WorldWideScience

Sample records for bulgaria

  1. Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-04-01

    This discussion of Bulgaria focuses on the following: geography; the people; history; government; political conditions; the economy (economic reforms and plans, industry and agriculture, and trade); foreign relations; and relations between the US and Bulgaria. The population in December 1980 numbered 8,876,652; the annual growth rate was 3.6/1000. The infant mortality rate was 20.2/1000 with life expectancy 69 years for men and 74 years for women. Bulgaria, which is located on the Balkan Peninsula, extends from the western shore of the Black Sea to Yugoslavia in the west. In the north, the Danube River is a common boundary with Romania. Greece and European Turkey lie to the south and southeast. Population density is 1 of the lowest in Eastern Europe, about 80 persons per square kilometer. More than half of the population lives in urban areas, compared to 1/3 in 1956. Bulgarian is the primary language spoken. Religious activity is discouraged by the Bulgarian communists. Education is free and compulsory to age 15. A fully independent Bulgarian kingdom was proclaimed September 22, 1908. Communist rule began September 9, 1944, when a communist dominated coalition, called the Fatherland Front, seized power from a coalition government formed to arrange an armistice with the Allies. The constitution stipulates that the Communist Party is the leading force in society and in the state. It also provides for a unicameral 400 member National Assembly. The Bulgarian Communist Party (BCP) controls all phases of Bulgarian life. Party organization parallels the government structure with a central apparatus at Sofia and subordinate organizations in provinces and communes. At the end of World War 2, Bulgaria was among the least industrialized European countries. Bulgaria's national income grew rapidly in the 1960s and early 1970s, but increased by only 5.7% in 1980, down from 6.5% in 1979. A major factor in Bulgaria's growth rate has been Soviet assistance. The economic system is

  2. Coal in Bulgaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McConville, L.; Broadbent, J.; Rousaki, K.

    1999-01-01

    Bulgaria`s national energy strategy includes plans to restructure the energy sector by introducing competition and privatisation, to promote energy efficiency and environmental protection and to prepare the country for integration into the EU energy market. Energy prices are still under government control and coal mining is heavily subsidised. Bulgaria is a major producer of coal, all of which is consumed locally. Most of the domestic production is low quality lignite used for electricity generation. Demand for hard coal is met by imports, mainly from the former USSR and the USA. Bulgaria generates almost half of its electricity needs from coal. Total reserves of lignite are estimated at 2.5 Gt. Coal production declined between 1987 and 1991 reflecting the economic disturbance following the break up of the USSR. In 1996, production was 32 Mt. The mining industry is being restructured as Bulgaria is slowly moving from a centrally-controlled economy to a market-based economy. Environmental damage as a result of coal production has been serious in Bulgaria, due to the use of low grade high sulphur content lignite. 84 refs., 10 figs., 9 tabs.

  3. Bulgaria : Accounting and Auditing

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2008-01-01

    An assessment of accounting and auditing practices in Bulgaria is a part of the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund (IMF) joint initiative on reports on the Observance of Standards and Codes (ROSC). The assessment focused on the strengths and weaknesses of the accounting and auditing environment that influences the quality of corporate financial reporting. It used the Internatio...

  4. Thysanoptera of Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olia Karadjova

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The present checklist includes data on the species composition, geographic distribution and feeding preferences of thrips species in Bulgaria. In total, 155 species in 48 genera are listed. Of these, 125 species belong to suborder Terebrantia and include 103 species of 33 genera in family Thripidae, 14 species of two genera in Aeolothripidae, seven species of two genera in Melanthripidae and one species in Fauriellidae. In suborder Tubulifera, 30 species of 10 genera in the single family Phlaeothripidae are listed. Of the 155 Bulgarian thrips species, 87.7% are phytophagous, 4.5% are obligate predators, 5.8% are mycophagous and 1.9% are with unknown feeding preferences. Fourteen pest species are listed for Bulgaria, of which Frankliniella occidentalis, Thrips tabaci and Haplothrips tritici are of economic importance. The list provides detailed information on the horizontal and vertical distribution of Thysanoptera in 5 regions and 45 subregions of Bulgaria. The present paper also includes an evaluation of the biodiversity of Thysanoptera and the extent to which each region of the country has been studied.

  5. Organ transplantation in Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumova, Elissaveta; Panchev, Petar; Simeonov, Pencho J; Mihaylova, Anastassia; Penkova, Kalina; Boneva, Petia; Marinova, Daniela; Paskalev, Emil; Simeonov, Petar L; Zlatev, Assen

    2008-12-01

    The transplantation program in Bulgaria started in 1968 with renal transplantations to a child and adult woman. In 1986 the first heart transplantation was performed. To date a total of 10 heart transplants have been performed, including one combined heart/lung. A liver transplantation program was launched in 2005 with a total number of 16 transplantations-7 from living donors and 9 from deceased donors. The highest transplantation activity is registered in the field of renal transplantation. During the period 1980-2006, 462 Bulgarian recipients of kidney were transplanted in Bulgaria. The ratio between transplantations from deceased and living related donors is approximately 1:0.9. Annual transplantation activity varies among the years from 1 to 12 renal transplantations p.m.p./per year. The 1- (80.7% vs. 63.1%), 5- (57.86% vs. 39.0%) and 10-year (42.65% vs. 23.62%) graft survival rates are higher for recipients of living donor kidneys compared to those of deceased donor. In 1983 a National kidney waiting list was established. Currently the number of the registered patients eligible for renal transplantation is 885. The proportion of sensitized patients in the waiting list is 20.45% and 4.34% of them are hyperimmunized. Recently HLAMatchmaker program has been implemented not only for sensitized patients but also for those with rare alleles and haplotypes. Post-transplant immunological monitoring showed a strong association between alloantibody presence and delayed graft function (Chi-square=10.73, P<0.001), acute rejection (Chi-square=14.504, P<0.001), chronic rejection (Chi-square=12.84, P<0.001) and graft loss (Chi-square=20.283, P<0.001). Based on the experience in our transplant center a strategy for improvement of long-term renal graft survival was developed and implemented.

  6. Bulgaria health system review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimova, Antoniya; Rohova, Maria; Moutafova, Emanuela; Atanasova, Elka; Koeva, Stefka; Panteli, Dimitra; van Ginneken, Ewout

    2012-01-01

    In the last 20 years, demographic development in Bulgaria has been characterized by population decline, a low crude birth rate, a low fertility rate, a high mortality rate and an ageing population. A stabilizing political situation since the early 2000s and an economic upsurge since the mid-2000s were important factors in the slight increase of the birth and fertility rates and the slight decrease in standardized death rates. In general, Bulgaria lags behind European Union (EU) averages in most mortality and morbidity indicators. Life expectancy at birth reached 73.3 years in 2008 with the main three causes of death being diseases of the circulatory system, malignant neoplasms and diseases of the respiratory system. One of the most important risk factors overall is smoking, and the average standardized death rate for smoking-related causes in 2008 was twice as high as the EU15 average. The Bulgarian health system is characterized by limited statism. The Ministry of Health is responsible for national health policy and the overall organization and functioning of the health system and coordinates with all ministries with relevance to public health. The key players in the insurance system are the insured individuals, the health care providers and the third party payers, comprising the National Health Insurance Fund, the single payer in the social health insurance (SHI) system, and voluntary health insurance companies (VHICs). Health financing consists of a publicprivate mix. Health care is financed from compulsory health insurance contributions, taxes, outofpocket (OOP) payments, voluntary health insurance (VHI) premiums, corporate payments, donations, and external funding. Total health expenditure (THE) as a share of gross domestic product (GDP) increased from 5.3% in 1995 to 7.3% in 2008. At the latter date it consisted of 36.5% OOP payments, 34.8% SHI, 13.6% Ministry of Health expenditure, 9.4% municipality expenditure and 0.3% VHI. Informal payments in the health

  7. Fieldwork Coastal Engineering: Varna (Bulgaria)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, C.; Burgers, J.J.; Van Dijk, M.; Heeringa, E.; Van den Hengel, D.; Lausman, R.; Oortman, N.; Poot, R.; Segboer, T.; De Sonneville, B.

    2004-01-01

    Research has been carried out in St. Konstantin, Varna, Bulgaria. In the second chapter of this report an Analysis of the Tetra pods on breakwater of the “Sunny Day Marina is presented, where the damage is determined and different approaches are used and compared to determine the significant wave he

  8. Catalog of Investment Projects in Bulgaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-10-15

    This catalog includes information about 129 potential investment projects in Bulgaria and was developed by a team of experts from InvestBulgaria Agency in cooperation with municipalities and private companies. The document presents in brief general facts about the regions in Bulgaria. Projects are divided into the following categories: Tourism, Manufacturing, Urban Planning, Real Estate, Environment and renewable energy sources, Commerce, and Innovative and creative projects. The catalog provides detailed information about each project such as: status of the project, location, ownership, infrastructure, estimated value, contact information, etc.

  9. Emergence and Development of Bulgaria's Environmental Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Uday; Snavely, Keith

    1998-01-01

    Bulgaria's environmental movement played a role in ending communist rule, but environmental issues were not completely resolved. Social movements may never achieve their objectives in totality but instead enter a new cycle of the movement. (SK)

  10. Stakeholder analysis for coppice forestry in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IvayloVelichkov

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The study analyzes the state of coppice forestry in Bulgaria during last 18 years. Stakeholders and their interests and preferences in coppice forests are explored and assessed. Forests restitution process in Bulgaria started in 1997 and has not been finished yet. Nevertheless, significant further changes of the current ownershipdistribution are not expected. By the end of 2007, the state was the biggest coppice forest owner/stakeholder in Bulgaria with 71.3% of all coppice forests being state property. The other two important stakeholders are the municipalities (14.0% and private owners (12.0%. Currently, forest owners' number in Bulgaria exceeds 1million, the average holding area being smaller than 1 ha. Only 150 individual plots are larger than 50 ha. The majority of private owners aim at taking maximum and immediate profit from their recently restituted forest properties. In most cases that reflects in clearcuts. Coppice forests management has been one of the problematicissues of Bulgarian forestry for decades. Despite of forest authorities significant efforts, the area of coppice forests in Bulgaria (1.78 million ha in 2007 remained unchanged for a period of 50 years. The official forest policy is still aimed at conversionof coppice forests into seed ones through different silvicultural methods. That policy is applied to almost all coppice forests regardless of their ownership.

  11. Stakeholder analysis for coppice forestry in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivaylo Velichkov

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The study analyzes the state of coppice forestry in Bulgaria during last 18 years. Stakeholders and their interests and preferences in coppice forests are explored and assessed. Forests restitution process in Bulgaria started in 1997 and has not been finished yet. Nevertheless, significant further changes of the current ownership distribution are not expected. By the end of 2007, the state was the biggest coppice forest owner/stakeholder in Bulgaria with 71.3% of all coppice forests being state property. The other two important stakeholders are the municipalities (14.0% and private owners (12.0%. Currently, forest owners' number in Bulgaria exceeds 1 million, the average holding area being smaller than 1 ha. Only 150 individual plots are larger than 50 ha. The majority of private owners aim at taking maximum and immediate profit from their recently restituted forest properties. In most cases that reflects in clearcuts. Coppice forests management has been one of the problematic issues of Bulgarian forestry for decades. Despite of forest authorities significant efforts, the area of coppice forests in Bulgaria (1.78 million ha in 2007 remained unchanged for a period of 50 years. The official forest policy is still aimed at conversion of coppice forests into seed ones through different silvicultural methods. That policy is applied to almost all coppice forests regardless of their ownership.

  12. CERN exhibition a big hit in Bulgaria

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    The first CERN exhibition in Bulgaria attracted many visitors. In the first ever CERN exhibition to be held in Bulgaria, over 1,400 visitors, many of them students and young physicists, visited the 10-day event in Sofia. The CERN mini-exhibition took place at the National Earth and Mankind Museum between 8 and 17 November. Permanently staffed by young physicists from Sofia University, there were exhibits on display about research activities at CERN, as well as four additional posters describing Bulgaria's participation. The inauguration took place on the morning of 8 November in the presence of the Vice-Minister for Science and Education, Mrs. Vanya Dobreva, and some 200 guests. A series of short speeches were followed by a visit to the exhibition. CERN's representative at the event, Ray Lewis, was then asked by Professor Matey Mateev, President of the Union of Physicists in Bulgaria, to say a few words on behalf of the Organization. Numerous journalists were also present at the inauguration. A painting enti...

  13. Flexible Working Time Arrangements in Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Beleva, Iskra

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to analyze the flexible working time arrangements in Bulgaria, using a life-course perspective. Two important features have to be outlined, namely: underdeveloped flexible forms of employment in the country, including working time arrangement, and lack of previous analysis on flexible working time arrangements from the angle of life-course perspective. The author describes the regulatory framework, collective agreements at national and company level as a frame w...

  14. Current situation of oil refinery in Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vershkova, Elena; Petkova, Petinka; Grinkevich, Anastasia

    2016-09-01

    This article deals with the classification approach for oil refineries in international practices. Criteria of refinery estimation group, including its financial status estimation, have been investigated. The analysis object is “Lukoil Neftochim Bourgas” AD (LNCHB) activity. This company is a leading enterprise in Bulgaria. The analysis of LNCHB operating: energy intensity index; index of operating costs and return on investment index have been performed.

  15. Bulgaria and Romania: Geography and Economics. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminar Abroad 1996 (Bulgaria and Romania).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirtland, Jack

    This lesson plan on Romania and Bulgaria could be adapted for various grade levels and ability groups. Topics addressed include cultural diversity, the period of Soviet control in the region and its lasting effects, factors contributing to political instability, the current attempts to move towards a market economy, and traditions and customs…

  16. Out of America: Exploring Collaborative Mural Teaching in Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Kong

    2012-01-01

    In February 2010, the author arrived in the city of Sofia, Bulgaria, to teach mural painting at the National Academy of Art for his five-month Fulbright U.S. Scholarship Program lecturing award. He targeted Bulgaria as his host country in his 2009-2010 Fulbright U.S. Scholarship Program application because of its rich mural painting culture. He…

  17. Temporal characteristics of some aftershock sequences in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Solakov

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available We apply statistical analysis to study the temporal distribution of aftershocks in aftershock sequences of five earthquakes which occurred in Bulgaria. We use the maximum likelihood method to estimate the parameters of the modified Omori formula for aftershock sequences which is directly based on a time series. We find that: the maximum likelihood estimates of the parameter p show a regional variation, with lower values of the decay rate in North Bulgaria; the modified Omori formula provides an appropriate representation of temporal variation of the aftershock activity in North Bulgaria; the aftershock sequences in South Bulgaria are best modeled by the combination of an ordinary aftershock sequence with secondary aftershock activity. A plot of the cumulative number of events versus the frequency-linearized time t clearly demonstrates a transition from aftershock to foreshock activity prior to the second 1986 Strazhitsa (North Bulgaria earthquake.

  18. Marketing approaches for OTC analgesics in Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkova, Valentina; Valchanova, Velislava; Ibrahim, Adel; Nikolova, Irina; Benbasat, Niko; Dimitrov, Milen

    2014-03-04

    The marketing management includes analysis of market opportunities, selection of target markets, planning, developing and implementing of marketing strategies, monitoring and result control. The object of the present study was to analyse the marketing approaches applied for non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in Bulgaria. The performed SWOT(planning method used to evaluate the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats) analysis for one of the leading Bulgarian manufacturers marked the complex corporative strategy for stimulating the sales of NSAIDs. The study results show that the legislation frame in the country gives an opportunity for regulation of the NSAID market in order that incorrect marketing approaches such as disloyal competition are avoided.

  19. Simulation of the 2009 Harmanli fire (Bulgaria)

    CERN Document Server

    Jordanov, Georgi; Dobrinkova, Nina; Kochanski, Adam K; Mandel, Jan; Sousedík, Bedřich

    2011-01-01

    We use a coupled atmosphere-fire model to simulate a fire that occurred on August 14--17, 2009, in the Harmanli region, Bulgaria. Data was obtained from GIS and satellites imagery, and from standard atmospheric data sources. Fuel data was classified in the 13 Anderson categories. For correct fire behavior, the spatial resolution of the models needed to be fine enough to resolve the essential micrometeorological effects. The simulation results are compared to available incident data. The code runs faster than real time on a cluster. The model is available from openwfm.org and it extends WRF-Fire from WRF 3.3 release.

  20. The Contribution of Bulgaria to CERN

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    Following the discussions in the Committee of Council on 14th December 2000, concerning the request by Bulgaria for a reduction of its contribution to CERN for 2000 and 2001, the Bulgarian Minister of Education & Science expressed on 26 January 2001 his readiness to accept the scheme of reductions that emerged from these discussions. The Management considers that this scheme constitutes a reasonable solution and invites the Committee of Council to recommend the Council to take note of this document and to approve the annexed draft Resolution (Annex VI).

  1. Flora of the Mediterranean Rivers in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yordanka G. Hristeva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Species composition and distribution of aquatic bryophytes and vascular plants assemblages in Mediteranean Rivers in Bulgaria are presented in this work. Aquatic macrophytes were studied at thirteen rivers in South Bulgaria during 2014, together with abiotic factors (flow velocity, shading, and substrate type, mean depth and altitude. In total, 73 species were registered, of them 13 bryophytes and 60 vascular plants were identified. Aquatic bryophytes included 10 mosses and 3 liverworts. The recorded bryophytes species refer to 7 families and 12 genera. The most frequently distributed species was Leptodictyum riparium (Hedw. Warnst., followed by Cratoneuron filicinum (Hedw. Spruce and Platyhypnidium riparioides (Hedw. Dixon, Brachythecium rivulare Schimp. and Hygroamblystegium tenax (Hedw. Jenn. The recorded 60 species of vascular plants refer to 25 families and 43 genera. The most common hydrophyte species was Lemna minor L., followed by Ranunculus trichophyllus Chaix, Myriophyllum spicatum L. and Potamogeton nodosus Poir. The most abundant species from the group of helophytes and amphiphytes was Mentha aquatica L., followed by Agrostis stolonifera L. Mentha spicata L., Berula erecta (Huds. Coville, Juncus effusus L., Lycopus europaeus L., Lythrum salicaria L., Phalaris arundinacea L., Ranunculus repens L., Sparganium erectum L., Typha latifolia L., and Veronica anagalis-aquatica L. The majority of studied rivers sites were sunny, with moderate velocity, stony bottom, average depth up to 0.3 m and altitude between 100 and 500 m a.s.l.

  2. Longshore sediment transport at Golden Sands (Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hristo Nikolov

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of studies on the qualitative and quantitative features of the littoral drift at Golden Sands (Bulgaria, carried out jointly by Polish and Bulgarian researchers. The mathematical modelling of physical coastal processes took wave transformation (wave diffraction and refraction; the effects of shoaling and wave breaking and longshore sediment transport into account. The computations were carried out for the mean statistical annual wave climate, determined on the basis of IO BAS wave data, simulated using the WAM method from long-term Black Sea wind data. The results of sediment transport computations clearly show that its direction off the Golden Sands shore is from north to south.

  3. THE PERCEPTION OF NEIGHBOUR COUNTRIES IN BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgi MARINOV

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The image of the country can be influential in various buying decisions, especially in cases where there is a strong competition among market players and if price is not the factor with the utmost importance. In a psychosemantic experiment we study the demand patterns for imported goods in Bulgaria. We aim to assess how Bulgarian citizens build their image of other countries, especially the neighbour ones. We find that “market dimension” and “power dimension” are the major factors in the perceptions. We find also that perceptions of Bulgarian respondents give a more important role in Bulgarian economy to globally more important economies, despite the vicinity of neighbour countries.

  4. CAS Introduction to Accelerator Physics in Bulgaria

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    The CERN Accelerator School (CAS) and the Institute for Nuclear Research & Nuclear Energy (INRNE – Bulgarian Academy of Sciences) jointly organised a course on Introduction to Accelerators, at the Grand Hotel Varna, Bulgaria, from 19 September to 1 October, 2010.   CERN Accelerator School group photo. The course was extremely well attended with 109 participants representing 34 different nationalities, coming from countries as far away as Australia, Canada and Vietnam. The intensive programme comprised 39 lectures, 3 seminars, 4 tutorials where the students were split into three groups, a poster session where students could present their own work, and 7 hours of guided and private study. Feedback from the participants was extremely positive, praising the expertise and enthusiasm of the lecturers, as well as the high standard and excellent quality of their lectures. For the first time at CAS, the CERN Director-General, Rolf Heuer, visited the school and presented a seminar entitled...

  5. Marketing approaches for OTC analgesics in Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkova, Valentina; Valchanova, Velislava; Ibrahim, Adel; Nikolova, Irina; Benbasat, Niko; Dimitrov, Milen

    2014-01-01

    The marketing management includes analysis of market opportunities, selection of target markets, planning, developing and implementing of marketing strategies, monitoring and result control. The object of the present study was to analyse the marketing approaches applied for non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in Bulgaria. The performed SWOT(planning method used to evaluate the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats) analysis for one of the leading Bulgarian manufacturers marked the complex corporative strategy for stimulating the sales of NSAIDs. The study results show that the legislation frame in the country gives an opportunity for regulation of the NSAID market in order that incorrect marketing approaches such as disloyal competition are avoided. PMID:26019521

  6. The Kresna earthquake of 1904 in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. N. Ambraseys

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The Kresna earthquake in 1904 in Bulgaria is one of the largest shallow 20th century events on land in the Balkans. This event, which was preceded by a large foreshock, has hitherto been assigned a range of magnitudes up to M S = 7.8 but the reappraisal of instrumental data yields a much smaller value of M S = 7.2 and a re-assement of the intensity distribution suggests 7.1. Thus both instrumental and macroseismic data appear consistent with a magnitude which is also compatible with the fault segmentation and local morphology of the region which cannot accommodate shallow events much larger than about 7.0. The relatively large size of the main shock suggests surface faulting but the available field evidence is insufficient to establish the dimensions, attitude andamount of dislocation, except perhaps in the vicinity of Krupnik. This downsizing of the Kresna earthquake has important consequences for tectonics and earthquake hazard estimates in the Balkans.

  7. Liver transplantations in Bulgaria--initial experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vladov, N; Mihaylov, V; Takorov, I; Vasilevski, I; Lukanova, T; Odisseeva, E; Katzarov, K; Simonova, M; Tomova, D; Konakchieva, M; Petrov, N; Mladenov, N; Sergeev, S; Mutafchiiski, V

    2014-01-01

    The filed of liver transplantation (LT) continues to evolve and is highly effective therapy for many patients with acute and chronic liver failure resulting from a variety of causes. Improvement of perioperative care, surgical technique and immunosuppression in recent years has led to its transformation into a safe and routine procedure with steadily improving results. The aim of this paper is to present the initial experience of the transplant team at Military Medical Academy - Sofia, Bulgaria. For the period of April 2007 - August 2014 the team performed 38 liver transplants in 37 patients (one retransplantation). Patients were followed up prospectively and retrospectively. In 36 (95%) patients a graft from a cadaveric donor was used and in two cases--a right liver grafts from live donor. The mean MELD score of the transplanted patients was 17 (9-40). The preferred surgical technique was "piggyback" with preservation of inferior vena cava in 33 (86%) of the cases and classical technique in 3 (8%) patients. The overall complication rate was 48%. Early mortality rate was 13% (5 patients). The overall 1- and 5-year survival is 81% and 77% respectivelly. The setting of a new LT program is a complex process which requires the effort and effective colaboration of a wide range of speciacialists (hepatologists, surgeons, anesthesiologists, psychologists, therapists, coordinators, etc.) and institutions. The good results are function of a proper selection of the donors and the recipients. Living donation is an alternative in the shortage of cadaveric donors.

  8. Genetic analysis of haemophilia A in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kremensky Ivo

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Haemophilias are the most common hereditary severe disorders of blood clotting. In families afflicted with heamophilia, genetic analysis provides opportunities to prevent recurrence of the disease. This study establishes a diagnostical strategy for carriership determination and prenatal diagnostics of haemophilia A in Bulgarian haemophilic population. Methods A diagnostical strategy consisting of screening for most common mutations in the factor VIII gene and analysis of a panel of eight linked to the factor VIII gene locus polymorphisms was established. Results Polymorphic analysis for carrier status determination of haemophilia A was successful in 30 families out of 32 (94%. Carrier status was determined in 25 of a total of 28 women at risk (89%. Fourteen prenatal diagnoses in women at high risk of having a haemophilia A – affected child were performed, resulting in 6 healthy boys and 5 girls. Conclusion The compound approach proves to be a highly informative and cost-effective strategy for prevention of recurrence of haemophilia A in Bulgaria. DNA analysis facilitates carriership determination and subsequent prenatal diagnosis in the majority of Bulgarian families affected by haemophilia A.

  9. Shakespeare arean hypertexts in communist Bulgaria Shakespeare arean hypertexts in communist Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Shurbanov

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Since the first days of the reception of Shakespeare’s work in Bulgaria during the second half of the nineteenth century down to the present time two of his tragedies, Romeo and Juliet and Hamlet, have held an unrivalled sway on the national stage and over the people’s minds. Another one, Othello, was produced very frequently in the beginning, though often by non-Bulgarian troupes, and yet another, Macbeth, was a set text at the schools for many decades but rarely took the fancy of theatre directors and audiences. Since the first days of the reception of Shakespeare’s work in Bulgaria during the second half of the nineteenth century down to the present time two of his tragedies, Romeo and Juliet and Hamlet, have held an unrivalled sway on the national stage and over the people’s minds. Another one, Othello, was produced very frequently in the beginning, though often by non-Bulgarian troupes, and yet another, Macbeth, was a set text at the schools for many decades but rarely took the fancy of theatre directors and audiences.

  10. ANKYLOSING SPONDYLITIS IN THE VOLGA BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. I. Abdulganieva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There is much evidence that ankylosing spondylitis (AS is a disease that is also much older than early human civilizations and man as a whole. Until now, the Russia's earliest (14th c ntury archaeological finding of such a patient remains a Volga Bulgaria inhabitant suffering with AS during his life. In the Republic of Tatarstan, at the site of an ancient Bulgar settlement appearing in the early ninth century, archaeologists have discovered an unusual grave: the deceased sitting with his back against the western wall of a tomb pitand having a bronze crosslet under his fingers. According to a historical source, it was the way of burying Christian hierarchs as pastors sitting on the altar and anticipating the great assize during which the destinies of human souls should be ruled. Anthropological analysis showed that the bones belonged to a 35–45-year-old man who was 158–163 cm tall. During the examination of the remains,attention was called to the following features of the spinal structure: ankylosis of the inferior cervical and superior thoracic vertebrae (СV–ThI and inferior thoracic and lumbar spine (ThIV–LII predominantly due to ossification of the anterior longitudinal ligament. Facet vertebral joints and costotransverse joints were also ankylosed at the same levels. The man's neck was fixed in a bent-over position with the head down, the chin touching the breast bone – the socalled soliciting posture. By and large, the vertebral changes are characteristic of late (X-ray stage III spondylitis. Spinal and pelvic photos and X-films are given for demonstration. The studies conducted by historical scientists and forensic medical experts suggest that the found remains are most likely to belong to Christian Theodore nicknamed Jerusaleman, also further known as Holy Theodore philosopher Kamsky (Bulgarian, who was mentioned in the Nikon chronicle in 1323.

  11. Field Susceptibility of Quince Hybrids to Fire Blight in Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spread of fire blight in Bulgaria during the last 20 years has nearly eliminated commercial production of pear and quince. Damage has increased in both nurseries and orchards, yet susceptible cultivars continue to be planted. Quince is the host most frequently attacked by Erwinia amylovora in Bulgar...

  12. TRENDS IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF ORGANIC FARMING IN BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina AGAPIEVA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to follow trends in the development of organic farming in Bulgaria, and to identify the factors’ strength and direction of their impact on organic production of agricultural products. The study covers the period from 2003 to 2013 and is based on information from official statistics of the Ministry of Agriculture and Food, and the author's own research. There are distinct rates of increase in both areas and organic agricultural production in Bulgaria. While in 2003 the areas under organic management are 8,364 ha by 2013 they numbered 56, 287 ha. Bulgaria has a high potential for production and export of organic agricultural products fresh and processed, but significantly lags behind other European countries. However, there is increasing momentum in organic farming, driven by a group of economic, market, social and legislative initiatives. The main reason for this growth is consumer demand of organic products in Bulgaria. In general, the motivations of Bulgarian consumers of organic products are related to the benefits for health and the environment, to the improvement of food quality and to the support of local small farmers, communities and markets.

  13. NATO Expansion: Romania and Bulgaria within the Larger Context. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad, 1997. (Romania and Bulgaria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Thomas M.

    This paper analyzes the issues regarding current expansion of NATO membership to include Romania and Bulgaria. The perspective given is that of the United States and places the Romanian and Bulgarian cases within the context of those issues. Sections of the paper include: (1) "The Road to Madrid: Expansion of NATO"; (2) "No Easy…

  14. Review of the status of mammals in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Peshev

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the territory of Bulgaria are found 97 species of mammals, belonging to 8 orders. 37 of them are protected. 19 mammalian species are included in the Bulgarian Red Data Book. Two of them are extinct, 8 are endangered and 9 are rare. In Bulgaria there are no endemic mammals. Three species are extinct: Eliomys quercinus, Mustela lutreola and Lynx lynx. 5 species are introduced: Ondatra zibethica, Oryctolagus cuniculus, Cervus nippon, Cervus dama and Ovis ammon. The raccon dog (Nyctereustes procyonoides appeared by natural colonisation.

  15. Paleomagnetic studies on sedimentary Jurassic rocks from southern Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruczyk, J.; Kaḑziałko-Hofmokl, M.; Nozharov, P.; Petkov, N.; Nachev, I.

    Paleomagnetic investigations were performed on Jurassic sediments sampled in the mobile area of Bulgaria comprising Srednogorie, Kreiste and Stranja. The main carriers of magnetic properties of rocks studied are pigmentary haematite and goethite of post-sedimentary origin. The characteristic component of natural remanence (CARM), isolated by means of analysis of demagnetization procedure is secondary, and was acquired after the main tectonic event that took place in this area during the Upper Cretaceous. The CARM directions before tectonic correction are close to the results for Upper Cretaceous magmatic rocks from Srednogorie. The mean CARM direction and the corresponding polar position obtained for the whole region studied are compared with reference data for the Eurasian Platform. The difference between the reference and our data implies anticlockwise rotation of southern Bulgaria relative to Eurasia by ˜ 10-20° and a northward tilt of the region under study by ˜ 10-15° after acquisition of CARM.

  16. Evidences for the Lynx recovery in Bulgaria: the Lynx discovered in Western Rhodopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NIKOLAI SPASSOV

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available On photographs taken by a camera trap in the region of Yagodina village, Western Rhodopes, (Bulgaria the presence of the Eurasian Lynx Lynx lynx L. has been registered in the summer of 2014. This is the most reliable to date argument for the presence in Rhodope mountains of this critically endangered species in Bulgaria and for its gradual dispersal from the western mountainous border region of Bulgaria to more appropriate country habitats inland.

  17. SERVICE QUALITY MEASUREMENT: IMPLICATIONS FOR HEALTHCARE SECTOR IN BULGARIA

    OpenAIRE

    VASSILEVA, Bistra; BALLONI, Antonio José

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to present the service quality situation in hospitals in North-Eastern Planning Region in Bulgaria. Our intention was to assess the gap between the expected and perceived healthcare service quality in hospitals. To meet these goals we conducted a study using prospective questionnaire provided by the GESITI project (Management of System and Information Technology in Hospitals [GESITI], 2013) and SERVQUAL scale. The results helped us to summarize the challenges for Bulga...

  18. POLLEN MORPHOLOGY OF CROCUS L.(IRIDACEAE) IN BULGARIA

    OpenAIRE

    UZUNDZHALIEVA KATYA SPASOVA; Maria POPOVA TODOROVA

    2012-01-01

    The pollen of the wild species from the genus Crocus L., spread in Bulgaria has been analyzed. The investigations, made by light microscope show that the pollen of these species is spherical in shape and round in outlines, comparatively big. These morphological characteristics of the pollen of the wild Bulgarian Crocuses define it as a primitive one [6]. The Scanning Electron Microscope investigations, made by Beug [1], established two types of pollen morphology. The results of our investigat...

  19. THE TOURISM REGIONS IN BULGARIA – CONCEPTS AND CHALLENGES

    OpenAIRE

    Stankova, Mariya

    2010-01-01

    Bulgaria’s recent experience as tourism country raised the question about the importance of its tourism regions, and the effectiveness of marketing and advertising strategies. Very weak results were achieved about the “new” tourism region planning. The priority based in 2007 NTA (National Tourism Agency) – the regulator which is controlling the tourism policies in Bulgaria, defined the plan for contemporary needs about tourism planning of regions and the usage of that regions for observ...

  20. [New materials on the history of veterinary medicine in Bulgaria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, M

    1979-01-01

    Several tens of ritual plates are preserved in Bulgaria on which elements of glorification are found of god Mithras who gained popularity particularly in the 1st-IIIrd century in the regions of Thrace and today's North Bulgaria, then provinces of the Eastern Roman Empire. Mithras seemed to be respected by slaves, soldiers, and merchants alike, but was also an exemplar to the Roman emperors, being considered by them as Sol invictus or Deo invicto. The central scene in all plates is that of Mithras tauroctonus (Mithras, the killer of bulls). This scene is likewise of interest to veterinarians as it shows that in such early epoch the people that lived within the territory of Bulgaria of today used a method for the felling of large animals, the elements of which--fixing the head and bending it backwards, fastening the thorax with a belt or another loop, loading the animal's back--are still existing and are used in a number of modern methods of felling (that of Hess, the Caucasian way of felling, the Chinese one of Dou-Chan-Than, etc.) Besides, the people of ancient time knew that ruminants have an incomplete upper dentition. They skilfully employed this to bring animals that had to be felled into an unusual nonphysiologic posture. Not sooner than 16 centuries prior to the preformists (the spermists) they supported the concept that the testes were the source of life.

  1. Computer simulations of the atmospheric composition climate of Bulgaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gadzhev, G.; Ganev, K.; Syrakov, D.; Prodanova, M.; Georgieva, I.; Georgiev, G.

    2015-07-01

    Some extensive numerical simulations of the atmospheric composition fields in Bulgaria have been recently performed. The US EPA Model-3 system was chosen as a modelling tool. As the NCEP Global Analysis Data with 1 degree resolution was used as meteorological background, the MM5 and CMAQ nesting capabilities were applied for downscaling the simulations to a 3 km resolution over Bulgaria. The TNO emission inventory was used as emission input. Special pre-processing procedures are created for introducing temporal profiles and speciation of the emissions. The biogenic emissions of VOC are estimated by the model SMOKE. The simulations were carried out for years 2000-2007. The numerical experiments have been carried out for different emission scenarios, which makes it possible the contribution of emissions from different source categories to be evaluated. The Models-3 Integrated Process Rate Analysis option is applied to discriminate the role of different dynamic and chemical processes for the air pollution formation. The obtained ensemble of numerical simulation results is extensive enough to allow statistical treatment calculating not only the mean concentrations and different source categories contribution mean fields, but also standard deviations, skewness, etc. with their dominant temporal modes (seasonal and/or diurnal variations). Thus some basic facts about the atmospheric composition climate of Bulgaria can be retrieved from the simulation ensemble. (Author)

  2. Christo Deltshev & Pavel Stoev (eds (2006: European Arachnology 2005, Acta zoologica bulgaria, Suppl. No. 1; Proceedings of the 22nd European Colloquium of Arachnology, Blagoevgrad, Bulgaria, 1-6 August 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunz, Dirk

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available book review: Christo Deltshev & Pavel Stoev (eds (2006: European Arachnology 2005, Acta zoologica bulgaria, Suppl. No. 1; Proceedings of the 22nd European Colloquium of Arachnology, Blagoevgrad, Bulgaria, 1-6 August 2005

  3. 76 FR 50283 - Finding Regarding Foreign Social Insurance or Pension System-Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-12

    ... ADMINISTRATION Finding Regarding Foreign Social Insurance or Pension System-- Bulgaria AGENCY: Social Security Administration (SSA). ACTION: Notice of finding regarding foreign social insurance or pension system--Bulgaria... Commissioner of Social Security finds has in effect a social insurance or pension system which is of...

  4. New data on the distribution of Hoplia stenolepis (Scarabaeoidea: Melolonthidae in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yana Petrova

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The Balkan endemic species Hoplia stenolepis Apfelbeck, 1912 is reported from two localities in Kresna and Zemen Gorge, SW Bulgaria. The Zemen Gorge locality is the most northern for the species in Bulgaria to date. At the Zemen Gorge the species is found in numerous aggregations of male specimens on different grasses. No feeding or mating activity was observed.

  5. Managing uncertainty of young people's transitions to adulthood in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovacheva Siyka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the strategies of young people in Bulgaria for responding to and dealing with uncertainty in the passage to autonomy. It focuses on the active engagement of the young in the processes of identity formation and gaining independence, thus initiating a change in the common patterns of growing up. The biographical choices that the young make are analysed as embedded in a multilayered social context involving the interplay of macro societal changes, shifts in organisational policies and practices and restructuring of gender and generational relations in the family. Theoretically this paper builds upon the concept of uncertainty in understanding the dilemma of structure and agency in youth transitions. The analysis is based upon official statistical information about economic and demographic trends in 21st century Bulgaria and the findings of an organisational case study of a social service agency and biographical interviews with young working parents, which were conducted within the framework of the international Transitions project. Two case studies of individual strategies of young women - one from a working class family and the other from an ethnic minority - are presented in more detail in order to examine the agency they apply in coping with uncertainty and the resources they mobilize in devising (everyday and short-term life projects. The combination of quantitative and qualitative data allows a reflection on the process of managing uncertainty with regards to the past experiences, present meanings and future aspirations of young people as influenced by the contracting state support and contradictory company policies in Bulgaria.

  6. Passive solar systems performance under conditions in Bulgaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lekov, A B; Balcomb, J D

    1989-12-01

    This paper presents energy performance of 12 passive solar systems for three climatically different zones of Bulgaria. The results are compared with a base-case residential house that has a design typical for these areas. The different passive solar systems are compared on the basis of the percentage of solar savings and the yield, which is the annual net benefit of adding the passive solar system. The analyses are provided based on monthly meteorological data, and the method used for calculations is the Solar Load Ratio. Recommendations for Bulgarian conditions are given. 5 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  7. THE VOLUNTARY HEALTH INSURANCE IN BULGARIA - HISTORY, DEVELOPMENT AND CHANGES

    OpenAIRE

    Natalia M. Shtereva-Nikolova; Nikolay A. Popov; Tsvetelina M. Petrova-Gotova

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this article is to show the history and development of the Voluntary Health Insurance (VHI) in Bulgaria and the recent regulatory changes. During the investigated period (2003–2012) the market increases over seven times, the number of working and licensed VHI funds grew over three times. The regulatory changes in 2013 require re-licensing and higher capital, which reduced the number of the VHI companies. We analyze the changes in the market and how VHI funds succeed to meet the inc...

  8. The design of the Bulgaria rad waste repository; Diseno del centro de almacenamiento de residuos radiactivos de Bulgaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefonova, I.; Petrov, I.; Navarro, M.; Sanchez, M.; Medinilla, G.

    2012-11-01

    In October 2011 a consortium composed by Westinghouse Engineering Spain SAU, ENRESA and DBE Technology GmbH was awarded a contract for the design of the Bulgaria rad waste repository. The facility, inspired in the spanish centre of El Cabril owned by ENRESA, will consist of a 66 reinforced concrete cells surface repository capable of receiving 18600 already conditioned waste containers of 20 t each, during 60 years, and the related auxiliary facilities and buildings. The project, representing a challenge because of the schedule and required level of detail, goes on fulfilling main milestones and getting customer satisfaction. (Author)

  9. Derecho-like event in Bulgaria on 20 July 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gospodinov, Ilian; Dimitrova, Tsvetelina; Bocheva, Lilia; Simeonov, Petio; Dimitrov, Rumen

    2015-05-01

    In this work we analyze the development of a severe-convective-storm system in northwestern Bulgaria on 20 July 2011 which exhibited derecho-like characteristics. Prior to this event, a derecho had never been documented in Bulgaria. The convective system was associated with a cold front. We present a synoptic-scale analysis of the evolution of the cold front and an overview of the wind and the damage that has occurred in the region with the strongest impact. The convective system consisted of two multi-cell thunderstorms that are analyzed in some detail, based on radar data. The two storms merged and the convective system evolved into a bow-shape reflectivity structure with two rear inflow notches. The analysis of the radar data revealed cloud top heights of 17 km, with the formation of а bounded weak echo region, a maximum radar reflectivity factor of 63 dBZ, and wind speeds above 30 m/s. The field investigation revealed patterns in the damaged crops typical of strong wind gusts.

  10. Detection of Dobrava hantavirus RNA in Apodemus mice in Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christova, Iva; Plyusnina, Angelina; Gladnishka, Teodora; Kalvatchev, Nikolay; Trifonova, Iva; Dimitrov, Hristo; Mitkovska, Vesela; Mohareb, Emad; Plyusnin, Alexander

    2015-02-01

    Several Hantaviruses cause hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in Europe: Dobrava-Belgrade virus (DOBV), Puumala, Saaremaa, Sochi, and Seoul virus. Although HFRS is endemic in Bulgaria, genome sequences of hantaviruses have never been detected in wild rodents. To identify rodent reservoirs, a total of 691 rodents from three endemic regions were trapped in 2011-2012 and screened by TaqMan RT-PCR for detection of hantaviral genomic RNA. Partial small (S) and/or large (L)-segment sequences were recovered from six Apodemus mice: five of the species A. flavicollis and one A. agrarius. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that all recovered sequences belonged to DOBV. On the phylogenetic trees, the novel Bulgarian hantavirus sequences clustered together with sequences of established previously DOBV variants recovered from Bulgarian HFRS patients and also with variants found in wild rodents trapped in Slovenia, Greece, and Slovakia. One of the novel Bulgarian DOBV S-sequences from A. agrarius was related closely to DOBV sequences recovered from A. flavicollis, suggesting a spillover of DOBV from its natural host to A. agrarius mice. The results of this study confirmed the circulation of DOBV in wild rodents in Bulgaria. The complexity of the epidemiological situation in the Balkans requires further studies of hantaviruses in rodent hosts and human HFRS cases.

  11. Aphids (Hemiptera, Aphididae) on ornamental plants in greenhouses in Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yovkova, Mariya; Petrović-Obradović, Olivera; Tasheva-Terzieva, Elena; Pencheva, Aneliya

    2013-01-01

    Investigations on the species composition and host range of aphids on ornamental greenhouse plants in Bulgaria was conducted over a period of five years, from 2008 to 2012. Twenty greenhouses, growing ornamentals for landscaping, plant collections and other purposes were observed. They were located in the regions of Sofia, Plovdiv, Smolyan, Pavlikeni, Varna and Burgas. The total number of collected aphid samples was 279. Their composition included 33 aphid species and one subspecies from 13 genera and 5 subfamilies. Twenty-eight species were found to belong to subfamily Aphidinae. Almost 70 % of all recorded species were polyphagous. The most widespread aphid species was Myzus persicae, detected in 13 greenhouses all year round, followed by Aulacorthum solani (10 greenhouses) and Aphis gossypii (9 greenhouses). The widest host range was shown by Myzus persicae (43 hosts), Aulacorthum solani (32 hosts) and Aulacorthum circumflexum (23 hosts). The list of host plants includes 114 species from 95 genera and 58 families. The greatest variety of aphid species was detected on Hibiscus (9 species). Out of all aphid samples 12.9 % were collected on Hibiscus and 6.8 %, on Dendranthema. The greatest variety of aphid species was detected on Hibiscus (9 species). Periphyllus californiensis and Aphis (Aphis) fabae mordvilkoi are reported for the first time for Bulgaria. Furthermore, Aphis spiraecola has been found in new localities and has widened its host range in this country.

  12. Atmospheric characteristics statistic study of Ruse region, Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheleva, I.; Filipova, M.

    2016-10-01

    Temperature, air humidity and atmospheric pressure measurements in Ruse region for 40 years period are statistically studied in this paper. Descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation coefficients and linear regression models for these characteristics are presented and commented. The most variable atmospheric parameter is air humidity during the spring seasons. The hardest change of temperature and atmospheric pressure is during January. Temperature has biggest change in January and smallest - in July. Humidity has biggest change in April and smallest - in October. Atmospheric pressure has biggest change in January and smallest - in July. Characteristics temperature and atmospheric pressure of spring (April) and autumn (October) are very similar. Summer temperatures and atmospheric pressure (July) have smallest change. The atmospheric temperature data for Ruse region are also compared with the official basic data for Bulgaria. It is shown that mean values of the temperature in Ruse region are bigger than the mean temperature for Bulgaria. It is shown that the winter and spring temperatures for Ruse region are slightly going up lately which could be connected with the typical for Ruse region air pollution especially by particle matter.

  13. Asbestos exposure and mesothelioma incidence and mortality in Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vangelova, Katya; Dimitrova, Irina

    2016-06-01

    Bulgaria totally banned the import, production and use of asbestos in 2005, but produced and used asbestos products during the last 3-4 decades of the 20th century. The aim of this study was to follow the incidence and mortality of mesothelioma in Bulgaria in relation to past occupational exposures. A literature search between 1960 and 2014 was conducted to obtain information on asbestos consumption, occupational exposure and asbestos-related diseases (ARDs). Data on registered mesotheliomas were provided by the National Cancer Register and data for recognized occupational ARDs were provided by the National Social Security Institute. An increase in the incidence of mesothelioma from 5 to 58 from 1993 to 2013, with 666 cases in the 21-year period, was registered. Incidence, mortality rates, deaths and male-to-female ratios and were lower in comparison to industrialized countries. The increase in mesothelioma incidence is considered as a consequence of more recent production and use of asbestos and asbestos products and the high occupational exposure between 1977 and 1989, while the lower rate of mesothelioma deaths and male-to-female ratio need to be investigated further.

  14. Performance of some sunflower genotypes grown under dry weather conditions in south Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurettin Tahsin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Information on yield and agricultural performance of new sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. hybrids grown under dry weather conditions in South Bulgaria is limited. The objectives of this field study is to acquire information on seed yield and other agricultural characteristics of five sunflower hybrids and their parental lines in South Bulgaria. This research was carried out on the Experimental farm at the Agricultural University in Plovdiv, Bulgaria in the seasons of 2008 and 2009. Statistical analysis revealed that the differences among genotypes for all studied characters were significant in both seasons as well as in the combined one.

  15. Scenarios of energy demand and efficiency potential for Bulgaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tzvetanov, P.; Ruicheva, M.; Denisiev, M.

    1996-12-31

    The paper presents aggregated results on macroeconomic and final energy demand scenarios developed within the Bulgarian Country Study on Greenhouse Gas Emissions Mitigation, supported by US Country Studies Program. The studies in this area cover 5 main stages: (1) {open_quotes}Baseline{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}Energy Efficiency{close_quotes} socioeconomic and energy policy philosophy; (2) Modeling of macroeconomic and sectoral development till 2020; (3) Expert assessments on the technological options for energy efficiency increase and GHG mitigation in the Production, Transport and Households and Services Sectors; (4) Bottom-up modeling of final energy demand; and (5) Sectoral and overall energy efficiency potential and policy. Within the Bulgarian Country Study, the presented results have served as a basis for the final integration stage {open_quotes}Assessment of the Mitigation Policy and Measures in the Energy System of Bulgaria{close_quotes}.

  16. ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF STATE AND DEVELOMENT OF BEEKEEPING IN BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasko KOPRIVLENSKI

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze the trends and development of Bulgarian beekeeping. The study is based on official statistical data of the Ministry of Agriculture and Food and fieldwork study for the period 2009-2012. To achieve the above aim, first of all, the authors trance the changes in the production of honey until 2012 and second they analyze the distribution of farms according the number of bee colonies and prophylactic methods of their feeding up. In addition, in study was revealed the reasons for distribution of the bee colonies and identified the important problems facing the sector in term of the legislation, protection of the bee colonies, the control of the importing the queen bees and market development of the bee products. The one of main results of the study showed that the number of bee colonies in the country decrease even highly expert-oriented production of honey in Bulgaria.

  17. Chromosome study of three species of Dormice from Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Peshev

    1995-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The karyotypes of three species of dormice were studied. The fat dormouse Myoxus glis is reported with 2n=62. The forest dormouse Dryomys nitedula has 2n=48 and the hazel dormouse Muscardinus avellanarius is reported with 2n=46. A secondary constriction is well visible in all three species. Riassunto Studio cromosomico di tre specie di Mioxidi in Bulgaria - Sono stati studiati i cariotipi di tre specie di mioxidi. M. glis è caratterizzato da 2n=62, D. nitedula da 2n=48 e M. avellanarius da 2n=46. Una costrizione secondaria è ben visibile in tutte e tre le specie.

  18. Measurement of indoor radon concentration in kindergartens in Sofia, Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Kremena; Stojanovska, Zdenka; Tsenova, Martina; Badulin, Viktor; Kunovska, Bistra

    2014-11-01

    As a part of the systematic survey of indoor radon in Bulgaria, the indoor radon concentration was measured in 296 kindergarten buildings of Sofia city during 3 months (February to April 2013) using the CR-39 nuclear tract detectors. In 256 buildings at least two frequently occupied rooms (mainly playrooms) were observed. Altogether, 922 measurements were performed. The frequency distribution was well described by the lognormal function. The measured radon concentrations range between 9 and 1415 Bq m(-3) with a geometric mean of 101 Bq m(-3) (2.08) and an arithmetic mean 132 Bq m(-3) with a standard deviation of 118 Bq m(-3). The radon concentrations obtained in this survey were compared with that in Sofia city dwellings obtained from a previous study. A detailed statistical analysis of the building factors was presented.

  19. POLLEN MORPHOLOGY OF CROCUS L.(IRIDACEAE IN BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    UZUNDZHALIEVA KATYA SPASOVA

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The pollen of the wild species from the genus Crocus L., spread in Bulgaria has been analyzed. The investigations, made by light microscope show that the pollen of these species is spherical in shape and round in outlines, comparatively big. These morphological characteristics of the pollen of the wild Bulgarian Crocuses define it as a primitive one [6]. The Scanning Electron Microscope investigations, made by Beug [1], established two types of pollen morphology. The results of our investigation led to the conclusion that the same types are also presented in Bulgarian species: – C.biflorus –type, or syncolpate and C.vernus – type, or inaperturate. Eight of the species belong to the first type and only C. pallasii belongs to the second. The pollen of C. reticulatus is with quite unclear aperture – maybe transition to the inaperturate type.

  20. Collective identity and wellbeing of Roma minority adolescents in Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrova, Radosveta; Chasiotis, Athanasios; Bender, Michael; van de Vijver, Fons

    2013-01-01

    In Europe and particularly in Bulgaria, Roma represent the largest low-status minority group that is subjected to marked public intolerance and discrimination. This study examined links among Roma (N = 207) and Bulgarian (N = 399) adolescents' ethnic, familial, and religious identities as salient identity aspects for their psychological wellbeing. Results indicated that, as expected, Roma youth reported lower levels of wellbeing than Bulgarian youth. The latter revealed a weaker religious identity than Roma youth, whereas no ethnic group differences emerged regarding Bulgarian or familial identity. Furthermore, we observed that collective identity was higher in older participants of both groups. Finally, a multigroup analysis using structural equation modeling showed that collective identity was a positive predictor of wellbeing for both Roma and Bulgarian adolescents. Findings demonstrated differences in salience as well as structural communalities regarding ways in which collective identity affects wellbeing of youth from two ethnically diverse communities.

  1. Leadership training in science, technology, engineering and mathematics education in Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bairaktarova, Diana; Cox, Monica F.; Evangelou, Demetra

    2011-12-01

    This synthesis paper explores current leadership training in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) education in Bulgaria. The analysis begins with discussion of global factors influencing the implementation of leadership training in STEM education in general and then presents information about the current status of leadership training in Bulgaria with emphases on the country's economics, politics and geographical location as specific factors influencing leadership education. A short background of Bulgaria is presented with regard to population, gross domestic product, educational system, engineering force and possible need for leaders in industry in Bulgaria and the European Union. The paper provides an overall view about the current status of leadership training in all Bulgarian universities offering STEM education and concentrates specifically on two major universities by examining their currently offered programmes. As part of the discussion, similar training elements in other European countries and the USA are presented.

  2. Presentations at TENCompetence Workshop in Sofia, Bulgaria. March 30th-31st, 2006

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Several

    2006-01-01

    Several (2006). Presentations at International Workshop in Learning Networks for Lifelong Competence Development. March, 30-31, 2006, Sofia, Bulgaria: TENCompetence Conference. The full proceedings can be downloaded at: http://hdl.handle.net/1820/836.

  3. A new outbreak of brucellosis in Bulgaria detected in July 2015--preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nenova, Rumiana; Tomova, Iskra; Saparevska, Raina; Kantardjiev, Todor

    2015-01-01

    During July 2015 a brucellosis outbreak was detected in Kyustendil district, west Bulgaria. As of 15 August, 31 patients have been diagnosed all with an epidemiological connection to Rila town. Patients have not travelled/worked abroad. Breeding family-owned goats and/or improper use of their milk appear to be the main risk factors for transmission of the infection. This second autochthonous brucellosis outbreak in Bulgaria since 2006, affects the western part of the country.

  4. STUDY ON SOME FACTORS FOR HEALTHY NUTRITION ENVIRONMENT IN RESTAURANTS IN SOUTHWESTERN BULGARIA

    OpenAIRE

    Ludmila Ivanova; Julieta Trifonova; Ilinka Terziyska

    2012-01-01

    The purpose – The purpose of the study is to conduct a regional survey in tourist companies in Southwestern Bulgaria for examining some key factors for building/forming a healthy nutrition environment. Design – The special focus is given to analysis of the key factors for creating healthy nutrition environment in restaurants. Methodology – A cross sectional survey conducted including 34 respondents from 120 operating hotels with restaurants in Southwestern Bulgaria and 30 independent restaura...

  5. Flashes from the Past: Establishment of the Bulgarian national Bank as Central bank of Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Bojinov, Bojidar

    2015-01-01

    The study aims to outline the specifics related with the emergence and development of central banking in Bulgaria. Established in 1879 as an ordinary commercial bank, Bulgarian National Bank experienced a number of ups and downs in its 130 year history. In its evolutionary development, it became a central issue and Bank of Bulgaria in 1928. In the years of socialism, Bulgarian National Bank is experiencing its devolution development to become in the period 1971-1982 in the only bank in count...

  6. ISO 9001 certification for hospitals in Bulgaria: does it help service?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoimenova, Assena; Stoilova, Ani; Petrova, Guenka

    2014-03-04

    The aim of our study is to review the published literature on establishment and implementation of ISO 9001 QMS in European hospitals, to study the availability of International Organization for Standardization (ISO) quality management systems (QMS) in Bulgarian hospitals and to outline the main advantages of ISO implementation in the hospitals in Bulgaria. The information on availability of ISO QMS in the hospitals in Bulgaria was gathered via Bulgarian certification register, the registries of various quality associations, websites of hospitals and certification companies presented in Bulgaria. A total number of 312 hospitals in Bulgaria were screened for the availability of QMS certified against the ISO 9001 requirements. The experience of European hospitals that implemented QMS is positive and the used approaches to improve the processes and the demonstrated effects from ISO implementation are analysed by the researchers. Unlike other European Union member states, the establishment of quality management systems in Bulgaria is not compulsory. However, our study revealed that 14.42% of the hospitals in Bulgaria have implemented and have certified quality systems against the requirements of ISO 9001. Our study confirmed that a quality management system using the ISO 9001 standard is useful for the hospitals as it can help to increase the operational efficiencies, to reduce errors, improve patient safety and produce a more preventive approach instead of a reactive environment.

  7. PROFILES AND PREFERENCES OF ON-LINE MILLENIAL SHOPPERS IN BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia R. Loubeau

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This research seeks to develop a better understanding of the factors affecting on-line purchasing behavior among Generation Y (Gen Y consumers in Bulgaria. Also called millenials and born between the mid-1970s and late 1990s, this generation is especially active on-line and will be a dominant influence shaping e-commerce. An empirical study was conducted based on a written survey of a sample consisting of 367 high school and university students in Bulgaria. The most important reason why Bulgarian young people shop on-line is the pursuit of unique products not locally available, followed by convenience and better pricing, and their favorite category of internet purchases is “Apparel and Accessories.” Bulgarian millennials are using the internet to shop for trendy fashion and to obtain a variety of brands that are unavailable locally. Like other regions of the world, concern about financial transactions security is a major barrier limiting the willingness to shop on-line in Bulgaria. Unlike other markets where on-line music purchases are growing, high levels of digital piracy in Bulgaria strongly discourage Bulgarian students from purchasing music on-line. One limitation of this study arises because of its reliance on a convenience sample of students from medium sized cities in Southern Bulgaria. Further research employing stratified random sampling across Bulgaria is needed to assess whether the findings are broadly generalizable for the Gen Y population.

  8. Household energy management strategies in Bulgaria's transitioning energy sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carper, Mark Daniel Lynn

    Recent transition literature of post-socialist states has addressed the shortcomings of a rapid blanket implementation of neo-liberal policies and practices placed upon a landscape barren of the needed institutions and experiences. Included in these observations are the policy-making oversight of spatial socioeconomic variations and their individual and diverse methods of coping with their individual challenges. Of such literature addressing the case of Bulgaria, a good portion deals with the spatial consequences of restructuring as well as with embedded disputes over access to and control of resources. With few exceptions, studies of Bulgaria's changing energy sector have largely been at the state level and have not been placed within the context of spatial disparities of socioeconomic response. By exploring the variations of household energy management strategies across space, my dissertation places this resource within such a theoretical context and offers analysis based on respective levels of economic and human development, inherited material infrastructures, the organization and activities of institutions, and fuel and technological availability. A closed survey was distributed to explore six investigational themes across four geographic realms. The investigational themes include materials of housing construction, methods of household heating, use of electrical appliances, energy conservation strategies, awareness and use of energy conservation technologies, and attitudes toward the transitioning energy sector. The geographic realms include countrywide results, the urban-rural divide, regional variations, and urban divisions of the capital city, Sofia. Results conclude that, indeed, energy management strategies at the household level have been shaped by multiple variables, many of which differ across space. These variables include price sensitivity, degree of dependence on remnant technologies, fuel and substitute availability, and level of human and

  9. An ethnobotanical study of wild edible plants in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anely Nedelcheva

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study focuses on the wild vascular plants traditionally used for human consumption in Bulgaria and its aim is to present data about the richness and diversity of plants used as a nutrition source, about folk botanical knowledge and to give an impression about their contemporary state and development in relation to natural plant resources and traditional food culture. The study covers the period from the end of 19th to the middle of the 20th century. Materials and Methods: The study gathered data from more than 30 ethnobotanical and ethnographical sources which provide information for the end of 19th to the middle of the 20th century, in addition to field data collected through semi-structured interviews. Results: A total of 88 wild plant species, 25 families and 52 genera were identified as edible plants. Prevailing are representatives of Rosaceae, Amaranthaceae, Amaryllidaceae, Brassicaceae, Compositae and Polygonaceae. The largest numbers of species are from Allium, Rumex and Chenopodium. Similar in number are the species which are used as leaves (43 and fruits (38, followed by young shoots (9, seeds (7, roots (4, bulbs (4 and inflorescences (2. The largest group is from plants whose aboveground parts are gathered mainly during the spring and used as vegetables. Important species are Urtica dioica, Rumex acetosa, Rumex patientia, Chenopodium album, Atriplex prostrata and Amaranthus retroflexus. The fruits are mostly gathered from Rosaceae, Adoxaceae, Ericaceae and Vitaceae shrubs and trees. The study determined eight major food groups: fresh greens and fruits, stuffed pies, stewed and boiled greens, boiled cereals, sweets (boiled fruit products, dried fruits, snacks and lacto-fermented products. The predominant taste is salty-sour-spicy. Some of wild foods are also used for medicinal purposes and included in preventing or healing diets. Conclusion: Today’s traditional diet is very different from the past. Bulgaria provides a

  10. Comparative mineralogical characteristics of red soils from South Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlena Yaneva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to compare mineralogical composition of red soils, formed on marbles in South Bulgaria. We used mineralogical analysis of heavy and light mineral fraction in immersion under polarizing microscope and X-ray diffraction analysis of bulk sample and clay fraction. Three test polygons, located in South Bulgaria were examined: Petrovo, Nova Lovcha and Dobrostan, which are characterized with different latitude, altitude, and exposition. Three or more sites from each polygon were sampled and analyzed. The red soils are formed on white and gray calcite and calcite-dolomite marbles, impure silicate-rich marbles and only in one site – on marble breccias. We determined the following mineral phases in red soils: calcite, dolomite, quarts, and feldspars, mica, illite-type mica, illite, smectite, vermiculite-smectite, and kaolinite. Heavy minerals are represented by amphibole, titanite and epidote, and minor amounts of zircon, garnet, tourmaline, rutile, pyroxene, andalusite, kyanite, sillimanite and apatite. Opaque minerals are predominantly goethite and hematite. Plant tissue is abundant in light fraction from the uppermost soil horizons. Analyses of heavy mineral fraction show presence of metamorphic and igneous minerals which indicate participation of weathering products from other rock types in the nearby area. The types of heavy minerals in soils depend more on composition of parent rocks and geomorphic position than on climate type. Soils from Nova Lovcha show similar composition, but the quantity of goethite and hematite significantly increase in soil from plain. Typical high-metamorphic minerals as andalusite, kyanite and sillimanite present only in Nova Lovcha, while garnet dominates in Petrovo and opaque minerals - in Dobrostan. Red soils, formed on slopes, where erosion prevails over accumulation, contain more illite, smectite and vermiculite-smectite, and very few or no kaolinite, whereas the kaolinite is dominant in soils

  11. Tourism Competitiveness Index – An Empirical Analysis Romania vs. Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai CROITORU

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In the conditions of the current economic downturn, many specialists consider tourism as one of the sectors with the greatest potential to provide worldwide economic growth and development. A growing tourism sector can contribute effectively to employment, increase national income, and can also make a decisive mark on the balance of payments. Thus, tourism can be an important driving force for growth and prosperity, especially in emerging economies, being a key element in reducing poverty and regional disparities. Despite its contribution to economic growth, tourism sector development can be undermined by a series of economic and legislative barriers that can affect the competitiveness of this sector. In this context, the World Economic Forum proposes, via the Tourism Competitiveness Index (TCI, in addition to a methodology to identify key factors that contribute to increasing tourism competitiveness, tools for analysis and evaluation of these factors. In this context, this paper aims to analyze the underlying determinants of TCI from the perspective of two directly competing states, Romania and Bulgaria in order to highlight the effects of communication on the competitiveness of the tourism sector. The purpose of this analysis is to provide some answers, especially in terms of communication strategies, which may explain the completely different performances of the two national economies in the tourism sector.

  12. FACTORS AFFECTING THE VEGETABLE FARMING EFFICIENCY IN BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodora STOEVA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency is the major economic category, which measures the final result and the expenses related to the production and provides value expression. The article aims to analyze the prospects and conditions for the development of field vegetable production in Bulgaria. Field vegetable farming is a traditional and fast developing sector of the Bulgarian agriculture. Its condition and development is determined by the various natural and geographic conditions in the country and the experience in cultivating and farming vegetable crops, which are traditional for the Bulgarian population. The vegetable farming is organized in individual private agricultural farms and agricultural farming cooperatives and is performed in small areas. The crisis in the vegetable farming raised a lot of questions that need to be answered. It is necessary to overcome the decrease in vegetable production. This can happen by establishing efficiently operating organizational companies. The most important reasons for the reported decrease are the result of the improperly conducted reforms in the agriculture industry as a result of which the economic condition of the sector is declining. A serious flaw is that the farmers are selecting certain crop production without conducting any preliminary marketing and without any signed contracts for produce realization.

  13. ECONOMIC AND FINANCIAL ANALYSIS OF PEANUT PRODUCTION IN BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelly BENCHEVA

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Peanut is not listed as one of the major crops in the Bulgarian agricultural sector, but its economic and fi nancial viability is promising, but unknown. We use enterprise budgets, capital budgeting techniques, risk analysis and logistic regression models to examine the fi nancial and economic structure of peanut farms and to evaluate the factors infl uencing short and long-term profi tability. The results show that peanut production is a profi table venture for most peanut farmers in Bulgaria. Long-run analyses show that peanut production may be economically feasible and producers engaged in production for a period of seven years, and at a discount rate of 13%, may generate internal rates of return (IRR that vary from -20.57% to 67.39%. About 70% of the farms studied had IRRs greater than the discount rate. Sensitivity analyses show that profi tability of peanut production was infl uenced by yield and variable costs. There were risks at the village level associated with peanut production.

  14. 76 FR 63985 - Notice of Receipt of Cultural Property Request From the Government of the Republic of Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Notice of Receipt of Cultural Property Request From the Government of the Republic of Bulgaria Bulgaria, concerned that its cultural heritage is in jeopardy from pillage, made a request to the Government of the United States under Article 9 of the...

  15. Molecular epidemiology of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in Bulgaria--An update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papa, Anna; Pappa, Styliani; Panayotova, Elitsa; Papadopoulou, Elpida; Christova, Iva

    2016-05-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is endemic in Bulgaria. During 2013-2014, 11 confirmed CCHF cases have been reported in the country (seven in 2013 and four in 2014). The present study provides the CCHF molecular epidemiology in Bulgaria based on all currently available S, M, and L RNA segment nucleotide sequences spanning the years 1978-2014. A relatively low genetic difference (0-6%, the maximum seen in the M RNA segment) was seen among the CCHFV sequences suggesting that a slow evolving CCHFV strain belonging to "Europe 1" clade is present in Bulgaria. Although the virus emerged in new foci during the recent years, it is more active in the established endemic foci which seem to offer the most suitable ecosystem and environment. Understanding the CCHF epidemiology and virus evolution is the basis for public health programs and vaccine design.

  16. Assessment of the mitigation options in the energy system in Bulgaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christov, C.; Vassilev, C.; Simenova, K. [and others

    1996-12-31

    Bulgaria signed the Framework Convention on Climate Change at the UNCEP in Rio in June 1992. The parliament ratified the Convention in March 1995. In compliance with the commitments arising under the Convention, Bulgaria elaborates climate change polity. The underlying principles in this policy are Bulgaria to joint the international efforts towards solving climate change problems to the extent that is adequate to both the possibilities of national economy and the options to attract foreign investments. All policies and measures implemented should be as cost-effective as possible. The Bulgarian GHG emission profile reveals the energy sector as the most significant emission source and also as an area where the great potential for GHG emissions reduction exists. This potential could be achieved in many cases by relatively low cost or even no-cost options. Mitigation analysis incorporates options in energy demand and energy supply within the period 1992-2020.

  17. First records of Laboulbeniales (Ascomycota on ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albena Lapeva-Gjonova

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The myrmecophilous fungi Rickia wasmannii Cavara, 1899 and Laboulbenia camponoti S. W. T. Batra, 1963 (Ascomycota: Laboulbeniales are reported for the first time from Bulgaria. Rickia wasmannii was found on Myrmica scabrinodis Nylander, 1846 ant workers (Hymenoptera: Formicidae in South-eastern Bulgaria near to the Black Sea coast. This is the easternmost record of Rickia wasmannii in Europe. Laboulbenia camponoti was found in six different localities in Bulgaria on the carpenter ants Camponotus aethiops (Latreille, 1798, C. universitatis Forel, 1890 and C. pilicornis (Roger, 1859. Camponotus aethiops and C. universitatis are new hosts for the fungus. For both fungi species the known distribution and host ranges summarized. This is the first record of the ant species Camponotus pilicornis for the Bulgarian fauna.

  18. Species composition and morphology of protostrongylids (Nematoda: Protostrongylidae) in ruminants from Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panayotova-Pencheva, Mariana Stancheva

    2011-10-01

    Lungs of 52 ruminants from different regions of Bulgaria, 16 from goats (Capra aegagrus f. domestica L.), 15 from sheep (Ovis ammon f. domestica L.), 11 from mouflons (Ovis musimon L.), and 10 from chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra L.), were investigated. The aim of the study was to determine the species composition of small lungworms in these hosts. The obtained results are summarized with those of previous studies, and a picture of the present status of the species composition of protostrongylids in ruminants from Bulgaria is forwarded. Morphometric data about the species Muellerius capillaris, Cystocaulus ocreatus, Neostrongylus linearis, Protostrongylus brevispiculum, and Protostrongylus rufescens are presented. The data on the morphology of these five species are supplied for the first time both for Bulgaria and the south-east part of the European continent.

  19. Detection of rare reassortant G5P[6] rotavirus, Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mladenova, Zornitsa; Papp, Hajnalka; Lengyel, György; Kisfali, Péter; Steyer, Andrej; Steyer, Adela F; Esona, Mathew D; Iturriza-Gómara, Miren; Bányai, Krisztián

    2012-12-01

    During the ongoing rotavirus strain surveillance program conducted in Bulgaria, an unusual human rotavirus A (RVA) strain, RVA/Human/BG/BG620/2008/G5P[6], was identified among 2200 genotyped Bulgarian RVAs. This strain showed the following genomic configuration: G5-P[6]-I1-R1-C1-M1-A8-N1-T1-E1-H1. Phylogenetic analysis of the genes encoding the neutralization proteins and backbone genes identified a probable mixture of RVA genes of human and porcine origin. The VP1, VP6 and NSP2 genes were more closely related to typical human rotavirus strains. The remaining eight genes were either closely related to typical porcine and unusual human-porcine reassortant rotavirus strains or were equally distant from reference human and porcine strains. This study is the first to report an unusual rotavirus isolate with G5P[6] genotype in Europe which has most likely emerged from zoonotic transmission. The absence of porcine rotavirus sequence data from this area did not permit to assess if the suspected ancestral zoonotic porcine strain already had human rotavirus genes in its genome when transmitted from pig to human, or, the transmission was coupled or followed by gene reassortment event(s). Because our strain shared no neutralization antigens with rotavirus vaccines used for routine immunization in children, attention is needed to monitor if this G-P combination will be able to emerge in human populations. A better understanding of the ecology of rotavirus zoonoses requires simultaneous monitoring of rotavirus strains in humans and animals.

  20. UNMET NEEDS FOR HEALTH CARE SERVICES IN BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elka Atanasova

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: In all European countries, an important policy objective is the equity of access to health care. The factors that affect access to health care can differ as the demand- and supply-side factors. Moreover, there are many tools to assess the extent of inequity in access to services. One simple tool is the assessing reports of unmet needs for health care. Purpose: The study has two objectives: to examine the evidence of self-reported unmet needs and to analyze the relationship between foregone medical care and both type of residence and socioeconomic status. Materials and Methods: We use data from the European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions. The access to health care is measured using the concept of unmet need for medical examination or treatment during the last 12 months. The relationship between foregone medical care and both type of residence and socioeconomic status is examined through the representative survey conducted in 2014. Results: The Eurostat results show that treatment costs are the most common reason for foregone medical care in Bulgaria. We observe a gradual decrease in the share of people who reported having unmet needs due to being too expensive. According to the 2014 survey, significant differences between urban and rural areas as well as among the income groups are identified. The results show the problems in access to health care services mainly in small towns and villages. Conclusion: Although major essential changes were made in the Bulgarian health care system, the equity problems remain an important challenge to policy-makers.

  1. Published data and new records to the fauna of Eupelmidae (Insecta: Hymenoptera in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIROSLAV ANTOV

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study presents information about published data on eupelmid fauna of Bulgaria and new records of 16 species distributed in the country. Some of them are reared from Cynipidae (Hymenoptera galls on Quercus, Rosa, Hypecoum, as well as from Cecidomyiidae (Diptera developing in stems of Eryngium campestre L. Other species are reared from pods of Astragalus glycyphyllos L. and seeds of Dianthus giganteus dʼUrv. New host associations are established. As a result of the study 4 species and 1 genus are new to the fauna of Bulgaria.

  2. Current aspects of wind-energy utilization - status and prospects in Bulgaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godev, N.; Georgieva, E.

    1982-01-01

    Problems arising in the use of wind energy on a significant scale are discussed, and the progress made in this area in Bulgaria is summarized. On the basis of calculations of the wind-energy distribution on Cape Kaliakra in Bulgaria, the wind-energy resources in this region are compared with the findings of Kiuchukova and Ivanov (1975). It is shown that whereas conditions exist in the country for using wind energy on a large scale, the meteorological network does not encompass all the suitable regions. A method of finding places suitable for exploitation is outlined. The method involves both numerical evaluations and observational tests.

  3. First report of Idiopterus nephrelepidis Davis, 1909 (Hemiptera: Aphididae from Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Tasheva-Terzieva

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Idiopterus nephrelepidis (Hemiptera: Aphididae is reported for the first time in Bulgaria on ornamental ferns in four greenhouses in Sofia and Varna. Dense colonies of apterous viviparous females and larvae were observed. The established host plants are Nephrolepis exaltata, Asplenium nidus and Pteris cretica. Infested ferns exhibit leaf deformation. The aphids were reared in laboratory conditions for four months. A morphometric study of apterae was carried out. Taking into account the presence of host plants of I. nephrelepidis in Bulgaria which are native to the local flora and the reports of the aphid from the Balkan area, it may spread in the country outdoors.

  4. Atmospheric Patterns During the Storms from January 2014 in Bulgaria and Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiotoroiu Brindusa

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Synoptic conditions associated with strong winds and snowfalls on January 2014 in Bulgaria and Romania are investigated in this paper. The Romanian authorities established the orange and red codes while the Bulgarian ones the orange code. A first peak was recorded in northern and especially northeastern Bulgaria and south-eastern Romania on January 25-26 and a second one on January 29 2014. The purpose is to understand what regulates the duration and intensity of these events. For their study, NCEP-500/700/850 and SLP analyses, different model outputs and soundings as well as data from 12 weather stations have been used.

  5. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF DEMAND FOR LOCAL AND FOREIGN WINES IN BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petyo BOSHNAKOV

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We use a semantic differential based instrument to assess the main factors in demand attitudes of Bulgarian customers. We aim to find out whether specific marketing techniques could alter the demand for such a traditional product as the wine in Bulgaria. Given the fact that the Bulgarian customer only recently received the possibility to know them, we find that foreign wines are evaluated mainly with a prejudice of past knowledge, not linked to the actual product. We discover a rigidity in such prejudice and adhering to "standard" definitions of "prestige" and quality of wines. Most likely demanded in Bulgaria will continue to be mainly Bulgarian wines.

  6. PROFILES AND PREFERENCES OF ON-LINE MILLENIAL SHOPPERS IN BULGARIA

    OpenAIRE

    Loubeau, Patricia R.; Robert Jantzen; Elitsa Alexander

    2014-01-01

    This research seeks to develop a better understanding of the factors affecting on-line purchasing behavior among Generation Y (Gen Y) consumers in Bulgaria. Also called millenials and born between the mid-1970s and late 1990s, this generation is especially active on-line and will be a dominant influence shaping e-commerce. An empirical study was conducted based on a written survey of a sample consisting of 367 high school and university students in Bulgaria. The most important reason why Bulg...

  7. Le minoranze islamiche nella Bulgaria post-comunista: ingerenze statali e libertà confessionale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Fantelli

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Contributo segnalato dal Prof. Paolo Moneta, ordinario di Diritto ecclesiastico nella facoltà di Giurisprudenza dell’’Università di PisaSOMMARIO: 1. Profili istituzionali delle relazioni tra Stato e confessioni religiose nella Bulgaria post-comunista: la posizione dell’Islam. 2. Le ingerenze del Governo bulgaro nell’organizzazione interna delle rappresentanze islamiche secondo la Corte di Strasburgo. 3. Alcune osservazioni sull’ingresso della Bulgaria nell’U.E. e sulle problematiche dell’Islam bulgaro – balcanico.

  8. Phytophthora Root and Crown Rot on Apples in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Nakova

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytophthora is a genus of Oomycota responsible for some of the most serious diseases with great economic impact (Judelson and Blanco, 2005. While 54 species were found in the 20th century (Erwin and Ribeiro, 1996 another 51-54 new species have been identified(Brasier, 2008 since the year 2000. They are spread worldwide and have broad range of host plants – fruit trees, citrus, forest and park species. Phytophthora can cause serious damages in orchards and nurseries of apples, cherries, etc. In Bulgaria they have been found first on young apples and cherries (1998-1999 in Plovdiv region (Nakova, 2003. Surveys have been done for discovering disease symptoms in Plovdiv and Kjustendil regions. Isolates have been obtained from infected plant material (roots and stem bases applying baiting bioassay (green apples, variety Granny Smith and/or PARP 10 selective media. Phytophthora strains were identified based on standard morphology methods – types of colonies on PDA, CMA, V 8, type and size of sporangia, oogonia and antheridia, andoospores. Cardial temperatures for their growth were tested on CMA and PDA.For molecular studies, DNA was extracted from mycelium using the DNA extraction kit.DNA was amplified using universal primers ITS 6 and ITS 4. Amplification products concentrations were estimated by comparison with the standard DNA. Sequencing was done at the Scottish Crop Research Institute (SCRI, Dundee, Scotland. Phytophthora root and crown rot symptoms first appear in early spring. Infected trees show bud break delay, have small chlorotic leaves, and branches die all of a sudden. Later symptoms are found in August-September. Leaves of the infected trees show reddish discoloration and drop down. Both symptoms are connected with lesions (wet, necrotic in appearance at stem bases of the trees.Disease spread was 2-3% in most gardens, only in an apple orchard in Bjaga (Plovdiv region it was up to 8-10%. Morphologically, the isolates acquired from

  9. In search of a homogeneous nation: the assimilation of Bulgaria's Turkish minority, 1984-1985

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesselin Dimitrov

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the causes of the most extreme nationalist undertaking in Eastern Europe in the 1980s - the Bulgarian government's attempt to change the names of nearly one million Turks in the space of a few weeks in 1984-1985. The article argues that the assimilation campaign emerged as a result of a combination of threats and opportunities on a number of levels. Domestically, the failure of alternative strategies of dealing with the ethnic minorities created a temptation to resort to a radical solution, whilst the political and economic resources which the communist leadership commanded and which reached their high point in the mid-1980s gave it the means to undertake such a policy. Internationally, the Soviet Union, Bulgaria's main strategic ally, was powerful enough to protect it against possible Turkish and Western reprisals, but not strong enough to impose its own more tolerant nationalities policy on Bulgaria. Turkey, Bulgaria's historical enemy and the perceived patron of the Turkish minority, was seen as both posing a threat to Bulgaria after the invasion of Cyprus, and as suffering from weaknesses which would prevent it from undertaking serious counteractions. There thus existed in 1984-1985 a false 'window of opportunity' which encouraged the Bulgarian communist leadership to obliterate once and for all the problem of ethnic diversity with which they were increasingly unable to deal by other means.

  10. Sustainable Coastal Development and Open Planning? Transferring the Integrated Area Approach to Bulgaria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dieperink, C.; Boesten, R.; Hovens, J.; Tonkes, H.

    2012-01-01

    Sustainable development asks for open planning processes. Such open planning processes have become common practice in the Netherlands and other Western countries. Since EU accession, new member states such as Bulgaria also have to face the challenge of organizing more open planning processes in thei

  11. The Present Situation and the Future Development of Special Education in Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cholakova, Maya; Georgieva, Dobrinka

    This paper describes the present situation of special education in Bulgaria and discusses the results of a study of attitudes toward the mainstreaming of students with intellectual disabilities. The first part of the paper discusses the classification of children with intellectual disabilities into "educable" and "non-educable"…

  12. Chalybion Omissum (Kohl, 1889 (Hymenoptera: Sphecidae, Sceliphrini: New Records from the Balkan Peninsula (Southern Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olszewski Piotr

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents new information about the occurrence of Chalybion omissum (KOHL, 1889 in central part of Balkan Peninsula (southern Bulgaria. Seven specimens were caught at 4 sites: N of Kurdzhali (UTM: LG61, Usstrem village (MG55, NE of Kalimantsi village (GL09, NE of Madzharovo (MG01.

  13. Analysing the Transformation of Higher Education Governance in Bulgaria and Lithuania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dobbins, Michael; Leisyte, Liudvika

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on sociological neo-institutional theory and models of higher education governance, we examine current developments in Bulgaria and Lithuania and explore to what extent those developments were shaped by the Bologna reform. We analyse to what extent the state has moved away from a model of st

  14. Taxonomic status of the roses (Rosa) described by S.G. Dimitrov from Bulgaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zielinski, J.; Petrova, A; Tan, Kit

    2004-01-01

    The original herbarium vouchers for six species of Rosa (Rosaceae) described by S. G. Dimitrov from Bulgaria are taxonomically evaluated. Two species (R. balcanica, R. orphei) are considered hybrids, four other names (R. bulgarica, R. parilica, R. pontica and R. rhodopaea) are taxonomic synonyms...

  15. Editorial: First Report of Cercospora beticola as a Pathogen of German Statice (Goniolimon tataricum) in Bulgaria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bobev, S.G.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Crous, P.W.

    2009-01-01

    German statice (Goniolimon tataricum) is a protected, herbaceous, perennial plant species that occurs sporadically throughout Bulgaria. Some varieties, however, are cultivated outdoors because of their dry flowers, which are widely utilized by florists. For the past 3 years, a severe leaf disease ha

  16. Terrestrial gastropods of Srebarna Nature Reserve, North-Eastern Bulgaria (Gastropoda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivailo Dedov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We give the results from the first investigation focused on the land snail fauna in Srebarna Nature Reserve in Bulgaria. A total of 23 localities were studied and 27 species of terrestrial gastropods were found, 23 of which were new observations for the Reserve.

  17. Terrestrial gastropods of Srebarna Nature Reserve, North-Eastern Bulgaria (Gastropoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedov, Ivailo; Antonova, Vera

    2015-01-01

    We give the results from the first investigation focused on the land snail fauna in Srebarna Nature Reserve in Bulgaria. A total of 23 localities were studied and 27 species of terrestrial gastropods were found, 23 of which were new observations for the Reserve.

  18. The legal structure of households in Serbia and Bulgaria in the 19th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svirčević Miroslav M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This scholarly work treats only the legal structure of households in Serbia and Bulgaria in the 19th century. The author's intention is to describe and present similarities and differences between the most important household's structural elements (Household Council, Household Head, Household Woman and Household Members, their relationships and status in the Ottoman legal-political order.

  19. International Trends in Health Science Librarianship Part 19: The Balkan States (Bulgaria and Croatia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirilova, Savina; Skoric, Lea

    2016-09-01

    This is the 19th in a series of articles exploring international trends in health science librarianship in the 21st century. The focus of the present issue is the Balkan Region (Bulgaria and Croatia). The next regular feature column will investigate two other Balkan states - Serbia and Slovenia. JM.

  20. Pathogenicity of Phytophthora isolates originating from several woody hosts in Bulgaria and Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyubenova Aneta B.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Our aim was to examine the virulence of eight Phytophthora isolates belonging to three species (Phytophthora cryptogea, Phytophthora plurivora and Phytophthora quercina obtained from diverse European ecosystems (in Bulgaria, Poland and Germany towards three forest tree hosts – English oak (Quercus robur L., Turkey oak (Quercus cerris L. and European beech (Fagus sylvatica L..

  1. Interculturalizing Education in Bulgaria: The Contribution of the National Helpdesk for Intercultural Learning Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fay, Richard; Davcheva, Leah

    2005-01-01

    Whilst there has been extensive discussion of the models and policies concerning intercultural education in Bulgaria, there has been to date surprisingly little work undertaken regarding the potential contribution of Bulgarian school textbooks across the curriculum towards the objectives of intercultural education. The National Helpdesk for…

  2. Good Practices in Roma Education in Bulgaria during the Years of Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyuchukov, Hristo

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present good educational practices from Bulgaria that relate to Roma education. In the so-called Years of Transition, educational conditions changed considerably. Non-governmental organizations have attempted to promote high-quality education for Roma children. The Bulgarian Ministry of Education has made various…

  3. Motivational factors for the adoption of ISO 9001 standards in Eastern Europe: the case of Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetoslav Georgiev

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study analyzes the motivational factors for ISO 9001 certification in Bulgaria from the internal/external motivations perspective, or the so-called dual model.Design/methodology/approach: This study is based on a mixed method research approach, which employed two interviews with experts in the field of quality management at the exploratory stage, and a survey involving 127 companies at the descriptive stage.Findings: This study claims that enhanced company image and competitiveness – an external motivation - is the leading motivational factor for ISO 9001 certification in Bulgaria. At the same time, our primary investigation reveals that Bulgarian firms are not predominantly externally driven, for internal motivations including process improvement and product quality improvement seem to be an important driver for ISO 9001 certification. Last but not least, this research asserts that enhanced company image and competitiveness has a stronger impact on the motivations for ISO 9001 certification than customer and supplier pressure, which is in line with previous research works on developing economy economies such as Bulgaria. Finally, our study indicates a moderate, yet positive correlation between motivations for and benefits of ISO 9001 certification.Social implications: This research work casts some light on the evolution of quality management in Bulgaria since the end of communism, which can serve as an important foundation for the better understanding of quality management in former communist economies in general and Eastern European states in particular.Originality/value: Derived from the acute gap between ISO studies in Western and former communist economies, this research work presents one of the first official, international studies in the field of ISO certification in Bulgaria, and more precisely, a paper describing the motives for ISO 9001 certification among Bulgarian businesses.

  4. Porphyry-copper mineralisation in the central Srednogorie zone, Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strashimirov, Strashimir; Petrunov, Rumen; Kanazirski, Milko

    2002-08-01

    The porphyry-copper systems in the central part of the Srednogorie zone (Bulgaria) are represented by three major deposits (Elatsite, Medet and Assarel) and several smaller deposits and occurrences, all of them within the Panagyurishte ore district. The hydrothermal systems are related to Late Cretaceous calc-alkaline igneous complexes. Ore mineralisation is developed predominantly in the apical parts of subvolcanic and intrusive bodies as well as within the volcanic and basement metamorphic rocks. Several of the porphyry systems are spatially associated with shallow-level intermediate and high-sulphidation volcanic-hosted epithermal deposits of economic importance, such as the major gold-copper mine at Chelopech located 10 km from the Elatsite porphyry-copper deposit. Mineralisation processes in the porphyry deposits start with intensive hydrothermal alteration of the wall rocks. K-silicate alteration is characteristic for pre-ore hydrothermal activity in all of them, and it is located mostly in their central parts. Propylitic alteration is prominent in the Medet and Assarel deposits. The Assarel deposit is located in the central part of a palaeovolcanic structure and shows a large spectrum of pre-ore alterations, including propylitic, sericitic, and advanced argillic assemblages. The initial stages of the hydrothermal systems are characterised by high temperatures (>550-500 °C) and highly saline (50-20 wt% NaCl equiv.) and vapour-rich fluids of likely magmatic origin. The composition of the fluids gradually changes from H2O-NaCl±FeCl2 to H2O-NaCl-KCl and H2O-NaCl-dominated as the fluids cool, react with wall rocks, and may become diluted with meteoric water. Fe-Ti-oxide mineral associations were formed early in all deposits, later followed, in the Elatsite deposit, by an assemblage of bornite, chalcopyrite, platinum group element (PGE) phases, Co-Ni thiospinels, Ag- and Bi-tellurides, and selenides. The main ore stage in all deposits is dominated by

  5. [Pregnancy termination in Bulgaria – past, present and future perspectives. Drugs induced abortion – guidelines by WHO].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinov, B; Andreeva, A

    2013-01-01

    There are still too many unsafe abortions performed worldwide. Together with the efforts to reduce the abortion by choice, we note a rise in the need for mid trimester pregnancy termination for medical reasons. The article looks at the past present and future perspective of the abortion as a procedure in Bulgaria. States the fact that medical abortion is officially not widely performed. We reckon that with the existing guidelines by WHO and with Mifepriston and Misoprostol recently registered in Bulgaria, it is time for the medical abortion to become part of the clinical practice in Bulgaria. We believe that early medical abortion as well as mid trimester induced abortion is and adequate if not better alternative to the existing in Bulgaria procedures.

  6. Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assesment for Bulgaria as a Basis for a new National Building Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solakov, D.; Simeonova, S.; Christoskov, L.; Trifonova, P.; Aleksandrova, I.

    2012-04-01

    The territory of Bulgaria represents a typical example of high seismic risk area in the eastern part of the Balkan Peninsula. Bulgaria contains important industrial areas that face considerable earthquake risk. Moreover, the seismicity of the neighboring countries, like Greece, Turkey, former Yugoslavia and Romania (especially Vrancea-Romania intermediate earthquakes involving the non-crustal lithosphere), influences the seismic hazard in Bulgaria. Seismic hazard maps proposed as part of a new building code for Bulgaria based on the recommendations in EUROCODE 8 are presented in the study. The probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) carries out integration over the total expected seismicity during a given exposure period to provide the estimate of a strong-motion parameter of interest with a specified confidence level. The basic approach used for the creation of ground motion maps combines via GIS, source-geometry, earthquake occurrence model, the strength of the earthquake sources, and the appropriate attenuation relations. In the study seismic hazard maps for Bulgaria are presented in terms of Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) in agreement with EC8. As recommended in EC8, the maps are calculated for a 475 years return period (probability of exceedance of 10% in 50 years) for the design earthquake and for a 95 years return period (probability of exceedance of 10% in 10 years) for weaker earthquakes with higher frequency of occurrence. The PSHA was performed, using the Bulgarian version of computer code EQRISK. For the sensitivity analysis on the characterization of the seismicity in the seismic sources a PSHA for 500 randomly chosen models was run. The results suggested that uncertainties in seismic characteristics have relatively small effect on the final seismic hazard. A procedure called disaggregation has been applied to examine the spatial and magnitude dependence of PSHA results. The aim is to determine the magnitudes and distances that contribute to the

  7. Feasibility assessment of a solar-powered charging station for electric vehicles in the North Central region of Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilieva Liliya Mihaylova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the topical issue related to the prospects of widespread deployment of electric vehicles and their associated infrastructure in Bulgaria. The main problems hindering the development of electric vehicle transport are summarized and the current status of charging infrastructure in the country is discussed. An approach is proposed for analysis and evaluation of the financial feasibility of investment in a solar-powered charging station for electric vehicles in North Central region of Bulgaria.

  8. Comparative Evaluation of the Environmental Culture of 8th Grade Students in Bulgaria and Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Kostova

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The article reports the results from an investigation of the ecological and general scientific knowledge of students in the upper grade of elementary school (8th grade, 15 year old in Bulgaria and Turkey with the aid of a questionnaire, containing 40 terms from ecology, geography, biology, chemistry, nature conservation, health and nutrition. It has allowed us to investigate the effects of several factors such as the students` social status (Turkey, the science education in school, school entrance exams in biology (Bulgaria, the interrelation between environmental and scientific knowledge, evaluation and self-evaluation, analysis and self-analysis. On the basis of the results and the conclusions of their analysis the students` achievements in respect to the state educational standards have been evaluated. Furthermore, adequate measures are recommended to teachers in order to overcome the deficiencies and shortcomings in students` knowledge and understanding. The research identifies several problems for future investigation

  9. Recently revised diagnostic reference levels in nuclear medicine in Bulgaria and in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korpela, H; Bly, R; Vassileva, J; Ingilizova, K; Stoyanova, T; Kostadinova, I; Slavchev, A

    2010-01-01

    An EU twinning project entitled 'Strengthening of administrative structures for radiation protection and safe use of ionising radiation in diagnostics and therapy' was established between Bulgaria and Finland, lasting from June 2008 to May 2009. One component of the project was to improve the optimisation of patient protection in nuclear medicine (NM) through revising diagnostic reference levels (DRLs). The revised DRLs are based on national surveys on the numbers of NM procedures and activities given to the patients in different procedures. The survey in Bulgaria was carried out in 2008 and that in Finland in 2007. National DRLs were established for the most frequent and dose-relevant examinations. The proposed DRLs in both countries are in good agreement with other national recommendations in Europe.

  10. Seismic Hazard and risk assessment for Romania -Bulgaria cross-border region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simeonova, Stela; Solakov, Dimcho; Alexandrova, Irena; Vaseva, Elena; Trifonova, Petya; Raykova, Plamena

    2016-04-01

    Among the many kinds of natural and man-made disasters, earthquakes dominate with regard to their social and economical impact on the urban environment. Global seismic hazard and vulnerability to earthquakes are steadily increasing as urbanization and development occupy more areas that are prone to effects of strong earthquakes. The assessment of the seismic hazard and risk is particularly important, because it provides valuable information for seismic safety and disaster mitigation, and it supports decision making for the benefit of society. Romania and Bulgaria, situated in the Balkan Region as a part of the Alpine-Himalayan seismic belt, are characterized by high seismicity, and are exposed to a high seismic risk. Over the centuries, both countries have experienced strong earthquakes. The cross-border region encompassing the northern Bulgaria and southern Romania is a territory prone to effects of strong earthquakes. The area is significantly affected by earthquakes occurred in both countries, on the one hand the events generated by the Vrancea intermediate-depth seismic source in Romania, and on the other hand by the crustal seismicity originated in the seismic sources: Shabla (SHB), Dulovo, Gorna Orjahovitza (GO) in Bulgaria. The Vrancea seismogenic zone of Romania is a very peculiar seismic source, often described as unique in the world, and it represents a major concern for most of the northern part of Bulgaria as well. In the present study the seismic hazard for Romania-Bulgaria cross-border region on the basis of integrated basic geo-datasets is assessed. The hazard results are obtained by applying two alternative approaches - probabilistic and deterministic. The MSK64 intensity (MSK64 scale is practically equal to the new EMS98) is used as output parameter for the hazard maps. We prefer to use here the macroseismic intensity instead of PGA, because it is directly related to the degree of damages and, moreover, the epicentral intensity is the original

  11. New Results from Air Pollution Studies in Bulgaria (Moss Survey 2000-2001)

    CERN Document Server

    Stamenov, J N; Vachev, B; Gueleva, E; Yurukova, L; Ganeva, A; Mitrikov, M; Antonov, A; Srentz, A; Varbanov, Z; Batov, I V; Damov, K; Marinova, E; Frontasyeva, M V; Pavlov, S S; Strelkova, L P

    2002-01-01

    New results of moss survey 2000 of systematic study of air pollution with heavy metals and other toxic elements in Bulgaria are reported. The moss samples collected at 103 sites in Bulgaria, along the borders with Yugoslavia, Macedonia, Greece and Turkey were analyzed by instrumental activation analysis using epithermal neutrons (ENAA) at the IBR-2 pulsed fast reactor for a wide set of elements including heavy metals and rare earth elements (Na, Mg, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, As, Se, Br, Rb, Sr, Mo, Sb, I, Cs, Ba, La, Sm, Tb, Yb, Hf, Ta, W, Au, Th, and U). The results obtained are consistent with the mean European values for most of elements. The principle component analysis is applied to distinguish heavy and light crust elements and vegetation ones from those of anthropogenic origin.

  12. Probabilistic seismic hazard map for Bulgaria as a basis for a new building code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. D. Simeonova

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A seismic hazard map proposed as part of a new building code for Bulgaria is presented here on basis of the recommendations in EUROCODE 8. Seismic source zones within an area of about 200 km around Bulgaria were constructed considering seismicity, neotectonic and geological development. The most time consuming work was to establish a homogeneous earthquake catalogue out of different catalogues. The probabilistic seismic hazard assessment in terms of intensities is performed following Cornell (1968 with the program EQRISK (see McGuire, 1976, modified by us for use of intensities. To cope with the irregular isoseismals of the Vrancea intermediate depth earthquakes a special attenuation factor is introduced (Ardeleanu et al., 2005, using detailed macroseismic maps of three major earthquakes. The final seismic hazard is the combination of both contributions, of zones with crustal earthquakes and of the Vrancea intermediate depth earthquakes zone. Calculations are done for recurrence periods of 95, 475 and 10 000 years.

  13. 'Mafia Baroque': post-socialist architecture and urban planning in Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holleran, Max

    2014-03-01

    This paper traces the reception of the architectural style known as 'Mafia Baroque' within the professions of architecture and urban planning in Bulgaria. The debate within these professions was strongly linked to the general decline of power among former intellectual elites and the specific decline of architects and planners, who were sidelined as arbiters of 'good taste' and disempowered as regulators of urban growth. The reaction to this style also highlights the rise in public concern over corruption and organized crime and dissatisfaction with post-socialist urbanization. This paper chronicles the extent of changes in construction and regulation in Bulgaria during the 1990s and argues that planners and architects were challenged not only by their professional marginalization but also by a deeper embarrassment over cultural change. It then relates this debate to broader post-socialist anxieties over insufficient regulation of urbanization and fear of failing to meet Western European goals for economic and political change.

  14. Improvisation and Variation: Post-Communist Bulgaria Challenges National Folklore Tradition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elka Agoston-Nikolova

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the tension in post-totalitarian Bulgaria betweenthe national folklore tradition of Communist times with government sanctioned state ensembles and festivals and age-old Balkan multiculturalism now represented in a westernized free-market consumer society, where spontaneity and improvisation bridge the urban and the rural, the local and the global. Folk pop, folk jazz or other mixed genres reverberate with humor , parody and, above all, freedom and love of improvisation.

  15. Detection of Antibodies Reactive with Ehrlichia canis in a Kennel in Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Tsachev, Ilia

    2006-01-01

    A seroepidemiological study on Ehrlichia canis infection was performed in 16 dogs in a kennel in the region of Plovdiv in Bulgaria. For this purpose, anti-E. canis antibodies were detected by the indirect immunofluorescence antibody test. The results showed that 75% of the dogs examined were positive to E. canis. The antibody titres 1:100, 1:200 and 1:400 were detected.

  16. Filamentous cyanoprokaryotes (Cyanoprokaryota/Cyanobacteria in standing waters of Bulgaria: diversity and ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PLAMEN STOYANOV

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Cyanoprokaryotes are widespread organisms, which dominate in different water basins. In the present study, we have investigated the diversity of this group and related physicochemical parameters in 35 standing water basins in Bulgaria. We found 29 cyanoprokaryotic species, which belong to 13 genera from the orders Synechococcales, Spirulinales and Oscillatoriales. The frequency quotient of each species was calculated. Information about the distribution of the identified species and typology of the water basins is also provided.

  17. Investigation about the presence of organochlorine pollutants in mussels from the Black Sea, Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgieva Stanislava

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, organochlorine pesticides (HCB, DDT and its metabolites and HCBD in mussels from Bulgarian Black Sea coast. Mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis are aquatic organisms which are immobile so that the concentration of pollutants should primarily be considered as an indication of local levels of organochlorine compounds. Samples were collected from three areas of Black Sea coast of Bulgaria in summer 2015.

  18. Karyological and morphological variations within the genus Dysphania (Chenopodiaceae) in Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Grozeva, Neli H.; Cvetanova, Yanka G.

    2013-01-01

    The karyological and morphological variability of species from the genus Dysphania were studied. The results demonstrated that genus Dysphania is represented in Bulgaria by five species: Dysphania ambrosioides, D. multifida, D. botrys, D. schraderiana and D. pumilio. The first two species are tetraploids with chromosome number 2n = 32 for D. ambrosioides and 2n = 36 for D. multifida. The remaining three species are diploids with 2n = 18. The results from statistical analysis demonstrated that...

  19. JPRS Report, Supplement, East Europe: Bulgaria: New Political Parties and Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    calls for the was subjected to repressive measures and sentenced to restoration of the Bulgarian Agricultural Cooperative death as the leader of the...of The party was founded in 1895. Its first leader was Petko nationalistic chauvinism; freedom and respect for the Karavelov and after his death the...teachers. The Era-3 Movement is unborn , to future Bulgaria! The majority of nonparty headed by a General Staff chaired by Slavomir Tsankov. people are not

  20. Investigating the opportunities of using mobile learning by young children in Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Kraleva, Radoslava; Stoimenovski, Aleksandar; Kostadinova, Dafina; Kralev, Velin

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides an analysis of literature related to the use of mobile devices in teaching young children. For this purpose, the most popular mobile operating systems in Bulgaria are considered and the functionality of the existing mobile applications with Bulgarian interface is discussed. The results of a survey of parents' views regarding the mobile devices as a learning tool are presented and the ensuing conclusions are provided.

  1. 14 October 2014 - R. Plevneliev President of the Republic of Bulgaria

    CERN Multimedia

    Brice, Maximilien

    2014-01-01

    His Excellency Mr Rosen Plevneliev President Republic of Bulgaria welcoming by CERN Director-General at CMS (Point 5); visiting the CMS cavern with CMS Spokesperson T. Camporesi; visiting the LHC tunnel at Point 5 with Technology Department Head J.M. Jiménez; signing the Guest-Book; assisting to a meeting with Bulgarians at CERN and family photograph with Bulgarians at CERN.

  2. Labour Market Policies for Increasing Economic Activity and Labour Productivity in Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Beleva, Iskra

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to present the recent active labour market policies for encouraging labour market participation and increasing labour productivity. It points out that a number of different programs and labour market measures have been implemented in Bulgaria in the last twenty years. The achievements of the analysis point out both positive and negative features. The programs contribute for increasing labour market inclusion and employment participation in a short run and this is the main po...

  3. Labour Market Policies for Encouraging Economic Activity and Labour Productivity in Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Beleva, Iskra

    2016-01-01

    This article aims to present the recent labour market policies for encouraging economic activity of working age population, labour market inclusion and increasing labour productivity. It points out that a number of different programs and labour market measures have been implemented in Bulgaria in the last twenty years. The results of the analysis show up both positive and negative features of the implemented policies. These policies contribute to increasing labour market inclusion in the shor...

  4. South-East Region in Bulgaria: Economic Performance and Key Sectors Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Golemanova, Antoaneta

    2008-01-01

    The present paper attempts to provide insight into the economic performance of the South-east region (SER) of Bulgaria by presenting quantitative relationships between sectors in the regional economy. Methodologically it is based on the construction of the regional Input–Output model. It was carried out trough applying the non-servey GRIT technique, based on Flegg & Webber location quotient (2000). The dirived Rasmussen & Hirschman backward linkages and Mattas & Shrestha input-output elastici...

  5. Union formation and fertility in Bulgaria and Russia: A life table description of recent trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiva Jasilioniene

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides an extensive descriptive analysis and comparison of recent trends in union formation and fertility in Bulgaria and Russia. The analysis is based on data from the Generation and Gender Surveys (GGS carried out in 2004. We generate a large number of single- and multi-decrement life tables describing various life course events: leaving home and separation from the parental family, entry into union, first and second childbirth, divorce. Life tables are constructed for real cohorts as well as for synthetic cohorts. We study four real cohorts, born in 1940-44, 1950-54, 1960-64 and 1970-74. Synthetic-cohort life tables are constructed for three periods of time, referring to the pre-transitional demographic situation (1985-1989, the beginning of the transition (1990-1994 and recent demographic developments (1999-2003. We study also Roma and Turkish ethnic groups in Bulgaria. The life tables deliver detailed information that is otherwise unavailable. Our tentative findings indicate that societal transformation had a stronger impact on family-related behavior in the Bulgarian population than in the population of Russia. There is evidence that in some aspects Bulgaria is lagging behind other former socialist and Western European countries where the second demographic transition is more advanced. Evidence also suggests that Russia is lagging behind Bulgaria. However, certain specific features distinctive to Russia, such as the low level of childlessness, a drastic drop in second and subsequent births, and very high divorce rates even compared to Western European countries (it is a long-standing, not just recent trend, lead us to think that Russia may have a model of change particular to the country.

  6. Analysis of the Logistics Systems in Bulgaria under the Requirements of the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caner Cebeci

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The new EU member countries will participate actively in the growing freight development (Beckmann and Baum, 2002. The new EU member Bulgaria forms the ultimate frontier of the EU and because of its geographical location an important transit country for the transport between Europe and Asia. Because of numerous deficiencies in the Bulgarian transport infrastructure, the Bulgarian sections of the Trans-European road network cannot be used efficiently and thus Bulgaria loses large shares of the transit transport. To meet the challenges of the globalization and to benefit from the growing Euro-Asian logistics services in the future, the Bulgarian government has set the main objectives in the national transport policy in a master plan, which should be implemented by the year 2020. The aim of this study is to analyze the transport situation and the national strategic reference framework in the transport sector of the Eastern European EU member Bulgaria and based on the EU requirements for efficiency and sustainability of the European transport systems, to derive recommendations for the future development of the logistics systems in the accession country.

  7. TRADITIONAL WOMEN’S APPARELS OF BULGARIA N IMMIGRANTS LIVING IN ESKİŞEHİR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Başak BOĞDAY SAYĞILI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available As part of culture, clothing is a phenomenon which develops with humanity, which is specific to communities, being shap ed according to the ir taste, and reflecting the community’s living conditions and li fe styles . T he Turks who e migrated changed their clothing to adapt to the geo graphical and physical features as well as the living conditions at the places they migrated to, and through being influenced by the people in their region. Bulgaria is one of the countries to which great e migrations from the Ottoman empire took place. Having lived together for many years, the Turks and the Bulgarians were influenced by each other in clothing culture just as in every other field. These migrations , which took place intensively from time to time , are still co ntinuing. This research aims to reveal the traditional women’s apparels of immigrants from Bulgaria living in Eskişehir and the characteristics of their apparel . Historical and review methods were used in the research. From the sources reached using the survey form prepared as data collection tool, apparels reflecting general characteristics of the traditional women’s apparels of the immigrants from Bulgaria livi ng in Eskişehir were examined.

  8. Isolation and characterization of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus from plants in Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaylova, Michaela; Minkova, Svetlana; Kimura, Katsunori; Sasaki, Takashi; Isawa, Kakuhei

    2007-04-01

    One of the traditional ways of preparation of yogurt starter in Bulgaria is placing a branch of a particular plant species into boiled sheep's milk maintained at about 45 degrees C, which is further incubated until a dense coagulum is obtained. To investigate the possible origin of the yogurt starter bacteria, Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus (L. bulgaricus) and Streptococcus thermophilus (S. thermophilus), the traditional way of yogurt-starter preparation was followed. Hundreds of plant samples were collected from four regions in Bulgaria and incubated in sterile skim milk. The two target bacteria at low frequencies from the plant samples collected were successfully isolated. Phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of these bacterial isolates revealed that they were identified as L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus. Twenty isolates of L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus, respectively, were selected from the isolated strains and further characterized with regard to their performance in yogurt production. Organoleptic and physical properties of yogurt prepared using the isolated strains from plants were not significantly different from those prepared using commercial yogurt-starter strains. It was therefore suggested that L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus strains widely used for commercial yogurt production could have originated from plants in Bulgaria. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the isolation and characterization of L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus strains from plants.

  9. A detailed study of the Pernik (Bulgaria) seismic sequence of 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raykova, Plamena; Solakov, Dimcho; Simeonova, Stela; Dimitrova, Liliya

    2014-05-01

    A detailed study of the Pernik (Bulgaria) seismic sequence of 2012 D.Solakov, S.Simeonova ,I. Georgiev, P.Raykova, L.Dimitrova and V.Protopopova National Institute of Geophysics, Geodesy and Geography-BAS, Sofia, Bulgaria The spatial and temporal clustering of aftershocks is the dominant non-random element of seismicity, so that when aftershocks are removed, the remaining activity can be modelled (as first approximation) as a Poisson process. The properties of aftershock sequences (distinct cluster, for example; even aftershocks can have aftershocks) allow time-dependent prediction of aftershock probabilities. Consideration of recent earthquake sequences suggests that aftershocks to large earthquakes although they are still, by definition, smaller events, can be very damaging and should be addressed in emergence planning scenarios. Because of the factors such as location and radiation pattern and the cumulative nature of building damage, aftershocks can cause more damage than the main shock. An earthquake of moment magnitude 5.6 hit Sofia seismic zone, on May 22nd, 2012. The earthquake occurred in the vicinity of Pernik city, at about 25 km south west of the city of Sofia (the capital of Bulgaria). The event was followed by intensive activity. The active area is situated in the central part of western Bulgaria. That is the most populated (more than 1.2 mil. inhabitants), industrial and cultural region of Bulgaria. Seismicity in the zone is related to the marginal neotectonic faults of Sofia graben. The boundaries of the graben are represented by SE-NW fault system with expressive neotectonic activity. This zone is characterized by shallow earthquakes. The strongest known event in the region is the 1858 quake with intensity I0=9-10 MSK. The 1858 earthquake caused heavy destruction in the city of Sofia and the appearance of thermal spring. It is worth mentioning that the seismic sequence of May 2912 occurred in an area characterized by a long quiescence (of 95 years

  10. Genetic variation of the East Balkan Swine (Sus scrofa) in Bulgaria, revealed by mitochondrial DNA and Y chromosomal DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, D; Doichev, V D; Raichev, E G; Palova, N A; Nakev, J L; Yordanov, Y M; Kaneko, Y; Masuda, R

    2015-04-01

    East Balkan Swine (EBS) Sus scrofa is the only aboriginal domesticated pig breed in Bulgaria and is distributed on the western coast of the Black Sea in Bulgaria. To reveal the breed's genetic characteristics, we analysed mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and Y chromosomal DNA sequences of EBS in Bulgaria. Nucleotide diversity (πn ) of the mtDNA control region, including two newly found haplotypes, in 54 EBS was higher (0.014 ± 0.007) compared with that of European (0.005 ± 0.003) and Asian (0.006 ± 0.003) domestic pigs and wild boar. The median-joining network based on the mtDNA control region showed that the EBS and wild boar in Bulgaria comprised mainly two major mtDNA clades, European clade E1 (61.3%) and Asian clade A (38.7%). The coexistence of two mtDNA clades in EBS in Bulgaria may be the relict of historical pig translocation. Among the Bulgarian EBS colonies, the geographical differences in distribution of two mtDNA clades (E1 and A) could be attributed to the source pig populations and/or historical crossbreeding with imported pigs. In addition, analysis of the Y chromosomal DNA sequences for the EBS revealed that all of the EBS had haplotype HY1, which is dominant in European domestic pigs.

  11. The importance of quality, access and price to health care consumers in Bulgaria: a self-explicated approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlova, Milena; Groot, Wim; van Merode, Godefridus

    2003-01-01

    One approach to the problem of low patient satisfaction in Bulgaria is to identify attributes of health care services that the consumers value most and to focus on their improvement. Based on data from a household survey, this paper examines the importance that health care consumers attach to quality, access and price. The survey was conducted in 2000 among the population of the region of Varna (the third largest city in Bulgaria). The elicitation of attribute importance was based on a self-explicated method. To analyse the data, an ordered logit regression was performed. The analysis shows that clinical quality is the most valued characteristic by Bulgarian health care consumers compared with social quality, access and price. Given the poor quality of health care provision in Bulgaria, the allocation of revenues to its improvement appears to be essential in order to raise patient satisfaction and to enhance social efficiency.

  12. Observable Effects of Atmospheric Pollution on Outpatient and Inpatient Morbidity in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Мagdalena PLATIKANOVA

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: One of Europe’s most well-developed industrial regions is found in the Republic of Bulgaria. The industrialization of the region has a big impact on air pollution. Thermal power plant “Maritza East” (the largest of its kind in southeastern Europe, the army training range, machine manufacturers, household heating and high volume of automobile traffic are all major sources of pollution in the region.Methods: A five year study (2009-2013 followed yearly concentrations of principal atmospheric pollutants such as sulfur dioxide, dust, nitrogen dioxide, lead aerosols and hydrogen sulfide, and the way in which those levels had an effect on morbidity (outpatient and inpatient medical care in the area. Statistical processing of data has been completed to represent and analyze the collected data in nonparametric and alternative format.Results: Atmospheric pollution affects human health directly through pathological changes in the human organism. The registered outpatient care provided for the period 2009-2013 is highest for diseases of the cardiovascular system (11.85%, the respiratory system (17.34% and the genitourinary system (9.76%. The registered rate of hospitalization for the same period is for diseases of the digestive system (11.90%, the cardiovascular system (11.85%, respiratory system (10.86% and the genitourinary system (8.88%.Conclusion: The observed period shows a decrease in average yearly concentrations of the principal atmospheric pollutants in the industrial region (Bulgaria and reflects a decrease in morbidity based on outpatient care and an increase in morbidity by inpatient care (hospitalization. Our findings should be corroborated in future longitudinal studies. Keywords: Atmospheric pollution, Morbidity, Industrial region, Bulgaria

  13. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL REGISTRY OF NEUROENDOCRINE TUMORS IN BULGARIA--A PILOT SURVEY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanov, R; Miteva-Katrandjieva, Ts; Iskrov, G; Damyanov, D; Korukov, B; Kermedchiev, M; Terziev, I; Madjov, R; Ivanov, K; Kolev, N; Chenopolski, P; Tsaneva, M; Dimitrova, V; Todorov, G; Hristova, S; Tosheva, E; Grozdev, K; Vladov, N; Mihova, A; Stoyanova, R; Cholakov, O; Haralanov, S; Draganov, K; Marinov, V; Radionov, M; Dimitrov, O; Kurtev, P; Angelova, E; Hadjiev, B; Murdjev, K; Dermendjieva, T; Deliisky, T; Valcheva-Petrova, G; Popovska, S; Julianov, A; Georgiev, I

    2014-01-01

    The National registry of patients with neuroendocrine tumors (NET) in Bulgaria was established in 2013 as a joint initiative of the Bulgarian Surgical Society and the Institute for Rare Diseases. The register aims to explore the epidemiology of NET in Bulgaria, as well as the different diagnostic and treatment approaches for the disease throughout the country. This the first of its kind retrospective study of NET in the country is covering the period January 2012 - January 2013. A total of 127 patients with NET were identified. At the time of the survey the average age of patients with NET was 58.61 ± 15.59 years. The data show almost equal distribution between the genders with a slight predominance of women. The largest relative part of NET is those of NET located in the gastrointestinal tract (54.10 ± 4.51%), followed by those located in the pancreas (12.30 ± 2.97%) and in the lungs (10.66 ± 2.79%). In 72.44 ± 3.96% of the patients a immunohistochemical diagnosis was performed. The study confirmed the leading role of the surgery method of the NET management. In 65.83 ± 4.33% of the patients a radical removal of the tumor was conducted, while the relative part of the undertaken partial resection was 7.50 ± 2.40%. A statistically significant association between the type of surgical treatment and during the follow-up of patients was found. An update of the information in the register will allow a more precise determining of the distribution and management of NET in Bulgaria.

  14. INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL DETERMINANTS OF COMMERCIAL BANKS PROFITABILITY: EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE FROM BULGARIA AND ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FIRTESCU BOGDAN

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Our study focuses on commercial banks which are operating in Bulgaria and Romania, two countries whose banking sectors have registered major structural changes in the transition to a market economy and which are showing some similarities. Similar to other EU countries, the financial system from Bulgaria and Romania is dominated by the banking sector, which holds the largest share of total assets. Thus, we can say that health, strength and performance of the banking sector are of major importance for the sustainable economic development of states, but also for efficient transmission of monetary policy decisions on the real economy. The paper aims to identify the key factors that affect bank profitability and to evaluate empirically their contribution to a sample of 29 commercial banks in Bulgaria and Romania, for the period 2003-2012. Our research is based on data from the Bureau Van Dijk database, the World Bank and the European Central Bank and uses panel data estimation techniques. The dependent variable used in our study is the bank profitability, which is measured by two representative indicators the Return on Average Assets (ROAA and Return on Average Equity (ROAE. Regarding the independent variables, our analysis includes capital adequacy, the loan loss reserve rate, cost to income ratio, the ratio of liquid assets to total assets, the interest expenses to deposits ratio, the non-interest income over total gross revenues, bank size, the GDP per capita growth, inflation rate, domestic bank credit to private sector and banking industry concentration. The results of our empirical study shows that among the variables considered, the loan loss reserve rate, the ratio of cost to income, GDP per capita growth and domestic bank credit to the private sector, have a significant impact on bank profitability, results in line with our expectations, but also with the results of other empirical studies.

  15. Xiphinema pirinense n. sp. (Nematoda: Dorylaimida: Longidoridae), a new species from Bulgaria with a digitate tail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mincheva, Yordanka; Lazarova, Stela; Peneva, Vlada

    2008-07-01

    A description of Xipinema pirinense n. sp. is provided. This is a parthenogenetic nematode found associated with Fragaria sp. and Alchemilla sp. (Rosaceae) close to pine trees in the Pirin Mountains, Bulgaria. The species is characterised by its medium body length (3.2-3.9 mm), rounded head region slightly demarcated by a shallow depression, long odontostyle (116-134.5 microm), tripartite uterus with a Z-differentiation consisting of 4-7 irregular moderately refractive bodies with a clear central part, and a digitate tail with a ventral peg. The new species is most similar to X. index Thorne & Allen, 1950 and X. diversicaudatum (Micoletzky, 1927) Thorne, 1939.

  16. RATIONAL PHARMACOTHERAPY BASED ON PHARMACOECONOMIC DATA AUDIT: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATION IN BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Vekov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The theoretical foundations of the application of pharmacoeconomic evaluations of pharmacotherapies in order to improve their economic efficiency and support the process of taking decisions on their payment from public funds are examined. An algorithm is presented for the pharmacoeconomic audit, which is applicable for assessing the objectivity and reliability of the proposed pharmacoeconomic data from pharmaceutical manufacturers in the application process for inclusion in the positive list of medicines in Bulgaria and the reimbursement of economically rational pharmacotherapies from the public health fund.

  17. Education of logopedists or speech-language pathologists in Bulgaria, Greece, Macedonia, Poland and Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgieva, Dobrinka

    2010-01-01

    This article provides an overview of student training programs in logopedics in Bulgaria, Greece, Macedonia, Poland and the Russian Federation. The data were collected using a special questionnaire developed by Söderpalm in 2006 and supplemented by the author. Bachelor's, master's and PhD programs in the field of pure logopedics no longer exist in some countries. In other locations, logopedics is included as a part of special education student training. In all cases, student education in logopedics is centralized in the universities. Educational programs are accredited by national agencies for accreditation or evaluation or by the respective Ministries of Education.

  18. Accounting interpretation of concession rights in the Republic of Bulgaria – topical issues  

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rumiana Pozharevska

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this paper covers the topical problems for the Republic of Bulgaria on the recognition, presentation and disclosure of concession rights and transactions for accounting purposes. The issues identified by the authors have a regulatory, theoretical character and concern their practical application. The aspects studied within this paper are: recognition of concession rights as intangible assets and their positioning in the total amount of assets of concessionaire enterprises; requirement and readiness for disclosure of information relating to concession agreements. The authors seek to suggest solutions in the specified directions.

  19. Opportunities of Establishment of Destination Management and Marketing Organizations in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venelin Terziev

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines tourism sector development in the Republic of Bulgaria in the context of the country’s strategic priorities till 2020 of knowledge-based economy, sustainable growth and smart specialization, the opportunities for its integration with agri-food sector and potential contribution to balanced rural development. The principles and roles of destination management and marketing organizations are discussed and the opportunities for their application in the national conditions are explored. A framework for of establishment, management and functioning of such organizations is proposed based on integrated and participatory approaches, planning, coordination and communication activities, permanent monitoring and controlling.

  20. RATIONAL PHARMACOTHERAPY BASED ON PHARMACOECONOMIC DATA AUDIT: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATION IN BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Vekov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The theoretical foundations of the application of pharmacoeconomic evaluations of pharmacotherapies in order to improve their economic efficiency and support the process of taking decisions on their payment from public funds are examined. An algorithm is presented for the pharmacoeconomic audit, which is applicable for assessing the objectivity and reliability of the proposed pharmacoeconomic data from pharmaceutical manufacturers in the application process for inclusion in the positive list of medicines in Bulgaria and the reimbursement of economically rational pharmacotherapies from the public health fund.

  1. Social Costs of the Inefficient Management of the EU Funds for Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The study identifies and defines the social costs of the inefficient management of EU funds for Bulgaria. It is analyzed the last due programme period (2007-2015) and its prolongation. As methodology of the research the V4 BM model of Al-Debei and Avison (2010) which has not been used for analysis of EU funds management for cohesion policy in the public sector, is applied. In this way its potential for application in this field is tested. The concept of the study could be successfully used fo...

  2. After Euro 620 m arbitration ruling. What next for Bulgaria's Belene nuclear project?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraev, Kamen [NucNet, Brussels (Belgium)

    2016-08-15

    Iran is considering Bulgaria's offer to sell it the Russian-made reactor equipment produced for the abandoned Belene nuclear project. The Belene project was initially planned and started in the 1980s, but was stopped in the early 1990s. In 2008 the project was formally given new life, but suspended again in 2010 and abandoned in 2012. The International Court of Arbitration (ICA) ordered the Bulgarian operator Natsionalna Elektricheska Kompania EAD to pay Euro 620 m in compensation to Russia's Atomstroyexport.

  3. Anti-Semitism and Islamofobia in Bulgaria. Actual legal and sociological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Ilieva

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This article is based on the lecture held on 23rd September 2011 at the Law faculty of the University of Bologna.SOMMARIO: 1. Introduction – 2. Statistical data – 3. The Muslim community – 4. The Jewish community – 5. General overview of the relevant law provisions in Bulgaria – 6. Anti-Semitism and Islamophobia and the political rights according to the domestic legislation – 7. The Law on Protection against Discrimination, the concept of “positive” discrimination and some new case-laws - 8. Religious Rights and Freedoms – 9. Criminal Law – 10. Some conclusions.

  4. Journalists' Perceptions of Nomenklatura Networks and Media Ownership in Post-communist Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lada Trifonova Price

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the role of the former communist party elite (the nomenklatura in the Bulgarian post-communist media landscape in relation to media ownership and the origin of media outlets’ capital. The spotlight is on Bulgarian journalists’ perceptions explored in semi-structured interviews with media professionals from the capital city, Sofia. The findings indicate that Bulgarian journalists are strongly interested in, and concerned with, the influence of members of the former nomenklatura and their informal networks on the Bulgarian media landscape and particularly on the way Bulgarian media in Bulgaria have been owned and financed since 1989.

  5. TOURISM INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT IN THE EMERGING ECONOMIES OF CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE (HUNGARY, BULGARIA, ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina-Petronela HALLER

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Emerging Economies from Central and Eastern Europe take steps to ensure growth through tourism. Although they do not have the cultural, historical and artistic potential of the most famous tourist destinations, these economies promote forms of tourism for which they have suitable conditions. For example, Hungary is famous for health tourism, Bulgaria has made progress in terms of coastal tourism and Romania tries to make known the rural area although it has all conditions for practicing a wide diversified range of tourism forms. In this paper we present statistics showing how the tourism industry looks for three Central and Eastern European countries and we do a brief comparative analysis.

  6. Observations of the lesser kestrel (Falco naumanni in Bulgaria during the period of post-breeding dispersal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daskalova Girgina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The lesser kestrel (Falco naumanni was considered extinct as a breeding species in Bulgaria, but recently a small breeding colony was found again in the south-eastern part of the country. Seven recent observations of flocks or solitary birds of the species in Bulgaria during the post-breeding period are presented and commented here. It is shown that the territory of the country is a regular area for post-breeding dispersal and pre-migratory feeding of lesser kestrels. The origin of these is not known, but most probably birds from the populations of the European part of Turkey, Greece, Republic of Macedonia and Albania are involved.

  7. East Europe Report, Political, Sociological and Military Affairs, No. 2196, Bulgaria: Government Efforts to Expand Relations with Emigres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    7 September 1982 will be long remembered by our compatriots both as a holiday and a working day. What made it a holiday was a ceremonious meeting...song with lyrics by Ivan Vazov "Where Is Bulgaria?" ("Do they ask me where the dawn is ..."), which sounded like an anthem of unity between the...of the 3-day meeting. Tanya Lukash from Austria recited her poems on Bulgaria. Francoise Vampute from Belgium sang the beautiful song "The Falling

  8. The role of family social capital in young people’s transition from school to work in Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    Large-scale surveys rate Bulgaria and the whole of South-East Europe as societies poor in both formal and informal social capital. At the same time studies show that families in the region remain closely knit and norms of reciprocity, empathy and support among members of extended families are valued highly. To throw light upon this contradiction the paper presents results from a qualitative research into family support for youth transitions from school to work in Bulgaria conducted in 2002-20...

  9. RATE OF RETURN ON INVESTMENT IN A DAIRY CATTLE BREEDING FARM IN BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsvetana HARIZANOVA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the rate of return on investment in a dairy cattle breeding farm in Bulgaria. To achieve the aim, it was investigated a dairy cattle breeding farm in Bulgaria first category with average number of 83 cows in the main herd. Based on information collected from the farm in 2012 and on own calculations it was defined the different types of investments necessary to create a farm. It was calculated also the rate of return of cash inflows, rate of return of cash outflows and investments per cow. It was found that the analyzed farm has implemented 12.5% rate of return on investment in 2012. Investments per cow are 4422 euros. The largest share of investments has the investments in productive animals (43.6%. 64.6% of the revenues are from the sale of milk. The largest share of the cash outflows have the purchase of feed and forage production - 58.3%. Subsidies play an important role for profitable operation of the analyzed farm.

  10. Demographic data on prostitutes from Bulgaria--a recruitment country for international (migratory) prostitutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchoudomirova, K; Domeika, M; Mårdh, P A

    1997-03-01

    The study was aimed at investigating the conditions and circumstances for the recruitment of prostitutes, as well as their reproductive history, working conditions, knowledge of and attitudes to sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), and use of prophylactic antibiotic therapy of these diseases. Two hundred prostitutes were investigated by in-depth interviews at STD clinics, private practices and hotels. Of the 200 prostitutes, 8 (4%) were less than 15 years old and 32 (16%) more than 25 years old. Most of the women came from rural villages. Half of them were gypsies. Most had a boyfriend (often the pimp). One-quarter had been or were on their way abroad to prostitute. Half were migrating within Bulgaria to prostitute. They claimed a high rate of condom use with customers, but seldom with their pimps or boyfriends. About one-tenth used antibiotics prophylactically. They had knowledge of classical STDs and HIV/AIDS but only in exceptional cases had they heard about chlamydial and human papillomavirus infections. They often cohabited with a female friend also often practising prostitution. It was concluded that recruitment is often easy as the prostitute can earn more from only one contact with a customer than their parents earn from work in a month. Symptoms suggestive of STD were very common in the prostitutes, i.e. in 43%. Bulgaria is a recruitment area for international prostitutes.

  11. CLASSIFICATION OF SEMI-NATURAL GRASSLANDS IN NORTH-EASTERN BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IVA APOSTOLOVA

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the syntaxonomic diversity of the semi-natural grasslands in NorthEastern Bulgaria following the principles of the Ziirich-Montpellier School. A total number of 172 releves, collected during 2002-2004, is used. TWINSPAN clustering is applied for determination vegetation types. The diagnostic species groups for the associations and subassociations are created by Cocktail method using the phi-coefficient with values above 0.3 within the JUICE software. As a result class Fesluco-Brometea is established with the alliances Festucion valesiacae, Pimpinello-Thymion and Chrysopogoni-Danthonion. The originally described Botriochloetum ischaemi Pop 1977 association is considered as typical on the subassociation level and a part of our releves are referred to it. Following the nomenclature rules we determined the subassotiation typicum. One new subassociation named Thymefosum pannonici of more xerophytic character, as compared to typical one, and well represented by differential species is established. The geographical distribution of Agropyro-Thymetum zygoidi and Agrostideto-Chrysopogonetum grylli associations is extended to the territory of Bulgaria. Class Molinio-Arrhenalherefea is represented by Cynosurion alliance and Festuco-Agrostidetum association is established by its probably most eastern area of distribution.

  12. V.F. Gening and issues on the archaeology of Volga Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudenko Konstantin A.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available V.F. Gening’s contribution to the study of the Volga Bulgaria and his views concerning the history and archaeology of this state formation are considered in the article. His sphere of interest first of all included the links between the Volga Bulgaria population and the tribes belonging to preceding cultures, such as Pyanoborye and Imenkovo ones. V.F. Gening investigated the Bolshie Tarkhany, Turaevo and Rozdestveno burial grounds dated by the 8-9th, 5th and 6-7th centuries A.D., and the materials collected modified the notion of the time and character of the Bulgars arrival in the Volga area. He reconsidered the chronology and interpretation of the archaeological monuments, which referred to the epoch preceding the Bulgars appearance on the Volga, and proposed a hypothesis of the Volga Bulgars as a Turkic-Ugrian ethnos. V.F. Gening created a periodization of the Bolgars history in Eastern Europe within the time span between 1st-3rd centuries AD and the early 13th century AD

  13. LEVEL OF AWARENESS OF REPUBLIC BULGARIA'S POPULATION FOR TREATMENT OF ISCHEMIC STROKE VIA THROMBOLYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GRETA KOLEVA

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The stroke is a socially significant disease that is characterized with high levels of morbidity and mortality, causing severe disability worldwide. It is the second most significant cause of death among the people in the western world, falling back only to the heart diseases and preceding the cancer, as it causes 10% of the mortal cases in the world. Since 2009 the Bulgarian association of neurosonology and cerebral hemodynamics(BANCH organizes different initiatives of training doctors to conduct a thrombolytic treatment to acute ischemic stroke(AIS. The intravenous thrombolysis has not been established as a leading differential treatment of AIS in Bulgaria, and the thrombolytic therapy is still not well developed in Bulgaria.The suport of national and local institutions is crucial for insuring and guarantee for a proper stroke treatment. Efforts are necessary for adequate financing of the health facilities, as well as professional preparation of the human resource, and training the population via creating an integrated national strategy for its application and control, which can underlie as a state politics in healthcare at optimal usage of public-private partnership.

  14. STATE AND EFFICIENCY OF MANAGEMENT OF AGROECOSYSTEM SERVICES – THE CASE OF BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HRABRIN BACHEV

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper incorporates New Institutional Economics and analyzes the state and efficiency of management of agro-ecosystem services in Bulgaria. Firstly, it presents framework of analyses of management of agro-ecosystem services including: definition of agroecosystem services and its management; specification of management needs and spectrum of governing modes (institutions, market, private, public, hybrid; assessment of efficiency of different form of management in terms of potential to protect eco-rights and investments, assure socially desirable level of agro-ecosystem services, minimize costs, coordinate and stimulate eco-activities, meet preferences and reconcile conflicts of related agents. Secondly, it identifies and assesses the management of agro-ecosystem services in Bulgaria. Transition and EU integration have brought about significant changes in the state and management of agroecosystems services in the country. Newly evolved market, private and public governance have led to a significant improvement of a part of agro-ecosystems services introducing modern ecostandards and public support, enhancing environmental stewardship, disintensifyingproduction, recovering landscape and traditional productions, diversifying quality, products,and services. At the same time, the novel eco-management is associated with new challenges such as unsustainable exploitation, lost biodiversity, land degradation, water and air contamination. Moreover, implementation of EU common policies would have no desired impact on agro-ecosystem services unless special measures are taken to improve management of public programs, and extend public support to dominating small-scale and subsistence farms.

  15. Building of scientific information system for sustainable development of BNCT in Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitev, M; Ilieva, K; Apostolov, T

    2009-07-01

    Building a boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) facility is foreseen within the reconstruction of the Research Reactor IRT (IRT) of the Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy of the Bulgaria Academy of Sciences (INRNE). The development of BNCT at IRT plays a very significant role in the plan for sustainable application of the reactor. A centralized scientific information system on BNCT is being built at the INRNE with the purpose to collect and sort new information as knowledge accumulated during more than thirty years history of BNCT. This BNCT information system will help the creation and consolidation of a well informed and interconnected interdisciplinary team of physicists, chemists, biologists, and radio-oncologists for establishing BNCT cancer treatment in Bulgaria. It will strengthen more intensive development of the national network as well as its enlargement to the Balkan region countries. Furthermore, to acquaint the public at large with the opportunity for BNCT cancer treatment will be addressed. Human, social, and economics results due to BNCT for many patients from Balkan region are expected.

  16. Diversity and biosynthetic potential of culturable aerobic heterotrophic bacteria isolated from Magura Cave, Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomova Iva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Biocapacity of bacteria inhabiting karstic caves to produce valuable biologically active compounds is still slightly investigated. A total of 46 culturable heterotrophic bacteria were isolated under aerobic conditions from the Gallery with pre-historical drawings in Magura Cave, Bulgaria. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that most of bacterial isolates aff iliated with Proteobacteria (63%, followed by Actinobacteria (10.9%, Bacteroidetes (10.9%, and Firmicutes (6.5%. A strong domination of Gram-negative bacteria (total 81% belonging to nine genera: Serratia, Pseudomonas, Enterobacter, Sphingobacterium, Stenotrophomonas, Commamonas, Acinetobacter, Obesumbacterium, and Myroides, was observed. Gram-positive isolates were represented by the genera Bacillus, Arthrobacter, and Micrococcus. One isolate showed a signif icant phylogenetic distance to the closest neighbor and could represent а novel species. Heterotrophic bacterial isolates from Magura Cave were investigated for hydrolytic enzymes production, antimicrobial and hemolytic activity. Predominance of producers of protease (87%, followed by xanthan lyase (64%, lipase (40%, β-glycosidase (40%, and phytase (21% was observed. Over 75% of the isolates demonstrated antimicrobial and hemolytic activity. The results suggest that heterotrophic bacteria isolated from Magura Cave could be a valuable source of industrially relevant psychrotolerant enzymes and bioactive metabolites. This study is a f irst report on the taxonomic composition and biological activity of culturable bacteria inhabiting a cave in Bulgaria.

  17. The use of plants in ritual context during Antiquity in Bulgaria: overview of the archaeobotanical evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanka Hristova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Botanical remains from sanctuaries and necropolises provide valuable information about ancient religious practices. The current paper discusses old and new archaeobotanical data from Bulgaria and the use of plants in ritual context from Antiquity. The time span of the 44 considered sites (sanctuaries and necropolises is between the 6th century BC and the 3rd century AD. Most of the sanctuaries in Bulgaria, where archaeobotanical remains have been studied, date to the Bronze and Iron Ages, and a large proportion represents the so called “pit fields”. Information concerning later periods is almost completely lacking. Some evidence on plant offerings is available from the necropolises of the Hellenistic and Roman periods. Although the archaeobotanical data from these sites are quite scarce, their increasing number allows the observation of some common tendencies. Cereals and pulses are most commonly identified at sanctuaries, while fruits are typical remains in the necropolises. Very often imported species (like stone pine, pistachio and olive are found which testifies to existing contacts with adjacent regions (mainly the Mediterranean area and North Africa.

  18. Clonal dissemination of multilocus sequence type ST15 KPC-2-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markovska, Rumyana; Stoeva, Temenuga; Schneider, Ines; Boyanova, Lyudmila; Popova, Valentina; Dacheva, Daniela; Kaneva, Radka; Bauernfeind, Adolf; Mitev, Vanyo; Mitov, Ivan

    2015-10-01

    A total of 36 consecutive clinical and two fecal-screening carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates from two Bulgarian university hospitals (Varna and Pleven) were investigated. Susceptibility testing, conjugation experiments, and plasmid replicon typing were carried out. Beta-lactamases were characterized by isoelectric focusing, PCR, and sequencing. Clonal relatedness was investigated by RAPD and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Most of the isolates demonstrated multidrug resistance profile. Amikacin and tigecycline retained good activity with susceptibility rates of 95 and 87%, respectively. The resistance rate to colistin was 63%. Six RAPD- and MLST-types were identified: the dominating MLST-type was ST15 (27 isolates), followed by ST76 (six isolates), and ST1350 (two isolates). ST101, ST258, and ST151 were detected once. All except one of the K. pneumoniae produced KPC-2, mostly in combination with CTX-M-15, while for one isolate (ST101) the enzymes OXA-48 and CTX-M-14 were found. All KPC-2-producing transconjugants revealed the presence of IncFII plasmid. The OXA-48- and CTX-M-14-producing isolate showed the presence of L/M replicon type. The dissemination of KPC-2-producing K.pneumoniae in Bulgaria is mainly due to the sustained spread of successful ST15 clone and to a lesser extent of ST76 clone. This is the first report of OXA-48 producing ST101 K. pneumoniae in Bulgaria.

  19. Food safety knowledge and hygiene practices among veterinary medicine students at Trakia University, Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratev, Deyan; Odeyemi, Olumide A; Pavlov, Alexander; Kyuchukova, Ralica; Fatehi, Foad; Bamidele, Florence A

    2017-02-07

    The results from the first survey on food safety knowledge, attitudes and hygiene practices (KAP) among veterinary medicine students in Bulgaria are reported in this study. It was designed and conducted from September to December 2015 using structured questionnaires on food safety knowledge, attitudes and practices. Data were collected from 100 undergraduate veterinary medicine students from the Trakia University, Bulgaria. It was observed that the age and the gender did not affect food safety knowledge, attitudes and practices. There was no significant difference (p>0.05) on food safety knowledge and practices among students based on the years of study. A high level of food safety knowledge was observed among the participants (85.06%), however, the practice of food safety was above average (65.28%) while attitude toward food safety was high (70%). Although there was a significant awareness of food safety knowledge among respondents, there is a need for improvement on food safety practices, interventions on food safety and foodborne diseases.

  20. The importance of quality, access and price to health care consumers in Bulgaria: A self-explicated approach'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pavlova, M.; Groot, W.J.N.; van Merode, F.

    2003-01-01

    One approach to the problem of low patient satisfaction in Bulgaria is to identify attributes of health care services that the consumers value most and to focus on their improvement. Based on data from a household survey, this paper examines the importance that health care consumers attach to qualit

  1. Tooth replacement related to number of natural teeth in a dentate adult population in Bulgaria: a cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damyanov, N.D.; Witter, D.J.; Bronkhorst, E.M.; Creugers, N.H.J.

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study aimed to explore the relationships among tooth replacement, number of present natural teeth, and sociodemographic and behavioral factors in an adult population in Bulgaria. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Quota sampling was used to recruit 2,531 dentate subjects aged 20 years and over fro

  2. Views and beliefs of social studies teachers on citizenship education: a comparative study of the Netherlands, Bulgaria and Croatia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeliazkova, Margarita; Cunningham, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on a comparative study of high school social science teachers in three European countries: the Netherlands, Bulgaria, and Croatia, and presents data from teacher interviews using Q methodology. An aim of the study is to make explicit the link between teachers’ views on citizenship

  3. Does management improve the state of chestnut (Castanea sativa L. on Belasitsa Mountain, southwest Bulgaria?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatanov T

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Chestnut forests in the Belasitsa Mountain region of southwest Bulgaria were traditionally intensively managed as orchard-like stands for nut production. More recently, management intensity has been sharply reduced as a result of rural abandonment, which combined with the effects of chestnut blight has led to marked structural changes in these forests. The focus of this paper is on the seed-based regeneration potential and seedling survival of chestnut in mixed stands managed over the past 15 years. Results suggest that management of stands under a high-forest system is appropriate, and regeneration from seed has advantages over coppicing if competing species can be controlled. An investigation into “sanitation cutting” performed since the 1990s shows that this had not a successful response to blight infestations.

  4. Alkaloid profiles and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities of Fumaria species from Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrancheva, Radka Z; Ivanov, Ivan G; Aneva, Ina Y; Dincheva, Ivayla N; Badjakov, Ilian K; Pavlov, Atanas I

    2016-01-01

    GC-MS analysis of alkaloid profiles of five Fumaria species, naturally grown in Bulgaria (F. officinalis, F. thuretii, F. kralikii, F. rostellata and F. schrammii) and analysis of acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of alkaloid extracts were performed. Fourteen isoquinoline alkaloids were identified, with the principle ones being protopine, cryptopine, sinactine, parfumine, fumariline, fumarophycine, and fumaritine. Protopine contents, defined by HPLC analysis varied between 210.6 ± 8.8 μg/g DW (F. schrammii) and 334.5 ± 7.1 μg/g DW. (F. rostellata). While all of the investigated alkaloid extracts significantly inhibited acetylcholinesterase activity, the F. kralikii demonstrated the highest level of inhibition (IC(50) 0.13 ± 0.01 mg extract/mL).

  5. Envenoming following bites by the Balkan adder Vipera berus bosniensis - first documented case series from Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerström, Alexander; Petrov, Boyan; Tzankov, Nikolay

    2010-12-01

    We report the first detailed accounts of bites by the Balkan adder, Vipera berus bosniensis from Bulgaria. Documentation of bites by this subspecies is very rare in the literature and most available accounts are from the northern limit of its distribution. V. berus bosniensis is considered to possess neurotoxic venom but little evidence has hitherto been available to support this supposition. In this case series symptoms typical of adder bites developed including oedema, nausea, dizziness, lymphangitis, vomiting, and diarrhoea together with aberrant symptoms such as diplopia and ptosis that confirm the presence of neurotoxic venom in Balkan adders. In addition, unusual and atypical symptoms of adder bites such as painless bites and muscle cramps appeared. The inadequate treatment in hospital and the remote habitats in which this species is encountered are potential sources of complication.

  6. On the structural value of children and its implication on intended fertility in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Bühler

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Personal networks are receiving increasing recognition as structural determinants of fertility. However, the network perspective also helps to explain personal motivations for having children. Using theories of interpersonal exchange, social capital, and the value of children, it is argued in this article that children can substantively improve their parents' social networks. Individuals perceive this potential advantageous development as a structural benefit and consider this value in their reproductive decisions. This argument is empirically explored with data from Bulgaria, collected in 2002. The results document the presence of structural evaluations among subjectively perceived child-related benefits. Moreover, structural evaluations matter for the reproductive decision-making of Bulgarian citizens. Women's fertility intentions are supported by the prospect that a child will bring their parents and relatives closer or will improve their security at old age. Males' intentions are closely associated with the expectation that a child will provide support when they are old.

  7. South-East Region in Bulgaria: Economic Performance and Key Sectors Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoaneta GOLEMANOVA

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper attempts to provide insight into the economicperformance of the South-east region (SER of Bulgaria by presenting quantitativerelationships between sectors in the regional economy. Methodologically it is basedon the construction of the regional Input–Output model. It was carried out troughapplying the non-servey GRIT technique, based on Flegg & Webber locationquotient (2000. The dirived Rasmussen & Hirschman backward linkages andMattas & Shrestha input-output elasticities from the model enable to identify thekey economic sectors within the region. This could be considered as a starting pointfor the future impact assesment of different EU policies, as well as designing ofbetter regional development strategies, assuring better economic performance.

  8. Institutionalizing Local Government as an Instrument of Democratic Consolidation: The Cases of Bulgaria and Paraguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsamunska Polya

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Multi-level governance is widely used throughout the world, especially in more economically developed countries. In part, this is due to the presumed benefits of decentralization in terms of public-service delivery, and in part, it is due to a desire to disperse political power and governmental authority. Thus, 25 years ago, when major governmental reform initiatives were begun in many countries around the world, especially in Central and Eastern Europe and Latin America, much attention was devoted to establishing and / or strengthening local governments. This was the case in Bulgaria and Paraguay, two countries from different parts of the world, but similar in size, economic development and a history of highly centralized and authoritarian regimes. The purpose of this paper is to examine and better understand the processes of decentralization as they took place in those two countries and those factors which facilitated and / or hindered efforts to initiate effective local government.

  9. THE SOCIAL ORIENTATION OF THE ACTIVITY OF THE LABOUR WORKING COOPERATIVES FOR DISABLED PEOPLE IN BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albena MITEVA

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Bulgaria's membership in the European Union defines the orientation of our country in line with the key strategic priorities of Europe 2020, which aims to achieve smart, sustainable and inclusive growth. The role of the cooperative system becomes especially important at this time when the EU itself is constructed as a union of equal socially oriented states. In the paper is depicted the role of the labour working producer cooperatives for disabled people as one of the main actors of the social economy in the EU which contribute to solving many economic and social problems of a substantial part of the Bulgarian population and to implement the priorities of the strategy "Europe 2020". In line with this aim, are given suggestion for the trends in improving their activity. So that they could provide better labour rehabilitation, strengthen the social integration of their members, promotion of production, improvement of working conditions, proposals for changes in legislation.

  10. Current healthcare in Bulgaria: time for predictive diagnostics and preventive medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrov, Dimiter V

    2010-12-01

    Since 1990 Bulgaria gradually moved from monopolistic to market regulated economy and healthcare. In 2007 the country became member of the European Union and started to adopt EU legislations. However, significant gaps between the average European and Bulgarian level of social, health and economic efficiency remain to be narrowed. The major challenge is the demographic situation, where recent trends give alarming signals. Plans for reformation include transition towards out-patient palliative healthcare centers for the aging population as well as reduction of the costs with new electronic system of health insurance. The favorable location of the country at the Black Sea coast gives opportunities for medical tourism, which can provide quality health service for foreign customers. Finally, national platforms on prevention of major non-communicable diseases, such as obesity, cancer and diabetes, must be established as coordinated actions for the health and wellness of next generations.

  11. A contibution to the knowledge of the trophic spectrum of three lacertid lizards from Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivelin Mollov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A study on the trophic spectrum of three species of lacertid lizards (Lacerta agilis, Lacerta trilineata and Podarcis muralis was carried out, based on 20 specimens collected in the period 1967-1973 in various localities in Bulgaria. The analyzed data showed that the insects (Insecta are the most numerous and the most frequently met among the alimentary components of the total amount of food of the studied stomachs (except for Lacerta agilis, where spiders are slightly predominating. The non-insect components consisted spiders and isopods. The largest niche breadth was recorded in Lacerta trilineata (8.25, followed by Podarcis muralis (5.20 and Lacerta agilis (3.44. The niche overlap between the three species (pair-wise comparison showed medium values and in our opinion there should not be any serious competition for food resources at the places withsympatric distribution.

  12. THE ECONOMICS OF PEANUT PRODUCTION IN BULGARIA DURING THE TRANSITION PERIOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelly BENCHEVA

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available We examined peanut production systems and selected factors affecting the development of commercial peanut enterprises in Bulgaria. A survey of 220 individual farms and farm cooperatives engaged in the cultivation of peanuts was conducted during 2000 and 2002. Poor farm structure, low level of technology, and nonconformity to farm decision making impede the financial and economic development of Bulgarian peanut production and farm growth, thus limiting farm enterprises emergence into competitive economic units financially operative in a freemarket economy. The underlying cost structure, couple with small farms, averaging 0.8 ha in size, prevent farmers from capturing economies of scale, limit farm profitability and hence farm modernization. The lack of owned farm machinery, equipment and storage facilities renders the restructuring and specialization extremely difficult. However, peanut production is still a viable farm enterprise for Bulgarian farmers.

  13. Early Neolithic settlement Yabalkovo (Maritsa valley, Bulgaria in the context of archaeomagnetic studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Kostadinova-Avramova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Five fired clay structures from the Northeast sector of the Early Neolithic settlement of Yabalkovo in the Maritsa valley, Bulgaria were a subject of an archaeomagnetic investigation. The results of the detailed rock-magnetic experiments carried out show that the collected materials are suitable for archaeomagnetic study and reliable determinations for past geomagnetic field elements can be obtained. According to the mean values calculated for the ancient geomagnetic field direction and intensity, two different periods of time can be undoubtedly distinguished for the investigated structures. This coincides exactly with the two chronological horizons suggested by the excavators. The archaeological observations point that the oven in sq. K36, the hearth in sq. F16 and the hearth in sq. H31 are related to Horizon II, while the hearths in sq. I31 and sq. F18 are connected with Horizon I. Based on the Bulgarian reference curves (latest version, the following archaeomagnetic dating intervals are received: Yabalkovo – Horizon II – (5685–5489 BC and Yabalkovo – Horizon I – (5472–5427 BC. These results agree well with the archaeological data that structures from Horizon II are older than structures from Horizon I. The existing 14C dates (for materials taken mainly from the Southwest sector of the settlement show considerably older dating intervals but they are not able to differentiate chronologically the different structures. The obtained archaeomagnetic determinations for Yabalkovo are compared with these available for other archaeomagnetically studied Early Neolithic sites from Bulgaria and Northern Greece. This comparison indicates that Horizon II of Yabalkovo can be synchronised with the younger layers of Kovatchevo (Karanovo I, Stara Zagora (Karanovo II and Dobriniste. Horizon I of Yabalkovo is chronologically comparable with Horizons VII+VIII of Samovodene and Avgi (Nortern Greece.

  14. Adverse effects of maternal age, weight and smoking during pregnancy in Pleven, Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariela Stefanova Kamburova

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This paper aims to study the relationship between mothers’ age, body mass index (BMI, gestational weight gain (GWG and smoking and the risk for premature birth in Pleven, Bulgaria. Methods: A case-control study was conducted in Pleven in 2007. The study was comprehensive for all premature children (N=58 and representative for full-term infants (N=192, or 10.4% of all of the 1827 full-term children born in 2007 at the University Hospital of Pleven and resident in the city of Pleven. Retrospective data on determinants under study were collected from all the mothers included in this study (N=250. Results: Mothers of premature children were more likely to be above 35 years old (27.6%, with a BMI ≥25 kg/m2 (23.1%, GWG below the recommended value (38.5% and to smoke during pregnancy (37.9%. The odds of being a smoker during pregnancy were five times higher among mothers with low birth weight (LBW newborns compared with their counterparts with normal birth weight newborns (OR=5.1, 95%CI=2.4-10.6. There was a positive association between BMI and LBW in infants whose mothers were overweight (OR=2.1, 95%CI=1.0-4.0. The risk of LBW increased when GWG was less than recommended (OR=1.8, 95%CI=1.0-3.1. Conclusion: Our results indicate that pre-pregnancy BMI ≥25 kg/m2, less than recommended GWG and smoking during pregnancy are risk factors for premature birth in Pleven region. Findings from this study suggest the need for active health and educational actions by health professionals in order to avoid premature births in Bulgaria.

  15. PRODUCT AND MARKET ORIENTATION OF HORTICULTURAL FARMS IN BULGARIA DURING THE YEARS LEADING TO EU ACCESSION – STUDIES IN THE PLOVDIV REGION

    OpenAIRE

    Elena Garnevska; Roger Vaughan; Jonathan Edwards

    2008-01-01

    Agriculture/horticulture has traditionally been an important sector in the economy of Bulgaria. The paper outlines the structural changes in Bulgarian agriculture since 1989 and discusses the product and market orientation of the horticultural farms in the Plovdiv region of Bulgaria. This paper analyses how farm owners / managers with different sized farms evaluated 5 product/market strategic options: ‘doing what you currently do but better’, ‘developing new horticultural products’, ‘developi...

  16. Adaptation and Validation of a Burnout Inventory in a Survey of the Staff of a Correctional Institution in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harizanova Stanislava N.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Burnout syndrome is a phenomenon that seems to be studied globally in relation to all types of populations. The staff in the system of correctional institutions in Bulgaria, however, is oddly left out of this tendency. There is no standardized model in Bulgaria that can be used to detect possible susceptibility to professional burnout. The methods available at present only register the irreversible changes that have already set in the functioning of the individual. V. Boyko’s method for burnout assessment allows clinicians to use individual approach to patients and affords easy comparability of results with data from other psychodiagnostic instruments. Adaptation of the assessment instruments to fit the specificities of a study population (linguistic, ethno-cultural, etc. is obligatory so that the instrument could be correctly used and yield valid results. Validation is one of the most frequently used technique to achieve this.

  17. Soon, later, or ever? The impact of anomie and social capital on fertility intentions in Bulgaria (2002) and Hungary (2001).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philipov, Dimiter; Spéder, Zsolt; Billari, Francesco C

    2006-11-01

    We use survey data from Bulgaria and Hungary to investigate the determinants of whether women intend to have a first or a second child and, if so, whether they intend to have the child within the ensuing 2 years or later. These determinants differ significantly by the order and timing of the intended birth. The variables used include measures of anomie and social capital and these appear to be among the factors that determine both whether to have a child and when. There is some evidence that these measures and economic factors are relatively more important in Bulgaria than in Hungary, and that ideational factors are more important in Hungary, particularly in the case of voluntary childlessness.

  18. Crop Monitoring Using SPOT-VGT NDVIs S10 Time-Series Product for the Arable Land of Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassilev, Vassil

    2013-12-01

    The objects of investigation are the major crops in Bulgaria (winter wheat, winter barley, sunflower and maize). The purpose of this paper is to 1) identify major crops using satellite data with low spatial resolution of 1000 m using agro-phenological information; 2) monitoring based on NDVI time-series values for the years 2007, 2008 and 2010, where anomaly events occur based on the information in the National Institute of Meteorology and Hydrology at the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences (NIMH-BAS) agrometeorological monthly bulletins. The current paper shows the massive potential of using low spatial resolution satellite data in identfying crops and monitoring the development anomalies on crops. This research will contribute in applying and elaborating JRC MARS methodology in Bulgaria by using low resolution SPOT-VGT NDVIs S10 satellite product.

  19. Success as a Cultural Value: a Comparison Between the Notions of Success and Well-being in Bulgaria and Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hristina Sokolova

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to compare the notions of personal well-being and individual success in Bulgaria and Hungary. Such comparison has not been studied yet in social and cultural sciences. The analysis is based on the results from the 3rd, 4th and 5th Round of the European Social Survey, the 2011řs Eurobarometer Qualitative Survey on attitudes to well-being and a small survey on the notions of individual success conducted by the author of this paper in Bulgaria and Hungary in January 2012. Results of this paper shed light on the most important motivating force of oneřs existence and could be used as guidance for creating problem-solving practices in business and entrepreneurship, based on cultural values.

  20. Question mark shaped earrings from Danube Bulgaria(the XIII–XIV cc.: origin and area of spread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimirov Georgi V.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A special type of jewelry, earrings shaped as question mark from Bulgaria, is considered. Their spreading area and possible sources of their emergence in the culture of 13-14th-century Danube Bulgaria are made clear. Two stylistic groups are distinguished: those with a simple stylized pattern and those with an intricate pattern. The second group, a more numerous one, finds an analogy in the territory of the Golden Horde. According to the author, it can be argued that the emergence and spread of this type of earrings in the Bulgarian environment is the result of the influence of a "supraethnic" culture of the steppe peoples. These peoples (mainly the Cumans were in the orbit of the Golden Horde.

  1. Notes on autumn-winter stomach contents of the Stone Marten (Martes foina in the Balkan Mountains, Central Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masumi Hisano

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We studied autumn-winter food (November-February, 1997-2003 of the Stone Marten in the Balkan Mountains, Central Bulgaria. A total of 26 stomachs (18 of males and eight of females were examined, of which contents was expressed as the number of occurrence and relative frequency of occurrence. The result clearly showed that rodents are primary prey for the Stone Marten. Birds and insects were the following categories consumed. The edible dormouse was detected as a prey for the first time in Bulgaria. Besides, wild ungulates and domestic animals were occasionally scavenged, while neither fruits nor artificial materials were detected in the marten stomachs. Thus, our study showed that the Stone Marten in the Balkan Mountains tended to be more carnivorous in winter.

  2. The town in Serbia and Bulgaria: A comparative reading of current processes. Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatanović Sanja

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The topic of this volume is a result from The Contemporary City in Serbia and Bulgaria: Processes and Changes, a bilateral project of the Institute of Ethnography of the Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts and the Institute of Ethnology and Folklore Studies with Ethnographic Museum of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences (2014-2016. The six papers offer a comparative view of current social processes in two neighbouring Balkan countries, linked by numerous historical and political experiences. Comparative research into societal trends enables a more thorough understanding and monitoring of global processes. In today’s increasingly globalised and glocalised world, towns experience sudden changes and it is in the towns that these changes are most vividly to be seen. The focus of our research is on the dynamism of the contemporary town, on processuality and changes in societal practices. Ana Luleva examines life in the small town of Nessebar in southeast Bulgaria, which has been on the UNESCO World Heritage list since 1983. The protection, management and presentation of Nessebar’s cultural heritage are highly complex issues, further complicated by the problem of collision with the interests of the inhabitants. The author analyses the relations between the various factors - the state administration, municipal authorities and the local population. Here the tourist industry, investment interests, corrupt institutions and civil society all play their part. Ivanka Petrova chose to research Belogradchik, a small town in northwest Bulgaria. Petrova investigates how local social and cultural resources are used in the work of a family tourist enterprise. The author looks for answers to questions such as: how its members identify with the town and its culture and how the work of the enterprise fits into the Belogradchik local context. At the focus of her paper are current societal practices: the local urban economy and the production of images and symbols

  3. Knut Hamsun og Bulgaria: Om den tidlige Hamsun-resepsjonen i et land på Balkan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgenia Tetimova

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates the main problems of Knut Hamsun's reception in Bulgaria. It is an attempt to classify the language peculiarities in the works of the Norwegian writer and their delivering by translation into Bulgarian, which was made in the context of the culture transfer. Materials of the research are the original texts and all accessible translations to Bulgarian: works of art analyzed here from linguistic point of view by a linguostylistic analyze.

  4. Height-diameter relationships for Scots pine plantations in Bulgaria: optimal combination of model type and application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Vassileva Stankova

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The height-diameter relationship is an important and extensivelyinvestigated forest model, but generalized and mixed-effects models of wider applicability are currently lacking in the forest modeling literature for Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. plantations in Bulgaria. Considering the practical advantages of deterministic and mixed-effects models, the present study aims to derive a generalized deterministic height-diameter relationship and a simple mixed-effects model for plantation-grown Scots pine in Bulgaria. Ten generalized and six local models of adequate mathematical properties were selected and examined in several subsequent steps with a representative data set.A deterministic model was derived for tree height reconstruction fromthe individual tree diameters, stand dominant height and diameter,number of trees per hectare and stand age. Mixed-effects models weredeveloped from the individual-tree and stand diameters and heights applicable to determine the height-diameter relationship in field surveys. Both types of models can be applied with confidence, according to their advantages and specifications, for estimating the height-diameter relationship of Scots pine plantations in Bulgaria, presenting a unique contribution for the particular species, study area and type of model. The choice of the tested models is relevant to the height-diameter relationship investigation of biologically related and geographically close species and types of stands and the study procedure allows repetition of the work to provide reliable solutions of the problem where information on such type of model is deficient or incomplete.

  5. TECHNOLOGICAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP OF SMALL AND MEDIUM BUSINESS IN THE REPUBLIC OF BULGARIA AS A FACTOR FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Mirchev

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In the context of deepening economic and social crisis the importance of small and medium enterprises in the Republic of Bulgaria is steadily increasing. They have provided significant number of jobs on the labour market and have created much of the gross domestic product of Bulgaria. Our thesis is that technological entrepreneurship is a factor for the sustainable development of small and medium business in the country as a whole and stimulates overcoming the crisis in the country. This research paper reviews the results of a study of the conceptual apparatus of technological entrepreneurship. Based on the results, the relationship of technological entrepreneurship with sustainable development of Small and Medium Enterprises in Bulgaria is determined. The author's conclusions and definition of technological entrepreneurship as a factor for sustainable development are made on the basis of the analysis of the development of Small and Medium Enterprises in key sectors of Bulgarian economy such as tourism, power engineering, transport and industry. An attempt has been made for taking defining measures for development stimulating the technological entrepreneurship in these sectors of the national economy.

  6. Problems and tendencies in management optimisation of hospital sector within health care system of Republic of Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.G. Stoycheva

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article. The purpose of this article is to analyze the specifics, priorities and tendencies of the reforms in hospital sector management within the health care system of Republic of Bulgaria, the hospital care organization practices in relation to the National discussions on issues of hospital sector of the health care system.The results of the analysis. The accession of Republic of Bulgaria to the EU has created new conditions in defining the priorities in the area of public health care, including hospital medical aid. Summarizing, accumulation and transfer of experience in reforming of health care systems of the European Union member states, development of unified requirements, harmonization of legislation, financing, structure of functioning and management of hospital care within the health care system, lead to the need of deep analysis of situation, strategic priorities renewal, management optimization of whole health care system, and in particular the hospital care system in Republic of Bulgaria.In the article the author analyses the research and publications of some major materials, regulations and documents, which provided the basis for the reforms in the health care management system in Republic of Bulgaria in its continuing integration into the pan-European system. Illustrating current situation analysis, the author shares the opinion that the most important part in the organization of common management system in health care is the sector responsible for the development of hospital financing.The author pays special attention to the issues of economic activity of health care institutions.The author cites a number of documents of the National Centre for Medical Information (NCMI noting that leading specialists of the Centre: .Dikov, R.Kolarova, T.Hundurzhievhave prepared detailed reports on economics 2001-2008 and comparative analysis of the medical institutions operation as well as those for outpatient care in Republic of

  7. Future state of the climate change, mitigation and development of sustainable agriculture in Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazandjiev, V.; Georgieva, V.; Moteva, M.; Marinova, T.; Dimitrov, P.

    2010-09-01

    The farming is one of the most important branches that bring the increase to the gross internal production in Bulgaria. At the same time, the agriculture is the only branch, as in home, so in world scale in which the made as well direct production spending and investing regenerating (or not) only in the frameworks to one vegetative season. In addition on this, development of the intensive farming without using the most advanced technologies such as irrigation, automation, selection - for obtaining stable cultivars and hybrids, permanent weather monitoring and agroclimatic zoning and integrated and biochemical protection to the cultures and plantations had not possible. Analysis of long-term meteorological data from different regions shows clear tendencies to warming and drying for the period of contemporary climate (1971-2000) as well in Bulgaria. Hydro-meteorological conditions in the country are worsened. The most entire estimate is made from the Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change (IPCC) 2007. Most of authors proven that the last decades are really warmest for last century, even for the entire period of the most instrumental observations. The causes for global warming was long time debatable, but the last investigations prove it anthropogenetic derive. The main goal of the paper is framing in conditions of the expected climate changes in our country for period 2020-2050-2070 and the most likely impacts on the agriculture with inspection padding to the consequences in them and making physical conditions for development of proof farming in production regions of the country. By the means of the systematized database of meteorological and agrometeorological data which we have at disposition for the period of this survey (1971-2000); Provide assignment of the expected climatic changes according to the scenarios in the centers for observing and investigations of climatic changes in Europe, US., Canada and Australia (ECHAM 4, HadCM 2, CGCM 1, CSIRO-MK2 Bs and

  8. Eurasian Otters in Micro Dams of Southern Bulgaria: Where to Place the Monitoring Zones?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilian Georgiev

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Ten micro dam sites were studied in Southern Bulgaria between 2005 and 2007. They were situated below 700 metres above sea level in the Upper Thracian Valley and the Sredna Gora mountain. All the bank perimeters, totaling 24.72 kilometres, were walked searching for otter spraint sites. Most of them were found in the area around the river inflow (n=53, 40.5% followed by those near the wall of the dam (n=39, 29.8%. The other spraint sites were found in the two other zones of equal length in the middle part of the basins. The average levels of preference index showed the highest levels in the river inlet and dam wall zones. They were highest at the river inflow end, 1.6 (min-max=0.7–4.0 and a little lower near the wall, 1.2 (min-max=0.0–3.0. The middle zones of the basin were not so preferentially selected as spraint sites by otters, having index values about three times lower. We recommend otter monitoring at such basins to be focused on the areas close to the main river filling them.

  9. MUSICAL INTERESTS AND ACTIVITIES IN CHILDREN’S LEISURE TIME IN HUNGARY AND BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MILENA STEFANOWA VELIKOVA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Beneficial use of leisure time is extremely important as it helps to expand the horizons for intellectual growth, emotional experiences, and personal enrichment. The aim of this study is to establish the interests and needs for music in children’s leisure time. Music is very close to the emotional nature of children and therefore could stimulate and develop their mental and physical abilities. This report focuses on the place of music and art in students’ life and discusses how much of their free time is taken up with these pursuits. It also analyses the needs of such activities. Here the results from a study in which children between 9 to 17 years of age from Bulgaria and Hungary took part are presented. The type of musical activities preferred by the children in their leisure time and the correlation between the activities of choice and cultural differences are also studied. Understanding what music activities children favour in their leisure time is important because learning combined with the arts builds long lasting social skills and educates on tolerance, creativity and discipline. This combination when used in work with children, helps children to develop ability for better self-expression, building up confidence, concentration, integration in the group, developing imagination, recognizing the good and beautiful, and increases their chances for success in life.

  10. Impact of Climate Change on Water Supply of Winter Wheat in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Kazandjiev

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available From an agricultural point of view Bulgaria has insuffi cient and uncertain water resources. For the last decades, the potential vegetation period temperature sums submit to a positive tendency and the rainfall sums – to a negative one almost all over the country. This is evidence for the current drought processes determined by the global climate change. The increasing atmospheric drought impacts negatively water content in soil, especially that one available for plants. The paper deals with the impact of the contemporary climate changes upon the available soil water under winter wheat - one of the most important of our country crops for the food balance. The data processed have been gathered from 24 sites and refer to six soil types all over the agricultural territory. They cover the period of the “contemporary climate” (1961-2000. Actualized zoning of the soil water resources and maps of the changes in the availability of soil water have been elaborated. The results obtained allow development of adaptation farming strategies for management of the irrigation scheduling and maintaining of the other agricultural practices according to the climate changes. They will also be used for working out new standards for irrigation network design.

  11. The measles outbreak in Bulgaria, 2009-2011: An epidemiological assessment and lessons learnt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscat, Mark; Marinova, Lili; Mankertz, Annette; Gatcheva, Nina; Mihneva, Zafira; Santibanez, Sabine; Kunchev, Angel; Filipova, Radosveta; Kojouharova, Mira

    2016-01-01

    Measles re-emerged in a nationwide outbreak in Bulgaria from 2009 to 2011 despite reported high vaccination coverage at national level. This followed an eight-year period since the last indigenous cases of measles were detected. The Bulgarian National Centre of Infectious and Parasitic Diseases collated measles surveillance data for 2009-2011. We analysed data for age group, sex, ethnicity, diagnosis confirmation, vaccination, hospitalisation, disease complications, and death and describe the outbreak control measures taken. The outbreak started in April 2009 following an importation of measles virus and affected 24,364 persons, predominantly Roma. Most cases (73%) were among children measles-containing vaccine. Twenty-four measles-related deaths were reported. The Roma ethnic group was particularly susceptible to measles. The magnitude of the outbreak resulted primarily from the accumulation of susceptible children over time. This outbreak serves as a reminder that both high vaccination coverage and closing of immunity gaps across all sections of the population are crucial to reach the goal of measles elimination.

  12. Characterization of Erwinia amylovora strains from Bulgaria by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atanasova, Iliana; Urshev, Zoltan; Hristova, Petya; Bogatzevska, Nevena; Moncheva, Penka

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize genetically Bulgarian Erwinia amylovora strains using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis. Fifty E. amylovora strains isolated from different hosts, locations, as well as in different years were analysed by PFGE after XbaI, SpeI, and XhoI digestion of the genomic DNA. The strains were distributed into four groups according to their XbaI-generated profile. About 82% of the strains displayed a PFGE profile identical to that of type Pt2. Three strains belonged to the Central Europe Pt1 type. Two new PFGE profiles, not reported so far, were established--one for a strain isolated from Malus domestica and another for all Fragaria spp. strains. The same grouping of the strains was obtained after analysis of the SpeI digestion patterns. On the basis of PFGE profiles, after XbaI and SpeI digestion, a genetic differentiation between the strains associated with subfamily Maloideae and subfamily Rosoideae was revealed. The presence of more than one PFGE profile in the population of E. amylovora in Bulgaria suggests a multiple source of inoculum.

  13. Clinical and pathological characteristics, and prognostic factors for gastric cancer survival in 155 patients in Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelov, Kostadin Georgiev; Vasileva, Mariela Borisova; Grozdev, Konstantin Savov; Sokolov, Manol Bonev; Todorov, Georgi

    2014-01-01

    Almost one million new cases of gastric cancer were estimated to have occurred in 2012, making it the fifth most common malignancy in the world. It is also the third leading cause of cancer death of people of both genders worldwide. The aim of this study is to evaluate the significance of some prognostic factors for gastric cancer survival in 155 patients treated at Aleksandrovska University Hospital, Sofia, Bulgaria. This retrospective study includes patients diagnosed and treated at Department of Surgery of Aleksandrovska University Hospital for the 9-years period of time between January 2005 and December 2013. We classified the prognostic factors as patient-related (age at diagnosis specification, gender, and blood type), tumor-related (N-stage, tumor differentiation, process localization), and treatment related (patients who had radical surgery and adjuvant therapy). We found that blood type is the only statistically significant prognostic factor for overall survival from the patients-related group of factors (p = 0.030). The only prognostic factor from the ones in the tumor related group remains the N-stage according to the TNM classification (p = 0.003). Adjuvant could not prove its value for overall survival (p = 0.675).

  14. Institutional capacity and climate actions. Case studies on Mexico, India and Bulgaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tudela, F. [El Colegio de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Gupta, S. [Delhi School of Economics, University of Delhi, Delhi (India); Peeva, V. [Eneffect, Center for Energy Efficiency, Sofia (Bulgaria); Willems, S. [Global and Structural Policies Division, OECD Environment Directorate, Paris (France)

    2003-07-01

    Institutional capacity is increasingly considered as a key factor in implementing current climate actions in different parts of the world as well as in preparing for future actions in the medium term. The companion paper to this document, 'Institutional Capacity and Climate Actions' attempts to provide a general assessment of the institutional challenges to climate mitigation (and, to a lesser extent, adaptation). However, institutional capacity assessments are essentially country-specific. The case studies included in this document present initial capacity assessments for three different countries, namely Mexico, India and Bulgaria. These country-specific capacity assessments provide useful insights on each country's institutional challenges and how they might affect the development of current and future actions. These three case studies also represent different ways to analyse the links between institutional capacity and climate actions. The Mexican case study analyses the recent evolution in the development of capacity for climate change mitigation in Mexico. First, capacity is analyzed in terms of seven clusters of functions, each one with different levels of performance. The document also provides a background of national circumstances that frame the capacity building process in the case of Mexico. A description follows of the recent evolution of the performance of each one of the seven identified functional clusters in Mexico. Both progress and regressions are shown. One of the salient features is the recently acquired capacity to develop in an autonomous way regular inventories of greenhouse gases, particularly in the energy-related sectors. The document also identifies some institutional or political bottlenecks or obstacles that should be overcome if the country is to proceed at a faster pace toward the adoption of quantifiable targets. Finally, the Mexican case study presents some ideas on the relationships between changes in the

  15. On Mesopithecus habitat: Insights from late Miocene fossil vertebrate localities of Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clavel, Julien; Merceron, Gildas; Hristova, Latinka; Spassov, Nikolaï; Kovachev, Dimitar; Escarguel, Gilles

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study is to describe the environments where the cercopithecid Mesopithecus was found during latest Miocene in Europe. For this purpose, we investigate the paleoecology of the herbivorous ungulate mesofauna of three very rich late Miocene fossil localities from southwestern Bulgaria: Hadjidimovo, Kalimantsi and Strumyani. While Mesopithecus has been found in the two first localities, no primate remains have yet been identified in Strumyani. Comparison between localities with and without primates using the herbivore mesofauna allows the cross-corroboration of paleoenvironmental conditions where this primate did and did not live. A multi-parameter statistical approach involving 117 equid and 345 bovid fossil dental and postcranial (phalanges, metapodia, astragali) remains from these three localities provides species to generic-level diet and locomotor habit information in order to characterize the environment in which Mesopithecus evolved. The analysis of dental mesowear indicates that the bovids were mainly mixed feeders, while coeval equids were more engaged in grazing. Meanwhile, postcranial remains show that the ungulate species from Hadjidimovo and Kalimantsi evolved in dry environments with a continuum of habitats ranging from slightly wooded areas to relatively open landscapes, whereas the Mesopithecus-free Strumyani locality was in comparison reflecting a rather contrasted mosaic of environments with predominant open and some more closed and wet areas. Environments in which Mesopithecus is known during the late Miocene were not contrasted landscapes combining open grassy areas and dense forested patches, but instead rather restricted to slightly wooded and homogeneous landscapes including a developed grassy herbaceous layer.

  16. Negative Impacts of the Neo-liberal Policies on the Banking Sector in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossitsa Rangelova Pavlova

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available From the beginning of the 1970s until the last global financial and economic crisis in 2008-2009, neo-liberal ideas guided economic policy development. It is worth noting that the Central and Eastern European countries transformed their economies from centrally planned to а market type at the peak of the liberal policies. Bulgaria offers a particularly interesting example because the country encountered a very difficult transition from one extreme of an economic system organization to another. The paper considers the reforms in the Bulgarian banking sector during the transition period from a centrally planned to a market type economy (from 1989 onward through the implementation of neo-liberal policies. The development of the banking sector and its transformation is analyzed throughout the two main periods: before and after the transition. The latter is divided into two sub-periods (phases beginning with the early 1990s, followed by the financial and bank crisis in the country, the introduction of a currency board regime in 1997, and stabilization, and ending with the global crisis in 2008-2009. This article summarizes that during the transition period, a modern banking system was established to accumulate profit rather than to promote economic growth. Following a chronological order, the negative effects of the liberalization of the Bulgarian banking sector are specified: the exportation of ownership (and control upon banking system assets, unfair asset redistribution, the emergence of the local oligarchy, the weak protection of the taxpayers and others.

  17. Subaqueous environment and volcanic evolution of the Late Cretaceous Chelopech Au-Cu epithermal deposit, Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambefort, Isabelle; Moritz, Robert

    2014-12-01

    A detailed field and petrographic study constrains the volcanic evolution and environment setting of the volcano-sedimentary-hosted Chelopech Cu-Au epithermal deposit, Bulgaria. Magmatic activity and associated high-sulfidation epithermal mineralization occurred at about 91 Ma in the Panagyurishte ore district of the Eastern European Banat-Timok-Srednogorie metallogenic belt. Volcanic and hydrothermal activity took place in a complex subaqueous setting, resulting in the intercalation of quartz sandstone with andesitic volcanic and volcaniclastic breccia. There are also hypabyssal andesite intrusion, phreatomagmatic breccia and interbeds of pyroclastic, oolithic and bioclastic rocks. The presence of altered cerebroid ooid-bearing sedimentary units characteristic of salty environment is in accordance with a lagoon environment predating the mineralization at Chelopech. Four principal stages of evolution for the Chelopech district are proposed based on field and petrographic observations. Initial volcanism occurred in a lake or in a coastal, shallow lagoon environment above crystalline basement. The Chelopech "phreatomagmatic" breccia and subsurface andesites were emplaced at this time. Subsequent hydrothermal activity produced the different hydrothermal breccia types, advanced argillic and quartz-phyllic alteration, and Au-Cu vein and replacement mineralization. The end of volcanism and hydrothermal activity was associated with opening of a pull-apart basin that covered the Chelopech environment with a sedimentary flysch. Tertiary compression faulting juxtaposed various rocks and tilted the ore deposit during the Alpine orogeny.

  18. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY OF MALOCCLUSIONS OF 5 AND 6 YEARS OLD CHILDREN FROM NORTHEASTERN REGION OF BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radosveta S. Andreeva

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A malocclusion is a misalignment of teeth or incorrect relation between the teeth of the two dental arches. The aim of this presentation is to show the percentage of the children with malocclusions and comparison between children with mild and severe malocclusions from rural and urban regions Materials and methods: 1200 children between 5 and 6 years old from North-eastern Bulgaria (600 urban and 600 rural were examined. WHO standards were applied and the data was collected in WHO statistic forms, which were modified accordingly. The children were divided in 3 groups-healthy, with mild and with severe malocclusions according to Angles classification. Results: More than a half of the urban children are healthy – 51,5% and the biggest percentage of the malocclusions are mild – 31,3%, only 17,2% have severe malocclusions. The rural children are without malocclusions – 23,8% and – 39,2% of them are with severe orthodontic deformations. Relative shares of children with malocclusions from the urban – 48,5% and rural regions – 76,2% The relative share of the healthy children from both urban and rural regions is 37,7%. The relative share of the children with malocclusions from urban and rural regions is 62,3%. Conclusion: A little percent of the rural children are without malocclusions and more of them are with severe ones. We suggest that specialist have to work on better prevention in these regions.

  19. Application of GNSS meteorology for intense precipitation case studies in Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yordanova, Nadezhda; Guerova, Guergana; Stoycheva, Anastasiya

    2014-05-01

    One of the applications of the Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) Meteorology is to study intense precipitation events. Development of these applications is one of the tasks of working group two of the COST Action ES1206 Advanced Global Navigation Satellite Systems tropospheric products for monitoring severe weather events and climate (GNSS4SWEC). This work is a contribution to the COST Action ES1206 and targets the use of Integrated Water Vapour (IWV), derived with the GNSS Meteorology method, during convective events with heavy precipitation in Bulgaria. Twenty-two case studies were selected for 2012. For the analysis two-dimensional maps of the IWV distribution from GNSS and Meteosat are used. A case study on the 27 June 2012 shows a strong south north gradient of the water vapour on the Balkan Peninsula before the intrusion of cold and dry air. By using these techniques the passage of a cold front is timed on the 25 May 2012. The IWV peak is between 06:00 UTC and 12:00 UTC before the passage of the cold front at 18:00 UTC. Future work will be the use of NWP model (WRF)simulations and evaluate the model performance for the selected case studies for 2012.

  20. Risk of flooding: Activities, parameters and regional peculiarities, Case study: Varbitsa watershed basin, Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lubenov Todor

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available An overview of the activities overtaken during risk of flooding situations, in one of the more often flooding region - the watershed of Varbitsa river (Southeastern part of Bulgaria - has been performed. The main cognitive parameters for risk perception and risk definition, depending on regional, social and historical factors have been examined. The existing information and instructions for mass media communication in relation to the process of interaction in a disaster situation have been discussed. In connection to determination of the risky segments in the basin and plans for announcement, the prevention communication measures have been outlined. On the basis of the Bulgarian normative legislation, the activities concerning organization of communications in a risk-of-disaster situation and mutual aid between authorities, which are part of the Integrated Help System have been indicated. It has been accented on the necessity of a more effective realization of the action plans during natural disasters and especially flooding, in order to improve the partnership between authorities and participants in the communication process during risk-of-flooding situations.

  1. Fluctuating asymmetry in Pelophylax ridibundus (Amphibia: Ranidae as a response to anthropogenic pollution in south Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhelev Zhivko M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the integral indicator for developmental stability, the fluctuating asymmetry (FA, in the marsh frog Pelophylax ridibundus populations that inhabit biotopes of different types (running rivers and still, dam lakes, when exposed to different types of anthropogenic pollution (domestic sewage pollution and heavy metal pollution in south Bulgaria. A total of 920 P. ridibundus individuals were used for FA analyses over three years (2009-2011. Fluctuating asymmetry was defined by 10 morphological traits, using the index frequency of asymmetric manifestation of an individual (FAMI. In closed water basins, regardless of the nature of toxicants, the FA values in P. ridibundus populations were statistically lower than those in river populations. The FA values were constantly the highest under conditions of sustained anthropogenic pollution, with high concentrations of toxicants in rivers with domestic sewage pollution and heavy-metal pollution. The results provide better opportunities to use FA in P. ridibundus populations for bioindication and biomonitoring, and for parallel and independent analyses of the physicochemical assessment of the environmental condition.

  2. Corrosion monitoring in the oil refinery LUKoil-Neftochim-Burgas AD, Bulgaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoyanov, V.; Papazov, B. [Laboratory Corrosion Protection, LUKoil-Neftochim Burgas AD, Strandsha str. 20 A, 8001-Burgas (Bulgaria)

    2004-07-01

    A great variety of corrosion processes are observed on the territory of the Oil Refinery LUKoil-Neftochim Burgas AD, Bulgaria. They are a result of aggressive action of wide range of chemical active reagents and environments, industrial atmosphere with sea climate influence and underground water with varied composition. Substantial corrosion monitoring is used in oil distillation plant, petrochemical and other refinery units. A part of the most important cases of successfully solved corrosion problems are included in this paper - corrosion in Ethyl-benzene unit alcilators, corrosion protection of equipment and floors in concentrated sulfuric acid in the Sulfuric Acid Alkylation plant, corrosion protection of electro-filters in the Chemical Cleaning of Service Water System, chemical resistant floor in PAN and AN plant, outside varnish protection of tanks, vessels, pumps, steelworks etc. There are many proper solutions suggested, including wide range of coatings and new resistant materials offered by well-known companies - Hempel, Chesterton, Permatex DuPont, Paint International and many others which work in close collaboration with our laboratory. Those problems are typical of all oil refineries and petrochemical plants and are possible to be applied successfully. (authors)

  3. Latest Cretaceous mosasaurs and lamniform sharks from Labirinta cave, Vratsa District (northwest Bulgaria: A preliminary note

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagt John W.M.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Preliminary descriptions are given of selected specimens from an assemblage of >65 isolated vertebrate remains, collected in 1985 at the Labirinta cave situated between the villages of Drashan and Breste, east of Cherven Briag (Vratsa district, northwest Bulgaria, from strata of late Maastrichtian age (Kajlâka Formation. Recorded are a fragmentary lower jaw of a mosasaurine squamate, Mosasaurus cf. hoffmanni (MANTELL, 1829, with two teeth preserved in situ, as well as two isolated teeth of lamniform sharks, assigned to Squalicorax pristodontus (AGASSIZ, 1843 and Anomotodon sp. Other vertebrate remains in this assemblage include rather poorly preserved fragments of skull and appendicular skeleton of mosasaurs, but it cannot be ruled out that other vertebrate groups (elasmosaurid plesiosaurs are represented as well. To establish this, the additional material needs to be studied in detail and compared with existing collections; it will be described in full at a later date. A partial phragmocone of a scaphitid ammonite, found associated, is here assigned to Hoploscaphites constrictus (J. SOWERBY, 1817 and briefly described as well. This record dates the Labirinta cave sequence as Maastrichtian, as does the echinoid Hemipneustes striatoradiatus (LESKE 1778; tooth morphology of Squalicorax pristodontus and a find of the pachydiscid ammonite Anapachydiscus (Menuites cf. terminus WARD and KENNEDY 1993 from correlative strata nearby narrow this down to late, or even latest Maastrichtian. Finally, some remarks on mosasaur and plesiosaur distribution during the Campanian-Maastrichtian across Europe are added.

  4. Soil tillage erosion estimated by using magnetism of soils--a case study from Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordanova, Diana; Jordanova, Neli; Atanasova, Anna; Tsacheva, Tsenka; Petrov, Petar

    2011-12-01

    A detailed field and laboratory study on small 0.84-ha test site of agricultural land near Sofia (Bulgaria) has been carried out in order to test the applicability of magnetic methods in soil erosion estimation in the particular case of strongly magnetic parent material. Field measurements of magnetic susceptibility were carried out with grid size of 6 m, resulting in 258 data points. Bulk soil material was gathered from 78 grid points. Natural, non-disturbed soil section was sampled near the agricultural field for reference profile of complete undisturbed soil. Surface susceptibility measurements reveal well-defined maxima down slope which, however, cannot be assigned directly to a certain depth interval, corresponding with susceptibilities along the non-disturbed soil profile. This is caused by the high magnetic susceptibility of the lithogenic coarse-grained magnetic fraction. Non-uniqueness is resolved by using magnetic susceptibility of coarse (1 mm > d > 63 μm) and fine (d soil profile, which corresponds to a certain part of the studied area. After the application of an empirical model to predict the values of magnetic parameter after tillage homogenization and removal of soil material from the surface, the amount of soil loss is estimated.

  5. ‘Balkan Flint’ – fiction and/or trajectory to Neolithization: Evidence from Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Gurova

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the current state of research and knowledge about ‘Balkan flint’ (hereinafter BF and trajectories flowing from the BF problem to the bigger and increasingly complex problem of the Neolithization of the eastern Balkans. The emergence and consolidation of the BF problem within the research agenda of specialists working on Balkan prehistory is briefly traced, as well as the confusing and inconsistently repetitive use of the term BF leading to some ‘mythologisation’ of the topic.A particular section of the paper represents the thoughts of the author on the conceptual meaning of BF in the context of the Balkan Neolithization debate, because until now its role has not been fully appreciated and recognized. Several theories and scenarios of the emergence and spread of the Neolithic in present-day Bulgaria are reviewed through the evidence of the particular Early Neolithic flint toolkits consisting in representative (retouched blades made from BF and attributed to the diagnostic features of the Early Neolithic package/culture.

  6. Characteristics of Honey from Serpentine Area in the Eastern Rhodopes Mt., Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atanassova, Juliana; Pavlova, Dolja; Lazarova, Maria; Yurukova, Lilyana

    2016-09-01

    Honey samples collected during 2007-2010 from serpentine and non-serpentine localities in the Eastern Rhodopes Mt. (Bulgaria) were characterized on the basis of their pollen content by qualitative melissopalynological analysis and physicochemical composition. Water content, pH, electrical conductivity, macroelements-K, Ca, Mg, P, and microelements-As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, and Zn were determined after the Harmonised Methods of the International Honey Commission and ICP-AES method. The results from serpentine honey samples were compared with data from bee pollen collected from the same serpentine area. Different elements have different concentrations in honey from the same botanical type even collected from the same geographical region, same locality, and same beehive but in different vegetation season. The elements Mg, Mn, Ni, and P contribute mostly for separation of the serpentine honey samples based on measured elemental concentrations and performed principal component analysis. The element concentrations were higher in bee pollen and above the permissible limits for the toxic metals Cd and Pb. No specific indicator plant species was found for identification of the geographical origin of serpentine honey in relation to the forage of bees.

  7. PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS - PCBs AND DDTs IN FISH FROM DANUBE RIVER AND FROM BLACK SEA, BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Stancheva

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs and DDT residues (DDTs can still be a problem for the aquatic environment and the human health. PCBs and DDTs were determined in three freshwater fish species: common carp (Cyprinus carpio, catfish (Silurus glanis, pike-perch (Sander lucioperca and two marine fish: shad (Alosa pontica pontica and grey mullet (Mugil cephalus. The freshwater fish samples were collected from the Danube River and from Black Sea, Bulgaria in 2010. The POPs were analyzed in order to investigate the presence of PCBs and DDTs in fish species from Danube River and compared the results to the levels in marine fish species from Black Sea. The fifteen congeners of PCBs, p,p’-DDT and its two main metabolites p,p’-DDE and p,p’-DDD were determined by capillary gas chromatography system with mass spectrometry detection. DDTs were the predominant contaminants in investigated species, with the p,p’- DDE contributing to more than 67% to the total DDTs. In freshwater fish concentrations of DDTs were found from 19.2 to 30.3 ng/g ww and PCBs concentrations - from 6.2 to 12.6 ng/g ww. The highest levels of PCBs and DDTs were determined in shad. The levels of DDTs and PCBs were determined lower than those found in similar fish species from other aquatic ecosystems.

  8. Water quality assessment of aquatic ecosystems using ecological criteria - case study in Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damyanova, Sonya; Ivanova, Iliana; Ignatova, Nadka

    2014-11-02

    Four aquatic ecosystems (two rivers and two dams) situated in the western part of Bulgaria were investigated over a three years' period. The River Egulya and Petrohan dam are situated in mountainous regions at about 1000 m altitude, and are not influenced by any anthropogenic sources. Petrohan dam is a site for long-term ecosystem research as a part of Bulgarian long-term ecological research network. The other two systems belong to populated industrial areas. The River Martinovska flows through a region with former long-term mining activity, while Ogosta dam is near a battery production factory. Both the geochemical and geographical ecosystems' conditions are different, and their social usage as well. Ogosta dam water is used for irrigation and Petrohan dam for electric supply. The ecosystem sensitivity to heavy metals was evaluated by a critical load approach. Two criteria were used for risk assessment: critical load exceedance and microbial toxicity test. All studied ecosystems were more sensitive to cadmium than to lead deposition. The potential risk of Cd damage is higher for Petrohan dam and the River Egulya, where critical load exceedance was calculated for two years. Pseudomonas putida growth inhibition test detected a lack of toxicity for all studied ecosystems at the time of investigation with the exception of the low water September sample of the River Martinovska. The fast bacterial test is very suitable for a regular measurement of water toxicity because of its simplicity, lack of sophisticated equipment and clear results.

  9. Water quality assessment of aquatic ecosystems using ecological criteria – case study in Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damyanova, Sonya; Ivanova, Iliana; Ignatova, Nadka

    2014-01-01

    Four aquatic ecosystems (two rivers and two dams) situated in the western part of Bulgaria were investigated over a three years’ period. The River Egulya and Petrohan dam are situated in mountainous regions at about 1000 m altitude, and are not influenced by any anthropogenic sources. Petrohan dam is a site for long-term ecosystem research as a part of Bulgarian long-term ecological research network. The other two systems belong to populated industrial areas. The River Martinovska flows through a region with former long-term mining activity, while Ogosta dam is near a battery production factory. Both the geochemical and geographical ecosystems’ conditions are different, and their social usage as well. Ogosta dam water is used for irrigation and Petrohan dam for electric supply. The ecosystem sensitivity to heavy metals was evaluated by a critical load approach. Two criteria were used for risk assessment: critical load exceedance and microbial toxicity test. All studied ecosystems were more sensitive to cadmium than to lead deposition. The potential risk of Cd damage is higher for Petrohan dam and the River Egulya, where critical load exceedance was calculated for two years. Pseudomonas putida growth inhibition test detected a lack of toxicity for all studied ecosystems at the time of investigation with the exception of the low water September sample of the River Martinovska. The fast bacterial test is very suitable for a regular measurement of water toxicity because of its simplicity, lack of sophisticated equipment and clear results. PMID:26019591

  10. Content of Phenolic Compounds in the Genus Carduus L. from Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iliya Zhelev

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemical screening of the content of total polyphenols, flavonoids, phenolic acids and anthocyanins in Bulgarian Carduus L. species was carried out. The plant materials (inflorescences from all of the 14 species found in Bulgaria has been collected from natural habitats from different floristic regions, during the period 2011-2013. Chemical analysis of the specimens was carried out in accordance with 11 Russian and 7 European Pharmacopoeia. For some of the plant species the obtained results are the first published data about content of phenolic compounds. The content of flavonoids (1,8-3,2% and total phenols(1,7-2,3% was higher in comparison with this of phenolic acids (0,6-2,4% and anthocyanins (0,5-1,5%. The highest content of total phenols and antocyanins was determined in the Carduus thracicus. The three species Carduus thoermeri, Carduus nutans and Carduus candicans ssp. globifer were characterized with the highest content of flavonoids. The highest content of phenolic acids was determined in the Carduus armatus.

  11. Information technologies in radioactive waste management, applied in NPP-Kozloduy, Bulgaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeliazkov, J.; Jeliazkova, L.; Atanasov, Sv. [BALBOK Co., Sofia (Bulgaria)

    1994-12-31

    Radioactive waste (RAW) management in NPP is a complex problem, that can be considered as a combination of sub problems, for example scientific, administrative, social, economical, etc. The separate examination of these sub problems does not lead to creation of overall system for optimal RAW management. There`s no doubt that such an administrative system, supported by information technologies, should present in every one existing and planned nuclear power plant to optimize its operation as a whole, not only separate elements. The aim is to avoid the fallacy of the single and the complex. This paper presents a basic part of the whole information management system as defined above that concerns RAW management. The information management system is prepared for NPP-Kozloduy, Bulgaria by means of modern concepts and technological schemes and is aimed to help the administrative personnel in this very important activity - RAW management. On the base of objective data about the available waste and prognoses about arisings in the future, on the base of chosen technologies and equipment the system gives multi-variant plan for treatment, processing and disposal of waste, after the choice of a variant it monitors its application in the practice.

  12. Comparative Analysis of the Evolution of Business Travel Romania – Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Gabriela Turtureanu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The authors aim to analyze the evolution of the main tourism indicators in the two neighboringcountries Romania and Bulgaria. Current development of tourism is characterized by a profound renewal ofthe world tourism offer, in particular by developing a range of new tourism products, superior bothqualitatively and quantitatively. Romanian tourism revival will involve reshaping the development of tourismproducts based incentives at national and international tourism. Currently, the Romanian tourism, asotherwise the world is characterized by fierce competition between destinations. Tourist destinations, be theystate or country itself, are becoming increasingly need a new model of tourism policy which influence theircompetitive position in the current competition. A special role in perception destination in the competition ofsimilar offers in the country is playing tourist brand or regional. Tourists and demanding consumers are animportant factor for competitive advantage of a destination. Adapt to offer the consumer needs to be spottednew trends and new opportunities to the tourism product. In the spatial extent of tourism development policy,most have a national or regional scope (in that country. Outside Europe, where international cooperation intourism development is emphasized through the integration of countries within the EU, internationalcooperation is early, sometimes reduced to statements of intent. The competitive position of a destinationdepends on the type thereof, namely the socio-economic development, landscape features, climate, culture,political factors etc. The success of tourist destinations is determined by how it manages to ensure at the sametime to ensure visitors throughout its entire offer experience to match or exceed many alternative destinations.

  13. European Citizenship and Youth in Bulgaria: A Qualitative Comparative Analysis between Bulgarians and Bulgarian Turks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranco Brusaporci

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available European citizenship is a new concept, which has evolved with the process of European integration. Starting from the younger generations, the EU seeks to establish a modern and innovative view of citizenship through three fundamental elements - rights, identity and participation - that could lead to new ways of conceiving the relationship of institutions-citizens and citizenscitizens. The idea of European citizenship tends to overcome the historical idea of national states and national identity. It does this by reinforcing its supranational nature and developing an attitude of tolerance towards diversity and human/minority rights. Thus, to verify the impact European citizenship has on the younger generation in Bulgaria, this research is based on an inter-ethnic sample of 30 interviews (16 Bulgarians, 14 Bulgarian Turks and applies a qualitative comparative analysis method. This research seeks to answer these two main questions: 1 How do young Bulgarians perceive the concept of EU citizenship? 2 How do young Bulgarians perceive the new European citizenship in regard to the inter-ethnic relations in their own country? The study suggests that the EU’s attempt to promote European citizenship is underachieving. On the one hand, young Bulgarian people tend to be well exposed to European citizenship, irrespective of their ethnic belonging. On the other hand, the majority of them are sceptical of the tangible value of European citizenship for the reinforcement of a more encompassing and shared notion of diversity and minority rights.

  14. The Notions of "A Border", "A Foreign Country (Abroad" and "A Foreigner": In the Relations between the USSR (Russia and Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Sedakova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A border and related concepts of “abroad” and “a foreigner” are analyzed from the linguistic, semiotic and socio-cultural points of view with regard to the USSR (Russia –Bulgaria relations. In spite of being very close to, even regarded as the 16th republic of the USSR and imitating many Soviet ideas, Bulgaria was a foreign country. The reasons for that on the lingua-cultural data partly of biographical character are discussed in the paper. The border can be a synonym to the language barrier, which exists or does not exist between native speakers of Bulgarian and Russian. The new developments of mutual Russian-Bulgarian language communication on the Bulgaria seashore provide us new data of the symbolism of temporal and spatial borders.

  15. Climate change, agroclimatic resources and agroclimatic zoning of agriculture in Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazandjiev, V.; Moteva, M.; Georgieva, V.

    2009-09-01

    The important factors for the agrarian output in Bulgaria are only thermal and water probability. From the two factors the component related to soil moisture is more limited. As well water and temperatures probabilities in the agrarian output are estimated trough sums of temperatures and rainfalls or by derivatives indicators (most frequently named as coefficients or indices). The heat conditions and the heat resources are specified by the continuousness of the vegetative period. Duration of vegetative season is limited for each type of plant, between the spring and autumn steady pass of air temperature across the biological minimum. For the agricultural crops in Bulgaria the three biological minimums: in 5°C are taken for wheat and barley, oat, pea, lentil and sunflower; 10°C for corn, haricot, and soybean and in 15°C for the cotton, vegetables and other spring cultures). The cold and warm period duration are mutually related characteristics. The first period define number of days with the snow fall and days with the snow cover, that are in the basis in the formation of soil moisture reserves after the spring snow melt. Definition of the regions with temperature stress conditions during vegetative season is one of the most important parameters of agroclimatic conditions. The values indicating for the limitations are one or more periods from at least 10 consecutive days with maximal air temperature over 35 °С. More from the agricultures, character for the moderate continental climatic zone are developed normally under temperatures 25-28°С. Temperatures over 28°C are ballast slowing the growth and destroying plants due to the heat tension. The component, limiting in greatest degree growth, development and formation of yields from the agricultural crops are the conditions of moisturizing, present trough atmospheric and soil moisture. The most apparent indicator is the year sum of the rains or their sum by the periods with the average daily temperatures of

  16. Height-diameter relationships for Scots pine plantations in Bulgaria: optimal combination of model type and application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Vassileva Stankova

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The height-diameter relationship is an important and extensively investigated forest model, but generalized and mixed-effects models of wider applicability are currently lacking in the forest modeling literature for Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. plantations in Bulgaria. Considering the practical advantages of deterministic and mixed-effects models, the present study aims to derive a generalized deterministic height-diameter relationship and a simple mixed-effects model for plantation-grown Scots pine in Bulgaria. Ten generalized and six local models of adequate mathematical properties were selected and examined in several subsequent steps with a representative data set. A deterministic model was derived for tree height reconstruction from the individual tree diameters, stand dominant height and diameter, number of trees per hectare and stand age. Mixed-effects models were developed from the individual-tree and stand diameters and heights applicable to determine the height-diameter relationship in field surveys. Both types of models can be applied with confidence, according to their advantages and specifications, for estimating the height-diameter relationship of Scots pine plantations in Bulgaria, presenting a unique contribution for the particular species, study area and type of model. The choice of the tested models is relevant to the height-diameter relationship investigation of biologically related and geographically close species and types of stands and the study procedure allows repetition of the work to provide reliable solutions of the problem where information on such type of model is deficient or incomplete. 

  17. Cultural cross-border co-operation among Balkan's countries with the case of Serbia and Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojkov Borislav

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Cultural cross-border cooperation includes all fields of cross-border cooperation and gives base for main connections and interactions. Without strengthening cultural cross-border cooperation, it is impossible to build significant relations between neighbors. Culture, as a foundation, an activator and a purpose of development in cross-border regions, represents a cardinal and conditional factor of cross-border cooperation. Today's situation in the Balkans reveals ethnic diversity of this region and territorial dispersion of ethnic groups. This implies at the same time great cultural diversity as well as dispersal of various national cultures over the Balkan's states. During the 20th century Serbia and Bulgaria have very complex political and intrastate relations. But in the last 10 years there have been significant improvements in the cross-border cooperation between Serbia and Bulgaria. The results of these improvements are established Euro-regions and implemented cross-border projects between these two countries. Existing Euro-regions between Serbia and Bulgaria created links between various local authorities and made excellent basis for cross-border initiatives and joint projects to promote common interests across the border and cooperation for the common good of the border areas populations. The well managed cultural cross-border cooperation between these two countries will provide a clear view of common features and raise common identity for the region, contribute to tolerance and understanding between people in this area and enable them to overcome the peripheral status of the border region in their countries and improve the living conditions of the population.

  18. Exposures to road traffic, noise, and air pollution as risk factors for type 2 diabetes: A feasibility study in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel M Dzhambov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is a growing public health problem in Bulgaria. While individual and lifestyle determinants have been researched; till date there has been no study on environmental risks such as road traffic, noise, and air pollution. As a first step toward designing a large-scale population-based survey, we aimed at exploring the overall associations of prevalent T2DM with exposures to road traffic, noise, and air pollution. A total of 513 residents of Plovdiv city, Bulgaria were recruited. Individual data on self-reported doctor-diagnosed T2DM and confounding factors were linked to objective and self-rated exposure indicators. Logistic and log-link Poisson regressions were conducted. In the fully adjusted logistic models, T2DM was positively associated with exposures to L den 71-80 dB (odds ratio (OR = 4.49, 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.38, 14.68, fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 25.0-66.8 μg/m 3 (OR = 1.32, 95% CI: 0.28, 6.24, benzo alpha pyrene 6.0-14.02 ng/m 3 (OR = 1.76, 95% CI: 0.52, 5.98 and high road traffic (OR = 1.40, 95% CI: 0.48, 4.07. L den remained a significant risk factor in the: Poisson regression model. Other covariates with consistently high multivariate effects were age, gender, body mass index, family history of T2DM, subjective sleep disturbance, and especially bedroom location. We concluded that residential noise exposure might be associated with elevated risk of prevalent T2DM. The inferences made by this research and the lessons learned from its limitations could guide the designing of a longitudinal epidemiological survey in Bulgaria.

  19. Exposures to road traffic, noise, and air pollution as risk factors for type 2 diabetes: A feasibility study in Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzhambov, Angel M; Dimitrova, Donka D

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a growing public health problem in Bulgaria. While individual and lifestyle determinants have been researched; till date there has been no study on environmental risks such as road traffic, noise, and air pollution. As a first step toward designing a large-scale population-based survey, we aimed at exploring the overall associations of prevalent T2DM with exposures to road traffic, noise, and air pollution. A total of 513 residents of Plovdiv city, Bulgaria were recruited. Individual data on self-reported doctor-diagnosed T2DM and confounding factors were linked to objective and self-rated exposure indicators. Logistic and log-link Poisson regressions were conducted. In the fully adjusted logistic models, T2DM was positively associated with exposures to L(den) 71-80 dB (odds ratio (OR) = 4.49, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.38, 14.68), fine particulate matter (PM) 2.5 25.0-66.8 μg/m 3 (OR = 1.32, 95% CI: 0.28, 6.24), benzo alpha pyrene 6.0-14.02 ng/m 3 (OR = 1.76, 95% CI: 0.52, 5.98) and high road traffic (OR = 1.40, 95% CI: 0.48, 4.07). L(den) remained a significant risk factor in the: Poisson regression model. Other covariates with consistently high multivariate effects were age, gender, body mass index, family history of T2DM, subjective sleep disturbance, and especially bedroom location. We concluded that residential noise exposure might be associated with elevated risk of prevalent T2DM. The inferences made by this research and the lessons learned from its limitations could guide the designing of a longitudinal epidemiological survey in Bulgaria.

  20. QUESTIONNAIRE SURVEY ON CRANIOMANDIBULAR DISORDER ISSUES IN STUDENTS' AND POST-GRADUATE TRAINING IN BULGARIA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Dimova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of craniomandibular disorders (CMD among the Bulgarian population as well as the risk factors for unlocking bruxism and bruxomania mechanisms pose a demand for education on these issues reflecting modern science. The authors' aim is to examine the subjective assessment of participants in “DAYS OF PROSTHETICS, Sofia, 15 -16 March 2014”, regarding: 1.Prevelance of CMD in the country; 2. Education and training of students and post-graduates in the issues related to diagnostics and treatment of craniomandibular disorders; 3. Theoretical background for successful treatment of patients with bruxism and bruxomania. Materials and methods: For the purpose of the present research 192 participants have been surveyed - among them 163 are dentists and 29 are students in the 4th and 5th year of study. The survey feedback has been obtained via an anonymous questionnaire consisting of 8 questions targeted at dentists' assessment of CMD prevalence and distribution, training in CMD issues in Bulgaria and the treatment of patients with bruxism and bruxomania. The results obtained indicate that 84.0% - 93.1% (95% CI of respondents, working as dentists in the country, expressed the view that students' curriculum lacks an overall concept for training them in the diagnostics and treatment of CMD. 79.6% - 90.2% (95% CI of participants, dentists in the country, define post-graduate training in CMD as insufficient or lacking. Conclusion: The development and promotion of a working platform for early screening, diagnostics and treatment of CMD for timely referral to a specialized treatment is necessary and expected by the professional community in our country.

  1. Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Activating Mutations in Squamous Histology of Lung Cancer Patients of Southern Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genova Silvia N.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available There is only limited data on the prevalence of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR activating mutations in squamous cell carcinomas and adenosquamous carcinomas of the lung in patients of the Southern Bulgarian region and the efficacy of EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors. AIM: Previous reports for Bulgarian population showed high incidence of EGFR mutations in the squamous cell carcinomas, so we set the goal to investigate their frequency in Southern Bulgaria, after precise immunohistochemical verification of lung cancers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two hundred and thirty-six lung carcinomas were included in this prospective study. All biopsies were initially analysed with p63, TTF1, Napsin A, CK7, CK34βE12, synaptophysin, CK20 and CDX2. Two hundred and twenty-five non-small cell lung carcinomas were studied with real-time PCR technology to assess the status of the EGFR gene. RESULTS: We detected 132 adenocarcinomas (58.7%, 89 squamous cell carcinomas (39.2%, 4 adenosquamous carcinomas (1.8%, 9 large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas (3.8% and 2 metastatic colorectal adenocarcinomas (0.8%. Activating mutations in the EGF receptor had 3 out of 89 squamous cell carcinomas (3.37%. We have established mutations in L858R, deletion in exon 19 and rare mutation in S7681. One out of four adenosquamous carcinomas had a point mutation in the L858R (25%. CONCLUSIONS: The frequency of EGFR mutations we found in lung squamous cell carcinomas in a Southern Bulgarian region is lower than that in European countries. Ethnic diversity in the region does not play role of an independent predictive factor in terms of mutation frequency.

  2. Genome Instability of Chironomus riparius Mg. (Diptera, Chironomidae from Polluted Water Basins in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Ilkova

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Larvae of Chironomus riparius Mg. (Chironomidae, Diptera collected from two polluted water basins in Bulgaria, the Maritsa and Chaya Rivers (adjacent to Plovdiv and Asenovgrad respectively, a small pool (near Plovdiv plus controls reared in the laboratory were studied. High concentrations of the heavy metals Pb, Cu and Cd were recorded in the sediments of the polluted stations. Marked somatic structural chromosome aberrations were found in C. riparius salivary polytene chromosomes from the field stations and their frequency was significantly higher (p<0.01 compared to the control. The observed somatic chromosome changes are discussed as a response of the chironomid genome to aquatic pollution. A new cytogenetic index based on the number of aberrations found in larvae from polluted regions in comparison with the control was applied to the data to more easily evaluate the degree of heavy metal pollution in aquatic ecosystems. Our study of a polluted site near the River Chaya showed that the somatic index was very high at 3.35 for 2010 and 11.66 for 2013 compared to 0.5 in the control. The cytogenetic index was effective in showing that all studied sites were highly polluted in comparison with the control. To determine the mechanism involved in the concentration of aberration breakpoints within specific regions of the chironomid polytene chromosome the FISH method was applied. The localization of a transposable element TFB1 along the polytene chromosomes of C. riparius was analyzed and the sites of localization were compared with breakpoints of chromosome aberrations. A significant correlation (p<0.05 was found which shows that most of the aberrations do not appear randomly but are concentrated in sites rich in transposable elements.

  3. ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE OF RESEARCH PROJECT ACTIVITIES PERFORMED AT MEDICAL UNIVERSITIES IN BULGARIA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetoslav Garov

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There are five Bulgarian medical universities in the cities of Sofia, Plovdiv, Varna, Pleven and Stara Zagora. A major priority of medical universities is to encourage research activities mainly aimed at preparation and implementation of research projects. Projects are managed by the participating organizations called “beneficiaries”. Beneficiaries develop projects, apply for finances and if approved they implement those projects.Aim: The purpose of our study is to examine the organizational structure of research project activities on the macro level and on the micro level in Bulgarian medical universities.Material and methods: In order to define the separate elements of the organizational structure and to analyze the relations and interaction between them we have applied a documentary and sociological approach. Results: During the last six years there was a significant increase in the number and the overall annual financial value of the projects performed at medical universities in Bulgaria. The reasons for such increase are: managers realizing the advantages of and benefits from the implementation of research projects ensuring high quality modernization of research units’ equipment and facilities; access to innovative technologies; development of interdisciplinary relations, etc. Benefits arising from improved results motivate us to consider as appropriate some additional investments aimed at increasing the number of team members and further optimization of the currently existing structures (research centers in charge of research with the purpose of achieving even better results in this particular field. Conclusion: The role of research project activities in medical universities’ research field is of vital importance for the educational institutions’ success. Taking into consideration the changed conditions, European possibilities and the highly competitive environment, realizing this aspect will be essential for the

  4. Proximate composition of seeds and seed oils from melon (Cucumis melo L. cultivated in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhana Petkova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The seeds of three varieties of melon (Cucumis melo L. from Bulgaria were analyzed for their chemical composition and a detailed study of their lipids was carried out. Chemical composition values were as follows: fat content ranged from 41.6 to 44.5%, protein 34.4 to 39.8%, crude fiber 4.5 to 8.5%, carbohydrates 8.2 to 12.7%, soluble sugars 3.7 to 4.2%, and minerals 4.6 to 5.1%. The content of sterols, phospholipids, and tocopherols in the oils was 0.6, 0.7–1.7%, and 435–828 mg/kg, respectively. The major fatty acid in lipids was linoleic (51.1–58.5%, followed by oleic acid (24.8–25.6%. The trilinolein (31.3–32.2%, oleo dilinolein (31.0–34.0%, and palmitoyl dilinolein (14.9–22.3% have represented 80.0% from the total triglyceride composition of the melon seeds oil. β-Sitosterol predominated in both free and esterified sterols, being, respectively, 52.9–70.8 and 50.4–58.4%. Phosphatidylinositol (24.4–33.9%, phosphatidylcholine (23.0–33.1%, and phosphatidylethanolamine (8.4–17.1% were the main phospholipids. Palmitic acid (34.4–61.7% was the major fatty acid of the phospholipids, followed by oleic acid (8.9–27.2%. Linoleic acid (32.7–39.1% was the main component among the fatty acids of the sterol esters, followed by oleic acid (25.1–30.7%. In the tocopherol fraction of melon seed oils, the main component γ-tocopherol varied from 71.4 to 91.5%.

  5. Palynological evidence for late Westphalian-early Stephanian vegetation change in the Dobrudzha Coalfield, NE Bulgaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimitrova, T.K.H.; Cleal, C.J. [National Museum of Wales, Cardiff (United Kingdom)

    2007-05-15

    The Dobrudzha Coalfield in northeast Bulgaria has coal-bearing deposits ranging from latest Namurian to early Stephanian age (late Bashkirian to Moscovian age). Palynology of the coals in the upper Makedonka, Krupen and Gurkovo formations has been used to identify major changes in the vegetation during late Westphalian and early Stephanian times. The palynomorphs were grouped in two different ways (according to general morphotype and according to parent plant group) and stratigraphical trends in the two sets of groups used to identify vegetation change through the succession. Detrended Correspondence Analysis was also used to identify ecological relationships between the palynofloras. In the upper Makedonka and Krupen formations, lycophyte spores mostly comprise 15-25 % of the palynofloras in the thicker seams, but in the thinner coals they can represent up to 55 %. Of the other plant groups, ferns are the most abundant, representing 31-69 % in the thicker seams, 12-41 % in the thinner seams. In the Gurkovo Formation coals, lycophytes form an even smaller part of the palynological spectra, usually less than 10 % and in only one sample just over 25 %; fern spores make up 43-57 % of the palynofloras. This is in contrast to the palynofloras reported from contemporaneous elastic deposits in South Wales, most of which consist mostly of 34-60 % lycophyte spores and 14-34 % fern spores. Even more marked is the difference from the contemporancous coals formed in lowland settings in the USA, which have mostly {gt} 50 % lycophyte spores. This evidence suggests that the timing of the decline in abundance of arborescent lycophytes varied according to elevation above sea-level. In lowland coastal settings, the lycophytes remained dominant until middle-late Cantabrian times, but in more inland areas they were progressively replaced mainly by arborescent ferns during late Westphalian times.

  6. Study Protocol on Cognitive Performance in Bulgaria, Croatia, and the Netherlands: The Normacog Brief Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lea Jakob

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The Normacog Brief Battery (NBB provides a comprehensive overview of an individual’s cognitive functioning within a short amount of time. It was originally developed for the Spanish population in Spain. However, there is a considerable need for brief batteries in clinical neuropsychological assessment, especially in eastern European countries. Cultural background and other individual characteristics—such as age, level of education, and sex—are shown to influence both cognition and patients’ performance on neuropsychological tests. Therefore, it is important to develop understanding of how and why culture impacts on cognitive testing and determine which sociodemographic variables affect cognitive performance. The current study aims to translate, adapt, and standardize the NBB in Bulgaria, Croatia, and the Netherlands, and to analyze the effect of sex, age, and education level on cognitive performance between these three countries. This brief battery assesses eleven cognitive domains, including those most currently relevant in cognition such as premorbid intelligence, attention, executive function, processing speed, and memory. The translation and adaptation of the battery for different cultures will be done using the back-translation process. After exclusion criteria, the current study will include a total sample of three hundred participants (≥18 years old. The samples of 100 participants per country will be balanced through the consideration of their age and level of education. Effects of the sociodemographic variables (age, level of education, and sex on cognitive performance are expected. Furthermore, this relationship is expected to differ across countries. A multivariate hierarchical linear regression will be used and exploratory analysis will be carried out to investigate further effects. The results will be particularly valuable for future research and assessment in cognitive performance. The growing demand for accurate and fast

  7. Spectroscopic study of barite from the Kremikovtsi Deposit (Bulgaria with implication for its origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimova Maya

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Different genetic types (endogene and supergene of barite from the Kremikovtsi deposit (Bulgaria were studied by Laser-induced time-resolved luminescence (LITRL, Infrared (IR and Raman spectroscopy. The IR spectra of the endogene barites are quite similar to those reported in the literature and do not show appreciable differences among them. The IR spectra of the supergene barites are almost identical to those of the endogene ones in respect to the positions of the vibrational modes ν1, ν2 and ν4 of SO4 2 except for a shift of 3 cm-1 for the ν 3 band. They displayed a presence of additional bands, which are close to the ν3 and ν1 modes of CO3 2- in calcite. The Raman studies support the suggestion that the supergene barite contains traces of calcite. The modern LITRL technique allowed the detection of several luminescent centers in the endogene barite. Eu3+ luminescence was identified for the first time in barite. The different emission spectra at 266 and 532 nm excitations suggest there are at least 2 structural positions for Eu3+ in the barite crystal lattice. The luminescent spectra also revealed a rather unusual violet-blue Nd3+ emission, which usually occurs in the IR spectral range, as well as emissions of Ce3+, Eu2+, Tb3+, Ag+, Sn2+(? and UO2 2+. The oxidation state of cations isomorphically present in the barite crystal lattice suggests the endogene barite in the Kremikovtsi deposit precipitated from reduced fluids supposedly subjected to cooling (conductive/convective and oxidation (mixing with seawater.

  8. Electrical fields in the region of the main ionospheric trough according to data from the Intercosmos-Bulgaria-1300 satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanev, G.; Teodosiev, D.; Doncheva, N.; Danov, D.; Kraleva, L.; Chmirev, V.; Isaev, N.; Pushchaev, P.

    Measurements of the constant electric field vector in the region of the midlatitude ionospheric trough have been obtained using the IESP-IPMP electromagnetic instrument complex on board the Intercosmos-Bulgaria 1300 satellite. Electromagnetic field data for the nighttime four-hour period of quiet geomagnetic conditions are analyzed, and the results are discussed. It is shown that the midlatitude plasma-density trough is due less to local electric field conditions than to plasma temperature variations and charged particle flows in other parts of the ionosphere.

  9. THE ELECTRONIC COMMERCE IN THE TRAVEL AGENCIES’ ACTIVITIES IN BULGARIA AND TERMS OF REFERENCE FOR ITS ELABORATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velina Kazandzhieva

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The data used in the paper and the sources of information studied, show regaining of the positions and the role of travel agencies in the distribution system of tourism. The main trends and special features of the European on-line tourist market have been analyzed, as well as the state of the electronic commerce in travel agencies in Bulgaria. Alternatives and values-generating strategies for the intermediary business through efficient use of the advantages of е-commerce have been pointed out.

  10. Species Diversity and Distribution of Amphibians and Reptiles in Nature Park "Sinite Kamani" in Stara Planina Mt. (Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanimira R. Deleva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The current study presents briefly the species composition and distribution of the amphibians and reptiles in the Nature Park "Sinite Kamani" in Stara Planina Mnt. Bulgaria, based on a 2×2 km UTM grid. Between 2012 and 2014, we identified total 20 species (7 amphibians and 13 reptiles. We documented three new amphibian species for the region (Hyla arborea, Rana dalmatina and Rana graeca, which is discovered for the area for the first time and three species of reptiles (Testudo hermanni, Ablepharus kitaibelii and Lacerta trilienata. The contemporary conservation status for each species is presented and conservation threats and problems, specific for the park are discussed.

  11. An Analysis of Some Highly-Structured Networks of Human Smuggling and Trafficking from Albania and Bulgaria to Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Leman

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The authors examine the logistic ecology of 30 large-scale networks that were active in human smuggling and trafficking from Albania and Bulgaria to Belgium (1995–2003. Ten networks were studied in greater detail in order to determine three final profiles of networks, based on their use of structural and operational intermediary structures. They are called the “individual infiltration” and the “structural infiltration” human smuggling patterns, and the “violent-control prostitution” trafficking pattern. It should be noted that the business is organized in such a way that the organizers of the logistical support are never inculpated.

  12. An Examination of Teacher's Pedagogical Philosophical Beliefs of Secondary Science Teachers in Sofia Public Schools, Sofia, Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Boiadjieva

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This investigation sought understand of the pedagogical philosophies of Bulgarian secondary science teachers in public schools in Sofia, Bulgaria, using the instrument that derived information for this study was an interview protocol consisting of six open-ended questions, with a numerical scoring analysis: the Teachers Pedagogical Philosophy Interview (TPPI. A review of literature shows there is no research on the pedagogical philosophical basis of teacher’s beliefs on teaching or on the effect of integrating constructivist teaching methodology in Bulgarian secondary science classrooms.

  13. Organisation and financing of the health care systems of Bulgaria and Greece – what are the parallels?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Exadaktylos Nikolaos M

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Bulgarian and Greek Medical Care systems have been reformated the last fifteen years. The aim of this study was an examination and comparison of the Bulgarian and Greek Medical Care Systems. Methods This study was prepared by using all the published data related to both Bulgarian and Greek Medical Care systems. Besides, personal communications with related offices such as administration offices of hospitals and Ministries of Health were made. Results In both countries, besides the compulsory insurance there is also additional voluntary insurance which is provided by private companies. The most important difference is the family doctor (specialist in general medicine existing in Bulgaria. Every insured person needs a 'referral form' completed by the family doctor before visiting a hospital for medical attention (except emergencies. In contrast, in Greece an insured person can directly visit any hospital without needing any forms and independent of the severity of their health problem. An important disadvantage of the Greek health system is the low number of hospitals (139, in relation to population. In contrast, there are 211 hospitals in Bulgaria, although its population is lower than in Greece. Conclusion In both Greek and Bulgarian health systems changes must be done to solve the problems related to informal payments, limited financing, large debts, lack of appropriate investment policy, lack of an objective method for the costing of medical activities and inefficient management.

  14. POLLUTION OF SHOKARSKI STORMWATER CANAL AND ITS INFLUENCE ON THE QUALITY OF THE VARNA BLACK SEA COASTAL AREA, BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Simeonova

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Pollution of Shokarski stormwater canal and its influence on the quality of the Varna Black Sea coastal area, Bulgaria. In the present study was investigated the pollution of Shokаrski stormwater canal, discharging its water into the Varna Black Sea coastal area. Monitoring was carried out during 2011 year at 5 sites along the canal water flow. The pollution was determined by organoleptic and physico- chemical characteristics, nutrients concentrations and the organic load. Critical levels of dissolved oxygen were measured at some of the monitoring sites ranging from 0,65 to 2,79 mg/dm3. Ammonium and nitrite concentrations were above the threshold limits at all sites. The phosphates’ concentrations varied very dynamically ranging from 0,18 to 11,8 mg/dm3 and in most of the cases exceeded the threshold limit. Very high levels of biochemically degradable organic pollutants were determined with biochemical oxygen demand values reaching- 68,96 mg/dm3. The Shokarski canal pollution could be considered as a tremendous thread for the quality of the Varna Black Sea coastal area, Bulgaria.

  15. Isotopic characterisation of lead in contaminated soils from the vicinity of a non-ferrous metal smelter near Plovdiv, Bulgaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacon, Jeffrey R. [Macaulay Institute, Craigiebuckler, Aberdeen AB15 8QH (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: j.bacon@macaulay.ac.uk; Dinev, Nikolai S. [N Poushkarov Institute of Soil Science and Agroecology, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2005-03-01

    Soil samples from the vicinity of a non-ferrous metal smelter near Plovdiv, Bulgaria contained very high concentrations of cadmium, lead and zinc (up to 140, 4900 and 5900 mg kg{sup -1}, respectively). A roadside soil in a relatively uncontaminated area also contained high concentrations of the same metals (24, 1550 and 1870 mg kg{sup -1}, respectively) indicating that the transport of ores could be a source of contamination. Even though the lead isotope ratios in all the samples fell within a very narrow range (for example, 1.186-1.195 for {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb), the samples could be differentiated into three distinct groups: ores ({sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb and {sup 208}Pb/{sup 207}Pb ratios of 1.1874-1.1884 and 2.4755-2.4807, respectively), current deposition (1.1864 and 2.4704-2.4711, respectively) and local background (1.1927-1.1951 and 2.4772-2.4809, respectively). Although most of the current deposition has its origin in the ores used at the smelter, up to 12% could be from other sources such as petrol lead. - Although soils in the vicinity of a non-ferrous metal smelter near Plovdiv, Bulgaria, have become highly contaminated with the ores used, lead isotope analysis has revealed that up to 12% of current deposition could be from other sources such as petrol lead.

  16. The Byzantine Church of ``40 Holy Martyrs'' in Veliko Turnovo, Bulgaria: Pigments and Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakellariou, E.; Zorba, T.; Pavlidou, E.; Angelova, S.; Paraskevopoulos, K. M.

    2010-01-01

    The "St. 40 Martyrs" church is the most famous medieval building in Veliko Turnovo, Bulgaria. It is located in Assenova mahala, just next to Tsarevets. It was built and its walls were painted during the reign of Bulgarian king Ivan Assen II after the victory against Epyrus despot Theodoros Comninos (1230 AD). It consists of two buildings - a six-column basilica and another, smaller building on its western wall, which was built later. During the presence of the Ottoman Turks, maybe until the first half of the 18th century, the church remained christian. When it was converted to a mosque, all the christian symbols in it were destroyed. The archeological researches on site were initiated in 1969. As it is clear, the 40 Martyrs church is a historical monument of culture with great significance. The church had murals, from the earlier period, but in the following years and especially during the Ottoman period, the church has suffered many and different destructions. Nevertheless, the very few pieces of murals that are rescued till nowadays provide important information for the technique and the pigments that were used on its wall paintings. In the present work, twelve series of samples from the wall paintings were studied in order to characterize the materials and the technique used for church iconography. The study was based on the micro-analytical techniques of the Fourier Transform Infrared micro-spectroscopy (μs-FTIR), the Optical Microscopy and the Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) coupled to an Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometer (EDS). In the FTIR spectra of all pigments the characteristic peaks of calcite were detected, confirming the use of fresco technique for the creation of murals. The combination of FTIR spectroscopy and SEM-EDS analysis, reveal the existence of lapis-lazuli for the blue color, green earth for the green color, cinnabar for the red color, calcite for the white color and carbon black for the black color. Moreover, in other chromatic layers

  17. A study on early-onset neonatal group B streptococcal infection, Bulgaria, 2007-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorova-Christova, M; Vacheva, R; Decheva, A; Nikolov, A; Slancheva, B; Stoichkova, D; Christova, E; Shopova, E; Hitrova, S; Masseva, A; Yarakova, N; Kraleva, I; Takova, T S; Dimitrova, N; Dobreva, A

    2014-09-01

    This study examines neonatal group B streptococcal (GBS) colonization and its relation to early-onset GBS disease (EOGBSD), based upon the experience of leading obstetrics and gynecology centers in Bulgaria. The objectives of the study were to update neonatal colonization rates and to assess relationships between clinically differentiated cases (culture-proven GBS newborns) and risk factors inherent to the infant and mother, using a computerized file. The neonatal GBS colonization rate ranged from 5.48 to 12.19 per 1000 live births. Maternal-fetal infection (MFI, a provisional clinical diagnosis in culture-proven colonized infants with initial signs of infection that is usually overcome with antibiotic treatment) and/or intrapartum asphyxia (IA) have been demonstrated as the most frequent clinical manifestations, with significant correlations for the primary diagnosis, but not affirmative for the final diagnosis at discharge, resulting from adequate treatment of neonates. MFI and IA were significantly related to prematurity, and reciprocally, prematurity was associated with the risk of MFI, indirectly suggesting that preterm birth or PPROM (preterm premature rupture of membranes, an obstetric indication associated with early labor and delivery, one of the major causes of preterm birth) is a substantial risk factor for EOGBSD. The regression analysis indicated that in the case of a newborn with MFI, a birth weight 593.58 g lower than the birth weight of an infant without this diagnosis might be expected. Testing the inverse relationship, i.e., the way birth weight influences a certain diagnosis (logistic regression) established the presence of a relationship between birth weight categories (degree of prematurity) and the diagnosis of MFI. The proportions and odds ratios, converted into probabilities that a baby would develop MFI, indicate the particularly high risk for newborns with extremely low and very low birth weight: extremely low birth weight (≤1000 g), the

  18. THE HIDDEN PICTURE: UNHEALTHY EATING ATTITUDES AND BEHAVIORS IN A NON-CLINICAL POPULATION FROM BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radka Massaldjieva

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Eating disorders have been intensively researched over recent decades. However, there has been insufficient research into the early assessments for detecting the risk of developing disordered eating. We report preliminary results from a project aiming to assess the prevalence of eating attitudes and behaviors that heighten the risk of eating disorders. The study examines a non-clinical sample of adolescents and adults from two cities of South Bulgaria.METHODS: In this cross-sectional epidemiological study, a total of 1285 volunteers of 828 females and 453 males, aged 14 to 59 years, were surveyed to assess disordered eating attitudes and behaviors. For this purpose, the study used the ‘SCOFF’ questionnaire, the Eating Disorder Diagnostic Scale (EDDS, and the Eating Attitudes and Behaviors Questionnaire (EABQ, which was developed for this study.RESULTS: The proportion of these volunteers underweight (body mass index below 17.5 was 9.8%. Of the total subject, 34.7% provided two or more positive answers for the SCOFF questionnaire (two being the upper threshold for indicating 100% sensitivity to anorexia and bulimia. The results differed between males and females: 21.6% and 42.1%, respectively, in this regard. A factor analysis (oblimin rotation of EABQ items revealed four main factors: body shape and weight concerns, personal control over eating and calorie intake, dieting, and preoccupation with food and binge eating. A Spearman’s correlation analysis showed moderately significant correlations (p < 0.001 between the total scores of the SCOFF questionnaire, EABQ, and the scores for three groups of items in the EDDS for assessing eating attitudes and behaviors.CONCLUSION: We found a greater ED risk in adolescents compared with the older groups and in females compared with males. One fifth of males studied were at high risk of ED and ages between 19 and 39 years also appeared at risk. The EABQ was validated as a sensitive and

  19. Bulgarian Modern Poetry [and] Dracula - Fact and Fiction, for a Western World Literature Class. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad, 1997. (Romania and Bulgaria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rang, Barbara L.

    This project developed two units for secondary students, one dealing with the modern poetry of Bulgaria and one with the legend of Dracula. The first unit includes poems, discussion questions, and a background essay. The second unit includes discussion materials largely based on Brian Stoker's novel "Dracula," and an historical essay on…

  20. Reconstruction of the Transmission History of RNA Virus Outbreaks Using Full Genome Sequences: Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus in Bulgaria in 2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valdazo-González, Begoña; Polihronova, Lilyana; Alexandrov, Tsviatko

    2012-01-01

    the origin and transmission history of the FMD outbreaks which occurred during 2011 in Burgas Province, Bulgaria, a country that had been previously FMD-free-without-vaccination since 1996. Nineteen full genome sequences (FGS) of FMD virus (FMDV) were generated and analysed, including eight representative...

  1. Distribution of lanthanoids, Be, Bi, Ga, Te, Tl, Th and U on the territory of Bulgaria using Populus nigra 'Italica' as an indicator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djingova, R.; Ivanova, Ju. [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Sofia, 1, J. Bouchier Blvd, 1126 Sofia (Bulgaria); Wagner, G. [University of Saarland, Center of Environmental Research, Institute of Biogeography, D-66041 Saarbruecken (Germany); Korhammer, S.; Markert, B. [International Graduate school IHI-Zittau, Chair of Environmental High Technology, Markt 23, D-02763 Zittau (Germany)

    2001-12-03

    The concentrations of lanthanoids, Be, Bi, Ga, Te, Tl, Th and U have been determined using ICP-MS for 100 standardized samples of poplar leaves collected from the territory of Bulgaria. The investigated elements are log-normally distributed on the territory. Using cluster analysis of the analytical data the samples were grouped according soil type on which the plants are growing.

  2. Patterns of genetic diversity resulting from bottlenecks in European black pine, with implications on local genetic conservation and management practices in Bulgaria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naydenov, Krassimir D.; Mladenov, Ivica; Alexandrov, Alexander; Naydenov, Michel K.; Gyuleva, Veselka; Goudiaby, Venceslas; Nikolić, Biljana; Kamary, Salim

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the genetic structure and diversity of P.nigra populations in Bulgaria, using simple sequence nuclear repeats. Among-population structure was studied with distance and Bayesian frequency methods, assuming geometric distance and a “non-admixture” model. The “N

  3. Repeated isolation of virulent Newcastle disease viruses of sub-genotype VIId from backyard chickens in Bulgaria and Ukraine between 2002 and 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Here, we report the circulation of highly related virulent Newcastle disease viruses (NDV) in Bulgaria and Ukraine from 2002 until 2013. All of these NDV isolates have the same virulence-associated cleavage site (‘‘113RQKR;F117’’), and selected ones have intracerebral pathogenicity index values rang...

  4. Systemic and extraintestinal forms of human infection due to non-typhoid salmonellae in Bulgaria, 2005-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asseva, G; Petrov, P; Ivanova, K; Kantardjiev, T

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to review the clinical cases diagnosed as systemic or extraintestinal salmonellosis between 2005 and 2010 in Bulgaria, to determine the antimicrobial resistance of the causative salmonellae, and to analyze the pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) profiles of extraintestinal Salmonella Corvallis isolates. Culture, biochemical tests, and serotyping were performed. Resistance to 12 antimicrobial agents was studied with the Bauer-Kirby disk diffusion method. The double-disk synergy method was used for the screening of the presence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs). PFGE typing and analysis of the dendrogram was performed for the comparative investigation of Salmonella Corvallis isolates. Between 2005 and 2010, 2,227 human non-typhoid Salmonella isolates were investigated at the National Reference Laboratory of Enteric Pathogens, Sofia, Bulgaria. Thirty-three strains (1.48 %) from nine national regions were isolated from patients with systemic and extraintestinal forms of salmonellosis. The serotype distribution was as follows: S. enteritidis (n = 21), S. choleraesuis (diphasic n = 3; monophasic n = 3), S. typhimurium (n = 2), Salmonella Corvallis (n = 2), Salmonella Montevideo (n = 1), and S. javiana (n = 1). Eight patients developed severe forms of infections: sepsis (n = 2), septic shock (n = 1 with fatal outcome), meningitis (n = 3), and acute renal failure (n = 2). Twenty-two percent of isolates were resistant to ampicillin and gentamicin, 17.64 % to tetracycline, 14.28 % to nalidixic acid, and 10 % to chloramphenicol. All isolates were susceptible to ciprofloxacin. One Salmonella Corvallis isolate recovered from a patient with chronic hemolytic anemia produced an ESBL and its PFGE profile demonstrated less than 96 % similarity to fecal and wound Salmonella Corvallis with susceptible phenotypes. S. enteritidis was the most common cause of systemic and

  5. Chemical composition and antifungal activity of essential oil of Salvia sclarea L. from Bulgaria against isolates of Candida species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yana Hristova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil of Salvia sclarea L., growing in Bulgaria, was analyzed by gas chromatography – mass spectrometry. A total of 52 different compounds were identified, representing 98.25% of total oil content. Linalyl acetate (56.88% and linalool (20.75% were determined as major essential oil constituents, followed by germacrene D (5.08% and β-cariophyllene (3.41%. Antifungal activities of clary sage essential oil and major compounds linalyl acetate and linalool against 30 clinical isolates, belonging to species Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida krusei, Candida glabrata and Candida parapsilosis were evaluated. Essential oil characterized with stronger anticandidial activity in comparison with pure compounds.

  6. First cases of pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy in Bulgaria: novel mutation in the ALDH7A1 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tincheva, Savina; Todorov, Tihomir; Todorova, Albena; Georgieva, Ralica; Stamatov, Dimitar; Yordanova, Iglika; Kadiyska, Tanya; Georgieva, Bilyana; Bojidarova, Maria; Tacheva, Genoveva; Litvinenko, Ivan; Mitev, Vanyo

    2015-12-01

    Pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy (PDE) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by intractable seizures in neonates and infants. The seizures cannot be controlled with antiepileptic medications but respond both clinically and electrographically to large daily supplements of pyridoxine (vitamin B6). PDE is caused by mutations in the ALDH7A1 gene. Molecular genetic analysis of the ALDH7A1 gene was performed in seven patients, referred with clinical diagnosis of PDE. Mutations were detected in a dizygotic twin pair and a non-related boy with classical form of PDE. Direct sequencing of the ALDH7A1 gene revealed one novel (c.297delG, p.Trp99*) and two already reported (c.328C>T, p.Arg110*; c.584A>G, p.Asn195Ser) mutations. Here, we report the first genetically proven cases of PDE in Bulgaria.

  7. FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENTS AND THEIR NON-TRADITIONAL QUALITY FACTORS. A VAR ANALYSIS IN ROMANIA AND BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena RADULESCU

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present an econometric analysis using VAR techniques for emphasizing the political institutional factors, economic freedom factors and the quality of labor force factors impacting on FDIs attracted in Bulgaria and Romania. We used yearly data series between 2000 and 2014, provided by the World Bank. These two countries display a very friendly climate (law income corporate tax, but they attracted large amounts of FDIs only for a short period of time at mid-2000s’. The foreign investments sharply dropped during the crisis, and the perspectives are not so good. The foreign investors claim that high corruption and bureaucracy greatly diminish the advantages of an attractive fiscal environment in these two specific countries.

  8. Development of Diversified Tourism Destination Products – A Case Study of Tourism Destination, Municipality of Sofia, Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena PETKOVA

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, it is argued that there is a variety of products and accordingly a diversity of types of tourism in the municipality of Sofia, Bulgaria: urban and "non-urban", mass and specialized, tourism based on natural and anthropogenic, on tangible and intangible resources. In this regard, diverse tourism products of the destination may be offered to its visitors, which to a greater extent meets their various needs and contributes to the sustainable tourism development. Thus, the aim of the paper is to reveal whether tourism professionals in Sofia are aware of the possibilities for combining various types of tourism and promoting the diversified destination tourism product among local and foreign visitors.

  9. Mutation analysis in Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy patients from Bulgaria shows a peculiar distribution of breakpoints by intron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todorova, A.; Bronzova, J.; Kremensky, I. [Univ. Hospital of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Sofia (Bulgaria)] [and others

    1996-10-02

    For the first time in Bulgaria, a deletion/duplication screening was performed on a group of 84 unrelated Duchenne/Becker muscular dystrophy patients, and the breakpoint distribution in the dystrophin gene was analyzed. Intragenic deletions were detected in 67.8% of patients, and intragenic duplications in 2.4%. A peculiar distribution of deletion breakpoints was found. Only 13.2% of the deletion breakpoints fell in the {open_quotes}classical{close_quotes} hot spot in intron 44, whereas the majority (> 54%) were located within the segment encompassing introns 45-51, which includes intron 50, the richest in breakpoints (16%) in the Bulgarian sample. Comparison with data from Greece and Turkey points at the probable existence of a deletion hot spot within intron 50, which might be a characteristic of populations of the Balkan region. 17 refs., 2 figs.

  10. THE IMPACT OF EU CONDITIONALITY IN THE WESTERN BALKANS. A COMPARATIVE APPROACH: BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA – BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavia MOISE

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to analyse the security environment at the beginning of the XXIst century and to assess the impact of EU conditionality in the Western Balkans. The paper will analyse the redistribution of power and the new challenges that send the European Union at a crossroad. To explain such complex phenomena, we will use a comprehensive framework based on realism, liberal institutionalism, and constructivism. The central part of the paper will analyse EU conditionality in the Western Balkans – along with its characteristics, particularities, difficulties – and the impact of the degree of sovereignty. The case-study will provide a comparative analysis between EU conditionality in Bosnia and Herzegovina and Bulgaria proving that sovereignty matters for the conditionality-compliance relationship.

  11. Epidemiological characteristics and clinical manifestations of hepatitis E virus infection in Bulgaria: A report on 20 patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baymakova Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Hepatitis E is one of the leading clinical manifestations of acute viral hepatitis in developing countries. In industrialized countries, during the past several years, sporadic “autochthonous” cases of HEV infection have been increased. Objective. The aim of this study was to analyze the epidemiological, clinical and laboratory features of HEV infection among patients hospitalized at the Department of Infectious Diseases in Military Medical Academy, Sofia, Bulgaria. Methods. A retrospective study of 806 cases of acute viral hepatitis was performed at the Department of Infectious Diseases in Military Medical Academy, Sofia, Bulgaria, between December 2004 and September 2012. The etiological diagnosis was established by ELISA. The statistical analysis was performed using Excel 2007 (Microsoft, Redmond, Washington, USA and SPSS Statistics 19.0 (IBM Corp., Armonk, New York, USA. Results. Specific reaction to anti-HEV-IgM and anti-HEV-IgG antibodies were detected in 20 (2.48% of 806 patients. The most observed clinical presentations were jaundice (85%, fatigue (85%, anorexia (65%, abdominal discomfort (55% and fever (40%. The mean values of aspartate transaminase and alanine transaminase were 521 IU/l and 881 IU/l, respectively. The cholestasis was slight, marked with mean values of gamma-glutamyl transferase and alkaline phosphatase, respectively 418 IU/l and 486 IU/l. Conclusion. We report twenty autochthonous sporadic cases of acute infection with HEV. The zoonotic etiology of the virus as well as the foodborne transmission of the infection is discussed. We found that aging and pre-existing underlying diseases are risk factors for a severe course of the HEV infection.

  12. Genetic analysis of Apis mellifera macedonica (type rodopica populations selectively reared for purposive production of honey bee queens in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VIDA H. GEORGIEVA

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The genetic polymorphism in selectively reared in Bulgaria, local honey bee populations of Apis mellifera macedonica subspecies (type rodopica, has been studied, using analysis of six enzyme systems (MDH-1, ME, EST-3, ALP, PGM and HK corresponding to 6 loci. Totally 458 worker bees from 12 bee breeding bases for artificially inseminated queens were used for this study. All these stations are part of the National Bee Breeding Association which officially implements a National Program for sustainable beekeeping in Bulgaria. All of the six loci were found to be polymorphic. Only EST-3 locus was established as fixed in one of the investigated populations. Polymorphism with three alleles was ascertained for MDH, ME, ALP, PGM and HK loci and with five alleles for EST-3 locus. The most common alleles in almost all of the populations were MDH-1 100, ME 100, EST-3 100, PGM 100 and HK 100. Two private alleles (frequency < 0.05 were found for two of the populations. The calculated level of polymorphism was 88.33% in only one of the populations and 100% - in all others. The observed and expected heterozygosities (Ho and He ranged from 0.157 to 0.250 and from 0.206 to 0.272, respectively. The estimated mean FST value from allozyme data was 0.035. On the bases of the allele frequencies of the studied allozyme loci the Nei's (1972 genetic distance was estimated. It ranged between 0.002 and 0.060 among the populations studied.

  13. A Comparative Study on Changes in the Spatial Industry Agglomeration in Eastern EU Developing Countries: Romania vs. Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madalina-Stefania Dirzu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Taking a closer look at the spatial distribution of industrial sectors, it becomes quite obvious that there is an increasing disposition for industries to concentrate in certain regions in order to benefit of agglomeration assets. In this context, we consider necessary to analyze how industrial agglomerations have evolved over time and to what extent major transformations have affected agglomeration phenomenon in lagging regions of Eastern countries, finally our paper bringing supportive evidence from Romania and Bulgaria. To what extent, have patterns of industrial agglomeration modified during the transition period? Has relocation of economic activities taken place? What are the main determinants of industrial concentration patterns? These are some crucial questions that we try to find a realistic response through the present paper. Eastern economies are notably challenging from this point of view because they experienced several decades long economic development period which was earmarked by socialist industrialization. Under the planned economy, these countries have faced more barriers to an efficient geographical allocation of economic activities across regions than their peers in the Western Europe especially because they faced the legacy of a planned economy system that determined locations for economic activities based on political decisions, not based on economic efficiency. Thus, our effort can be seen as a contribution to knowledge about agglomeration in the non-Western countries in general, and in developing regions in particular. Focusing our study on two-digit industrial sectors of 14 regions at NUTS2 level, this paper aims to identify and explain the changes regarding the evolution of industrial agglomerations in the last years across Romania compared to Bulgaria. In the end, our analysis will be able to conclude in what manner the effects of transition period influenced the patterns of industrial agglomeration in these two

  14. RPROJECT5- Technical design and intermediate safety assessment report for the Bulgarian National Disposal Facility; RPROJECT5-Diseno Tecnico y Informe Intermedio de Seguridad para la Instalacion Nacional de Almacenamiento de Bulgaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefanova, I.; Gonzalez, E.; Biurrun, E.; Navarro, M.

    2013-07-01

    In October 2011 SERAW, the national company for the management of radioactive waste from Bulgaria, assigned to the consortium consisting of Westinghouse Electric Spain S.A.U., the German company DBE TECHNOLOGY GmbH and the company national radioactive waste ENRESA the realization of design management Conceptual, technical design and the intermediate report of safety assessment for installation of storage for radioactive waste from low to medium activity in Bulgaria.

  15. Diagnosis of the socionic temperament of personality and creating a psychological portrait of the Western European SPA and wellness tourists in Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoyanova, Milena

    2017-03-01

    Human personality is a set of psychological characteristics that distinguishes it from others. However people can be classified as congenital personality types, interactions that are precisely defined. The aim of this article is to characterize the socionic temperament and psychological profile of the spa and wellness tourists in Bulgaria. The study is based on a survey of 460 tourists who visited Bulgarian spa centers in the summer and autumn of 2015.

  16. Diagnosis of the socionic temperament of personality and creating a psychological portrait of the Western European SPA and wellness tourists in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stoyanova Milena

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Human personality is a set of psychological characteristics that distinguishes it from others. However people can be classified as congenital personality types, interactions that are precisely defined. The aim of this article is to characterize the socionic temperament and psychological profile of the spa and wellness tourists in Bulgaria. The study is based on a survey of 460 tourists who visited Bulgarian spa centers in the summer and autumn of 2015.

  17. Euroregions and cross border areas in South East Europe : defining an effective model for the area : comparative analysis between Bulgaria, Albania and FYROM

    OpenAIRE

    Brusaporci, Gianfranco

    2014-01-01

    The research deals with the topic of cross-border cooperation and Euroregions in the Balkans. Using a qualitative comparative analysis (QCA), the research examines nine different cases in Albania, Bulgaria, and the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. The research is framed within IR theories and aims to define a good model of transborder cooperation for this region by considering its specific ethnic and historical issues. In particular, implementing Perkmann’s theory (2007) of policy entre...

  18. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF MEDICAL EQUIPMENT USED IN DIAGNOSTIC IMAGING IN BULGARIA AND COUNTRIES WORLDWIDE AND OPTIMIZATION AIMED AT IMPROVING THE HEALTH CARE SYSTEM MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetoslav Garov

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to reveal the current condition of medical equipment in Bulgaria related to those major groups of socially significant diseases and to make an attempt to define guidelines for its optimization in view of improving the functioning and management of the healthcare system in this field. Material and methods: The following research methods have been applied: 1. Document review method – research, processing and analysis of medical statistical information taken from data from WHO and annual reports of NRA. The study includes data from 2009 - 2015. 2. Graphical method – summarizing data in relevant tables and diagram presentations. Results: The article analyzes the condition of medical equipment in the field of oncologic and cardiologic medical aid in Bulgaria based on data taken from WHO (World Health Organization and annual reports of NRA (Nuclear Regulatory Agency. Six types of diagnostic imaging and radiation therapy devices have been studied: Magnetic Resonance Imaging units (MRI; Computed Tomography Scanners (CT, Positron Emission Tomography Scanners, Mammographs, Linear accelerators and Telecobalt units (Cobalt-60. The condition of medical equipment since 2009 has been analyzed, results have been reported and trends - studied. Conclusion: The oncologic and cardiologic medical equipment in Bulgaria has been gradually improving in the last seven years, but quantitative indicators regarding the devices studied are still far away from the figures recommended by WHO with one single exception, i.e. Computed Tomography Scanners.

  19. PRODUCT AND MARKET ORIENTATION OF HORTICULTURAL FARMS IN BULGARIA DURING THE YEARS LEADING TO EU ACCESSION – STUDIES IN THE PLOVDIV REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Garnevska

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture/horticulture has traditionally been an important sector in the economy of Bulgaria. The paper outlines the structural changes in Bulgarian agriculture since 1989 and discusses the product and market orientation of the horticultural farms in the Plovdiv region of Bulgaria. This paper analyses how farm owners / managers with different sized farms evaluated 5 product/market strategic options: ‘doing what you currently do but better’, ‘developing new horticultural products’, ‘developing new markets’, ‘developing new agricultural activities’ and ‘developing new nonagricultural activities’. The owners / managers identifi ed; whether they perceived these options as feasible for their future development, the encouraging/discouraging factors and the outcomes they expected from their implementation. The small-scale farms (less than 2 ha were mainly subsistence farms that were relying upon the farmer’s experience to survive during the transition period. The second type of farm (2-10 ha was ‘transitional’ farms and were working under pressure either for survival or expansion under the new EU related conditions. The third type of farm (over 10 ha was more business orientated, aiming at business viability and trying to respond to the rapidly changing business environment in Bulgaria as they recognised that the EU accession would present new challenges and opportunities for the successful future development of their farm businesses.

  20. DYNAMICS OF THE RADIOACTIVE POLLUTION IN THE SURFACE LAYER OF SOILS IN BULGARIA TWENTY YEARS AFTER THE CHERNOBYL NUCLEAR POWER PLANT ACCIDENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I YORDANOVA

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The twenty years period past after the contamination with radionuclides in 1986, as a result of the accident in the Chernobyl’s NPP, allowed the accumulation of rich data base for the radiation status of the soils in Bulgaria. Objective of many years studies were virgin soils from high mountain areas, hilly and flat (the region of Kozlodouy NPP and the Danube river valley. Ceasium-137 and strontium-90 were the main men-made radionuclides detected in the examined Bulgarian soils, few years after the accident. The content of ceasium-137 and strontium-90 in the soils from high mountain areas (Rodopa and Rila mountains is several times higher then that in the soils from Northern Bulgaria and Sofia field. High non-homogeneity in the pollution within small areas (scores of square meters even was determined. No significant horizontal redistribution was observed for the period after 1986. The tendency of changes in the radioactive status of the soils in Bulgaria after the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant is not due to trans-border transfer of radioactive materials or to any breakdown at the Kosloduy Nuclear Power Plant.

  1. THE ETHNO-CULTURAL BELONGINGNESS OF AROMANIANS, VLACHS, CATHOLICS, AND LIPOVANS/OLD BELIEVERS IN ROMANIA AND BULGARIA (1990–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIN CONSTANTIN

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study is conceived as a historical and ethnographic contextualization of ethno-linguistic groups in contemporary Southeastern Europe, with a comparative approach of several transborder communities from Romania and Bulgaria (Aromanians, Catholics, Lipovans/Old Believers, and Vlachs, between 1990 and 2012. I am mainly interested in (1 presenting the ethno-demographic situation and geographic distribution of ethnic groups in Romania and Bulgaria, (2 repertorying the cultural traits characteristic for homonymous ethnic groups in the two countries, and (3 synthesizing the theoretical data of current anthropological literature on the ethno-cultural variability in Southeastern Europe. In essence, my methodology compares the ethno-demographic evolution in Romania and Bulgaria (192–2011, within the legislative framework of the two countries, to map afterward the distribution of ethnic groups across Romanian and Bulgarian regions. It is on such a ground that the ethnic characters will next be interpreted as either homologous between ethno-linguistic communities bearing identical or similar ethnonyms in both countries, or as interethnic analogies due to migration, coexistence, and acculturation among the same groups, while living in common or neighboring geographical areas

  2. Adapting to Sea Level Rise and Storms: Missed Opportunities and Continuing Development (case studies from USA and Bulgaria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Robert; Stancheva, Margarita; Stanchev, Hristo; Palazov, Atanas; Peek, Katie; Coburn, Andrew; Griffith, Adam

    2014-05-01

    Over the last several years, there have been significant discussions within the global scientific and coastal zone management communities about the need to adapt to the realities of long-term sea level rise and to make coastal development more "resilient" to hazards and climate change. With all of the talk, publications, and recognition of the problem, you would think that we had made significant progress, but this is not the case. Once again, the USA has experienced the impact of a significant coastal storm, Hurricane Sandy. There were initially some serious post-Sandy discussions regarding the need to ensure that we simply don't "just put everything back were it was." Almost a year later, there have been few substantive moves to relocate property away from coastal hazards or to change the footprint of vulnerable coastal communities. This is particularly true of coastal resort communities in New York and New Jersey. Some communities have initiated large-scale efforts to elevate (in situ) infrastructure and private property. Raising buildings is only a workable solution if you also commit to holding all the beaches in place . . . forever. This is what the federal government has done for New Jersey and New York. The U. S. Army Corps of Engineers will be spending upward of US5 billion on shore protection projects following Hurricane Sandy. The vast majority of these funds will be spent pumping sand onto beaches from Delaware to Connecticut. The amount of sand they will move is staggering, approaching 25 to 35 million cubic meters. This is an adaptation model that cannot be exported to the rest of the USA. Nor can it be maintained for an extended period of time. Along the Black Sea Coast of Bulgaria the risk of storms is not as great as that of the US East Coast, but long-term sea level rise is still a threat. In Bulgaria, most coastal development problems occur simply because people continue to build in areas that are too close to the coast or in very high hazard

  3. Comparative Analysis and Tendencies in the Development of the Cattle Market in the Conditions of the Quota System in the EU Countries and Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Georgiev

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available The process of recreating of the basic herds of the farm animals and the improvement of their breedconstitution, which has already begun in Bulgaria, is a prerequisite for the providing of more, and of betterquality, meat and milk for the needs of the domestic market, as well as for making the sector morecompetitive on the international markets. The purpose of the research concerned comparative analysis andtendencies in the development of the cattle market in the conditions of the quota system in the EU countriesand Bulgaria.One of the reasons for the decrease of the quantity of exported cattle and veal meat is that there isshortage of resources in the manufacturing industry, which to a great extent limits the export with thepurpose of satisfying the needs of the inner market.This quota will give Bulgaria the chance to export for the EU 2000 t. with zero customs tax.Although Bulgaria cannot make use of this opportunity for the moment, as there is not approved factory forproduction of meat to be exported to EU, we think that it as a good opportunity. It could be stimulating or thecompanies to take a step in this direction.The calculations show that after the countries of Central and Eastern Europe join the EU, theproduction of meat in the EU will increase by 20%. This however, will not lead to flooding of the marketbecause an increase of the income of the joining countries is expected, with a resulting increase ofconsumption. On the other hand, an increase of the export of meat and meat products is expected for thetraditional markets in Russia.The advantages of the quota system which is being introduced in Bulgaria, as part of the agrarianpolicy of the EU, directed at preventing of overproduction at the market, can be structured as follows:Providing guaranteed prices for the cattle products; Imposing financial sanctioned at exceeding theproduction quota; Opportunity for introducing two-stage quotas – a high price for the production for the

  4. Mountain Water Tower and Ecological Risk Estimation of the Mesta-Nestos Transboundary River Basin (Bulgaria-Greece)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The Mesta-Nestos river basin in Bulgaria and Greece is a case study for transboundary decision-making support in south-eastern Europe and a show-case for the development of methodologies and information-gathering for the integrated regional planning of water resources. Land-use conflicts in this water-scarce region cover a wide spectrum of activities like agricultural irrigation, drinking water production, diversions for industrial water, and risk of pollution from mining, to name a few examples.Measurements of the water quality were carried out in the upper basin. Results will be illustrated by the example of the environmental situation in the alpine region of the Pirin National Park as well as in the Razlog Basin with a stronger anthropogenic impact and pollution around a former uranium mine near the village of Ele(s)nica. The social and economic development of this transboundary region is a recently established priority for the future. It will mean an increase in water usage and more stress for the water resources if regional impacts of global climate change are verified. Problem-focused management of the catchment area as a whole on the basis of proved geo-data sets is needed for the future.

  5. Current challenges and innovative approaches in the development of peripheral regions in Bulgaria: The case of Ivaylovgrad municipality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrova Elena

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper approaches territorial cohesion in SEE from the perspective of social equity with regard to the opportunity to choose to live in one’s native place without compromising the quality of life. It is interested in border areas - both physical and virtual; in real life situations as meeting points of theories and policies influencing human lives; and in the emerging challenges there that often make us question once and again our concepts and actions as experts. Based on the Bulgarian case-study analysis, the authors discuss the effectiveness and current challenges of real-life implementation of EU and national policies aimed at sustainable development of peripheral regions. The rural peripheral municipality of Ivaylovgrad is an indicative case study for the ongoing processes in the peripheral regions of Bulgaria and the efforts to overcome a continuing loss of working places, services, markets and further isolation from the rest of the country since the early 1990s. The paper presents a critical view of initiatives and projects undertaken by interest and local groups in the period 2006-2010. Possible innovative approaches for regional revival are considered and conclusions are drawn about the importance of creating development strategies sensitive to the existing and emerging socio-cultural patterns.

  6. Efficacy and Safety of PAIR for Cystic Echinococcosis: Experience on a Large Series of Patients from Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golemanov, Branimir; Grigorov, Nikola; Mitova, Rumiana; Genov, Jordan; Vuchev, Dimitar; Tamarozzi, Francesca; Brunetti, Enrico

    2011-01-01

    We report our experience with puncture, aspiration, injection, and reaspiration (PAIR) for the treatment of cystic echinococcosis in Bulgaria. PAIR was performed in 230 patients with 348 echinococcal cysts. At 12-month follow-up, 77.6% of the cysts, all cystic echinococcosis (CE) 1 and CE3a cysts according to the World Health Organization Informal Working Group classification, showed various degrees of obliteration. In 11.5% of cysts, all of which were > 10 cm-type CE1, a significant amount of fluid persisted, and they were punctured again. Of those, 16 (4.6%) contained protoscolices and were treated by a second PAIR. The remaining 24 (6.9%) cysts were treated by simple aspiration or drainage. No significant reduction in size and no changes in the structure were observed in 10.9% of cysts, all of which were classified as CE2 or CE3b. Complications developed in 25.2% of patients, including severe anaphylactic reaction in two (0.9%) patients. Our experience confirms that PAIR is a successful first-choice treatment when a stage-specific approach is taken. PMID:21212200

  7. Grasping physical exercise through recreational running and non-representational theory: a case study from Sofia, Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnfield, Andrew

    2016-09-01

    To become and maintain being physically active encompasses more than purely mindful and rational decision-making. Physical activity requires theoretical-methodological approaches that provide more subtle understandings of the variety of contextual factors. Nettleton and Green have recently argued persuasively for the need for the sociology of public health to embrace social practices. It is also necessary to think about the spaces, affects and technologies of engagement in physical exercise. This article examines the practices of recreational runners in Sofia, the capital of Bulgaria. The article has three aims; (i) to draw attention to the promise of non-representational theory as an additive for health research and the contextual factors of health practices, (ii) to examine recreational runner's practices and techniques of engagement in light of non-representational theory, and (iii) to highlight how interventions in Sofia and beyond can incorporate elements of non-representational theory into their strategies for improved public health. In drawing attention to the promise of non-representational theory and social practices this article concludes by emphasising their importance for public health interventions in physical activity strategies.

  8. The Genetic Structure of Wild Orobanche cumana Wallr. (Orobanchaceae Populations in Eastern Bulgaria Reflects Introgressions from Weedy Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocío Pineda-Martos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Orobanche cumana is a holoparasitic plant naturally distributed from central Asia to south-eastern Europe, where it parasitizes wild Asteraceae species. It is also an important parasitic weed of sunflower crops. The objective of this research was to investigate genetic diversity, population structure, and virulence on sunflower of O. cumana populations parasitizing wild plants in eastern Bulgaria. Fresh tissue of eight O. cumana populations and mature seeds of four of them were collected in situ on wild hosts. Genetic diversity and population structure were studied with SSR markers and compared to weedy populations. Two main gene pools were identified in Bulgarian populations, with most of the populations having intermediate characteristics. Cross-inoculation experiments revealed that O. cumana populations collected on wild species possessed similar ability to parasitize sunflower to those collected on sunflower. The results were explained on the basis of an effective genetic exchange between populations parasitizing sunflower crops and those parasitizing wild species. The occurrence of bidirectional gene flow may have an impact on wild populations, as new physiological races continuously emerge in weedy populations. Also, genetic variability of wild populations may favour the ability of weedy populations to overcome sunflower resistance mechanisms.

  9. The Otter (Lutra lutra L. Signs and the Banks Tree Cover: A Survey in Central and Eastern Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radostina Dimitrova

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out during 2011 – 2012 at different water basins (rivers and micro dams situated in Central and Eastern Bulgaria. Transects with 600 m length were walked along the banks in otter signs search. The search was stopped when the first otter signs were registered. As a whole we found domination of the very good or excellent bank tree cover. A total of 61% of transects were with tree cover between 50% and 100%. Almost equal were the stretches without or with little tree vegetation. At all transects surveyed the spraints dominated with 61%. All other otter signs were with low percentage. The otter tracks (foot prints were on second place with 20% of occurrence, followed by the food remains with 7%. At 12% of transects we did not find any otter signs. As a whole the otter was registered in 88% of transects, a sign for a good population. Highest preference we registered for walking or feeding of the otter at the open banks with no or with weak tree cover.

  10. CADMIUM, COPPER, LEAD AND ZINC CONCENTRATIONS IN LOW QUALITY WINES AND ALCOHOL CONTAINING DRINKS FROM ITALY, BULGARIA AND POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Muchacka

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We studied Cu, Cd, Pb and Zn concentrations in low quality wines produced in Bulgaria and Italy and in alcohol containing multi-fruit drinks produced in Poland. All the metals were present in tested products. Cadmium was not detected in Italian and Polish products. In one of the Bulgarian wines cadmium was detected in concentration of 0.004 mg•l-1. Italian wines were not contaminated with Pb. Its concentration was the highest in Polish drinks (0.88±0.52 mg•l-1. The largest and statistically significant differences occurred between Cu and Zn contents. Both metals had the highest concetrations in Italian wines (Cu - 0.13±0.05 mg•l-1; Zn - 0.83±0.56 mg•l-1, and the lowest in Polish products (Cu - 0.04±0.001 mg•l-1; Zn -0.18±0.16 mg•l-1.

  11. Access to health care for Roma children in Central and Eastern Europe: findings from a qualitative study in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spencer Nick J

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the attention the situation of the Roma in Central and Eastern Europe has received in the context of European Union enlargement, research on their access to health services is very limited, in particular with regard to child health services. Methods 50 qualitative in-depth interviews with users, providers and policy-makers concerned with child health services in Bulgaria, conducted in two villages, one town of 70,000 inhabitants, and the capital Sofia. Results Our findings provide important empirical evidence on the range of barriers Roma children face when accessing health services. Among the most important barriers are poverty, administrative and geographical obstacles, low levels of parental education, and lack of ways to accommodate the cultural, linguistic and religious specifics of this population group. Conclusion Our research illustrates the complexity of the problems the Roma face. Access to health care cannot be discussed in isolation from other problems this population group experiences, such as poverty, restricted access to education, and social exclusion.

  12. Application of New Instruments to Increase Effectiveness of Implementation of Social Policies on Labour Market in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venelin Terziev

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, public employment services face a number of urgent tasks as raising the employment rate and reducing the number of vacant jobs for which is difficult to find enough qualified workers. New realities on labour market and dynamic environment require adequate actions, rational and timely decision making and optimization of work. Dynamic changes in social environment impacting labour markets and activities of public employment services impose various tasks which implementation should be carefully planned, organized and controlled. To achieve that public employment services should take a more comprehensive look at the demand and supply of labour, considering the numerous transitions taking place constantly on the labour market and people's personal development. Improving processes and the quality of the administrative services in the Bulgarian employment agency is seen as a prerequisite for effective implementation of employment policies. The study presents opportunities for improving the quality of services offered in the Directorates "Labour Office" in the Republic of Bulgaria by introducing a process model and improvements in the capacity and efficiency of work in the field of labour mediation.

  13. Trapping as an alternative method of eradicating classical swine fever in a wild boar population in Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrov, T; Kamenov, P; Stefanov, D; Depner, K

    2011-12-01

    Between August and November 2009, eight cases of classical swine fever (CSF) occurred in young wild boar in a 25-km2 oak forest3 km south of the river Danube in the north-eastern part of Bulgaria. The wild boar population within the affected area was estimated to be 156 animals, or approximately six boar per km2. To control and eradicate the disease, and in addition to vaccination and hunting, trapping was used to reduce the boar population to below two animals per km2. In total, 124 wild boar were removed from the infected area within three months. Of these, 119 were trapped. In this paper, the authors present trapping as a successful tool to eradicate CSF from an area where hunting and vaccination alone might not be sufficient. Up to seven wild boar could be trapped in a single trap. Furthermore, the spread of CSF virus to the local domestic pig population and to wild boar in neighbouring areas was prevented. By decreasing the wild boar population to fewer than two animals per km2, it was assumed that the virus would no longer circulate and the disease would fade out. In fact, no further CSF cases were diagnosed afterwards. Under Bulgarian and similar conditions, trapping seems to be a more reliable method than hunting for reducing a wild boar population within a short period of time. Furthermore, trapping may be used alone or in combination with hunting, depending on the situation.

  14. Challenges of science-society interactions in the frame of sustainable development: A case-study of contemporary Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paneva Aneliya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Effectively tackling problems of sustainable development such as climate change, poverty, and biodiversity loss requires a different perspective on the role of science in society. Building on the understanding that knowledge production processes shall go hand in hand with governance processes, sustainability science and ecological economics promote transdisciplinarity and participatory procedures as a key requirement for scientific work on nature-society interactions. Involving non-academic actors such as local lay persons, civil society representatives, businesses, and decision makers in the research process promises the discovery of practical solutions to related problems and empowerment of communities. While this novel research approach has been increasingly applied in Western societies, its adoption by scientific actors in the context of Central and Eastern Europe, however, remains relatively low. Employing Bulgaria as a case study, this investigation examined the inter-actions between academia and practice through a series of expert interviews and a review of policy documents, thus offering insights into the specific conditions of implementing science for sustainable development. It emerges that knowledge transfer and experience exchange in the field are needed. Promoting social learning in this domain requires clarification of the roles of actors and institutions for sustainable development. Finally, recommendations for science related policies and scientific work are given.

  15. Description of Longidorus cholevae sp. n. (Nematoda, Dorylaimida from a riparian habitat in the Rila Mountains, Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlada Peneva

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A description is provided of Longidorus cholevae sp. n., a bisexual species associated with wild cherry (Prunus avium L. from the Rila Mountains, Bulgaria. The position of L. cholevae sp. n. among other species of the genus was elucidated by using morphological and molecular data. Phylogenetic analyses were performed of D2-D3 expansion domains of the 28S rRNA and the partial ITS1 containing regions by Neighbor-Joining, Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian Inference methods. The species is characterised by a female body length of 6.1–8.1 mm; long odontostyle (106–129 µm; lip region wide (21.5–24 µm rounded and continuous with the body profile; amphidial pouches short and wide, funnel-shaped; a posteriorly situated guide ring (30-37 µm; normal arrangement of pharyngeal glands, and short bluntly rounded to hemispherical tail. Four juvenile stages indentified, first stage with elongate conoid tail. Males with 2–4 adanal pairs and a row of 11–13 single ventromedian supplements, spicules 96-120 µm long. Based both on morphological and molecular data the new species appearred to be the most similar with a group of species distributed in Europe sharing common charcters such as amphidial fovea, lip region and tail shapes, andsimilar odontostyle and body length: L. poessneckensis, L. caespiticola, L. macrososma, L. helveticus, L. carniolensis and L. pius. An updated list of Longidorus species and a partial polytomous keys to the Longidorus species with long odontostyle (codeA45 and short tail (codeH1 are provided.

  16. Mountain Water as Main Longevity Factor in Research of Phenomenon of Longevity in Mountain Areas of Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignat Ignatov

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper are submitted data on longevity factors and mountain water in factorial research of phenomenon of longevity in mountainious and field areas of Bulgaria. The dependence was established among various internal and external factors on a phenomenon of longevity – residence area, health status, gender and heredity. It was shown that water is among the most important factors for longevity. Natural waters derived from various Bulgarian water springs were investigated by non-equilibrium energy (NES and differential non-equilibrium energy spectrum of water (DNES method. The biological effects of water with varrying content of deuterium are also discussed. It was shown, that the increased content of deuterium leads to physiological, morphological and cytology alterations of the cell, and also renders negative influence on cellular metabolism, while deuterium depleted water with reduced deuterium content on 20–30 % has beneficial effects on health. By using IR-spectroscopy were investigated various samples of water with varying contents of deuterium, received from Bulgarian water springs and blood serum of cancer patients as well. As estimation factor was measured the values of the average energy of hydrogen bonds (∆EH...O among H2O molecules, as well as local maxima in the IR-spectra of various samples of water and human blood serum at -0,1387 eV and wavelength 8,95 μm. For a group of people in critical condition of life and patients with malignant tumors the greatest values of local maxima in IR-spectra are shifted to lower energies relative to the control group. This testifies to the structural changes of water. The obtained results testify to necessity of consumption of clean natural water which quality satisfies mountain water from Bulgarian water springs.

  17. The Longevity of Crop Seeds Stored Under Long-term Condition in the National Gene Bank of Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desheva Gergana

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Seed accessions from 7 plant families and 28 species stored for above 20 years in the National gene bank of Bulgaria were evaluated. All seed accessions were maintained as base collection under long-term storage conditions with low moisture contents (5±2% in hermetically closed containers at −18°C. On the basis of experimental data, the seed storage characters σ (standard deviation of seed death in storage, P50% (the time for viability to fall to 50% and P10% (the time for viability reduction of 10% were determined allowing the prediction of seed storage life and the regeneration needs. The results showed significant differences in loss of seed viability among species and within the species. After 20–24 years of storage, eleven crops showed minimal viability decline under 5% as compared to the initial viability (oats, barley, maize, bread wheat, durum wheat, smooth brome grass, faba bean, chickpea, sunflower, cucumber and pepper. For the same storage time, another group of crops (sorghum, triticale, orchard grass, tall fescue, common vetch, grass pea, lentil, common bean, rapeseed, tobacco, flax, cabbage and tomatoes presented 5–10% reduction of seed viability. More significant changes in seed viability – above 10% – were detected for peanuts, lettuce, soybean and rye. The σ values varied from 20.41 years (Arachis hypogaea L. to 500 years (for Avena sativa L. and Triticum aestivum L. There was wide variation across species, both in time taken for the viability to fall to 50% and in time taken for the seed viability reduction of 10%. The study illustrates the positive effect of both seed storability early monitoring and prediction of regeneration needs as a tool for limiting undesired losses.

  18. Wavelet analysis on transient behaviour of tidal amplitude fluctuations observed by meteor radar in the lower thermosphere above Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Pancheva

    Full Text Available On the basis of bispectral analysis applied to the hourly data set of neutral wind measured by meteor radar in the MLT region above Bulgaria it was demonstrated that nonlinear processes are frequently and regularly acting in the mesopause region. They contribute significantly to the short-term tidal variability and are apparently responsible for the observed complicated behavior of the tidal characteristics. A Morlet wavelet transform is proposed as a technique for studying nonstationary signals. By simulated data it was revealed that the Morlet wavelet transform is especially convenient for analyzing signals with: (1 a wide range of dominant frequencies which are localized in different time intervals; (2 amplitude and frequency modulated spectral components, and (3 singular, wave-like events, observed in the neutral wind of the MLT region and connected mainly with large-scale disturbances propagated from below. By applying a Morlet wavelet transform to the hourly values of the amplitudes of diurnal and semidiurnal tides the basic oscillations with periods of planetary waves (1.5-20 days, as well as their development in time, are obtained. A cross-wavelet analysis is used to clarify the relation between the tidal and mean neutral wind variability. The results of bispectral analysis indicate which planetary waves participated in the nonlinear coupling with the atmospheric tides, while the results of cross-wavelet analysis outline their time intervals if these interactions are local.

    Key words: Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (middle atmosphere dynamics; waves and tides - Radio science (nonlinear phenomena

  19. Histological alterations under metal exposure in gills of European perch (Perca fluviatilis L. from Topolnitsa Reservoir (Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgieva Еlenka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Topolnitsa Reservoir is located in a region of Bulgaria rich in copper mines where intensive mining has been ongoing for several decades. General data on the ecological status of the reservoir and the effects of metal on fish is relatively scarce. The first aim of the study was to measure the concentrations of six metals (As, Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn in water samples and in the gills of European perch (Perca fluviatilis L.. The second objective was to examine gill structure and determine the severity of histological alteration as a result of metal exposure. Surface water and fish gill samples were collected in spring, summer and autumn in 2012 and metal and histological analyses were performed. Metal concentrations in the water samples varied, but only Cu concentrations were determined in all three seasons and they were higher than the maximum permissible levels. The gill metal concentrations were significantly higher (P<0.05 than in the water. Examination of gill structure revealed the presence of proliferative and degenerative changes, as well as changes in the blood vessels. Histological lesions were similar in their severity in all three seasons. This study provides the first information about metal effects on the morphology of European perch gills from Topolnitsa Reservoir. It can be concluded that the metal contamination of the Topolnitsa Reservoir and fish is chronic and that it can negatively affect the structure and function of fish gills. As metals display a tendency to accumulate in fish gills, their effects are expected to become more severe with time, as they affect gill functions.

  20. Gastropod Shells from Excavations of the “Antic Forum” Complex in the City Of Plovdiv (Bulgaria: IV-VI Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rumen Ivanov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Total of 35 shells were found and identified during the archeological excavations 2012-2014, studied Slavic dwellings-dugouts which reuse earlier structures of the roman forum inPlovdiv, Bulgaria. From both localities shells from 7 species of snails were found. Most of the shellswere from two species: Zebrina detrita and Helix philibinensis – total of 28 shells, other wererepresented by 1-3 specimens per species. The lack of shell materials from Eobania vermiculatasupports the theory of later introduction of this species in the city of Plovdiv.

  1. Failures in the energy policy result in electricity revolts. Bulgaria - energy crisis and government crisis; Versaeumnisse in der Energiepolitik fuehren zu Stromrevolten. Bulgarien - Energie- und Regierungskrise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stier, Frank

    2013-03-25

    Electricity bills may oust the government from power as it has happened in Bulgaria: Since the beginning of February 2013, the citizens of the capital city Sofia and from other cities of the Balkan Country demonstrated against the electricity bills being excessive in their opinion. Once it came to a bloody confrontation between the demonstrators and the police at the Eagle's Bridge in Sofia at 19th February, 2013, the Prime Minister Boiko Borissov and his right-wing cabinet had decided to resign. Thus, Borissov led his country into a political instability and the Bulgarian energy industry into an uncertainty on its future development.

  2. An historical overview of the activities in the field of exposure and risk assessment of non-ionizing radiation in Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israel, Michel

    2015-09-01

    The exposure and risk evaluation process in Bulgaria concerning non-ionizing radiation health and safety started in the early 1970s. Then, the first research laboratory "Electromagnetic fields in the working environment" was founded in the framework of the Centre of Hygiene, belonging to the Medical Academy, Sofia. The main activities were connected with developing legislation, new equipment for measurement of electromagnetic fields, new methods for measurement and exposure assessment, in vivo and human studies for developing methods, studying the effect of non-ionizing radiation on human body, developing exposure limits. Most of the occupations as metal industry, plastic welding, energetics, physiotherapy, broadcasting, telephone stations, computer industry, etc., have been covered by epidemiological investigations and risk evaluation. In 1986, the ANSI standard for safe use of lasers has been implemented as national legislation that gave the start for studies in the field of risk assessment concerning the use of lasers in industry and medicine. The environmental exposure studies started in 1991 following the very fast implementation of the telecommunication technologies. Now, funds for research are very insignificant, and studies in the field of risk assessment are very few. Nevertheless, Bulgaria has been an active member of the WHO International EMF Project, since 1997, and that gives good opportunity for collaboration with other Member states, and for implementation of new approach in the EMF policy for workers and people's protection against non-ionizing radiation exposure.

  3. Clinical Evaluation of Rapid Diagnostic Test Kit Using the Polysaccharide as a Genus-Specific Diagnostic Antigen for Leptospirosis in Korea, Bulgaria, and Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin-Woo; Park, Sungman; Kim, Seung Han; Christova, Iva; Jacob, Paulina; Vanasco, Norma B; Kang, Yeon-Mi; Woo, Ye-Ju; Kim, Min Soo; Kim, Young-Jin; Cho, Min-Kee; Kim, Yoon-Won

    2016-02-01

    Leptospirosis, a zoonotic disease that is caused by many serovars which are more than 200 in the world, is an emerging worldwide disease. Accurate and rapid diagnostic tests for leptospirosis are a critical step to diagnose the disease. There are some commercial kits available for diagnosis of leptospirosis, but the obscurity of a species- or genus-specific antigen of pathogenic Leptospira interrogans causes the reduced sensitivity and specificity. In this study, the polysaccharide derived from lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of nonpathogenic Leptospira biflexa serovar patoc was prepared, and the antigenicity was confirmed by immunoblot and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The performance of the rapid diagnostic test (RDT) kit using the polysaccharide as a diagnostic antigen was evaluated in Korea, Bulgaria and Argentina. The sensitivity was 93.9%, 100%, and 81.0% and the specificity was 97.9%, 100%, and 95.4% in Korea (which is a rare region occurring with 2 serovars mostly), Bulgaria (epidemic region with 3 serovars chiefly) and Argentina (endemic region with 19 serovars mainly) respectively. These results indicate that this RDT is applicable for global diagnosis of leptospirosis. This rapid and effective diagnosis will be helpful for diagnosis and manage of leptospirosis to use and the polysaccharide of Leptospira may be called as genus specific antigen for diagnosis.

  4. Sentimentality and Nostalgia in Elderly People in Bulgaria and Greece – Cross-Validity of the Questionnaire SNEP and Cross-Cultural Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoyanova, Stanislava Yordanova; Giannouli, Vaitsa; Gergov, Teodor Krasimirov

    2017-01-01

    Sentimentality and nostalgia are two similar psychological constructs, which play an important role in the emotional lives of elderly people who are usually focused on the past. There are two objectives of this study - making cross-cultural comparison of sentimentality and nostalgia among Bulgarian and Greek elderly people using a questionnaire, and establishing the psychometric properties of this questionnaire among Greek elderly people. Sentimentality and nostalgia in elderly people in Bulgaria and Greece were studied by means of Sentimentality and Nostalgia in Elderly People questionnaire (SNEP), created by Gergov and Stoyanova (2013). For the Greek version, one factor structure without sub-scales is proposed, while for the Bulgarian version of SNEP the factor structure had four sub-scales, besides the total score. Together with some similarities (medium level of nostalgia and sentimentality being widespread), the elderly people in Bulgaria and Greece differed cross-culturally in their sentimentality and nostalgia related to the past in direction of more increased sentimentality and nostalgia in the Bulgarian sample. Some gender and age differences revealed that the oldest male Bulgarians were the most sentimental. The psychometric properties of this questionnaire were examined for the first time in a Greek sample of elders and a trend was found for stability of sentimentality and nostalgia in elderly people that could be studied further in longitudinal studies. PMID:28344678

  5. QUESTIONNAIRE FOR STUDENTS FROM FACULTIES OF DENTAL MEDICINE IN BULGARIA REGARDING THEIR MOTIVATION FOR PARTICIPATION IN AND THE WAY THEY ARE FAMILIAR WITH RESEARCH PROJECTS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetoslav Garov

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In recent years there has been a significant increase in the number and value of projects implemented by medical universities in Bulgaria. The involvement of representatives of the student community in the research teams increases their knowledge and skills and in this way they also gain experience in team work and become motivated to further develop their science careers. Aim: The purpose of our study is by analyzing data from our questionnaire to examine the level of students’ willingness to participate in research project activities performed by Bulgarian faculties of Dental Medicine. Material and methods: The written examination technique has been applied as a primary empirical sociological information registration method. For that purpose a 13-question survey (questionnaire has been prepared. The survey is anonymous and it has been completed by 190 students in their 4th and 5th year of studying in medical universities in Sofia, Plovdiv and Varna. Data was collected during the period from January to May 2013. Results: In order for us to achieve the goal of this study we focused on the questions from the questionnaire.Conclusion: The role that research projects play in medical universities and in particular in the faculties of dental medicine in Bulgaria is of key importance for their accreditation. The scientific cooperation between lecturers and students is a prerequisite for developing a competitive environment that defines the future scientific achievements in the relevant research institution.

  6. Repeated isolation of virulent Newcastle disease viruses of sub-genotype VIId from backyard chickens in Bulgaria and Ukraine between 2002 and 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrov, Kiril M; Bolotin, Vitaliy; Muzyka, Denys; Goraichuk, Iryna V; Solodiankin, Olexii; Gerilovych, Anton; Stegniy, Borys; Goujgoulova, Gabriela V; Silko, Nikita Y; Pantin-Jackwood, Mary J; Miller, Patti J; Afonso, Claudio L

    2016-12-01

    Here, we report the circulation of highly related virulent Newcastle disease viruses (NDV) in Bulgaria and Ukraine from 2002 until 2013. All of these NDV isolates have the same virulence-associated cleavage site ("113RQKR↓F117"), and selected ones have intracerebral pathogenicity index values ranging from 1.61 to 1.96. These isolates are most closely related to viruses circulating in Eastern Europe, followed by viruses isolated in Asia during the same period of time. Interestingly, the majority of the viruses were isolated from backyard poultry, suggesting the possibility of a "domestic" or "urban" cycle of maintenance. The molecular characterization of the nucleotide sequence of the complete fusion protein gene of the studied viruses suggests continued circulation of virulent NDV of sub-genotype VIId in Eastern Europe, with occasional introductions from Asia. Furthermore, the high level of genetic similarity among those isolates suggests that the NDV isolates of sub-genotype VIId from Bulgaria and Ukraine may have been part of a broader epizootic process in Eastern Europe rather than separate introductions from Asia or Africa. The continuous monitoring of backyard poultry flocks for the presence of circulating virulent NDV strains will allow early identification of Newcastle disease outbreaks.

  7. Evaluation of the spatial patterns and risk factors, including backyard pigs, for classical swine fever occurrence in Bulgaria using a Bayesian model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Martínez-López

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The spatial pattern and epidemiology of backyard pig farming and other low bio-security pig production systems and their role in the occurrence of classical swine fever (CSF is described and evaluated. A spatial Bayesian model was used to explore the risk factors, including human demographics, socioeconomic and environmental factors. The analyses were performed for Bulgaria, which has a large number of backyard farms (96% of all pig farms in the country are classified as backyard farms, and it is one of the countries for which both backyard pig and farm counts were available. Results reveal that the high-risk areas are typically concentrated in areas with small family farms, high numbers of outgoing pig shipments and low levels of personal consumption (i.e. economically deprived areas. Identification of risk factors and high-risk areas for CSF will allow to targeting risk-based surveillance strategies leading to prevention, control and, ultimately, elimination of the disease in Bulgaria and other countries with similar socio-epidemiological conditions.

  8. Climate Change, Risks and Natural Resources didactic issues of educational content geography of Bulgaria and the world in 9th and 10th grade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dermendzhieva, Stela; Nejdet, Semra

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this paper is to follow "Climate change, risks and Natural Resources" in the curriculum of Geography of Bulgaria and the world in 9th and 10th grade and to interpret some didactic aspects. Analysis of key themes, concepts and categories related to the environment, events and approaches to environmental protection and the environmentally sound development of sectors of the economy is didikticheski targeted. Considering the emergence and development of geo-ecological issues, their scope and their importance to the environment, systematize some species and some approaches to solving them. Geography education in grade 9 and 10 involves acquiring knowledge, developing skills and composing behaviors of objective perception and assessment of the reality of globed, regional and local aspect. The emerging consumer and individualistic culture snowballing globalization, are increasingly occurring global warming, declining biodiversity form new realities which education must respond appropriately. The objective, consistency, accessibility and relevance in real terms are meaningful, logical accents. Whether and how reproduced in the study of Geography of Bulgaria and the world is the subject of research study in this report. Geoecological structuring of topics, concepts and categories can be done in different signs. In terms of their scope are local, national or regional, and global. Matter and interdisciplinary approach, which is to reveal the unity of the "man-society-nature" to clarify the complexity of their character with a view to forming a harmonious personality with high Geoecological consciousness and culture, and the activities carried out in their study.

  9. Formation of a cold ophiolitic sole at the base of the Devonian Balkan Carpathian Ophiolite (Romania, Serbia, Bulgaria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plissart, Gaëlle; Diot, Hervé; Monnier, Christophe; Maruntiu, Marcel; Debaille, Vinciane; Neubauer, Franz

    2013-04-01

    Our study concerns deformed gabbroic rocks from the Balkan Carpathian Ophiolite (BCO - Romania, Serbia, Bulgaria). The BCO consists of four ophiolitic massifs dismembered during Alpine tectonic and displaying together a complete classical oceanic lithosphere. Our new Sm-Nd dating on fresh lower gabbroic rocks give an accretion age for the BCO crust at 409 ± 38 Ma, in agreement with a previous age of 405 ± 3 Ma (Zakariadze et al. 2012). After removing the Alpine tectonic, the BCO appears as an elongated E-W body tilted to the south. At the base of the ophiolitic complex occurs a thin deformed zone (data indicate that their protoliths were mainly upper gabbros statically metamorphosed in the Greenschist/Amphibolite facies (event 1 = ocean-floor metamorphism at the ridge axis). These rocks have been affected by a second circulation of fluids (event 2), contemporaneous to a deformation and inducing local K-enrichment (formation of Cr-muscovite). Temperature estimates for this event indicate a range of 450°C - 280°C, with the lower values observed for the more intensively metasomatized rocks. 40Ar - 39Ar dating on two Cr-muscovites from slightly and highly deformed metagabbros gives plateau ages of 372.6 ± 1.3 Ma and 360.6 ± 1.2 Ma respectively. We interpret the first age as a mimimum age for the beginning of the event 2, observed into preserved rocks, and the second one as linked to (neo-/)recrystallisation due to localisation of the metasomatism/deformation. The interval of 30 Ma between oceanic crust accretion and initiation of metasomatism/deformation involves that the upper oceanic crust had cooled down to temperatures close to 100°C before the beginning of event 2. Consequently, a temperature increase is required to observe the greenschist facies assemblage. We have tested by tectono-thermal modelling the hypothesis that these rocks could correspond to a slice of upper crust dragged down during intra-oceanic subduction: temperatures of 450°C are reached at

  10. Colloidal origin of colloform-banded textures in the Paleogene low-sulfidation Khan Krum gold deposit, SE Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinova, Irina; Ganev, Valentin; Titorenkova, Rositsa

    2014-01-01

    We studied both colloform-banded macro- and micro-textures as well as the composition of electrum from the epithermal Khan Krum (or Ada Tepe) gold deposit, Bulgaria (5 Mt at 5.1 g/t Au + 2.7 g/t Ag) using optical and electron scanning microscopy, vibration spectroscopy, electron micro-probe analysis, and LA-ICP-MS. The individual textural bands differ in grain size, porosity, quartz-to-adularia ratio, and abundance of electrum, pyrite, and scattered dusty opaque micro-inclusions. The individual macro-bands have formed successively via intermittent fault dilation from episodic hydrothermal pulses, as a result of regional extension and most likely originated from colloidal solutions formed by vigorous boiling during rapid pressure drop and supersaturation with respect to amorphous silica in a closed or quasi-closed hydrothermal system. Electrum is highly concentrated in the finest quartz-adularia colloform micro-bands, which fill joints with widths up to 1-2 mm. We presume that the joints have filled in with more concentrated colloidal solutions than those in the macro-bands, most likely due to extreme boiling of fluids in open or quasi-open hydrothermal system. Electrum in the micro-bands forms transverse dendrite- and chain-like aggregates as well as oval clots along the banding, all of globular morphology. We explain these locations of electrum with reorientation of aggregated electrum globules during plastic deformation of a mixed electrum-silicate gel and in result from the consequent crystallization of silicates. At the same time, electrum is not present in pores and cracks of syneresis, which indicates that it had not been a soluble phase at the time of syneresis, rather colloidal particles. Electrum also forms dense sprinkles of globular morphology deposited in open space on the surfaces of some quartz-adularia bands, due to a condensation of gaseous phase, separated during the boiling of fluids. We found that the electrum-rich quartz-adularia micro

  11. Improving Flexibility and Accessibility of Higher Education with Web 2.0 Technologies: Needs Analysis of Public Health Education Programs in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Sarieva

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The case study presented in this paper aims to address the issues related to the use of Web 2.0 technology in public health education in a particular college in Bulgaria in relation to providing flexible and accessible education consistent with the current trends in public health practices. The outcomes of the case study suggest that systematic steps are needed in order to assure effective inclusion of technology into the learning process; these steps include the completion of systematic studies of attrition rate and the reasons for student drop-out, training of administration and faculty members in effective incorporation of Web 2.0 technologies, introduction and promotion of Medicine 2.0 practices, and initiating the planning of design and development of Web 2.0 learning applications and environments in Bulgarian which is the language of instruction.

  12. Current Surveys of the Seroprevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi, Ehrlichia canis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Leishmania infantum, Babesia canis, Angiostrongylus vasorum and Dirofilaria immitis in Dogs in Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantchev, Nikola; Schnyder, Manuela; Vrhovec, Majda Globokar; Schaper, Roland; Tsachev, Ilia

    2015-08-01

    Canine vector-borne diseases (CVBDs) have increasingly become a focus of interest in recent years. Some of the CVBDs are zoonotic and may therefore also represent a risk for the human population. Different factors are in discussion to explain the expansion of vectors and pathogens into formerly unaffected areas. Knowledge of the prevalence and distribution of CVBDs in Bulgaria is scant overall and most data rely on single case descriptions. The aim of the present study was to determine the seroprevalence of important CVBDs in 167 dogs from central-southern Bulgaria (Stara Zagora), with special emphasis on hitherto uninvestigated babesiosis and angiostrongylosis, on poorly investigated Lyme borreliosis and canine granulocytic anaplasmosis, and on the potentially zoonotic dirofilariosis and leishmaniosis. Relatively high prevalence rates were documented for anti-Babesia canis antibodies, Dirofilaria immitis antigen (16.2 %; 27/167 each), anti-Ehrlichia canis (21 %; 35/167) and anti-Anaplasma phagocytophilum antibodies (30.5 - 46.1 %; 51 - 77/167), while Borrelia burgdorferi seroprevalence was low (2.4 %; 4/167). All samples were negative for Leishmania infantum antibodies and Angiostrongylus vasorum antigen and antibodies. In total, 64.7 % (108/167) of the samples indicated infection or exposure to at least one agent and a high proportion of dual infections (39.8 %; 43/108) was demonstrated. Multiple infections with up to four different organisms were also detected. Our data underline the importance of CVBDs and especially of co-infections which could influence the clinical outcome in dogs.

  13. Efectos económicos de los criterios de convergencia en el proceso de inserción de Bulgaria y Rumania a la Unión Europea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximiliano Gracia-Hernández

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Se analiza la incorporación de Rumania y Bulgaria a la Unión Europea (UE, enfatiza los efectos de la aplicación de los criterios de convergencia en sus economías internas. Posteriormente se presenta un breve repaso histórico de la formación de la UE y de los criterios de convergencia exigidos a los candidatos. Finalmente se particulariza en las transformaciones económicas realizadas por Bulgaria y Rumania y los efectos de dichos cambios en sus economías (particularente en el PIB, la inflación, el empleo y las finanzas públicas.

  14. Dachiardite-K, (K2Ca)(Al4Si20O48) · 13H2O, a new zeolite from Eastern Rhodopes, Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chukanov, N. V.; Encheva, S.; Petrov, P.; Pekov, I. V.; Belakovskiy, D. I.; Britvin, S. N.; Aksenov, S. M.

    2016-12-01

    Dachiardite-K (IMA No. 2015-041), a new zeolite, is a K-dominant member of the dachiardite series with the idealized formula (K2Ca)(Al4Si20O48) · 13H2O. It occurs in the walls of opal-chalcedony veinlets cutting hydrothermally altered effusive rocks of the Zvezdel paleovolcanic complex near the village of Austa, Momchilgrad Municipality, Eastern Rhodopes, Bulgaria. Chalcedony, opal, dachiardite-Ca, dachiardite-Na, ferrierite-Mg, ferrierite-K, clinoptilolite-Ca, clinoptilolite-K, mordenite, smectite, celadonite, calcite, and barite are associated minerals. The mineral forms radiated aggregates up to 8 mm in diameter consisting of split acicular individuals. Dachiardite-K is white to colorless. Perfect cleavage is observed on (100). D meas = 2.18(2), D calc = 2.169 g/cm3. The IR spectrum is given. Dachiardite-K is biaxial (+), α = 1.477 (calc), β = 1.478(2), γ = 1.481(2), 2 V meas = 65(10)°. The chemical composition (electron microprobe, mean of six point analyses, H2O determined by gravimetric method) is as follows, wt %: 4.51 K2O, 3.27 CaO, 0.41 BaO, 10.36 A12O3, 67.90 SiO2, 13.2 H2O, total is 99.65. The empirical formula is H26.23K1.71Ca1.04Ba0.05Al3.64Si20.24O61. The strongest reflections in the powder X-ray diffraction pattern [ d, Å (I, %) (hkl)] are: 9.76 (24) (001), 8.85 (58) (200), 4.870 (59) (002), 3.807 (16) (202), 3.768 (20) (112, 020), 3.457 (100) (220), 2.966 (17) (602). Dachiardite-K is monoclinic, space gr. C2/m, Cm or C2; the unit cell parameters refined from the powder X-ray diffraction data are: a = 18.670(8), b = 7.511(3), c = 10.231(4) Å, β = 107.79(3)°, V= 1366(1) Å3, Z = 1. The type specimen has been deposited in the Earth and Man National Museum, Sofia, Bulgaria, with the registration number 23927.

  15. The selection of royal figures in the image of power during the Palaiologan epoch: Byzantium - Serbia - Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojvodić Dragan

    2009-01-01

    consideration in plans for succession to the throne. In the earlier period of Byzantine history, slightly different circumstances and views prevailed. That is why, owing to some specific circumstances, the emperor's daughters were sometimes depicted in the portraits of the imperial family. However, from the time of the Komnenoi when the medieval dynastic awareness finally asserted itself in Byzantium, the images of the emperor's female progeny practically vanished from the pictures of those who wielded supreme authority. The custom of omitting the figures of the emperors' daughters from the presentations of the ruling houses was also accepted and rather strictly obeyed for a long time in the portraiture of the neighbouring Orthodox Christian countries. In Serbia, this was disregarded only till just before the state collapsed, while in Bulgaria, exceptions to this rule were observed a little earlier. This was the result of accepting the ideological and iconographic models that were distinctive for the nobility, at the height of the feudal period. The images of daughters-in-law had always been omitted even more consistently than in the case of the figures of daughters in the monarchical presentations of the Byzantine and other Orthodox Christian rulers. As a rule, they were not depicted close to the image of the sovereign, even when they were the wives of the proclaimed and even crowned co-rulers, and successors to the throne. It is very probable that this custom survived into the Palaiologan era even though there are some signs that in Byzantium, this rule may have been disregarded in some cases. The figures of sovereigns' wives and sons had a significantly different status from the images of daughters and daughters-in-law. As a rule, they played an essential and customary role in the monarchical presentation because the rulers' wives and male successors had a stake in authority, in its transfer and succession. Still, it often happened that even wives and sons were omitted from

  16. Study of anthropogenic and natural impacts on archaeological sites of the Volga Bulgaria period (Republic of Tatarstan) using remote sensing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gainullin, I. I.; Khomyakov, P. V.; Sitdikov, A. G.; Usmanov, B. M.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper we consider the possibility of using remote sensing data for determining various negative factors affecting archaeological objects condition on the territory of the Republic of Tatarstan. Fortified settlements, with the system of defensive fortifications, were selected as the objects of study, as they are easily identified by remote sensing data. In our view, the analysis of medieval Volga Bulgars (X-XIII centuries A.D.), the most common in the territory of the Republic of Tatarstan, has the highest priority. The first task by using remote sensing was to obtain actual data on the current condition of archaeological monuments located on the Kuibyshev reservoir shore, where the threat of destruction is maximized. Due to the fact, that most of the Volga-Bulgaria settlements, is located on the small rivers banks, the second task was geomorphological description of monuments placement in order to assess the risk of their destruction by natural processes. Third objective was to evaluate the role of the human factor in archaeological sites destruction. Ancient settlements under different types of negative impact were selected for the study. Deciphering of multitemporal remote sensing data allowed to assess the objects condition and to predict the risk of further damage. Additionally, it made able to correct the form of the Bulgars hillforts in comparison with existing plans, as well their size and location in the landscape, to restore the original appearance of destroyed fortified settlements, to determine precise coordinates for the further use of these data in the archaeological geographic information systems.

  17. Assessment of the Threats to the Biodiversity and Habitats in "Stara Reka" Reserve (Bulgaria and Its Adjacent Subalpine and Alpine Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana V. Yocheva

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of the threats in the “Stara Reka” reserve and its adjacent subalpine and alpine areas is important since it makes it possible the appropriate conservation measures to be taken in order to prevent or reduce the negative effects on the biodiversity and habitats. The assessment was based on systematic studies and visits in the “Stara Reka” Reserve, located within National Park “Central Balkan” (Bulgaria, during spring, summer and autumn seasons of 2010-2011. A number of threats were recorded, where those by anthropogenic origin were predominating. Tourists have negatively influenced the wild plants such as Allium ursinum, Inula helenium and Primula frondosa by picking them up. Damages were registered on the information system and signs. Waste disposal, fires, poaching and illegal fishing were also some of the recorded threats. Many natural succession changes quite dynamically vary the habitats in the reserve, but the most dangerous for the biodiversity and degradation of habitats remain fires, erosion and introduction of alien species.

  18. The Cretaceous/Paleogene (K/Pg boundary in the Mezdra and Lyutidol syncline, Vratza District (West-Fore Balkan, Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolkičev Nikola A.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the unjustified assignment (based on calcareous nannofossils of a large portion of the Maastrichtian strata in the Mezdra and Lyutidol synclines (West Fore Balkan, Bulgaria to the Paleogene. The co-occurrence of Paleocene nannofossils, reported by some authors, and Maastrichtian macrofossil taxa in these sections indicates diachronism in the appearance of macro- and nannofossils across the K/Pg boundary. Thus, this boundary cannot be precisely localized except if the Maastrichtian fossils are assumed to have been redeposited, but there is no evidence of resedimentation. Maastrichtian macrofossils are found not only within the range of the Paleogene nannofossil zones, but also in sections overlying them in the Kajlâka Formation where new Maastrichtian macrofossil taxa, such as the echinoid Hemipneustes striatoradiatus (LESKE, appear and some inoceramid and cephalopod taxa range into this unit. These facts shed doubt over the applicability of nannofossils in determining the K/Pg boundary where this has already been firmly documented by macrofauna.

  19. Seasonal changes of basic erythrocyte-metric parameters in Pelophylaxridibundus (Amphibia: Ranidae) from anthropogenically polluted biotopes in Southern Bulgaria and their role as bioindicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhelev, Zhivko M; Mehterov, Nikolay H; Popgeorgiev, Georgi S

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this research work is to present data that show the seasonal changes (spring-summer-autumn) of basic erythrocyte-metric parameters (ЕL: Erythrocyte length, ЕW: Erythrocyte width, ЕL/ЕW, ES: Erythrocyte size; NL: Nucleus length, NW: Nucleus width, NL/NW; NS: Nucleus size, NS/ES: Nucleus-cytoplasmic ratio) in Pelophylax ridibundus populations from three biotopes located on two rivers in Southern Bulgaria (less disrupted biotope, with domestic sewage pollution and heavy metal pollution). Differences of high statistical significance were found among the different populations. Within the population living in conditions of domestic sewage pollution, for the entire period of the investigation the erythrocytes and their nuclei had an elliptical shape (a slight elongation of ellipses in autumn) and the biggest sizes (EL, EW, ES, NL and NS were constantly higher than the less disrupted biotope), NS/ES, became significantly smaller in autumn. Throughout the period of investigation, the values of all nine cellular and nuclear parameters were statistically-significantly the lowest in the population from the biotope with heavy metal pollution. The parameters: EL, ЕW, NL, NW and ES became significantly lower, progressively and statistically, during seasonal transitions. Cells and nuclei grew ovular in shape in comparison to the populations from the other two biotopes (this process was most pronounced in autumn) and NS/ES numbers were significantly decreased in summer and autumn.

  20. PRELIMINARY RESULTS OF THE STUDY ON THE SPREAD OF APPLE CHLOROTIC LEAF SPOT VIRUS (ACLSV IN DIFFERENT FRUIT TREE SPECIES IN KYUSTENDIL REGION OF BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneliya BORISOVA

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available The survey was carried out mostly in one of the main fruit tree growing regions of Bulgaria - Kyustendil, during the period of 2004-2005. A total of 632 trees corresponding to 50 apple, 27 pear, 19 plum, 4 peach, 9 sweet cherry and 4 sour cherry cultivars and 21 apricot elites were tested for the presence of Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV and six other viruses by ELISA. Samples for analyses were collected from different organs of plants: flowers, leaves or phloem tissues. In the present research, ACLSV was not found in pear, plum, apricot and sour cherry. The highest infection rate of the virus among the infected fruit tree species was in apple (73 % followed by sweet cherry (13.3 % and peach (11.76 %. The frequency of mixed infection was 43.2 % in the infected apple, 33.4 % in sweet cherry and 12.5 % in peach trees. The highest concentrations of ACLSV, measured by ELISA, were observed in naturally grown flower petals of apple and sweet cherry trees in May.

  1. The climate of Bulgaria during 19th and 20th centuries by instrumental and indirect data : Solar modulated cycles and their evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Komitov, Boris; Duchlev, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Two types of data sets for investigation of solar- modulated cycles in the climate of Bulgaria during the last ~ 200 years has been used in this study: 1. Instrumental data for the rainfalls and temperatures in 26 stations during the period AD 1899-1994; A smoothing dendrochronological data series of the tree rings width of a beech sample (Fagus) for the period of AD 1780-1982. The data proceedings has been provided separately for the "winter" (November-April) and "summer" (May-October) half- years. A well expressed quasi-20-22 and 54 yr cycles in the rains and temperature instrumental "summer" series as well as quasi 11yr cycle for the "winter" temeperature data has been established for the studied period 1899-1994. However there are also very serious variations of the 11 and 22 yr cycle magnitudes. The quasi 20-22 yr ("summer") cycle is weak expressed before AD 1930, while the 11 yr (winter) cycle is faded rapidly after ~AD 1975/76. The existence of 20-22 yr climatic cycle could be traced since the end of t...

  2. Attitudes and Beliefs of Pig Farmers and Wild Boar Hunters Towards Reporting of African Swine Fever in Bulgaria, Germany and the Western Part of the Russian Federation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergne, T; Guinat, C; Petkova, P; Gogin, A; Kolbasov, D; Blome, S; Molia, S; Pinto Ferreira, J; Wieland, B; Nathues, H; Pfeiffer, D U

    2016-04-01

    This study investigated the attitudes and beliefs of pig farmers and hunters in Germany, Bulgaria and the western part of the Russian Federation towards reporting suspected cases of African swine fever (ASF). Data were collected using a web-based questionnaire survey targeting pig farmers and hunters in these three study areas. Separate multivariable logistic regression models identified key variables associated with each of the three binary outcome variables whether or not farmers would immediately report suspected cases of ASF, whether or not hunters would submit samples from hunted wild boar for diagnostic testing and whether or not hunters would report wild boar carcasses. The results showed that farmers who would not immediately report suspected cases of ASF are more likely to believe that their reputation in the local community would be adversely affected if they were to report it, that they can control the outbreak themselves without the involvement of veterinary services and that laboratory confirmation would take too long. The modelling also indicated that hunters who did not usually submit samples of their harvested wild boar for ASF diagnosis, and hunters who did not report wild boar carcasses are more likely to justify their behaviour through a lack of awareness of the possibility of reporting. These findings emphasize the need to develop more effective communication strategies targeted at pig farmers and hunters about the disease, its epidemiology, consequences and control methods, to increase the likelihood of early reporting, especially in the Russian Federation where the virus circulates.

  3. Investigations on prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC among dairy farms in the north part of the Republic of Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Urumova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Over a 2-year period, from January 2011 to May 2013, a total of 1094 faecal swab samples were collected from cattle at different age at 4 farms in North Bulgaria: Okorsh, Slavyanovo (Popovo municipality, Dobri dol and Trem. Out of them, 36 coli strains (3.3% positive in the E. coli O:157 antiserum agglutination test and identified by the BBL CRYSTAL identification system as belonging to the E. coli O:157 serotype were isolated. The distribution of isolates was as followed: 5 (0.5% E. coli O:157 strains at the Okorsh dairy cattle farm, 7 (0.6% E. coli isolates at the Slavyanovo dairy farm, 16 (1.5% isolates at the Dobri dol farm and 8 (0.7% isolates at the Trem farm. Colibacteria exhibited 100% sensitivity to oxyimino-cephalosporins, gentamicin and enrofloxacin, and were resistant to ampicillin (19.4% and tetracycline (41.6%. From the 15 strains resistant to tetracycline, 11 were isolated from the cows at Dobri dol, while the other 4 originated from the other three farms. The 7 ampicillin-resistant E. coli isolates were detected only at the Dobri dol cattle farm.

  4. Shell Size of the Freshwater Snail Radix auricularia (Linnaeus, 1758 Collected from Water Vegetation: A Case Study from South-East Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislava Y. Vasileva

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The specimens of the freshwater snail Radix auricularia collected from Southeastern part of Bulgaria during the cold period as a whole were with mean shell height of 3.7 mm. During spring and summer it was similar, 3.3 mm. The ratio of the size groups was more equally spread during cold seasons rather than in warm ones. The variation index during cold seasons is about seven times higher than in the warm ones (Var = 13.1 and 2.14, respectively. On the five plant species the gastropods had different mean shell heights. For C. demersum it was 3.4 mm (min-max = 1.4-15.8 mm, and for E. canadensis 7.9 mm (min-max = 2.4-14.6 mm, M. spicatum it was 2.8 (min-max = 2.4-3.4 mm, P. natans 3.9 (min-max = 1.1-9.0, P. pusillus 4.8 (min-max = 3.1-8.2.

  5. High-risk sexual behavior, HIV/STD prevalence, and risk predictors in the social networks of young Roma (Gypsy) men in Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirkhanian, Yuri A; Kelly, Jeffrey A; Kabakchieva, Elena; Antonova, Radostina; Vassileva, Sylvia; Difranceisco, Wayne J; McAuliffe, Timothy L; Vassilev, Boyan; Petrova, Elena; Khoursine, Roman A

    2013-02-01

    Roma (Gypsies), the largest and most disadvantaged ethnic minority group in Europe, are believed to be vulnerable to HIV/AIDS. This study's aim was to examine HIV risk in 6 Roma male sociocentric networks (n = 405 men) in Bulgaria. Participants were interviewed concerning their risk practices and tested for HIV/STDs. High-risk sexual behaviors were common. Over 57% of men had multiple sexual partners in the past 3 months. Over one-third of men reported both male and female partners in the past year. Condom use was low. Greater levels of sexual risk were associated with lower intentions and self-efficacy for using condoms, drug use, having male partners, knowing HIV-positive persons, and having higher AIDS knowledge but no prior HIV testing. Two men had HIV infection, 3.7% gonorrhea, and 5.2% chlamydia. HIV prevention interventions directed toward high-risk social networks of Roma are needed before HIV infection becomes more widely established.

  6. Number of chromosomes and chromosome rearrangement of Norway spruce Picea abies (L. H. Karst. in the forests of Rilo-Rhodope mountain in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Tashev

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Comparative investigations of chromosome numbers and chromosome rearrangements in populations of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L. H. Karst. growing in the territory of State Forest Service «Garmen», «Eleshnitsa», «Yakoruda», «Dobrinishte» in Rila-Rhodope mountain region (Bulgaria. Populations are located at the southern border of species range, and protected according to Bern Convention and EC Habitat Directive 92/43. It was found that diploid set of seed progeny of P. abies from the 4 populations studied includes 24 chromosomes (2n = 2x = 24. Mixoploidy (2n = 24, 36; 2n = 24, 48; 2n = 24, 36, 48 was detected in some germinating seeds of all studied populations of P. abies. Metaphase cells of germinating seeds of P. abies from State Forest Service «Garmen» and «Eleshnitsa» contain supernumerary, or B-chromosomes, while the variability of their number and occurrence was observed. In cells of germinating seeds of P. abies from State Forest Service «Yakoruda», «Dobrinishte», B-chromosomes are not revealed. Some chromosome rearrangements such as fragments and ring chromosomes were revealed in metaphase cells of P. abies from populations of «Garmen», «Eleshnitsa» and «Dobrinishte». Probably occurrence of mixoploids, B chromosomes and chromosome rearrangements in P. abies populations growing in Rila-Rhodope mountain region is connected with adaptation of trees to the extreme environmental conditions and such a serious factor that presently forests in the studied region located in the zone of natural radioactivity and in the past, the region of study was subjected to substantial anthropogenic pressure due to uranium extraction industry.

  7. Two-Year Monitoring of Water Samples from Dam of Iskar and the Black Sea, Bulgaria, by Molecular Analysis: Focus on Mycobacterium spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Panaiotov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The coast of the Bulgarian Black Sea is a popular summer holiday destination. The Dam of Iskar is the largest artificial dam in Bulgaria, with a capacity of 675 million m3. It is the main source of tap water for the capital Sofia and for irrigating the surrounding valley. There is a close relationship between the quality of aquatic ecosystems and human health as many infections are waterborne. Rapid molecular methods for the analysis of highly pathogenic bacteria have been developed for monitoring quality. Mycobacterial species can be isolated from waste, surface, recreational, ground and tap waters and human pathogenicity of nontuberculose mycobacteria (NTM is well recognized. The objective of our study was to perform molecular analysis for key-pathogens, with a focus on mycobacteria, in water samples collected from the Black Sea and the Dam of Iskar. In a two year period, 38 water samples were collected—24 from the Dam of Iskar and 14 from the Black Sea coastal zone. Fifty liter water samples were concentrated by ultrafiltration. Molecular analysis for 15 pathogens, including all species of genus Mycobacterium was performed. Our results showed presence of Vibrio spp. in the Black Sea. Rotavirus A was also identified in four samples from the Dam of Iskar. Toxigenic Escherichia coli was present in both locations, based on markers for stx1 and stx2 genes. No detectable amounts of Cryptosporidium were detected in either location using immunomagnetic separation and fluorescence microscopy. Furthermore, mass spectrometry analyses did not detect key cyanobacterial toxins. On the basis of the results obtained we can conclude that for the period 2012–2014 no Mycobacterium species were present in the water samples. During the study period no cases of waterborne infections were reported.

  8. Biology of the blind geobiont scarab beetle genus Chaetonyx Schaum, 1862 (Scarabaeidae: Orphninae with new distribution records of Ch. robustus Schaum, 1862 from Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DENIS GRADINAROV

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Life cycle of the orphnine scarab beetles genus Chaetonyx was recorded for the first time based on the multiyear observations on the populations of its type species, Ch. robustus Schaum, 1862, in riverside habitats at Zemen Gorge region, South-Western Bulgaria. Our observations showed that this geobiont species is common in alluvial soils near Struma River, where it forms large colonies. At the Zemen Gorge, its preferable habitats are sparse riverside forests of Alnus glutinosa L. and Populus nigra L. neighboring grass communities. Larvae, adults and pupae were found up to 50 cm deep with most specimens inhabiting the upper soil layer from 0 to 20 cm deep. The highest recorded density was 89 adults and 581 larvae per 0.25 m2. Oviposition, hatching of the eggs, pupation and emergence of the new adults occur during the summer. Eggs have been found in surface soil layer in July and August, the pupae – mainly in July and August. Larvae of different instars were found in soil during all months of the study period. Adults from the new generation first occur in the beginning of August. In August, September and October adults from different generations can be found together. The main part of the adults seems to die after the reproduction period, and the common lifespan of adults seems to be about a year only. The life cycle of Ch. robustus in investigated habitat seems to be perennial and includes two years as larval stage and one as adult. Tropical Orphninae occupy a number of ecological niches but lack colonial geobiont specialists similar to Chaetonyx.

  9. Evaluation of the risk of classical swine fever (CSF) spread from backyard pigs to other domestic pigs by using the spatial stochastic disease spread model Be-FAST: the example of Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-López, Beatriz; Ivorra, Benjamin; Ramos, Angel Manuel; Fernández-Carrión, Eduardo; Alexandrov, Tsviatko; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, José Manuel

    2013-07-26

    The study presented here is one of the very first aimed at exploring the potential spread of classical swine fever (CSF) from backyard pigs to other domestic pigs. Specifically, we used a spatial stochastic spread model, called Be-FAST, to evaluate the potential spread of CSF virus (CSFV) in Bulgaria, which holds a large number of backyards (96% of the total number of pig farms) and is one of the very few countries for which backyard pigs and farm counts are available. The model revealed that, despite backyard pigs being very likely to become infected, infections from backyard pigs to other domestic pigs were rare. In general, the magnitude and duration of the CSF simulated epidemics were small, with a median [95% PI] number of infected farms per epidemic of 1 [1,4] and a median [95% PI] duration of the epidemic of 44 [17,101] days. CSFV transmission occurs primarily (81.16%) due to indirect contacts (i.e. vehicles, people and local spread) whereas detection of infected premises was mainly (69%) associated with the observation of clinical signs on farm rather than with implementation of tracing or zoning. Methods and results of this study may support the implementation of risk-based strategies more cost-effectively to prevent, control and, ultimately, eradicate CSF from Bulgaria. The model may also be easily adapted to other countries in which the backyard system is predominant. It can also be used to simulate other similar diseases such as African swine fever.

  10. STATUS, PROBLEMS AND PROJECTS FOR DEVELOPMENT OF DISTRICT, URBAN PLANNING AND ARCHITECTURE IN BULGARIA IN EARLY 21ST CENTURY (AGAINST THE BACKGROUND OF THE MARKET ECONOMY AND THE UPCOMING FINANCIAL AND ECONOMIC CRISIS. PART 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovachev Atanas Dimitrov

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The author provides an overview of the main urban planning trends in the present-day Bulgaria. The author also demonstrates principal approaches to area planning and provides examples of master plans of major cities of the country. The author emphasizes the need to resolve the environmental problems of urban territories, to develop their public transportation networks, resorts, landscape gardening, and a special role of historic and archeological monuments in the present-day cities. Today, multiple hierarchically arranged plans of districts and towns are being developed in accordance with the Law on area arrangement of 2001. There are three levels of area planning in Bulgaria: strategic, tactical and operative/applied. The level of strategic planning covers the territory of the whole country (or its major parts, including regions and clusters of communities. The second level of area planning represents a tactical level. It is applied to smaller sections of the territory (communities, towns and it converts into more detailed planning of the territory if compared to the top level of area planning. The general structure of the territory is developed at this level of planning. This level includes master plans of cities and towns. The third level, the level of operative/ applied planning, is applied to separate parts of populated areas, even particular sites. This level is characterized by detailed elaboration and it serves as a link to architectural planning. This level incorporates detailed area plans.

  11. Evaluation of in vitro antioxidant activity and free radical scavenging potential of variety of Tagetes erecta L. flowers growing in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miglena Valyova

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Marigold (Tagetes erecta L. is well known for its antimicrobial, antiseptic, wound and ulcer healing, antiinflammatory, antioxidant and antiviral properties, and it has a long history of being used as an herbal remedy. T. erecta L. produces a variety of substances that possess pharmacological effects and antioxidant activity. The present study was therefore aimed to analyze the antioxidant activity of extracts and fractions of T. erecta L. flowers, cultivated in Bulgaria. Radical scavenging potential was determined using two different in vitro assays. 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH and 2, 2’-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS radicals. The ethyl acetate fraction of T. erecta L. ethanol extract was found to be the most effective in both assays, DPPH (IC50 4.3±0.4 μg/ml and ABTS (0.8±0.2 TEAC. The greatest total phenolic content was detected in EtOAc fraction from EtOH extract (517.8 mg/g GAE. It was obtained high quantity of ascorbate and ascorbate/dehydroascorbate ratio more than 1. The quantity of glutathione reduced is low and glutathione reduced/glutathione oxidized ratio was lower than 1. A correlation between radical scavenging capacities of samples with total phenolic compound content was observed. The present study revealed that the EtOAc fraction effectively show the best ability to scavenge the free radicals. Industrial relevance. Herbal medicines have gained increasing attention worldwide for the treatment of chronic diseases because of their effectiveness and small side effects as compared to synthetic drugs.Recently, an attention has been directed toward the antioxidant phytochemicals which have proved as protective against cardiovascular diseases and cancer, associated with overproduction of reactive oxygen species. The present investigations focus has been to discover plant extracts and fractions from T. erecta useful to prevent chronic degenerative diseases, especially those mediated by

  12. Cenozoic landforms and post-orogenic landscape evolution of the Balkanide orogen: Evidence for alternatives to the tectonic denudation narrative in southern Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnell, Y.; Calvet, M.; Meyer, B.; Pinna-Jamme, R.; Bour, I.; Gautheron, C.; Carter, A.; Dimitrov, D.

    2017-01-01

    Continental denudation is the mass transfer of rock from source areas to sedimentary depocentres, and is typically the result of Earth surface processes. However, a process known as tectonic denudation is also understood to expose deep-seated rocks in short periods of geological time by displacing large masses of continental crust along shallow-angle faults, and without requiring major contributions from surface erosion. Some parts of the world, such as the Basin and Range in the USA or the Aegean province in Europe, have been showcased for their Cenozoic tectonic denudation features, commonly described as metamorphic core-complexes or as supradetachment faults. Based on 22 new apatite fission-track (AFT) and 21 helium (AHe) cooling ages among rock samples collected widely from plateau summits and their adjacent valley floors, and elaborating on inconsistencies between the regional stratigraphic, topographic and denudational records, this study frames a revised perspective on the prevailing tectonic denudation narrative for southern Bulgaria. We conclude that conspicuous landforms in this region, such as erosion surfaces on basement-cored mountain ranges, are not primarily the result of Paleogene to Neogene core-complex formation. They result instead from "ordinary" erosion-driven, subaerial denudation. Rock cooling, each time suggesting at least 2 km of crustal denudation, has exposed shallow Paleogene granitic plutons and documents a 3-stage wave of erosional denudation which progressed from north to south during the Middle Eocene, Oligocene, Early to Middle Miocene, and Late Miocene. Denudation initially prevailed during the Paleogene under a syn-orogenic compressional regime involving piggyback extensional basins (Phase 1), but subsequently migrated southward in response to post-orogenic upper-plate extension driven by trench rollback of the Hellenic subduction slab (Phase 2). Rare insight given by the denudation pattern indicates that trench rollback

  13. 28 June 2012 - Ambassador I. Piperkov, Permanent Representative of Bulgaria to the United Nations Office and other international organisations in Geneva and Spouse visiting CMS experimental area with Collaboration Deputy Spokesperson T. Camporesi and CERN Control Centre with M. Benedikt.Senior physicist L. Litov accompanies the delegation throughout.

    CERN Multimedia

    Jean-Claude Gadmer

    2012-01-01

    28 June 2012 - Ambassador I. Piperkov, Permanent Representative of Bulgaria to the United Nations Office and other international organisations in Geneva and Spouse visiting CMS experimental area with Collaboration Deputy Spokesperson T. Camporesi and CERN Control Centre with M. Benedikt.Senior physicist L. Litov accompanies the delegation throughout.

  14. Speakers at CERN's LEP celebration on 9 October 2000 - L. to r. : M. Philippe Busquin, Commissioner for Research European Union; Prof. Marino Gago, Minister of Science and Technology Portugal; Prof. Dimitar Dimitrov, Minister of Education and Science Bulgaria; M. Lubomir Fogas, Deputy Prime Minister Slovak Republic and Prof. Andrzej Wiszniewski Minister of Science Poland : during the LEP celebration.

    CERN Document Server

    Laurent Guiraud

    2000-01-01

    Speakers at CERN's LEP celebration on 9 October 2000 - L. to r. : M. Philippe Busquin, Commissioner for Research European Union; Prof. Marino Gago, Minister of Science and Technology Portugal; Prof. Dimitar Dimitrov, Minister of Education and Science Bulgaria; M. Lubomir Fogas, Deputy Prime Minister Slovak Republic and Prof. Andrzej Wiszniewski Minister of Science Poland : during the LEP celebration.

  15. Part I. Feasibility Study for a Plan of Action to Investigate the Effects of Air Pollution on Health in PHARE Countries Part II. Air Pollution and Health. Country Descriptions for the PHARE countries. Bulgaria, Romania, Hungary, Czech Republic, Poland and Slovak Republic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lebret E; Wolters N; Elliott P; Fletcher T

    1993-01-01

    The feasibility study was carried out on behalf of CEC-DG-I(OPS) in the PHARE countries Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania and the Slovak Republic. Two country visits to each of the countries were involved. On the basis of information supplied by experts met during these visits and

  16. Acinonyx pardinensis (Croizet et Jobert remains from the Middle Villafranchian locality of Varshets (Bulgaria and the Plio-Pleistocene history of the cheetahs in Eurasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spassov, N.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The article decribes and discusses remains of late Pliocene (middle Villafranchian cheetah, Acinonyx pardinensis (Croizet et Jobert from Varshets, N.-W. Bulgaria. It is accepted that three chronoforms A. pardinensis pardinensis, A. p. pleistocaenicus and A. p. intermedius succeed in Europe from the Early Villafranchian (Etouaires, approx. 2.6 Ma till the Middle Pleistocene. Remains are scarce and at this level of knowledge we could accept the recently proposed subspecific status of all these forms but their taxonomical relations could be rather more complicate. The remains from Varshets correspond to the earliest form A. pardinensis pardinensis which inhabited Eurasia during the late Early and the Middle Villafranchian and the beginning of the Pleistocene. Other European remains of A. p. pardinensis are known only from Spain, France, Italy and the Azov region of Southern Russia. It seems that then the species occupied only the southern part of the European continent (the Mediterranean-Balkan-Northern peri-Pontic area, and from there it probably spread till Central Asia (Tajikistan. Such a distribution supports the concept of the faunal entity of South Europe in Villafranchian time as well as the theory for the Central Asian influence of this fauna mainly trough the Balkans by two ways: via Bosphorus and via the peri-Pontic area. According to the paleontological data the fossil Acinonyx does not reach Central Europe (Austria and Germany before the Epivillafranchian, possibly after new waves of dispersal of another, Early Pleistocene form of Central Asia. The relationship of the Middle Villafranchian A. pardinensis with the rather contemporaneous forms from China (Hezheng “Sivapanthera” linxiaensis and A. kurteni and from Siwaliks is not clear, but the Chinese forms must represent taxa different from A. pardinensis. Acinonyx s. str. is characterized by strongly domed and enlarged frontal area, shortened skull and downwards inclined

  17. Teaching of Geometry in Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bankov, Kiril

    2013-01-01

    Geometry plays an important role in the school mathematics curriculum all around the world. Teaching of geometry varies a lot (Hoyls, Foxman, & Kuchemann, 2001). Many countries revise the objectives, the content, and the approaches to the geometry in school. Studies of the processes show that there are not common trends of these changes…

  18. Fieldwork Coastal Engineering: Varna (Bulgaria)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Rooij, D.; Dessens, M.; Lansen, J.; Meijer, M.; Muilwijk, M.; Raaijmakers, T.; Serra Ribas, O.; Smits, R.; Van Rooijen, D.; Veenstra, E.; Versmissen, K.

    2003-01-01

    A series of hydraulic measurements were carried out during the field trip, ranging from beach profiles to wave data collection and suitability of stones from local quarries for hydraulic purposes. In chapter 2 something is told about the tetrapods. At Sunny Day Beach in St. Constantine some sightse

  19. Fieldwork coastal engineering, Varna, Bulgaria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolters, H.J.; Melllink, B.; Van Velzen, G.; Verbruggen, W.; Van de Sande, S.; Simoons, E.; Krom, J.K.; El Hamdi, A.; Kalf, P.; Lin, C.H.; Willems, J.; Jelia, J.

    2011-01-01

    On the first day research is done at a beach north of Varna, which is called Sirius Beach. This research is presented in chapter 2. In the research the waterline and cross sections are compared with the previous years. The following is concluded: there is a strong seasonal variation which influenced

  20. Fieldwork coastal engineering: Varna, Bulgaria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, M.; Van Bentum, K.; Blaak, N.; Van Doorn, R.; Joppe, C.; Kalpias, A.; Kik, R.; Papadopoulos, D.; Ruijs, M.; Schlooz, G.; Sirks, E.; Tromp, R.; Van der Ven, M.; Vroom, J.

    2010-01-01

    One week the students stay in the Bulgarian village St. Konstantin, near Varna, at the Black Sea. The main goal of the fieldwork is learn how to deal with problems occurring at data collection and the elaboration and interpretation of the collected data. Several coastal measurements are executed at

  1. Fieldwork coastal engineering: Varna, Bulgaria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arecco, P.; Van Leeuwen , Y.; Brouwer, M.; Miranda, C.; Curto, V.; Piccoli, C.; Dobochinski, J.; Van Steijn , P.; Friedman, J.; Weeda, T.; Fuentes, M.; Winde, E.; Groenenberg, X.; Wit, M.; Kolijn, D.; Tiseh, I.; Angelov, D.; Nacheva, D.; Marinov, K.; Petkov, S.

    2013-01-01

    One of these resort areas lies in the town of St. Konstantine I Elelna, where Hotel Sirius and hotel Azalea are built very close to the waterline. These hotels are dependent on their neighbouring beaches for the attraction of tourism and for the structural safety of their buildings. Therefore, they

  2. Petrology, geochemistry and U-Pb geochronology of magmatic rocks from the high-sulfidation epithermal Au-Cu Chelopech deposit, Srednogorie zone, Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambefort, Isabelle; Moritz, Robert; von Quadt, Albrecht

    2007-10-01

    The Chelopech deposit is one of the largest European gold deposits and is located 60 km east of Sofia, within the northern part of the Panagyurishte mineral district. It lies within the Banat-Srednegorie metallogenic belt, which extends from Romania through Serbia to Bulgaria. The magmatic rocks define a typical calc-alkaline suite. The magmatic rocks surrounding the Chelopech deposit have been affected by propylitic, quartz-sericite, and advanced argillic alteration, but the igneous textures have been preserved. Alteration processes have resulted in leaching of Na2O, CaO, P2O5, and Sr and enrichment in K2O and Rb. Trace element variation diagrams are typical of subduction-related volcanism, with negative anomalies in high field strength elements (HFSE) and light element, lithophile elements. HFSE and rare earth elements were relatively immobile during the hydrothermal alteration related to ore formation. Based on immobile element classification diagrams, the magmatic rocks are andesitic to dacitic in compositions. Single zircon grains, from three different magmatic rocks spanning the time of the Chelopech magmatism, were dated by high-precision U-Pb geochronology. Zircons of an altered andesitic body, which has been thrust over the deposit, yield a concordant 206Pb/238U age of 92.21 ± 0.21 Ma. This age is interpreted as the crystallization age and the maximum age for magmatism at Chelopech. Zircon analyses of a dacitic dome-like body, which crops out to the north of the Chelopech deposit, give a mean 206Pb/238U age of 91.95 ± 0.28 Ma. Zircons of the andesitic hypabyssal body hosting the high-sulfidation mineralization and overprinted by hydrothermal alteration give a concordant 206Pb/238U age of 91.45 ± 0.15 Ma. This age is interpreted as the intrusion age of the andesite and as the maximum age of the Chelopech epithermal high-sulfidation deposit. 176Hf/177Hf isotope ratios of zircons from the Chelopech magmatic rocks, together with published data on the

  3. Late Cretaceous porphyry Cu and epithermal Cu-Au association in the Southern Panagyurishte District, Bulgaria: the paired Vlaykov Vruh and Elshitsa deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouzmanov, Kalin; Moritz, Robert; von Quadt, Albrecht; Chiaradia, Massimo; Peytcheva, Irena; Fontignie, Denis; Ramboz, Claire; Bogdanov, Kamen

    2009-08-01

    Vlaykov Vruh-Elshitsa represents the best example of paired porphyry Cu and epithermal Cu-Au deposits within the Late Cretaceous Apuseni-Banat-Timok-Srednogorie magmatic and metallogenic belt of Eastern Europe. The two deposits are part of the NW trending Panagyurishte magmato-tectonic corridor of central Bulgaria. The deposits were formed along the SW flank of the Elshitsa volcano-intrusive complex and are spatially associated with N110-120-trending hypabyssal and subvolcanic bodies of granodioritic composition. At Elshitsa, more than ten lenticular to columnar massive ore bodies are discordant with respect to the host rock and are structurally controlled. A particular feature of the mineralization is the overprinting of an early stage high-sulfidation mineral assemblage (pyrite ± enargite ± covellite ± goldfieldite) by an intermediate-sulfidation paragenesis with a characteristic Cu-Bi-Te-Pb-Zn signature forming the main economic parts of the ore bodies. The two stages of mineralization produced two compositionally different types of ores—massive pyrite and copper-pyrite bodies. Vlaykov Vruh shares features with typical porphyry Cu systems. Their common geological and structural setting, ore-forming processes, and paragenesis, as well as the observed alteration and geochemical lateral and vertical zonation, allow us to interpret the Elshitsa and Vlaykov Vruh deposits as the deep part of a high-sulfidation epithermal system and its spatially and genetically related porphyry Cu counterpart, respectively. The magmatic-hydrothermal system at Vlaykov Vruh-Elshitsa produced much smaller deposits than similar complexes in the northern part of the Panagyurishte district (Chelopech, Elatsite, Assarel). Magma chemistry and isotopic signature are some of the main differences between the northern and southern parts of the district. Major and trace element geochemistry of the Elshitsa magmatic complex are indicative for the medium- to high-K calc-alkaline character of

  4. Late Cretaceous structural control and Alpine overprint of the high-sulfidation Cu-Au epithermal Chelopech deposit, Srednogorie belt, Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambefort, Isabelle; Moritz, Robert

    2006-06-01

    The Chelopech epithermal high-sulfidation deposit is located in the Panagyurishte ore district in Bulgaria, which is defined by a NNW alignment of Upper Cretaceous porphyry-Cu and Cu-Au epithermal deposits, and forms part of the Eastern European Banat-Srednogorie belt. Detailed structural mapping and drillcore descriptions have been used to define the structural evolution of the Chelopech deposit from the Late Cretaceous to the present. The Chelopech deposit is characterized by three fault populations including ˜N55, ˜N110, and ˜N155-trending faults, which are also recognized in the entire Panagyurishte district. Mapping and 3-D modeling show that hydrothermal alteration and orebody geometry at Chelopech are controlled by the ˜N55-trending and ˜N110-trending faults. Moreover, the ˜N155-trending faults are parallel to the regional ore deposit alignment of the Panagyurishte ore district. It is concluded that the three fault populations are early features and Late Cretaceous in age, and that they were active during high-sulfidation ore formation at Chelopech. However, the relative fault chronology cannot be deduced anymore due to Late Cretaceous and Tertiary tectonic overprint. Structurally controlled ore formation was followed by Senonian sandstone, limestone, and flysch deposition. The entire Late Cretaceous magmatic and sedimentary rock succession underwent folding, which produced WNW-oriented folds throughout the Panagyurishte district. A subsequent tectonic stage resulted in overthrusting of older rock units along ˜NE-trending reverse faults on the Upper Cretaceous magmatic and sedimentary host rocks of the high-sulfidation epithermal deposit at Chelopech. The three fault populations contemporaneous with ore formation, i.e., the ˜N55-, ˜N110- and ˜N155-trending faults, were reactivated as thrusts or reverse faults, dextral strike-slip faults, and transfer faults, respectively, during this event. Previous studies indicate that the present-day setting is

  5. Bilateral comparison of 100 pF capacitance standards (ongoing BIPM key comparison BIPM.EM-K14.b) between the BIM, Bulgaria, and the BIPM, April 2012 to September 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapunova, I.; Fletcher, N.; Goebel, R.; Stock, M.

    2015-01-01

    This report gives the result of a bilateral comparison of capacitance between the BIM (Bulgaria) and the BIPM carried out in 2012. Two 100 pF travelling standards belonging to the BIPM were used. The comparison was carried out with an 'A-B-A' pattern of measurements; the standards were measured first at the BIPM for a period of about one month, then for a similar period at the BIM, and finally again at the BIPM. The measurand was the two terminal-pair capacitance at a frequency of 1000 Hz and for a measuring voltage of 15 V. The BIPM was the pilot laboratory, and the comparison forms part of the ongoing BIPM key comparison BIPM.EM-K14.a. The results from the BIM and the BIPM were found to be in good agreement, with a difference smaller than the relative expanded uncertainty (95% confidence, k = 2) of 1.1 × 10-6. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCEM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  6. Bilateral comparison of 10 pF capacitance standards (ongoing BIPM key comparison BIPM.EM-K14.a) between the BIM, Bulgaria, and the BIPM, April 2012 to September 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapunova, I.; Fletcher, N.; Goebel, R.; Stock, M.

    2015-01-01

    This report gives the result of a bilateral comparison of capacitance between the BIM (Bulgaria) and the BIPM carried out in 2012. Two 10 pF travelling standards belonging to the BIPM were used. The comparison was carried out with an 'A-B-A' pattern of measurements; the standards were measured first at the BIPM for a period of about one month, then for a similar period at the BIM, and finally again at the BIPM. The measurand was the two terminal-pair capacitance at a frequency of 1000 Hz and for a measuring voltage of 15 V. The BIPM was the pilot laboratory, and the comparison forms part of the ongoing BIPM key comparison BIPM.EM-K14.a. The results from the BIM and the BIPM were found to be in good agreement, with a difference smaller than the relative expanded uncertainty (95% confidence, k = 2) of 1.1 × 10-6. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCEM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  7. Occurrence of persistent pollutants in soils, waters and firns of the Pirin mountains of Bulgaria; Persistente organische Schadstoffe in Boeden, Gewaessern und in Firn der Region noerdliche Piringebirge (Bulgarien)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grunewald, K. [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). Inst. fuer Geographie; Schmidt, W. [DVGW - Technologiezentrum Wasser, Karlsruhe, TZW Aussenstelle Dresden (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    Systematic environmental screenings are still the exception in South-Eastern Europe. Especially, there is a decisive lack of information concerning the occurrence and behaviour of xenobiotic and toxic compounds like volatile- and non volatile halogenated organics, suppressed by the surrogate AOX, synthetic chelating agents, pesticides, like DDT as well as chlorate in the biosphere. The analysis of soils, waters, and firns of a representative area in Bulgaria, the Pirin mountains, indicate a relatively low back ground pollution. The accumulation of the xenobiotics in this high mountain region is recognised to be low. Nevertheless, traces of pesticides and chelating agents like EDTA and NTA in ice (firns) and soils were found. The surrogate AOX should be a parameter, suitable for routine environmental screenings of such areas. (orig.) [German] Systematische Umweltuntersuchungen stellen in Suedosteuropa noch eine Ausnahme dar. Dies betrifft insbesondere die Analyse organischer Schadstoffe, die innerhalb der Biosphaere zu toxischen Wirkungen fuehren koennen. In einer repraesentativen Region in Suedwest-Bulgarien wurden Boden-, Firn- und Wasserproben auf AOX, CKW, Chlorat, synthetische Komplexbildner, Insektizide und Herbizide untersucht. Die Hintergrundbelastung der analysierten Stoffe in Boeden und Waessern ist relativ niedrig. Eine vermutete Akkumulation persistenter organischer Chemikalien im Hochgebirge Pirin wurde nur teilweise bestaetigt. Nachgewiesen wurden Insektizidrueckstaende und die synthetischen Komplexbildner EDTA und NTA in Firnproben sowie AOX in Substratmaterial. AOX bietet sich als Parameter zur Umweltueberwachung in der Region an. Die Analyse weiterer POPs steht noch an. (orig.)

  8. Bilateral comparison of 1 Ω and 10 kΩ standards (ongoing BIPM key comparisons BIPM.EM-K13.a and 13.b) between the BIM (Bulgaria) and the BIPM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolland, B.; Fletcher, N.; Tenev, A.; Hadzhistoykova, R.

    2017-01-01

    This report gives the result of a bilateral comparison of resistance between the BIM (Bulgaria) and the BIPM carried out in 2013. Two 1 Ω and two 10 kΩ travelling standards belonging to the BIPM were used. The comparison was carried out with an 'A-B-A' pattern of measurements; the standards were measured first at the BIPM for a period of about one month, then for a similar period at the BIM, and finally again at the BIPM. The measurand was the 4 terminal dc resistance at low power. The BIPM was the pilot laboratory, and the comparison forms part of the ongoing BIPM key comparisons BIPM.EM-K13.a (for 1 Ω) and BIPM.EM-K13b (for 10 kΩ). The results from the BIM and the BIPM were found to be in good agreement, with a difference smaller than the relative expanded uncertainty (95% confidence, k = 2) of 0.30 × 10-6 at 10 kΩ and in reasonable agreement for 1 Ω with a relative difference of -0.18 × 10-6 with a relative expanded uncertainty of 0.17 × 10-6. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCEM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  9. Late Precambrian Balkan-Carpathian ophiolite — a slice of the Pan-African ocean crust?: geochemical and tectonic insights from the Tcherni Vrah and Deli Jovan massifs, Bulgaria and Serbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savov, Ivan; Ryan, Jeff; Haydoutov, Ivan; Schijf, Johan

    2001-10-01

    The Balkan-Carpathian ophiolite (BCO), which outcrops in Bulgaria, Serbia and Romania, is a Late Precambrian (563 Ma) mafic/ultramafic complex unique in that it has not been strongly deformed or metamorphosed, as have most other basement sequences in Alpine Europe. Samples collected for study from the Tcherni Vrah and Deli Jovan segments of BCO include cumulate dunites, troctolites, wehrlites and plagioclase wehrlites; olivine and amphibole-bearing gabbros; anorthosites; diabases and microgabbros; and basalts representing massive flows, dikes, and pillow lavas, as well as hyaloclastites and umbers (preserved sedimentary cover). Relict Ol, Cpx and Hbl in cumulate peridotites indicate original orthocumulate textures. Plagioclase in troctolites and anorthosites range from An 60 to An 70. Cumulate gabbro textures range from ophitic to poikilitic, with an inferred crystallization order of Ol-(Plag+Cpx)-Hbl. The extrusive rocks exhibit poikilitic, ophitic and intersertal textures, with Cpx and/or Plag (Oligoclase-Andesine) phenocrysts. The major opaques are Ti-Magnetite and Ilmenite. The metamorphic paragenesis in the mafic samples is Chl-Trem-Ep, whereas the ultramafic rocks show variable degrees of serpentinization, with lizardite and antigorite as dominant phases. Our samples are compositionally and geochemically similar to modern oceanic crust. Major element, trace element and rare earth element (REE) signatures in BCO basalts are comparable to those of MORB. In terms of basalt and dike composition, the BCO is a 'high-Ti' or 'oceanic' ophiolite, based on the classification scheme of Serri [Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 52 (1981) 203]. Our petrologic and geochemical results, combined with the tectonic position of the BCO massifs (overlain by and in contact with Late Cambrian island arc and back-arc sequences), suggest that the BCO may have formed in a mid-ocean ridge setting. If the BCO records the existence of a Precambrian ocean basin, then there may be a relationship

  10. International cartoon contest, Ruse, Bulgaria, 2012

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    A contest to reflect the European year of active ageing and solidarity between generations. I entered and had one work selected for exhibition, the only British artist selected and shown in the Ruse Art gallery

  11. Area Handbook Series: Bulgaria. A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-06-01

    capital was composed of bank credits granted by the BNB . Between 1965 and 1975, the BNB share of investment funds jumped from 7 per- cent to 54...term of, 252 consumption , 158 conscripts, 253; in air and air defense Control mechanisms, economic, 123-27 forces, 246; in army, 244; hazing of...and Insignia of Ground Forces, 1990 ............ 260 14 Ranks and Insignia of Naval Forces, 1990 .............. 261 15 Ranks and Insignia of Air Forces

  12. Pattern of radiotherapy care in Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjieva, Tatiana

    2015-01-01

    The paper reveals the changing pattern of Bulgarian Radiotherapy (RT) care after the successful implementation of 15 projects for 100 million euro under the European Regional Development Fund in Operational Programme for Regional Development 2007-2013. The project enables a total one-step modernization of 14 Bulgarian RT Centres and creation of a new one. At the end of the Programme (mid 2015), 16 new Linacs and 2 modern cobalt machines will be available together with 11 virtual CT simulators, 5 CT simulators, 1 MRI and 1 PET CT for RT planning and all dosimetry facilities needed. Such a modernization has moved Bulgarian RT forward, with 2.7 MV units per one million of population (MV/mln.inh) in comparison with 0.9 MV/mln.inh in 2012. Guild of Bulgarian Radiotherapists includes 70 doctors, 46 physicists and 10 engineers, together with 118 RTTs and 114 nurses and they all have treated 16,447 patients in 2013. Major problems are inadequate reimbursement from the monopolistic Health Insurance Fund (900 euro for 3D conformal RT and 1500 euro for IMRT); fragmentation of RT care with 1-2 MV units per Centre; no payment for patient travel expenses; need for quick and profound education of 26% of doctors and 46% of physicists without RT license, along with continuous education for all others; and resource for 5000-9000 more patients to be treated yearly by RT in order to reach 45-50% from current service of 32%. After 15 years of struggle of RT experts, finally the pattern of Bulgarian RT care at 2014-2015 is approaching the level of modern European RT.

  13. Penal Policies In Bulgaria And Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Mihaiu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The contemporary european studies underline the necessity of adoption of an european model, in order to assure the compliance with the fundamental rights and liberties of people deprived of liberty. But the visions of the model favour one of the two opposite tendencies, which are invariable present in theoretical debates and penal politics

  14. Bulgaria in European Security and Defense Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    influence of the West and cultural globalization. The major global religions are Christianity (2 billion adherents) Islam (1 billion) and Hinduism (0.7...Modernization has created a new generation of technological understanding and adapted religious movements like evangelism in America, " Hinduism

  15. William Russell on Schools in Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, Nikolay; Sabic-El-Rayess, Amra

    2013-01-01

    William Russell became one of the most influential educators in the field of international and comparative education in the first half of the 20th century. In 1914, William Russell obtained his PhD from Teachers College and, within few years, became a prominent figure internationally. He traveled through Europe and taught in Japan and Siberia, as…

  16. Bulgaria in the Current Geopolitical Situation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    have clashed with those of the Ottoman Empire , Austria-Hungary, Britain, France, and later - in Germany and the United States. Russia sees its...twentieth century, the United States patiently built their empire . American hegemony in the world was maintained 9 more by economic rather than...of the new status of Kosovo.P57F58 The situation in Macedonia is closely related to processes in Kosovo. The international community imposes the

  17. Historical development of environmental education in Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soykan, Abdullah; Atasoy, Emin; Kostova, Zdravka

    2012-04-01

    The article discusses the periods of environmental education (EE) development in connection with internal social and global international influences, mainly the effect of the First United Nations Conference on Human environment in Stockholm 1972, the 1992 Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro and the 2002 Earth Summit in Johannesburg. It pays attention to the impact of the social background and the role of science and pedalogical research on the different stages in the curricular and textbooks development. The school subjects' contents and educational technologies also evolved towards student-centered interactive education in school and out of school. A system of EE from nursery to postgraduate and lifelong education was developed in 1984 and a great part of it has been introduced in the different educational stages since then. After 1989 more than 132 NGOs and communities on ecology and environmental education were established and many others incorporated environmental education aspects in their activities. Still there are many unsolved problems in EE.

  18. Eurobachelor in Chemistry - Bulgaria's Odds? [In Bulgarian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.V. Toshev

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The Bachelor education in chemistry is presented in the Universities of Sofia, Plovdiv, Shumen and Blagoevgrad. The chemistry education in the University of Sofia has a long tradition. The paper examines the rules and criteria for obtaining the Eurobachelor label, developed by the European Chemistry Thematic Network (ECTN. The comparative analysis of the existing program with these European criteria shows that the eventual application of the University of Sofia for that label seems to be untimely at the present moment.

  19. New Strategies to Improve the Accuracy of Predictions based on Monte Carlo and Bootstrap Simulations: An Application to Bulgarian and Romanian Inflation || Nuevas estrategias para mejorar la exactitud de las predicciones de inflación en Rumanía y Bulgaria usando simulaciones Monte Carlo y Bootstrap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simionescu, Mihaela

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The necessity of improving the forecasts accuracy grew in the context of actual economic crisis, but few researchers were interested till now in finding out some empirical strategies to improve their predictions. In this article, for the inflation rate forecasts on the horizon 2010-2012, we proved that the one-step-ahead forecasts based on updated AR(2 models for Romania and ARMA(1,1 models for Bulgaria could be substantially improved by generating new predictions using Monte Carlo method and bootstrap technique to simulate the models' coefficients. In this article we introduced a new methodology of constructing the forecasts, by using the limits of the bias-corrected-accelerated bootstrap intervals for the initial data series of the variable to predict. After evaluating the accuracy of the new forecasts, we found out that all the proposed strategies improved the initial AR(2 and ARMA(1,1 forecasts. These techniques also improved the predictions of experts in forecasting made for Romania and the forecasts of the European Commission made for Bulgaria. Our own method based on the lower limits of BCA intervals generated the best forecasts. In the forecasting process based on ARMA models the uncertainty analysis was introduced, by calculating, under the hypothesis of normal distribution, the probability that the predicted value exceeds a critical value. For 2013 in both countries we anticipate a decrease in the degree of uncertainty for annual inflation rate. || La necesidad de mejorar la precisión de las previsiones ha crecido en el contexto de crisis económica actual, pero son pocos los investigadores que se habían interesado hasta ahora por la búsqueda de estrategias empíricas para mejorar sus predicciones. En este artículo, a través de las previsiones de la tasa de inflación en el horizonte 2010-2012, hemos podido comprobar que las previsiones de un solo paso adelante sobre la base de modelos actualizados AR(2 para Rumanía y ARMA(1

  20. Assessing the Threat of Islamically Motivated Terrorism in Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    The other line of conversion was by intermixed marriages, namely when Turkish soldiers married Bulgarian women .38 However, the strongest example of...the major religious group, Eastern Orthodox Christians, still relies on old stereotypes and the belief that...Muslim communities, including food and clothing. However, they also are building mosques and paying money to women who veil.118 It is strongly

  1. Aliphatic biological markers in Miocene Maritz-Iztok lignite, Bulgaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefanova, M.; Magnier, C. [Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria). Inst. of Organic Chemistry

    1997-12-31

    Chromatographic separation and mass spectral studies of bitumens extracted from lithotypes (humovitrain, xylain, liptain and humoclarain) from the Miocene Maritza-Iztok lignite reveal the following: (1) A preponderance of the {alpha}-phyllocladane skeleton over the pimaranes/abietanes. The variety of tricyclic diterpanes confirms that the generation biota included gymnosperms; (2) The presence of dicotyledonous angiosperms in the generation biota is indicated by the occurrence of widely distributed des-A-lupane structure; (3) The dominance of terpanes over steranes confirms the prevailing contribution of terrigenous input; (4) The preponderance of C{sub 27{beta}} hopane and the presence {beta}{beta} hopanes indicates a low degree of thermal maturation. 23 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. Innovation in teaching deaf students physics and astronomy in Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamfirov, Milen; Saeva, Svetoslava; Popov, Tsviatko

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a new strategy to be implemented in Bulgarian schools in teaching physics and astronomy to students with impaired hearing at grades 7 (13-year-old students) and 8 (14-year-old students). The strategy provides effective education for students with hearing disabilities in mainstream schools as well as for those attending specialized schools. A multimedia CD has been developed, which offers a large number of basic terms from the corresponding fields of physics and astronomy, accompanied by textual explanation and various illustrations. The terms are explained in Bulgarian, Bulgarian Sign Language and English. This multimedia product can be used by children with hearing disabilities, as well as by children without disorders.

  3. Successful nonsurgical embryo transfer in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis ) in Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drost, M; Alexiev, A; Vlahov, K; Karaivanov, C; Cripe, W S; Leonards, A P; Kacheva, D; Polihronov, O; Nicolov, N; Petrov, M; Dragoev, A

    1988-10-01

    Forty-one Day 5.0 to Day 5.5 embryos and one unfertilized ovum were recovered nonsurgically from 24 superovulated, parous buffalo (Bubalus bubalis ) and transferred nonsurgically to 28 synchronized recipients by a team of Bulgarian and American scientists. Five pregnancies were established and four live buffalo calves were born at the end of normal gestation periods.

  4. EVALUATION OF HOTEL SERVICE-PERFORMANCE PROCESS IN BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgina Lukanova

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the hotel service-performance process in Bulgarian hotels, which is based on the results of the research about tourists’ opinion on basic moments in service process. One of the most important characteristics of hotel industry is the leading role of the human factor in service-performance process. It cannot be accomplished without the participation of the customer and without the participation of the staff.This makes the evaluation of service process strongly subjective. Because of this, customer needs satisfaction is a big challenge for the hotel management. Under the present conditions of an increased competition, satisfying customers means offering service-performance process, which not only meets, but also exceeds guests’expectations. This can be achieved by a preliminary study of their requirements and expectations.

  5. ANIMAL WELFARE AND ECONOMIC EFFECTIVENESS IN BULGARIA AND EU FARMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TSVETANA HARIZANOVA

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study the relationship between economic effectiveness and animal welfare standards is investigated in the case of the pig and cattle breeding. The issue is of importance in order to assess economic viability of livestock breeding while applying animal friendly practices. This paper considers animal welfare standards in national regulations in pig breeding and cattle breeding, production under animal welfare and economic effectiveness in the specified sectors. It is pointed out the conditions which the legislation lays down to ensure better animal welfare. The discussion continues with detailed examination of the applying these standards in the production process. At the end of the paper are presented main conclusions concerning economic efficiency under animal welfare standards. The aim of the paper is to analyse the interactions between the economic effectiveness of livestock production and animal welfare in the pig breeding and cattle breeding.

  6. Environmental Concerns and the New Environmental Paradigm in Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostrom, Ann; Barke, Richard; Turaga, Rama Mohana R.; O'Connor, Robert E.

    2006-01-01

    Little is known about environmental concerns and attitudes among people in former Soviet bloc countries in Eastern Europe despite widespread perceptions of severe environmental problems. The authors addressed this gap by examining Bulgarians' environmental concerns with a focus on whether the new environmental paradigm (NEP) scale can reliably…

  7. PERSPECTIVES FOR DEVELOPMENT OF THE BIOLOGIC PLUM PRODUCTION IN BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanka Vitanova

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The Bulgarian plum cultivars Gabrovska, Nevena, Strinava, Guliaeva and Balvanska slava, breeding in the Plum Experimental Station in the town of Dryanovo and the introduced cultivars Stanley, Chachanska lepotitsa, Opal, Malvazinka, Hramova renkloda, Tuleu timpuriu, Althan’s Gage, Pacific, Mirabell de Nancy, Anna Schpet and Jojo, what are high productive and are tolerant to sharka and other important economic plum diseases are suitable for the biologic plum production. The organic fertilization is a basic element of the technology for the biologic plum production. The fertilization with manure and the green manure with a winter green peas and with a peas-rye mix increased the humus content, influenced positive action on the supplying of the plum plants with the main nutrient macro elements, increased the yield and to be able apply successfully in the plum orchards and at not irrigation conditions.

  8. Effects of propolis from Brazil and Bulgaria on Salmonella serovars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. O. Orsi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Propolis shows biological properties such as antibacterial action. This bee product has a complex chemical composition, which depends on the local flora where it is produced. Salmonella serovars are responsible for human diseases that range from localized gastroenteritis to systemic infections. The aim of the present study was to investigate the susceptibility of Salmonella strains, isolated from food and infectious processes, to the antibacterial action of Brazilian and Bulgarian propolis, as well as to determine the behavior of these bacteria, according to the incubation period, in medium plus propolis. Dilution of ethanolic extract of propolis in agar was the used method. Brazilian and Bulgarian propolis showed an antibacterial action against all Salmonella serovars. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC of propolis were similar, although they were collected in different geographic regions. Salmonella typhimurium, isolated from human infection, was more resistant to propolis than Salmonella enteritidis.

  9. Mineralogy and geochemistry of Bobov Dol coals, Bulgaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vassilev, S.V.; Yossifova, M.G.; Vassileva, C.G. (Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria). Inst. of Applied Mineralogy)

    1994-10-01

    The mineralogy, elemental composition and modes of occurrence of 49 elements in nine composite samples of Bobov Dol high-ash coals were studied by optical microscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffractometry and chemical analysis. The major minerals were quartz, kaolinite, illite, plagioclase and K-feldspar and the minor minerals and phases were pyrite, marcasite, siderite, calcite, dolomite, gypsum, muscovite, montmorillonite and volcanic glass. The accessory minerals include a wide variety of minerals, such as galena, pyrrhotite, magnetite, hematite, goethite, chromite, rutile, anatase, corundum, gibbsite, biotite, chlorite, zircon, enstatite, garnet, jarosite, alunite, barite, polyhalite, aragonite, ankerite, witherite, apatite, halite and sylvite. The modes of occurrence and some genetic peculiarities of the above-mentioned minerals are described. Thirty-three elements occurred in concentrations higher than the respective Clarke values; especially S, Rb, Nb, Hf, Zn, Cu, Pb, Mn, Ti and U. The concentration trends and modes of occurrence of the trace elements are also discussed. In decreasing order of significance, the trace elements probably occur as element-organic compounds, as impurities in the mineral constituents, as major components in the minerals, as major and impurity components in the inorganic amorphous constituents, and in the fluid constituents. The Bobov Dol coals have undergone complex syngetenic, diagenetic and epigenetic mineralization processes associated with hydrothermal and volcanic activities. These processes were also accompanied by intensive tectonic movements, and possibly, by a later change from continental to marine sedimentation in the area after burial of the coal. 38 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs., 5 plates.

  10. Atmospheric pollution assessment with mosses in Western Rhodopes, Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gana Gecheva

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The moss analysis technique was applied to monitor 10 heavy metals and toxic elements deposition. Our study was the first attempt to assess spatial patterns in a border mountain region (area 8732 km2 with a low population density and high proportion of protected territories. The obtained results did not correlate to the results from areas with low air pollution and could be linked to the impact of old and open mines.

  11. Bulgaria’s Quest for Security After the Cold War

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-02-01

    40. 85. FBIS Vienna Cable AU2101202492, R212024Z January 92. Lalumiere Predicts Council of Europe Membership by May, Sofia PTA English Service, 1521...December 20. 1991, p. 40. 85. FBIS Vienna Cable AU2101202492, R212024Z January 92. Lalumiere Predicts Council of Europe Membership by May. Sofia BTA...Howard G. DeWoilf SDI and Arms Control, November 1989 5. Martin C. Libicki, What Makes Industries Strategic, November 1989 6. Melvin A. Goodman

  12. HOW DOES CORRUPTION AFFECTS HEALTHCARE SECTOR IN BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan Deliversky

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Corruption in the healthcare sector is a reflection of the structural challenges in the health care system. The problem of corruption in healthcare is of a multidimensional nature. The Bulgarian health care system is based on a regulated regime. On one hand there is the functioning of a state-owned and state-controlled health fund financed through obligatory contributions by all income earners, and on the other, a union of health providers that negotiate a national framework health contract with the fund. Causes of corruption are classified as different factors such as structural factors and government policies factors. The health sector is susceptible to corruption for various reasons, mostly related to its organization. The health sector is a complex sector. In order to be effective, reforms to combat corruption must be informed by theory, guided by evidence and adapted to context. It is necessary to review and develop diagnostic and treatment algorithms as standards of good medical practice, which would help to assess the package of medical and non-medical activities.

  13. Assessment of pollution with aquatic bryophytes in Maritsa River (Bulgaria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gecheva, Gana; Yurukova, Lilyana; Ganeva, Anna

    2011-10-01

    Bryophyte species composition and 26 common physico-chemical and inorganic chemical parameters were assessed at 23 selected sites in the Maritsa River (BG) over a 4-year period. Principal components analyses (PCA) of both bryophytes and water variables distinguished different locations in the ecosystem. The data imply that the content of elements measured in bryophytes represents river contamination, while species compositional patterns reflect hydromorphology and general degradation. This study for the first time combined aquatic bryophyte occurrence, the bioaccumulation of 17 macro-and microelements in 17 species, and 26 water factors by principal components analysis (PCA) in an assessment of river pollution.

  14. Mineral and inorganic chemical composition of the Pernik coal, Bulgaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yossifova, Mariana G. [Geological Institute, Acad. G. Bonchev Str., Bl.24, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2007-11-22

    The mineral and inorganic chemical composition of five types of samples from the Pernik subbituminous coals and their products generated from the Pernik preparation plant were studied. They include feed coal, low-grade coal, high-grade coal, coal slime, and host rock. The mineral matter of the coals contains 44 species that belong mainly to silicates, carbonates, sulphates, sulphides, and oxides/hydroxides, and to a lesser extent, chlorides, biogenic minerals, and organic minerals. The detrital minerals are quartz, kaolinite, micas, feldspars, magnetite, cristobalite, spessartine, and amphibole. The authigenic minerals include various sulphides, silicates, oxihydroxides, sulphates, and carbonates. Several stages and substages of formation were identified during the syngenetic and epigenetic mineral precipitations of these coals. The authigenic minerals show the greatest diversity of mineral species as the epigenetic mineralization (mostly sulphides, carbonates, and sulphates) dominates qualitatively and quantitatively. The epigenetic mineralization was a result of complex processes occurring mostly during the late development of the Pernik basin. These processes indicate intensive tectonic, hydrothermal and volcanic activities accompanied by a change from fresh to marine sedimentation environment. Thermally altered organic matter due to some of the above processes was also identified in the basin. Most of the trace elements in the Pernik coals (Mo, Be, S, Zr, Y, Cl, Ba, Sc, Ga, Ag, V, P, Br, Ni, Co, Pb, Ca, and Ti) show an affinity to OM and phases intimately associated with OM. Some of the trace elements (Sr, Ti, Mn, Ba, Pb, Cu, Zn, Co, Cr, Ni, As, Ag, Yb, Sn, Ga, Ge, etc.) are impurities in authigenic and accessory minerals, while other trace elements (La, Ba, Cu, Ce, Sb, Bi, Zn, Pb, Cd, Nd, etc.) occur as discrete phases. Elements such as Sc, Be, Y, Ba, V, Zr, S, Mo, Ti, and Ga exceed Clarke concentrations in all of the coal types studied. It was also found that a number of elements in the Pernik coals (F, V, As, Pb, Mo, Li, Sr, Ti, Ga, Ni, Ge, Cr, Mn, etc.) reveal mobility in water and could have some environmental concerns. (author)

  15. Türkiye ve Bulgaristan’da İlkokuma Yazma Sürecinde Öğrencilerin Ürettikleri Yazıların Okunaklılık Bakımından İncelenmesi Investigation of Manuscript Legibility Produced by students in the Process of Early Writing-Reading in Turkey and Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İbrahim COŞKUN

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The successful transfer of thoughts and emotions that speaking and writing skills, know-how requires a number of skills and knowledge. This accumulation of knowledge and skills in the elementary foundations are being laid. One of the expressive language skills writing is from skills of the individual, academic, cultural and social life most used. Children in the process of development, but the receptive language and expressive language skills, listening skills, preschool speech, expressive language, receptive language skills of reading and writing skills in the elementary school are gaining. Starting first grade literacy teaching process consists of encoding and decoding activities. Does not change from person to person are universal criteria for readability. No matter which language you made a post about writing as long as it complies with the criteria "legible" provision given. From this point in the process of teaching reading and writing of this study, Turkish and Bulgarian primary criteria was to investigate the legibility of texts produced by first grade children. This study was designed according to the technique of qualitative case study research model data 2012-2013 academic year in Edirne, Turkey, the first year of primary school going 15 (9 male, 6 female in the 2012-2013 academic year the student data and Bulgaria capital Sofia the first year of the ongoing 15 (8 female and 7 male were collected from samples of student writing. Samples taken from both countries, letters, syllables, words, sentences, and attention is paid to the stages of the text. Criteria for determining the legibility of domestic and foreign literature were reviewed and according to the criteria determined by the researcher “enough", "developed" and "inadequate," he rated. The data were analyzed by the researcher and with five experts in the field. Legibility of the data by the researcher analyzed separately according to the criteria of whether the raters

  16. El sistema fonologico del dialecto judeo-espanol de Bulgaria (The Phonological System of the Judeo-Spanish Dialect of Bulgaria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanchev, Ivan V.

    1974-01-01

    The phonetics and phonological system of the Bulgarian Judeo-Spanish dialect is discussed, showing its similarities to and borrowings from modern Spanish and Bulgarian. Treatment of phonemes is analyzed in detail. (Text is in Spanish.) (CK)

  17. Osnovi polojenia na reformata v obrasovatelnata sistema na Narodna republika Bulgaria (Basic Provisions of the Reform of the Public Education System in the People's Republic of Bulgaria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulgarian Communist Party, Sofia.

    This document is an English language abstract (approximately 1,500 words) of the reform provisions of the Bulgarian education system as formulated by the Bulgarian Communist Party in 1969. These reforms include the following items: access to compulsory secondary education for all; enrollment of all six-year olds; teachers to be specialized from…

  18. Foundation works for construction of Danube Bridge II Vidin (Bulgaria)-Calafat (Romania); Puente internacional sobre el rio Danubio entre las localidades de Vidin (Bulgaria) y Calafat (Rumania)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez Martin, J.

    2011-07-01

    The Foundations works of the bridge over the the Danube River II has involved a new technical challenge due to the cathartics of depth and diameter of the piles, and the logistical and human, due to the hard environmental conditions for the execution. This work, awarded to FCC. Construction company in its two contracts. Access to the bridge and Main Bridge has required on the differenced sites, the use of a wide range of foundation systems, since driven precast piles to in in situ pile with permanent casing, installed by vibrating systems and excavated with benoto grabs systems. The enormous responsibility of this phase is evident in the intense camping of characterization tests with static load tests, dynamic and Osterberg cells, as well as control the campaign with Cross-hole tests in 100% of the piles in situ executed, that has allowed no only ensure the highest level of quality on the foundation elements, but also to take the most of the mechanical characteristics of soils provided. The complexity of the execution of more than 24,000 ml pile executed along the more than 2 years duration of the work reach the maximum expression in the more than 6,900 ml of in situ pile made from marine resources, with a maximum depths up to 80 m with 2 m diameter pile. The article intends to give an overview of the site and the execution, associating the different foundation methods used, and the problems that were detected. (Author)

  19. Constellations of Disadvantage and Policy Dilemmas in Youth Transitions from School to Work in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In the past years there has been a growing concern in Europe with the drawbacks in youth transition from education to employment and social participation more generally (European Commission (EC 2001

  20. On-line database of electric and magnetic field measurements on board intercosmos ``Bulgaria-1300'' satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danov, D. L.; Kraleva, L. H.

    When processing experimental data, graphic presentation is almost inevitable. Restrictions imposed on report's size enable authors to publish but a small portion of the analyzed data. Thus, a great bulk of data cannot be revealed to the scientific community. The Catalogue presented in this work implements the idea for graphic presentation of the results from a space experiment. The Catalogue can be accessed at: http://www.stil.acad.bg/-mitko/katalog/katalog.html

  1. Study of Plant Species Composition of Grasslands in Mugla Village Region (Western Rhodopes, South Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plamen S. Stoyanov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The study presents data on the diversity of grass species in the region of the village of Mugla (the Western Rhodopes. One hundred forty-one species of higher plants belonging to 40families were registered. (Apiaceae, Aspleniaceae, Asteraceae, Boraginaceae, Brassicaceae,Campanulaceae, Caryophyllaceae, Cistaceae, Cyperaceae, Dipsacaceae, Equisetaceae, Ericaceae,Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, Gentianaceae, Geraniaceae, Gesneriaceae, Hypericaceae, Juncaceae,Lamiaceae, Lemnaceae, Liliaceae, Linaceae, Menyanthaceae, Oleacea, Onagraceae, Orchidaceae,Parnassiaceae, Plantaginaceae, Plumbaginaceae, Poaceae, Polygalaceae, Primulaceae,Ranunculaceae, Rosaceae, Rubiaceae, Saxifragaceae, Scrophulariaceae, Valerianaceae andViolaceae. Their conservation status was presented, as well as medicinal plants.

  2. Global Neo-Liberalism, Global Ecological Modernization, and a Swine CAFO in Rural Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenna, Leland L.; Mitev, Georgi V.

    2009-01-01

    Rural and development sociology studies have tended to credit globalization with low-wage, extractive, environmentally destructive outcomes. Concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) have been treated as a local manifestation of the destructive tendencies of globalization. However, recent scholarship on globalization suggests that…

  3. Analysis of the customer satisfaction of the hotel products in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyurova V. V.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important conditions for the right choice of a marketing policy of the hotel businesses is the availability of accurate studies, analyzes and forecasts about the changes of consumer demands, the competitive environment and the situation on the market of hotel products. Moreover, research on tourist motivation about the choice of hotel products and the factors shaping consumer preferences are important criteria to achieve a balance between supply and demand of these products. In this context, the objective of the study is to reveal the peculiarities of consumer behavior in the field of hotel business by setting a consumer profile, determine the motives for the choice of hotel products and the level of consumer satisfaction when using these products.

  4. TOURISTIC AND COMMERCIAL WEAVING SAMPLES OF RAZGRAT- RADOVSKI (ZİNCİRLİ KUYUCUK / BULGARIA)

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Turkish weaving art that is an inevitable source of modern hand crafts created the environments and conditions that helped emerge a number of techniques currently in use. Though the Turkish art that flourished rapidly due to various political, ideological and cultural reasons makes itself clear in all of its branches, the rapid development of medieval Turkish art represents an exceptional and unique case. Thanks to its highly creative approach, advanced aesthetical understanding and...

  5. Clinical testing of combined vaccine against enzootic pneumonia in industrial pig farming in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Pepovich

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In the pig farm with signs of a respiratory disease complex and laboratory confirmed enzootic pneumonia, the prophylactic efficacy of the combination vaccine (M. hyo+PCV2, a single injection administered intramuscularly 21 days after birth, at a dose of 2 ml was tested. The clinical condition, pathological changes in the lungs and some epidemiological and economic results were reported. It was found that vaccinated pigs are in a better clinical condition in comparison with the control group. Morbidity in the rearing period was reduced from 16.3% in the control group to 6.0% in vaccinated pigs, and in the fattening period, respectively, from 30.6% in the control group to 10.0% in the vaccinated group. Pathological features in the lung characteristic for the enzootic pneumonia in the vaccinated pigs were reduced from 25.5%±7.24 to 4.0%±2.44, and PCVI - from 13.0%±4.66 to 0%. Vaccination of pigs has been received and a higher average daily gain in groups for rearing (0.624 kg and for fattening (0.723 kg was recorded.

  6. THE USE OF PHYSICAL METHODS FOR PLANT GROWING STIMULATION IN BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANNA ALADJADJIYAN

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Different chemical additives are used for rising productivity of plants and animals. Their application causes the contamination of raw materials for food production with toxins that is dangerous for consumers’ health. On-farm safety for fresh produce needs developing and implementing new methods for quality assurance. The influence of physical factors as microwave and laser radiation, magnetic field and ultrasound treatment is an alternative of soil additives and fertilizers. The substitution of chemical amelioration by physical one can reduce the toxins in raw materials and thus – raise the food safety. The use of some physical factors (laser irradiation; ultrasound influence; irradiation with microwave electromagnetic rays; magnetic field influence, gamma irradiation for stimulation of seed vitality in Bulgarian agriculture has been discussed.

  7. Living with the world heritage. An ethnographic study of the ancient city of Nessebar, Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luleva Ana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the mid-1950s the Ancient city of Nessebar has had the status of national cultural heritage; in 1983 it was inscribed in the World heritage list of UNESCO. The article makes an attempt to study the regimes of using of and living in the city - world cultural heritage in two different political and economic contexts. The pressure of the tourism industry on the value, which was visible even in the years of the late state socialism, became irresistible after 1989 in the context of the liberalised market economy, the interests of the private investors and the accepted as part of the "normal" market order corrupt practices of the institutions that are responsible for the safeguarding and management of the cultural heritage. The ethnographic study argues that intertwined in a Gordian knot around the central question for the residents of the ancient city of Nessebar, viz. the occupation of the city, which has been declared a world heritage site, are issues like trust and distrust in the institutions, the experience of abiding by formal and informal rules for operation with private property, the notions of social justice, local identity, the use of the cultural heritage as symbolic capital by different social actors and its transformation into economic one, with the conflicting interconnection between tourist industry and cultural heritage.

  8. Ecological Plasticity of Apollonia melanostomus (Pisces, Gobiidae from its Main Habitat Types in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apostolos Apostolou

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Three native populations of A. melanostomus from different Bulgarian habitats were analysed, in view to their morphologic, biochemical-genetic variability and resistance in salinity alterations. Freshwater specimens can survive when fresh water (0‰ is changed rapidly by Black Sea water (16-18‰ and marine vice-versa. In view of the salinity resistance A. melanostomus is evaluated as tolerant. Eleven non-enzymatic and 16 enzymatic loci were tested as genetic markers for population identification. Most of them were monomorphic for all populations analysed, with exception of esterases and malate dehydrogenase. These two polymorphic enzyme systems could be used for further analyses of population structure of A. melanostomus. The genetic diversity DNeicompared between three populations was low - 0.005-0.016 and the sample from Durankulak occurred to be more genetically divergent. The morphological and biochemical-genetic variability characteristics of the studied populations do not show correlation, but independently vary according to different environmental factors.

  9. Preliminary Mapping and Characterisation of Soils in the Pirin Mountains (Bulgaria)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maika L(a)Biger; J(o)rg Seheithauer; Karsten Grunewald

    2008-01-01

    Soft types, humus types and vegetation as well as their hypsometric variation were analysed in terms of sequences in the northern part of the high mountains of the Pirin National Park at altitudes between 1000 and 2400 m a.s.l. The study area is characterised by a large variety of natural parameters like petrology (mainly marble and granite), morphology (different slope deposits, exposition) and the orographic climate gradient. Statistical analyses using these parameters provided a basis for the soil group classification of the sites. Based on a Digital Terrain Model (DTM) and a geological map of the Pirin National Park, the results of these statistical analyses were used to generate a "map of potential soft groups" (regionalisation using GIS). Six potential soil groups could be determined. The resulting map exhibits a confidence level of 68% on 74.4% of the covered area. Rendzic Leptosols, in combination with Folio Histosols and Histi-lithic Leptosols occur in the alpine and subalpine regions on calcareous substrates. With decreasing altitude they are replaced by a mosaic of Rendzic Leptosols, Phaeozems and an increasing occurrence of Cambic Umbrisols. Umbrisols found on silicatic substrates in the alpine region are replaced by Cambic Umbrisols with decreasing altitude as well. Hence, pedogenesis is characterised by increasing browning and depth of the soil profiles with decreasing altitude. The pH-level is slightly acidic to neutral in lower zones and on calcareous rocky bases. Acidification increases in the subalpine zone. Soft pH decreases down to 4 on silicate subtrates. Typical humic values in mineral topsoils are 10 to 12%, and in organic layers of the softs above 2000 m a.s.l, they are even more. The C:N ratio closely ranges around 20 (median).

  10. How Does Air Pollution Threaten Basic Human Rights? The Case Study of Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmedova, Aylin Hasanova

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose of this article is to analyze the relationship between air pollution and human rights. It investigates whether air pollution threatens basic human rights such as the right to health, life, and the environment. Air pollution represents a major threat both to health and to the environment. Despite the adoption of numerous…

  11. Soc stock in different forest-related land-uses in central Stara planina mountain, Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyanski Miglena

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Forest conversions may lead to an accumulation of carbon in vegetation, but little is known about changes in soil C storage with establishment of plantation forests. Understanding these effects is important to addressing issues relevant to ecosystem function and productivity, and to global balance of carbon. The study investigated the effects of the created coniferous plantations on former beech and pasture sites on the soil organic carbon storage. The major forest-related land-uses in the high mountainous regions of central Stara Planina Mountain were investigated: mountainous pasture, coniferous plantations (planted on previous pasture and beech forests between four and five decades ago and natural beech forests. The experimental data of soil properties, conducted in 2005, 2006 and 2007, were used in determining the variations in organic carbon storage in forest litter and in mineral soil under different land-use patterns. At each site five representative soil profiles were opened and described giving a total 75 soil samples from the soil layers respectively at 0-10, 10-30 and 30-50 cm depth. A total of 55 samples from forest floor layers (Aol, Aof, Aoh and greensward were collected with 25:25 cm plastic frame. The main soil properties were determined in accordance with the standardized methods in the Laboratory of soil science at the Forest Research Institute - BAS. The IPCC Good Practice Guidance for Land Use, Land Use Change and Forestry was used to estimate the soil organic carbon stock in soil and litter. The results obtained showed that the SOC stock was quite similar among forest land-uses. The conversion of natural beech forests to coniferous plantations in studied region is related with slightly expressed decrease in soil carbon storage. The values of SOC stocks in 0-50 cm soil layer in these sites were 8.5 (±2.1 tones/ha for pine and 11.0 (±1.4 tones/ha for spruce, while under the natural beech forest it was 14.8 (±1.0 tones/ha. The SOC stock in mountainous pasture was 20.7 (± 6.5 tones/ha, while in spruce plantation created on previous pasture it was 13.5 (±2.7 tones/ha. Our finding showed that forest conversions effect in central Stara Planina Mountain is expressed by decrease in SOC stock related with losses of carbon from the upper mineral soil decades after creation of coniferous plantations. Nevertheless the relatively large organic carbon storage in forest litter in the spruce plantations compensated C lost from mineral soil after the land-use change. The overall carbon stock both in forest litter and soil under plantations ranged from 56 tones/ha (pine to 77 tones/ha (spruce, while under natural beech forest and pasture the values were 70 and 81 tones/ha respectively. But in terms of stability C sequestrated in mineral soil is more desirable than C sequestrated in forest floor which are more vulnerable to decomposition following disturbances. The application of silvicultural activities in coniferous plantations created by conversion of forest lands or grasslands in the region of central Balkan is desirable to improve the carbon sequestration in soils.

  12. PROBLEMS OF EARLY TREATMENT OF CHILDREN WITH HEARING DIFFICULTIES IN BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja DIONISIEVA

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available Hearing loss acquired in the pre-lingual period of child’s development leads to problems in oral speech and communication. Speech and language development are as difficult as severe the damaged hearing is. This affects many mental processes and disables the child for a long period of time.It is important to provide the hearing-impaired child with appropriate hearing aids and specific methods of treatment as early as possible in order to avoid such disabling conditions as mentioned above.

  13. Mental health disparities between Roma and non-Roma children in Romania and Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Eric J.; Keyes, Katherine; Bitfoi, Adina; Mihova, Zlatka; Pez, Ondine; Yoon, Elisha; Masfety, Viviane Kovess

    2014-01-01

    Background The Roma population, one of the largest minority groups in Europe, experience discrimination and stigma associated with marginalized social position. Few studies have examined mental illnesses in the Roma, and none have examined the Roma children. The present study estimates mental health and behavioral disorders among Roma children in comparison to non-Roma children in educational institutions. Methods Data were drawn from the School Children Mental Health Study in Europe (SCHME) ...

  14. New Information on the Malacofauna of the Catchment Area of Rusenski Lom River (North Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iltcho Kolev

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available After this short note adding 8 species to the faunal list of the area, a total of 130 mollusk species are known from the catchment area of Rusenski Lom River both aquatic and terrestrial.

  15. Traditional knowledge and modern trends for Asian medicinal plants in Bulgaria from an ethnobotanical view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anely Nedelcheva

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Asian medicinal plants are an integral part of the Bulgarian traditions and folk botanical knowledge and as from the past until now, have their place in the Bulgarian market. In the last decade the interest in new plant-based products has increased. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted with the aim to bring out the facts about the diversity of Asian medicinal plants, present in medicinal plant-based products that are recently available on the Bulgarian market. The survey data was gathered during a period of 7 years (2003-2010 from the main national databases that contain information about herbal medicines and interviews, along with field-collected data. Results: More than 185 species of medicinal plants, belonging to 38 families and 137 genera were registered. Only twenty species were found to be used mostly in plant-based products for example Panax ginseng, Eleuterococcus senticosus, Ginkgo bilоba, Camellia sinensis, Zingiber officinale, Rhodiola rosea, Euphorbia pallasii, Scutelaria baicalensis, Garcinia cambogia, Hibiscus spp., Cinnamomum verum, Piper nigrum, Curcuma zedoaria, Syzigium aromaticum, etc. Most of them can be compounds of plant extract products, herbal remedies, spices, food and food additives, which are mainly proved to be beneficial as immune stimulants, memory enhancers, antitumor agents, sedatives, aphrodisiacs, antimycotics, wellness tea, body weight reducers, stimulants, blood pressure reducers, etc. Conclusions: Some of the species were used in the past for different purposes, while others are completely unknown and exotic. The occurrence of new combinations and mixtures containing both traditional Bulgarian and Asian folk medicine herbs was observed. This particular way of development, of traditional medicine in modern life, is of special interest to the ethnobotanists and is discussed further in the study.

  16. POSITIVE STIGMA OF THE PEOPLE WITH DISABILITIES IN THE CZECH REPUBLIC AND BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesela Kazashka

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Communication requires unconditional respect for the other. Acknowledging the qualities of the people   is a basis for good communication.  Communication starts when you accept the people the way they are. The social, economic and technical development provides opportunities for good professional realization of people with special educational needs.  The resistance, striving for “survival” and successful “introduction” into the social life are a prerequisite for success. The people who are stigmatized and their families are aware that once they have been labeled, they should have to overcome this stigma and to take the maximum possible good out of this label. Positive stigma stimulates the people with disabilities seek more contacts, to become more independent and to realize themselves adequately in the social life. The survey of attitudes and motivation scale contact with people with disabilities give reliable information about what is the attitude of students towards people with disabilities and what were their contacts. The successful integration into society of people with special educational needs depends also on the perceptions and attitudes of the professionals who work with them too. Undoubtedly, the attitudes and models for the disabled people change and will continue to change. In this context the disabled people should develop social identity and public awareness, but not only in their stigmatized group, but in a broad social aspect.   

  17. Soil magnetic properties in Bulgaria at a national scale-Challenges and benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordanova, Neli; Jordanova, Diana; Petrov, Petar

    2016-02-01

    Establishing topsoil magnetic database at a national scale provides important information for soil classification, evaluation of soil drainage, indirect estimation of the total soil carbon and initial planning in precision agriculture. The Bulgarian database consists of 511 topsoil samples from the upper 20 cm of natural unpolluted soils. Samples have been characterized by detailed magnetic measurements, including mass-specific magnetic susceptibility, frequency dependent magnetic susceptibility, anhysteretic remanence, isothermal remanence and their ratios, hysteresis parameters and ratios, as well as soil reaction (pH). Histograms of the measured parameters per soil type and for the whole database show specific peculiarities and dependence from various parameters. Statistical factor analysis revealed that 87% from the total variance can be explained by four factors. The main factor is dominated by the contribution from concentration-dependent magnetic parameters, second one reflects the role of fine-grained pedogenic magnetic fraction, the third one is determined by the properties of the parent material, fourth one is governed by the internal structural peculiarities of the magnetic particles. The results from cluster analysis reveal the role of soil type and geology for the observed magnetic characteristics. The results emphasize the major role of geology (parent material) for the magnetic signature of topsoil samples on a national scale using sampling density of 1 sample/200 km2. Spatial interpolation of different magnetic parameters using modelled experimental variograms and kriging algorithm highlight lateral peculiarities in the concentration and grain size of the strongly magnetic iron oxides in the topsoils. Additional geochemical data for selected set of samples and meteorological information reveal the role of climate characteristics (mean annual temperature and precipitation) on the formation and development of the strongly magnetic pedogenic fraction in soils developed on the same parent material.

  18. Supporting Digital Literacy Public Policies and Stakeholders' Initiatives. Country report. Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    This report is a part of the study "Supporting Digital Literacy Public Policies and Stakeholders' Initiatives", which involves data collection and analysis in a large number of countries, with a view to achieving several interlinked objectives, and in order to facilitate the realisation of one overall objective: To contribute to the enhancement of digital literacy in Europe by stimulating new and improved initiatives and tools at all levels. Thus, in the context of the EU's social incl...

  19. Opportunities for vocational training and training in investment project management in Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Vanya Antonova

    2015-01-01

    Possessing the necessary knowledge, skills and competences in the area of project management is a compulsory condition and major prerequisite for achieving professional management. In the article there are studied the possibilities for vocational education and training in the area of project management, specifically the management of investment projects. The analysis is built on types of institution, encompassing both the system of vocational education and training (including professional sec...

  20. Unusually High Archaeal Diversity in a Crystallizer Pond, Pomorie Salterns, Bulgaria, Revealed by Phylogenetic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Kambourova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies on archaeal diversity in few salterns have revealed heterogeneity between sites and unique structures of separate places that hinder drawing of generalized conclusions. Investigations on the archaeal community composition in P18, the biggest crystallizer pond in Pomorie salterns (PS (34% salinity, demonstrated unusually high number of presented taxa in hypersaline environment. Archaeal clones were grouped in 26 different operational taxonomic units (OTUs assigned to 15 different genera from two orders, Halobacteriales and Haloferacales. All retrieved sequences were related to culturable halophiles or unculturable clones from saline (mostly hypersaline niches. New sequences represented 53.9% of archaeal OTUs. Some of them formed separate branches with 90% similarity to the closest neighbor. Present results significantly differed from the previous investigations in regard to the number of presented genera, the domination of some genera not reported before in such extreme niche, and the identification of previously undiscovered 16S rRNA sequences.

  1. The Ranking of the Institutions of Higher Education in Bulgaria: Status, Problems and Prospects [In Bulgarian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Boyadjieva

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the main results from the first ranking system of Bulgarian higher education institutions. It adopts two perspectives: 1 from the point of view of higher education – What are the basic achievements, problems and perspectives of Bulgarian higher education as seen through the prism of the ranking system? 2 from the point of view of the ranking system – What are the strengths and weaknesses of the ranking systems and how it can be further developed and improved? The paper argues that ranking systems of higher education institutions are an inevitable result of massification, commercialization and growing competition in higher education. The analysis highlights the critical arguments against the first ranking system of Bulgarian higher education institutions and suggests some possibilities for its future development. On the basis of the results from the ranking system the paper outlines the main problems of the Bulgarian higher education. It discusses massification of Bulgarian higher education in the light of recent trends in other European countries and European educational policies. It is argued that Bulgarian higher education is in need of elaboration of strategic vision and new normative framework. It also needs changes, such as: establishment of new governance model and new model of financing of higher education; strengthening the relationship between teaching and research; development of the capacity of higher education institutions for innovative and strategic thinking; diversifying the system of higher education; development of strategic partnerships between higher education institutions and between them and non-academic partner.

  2. JPRS Report, East Europe, Oblasts: Bulgaria’s New Administrative Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-03-29

    Pordim, Svishtov, Sevlievo, Strazhitsa, Sto- kite, Sukhindol, Teteven, Troyan , Tryavna, Ugurchin, Cherven Bryag, and Yablanitsa. 4. Mikhaylovgrad... Troyan . These two would like to go into the studio of a "great" artist and look at the way the magic of color is created; they would like to meet

  3. Geochemical pattern of soils in Bobovdol valley, Bulgaria. Assessment of Cd and Co contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivona Nikova

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of soils spread in the Bobov dol valley was studied in order to reveal the natural and anthropogenic patterns of Cd and Co spatial distribution. A sampling procedure based on the irregular grid of points and validated analytical methods were used in the field and laboratory studies. It is found that Cd content varies from 0.21 to 0.90 mg kg-1 in studied soils and the average value of 0.55 mg kg-1 coincides with concentration demarcating soil pollution (0.5 mg kg-1. Co content ranges from 2.22 to 15.76 mg kg-1 and in 70 % of sampled points exceeds the natural background content of 7.8 mg kg-1 found in local rocks. Still, Cd enrichment of studied soils is more significant than Co’s with coefficient of Clarke concentration of 3.67. Hence, the secondary deposition of studied elements as a result of the Bobov dol Thermal power plant air emissions is verified by results obtained. The spatial distribution of Cd and Co is featured with an altitudinal gradient in deposition and a trend of quantitative depletion in the South of Plant. Soil organic matter and pH have no influence on the content and spatial distribution of studied elements. Elements iron affinity governs their geochemical linkage in soils although cobalt occurs allied with aluminum and titanium.

  4. What Strategy Should Bulgaria Pursue to Track and Disrupt Terror Networks in the Balkans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    combination of ethnic and religious disputes, its economy, and its political weaknesses, Macedonia has become a country that is significantly...former Yugoslavia collapsed at the beginning of the 1990s, followed by the ethnic civil wars in Bosnia and Kosovo, the Balkans turned into an arena...of the 1990s, followed by the ethnic civil wars in Bosnia and Kosovo, the Balkans turned into an arena for the spread of Islamic fundamentalism and

  5. Eight years of quality control in Bulgaria: impact on mammography practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avramova-Cholakova, S; Lilkov, G; Kaneva, M; Terziev, K; Nakov, I; Mutkurov, N; Kovacheva, D; Ivanova, M; Vasilev, D

    2015-07-01

    The requirements for quality control (QC) in diagnostic radiology were introduced in Bulgarian legislation in 2005. Hospital medical physicists and several private medical physics groups provide QC services to radiology departments. The aim of this study was to analyse data from QC tests in mammography and to investigate the impact of QC introduction on mammography practice in the country. The study was coordinated by the National Centre of Radiobiology and Radiation Protection. All medical physics services were requested to fill in standardised forms with information about most important parameters routinely measured during QC. All QC service providers responded. Results demonstrated significant improvement of practice since the introduction of QC, with reduction of established deviations from 65 % during the first year to 7 % in the last year. The systems that do not meet the acceptability criteria were suspended from use. Performance of automatic exposure control and digital detectors are not regularly tested because of the absence of requirements in the legislation. The need of updated guidance and training of medical physicists to reflect the change in technology was demonstrated.

  6. Conservation measures undertaken to improve the population status of eastern imperial eagle (Aquila heliaca in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demerdzhiev Dimitar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Štúdia prezentuje výsledky ochranárskych opatrení a ich vplyv na populáciu orla královského v Bulharsku. Druh sa vyskytuje v juhovýchodnej casti krajiny, v centrálnom Bulharsku je známy len jeden pár. V období 2009-201 3 bolo obsadených 28 rôznych hniezdnych teritórií. Populácia narástla o 20 %, pocet párov s hniezdnymi teritóriami sa zvýšil z 20 v roku 2009 na 24 v roku 201 3. Stredné hodnoty parametrov hniezdenia orlov královských boli v období 2009-201 3 nasledovné: produktivita (P 1 ,03 ± 0,1 8; hniezdna úspešnost (BS 1 ,1 8±0,21 , úspešnost vyletenia mládat (FS 1 .68±0,1 6. Rocná miera prežitia hniezdiacich jedincov bola 0,795-0,932. Najdôležitejším faktorom, spôsobujúcim mortalitu mladých orlov boli usmrtenia po zásahu elektrickým prúdom spolocne s nelegálnymi odstrelmi a otravami. Strážené páry mali vyššiu hniezdnu úspešnost (1 ,32±0,88 ako nestrážené páry (1 ,06±0,91 . Celkom bolo obsadených vtákmi rôznych druhov 39 % umelých hniezd inštalovaných v období 2009-201 3. V období 2008-201 3 bolo celkom 23 mladých orlov královských oznacených satelitnými vysielackami s GPS jednotkou. V teritóriách siedmich párov bolo izolovaných 608 nebezpecných stlpov elektrického vedenia. V jesennom a zimnom období (október až marec sa raz za týžden realizovalo prikrmovanie 1 4 párov orlov. Celkom sa zrealizovalo 483 prikrmovaní, na 450 z nich bolo súcastou sledovanie efektivity tejto cinnosti.

  7. Diet and foraging habitats of non-breeding white storks (Ciconia ciconia in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milchev Boyan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The diet of non-breeding White Storks was studied by pellet analysis and included mainly insects (99.9%, n=28947 with a predominance of grasshoppers (Orthoptera, 76.1%, and beetles (Coleoptera, 26.1%. The bush crickets Decticus albifrons/verrucivorus were the most numerous prey (29.9% by items, occurring in almost all pellets (98% occurrence in pellets, n=147 and predominating in half of them (49.7%. The grasshopper associations in the pellets specify foraging mainly in mesophytic grasslands that usually replace abandoned fields and overgrown pastures with a low level of grazing. The xerophytic grass-shrubby habitats, not rare on stony terrains, were of less importance, providing around 20% by prey. The typical aquatic inhabitants and the use of carrion around villages were exceptions in the study diet. The number of innutritious materials in the pellets rose when the White Storks hunted on nippy and agile grasshoppers and decreased when the main pray was slower beetles taken from the ground. The roosting of non-breeding White Storks disappeared when their preferred feeding habitats were ploughed up in the following years.

  8. Animal remains of the Neolithic Ritual Burial Complex near Krum Village (Haskovo Region, SE Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatozar Boev

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available From a total of 389 highly fragmented animal bone and tooth finds, dated ca. 6500-6300 B.P. have been identified 7 taxa: Lesser mole rat, Eurasian beaver, Cattle, Sheep, Goat, Pig, and Donkey.

  9. Living with the world heritage. An ethnographic study of the ancient city of Nessebar, Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Luleva Ana

    2015-01-01

    Since the mid-1950s the Ancient city of Nessebar has had the status of national cultural heritage; in 1983 it was inscribed in the World heritage list of UNESCO. The article makes an attempt to study the regimes of using of and living in the city - world cultural heritage in two different political and economic contexts. The pressure of the tourism industry on the value, which was visible even in the years of the late state socialism, became irresistible af...

  10. Nutritional evaluation of aquaculture mussels (M. galloprovincialis from the Black Sea, Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merdzhanova Albena

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years black mussels are one of the most commercially important species from the Bulgarian Black Sea. The marine mollusks are valuable healthy food, low in calories and fats and high in proteins. They are a major dietary source of fat soluble pigments - astaxanthin, carotenoids and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA. To our knowledge the information about the nutritional quality of mussels from the Bulgarian Black Sea waters, based on chemical composition, fat soluble pigments, cholesterol and PUFA content is very limited. The aim of the present study is to determine and compare protein, lipid, carbohydrate and energy values, fat soluble pigments, cholesterol and fatty acid composition in farmed mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis from the Bulgarian northern and southern parts of the Black Sea coast. The mussel samples were analyzed for lipids (Bligh & Dyer method, crude proteins (Kjeldahl method, carbohydrates and moistures according to the AOAC (1990 methods. Fatty acids were analyzed by the GC-MS system. Fat soluble pigments and cholesterol were analyzed simultaneously by the RP-HPLC system. Lipid and protein content were found to be higher in mussels from the northern region. In accordance with the Commission Regulation (EC No. 116/2010 all analyzed mussel samples can be classified as high in protein and low in fats and carbohydrates. The amount of cholesterol, contained in all mussel populations is significantly low, while the omega-3 (n-3 is significantly higher than the omega-6 PUFA. A portion of 100 g edible tissue provides 0.500 g more of the required amount of eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5 and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6 n-3 PUFA according to EFSA (2012. It can be concluded that the studied mussel aquaculture in the Black Sea is beneficial food for the human health and it is advisable to be part of a proper or a preventive diet of Bulgarian consumers.

  11. Bulgarian Folk Music. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad, 1997. (Romania and Bulgaria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlan, Mary

    This report focuses on rhythmic meters characteristic of Bulgarian folk music. Folk instruments, attire, music history, and methods of learning the folk traditional music and dances are presented. Students prepare a lecture/recital to showcase their learning of this unit. The project is intended for use in an undergraduate music history course for…

  12. Diet of the Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos (Aves: Accipitridae in Sarnena Sredna Gora Mountains (Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilian G. Georgiev

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The material of pellets and food remains (as bone and shell fragments, hair, and feathers was collected after the breeding season from below and within one nest of Golden Eagles on rocks at Sarnena Sredna Gora Mts., north-east of Stara Zagora town. Our study was carried out during a three year period (1999, 2000 and 2002. Total 65 specimens from minimum 10 species of preys were identified among the food remains from which the reptiles dominated. Mostly preyed by the Golden Eagles couple were the tortoises (Testudo sp. with 55.4% from all registered individual preys. The most common prey from mammals was the hedgehog (Erinaceus roumanicus with 13.8%. Interesting fact was and the relatively high percentage of the cats with 7.7% (possibly most of them domestic ones.

  13. Изображения на храмове по реверсите на монетите от автономното бронзово монетосечене по Българските земли в периода І—ІІІ век от Новата Ера / Images of temples on coin reversals from autonomous bronze coinage in Bulgaria in the period I—III century AD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Деспотов П. / Despotov P.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Целта на настоящата работа е да изследва монетите, сечени през периода І—ІІІ век — от времето на Домициан до управлението на Гордиан ІІІ в античните градове на територията на днешна България, на чиито реверси са изобразени храмове. Да извлече информация както за конкретни паметници, в основната си част непроучени чрез археологически разкопки, така и за историята на развитието на различните култове по днешните български земи през периода І—ІІІ век. / The study survey the roman coins during the period I—III century — from Domitian to Gordian III in ancient towns in Bulgaria at whitch reverses are depicted temples. Retrieves information for specific monuments for the most part unexplored by archaeological excavations and the history of the development of various cults in the Roman provinces in Bulgaria during the period I—III century.

  14. Licensing process for the installation of radioactive waste treatment by plasma technology in Kozloduy NPP (Bulgaria); Proceso de licenciamiento de la instalacion de tratamiento de residuos radiactivos mediante la tecnologia del plasma en la CN de Kozloduy (Bulgaria)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez Martinez, S.

    2010-07-01

    The main objective of this project, which lasted approximately four years, is to have a facility for reduction volume of radioactive waste and waste generated during the decommissioning of the four units that have completed its operational life.

  15. Chronic Treatment with Opiate Agonists in Bulgaria - Assessing the Quality of Life Using SF 36 v. 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrov Sava V.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Drug addictions to psychoactive substances are disorders with a complex bio-psycho-social genesis, which are characterized with chronic relapses. Substance addiction causes multifactorial damage to the normal functioning of individuals and requires a multicenter approach for the treatment process.

  16. Assessment of Zebra Mussel (Dreissena Polymorpha) Infestation Risk Using GIS for Water Basins in the North-West Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-22

    Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to summarize the major patterns of variation and the results were presented as a PCA correlation biplot ...Principal component analysis (PCA) correlation biplot of the data obtained in April 2006. For reservoir codes see Table 1. 44 R&D 1021-EN-01...November 2007 Fig. 8. Principal components analysis (PCA) correlation biplot of the data obtained in August-September 2006. For reservoir codes

  17. SOME ASPECTS OF SPA TOURIST MARKET SEGMENTATION (A Closer Look at the Case Study on Shipkovo Village Experience, Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanya Kuzdova BANABAKOVA

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The present report explores the possibilities for spa tourist market segmentation. Based on analyses of the market and competition, the key criteria of said segmentation is established on the bases of market and competition analysis, as well as the target segments are determined, the latter being actual and potential consumers of the tourist product, offered in the region of Shipkovo village, Troyan Municipality.

  18. On the substrates used for marking by the Stone Marten (Martes foina Erxl. at the lowland areas of South Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilian G. Georgiev

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available At the area investigated the solid materials situated up the ground slightly dominated over the marking just on the ground. The concrete materials were mainly used followed by the stones, and soil. Rare were the cases of marking on the herb vegetation. Occasional marking was observed on a dead grass snake Natrix natrix and nylon remains.

  19. Evaluation of antimicrobial resistance among Salmonella and Shigella isolates in the University Hospital "St. George," Plovdiv, Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Michael M; Petrova, Atanaska; Stanimirova, Irina; Mircheva-Topalova, Marina; Koycheva, Lalka; Velcheva, Rayna; Stoycheva-Vartigova, Mariana; Raycheva, Ralitsa; Asseva, Galina; Petrov, Petar; Kardjeva, Velichka; Murdjeva, Marianna

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this work is to study the epidemiology and antimicrobial resistance to the most commonly used antibiotics for the treatment of acute gastroenteritis caused by Salmonella and Shigella at the largest Bulgarian hospital-University Hospital "St. George," Plovdiv-for the period 2009-2013. Two hundred ninety strains were in vitro tested for resistance to 15 antimicrobial agents. The presence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) was demonstrated by a variety of specialized tests. For comparison, a collection of 28 strains submitted by the National Reference Laboratory (NRL) "Enteric Infections" at the National Center of Infectious and Parasitic Diseases (NCIPD), Sofia, was also tested for the production of ESBLs. In isolates, phenotypically demonstrated as ESBL producers, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detection of the genes bla-CTX-M, bla-SHV, and bla-TEM was performed. Among the 290 tested isolates, only two- Salmonella serotype Livingstone and Shigella flexneri-were phenotypically proven to be ESBL producers. Only 4 strains from the collection of 28, submitted from the NRL "Intestinal Infections" in NCIPD, Sofia, were phenotypically confirmed as ESBL producers. The presence of the bla-CTX-M gene was detected in all of the tested strains (4 from NRL, NCIPD, Sofia, and 2 from the University Hospital St. George, Plovdiv), the bla-SHV gene only in strain S. Livingstone from Plovdiv, and the bla-TEM gene in two from Sofia and one (again S. Livingstone) from Plovdiv. In conclusion, Salmonella and Shigella isolates from patients hospitalized at the University Hospital St. George, Plovdiv, with acute gastroenteritis demonstrate good susceptibility to the most commonly used antibiotic agents, including azithromycin.

  20. Kinderet: Developing Training for Early Childhood Educators in Information and Communications Technology (ICT) In Bulgaria, England, Portugal, Spain and Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saude, S.; Carioca, V.; Siraj-Blatchford, J.; Sheridan, S.; Genov, K.; Nuez, R.

    2005-01-01

    In the European context the continuing training of early childhood educators in terms of information and communications technology (ICT) remains limited and is in need of development. The KINDERET project has been funded through the European Commission's "Leonardo da Vinci" programme aimed to identify and understand the theoretical and…

  1. Depositional environment, organic matter characterization and hydrocarbon potential of Middle Miocene sediments from northeastern Bulgaria (Varna-Balchik Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdravkov Alexander

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The depositional environments and hydrocarbon potential of the siliciclastic, clayey and carbonate sediments from the Middle Miocene succession in the Varna-Balchik Depression, located in the south-eastern parts of the Moesian Platform, were studied using core and outcrop samples. Based on the lithology and resistivity log the succession is subdivided from base to top into five units. Siliciclastic sedimentation prevailed in the lower parts of units I and II, whereas their upper parts are dominated by carbonate rocks. Unit III is represented by laminated clays and biodetritic limestone. Units IV and V are represented by aragonitic sediments and biomicritic limestones, correlated with the Upper Miocene Topola and Karvuna Formations, respectively. Biogenic silica in the form of diatom frustules and sponge spicules correlates subunit IIa and unit III to the lower and upper parts of the Middle Miocene Euxinograd Formation. Both (subunits contain organic carbon contents in the order of 1 to 2 wt. % (median: 0.8 for subunit IIa; 1.3 for unit III, locally up to 4 wt. %. Based on Hydrogen Index values (HI and alkane distribution pattern, the kerogen is mainly type II in subunit IIa (average HI= 324 mg HC/g TOC and type III in unit III (average HI ~200 mg HC/g TOC. TOC and Rock Eval data show that subunit IIa holds a fair (to good hydrocarbon generative potential for oil, whereas the upper 5 m of unit III holds a good (to fair potential with the possibility to generate gas and minor oil. The rocks of both units are immature in the study area. Generally low sulphur contents are probably due to deposition in environments with reduced salinity. Normal marine conditions are suggested for unit III. Biomarker composition is typical for mixed marine and terrestrial organic matter and suggests deposition in dysoxic to anoxic environments.

  2. Assessment of the decreased productivity of patients with diabetes type 2 in the Clinical Endocrynological Center Sofia, Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plaveev O,

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to assess the influence of type 2 diabetes on the patients’ productivity and quality of life. The WHO’s methodology – HLQ (Health and Labor Questionnaire is applied. Subjects were 38 patients with type 2 diabetes, diagnosed and treated at the Clinical center on endocrinology at the MU-Specialized hospital center for active treatment-Sofia. Control consisted of 100 patients without diabetes. The results from the study proofs the fact that the patients with type 2 diabetes manage with their day-to-day activities like their colleagues and even better, but they absent from work because of: their illness, experiencing fatigue and insomnia, pain in hands, legs, joints and muscles. They receive hospital treatment because of the insufficient control on their treatment and the advanced diabetes complications. The application of the Osterhaus method establishes that type 2 diabetes is connected with the excess illness-related work loss and with more often “medically related absences”. These do not lead to significant indirect productivity costs because these patients are with lower income. The cumulative costs from the sporadic work loss during their whole life are even greater, because of the increased spread of the disease, suboptimum treatment, and many complications and prolonged life duration thanks to the contemporary medicine.

  3. FACIAL FRACTURES AND RELATED INJURIES IN DEPARTMENT OF MAXILLO-FACIAL SURGERY, UNIVERSITY HOSPITAL ‘ST. ANNA’, SOFIA, BULGARIA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elitsa G. Deliverska

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Maxillofacial fractures often occur with serious concomitant injury in trauma patients, and knowledge of the type and severity of associated injuries can assist in rapid assessment and treatment. The objective was to identify the most commonly occurring injuries associated with facial fractures in severely injured trauma patients.

  4. The cult of saints-healers – an alternative and opposition to the official medicine in medieval Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    of medical services, by their inaccessibility, as well as by the widespread disappointment in learned physicians. This led to the search for alternative healing practices. different means and methods were developed for filling up the deficit of healthcare services: • Self-treatment and self-proclaimed healers, • Healing through sacred objects, • Faith in saints and their relics. Evidence of the existence of a Bulgarian tradition of healing practices can be found in the considerabl...

  5. Preliminary Information on the Vertebrate Fauna (Animalia: Vertebrata of the NATURA2000 Site “Rice Fields Tsalapitsa” (Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivayla L. Klimentova

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out by tree visits in different areas of the Natura 2000 site “Rice Fields Tsalapitsa” BG 0002086 (West of Plovdiv city, near village of Tsalapitsa. Our preliminary research showed that in the area vertebrates with high conservation status occurred included in the Bulgarian Bidiversity Act, Appendix II and III, Appendix II of the Bern convention, Natura 2000 species list, the Bonn convention, Appendix II, the Convention of the International Trade of Endangered Species, and the list of the International Union for Conservation of the Nature. This information will help in future preparation of the management plan of the Natura 2000 site and showed the need of studies focused on such areas which will help undertaking adequate measures for their proper way of conservation.

  6. On the Fruit Consumption of Eurasian Badger (Meles meles (Mammalia: Mustelidae during the Autumn Season in Sredna Gora Mountains (Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilian G. Georgiev

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This case study was carried out at one badgers family territory by asingle collection (11.11.2002, north of Stara Zagora City, near Tabashka River of faeces from the animal latrine sites. Total of 1361 individual food items were identified in Eurasian badger (Meles meles faeces from which the fruits of the Cornel-tree (Cornus mas strongly dominated (n=1332, 96.5% from all items, 98.2% from all fruits.

  7. Dental status and associated factors in a dentate adult population in bulgaria: a cross-sectional survey.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damyanov, N.D.; Witter, D.J.; Bronkhorst, E.M.; Creugers, N.H.J.

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to determine variations in the dental status of a dentate adult population in terms of "decayed," "missing," and "filled" teeth in relation to several sociodemographic and behavioral factors. Quota sampling was used to draw 2531 subjects aged 20 years and over. Data were collected b

  8. Review and protection possibilities of some trans-border (East Serbia-West Bulgaria stratigraphic/palaeontological geosites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Velimir

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Stratigraphic/palaeontological geosites of Stara Planina Mountain in east Serbia are well developed in the area of Serbian/Bulgarian state border, where with this occassion, three sections of exeptional geological and scientific interest are selected: Jelovica, Rosomač and Senokos. These geosites represent the important localities for study of Triassic and Jurassic terrigene-carbonate deposits, for which the scientific value from the domains of palaeontology, stratigraphy and sedimentology is widely known. The aim of this work is to represent the main scientific arguments for inventory and protection of detached transborder geological sites that are unique according to their composition and content.[Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 176008

  9. LOCAL ACTION GROUPS – A NEW FORM OF PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP IN RURAL AREAS OF BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zornitsa STOYANOVA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the paper is to assess the problems of creation and functioning of local action groups as form of public-private partnership. It is based on the survey and data provided by Ministry of Agriculture and Food. Conclusions in this report reflect the results of a research project of the University of National and World Economy, developed by the author team.

  10. Assessing the Heavy Metal Content in Forest Dormouse (Dryomys nitedula Pallas, 1778 from an Agricultural Region in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgi G. Markov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The heavy metals load in the forest dormouse (Dryomys nitedula, inhabiting in forest shelter belts in the agricultural region was assessed. The concentrations of Cd, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn (expressed in mg/kg of dry tissue were established in the liver, using an atomic-absorption analysis. The fact that the highly toxic metals (Cd and Pb were found in considerable concentrations together with other metals with concentration dependent toxic effect (Cu, Ni, Zn and Co in the liver of forest dormice, suggests that it is necessary to carry out regular assessment and forecasting of accumulation of these metals in species, which are not direct targets of cultivation and control activities in agricultural ecosystems. The obtained values were used to create a baseline for estimation of heavy metal accumulation in the internal organs of the forest dormouse, both in anthropogenically transformed habitats and natural biotopes, as well as for using this species as a monitor of environmental status.

  11. Concentration of caesium-137, cobalt-60 and potassium-40 in some wild and edible plants around the nuclear power plant in Bulgaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djingova, R. E-mail: rdjingova@chem.uni-sofia.bg; Kuleff, I

    2002-07-01

    The activities of {sup 137}Cs, {sup 60}Co and {sup 40}K were determined in samples of wild (Taraxacum officinale, Plantago lanceolata and Populus nigra 'Italica') and edible (vegetable, corn, fruit) plants as well as soil collected from the 30 km safety zone of the Bulgarian NPP 'Kozloduy' and comparisons with earlier measurements and analyses of samples from other regions and with literature values were performed. The derived transfer factors for {sup 137}Cs and {sup 40}K from soil to plants ranged between 0.002 and 0.009 for {sup 137}Cs, and between 0.09 and 0.35 for {sup 40}K. The individual effective dose (calculated from the present results and data on the activity of other foodstuffs and from information about dietary habits) comprises 4.5% of the annual dose limit.

  12. Archaeal and bacterial diversity in two hot springs from geothermal regions in Bulgaria as demostrated by 16S rRNA and GH-57 genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanova, Katerina; Tomova, Iva; Tomova, Anna; Radchenkova, Nadja; Atanassov, Ivan; Kambourova, Margarita

    2015-12-01

    Archaeal and bacterial diversity in two Bulgarian hot springs, geographically separated with different tectonic origin and different temperature of water was investigated exploring two genes, 16S rRNA and GH-57. Archaeal diversity was significantly higher in the hotter spring Levunovo (LV) (82°C); on the contrary, bacterial diversity was higher in the spring Vetren Dol (VD) (68°C). The analyzed clones from LV library were referred to twenty eight different sequence types belonging to five archaeal groups from Crenarchaeota and Euryarchaeota. A domination of two groups was observed, Candidate Thaumarchaeota and Methanosarcinales. The majority of the clones from VD were referred to HWCG (Hot Water Crenarchaeotic Group). The formation of a group of thermophiles in the order Methanosarcinales was suggested. Phylogenetic analysis revealed high numbers of novel sequences, more than one third of archaeal and half of the bacterial phylotypes displayed similarity lower than 97% with known ones. The retrieved GH-57 gene sequences showed a complex phylogenic distribution. The main part of the retrieved homologous GH-57 sequences affiliated with bacterial phyla Bacteroidetes, Deltaproteobacteria, Candidate Saccharibacteria and affiliation of almost half of the analyzed sequences is not fully resolved. GH-57 gene analysis allows an increased resolution of the biodiversity assessment and in depth analysis of specific taxonomic groups. [Int Microbiol 18(4):217-223 (2015)].

  13. Initial Study of the Ground Beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae and Other Invertebrates from “Leshnitsa” Nature Reserve(Central Stara Planina Mountains, Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodora M. Teofilova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The invertebrate fauna of the “Leshnitsa” nature reserve was studied, with particular consideration to the ground beetles. During the study altogether 394 specimens of carabid beetlesbelonging to 32 species and subspecies were captured, as well as 23 other invertebrate species,some of which are with a conservation significance (protected, Bulgarian and Balkan endemics.Ground beetles were characterized and classified according to their zoogeographical belonging,degree of endemism and the life forms they refer to. Threats for the invertebrate fauna and negativefactors of anthropogenic origin were determined and measures for diminishing of their effect wereproposed. So far the invertebrate fauna in this part of the mountain has been insufficiently studied.The real state of the diversity of this group in the area will be revealed only after futureinvestigations and discovery of additional new species for the region.

  14. Stochastic univariate and multivariate time series analysis of PM2.5 and PM10 air pollution: A comparative case study for Plovdiv and Asenovgrad, Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gocheva-Ilieva, S.; Stoimenova, M.; Ivanov, A.; Voynikova, D.; Iliev, I.

    2016-10-01

    Fine particulate matter PM2.5 and PM10 air pollutants are a serious problem in many urban areas affecting both the health of the population and the environment as a whole. The availability of large data arrays for the levels of these pollutants makes it possible to perform statistical analysis, to obtain relevant information, and to find patterns within the data. Research in this field is particularly topical for a number of Bulgarian cities, European country, where in recent years regulatory air pollution health limits are constantly being exceeded. This paper examines average daily data for air pollution with PM2.5 and PM10, collected by 3 monitoring stations in the cities of Plovdiv and Asenovgrad between 2011 and 2016. The goal is to find and analyze actual relationships in data time series, to build adequate mathematical models, and to develop short-term forecasts. Modeling is carried out by stochastic univariate and multivariate time series analysis, based on Box-Jenkins methodology. The best models are selected following initial transformation of the data and using a set of standard and robust statistical criteria. The Mathematica and SPSS software were used to perform calculations. This examination showed measured concentrations of PM2.5 and PM10 in the region of Plovdiv and Asenovgrad regularly exceed permissible European and national health and safety thresholds. We obtained adequate stochastic models with high statistical fit with the data and good quality forecasting when compared against actual measurements. The mathematical approach applied provides an independent alternative to standard official monitoring and control means for air pollution in urban areas.

  15. Dominance of multidrug-resistant Denmark(14)-32 (ST230) clone among Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 19A isolates causing pneumococcal disease in Bulgaria from 1992 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setchanova, Lena Petrova; Alexandrova, Alexandra; Dacheva, Daniela; Mitov, Ivan; Kaneva, Radka; Mitev, Vanio

    2015-02-01

    A pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV10) was introduced in Bulgarian national immunization program since April 2010. Clonal composition based on pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and multilocus sequence typing genotyping of 52 serotype 19A Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates was analyzed. These were invasive and respiratory isolates collected between 1992 and 2013 from both children (78.8% clone. The most frequent sequence type (ST) was ST230 (48.1%) and together with four other closely related STs (15.4%), belonging to ST1611, ST276, ST7466, and ST2013, which were single- and double-locus variants; they were included in the main CC230. The disappearance of highly drug-resistant ST663 clone and emergence of new clones as CC320 and CC199 was also observed among the rest 19A isolates. A comparison of clonal composition between invasive and noninvasive isolates did not show a great genetic diversity among both kinds of isolates. Continuous surveillance of serotype 19A population following the introduction of PCV10 is essential to evaluate the impact of the vaccine on the epidemiology of this serotype.

  16. Observations for Sharp Changes of Ionospheric Ion Concentration and Electromagnetic Field Measurements at Altitude 900 km on Equatorial Latitudes by INTERKOSMOS - Bulgaria-1300 Satellite Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gdalevich, G. L.; Bankov, N.; Chapkanov, S.; Todorieva, L.

    Three-axis stabilization of the satellite orientation ensured success for convenient measurements both of electric and magnetic field vectors. X axis was directed along the satellite orbital velocity vector. Z axis was directed upwards, perpendicular to the Earth's surface. Fast flows of electrons and ions were measured in the directions along both +z and -z axes and also perpendicular to z axis. Ionospheric ion concentration meters registered sharp changes of the plasma density. Taking into account the totality meter set data we can conclude that the physical phenomena observed in these measurements are caused by damping both of electrostatic oscillations and plasma vortices. Also it is shown that large-scale irregularity rise and disintegration into small-scale irregular structures can be connected with magnetospheric and ionospheric sources.

  17. The effects of social capital and social pressure on the intention to have a second or third child in France, Germany, and Bulgaria, 2004-05

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balbo, Nicoletta; Mills, Melinda

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the importance of the effect of an individual's web of informal relationships with family and peers on the intention to have a second or third child. Drawing on sociological theories of social capital (help with childcare, emotional support) and social pressure, the study ext

  18. The bullying phenomenon and the “I am not scared” project in Bulgaria or how and why we need to influence the national school-education system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zornitsa Staneva

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Violence in schools has been recognized as a growing and destructive problem both by educational and policy making authorities at a national level, as well as by the European Commission at an EU level. The graveness of the problem, some of its roots, because they can vary greatly from country to country, has already been analyzed and there are numerous proposals and programs for tackling with the problem or preventing its appearance. Still, political decisions and changes need to be encouraged in order to enforce, to make practicing from proposals and programs obligatory and official. These changes should and could happen in both directions – starting from the national level and reaching out to the Community level, or vice versa. The current and future effects for the Bulgarian school education system of a project - “I am not scared” – supported by the EC under the Lifelong Learning Program are briefly outlined in the present article.

  19. Age and composition of meta-ophiolite from the Rhodope Middle Allochthon (Satovcha, Bulgaria): A test for the maximum-allochthony hypothesis of the Hellenides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froitzheim, Nikolaus; Jahn-Awe, Silke; Frei, Dirk; Wainwright, Ashlea N.; Maas, Roland; Georgiev, Neven; Nagel, Thorsten J.; Pleuger, Jan

    2014-08-01

    The metamorphosed thrust stack of the Rhodopes comprises a level with ophiolites (Middle Allochthon) underlain and overlain by continent-derived allochthons. The Upper Allochthon represents the European margin, but the origin of the Lower Allochthon remains controversial, with suggestions that it may be derived from an inferred microcontinent (Drama) or from the margin of Adria. Trace element compositions and Sr and Nd isotope ratios of metagabbroic amphibolites and enclosed meta-plagiogranites from the Satovcha Ophiolite, Middle Allochthon, show that they are cogenetic and represent suprasubduction zone ophiolites. U-Pb dating using laser ablation sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry of zircons from two meta-plagiogranites and a metagabbro yielded identical Jurassic ages (160 ± 1 Ma, 160.6 ± 1.8 Ma, and 160 ± 1 Ma, respectively), similar to ophiolites in the eastern Vardar Zone bordering the Rhodopes to the SW. The trace element patterns also closely resemble those of the Vardar ophiolites. The association with Late Jurassic arc-type granitoids is another feature that applies both to eastern Vardar and Satovcha. This strongly suggests that the Middle Allochthon comprises the metamorphosed northeastward continuation of the Vardar Zone. The Jurassic age of the Satovcha Ophiolite contradicts the hypothesis of Early Jurassic suturing between Europe (Upper Allochthon) and the assumed Drama microcontinent (Lower Allochthon) but is in line with the "maximum allochthony hypothesis," i.e., the assumption that the Lower Allochthon represents Adria and that the "root" of the Vardar-derived thrust sheets is at the NE boundary of the Rhodopes.

  20. 保加利亚主要鲜食葡萄品种评价%Study on the main characteristics of table grape cultivars in Bulgaria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Simeon Krumov; Anelia Borosova; Atanas Blagov; 宋来庆

    2012-01-01

    It was showed the results concerning agrobiological and technological characteristics of perspective bulgarian table grape cultivars Velika, Dunav, Diana, Super early Bolgar, Plevenski misket and Bolgar. The results showed that Super early Bolgar, Plevenski misket and Bolgar were smaller,with average fruit weight only be near 5 g, and the three cuhivars extended in grape production Velika, Dunav, Diana had bigger size, could not And the beautiful colour and could be extended in grape production.%保加利亚位于巴尔干半岛的东南部.属于温带气候.北部略受大陆性气候影响,南部带有地中海气候特点.气候和土壤等自然条件非常适宜葡萄种植.是世界著名的葡萄与葡萄酒生产国之一。长期以来.保加利亚的农业科研机构非常注重鲜食葡萄品种的选育研究.

  1. "Economic growth and the reform of the judicial system of Bulgaria in the period 2000-2015 (vision for a new measurement model)"

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The publication proposes a concept for new model for evaluation of the “reform of the judicial system”, different from those applied by the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund where the economic growth rate of each country is measured. Their models, based on performance indicators, examine the “reform of the judicial system” as constant and floating in time, evaluated in certain periods of time. This fact obstructs the identification of the relative legislative miscarriages of ever...

  2. A contribution to the knowledge of the trophic spectrum of the Common toad (Bufo bufo L., 1758 (Amphibia: Anura from Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petar Boyadzhiev

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available During our study we identified 500 prey items in 20 prey categories in the trophic spectrum of Bufo bufo with average number of prey items per stomach 25.00. The most important prey taxon is Formicidae (70.20%, followed by Coleoptera (especially Carabidae – 11.40%, as well as non-insect invertebrates (Isopoda, Gastropoda, Arachnida which also play significant role. The estimated trophic niche breadth is low – 1.96.

  3. Los cambios socio-educativos en Bulgaria: la escuela entre la identidad y la ciudadanía en el contexto de la integración europea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana Dronzina

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available La integración europea plantea varios desafíos ante los países en proceso de acceso. Uno de los más grandes es la promoción de la política de identidad y la política de ciudadanía en la escuela. La tarea modesta de este estudio es presentar la experiencia búlgara en el contexto de la integración, que es la experiencia de una sociedad con minorías étnicas históricas significativas. Se ha puesto el acento en la situación educativa de la minoría turca y la gitana, y se han analizado las consecuencias de los pasos emprendidos para el éxito de la política de la identidad, estrechamente relacionada con la promoción de la diferencia y la peculiaridad y la de la ciudadanía, que otorga el estatus igual a todos en la esfera de lo público y lo político. Se ha estudiado el papel de la educación cívica y la participación en los proyectos europeos como dos instrumentos no solamente para la acomodación entre la identidad étnica y la ciudadanía, sino para la creación de la nueva identidad y ciudadanía europea. 

  4. Comparison of Radical Right-Wing Parties in Bulgaria and Romania: The National Movement of Ataka and the Great Romania Party

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markéta Smrčková

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on a comparison of two radical right-wing parties, Ataka and the Great Romania Party, their positions in the national party system, and their relationships with the governing parties as well as with other national right-wing parties. In this essay the party programmes, electorate, attitude to minorities, and degree of nationalism will be compared. Another important part of this paper is comparison of the election results of these parties and their chances of remaining in the national parliaments (and thus becoming a crucial part of party system. All the details mentioned above will be analyzed against the background of theories of radical right-wing parties.

  5. Archaeo-directional and -intensity data from burnt structures at the Thracian site of Halka Bunar (Bulgaria): The effect of magnetic mineralogy, temperature and atmosphere of heating in antiquity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herries, A. I. R.; Kovacheva, M.; Kostadinova, M.; Shaw, J.

    2007-07-01

    Archaeomagnetic results are presented from a series of burnt structures at the Thracian site of Halka Bunar. Archaeointensity and archaeodirectional studies were undertaken on three kilns from a pottery production complex. This has been dated to the late 4th and early 3rd century B.C. (325-280 B.C.) based on coins found associated with the kilns [Tonkova, M., 2003. Newly discovered Thracian Centre of the Early Hellenistic Age at the Spring "Halka Bunar" in the Land of C. Gorno Belevo. Annuary of the Institute of Archaeology with Museum. Bulgarian Academy Sci. 2, 148-196 (in Bulgarian)]. This data provides a new point for the Bulgarian archaeomagnetic curve (Dec: 348.70 ± 5.79, Inc: 62.20 ± 2.70, and Fa: 77.23 ± 2.17 μT). The kilns are thought to have been used for producing different types of pottery in a range of heating atmospheres and at different temperatures. Therefore, special attention was paid to the magnetic mineralogy of the samples and its effect on the palaeodata. Kiln 3, orange clay samples were dominated by fine to ultra-fine grained single domain and superparamagnetic magnetite, with a small proportion of haematite. The samples were heated in a high temperature oxidising environment. Kiln 2 was probably used to make grey ware pottery. The samples are light grey and were dominated by stable single domain magnetite formed by high temperature heating in a more reducing environment. Kiln 4, mottled samples consisted of a variable mineralogy showing characteristics of both Kiln 2 and Kiln 3 samples. It was probably used to make traditional, mottled, Thracian ware pottery and was heated to lower temperatures in a mixed environment of heating. Samples heated in an oxidising environment gave more reliable Thellier results than samples heated in a reducing environment in antiquity, as the latter altered heavily on re-heating. A fourth kiln and a destruction feature from different trenches than the kiln complex were also investigated to establish their age. Archaeodirectional data was not recoverable from these two structures due to post-burning disturbance. The mean archaeointensity from Kiln 5 (mean 78.0 ± 1.7 μT) is consistent with that from the main kiln complex (mean 77.23 ± 2.17 μT) and is therefore considered to be contemporary. It was probably not used to make pottery. The destruction feature records much lower archaeointensity values (mean 65.1 ± 1.1 μT). When this value is compared to the existing reference points of the Bulgarian database it suggests this feature is younger than the kilns (250-140 B.C.). Multiple age use of the site is therefore confirmed with a main period of occupation in the late 4th and early 3rd century B.C. and another phase of occupation in the mid 3rd to mid 2nd century B.C.

  6. Sampling and description of the resins stockpiles in the Kozloduy Nuclear Power Plant large tanks; Muestreo y caracterizacion de resinas almacenadas en tanques de grandes dimensiones de la Central Nuclear de Kozloduy (Bulgaria)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez Fernandez, L.; Gonzalez Gandal, R.; Herrera, J. A.

    2012-11-01

    The consortium ENSA-Gas Natural Fenosa Engineering has a contract with Kozloduy Nuclear Power Plant (KNPP) for the retrieval and conditioning of the resins, which were generated during the operation of the plant. The project deals with resins characterization for which its necessary to define a proper methodology that fulfills the Bulgarian authorities requirements. Also, it will be included the design, fabrication, supply and installation of the required equipment to carry out the sampling and measurements of the resins, updating the facilities and the specific training of the personnel in order to perform by themselves every activities. This article reflects how the consortium will deal with the management of this damaging project, which involves a wide range of activities, including the management of each implicated are of both KNPP and external organizations. (Author)

  7. Petrology, geochemistry and Sm-Nd analyses on the Balkan-Carpathian Ophiolite (BCO - Romania, Serbia, Bulgaria): Remnants of a Devonian back-arc basin in the easternmost part of the Variscan domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plissart, Gaëlle; Monnier, Christophe; Diot, Hervé; Mărunţiu, Marcel; Berger, Julien; Triantafyllou, Antoine

    2017-04-01

    The pre-Alpine basement of the Southern Carpathians/Western Balkans contains four ophiolitic massifs dismembered by Alpine tectonics, which define the ;Balkan-Carpathian Ophiolite; (BCO) for which the tectonic setting and age of formation are still debated (Precambrian or Early Devonian). In this contribution, we demonstrate that, in light of a Pre-Alpine restoration, the four massifs belonged to a unique slice of very complete, obducted oceanic lithosphere and we re-evaluate its tectonic setting. Large chromitite volumes with Al-rich spinel compositions (Cr# = 0.39-0.48), as well as major and trace geochemical results on basalts (slightly enriched N-MORBs with low negative Nb anomaly associated with calk-alkaline BABBs), point to a formation in a back-arc basin. Mantle spinel composition (Cr# = 0.49-0.51) and melting modeling indicate mean melting extents of 8.5-11% favouring intermediate spreading rate. New Sm-Nd dating on lower gabbroic rocks give a whole rock isochron, interpreted as the age of formation of the BCO crust at 409 ± 38 Ma, thus confirming an Early Devonian oceanic crust. The previous ∼563 Ma U-Pb zircon age can be interpreted as casual inheritance indicating the proximity of an old continental lithosphere. Taking into account the lithological evidences and paleocontinental affinities of the two recognized terranes separated by the BC oceanic basin (Balkans and Sredna Gora) and by analogy with other Variscan ophiolites in Western/Central Europe, we suggest that the BC ophiolite belong to the ∼400 Ma ophiolites group obducted between West and East Galatia and belonging to the southern Variscan suture. However, the BC ophiolite is the only one of this group obducted to the north and not involved in the Lower Allochthon/ophiolite/Upper Allochthon thrust pile, likely explaining its exceptional preservation. Finally, we tentatively propose a new unifying tectonic model where different terrane drift rates and highly oblique displacements create two Rheic branches, the ;Rheic; and the ;Galicia-Brittany-Massif Central;.

  8. 15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 743 - Wassenaar Arrangement Participating States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Participating States Argentina Australia Austria Belgium Bulgaria Canada Croatia Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Germany Greece Hungary Ireland Italy Japan Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg Malta...

  9. 76 FR 14649 - Quarterly Update to Annual Listing of Foreign Government Subsidies on Articles of Cheese Subject...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-17

    ... states of the European Union are: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg,...

  10. 15 CFR 740.16 - Additional permissive reexports (APR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... among: Albania, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Latvia,...

  11. 75 FR 77561 - Regulations Issued Under the Export Grape and Plum Act; Revision to the Minimum Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-13

    ... following countries: Albania, Austria, Belgium, Bosnia, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, England, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Herzegovina, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Liechtenstein,...

  12. 75 FR 17699 - Quarterly Update to Annual Listing of Foreign Government Subsidies on Articles of Cheese Subject...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-07

    ...(6). \\3\\ The 27 member states of the European Union are: Austria, Belgium, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy,...

  13. 75 FR 52310 - Quarterly Update to Annual Listing of Foreign Government Subsidies on Articles of Cheese Subject...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-25

    ... member states of the European Union are: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg,...

  14. 78 FR 52504 - Quarterly Update to Annual Listing of Foreign Government Subsidies on Articles of Cheese Subject...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-23

    ... states of the European Union are: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg,...

  15. 48 CFR 252.225-7021 - Trade agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... (Australia, Bahrain, Canada, Chile, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico..., Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany,...

  16. 19 CFR 4.22 - Exemptions from special tonnage taxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belgium Belize Bermuda Bolivia Brazil Bulgaria Burma Canada Chile Colombia..., Republic of Guyana Haiti Honduras Hong Kong Hungarian People's Republic Iceland India Indonesia Iran...

  17. 75 FR 2879 - Identification of Foreign Countries Whose Nationals Are Eligible To Participate in the H-2A and H...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-19

    ...: Argentina, Australia, Belize, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, Chile, Costa Rica, Croatia, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Guatemala, Honduras, Indonesia, Ireland, Israel, Jamaica, Japan,...

  18. KR Aur - extremely high variations in optical bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeva, S.; Latev, G.; Nikolov, Y.; Nikolov, P.; Nikolov, G.; Spassov, B.; Petrov, B.; Damljanovic, G.; Sekulic, M.; Zamanov, R.

    2017-03-01

    Since 2008, the cataclysmic variable star KR Aur is in deep minimum state with a short brightening in 2010. We performed photometric monitoring in 12 nights during the period August 2016 - February 2017 with the telescopes of Rozhen (Bulgaria), Belogradchik (Bulgaria) and Vidojevica (Serbia).

  19. Bulgarians sue CERN for leniency

    CERN Multimedia

    König, R

    2001-01-01

    Bulgaria is appealing to CERN to drastically reduce its contribution to CERN for the next two years. The NATO bombing campaign against Yugoslavia in 1999 destroyed enough bridges on the river Danube to cripple commerce between Bulgaria and Western Europe, damaging the economy and squeezing the government's budget (1/2 page).

  20. Suggestopedia and Memory Training in the Foreign Language Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bancroft, W. Jane

    Based on observations made in Bulgaria in the 1970s, it is proposed that the original version of Suggestopedia for second language training, used in Bulgaria and other Eastern European countries in the late 1960s and early 1970s, differs significantly from the techniques developed later, in particular in concentration on and memorization of…

  1. Participant’s Manual to Accompany the Yugoslav Dilemma (A Computer Simulation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-02-01

    used by the Serbs, and the Latin Alphabet is used by the Croats. ~ Religion is deeply rooted in Yugoslavia. Over 41% of the population are Greek... Romana 4371 bnuride ans in Russia 4372 in Bulgaria 4383 in Yugoslavia 4384 in Romania 4381 insral pns in Russia 4392 in Bulgaria 4393 in Yugoslavia 4384

  2. Studying Ozone Episodes in Europe with the Danish Eulerian Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambelas Skjøth, C.; Bastrup-Birk, A.; Brandt, J.

    2000-01-01

    Proceedings of the 23rd NATO/CCMS International Technical Meeting on Air Pollution Modeling and Its Application, held 28 September - 2 October 1998, in Varna, Bulgaria.......Proceedings of the 23rd NATO/CCMS International Technical Meeting on Air Pollution Modeling and Its Application, held 28 September - 2 October 1998, in Varna, Bulgaria....

  3. Centaurea wagenitziana (Asteraceae: Centaureinae), a new species from the Eastern Balkans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Kit; Bancheva, Svetlana; Vural, Mecit

    2009-01-01

    Centaurea wagenitziana Bancheva & Kit Tan from SE Bulgaria and NW Turkey is described as a species new to Bancheva & Kit Tan from SE Bulgaria and NW Turkey is described as a species new to science. Its chromosome number of 2n = 30 is a first report. It closely resembles C. amplifolia with which i...

  4. Running Large-Scale Air Pollution Models on Parallel Computers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgiev, K.; Zlatev, Z.

    2000-01-01

    Proceedings of the 23rd NATO/CCMS International Technical Meeting on Air Pollution Modeling and Its Application, held 28 September - 2 October 1998, in Varna, Bulgaria.......Proceedings of the 23rd NATO/CCMS International Technical Meeting on Air Pollution Modeling and Its Application, held 28 September - 2 October 1998, in Varna, Bulgaria....

  5. Application of Parallel Algorithms in an Air Pollution Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgiev, K.; Zlatev, Z.

    1999-01-01

    Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Large Scale Computations in Air Pollution Modelling, Sofia, Bulgaria, 6-10 July 1998......Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Large Scale Computations in Air Pollution Modelling, Sofia, Bulgaria, 6-10 July 1998...

  6. Conclusions of the NATO ARW on Large Scale Computations in Air Pollution Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1999-01-01

    Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Large Scale Computations in Air Pollution Modelling, Sofia, Bulgaria, 6-10 July 1998......Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Large Scale Computations in Air Pollution Modelling, Sofia, Bulgaria, 6-10 July 1998...

  7. Long-Term Calculations with Large Air Pollution Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1999-01-01

    Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Large Scale Computations in Air Pollution Modelling, Sofia, Bulgaria, 6-10 July 1998......Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Large Scale Computations in Air Pollution Modelling, Sofia, Bulgaria, 6-10 July 1998...

  8. Large Scale Computations in Air Pollution Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zlatev, Z.; Brandt, J.; Builtjes, P. J. H.

    Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Large Scale Computations in Air Pollution Modelling, Sofia, Bulgaria, 6-10 July 1998......Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Large Scale Computations in Air Pollution Modelling, Sofia, Bulgaria, 6-10 July 1998...

  9. Position paper on screening for breast cancer by the European Society of Breast Imaging (EUSOBI) and 30 national breast radiology bodies from Austria, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Israel, Lithuania, Moldova, The Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and Turkey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sardanelli, Francesco; Aase, Hildegunn S; Álvarez, Marina

    2016-01-01

    EUSOBI and 30 national breast radiology bodies support mammography for population-based screening, demonstrated to reduce breast cancer (BC) mortality and treatment impact. According to the International Agency for Research on Cancer, the reduction in mortality is 40 % for women aged 50-69 years...

  10. Human Performance Enhancement for NATO Military Operations (Science, Technology and Ethics) (Amelioration des performances humaines dans les operations militaires de l’OTAN (Science, Technologie et Ethique)). RTO Human Factors and Medicine Panel (HFM) Symposium held in Sofia, Bulgaria, on 5-7 October 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    du personnel et des unités, en matière de performances. • L’OTAN devrait établir un programme de gestion des connaissances exploitant les schémas en...vigueur concernant la santé et la performance dans les conflits actuels et passés et dans les exercices afin d’orienter les programmes de recherche

  11. History and Future of Technology-Enhanced Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westera, Wim

    2009-01-01

    Westera, W. (2009). History and Future of Technology-Enhanced Learning. Keynote Presentation at the First International Conference on Software, Services & Semantic Technologies (3ST). October, 28, 2009, Sofia, Bulgaria.

  12. Topography of Hoards and Finds of Oriental and Bulgar Silver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salakhov Dinar D.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The author offers a new topography of oriental silver coins and their Bulgar imitations found in the lands of the Volga Bulgaria and adjacent territories: three topographic maps for the hoards of 9th, 10th and 11th centuries and a map of coin finds in the early Bulgar and early Mari burial grounds. Their analysis shows that the 10th century was the peak time for the circulation of Kufic coins in the Volga Bulgaria and the territories under its economic influence. The mapping of hoards identified three centers of monetary accumulation: the Volga Bulgaria itself, the Oka basin and the north of the modern Udmurtia. The article also supplies new data on coins minted by the emirs of the Volga Bulgaria and found in the Middle Volga region.

  13. The Lozanov Method for Accelerating the Learning of Foreign Languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, H. E.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the Lozanov Method of teaching foreign languages developed by Lozanov in Bulgaria. This method (also known as Suggestopedia) uses various techniques such as physical relaxation exercises, mental concentration, classical music, and ego-enhancing suggestions. (CFM)

  14. Learning Design Implementation in SCORM E-Learning Environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shoikova, Elena; Ivanova, Malinka

    2006-01-01

    Please, cite this publication as: Shoikova, L., & Ivanova, E. (2006). Learning Design Implementation in SCORM E-Learning Environment. Proceedings of International Workshop in Learning Networks for Lifelong Competence Development, TENCompetence Conference. March 30th-31st, Sofia, Bulgaria: TENCompete

  15. Frameworks of competence: common or specific?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grant, Simon

    2006-01-01

    Please, cite this publication as: Grant, S. (2006). Frameworks of competence: common or specific?. Proceedings of International Workshop in Learning Networks for Lifelong Competence Development, TENCompetence Conference. September 12th, Sofia, Bulgaria: TENCompetence. Retrieved June 30th, 2006, from

  16. 76 FR 2346 - Quarterly Update to Annual Listing of Foreign Government Subsidies on Articles of Cheese Subject...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-13

    ... in 19 U.S.C. 1677(6). \\3\\ The 27 member states of the European Union are: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland,...

  17. 10 CFR 110.30 - Members of the Nuclear Suppliers Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... MATERIAL Licenses § 110.30 Members of the Nuclear Suppliers Group. Argentina Australia Austria Belarus Belgium Brazil Bulgaria Canada Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Finland France Germany Greece Hungary...

  18. 77 FR 51758 - Quarterly Update to Annual Listing of Foreign Government Subsidies on Articles of Cheese Subject...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-27

    ...\\ Defined in 19 U.S.C. 1677(6). \\3\\ The 27 member states of the European Union are: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary,...

  19. Ethnographic Research of Romanians between Vidin, the Danube and Timoc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EMIL ŢÎRCOMNICU

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In the area between the Vidin, the Danube and the Timoc rivers, in North-Western Bulgaria, at the border with Serbia and Romania, there are over 30 villages and a town which are compactly inhabited by a population of Romanian ethnic origin. This space is a Romanian ethno-folkloric and linguistic extension, representing a connection with the other part of Timoc, in Serbia. The entire Timoc region, in Bulgaria and Serbia, is part of the cross-border European region. Today, Romanians in this area, as well as the Bulgarians and Serbs living in Romania could represent a bridge of cooperation between the three neighboring countries: Romania, Bulgaria and Serbia. In this article, we provide a historical, ethnological and social presentation of this Romanian community in Bulgaria, following research carried out in 2009.

  20. TENCompetence: an introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koper, Rob

    2006-01-01

    Koper, E. J. R. (2006). TENCompetence: an introduction. Presentation at TENCompetence Open Meeting. March, 30-31, 2006, Sofia, Bulgaria. Retrieved June 30th, 2006, from http://dspace.learningnetworks.org

  1. [Historia magistra vitae: on the methods of historical demography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botev, N

    1992-01-01

    Indirect estimation techniques are applied to data for Bulgaria from 1891 to 1958 to assess trends in population dynamics. An interdisciplinary approach is suggested for the study of countries where data are often incomplete. (SUMMARY IN ENG AND RUS)

  2. Stimulating Personal Development and Knowledge Sharing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koper, Rob; Stefanov, Krassen; Dicheva, Darina

    2009-01-01

    Koper, R., Stefanov, K., & Dicheva, D. (Eds.) (2009). Proceedings of the 5th International TENCompetence Open Workshop "Stimulating Personal Development and Knowledge Sharing". October, 30-31, 2008, Sofia, Bulgaria: TENCompetence Workshop.

  3. Migratory orientation of sedge warblers (Acrocephalus schoenobaenus) in relation to eating and exploratory behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchetti, C.M.; Zehtindjiev, P.

    2009-01-01

    Orientation tests performed with Emlen funnels show much variation. This scatter in responses can be partially explained by considering the birds' personalities. We studied a Passerine migrant, the Sedge Warbler (Acrocephalus schoenobaenus), on autumn passage at Kalimok Biological Station, Bulgaria.

  4. 48 CFR 252.225-7045 - Balance of Payments Program-Construction Material Under Trade Agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... (Aruba, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France...); (2) A Free Trade Agreement country (Australia, Bahrain, Canada, Chile, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Morocco, Nicaragua, Peru, or Singapore); (3) A...

  5. 48 CFR 52.225-11 - Buy American Act-Construction Materials under Trade Agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Government Procurement Agreement country (Aruba, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Cyprus, Czech Republic... United Kingdom); (2) A Free Trade Agreement country (Australia, Bahrain, Canada, Chile, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Morocco, Nicaragua, Oman, Peru, or...

  6. 48 CFR 52.225-5 - Trade Agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Agreement country (Aruba, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia... Taipei))”, or United Kingdom); (2) A Free Trade Agreement country (Australia, Bahrain, Canada, Chile, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Morocco, Nicaragua, Oman,...

  7. 1977 Bucharest, Romania Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — 1,500 reported killed, 10,500 injured, and extensive damage in the Bucharest area. Bulgaria reported 20 killed and 165 injured. Moscow reported some damage in the...

  8. Volt-Ampere characteristic of "black box" with a negative resistance

    CERN Document Server

    Manolev, Stojan G; Tomchev, Nikolay N; Mishonov, Todor M

    2016-01-01

    This problem was given at Third Experimental Physics Olympiad "The day of the resistor", 31 October 2015, Kumanovo, organized by the Regional Society of Physicists of Strumica, Macedonia and the Sofia Branch of the Union of Physicists in Bulgaria.

  9. Sharing personal knowlege over the Semantic Web

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kostadinov, Zlatko

    2006-01-01

    Please, cite this publication as: Kostadinov, Z. (2006). Sharing personal knowlege over the Semantic Web. Proceedings of International Workshop in Learning Networks for Lifelong Competence Development, TENCompetence Conference. September 12th, Sofia, Bulgaria: TENCompetence. Retrieved June 30th, 200

  10. 77 FR 74555 - Importation of Live Swine, Swine Semen, Pork, and Pork Products; Estonia, Hungary, Slovakia, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-17

    ... Health. To summarize, on January 4, 2011, FMD was detected in a single wild boar in Bulgaria. Since then... hog and pig producers as the small entities most likely to be affected by this action, and...

  11. New floristic records in the Balkans: 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    -14, 32, 65), Rosaceae (33, 66, 97), Rubiaceae (56, 73), Salicaceae (50), Scrophulariaceae (51), Valerianaceae (15) and Violaceae (57, 67). First reports for countries are: Bosnia & Herzegovina - Lactuca visianii (72), Potamogeton rutilus (29); Bulgaria - Convolvulus pilosellifolius (36), Deschampsia...

  12. The Determinants Of United States Government Policy And Practice Towards Offsets In International Trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-12-01

    terms to describe their offset programs.7 Examples of such terms include “Strategic Industry Development Activities ( SIDAs )” (Australia...governments include: Argentina, Australia, Bulgaria, Cameroon, Czech Republic, Chile , Colombia, Croatia, Estonia, Georgia, Jordan, Kyrgyz Republic

  13. Networked Learning in Networks: infrastructures for social learning & distributed innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloep, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Sloep, P. B. (2011, 1-3 September). Networked Learning in Networks: infrastructures for social learning & distributed innovation. Presentation at the Third International Conference on Software, Services and Semantic Technologies (S3T 2011), Bourgas, Bulgaria.

  14. A correlation study of major and trace elements in sediments of River Nestos, Northern Greece and comparison with other fluvial systems

    OpenAIRE

    Papastergios, Georgios; Georgakopoulos, Andreas; J. L. Fernandez-Turiel; Gimeno, D

    2009-01-01

    8 páginas, 1 figura, 2 tablas.-- Trabajo presentado en: 9th International Scientific Conference of Modern Management of Mine Producing, Geology and Environmental Protection SGEM 2009, 14-19 june 2009, Albena, Bulgaria.

  15. USSR Report, International Economic Relations, No. 56.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-05-18

    into the material basis for socialist integration. In the Basic Principles of the International Socialist Division of Labor the economic essence of...Bulgaria, Romania, Hungary). At the present time in the People’s Republic of Bulgaria enterprises pay a gross income regulation tax which, in essence ...road stretch rows of spreading acacia and eucalyptus trees. On the right through the luxurious crown of the trees one can see the plots of the

  16. Between Challenge and Limitation : Blogging the Bulgarian Elections 2011

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The constant change of the political, economic, cultural and environmental landscapes of global societies predetermined the upgrowth of the media, the journalistic writings and the blogging practices as a new way of “citizen journalism”. Political blogs are a quite new media phenomenon that gained popularity in the past few years in Bulgaria. Hence, there are limited theoretical case studies.  The lagging performance of Bulgaria in the last Reporters Without Borders Report 2011 together with ...

  17. Mayflies (Ephemeroptera, Insecta from Vrachanska Planina Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YANKA VIDINOVA

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Eighteen species, belonging to 7 subgenera, 11 genera and 7 families, are currently known from 8 sites of streams and rivers on the territory of Vrachanska Planina Mts. They represent 15,52 % of the mayflies known up to now for Bulgaria. Twelve species are newly reported for the mountain. Brief faunistic and zoogeographical notes are given. The conservation status of the species is also discussed. Ephemeroptera, faunistics, Vrachanska Planina Mts., NW Bulgaria.

  18. Development and reproduction of spider mites Tetranychus turkestani (Acari: Tetranychidae) under water deficit condition in soybeans

    OpenAIRE

    Ivelina Nikolova; Natalia Georgieva; Jordanka Naydenova

    2014-01-01

    One of the major pests of soybeans in Bulgaria is the spider mite Tetranychus turkestani Ug et Nik (Acari: Tetranychidae) and different results have been reported about the impact of water stress on its development and reproduction. Soybean plants exposed to natural infestation by spider mites, water deficit and treatment with imidacloprid were examined under greenhouse conditions at the Institute of Forage Crops, Pleven, Bulgaria, over the period 2011-2012...

  19. HIGH ENERGY PHYSICS: Bulgarians Sue CERN for Leniency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, R

    2000-10-13

    In cash-strapped Bulgaria, scientists are wondering whether a ticket for a front-row seat in high-energy physics is worth the price: Membership dues in CERN, the European particle physics lab, nearly equal the country's entire budget for competitive research grants. Faced with that grim statistic and a plea for leniency from Bulgaria's government, CERN's governing council is considering slashing the country's membership dues for the next 2 years.

  20. On the new record of the sheet-web spider Erigonoplus foveatus comb. nov. from Slovakia, with comments on Erigonoplus simplex (Araneae: Linyphiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hollá, Katarína

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Mecynargus foveatus (Dahl, 1912 was recorded in the territory of Slovakia for the first time. Within two years of spider research, a single adult male was collected by beating branches of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris in the Borská nížina lowland. We also discovered that specimens of Erigonoplus simplex Millidge, 1979 from Bulgaria were misidentified as M. foveatus. Therefore, we suggest to consider E. simplex as a new record for Bulgaria and to exclude M. foveatus from the spider fauna of Bulgaria. A revised distribution of both species is presented and discussed. Based on the high similarity to Erigonoplus, M. foveatus is transferred to this genus as Erigonoplus foveatus (Dahl, 1912 comb. nov.

  1. Study of the genus Cephennium Müler & Kunze, 1822 (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Scydmaeninae) from the Balkan Peninsula. Part II. New species of the subgenus Cephennium s. str.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevanović, Miroslav

    2014-07-18

    Twelve new species of the genus Cephennium Müler & Kunze, 1822 are described: C. (s. str.) irenae sp. n. (from Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Montenegro); C. (s. str.) sladjanae sp. n. and C. (s. str.) fallax sp. n. (both from Serbia and Bulgaria); C. (s. str.) viti sp. n. (from Serbia, Macedonia, Greece and Bulgaria); C. (s. str.) fairchildi sp. n., C. (s. str.) ivanjicense sp. n., C. (s. str.) serbicum sp. n. and C. (s. str.) remisianum sp. n. (all from Serbia); C. (s. str.) assingi sp. n. and C. (s. str.) angelinii sp. n. (both from Greece); C. (s. str.) mlejneki sp. n. (from Montenegro) and C. (s. str.) vitoshae sp. n. (from Bulgaria). Aedeagi and male protibiae of all species are illustrated. Cephennium (s. str.) bosnicum Ganglbauer, 1899 is redescribed and its lectotype is designated.

  2. Stoneflies (Plecoptera, Insecta from Vrachanska Planina Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VIOLETA TYUFEKCHIEVA

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This work summarizes both literature and new data on the fauna of Plecoptera (Insecta of the Vrachanska Planina Mountains, Bulgaria. A total of 20 species and seven subspecies are known from the mountain. The recorded stoneflies belong to 12 genera and seven families. They represent 25% of the 108 stoneflies currently known from Bulgaria. Among the 27 species that have been recorded, two are Critically Endangered (CR, one –Endangered (EN and ten – Vulnerable (VU. From a zoogeographical point of view, one subspecies and four species from the Plecoptera, recorded in Vrachanska Planina Mts., are Balkan endemics: Capnopsis schilleri balcanica Zwick, 1984, Leuctra balcanica Rauser, 1965, Leuctra hirsuta Bogoescu, Tabacaru, 1960, Nemoura braaschi Joost, 1970 and Isoperla belai Illies, 1963. Four of the recorded species are rare for Bulgaria.

  3. Instruments and Criteria for Research and Analysis of the Internet Visibility of Bulgarian Judicial Institutions WEB-Space*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayden Valkov Nenkov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available e-Justice has been under discussion at European level since 2007. The article describes some tools and displays objective criteria for evaluating the WEB-pages of judicial institutions in Bulgaria. A methodology is offered in order to improve the organization and functioning of the judicial institutions. It is used to conduct experimental tests for analysis and assessment of the main characteristics of the Bulgaria courts’ WEB-sites. The results provide grounds for findings and recommendations leading to improved communication and the presence of these institutions in the WEB.

  4. Measuring Plank constant with colour LEDs and compact disk

    CERN Document Server

    Gourev, Vassil N; Yordanov, Vasil G; Mishonov, Todor M

    2016-01-01

    This problem was given on the Open Experimental Physics Olympiad (OEPO) "The day of the photon" on 25 April 2015. The Olympiad was a part of the celebration of the International Year of Light (IYL) http://www.light2015.org/Home/Event-Programme/2015/Competition/Bulgaria-Second-Experimental-Physics-Olympiad--25-April-2015-in-Sofia.-The-Day-of-the-Photon-in-the-International-Year-of-the-Light.html and was organized by the Sofia Branch of the Union of Physicist in Bulgaria and the Regional Society of Physicists of Strumica, Macedonia.

  5. ЭПИДЕМИОЛОГИЯ ПРАВШЕСТВА-ЛЕВШЕСТВА В БОЛГАРИИ: ПОДТВЕРЖДЕНИЕ ГЕНЕТИЧЕСКОЙ МОДЕЛИ АННЕТТ И МАКМАНУС

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The population proportions of handedness in Bulgaria have been explored twice with a 15-year interval between them. Two separate analyses have been carried out with different subdivisions of the studied persons: left-handed/right-handed and non-right-handed/right-handed. Statistically significant differences between the results of both surveys have not been found. Aggregated data show that: left-handed people in Bulgaria comprise 6.5% of the population; 11.5% of all Bulgarians fall in the bro...

  6. Evidence supporting the Genetic Models of Annett and McManus

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The population proportions of handedness in Bulgaria have been explored twice with a 15-year interval between them. Two separate analyses have been carried out with different subdivisions of the studied persons: left-handed/right-handed and non-right-handed/right-handed. Statistically significant differences between the results of both surveys have not been found. Aggregated data show that: left-handed people in Bulgaria comprise 6.5% of the population; 11.5% of all Bulgarians fall in the bro...

  7. Coal-fired stations top emission league

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aegren, C.

    2004-12-01

    Topping the list of the greatest emitters of sulphur into the atmosphere in Europe are two large coal-fired power stations in Bulgaria (Maritsa II) and Spain (Puentes). These figures come from an updated survey of emissions from large point sources prepared by SENCO on behalf of the Swedish NGO Secretariat on Acid Rain. The article summarises the survey results and gives a table of the 100 largest emitters of sulphur dioxide in the European Union EU25 and accession countries (Bulgaria and Romania) together with author listing the 'best' fossil fuel power plants. 1 ref., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Compositional analyses of a Reutlingen Bronze Age sword discovered at Giurgiu, Romania

    CERN Document Server

    Olariu, A; Avram, A; Badica, T; Olariu, Agata; Alexandrescu, Emilian; Avram, Alexandru; Badica, Teodor

    2003-01-01

    The compositional scheme of a Bronze Age sword, found near the town of Giurgiu in Romania has been determined by the method of particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE), at the tandem accelerator of the National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering from Bucharest, Magurele, Romania. The results of the analyses and the comparison with the composition of other swords from the same geographic area, the Danubian plane from Bulgaria and Transylvania regions, show that the sword from Giurgiu could be relatively associated with the swords from Bulgaria, having also the same stylistic, temporal and geographical similitude.

  9. La Bulgarie devient le vingtième pays membre du CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Press Office. Geneva

    1999-01-01

    Bulgarian Accession to CERN At a ceremony during the Council meeting the Bulgarian flag was hoisted for the first time to join the other 19 flags of CERN's Member States. Mr Vesselin Metodiev, Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Education and Science of Bulgaria said: "One of the priorities of our Government is to develop and maintain competitive science in Bulgaria. Our membership in CERN is an important step in this direction as it will enable many Bulgarian scientists, engineers and technical staff to work at the leading edge of science and contemporary technologies."

  10. Lake Wobegon Upside Down: The Paradox of Status-Devaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sgourev, Stoyan V.

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines a cognitive bias whereby respondents in postcommunist Bulgaria systematically decrease their self estimates on material welfare in contrast to the well-established status-enhancement bias. The analysis shows that the main reason for the occurrence of status-devaluation is the experience of relative deprivation in postcommunism,…

  11. Euclidean Geometry via Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filimonov, Rossen; Kreith, Kurt

    1992-01-01

    Describes the Plane Geometry System computer software developed at the Educational Computer Systems laboratory in Sofia, Bulgaria. The system enables students to use the concept of "algorithm" to correspond to the process of "deductive proof" in the development of plane geometry. Provides an example of the software's capability and compares it to…

  12. East Europe Report, Scientific Affairs, No. 779

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    SCIENTIFIC AFFAIRS No. 779 CONTENTS BULGARIA Robots, Computers Using U.S. Patents Sold to GDR, USSR (Josep Rajman; ZERO UN INFORMATIQUE HEBDO, 25...ROBOTS, COMPUTERS USING U.S. PATENTS SOLD TO GDR, USSR Paris ZERO UN INFORMATIQUE HEBDO in French 25 Apr 83 p 61 [Article by Josep Rajman: "One

  13. M-Learning Systems Design--Technology and Pedagogy Aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourova, Elissaveta; Asenova, Asya; Dulev, Pavlin

    2013-01-01

    Technology developments face universities with many challenges--to integrate technologies in educational processes, design new electronic materials, change teaching styles, and better meet the demands of the technology-savvy generation. The paper considers problems of m-learning adoption in Bulgaria at one Faculty of the Technical…

  14. Protecting trees against virus diseases in the 21st century: genetic engineering of Plum pox virus resistance - from concept to product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharka disease, caused by Plum pox virus (PPV), was first recorded in Bulgaria during the early twentieth century. Since that first report, the disease has progressively spread throughout Europe where it has infected over 100 million stone fruit trees. From Europe, sharka disease spread to Asia, A...

  15. D 6.4a

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spreckelsen, Thees; Leschke, Janine; Seeleib-Kaiser, Martin

    This papers examines the quantitative and qualitative labour market integration of recent young EU migrant citizens in Germany and the UK, separately for citizens from Central and Eastern Europe (CEE), Romania and Bulgaria, and Southern European countries. It estimates weighted-proportions from G...

  16. Worldwide Emerging Environmental Issues Affecting the U.S. Military. January 2007 Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    environment/eu-seeks-global-mercury-ban/article-160845 Halting the Child Brain Drain. Why we need to tackle global mercury contamination http://www.env...by the Parties. Among them there are 3 NGO representatives: Diana Iskreva- Indigo , NGO "Earth forever", Bulgaria, nominated by Switzerland; Sergey

  17. Problems in the Deployment of Learning Networks In Small Organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shankle, Dean E.; Shankle, Jeremy P.

    2006-01-01

    Please, cite this publication as: Shankle, D.E., & Shankle, J.P. (2006). Problems in the Deployment of Learning Networks In Small Organizations. Proceedings of International Workshop in Learning Networks for Lifelong Competence Development, TENCompetence Conference. March 30th-31st, Sofia, Bulgaria:

  18. Problems in the Deployment of Learning Networks In Small Organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Shankle, Dean E.; Shankle, Jeremy P.

    2006-01-01

    Please, cite this publication as: Shankle, D.E., & Shankle, J.P. (2006). Problems in the Deployment of Learning Networks In Small Organizations. Proceedings of International Workshop in Learning Networks for Lifelong Competence Development, TENCompetence Conference. March 30th-31st, Sofia, Bulgaria: TENCompetence. Retrieved June 30th, 2006, from http://dspace.learningnetworks.org

  19. Research in Seismology: Earthquake Magnitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-07-18

    for 1 January 1972 through 30 June 1972 are: no. 21 (Central Italy), 43 (Tibet), ^ (Yugoslavia), ^ (S. SinKiang ), 91 (N... Sinkiang ), 129 (Greece-Bulgaria), ISO (E. Honshu) and 145 (Caspian Sea). This is about 6% of the total number of events

  20. Admissions Policies as a Mechanism for Social Engineering: The Case of the Bulgarian Communist Regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyadjieva, Pepka Alexandrova

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses admissions policies to higher education during the Communist regime in Bulgaria (1946-89). It argues that under the conditions of the Bulgarian Communist regime, admissions policies were not only a component of the higher education system--viewed as an institution--but part and parcel of the process through which power was…