedagogical philosophical basis of teacher’s beliefs on teaching or on the effect of integrating constructivist teaching methodology in Bulgarian secondary science classrooms.

  5. Some successful financing mechanisms for energy efficiency projects (EE) and projects using renewable energy sources (RES) - the experience of Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper analysis some of the most promising financial mechanisms for energy efficiency (EE) and renewable energy sources (RES) projects in Bulgaria - the TPF mechanism, the KIDS Fund, delivered by the EBRD fund the EE fund of the WB, established on the floor of the EE act, as well as a number of some of the pre accession and European energy programs used for financing this area. All data its rich intensive international and in -home work in the are of energy efficiency and renewable energy sources. (Author)

  6. Notes on autumn-winter stomach contents of the Stone Marten (Martes foina) in the Balkan Mountains, Central Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Masumi Hisano; Evgeni Raichev; Stanislava Peeva; Dian Georgiev; Hiroshi Tsunoda; Ryuichi Masuda; Yayoi Kaneko

    2014-01-01

    We studied autumn-winter food (November-February, 1997-2003) of the Stone Marten in the Balkan Mountains, Central Bulgaria. A total of 26 stomachs (18 of males and eight of females) were examined, of which contents was expressed as the number of occurrence and relative frequency of occurrence. The result clearly showed that rodents are primary prey for the Stone Marten. Birds and insects were the following categories consumed. The edible dormouse was detected as a prey for the first time in B...

  7. THE ELECTRONIC COMMERCE IN THE TRAVEL AGENCIES’ ACTIVITIES IN BULGARIA AND TERMS OF REFERENCE FOR ITS ELABORATION

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    Velina Kazandzhieva

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The data used in the paper and the sources of information studied, show regaining of the positions and the role of travel agencies in the distribution system of tourism. The main trends and special features of the European on-line tourist market have been analyzed, as well as the state of the electronic commerce in travel agencies in Bulgaria. Alternatives and values-generating strategies for the intermediary business through efficient use of the advantages of е-commerce have been pointed out.

  8. Species Diversity and Distribution of Amphibians and Reptiles in Nature Park "Sinite Kamani" in Stara Planina Mt. (Bulgaria

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    Stanimira R. Deleva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The current study presents briefly the species composition and distribution of the amphibians and reptiles in the Nature Park "Sinite Kamani" in Stara Planina Mnt. Bulgaria, based on a 2×2 km UTM grid. Between 2012 and 2014, we identified total 20 species (7 amphibians and 13 reptiles. We documented three new amphibian species for the region (Hyla arborea, Rana dalmatina and Rana graeca, which is discovered for the area for the first time and three species of reptiles (Testudo hermanni, Ablepharus kitaibelii and Lacerta trilienata. The contemporary conservation status for each species is presented and conservation threats and problems, specific for the park are discussed.

  9. RESEARCH ON THE GERMPLASM OF PRUNUS ARMENIACA L. AT THE REGIONAL CENTRE FOR APPLIED SCIENCE, SILISTRA, BULGARIA

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    A. LYUBENOV

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available The selection of individuals adaptable to environment and with high fruit quality in the case of apricot-trees is the main aim presented in this paper. The study of the rich genetic resources (3600 of seedlings created in the Regional Centre of Applied Science - Silistra, Bulgaria, allows us to enrich the genetic fund of that plant species. By primary estimation of 1217 apricot seedlings are selected apricot elites that are studied through comparative assay with reference cultivars. The next step of the selection cycle will be the official registration of the elites for commercial aim by the State Variety Committee and a forthcoming dissemination.

  10. Professionalism of staff as a major factor for the efficiency of public service in the Republic of Bulgaria

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    Cherkezov V.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to support the thesis that the professionalism of staff employed in Public Service in the Republic of Bulgaria should be put forth as a major factor for Administration’s effectiveness. It is recommended staff professionalism to be identified as a main priority of the Bulgarian government. Up-grading of training in public administration, career development opportunities and introducing of a code for employee ethic and integrity will contribute for the improvement of public service in general and for its successful integration in the European Administrative Space.

  11. Discipline, Good Faith and Payment’s Loyalty –Main Factors for Reducing the Corporate Indebtness in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavena Stoyanova

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available As a member of the European Union Bulgaria is subject to monitoring, including in the field of ecomomy. Our country complies with the rules and procedures imposed by the common European policy. Although recent analyses indicate a slight decline in corporate indebtedness, it also maintains the same high levels, thus it hides certain risks for businesses in all sectors of the economy. The delayed payment to a counterparty leads to an avalanche of delayed payments. The need for discipline, good faith and fair payments is tangible.

  12. The impact of the crisis manifested in financial markets on economic growth. A comparative analysis of Romania and Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robu, V.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The global financial crisis affected the international financial markets, having a general effect on the economies of EU member states: Romania and Bulgaria. Because of economic instability of the last two years, many investors are also following the evolution of the GDP in making decisions of stock portfolio. The study is going to present the relationship between the stock indices’ values of the two countries and the GDPs, for underlining and verifying a possible link, based on information from 2008 and 2009. The results obtained will test the causal relationship, and formulate some conclusions regarding the influence of the global financial crisis over the economic loss of the two countries.

  13. Isotopic characterisation of lead in contaminated soils from the vicinity of a non-ferrous metal smelter near Plovdiv, Bulgaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacon, Jeffrey R. [Macaulay Institute, Craigiebuckler, Aberdeen AB15 8QH (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: j.bacon@macaulay.ac.uk; Dinev, Nikolai S. [N Poushkarov Institute of Soil Science and Agroecology, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2005-03-01

    Soil samples from the vicinity of a non-ferrous metal smelter near Plovdiv, Bulgaria contained very high concentrations of cadmium, lead and zinc (up to 140, 4900 and 5900 mg kg{sup -1}, respectively). A roadside soil in a relatively uncontaminated area also contained high concentrations of the same metals (24, 1550 and 1870 mg kg{sup -1}, respectively) indicating that the transport of ores could be a source of contamination. Even though the lead isotope ratios in all the samples fell within a very narrow range (for example, 1.186-1.195 for {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb), the samples could be differentiated into three distinct groups: ores ({sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb and {sup 208}Pb/{sup 207}Pb ratios of 1.1874-1.1884 and 2.4755-2.4807, respectively), current deposition (1.1864 and 2.4704-2.4711, respectively) and local background (1.1927-1.1951 and 2.4772-2.4809, respectively). Although most of the current deposition has its origin in the ores used at the smelter, up to 12% could be from other sources such as petrol lead. - Although soils in the vicinity of a non-ferrous metal smelter near Plovdiv, Bulgaria, have become highly contaminated with the ores used, lead isotope analysis has revealed that up to 12% of current deposition could be from other sources such as petrol lead.

  14. THE EFFECT OF STRUCTURAL FUNDS ON REGIONAL COMPETITIVENESS IN THE NEW EU COUNTRIES: THE CASE OF ROMANIA AND BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GLIGOR DELIA ANCA GABRIELA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the context of internationalization and globalization of the world economy, regional competitiveness is thoroughly debated by politicians and policy makers, emphasizing measurable differences between development regions, without any clear political or conceptual framework. The process of European Union integration is a main driving force of change, aiming to increase the efficiency and competitiveness of the fragmented European economy in the face of increasing internationalization. This often exposes countries and regions with unequal resources and technology and different economic structures to international competition. Such is the case of Romania and Bulgaria, countries that after joining the European Union in 2007 were given an opportunity to recover in terms of regional competitiveness and economic growth, namely structural funds as a form of nonrefundable European financial help to disadvantaged regions of member states. This research is thus focused on underlining and analyzing the relation between structural funds’ absorption and the degree of regional competitiveness for the development regions of Romania and Bulgaria, during their first programming period, through identifying and analyzing the factors that influence regional competitiveness and the amount of structural funds absorbed. First, two competitiveness country profiles are created based on data provided by relevant international organisms and second, an impact analysis is developed using six regional competitiveness indicators, grouped into three categories (economic, social and technological. Results show that EU funds critically influence the competitiveness of Romanian and Bulgarian regions, providing reliable data for policy decision makers

  15. Organisation and financing of the health care systems of Bulgaria and Greece – what are the parallels?

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    Exadaktylos Nikolaos M

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Bulgarian and Greek Medical Care systems have been reformated the last fifteen years. The aim of this study was an examination and comparison of the Bulgarian and Greek Medical Care Systems. Methods This study was prepared by using all the published data related to both Bulgarian and Greek Medical Care systems. Besides, personal communications with related offices such as administration offices of hospitals and Ministries of Health were made. Results In both countries, besides the compulsory insurance there is also additional voluntary insurance which is provided by private companies. The most important difference is the family doctor (specialist in general medicine existing in Bulgaria. Every insured person needs a 'referral form' completed by the family doctor before visiting a hospital for medical attention (except emergencies. In contrast, in Greece an insured person can directly visit any hospital without needing any forms and independent of the severity of their health problem. An important disadvantage of the Greek health system is the low number of hospitals (139, in relation to population. In contrast, there are 211 hospitals in Bulgaria, although its population is lower than in Greece. Conclusion In both Greek and Bulgarian health systems changes must be done to solve the problems related to informal payments, limited financing, large debts, lack of appropriate investment policy, lack of an objective method for the costing of medical activities and inefficient management.

  16. Evaluation of the hexagonal and spherical model of vocational interests in the young people in Serbia and Bulgaria

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    Hedrih Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to validate Holland’s hexagonal and Tracey’s spherical model of vocational interests in young adults in Serbia and Bulgaria. To this end, 1250 participants, 560 from Serbia and 690 from Bulgaria, filled in Serbian and Bulgarian versions of the Personal Globe Inventory (PGI, Tracey, 2002. Hubert and Arabie’s randomization test of hypothetical orders, multidimensional scaling with fixed coordinates, Myors test and exploratory factor analysis were used. The results showed that the hexagonal and spherical models well explained the structure of vocational interests in both samples. The level of fit of the hexagonal model to the data obtained by using the PGI was generally higher than those established in the studies that used other Holland-based instruments. Furthermore, the levels of fit of both hexagonal and spherical model were in the same range like those obtained in previous studies in other countries. The results also pointed out a remarkable similarity in the structure of vocational interests in the Bulgarian and Serbian samples. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179002

  17. POLLUTION OF SHOKARSKI STORMWATER CANAL AND ITS INFLUENCE ON THE QUALITY OF THE VARNA BLACK SEA COASTAL AREA, BULGARIA

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    Anna Simeonova

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Pollution of Shokarski stormwater canal and its influence on the quality of the Varna Black Sea coastal area, Bulgaria. In the present study was investigated the pollution of Shokаrski stormwater canal, discharging its water into the Varna Black Sea coastal area. Monitoring was carried out during 2011 year at 5 sites along the canal water flow. The pollution was determined by organoleptic and physico- chemical characteristics, nutrients concentrations and the organic load. Critical levels of dissolved oxygen were measured at some of the monitoring sites ranging from 0,65 to 2,79 mg/dm3. Ammonium and nitrite concentrations were above the threshold limits at all sites. The phosphates’ concentrations varied very dynamically ranging from 0,18 to 11,8 mg/dm3 and in most of the cases exceeded the threshold limit. Very high levels of biochemically degradable organic pollutants were determined with biochemical oxygen demand values reaching- 68,96 mg/dm3. The Shokarski canal pollution could be considered as a tremendous thread for the quality of the Varna Black Sea coastal area, Bulgaria.

  18. A study on early-onset neonatal group B streptococcal infection, Bulgaria, 2007-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorova-Christova, M; Vacheva, R; Decheva, A; Nikolov, A; Slancheva, B; Stoichkova, D; Christova, E; Shopova, E; Hitrova, S; Masseva, A; Yarakova, N; Kraleva, I; Takova, T S; Dimitrova, N; Dobreva, A

    2014-09-01

    This study examines neonatal group B streptococcal (GBS) colonization and its relation to early-onset GBS disease (EOGBSD), based upon the experience of leading obstetrics and gynecology centers in Bulgaria. The objectives of the study were to update neonatal colonization rates and to assess relationships between clinically differentiated cases (culture-proven GBS newborns) and risk factors inherent to the infant and mother, using a computerized file. The neonatal GBS colonization rate ranged from 5.48 to 12.19 per 1000 live births. Maternal-fetal infection (MFI, a provisional clinical diagnosis in culture-proven colonized infants with initial signs of infection that is usually overcome with antibiotic treatment) and/or intrapartum asphyxia (IA) have been demonstrated as the most frequent clinical manifestations, with significant correlations for the primary diagnosis, but not affirmative for the final diagnosis at discharge, resulting from adequate treatment of neonates. MFI and IA were significantly related to prematurity, and reciprocally, prematurity was associated with the risk of MFI, indirectly suggesting that preterm birth or PPROM (preterm premature rupture of membranes, an obstetric indication associated with early labor and delivery, one of the major causes of preterm birth) is a substantial risk factor for EOGBSD. The regression analysis indicated that in the case of a newborn with MFI, a birth weight 593.58 g lower than the birth weight of an infant without this diagnosis might be expected. Testing the inverse relationship, i.e., the way birth weight influences a certain diagnosis (logistic regression) established the presence of a relationship between birth weight categories (degree of prematurity) and the diagnosis of MFI. The proportions and odds ratios, converted into probabilities that a baby would develop MFI, indicate the particularly high risk for newborns with extremely low and very low birth weight: extremely low birth weight (≤1000 g), the

  19. The Byzantine Church of '40 Holy Martyrs' in Veliko Turnovo, Bulgaria: Pigments and Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 'St. 40 Martyrs' church is the most famous medieval building in Veliko Turnovo, Bulgaria. It is located in Assenova mahala, just next to Tsarevets. It was built and its walls were painted during the reign of Bulgarian king Ivan Assen II after the victory against Epyrus despot Theodoros Comninos (1230 AD). It consists of two buildings - a six-column basilica and another, smaller building on its western wall, which was built later. During the presence of the Ottoman Turks, maybe until the first half of the 18th century, the church remained christian. When it was converted to a mosque, all the christian symbols in it were destroyed. The archeological researches on site were initiated in 1969. As it is clear, the 40 Martyrs church is a historical monument of culture with great significance. The church had murals, from the earlier period, but in the following years and especially during the Ottoman period, the church has suffered many and different destructions. Nevertheless, the very few pieces of murals that are rescued till nowadays provide important information for the technique and the pigments that were used on its wall paintings. In the present work, twelve series of samples from the wall paintings were studied in order to characterize the materials and the technique used for church iconography. The study was based on the micro-analytical techniques of the Fourier Transform Infrared micro-spectroscopy (μs-FTIR), the Optical Microscopy and the Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) coupled to an Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometer (EDS). In the FTIR spectra of all pigments the characteristic peaks of calcite were detected, confirming the use of fresco technique for the creation of murals. The combination of FTIR spectroscopy and SEM-EDS analysis, reveal the existence of lapis-lazuli for the blue color, green earth for the green color, cinnabar for the red color, calcite for the white color and carbon black for the black color. Moreover, in other chromatic layers

  20. The development and implementation of a public information programme at the Kozloduy nuclear power plant, Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper proposes to examine the aims, approach and evaluation of a Public Information Programme currently being undertaken by the British Nuclear Industry Forum. The Kozloduy Nuclear Power Plant has awarded a contract to the British Nuclear Industry Forum to carry out a Public Information Programme with the objective of informing the people of Bulgaria about the content of the Nuclear Safety Account Grant Agreement, the role of the NSA, the role of EBRD and the donor countries in providing the necessary funding, the safety improvement programme being undertaken and the progress being made. The overall aim of the Programme is to build a consensus among energy consumers of the principal issues to be faced in the development and implementation of a Bulgarian energy strategy. There are a number of key elements of the Programme which include: 1) To carry out a communications audit in order to assess current structures and methods of information dissemination. This is to establish the Programme's requirements and provide a detailed operational plan. 2) To assess public opinion and general levels of awareness of the general public, workforce, press, government and industry regarding Kozloduy in order to establish priority messages and create and produce the necessary information material. 3) To review the plant's existing information centre and to provide training and support to facilitate the handling of public and press enquiries and also presentation training for the centre's personnel. 4) To create bespoke outreach programmes which will inform local and national Government, the workforce and local communities, women and schools of safety improvement processes. 5) To implement a media programme which will enable staff at the plant to deal effectively with inquiries and to enable them to anticipate media interest in a range of issues including the safety upgrade. 6) To organise a workshop on issue management so that participants can create and communicate an issue

  1. THE HIDDEN PICTURE: UNHEALTHY EATING ATTITUDES AND BEHAVIORS IN A NON-CLINICAL POPULATION FROM BULGARIA

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    Radka Massaldjieva

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Eating disorders have been intensively researched over recent decades. However, there has been insufficient research into the early assessments for detecting the risk of developing disordered eating. We report preliminary results from a project aiming to assess the prevalence of eating attitudes and behaviors that heighten the risk of eating disorders. The study examines a non-clinical sample of adolescents and adults from two cities of South Bulgaria.METHODS: In this cross-sectional epidemiological study, a total of 1285 volunteers of 828 females and 453 males, aged 14 to 59 years, were surveyed to assess disordered eating attitudes and behaviors. For this purpose, the study used the ‘SCOFF’ questionnaire, the Eating Disorder Diagnostic Scale (EDDS, and the Eating Attitudes and Behaviors Questionnaire (EABQ, which was developed for this study.RESULTS: The proportion of these volunteers underweight (body mass index below 17.5 was 9.8%. Of the total subject, 34.7% provided two or more positive answers for the SCOFF questionnaire (two being the upper threshold for indicating 100% sensitivity to anorexia and bulimia. The results differed between males and females: 21.6% and 42.1%, respectively, in this regard. A factor analysis (oblimin rotation of EABQ items revealed four main factors: body shape and weight concerns, personal control over eating and calorie intake, dieting, and preoccupation with food and binge eating. A Spearman’s correlation analysis showed moderately significant correlations (p < 0.001 between the total scores of the SCOFF questionnaire, EABQ, and the scores for three groups of items in the EDDS for assessing eating attitudes and behaviors.CONCLUSION: We found a greater ED risk in adolescents compared with the older groups and in females compared with males. One fifth of males studied were at high risk of ED and ages between 19 and 39 years also appeared at risk. The EABQ was validated as a sensitive and

  2. Development of the radioactive waste management infrastructure in Bulgaria - preconditions and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Bulgaria there are preconditions for development of an effective system, considering the interdependence between all stages of radioactive waste /RAW/ generation and management. The national infrastructure of RAW management is built up in accordance of the classical triangle principle, i.e. the main responsibilities are of the Regulatory body, waste producers and newly created State Enterprise RAW. The organization of the infrastructure is legislatively established and aims at application of the basic internationally adopted principles of radioactive waste management. The national policy is directed towards spent fuel and radioactive waste management in a safe, economic, comprehensive and integrated approach, where the historical aspect and contemporary trends, the country's scientific, technical and financial resources are considered, and the responsibilities of the state and of the nuclear facilities operators are clearly defined. The strategic purposes of the policy and the measures for their achievement are formulated in the National Strategy on Safe Management of Spent Fuel and Radioactive Waste. The tendency is a joint national system for management of spent fuel and radioactive waste from nuclear power production and nuclear applications to be established. Decisions for storage of high level waste from spent fuel reprocessing, as well as of spent fuel, are considered in long-term perspective and possibilities at regional level are analyzed as well. The safe and effective RAW management is a precondition for the sustainable development of the Bulgarian nuclear program, including decommissioning of units 1 and 2 of Kozloduy NPP, completion of the Belene NPP construction, and use of the benefits offered by the radiation technologies. The main challenges are connected with: Establishment of a new RAW classification and of clearance levels; Encouraging the re-use and/or recycling of radioactive materials, equipment and buildings, within the framework of the

  3. Management of Spent Sealed Radioactive Sources in Bulgaria, Latvia, Lithuania, Romania and Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study has been performed to consider the situation relating to the regulation and management of spent sealed radioactive sources (SSRS) in five of the Central and Eastern European (C and EE) countries that are being considered for admission to the EU, namely, Bulgaria, Latvia, Lithuania, Romania and Slovakia. Two previous studies have considered the situation in the current EU member states(1) and in the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Poland and Slovenia(2). The general aim of this study has been to acquire a thorough understanding of the management of SSRS in the five countries, in order to recommend improvements in management schemes and to establish whether the application of common disposal criteria would be advantageous. This report is structured in the following manner; following the Introduction (Section 1), there is a description of the current and proposed regulatory requirements in the EU, together with a summarised comparison of the regulatory systems in the five countries with EU standards (Section 2). Sections 3 to 7 are dedicated to each of the five countries. Each of these sections is similarly sub-divided to enable country-by-country and topic-by-topic comparison. In each of Sections 3 to 7 there is an overview, description of the sealed source inventory, regulations, current management practices, retrieval of unregistered (sometimes known as lost or orphan sources) SSRS, conclusions and a description of possible future technical assistance projects. In addition, there is a description in each of Sections 3 to 7 of the management of 226Ra sources, which is receiving special attention in many countries (Table I provides a summary and comparison of the management of 226Ra in the five countries).both country-specific and generic recommendations. A common concern in the five countries and many other countries, including the EU member states, is the problem of accidental inclusion of SSRS in consignments of scrap metal. The detection of

  4. Bulgarian Modern Poetry [and] Dracula - Fact and Fiction, for a Western World Literature Class. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad, 1997. (Romania and Bulgaria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rang, Barbara L.

    This project developed two units for secondary students, one dealing with the modern poetry of Bulgaria and one with the legend of Dracula. The first unit includes poems, discussion questions, and a background essay. The second unit includes discussion materials largely based on Brian Stoker's novel "Dracula," and an historical essay on Vlad…

  5. Repeated isolation of virulent Newcastle disease viruses of sub-genotype VIId from backyard chickens in Bulgaria and Ukraine between 2002 and 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Here, we report the circulation of highly related virulent Newcastle disease viruses (NDV) in Bulgaria and Ukraine from 2002 until 2013. All of these NDV isolates have the same virulence-associated cleavage site (‘‘113RQKR;F117’’), and selected ones have intracerebral pathogenicity index values rang...

  6. Country Report Summary: Bulgaria [Project Management in Nuclear Power Plant Construction: Guidelines and Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Belene site on the Danube River was approved by the Bulgarian Government in 1981 for the construction of a second nuclear power plant in Bulgaria. The same year, preparation of the site preparation commenced with: -Construction of anti-filtration walls; -Erection of external communications, civil and installation facilities. To avoid the risk of site flooding, the terrain was built up by eight meters and levelled at the same time. By 1989 the following erection works were completed: -Circulation pipelines; -Units 1 and 2 ballast mats; -Unit 1 reactor building up to elevation 13.20 m, and the foundation and support structure of the turbine hall; -Diesel generators cubicles. In 1990, the Bulgarian Government decided to suspend project execution due to financial difficulties. Since then, multiple measures have been undertaken to preserve the equipment supplied, the construction site itself and the buildings. Various investigations and assessments have been carried out with respect to the site suitability and the equipment status, all of which yielded positive conclusions. New investigations were conducted in relation to site safety and its compliance with international safety requirements. An extensive research on the seismic safety of the Belene site was carried out. A number of missions were dispatched by the IAEA and other authorities. All these came up with positive conclusions and confirmed that the Belene site was suitable for the construction of a new nuclear power plant. At the end of 2002, the Bulgarian Government took a decision in principle to re-start construction at the Belene site. An Environmental Impact Assessment was carried out in the period from October 2003 to November 2004, and the final report was submitted for public discussions in both Bulgaria and Romania. The procedure ended up successfully, resulting in Decision No.18-8 from the Ministry of Environment and Waters, dated November 22, 2004, to approve the investment proposal for the

  7. FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENTS AND THEIR NON-TRADITIONAL QUALITY FACTORS. A VAR ANALYSIS IN ROMANIA AND BULGARIA

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    Magdalena RADULESCU

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present an econometric analysis using VAR techniques for emphasizing the political institutional factors, economic freedom factors and the quality of labor force factors impacting on FDIs attracted in Bulgaria and Romania. We used yearly data series between 2000 and 2014, provided by the World Bank. These two countries display a very friendly climate (law income corporate tax, but they attracted large amounts of FDIs only for a short period of time at mid-2000s’. The foreign investments sharply dropped during the crisis, and the perspectives are not so good. The foreign investors claim that high corruption and bureaucracy greatly diminish the advantages of an attractive fiscal environment in these two specific countries.

  8. Application of mineral fertilizers in Bulgaria and their efficiency on the slightly leached chernozems of the Dobroudja region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the past years the agriculture in Bulgaria is undergoing a process of reconstruction and structural changes. The utilization of mineral fertilizers has gradually increased since 1948 and reached its summit in 1981 when about 227 kg/ha NPK have been used. Nowadays these norms have been were and in 1996 they were only 35 kg/ha at the expense of applying N-fertilizers mainly in wheat. The efficiency of the applied nutrients was estimated on slightly leached chernozem in the period 1967-1997. The regular long term fertilization of N120P60K0 had a favorable effect on grain yield in an agronomical and economic aspect (5070 kg/ha). The highest grain yield was received at fertilization with N120P120K120 (5230 kg/ha). Refs. 4 (author)

  9. Chemical composition and antifungal activity of essential oil of Salvia sclarea L. from Bulgaria against isolates of Candida species

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    Yana Hristova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil of Salvia sclarea L., growing in Bulgaria, was analyzed by gas chromatography – mass spectrometry. A total of 52 different compounds were identified, representing 98.25% of total oil content. Linalyl acetate (56.88% and linalool (20.75% were determined as major essential oil constituents, followed by germacrene D (5.08% and β-cariophyllene (3.41%. Antifungal activities of clary sage essential oil and major compounds linalyl acetate and linalool against 30 clinical isolates, belonging to species Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida krusei, Candida glabrata and Candida parapsilosis were evaluated. Essential oil characterized with stronger anticandidial activity in comparison with pure compounds.

  10. The trends in the social opinion for the nuclear energy development in Bulgaria during the last five years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sociological investigations in Bulgaria about the development of nuclear energy show that generally most of the people understand the importance of the nuclear power production in the country and are inclined to support it if the necessary safety level is guaranteed. 53.2% are against the early shutdown of the Kozloduy NPP units 1-4. Only 9.6% think that the authorities give adequate information about the atomic energy production. 34.6% are of the opinion that the actions of the authorities are unclear and that the population is not informed enough about them. A common opinion is that the public relations should be extended and the people need more information in the field of nuclear energy

  11. Horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L. as a biomonitor of air pollution in the town of Plovdiv (Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ILIANA VELCHEVA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study is a small part of a program for application the methods of passive and active phytomonitoring with herbaceous species, trees, mosses and lichens for assessment of the anthropogenic factor in urban conditions. Aesculus hippocastanum L. was studied as a possible biomonitor of air pollution with heavy metals and toxic elements in the town of Plovdiv (Bulgaria. Concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, V and U in leaf samples from urban areas with different anthropogenic impact were compared. Motor transport was found to be the major source of contaminants. It was found the significant contribution of some factors as urban gradient, canyon-street effect and wind rose in forming the urban air quality.

  12. Mutation analysis in Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy patients from Bulgaria shows a peculiar distribution of breakpoints by intron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todorova, A.; Bronzova, J.; Kremensky, I. [Univ. Hospital of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Sofia (Bulgaria)] [and others

    1996-10-02

    For the first time in Bulgaria, a deletion/duplication screening was performed on a group of 84 unrelated Duchenne/Becker muscular dystrophy patients, and the breakpoint distribution in the dystrophin gene was analyzed. Intragenic deletions were detected in 67.8% of patients, and intragenic duplications in 2.4%. A peculiar distribution of deletion breakpoints was found. Only 13.2% of the deletion breakpoints fell in the {open_quotes}classical{close_quotes} hot spot in intron 44, whereas the majority (> 54%) were located within the segment encompassing introns 45-51, which includes intron 50, the richest in breakpoints (16%) in the Bulgarian sample. Comparison with data from Greece and Turkey points at the probable existence of a deletion hot spot within intron 50, which might be a characteristic of populations of the Balkan region. 17 refs., 2 figs.

  13. Clinical data from one year follow-up of victims of the radiation accident with 60Co in Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djounova, J; Guleva, I; Negoicheva, K; Mileva, I; Panova, D; Rupova, I

    2014-09-01

    A severe radiation accident occurred on 14 June 2011 in an industrial irradiation facility for medical equipment sterilization in Bulgaria. Five people were exposed for 5-10 min to a 60Co source containing 137 TBq. The Emergency Department of the National Centre of Radiobiology and Radiation Protection (NCRRP), Bulgaria, put into practice the plans for providing medical care in radiation accidents and the procedures developed for assessment of injury severity, the decision-making algorithm regarding subsequent treatment, and the therapy for persons affected. The activities performed for initial assessment of the severity of injury of irradiated patients were published in 2012. Based on predictive assessments of the severity of radiation damage, it was decided that the victims required hospitalization at a specialized hematology clinic. Percy Hospital in Paris was chosen for this purpose. The aim of this report is to present the results of 1-y follow-up for three of the victims. Sadly, 1 mo after the accident, Patient 4 died from a heart attack. The medical opinion was that this was not a direct outcome of the irradiation. Patient 5 was only followed up for 4 mo (118 d) because medical follow-up is voluntary, and despite repeated calls, the patient did not respond. Medical examinations by a physician as well as hematology and biochemical tests were performed using standard laboratory methods. The obtained results were compared to the victims' personal reference limits obtained from annual health monitoring. After the accident, the recovery to normal content of peripheral blood cells was observed in all victims. Nevertheless, there were observed cases of thrombocytopenia, granulocytopenia, and leucocytopenia at various times after exposure. During the period of observation, morphological changes in red blood cells such as anisomicrocitosis, macrocytes, megalocytes, and polychromatic erythrocytes were demonstrated. During the 1-y observation period, all victims showed

  14. Epidemiological characteristics and clinical manifestations of hepatitis E virus infection in Bulgaria: A report on 20 patients

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    Baymakova Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Hepatitis E is one of the leading clinical manifestations of acute viral hepatitis in developing countries. In industrialized countries, during the past several years, sporadic “autochthonous” cases of HEV infection have been increased. Objective. The aim of this study was to analyze the epidemiological, clinical and laboratory features of HEV infection among patients hospitalized at the Department of Infectious Diseases in Military Medical Academy, Sofia, Bulgaria. Methods. A retrospective study of 806 cases of acute viral hepatitis was performed at the Department of Infectious Diseases in Military Medical Academy, Sofia, Bulgaria, between December 2004 and September 2012. The etiological diagnosis was established by ELISA. The statistical analysis was performed using Excel 2007 (Microsoft, Redmond, Washington, USA and SPSS Statistics 19.0 (IBM Corp., Armonk, New York, USA. Results. Specific reaction to anti-HEV-IgM and anti-HEV-IgG antibodies were detected in 20 (2.48% of 806 patients. The most observed clinical presentations were jaundice (85%, fatigue (85%, anorexia (65%, abdominal discomfort (55% and fever (40%. The mean values of aspartate transaminase and alanine transaminase were 521 IU/l and 881 IU/l, respectively. The cholestasis was slight, marked with mean values of gamma-glutamyl transferase and alkaline phosphatase, respectively 418 IU/l and 486 IU/l. Conclusion. We report twenty autochthonous sporadic cases of acute infection with HEV. The zoonotic etiology of the virus as well as the foodborne transmission of the infection is discussed. We found that aging and pre-existing underlying diseases are risk factors for a severe course of the HEV infection.

  15. Genetic analysis of Apis mellifera macedonica (type rodopica populations selectively reared for purposive production of honey bee queens in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VIDA H. GEORGIEVA

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The genetic polymorphism in selectively reared in Bulgaria, local honey bee populations of Apis mellifera macedonica subspecies (type rodopica, has been studied, using analysis of six enzyme systems (MDH-1, ME, EST-3, ALP, PGM and HK corresponding to 6 loci. Totally 458 worker bees from 12 bee breeding bases for artificially inseminated queens were used for this study. All these stations are part of the National Bee Breeding Association which officially implements a National Program for sustainable beekeeping in Bulgaria. All of the six loci were found to be polymorphic. Only EST-3 locus was established as fixed in one of the investigated populations. Polymorphism with three alleles was ascertained for MDH, ME, ALP, PGM and HK loci and with five alleles for EST-3 locus. The most common alleles in almost all of the populations were MDH-1 100, ME 100, EST-3 100, PGM 100 and HK 100. Two private alleles (frequency < 0.05 were found for two of the populations. The calculated level of polymorphism was 88.33% in only one of the populations and 100% - in all others. The observed and expected heterozygosities (Ho and He ranged from 0.157 to 0.250 and from 0.206 to 0.272, respectively. The estimated mean FST value from allozyme data was 0.035. On the bases of the allele frequencies of the studied allozyme loci the Nei's (1972 genetic distance was estimated. It ranged between 0.002 and 0.060 among the populations studied.

  16. Consolidated progress report for 1975 on nuclear data activities in the NDS service area: Argentina, Bangladesh, Brazil, Bulgaria, Hungary, India, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Pakistan, Poland, Romania, South Africa, Yugoslavia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A consolidated progress report for 1975 on nuclear data activities in the NDS service area is presented for the following countries: Argentina, Bangladesh, Brazil, Bulgaria, Hungary, India, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Pakistan, Poland, Romania, South Africa, Yugoslavia

  17. Trans-border (South-Eastern Serbia/South-Western Bulgaria correlations of the Jurassic sediments: The Getic and Supra-Getic units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tchoumatchenco Platon

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The Getic and Supra-Getic are palaeogeographic units in SE Serbia and SW Bulgaria. Based on the presence (in Eastern or absence (in Western of Lower Jurassic marine deposits, the Getic is divided into Eastern and Western. In the Eastern Getic, the Lower Jurassic sedimentation in SE Serbia is represented by the Vidlič Clastites covered by the Lukanja Coal Beds, Lukanja Quartz Sandstones, Lukanja Brachiopods Beds, Lukanja Marlstones, Lukanja Belemnitic-Gryphaean Beds and Lukanja Cephalopod Limestones; in SW Bulgaria, the sedimentation commenced with the Tuden Formation, followed by the Kostina Formation and the Ozirovo Formation with a few members. The Middle Jurassic in SE Serbia commenced with the Senokos Siltstones and Shales and the Gulenovci Beds, while in SW Bulgaria with black shales (the Etropole Formation, followed by marls and clayey limestones of the Bov Formation. The Middle Jurassic sediments are represented in the Western Getic of SE Serbia by the Kurilovo Clastites and the Kurilovo Limestones (synonym to Gumpina Limestones of KRAÜTNER & KRSTIĆ 2003; in the Supra-Getic of SE Serbia they are formed by the Jerma Clastites and Jerma Limestones (synonym of the Gumpina Limestones. In SW Bulgaria the Middle Jurassic sediments are represented by the sandstones of the Gradets Formation and by the bioclastic limestones of the Polaten Formation. During the Callovian (Middle? started the formation of a carbonate platform with micritic limestones. In SE Serbia, it is Basara Limestones, Vidlič Limestones, Beljanica and Ždrelo Limestones, and in SW Bulgarian, the Belediehan Formation of Callovian-Kimmeridgian p.p. age. Characteristic for the Supra- Getic is the formation of a few grabens with specific sedimentation: the Svetlya Graben (the Zhablyano and Ozirovo Formations and the Lobosh Formation; the Treklyano Graben (the Dobridol and Sredorek Formations, and out of it - the Methohya and Sredorek Formation. During the Callovian

  18. RPROJECT5- Technical design and intermediate safety assessment report for the Bulgarian National Disposal Facility; RPROJECT5-Diseno Tecnico y Informe Intermedio de Seguridad para la Instalacion Nacional de Almacenamiento de Bulgaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefanova, I.; Gonzalez, E.; Biurrun, E.; Navarro, M.

    2013-07-01

    In October 2011 SERAW, the national company for the management of radioactive waste from Bulgaria, assigned to the consortium consisting of Westinghouse Electric Spain S.A.U., the German company DBE TECHNOLOGY GmbH and the company national radioactive waste ENRESA the realization of design management Conceptual, technical design and the intermediate report of safety assessment for installation of storage for radioactive waste from low to medium activity in Bulgaria.

  19. Statement on a request from the European Commission related to the emergency measure notified by Bulgaria on genetically modified maize MON 810 according to Article 34 of Regulation (EC) 1829/2003

    OpenAIRE

    Arpaia, Salvatore; Birch, Andrew Nicholas Edmund; Chesson, Andrew; du Jardin, Patrick; Gathmann, Achim; Gropp, Jürgen; Herman, Lieve; Hoen-Sorteberg, Hilde-Gunn Opsahl; Jones, Huw; Kiss, József; Kleter, Gijs; Løvik, Martinus; Messéan, Antoine; Naegeli, Hanspeter; Nielsen, Kaare Magne

    2014-01-01

    Following a request of the European Commission, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) evaluated the concerns raised by Bulgaria and the accompanying documentation submitted under Article 34 of Regulation (EC) 1829/2003 in support of its request to prohibit the cultivation of the genetically modified maize MON 810 in the European Union. EFSA concludes that neither the arguments put forward by Bulgaria nor the documentation reveal new scientific evidence, in terms of risk to hum...

  20. Early traces of the Second Demographic Transition in Bulgaria: a joint analysis of marital and non-marital union formation, 1960-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoem, Jan M; Kostova, Dora

    2008-11-01

    We explore trends in first-union formation in Bulgaria from 1960, using data from the national Gender and Generations Survey of 2004. We analyse jointly the transition into cohabitation and directly into marriage. The standardized marriage rate falls dramatically from the early 1980s; the corresponding rate of entry into cohabitation has already increased from the early 1960s but (surprisingly) falls moderately toward the end of our period. Cohabitation also tends to last progressively longer in more recent periods. The analysis shows that a pregnancy leads to a dramatic increase in the rate of both kinds of union formation: the increase is by a factor of almost 20 for marriage formation and about 10 for entry into cohabitation, ceteris paribus. Our findings suggest that, in Bulgaria at least, some manifestations of the Second Demographic Transition can be detected as early as the 1980s. PMID:18937141

  1. Impacts of and experience with EU membership of the countries of Central, Eastern and South - Eastern Europe. Country study on Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadya YORGOVA

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The current paper focuses on the issues Bulgaria faced and is still facing in the process of joining and being a full-fledged member of the European Union in the context of ongoing economic obstacles. By spotlighting on different macroeconomic aspects, the article examines changes and fluctuations of indicators and conducts research in terms of their origins. Thus, by using historic, statistical and comparative approach, the author tries to clarify the impacts and experience with EU membership of the Republic of Bulgaria. That analysis reveals general improvement of internal policy shaping along with a fiscal discipline and the positive influence over the FDI attractiveness of the country. Furthermore, the country is slowly catching up with the GDP per capita standards in the EU while being a net beneficiary of EU funds. Thus, the main conclusion of the current study is that there is an overall positive effect of Bulgaria’s EU membership.

  2. QUESTIONNAIRE FOR LECTURERS FROM FACULTIES OF DENTAL MEDICINE IN BULGARIA REGARDING THEIR MOTIVATION FOR PARTICIPATION IN AND THE WAY THEY ARE FAMILIAR WITH RESEARCH PROJECTS.

    OpenAIRE

    Svetoslav Garov; Maria Dencheva; Angelina Kisselova

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: In recent years, especially after Bulgaria accession to the EU on 1st January 2007, new scientific horizons have appeared in front of the academic community in our country. Medical universities work in a really competitive environment both on a national and global scale, where the high quality of lecturing, research and medical activities is a key factor for success.Aim: The purpose of this study is by analyzing data from our questionnaire to define the most distinctively expres...

  3. Phenological Stages of Development of Tribulus terrestris L. (Zygophyllaceae R. Br.) Under the Conditions of the Thracian Lowland Floristic Region of Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    SEMERDJIEVA, Ivanka; TAHSINT, Nuretin; YANKOVATSVETKOVA, Elina

    2014-01-01

    The phenological stages of Tribulus terrestris L. in the Thracian Lowland floristic region of Bulgaria were studied. Growth characteristics of the species, the length of the vegetation period and the duration of each phenological stage were studied in three consecutive years. A detailed phonological spectrum was presented. A direct relation was established between the duration of the phenological stages, the calendar periods and the climatic features of the respective year

  4. Evaluation of in vitro antioxidant activity and free radical scavenging potential of variety of Tagetes erecta L. flowers growing in Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Miglena Valyova; Stanimir Stoyanov; Yuliana Markovska; Yordanka Ganeva

    2012-01-01

    Summary. Marigold (Tagetes erecta L.) is well known for its antimicrobial, antiseptic, wound and ulcer healing, antiinflammatory, antioxidant and antiviral properties, and it has a long history of being used as an herbal remedy. T. erecta L. produces a variety of substances that possess pharmacological effects and antioxidant activity. The present study was therefore aimed to analyze the antioxidant activity of extracts and fractions of T. erecta L. flowers, cultivated in Bulgaria. Radical sc...

  5. Euroregions and cross border areas in South East Europe : defining an effective model for the area : comparative analysis between Bulgaria, Albania and FYROM

    OpenAIRE

    Brusaporci, Gianfranco

    2014-01-01

    The research deals with the topic of cross-border cooperation and Euroregions in the Balkans. Using a qualitative comparative analysis (QCA), the research examines nine different cases in Albania, Bulgaria, and the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. The research is framed within IR theories and aims to define a good model of transborder cooperation for this region by considering its specific ethnic and historical issues. In particular, implementing Perkmann’s theory (2007) of policy entre...

  6. DYNAMICS OF THE RADIOACTIVE POLLUTION IN THE SURFACE LAYER OF SOILS IN BULGARIA TWENTY YEARS AFTER THE CHERNOBYL NUCLEAR POWER PLANT ACCIDENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I YORDANOVA

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The twenty years period past after the contamination with radionuclides in 1986, as a result of the accident in the Chernobyl’s NPP, allowed the accumulation of rich data base for the radiation status of the soils in Bulgaria. Objective of many years studies were virgin soils from high mountain areas, hilly and flat (the region of Kozlodouy NPP and the Danube river valley. Ceasium-137 and strontium-90 were the main men-made radionuclides detected in the examined Bulgarian soils, few years after the accident. The content of ceasium-137 and strontium-90 in the soils from high mountain areas (Rodopa and Rila mountains is several times higher then that in the soils from Northern Bulgaria and Sofia field. High non-homogeneity in the pollution within small areas (scores of square meters even was determined. No significant horizontal redistribution was observed for the period after 1986. The tendency of changes in the radioactive status of the soils in Bulgaria after the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant is not due to trans-border transfer of radioactive materials or to any breakdown at the Kosloduy Nuclear Power Plant.

  7. Archaeobotanical evidence on the Neolithisation of Northeast Bulgaria in the Balkan-Anatolian context: chronological framework, plant economy and land use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Marinova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study presents archaeobotanical analyses of four Early Neolithic sites (Koprivets, Orlovets, Dzhulyunitsa, Samovodene from Northeast Bulgaria. Those archaeobotanical data are linked to comprehensive series of 14C dates for the early Neolithic in northeastern Bulgaria allowing their attribution to high resolution radiocarbon chronology. In the considered sites the dominating cereal crop during the Early Neolithic is hulled barley (Hordeum vulgare var. vulgare, followed by einkorn (Triticum monococcum and few emmer (Triticum dicoccum what is a clear difference from the southern parts of Bulgaria where during the early Neolithic the dominating cereal crops are einkorn and emmer. Further principal crops, present from the earliest phases of the Neolithic in the region are lentil - Lens culinaris, pea – Pisum sativum, grass pea – Lathyrus sativus/cicera and flax – Linum usitatissimum. Wide spectrum of finds of gathered plants (at least 11 taxa reflects the use of the natural vegetation resources. Useful for reconstructing the vegetation and land use in the Neolithic are also wood charcoal identifications, indicating apart of oak forests also presence of open vegetation, riparian forests and wetlands. The relatively open vegetation in the surrounding of the early Neolithic settlements could be one of the reasons why the corresponding locations were chosen by the Neolithic people to settle there. On the other hand this open vegetation could be caused by the Neolithic land use and animal husbandry, which have also led to certain reduction of the forests in the immediate surroundings of the settlements.

  8. PRODUCT AND MARKET ORIENTATION OF HORTICULTURAL FARMS IN BULGARIA DURING THE YEARS LEADING TO EU ACCESSION – STUDIES IN THE PLOVDIV REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Garnevska

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture/horticulture has traditionally been an important sector in the economy of Bulgaria. The paper outlines the structural changes in Bulgarian agriculture since 1989 and discusses the product and market orientation of the horticultural farms in the Plovdiv region of Bulgaria. This paper analyses how farm owners / managers with different sized farms evaluated 5 product/market strategic options: ‘doing what you currently do but better’, ‘developing new horticultural products’, ‘developing new markets’, ‘developing new agricultural activities’ and ‘developing new nonagricultural activities’. The owners / managers identifi ed; whether they perceived these options as feasible for their future development, the encouraging/discouraging factors and the outcomes they expected from their implementation. The small-scale farms (less than 2 ha were mainly subsistence farms that were relying upon the farmer’s experience to survive during the transition period. The second type of farm (2-10 ha was ‘transitional’ farms and were working under pressure either for survival or expansion under the new EU related conditions. The third type of farm (over 10 ha was more business orientated, aiming at business viability and trying to respond to the rapidly changing business environment in Bulgaria as they recognised that the EU accession would present new challenges and opportunities for the successful future development of their farm businesses.

  9. Adapting to Sea Level Rise and Storms: Missed Opportunities and Continuing Development (case studies from USA and Bulgaria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Robert; Stancheva, Margarita; Stanchev, Hristo; Palazov, Atanas; Peek, Katie; Coburn, Andrew; Griffith, Adam

    2014-05-01

    Over the last several years, there have been significant discussions within the global scientific and coastal zone management communities about the need to adapt to the realities of long-term sea level rise and to make coastal development more "resilient" to hazards and climate change. With all of the talk, publications, and recognition of the problem, you would think that we had made significant progress, but this is not the case. Once again, the USA has experienced the impact of a significant coastal storm, Hurricane Sandy. There were initially some serious post-Sandy discussions regarding the need to ensure that we simply don't "just put everything back were it was." Almost a year later, there have been few substantive moves to relocate property away from coastal hazards or to change the footprint of vulnerable coastal communities. This is particularly true of coastal resort communities in New York and New Jersey. Some communities have initiated large-scale efforts to elevate (in situ) infrastructure and private property. Raising buildings is only a workable solution if you also commit to holding all the beaches in place . . . forever. This is what the federal government has done for New Jersey and New York. The U. S. Army Corps of Engineers will be spending upward of US5 billion on shore protection projects following Hurricane Sandy. The vast majority of these funds will be spent pumping sand onto beaches from Delaware to Connecticut. The amount of sand they will move is staggering, approaching 25 to 35 million cubic meters. This is an adaptation model that cannot be exported to the rest of the USA. Nor can it be maintained for an extended period of time. Along the Black Sea Coast of Bulgaria the risk of storms is not as great as that of the US East Coast, but long-term sea level rise is still a threat. In Bulgaria, most coastal development problems occur simply because people continue to build in areas that are too close to the coast or in very high hazard

  10. Comparative Analysis and Tendencies in the Development of the Cattle Market in the Conditions of the Quota System in the EU Countries and Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Georgiev

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available The process of recreating of the basic herds of the farm animals and the improvement of their breedconstitution, which has already begun in Bulgaria, is a prerequisite for the providing of more, and of betterquality, meat and milk for the needs of the domestic market, as well as for making the sector morecompetitive on the international markets. The purpose of the research concerned comparative analysis andtendencies in the development of the cattle market in the conditions of the quota system in the EU countriesand Bulgaria.One of the reasons for the decrease of the quantity of exported cattle and veal meat is that there isshortage of resources in the manufacturing industry, which to a great extent limits the export with thepurpose of satisfying the needs of the inner market.This quota will give Bulgaria the chance to export for the EU 2000 t. with zero customs tax.Although Bulgaria cannot make use of this opportunity for the moment, as there is not approved factory forproduction of meat to be exported to EU, we think that it as a good opportunity. It could be stimulating or thecompanies to take a step in this direction.The calculations show that after the countries of Central and Eastern Europe join the EU, theproduction of meat in the EU will increase by 20%. This however, will not lead to flooding of the marketbecause an increase of the income of the joining countries is expected, with a resulting increase ofconsumption. On the other hand, an increase of the export of meat and meat products is expected for thetraditional markets in Russia.The advantages of the quota system which is being introduced in Bulgaria, as part of the agrarianpolicy of the EU, directed at preventing of overproduction at the market, can be structured as follows:Providing guaranteed prices for the cattle products; Imposing financial sanctioned at exceeding theproduction quota; Opportunity for introducing two-stage quotas – a high price for the production for the

  11. Insights into epidemiology of human parvovirus B19 and detection of an unusual genotype 2 variant, Bulgaria, 2004 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Stefka Krumova; Mihneva, Zafira Georgieva; Toshev, Andon Krumov; Kovaleva, Valentina Pavlova; Andonova, Lubena Georgieva; Muller, Claude P; Hübschen, Judith M

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to determine the role of human parvovirus В19 (B19V) as an aetiological agent in measles and rubella negative fever/rash patients from Bulgaria between 2004 and 2013. A total of 1,266 sera from all over the country were tested for B19V IgM antibodies and all positives were further investigated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Overall, 280 sera (22%) were B19V IgM positive and 227 of these (81%) were also PCR positive. The highest number of IgM positives was found among five to nine year-old children (27%). Eight infected women gave birth to healthy children; one fetus was aborted with hydrops fetalis. Of the 55 genetic sequences obtained, 54 belonged to genotype 1a and one grouped as a genotype 2 outlier. Phylogenetic analysis of all available genotype 2 sequences covering the 994 nucleotide non-structural protein 1(NS1)/capsid viral protein 1 (VP1) unique region junction, showed that only one other sequence grouped with the outlier strain, forming a clearly distinct and well-supported cluster of genotype 2 (between-group genetic distance: 3.32%). In accordance with B19V nomenclature, this cluster may represent a new subgenotype 2b. The study showed that B19V infections may be falsely identified as rubella or measles in ca 22% of cases, emphasising the need for laboratory confirmation. PMID:26847955

  12. Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Briestenský Miloš

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The EU-TecNet monitoring network uses customized three-dimensional extensometers to record transient deformations across individual faults. This paper presents the first results from two newly established monitoring points in the Balkan Mountains in Bulgaria. The data from Saeva Dupka, recorded across an EEN-WWS striking fault, show sinistral strike-slip along the fault and subsidence of the southern block. Much of the subsidence occurred around the time of the distal MW = 5.6 Pernik Earthquake. An important transient deformation event, which began in autumn 2012, was reflected by significant compression and following extension, across the monitored fault. The data from Bacho Kiro, recorded across a NE–SW striking fault, show sinistral strike-slip along the fault and subsidence of the north-western block. The same important deformation event was reflected by changes in the strike-slip, dip-slip, and horizontal opening/closing trends. These results have been compared to data from other monitoring points in the Western Carpathians, External Dinarides, and Tian Shan. Many of the sites show evidence of simultaneous displacement anomalies and this observation is interpreted as a reflection of the plate-wide propagation of a tectonic pressure pulse towards the end of 2012.

  13. Ecological relations and temporal changes in the pelagial of the high mountain lakes in the Rila Mountains (Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodora TRICHKOVA

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available The high mountain lakes in the Rila Mountains (Bulgaria were studied in the years 2000 and 2001 considering the following groups of variables: geography, geology, morphology, hydrology, water chemistry of the pelagial, biomass and size structure of bacterio- phyto- and zooplankton, and occurrence of three fish species. Multivariate analysis (RDA revealed that the nutrient concentrations in the lakes were significantly influenced by the soil percentage coverage of the catchment area. The explained variation in plankton components (bacterio-, phyto- and zooplankton and plankton size structure was determined by biological as well as morphometrical and geographical variables. Changes in the Mg2+ and NO3-N concentrations were traced over the period 1993- 2001; the Ca2+ concentration, pH, nutrients, bacterio-, phyto- and zooplankton were monitored in the period 1995-2001. A nutrient decrease accompanied by an increase in size of zooplankton organisms in the period 1995-2001 led to a considerable increase of water transparency in the lakes.

  14. Current challenges and innovative approaches in the development of peripheral regions in Bulgaria: The case of Ivaylovgrad municipality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrova Elena

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper approaches territorial cohesion in SEE from the perspective of social equity with regard to the opportunity to choose to live in one’s native place without compromising the quality of life. It is interested in border areas - both physical and virtual; in real life situations as meeting points of theories and policies influencing human lives; and in the emerging challenges there that often make us question once and again our concepts and actions as experts. Based on the Bulgarian case-study analysis, the authors discuss the effectiveness and current challenges of real-life implementation of EU and national policies aimed at sustainable development of peripheral regions. The rural peripheral municipality of Ivaylovgrad is an indicative case study for the ongoing processes in the peripheral regions of Bulgaria and the efforts to overcome a continuing loss of working places, services, markets and further isolation from the rest of the country since the early 1990s. The paper presents a critical view of initiatives and projects undertaken by interest and local groups in the period 2006-2010. Possible innovative approaches for regional revival are considered and conclusions are drawn about the importance of creating development strategies sensitive to the existing and emerging socio-cultural patterns.

  15. Implementation of the European protocol for quality control of the technical aspects of mammography screening in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results from the national pilot project on implementation of the European protocol for the quality control (QC) of the technical aspects of mammography screening as well as the European protocol for dosimetry in mammography in Bulgaria are presented. A QC programme for mammography equipment and a standardised measurement protocol were created. The full QC programme was tested on four mammography units of different types and ages. A national survey was performed for entrance surface air kerma (ESAK) on 20 units using a 45 mm PMMA standard phantom. Average glandular dose (AGD) was calculated using the conversion coefficients from the European dosimetry protocol. The survey demonstrated considerable differences in the technical condition of the mammography units that resulted in varying image quality. The measured values of ESAK showed significant variations. Doses for ∼45% of the units were found to be below the European reference level. The values for AGD ranged from 0.35 to 3.47 mGy. The main problems found were film processing, optical density (OD) control settings and AEC adjustment. The results showed the importance of film OD measurements parallel to dose measurements. The X-ray mammography in the country needs optimisation. Comprehensive quality assurance programme should be adopted in all departments covering permanent QC of the equipment, image quality and breast dose. (authors)

  16. EFFECTS AND PERSPECTIVES OF THE IMPACT OF COMMON AGRICULTURAL POLICY/CAP/ ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF FARMS IN BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiliya RANCHEVA

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to make an expert evaluation of the effects and perspectives of the impact of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP on the development of the agricultural sector in Bulgaria, based on the empiric survey, as well as analyzing the measures for improving its influence over the economic, financial, marketing and manufacturing aspects of the development of farms. The method of expert evaluation has been used ranked depending on specific criteria. The required assessment information is achieved with the help of expert evaluations, presented on ranking scale, based on the personal preference to a specific variable of the people that participated in the inquiry. As the main characteristics of the expert evaluation, in the following study, a summarized evaluation is used of the aggregate view, as well as evaluation of the agreement of the experts who took part in the enquiry. Expert’s evaluations regarding the relative importance of the measures of the impact of the CAP for developing the farms show that the most significant influence is the manufacturing and managerial efficiency of the farms and their competitiveness. The expert evaluation shows that the improvement in the market infrastructure, the simplification of the procedures and the increase in the national additional payments are of strategic importance for the future development of the farms in the country

  17. The Genetic Structure of Wild Orobanche cumana Wallr. (Orobanchaceae Populations in Eastern Bulgaria Reflects Introgressions from Weedy Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocío Pineda-Martos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Orobanche cumana is a holoparasitic plant naturally distributed from central Asia to south-eastern Europe, where it parasitizes wild Asteraceae species. It is also an important parasitic weed of sunflower crops. The objective of this research was to investigate genetic diversity, population structure, and virulence on sunflower of O. cumana populations parasitizing wild plants in eastern Bulgaria. Fresh tissue of eight O. cumana populations and mature seeds of four of them were collected in situ on wild hosts. Genetic diversity and population structure were studied with SSR markers and compared to weedy populations. Two main gene pools were identified in Bulgarian populations, with most of the populations having intermediate characteristics. Cross-inoculation experiments revealed that O. cumana populations collected on wild species possessed similar ability to parasitize sunflower to those collected on sunflower. The results were explained on the basis of an effective genetic exchange between populations parasitizing sunflower crops and those parasitizing wild species. The occurrence of bidirectional gene flow may have an impact on wild populations, as new physiological races continuously emerge in weedy populations. Also, genetic variability of wild populations may favour the ability of weedy populations to overcome sunflower resistance mechanisms.

  18. Grasping physical exercise through recreational running and non-representational theory: a case study from Sofia, Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnfield, Andrew

    2016-09-01

    To become and maintain being physically active encompasses more than purely mindful and rational decision-making. Physical activity requires theoretical-methodological approaches that provide more subtle understandings of the variety of contextual factors. Nettleton and Green have recently argued persuasively for the need for the sociology of public health to embrace social practices. It is also necessary to think about the spaces, affects and technologies of engagement in physical exercise. This article examines the practices of recreational runners in Sofia, the capital of Bulgaria. The article has three aims; (i) to draw attention to the promise of non-representational theory as an additive for health research and the contextual factors of health practices, (ii) to examine recreational runner's practices and techniques of engagement in light of non-representational theory, and (iii) to highlight how interventions in Sofia and beyond can incorporate elements of non-representational theory into their strategies for improved public health. In drawing attention to the promise of non-representational theory and social practices this article concludes by emphasising their importance for public health interventions in physical activity strategies. PMID:27241843

  19. Grasping physical exercise through recreational running and non-representational theory: a case study from Sofia, Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnfield, Andrew

    2016-09-01

    To become and maintain being physically active encompasses more than purely mindful and rational decision-making. Physical activity requires theoretical-methodological approaches that provide more subtle understandings of the variety of contextual factors. Nettleton and Green have recently argued persuasively for the need for the sociology of public health to embrace social practices. It is also necessary to think about the spaces, affects and technologies of engagement in physical exercise. This article examines the practices of recreational runners in Sofia, the capital of Bulgaria. The article has three aims; (i) to draw attention to the promise of non-representational theory as an additive for health research and the contextual factors of health practices, (ii) to examine recreational runner's practices and techniques of engagement in light of non-representational theory, and (iii) to highlight how interventions in Sofia and beyond can incorporate elements of non-representational theory into their strategies for improved public health. In drawing attention to the promise of non-representational theory and social practices this article concludes by emphasising their importance for public health interventions in physical activity strategies.

  20. CADMIUM, COPPER, LEAD AND ZINC CONCENTRATIONS IN LOW QUALITY WINES AND ALCOHOL CONTAINING DRINKS FROM ITALY, BULGARIA AND POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Muchacka

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We studied Cu, Cd, Pb and Zn concentrations in low quality wines produced in Bulgaria and Italy and in alcohol containing multi-fruit drinks produced in Poland. All the metals were present in tested products. Cadmium was not detected in Italian and Polish products. In one of the Bulgarian wines cadmium was detected in concentration of 0.004 mg•l-1. Italian wines were not contaminated with Pb. Its concentration was the highest in Polish drinks (0.88±0.52 mg•l-1. The largest and statistically significant differences occurred between Cu and Zn contents. Both metals had the highest concetrations in Italian wines (Cu - 0.13±0.05 mg•l-1; Zn - 0.83±0.56 mg•l-1, and the lowest in Polish products (Cu - 0.04±0.001 mg•l-1; Zn -0.18±0.16 mg•l-1.

  1. Mountain Water Tower and Ecological Risk Estimation of the Mesta-Nestos Transboundary River Basin (Bulgaria-Greece)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The Mesta-Nestos river basin in Bulgaria and Greece is a case study for transboundary decision-making support in south-eastern Europe and a show-case for the development of methodologies and information-gathering for the integrated regional planning of water resources. Land-use conflicts in this water-scarce region cover a wide spectrum of activities like agricultural irrigation, drinking water production, diversions for industrial water, and risk of pollution from mining, to name a few examples.Measurements of the water quality were carried out in the upper basin. Results will be illustrated by the example of the environmental situation in the alpine region of the Pirin National Park as well as in the Razlog Basin with a stronger anthropogenic impact and pollution around a former uranium mine near the village of Ele(s)nica. The social and economic development of this transboundary region is a recently established priority for the future. It will mean an increase in water usage and more stress for the water resources if regional impacts of global climate change are verified. Problem-focused management of the catchment area as a whole on the basis of proved geo-data sets is needed for the future.

  2. Access to health care for Roma children in Central and Eastern Europe: findings from a qualitative study in Bulgaria

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    Spencer Nick J

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the attention the situation of the Roma in Central and Eastern Europe has received in the context of European Union enlargement, research on their access to health services is very limited, in particular with regard to child health services. Methods 50 qualitative in-depth interviews with users, providers and policy-makers concerned with child health services in Bulgaria, conducted in two villages, one town of 70,000 inhabitants, and the capital Sofia. Results Our findings provide important empirical evidence on the range of barriers Roma children face when accessing health services. Among the most important barriers are poverty, administrative and geographical obstacles, low levels of parental education, and lack of ways to accommodate the cultural, linguistic and religious specifics of this population group. Conclusion Our research illustrates the complexity of the problems the Roma face. Access to health care cannot be discussed in isolation from other problems this population group experiences, such as poverty, restricted access to education, and social exclusion.

  3. Application of New Instruments to Increase Effectiveness of Implementation of Social Policies on Labour Market in Bulgaria

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    Venelin Terziev

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, public employment services face a number of urgent tasks as raising the employment rate and reducing the number of vacant jobs for which is difficult to find enough qualified workers. New realities on labour market and dynamic environment require adequate actions, rational and timely decision making and optimization of work. Dynamic changes in social environment impacting labour markets and activities of public employment services impose various tasks which implementation should be carefully planned, organized and controlled. To achieve that public employment services should take a more comprehensive look at the demand and supply of labour, considering the numerous transitions taking place constantly on the labour market and people's personal development. Improving processes and the quality of the administrative services in the Bulgarian employment agency is seen as a prerequisite for effective implementation of employment policies. The study presents opportunities for improving the quality of services offered in the Directorates "Labour Office" in the Republic of Bulgaria by introducing a process model and improvements in the capacity and efficiency of work in the field of labour mediation.

  4. Dependence of biologically active UV radiation on the atmospheric ozone in 2000 - 2001 over Stara Zagora, Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study investigates how the changes in simultaneously measured ozone columns influence the biologically active UV irradiance. Spectral ground-based measurements of direct solar ultraviolet radiation performed at Stara Zagora (42oN, 25oE), Bulgaria in 2000 - 2001 are used in conjunction with the total ozone content to investigate the relation to the biologically active UV radiation, depending on the solar zenith angle (SZA) and the ozone. The device measures the direct solar radiation in the range 290 - 360 nm at 1 nm resolution. The direct sun UV doses for some specific biological effects (erythema and eyes) are obtained as the integral in the wavelength interval between 290 and 330 nm of the UV solar spectrum weighted with an action spectrum, typical of each effect. For estimation of the sensitivity of biological doses to the atmospheric ozone we calculate the radiation amplification factor (RAF) defined as the percentage increase in the column amount of the atmospheric ozone. The biological doses increase significantly with the decrease of the SZA. The doses of SZA=20o are about three times larger than doses at SZA=50o. The RAF derived from our spectral measurements shows an increase of RAF along with the decreasing ozone. For example, the ozone reduction by 1% increases the erythemal dose by about 2%. (authors)

  5. Zeolite rocks from the paleogene lacustrine volcano-sedimentary deposits in Gorna Glogovitsa Graben (Kraishte region, Western Bulgaria)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analcime-clinoptilolite and clinoptilolite-analcime zeolite rocks established in the Paleogene deposits of Gorna Glogovitza Graben are the forth Tertiary zeolite rocks deposit in Western Bulgaria. Terrigenous and abiogenic (calcareous) lacustrine sedimentation in the Graben has been influenced of process(es) of acid ash pyroclastics deposition. Pyroclastic material constitutes of glass-shards, pumice fragments (with plagioclase, biotite, amphibole and scarce sanidine microphenocrysts), crystalloclasts and cognate phenorhyolitic-penorhyodacitic fragments. Glassy components have been completely transformed according to the following reactions' sequence: volcanic glass →clinoptilolite → analcime → K-feldspar. Such an authigenic silicate association formed in lacustrine environment is interpreted as characteristic of high salinity (about 50000 ppm) and high pH value (nearly 9.5) of the basin/pore wa-ter. The environments in which Gorna Glogovitza Graben and other Bulgarian and Serbian Tertiary analcime rocks were formed can be hardly compared. A suggestion about a similar environment of analcime formation in Gorna Glogovitza Graben and Slanci basin (near Belgrade, Serbia) can be made based on the very close cell parameters of the analcime (respectively a0 = 13.70980 A, cell volume = 2576.87 A3 and a0 13.699-13.707 A, cell volume - 2571-2575 A3)

  6. Description of Longidorus cholevae sp. n. (Nematoda, Dorylaimida) from a riparian habitat in the Rila Mountains, Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peneva, Vlada K; Lazarova, Stela S; Luca, Francesca De; Brown, Derek J F

    2013-01-01

    A description is provided of Longidorus cholevae sp. n., a bisexual species associated with wild cherry (Prunus avium L.) from the Rila Mountains, Bulgaria. The position of L. cholevae sp. n. among other species of the genus was elucidated by using morphological and molecular data. Phylogenetic analyses were performed of D2-D3 expansion domains of the 28S rRNA and the partial ITS1 containing regions by Neighbor-Joining, Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian Inference methods. The species is characterised by a female body length of 6.1-8.1 mm; long odontostyle (106-129 μm); lip region wide (21.5-24 μm) rounded and continuous with the body profile; amphidial pouches short and wide, funnel-shaped; a posteriorly situated guide ring (30-37 μm); normal arrangement of pharyngeal glands, and short bluntly rounded to hemispherical tail. Four juvenile stages indentified, first stage with elongate conoid tail. Males with 2-4 adanal pairs and a row of 11-13 single ventromedian supplements, spicules 96-120 μm long. Based both on morphological and molecular data the new species appearred to be the most similar witha group of species distributed in Europe sharing common charcters such as amphidial fovea, lip region and tail shapes, and having similar odontostyle and body length: L. poessneckensis, L. caespiticola, L. macrososma, L. helveticus, L. carniolensis and L. pius. An updated list of Longidorus species and a partial polytomous keys to the Longidorus species with long odontostyle (code A45) and short tail (code H1) are provided. PMID:24146553

  7. Description of Longidorus cholevae sp. n. (Nematoda, Dorylaimida from a riparian habitat in the Rila Mountains, Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlada Peneva

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A description is provided of Longidorus cholevae sp. n., a bisexual species associated with wild cherry (Prunus avium L. from the Rila Mountains, Bulgaria. The position of L. cholevae sp. n. among other species of the genus was elucidated by using morphological and molecular data. Phylogenetic analyses were performed of D2-D3 expansion domains of the 28S rRNA and the partial ITS1 containing regions by Neighbor-Joining, Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian Inference methods. The species is characterised by a female body length of 6.1–8.1 mm; long odontostyle (106–129 µm; lip region wide (21.5–24 µm rounded and continuous with the body profile; amphidial pouches short and wide, funnel-shaped; a posteriorly situated guide ring (30-37 µm; normal arrangement of pharyngeal glands, and short bluntly rounded to hemispherical tail. Four juvenile stages indentified, first stage with elongate conoid tail. Males with 2–4 adanal pairs and a row of 11–13 single ventromedian supplements, spicules 96-120 µm long. Based both on morphological and molecular data the new species appearred to be the most similar with a group of species distributed in Europe sharing common charcters such as amphidial fovea, lip region and tail shapes, andsimilar odontostyle and body length: L. poessneckensis, L. caespiticola, L. macrososma, L. helveticus, L. carniolensis and L. pius. An updated list of Longidorus species and a partial polytomous keys to the Longidorus species with long odontostyle (codeA45 and short tail (codeH1 are provided.

  8. PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF TEACHERS IN THE FIELD OF INCLUSIVE EDUCATION IN SCHOOL (THE EXPERIENCE OF RUSSIA AND BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iglika A. Angelova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the investigation is to discuss the problems connected with a current state of inclusive education in Russia and Bulgaria.Methods. Experience, positive and negative tendencies in the field of inclusive education of the Russian and Bulgarian systems of training and education are analysed and generalized.Results and scientific novelty. Creating conditions for quality education for all children regardless of the characteristics of their health is a social guarantee of any post-industrial country. Access to quality education for children with disabilities is a target of nowadays reforms of the Russian and Bulgarian education in the context of globalization: Bulgaria’s accession to the European Union and activity of Russia as an independent state on the international education arena.Adverse conditions of inclusive education in the two countries complicate establishing and implementation of public policies for the development of inclusive education. However, objective data about teachers’ readiness for the implementation of inclusive education and public debate around this issue stimulates a better understanding of the principles on which the activities of the teacher, directed at the education of children with disabilities.The principles providing a basis for developing professional teacher competencies in the field of inclusive education are presented in the article. The importance of complex solution to the problem is highlighted: involvement of an administrative resource, realization of the social mechanism of a special type of mutual aid (tutoring, formation in the organization and society of culture of the attitude towards people with peculiarities of health. Everything listed has to be supported by the state measures, including the motivation of teachers to development in a profession and obtaining special professional competences.Practical significance. The research findings can be useful for correction of pedagogical activity

  9. Asynchronous timing of extension and basin formation in the South Rhodope core complex, SW Bulgaria, and northern Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stübner, Konstanze; Drost, Kerstin; Schoenberg, Ronny; Böhme, Madelaine; Starke, Jessica; Ehlers, Todd A.

    2016-01-01

    Upper crustal extensional structures range from steep normal faults to shallow-dipping detachments. The relationship between extension and formation of synkinematic hanging wall basins including their relative timing is not well understood. The South Rhodope core complex, Southern Balkans, has experienced extension for >40 Ma leading to a number of extensional structures and Cenozoic sedimentary basins. We present new bedrock and basin detrital zircon and apatite (U-Th-Sm)/He ages from the Pirin and Rila Mountains and the Sandanski basin. Results identify three episodes of Cenozoic extension in SW Bulgaria accommodated by (1) the Eocene/Oligocene Mesta detachment; (2) the early to middle Miocene Gorno Spanchevo fault (circa 18-15 Ma), which is the northern prolongation of the Strymon low-angle detachment; and (3) the late Miocene West Pirin fault (≤10 Ma). Detachment faulting on the Strymon fault accommodated tens of kilometers of ENE-WSW extension and created ~1500 m topographic relief, but because the resulting hillslopes were gentle (≤10°), extension did not lead to enhanced footwall erosion or formation of a hanging wall basin. In contrast, the West Pirin normal fault resulted in mostly vertical motion of its footwall causing steep topography, rapid erosion, and formation of the synrift Sandanski basin. Digital topographic analysis of river channel profiles identifies the latest episodes of deformation including westward tilting of the Sandanski and Strymon basins and Quaternary N-S extension. This study demonstrates that basin formation in the South Rhodope core complex is related to normal faulting postdating the main episode of crustal stretching by detachment faulting.

  10. Wavelet analysis on transient behaviour of tidal amplitude fluctuations observed by meteor radar in the lower thermosphere above Bulgaria

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    D. Pancheva

    Full Text Available On the basis of bispectral analysis applied to the hourly data set of neutral wind measured by meteor radar in the MLT region above Bulgaria it was demonstrated that nonlinear processes are frequently and regularly acting in the mesopause region. They contribute significantly to the short-term tidal variability and are apparently responsible for the observed complicated behavior of the tidal characteristics. A Morlet wavelet transform is proposed as a technique for studying nonstationary signals. By simulated data it was revealed that the Morlet wavelet transform is especially convenient for analyzing signals with: (1 a wide range of dominant frequencies which are localized in different time intervals; (2 amplitude and frequency modulated spectral components, and (3 singular, wave-like events, observed in the neutral wind of the MLT region and connected mainly with large-scale disturbances propagated from below. By applying a Morlet wavelet transform to the hourly values of the amplitudes of diurnal and semidiurnal tides the basic oscillations with periods of planetary waves (1.5-20 days, as well as their development in time, are obtained. A cross-wavelet analysis is used to clarify the relation between the tidal and mean neutral wind variability. The results of bispectral analysis indicate which planetary waves participated in the nonlinear coupling with the atmospheric tides, while the results of cross-wavelet analysis outline their time intervals if these interactions are local.

    Key words: Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (middle atmosphere dynamics; waves and tides - Radio science (nonlinear phenomena

  11. Histological alterations under metal exposure in gills of European perch (Perca fluviatilis L. from Topolnitsa Reservoir (Bulgaria

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    Georgieva Еlenka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Topolnitsa Reservoir is located in a region of Bulgaria rich in copper mines where intensive mining has been ongoing for several decades. General data on the ecological status of the reservoir and the effects of metal on fish is relatively scarce. The first aim of the study was to measure the concentrations of six metals (As, Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn in water samples and in the gills of European perch (Perca fluviatilis L.. The second objective was to examine gill structure and determine the severity of histological alteration as a result of metal exposure. Surface water and fish gill samples were collected in spring, summer and autumn in 2012 and metal and histological analyses were performed. Metal concentrations in the water samples varied, but only Cu concentrations were determined in all three seasons and they were higher than the maximum permissible levels. The gill metal concentrations were significantly higher (P<0.05 than in the water. Examination of gill structure revealed the presence of proliferative and degenerative changes, as well as changes in the blood vessels. Histological lesions were similar in their severity in all three seasons. This study provides the first information about metal effects on the morphology of European perch gills from Topolnitsa Reservoir. It can be concluded that the metal contamination of the Topolnitsa Reservoir and fish is chronic and that it can negatively affect the structure and function of fish gills. As metals display a tendency to accumulate in fish gills, their effects are expected to become more severe with time, as they affect gill functions.

  12. “In pace with the times”: Superman vs. Alyosha: understanding historical wars of position on the ideological battleground in Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Traykov, Bozhin

    2012-01-01

    On June 17th 2011 the Monument of the Soviet Army (MSA) in Sofia, Bulgaria underwent a peculiar transformation. People stared with dismay at the soldiers of the Red Army that had overnight taken the identities of icons of American consumer culture, such as Superman, Ronald McDonald and the Coca Cola prototype of Santa Claus. This provocation reignited the emotional debate about the future of the monument. Its destiny has been a bone of contention since the fall of the Berlin wall. The Monumen...

  13. Gastropod Shells from Excavations of the “Antic Forum” Complex in the City Of Plovdiv (Bulgaria: IV-VI Century

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    Rumen Ivanov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Total of 35 shells were found and identified during the archeological excavations 2012-2014, studied Slavic dwellings-dugouts which reuse earlier structures of the roman forum inPlovdiv, Bulgaria. From both localities shells from 7 species of snails were found. Most of the shellswere from two species: Zebrina detrita and Helix philibinensis – total of 28 shells, other wererepresented by 1-3 specimens per species. The lack of shell materials from Eobania vermiculatasupports the theory of later introduction of this species in the city of Plovdiv.

  14. Assessment of the Threats to the Biodiversity and Habitats in "Stara Reka" Reserve (Bulgaria) and Its Adjacent Subalpine and Alpine Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Svetlana V. Yocheva; Atanas A. Irikov; Slaveya T. Petrova; Ivelin A. Mollov

    2013-01-01

    The assessment of the threats in the “Stara Reka” reserve and its adjacent subalpine and alpine areas is important since it makes it possible the appropriate conservation measures to be taken in order to prevent or reduce the negative effects on the biodiversity and habitats. The assessment was based on systematic studies and visits in the “Stara Reka” Reserve, located within National Park “Central Balkan” (Bulgaria), during spring, summer and autumn seasons of 2010-2011. A number of t...

  15. PRELIMINARY RESULTS OF THE STUDY ON THE SPREAD OF APPLE CHLOROTIC LEAF SPOT VIRUS (ACLSV) IN DIFFERENT FRUIT TREE SPECIES IN KYUSTENDIL REGION OF BULGARIA

    OpenAIRE

    Aneliya BORISOVA

    2005-01-01

    The survey was carried out mostly in one of the main fruit tree growing regions of Bulgaria - Kyustendil, during the period of 2004-2005. A total of 632 trees corresponding to 50 apple, 27 pear, 19 plum, 4 peach, 9 sweet cherry and 4 sour cherry cultivars and 21 apricot elites were tested for the presence of Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV) and six other viruses by ELISA. Samples for analyses were collected from different organs of plants: flowers, leaves or phloem tissues. In the pres...

  16. QUESTIONNAIRE FOR STUDENTS FROM FACULTIES OF DENTAL MEDICINE IN BULGARIA REGARDING THEIR MOTIVATION FOR PARTICIPATION IN AND THE WAY THEY ARE FAMILIAR WITH RESEARCH PROJECTS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetoslav Garov

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In recent years there has been a significant increase in the number and value of projects implemented by medical universities in Bulgaria. The involvement of representatives of the student community in the research teams increases their knowledge and skills and in this way they also gain experience in team work and become motivated to further develop their science careers. Aim: The purpose of our study is by analyzing data from our questionnaire to examine the level of students’ willingness to participate in research project activities performed by Bulgarian faculties of Dental Medicine. Material and methods: The written examination technique has been applied as a primary empirical sociological information registration method. For that purpose a 13-question survey (questionnaire has been prepared. The survey is anonymous and it has been completed by 190 students in their 4th and 5th year of studying in medical universities in Sofia, Plovdiv and Varna. Data was collected during the period from January to May 2013. Results: In order for us to achieve the goal of this study we focused on the questions from the questionnaire.Conclusion: The role that research projects play in medical universities and in particular in the faculties of dental medicine in Bulgaria is of key importance for their accreditation. The scientific cooperation between lecturers and students is a prerequisite for developing a competitive environment that defines the future scientific achievements in the relevant research institution.

  17. An historical overview of the activities in the field of exposure and risk assessment of non-ionizing radiation in Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israel, Michel

    2015-09-01

    The exposure and risk evaluation process in Bulgaria concerning non-ionizing radiation health and safety started in the early 1970s. Then, the first research laboratory "Electromagnetic fields in the working environment" was founded in the framework of the Centre of Hygiene, belonging to the Medical Academy, Sofia. The main activities were connected with developing legislation, new equipment for measurement of electromagnetic fields, new methods for measurement and exposure assessment, in vivo and human studies for developing methods, studying the effect of non-ionizing radiation on human body, developing exposure limits. Most of the occupations as metal industry, plastic welding, energetics, physiotherapy, broadcasting, telephone stations, computer industry, etc., have been covered by epidemiological investigations and risk evaluation. In 1986, the ANSI standard for safe use of lasers has been implemented as national legislation that gave the start for studies in the field of risk assessment concerning the use of lasers in industry and medicine. The environmental exposure studies started in 1991 following the very fast implementation of the telecommunication technologies. Now, funds for research are very insignificant, and studies in the field of risk assessment are very few. Nevertheless, Bulgaria has been an active member of the WHO International EMF Project, since 1997, and that gives good opportunity for collaboration with other Member states, and for implementation of new approach in the EMF policy for workers and people's protection against non-ionizing radiation exposure.

  18. Evaluation of the spatial patterns and risk factors, including backyard pigs, for classical swine fever occurrence in Bulgaria using a Bayesian model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Martínez-López

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The spatial pattern and epidemiology of backyard pig farming and other low bio-security pig production systems and their role in the occurrence of classical swine fever (CSF is described and evaluated. A spatial Bayesian model was used to explore the risk factors, including human demographics, socioeconomic and environmental factors. The analyses were performed for Bulgaria, which has a large number of backyard farms (96% of all pig farms in the country are classified as backyard farms, and it is one of the countries for which both backyard pig and farm counts were available. Results reveal that the high-risk areas are typically concentrated in areas with small family farms, high numbers of outgoing pig shipments and low levels of personal consumption (i.e. economically deprived areas. Identification of risk factors and high-risk areas for CSF will allow to targeting risk-based surveillance strategies leading to prevention, control and, ultimately, elimination of the disease in Bulgaria and other countries with similar socio-epidemiological conditions.

  19. Bulgaria : Forest Policy Note

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2009-01-01

    This focus note presents key findings of a 2008 report on implementing Financial Action task Force (FATF) standards in developing countries The Financial Sector Reform and Strengthening(FIRST) Initiative funded a five-country study to analyze the effects of anti-money laundering (AML) and combating the financing of terrorism (CFT) regulation on access to finance, especially in low-income p...

  20. Colloidal origin of colloform-banded textures in the Paleogene low-sulfidation Khan Krum gold deposit, SE Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinova, Irina; Ganev, Valentin; Titorenkova, Rositsa

    2014-01-01

    We studied both colloform-banded macro- and micro-textures as well as the composition of electrum from the epithermal Khan Krum (or Ada Tepe) gold deposit, Bulgaria (5 Mt at 5.1 g/t Au + 2.7 g/t Ag) using optical and electron scanning microscopy, vibration spectroscopy, electron micro-probe analysis, and LA-ICP-MS. The individual textural bands differ in grain size, porosity, quartz-to-adularia ratio, and abundance of electrum, pyrite, and scattered dusty opaque micro-inclusions. The individual macro-bands have formed successively via intermittent fault dilation from episodic hydrothermal pulses, as a result of regional extension and most likely originated from colloidal solutions formed by vigorous boiling during rapid pressure drop and supersaturation with respect to amorphous silica in a closed or quasi-closed hydrothermal system. Electrum is highly concentrated in the finest quartz-adularia colloform micro-bands, which fill joints with widths up to 1-2 mm. We presume that the joints have filled in with more concentrated colloidal solutions than those in the macro-bands, most likely due to extreme boiling of fluids in open or quasi-open hydrothermal system. Electrum in the micro-bands forms transverse dendrite- and chain-like aggregates as well as oval clots along the banding, all of globular morphology. We explain these locations of electrum with reorientation of aggregated electrum globules during plastic deformation of a mixed electrum-silicate gel and in result from the consequent crystallization of silicates. At the same time, electrum is not present in pores and cracks of syneresis, which indicates that it had not been a soluble phase at the time of syneresis, rather colloidal particles. Electrum also forms dense sprinkles of globular morphology deposited in open space on the surfaces of some quartz-adularia bands, due to a condensation of gaseous phase, separated during the boiling of fluids. We found that the electrum-rich quartz-adularia micro

  1. Formation of a cold ophiolitic sole at the base of the Devonian Balkan Carpathian Ophiolite (Romania, Serbia, Bulgaria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plissart, Gaëlle; Diot, Hervé; Monnier, Christophe; Maruntiu, Marcel; Debaille, Vinciane; Neubauer, Franz

    2013-04-01

    Our study concerns deformed gabbroic rocks from the Balkan Carpathian Ophiolite (BCO - Romania, Serbia, Bulgaria). The BCO consists of four ophiolitic massifs dismembered during Alpine tectonic and displaying together a complete classical oceanic lithosphere. Our new Sm-Nd dating on fresh lower gabbroic rocks give an accretion age for the BCO crust at 409 ± 38 Ma, in agreement with a previous age of 405 ± 3 Ma (Zakariadze et al. 2012). After removing the Alpine tectonic, the BCO appears as an elongated E-W body tilted to the south. At the base of the ophiolitic complex occurs a thin deformed zone (data indicate that their protoliths were mainly upper gabbros statically metamorphosed in the Greenschist/Amphibolite facies (event 1 = ocean-floor metamorphism at the ridge axis). These rocks have been affected by a second circulation of fluids (event 2), contemporaneous to a deformation and inducing local K-enrichment (formation of Cr-muscovite). Temperature estimates for this event indicate a range of 450°C - 280°C, with the lower values observed for the more intensively metasomatized rocks. 40Ar - 39Ar dating on two Cr-muscovites from slightly and highly deformed metagabbros gives plateau ages of 372.6 ± 1.3 Ma and 360.6 ± 1.2 Ma respectively. We interpret the first age as a mimimum age for the beginning of the event 2, observed into preserved rocks, and the second one as linked to (neo-/)recrystallisation due to localisation of the metasomatism/deformation. The interval of 30 Ma between oceanic crust accretion and initiation of metasomatism/deformation involves that the upper oceanic crust had cooled down to temperatures close to 100°C before the beginning of event 2. Consequently, a temperature increase is required to observe the greenschist facies assemblage. We have tested by tectono-thermal modelling the hypothesis that these rocks could correspond to a slice of upper crust dragged down during intra-oceanic subduction: temperatures of 450°C are reached at

  2. El director como gestor en la lucha contra la corrupción en la educación : el caso de Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Tatyana Dronzina; Raycho Ranguelov

    2007-01-01

    En Bulgaria, la lucha contra la corrupción en los servicios públicos ocupa en este momento un lugar importante, dado que es uno de los aspectos que la Unión Europea ha declarado como prioritarios para la adhesión de este país. En el caso concreto de la educación, una de los ámbitos en los que puede detectarse la existencia de corrupción es el de la reparación y mantenimiento de los colegios públicos estatales. En este artículo se analizan las visiones que sobre este tema muestran las admi...

  3. Reconstruction of the Transmission History of RNA Virus Outbreaks Using Full Genome Sequences: Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus in Bulgaria in 2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valdazo-González, Begoña; Polihronova, Lilyana; Alexandrov, Tsviatko;

    2012-01-01

    Improvements to sequencing protocols and the development of computational phylogenetics have opened up opportunities to study the rapid evolution of RNA viruses in real time. In practical terms, these results can be combined with field data in order to reconstruct spatiotemporal scenarios that de...... as a number of antibody positive wild boar on both sides of the border with Turkish Thrace. This study highlights how FGS analysis can be used as an effective on-the-spot tool to support and help direct epidemiological investigations of field outbreaks....... the origin and transmission history of the FMD outbreaks which occurred during 2011 in Burgas Province, Bulgaria, a country that had been previously FMD-free-without-vaccination since 1996. Nineteen full genome sequences (FGS) of FMD virus (FMDV) were generated and analysed, including eight representative...

  4. El director como gestor en la lucha contra la corrupción en la educación : el caso de Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana Dronzina

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available En Bulgaria, la lucha contra la corrupción en los servicios públicos ocupa en este momento un lugar importante, dado que es uno de los aspectos que la Unión Europea ha declarado como prioritarios para la adhesión de este país. En el caso concreto de la educación, una de los ámbitos en los que puede detectarse la existencia de corrupción es el de la reparación y mantenimiento de los colegios públicos estatales. En este artículo se analizan las visiones que sobre este tema muestran las administraciones públicas en paralelo con las opiniones de los directores de centros escolares, partiendo de la revisión de los datos obtenidos en una investigación realizada al efecto y de los principales informes publicaciones en torno a este tema. El rol del director como gestor en la lucha contra la corrupción en la educación se considera de máxima importancia, por lo que se necesita una preparación que les proporcione habilidades y conocimientos específicos.The fight against the corruption in the public services in Bulgaria is a great concern at this moment, because this is one of the aspects that the European Union has declared like high-priority for the adhesion of this country. In the educational field, one of the scopes in which it can be detected corruptionis the one of repair and maintenance of state schools. This article analyzes the visions that public administrations show about this subject in parallel with the opinions of school directors. The director role as manager in the fight against corruption in education is considered very important, reason why is needed a training that provides specific abilities and knowledge

  5. Efectos económicos de los criterios de convergencia en el proceso de inserción de Bulgaria y Rumania a la Unión Europea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximiliano Gracia-Hernández

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Se analiza la incorporación de Rumania y Bulgaria a la Unión Europea (UE, enfatiza los efectos de la aplicación de los criterios de convergencia en sus economías internas. Posteriormente se presenta un breve repaso histórico de la formación de la UE y de los criterios de convergencia exigidos a los candidatos. Finalmente se particulariza en las transformaciones económicas realizadas por Bulgaria y Rumania y los efectos de dichos cambios en sus economías (particularente en el PIB, la inflación, el empleo y las finanzas públicas.

  6. Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the People's Republic of Bulgaria and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document reproduces the text of the Protocol Additional to the Safeguards Agreement concluded between the People's Republic of Bulgaria and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT). The Protocol was approved by the Board of Governors on 14 September 1998, signed in Vienna on 24 September 1998, and entered into force on 10 October 2000

  7. The selection of royal figures in the image of power during the Palaiologan epoch: Byzantium - Serbia - Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojvodić Dragan

    2009-01-01

    consideration in plans for succession to the throne. In the earlier period of Byzantine history, slightly different circumstances and views prevailed. That is why, owing to some specific circumstances, the emperor's daughters were sometimes depicted in the portraits of the imperial family. However, from the time of the Komnenoi when the medieval dynastic awareness finally asserted itself in Byzantium, the images of the emperor's female progeny practically vanished from the pictures of those who wielded supreme authority. The custom of omitting the figures of the emperors' daughters from the presentations of the ruling houses was also accepted and rather strictly obeyed for a long time in the portraiture of the neighbouring Orthodox Christian countries. In Serbia, this was disregarded only till just before the state collapsed, while in Bulgaria, exceptions to this rule were observed a little earlier. This was the result of accepting the ideological and iconographic models that were distinctive for the nobility, at the height of the feudal period. The images of daughters-in-law had always been omitted even more consistently than in the case of the figures of daughters in the monarchical presentations of the Byzantine and other Orthodox Christian rulers. As a rule, they were not depicted close to the image of the sovereign, even when they were the wives of the proclaimed and even crowned co-rulers, and successors to the throne. It is very probable that this custom survived into the Palaiologan era even though there are some signs that in Byzantium, this rule may have been disregarded in some cases. The figures of sovereigns' wives and sons had a significantly different status from the images of daughters and daughters-in-law. As a rule, they played an essential and customary role in the monarchical presentation because the rulers' wives and male successors had a stake in authority, in its transfer and succession. Still, it often happened that even wives and sons were omitted from

  8. QUESTIONNAIRE FOR LECTURERS FROM FACULTIES OF DENTAL MEDICINE IN BULGARIA REGARDING THEIR MOTIVATION FOR PARTICIPATION IN AND THE WAY THEY ARE FAMILIAR WITH RESEARCH PROJECTS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetoslav Garov

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In recent years, especially after Bulgaria accession to the EU on 1st January 2007, new scientific horizons have appeared in front of the academic community in our country. Medical universities work in a really competitive environment both on a national and global scale, where the high quality of lecturing, research and medical activities is a key factor for success.Aim: The purpose of this study is by analyzing data from our questionnaire to define the most distinctively expressed lecturers’ opinions regarding the research project activities performed by Bulgarian faculties of Dental Medicine. Material and methods: The questionnaire including 13 questions was completed by 75 lecturers from Faculties of Dental Medicine in Sofia, Varna and Plovdiv. The questionnaire was anonymous so that maximum objectivity and reliability of the collected information can be achieved. The questionnaires were filled in between January and May 2013. Results: In order for us to achieve the goal of this study we focused on the questions from the questionnaire.Conclusion:Lecturers from all three faculties of dental medicine are partially aware of the procedures and various types of project financing. They express their willingness to participate in research project activities although their implementation is rather difficult. Lecturers estimate the advantages and disadvantages of participation in projects and in their opinion the unit in charge of project activities at the relevant Faculty of Dental Medicine should comprise of various experts who are to ensure up-to-date information on current or future projects.

  9. Two methods of assessing the mortality factors affecting the larvae and pupae of Cameraria ohridella in the leaves of Aesculus hippocastanum in Switzerland and Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girardoz, S; Tomov, R; Eschen, R; Quicke, D L J; Kenis, M

    2007-10-01

    The horse-chestnut leaf miner, Cameraria ohridella, is an invasive alien species defoliating horse-chestnut, a popular ornamental tree in Europe. This paper presents quantitative data on mortality factors affecting larvae and pupae of the leaf miner in Switzerland and Bulgaria, both in urban and forest environments. Two sampling methods were used and compared: a cohort method, consisting of the surveying of pre-selected mines throughout their development, and a grab sampling method, consisting of single sets of leaves collected and dissected at regular intervals. The total mortality per generation varied between 14 and 99%. Mortality was caused by a variety of factors, including parasitism, host feeding, predation by birds and arthropods, plant defence reaction, leaf senescence, intra-specific competition and inter-specific competition with a fungal disease. Significant interactions were found between mortality factors and sampling methods, countries, environments and generation. No mortality factor was dominant throughout the sites, generations and methods tested. Plant defence reactions constituted the main mortality factor for the first two larval stages, whereas predation by birds and arthropods and parasitism were more important in older larvae and pupae. Mortality caused by leaf senescence was often the dominant mortality factor in the last annual generation. The cohort method detected higher mortality rates than the grab sampling method. In particular, mortality by plant defence reaction and leaf senescence were better assessed using the cohort method, which is, therefore, recommended for life table studies on leaf miners. PMID:17916263

  10. Assessment of Heavy Metal Accumulation in the Golden Jackal (Canis aureus) as a Possible Bioindicator in an Agricultural Environment in Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markov, Georgi; Kocheva, Maria; Gospodinova, Milena

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the residues of heavy metals as an indicator of environmental pollution in internal organs of golden jackal (Canis aureus) from an agricultural region in Bulgaria. It was demonstrated that the golden jackal has high potential for specific accumulation of heavy metals, thus implying that this species may serve as a biological indicator of their presence in the agricultural regions, which it inhabits. The concentrations of the targeted elements (mean [mg/kg of dried tissue] ± SD) were respectively: Cu-57.62 ± 10.76; Zn-141.45 ± 11.33; Ni-0.28 ± 0.19; Co-0.46 ± 0.30; Pb-6.88 ± 1.67 and Cd-0.58 ± 0.16 in liver and Cu-17.67 ± 5.01; Zn-58.28 ± 10.81; Ni-0.51 ± 0.4; Co-0.52 ± 0.29; Pb-4.03 ± 1.32 and Cd-1.41 ± 0.22 in kidney samples. The concentrations we found revealed the specific accumulation of these metals in golden jackal and provide values, within which negative effects on the advancement of its populations should not be expected. PMID:26894493

  11. Assessment of the Threats to the Biodiversity and Habitats in "Stara Reka" Reserve (Bulgaria and Its Adjacent Subalpine and Alpine Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana V. Yocheva

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of the threats in the “Stara Reka” reserve and its adjacent subalpine and alpine areas is important since it makes it possible the appropriate conservation measures to be taken in order to prevent or reduce the negative effects on the biodiversity and habitats. The assessment was based on systematic studies and visits in the “Stara Reka” Reserve, located within National Park “Central Balkan” (Bulgaria, during spring, summer and autumn seasons of 2010-2011. A number of threats were recorded, where those by anthropogenic origin were predominating. Tourists have negatively influenced the wild plants such as Allium ursinum, Inula helenium and Primula frondosa by picking them up. Damages were registered on the information system and signs. Waste disposal, fires, poaching and illegal fishing were also some of the recorded threats. Many natural succession changes quite dynamically vary the habitats in the reserve, but the most dangerous for the biodiversity and degradation of habitats remain fires, erosion and introduction of alien species.

  12. A parametric analysis of the seismic input at the NE Bulgaria (Russe site) due to recent Vrancea intermediate-depth earthquakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analytical deterministic technique, based on the simultaneous account of the fault mechanism and seismic wave propagation, has been applied to generate synthetic seismic signals at Russe, NE Bulgaria due to the strongest intermediate-depth Vrancea earthquakes, which occurred during the last century (1940, 1977, 1986 and 1990). The computations have been validated by comparison with the available observations, i.e. accelerograms and macroseismic intensity data. The synthetic signals have been generated varying the seismic source moment tensor and the Vp/Vs ratio of the uppermost layers along the investigated profile. Response and energetic spectra are calculated for the whole synthetic signals set. The obtained results show that all ground motion components give a significant contribution to the seismic input and that they can be influenced in similar degree by the investigated parameters. Therefore the seismic input (also at remote distances), should consider enough earthquake scenarios, and can be constructed via waveform modelling, considering all possible factors influencing the ground motion

  13. PRELIMINARY RESULTS OF THE STUDY ON THE SPREAD OF APPLE CHLOROTIC LEAF SPOT VIRUS (ACLSV IN DIFFERENT FRUIT TREE SPECIES IN KYUSTENDIL REGION OF BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneliya BORISOVA

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available The survey was carried out mostly in one of the main fruit tree growing regions of Bulgaria - Kyustendil, during the period of 2004-2005. A total of 632 trees corresponding to 50 apple, 27 pear, 19 plum, 4 peach, 9 sweet cherry and 4 sour cherry cultivars and 21 apricot elites were tested for the presence of Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV and six other viruses by ELISA. Samples for analyses were collected from different organs of plants: flowers, leaves or phloem tissues. In the present research, ACLSV was not found in pear, plum, apricot and sour cherry. The highest infection rate of the virus among the infected fruit tree species was in apple (73 % followed by sweet cherry (13.3 % and peach (11.76 %. The frequency of mixed infection was 43.2 % in the infected apple, 33.4 % in sweet cherry and 12.5 % in peach trees. The highest concentrations of ACLSV, measured by ELISA, were observed in naturally grown flower petals of apple and sweet cherry trees in May.

  14. Investigations on prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC among dairy farms in the north part of the Republic of Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Urumova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Over a 2-year period, from January 2011 to May 2013, a total of 1094 faecal swab samples were collected from cattle at different age at 4 farms in North Bulgaria: Okorsh, Slavyanovo (Popovo municipality, Dobri dol and Trem. Out of them, 36 coli strains (3.3% positive in the E. coli O:157 antiserum agglutination test and identified by the BBL CRYSTAL identification system as belonging to the E. coli O:157 serotype were isolated. The distribution of isolates was as followed: 5 (0.5% E. coli O:157 strains at the Okorsh dairy cattle farm, 7 (0.6% E. coli isolates at the Slavyanovo dairy farm, 16 (1.5% isolates at the Dobri dol farm and 8 (0.7% isolates at the Trem farm. Colibacteria exhibited 100% sensitivity to oxyimino-cephalosporins, gentamicin and enrofloxacin, and were resistant to ampicillin (19.4% and tetracycline (41.6%. From the 15 strains resistant to tetracycline, 11 were isolated from the cows at Dobri dol, while the other 4 originated from the other three farms. The 7 ampicillin-resistant E. coli isolates were detected only at the Dobri dol cattle farm.

  15. The climate of Bulgaria during 19th and 20th centuries by instrumental and indirect data : Solar modulated cycles and their evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Komitov, Boris; Duchlev, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Two types of data sets for investigation of solar- modulated cycles in the climate of Bulgaria during the last ~ 200 years has been used in this study: 1. Instrumental data for the rainfalls and temperatures in 26 stations during the period AD 1899-1994; A smoothing dendrochronological data series of the tree rings width of a beech sample (Fagus) for the period of AD 1780-1982. The data proceedings has been provided separately for the "winter" (November-April) and "summer" (May-October) half- years. A well expressed quasi-20-22 and 54 yr cycles in the rains and temperature instrumental "summer" series as well as quasi 11yr cycle for the "winter" temeperature data has been established for the studied period 1899-1994. However there are also very serious variations of the 11 and 22 yr cycle magnitudes. The quasi 20-22 yr ("summer") cycle is weak expressed before AD 1930, while the 11 yr (winter) cycle is faded rapidly after ~AD 1975/76. The existence of 20-22 yr climatic cycle could be traced since the end of t...

  16. Study of anthropogenic and natural impacts on archaeological sites of the Volga Bulgaria period (Republic of Tatarstan) using remote sensing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gainullin, I. I.; Khomyakov, P. V.; Sitdikov, A. G.; Usmanov, B. M.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper we consider the possibility of using remote sensing data for determining various negative factors affecting archaeological objects condition on the territory of the Republic of Tatarstan. Fortified settlements, with the system of defensive fortifications, were selected as the objects of study, as they are easily identified by remote sensing data. In our view, the analysis of medieval Volga Bulgars (X-XIII centuries A.D.), the most common in the territory of the Republic of Tatarstan, has the highest priority. The first task by using remote sensing was to obtain actual data on the current condition of archaeological monuments located on the Kuibyshev reservoir shore, where the threat of destruction is maximized. Due to the fact, that most of the Volga-Bulgaria settlements, is located on the small rivers banks, the second task was geomorphological description of monuments placement in order to assess the risk of their destruction by natural processes. Third objective was to evaluate the role of the human factor in archaeological sites destruction. Ancient settlements under different types of negative impact were selected for the study. Deciphering of multitemporal remote sensing data allowed to assess the objects condition and to predict the risk of further damage. Additionally, it made able to correct the form of the Bulgars hillforts in comparison with existing plans, as well their size and location in the landscape, to restore the original appearance of destroyed fortified settlements, to determine precise coordinates for the further use of these data in the archaeological geographic information systems.

  17. Bioaccumulation of Cadmium and Lead in Rodent Species from the Region of Lead-Zinc Smelting Factory – Plovdiv (South Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hristo A. Dimitrov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The levels of the toxic metals, Cd and Pb, were measured in liver of yellow-necked mouse (Apodemus flavicollis Melchior, 1834, Mediterranean mouse (Mus macedonicus Petrov & Ružić, 1983 and common vole (Microtus arvalis Pallas, 1778 from the vicinity of Plovdiv (South Bulgaria, where the lead-zinc smelting factory is the main source of pollution. The study was carried out at three sites located along a pollution gradient. An unpolluted region, the Strandzha Natural Park was used as a background region. MANOVA analysis revealed significant differences by species (F=9.61, p=0.003, site (F=24.12, p=0.0001 and exposure (F=3.79, P=0.013 effects. Significant increase of Pb and Cd bioaccumulation was found along the pollution gradient. Cd and Pb mean concentrations were highest at the site closest to the smelter and decreased with increasing the distance from them. The bioaccumulation of Pb was significant highest in the individuals of the yellow-necked mouse, followed by Mediterranean mice and common voles, whereas the common voles accumulated more Cd in comparison with the yellow-necked-, and Mediterranean mice. However, there is little evidence of adverse cadmium-mediated effects in yellow-necked- and Mediterranean mice and this species may be tolerant to Cd exposure. High Cd concentrations in body organs may simply reflect an ability to store the metal in a nontoxic, metallothionein-bound state. Liver Pb and Cd concentration did not differ significantly among sexes.

  18. Two-Year Monitoring of Water Samples from Dam of Iskar and the Black Sea, Bulgaria, by Molecular Analysis: Focus on Mycobacterium spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Panaiotov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The coast of the Bulgarian Black Sea is a popular summer holiday destination. The Dam of Iskar is the largest artificial dam in Bulgaria, with a capacity of 675 million m3. It is the main source of tap water for the capital Sofia and for irrigating the surrounding valley. There is a close relationship between the quality of aquatic ecosystems and human health as many infections are waterborne. Rapid molecular methods for the analysis of highly pathogenic bacteria have been developed for monitoring quality. Mycobacterial species can be isolated from waste, surface, recreational, ground and tap waters and human pathogenicity of nontuberculose mycobacteria (NTM is well recognized. The objective of our study was to perform molecular analysis for key-pathogens, with a focus on mycobacteria, in water samples collected from the Black Sea and the Dam of Iskar. In a two year period, 38 water samples were collected—24 from the Dam of Iskar and 14 from the Black Sea coastal zone. Fifty liter water samples were concentrated by ultrafiltration. Molecular analysis for 15 pathogens, including all species of genus Mycobacterium was performed. Our results showed presence of Vibrio spp. in the Black Sea. Rotavirus A was also identified in four samples from the Dam of Iskar. Toxigenic Escherichia coli was present in both locations, based on markers for stx1 and stx2 genes. No detectable amounts of Cryptosporidium were detected in either location using immunomagnetic separation and fluorescence microscopy. Furthermore, mass spectrometry analyses did not detect key cyanobacterial toxins. On the basis of the results obtained we can conclude that for the period 2012–2014 no Mycobacterium species were present in the water samples. During the study period no cases of waterborne infections were reported.

  19. Evaluation of the risk of classical swine fever (CSF) spread from backyard pigs to other domestic pigs by using the spatial stochastic disease spread model Be-FAST: the example of Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-López, Beatriz; Ivorra, Benjamin; Ramos, Angel Manuel; Fernández-Carrión, Eduardo; Alexandrov, Tsviatko; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, José Manuel

    2013-07-26

    The study presented here is one of the very first aimed at exploring the potential spread of classical swine fever (CSF) from backyard pigs to other domestic pigs. Specifically, we used a spatial stochastic spread model, called Be-FAST, to evaluate the potential spread of CSF virus (CSFV) in Bulgaria, which holds a large number of backyards (96% of the total number of pig farms) and is one of the very few countries for which backyard pigs and farm counts are available. The model revealed that, despite backyard pigs being very likely to become infected, infections from backyard pigs to other domestic pigs were rare. In general, the magnitude and duration of the CSF simulated epidemics were small, with a median [95% PI] number of infected farms per epidemic of 1 [1,4] and a median [95% PI] duration of the epidemic of 44 [17,101] days. CSFV transmission occurs primarily (81.16%) due to indirect contacts (i.e. vehicles, people and local spread) whereas detection of infected premises was mainly (69%) associated with the observation of clinical signs on farm rather than with implementation of tracing or zoning. Methods and results of this study may support the implementation of risk-based strategies more cost-effectively to prevent, control and, ultimately, eradicate CSF from Bulgaria. The model may also be easily adapted to other countries in which the backyard system is predominant. It can also be used to simulate other similar diseases such as African swine fever.

  20. STATUS, PROBLEMS AND PROJECTS FOR DEVELOPMENT OF DISTRICT, URBAN PLANNING AND ARCHITECTURE IN BULGARIA IN EARLY 21ST CENTURY (AGAINST THE BACKGROUND OF THE MARKET ECONOMY AND THE UPCOMING FINANCIAL AND ECONOMIC CRISIS. PART 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovachev Atanas Dimitrov

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The author provides an overview of the main urban planning trends in the present-day Bulgaria. The author also demonstrates principal approaches to area planning and provides examples of master plans of major cities of the country. The author emphasizes the need to resolve the environmental problems of urban territories, to develop their public transportation networks, resorts, landscape gardening, and a special role of historic and archeological monuments in the present-day cities. Today, multiple hierarchically arranged plans of districts and towns are being developed in accordance with the Law on area arrangement of 2001. There are three levels of area planning in Bulgaria: strategic, tactical and operative/applied. The level of strategic planning covers the territory of the whole country (or its major parts, including regions and clusters of communities. The second level of area planning represents a tactical level. It is applied to smaller sections of the territory (communities, towns and it converts into more detailed planning of the territory if compared to the top level of area planning. The general structure of the territory is developed at this level of planning. This level includes master plans of cities and towns. The third level, the level of operative/ applied planning, is applied to separate parts of populated areas, even particular sites. This level is characterized by detailed elaboration and it serves as a link to architectural planning. This level incorporates detailed area plans.

  1. Evaluation of in vitro antioxidant activity and free radical scavenging potential of variety of Tagetes erecta L. flowers growing in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miglena Valyova

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Marigold (Tagetes erecta L. is well known for its antimicrobial, antiseptic, wound and ulcer healing, antiinflammatory, antioxidant and antiviral properties, and it has a long history of being used as an herbal remedy. T. erecta L. produces a variety of substances that possess pharmacological effects and antioxidant activity. The present study was therefore aimed to analyze the antioxidant activity of extracts and fractions of T. erecta L. flowers, cultivated in Bulgaria. Radical scavenging potential was determined using two different in vitro assays. 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH and 2, 2’-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS radicals. The ethyl acetate fraction of T. erecta L. ethanol extract was found to be the most effective in both assays, DPPH (IC50 4.3±0.4 μg/ml and ABTS (0.8±0.2 TEAC. The greatest total phenolic content was detected in EtOAc fraction from EtOH extract (517.8 mg/g GAE. It was obtained high quantity of ascorbate and ascorbate/dehydroascorbate ratio more than 1. The quantity of glutathione reduced is low and glutathione reduced/glutathione oxidized ratio was lower than 1. A correlation between radical scavenging capacities of samples with total phenolic compound content was observed. The present study revealed that the EtOAc fraction effectively show the best ability to scavenge the free radicals. Industrial relevance. Herbal medicines have gained increasing attention worldwide for the treatment of chronic diseases because of their effectiveness and small side effects as compared to synthetic drugs.Recently, an attention has been directed toward the antioxidant phytochemicals which have proved as protective against cardiovascular diseases and cancer, associated with overproduction of reactive oxygen species. The present investigations focus has been to discover plant extracts and fractions from T. erecta useful to prevent chronic degenerative diseases, especially those mediated by

  2. 28 June 2012 - Ambassador I. Piperkov, Permanent Representative of Bulgaria to the United Nations Office and other international organisations in Geneva and Spouse visiting CMS experimental area with Collaboration Deputy Spokesperson T. Camporesi and CERN Control Centre with M. Benedikt.Senior physicist L. Litov accompanies the delegation throughout.

    CERN Multimedia

    Jean-Claude Gadmer

    2012-01-01

    28 June 2012 - Ambassador I. Piperkov, Permanent Representative of Bulgaria to the United Nations Office and other international organisations in Geneva and Spouse visiting CMS experimental area with Collaboration Deputy Spokesperson T. Camporesi and CERN Control Centre with M. Benedikt.Senior physicist L. Litov accompanies the delegation throughout.

  3. Acinonyx pardinensis (Croizet et Jobert remains from the Middle Villafranchian locality of Varshets (Bulgaria and the Plio-Pleistocene history of the cheetahs in Eurasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spassov, N.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The article decribes and discusses remains of late Pliocene (middle Villafranchian cheetah, Acinonyx pardinensis (Croizet et Jobert from Varshets, N.-W. Bulgaria. It is accepted that three chronoforms A. pardinensis pardinensis, A. p. pleistocaenicus and A. p. intermedius succeed in Europe from the Early Villafranchian (Etouaires, approx. 2.6 Ma till the Middle Pleistocene. Remains are scarce and at this level of knowledge we could accept the recently proposed subspecific status of all these forms but their taxonomical relations could be rather more complicate. The remains from Varshets correspond to the earliest form A. pardinensis pardinensis which inhabited Eurasia during the late Early and the Middle Villafranchian and the beginning of the Pleistocene. Other European remains of A. p. pardinensis are known only from Spain, France, Italy and the Azov region of Southern Russia. It seems that then the species occupied only the southern part of the European continent (the Mediterranean-Balkan-Northern peri-Pontic area, and from there it probably spread till Central Asia (Tajikistan. Such a distribution supports the concept of the faunal entity of South Europe in Villafranchian time as well as the theory for the Central Asian influence of this fauna mainly trough the Balkans by two ways: via Bosphorus and via the peri-Pontic area. According to the paleontological data the fossil Acinonyx does not reach Central Europe (Austria and Germany before the Epivillafranchian, possibly after new waves of dispersal of another, Early Pleistocene form of Central Asia. The relationship of the Middle Villafranchian A. pardinensis with the rather contemporaneous forms from China (Hezheng “Sivapanthera” linxiaensis and A. kurteni and from Siwaliks is not clear, but the Chinese forms must represent taxa different from A. pardinensis. Acinonyx s. str. is characterized by strongly domed and enlarged frontal area, shortened skull and downwards inclined

  4. Bulgaria Policy Note : Financial Sector

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2009-01-01

    This report describes developments in the banking sector. The banking sector has remained stable throughout the ongoing financial crisis, although profitability is declining. Indicators suggest that banks are generally sound. It next describes the state of funding of bank operations, including wholesale bank funding. In response to financial stress, The Bulgarian National Bank's (BNB) act...

  5. Fieldwork Coastal Engineering: Varna (Bulgaria)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Rooij, D.; Dessens, M.; Lansen, J.; Meijer, M.; Muilwijk, M.; Raaijmakers, T.; Serra Ribas, O.; Smits, R.; Van Rooijen, D.; Veenstra, E.; Versmissen, K.

    2003-01-01

    A series of hydraulic measurements were carried out during the field trip, ranging from beach profiles to wave data collection and suitability of stones from local quarries for hydraulic purposes. In chapter 2 something is told about the tetrapods. At Sunny Day Beach in St. Constantine some sightse

  6. Natural gas industry in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An overview of the Bulgarian natural gas industry is presented. The starting point was the discovery of the indigenous Chiren gas-field in 1967. The first agreement with the ex-USSR for supply of natural gas and construction of main pipelines was signed in 1968. The state gas company BULGARGAZ is responsible for transportation, storage, distribution, processing and marketing of the gas to over 150 industrial companies in the country, as well as for the transportation services to gas importers in neighboring Turkey. The GAZSTROJMONTAZH company accomplish the construction of the local and transit pipelines to Turkey and Greece, as well as of some objects in Iran, Syria, Ukraine and Germany. In the past 20 years, 87890 million m3 natural gas from Russia are supplied and 846 million m3 - from domestic sources. The share of natural gas in the overall energy balance is 13.6% for 1992. The restructuring and further development of gas industry require to take into account some factors as: security in supply; investments for technical assurance; pricing policy for natural gas; development of private business. Some administrative problems are also mentioned. 2 tabs., 1 fig

  7. Kozloduy NPP intranet portal, Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Kozloduy NPP intranet portal was established in the late 1990s. The purpose of the portal was to provide access to general and frequently used information necessary for routine and daily work of the plant staff. Over the years the intranet site has been continuously improved and extended. The portal is now a standard tool for every member of plant personnel. The portal architecture has been designed on a modular basis and follows the general structure of the plant. The home page contains general, publicly accessible and frequently used information and corresponding links. Each major division maintains its own sub-portal, which services the specific needs of the division personnel. Hierarchical structure, pull down and shortcut menus facilitate navigation and provide a user friendly interface. The portal is based on FrameWork 1.1 and DotNetNuke and provides group and individual communications and data exchange. Most of the major plant databases related to documentation, plant operation, plant safety, plant systems data, training and human resources are accessible through the portal. Miscellaneous information and useful internal and external links also are available. Different types of communication services are organized through a separate server. Depending on their role and position, each staff member has been provided with an internal and/or external email address and an individually configured internet connection. For general purposes cable internet is accessible at several points, which are evenly located around the site, and there is also a secure wireless network connection. Search and retrieve functions are implemented through respective engines, which are incorporated into applications. The portal has a strongly defined access rights system. Anonymous access is prevented; page personalization is available only for limited specific cases. Figures show the home page and the path to Units 5 and 6 on-line technical parameters

  8. Fieldwork coastal engineering, Varna, Bulgaria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolters, H.J.; Melllink, B.; Van Velzen, G.; Verbruggen, W.; Van de Sande, S.; Simoons, E.; Krom, J.K.; El Hamdi, A.; Kalf, P.; Lin, C.H.; Willems, J.; Jelia, J.

    2011-01-01

    On the first day research is done at a beach north of Varna, which is called Sirius Beach. This research is presented in chapter 2. In the research the waterline and cross sections are compared with the previous years. The following is concluded: there is a strong seasonal variation which influenced

  9. Resources for Apitourism in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatka GRIGOROVA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The report includes an analysis of the situation, trends and prospects of the resource base for the development of apitourism as an unconventional attractive and specialized type of supporting farmers through agricultural practices. The report presents the resource base (traditions, state, production and marketing of honey. For the aim of the analysis data has been used  from the National Statistics Institute, Ministry of Agriculture, Food beekeepers' associations, processors and traders of honey and bee products, the Ministry of Tourism and tourism industry organizations. The main purpose of the study is to assist companies and individuals in the field of agribusiness and apitourism for the realization of bee products and services.

  10. Teaching of Geometry in Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bankov, Kiril

    2013-01-01

    Geometry plays an important role in the school mathematics curriculum all around the world. Teaching of geometry varies a lot (Hoyls, Foxman, & Kuchemann, 2001). Many countries revise the objectives, the content, and the approaches to the geometry in school. Studies of the processes show that there are not common trends of these changes…

  11. Late Cretaceous porphyry Cu and epithermal Cu-Au association in the Southern Panagyurishte District, Bulgaria: the paired Vlaykov Vruh and Elshitsa deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouzmanov, Kalin; Moritz, Robert; von Quadt, Albrecht; Chiaradia, Massimo; Peytcheva, Irena; Fontignie, Denis; Ramboz, Claire; Bogdanov, Kamen

    2009-08-01

    Vlaykov Vruh-Elshitsa represents the best example of paired porphyry Cu and epithermal Cu-Au deposits within the Late Cretaceous Apuseni-Banat-Timok-Srednogorie magmatic and metallogenic belt of Eastern Europe. The two deposits are part of the NW trending Panagyurishte magmato-tectonic corridor of central Bulgaria. The deposits were formed along the SW flank of the Elshitsa volcano-intrusive complex and are spatially associated with N110-120-trending hypabyssal and subvolcanic bodies of granodioritic composition. At Elshitsa, more than ten lenticular to columnar massive ore bodies are discordant with respect to the host rock and are structurally controlled. A particular feature of the mineralization is the overprinting of an early stage high-sulfidation mineral assemblage (pyrite ± enargite ± covellite ± goldfieldite) by an intermediate-sulfidation paragenesis with a characteristic Cu-Bi-Te-Pb-Zn signature forming the main economic parts of the ore bodies. The two stages of mineralization produced two compositionally different types of ores—massive pyrite and copper-pyrite bodies. Vlaykov Vruh shares features with typical porphyry Cu systems. Their common geological and structural setting, ore-forming processes, and paragenesis, as well as the observed alteration and geochemical lateral and vertical zonation, allow us to interpret the Elshitsa and Vlaykov Vruh deposits as the deep part of a high-sulfidation epithermal system and its spatially and genetically related porphyry Cu counterpart, respectively. The magmatic-hydrothermal system at Vlaykov Vruh-Elshitsa produced much smaller deposits than similar complexes in the northern part of the Panagyurishte district (Chelopech, Elatsite, Assarel). Magma chemistry and isotopic signature are some of the main differences between the northern and southern parts of the district. Major and trace element geochemistry of the Elshitsa magmatic complex are indicative for the medium- to high-K calc-alkaline character of

  12. Petrology, geochemistry and U-Pb geochronology of magmatic rocks from the high-sulfidation epithermal Au-Cu Chelopech deposit, Srednogorie zone, Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambefort, Isabelle; Moritz, Robert; von Quadt, Albrecht

    2007-10-01

    The Chelopech deposit is one of the largest European gold deposits and is located 60 km east of Sofia, within the northern part of the Panagyurishte mineral district. It lies within the Banat-Srednegorie metallogenic belt, which extends from Romania through Serbia to Bulgaria. The magmatic rocks define a typical calc-alkaline suite. The magmatic rocks surrounding the Chelopech deposit have been affected by propylitic, quartz-sericite, and advanced argillic alteration, but the igneous textures have been preserved. Alteration processes have resulted in leaching of Na2O, CaO, P2O5, and Sr and enrichment in K2O and Rb. Trace element variation diagrams are typical of subduction-related volcanism, with negative anomalies in high field strength elements (HFSE) and light element, lithophile elements. HFSE and rare earth elements were relatively immobile during the hydrothermal alteration related to ore formation. Based on immobile element classification diagrams, the magmatic rocks are andesitic to dacitic in compositions. Single zircon grains, from three different magmatic rocks spanning the time of the Chelopech magmatism, were dated by high-precision U-Pb geochronology. Zircons of an altered andesitic body, which has been thrust over the deposit, yield a concordant 206Pb/238U age of 92.21 ± 0.21 Ma. This age is interpreted as the crystallization age and the maximum age for magmatism at Chelopech. Zircon analyses of a dacitic dome-like body, which crops out to the north of the Chelopech deposit, give a mean 206Pb/238U age of 91.95 ± 0.28 Ma. Zircons of the andesitic hypabyssal body hosting the high-sulfidation mineralization and overprinted by hydrothermal alteration give a concordant 206Pb/238U age of 91.45 ± 0.15 Ma. This age is interpreted as the intrusion age of the andesite and as the maximum age of the Chelopech epithermal high-sulfidation deposit. 176Hf/177Hf isotope ratios of zircons from the Chelopech magmatic rocks, together with published data on the

  13. Application of low-temperature thermochronology to hydrothermal ore deposits: Formation, preservation and exhumation of epithermal gold systems from the Eastern Rhodopes, Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márton, István; Moritz, Robert; Spikings, Richard

    2010-03-01

    New low-temperature thermochronological data have been used to quantify the protracted, Eocene-Miocene cooling histories of upper and lower plate rocks of the Kesebir-Kardamos extensional dome, Eastern Rhodopes, Bulgaria. 40Ar/ 39Ar and apatite fission-track data reveal that the lower plate has experienced continuous cooling and exhumation, since the Late Eocene. Muscovite 40Ar/ 39Ar plateau ages of 36.90 ± 0.16 Ma and 37.28 ± 0.19 Ma (2 σ) from metamorphic rocks of the footwall reveal the approximate time span during which they cooled below ˜ 350 °C during exhumation caused by detachment faulting. The sedimentary rock-hosted gold mineralization, which represents a thermal event at ˜ 250-220 °C, developed during the early stage of basin formation between 34.71 ± 0.16 Ma and 35.36 ± 0.21 Ma (adularia 40Ar/ 39Ar plateau ages; 2 σ). The termination of hydrothermal mineral deposition at Ada Tepe occurred contemporaneously with the earliest phase of calc-alkaline type magmatism at Iran Tepe (33.97 ± 0.36 Ma to 34.62 ± 0.46 Ma, hornblende and biotite 40Ar/ 39Ar plateau ages, 2 σ). Thermal history modelling of apatite fission-track data shows that the lower plate rocks cooled through ˜ 120 °C at ˜ 18.3 ± 1.9 Ma (1 σ). A time-temperature model obtained from zircon and apatite fission-track data from the upper plate reveals that it was being buried during the late Eocene. At ˜ 33-30 Ma, a dramatic change of the time-temperature path was caused by the initiation of horst-graben structures, resulting in rapid exhumation of the upper plate. Our new thermochronological data reveal many aspects of the mechanisms of formation of sedimentary rock-hosted gold deposits. The heat accumulated during sedimentary burial of the upper plate is a plausible heat source to drive hydrothermal fluid circulation and ore formation. The development of large half-graben basins in the hanging walls of detachment faults, accompanied by a favourable climate, may have created a

  14. Adakitic magmatism in post-collisional setting: An example from the Early-Middle Eocene Magmatic Belt in Southern Bulgaria and Northern Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchev, Peter; Georgiev, Stoyan; Raicheva, Raya; Peytcheva, Irena; von Quadt, Albrecht; Ovtcharova, Maria; Bonev, Nikolay

    2013-11-01

    Post-collisional (56.0-40.4 Ma) adakitic magmatism in the Rhodope Massif and the Kraishte region, including W. Srednogorie, in South Bulgaria followed the collision of the Rhodope and Pelagonian Massifs. It forms a 250 km NW trending belt which continues into the 1000 km long belt of Eocene magmatism in northern Turkey and Iran. The rocks are represented by felsic subvolcanic dykes and sills in the Kraishte and plutons in the Rhodopes. Here, we synthesize new chemical (whole-rock major and trace elements, and Sr and Nd isotopes) and LA-ICP/MS mineral and U-Pb zircon age data along with published similar data in order to constrain the genesis of this magmatism and the early Cenozoic geodynamic evolution of the central Balkan Peninsula. The rocks display typical subduction-related characteristics with enrichment in LILE and LREE and depletion in HFSE (Nb, Ta and Ti). In the Kraishte and western Srednogorie Zones these are calc-alkaline to high-K calc-alkaline rhyolites, displaying a typical adakitic signature, i.e. high La/Yb and Sr/Y ratios. The studied Rhodope Massif rocks are predominantly high-K calc-alkaline and subordinate calc-alkaline granites and granodiorites with a minor amount of tonalites. Petrographically, they are H2O- and accessory-rich (allanite, epidote, titanite, apatite) rocks, showing geochemical affinities from non-adakitic tonalites and mafic granodiorites to adakitic granodiorites and granites. Similarity of Sr and Nd isotopic compositions of the Kraishte subvolcanic and Rhodope intrusive adakitic rocks with the neighboring and coeval NW Anatolian basaltic to dacitic volcanics and plutons suggests that the most likely source for the South Bulgarian adakitic rocks is the subduction-enriched depleted lithospheric mantle. The nearby and contemporaneous East Serbian alkaline basalts are isotopically and compositionally different and, probably, originate from an OIB-like mantle source. Subsequent fractionation within an isotopically similar lower

  15. Late Cretaceous structural control and Alpine overprint of the high-sulfidation Cu-Au epithermal Chelopech deposit, Srednogorie belt, Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambefort, Isabelle; Moritz, Robert

    2006-06-01

    The Chelopech epithermal high-sulfidation deposit is located in the Panagyurishte ore district in Bulgaria, which is defined by a NNW alignment of Upper Cretaceous porphyry-Cu and Cu-Au epithermal deposits, and forms part of the Eastern European Banat-Srednogorie belt. Detailed structural mapping and drillcore descriptions have been used to define the structural evolution of the Chelopech deposit from the Late Cretaceous to the present. The Chelopech deposit is characterized by three fault populations including ˜N55, ˜N110, and ˜N155-trending faults, which are also recognized in the entire Panagyurishte district. Mapping and 3-D modeling show that hydrothermal alteration and orebody geometry at Chelopech are controlled by the ˜N55-trending and ˜N110-trending faults. Moreover, the ˜N155-trending faults are parallel to the regional ore deposit alignment of the Panagyurishte ore district. It is concluded that the three fault populations are early features and Late Cretaceous in age, and that they were active during high-sulfidation ore formation at Chelopech. However, the relative fault chronology cannot be deduced anymore due to Late Cretaceous and Tertiary tectonic overprint. Structurally controlled ore formation was followed by Senonian sandstone, limestone, and flysch deposition. The entire Late Cretaceous magmatic and sedimentary rock succession underwent folding, which produced WNW-oriented folds throughout the Panagyurishte district. A subsequent tectonic stage resulted in overthrusting of older rock units along ˜NE-trending reverse faults on the Upper Cretaceous magmatic and sedimentary host rocks of the high-sulfidation epithermal deposit at Chelopech. The three fault populations contemporaneous with ore formation, i.e., the ˜N55-, ˜N110- and ˜N155-trending faults, were reactivated as thrusts or reverse faults, dextral strike-slip faults, and transfer faults, respectively, during this event. Previous studies indicate that the present-day setting is

  16. Occurrence of persistent pollutants in soils, waters and firns of the Pirin mountains of Bulgaria; Persistente organische Schadstoffe in Boeden, Gewaessern und in Firn der Region noerdliche Piringebirge (Bulgarien)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grunewald, K. [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). Inst. fuer Geographie; Schmidt, W. [DVGW - Technologiezentrum Wasser, Karlsruhe, TZW Aussenstelle Dresden (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    Systematic environmental screenings are still the exception in South-Eastern Europe. Especially, there is a decisive lack of information concerning the occurrence and behaviour of xenobiotic and toxic compounds like volatile- and non volatile halogenated organics, suppressed by the surrogate AOX, synthetic chelating agents, pesticides, like DDT as well as chlorate in the biosphere. The analysis of soils, waters, and firns of a representative area in Bulgaria, the Pirin mountains, indicate a relatively low back ground pollution. The accumulation of the xenobiotics in this high mountain region is recognised to be low. Nevertheless, traces of pesticides and chelating agents like EDTA and NTA in ice (firns) and soils were found. The surrogate AOX should be a parameter, suitable for routine environmental screenings of such areas. (orig.) [German] Systematische Umweltuntersuchungen stellen in Suedosteuropa noch eine Ausnahme dar. Dies betrifft insbesondere die Analyse organischer Schadstoffe, die innerhalb der Biosphaere zu toxischen Wirkungen fuehren koennen. In einer repraesentativen Region in Suedwest-Bulgarien wurden Boden-, Firn- und Wasserproben auf AOX, CKW, Chlorat, synthetische Komplexbildner, Insektizide und Herbizide untersucht. Die Hintergrundbelastung der analysierten Stoffe in Boeden und Waessern ist relativ niedrig. Eine vermutete Akkumulation persistenter organischer Chemikalien im Hochgebirge Pirin wurde nur teilweise bestaetigt. Nachgewiesen wurden Insektizidrueckstaende und die synthetischen Komplexbildner EDTA und NTA in Firnproben sowie AOX in Substratmaterial. AOX bietet sich als Parameter zur Umweltueberwachung in der Region an. Die Analyse weiterer POPs steht noch an. (orig.)

  17. Bilateral comparison of 10 pF capacitance standards (ongoing BIPM key comparison BIPM.EM-K14.a) between the BIM, Bulgaria, and the BIPM, April 2012 to September 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapunova, I.; Fletcher, N.; Goebel, R.; Stock, M.

    2015-01-01

    This report gives the result of a bilateral comparison of capacitance between the BIM (Bulgaria) and the BIPM carried out in 2012. Two 10 pF travelling standards belonging to the BIPM were used. The comparison was carried out with an 'A-B-A' pattern of measurements; the standards were measured first at the BIPM for a period of about one month, then for a similar period at the BIM, and finally again at the BIPM. The measurand was the two terminal-pair capacitance at a frequency of 1000 Hz and for a measuring voltage of 15 V. The BIPM was the pilot laboratory, and the comparison forms part of the ongoing BIPM key comparison BIPM.EM-K14.a. The results from the BIM and the BIPM were found to be in good agreement, with a difference smaller than the relative expanded uncertainty (95% confidence, k = 2) of 1.1 × 10-6. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCEM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  18. Bilateral comparison of 100 pF capacitance standards (ongoing BIPM key comparison BIPM.EM-K14.b) between the BIM, Bulgaria, and the BIPM, April 2012 to September 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapunova, I.; Fletcher, N.; Goebel, R.; Stock, M.

    2015-01-01

    This report gives the result of a bilateral comparison of capacitance between the BIM (Bulgaria) and the BIPM carried out in 2012. Two 100 pF travelling standards belonging to the BIPM were used. The comparison was carried out with an 'A-B-A' pattern of measurements; the standards were measured first at the BIPM for a period of about one month, then for a similar period at the BIM, and finally again at the BIPM. The measurand was the two terminal-pair capacitance at a frequency of 1000 Hz and for a measuring voltage of 15 V. The BIPM was the pilot laboratory, and the comparison forms part of the ongoing BIPM key comparison BIPM.EM-K14.a. The results from the BIM and the BIPM were found to be in good agreement, with a difference smaller than the relative expanded uncertainty (95% confidence, k = 2) of 1.1 × 10-6. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCEM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  19. Republic of Bulgaria Third National Report (2010-2013) on Implementation of the Code of Conduct on the Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources and the Guidance on the Import and Export of Radioactive Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The system for regulatory control and the national infrastructure for safety and security of radioactive sources are established in compliance with the provisions and principles laid down in the Code of Conduct on the Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources and Council Directive 2003/122/Euratom. The Republic of Bulgaria trough the NRA fulfils its obligations under the IAEA Code of Conduct and Council Directive 2003/122/Euratom. Fruitful cooperation is in place in the field of safety and security of radioactive sources, radiation protection, emergency planning and prevention of illegal traffic. With the aid of the European Union, IAEA and the USA, a number of improvements have been achieved regarding management and physical protection of high-activity sources and prevention of incidents with orphan sources and illegal traffic. The strategy for enhancement the effectiveness of the regulatory control and for improvement the safe management of radioactive sources is based on IAEA recommendations and EU legislation in this field. There are measures planned to overcome of some problems and to upgrade the national infrastructure for safety and security of the radioactive sources

  20. Regulatory factors in crustacean zooplankton assemblages in mountain lakes of northern Chilean Patagonia (38-41°S): a comparison with Bulgarian counterparts (42°N) Factores reguladores en ensambles de crustáceos zooplanctónicos en lagos de montaña del norte de la Patagonia chilena (38-41°S): una comparación con sus contrapartes de Bulgaria (42°N)

    OpenAIRE

    Patricio De los Ríos-Escalante; Enrique Hauenstein; Patricio Acevedo; Mario Romero-Miéres; Ivan Pandourski

    2012-01-01

    Chilean Patagonia has protected mountainous areas with evergreen native forests; in which the lakes and rivers, of volcanic or glacial origin, are oligotrophic. In Bulgaria, there are mountainous zones with native forests and associated lakes of volcanic origin. The aim of the present study is to carry out a preliminary comparison of zooplanktonic crustaceans in lake ecosystems associated with native forests of Chilean Patagonia and of Bulgarian mountains. The study revealed that the lakes st...

  1. Is the pharmaceutical market in Bulgaria innovative?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoimenova, A; Stankova, M; Samev, K; Petrova, G

    2003-09-01

    After the turn to market oriented economy a lot of drugs were authorized for sale in the East European countries. Because of the limited resources of these countries, mainly generic or brand generic products were licensed. The number of the patented drugs on the market could be used as measure of the market attractiveness to the R&D producers. The study shows the analysis of the innovativeness of the Bulgarian drug market comparing the registration and the patient activity of the producers. The number of the authorized products for five years period (1990-2000) and share of the patented products were investigated. During the observed period the number of newly authorized pharmaceuticals increased almost seven times from 800 (650 INN) to 6000 (2000 INN) dosage forms. The prevailing part of the newly registered drugs was found to be brand generics and possess only trade name protection. The share of drugs that are patented is less than five percent of all newly registered medicines, and among the fifty most commonly prescribed and sold medicines between 1996-2000, only 0.5 percent of drugs were patented. Obviously the Bulgarian pharmaceutical market is very competitive but not that attractive for most of the R&D producers. In general the registration of the patent protected products is increasing during the years and especially after harmonization of the related legislation with the EU requirements. The patent activity of the pharmaceutical companies regarding newly authorized drugs is influenced by the structure of morbidity and population. During the last two years the patent activity is increasing and is oriented mainly towards the protection of newly authorized drugs or pharmaceutical forms and obligatory registration of trademarks for the privatized Bulgarian pharmaceutical manufacturers. PMID:14677267

  2. Scientific support of nuclear energy in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taking into consideration the scientific and technical potential of the Institute and actual for this country problems, yet 3-4 years ago the priority tasks with application character were clearly defined: Safety of nuclear energy; The problems of radioactive waste; Ecology: control and monitoring of environment; Information maintenance. Specialists of the INRNE have been studying various problems and tasks intended to the scientific support of nuclear energy, which are of crucial national significance with respect to ensuring a high level of safety, an optimization of processes and effectiveness of operation of the Kozloduy NPP. These are programmes, accomplished in narrow collaboration with domestic, foreign and International institutions. In this relation, the more substantial examples of programmes and tasks, carried out by the INRNE are pointed out

  3. Building energy partnership between Bulgaria and Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The project of Energie Verwertungsagentur (EVA) studies the possibilities for partnership between the two countries with respect of background conditions. Energy Efficiency Funds in some Central and East European countries (CEEC) in the framework of the PHARE programme and in co-operation with the EBDR aimed at increasing the market penetration of Combined District Heating and Power (CHP) technologies are being formed. The proposed project includes establishment of a Competence Centre for CHP technologies promotion. The Programme for the promotion of energy efficiency investments foresees co-financing the existing energy-efficiency funds and promotion and support of so called Energy Service Companies (ESCOs) which invest into energy efficiency measures on their own and get re-financing from the cuts in the energy bills. Several surveys show the considerable potential for the use of renewable energy sources (RES) in some CEEC. Proposed projects, as well as creation of Promotion Centres for RES and its future tasks are discussed

  4. Geothermal resource and utilization in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulgarian territory is rich in thermal water of temperature in the range of 20 - 100oC. The highest water temperature (98oC) is measured in Sapareva banya geothermal reservoir. Electricity generation from geothermal water is not currently available in the country. The major direct thermal water use nowadays covers: balneology, space heating and air-conditioning, domestic hot water supply, greenhouses, swimming pools, bottling of potable water and geothermal ground source heat pumps (GSHP). The total installed capacity amounts to about 77.67 MW (excl. GSHP) and the produced energy is 1083.89 TJ/year. Two applications - balneology and geothermal ground source heat pumps show more stable development during the period of 2005 - 2010. The update information on the state-owned hydrothermal fields is based on issued permits and concessions by the state.

  5. Eurobachelor in Chemistry - Bulgaria's Odds? [In Bulgarian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.V. Toshev

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The Bachelor education in chemistry is presented in the Universities of Sofia, Plovdiv, Shumen and Blagoevgrad. The chemistry education in the University of Sofia has a long tradition. The paper examines the rules and criteria for obtaining the Eurobachelor label, developed by the European Chemistry Thematic Network (ECTN. The comparative analysis of the existing program with these European criteria shows that the eventual application of the University of Sofia for that label seems to be untimely at the present moment.

  6. New Strategies to Improve the Accuracy of Predictions based on Monte Carlo and Bootstrap Simulations: An Application to Bulgarian and Romanian Inflation || Nuevas estrategias para mejorar la exactitud de las predicciones de inflación en Rumanía y Bulgaria usando simulaciones Monte Carlo y Bootstrap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simionescu, Mihaela

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The necessity of improving the forecasts accuracy grew in the context of actual economic crisis, but few researchers were interested till now in finding out some empirical strategies to improve their predictions. In this article, for the inflation rate forecasts on the horizon 2010-2012, we proved that the one-step-ahead forecasts based on updated AR(2 models for Romania and ARMA(1,1 models for Bulgaria could be substantially improved by generating new predictions using Monte Carlo method and bootstrap technique to simulate the models' coefficients. In this article we introduced a new methodology of constructing the forecasts, by using the limits of the bias-corrected-accelerated bootstrap intervals for the initial data series of the variable to predict. After evaluating the accuracy of the new forecasts, we found out that all the proposed strategies improved the initial AR(2 and ARMA(1,1 forecasts. These techniques also improved the predictions of experts in forecasting made for Romania and the forecasts of the European Commission made for Bulgaria. Our own method based on the lower limits of BCA intervals generated the best forecasts. In the forecasting process based on ARMA models the uncertainty analysis was introduced, by calculating, under the hypothesis of normal distribution, the probability that the predicted value exceeds a critical value. For 2013 in both countries we anticipate a decrease in the degree of uncertainty for annual inflation rate. || La necesidad de mejorar la precisión de las previsiones ha crecido en el contexto de crisis económica actual, pero son pocos los investigadores que se habían interesado hasta ahora por la búsqueda de estrategias empíricas para mejorar sus predicciones. En este artículo, a través de las previsiones de la tasa de inflación en el horizonte 2010-2012, hemos podido comprobar que las previsiones de un solo paso adelante sobre la base de modelos actualizados AR(2 para Rumanía y ARMA(1

  7. Forward to the Past ? Agricultural Restructuring in Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Meurs, Mieke; Bogushev, Angel

    2010-01-01

    Prior to World War II, the majority of Bulgarian farms were very small, fragmented, and produced predominantly for their own consumption. By 1989, however, Bulgarian agriculture was organized in large-scale, mechanized farms, producing for national and international consumption. Many observers expected further radical changes after 1989, with wide-spread distribution of property rights in land, and market liberalization, leading to the emergence of western-style family farms.In this paper, we...

  8. ANIMAL WELFARE AND ECONOMIC EFFECTIVENESS IN BULGARIA AND EU FARMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TSVETANA HARIZANOVA

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study the relationship between economic effectiveness and animal welfare standards is investigated in the case of the pig and cattle breeding. The issue is of importance in order to assess economic viability of livestock breeding while applying animal friendly practices. This paper considers animal welfare standards in national regulations in pig breeding and cattle breeding, production under animal welfare and economic effectiveness in the specified sectors. It is pointed out the conditions which the legislation lays down to ensure better animal welfare. The discussion continues with detailed examination of the applying these standards in the production process. At the end of the paper are presented main conclusions concerning economic efficiency under animal welfare standards. The aim of the paper is to analyse the interactions between the economic effectiveness of livestock production and animal welfare in the pig breeding and cattle breeding.

  9. Environmental Concerns and the New Environmental Paradigm in Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostrom, Ann; Barke, Richard; Turaga, Rama Mohana R.; O'Connor, Robert E.

    2006-01-01

    Little is known about environmental concerns and attitudes among people in former Soviet bloc countries in Eastern Europe despite widespread perceptions of severe environmental problems. The authors addressed this gap by examining Bulgarians' environmental concerns with a focus on whether the new environmental paradigm (NEP) scale can reliably…

  10. TOWARDS MODERNIZATION OF THE CORPORATE GOVERNANCE IN BULGARIA

    OpenAIRE

    Spartak Keremidchiev

    2005-01-01

    The paper aims at outlining the existing gaps in Bulgarian corporate governance compared to the standards and the state of corporate governance in developed market economies. The current state of corporate governance, the degree of ownership concentration as well as the strengths and weaknesses of corporate governance are examined for the fulfillment of this goal. On the other hand the current trends in development of corporate governance model in leading market economies are discussed. A con...

  11. HOW DOES CORRUPTION AFFECTS HEALTHCARE SECTOR IN BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan Deliversky

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Corruption in the healthcare sector is a reflection of the structural challenges in the health care system. The problem of corruption in healthcare is of a multidimensional nature. The Bulgarian health care system is based on a regulated regime. On one hand there is the functioning of a state-owned and state-controlled health fund financed through obligatory contributions by all income earners, and on the other, a union of health providers that negotiate a national framework health contract with the fund. Causes of corruption are classified as different factors such as structural factors and government policies factors. The health sector is susceptible to corruption for various reasons, mostly related to its organization. The health sector is a complex sector. In order to be effective, reforms to combat corruption must be informed by theory, guided by evidence and adapted to context. It is necessary to review and develop diagnostic and treatment algorithms as standards of good medical practice, which would help to assess the package of medical and non-medical activities.

  12. Evaluation of hotel service-performance process in Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Georgina Lukanova

    2010-01-01

    The paper analyses the hotel service-performance process in Bulgarian hotels, which is based on the results of the research about tourists’ opinion on basic moments in service process. One of the most important characteristics of hotel industry is the leading role of the human factor in service-performance process. It cannot be accomplished without the participation of the customer and without the participation of the staff. This makes the evaluation of service process strongly subjective. Be...

  13. Heavy Metal Pollution in the Boatin Reserve (Bulgaria)

    OpenAIRE

    ANGELOV, Georgi Borisov

    2008-01-01

    Background concentrations of the heavy metals Mn, Ni, Cd, Co, Zn, Cu, and Pb in the soils and plant monitors of the Boatin Reserve were determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). Surface soil layers of the Boatin Reserve were polluted with Cu, as its concentration exceeded both the national legal standards and the content of Cu in non-polluted areas. Analysis of heavy metals accumulation in all studied plant monitors indicated that the content of Cu, Pb, ...

  14. The tax base in transition : the case of Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Bogetic, Zeljko; Hillman, Arye L.

    1994-01-01

    The transition from socialism characteristically reduces existing tax revenues at the same time that it increases the need for government spending. An increasing need for revenue combined with an eroding tax base creates a transition-related fiscal gap and a challenge for tax policy. The solution, say the authors, is not to lay a heavier tax burden on new private firms. The issue is how to meet revenue needs without inhibiting private sector development. Large-scale tax evasion in the private...

  15. Education Reform in Bulgaria: A Study in Failure?

    OpenAIRE

    Dainov, E.

    2007-01-01

    Transition to democracy requires restructuring the institutions, beliefs and practices of a society. Failed education reform ensures that transitions remain fragile, thus creating political risks, while the market place suffers from a mismatch of skills sought and skills offered, thus undermining economic stability. Reforms fail under indecisive governments, lacking in public support, incapable of overcoming entrenched interests. Institutionally, the Bulgarian education establishment continua...

  16. Assessing the Quality of Education in Bulgaria using PISA 2009

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2010-01-01

    This report reflects and analyzes the recently released survey results from the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) conducted in 2009 by the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). The report examines the change in scores from 2006 to 2009 and looks at how much of the change can be attributed to improvements in the quality of the education system, how...

  17. Upgrading of the INT-2000 reactor in sofia (Bulgaria)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper the design features and experimental capabilities of the IRT-5000 pool-type research reactor (upgrading of the IRT-2000 reactor in Sofia) are reviewed; in this reactor, IRT-2M-type fuel assemblies containing 36% enriched uranium are used instead of cassettes with EhK-10 fuel elements. The main characteristics of the IRT-2M fuel assemblies are given, as are the technical and physical characteristics of the IRT-5000 reactor. Use of the IRT-2M-type fuel assemblies in the IRT-5000 will make possible operation of the reactor with a core volume of 60-83 litres at 7.5 MW, and will raise the maximum thermal neutron flux density to 1.5 X 1018 m-2 · s-1. The design features employed will significantly improve the operational safety of the reactor

  18. EVALUATION OF HOTEL SERVICE-PERFORMANCE PROCESS IN BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgina Lukanova

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the hotel service-performance process in Bulgarian hotels, which is based on the results of the research about tourists’ opinion on basic moments in service process. One of the most important characteristics of hotel industry is the leading role of the human factor in service-performance process. It cannot be accomplished without the participation of the customer and without the participation of the staff.This makes the evaluation of service process strongly subjective. Because of this, customer needs satisfaction is a big challenge for the hotel management. Under the present conditions of an increased competition, satisfying customers means offering service-performance process, which not only meets, but also exceeds guests’expectations. This can be achieved by a preliminary study of their requirements and expectations.

  19. Effects of propolis from Brazil and Bulgaria on Salmonella serovars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. O. Orsi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Propolis shows biological properties such as antibacterial action. This bee product has a complex chemical composition, which depends on the local flora where it is produced. Salmonella serovars are responsible for human diseases that range from localized gastroenteritis to systemic infections. The aim of the present study was to investigate the susceptibility of Salmonella strains, isolated from food and infectious processes, to the antibacterial action of Brazilian and Bulgarian propolis, as well as to determine the behavior of these bacteria, according to the incubation period, in medium plus propolis. Dilution of ethanolic extract of propolis in agar was the used method. Brazilian and Bulgarian propolis showed an antibacterial action against all Salmonella serovars. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC of propolis were similar, although they were collected in different geographic regions. Salmonella typhimurium, isolated from human infection, was more resistant to propolis than Salmonella enteritidis.

  20. Isolation of pathogenic yersiniae from wild animals in Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolova, S; Tzvetkov, Y; Najdenski, H; Vesselinova, A

    2001-04-01

    Pathogenic Yersinia strains were isolated between December 1998 and April 1999 from 37 wild animals: rabbit (Lepus europeus), boar (Sus scrofa scrofa), asiatic jackal (Canis aureus), red fox (Vulpes vulpes), mouflon (Ovis musimon), european river otter (Lutra lutra), beech marten (Martes foina), polecat (Musleta putorius) and wild cat (Felis silvestris). It was established that among the wild animals Y. enterocolitica strains of serotype 0:3 predominated, accompanied by Y. pseudotuberculosis strains of serotype 0:3. In one sample from asiatic jackal and one sample from rabbit, Y. enterocolitica serotype 0:8 was isolated. Yersinia enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis strains were isolated from tonsils and tongues as well as from the viscera--lung, liver, heart, spleen, kidney and lymph nodes, mainly in young animals (1-2 years of age). The results showed that wild animals are a possible natural reservoir for pathogenic Y. enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis and are included in the epidemiological chain of yersinioses. PMID:11393816

  1. Atmospheric pollution assessment with mosses in Western Rhodopes, Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gana Gecheva

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The moss analysis technique was applied to monitor 10 heavy metals and toxic elements deposition. Our study was the first attempt to assess spatial patterns in a border mountain region (area 8732 km2 with a low population density and high proportion of protected territories. The obtained results did not correlate to the results from areas with low air pollution and could be linked to the impact of old and open mines.

  2. Human activity and landscape change at Adjiyska Vodenitsa, central Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiverrell, R. C.; Archibald, Z.

    2009-04-01

    The Classical and early Hellenistic settlement located at Adjiyska Vodenitsa, near Vetren, in the centre of ancient Thrace, is somewhat unusual in displaying well-preserved evidence for the commercial and cultural interactions associated with a river port. The settlement evolved through a series of phases, with traces of activity emerging around the beginning of the fifth, advancing to a progressive close in the second century BCE. The settlement at Adjiyska Vodenitsa owed its raison d'être to river traffic, with the river as the primary means for importing commodities (non-local amphorae and roof tiles). The Pistiros inscription indicates that overland traffic was also important, presumably over the Rhodopes Mountains to the south. The relationship between the site and the Maritsa River is thus important. Located towards the head of the Maritsa basin downstream of the Momina Klissoura gorge near Belovo, the settlement is perched on a steeply-edged toe of the Vetren tributary alluvial fan, with the bluff trimmed by the migrating River Maritsa. The site is c.12-14 metres above the current bed of the River Maritsa, high and dry away from contemporary flooding, intriguing given evidence for flooding during occupation. The fluvial system has clearly been dynamic and changed much during the last 3000 years. Changes in the Maritsa have been constrained with radiocarbon ages obtained for two fan terrace levels. Active channel and overbank environments of the higher B1 terrace are dated to c. 520-400 cal. BC and provide a terminus post quem for the incision to the lower terrace (B2). The radiocarbon dating of basal contexts from the lower terrace palaeo-channels provides a terminus ante quem for abandonment of the higher terrace of cal. AD 1010-1150. Thus basal lowering and a shift to greater lateral channel activity appear to coincide with the abandonment of Adjiyska Vodenitsa. Upstream of the Momina Klissoura Gorge evidence for heightened geomorphic activity probably reflects processes during the late Holocene, with the low level hill slopes flanking the river littered with small agricultural communities. It is easy to envisage the landscape as one made susceptible to erosion by human activity feeding materials through the Momina Klissoura Gorge to the Belovo fan near the settlement at Adjiyska Vodenitsa. Sharp increases in non-arboreal pollen during the period 2880-1620 BP, associated with Greek and Roman times, in the Rila Mountains, have been attributed to seasonal animal husbandry in the higher mountains, with associated permanent settlement in the surrounding lowlands.

  3. POLICY INTERVENTION EFFECTS ON LANDSCAPE MANAGEMENT IN BULGARIA

    OpenAIRE

    Nikolov, Dimitre; Radev, Teodor; Borisov, Petar

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to make an evaluation of CAP contribution to landscape management in Bulgarian economy of rural areas. To sum up, landscape is a non-commodity output produced as direct or indirect outcome of the activities operating in a particular area and it is valued by society for its functions (use and non use values, ecological, recreational, cultural etc). Due to this complex nature, it produces second-order effects that are captured by the stakeholders in rural areas (farmers or other...

  4. Assessment and Upgrading of the Novi Han Monitoring System (Bulgaria)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The tasks of this project can be summarised as follow. The site assessment has produced the following outputs: the Novi Han team has practiced the sampling of soils, sediments and vegetation, the on-site and laboratory analysis have not shown any significant release from the vaults with the exception for 3H that has been detected in significant concentration in water samples collected from boreholes. The critical analysis of the current monitoring program and the laboratory equipment have revealed some weak points. Remedial measures have been proposed where and when required. An evolutional monitoring program has been defined in accordance with the EC recommendations and the budget required to its implementation has been estimated. A 2 weeks training has been organized in Belgium for 2 peoples from Novi Han repository; the training was focused on methods required by the monitoring program. Four QA analytical procedures have been written by the trainees and have been verified by the IRE. The skeleton of a radiological database has been drafted; its realization is far beyond the scope of the current project and is strongly linked to the QA system anyway. The priority equipments needed for the implementation of the monitoring program have been defined in agreement with the Novi Han staff. Priority equipment have been purchased in the limits of budget. (author)

  5. Türkiye ve Bulgaristan’da İlkokuma Yazma Sürecinde Öğrencilerin Ürettikleri Yazıların Okunaklılık Bakımından İncelenmesi Investigation of Manuscript Legibility Produced by students in the Process of Early Writing-Reading in Turkey and Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İbrahim COŞKUN

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The successful transfer of thoughts and emotions that speaking and writing skills, know-how requires a number of skills and knowledge. This accumulation of knowledge and skills in the elementary foundations are being laid. One of the expressive language skills writing is from skills of the individual, academic, cultural and social life most used. Children in the process of development, but the receptive language and expressive language skills, listening skills, preschool speech, expressive language, receptive language skills of reading and writing skills in the elementary school are gaining. Starting first grade literacy teaching process consists of encoding and decoding activities. Does not change from person to person are universal criteria for readability. No matter which language you made a post about writing as long as it complies with the criteria "legible" provision given. From this point in the process of teaching reading and writing of this study, Turkish and Bulgarian primary criteria was to investigate the legibility of texts produced by first grade children. This study was designed according to the technique of qualitative case study research model data 2012-2013 academic year in Edirne, Turkey, the first year of primary school going 15 (9 male, 6 female in the 2012-2013 academic year the student data and Bulgaria capital Sofia the first year of the ongoing 15 (8 female and 7 male were collected from samples of student writing. Samples taken from both countries, letters, syllables, words, sentences, and attention is paid to the stages of the text. Criteria for determining the legibility of domestic and foreign literature were reviewed and according to the criteria determined by the researcher “enough", "developed" and "inadequate," he rated. The data were analyzed by the researcher and with five experts in the field. Legibility of the data by the researcher analyzed separately according to the criteria of whether the raters

  6. Foundation works for construction of Danube Bridge II Vidin (Bulgaria)-Calafat (Romania); Puente internacional sobre el rio Danubio entre las localidades de Vidin (Bulgaria) y Calafat (Rumania)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez Martin, J.

    2011-07-01

    The Foundations works of the bridge over the the Danube River II has involved a new technical challenge due to the cathartics of depth and diameter of the piles, and the logistical and human, due to the hard environmental conditions for the execution. This work, awarded to FCC. Construction company in its two contracts. Access to the bridge and Main Bridge has required on the differenced sites, the use of a wide range of foundation systems, since driven precast piles to in in situ pile with permanent casing, installed by vibrating systems and excavated with benoto grabs systems. The enormous responsibility of this phase is evident in the intense camping of characterization tests with static load tests, dynamic and Osterberg cells, as well as control the campaign with Cross-hole tests in 100% of the piles in situ executed, that has allowed no only ensure the highest level of quality on the foundation elements, but also to take the most of the mechanical characteristics of soils provided. The complexity of the execution of more than 24,000 ml pile executed along the more than 2 years duration of the work reach the maximum expression in the more than 6,900 ml of in situ pile made from marine resources, with a maximum depths up to 80 m with 2 m diameter pile. The article intends to give an overview of the site and the execution, associating the different foundation methods used, and the problems that were detected. (Author)

  7. Osnovi polojenia na reformata v obrasovatelnata sistema na Narodna republika Bulgaria (Basic Provisions of the Reform of the Public Education System in the People's Republic of Bulgaria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulgarian Communist Party, Sofia.

    This document is an English language abstract (approximately 1,500 words) of the reform provisions of the Bulgarian education system as formulated by the Bulgarian Communist Party in 1969. These reforms include the following items: access to compulsory secondary education for all; enrollment of all six-year olds; teachers to be specialized from…

  8. El sistema fonologico del dialecto judeo-espanol de Bulgaria (The Phonological System of the Judeo-Spanish Dialect of Bulgaria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanchev, Ivan V.

    1974-01-01

    The phonetics and phonological system of the Bulgarian Judeo-Spanish dialect is discussed, showing its similarities to and borrowings from modern Spanish and Bulgarian. Treatment of phonemes is analyzed in detail. (Text is in Spanish.) (CK)

  9. PREFACE: Conference Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    ORGANISING COMMITTEE: Alexander Petrov - Chairman, Kiril Blagoev - Vice-Chairman, Margarita Grozeva - Scientific secretary, Kostadinka Gesheva, Anna Szekeres, Hassan Chamati, Diana Nesheva, Peter Rafailov, Yordan Marinov, Emilia Dimova, Tatyana Ivanova, Radostina Kamburova, Ekaterina Iordanova, Julia Genova, Alexander Donkov, Emilia Vlaikova SCIENTIFIC COMMITTEE: Alexander Petrov, Bulgaria; Nikola Sabotinov, Bulgaria; Kiril Blagoev, Bulgaria; Nicholay Tonchev, Bulgaria; Hassan Chamati, Bulgaria; Marin Gospodinov, Bulgaria; Peter Rafailov, Bulgaria; Emil Vlakhov, Bulgaria; Kostadinka Gesheva, Bulgaria; Anna Szekeres, Bulgaria; Diana Nesheva, Bulgaria; Albena Paskaleva, Bulgaria; Tatyana Ivanova, Bulgaria; Alexander Dreischuh, Bulgaria; Evgenia Valcheva, Bulgaria; Miglena Nikolaeva-Dimitrova, Bulgaria; Sanka Gateva, Bulgaria; Frank Hamelmann, Germany; Nicola Scaramuzza, Italy; G.M.W. Kroesen, Netherlands; Jan van Dijk Netherlands; Andrzej Szewczyk, Poland; Henryk Szymczak, Poland; Krzistof Rogacki, Poland; Ion Mihailescu, Romania; Claes-Goran Granqvist, Sweden; Mikael Jonsson, Sweden; Andrew Livingston, UK; Ludmila Peeva, UK

  10. Workshop on PSA applications, Sofia, Bulgaria, 7-11 October 1996. Lecturing materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this workshop was to present detailed, systematic and useful information about PSA-based tools and PSA applications. The first presentation of the workshop was titled ''The role of PSA in safety management''. This topic served to introduce the workshop and to highlight several concepts that were afterwards stressed during the week, i.e. the defence in depth principle and the use of deterministic and probabilistic approaches in a complementary way. This presentation provided a basis for the discussion of ''PSA applications''. As a complement to the theoretical lectures, there was a workshop during which three different exercises were run in parallel. For two of these, computer-based PSA tools were used. One of them was focused towards the analysis of design modifications and the other one towards demonstrating configuration control strategies. The objective of the third practice was to obtain Allowed Outage Times using different PSA-based approaches and to discuss the differences observed and the insights obtained. To conclude the workshop, stress was put on the importance of the quality of the PSA (the development of a high quality Living PSA should be the first step), the necessity to be cautious (before taking decisions both the qualitative and numerical results should be carefully analyzed), and the logical order for the implementation of PSA applications. Refs, figs, tabs

  11. New Information on the Malacofauna of the Catchment Area of Rusenski Lom River (North Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iltcho Kolev

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available After this short note adding 8 species to the faunal list of the area, a total of 130 mollusk species are known from the catchment area of Rusenski Lom River both aquatic and terrestrial.

  12. Optimum potentialities of natural gas use in Bulgaria's public and household sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report describes the joint study of the Bulgarian companies ENERGOPROEKT and NITI ENERGETIKA aiming at setting up a National Program for Development of Gas Supply System in the Public and Household Sector. The difficulties facing heat supply impose an alternative option of district heating and electricity supply - the direct natural gas supply to appropriate townships and residential districts. The effects from its use are: decrease in electric power system's peak load; reduced investments by 3.5-4 times compared to those for building new capabilities; introduction of individual regulators and gas meters for energy consumption. The gas-supplied homes will pay about 50% less than homes with district heating which is due both to the potential for individual regulation and the higher effectiveness of the system. Some organizational problems connected with regulatory documentation, price and tariff policy, competition and coordination of the licensing activities, investments and marketing are discussed

  13. Diet of the Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos (Aves: Accipitridae in Sarnena Sredna Gora Mountains (Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilian G. Georgiev

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The material of pellets and food remains (as bone and shell fragments, hair, and feathers was collected after the breeding season from below and within one nest of Golden Eagles on rocks at Sarnena Sredna Gora Mts., north-east of Stara Zagora town. Our study was carried out during a three year period (1999, 2000 and 2002. Total 65 specimens from minimum 10 species of preys were identified among the food remains from which the reptiles dominated. Mostly preyed by the Golden Eagles couple were the tortoises (Testudo sp. with 55.4% from all registered individual preys. The most common prey from mammals was the hedgehog (Erinaceus roumanicus with 13.8%. Interesting fact was and the relatively high percentage of the cats with 7.7% (possibly most of them domestic ones.

  14. Underground coal gasification with integrated carbon dioxide mitigation supports Bulgaria's low carbon energy supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakaten, Natalie; Kempka, Thomas; Azzam, Rafig

    2013-04-01

    Underground coal gasification allows for the utilisation of coal reserves that are economically not exploitable due to complex geological boundary conditions. The present study investigates underground coal gasification as a potential economic approach for conversion of deep-seated coals into a high-calorific synthesis gas to support the Bulgarian energy system. Coupling of underground coal gasification providing synthesis gas to fuel a combined cycle gas turbine with carbon capture and storage is considered to provide substantial benefits in supporting the Bulgarian energy system with a competitive source of energy. In addition, underground voids originating from coal consumption increase the potential for geological storage of carbon dioxide resulting from the coupled process of energy production. Cost-effectiveness, energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions of this coupled process are investigated by application of a techno-economic model specifically developed for that purpose. Capital (CAPEX) and operational expenditure (OPEX) are derived from calculations using six dynamic sub-models describing the entire coupled process and aiming at determination of the levelised costs of electricity generation (COE). The techno-economic model is embedded into an energy system-modelling framework to determine the potential integration of the introduced low carbon energy production technology into the Bulgarian energy system and its competitiveness at the energy market. For that purpose, boundary conditions resulting from geological settings as well as those determined by the Bulgarian energy system and its foreseeable future development have to be considered in the energy system-modelling framework. These tasks comprise integration of the present infrastructure of the Bulgarian energy production and transport system. Hereby, the knowledge on the existing power plant stock and its scheduled future development are of uttermost importance, since only phasing-out power plants can be economically substituted by low carbon based technologies. Furthermore, the integrated annual load management notably contributes to innovative process integration becoming economic in an energy system affected by low efficiency and flexibility. Further limiting flexibility, the geographic location of this innovative low carbon energy production technology strictly depends on geological boundary conditions, namely the presence of exploitable coal resources, and availability of energy transport networks to supply potential end users with the product. Hereby, feeding upgraded synthesis gas directly into the Bulgarian gas pipeline network avoiding its conversion into electricity is an alternative approach with relevant economic potentials. For that purpose, the proximity and availability of these transport networks as well as the demand of end users are validated by the integrated energy system model. Coupling our techno-economic process model to an energy system-modelling framework allows the determination of the future economical potentials and the limitations for the implementation of a low carbon energy production technology into the Bulgarian energy system. The obtained results show that the Bulgarian energy system can significantly benefit from the integration of underground coal gasification considering carbon dioxide mitigation technologies potentially initiating a continuous substitution of imported fuels by domestic coal resources.

  15. Traditional knowledge and modern trends for Asian medicinal plants in Bulgaria from an ethnobotanical view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anely Nedelcheva

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Asian medicinal plants are an integral part of the Bulgarian traditions and folk botanical knowledge and as from the past until now, have their place in the Bulgarian market. In the last decade the interest in new plant-based products has increased. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted with the aim to bring out the facts about the diversity of Asian medicinal plants, present in medicinal plant-based products that are recently available on the Bulgarian market. The survey data was gathered during a period of 7 years (2003-2010 from the main national databases that contain information about herbal medicines and interviews, along with field-collected data. Results: More than 185 species of medicinal plants, belonging to 38 families and 137 genera were registered. Only twenty species were found to be used mostly in plant-based products for example Panax ginseng, Eleuterococcus senticosus, Ginkgo bilоba, Camellia sinensis, Zingiber officinale, Rhodiola rosea, Euphorbia pallasii, Scutelaria baicalensis, Garcinia cambogia, Hibiscus spp., Cinnamomum verum, Piper nigrum, Curcuma zedoaria, Syzigium aromaticum, etc. Most of them can be compounds of plant extract products, herbal remedies, spices, food and food additives, which are mainly proved to be beneficial as immune stimulants, memory enhancers, antitumor agents, sedatives, aphrodisiacs, antimycotics, wellness tea, body weight reducers, stimulants, blood pressure reducers, etc. Conclusions: Some of the species were used in the past for different purposes, while others are completely unknown and exotic. The occurrence of new combinations and mixtures containing both traditional Bulgarian and Asian folk medicine herbs was observed. This particular way of development, of traditional medicine in modern life, is of special interest to the ethnobotanists and is discussed further in the study.

  16. Lessons learned from activities carried out under the Buhovo tailings pond reconstruction project in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1947, the 'Metallurgy' uranium processing plant began operation in Buhovo, near Sofia. Until 1990 the plant processed 10 million t of ore from various uranium deposits throughout the country. Tailings arising from the uranium recovery process were placed in two ponds, covering a 24 ha area close to Monastirsko river. Disposal took place in a basin enclosed by an earth dam. A great quantity of liquids remained above the sandy tailings, creating a severe risk in case of dam failures under seismic conditions because of the potential for liquid runoff and ensuing downstream contamination of the Monastirsko river. To strengthen the dam, a 30 m wide additional berm, extending to an elevation of 678 m, was planned and built. It required 700,000 m3 of clay soils and 60,000 m3 of gravel to be used as a filter for drainage purposes. Construction work was carried out by DEC (a Belgian contractor) between March 2000 and August 2001. INITEC, acting as the architect/engineer, supervised the work under FIDIC (Federation Internationale des Ingenieurs-Conseils) conditions and Bulgarian law. The purpose of the paper is to describe the lessons learned during this project, as well as the INITEC role as architect/engineer with active involvement in design modifications aimed at improving the performance of the project. (author)

  17. Success and Failure Factors of the Mergers and Acquisitions Performance: Evidence from Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Stefka Iankova

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a study on the success and failure factors that influence the mergers and acquisitions (M&A) performance. In the initial part major theoretical studies, developed in the field of strategic management, corporate finance, organisational studies, and human resources are analysed. These works are used to outline ten main elements that can be considered essential for the success of the transactions. The discussed examines are founded on a number of leading theories – Agency the...

  18. Twenty years nuclear power sector in Bulgaria - an attempt at striking a balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The advantages of nuclear power and the mistakes that cause the opposition against it on the example of the history of the Bulgarian nuclear power sector are considered in a polemical manner. Four WWER 440/230 and two WWER 1000 units have been put into operation in Kozloduj NPP in the period 1974 - 1993. Before 1991, however, safety operation criteria were compromised numerous times and the atmosphere of secrecy, self-complacency and the series of absurdities about the Chernobyl accident were clearly used by the opponents of nuclear energy. Now the attitude towards nuclear power is changing for the better. Much progress has been made in recovering the nuclear power sector under complicated economic and political conditions. The role of NPP as an anti-inflation factor, an element providing the national security, a stimulator of industry and infrastructure, and an ecological salvation factor, is stressed. (I.M.)

  19. Preliminary Mapping and Characterisation of Soils in the Pirin Mountains (Bulgaria)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maika L(a)Biger; J(o)rg Seheithauer; Karsten Grunewald

    2008-01-01

    Soft types, humus types and vegetation as well as their hypsometric variation were analysed in terms of sequences in the northern part of the high mountains of the Pirin National Park at altitudes between 1000 and 2400 m a.s.l. The study area is characterised by a large variety of natural parameters like petrology (mainly marble and granite), morphology (different slope deposits, exposition) and the orographic climate gradient. Statistical analyses using these parameters provided a basis for the soil group classification of the sites. Based on a Digital Terrain Model (DTM) and a geological map of the Pirin National Park, the results of these statistical analyses were used to generate a "map of potential soft groups" (regionalisation using GIS). Six potential soil groups could be determined. The resulting map exhibits a confidence level of 68% on 74.4% of the covered area. Rendzic Leptosols, in combination with Folio Histosols and Histi-lithic Leptosols occur in the alpine and subalpine regions on calcareous substrates. With decreasing altitude they are replaced by a mosaic of Rendzic Leptosols, Phaeozems and an increasing occurrence of Cambic Umbrisols. Umbrisols found on silicatic substrates in the alpine region are replaced by Cambic Umbrisols with decreasing altitude as well. Hence, pedogenesis is characterised by increasing browning and depth of the soil profiles with decreasing altitude. The pH-level is slightly acidic to neutral in lower zones and on calcareous rocky bases. Acidification increases in the subalpine zone. Soft pH decreases down to 4 on silicate subtrates. Typical humic values in mineral topsoils are 10 to 12%, and in organic layers of the softs above 2000 m a.s.l, they are even more. The C:N ratio closely ranges around 20 (median).

  20. ONLINE REPORTING OF CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY OF THE HOTELS IN BULGARIA: CURRENT SITUATION AND MARKETING IMPLICATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Anastassova, Lina

    2015-01-01

    Social responsibility of hotel and tourism industries becomes a significant issue during the last decade. Observations within the hospitality sector during the last 10 years confirm that hoteliers have already started to incorporate CSR and the online reporting in their businesses. The international hotel chains with strong brands like Marriott, Hilton, Radisson, Hyatt etc. have special CSR sections on their websites where they report all activities and initiatives related to their policy in ...

  1. Influence of large nuclear units on the operating condition of the Electric Power System in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Kozloduy Nuclear Power Plant contributes a significant share to the Bulgarian Electric Power System's balance of energy and power. The concentration of such large electricity generation capacity in one power plant, as well as the use of turbogenerators with unit capacity of 1000 MW provokes certain difficulties. Sudden tripping of a very large generator on minimum load causes heavy disturbance to the electric power system. The present paper addresses the measures aimed at decreasing the power deficit, respectively the system disturbance and to avoid a major power system failure that could be initiated by tripping of a large nuclear turbogenerator. An evaluation is made of electric control systems and governors, their characteristics and behaviour. Participation on large nuclear turbogenerators in primary frequency control, voltage and reactive power regulation is described. Analyses are illustrated by authentic records of transients during nuclear units tripping. (author)

  2. Incidence of virulence determinants in clinical Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium isolates collected in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanya Strateva

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives To evaluate the prevalence of some virulence genes among 510 clinical Enterococcus spp. isolates and to assess the association of those genes with the species, infection site, and patient group (inpatients/outpatients. Methods Adhesins genes (aggregation substances agg and asa1 of Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium, respectively, enterococcal surface protein (esp, endocarditis-specific antigen A (efaA, collagen-binding proteins (ace/acm; invasins (hyaluronidase (hyl and gelatinase (gelE; cytotoxines (activation of cytolysin (cylA in E. faecalis; and modulators of the host immunity and inflammation (enhanced expression pheromone (eep in E. faecalis were detected by polymerase chain reaction. Results The overall prevalence was: esp – 44.3%, agg/asa1 – 38.4%, ace/acm – 64.3%, efaA – 85.9%, eep – 69.4%, gelE – 64.3%, hyl – 25.1%, and cylA – 47.1%. E. faecalis isolates had significantly higher frequency of adhesin genes (esp and agg/asa1 and gelatinase in comparison to E. faecium. Multiple virulence genes in E. faecalis were significantly more prevalent than in E. faecium isolates. Domination of E. faecium with or without only one gene compared to the isolates of E. faecalis were found. Enterococcus spp. isolates obtained from outpatients compared to inpatients isolates had significantly higher frequency of agg/asa1, eep, gelE and cylA. Some adhesins genes (esp, agg/asa1 and efaA had higher prevalence among the non-invasive Enterococcus spp. isolates compared to those causing invasive bacteremia, while ace/acm revealed higher dissemination in isolates causing invasive infections compared to non-invasive isolates. Conclusion Most E. faecalis attaches to abiotic surfaces in hospital environment, which correlates with higher prevalence of gene encoding for virulence factors involved in biofilm formation, such as enterococcal surface protein, aggregation substance, and gelatinase. The intestinal tract is an important reservoir for opportunistic enterococcal pathogens and allows them to access infectious sites through different virulence factors, demonstrated in outpatient isolates in this study.

  3. Licensing process for the installation of radioactive waste treatment by plasma technology in Kozloduy NPP (Bulgaria)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objective of this project, which lasted approximately four years, is to have a facility for reduction volume of radioactive waste and waste generated during the decommissioning of the four units that have completed its operational life.

  4. THE USE OF PHYSICAL METHODS FOR PLANT GROWING STIMULATION IN BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANNA ALADJADJIYAN

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Different chemical additives are used for rising productivity of plants and animals. Their application causes the contamination of raw materials for food production with toxins that is dangerous for consumers’ health. On-farm safety for fresh produce needs developing and implementing new methods for quality assurance. The influence of physical factors as microwave and laser radiation, magnetic field and ultrasound treatment is an alternative of soil additives and fertilizers. The substitution of chemical amelioration by physical one can reduce the toxins in raw materials and thus – raise the food safety. The use of some physical factors (laser irradiation; ultrasound influence; irradiation with microwave electromagnetic rays; magnetic field influence, gamma irradiation for stimulation of seed vitality in Bulgarian agriculture has been discussed.

  5. Analysis of the customer satisfaction of the hotel products in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyurova V. V.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important conditions for the right choice of a marketing policy of the hotel businesses is the availability of accurate studies, analyzes and forecasts about the changes of consumer demands, the competitive environment and the situation on the market of hotel products. Moreover, research on tourist motivation about the choice of hotel products and the factors shaping consumer preferences are important criteria to achieve a balance between supply and demand of these products. In this context, the objective of the study is to reveal the peculiarities of consumer behavior in the field of hotel business by setting a consumer profile, determine the motives for the choice of hotel products and the level of consumer satisfaction when using these products.

  6. Soil magnetic properties in Bulgaria at a national scale-Challenges and benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordanova, Neli; Jordanova, Diana; Petrov, Petar

    2016-02-01

    Establishing topsoil magnetic database at a national scale provides important information for soil classification, evaluation of soil drainage, indirect estimation of the total soil carbon and initial planning in precision agriculture. The Bulgarian database consists of 511 topsoil samples from the upper 20 cm of natural unpolluted soils. Samples have been characterized by detailed magnetic measurements, including mass-specific magnetic susceptibility, frequency dependent magnetic susceptibility, anhysteretic remanence, isothermal remanence and their ratios, hysteresis parameters and ratios, as well as soil reaction (pH). Histograms of the measured parameters per soil type and for the whole database show specific peculiarities and dependence from various parameters. Statistical factor analysis revealed that 87% from the total variance can be explained by four factors. The main factor is dominated by the contribution from concentration-dependent magnetic parameters, second one reflects the role of fine-grained pedogenic magnetic fraction, the third one is determined by the properties of the parent material, fourth one is governed by the internal structural peculiarities of the magnetic particles. The results from cluster analysis reveal the role of soil type and geology for the observed magnetic characteristics. The results emphasize the major role of geology (parent material) for the magnetic signature of topsoil samples on a national scale using sampling density of 1 sample/200 km2. Spatial interpolation of different magnetic parameters using modelled experimental variograms and kriging algorithm highlight lateral peculiarities in the concentration and grain size of the strongly magnetic iron oxides in the topsoils. Additional geochemical data for selected set of samples and meteorological information reveal the role of climate characteristics (mean annual temperature and precipitation) on the formation and development of the strongly magnetic pedogenic fraction in soils developed on the same parent material.

  7. Underground Coal Gasification and CO2 Storage Support Bulgaria's Low Carbon Energy Supply

    OpenAIRE

    Natalie Christine Nakaten; P. Kötting; R. Azzam; Thomas Kempka

    2013-01-01

    Underground coal gasification facilitates the utilization of deep-seated coals that are economically not exploitable via conventional mining. This study examines UCG as an approach for coal conversion into a synthesis gas as substitute for natural gas or to fuel a combined cycle gas turbine with CO2 capture and storage. Modelling results show that implementing UCG-CCS into the Bulgarian energy system depicts a low carbon alternative to coal fired power generation and can potentially decrease ...

  8. Analysis of the customer satisfaction of the hotel products in Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Kyurova V. V.; Yaneva D. E.

    2015-01-01

    One of the most important conditions for the right choice of a marketing policy of the hotel businesses is the availability of accurate studies, analyzes and forecasts about the changes of consumer demands, the competitive environment and the situation on the market of hotel products. Moreover, research on tourist motivation about the choice of hotel products and the factors shaping consumer preferences are important criteria to achieve a balance between supply and demand of these products. I...

  9. Macro- and microelement determination of some species of the family Fumaria L. distributed in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mineral composition of different species of the family Fumaria L. is of interest as it is widely used in traditional popular medicine and participates in metabolism of the human body.The micro- and macroelement determination was carried out by means of nondestructive neutron activation analysis. The measured probes and standards were irradiated in Sofia IRT-reactor for the time periods according to radioactive isotope activations. The elements Mn, Sr, Zr were determined using radioisitope X-ray fluorescence analysis for both the plants and the soils. Cd 109 source, Si(Li) detectoprt and Nockie multichannel analyser were used. It was found that particularly useful for the quantities of drugs are the elements: Ca, Cu, K, Co and Fe

  10. Geochemical pattern of soils in Bobovdol valley, Bulgaria. Assessment of Cd and Co contents

    OpenAIRE

    Ivona Nikova; Venera Tsolova; Bisser Hristov; Aleksandar Zdravkov; Kalin Ruskov

    2016-01-01

    The chemical composition of soils spread in the Bobov dol valley was studied in order to reveal the natural and anthropogenic patterns of Cd and Co spatial distribution. A sampling procedure based on the irregular grid of points and validated analytical methods were used in the field and laboratory studies. It is found that Cd content varies from 0.21 to 0.90 mg kg-1 in studied soils and the average value of 0.55 mg kg-1 coincides with concentration demarcating soil pollution (0.5 mg kg-1). C...

  11. Analysis of Methods and Tools for Nuclear Knowledge Preservation in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear power sector faces a shortage of qualified personnel for all stages of a nuclear power plants lifetime - construction, commissioning, operation and decommissioning. Additionally there is a lot of specific undocumented knowledge and skills, performance techniques or just useful information owned by experienced workers. Potential risk for loss of such knowledge exists due to retirement of employees or staff turnover at other industries. The development of knowledge preservation system in a given organization depends on the applied management strategy. Solutions associated with the above mentioned issues should meet country specific needs and should consider the current infrastructure and all available resources -human, technical, financial. The current situation in the Bulgarian nuclear power sector is really complicated and multifarious. Two WWER-440 units are in decommissioning, another two are in shutdown condition. Two WWER-1000 V320 units are in operation and two WWER-1000 V466 units are under construction. Additionally, projects for national radioactive waste repository and dry spent fuel storage are underway. Under the circumstances, a substantive and lasting investment in nuclear knowledge management is needed to collect, preserving and disseminating existing nuclear scientific and technological information. Many national organizations and companies are involved in maintaining of such comprehensive nuclear infrastructure, but surely the major player remains Kozloduy NPP (KNPP). During more than thirty years of operation, KNPP has accumulated a huge amount of specific data, knowledge and experience. Some of this highly valued information is documented, but a large part of it is only kept in the human mind. Therefore strong emphasis should be given to identification, elicitation and preservation of tacit knowledge. The overall objective of the project was to determine the scale of the Knowledge Management System (KMS) at Kozloduy Nuclear Power Plant (KNPP) and the feasibility of setting up such a KMS in the current infrastructure of KNPP. The main tasks of the project especially emphasize knowledge preservation as an important part of overall KMS and performance of a knowledge acquisition study, based upon risk analysis of knowledge loss and applying the Concept Map Approach. The goal of this work is to identify and classify available sources of relevant information, to overview and assess the current information infrastructure, to specify the most important job positions related to safety and identify the key persons who possess a unique subject matter related knowledge, to analyze the risk of loss of such knowledge, and to create a model of critical knowledge that experts in key positions have. Creating a knowledge model requires organizing the various Concept Maps that have been structured into a consistent system which makes explicit the various aspects of expert's knowledge and the corresponding relationship. The scope of the project includes also analysis of available methods and tools for institutional memory preservation as well as selection and experimental application of more appropriate ones. Because the processes and systems of NPP are highly complex, the task is to be performed within a collaboration between KNPP personnel and United Technical College.

  12. 韵律之美CareGraffiti咖啡痞%MULTI-BEAUTY, CAFE GRAFFITI IN BULGARIA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    [保]STUDIOMODE

    2012-01-01

    StudioMODE是来自保加利亚的设计工作室,近几年在建筑与室内设计方面都有一些不错的作品面世。其天马行空的造型设计与功能性的完美结合使业界的许多人都看好这个来自东欧的设计组合。

  13. Global Neo-Liberalism, Global Ecological Modernization, and a Swine CAFO in Rural Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenna, Leland L.; Mitev, Georgi V.

    2009-01-01

    Rural and development sociology studies have tended to credit globalization with low-wage, extractive, environmentally destructive outcomes. Concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) have been treated as a local manifestation of the destructive tendencies of globalization. However, recent scholarship on globalization suggests that…

  14. Long-term evaluation of the clinical effectiveness of community milk fluoridation in Bulgaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, P E; Kwan, S; Ogawa, H

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the clinical effectiveness of a community milk fluoridation programme. BASIC RESEARCH DESIGN: Parallel arm 5-year cohort study, with final cross-sectional comparisons between groups. PARTICIPANTS: 3-year-olds in 8 Bulgarian cities/towns entered the cohort study with random......-olds from control cities were baseline examined for caries, then 276 children at the age 8 years in 2009. INTERVENTIONS: In six intervention communities: 1,498 examined children received 0.5 mg F in 100 or 200 ml school milk or yogurt provided each school day; a further 180 received non-fluoridated milk. In...... two control communities, fluoride was not added to 284 children's school milk. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Dental caries experience of primary, and permanent teeth. RESULTS: For primary teeth, caries increments were 46% (p < 0.001) and 30% (p < 0.01) lower in the fluoridated milk groups compared with non...

  15. Traditional knowledge and modern trends for Asian medicinal plants in Bulgaria from an ethnobotanical view

    OpenAIRE

    Anely Nedelcheva

    2012-01-01

    Background: Asian medicinal plants are an integral part of the Bulgarian traditions and folk botanical knowledge and as from the past until now, have their place in the Bulgarian market. In the last decade the interest in new plant-based products has increased. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted with the aim to bring out the facts about the diversity of Asian medicinal plants, present in medicinal plant-based products that are recently available on the Bulgarian market. The su...

  16. The Ranking of the Institutions of Higher Education in Bulgaria: Status, Problems and Prospects [In Bulgarian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Boyadjieva

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the main results from the first ranking system of Bulgarian higher education institutions. It adopts two perspectives: 1 from the point of view of higher education – What are the basic achievements, problems and perspectives of Bulgarian higher education as seen through the prism of the ranking system? 2 from the point of view of the ranking system – What are the strengths and weaknesses of the ranking systems and how it can be further developed and improved? The paper argues that ranking systems of higher education institutions are an inevitable result of massification, commercialization and growing competition in higher education. The analysis highlights the critical arguments against the first ranking system of Bulgarian higher education institutions and suggests some possibilities for its future development. On the basis of the results from the ranking system the paper outlines the main problems of the Bulgarian higher education. It discusses massification of Bulgarian higher education in the light of recent trends in other European countries and European educational policies. It is argued that Bulgarian higher education is in need of elaboration of strategic vision and new normative framework. It also needs changes, such as: establishment of new governance model and new model of financing of higher education; strengthening the relationship between teaching and research; development of the capacity of higher education institutions for innovative and strategic thinking; diversifying the system of higher education; development of strategic partnerships between higher education institutions and between them and non-academic partner.

  17. Nutritional evaluation of aquaculture mussels (M. galloprovincialis from the Black Sea, Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merdzhanova Albena

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years black mussels are one of the most commercially important species from the Bulgarian Black Sea. The marine mollusks are valuable healthy food, low in calories and fats and high in proteins. They are a major dietary source of fat soluble pigments - astaxanthin, carotenoids and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA. To our knowledge the information about the nutritional quality of mussels from the Bulgarian Black Sea waters, based on chemical composition, fat soluble pigments, cholesterol and PUFA content is very limited. The aim of the present study is to determine and compare protein, lipid, carbohydrate and energy values, fat soluble pigments, cholesterol and fatty acid composition in farmed mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis from the Bulgarian northern and southern parts of the Black Sea coast. The mussel samples were analyzed for lipids (Bligh & Dyer method, crude proteins (Kjeldahl method, carbohydrates and moistures according to the AOAC (1990 methods. Fatty acids were analyzed by the GC-MS system. Fat soluble pigments and cholesterol were analyzed simultaneously by the RP-HPLC system. Lipid and protein content were found to be higher in mussels from the northern region. In accordance with the Commission Regulation (EC No. 116/2010 all analyzed mussel samples can be classified as high in protein and low in fats and carbohydrates. The amount of cholesterol, contained in all mussel populations is significantly low, while the omega-3 (n-3 is significantly higher than the omega-6 PUFA. A portion of 100 g edible tissue provides 0.500 g more of the required amount of eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5 and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6 n-3 PUFA according to EFSA (2012. It can be concluded that the studied mussel aquaculture in the Black Sea is beneficial food for the human health and it is advisable to be part of a proper or a preventive diet of Bulgarian consumers.

  18. Eight years of quality control in Bulgaria: impact on mammography practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The requirements for quality control (QC) in diagnostic radiology were introduced in Bulgarian legislation in 2005. Hospital medical physicists and several private medical physics groups provide QC services to radiology departments. The aim of this study was to analyse data from QC tests in mammography and to investigate the impact of QC introduction on mammography practice in the country. The study was coordinated by the National Centre of Radiobiology and Radiation Protection. All medical physics services were requested to fill in standardised forms with information about most important parameters routinely measured during QC. All QC service providers responded. Results demonstrated significant improvement of practice since the introduction of QC, with reduction of established deviations from 65 % during the first year to 7 % in the last year. The systems that do not meet the acceptability criteria were suspended from use. Performance of automatic exposure control and digital detectors are not regularly tested because of the absence of requirements in the legislation. The need of updated guidance and training of medical physicists to reflect the change in technology was demonstrated. (authors)

  19. How Does Air Pollution Threaten Basic Human Rights? The Case Study of Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmedova, Aylin Hasanova

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose of this article is to analyze the relationship between air pollution and human rights. It investigates whether air pollution threatens basic human rights such as the right to health, life, and the environment. Air pollution represents a major threat both to health and to the environment. Despite the adoption of numerous…

  20. Clinical testing of combined vaccine against enzootic pneumonia in industrial pig farming in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Pepovich

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In the pig farm with signs of a respiratory disease complex and laboratory confirmed enzootic pneumonia, the prophylactic efficacy of the combination vaccine (M. hyo+PCV2, a single injection administered intramuscularly 21 days after birth, at a dose of 2 ml was tested. The clinical condition, pathological changes in the lungs and some epidemiological and economic results were reported. It was found that vaccinated pigs are in a better clinical condition in comparison with the control group. Morbidity in the rearing period was reduced from 16.3% in the control group to 6.0% in vaccinated pigs, and in the fattening period, respectively, from 30.6% in the control group to 10.0% in the vaccinated group. Pathological features in the lung characteristic for the enzootic pneumonia in the vaccinated pigs were reduced from 25.5%±7.24 to 4.0%±2.44, and PCVI - from 13.0%±4.66 to 0%. Vaccination of pigs has been received and a higher average daily gain in groups for rearing (0.624 kg and for fattening (0.723 kg was recorded.

  1. Corporate Social Responsibility on the International Area.Present Developments in Romania and Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Ani MATEI; Tuca, Mihaela

    2011-01-01

    Corporate Social Responsibility is no longer an object of novelty in literature or the business sector. The practices in this matter have became a new area of activity expansion and a new way that companies use to strengthen their image, consumer appreciation and even employees motivation. The present paper proposes an analyses of the literature, a comparative study and a summary of the international organizations view on the matter.

  2. Multiple modernities: transitional Bulgaria and the ecological modernisation of solid waste management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheinberg, A.; Mol, A.P.J.

    2010-01-01

    In 1996 Bulgarian municipalities were facing practical impacts of the transition from socialism affecting their solid waste systems. Existing waste infrastructure and practices had to accommodate both increased quantities and types of waste, and new EU performance norms. New demands, in combination

  3. Multiple modernities: transitional Bulgaria and the ecological modernisation of solid waste management

    OpenAIRE

    Anne Scheinberg; Arthur P. J. Mol

    2010-01-01

    In 1996 Bulgarian municipalities were facing practical impacts of the transition from socialism affecting their solid waste systems. Existing waste infrastructure and practices had to accommodate both increased quantities and types of waste, and new EU performance norms. New demands, in combination with rising fuel prices, made ordinary operations unaffordable. Municipal managers searching for solutions joined with environmental nongovernmental organisations and consultants in exploring alter...

  4. Biomonitoring Study of Air Pollution with Betula pendula Roth., from Plovdiv, Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slaveya T. Petrova

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study is a small part of a program for application the methods of passive and active biomonitoring with tree, herbaceous, moss and lichen species for assessment of the anthropogenic factor in urban conditions. All reported results here are preliminary. Betula pendula was studied as a possible biomonitor of air pollution in Plovdiv. Eight sampling sites in the urban roadside, city center and suburban areas were investigated. Chlorophyll content was determined as essential and sensitive physiological parameter. The concentrations of 26 micro and macroelements were analyzed by FAAS and ICPMS. Maximum for chlorophyll was found in the birch leaves from west part of the town, minimum – in these from north part. More significant variations were detected for Ni, Mn, B, Cr, Co, Fe, Bi, Cd, Al, Zn. Highest concentrations of 12 elements were found in the samples, collected from the central area of Plovdiv.

  5. Living with the world heritage. An ethnographic study of the ancient city of Nessebar, Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luleva Ana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the mid-1950s the Ancient city of Nessebar has had the status of national cultural heritage; in 1983 it was inscribed in the World heritage list of UNESCO. The article makes an attempt to study the regimes of using of and living in the city - world cultural heritage in two different political and economic contexts. The pressure of the tourism industry on the value, which was visible even in the years of the late state socialism, became irresistible after 1989 in the context of the liberalised market economy, the interests of the private investors and the accepted as part of the "normal" market order corrupt practices of the institutions that are responsible for the safeguarding and management of the cultural heritage. The ethnographic study argues that intertwined in a Gordian knot around the central question for the residents of the ancient city of Nessebar, viz. the occupation of the city, which has been declared a world heritage site, are issues like trust and distrust in the institutions, the experience of abiding by formal and informal rules for operation with private property, the notions of social justice, local identity, the use of the cultural heritage as symbolic capital by different social actors and its transformation into economic one, with the conflicting interconnection between tourist industry and cultural heritage.

  6. PERCEPTION OF GLOBAL COMPETITIVENESS IN THE CONTEXT OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT: THE CASES OF ROMANIA AND BULGARIA

    OpenAIRE

    BUGLEA ALEXANDRU

    2015-01-01

    In today’s uncertain climate, competitiveness and sustainable development have become milestones of both advanced and emerging countries. Since competitiveness and sustainable development are interconnected, an extensive vision of competitiveness should be available for both the economy and the society. The definition, measurement and analysis of both concepts taken into consideration, competitiveness and sustainable development, is thus an important issue for policy-makers. Thus, the goal of...

  7. Role and responsibilities of medical physicists in radiology and membership of Bulgaria in European union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Medical radiology and especially the radiotherapy is the birthplace of modern medical physics. Medical physicists have proven place and important role in research and practice in radiotherapy. They share the responsibility with physicians in varied daily work in this medical speciality. The rapid development of medical imaging in last decades increases the need of competence of medical physicists. Quality assurance in Diagnostic Radiology aimed to achieve maximum diagnostic information at minimal risk and with minimal prize, which is obligatory for the members of the EU, is impossible to be implemented without medical physicists. The enforced recently Ordinance 30/2005 of the Ministry of Health forms the regulatory basis of obligatory implementation of Quality Assurance at medical use of ionizing radiation in the country. This Ordinance introduces the requirements of the EURATOM 97/43 Directive on health protection of individuals against the dangers of ionizing radiation in relation to medical exposure. It regulates also the responsibilities of medical physicists in radiology. Forthcoming is the practical implementation of these requirements, which needs the competence and efforts of Medical physics community as well as of radiologists in the country

  8. High Prevalence of Granulocytic Ehrlichiae and Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Lato in Ixodes ricinus Ticks from Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Christova, Iva; Schouls, Leo; van de Pol, Ingrid; Park, Jinho; Panayotov, Stefan; Lefterova, Viktoria; Kantardjiev, Todor; Dumler, J. Stephen

    2001-01-01

    Bulgarian Ixodes ricinus ticks were examined for Ehrlichia and Borrelia coinfection: 34 and 32% of adult ticks and at least 2 and 10% of nymphs were positive for these infections, respectively. Coinfections and dual or triple Borrelia infections were frequent, although Ehrlichia phagocytophila heterogeneity was minimal. Multiple tick-borne bacteria coexist in I. ricinus ticks in southeastern Europe.

  9. Study of Plant Species Composition of Grasslands in Mugla Village Region (Western Rhodopes, South Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plamen S. Stoyanov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The study presents data on the diversity of grass species in the region of the village of Mugla (the Western Rhodopes. One hundred forty-one species of higher plants belonging to 40families were registered. (Apiaceae, Aspleniaceae, Asteraceae, Boraginaceae, Brassicaceae,Campanulaceae, Caryophyllaceae, Cistaceae, Cyperaceae, Dipsacaceae, Equisetaceae, Ericaceae,Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, Gentianaceae, Geraniaceae, Gesneriaceae, Hypericaceae, Juncaceae,Lamiaceae, Lemnaceae, Liliaceae, Linaceae, Menyanthaceae, Oleacea, Onagraceae, Orchidaceae,Parnassiaceae, Plantaginaceae, Plumbaginaceae, Poaceae, Polygalaceae, Primulaceae,Ranunculaceae, Rosaceae, Rubiaceae, Saxifragaceae, Scrophulariaceae, Valerianaceae andViolaceae. Their conservation status was presented, as well as medicinal plants.

  10. Risk Assessment at the Beginning and the End of Strouma River in Bulgaria Using Integral Indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diadovski I.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The present work considers Strouma River on the Bulgarian territory using the integral method for evaluation of climatic and anthropogenic impacts on the average annual water volume and maximum and minimum water flow. The level of this impact and risk assessment is determined by the index Mmax, i for the deviation of the maximum water flow from the maximum flow norm Qmax, 0 and the index Mmin, i for the deviation of the minimum water flow from the minimum flow norm Qmin, 0. Using the dynamics of the integral indices Mmax, i, Mmin, i and information on extreme events from the past, a preliminary risk assessment of future extreme events such as floods and draughts could be made. This is done for the first time in risk assessment of extreme events and has been checked at Pernik (in the beginning and Marino pole (at the border in Greece for the period 1948 - 2006.

  11. Geochemical pattern of soils in Bobovdol valley, Bulgaria. Assessment of Cd and Co contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivona Nikova

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of soils spread in the Bobov dol valley was studied in order to reveal the natural and anthropogenic patterns of Cd and Co spatial distribution. A sampling procedure based on the irregular grid of points and validated analytical methods were used in the field and laboratory studies. It is found that Cd content varies from 0.21 to 0.90 mg kg-1 in studied soils and the average value of 0.55 mg kg-1 coincides with concentration demarcating soil pollution (0.5 mg kg-1. Co content ranges from 2.22 to 15.76 mg kg-1 and in 70 % of sampled points exceeds the natural background content of 7.8 mg kg-1 found in local rocks. Still, Cd enrichment of studied soils is more significant than Co’s with coefficient of Clarke concentration of 3.67. Hence, the secondary deposition of studied elements as a result of the Bobov dol Thermal power plant air emissions is verified by results obtained. The spatial distribution of Cd and Co is featured with an altitudinal gradient in deposition and a trend of quantitative depletion in the South of Plant. Soil organic matter and pH have no influence on the content and spatial distribution of studied elements. Elements iron affinity governs their geochemical linkage in soils although cobalt occurs allied with aluminum and titanium.

  12. Crisis and Recovery in Bulgaria: Labour market impact on men and women

    OpenAIRE

    Beleva, Iskra

    2011-01-01

    The author reviews the impact of the crisis on male and female employment and outlines the factors, causing more or less effects on employment of different sexes. Different policies have been put in force so as to alleviate the negatives of the crisis. The author concludes that the present crisis offers the opportunities to restructure employment in a more advance shape. However, the prioritization of the fiscal equilibrium depresses the reforms for economic and social restructuring. As far a...

  13. Opportunities for vocational training and training in investment project management in Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Vanya Antonova

    2015-01-01

    Possessing the necessary knowledge, skills and competences in the area of project management is a compulsory condition and major prerequisite for achieving professional management. In the article there are studied the possibilities for vocational education and training in the area of project management, specifically the management of investment projects. The analysis is built on types of institution, encompassing both the system of vocational education and training (including professional sec...

  14. POSITIVE STIGMA OF THE PEOPLE WITH DISABILITIES IN THE CZECH REPUBLIC AND BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesela Kazashka

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Communication requires unconditional respect for the other. Acknowledging the qualities of the people   is a basis for good communication.  Communication starts when you accept the people the way they are. The social, economic and technical development provides opportunities for good professional realization of people with special educational needs.  The resistance, striving for “survival” and successful “introduction” into the social life are a prerequisite for success. The people who are stigmatized and their families are aware that once they have been labeled, they should have to overcome this stigma and to take the maximum possible good out of this label. Positive stigma stimulates the people with disabilities seek more contacts, to become more independent and to realize themselves adequately in the social life. The survey of attitudes and motivation scale contact with people with disabilities give reliable information about what is the attitude of students towards people with disabilities and what were their contacts. The successful integration into society of people with special educational needs depends also on the perceptions and attitudes of the professionals who work with them too. Undoubtedly, the attitudes and models for the disabled people change and will continue to change. In this context the disabled people should develop social identity and public awareness, but not only in their stigmatized group, but in a broad social aspect.   

  15. Soc stock in different forest-related land-uses in central Stara planina mountain, Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyanski Miglena

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Forest conversions may lead to an accumulation of carbon in vegetation, but little is known about changes in soil C storage with establishment of plantation forests. Understanding these effects is important to addressing issues relevant to ecosystem function and productivity, and to global balance of carbon. The study investigated the effects of the created coniferous plantations on former beech and pasture sites on the soil organic carbon storage. The major forest-related land-uses in the high mountainous regions of central Stara Planina Mountain were investigated: mountainous pasture, coniferous plantations (planted on previous pasture and beech forests between four and five decades ago and natural beech forests. The experimental data of soil properties, conducted in 2005, 2006 and 2007, were used in determining the variations in organic carbon storage in forest litter and in mineral soil under different land-use patterns. At each site five representative soil profiles were opened and described giving a total 75 soil samples from the soil layers respectively at 0-10, 10-30 and 30-50 cm depth. A total of 55 samples from forest floor layers (Aol, Aof, Aoh and greensward were collected with 25:25 cm plastic frame. The main soil properties were determined in accordance with the standardized methods in the Laboratory of soil science at the Forest Research Institute - BAS. The IPCC Good Practice Guidance for Land Use, Land Use Change and Forestry was used to estimate the soil organic carbon stock in soil and litter. The results obtained showed that the SOC stock was quite similar among forest land-uses. The conversion of natural beech forests to coniferous plantations in studied region is related with slightly expressed decrease in soil carbon storage. The values of SOC stocks in 0-50 cm soil layer in these sites were 8.5 (±2.1 tones/ha for pine and 11.0 (±1.4 tones/ha for spruce, while under the natural beech forest it was 14.8 (±1.0 tones/ha. The SOC stock in mountainous pasture was 20.7 (± 6.5 tones/ha, while in spruce plantation created on previous pasture it was 13.5 (±2.7 tones/ha. Our finding showed that forest conversions effect in central Stara Planina Mountain is expressed by decrease in SOC stock related with losses of carbon from the upper mineral soil decades after creation of coniferous plantations. Nevertheless the relatively large organic carbon storage in forest litter in the spruce plantations compensated C lost from mineral soil after the land-use change. The overall carbon stock both in forest litter and soil under plantations ranged from 56 tones/ha (pine to 77 tones/ha (spruce, while under natural beech forest and pasture the values were 70 and 81 tones/ha respectively. But in terms of stability C sequestrated in mineral soil is more desirable than C sequestrated in forest floor which are more vulnerable to decomposition following disturbances. The application of silvicultural activities in coniferous plantations created by conversion of forest lands or grasslands in the region of central Balkan is desirable to improve the carbon sequestration in soils.

  16. General information on licensing process in Bulgaria and disused sealed sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basic legal framework for radiation protection and the safety of radiation sources is given in the report. The authorisation process is described. Actual data for the system of authorisation about SIR during 2002/2003 are given. The planned activities related to RAW management are:commissioning of the complex for treatment, conditioning and storage of RAW in Kozloduy NPP - by the end of 2003; investigation of Gabra site for construction of institutional waste disposal facility - by the end of 2004; implementation of program for reconstruction and modernisation of Novi Han Repository - by the end of 2007; site selection for the national RAW disposal facility - by the end of 2008. The Nuclear Energy Act defines the following future activities: establishment of the State Enterprise 'RAW' in 2004; development of new secondary legislation for safe management of SF and RAW until July 2004; update of the National Strategy for Safe Management of SF and RAW until the end of 2003

  17. Constellations of Disadvantage and Policy Dilemmas in Youth Transitions from School to Work in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In the past years there has been a growing concern in Europe with the drawbacks in youth transition from education to employment and social participation more generally (European Commission (EC 2001

  18. Why Teach Abroad: Two American Teachers Explain Their Motivations and Experiences Teaching in Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potash, Betsy; Potash, Brett

    2011-01-01

    A Fulbright poster on the bulletin board, a Search Associates flier in the mailbox, a rumor of something different--everyone has heard about teaching abroad. But is it worth filling out all that paperwork, installing Skype on the family's computers, and learning a new language? In this article, two American teachers explain their motivations and…

  19. Indoor smoking bans in Bulgaria, Croatia, Northern Cyprus, Romania and Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Muilenburg, J L; Legge, J. S.; Burdell, A

    2010-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to examine attitudes towards attempts to limit second-hand smoke (SHS) in five Eastern European nations. Methods The data consist of a Eurobarometer (64.3) survey distributed from November to December 2005. Logistic regression was employed to investigate support levels for indoor smoking bans across the five political units. Results Across nations, there is more support for smoking bans in offices and indoor work spaces and indoor public space as oppos...

  20. Molecular indicators for coal-forming vegetation of the Miocene Chukurovo lignite, Bulgaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maya Stefanova; Kalinka Markova; Stefan Marinov; Bernd R.T. Simoneit [Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria). Institute of Organic Chemistry

    2005-10-01

    The main coal forming element in the peat paleoswamp of the Middle Miocene 'Chukurovo' lignite is Taxodiaceae (paleobotanical observation). The great preponderance of diterpenoids in the resinite is a chemical confirmation for the presence of coniferous vegetation in the paleoplant taxa. Subordinate quantities of the sesquiterpenoids cuparene, valencene and cadalene types and longifolane are present. Molecular indicators for angiosperm vegetation are also recognized in the bulk coal. The presence of olean-12-ene, urs-12-ene, 24,25-dinoroleana-1,3,5(10)12-tetraene, and 24,25-dinorursa-1,3,5(10)12-tetraene all indicate flowering trees and provide the possibility to further assess the paleoplant community. The triterpenoid data indicate oxic diagenetic transformation of plant detritus had been proceeded by aromatization of ring A-E. 33 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs., 1 append.