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Sample records for bulgaria moss survey

  1. New Results from Air Pollution Studies in Bulgaria (Moss Survey 2000-2001)

    CERN Document Server

    Stamenov, J N; Vachev, B; Gueleva, E; Yurukova, L; Ganeva, A; Mitrikov, M; Antonov, A; Srentz, A; Varbanov, Z; Batov, I V; Damov, K; Marinova, E; Frontasyeva, M V; Pavlov, S S; Strelkova, L P

    2002-01-01

    New results of moss survey 2000 of systematic study of air pollution with heavy metals and other toxic elements in Bulgaria are reported. The moss samples collected at 103 sites in Bulgaria, along the borders with Yugoslavia, Macedonia, Greece and Turkey were analyzed by instrumental activation analysis using epithermal neutrons (ENAA) at the IBR-2 pulsed fast reactor for a wide set of elements including heavy metals and rare earth elements (Na, Mg, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, As, Se, Br, Rb, Sr, Mo, Sb, I, Cs, Ba, La, Sm, Tb, Yb, Hf, Ta, W, Au, Th, and U). The results obtained are consistent with the mean European values for most of elements. The principle component analysis is applied to distinguish heavy and light crust elements and vegetation ones from those of anthropogenic origin.

  2. New results from air pollution studies in Bulgaria (moss survey 2000-2001)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New results of moss survey 2000 of systematic study of air pollution with heavy metals and other toxic elements in Bulgaria are reported. The moss samples collected at 103 sites in Bulgaria, along the borders with Yugoslavia, Macedonia, Greece and Turkey were analyzed by instrumental activation analysis using epithermal neutrons (ENAA) at the IBR-2 pulsed fast reactor for a wide set of elements including heavy metals and rare earth elements (Na, Mg, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, As, Se, Br, Rb, Sr, Mo, Sb, I, Cs, Ba, La, Sm, Tb, Yb, Hf, Ta, W, Au, Th, and U). The results obtained are consistent with the mean European values for most of elements. The principle component analysis is applied to distinguish heavy and light crust elements and vegetation ones from those of anthropogenic origin

  3. Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document provides information on the status of institutional and financial arrangements in Bulgaria for the long term management of HLW and SNF, It includes the following elements: A consistent set of requirements for the technical and legal infrastructure including: funding, liability, institutional control, records management, and research activities; An organizational structure with clearly defined responsibilities; and Provisions for participation by interested parties in decisions and outcomes

  4. Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the Convention on Nuclear Safety, Bulgaria should ensure that sufficient numbers of qualified staff with appropriate education, training and retraining are available for all safety related activities in or for each nuclear installation, throughout its lifetime. The development of the nuclear sector is closely related to the education and training of a sufficient number of skilled and qualified specialists in the following directions: - Fundamental and application nuclear science; - Nuclear energetic; - Nuclear I and C industry and microelectronics; - Civil engineering; - Nuclear safety and emergency planning; - Ecology and radioactive waste management; - Economical aspects of nuclear technology; - Security of nuclear installations and non-proliferation. The development and maintenance of a state of the art system for education and training of nuclear installations personnel is crucial for the safety and the reliable and efficient operation of nuclear power plants. The major task of the government, academic community and nuclear industry sector is to preserve existing nuclear expertise and to implement a successive approach to set up a three level qualified personnel - undergraduate education, graduate and post-graduate education and specialized training. Education in Nuclear Science at university level in Bulgaria exists since 1939, when E. Karamihailova began to teach a course on Experimental Atomic Physics and Radioactivity at the University of Sofia. A few years later (1945) she founded the Department of Atomic Physics. Later, in 1962 K. Kostadinov gave the first lectures in radiochemistry as an optional course at the Faculty of Chemistry. Specialized education at the MSc level started in 1972: in nuclear engineering at the Faculty of Physics and in radiochemistry at the Faculty of Chemistry, both at the University of Sofia. Nowadays, there are three departments at the University of Sofia, which, along with the Technical University of Sofia, form

  5. Pilot survey of patient dose from computed tomography in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The number of computed tomography (CT) scanners in Bulgaria increased from 22 in 1996 to more than 160 in 2007. Big variety of scanners of different manufacturers and different generations exists in the country with predominant number of single-slice scanners. Significant part of the scanners is more than 10 years old. This work presents the pilot results from the measurements of CT dose quantities started in 2005 with the aim to spread them to a national survey of CT practice in the country. It was found that different clinical protocols are used for similar examination, resulting in large variations in dose quantities: CT air kerma index varied from 27.1 to 78.4 mGy for head examination, from 8.7 to 28.3 mGy for chest, 11.8 - 30.7 mGy for abdomen and 9.1 - 41.3 mGy for pelvis. The CT air kerma-length product for complete examination was found to vary from 310 to 1254 mGy.cm for head examination, from 215 to 893 mGy.cm for chest, from 265 to 615 mGy.cm for abdomen and from 220 to 761 mGy.cm for pelvis. The analysis demonstrated that the main reasons for found variations are differences in scanning geometry, beam quality, exposure parameters and scanning length. (author)

  6. First survey of atmospheric heavy metal deposition in Kosovo using moss biomonitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxhuni, Albert; Lazo, Pranvera; Kane, Sonila; Qarri, Flora; Marku, Elda; Harmens, Harry

    2016-01-01

    Bryophytes act as bioindicators and bioaccumulators of metal deposition in the environment. The atmospheric deposition of Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Ni, Mn, Pb, and Zn in Kosovo was investigated by using carpet-forming moss species (Pseudocleropodium purum and Hypnum cupressiforme) as bioindicators. This research is part of the European moss survey coordinated by the ICP Vegetation, an International Cooperative Programme reporting on the effects of air pollution on vegetation to the UNECE Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution. Sampling was performed during the summer of 2011 at 25 sampling sites homogenously distributed over Kosovo. Unwashed, dried samples were digested by using wet digestion in Teflon tubes. The concentrations of metal elements were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) equipped with flame and/or furnace systems. The heavy metal concentration in mosses reflected local emission sources. The data obtained in this study were compared with those of similar studies in neighboring countries and Europe (2010-2014 survey). The geographical distribution maps of the elements over the sampled territory were constructed using geographic information system (GIS) technology. The concentrations of Cr, Ni, Pb, and Zn were higher than the respective median values of Europe, suggesting that the zones with heavy vehicular traffic and industry emission input are important emitters of these elements. Selected zones are highly polluted particularly by Cd, Pb, Hg, and Ni. The statistical analyses revealed that a strong correlation exists between the Pb and Cd content in mosses, and the degree of pollution in the studied sites was assessed. PMID:26336845

  7. A Ten-Year Molecular Survey on Parvoviruses Infecting Carnivores in Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipov, C; Desario, C; Patouchas, O; Eftimov, P; Gruichev, G; Manov, V; Filipov, G; Buonavoglia, C; Decaro, N

    2016-08-01

    Parvoviruses represent the most important infectious agents that are responsible for severe to fatal disease in carnivores. This study reports the results of a 10-year molecular survey conducted on carnivores in Bulgaria (n = 344), including 262 dogs and 19 cats with gastroenteritis, and 57 hunted wild carnivores. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), followed by virus characterization by minor groove binder (MGB) probe assays, detected 216 parvovirus positive dogs with a predominance of canine parvovirus type 2a (CPV-2a, 79.17%) over CPV-2b (18.52%) and CPV-2c (2.31%). Rottweilers and German shepherds were the most frequent breeds among CPV-positive pedigree dogs (n = 96). Eighteen cats were found to shed parvoviruses in their faeces, with most strains being characterized as FPLV (n = 17), although a single specimen tested positive for CPV-2a. Only two wild carnivores were parvovirus positive, a wolf (Canis lupus) and a red fox (Vulpes vulpes), both being infected by CPV-2a strains. PMID:25382194

  8. QUESTIONNAIRE SURVEY ON CRANIOMANDIBULAR DISORDER ISSUES IN STUDENTS' AND POST-GRADUATE TRAINING IN BULGARIA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Dimova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of craniomandibular disorders (CMD among the Bulgarian population as well as the risk factors for unlocking bruxism and bruxomania mechanisms pose a demand for education on these issues reflecting modern science. The authors' aim is to examine the subjective assessment of participants in “DAYS OF PROSTHETICS, Sofia, 15 -16 March 2014”, regarding: 1.Prevelance of CMD in the country; 2. Education and training of students and post-graduates in the issues related to diagnostics and treatment of craniomandibular disorders; 3. Theoretical background for successful treatment of patients with bruxism and bruxomania. Materials and methods: For the purpose of the present research 192 participants have been surveyed - among them 163 are dentists and 29 are students in the 4th and 5th year of study. The survey feedback has been obtained via an anonymous questionnaire consisting of 8 questions targeted at dentists' assessment of CMD prevalence and distribution, training in CMD issues in Bulgaria and the treatment of patients with bruxism and bruxomania. The results obtained indicate that 84.0% - 93.1% (95% CI of respondents, working as dentists in the country, expressed the view that students' curriculum lacks an overall concept for training them in the diagnostics and treatment of CMD. 79.6% - 90.2% (95% CI of participants, dentists in the country, define post-graduate training in CMD as insufficient or lacking. Conclusion: The development and promotion of a working platform for early screening, diagnostics and treatment of CMD for timely referral to a specialized treatment is necessary and expected by the professional community in our country.

  9. Flora of the Mediterranean Rivers in Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Yordanka G. Hristeva; Gana M. Gecheva; Karin Pall

    2015-01-01

    Species composition and distribution of aquatic bryophytes and vascular plants assemblages in Mediteranean Rivers in Bulgaria are presented in this work. Aquatic macrophytes were studied at thirteen rivers in South Bulgaria during 2014, together with abiotic factors (flow velocity, shading, and substrate type), mean depth and altitude. In total, 73 species were registered, of them 13 bryophytes and 60 vascular plants were identified. Aquatic bryophytes included 10 mosses and 3 liverworts. The...

  10. The Sardinian type underground well temple at Garlo, Bulgaria: an architectural and astronomical survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsonev, Lyubomir; Kolev, Dimiter

    2014-07-01

    In this paper we describe a rare but relatively well-preserved Sardinian type underground well temple located at the village of Garlo, in Bulgaria. This dates to the fourteenth or thirteenth century BCE, and contains some unique architectural features. We postulate that the Garlo temple was used during the winter solstice for rituals associated with the 'newly-born Sun', underground water and the start of the new annual cycle of life. Solar and water cults are known from ancient Thrace, but previously they have never been combined in this way.

  11. Spatially valid data of atmospheric deposition of heavy metals and nitrogen derived by moss surveys for pollution risk assessments of ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Winfried; Nickel, Stefan; Schönrock, Simon; Meyer, Michaela; Wosniok, Werner; Harmens, Harry; Frontasyeva, Marina V; Alber, Renate; Aleksiayenak, Julia; Barandovski, Lambe; Carballeira, Alejo; Danielsson, Helena; de Temmermann, Ludwig; Godzik, Barbara; Jeran, Zvonka; Karlsson, Gunilla Pihl; Lazo, Pranvera; Leblond, Sebastien; Lindroos, Antti-Jussi; Liiv, Siiri; Magnússon, Sigurður H; Mankovska, Blanka; Martínez-Abaigar, Javier; Piispanen, Juha; Poikolainen, Jarmo; Popescu, Ion V; Qarri, Flora; Santamaria, Jesus Miguel; Skudnik, Mitja; Špirić, Zdravko; Stafilov, Trajce; Steinnes, Eiliv; Stihi, Claudia; Thöni, Lotti; Uggerud, Hilde Thelle; Zechmeister, Harald G

    2016-06-01

    For analysing element input into ecosystems and associated risks due to atmospheric deposition, element concentrations in moss provide complementary and time-integrated data at high spatial resolution every 5 years since 1990. The paper reviews (1) minimum sample sizes needed for reliable, statistical estimation of mean values at four different spatial scales (European and national level as well as landscape-specific level covering Europe and single countries); (2) trends of heavy metal (HM) and nitrogen (N) concentrations in moss in Europe (1990-2010); (3) correlations between concentrations of HM in moss and soil specimens collected across Norway (1990-2010); and (4) canopy drip-induced site-specific variation of N concentration in moss sampled in seven European countries (1990-2013). While the minimum sample sizes on the European and national level were achieved without exception, for some ecological land classes and elements, the coverage with sampling sites should be improved. The decline in emission and subsequent atmospheric deposition of HM across Europe has resulted in decreasing HM concentrations in moss between 1990 and 2010. In contrast, hardly any changes were observed for N in moss between 2005, when N was included into the survey for the first time, and 2010. In Norway, both, the moss and the soil survey data sets, were correlated, indicating a decrease of HM concentrations in moss and soil. At the site level, the average N deposition inside of forests was almost three times higher than the average N deposition outside of forests. PMID:27068915

  12. Habitats, Distribution And Population Density Otter Survey In the Western Rhodopes Mountains (Southern Bulgaria

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    Georgiev D.

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to investigate the otter habitats, their conditions in the Rhodopes Mountains (Bulgaria and the effect on the otter distribution and population density. The investigation was carried out during the period 2004-2006.The continually used (core habitats were: 1. large high mountain dams combined with headstreams. These were all at altitudes above 1000 meters. The effect of ecotone between the two habitats (dams and headstreams ensures food supply, shelter and space throughout the year. The otter was found in all such dams in the Western Rhodopes: Golyam Beglik, Shiroka Polyana and Batak. When all the bankside of Golyam Beglik Dam (21.8 km was searched, only one possible resident female was found. On Batak Dam (30.0 km, there were three possible resident females and one adult male; 2. Medium sized rivers. The otter was found in all such rivers in the Rhodopes. On a stretch of Chaya River between Jugovsko Hanche and Asenovgrad Town (14.5 km, two possible resident females, one adult and one sub-adult male, were recorded. On the Parvenetzka River, there were 2 possible resident female otters per 24 river kilometres; 3. Large Dams with steep banks in the lower parts of the mountain. The otter was found at Dospat Dam; no data for the population density was estimated.Temporarily used habitats and bank vegetation associations were also assessed according to their usage by the otters in the area and their conservation status.

  13. Economics - Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitrov, Mitko

    2002-01-01

    This paper outlines the overall picture of the state of economic science in Bulgaria in the early 21st century, achieved as a result of changes in it since 1989. The analysis is carried out in five main areas - redefining the discipline, basic theoretical and methodological orientations, thematic orientation and funding, public space and academic debates and views on further development. The situation before 1989 is briefly presented, in order to understand more clearly the problems and proce...

  14. Combination of multielement technique (INAA and ICP-MS) for a French air pollution bio-monitoring survey using mosses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work presents the use of two trace analysis techniques through the data obtained for a significant part of the 557 mosses sampled in France. Sampling were made within the framework of European survey carried out in 1995-1996 and proposed by the Nordic Council. The analyses were produced with a combination of two multielement analysis techniques: INAA (Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis) and ICP-MS (Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry). Theses two techniques were suitable for trace analyses in mosses. They were clearly complementary and provided for 36 elements including the heavy metals of key interest in air pollution studies. The choice of the technique for a given element depended on the feasibility (e g. Pb is not attainable by INAA), the detection limit, the analytical variability, the preparation procedures and the concentration ranges (5-100 μg/g for Pb, 0.5-5 μg/g for As). INAA measured the total content in the sample, while ICP-MS demanded a mineralization procedure resulting in losses/contamination hazards. Thus, INAA results were preferred, although this technique was time consuming. However the ICP-MS results for Cd, Cu, Ni and Pb were retained, for different reasons: detection limits (Cd, Cu), no convenient INAA conditions (Ni), and feasibility (Pb). (authors)

  15. Pharmacy in medieval Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonova, J

    2007-06-01

    A survey of the state of pharmacy in medieval Bulgaria is done, analyzing written records of various origin and content. Written documents are reviewed separately in chronological order. They all seem to lend support to the conclusion that realism is a characteristic feature of pharmacy in medieval Bulgaria. Mysticism and superstition are relatively rarely resorted to, precedence is given to real treatment with suitable and not so suitable medical plants, minerals and animal products. Relatively weak is the impact of West-European medicine and pharmacy because of the different influence of the Eastern and the Western Orthodox religion, and partly because of the territorial remoteness. During the High Middle Ages Bulgarian pharmacy developed under the influence of Hellenic ancient culture. Later, after the 15 century, the influence of the Arabian culture and medicine is also felt as a result of the complex compilation between the Bulgarian and Ottoman culture during the 500-year Turkish yoke. PMID:17663197

  16. Information Society Development in Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Chobanova, Rossitsa

    2003-01-01

    The rapidly changing nature of modern societies needs to enable the benchmarking of progress through statistical indicators. The book is taking up the challenge of using newly developed innovative information society indicators, tested and piloted in a representative survey held in all EU Member States, Switzerland and the United States in 2002 and in ten new associated states in 2003. The first part of the book concerns benchmarking Information society development in Bulgaria. The topics...

  17. Information Society Development in Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Chobanova, Rossitsa

    2003-01-01

    The rapidly changing nature of modern societies needs to enable the benchmarking of progress through statistical indicators. The book is taking up the challenge of using newly developed innovative information society indicators, tested and piloted in a representative survey held in all EU Member States, Switzerland and the United States in 2002 and in ten new associated states in 2003. The first part of the book concerns benchmarking Information society development in Bulgaria. The topics pre...

  18. Bulgaria : Poverty Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2002-01-01

    The sharp reduction in poverty in Bulgaria since the 1997 crisis highlights the role of effective economic stabilization policies and the social safety nets in improving the living conditions of the population. The nature of poverty in Bulgaria has changed since 1997, when poverty for many households was a transient phenomenon resulting from the immediate shock of hyperinflation and sharpl...

  19. Rabbit production in Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitrova Ivona; Dimitrov Tz.; Teneva A.; Tzvetkova H.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the study was to present the situation of rabbit production in Bulgaria. As a whole the rabbit production in Bulgaria is in extensive stage. To change it as intensive or semi intensive it need to improve selection and feeding systems, to concentrate the farm, and to build new more modern farms with control systems of microclimatic parameters and which covered veterinarian requirements.

  20. Nitrogen concentrations in mosses indicate the spatial distribution of atmospheric nitrogen deposition in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harmens, H., E-mail: hh@ceh.ac.uk [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Environment Centre Wales, Deiniol Road, Bangor, Gwynedd LL57 2UW (United Kingdom); Norris, D.A., E-mail: danor@ceh.ac.uk [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Environment Centre Wales, Deiniol Road, Bangor, Gwynedd LL57 2UW (United Kingdom); Cooper, D.M., E-mail: cooper@ceh.ac.uk [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Environment Centre Wales, Deiniol Road, Bangor, Gwynedd LL57 2UW (United Kingdom); Mills, G., E-mail: gmi@ceh.ac.uk [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Environment Centre Wales, Deiniol Road, Bangor, Gwynedd LL57 2UW (United Kingdom); Steinnes, E., E-mail: Eiliv.Steinnes@chem.ntnu.no [Department of Chemistry, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, 7491 Trondheim (Norway); Kubin, E., E-mail: Eero.Kubin@metla.fi [Finnish Forest Research Institute, Kirkkosaarentie 7, 91500 Muhos (Finland); Thoeni, L., E-mail: lotti.thoeni@fub-ag.ch [FUB-Research Group for Environmental Monitoring, Alte Jonastrasse 83, 8640 Rapperswil (Switzerland); Aboal, J.R., E-mail: jesusramon.aboal@usc.es [University of Santiago de Compostela, Faculty of Biology, Department of Ecology, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Alber, R., E-mail: Renate.Alber@provinz.bz.it [Environmental Agency of Bolzano, 39055 Laives (Italy); Carballeira, A., E-mail: alejo.carballeira@usc.es [University of Santiago de Compostela, Faculty of Biology, Department of Ecology, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Coskun, M., E-mail: coskunafm@yahoo.com [Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biology, 17100 Canakkale (Turkey); De Temmerman, L., E-mail: ludet@var.fgov.be [Veterinary and Agrochemical Research Centre, Tervuren (Belgium); Frolova, M., E-mail: marina.frolova@lvgma.gov.lv [Latvian Environment, Geology and Meteorology Agency, Riga (Latvia); Gonzalez-Miqueo, L., E-mail: lgonzale2@alumni.unav.es [Univ. of Navarra, Irunlarrea No 1, 31008 Pamplona (Spain)

    2011-10-15

    In 2005/6, nearly 3000 moss samples from (semi-)natural location across 16 European countries were collected for nitrogen analysis. The lowest total nitrogen concentrations in mosses (<0.8%) were observed in northern Finland and northern UK. The highest concentrations ({>=}1.6%) were found in parts of Belgium, France, Germany, Slovakia, Slovenia and Bulgaria. The asymptotic relationship between the nitrogen concentrations in mosses and EMEP modelled nitrogen deposition (averaged per 50 km x 50 km grid) across Europe showed less scatter when there were at least five moss sampling sites per grid. Factors potentially contributing to the scatter are discussed. In Switzerland, a strong (r{sup 2} = 0.91) linear relationship was found between the total nitrogen concentration in mosses and measured site-specific bulk nitrogen deposition rates. The total nitrogen concentrations in mosses complement deposition measurements, helping to identify areas in Europe at risk from high nitrogen deposition at a high spatial resolution. - Highlights: > Nitrogen concentrations in mosses were determined at ca. 3000 sites across Europe. > Moss concentrations were compared with EMEP modelled nitrogen deposition. > The asymptotic relationship for Europe showed saturation at ca. 15 kg N ha{sup -1} y{sup -1}. > Linear relationships were found with measured nitrogen deposition in some countries. > Moss concentrations complement deposition measurements at high spatial resolution. - Mosses as biomonitors of atmospheric nitrogen deposition in Europe.

  1. Flora of the Mediterranean Rivers in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yordanka G. Hristeva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Species composition and distribution of aquatic bryophytes and vascular plants assemblages in Mediteranean Rivers in Bulgaria are presented in this work. Aquatic macrophytes were studied at thirteen rivers in South Bulgaria during 2014, together with abiotic factors (flow velocity, shading, and substrate type, mean depth and altitude. In total, 73 species were registered, of them 13 bryophytes and 60 vascular plants were identified. Aquatic bryophytes included 10 mosses and 3 liverworts. The recorded bryophytes species refer to 7 families and 12 genera. The most frequently distributed species was Leptodictyum riparium (Hedw. Warnst., followed by Cratoneuron filicinum (Hedw. Spruce and Platyhypnidium riparioides (Hedw. Dixon, Brachythecium rivulare Schimp. and Hygroamblystegium tenax (Hedw. Jenn. The recorded 60 species of vascular plants refer to 25 families and 43 genera. The most common hydrophyte species was Lemna minor L., followed by Ranunculus trichophyllus Chaix, Myriophyllum spicatum L. and Potamogeton nodosus Poir. The most abundant species from the group of helophytes and amphiphytes was Mentha aquatica L., followed by Agrostis stolonifera L. Mentha spicata L., Berula erecta (Huds. Coville, Juncus effusus L., Lycopus europaeus L., Lythrum salicaria L., Phalaris arundinacea L., Ranunculus repens L., Sparganium erectum L., Typha latifolia L., and Veronica anagalis-aquatica L. The majority of studied rivers sites were sunny, with moderate velocity, stony bottom, average depth up to 0.3 m and altitude between 100 and 500 m a.s.l.

  2. ENERDATA energetic line: Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Here is a brief description of the energy situation in Bulgaria: in first is given who is responsible of energy policy and then the energy resources and supplies are detailed; the situation of nuclear power is noticed and then the consumption is reviewed with which sector is consumer and how much does it consumes. 2 figs., 1 tab

  3. Public Information in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear power program started in Bulgaria by the construction of Kozloduy NPP where the units 1 to 4 (WWER 440/B-230 reactors) were commissioned in 1974, 1975, 1980 and 1982. Units 5 and 6 (WWER 1000/B-320) were put in operation in 1988 and 1993, respectively. Kozloduy NPP share in the total electricity generation in Bulgaria is ∼ 45%. The following main principles of the information policy are discussed: - The public should be openly, clearly and consistently informed about all issues impacting its safety and prosperity; - The nuclear program is one of the basic elements supporting the country economics and the necessary component of the solid energy industry. As objectives, this activity has the goals to accumulate the capital of public trust towards Kozloduy NPP as a safe, reliable and environment friendly source of energy and to gain public support to further development of the nuclear power industry in Bulgaria. As strategies and tactics one acts towards: creation of transparent information medium of the plant work; creation of a favourable public image of the plant; proactive approach to key opinion makers; enhancement of the public nuclear culture; provision of constant flow of reliable information on the status of the plant, safety and environment; systematic approach to the public relation (PR) programs; implementation of good practices and cooperation with PR services. The Kozloduy NPP Information Center and PR activities are then presented. The talk ends with a review of the media image of nuclear industry in Bulgaria. It results that the Nuclear Energy is attacked rather by the politicians than by the experts (35% vs 26%) and is defended rather by the experts than by politicians (48% vs 25%). Also, one finds that 54% of the publications are neutral, 30% are optimistic while 16% are catastrophic

  4. Restructuring in SMEs: Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Krastenova, Elena; PAVLOV, Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    Based on information derived from 85 case studies across all EU Member States and other sources, the project outlines the features peculiar to SMEs in their anticipation and management of restructuring, explores the main drivers of change and analyses the factors influencing successful restructuring. It offers some insight into how restructuring impacts on workers and the company itself and sets out several policy pointers for future action. This is the country report for Bulgaria.

  5. Budgeting in Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Ian Hawkesworth; Richard Emery; Joachim Wehner; Kristin Saenger

    2009-01-01

    Bulgaria’s budget management has seen a series of structural and procedural reforms, including in budget execution, treasury functions, internal audit, and programme and medium-term budgeting. This article discusses the use of modern budgeting techniques in Bulgaria such as top-down budgeting, multi-year budgeting perspectives and the use of performance information in the budget process, and makes recommendations for budget formulation, the role of Parliament, budget execution and management ...

  6. Regulatory framework in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basis of current nuclear safety legislation in Bulgaria was established in 1985 when a new Law on the Use of Atomic Energy for Peaceful Purposes was issued by National Assembly Decree. The content of the law and the main amendments from 1995 are briefly described. Regulations in the field of radiation protection, developed by the Committee on the Use of Atomic Energy for Peaceful Purposes (CUAEPP) and other Ministries, are also presented

  7. Thysanoptera of Bulgaria

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    Olia Karadjova

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The present checklist includes data on the species composition, geographic distribution and feeding preferences of thrips species in Bulgaria. In total, 155 species in 48 genera are listed. Of these, 125 species belong to suborder Terebrantia and include 103 species of 33 genera in family Thripidae, 14 species of two genera in Aeolothripidae, seven species of two genera in Melanthripidae and one species in Fauriellidae. In suborder Tubulifera, 30 species of 10 genera in the single family Phlaeothripidae are listed. Of the 155 Bulgarian thrips species, 87.7% are phytophagous, 4.5% are obligate predators, 5.8% are mycophagous and 1.9% are with unknown feeding preferences. Fourteen pest species are listed for Bulgaria, of which Frankliniella occidentalis, Thrips tabaci and Haplothrips tritici are of economic importance. The list provides detailed information on the horizontal and vertical distribution of Thysanoptera in 5 regions and 45 subregions of Bulgaria. The present paper also includes an evaluation of the biodiversity of Thysanoptera and the extent to which each region of the country has been studied.

  8. Chemical Education in Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garkov, Vladimir N.

    1999-08-01

    The sociopolitical changes in Eastern Europe of the 1990s and the ongoing globalization of the chemical industry and chemical education prompted this analysis of the current status of chemical education in Bulgaria, which is not very different from the educational practices in the rest of Europe. The level of chemistry knowledge expected from all high-school graduates in Bulgaria is roughly equivalent to the general and organic chemistry courses for science majors at U.S. universities. The newly introduced four-year bachelor's degree curriculum (based on 15-week semesters) at the University of Sofia includes a core of 106 semester hours (labs counted as 1 hour each), 41 semester hours of electives, and 445 contact hours (11 weeks) of research, which ends with a thesis defense. The instructional techniques in Bulgaria are subject-centered and follow the hierarchical structure of knowledge in an integrated and unitary manner. In conclusion, the Bulgarian system of education in chemistry aims at preparing a scientifically literate citizenry and broadly trained chemists by imposing a very challenging and rigid curriculum with very few choices. It is speculated that the laissez-faire climate of free intellectual initiative seen only at American universities provides a more appropriate environment for talent encouragement and scientific innovation for overseas-educated undergraduate and graduate students than their home institutions.

  9. First Europe-wide correlation analysis identifying factors best explaining the total nitrogen concentration in mosses

    OpenAIRE

    Schröder, Winfried; Holy, Marcel; Pesch, Roland; Harmens, Harry; Fagerli, Hilde; Alber, Renate; COŞKUN, Mahmut; De Temmerman, Ludwig; Frolova, Marina; González-Miqueo, Laura; Jeran, Zvonka; Kubin, Eero; Leblond, Sébastien; Liiv, Siiri; Maňkovská, Blanka

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the indicative value of mosses as biomonitors of atmospheric nitrogen (N) depositions and air concentrations on the one hand and site-specific and regional factors which explain best the total N concentration in mosses on the other hand were investigated for the first time at a European scale using correlation analyses. The analyses included data from mosses collected from 2781 sites across Europe within the framework of the European moss survey 2005/6, which was coordinated by...

  10. Air Pollution with Heavy Metals and Radionuclides in Slovakia Studied by the Moss Biomonitoring Technique

    CERN Document Server

    Florek, M; Mankovska, B; Oprea, K; Pavlov, S S; Steinnes, E; Sykora, I

    2001-01-01

    Applying the moss biomonitoring technique to air pollution studies in Slovakia, heavy metals, rare-earth elements, actinides (U and Th) were determined in 86 moss samples from the European moss survey 2000 by means of epithermal neutron activation analysis at the IBR-2 reactor (Dubna). Such elements as In, Cu, Cd, Hg and Pb were determined by AAS in the Forest Research Institute, Zvolen (Slovakia). The results of measurement of the natural radionuclides ^{210}Pb, ^{7}Be, ^{137}Cs and ^{40}K in 11 samples of moss are also reported. A comparison with the results from moss surveys 1991 and 1995 revealed previously unknown tendencies of air pollution in the examined areas.

  11. Managing fiscal risk in Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Brixi, Hana Polackova; Shatalov, Sergei; Zlaoui, Leila

    2000-01-01

    To understand the fiscal position of a country, contingent liabilities and other sources of fiscal risk need to be considered. The authors develop a framework to assess and manage fiscal risk in Bulgaria. Bulgaria's Currency Board Arrangement has effectively imposed fiscal discipline, but leaves only limited room to accommodate potential fiscal shocks. Through risks embedded in the portfol...

  12. Individual monitoring in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The state of individual external exposure monitoring and the outlooks of its development are discussed. The principles and organization of monitoring settled by the current regulations are outlined. The reasons for the dominating use of the film dosimeter (FD) in regular monitoring are given, as well as the prerequisites for the wider use of thermoluminescence dosimetric systems (TLD) in this respect. Technical and dosimetric information about the individual dosimetric systems in Bulgaria is presented. ( FD, TLD, ionization), applied in regular and operative monitoring. Approximately 10000 persons are included in the system of control. The results of the measurements, the calibration of dosimeters ( FD is calibrated with photon irradiation Eeff.=42KeV and 662 KeV 137Cs and TLD is calibrated with 137Cs or 60Co) and the quality of measurements are subject of discussion. The task of the specialists engaged in individual monitoring is to work out methods for measurement of the individual equivalent dose Hp(10) by dosimeters in use Bulgaria. The creation of a National Register for Individual Doses is a major task still awaiting solution

  13. Uranium geology of Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three major uranium districts containing several deposits, plus 32 additional deposits, have been identified in Bulgaria, all of which are detailed geologically in this article. Most of the deposits are located in the West Balkan mountains, the western Rhodope mountains, and the Thracian Basin. A few deposits occur in the East Balkan, eastern Rhodope and Sredna Gora mountains. The types of deposits are sandstone, vein, volcanic, and surficial. Sandstone deposits are hosted in Permian and Tertiary sediments. In early 1992, fifteen deposits were being exploited, of which roughly 70 percent of the uranium produced was being recovered using in-situ leaching (ISL) methods. The remainder was being recovered by conventional underground mining, except for one small deposit that utilized open-pit methods. Fifteen other Bulgarian deposits had been exhausted, while five deposits were still in the exploration stage. Uranium production began in Bulgaria in 1946, and cumulative production through 1991 exceeded 100 million pounds equivalent U3O8. Current annual production is on the order of one million pounds equivalent U3O8, about 750 thousand pounds of which are recovered by ISL operations

  14. The use of mosses in air pollution monitoring in Estonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liiv, S.; Eensaar, A. [Academy of Sciences of Estonia, Tallinn (Estonia). Tallinn Botanic Garden

    1995-12-31

    Mosses Pleurozium schreberi and Hylocomium splendens have been proposed as biomonitors of atmospheric heavy metals. These mosses are wide-used in biomonitoring studies in Scandinavia as well as in other Nordic countries. Some methodical problems of bryoindication, e.g. other factors than the adsorption of precipitation which influence element concentrations in mosses have been studied in Scandinavia as well. Methodical study for determining the intrasite, local variability in Estonia was started in 1991. Despite of the used uniform methodics in sampling, cleaning, digesting and chemical analysing of moss samples in the same laboratory there is high variability of the content of elements at the reference area. There are many reasons for this variability - errors from instrumental procedures (analytical steps in chemical analysing), biological deviation, etc. In this article the results of the methodical study of intrasite variability of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Zn and V in mosses at reference areas of different deposition level in Estonia are presented. The intrasite variability of elemental content in mosses at the reference areas is taken into account in mapping the territorial distribution of the content of elements in mosses, samples of which were collected during the joint Finnish-Estonian-Russian biomonitoring project in 1992 in a more dense network compared with the 1989 and 1990 national moss surveys in Estonia in order to describe more accurately the pollution situation in highly polluted north-eastern Estonia

  15. Mapping atmospheric depositions of cadmium and lead in Germany based on EMEP deposition data and the European Moss Survey 2005; Kartierung atmosphaerischer Depositionen von Blei und Cadmium in Deutschland mit Daten aus dem EMEP-Messnetz und dem europaeischen Moos-Monitoring 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, Winfried; Holy, Marcel; Pesch, Roland [University of Vechta, Chair of Landscape Ecology, P.O.B. 1553, Vechta (Germany); Zechmeister, Harald [Universitaet Wien, Wien (Austria); Harmens, Harry [Environment Centre Wales, Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Bangor, Gwynedd (United Kingdom); Ilyin, Ilia [Meteorological Synthesizing Centre-East of EMEP, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2011-12-15

    Every five years since 1990, the European Heavy Metals in Mosses Survey provided data on atmospheric heavy metal bioaccumulations in mosses throughout Europe at a high spatial resolution. The moss data show the effectiveness of air quality control policies: for Germany the metal bioaccumulations decreased between 1990 and 2000, whilst they increased from 2000 to 2005. This investigation is intended to show how the moss data could be used to map atmospheric depositions of Cd and Pb, which later on might serve for the calculation of Critical Loads Exceedances. In addition, we compared how much heavy metal concentrations in mosses in Germany deviate from background data observed in Greenland. Mapping heavy metals with a high spatial resolution for the German territory was conducted according to the following methodology: EMEP deposition maps (50 km by 50 km spatial resolution) were intersected within a GIS with Kriging maps on Cd and Pb accumulations in mosses (EMEP (European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme) is a scientifically based and politically driven programme under the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution for international co-operation to solve transboundary air pollution problems). Subsequently, the statistical relations between the EMEP modelled depositions and the bioaccumulations in mosses were quantified by using regression analysis. The regression functions were used to transform the moss concentration maps into deposition maps. The resulting maps on Cd and Pb depositions have a spatial resolution of 5 km by 5 km and were added to the respective map on the residuals of the regression functions (Regression Kriging). Finally, the territory of Germany was extracted from the European maps on Cd and Pb depositions and the legends were adjusted accordingly in terms of n standard deviations from the German mean value. The concentrations of Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mo, Pb, Sb, Sn, and Zn in the mosses sampled in 1990, 1995, 2000 and 2005 in Germany

  16. Bulgaria health system review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimova, Antoniya; Rohova, Maria; Moutafova, Emanuela; Atanasova, Elka; Koeva, Stefka; Panteli, Dimitra; van Ginneken, Ewout

    2012-01-01

    In the last 20 years, demographic development in Bulgaria has been characterized by population decline, a low crude birth rate, a low fertility rate, a high mortality rate and an ageing population. A stabilizing political situation since the early 2000s and an economic upsurge since the mid-2000s were important factors in the slight increase of the birth and fertility rates and the slight decrease in standardized death rates. In general, Bulgaria lags behind European Union (EU) averages in most mortality and morbidity indicators. Life expectancy at birth reached 73.3 years in 2008 with the main three causes of death being diseases of the circulatory system, malignant neoplasms and diseases of the respiratory system. One of the most important risk factors overall is smoking, and the average standardized death rate for smoking-related causes in 2008 was twice as high as the EU15 average. The Bulgarian health system is characterized by limited statism. The Ministry of Health is responsible for national health policy and the overall organization and functioning of the health system and coordinates with all ministries with relevance to public health. The key players in the insurance system are the insured individuals, the health care providers and the third party payers, comprising the National Health Insurance Fund, the single payer in the social health insurance (SHI) system, and voluntary health insurance companies (VHICs). Health financing consists of a publicprivate mix. Health care is financed from compulsory health insurance contributions, taxes, outofpocket (OOP) payments, voluntary health insurance (VHI) premiums, corporate payments, donations, and external funding. Total health expenditure (THE) as a share of gross domestic product (GDP) increased from 5.3% in 1995 to 7.3% in 2008. At the latter date it consisted of 36.5% OOP payments, 34.8% SHI, 13.6% Ministry of Health expenditure, 9.4% municipality expenditure and 0.3% VHI. Informal payments in the health

  17. STUDY ON SOME FACTORS FOR HEALTHY NUTRITION ENVIRONMENT IN RESTAURANTS IN SOUTHWESTERN BULGARIA

    OpenAIRE

    Ludmila Ivanova; Julieta Trifonova; Ilinka Terziyska

    2012-01-01

    The purpose – The purpose of the study is to conduct a regional survey in tourist companies in Southwestern Bulgaria for examining some key factors for building/forming a healthy nutrition environment. Design – The special focus is given to analysis of the key factors for creating healthy nutrition environment in restaurants. Methodology – A cross sectional survey conducted including 34 respondents from 120 operating hotels with restaurants in Southwestern Bulgaria and 30 independent restaura...

  18. Country watch: Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atanasov, R I

    1995-01-01

    Eros and Psyche is a club for adolescents based in a youth center in Sofia, Bulgaria. Eros, the ancient Greek god of love, and Psyche, representing the human soul, symbolize the club's activities relating to the psychological and aesthetic aspects of sexuality. The club was started in December 1988 to provide sex education to out-of-school youth, the first attempt to move away from restrictive, medical approaches. Members include pupils, students, workers and even parents. The club meets twice a week for two hours, with specialists from different fields addressing the group, videos, readings and other activities that stimulate discussion. Anyone is free to come and go. Twice a year the club holds training sessions in psychosocial skills that aim to promote self-reflection and help people interact more openly with one another. Each individual is helped to find a personal route to understanding his or her own sexuality. Other clubs have been formed on the Sofia model. To help them organize, the Sofia club has prepared a leaders' manual and is developing a one-week course for club leaders. PMID:12346874

  19. Shipment summary of Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lessons learned (major differences from previous shipments): - The use of an experienced carrier (Kozloduy NPP) with experience in shipping nuclear materials to and from the Russian Federation was a great advantage and avoided problems; - Signing road and river carriers and security contracts in advance minimized last-minute delays at shipment time; - Shipping papers that were drafted and reviewed in advance with the help of representatives from Kozloduy NPP and PA 'Mayak' avoided last-minute delays; - Have all permits and licenses in place as far in advance as possible; - Procure nuclear liability, cargo, and personnel insurance in advance of the shipment; - Provide a senior technical person with the authority to resolve issues en-route to accompany the shipment; - Pre-arrange a method for 24-hour monitoring and reporting during shipment to provide 'Need-to-Know' information to the appropriate personnel to provide immediate additional technical support, if needed; - Develop a coded tracking system in advance to allow monitoring reports to DOE without compromising security; - Having communications equipment, a laptop computer and a printer on the barge was very useful for the technical person accompanying the shipment; - Very good cooperation with the Bulgarian nuclear safety authorities helped with planning and implementation; - Very good cooperation with other important partners in Bulgaria - Kozloduy NPP, Bulgarian Police and Gendarme, Bulgarian Fire and Rescue Corps, helped with shipment planning and provided appropriate support during the shipment; - Assure that all interested and involved organizations have a sufficient security level (Secret and Confidential level) for their main points of contact personnel

  20. Horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) as a biomonitor of air pollution in the town of Plovdiv (Bulgaria)

    OpenAIRE

    ILIANA VELCHEVA; SLAVEYA PETROVA; LILYANA YURUKOVA

    2012-01-01

    The present study is a small part of a program for application the methods of passive and active phytomonitoring with herbaceous species, trees, mosses and lichens for assessment of the anthropogenic factor in urban conditions. Aesculus hippocastanum L. was studied as a possible biomonitor of air pollution with heavy metals and toxic elements in the town of Plovdiv (Bulgaria). Concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, V and U in leaf samples from urban areas with different anthropogenic impact were c...

  1. Spent Fuel Management in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report presents the legislative framework in the Republic of Bulgaria for spent fuel (SF) management; storage facilities for spent fuel (at reactor spent fuel storage/reactor pond, away from reactor spent fuel storage facility (SFSF) and the dry storage facility), as well as the SF transportation back to Russia. The policy of the Republic of Bulgaria regarding the management of SF and radioactive wastes (RAW) has been based on the moral principle of avoiding to impose undue burdens on future generations. (author)

  2. Development of nuclear fuel cycle in Bulgaria and worldwide experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey is made of the natural and enriched uranium market situation, as well as the possible options for resolving the issue of spent nuclear fuel. At present the best economical solution for the spent fuel is considered to be interim storage. A assessment of the Bulgarian deposits of natural uranium is recommended and the possibility for partial recovery of the uranium extraction in Bulgaria is considered

  3. Corporate Social Responsibility Activities Of Business Organizations In Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Kiril DIMITROV

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the results of a survey of corporate social responsibility activities, under-taken by a group of business entities in Bulgaria in the context of great political, economical and cultural changes that the country has been passing through from 1990 up to date, and that affected the organizational behaviour of locally operating companies, as well as the beliefs, values and underlying assumptions of the individuals, working there. Environmental factors, influencing the initia...

  4. ICT for the employability and integration of immigrants in the European Union: A Qualitative Analysis of a Survey in Bulgaria, the Netherlands and Spain

    OpenAIRE

    REICHEL David; Siegel, Melissa; ANDREO Juan Carlos; CARRETERO GOMEZ STEPHANIE; CENTENO MEDIAVILLA Isabel Clara

    2015-01-01

    This report shows the role played by Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) in supporting the employability and integration of immigrants in Europe in three European countries, framed in their migration history, migration policies, integration policy and levels of integration of migrants in the country. This study complements the findings obtained in the report entitled "ICT for the employability and integration of immigrants in the European Union: Results from a survey in three Mem...

  5. Wind energy potential in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, wind characteristic and wind energy potential in Bulgaria were analyzed using the wind speed data. The wind energy potential at different sites in Bulgaria has been investigated by compiling data from different sources and analyzing it using a software tool. The wind speed distribution curves were obtained by using the Weibull and Rayleigh probability density functions. The results relating to wind energy potential are given in terms of the monthly average wind speed, wind speed probability density function (PDF), wind speed cumulative density function (CDF), and wind speed duration curve. A technical and economic assessment has been made of electricity generation from three wind turbines having capacity of (60, 200, and 500 kW). The yearly energy output capacity factor and the electrical energy cost of kWh produced by the three different turbines were calculated

  6. ERAWATCH Country Reports 2013: Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Chobanova, Rossitsa

    2014-01-01

    The Republic of Bulgaria has been a Member State of the European Union since 2007. Its economic development has been framed by a Currency Board Arrangement (binding the national currency to the euro) since 1997. Recent development is characterised by slow economic growth. Preliminary GDP data for 2013 indicates a slight pick-up in growth in the second half of the year. Growth was driven by net exports and a surge in public expenditure, whereas household consumption contracted. Annual growth i...

  7. Contact sensitivity to oak moss

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalo, S; Cabral, F.; Gonçalo, Margarida

    1988-01-01

    Oak moss allergy was the principle allergen in contact sensitivity to perfumes (45%); 31 patients reacting to oak moss were studied. The sensitivity was attributed to contact with perfumes in 20, lichens in 7 and unknown in 4. Atranorin was the most frequent allergen, followed by usnic, evernic and fumarprotocetraric acids. Concomitant allergy occurred to several lichen acids and also to balsam of Peru, colophony and other fragrance components.

  8. PROFILES AND PREFERENCES OF ON-LINE MILLENIAL SHOPPERS IN BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia R. Loubeau

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This research seeks to develop a better understanding of the factors affecting on-line purchasing behavior among Generation Y (Gen Y consumers in Bulgaria. Also called millenials and born between the mid-1970s and late 1990s, this generation is especially active on-line and will be a dominant influence shaping e-commerce. An empirical study was conducted based on a written survey of a sample consisting of 367 high school and university students in Bulgaria. The most important reason why Bulgarian young people shop on-line is the pursuit of unique products not locally available, followed by convenience and better pricing, and their favorite category of internet purchases is “Apparel and Accessories.” Bulgarian millennials are using the internet to shop for trendy fashion and to obtain a variety of brands that are unavailable locally. Like other regions of the world, concern about financial transactions security is a major barrier limiting the willingness to shop on-line in Bulgaria. Unlike other markets where on-line music purchases are growing, high levels of digital piracy in Bulgaria strongly discourage Bulgarian students from purchasing music on-line. One limitation of this study arises because of its reliance on a convenience sample of students from medium sized cities in Southern Bulgaria. Further research employing stratified random sampling across Bulgaria is needed to assess whether the findings are broadly generalizable for the Gen Y population.

  9. Bulgaria : Public Expenditures for Growth and Competitiveness

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2012-01-01

    Bulgaria's economy performed relatively well during the crisis and the economy is reviving. In comparison with other Tenth European Union (EU10) countries, for Bulgaria the drop in Gross Domestic Product, or GDP growth was below the median, fiscal performance deteriorated less, and public debt stayed among the lowest in the entire EU. In late January 2011 the EC concluded that in 2010 Bulg...

  10. IT OUTSOURCING PARTNERSHIPS IN BULGARIA: STRATEGIC ORIENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matilda ALEXANDROVA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available IT outsourcing is among the prevalent practices in the global business today. It is found that business organizations decide to transfer such kind of services to other firms (identified as “vendors” mainly because of cost-related advantages. It is still not clear whether the vendors are able to provide comparative advantages from the point of view of economizing costs of the production of these services. The objective of this paper is to identify the main determinants affecting the success of IT outsourcing partnership in Bulgaria on the basis of empirical study. The paper presents selected results from a survey of the outsourcing relations between Bulgarian vendor organizations and their clients (outsourcers considering the issues of the development of successful strategic partnerships in outsourcing practices. In 2008 an empirical survey of outsourcing partnerships in 28 organizations providing high technology services has been conducted based on cases of Bulgarian vendor organizations. The subject of the study was the analysis of the key determinants influencing the formation and development of strategic outsourcing partnerships between Bulgarian vendor organizations and their clients (foreign companies.

  11. Contact allergy to oak moss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernard, Guillaume; Giménez-Arnau, Elena; Rastogi, Suresh Chandra; Heydorn, Siri; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Menné, Torkil; Goossens, An; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Lepoittevin, Jean-Pierre

    2003-01-01

    In addition to pure synthetic fragrance materials several natural extracts are still in use in the perfume industry. Among them oak moss absolute, prepared from the lichen Evernia prunastri (L.) Arch., is considered a major contact sensitizer and is therefore included in the fragrance mix used for...... diagnosing perfume allergy. The process of preparing oak moss absolute has changed during recent years and, even though several potential sensitizers have been identified from former benzene extracts, its present constituents and their allergenic status are not clear. In the study reported here, we applied a...... method developed for the identification of contact allergens present in natural complex mixtures to oak moss absolute. The method is based on the combination of bioassay-guided chemical fractionation, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis and structure-activity relationship studies. Our first...

  12. Catalog of Investment Projects in Bulgaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-10-15

    This catalog includes information about 129 potential investment projects in Bulgaria and was developed by a team of experts from InvestBulgaria Agency in cooperation with municipalities and private companies. The document presents in brief general facts about the regions in Bulgaria. Projects are divided into the following categories: Tourism, Manufacturing, Urban Planning, Real Estate, Environment and renewable energy sources, Commerce, and Innovative and creative projects. The catalog provides detailed information about each project such as: status of the project, location, ownership, infrastructure, estimated value, contact information, etc.

  13. Mosses new to New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    A bryophyte inventory was conducted in the Valles Caldera National Preserve (VCNP), New Mexico, from 2009 to 2011. Specimens representing 113 species of bryophytes were collected. Of those bryophytes, seven of the mosses were new to New Mexico: Atrichum tenellum (Rohling) Bruch & Schimper, Dicranum ...

  14. WRF-Fire Applied in Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Dobrinkova, Nina; Jordanov, Georgi; Mandel, Jan

    2010-01-01

    WRF-Fire consists of the WRF (Weather Research and Forecasting Model) coupled with a fire spread model, based on the level-set method. We describe a preliminary application of WRF-Fire to a forest fire in Bulgaria, oportunities for research of forest fire models for Bulgaria, and plans for the development of an Environmental Decision Support Systems which includes computational modeling of fire behavior.

  15. Supply Chain of Organic Products in Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Mishev, Plamen Dimitrov; Stoyanova, Zornitsa D.

    2009-01-01

    The market of organic products in Bulgaria enlarged significantly in the last few years. Although the share of organic food products in general food market in the country is relatively small-less than 5 %, the total area under organic products in Bulgaria/cultivated and wild collected/ is more than 250 thousand ha. The development of organic production is considered for one of the priority for development of the agricultural sector and food market. One of the factors considered to an obstacle...

  16. PROFILES AND PREFERENCES OF ON-LINE MILLENIAL SHOPPERS IN BULGARIA

    OpenAIRE

    Loubeau, Patricia R.; Robert Jantzen; Elitsa Alexander

    2014-01-01

    This research seeks to develop a better understanding of the factors affecting on-line purchasing behavior among Generation Y (Gen Y) consumers in Bulgaria. Also called millenials and born between the mid-1970s and late 1990s, this generation is especially active on-line and will be a dominant influence shaping e-commerce. An empirical study was conducted based on a written survey of a sample consisting of 367 high school and university students in Bulgaria. The most important reason why Bulg...

  17. Atmospheric heavy metal deposition in Europe estimated by moss analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruehling, Aa. [Swedish Environmental Research Inst., Lund (Sweden). Dept. of Ecology

    1995-12-31

    Atmospheric heavy metal deposition in Europe including 21 countries was monitored in 1990-1992 by the moss technique. This technique is based on the fact that the concentrations of heavy metals in moss are closely correlated to atmospheric deposition. This was the first attempt to map heavy metal deposition in this large area. The objectives of the project were to characterise qualitatively and quantitatively the regional atmospheric deposition pattern of heavy metals in background areas in Europe, to indicate the location of important heavy metal pollution sources and to allow retrospective comparisons with similar studies. The present survey is a follow-up of a joint Danish and Swedish project in 1980 and an extended survey in 1985 within the framework of the Nordic Council of Ministers. In Sweden, heavy-metal deposition was first mapped on a nation-wide scale in 1968-1971 and 1975. (author)

  18. New nuclear unit in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the construction of NPP Belene has been stopped in 1990, 4 attempts are made for the development of a new nuclear power unit in Bulgaria. In accordance with the regulations the following principles and criteria are considered - the probabilistic assessment should ensure frequency for the core integrity damage -5 1/reactor years; frequency of the radioactive release in case of beyond design basis accident -6 1/reactor. Comparison of different projects and perspective for NNPs in various countries is made. Analysis of technical solutions for safety and reliability is made, considering the modernization programme for the Kozloduy NPP units 5 and 6 and the experience of other power plants. In connection with the planning of a new nuclear power unit the following items are discussed: characteristics of the Kozloduy site and Belene site (variants of general plans are studied); finance analyses; technical analyses; legislation. The main conclusions about the new power unit construction is that the Belene NPP is the project which would be the most competitive on the energy market and it is expected to bring the most investment returns. It is stated that the completion of the Belene NPP unit 1 using the Improved Project B-320M is technically and financially substantiated, profitable and without alternative

  19. MOSS, an evaluation of software engineering techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bounds, J. R.; Pruitt, J. L.

    1976-01-01

    An evaluation of the software engineering techniques used for the development of a Modular Operating System (MOSS) was described. MOSS is a general purpose real time operating system which was developed for the Concept Verification Test (CVT) program. Each of the software engineering techniques was described and evaluated based on the experience of the MOSS project. Recommendations for the use of these techniques on future software projects were also given.

  20. Moss cell walls: structure and biosynthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Alison W. Roberts; Eric M Roberts; Haigler, Candace H.

    2012-01-01

    The genome sequence of the moss Physcomitrella patens has stimulated new research examining the cell wall polysaccharides of mosses and the glycosyl transferases that synthesize them as a means to understand fundamental processes of cell wall biosynthesis and plant cell wall evolution. The cell walls of mosses and vascular plants are composed of the same classes of polysaccharides, but with differences in side chain composition and structure. Similarly, the genomes of P. patens and angiosperm...

  1. Stakeholder analysis for coppice forestry in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivaylo Velichkov

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The study analyzes the state of coppice forestry in Bulgaria during last 18 years. Stakeholders and their interests and preferences in coppice forests are explored and assessed. Forests restitution process in Bulgaria started in 1997 and has not been finished yet. Nevertheless, significant further changes of the current ownership distribution are not expected. By the end of 2007, the state was the biggest coppice forest owner/stakeholder in Bulgaria with 71.3% of all coppice forests being state property. The other two important stakeholders are the municipalities (14.0% and private owners (12.0%. Currently, forest owners' number in Bulgaria exceeds 1 million, the average holding area being smaller than 1 ha. Only 150 individual plots are larger than 50 ha. The majority of private owners aim at taking maximum and immediate profit from their recently restituted forest properties. In most cases that reflects in clearcuts. Coppice forests management has been one of the problematic issues of Bulgarian forestry for decades. Despite of forest authorities significant efforts, the area of coppice forests in Bulgaria (1.78 million ha in 2007 remained unchanged for a period of 50 years. The official forest policy is still aimed at conversion of coppice forests into seed ones through different silvicultural methods. That policy is applied to almost all coppice forests regardless of their ownership.

  2. Stakeholder analysis for coppice forestry in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IvayloVelichkov

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The study analyzes the state of coppice forestry in Bulgaria during last 18 years. Stakeholders and their interests and preferences in coppice forests are explored and assessed. Forests restitution process in Bulgaria started in 1997 and has not been finished yet. Nevertheless, significant further changes of the current ownershipdistribution are not expected. By the end of 2007, the state was the biggest coppice forest owner/stakeholder in Bulgaria with 71.3% of all coppice forests being state property. The other two important stakeholders are the municipalities (14.0% and private owners (12.0%. Currently, forest owners' number in Bulgaria exceeds 1million, the average holding area being smaller than 1 ha. Only 150 individual plots are larger than 50 ha. The majority of private owners aim at taking maximum and immediate profit from their recently restituted forest properties. In most cases that reflects in clearcuts. Coppice forests management has been one of the problematicissues of Bulgarian forestry for decades. Despite of forest authorities significant efforts, the area of coppice forests in Bulgaria (1.78 million ha in 2007 remained unchanged for a period of 50 years. The official forest policy is still aimed at conversionof coppice forests into seed ones through different silvicultural methods. That policy is applied to almost all coppice forests regardless of their ownership.

  3. Unsaturated hydraulic properties of xerophilous mosses: towards implementation of moss covered soils in hydrological models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voortman, B.R.; Bartholomeus, R.P.; Bodegom, van P.M.; Gooren, H.P.A.; Zee, van der S.E.A.T.M.; Witte, J.P.M.

    2014-01-01

    Evaporation from mosses and lichens can form a major component of the water balance, especially in ecosystems where mosses and lichens often grow abundantly, such as tundra, deserts and bogs. To facilitate moss representation in hydrological models, we parameterized the unsaturated hydraulic propert

  4. Air Pollution Studies in Tver Region of Russia using Moss-Biomonitoring with Nuclear Analytical Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of the trace element atmospheric deposition in the Tver region based on moss analysis are presented. Moss samples were collected in the summer of 1999 and 2004 from 174 sites evenly distributed over the region. As bioaccumulators, two common mosses were used: Pleurozium schreberi (∼80%) and Hylocomium splendens (∼20%). The moss samples were subject to neutron activation analysis at the IBR-2 reactor JINR Dubna. The purpose of this study was to determine deposition patterns of potent sources of air pollution such as the largest Russian thermal power plant nearby the town of Konakovo and to reveal previously unknown pollution sources located in towns and settlements within the sampled territory. Multivariate statistical analysis was applied to determine possible pollution sources over the examined territory. Comparison of the results obtained with those from other surveys in Russia and Europe shows that Tver region could be considered as a background territory for the Russian Federation

  5. English Language Cultures in Bulgaria: A Linguistic Sibling Rivalry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Laurie M.

    1998-01-01

    In Bulgaria, a complex matrix of power relations governs English language education, and a triangle of international and intercultural relations between Bulgaria, United States, and United Kingdom. In the context of the changing economic and political milieu of central and eastern Europe, a study examines how Bulgaria fits into the emerging…

  6. Reforming health care financing in Bulgaria: the population perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balabanova, Dina; McKee, Martin

    2004-02-01

    Health financing reform in Bulgaria has been characterised by lack of political consensus on reform direction, economic shocks, and, since 1998, steps towards social insurance. As in other eastern European countries, the reform has been driven by an imperative to embrace new ideas modelled on systems elsewhere, but with little attention to whether these reflect popular values. This study explores underlying values, such as views on the role of the state and solidarity, attitudes to, and understanding of compulsory and voluntary insurance, and co-payments. The study identifies general principles (equity, transparency) considered important by the population and practical aspects of implementation of reform. Data were obtained from a representative survey (n=1547) and from 58 in-depth interviews and 6 focus groups with users and health professionals, conducted in 1997 before the actual reform of the health financing system in Bulgaria. A majority supports significant state involvement in health care financing, ranging from providing safety net for the poor, through co-subsidising or regulating the social insurance system, to providing state-financed universal free care (half of all respondents). Collectivist values in Bulgaria remain strong, with support for free access to services regardless of income, age, or health status and progressive funding. There is strong support (especially among the well off) for a social insurance system based on the principle of solidarity and accountability rather than the former tax-based model. The preferred health insurance fund was autonomous, state regulated, financing only health care, and offering optional membership. Voluntary insurance and, less so, co-payments were acceptable if limited to selected services and better off groups. In conclusion, a health financing system under public control that fits well with values and population preferences is likely to improve compliance and be more sustainable. Universal health insurance

  7. Circulation factors affecting precipitation over Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nojarov, Peter

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this paper is to determine the influence of circulation factors on precipitation in Bulgaria. The study succeeds investigation on the influence of circulation factors on air temperatures in Bulgaria, as the focus here is directed toward precipitation amounts. Circulation factors are represented through two circulation indices, showing west-east or south-north transport of air masses over Bulgaria and four teleconnection indices (patterns)—North Atlantic Oscillation, East Atlantic, East Atlantic/Western Russia, and Scandinavian. Omega values at 700-hPa level show vertical motions in the atmosphere. Annual precipitation trends are mixed and not statistically significant. A significant decrease of precipitation in Bulgaria is observed in November due to the strengthening of the eastward transport of air masses (strengthening of EA teleconnection pattern) and anticyclonal weather (increase of descending motions in the atmosphere). There is also a precipitation decrease in May and June due to the growing influence of the Azores High. An increase of precipitation happens in September. All this leads to a redistribution of annual precipitation course, but annual precipitation amounts remain the same. However, this redistribution has a negative impact on agriculture and winter ski tourism. Zonal circulation has a larger influence on precipitation in Bulgaria compared to meridional. Eastward transport throughout the year leads to lower than the normal precipitation, and vice versa. With regard to the four teleconnection patterns, winter precipitation in Bulgaria is determined mainly by EA/WR teleconnection pattern, spring and autumn by EA teleconnection pattern, and summer by SCAND teleconnection pattern.

  8. A UK view of Bulgaria's potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is a personal view of the options and challenges for the future of Eastern Europe countries. The widening of Europe, UK situation and investment criteria are discussed. Bulgaria is considered in better shape than some European states as a host for new or replacement nuclear power station construction

  9. Bulgaria. A relatively short organic history

    OpenAIRE

    Apostolov, Stoylko; Heeb, Marlene

    2003-01-01

    Organic agriculture in Bulgaria has a relatively short history. The concept of organic agriculture was only introduced after the fall of the communist regime in 1990, when the process of land restitution started. Below is an account of developments over the following thirteen years and a report on the current status of organic agriculture in the country.

  10. Addressing Unfair Trading Practices in Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2014-01-01

    The Government of Bulgaria (GoB) is concerned that large retail chains may be using their superior bargaining position to dictate the terms of contractual relations with their suppliers. The Government believes that this constitutes unfair trading practices (UTP) and remedies should be found in the nation's competition policy framework. The GoB is considering the introduction of the concep...

  11. CERN exhibition a big hit in Bulgaria

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    The first CERN exhibition in Bulgaria attracted many visitors. In the first ever CERN exhibition to be held in Bulgaria, over 1,400 visitors, many of them students and young physicists, visited the 10-day event in Sofia. The CERN mini-exhibition took place at the National Earth and Mankind Museum between 8 and 17 November. Permanently staffed by young physicists from Sofia University, there were exhibits on display about research activities at CERN, as well as four additional posters describing Bulgaria's participation. The inauguration took place on the morning of 8 November in the presence of the Vice-Minister for Science and Education, Mrs. Vanya Dobreva, and some 200 guests. A series of short speeches were followed by a visit to the exhibition. CERN's representative at the event, Ray Lewis, was then asked by Professor Matey Mateev, President of the Union of Physicists in Bulgaria, to say a few words on behalf of the Organization. Numerous journalists were also present at the inauguration. A painting enti...

  12. Temporal trends (1990-2005 in heavy metal accumulation in mosses in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanka Maòkovská

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Biomonitoring of multielement atmospheric deposition using terrestrial moss is a well-established technique in Europe. The moss samples of Hylocomium splendens, Pleurozium schreberi and Dicranum sp. were collected in Slovakia. Separately we evaluated the atmospheric deposition in the National Parks (Vysoké Tatry, Nízke Tatry, Západné Tatry -Jelenec, Slovenský raj and in a landscape protection area (Velká Fatra. In comparison to the median northern Norway values of heavy metal contents in moss, the Slovak atmospheric deposition loads of elements were found to be higher. The survey has been repeated and in this paper we report on the temporal trends in the concentration of Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Ni, Pb, V and Zn between 1990 and 2005. Metal- and sites-specific temporal trends were observed. In general, the concentration of Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Ni, Pb, V and Zn in mosses decreased between 1990 and 2005; the decline was higher for Pb than for Cd. The observed temporal trends for the concentrations in mosses were similar to the trends reported for the modelled total deposition of cadmium, lead and mercury in Europe. The level of elements, determined in bryophytes reflects the relative atmospheric deposition loads of elements at the investigated sites. Factor analysis was applied to determine possible sources of trace element deposition in the Slovakian mosses

  13. Mosses as biomonitors of atmospheric heavy metal deposition: Spatial patterns and temporal trends in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harmens, H., E-mail: hh@ceh.ac.u [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Environment Centre Wales, Deiniol Road, Bangor, Gwynedd LL57 2UW (United Kingdom); Norris, D.A., E-mail: danor@ceh.ac.u [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Environment Centre Wales, Deiniol Road, Bangor, Gwynedd LL57 2UW (United Kingdom); Steinnes, E., E-mail: Eiliv.Steinnes@chem.ntnu.n [Department of Chemistry, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, 7491 Trondheim (Norway); Kubin, E., E-mail: Eero.Kubin@metla.f [Finnish Forest Research Institute, Kirkkosaarentie 7, 91500 Muhos (Finland); Piispanen, J., E-mail: Juha.Piispanen@metla.f [Finnish Forest Research Institute, Kirkkosaarentie 7, 91500 Muhos (Finland); Alber, R., E-mail: Renate.Alber@provinz.bz.i [Environmental Agency of Bolzano, 39055 Laives (Italy); Aleksiayenak, Y., E-mail: beataa@gmail.co [International Sakharov Environmental University, Minsk (Belarus); Blum, O., E-mail: blum@nbg.kiev.u [National Botanical Garden, Academy of Science of Ukraine, Timiryazevs' ka St. 1, 01014 Kyiv (Ukraine); Coskun, M., E-mail: coskunafm@yahoo.co [Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University, 17100 Canakkale (Turkey); Dam, M., E-mail: mariad@us.f [Environment Agency, Traoagota 38, FO-165 Argir (Faroe Islands); De Temmerman, L., E-mail: ludet@var.fgov.b [Veterinary and Agrochemical Research Centre, Leuvensesteenweg 17, 3080 Tervuren (Belgium); Fernandez, J.A., E-mail: jangel.fernandez@usc.e [University of Santiago de Compestela, Faculty of Biology, Department of Ecology, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Frolova, M., E-mail: marina.frolova@lvgma.gov.l [Latvian Environment, Geology and Meteorology Agency, Maskavas Str. 165, Riga LV 1019 (Latvia); Frontasyeva, M., E-mail: marina@nf.jinr.r [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Str. Joliot-Curie 6, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Gonzalez-Miqueo, L., E-mail: lgonzale2@alumni.unav.e [University of Navarra, Irunlarrea No 1, 31008 Pamplona (Spain)

    2010-10-15

    In recent decades, mosses have been used successfully as biomonitors of atmospheric deposition of heavy metals. Since 1990, the European moss survey has been repeated at five-yearly intervals. Although spatial patterns were metal-specific, in 2005 the lowest concentrations of metals in mosses were generally found in Scandinavia, the Baltic States and northern parts of the UK; the highest concentrations were generally found in Belgium and south-eastern Europe. The recent decline in emission and subsequent deposition of heavy metals across Europe has resulted in a decrease in the heavy metal concentration in mosses for the majority of metals. Since 1990, the concentration in mosses has declined the most for arsenic, cadmium, iron, lead and vanadium (52-72%), followed by copper, nickel and zinc (20-30%), with no significant reduction being observed for mercury (12% since 1995) and chromium (2%). However, temporal trends were country-specific with sometimes increases being found. - Since 1990, heavy metal concentrations in mosses have declined in Europe for most metals.

  14. Investigating the opportunities of using mobile learning by young children in Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Kraleva, Radoslava; Stoimenovski, Aleksandar; Kostadinova, Dafina; Kralev, Velin

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides an analysis of literature related to the use of mobile devices in teaching young children. For this purpose, the most popular mobile operating systems in Bulgaria are considered and the functionality of the existing mobile applications with Bulgarian interface is discussed. The results of a survey of parents' views regarding the mobile devices as a learning tool are presented and the ensuing conclusions are provided.

  15. How Media Portrayal Affects Perceptions of Minorities : The case of Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Georgieva, Radostina

    2013-01-01

    A connection is often drawn between the way the media represent ethnic minorities and the way majorities perceive them. This paper seeks to investigate further this link by drawing parallels between media portrayal of ethnic minorities in Bulgaria and the majority's attitude towards them. In addition it introduces the results of an online survey in which 250 people took part that directly studies the effects of negative media portrayal on the subject's attitude towards ethnic minorities in Bu...

  16. Motivational factors for the adoption of ISO 9001 standards in Eastern Europe: the case of Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Svetoslav Georgiev; Emil Georgiev

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study analyzes the motivational factors for ISO 9001 certification in Bulgaria from the internal/external motivations perspective, or the so-called dual model.Design/methodology/approach: This study is based on a mixed method research approach, which employed two interviews with experts in the field of quality management at the exploratory stage, and a survey involving 127 companies at the descriptive stage.Findings: This study claims that enhanced company image and competitiven...

  17. Motivational factors for the adoption of ISO 9001 standards in Eastern Europe: the case of Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetoslav Georgiev

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study analyzes the motivational factors for ISO 9001 certification in Bulgaria from the internal/external motivations perspective, or the so-called dual model.Design/methodology/approach: This study is based on a mixed method research approach, which employed two interviews with experts in the field of quality management at the exploratory stage, and a survey involving 127 companies at the descriptive stage.Findings: This study claims that enhanced company image and competitiveness – an external motivation - is the leading motivational factor for ISO 9001 certification in Bulgaria. At the same time, our primary investigation reveals that Bulgarian firms are not predominantly externally driven, for internal motivations including process improvement and product quality improvement seem to be an important driver for ISO 9001 certification. Last but not least, this research asserts that enhanced company image and competitiveness has a stronger impact on the motivations for ISO 9001 certification than customer and supplier pressure, which is in line with previous research works on developing economy economies such as Bulgaria. Finally, our study indicates a moderate, yet positive correlation between motivations for and benefits of ISO 9001 certification.Social implications: This research work casts some light on the evolution of quality management in Bulgaria since the end of communism, which can serve as an important foundation for the better understanding of quality management in former communist economies in general and Eastern European states in particular.Originality/value: Derived from the acute gap between ISO studies in Western and former communist economies, this research work presents one of the first official, international studies in the field of ISO certification in Bulgaria, and more precisely, a paper describing the motives for ISO 9001 certification among Bulgarian businesses.

  18. Marketing approaches for OTC analgesics in Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Petkova, Valentina; Valchanova, Velislava; Ibrahim, Adel; NIKOLOVA, IRINA; Benbasat, Niko; Dimitrov, Milen

    2014-01-01

    The marketing management includes analysis of market opportunities, selection of target markets, planning, developing and implementing of marketing strategies, monitoring and result control. The object of the present study was to analyse the marketing approaches applied for non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in Bulgaria. The performed SWOT(planning method used to evaluate the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats) analysis for one of the leading Bulgarian manufacturers...

  19. Flexible Working Time Arrangements in Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Beleva, Iskra

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to analyze the flexible working time arrangements in Bulgaria, using a life-course perspective. Two important features have to be outlined, namely: underdeveloped flexible forms of employment in the country, including working time arrangement, and lack of previous analysis on flexible working time arrangements from the angle of life-course perspective. The author describes the regulatory framework, collective agreements at national and company level as a frame w...

  20. Relevance of canopy drip for the accumulation of nitrogen in moss used as biomonitors for atmospheric nitrogen deposition in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Michaela; Schröder, Winfried; Nickel, Stefan; Leblond, Sébastien; Lindroos, Antti-Jussi; Mohr, Karsten; Poikolainen, Jarmo; Santamaria, Jesus Miguel; Skudnik, Mitja; Thöni, Lotti; Beudert, Burkhard; Dieffenbach-Fries, Helga; Schulte-Bisping, Hubert; Zechmeister, Harald G

    2015-12-15

    High atmospheric deposition of nitrogen (N) impacts functions and structures of N limited ecosystems. Due to filtering and related canopy drip effects forests are particularly exposed to N deposition. Up to now, this was proved by many studies using technical deposition samplers but there are only some few studies analysing the canopy drip effect on the accumulation of N in moss and related small scale atmospheric deposition patterns. Therefore, we investigated N deposition and related accumulation of N in forests and in (neighbouring) open fields by use of moss sampled across seven European countries. Sampling and chemical analyses were conducted according to the experimental protocol of the European Moss Survey. The ratios between the measured N content in moss sampled inside and outside of forests were computed and used to calculate estimates for non-sampled sites. Potentially influencing environmental factors were integrated in order to detect their relationships to the N content in moss. The overall average N content measured in moss was 20.0mgg(-1) inside and 11.9mgg(-1) outside of forests with highest N values in Germany inside of forests. Explaining more than 70% of the variance, the multivariate analyses confirmed that the sampling site category (site with/without canopy drip) showed the strongest correlation with the N content in moss. Spatial variances due to enhanced dry deposition in vegetation stands should be considered in future monitoring and modelling of atmospheric N deposition. PMID:26318813

  1. Heavy metal and nitrogen concentrations in mosses are declining across Europe whilst some “hotspots” remain in 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent decades, naturally growing mosses have been used successfully as biomonitors of atmospheric deposition of heavy metals and nitrogen. Since 1990, the European moss survey has been repeated at five-yearly intervals. In 2010, the lowest concentrations of metals and nitrogen in mosses were generally found in northern Europe, whereas the highest concentrations were observed in (south-)eastern Europe for metals and the central belt for nitrogen. Averaged across Europe, since 1990, the median concentration in mosses has declined the most for lead (77%), followed by vanadium (55%), cadmium (51%), chromium (43%), zinc (34%), nickel (33%), iron (27%), arsenic (21%, since 1995), mercury (14%, since 1995) and copper (11%). Between 2005 and 2010, the decline ranged from 6% for copper to 36% for lead; for nitrogen the decline was 5%. Despite the Europe-wide decline, no changes or increases have been observed between 2005 and 2010 in some (regions of) countries. - Highlights: • In 2010, heavy metal and nitrogen concentrations in mosses were determined at up to 4400 sites across Europe. • Moss concentrations complement deposition measurements at high spatial resolution. • For most metals, concentrations in mosses have significantly declined since 1990. • Heavy metal pollution remains high in (South-)eastern Europe. • Nitrogen pollution remains high in the central European belt. - Heavy metal pollution remains high particularly in (south-)eastern Europe, whereas nitrogen pollution remains high in the central belt of Europe

  2. Bulgaria: INIS Center - 45 years experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulgaria is one of 35 countries in the world operating nuclear power plants. Bulgaria's nuclear program was launched in 1956 with the construction of an IRT-2000 research reactor at the Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy (INRNE), which was commissioned in 1961. The reactor is now under reconstruction. In 1960, construction of the first Bulgarian nuclear power plant started. At the moment, there are 6 power units at the Kozloduy NPP site; 4 of them (VVER-440/B-230) under decommissioning and 2 (VVER-1000/B-320) in operation. Several storage facilities for radioactive waste, mainly from the Kozloduy NPP and from various sources of ionizing radiation in medicine and industry are also in operation. The Kozloduy NPP, INRNE, Sofia University, the Technical University, and the State Enterprise Radioactive Waste are the main generators of nuclear information in Bulgaria and the main consumers of INIS products. The Bulgarian INIS Center, therefore, maintains continuous and effective cooperation with these Institutions

  3. Bulgaria: Ethnic differentials in rapidly declining fertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimiter Philipov

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This chapter provides a detailed description of the fertility changes in Bulgaria during recent decades and discusses possible reasons and consequences. It also gives an overview of the steps that the government has undertaken to offset the considerable decline in fertility. Before the fall of communism, fertility trends in Bulgaria were stable and characterized by a nearly universal entry into parenthood, dominance of a two-child family model, an early start and early end of childbearing, stable mean ages at entry into childbearing and marriage, and low percentages of non-marital births. During the 1990s and in the first years of the new century, we observe a marked, rapid change in fertility behaviour. Together with the severe decline in overall fertility rates, demographic data reveal a significant postponement of entry into motherhood and marriage, a decline of the two-child family model, and an emergence of new family forms. Most research attributes these changes to the particular political and social situation in Bulgaria since 1989.

  4. IMPLEMENTATION OF ISO 14001 IN BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hristina HARIZANOVA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In the last years, the Bulgarian business organizations and government bodies were facing with the increased needs to implement new standards which could bring a higher benefit for companies and also not to affect the environment. The ISO 14 000 Family is based on standards for environmental management and gives the possibility to be applied in any type of organization, public or private sectors, administrations, etc . The main aim of the publication is to trace the implementation of ISO 14001 in Bulgaria by sectors and type of activities. As well this research offers the main reasons to the Bulgarian firms to implement ISO 14001. For reaching the aim, the study made a review of a Evolution of ISO 14001 and its flexibility, in compliance with changes in the environment and business; b Research of the firms which implemented ISO 14001 in Bulgaria, c Content of the activities in the certification cycle. The used methods are according to the research system of the Bulgarian firms which implemented ISO 14001. Finally, some conclusions were drawn about the development of the ISO 14 001 in Bulgaria.

  5. Atmospheric deposition of rare earth elements in Albania studied by the moss biomonitoring technique, neutron activation analysis and GIS technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allajbeu, Sh; Yushin, N S; Qarri, F; Duliu, O G; Lazo, P; Frontasyeva, M V

    2016-07-01

    Rare earth elements (REEs) are typically conservative elements that are scarcely derived from anthropogenic sources. The mobilization of REEs in the environment requires the monitoring of these elements in environmental matrices, in which they are present at trace level. The determination of 11 REEs in carpet-forming moss species (Hypnum cupressiforme) collected from 44 sampling sites over the whole territory of the country were done by using epithermal neutron activation analysis (ENAA) at IBR-2 fast pulsed reactor in Dubna. This paper is focused on REEs (lanthanides) and Sc. Fe as typical consistent element and Th that appeared good correlations between the elements of lanthanides are included in this paper. Th, Sc, and REEs were never previously determined in the air deposition of Albania. Descriptive statistics were used for data treatment using MINITAB 17 software package. The median values of the elements under investigation were compared with those of the neighboring countries such as Bulgaria, Macedonia, Romania, and Serbia, as well as Norway which is selected as a clean area. Geographical distribution maps of the elements over the sampled territory were constructed using geographic information system (GIS) technology. Geochemical behavior of REEs in moss samples has been studied by using the ternary diagram of Sc-La-Th, Spider diagrams and multivariate analysis. It was revealed that the accumulation of REEs in current mosses is associated with the wind-blowing metal-enriched soils that is pointed out as the main emitting factor of the elements under investigation. PMID:27044293

  6. Air pollution studies in Macedonia using the moss biomonitoring technique, NAA, AAS and GIS technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the first time the moss biomonitoring technique was applied to air pollution studies in the Republic of Macedonia, in the central part of the Balkan Peninsula. Samples of the terrestrial mosses Hypnum cupressiforme, Campothecium lutescens, and Homolothecium sericium were collected in September-October 2002 in accordance with the sampling strategy of the European moss survey programme. The sampling network included 73 sites evenly distributed over the territory of the country. A total of 43 elements (Na, Mg, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Br, Rb, Sr, Zr, Mo, Ag, Cd, In, Sb, I, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Sm, Eu, Tb, Hf, Ta, W, Au, Hg, Pb, Th, and U) were determined by instrumental epithermal neutron activation analysis and flame

  7. Spatio-temporal variations of atmospheric heavy metal deposition in the Lisbon area by moss monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of mosses as biomonitors of heavy metal deposition has been extensively applied in numerous studies in the last three decades. This type of organisms acquires almost their nutrients from the atmosphere, by dry or wet deposition. In Portugal, the first biomonitoring survey using mosses was done in 1992, which covered all national area. A new study is presently being implemented, where samples are collected in the same sampling points of the previous ones, so a comparison can be made between the results of the two campaigns. This work presents the results obtained for the Lisbon region. Samples of Hypnum cupressiforme, or whenever unavailable, Scleropodium touretii were collected in 27 sites in this area, and the concentration of Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn was determined for each sample. Maps for each element were drawn after geostatistical estimation of the metal concentration in the moss. The spatial and temporal variations in the distribution of metal concentration are discussed. (author)

  8. Bulgaria : Raising Skills for Employment, Growth and Convergence

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2009-01-01

    The Bulgarian labor market has seen remarkable improvements in recent years and has contributed to strong economic growth. The benign environment for job creation is now changing, as the global economic crisis impacts on labor market demand in Bulgaria. Compared to the EU27 averages, activity and employment rates have remained low, and Bulgaria has significant untapped domestic labor res...

  9. Horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L. as a biomonitor of air pollution in the town of Plovdiv (Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ILIANA VELCHEVA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study is a small part of a program for application the methods of passive and active phytomonitoring with herbaceous species, trees, mosses and lichens for assessment of the anthropogenic factor in urban conditions. Aesculus hippocastanum L. was studied as a possible biomonitor of air pollution with heavy metals and toxic elements in the town of Plovdiv (Bulgaria. Concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, V and U in leaf samples from urban areas with different anthropogenic impact were compared. Motor transport was found to be the major source of contaminants. It was found the significant contribution of some factors as urban gradient, canyon-street effect and wind rose in forming the urban air quality.

  10. OBSERVING CORONAL NANOFLARES IN ACTIVE REGION MOSS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The High-resolution Coronal Imager (Hi-C) has provided Fe XII 193Å images of the upper transition region moss at an unprecedented spatial (∼0.''3-0.''4) and temporal (5.5 s) resolution. The Hi-C observations show in some moss regions variability on timescales down to ∼15 s, significantly shorter than the minute-scale variability typically found in previous observations of moss, therefore challenging the conclusion of moss being heated in a mostly steady manner. These rapid variability moss regions are located at the footpoints of bright hot coronal loops observed by the Solar Dynamics Observatory/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly in the 94 Å channel, and by the Hinode/X-Ray Telescope. The configuration of these loops is highly dynamic, and suggestive of slipping reconnection. We interpret these events as signatures of heating events associated with reconnection occurring in the overlying hot coronal loops, i.e., coronal nanoflares. We estimate the order of magnitude of the energy in these events to be of at least a few 1023 erg, also supporting the nanoflare scenario. These Hi-C observations suggest that future observations at comparable high spatial and temporal resolution, with more extensive temperature coverage, are required to determine the exact characteristics of the heating mechanism(s).

  11. Observing coronal nanoflares in active region moss

    CERN Document Server

    Testa, Paola; Martinez-Sykora, Juan; DeLuca, Ed; Hansteen, Viggo; Cirtain, Jonathan; Winebarger, Amy; Golub, Leon; Kobayashi, Ken; Korreck, Kelly; Kuzin, Sergey; Walsh, Robert; DeForest, Craig; Title, Alan; Weber, Mark

    2013-01-01

    The High-resolution Coronal Imager (Hi-C) has provided Fe XII 193A images of the upper transition region moss at an unprecedented spatial (~0.3-0.4 arcsec) and temporal (5.5s) resolution. The Hi-C observations show in some moss regions variability on timescales down to ~15s, significantly shorter than the minute scale variability typically found in previous observations of moss, therefore challenging the conclusion of moss being heated in a mostly steady manner. These rapid variability moss regions are located at the footpoints of bright hot coronal loops observed by SDO/AIA in the 94A channel, and by Hinode/XRT. The configuration of these loops is highly dynamic, and suggestive of slipping reconnection. We interpret these events as signatures of heating events associated with reconnection occurring in the overlying hot coronal loops, i.e., coronal nanoflares. We estimate the order of magnitude of the energy in these events to be of at least a few $10^{23}rg, also supporting the nanoflare scenario. These Hi-C...

  12. Quality of care of patients with acute myocardial infarction in Bulgaria: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraedts Max

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiovascular diseases are the major cause of death in Bulgaria. Because of notable differences in mortality rates between Bulgaria and other European countries, we presume a tangible difference in the management of acute myocardial infarction (AMI and an underutilization of evidence-based treatments. In order to determine the quality of care of patients with AMI in Bulgaria, we analyzed the appropriateness of current treatments and their relation to patient characteristics. Methods We performed a descriptive cross-sectional study, using retrospectively collected data from medical charts. We included all patients with AMI, residing and admitted to hospitals in the region of Stara Zagora, Bulgaria, between September 1st and December 31st, 2004. Socioeconomic status was surveyed within the framework of a structured patient interview. We used chi-square tests with Fisher's exact probabilities to analyze the relationship between prehospital time delay age, sex, and socio-economic status of the patients and Student's independent samples t-tests to check hypotheses about means. Results From 134 patients with AMI (mean age 64.6, SD 13.2, 66% male, 7% presented to a hospital within 59 minutes, and 44% within 4 hours of symptoms onset. The use of Heparin was 98%. In the first 24 hours, ASS was administrated in 82% and β-Blockers in 73% of the cases. At discharge Aspirin, β-Blockers, Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitors or AR-Blockers and Statins were used in 85%, 79%, 66%, and 43% of cases respectively. Intravenous fibrinolysis was applied in 32% of the eligible patients with ST-segment elevation. Percutaneous coronary interventions were applied in four patients within the first month after AMI. Hospital location in relation to a patient's place of residence and manner of transportation to hospital did not influence the time delay between the onset of symptoms to the start of hospital treatment. In the study region, a relation

  13. Induced Mutagenesis for Crop Improvement in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental mutagenesis has been investigated and applied in crop breeding in various Bulgarian agricultural research institutes during the last half century. In this paper some major accomplishments achieved in Bulgaria are highlighted. Both, physical mutagens (mainly gamma rays) and chemical mutagens (mainly EMS, NMU, NEU), have been used and their proper doses have been established. According to the information available to the author, there are more than 76 new cultivars developed using induced mutants in Bulgaria, namely: barley (5), wheat (5), durum wheat (9), maize (26), sunflower (3), lentil (4), bean (2), pea (1), chickpea and vetch (2), soybean (5), tomato (6), pepper (4), cotton (2), tobacco (2). Some of the mutant cultivars such as maize hybrid Kneja 509 and durum wheat cultivar Gergana have become leading cultivars occupying up to 50% of the growing area of the crop concerned. In durum wheat, mutant cultivars have not only covered almost all the growing areas but also doubled the yield in the past 30 years. The achievements in mutation breeding programmes have also had a significant impact on the progress of genetic research by elucidating the underlying mechanisms of induced mutations and the training of many young researchers and university students through their involvement in various research projects. A number of mutant lines with novel characteristics and mutant cultivars of economical importance together with relevant techniques used in the development and characterization of those mutant lines/cultivars are described in this paper. (author)

  14. Success as a Cultural Value: a Comparison Between the Notions of Success and Well-being in Bulgaria and Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hristina Sokolova

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to compare the notions of personal well-being and individual success in Bulgaria and Hungary. Such comparison has not been studied yet in social and cultural sciences. The analysis is based on the results from the 3rd, 4th and 5th Round of the European Social Survey, the 2011řs Eurobarometer Qualitative Survey on attitudes to well-being and a small survey on the notions of individual success conducted by the author of this paper in Bulgaria and Hungary in January 2012. Results of this paper shed light on the most important motivating force of oneřs existence and could be used as guidance for creating problem-solving practices in business and entrepreneurship, based on cultural values.

  15. TRADITIONAL WOMEN’S APPARELS OF BULGARIA N IMMIGRANTS LIVING IN ESKİŞEHİR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Başak BOĞDAY SAYĞILI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available As part of culture, clothing is a phenomenon which develops with humanity, which is specific to communities, being shap ed according to the ir taste, and reflecting the community’s living conditions and li fe styles . T he Turks who e migrated changed their clothing to adapt to the geo graphical and physical features as well as the living conditions at the places they migrated to, and through being influenced by the people in their region. Bulgaria is one of the countries to which great e migrations from the Ottoman empire took place. Having lived together for many years, the Turks and the Bulgarians were influenced by each other in clothing culture just as in every other field. These migrations , which took place intensively from time to time , are still co ntinuing. This research aims to reveal the traditional women’s apparels of immigrants from Bulgaria living in Eskişehir and the characteristics of their apparel . Historical and review methods were used in the research. From the sources reached using the survey form prepared as data collection tool, apparels reflecting general characteristics of the traditional women’s apparels of the immigrants from Bulgaria livi ng in Eskişehir were examined.

  16. Union formation and fertility in Bulgaria and Russia: A life table description of recent trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiva Jasilioniene

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides an extensive descriptive analysis and comparison of recent trends in union formation and fertility in Bulgaria and Russia. The analysis is based on data from the Generation and Gender Surveys (GGS carried out in 2004. We generate a large number of single- and multi-decrement life tables describing various life course events: leaving home and separation from the parental family, entry into union, first and second childbirth, divorce. Life tables are constructed for real cohorts as well as for synthetic cohorts. We study four real cohorts, born in 1940-44, 1950-54, 1960-64 and 1970-74. Synthetic-cohort life tables are constructed for three periods of time, referring to the pre-transitional demographic situation (1985-1989, the beginning of the transition (1990-1994 and recent demographic developments (1999-2003. We study also Roma and Turkish ethnic groups in Bulgaria. The life tables deliver detailed information that is otherwise unavailable. Our tentative findings indicate that societal transformation had a stronger impact on family-related behavior in the Bulgarian population than in the population of Russia. There is evidence that in some aspects Bulgaria is lagging behind other former socialist and Western European countries where the second demographic transition is more advanced. Evidence also suggests that Russia is lagging behind Bulgaria. However, certain specific features distinctive to Russia, such as the low level of childlessness, a drastic drop in second and subsequent births, and very high divorce rates even compared to Western European countries (it is a long-standing, not just recent trend, lead us to think that Russia may have a model of change particular to the country.

  17. Long-term changes in nitrogen deposition in Finland (1990-2006) monitored using the moss Hylocomium splendens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poikolainen, J., E-mail: jarmo.poikolainen@metla.f [Finnish Forest Research Institute (Metla), Muhos Research Unit, Kirkkosaarentie 7, FIN-91500 Muhos (Finland); Piispanen, J.; Karhu, J.; Kubin, E. [Finnish Forest Research Institute (Metla), Muhos Research Unit, Kirkkosaarentie 7, FIN-91500 Muhos (Finland)

    2009-11-15

    Nitrogen deposition in Finland was investigated on the basis of the nitrogen concentration in the forest moss, Hylocomium splendens, collected during heavy metal moss surveys carried out in 1990, 1995, 2000, and 2005/06. Significant regional differences were found in the nitrogen concentrations in mosses. The concentrations were the highest in the southern part of the country in all the surveys, with a decreasing trend on moving northwards. The mean concentrations in the surveys were 1.07%, 1.00%, 0.89% and 0.92%. In general, the concentrations in mosses reflected nitrogen deposition at the level of the whole country. However, they did not correlate very well with the modelled nitrogen deposition because of the high local variation in the nitrogen concentration in H. splendens. One reason for the high variation was the effect of the structure of the tree stand on nitrogen concentrations in H. splendens. - The use of mosses for monitoring nitrogen deposition requires further investigations on the factors affecting their nitrogen concentrations.

  18. A new view of Bermuda's mosses

    OpenAIRE

    O'Shea, Brian J.

    2009-01-01

    A recent paper (Olson, 2008) discussed the finding of Pireella cymbifolia (Sull.) Cardot in Bermuda, but also commented on the lack of research on the island. Fortunately further work on Bermuda bryophytes has continued over the years, and we now have a new moss list for the island.

  19. Chemical Composition Analysis, Antimicrobial Activity and Cytotoxicity Screening of Moss Extracts (Moss Phytochemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Klavina

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Mosses have been neglected as a study subject for a long time. Recent research shows that mosses contain remarkable and unique substances with high biological activity. The aim of this study, accordingly, was to analyze the composition of mosses and to screen their antimicrobial and anticancer activity. The total concentration of polyphenols and carbohydrates, the amount of dry residue and the radical scavenging activity were determined for a preliminary evaluation of the chemical composition of moss extracts. In order to analyze and identify the substances present in mosses, two types of extrahents (chloroform, ethanol and the GC/MS and LC-TOF-MS methods were used. The antimicrobial activity was tested on four bacteria strains, and the anticancer activity on six cancer cell lines. The obtained results show the presence of a high number of primary (fatty acids and amino acids, but mainly secondary metabolites in moss extracts—including, sterols, terpenoids, polyphenols and others—and a high activity with respect to the studied test organisms.

  20. Correlation of unsupported 210Pb activity in soil and moss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The activities of unsupported 210Pb, a naturally occurring radionuclide, were measured in samples of soil and terrestrial mosses collected in Serbia. Considering that clay particles in soil have a high affinity for Pb adsorption, and that mosses usually capture aerosol particles to obtain necessary nutrients, measurable amounts of airborne 210Pb, the daughter of 222Rn, can be registered in both soil and mosses. The objective of the present study was to determine if it is possible to compare the activity of unsupported 210Pb in soil and moss collected at the same sampling site, and to establish if a correlation exists between these measured values. - Highlights: • Samples of the soil and mosses were collected at same location. • Lead-210 was measured in mosses and soil. • Annual depositional flux of 210Pb is determined using 210Pb measured in soil. • Dependence of 210Pb in mosses of 210Pb atmospheric depositional flux can be observed

  1. CAS Introduction to Accelerator Physics in Bulgaria

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    The CERN Accelerator School (CAS) and the Institute for Nuclear Research & Nuclear Energy (INRNE – Bulgarian Academy of Sciences) jointly organised a course on Introduction to Accelerators, at the Grand Hotel Varna, Bulgaria, from 19 September to 1 October, 2010.   CERN Accelerator School group photo. The course was extremely well attended with 109 participants representing 34 different nationalities, coming from countries as far away as Australia, Canada and Vietnam. The intensive programme comprised 39 lectures, 3 seminars, 4 tutorials where the students were split into three groups, a poster session where students could present their own work, and 7 hours of guided and private study. Feedback from the participants was extremely positive, praising the expertise and enthusiasm of the lecturers, as well as the high standard and excellent quality of their lectures. For the first time at CAS, the CERN Director-General, Rolf Heuer, visited the school and presented a seminar entitled...

  2. Marketing approaches for OTC analgesics in Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkova, Valentina; Valchanova, Velislava; Ibrahim, Adel; Nikolova, Irina; Benbasat, Niko; Dimitrov, Milen

    2014-01-01

    The marketing management includes analysis of market opportunities, selection of target markets, planning, developing and implementing of marketing strategies, monitoring and result control. The object of the present study was to analyse the marketing approaches applied for non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in Bulgaria. The performed SWOT(planning method used to evaluate the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats) analysis for one of the leading Bulgarian manufacturers marked the complex corporative strategy for stimulating the sales of NSAIDs. The study results show that the legislation frame in the country gives an opportunity for regulation of the NSAID market in order that incorrect marketing approaches such as disloyal competition are avoided. PMID:26019521

  3. Longshore sediment transport at Golden Sands (Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hristo Nikolov

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of studies on the qualitative and quantitative features of the littoral drift at Golden Sands (Bulgaria, carried out jointly by Polish and Bulgarian researchers. The mathematical modelling of physical coastal processes took wave transformation (wave diffraction and refraction; the effects of shoaling and wave breaking and longshore sediment transport into account. The computations were carried out for the mean statistical annual wave climate, determined on the basis of IO BAS wave data, simulated using the WAM method from long-term Black Sea wind data. The results of sediment transport computations clearly show that its direction off the Golden Sands shore is from north to south.

  4. Options for Bulgaria power system extension planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under the existing transition to market economy in Bulgaria, the planning of development of electricity generation is among the priorities of the national policy of restructuring and renovation of electricity system in the country. Optimal plans for development of the generation capacity are worked out by means of optimization procedure part of ENPEP package (ELECTRIC module) based on the dynamic programming technique. The optimal plans study three main strategies for development of energy capacities, which have to do with the priority of some type of natural resources--Coal, Natural Gas and Nuclear Energy. The Hydro Power Plant construction and loading schedule for each scenario is different and it harmonized with the maneuverability of other capacities. Coal scenario emphasizes the opportunities for the maximizing of local coal mining, substitution of black coal (energy and coke) import by mining of local coal fields and implementation of efficient and environmentally sound technologies when constructing new thermal power plants. Gas scenario envisages natural gas consumption within the limit of existing capacities of the national and transit pipelines. In this connection, the share of the new generating capacities using combined cycle increases their share. Nuclear scenario assumes increased share of the nuclear units at the expense of local coal mining and natural gas. This is due to the rehabilitation of 1,000 MW units in NPP Kozloduy, completion of a 1,000 MW unit in new NPP and construction of 1--2 new units 600 MW after 2010. The data obtained outlines the perspectives for development of energy generation capacities in Bulgaria for the period 2000--2020, tendencies in the generation structure and the share of each different type of generation units in the structure of electricity generation system. Output information serves as a sound base for conclusions on the advantages and disadvantages of the three strategies

  5. Trace element concentrations in the moss Hypnum cupressiforme growing in a presumably unpolluted area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boquete, M T; Fernández, J A; Aboal, J R; Carballeira, A; Martínez-Abaigar, J; Tomás-Las-Heras, R; Núñez-Olivera, E

    2016-09-01

    In this study we determined the concentrations of As, Cd, Hg, Ni and Pb in samples of the moss Hypnum cupressiforme collected during 5 different sampling surveys (2006-2014) in a presumably unpolluted area in northern Spain (25 sampling sites). We then applied factor analysis (FA) to the data to explore the factors underlying the spatial and temporal variability in the concentrations. The percentage of variance explained by the FA ranged between 34 and 98%, and was usually higher than 70%. The FA yielded 5 factors that explained the variance in the concentrations of Cd, As, Hg and Pb in all sampling surveys and also a single factor that explained the variance in Hg and Pb concentrations in 2006. Although the lack of obvious sources of pollution in the study region (at least for the elements considered) suggests that most elements (except perhaps Ni) probably originated from long-range atmospheric transport, this would not explain the results of the FA. We suggest that rather than being due to the origin of the pollutants (as frequently assumed), the spatio-temporal variability in the concentrations of these elements is probably determined by a series of other factors: the physicochemical characteristics of the pollutants and of the moss binding surfaces, physiological processes (e.g. moss growth), and the characteristics of the sampling sites (e.g. vegetation cover, elevation, slope, aspect). We therefore conclude that the assumption that variations in element concentrations in moss tissues are due to the origin of the pollutants is an oversimplification that leads to erroneous interpretation of the results of biomonitoring studies with terrestrial mosses. PMID:27269992

  6. PROBLEMS WITH MEASURING LABOUR INTEGRATION OF THE IMMIGRANTS IN BULGARIA

    OpenAIRE

    Slavyanska, V.

    2015-01-01

    Labour integration of the immigrants is very important for them, as well as for the receiving society. The present paper is devoted to the problems, connected with the indicators used for its measuring in Bulgaria.

  7. The Future Energy Projects of Bulgaria – Opportunities beyond Frontiers

    OpenAIRE

    Virginia Zhelyazkova

    2011-01-01

    Bulgaria is situated in a geopolitical crossroad. This creates opportunities that can be beneficial not only for the country, but also for the region and beyond. One of the spheres that Bulgaria can take advantage of is the development of energy projects. This can happen in two main directions: • By serving as energy hub for the region and by distributing natural gas brought via pipelines from Russia and the East. • Exporting electricity produced in the upgraded production facilities as well ...

  8. Public expenditure and drug policies in Bulgaria in 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Toni Yonkov Vekov; Silviya Aleksandrova-Yankulovska

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The objective of this study was to provide an analysis of the factors which have a significant impact on the growth of public expenditure on medical products in Bulgaria. Methods: This research work consists of a critical analysis of the data reported by the National Health Insurance Fund in Bulgaria on the stability of the healthcare insurance model and the implementation of the budget for 2014. Results: The results from the current analysis indicate that the growth of public...

  9. Spatio-temporal patterns of Cu contamination in mosses using geostatistical estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several recent studies have reported temporal trends in metal contamination in mosses, but such assessments did not evaluate uncertainty in temporal changes, therefore providing weak statistical support for time comparisons. Furthermore, levels of contaminants in the environment change in both space and time, requiring space-time modelling methods for map estimation. We propose an indicator of spatial and temporal variation based on space-time estimation by indicator kriging, where uncertainty at each location is estimated from the local distribution function, thereby calculating variability intervals for comparison between several biomonitoring dates. This approach was exemplified using copper concentrations in mosses from four Portuguese surveys (1992, 1997, 2002 and 2006). Using this approach, we identified a general decrease in copper contamination, but spatial patterns were not uniform, and from the uncertainty intervals, changes could not be considered significant in the majority of the study area. - Highlights: ► We estimated copper contamination in mosses by spatio-temporal kriging between 1992 and 2006. ► We determined local distribution functions to define variation intervals at each location. ► Significance of temporal changes is assessed using an indicator based on uncertainty interval. ► There is general decrease in copper contamination, but spatial patterns are not uniform. - The contamination of copper in mosses was estimated by spatio-temporal kriging, with determination of uncertainty classes in the temporal variation.

  10. Mosses as biomonitors to study the atmospheric deposition of heavy metals over the territory of Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In regional trace element studies it is advantageous to determine as many elements as possible in order to better distinguish between different source categories. In the present work the moss bio-monitoring technique and the combination of two analytical techniques - epithermal neutron activation analysis (ENAA) and flame atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) - were applied to elucidate these problems. The total concentrations of 44 individual elements were determined in 86 samples of mosses. The mean, median, standard deviation and range values was determined for each elements. The use of terrestrial mosses as bio monitors is a well-established technique in Europe Comparison with the current median level in Norway shows strong pollution of the examined areas of Slovakia with the most of heavy metals. Strongly elevated Pb values with compare even South Ural Maintains is evident. The Cd value is 1.5 to 9 times higher than in other Europeans regions, only concentration of Zn are approximately equally. The most important feature of the sampling is that it correlates with the European Moss-Survey-2000, and the results obtained will be incorporated in the Atlas of Heavy Metal Atmospheric Deposition in Europe. (authors)

  11. Temporal trends (1990-2005 in heavy metal accumulation in mosses in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanka Maòkovská

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Biomonitoring of multielement atmospheric deposition using terrestrialmoss is a well-established technique in Europe. The moss samples of Hylocomium splendens, Pleurozium schreberi and Dicranum sp. were collected in Slovakia. Separately we evaluated the atmospheric deposition in the National Parks (Vysoké Tatry, Nízke Tatry, Západné Tatry -Jelenec, Slovenský raj and in a landscape protection area (Ve¾ká Fatra. In comparison to the median northern Norway values ofheavy metal contents in moss, the Slovak atmospheric deposition loads of elements were found to be higher. The survey has been repeated and in this paper we report on the temporal trends in the concentration of Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Ni, Pb, V and Zn between 1990 and 2005. Metal- and sites-specific temporal trends were observed. In general, the concentration of Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Ni, Pb, V and Zn in mossesdecreased between 1990 and 2005; the decline was higher for Pb than for Cd. The observed temporal trends for the concentrations in mosses were similar to the trends reported for the modelled total deposition of cadmium, lead and mercury in Europe. The level of elements, determined in bryophytes reflects the relative atmosphericdeposition loads of elements at the investigated sites. Factor analysis was applied to determine possible sources of trace element deposition in the Slovakian mosses.

  12. Bulgaria ,Boosting Energy Cooperation with China Interview with Deputy Minster Yaneva, Ministry of Economy and Energy, the Republic of Bulgaria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Deputy Minister Yaneva of Economy and Energy, the Republic of Bulgaria, a nice lady with outstanding talents, headed a delegation of Bulgaria to visit China in late June, for the participation at the 13th Bulgarian-Chinese Intergovernmental Commission for Economic, Trade, Scientific and Technical Cooperation. As an important instrument, the Joint Commission played a significant role in promoting the overall development of the bilateral economic relations.

  13. Immunity in the moss Physcomitrella patens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bressendorff, Simon

    model system, we identify and create targeted knock out of nine Physcomitrella homologs of defense related Arabidopsis genes. The knock-out lines are assessed for altered immune responses to a range of different pathogens. We find that at least one Physcomitrella mitogen activated protein kinase (MPK......Studies in flowering plants have provided a wealth of information on pathogen recognition, signal transduction and the activation of defense responses. However, very little is known about the immune system of the phylogenetically ancient moss Physcomitrella patens. Mosses represent some of the...... earliest land plants and are thus in an ideal evolutionary position to provide information on the evolution of plant innate immune systems. Furthermore, Physcomitrella has the unique ability to be genetically manipulated using targeted gene replacements through homologous recombination. Using this emerging...

  14. Calculating the Velocity in the Moss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Womebarger, Amy R.; Tripathi, Durgesh; Mason, Helen

    2011-01-01

    The velocity of the warm (1 MK) plasma in the footpoint of the hot coronal loops (commonly called moss) could help discriminate between different heating frequencies in the active region core. Strong velocities would indicated low-frequency heating, while velocities close to zero would indicate high-frequency heating. Previous results have found disparaging observations, with both strong velocities and velocities close to zero reported. Previous results are based on observations from Hinode/EIS. The wavelength arrays for EIS spectra are typically calculated by assuming quiet Sun velocities are zero. In this poster, we determine the velocity in the moss using observations with SoHO/SUMER. We rely on neutral or singly ionized spectral lines to determine accurately the wavelength array associated with the spectra. SUMER scanned the active region twice, so we also report the stability of the velocity.

  15. Desorption of 137Cs+ from mosses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OLGICA NEDIC

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Mosses are biomonitors that accumulate large amounts of various pollutants, including radionuclides. In this work we investigated the possibility of 137Cs extraction from mosses, as well as the significance of species specificity on the efficiency of 137Cs desorption. Salt and acid solutions were used as extraction media. It was shown that a 5 % solution of both ammonium oxalate and phosphoric acid was able to desorb 81.8 % of 137Cs+ from Homalothecium sericeum, which was 39.9 % more than desorption from water. At the same time, most of the desorbed 137Cs+ was incorporated in crystals that precipitated from the solution. An interspecies difference in respect to 137Cs+ desorption was noticed.

  16. Active moss biomonitoring of small-scale spatial distribution of airborne major and trace elements in the Belgrade urban area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuković, Gordana; Aničić Urošević, Mira; Razumenić, Ivana; Goryainova, Zoya; Frontasyeva, Marina; Tomašević, Milica; Popović, Aleksandar

    2013-08-01

    In urban environments, human exposure to air pollutants is expected to be significantly increased, especially near busy traffic streets, street canyons, tunnels, etc. where urban topography and microclimate may additionally cause poor air conditions giving rise to pollution hotspots. As a practical and cost-effective approach, active moss biomonitoring survey of some major and trace element air pollution was performed in the Belgrade street canyons and city tunnel in 2011 with the aim to evaluate possibility of using Sphagnum girgensohnii moss bags for investigation of the small-scale vertical and horizontal distribution patterns of the elements. In five street canyons, the moss bags were hung at heights of about 4, 8 and 16 m, during 10 weeks, and also, for the same time, the moss bags were exposed in the tunnel, in front of and out of it. After the exposure period, the concentrations of Al, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Sr, V and Zn in the moss were determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. According to the results, in all street canyons, the vertical distribution patterns of the moss elements concentration (Al, Ba, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Sr, V and Zn) showed statistically significant decrease from the first to the third heights of bags exposure. In the tunnel experiment, from inner to out of the tunnel, for Al, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K and Zn, decreasing trend of concentrations was obtained. Significantly higher concentration of the elements was pronounced for the tunnel in comparison with the street canyons. The results indicate that the use of S. girgensohnii moss bags is a simple, sensitive and inexpensive way to monitor the small-scale inner city spatial distribution of airborne major and trace element content. PMID:23430735

  17. Adaptive Strategies of Mosses to Desiccation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amos MAKINDE

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive features of six selected mosses � Octoblepharum albidum, Racopilum africanum, Thuidium gratum (forest species and Archidium ohioense, Bryum coronatum and Fissidens subglaucissimus (derived savanna species were investigated with the view to evaluating water retention capabilities, high desiccation resistance and adaptations that help mosses retain their viability for a long period of time. Shoots of the six moss species collected from three locations; Biological Garden, Parks and Garden and Base of Hill II all of the Obafemi Awolowo University Campus were subjected to shoot viability tests using staining method of wetting and staining with neutral red on fresh samples and those stored for 20yrs. Samples were exposed to 1.0M � 10.00M molar concentration of KNO3 in order to show plasmolysis levels. Of all the species A. ohioense and B. coronatum were the most viable, while O. albidum was the least viable. Racopilum africanum and T. gratum had lost their viability after 20 years of desiccation. Cells of 1986 desiccation recorded high molar concentrations when plasmolysed than those of 2006 desiccation.

  18. Air pollution biomonitoring using terrestrial mosses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spatial-temporal concentration of elements harmful for life has been investigated using terrestrial mosses of the Hypnum cupressiforme species. The results obtained have been implemented with elements of soil collected in the same area, for a wider information. Concerning the mosses, the investigated elements are: Al, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Fe, Mn, Pb, Cu, Ti, V, and Zn. The elements investigated on soil samples, collected only once, are: As, Cd, Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu and Pb. The results obtained allowed to identify an area of about 100 Kmq, located North-West with regard to La Spezia city (Italy), where the concentrations are higher than the remaining area. In the smaller investigation area, a surface of 0,12 kmq was found where the fall out rate for Pb is 0,21 g m-2 y-1, a value three times greater than the maximal european value tested in Rumania area (Ruehling, 1994). Mosses, which are highly efficient indicators of atmospheric pollution, have permitted to identify anthropogenic polluted areas and to evaluate the fall out rate

  19. Desiccation Stress and the Effect of Humidity in Mosses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aina Arinola FAJUKE

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Mosses show fair degree of structural adaptations to different environmental conditions. The effects caused by desiccation were determined in the shoots of six moss species, collected from various locations of the Obafemi Awolowo University Ile-Ife campus, Osun State, Nigeria. Using 0.1 g of fresh weights, desiccation of moss species over time at 0%, 52%, and 100% relative humidity, were determined by putting the shoots into desiccators and reweighing at intervals of 15 min, 30 min, 1 hr and on the 8th day. It was concluded that the locations of the moss species, and the fact that the cell walls of all the mosses were thick, were regarded as the adaptations which helped these mosses survived desiccation stress.

  20. Shakespeare arean hypertexts in communist Bulgaria Shakespeare arean hypertexts in communist Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander Shurbanov

    2008-01-01

    Since the first days of the reception of Shakespeare’s work in Bulgaria during the second half of the nineteenth century down to the present time two of his tragedies, Romeo and Juliet and Hamlet, have held an unrivalled sway on the national stage and over the people’s minds. Another one, Othello, was produced very frequently in the beginning, though often by non-Bulgarian troupes, and yet another, Macbeth, was a set text at the schools for many decades but rarely took the fancy of ...

  1. Air pollution monitoring using emission inventories combined with the moss bag approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iodice, P; Adamo, P; Capozzi, F; Di Palma, A; Senatore, A; Spagnuolo, V; Giordano, S

    2016-01-15

    Inventory of emission sources and biomonitoring with moss transplants are two different methods to evaluate air pollution. In this study, for the first time, both these approaches were simultaneously applied in five municipalities in Campania (southern Italy), deserving attention for health-oriented interventions as part of a National Interest Priority Site. The pollutants covered by the inventory were CO, NOx, particulate matter (PM10), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and some heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Se, and Zn). The biomonitoring survey was based on the use of the devitalized moss Hypnum cupressiforme transplanted into bags, following a harmonized protocol. The exposure covered 40 agricultural and urban/residential sites, with half of them located in proximity to roads. The pollutants monitored were Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Ni, Pb, Se, and Zn, as well as total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) only in five sites. Using the emission inventory approach, high emission loads were detected for all the major air pollutants and the following heavy metals: Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn, over the entire study area. Arsenic, Pb, and Zn were the elements most accumulated by moss. Total PAH postexposure contents were higher than the preexposure values (~20-50% of initial value). Moss uptakes did not differ substantially among municipalities or within exposure sites. In the five municipalities, a similar spatial pattern was evidenced for Pb by emission inventory and moss accumulation. Both approaches indicated the same most polluted municipality, suggesting their combined use as a valuable resource to reveal contaminants that are not routinely monitored. PMID:26479914

  2. Terrestrial mosses as biomonitors of atmospheric POPs pollution: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worldwide there is concern about the continuing release of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) into the environment. In this study we review the application of mosses as biomonitors of atmospheric deposition of POPs. Examples in the literature show that mosses are suitable organisms to monitor spatial patterns and temporal trends of atmospheric concentrations or deposition of POPs. These examples include polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs), dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). The majority of studies report on PAHs concentrations in mosses and relative few studies have been conducted on other POPs. So far, many studies have focused on spatial patterns around pollution sources or the concentration in mosses in remote areas such as the polar regions, as an indication of long-range transport of POPs. Very few studies have determined temporal trends or have directly related the concentrations in mosses with measured atmospheric concentrations and/or deposition fluxes. - Highlights: ► Terrestrial mosses are suitable organisms to monitor deposition of POPs. ► They provide a good indication of spatial patterns and temporal trends. ► Mosses have been used as biomonitors of PAHs, PCBs, PBDEs dioxins and furans. ► Few studies have assessed the relationship between concentrations in air and mosses. - Mosses are suitable biomonitors of persistent organic pollutants (POPs).

  3. Effect of metal accumulation on optical properties of mosses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. Photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy is known to be a powerful tool to detect plant stress and is applied to investigate the effect of metal stress on mosses. Scopelophila cataractae is reported to be a Cu-accumulating moss. Nevertheless, the mechanism of Cu accumulation remains unclear. This is the same for S. ligulata, which is known to be a Fe-accumulating moss. The color of S. cataractae is deep green, deeper than those of other common mosses. Hence, its color must reflect the structure and photoreaction related to Cu accumulated. However, the photoabsorption and PL have not been studied for S. cataractae, as well as for S. ligulata. Even for mosses spectral data are limited. In this study, to understand the effect of metal accumulation on optical properties of S. cataractae and S. ligulata, PL and absorption spectra of these two and other common mosses were measured. We found that the PL intensity of chlorophyll for S. cataractae increases remarkably after moistening whereas for the other mosses the increase is very low; this remarkable increase in PL intensity is suggested to be characteristic of S. cataractae. Correspondingly, it is assumed that there is a difference between chlorophyll in S. cataractae and in the other mosses. To clarify this point, absorption spectra of chlorophyll extracted from the mosses were measured and compared. The absorption spectrum of chlorophyll extracted from S. cataractae agreed with those from other mosses, revealing that S. cataractae has chlorophyll common to those of other mosses. On the other hand, the chlorophyll concentration in S. cataractae was higher than those in other mosses. This may be due to the effect of Cu accumulated in S. cataractae. On the contrary, we found that the absorption spectrum of chlorophyll extracted from S. ligulata differs from those of the other mosses. This indicates that the composition of pigments including chlorophyll, the structures of these pigments

  4. The Kresna earthquake of 1904 in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. N. Ambraseys

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The Kresna earthquake in 1904 in Bulgaria is one of the largest shallow 20th century events on land in the Balkans. This event, which was preceded by a large foreshock, has hitherto been assigned a range of magnitudes up to M S = 7.8 but the reappraisal of instrumental data yields a much smaller value of M S = 7.2 and a re-assement of the intensity distribution suggests 7.1. Thus both instrumental and macroseismic data appear consistent with a magnitude which is also compatible with the fault segmentation and local morphology of the region which cannot accommodate shallow events much larger than about 7.0. The relatively large size of the main shock suggests surface faulting but the available field evidence is insufficient to establish the dimensions, attitude andamount of dislocation, except perhaps in the vicinity of Krupnik. This downsizing of the Kresna earthquake has important consequences for tectonics and earthquake hazard estimates in the Balkans.

  5. Genetic analysis of haemophilia A in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kremensky Ivo

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Haemophilias are the most common hereditary severe disorders of blood clotting. In families afflicted with heamophilia, genetic analysis provides opportunities to prevent recurrence of the disease. This study establishes a diagnostical strategy for carriership determination and prenatal diagnostics of haemophilia A in Bulgarian haemophilic population. Methods A diagnostical strategy consisting of screening for most common mutations in the factor VIII gene and analysis of a panel of eight linked to the factor VIII gene locus polymorphisms was established. Results Polymorphic analysis for carrier status determination of haemophilia A was successful in 30 families out of 32 (94%. Carrier status was determined in 25 of a total of 28 women at risk (89%. Fourteen prenatal diagnoses in women at high risk of having a haemophilia A – affected child were performed, resulting in 6 healthy boys and 5 girls. Conclusion The compound approach proves to be a highly informative and cost-effective strategy for prevention of recurrence of haemophilia A in Bulgaria. DNA analysis facilitates carriership determination and subsequent prenatal diagnosis in the majority of Bulgarian families affected by haemophilia A.

  6. Economical issues on radiotherapy establishment in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the ground of accurate cost analysis for construction and operation of a new radiotherapy center an average cost of radiotherapy (RT) per patient in Bulgaria has been estimated. There is a lack of Bulgarian economical standard for RT center. As a country of comparable population and cancer incidence rate Belgian economical approach was implemented. A base for standard cost for RT are investment costs for buildings, installations, salaries and supply in ratio of 5 : 72 : 7 : 12 : 4. A minimal cost per patient was worked out for a big center if 1500 - 2000 cases are treated per year. It is calculated to be 750 - 800 Euro for regular treatment and up to 900 Euro, if high technology is applied. Comparison to standard cost per patient in USA and European Community countries reveals 3.5 - 5 fold lower figures. The reason is a different cost structure: mainly very low expenses foe salaries, lower prices for buildings and other hospital expenditure. High technology appliance is not cost effective for the small RT centers. The initial investment of 20 - 25 mill Euro are urgently needed to decrease partly the gap between European and Bulgarian RT. Providing such funds is of fundamental importance for Bulgarian RT. (authors)

  7. Shakespeare arean hypertexts in communist Bulgaria Shakespeare arean hypertexts in communist Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Shurbanov

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Since the first days of the reception of Shakespeare’s work in Bulgaria during the second half of the nineteenth century down to the present time two of his tragedies, Romeo and Juliet and Hamlet, have held an unrivalled sway on the national stage and over the people’s minds. Another one, Othello, was produced very frequently in the beginning, though often by non-Bulgarian troupes, and yet another, Macbeth, was a set text at the schools for many decades but rarely took the fancy of theatre directors and audiences. Since the first days of the reception of Shakespeare’s work in Bulgaria during the second half of the nineteenth century down to the present time two of his tragedies, Romeo and Juliet and Hamlet, have held an unrivalled sway on the national stage and over the people’s minds. Another one, Othello, was produced very frequently in the beginning, though often by non-Bulgarian troupes, and yet another, Macbeth, was a set text at the schools for many decades but rarely took the fancy of theatre directors and audiences.

  8. Distribution of Kotschy`s Gecko Mediodactylus kotschyi (Steindachner, 1870 (Reptilia: Gekkonidae in South-West Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Pulev

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The current paper presents the contemporary distribution of Mediodactylus kotschyi in south-west part of Bulgaria. The valleys of Struma River (to the south of the city of Blagoevgrad, and Mesta River (to the south of the town of Gotse Delchev, as well as the sides of the surrounding mountains up to the altitude of 650 m have been surveyed for the presence of the species. A great number of new localities (55 have been registered, and most of them (48 are situated in anthropogenized habitats. For the first time the subspecies Mediodactylus kotschyi bibroni has been found in natural (4 localities and seminatural habitats (3 localities. The presence of Kotschy`s Gecko in the city of Blagoevgrad - the northern frontier of its range in the Struma River valley, has been confirmed. The highest locality of Kotschy`s Gecko, known till now all over Bulgaria, has been registered (the village of Lyubovka, 606 m above sea level.

  9. How RES started in Bulgaria-Professor Velislav Ivanov

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobrinova, Annie [Bulgarian Solar Energy Society, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2008-07-01

    The contemporary RES achievements started with Prof Velislav Ivanov in Bulgaria. Here are traced his reach creative and scientific (nearly 60 years) work in its different aspects. From the very beginning (1933) most of his projects and realizations are innovatory - not only as engineer, but as scientist, pedagogue, organizer, promoter, inventor - step by step as to Head of Department of ''Technical thermodynamics and Heat Technique'' in Technical University in Sofia, then chair of scientific Laboratory and after 1977 year - head of RES corporation. As author of 6 manuals, different calculation methods, founder of departments and corporation he also sequenced the world most important RES trends and achievements with then educational systems and industry in Bulgaria. His followers are among the Bulgarian RES professionals today. His influence on the contemporary RES/EE situation in Bulgaria is enormous and stable. (orig.)

  10. Analysis of Climate Change in Southeastern Bulgaria and Northwestern Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analysis of climate change in two neighbor regions in Bulgaria and Turkey was done. Annual and seasonal variability of air temperature and precipitation in Southeastern Bulgaria and Northwestern Turkey during the period 1961-2000 was studied. Different sources were used to complete the required input weather data. For assessing climate trends some techniques such as anomalies, polynomial, linear fit, moving average as well as the Mann-Kendall test were applied. Drought episodes during the late 20th century in the selected regions were defined and discussed. Climate change scenarios for the 21st century (e.g. 2020, 2050, 2080) were also created for Southeastern Bulgaria and Northwestern Turkey. HadCM3 scenarios (including A2 and B2 IPCC SRES emission scenarios) with high resolution (10'x 10') were applied for this purpose. A special attention was paid on the projected precipitation. (Author)

  11. Bulgaria: Novi Han radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Novi Han radioactive waste repository is the only national radioactive waste disposal site in Bulgaria. It is located in Losen mountain, 6.5 km from the small village of Novi Han and 35 km from the capital, Sofia. The repository accepts radioactive waste generated from nuclear applications in industry, medicine, research and education. The facility was constructed according to a modified Soviet design (type TP-4891). Its construction licence was issued in 1959 and that for commissioning in 1964. The repository was specially built for the needs of the IRT-2000 research reactor operated by the Institute of Physics and other academic and medical facilities. In 1959, the Government appointed the Physical Institute of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, whose successor is now the Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy (INRNE), as the central authority for the collection and disposal of radioactive waste from nuclear applications. The Novi Han repository site covers an area of 4.25 ha.1 The site is divided into two areas separated by a fence. One area contains the administrative buildings, garage and maintenance shops. The other contains the disposal facilities, radiochemical laboratory and decontamination station. The repository consists of (1) a concrete vault for low and intermediate level solid wastes, which consists of 3 separate cells with a total volume of 237 m3, (2) a concrete vault for biological wastes with a volume of 80 m3, (3) four steel tanks for storage of low level liquid wastes with a total volume of 48 m3, (4) a special 1 m3 concrete vault for spent sealed sources and (5) a concrete trench for solid waste, which consists of 7 separate units with a total volume of 200 m3. Waste acceptance criteria follow Regulation No. 7 of the Committee on the Use of Atomic Energy for Peaceful Purposes on Collection, Treatment, Storage, Transport and Disposal of Radioactive Wastes in the Territory of the Republic of Bulgaria. They take into account origin

  12. Cesium ion uptake by moss (Hypnum cupressiforme)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lower land mosses uptake water and minerals from the atmosphere. They can collect metals polluting the air and radioactive fallout elements so they can be suitable for monitoring of these substances. Cesium ion uptake by Hypnum cupressiforme is studied by a radioactive tracer, 134Cs. The quantity of cesium ion in different celluar locations and the capacity of ion uptake is determined. The total capacity is found to be several times 10-3 mol g-1 and is therefore of the same order of magnitude as the cation exchange capacity of ion exchangers. The kinetics and reversibility of the process is studied as well. (orig.)

  13. The moss house on the Dargle

    OpenAIRE

    Brocas, James Henry (Irish painter and engraver, ca. 1790-1846)

    2008-01-01

    The moss house, a folly near the River Dargle was described by Stirling Coyne, N. P. Willis and others in c. 1841, in the book THE SCENERY AND ANTIQUITIES OF IRELAND: "Another new and splendid view of THE DARGLE is obtained from a small patch of green sward at the bottom of the glen, close beside a broad pool, in which the waters of the river, dammed in by a ledge of rocks, sleep in unbroken tranquility. Looking up the stream, the waters are seen tumbling through a rocky channel from the dark...

  14. Meet the Moss - User Testing Our First Fragrance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Henrik Toft

    2016-01-01

    Video highlights of our first public outing with the Fragrant Moss. We demoed the product to passers by at Westfield Mall and Indie.Bio in San Francisco......Video highlights of our first public outing with the Fragrant Moss. We demoed the product to passers by at Westfield Mall and Indie.Bio in San Francisco...

  15. Detoxification of Dissolved SO2 (Bisulfite) by Terricolous Mosses

    OpenAIRE

    BHARALI, BHAGAWAN; BATES, JEFFREY W.

    2006-01-01

    • Background and Aims The widespread calcifuge moss Pleurozium schreberi is moderately tolerant of SO2, whereas Rhytidiadelphus triquetrus is limited to calcareous soils in regions of the UK that were strongly affected by SO2 pollution in the 20th century. The proposition that tolerance of SO2 by these terricolous mosses depends on metabolic detoxification of dissolved bisulfite was investigated.

  16. Assesment of opportunities for landfill gas utilisation in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Bulgaria, about 14 million tons annually of municipal solid waste (MSW) are collected and disposed of in landfills - about 618 kg/capita annually. The implementation of Landfill Gas (LFG) energy recovery/utilization projects in Bulgaria serves as an essential landfill management strategy, and can also reduce greenhouse gases and air pollutants, leading to improved local air quality and reduced health risks. Results of assesment landfill tests of several municipalities, made by the team of Encon Services for estimation of the potential of their sites are shown in this paper. (authors)

  17. Lichen-moss interactions within biological soil crusts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruckteschler, Nina; Williams, Laura; Büdel, Burkhard; Weber, Bettina

    2015-04-01

    Biological soil crusts (biocrusts) create well-known hotspots of microbial activity, being important components of hot and cold arid terrestrial regions. They colonize the uppermost millimeters of the soil, being composed of fungi, (cyano-) bacteria, algae, lichens, bryophytes and archaea in varying proportions. Biocrusts protect the (semi-) arid landscape from wind and water erosion, and also increase water holding capacity and nutrient content. Depending on location and developmental stage, composition and species abundance vary within biocrusts. As species live in close contact, they are expected to influence each other, but only a few interactions between different organisms have so far been explored. In the present study, we investigated the effects of the lichen Fulgensia fulgens whilst growing on the moss Trichostomum crispulum. While 77% of Fulgensia fulgens thalli were found growing associated with mosses in a German biocrust, up to 95% of Fulgensia bracteata thalli were moss-associated in a Swedish biocrust. In 49% (Germany) and in 78% (Sweden) of cases, thalli were observed on the moss T. crispulum and less frequently on four and three different moss species. Beneath F. fulgens and F. bracteata thalli, the mosses were dead and in close vicinity to the lichens the mosses appeared frail, bringing us to the assumption that the lichens may release substances harming the moss. We prepared a water extract from the lichen F. fulgens and used this to water the moss thalli (n = 6) on a daily basis over a time-span of three weeks. In a control setup, artificial rainwater was applied to the moss thalli (n = 6). Once a week, maximum CO2 gas exchange rates of the thalli were measured under constant conditions and at the end of the experiment the chlorophyll content of the moss samples was determined. In the course of the experiment net photosynthesis (NP) of the treatment samples decreased concurrently with an increase in dark respiration (DR). The control samples

  18. ANKYLOSING SPONDYLITIS IN THE VOLGA BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. I. Abdulganieva

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available There is much evidence that ankylosing spondylitis (AS is a disease that is also much older than early human civilizations and man as a whole. Until now, the Russia's earliest (14th c ntury archaeological finding of such a patient remains a Volga Bulgaria inhabitant suffering with AS during his life. In the Republic of Tatarstan, at the site of an ancient Bulgar settlement appearing in the early ninth century, archaeologists have discovered an unusual grave: the deceased sitting with his back against the western wall of a tomb pitand having a bronze crosslet under his fingers. According to a historical source, it was the way of burying Christian hierarchs as pastors sitting on the altar and anticipating the great assize during which the destinies of human souls should be ruled. Anthropological analysis showed that the bones belonged to a 35–45-year-old man who was 158–163 cm tall. During the examination of the remains,attention was called to the following features of the spinal structure: ankylosis of the inferior cervical and superior thoracic vertebrae (СV–ThI and inferior thoracic and lumbar spine (ThIV–LII predominantly due to ossification of the anterior longitudinal ligament. Facet vertebral joints and costotransverse joints were also ankylosed at the same levels. The man's neck was fixed in a bent-over position with the head down, the chin touching the breast bone – the socalled soliciting posture. By and large, the vertebral changes are characteristic of late (X-ray stage III spondylitis. Spinal and pelvic photos and X-films are given for demonstration. The studies conducted by historical scientists and forensic medical experts suggest that the found remains are most likely to belong to Christian Theodore nicknamed Jerusaleman, also further known as Holy Theodore philosopher Kamsky (Bulgarian, who was mentioned in the Nikon chronicle in 1323.

  19. Market Report : The electrical power markets in Romania and Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romania and Bulgaria want to attract foreign investment for the rehabilitation of their electric power sectors to meet the requirements for membership to the European Union. In 2000, world exports of power equipment to both countries reached $857 million, an increase of 23 per cent from 1999. This report describes the potential for Canadian exports of electric power equipment and services to work in Romania and Bulgaria. In Romania, the electric power market is expected to growth by almost 20 per cent to $550 million by the end of 2001. The major current investment is in the completion of the second unit of the Cernavoda nuclear power plant, the completion of unfinished hydroelectric power plants, and the rehabilitation of the country's power transmission and distribution system. In Bulgaria, the market is also expected to grow as the infrastructure for the thermal and hydroelectric power plant is upgraded. Bulgaria is also launching a nuclear energy program which includes modernizing older units and the construction of one new plant to increase generation capacity. Opportunities for Canadian companies will lie in the areas of cogeneration equipment, modernizing coal-fired power plants, boilers and turbines. Other opportunities lie in the areas of hydroelectric and nuclear power plants, including their control devices, voltage breakers, and equipment related to power distribution and transmission. It is recommended that Canadian companies work in cooperation with the Canadian Embassy in Bucharest and the Canadian Consulate General in Sofia. refs., tabs

  20. First report of canine visceral leishmaniasis in Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    TSATCHEV, Illia; KYRIAZIS, Ioannis D.; BOUTSINI, Sofia; Karagouni, Evdokia; Dotsika, Eleni

    2010-01-01

    Seroepidemiological studies on canine leishmaniasis in Bulgaria, even in areas where human leishmaniasis has been detected, are controversial. This report describes 2 clinical cases of canine visceral leishmaniasis. The disease was confirmed by microscopical, serological, and molecular methods. It is, therefore, suggested that infected dogs could constitute the reservoir for human leishmaniasis in the country.

  1. Taxonomy of Late Jurassic - Early Cretaceous aptychi from Bulgaria

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vašíček, Zdeněk; Motchurova; Dekova, N.; Ilcheva, A.; Metodiev, L.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 265, č. 3 (2012), s. 249-274. ISSN 0077-7749 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : Late Jurassic * Early Cretaceous * Bulgaria * aptychi * ammonites * parataxonomy Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 0.923, year: 2012 http://www.schweizerbart.de/papers/njgpa/detail/265/78431/Taxonomy_of_Late_Jurassic_Early_Cretaceous_aptychi

  2. New Trends in Initial Vocational Education and Training in Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganova, Penka

    2007-01-01

    Despite a fall in the percentage of young people choosing this course between 1993 and 1994 (58.17%) and 2003 and 2004 (55.23%), vocational training remains the main path chosen by young people in Bulgaria. The national programme for developing pre-school, school education and training (2006-15), adopted in 2006 due to major public interest in…

  3. Multi-element atmospheric deposition in Macedonia studied by the moss biomonitoring technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barandovski, Lambe; Frontasyeva, Marina V; Stafilov, Trajče; Šajn, Robert; Ostrovnaya, Tatyana M

    2015-10-01

    Moss biomonitoring technique using moss species Homolothecium lutescens (Hedw.) Robins and Hypnum cupressiforme (Hedw.) was applied to air pollution studies in the Republic of Macedonia. The study was performed in the framework of the International Cooperative Programme on Effects of Air Pollution on Natural Vegetation and Crops under the auspices of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution (LRTAP). The presence of 47 elements was determined by instrumental epithermal neutron activation analysis, atomic absorption spectrometry and atomic emission spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma. Normality of the datasets of elements was investigated, and Box-Cox transformation was used in order to achieve normal distributions of the data. Different pollution sources were identified and characterized using principal component analysis (PCA). Distribution maps were prepared to point out the regions most affected by pollution and to relate this to the known sources of contamination. The cities of Veles, Skopje, Tetovo, Radoviš and Kavadarci were determined to experience particular environmental stress. Moreover, three reactivated lead-zinc mines were also shown to contribute to a high content of lead and zinc in the eastern part of the country. However, a comparison with the previous moss survey conducted in 2005 showed a decreasing trend of pollution elements that are usually associated with emission from industrial activities. PMID:26062458

  4. Pollutant deposition impacts on lichens, mosses, wood and soil in the Athabasca oil sands area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was conducted to monitor the accumulation and impact on the environment of emissions from oil sands processing plants. SO2, H2S, NOx and hydrocarbon concentrations in the air were monitored. Syncrude Canada Ltd. conducted surveys to determine elemental levels in lichens and mosses. The objective of the study was to monitor the pattern of accumulation of emissions by oil sand plants in, and their effects on, lichens and mosses, and examine changes in wood induced by soil acidity. The moss, lichen and wood samples were analyzed for total elemental content. Soils were analyzed for pH, soluble sulphate and other properties related to soil acidity and soil composition. Little or no evidence was found to indicate that wood tissue chemistry has been affected by atmospheric deposition of substances originating from oil sands plants. These results led to the inference that no large changes in soil acidity have resulted from oil sands plant emissions either. 66 refs., 21 tabs., 124 figs

  5. Mapping background values of atmospheric nitrogen total depositions in Germany based on EMEP deposition modelling and the European Moss Survey 2005; Kartierung der Hintergrundwerte atmosphaerischer Stickstoff-Gesamtdepositionen in Deutschland anhand von Daten des EMEP-Messnetzes und des ICP Vegetation Moos-Monitoring 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, Winfried; Holy, Marcel; Pesch, Roland [University of Vechta, Chair of Landscape Ecology, P.O.B. 1553, Vechta (Germany); Harmens, Harry [Environment Centre Wales, Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Bangor, Gwynedd (United Kingdom); Fagerli, Hilde [Norwegian Meteorological Institute, Meteorological Synthesizing Centre-West of EMEP, P.O. Box 43-Blindern, Oslo (Norway)

    2011-12-15

    In order to map exceedances of critical atmospheric deposition loads for nitrogen (N) surface data on the atmospheric deposition of N compounds to terrestrial ecosystems are needed. Across Europe such information is provided by the international European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP) in a resolution of 50 km by 50 km, relying on both emission data and measurement data on atmospheric depositions. The objective of the article at hand is on the improvement of the spatial resolution of the EMEP maps by combining them with data on the N concentration in mosses provided by the International Cooperative Programme on Effects of Air Pollution on Natural Vegetation and Crops (ICP Vegetation) of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution (LTRAP). Methods The map on atmospheric depositions of total N as modelled by EMEP was intersected with geostatistical surface estimations on the N concentration in mosses at a resolution of 5 km by 5 km. The medians of the N estimations in mosses were then calculated for each 50 km by 50 km grid cell. Both medians of moss estimations and corresponding modelled deposition values were ln-transformed and their relationship investigated and modelled by linear regression analysis. The regression equations were applied on the moss kriging estimates of the N concentration in mosses. The respective residuals were projected onto the centres of the EMEP grid cells and were mapped using variogram analysis and kriging procedures. Finally, the residual and the regression map were summed up to the map of total N deposition in terrestrial ecosystems throughout Europe. The regression analysis of the estimated N concentrations in mosses and the modelled EMEP depositions resulted in clear linear regression patterns with coefficients of determination of r{sup 2}=0.62 and Pearson correlations of r{sub p}=0.79 and Spearman correlations of r{sub s}=0.70, respectively. Regarding the German

  6. NATO Expansion: Romania and Bulgaria within the Larger Context. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad, 1997. (Romania and Bulgaria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Thomas M.

    This paper analyzes the issues regarding current expansion of NATO membership to include Romania and Bulgaria. The perspective given is that of the United States and places the Romanian and Bulgarian cases within the context of those issues. Sections of the paper include: (1) "The Road to Madrid: Expansion of NATO"; (2) "No Easy Answers: The…

  7. [CO2-gas exchange of mosses following water vapour uptake].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, O L

    1969-03-01

    The CO2-gas exchange of dry mosses which were exposed to air of high water vapour content has been followed. Some moss species behave as do lichens and aerophilic green algae: they are able to take up enough water vapour to make a rather high photosynthetic activity possible. Other species lack this ability. They need liquid water for reactivation of photosynthesis, as do poikilohydric ferns and phanerogams. In this respect too the mosses are located between the real thallophytes and the cormophytes. From this point of view they are useful objects for studying the relationships between water vapour reactivation, morphological organisation and ecological capability. PMID:24504355

  8. Mosses accumulate heavy metals from the substrata of coal ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukojević Vanja

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants that are able to accumulate and tolerate extraordinarily high concentrations of heavy metals (hyperaccumulators can be used for phytoremediation (removal of contaminants from soils or phytomining (growing a crop of plants to harvest the metals. Two moss species, Bryum capillare Hedw. and Ceratodon purpureus Hedw., were tested as potential phytoremedies under in vivo conditions on a coal ash disposal site in the surroundings of Obrenovac (NW Serbia. The content of various heavy metals (iron, manganese zinc, lead, nickel, cadmium, and copper in the mosses and substrata were investigated over a period of three years. Iron and zinc were found to have the highest concentration in the mosses.

  9. Vortex Rings from Sphagnum Moss Capsules

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, Emily S; Cha, Jung Ha; Strassman, Sam; Hard, Clara; Whitaker, Dwight L

    2010-01-01

    Long distance wind dispersal requires small spores with low terminal velocities, which can be held aloft by turbulent air currents until they are deposited in suitable habitats for colonization. The inherent difficulty in dispersing spores by wind is that spores easily carried by wind are also rapidly decelerated when moving through still air. Thus the height of spore release is critical in determining their range of dispersal. Vascular plants with wind dispersed spores use the height of the plant to lift spores into sufficient wind currents for dispersal, however non-vascular plants such as Sphagnum cannot grow sufficiently tall. These fluid dynamics videos show how exploding capsules of {\\em Sphagnum} moss generate vortex rings to carry spores to heights above 10 cm with an initial velocity of 16 m s$^{-1}$. In contrast spores launched ballistically at these speeds through still air would travel only 2-7 mm.

  10. Moss monitoring as a mirror of land use? Nitrogen and metal accumulation in mosses of two regions in middle Europe; Moosmonitoring als Spiegel der Landnutzung? Stickstoff- und Metallakkumulation in Moosen zweier Regionen Mitteleuropas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, W.; Hornsmann, I.; Pesch, R.; Schmidt, G. [Hochschule Vechta (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Landschaftsoekologie; Fraenzle, S.; Wuenschmann, S.; Heidenreich, H.; Markert, B. [Internationales Hochschulinstitut, Zittau (Germany)

    2008-02-15

    Goal, Scope and Background. The study was conducted to test the hypothesis that the regional variability of nitrogen (N) and metal accumulations in terrestrial ecosystems are due to historical and recent ways of land use. To this end, in two regions of Central Europe the metal and N accumulations in both regions should be examined by comparative moss analysis. The regions should be of quantitatively specified representativity for selected ecological characteristics of Europe. Within both regions these characteristics should be covered by the sites where the moss samples were collected. The number of samples should allow for geostatistical estimation of the measured nitrogen and metal loads. Results. By use of the ecological regionalisation of Europe the Weser-Ems Region (WER) and the Euro Region Nissa (ERN) were selected for investigation. The sampling sites represent quite well the natural landscapes and the land use categories of both regions. The measurement values corroborate the decline of metal accumulation observed since the beginning of the European Mosses Monitoring Survey in 1990. The metal loads of the mosses in the ERN exceed those in the WER significantly. The opposite holds true for the N concentrations: those in the WER are significantly higher than those in the ERN. (orig.)

  11. Post-Fire Moss Recovery in Northern Peatlands: Separating the Effects of Species and Water Content on Moss Water Repellency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Paul; Lukenbach, Max; Waddington, James Michael

    2016-04-01

    Wildfire is the largest disturbance affecting peatlands, where northern peat reserves are becoming increasingly vulnerable to wildfire as climate change is projected to enhance the length and severity of the fire season. However, little is known about the spatio-temporal variability of post-fire recovery in these ecosystems. High water table positions after wildfire are critical to limit atmospheric carbon losses and enable the re-establishment of keystone peatland mosses (i.e., Sphagnum). Post-fire recovery of the moss surface in Sphagnum-feathermoss peatlands, however, has been shown to be limited where moss type and burn severity interact to result in a water repellent surface. While in situ measurements of moss water repellency in peatlands has been shown to be greater for feathermoss in both a burned and unburned state in comparison to Sphagnum moss, it is difficult to separate effects of water content from species. Consequently, we carried out a drying experiment in the lab where we compared the water repellency of two dominant peatland moss species, Sphagnum and feathermoss, for several burn severity classes as well as for unburned samples. The results suggest that water repellency in moss is primarily controlled by water content, where a sharp threshold exists at gravimetric water contents (GWC) lower than ~3 g g-1. While GWC is shown to be a strong predictor of water repellency, the effect is enhanced by combustion. Based on field GWC, we show that there are significant differences in the frequency distribution of near-surface GWC between moss type and burn severity. The differences in the distributions of field GWC are related to characteristic moisture retention curves of unburned samples measured in the lab, as well as morphological differences between moss type.

  12. Distinguishing metal bioconcentration from particulate matter in moss tissue: Testing methods of removing particles attached to the moss surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spagnuolo, V.; Giordano, S. [Department of Biology, University of Naples Federico II, Via Cintia 4, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); Pérez-Llamazares, A.; Ares, A.; Carballeira, A.; Fernández, J.A. [Area de Ecología, Facultad de Biología, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Aboal, J.R., E-mail: jesusramon.aboal@usc.es [Area de Ecología, Facultad de Biología, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

    2013-10-01

    Accurate differentiation of the proportion of bioconcentrated metals (i.e. incorporated into cells) and the proportion that is not bioconcentrated (i.e. adsorbed at the surface) would lead to a better understanding of the uptake processes and would represent an advance in the use of mosses as biomonitors. Traditionally the methods used to remove contaminants that are not bioconcentrated were to wash the plant material with water or to apply the sequential elution technique, but nowadays both options are considered inaccurate for these purposes. The remaining possibilities are to clean the moss samples with a nitrogen jet or by power ultrasound. Samples of terrestrial moss Pseudoscleropodium purum (Hewd.) Fleisch. were collected from five sampling stations. Different nitrogen jet cleaning procedures and ultrasound cleaning procedures were applied to the mosses. To determine whether any of the treatments altered the membrane integrity of the moss samples, the concentrations of K were determined. The shoots were observed under a scanning electron microscope, and the size and number of particles were determined. Nitrogen jet cleaning was determined to be unacceptable because it damaged the phyllids and/or altered the membrane permeability and did not eliminate the particles from the moss surface. Moreover, ultrasound cleaning treatment should also discarded because of the loss of extracellular metals that are transferred to the water in which the moss is cleaned. - Highlights: • The cleaning of surface particles on mosses is an unresolved issue • The use of a nitrogen jet as cleaning procedure was ruled out • The use of ultrasound treatments as cleaning procedure was also discarded • Currently it is not possible to quantify the bioconcentrated metal fraction in mosses.

  13. Distinguishing metal bioconcentration from particulate matter in moss tissue: Testing methods of removing particles attached to the moss surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accurate differentiation of the proportion of bioconcentrated metals (i.e. incorporated into cells) and the proportion that is not bioconcentrated (i.e. adsorbed at the surface) would lead to a better understanding of the uptake processes and would represent an advance in the use of mosses as biomonitors. Traditionally the methods used to remove contaminants that are not bioconcentrated were to wash the plant material with water or to apply the sequential elution technique, but nowadays both options are considered inaccurate for these purposes. The remaining possibilities are to clean the moss samples with a nitrogen jet or by power ultrasound. Samples of terrestrial moss Pseudoscleropodium purum (Hewd.) Fleisch. were collected from five sampling stations. Different nitrogen jet cleaning procedures and ultrasound cleaning procedures were applied to the mosses. To determine whether any of the treatments altered the membrane integrity of the moss samples, the concentrations of K were determined. The shoots were observed under a scanning electron microscope, and the size and number of particles were determined. Nitrogen jet cleaning was determined to be unacceptable because it damaged the phyllids and/or altered the membrane permeability and did not eliminate the particles from the moss surface. Moreover, ultrasound cleaning treatment should also discarded because of the loss of extracellular metals that are transferred to the water in which the moss is cleaned. - Highlights: • The cleaning of surface particles on mosses is an unresolved issue • The use of a nitrogen jet as cleaning procedure was ruled out • The use of ultrasound treatments as cleaning procedure was also discarded • Currently it is not possible to quantify the bioconcentrated metal fraction in mosses

  14. Phytophthora Root and Crown Rot on Apples in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Nakova

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytophthora is a genus of Oomycota responsible for some of the most serious diseases with great economic impact (Judelson and Blanco, 2005. While 54 species were found in the 20th century (Erwin and Ribeiro, 1996 another 51-54 new species have been identified(Brasier, 2008 since the year 2000. They are spread worldwide and have broad range of host plants – fruit trees, citrus, forest and park species. Phytophthora can cause serious damages in orchards and nurseries of apples, cherries, etc. In Bulgaria they have been found first on young apples and cherries (1998-1999 in Plovdiv region (Nakova, 2003. Surveys have been done for discovering disease symptoms in Plovdiv and Kjustendil regions. Isolates have been obtained from infected plant material (roots and stem bases applying baiting bioassay (green apples, variety Granny Smith and/or PARP 10 selective media. Phytophthora strains were identified based on standard morphology methods – types of colonies on PDA, CMA, V 8, type and size of sporangia, oogonia and antheridia, andoospores. Cardial temperatures for their growth were tested on CMA and PDA.For molecular studies, DNA was extracted from mycelium using the DNA extraction kit.DNA was amplified using universal primers ITS 6 and ITS 4. Amplification products concentrations were estimated by comparison with the standard DNA. Sequencing was done at the Scottish Crop Research Institute (SCRI, Dundee, Scotland. Phytophthora root and crown rot symptoms first appear in early spring. Infected trees show bud break delay, have small chlorotic leaves, and branches die all of a sudden. Later symptoms are found in August-September. Leaves of the infected trees show reddish discoloration and drop down. Both symptoms are connected with lesions (wet, necrotic in appearance at stem bases of the trees.Disease spread was 2-3% in most gardens, only in an apple orchard in Bjaga (Plovdiv region it was up to 8-10%. Morphologically, the isolates acquired from

  15. THE ECONOMICS OF PEANUT PRODUCTION IN BULGARIA DURING THE TRANSITION PERIOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelly BENCHEVA

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available We examined peanut production systems and selected factors affecting the development of commercial peanut enterprises in Bulgaria. A survey of 220 individual farms and farm cooperatives engaged in the cultivation of peanuts was conducted during 2000 and 2002. Poor farm structure, low level of technology, and nonconformity to farm decision making impede the financial and economic development of Bulgarian peanut production and farm growth, thus limiting farm enterprises emergence into competitive economic units financially operative in a freemarket economy. The underlying cost structure, couple with small farms, averaging 0.8 ha in size, prevent farmers from capturing economies of scale, limit farm profitability and hence farm modernization. The lack of owned farm machinery, equipment and storage facilities renders the restructuring and specialization extremely difficult. However, peanut production is still a viable farm enterprise for Bulgarian farmers.

  16. Terrestrial mosses as biomonitors of atmospheric POPs pollution: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Harmens, H.; Foan, L.; Simon, V; Mills, G.

    2013-01-01

    Worldwide there is concern about the continuing release of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) into the environment. In this study we review the application of mosses as biomonitors of atmospheric deposition of POPs. Examples in the literature show that mosses are suitable organisms to monitor spatial patterns and temporal trends of atmospheric concentrations or deposition of POPs. These examples include polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs), dioxins and furans ...

  17. The moss flora in the central urban area of Belgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grdović Svetlana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In floristic research on mosses in the central urban area of Belgrade, the presence of 58 species classified into 23 genera and 12 families was verified. The mosses occur in different specific and extreme microhabitats. Diversity of the bryoflora in urban ecosystems can be explained in terms of the large number of different habitats found on large greens, old fortress ruins, and roofs, as well as in gardens in the center of the Old Town.

  18. Moss-made pharmaceuticals: from bench to bedside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reski, Ralf; Parsons, Juliana; Decker, Eva L

    2015-10-01

    Over the past two decades, the moss Physcomitrella patens has been developed from scratch to a model species in basic research and in biotechnology. A fully sequenced genome, outstanding possibilities for precise genome-engineering via homologous recombination (knockout moss), a certified GMP production in moss bioreactors, successful upscaling to 500 L wave reactors, excellent homogeneity of protein glycosylation, remarkable batch-to-batch stability and a safe cryopreservation for master cell banking are some of the key features of the moss system. Several human proteins are being produced in this system as potential biopharmaceuticals. Among the products are tumour-directed monoclonal antibodies with enhanced antibody-dependent cytotoxicity (ADCC), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), complement factor H (FH), keratinocyte growth factor (FGF7/KGF), epidermal growth factor (EGF), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), asialo-erythropoietin (asialo-EPO, AEPO), alpha-galactosidase (aGal) and beta-glucocerebrosidase (GBA). Further, an Env-derived multi-epitope HIV protein as a candidate vaccine was produced, and first steps for a metabolic engineering of P. patens have been made. Some of the recombinant biopharmaceuticals from moss bioreactors are not only similar to those produced in mammalian systems such as CHO cells, but are of superior quality (biobetters). The first moss-made pharmaceutical, aGal to treat Morbus Fabry, is in clinical trials. PMID:26011014

  19. Seroprevalence of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in southeastern Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gergova, Ivanka; Kamarinchev, Bozhin

    2014-01-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF), which is endemic in Bulgaria, is caused by the Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV). The seroprevalence of CCHFV in southeastern Bulgaria was examined in this study. For this purpose, a total of 751 human blood samples were collected and examined by indirect immunofluorescence assay. In addition, a questionnaire was completed for every participant. Anti-CCHFV antibodies were detected in 3.20% (24/751) of the tested sera. None of the seropositive individuals had a history of CCHF. The results indicate that the proportion of positive findings increase with age. The significant risk factors for CCHFV infection are tick bites (18.85%, 23/122), livestock breeding (6.15%, 16/260), and residing in rural areas (6.20%, 21/339). PMID:25241694

  20. Public expenditure and drug policies in Bulgaria in 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toni Yonkov Vekov

    2015-11-01

    National Health Insurance Fund in Bulgaria on the stability of the healthcare insurance model and the implementation of the budget for 2014. Results: The results from the current analysis indicate that the growth of public expenditure is directly proportional to the number of reimbursed medical products and that the pattern of prescriptions including the innovative medical products mainly for the treatment of oncological and rare diseases has a significant impact on it. Conclusion: The reasons for the increase of public expenditure in Bulgaria include the non-transparent decisions in pricing and reimbursement of the products, the lack of guidelines for presenting pharmacological evidence and the lack of legislatively-defined drug policies for the management and control of the patterns of medical prescriptions.

  1. Revisiting the conceptualization of “Turks” in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Fatková

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The information presented in this paper is based on repeated ethnographic fieldwork carried out in Bulgaria between 2008 and 2011. The aim of this study is to highlight the conceptual field of the ‘minority’ category and, in particular, of the construction of a ‘problematic minority’ in Bulgarian public discourse. First, the article focuses on the broad context of the concept of minority in Bulgaria illustrated by stereotypical statements of the Prime Minister Boyko Borissov. Next, the construction of a ‘problematic minorities’ category will be examined. We closely observe the stereotypes linked to the image of ‘Turks’, with particular attention to their presence in everyday speech.

  2. Hydrological Response of Sedum-Moss Roof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengtsson, L.

    2004-12-01

    Eco-roofs are becoming popular for aesthetic reasons and also as units of stormwater systems. It is thought that such roofs with soil cover and vegetation reduces the total runoff, the peak flows and improves the quality of the roof water. Here are reported investigations of runoff from thin, 3-4 cm soil, extensive green roofs with sedum-moss in southern Sweden. The two-year study was performed on new roofs in the eco-city Augustenborg and also on nearby old vegetative roofs. The rain intensity and the roof runoff were measured with 5 min, or in some experiments with 1 min, resolution. The annual runoff from the eco-roofs was about half that from hard roofs and was close to that of small natural rivers. However, although most rainy days there was no or little runoff from the roofs, the highest observed daily runoff values were close to the daily rainfall. Runoff is initiated, when the soil is at field capacity. Thereafter the hourly runoff corresponds closely to the hourly rainfall. For short-term high intensity storms, the runoff peak is attenuated relative the rain intensity. The time of concentration for runoff was experimentally determined applying artificial rains on existing roofs and on experimental roof plots with varying slopes and using different drainage layers. The peak runoff from the roofs was found to correspond to the rain intensity over 20-30 minutes. The probability of high rain intensity is much higher than the probability of high runoff. When intensity-duration-frequency curves were constructed, runoff with 0.4 year return period corresponded to rain with 1.5 year return period. The influence of the slope of the roofs on the runoff peak was minor as was the effect of drainage layer. The vertical flow in the soil dominates the runoff process. The influence of extensive sedum-moss vegetated roofs on runoff quality was also studied to ascertain whether vegetated roofs behave as sink or source of pollutants and whether the runoff quality changes

  3. Evidences for the Lynx recovery in Bulgaria: the Lynx discovered in Western Rhodopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NIKOLAI SPASSOV

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available On photographs taken by a camera trap in the region of Yagodina village, Western Rhodopes, (Bulgaria the presence of the Eurasian Lynx Lynx lynx L. has been registered in the summer of 2014. This is the most reliable to date argument for the presence in Rhodope mountains of this critically endangered species in Bulgaria and for its gradual dispersal from the western mountainous border region of Bulgaria to more appropriate country habitats inland.

  4. The Impact of Structural Reforms on Employment Growth and Labour Productivity: Evidence from Bulgaria and Romania

    OpenAIRE

    Dimova, Ralitza

    2003-01-01

    Using firm-level data from Bulgaria and Romania, this paper addresses a lacuna in the transition literature, namely, the link of firm-level employment turnover with firm-level growth in labour productivity. The results suggest that while net job creation at the firm level was affected by privatization in Bulgaria, privatization in Romania did not have any effect on firm-level employment growth. Further, Olley-Pakes (1996) decomposition indicates that in Bulgaria, over time, resources moved fr...

  5. Corporate Governance Transformation in Transition Economies: Evidence from Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Peev, Evgeni

    2001-01-01

    The paper presents study of corporate governance evolution in Bulgaria and its convergence to EU structures. The author discusses the traditional approach to separation of ownership and control in transition economies and modern ideas about the need for changing corporate governance paradigm. The study analyses main ownership and control structures in the Bulgarian industry and specific property-rights structures in corporatized state-owned firms, privatized firms and established de novo priv...

  6. Bulgaria's institutions and policies : integrating into Pan-European markets

    OpenAIRE

    Kaminski, Bartlomiej

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyzes the process of institutional transformation in Bulgaria and assesses the extent to which it has established institutions and policies fostering domestic economic activity and integration into global markets. After a brief review of characteristics and achieved progress in first-generation reforms, that is, removal of central control over prices, liberalization of foreign trade and exchange rate regimes, the paper first assesses in the comparative perspective the progress m...

  7. Lifelong Learning and New Skills in Bulgaria: a Gender Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Beleva, Iskra

    2010-01-01

    This paper present an overview of the state of lifelong learning in Bulgaria from a gender perspective; reviews the progress in the public debates in this area and analyzes the implemented policies for developing lifelong learning in accordance with the European strategic objectives, including gender aspects. The analysis on the state and policies of the national progress of the lifelong learning, including early school leavers, educational level of the labour force and participation in LLL, ...

  8. Social Studies and Humanities Textbooks in Post-Socialist Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Psifidou, Irene

    2012-01-01

    As Bulgaria went through a radical socioeconomic transition involving democratization and integration in the European Union, school textbooks and curricular contents were progressively reviewed to reduce traces of bias, value judgments, ideological content and opinions, which were thought to inflame passions and sustain mistrust and misunderstandings. The present paper discusses important changes made in Bulgarian social studies and humanities textbooks since 1989, which involved discharging ...

  9. Decision making pattern of subsistence farmers in Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Plamen Mishev; Philip Kostov

    2004-01-01

    Economic research by and large is dominated by a ‘rationality’ paradigm. Economic decision making within this paradigm is viewed as a maximising procedure. In general the latter represents the decision-making as a choice amongst a well defined set of alternatives. In this paper we question this and analyse the options of the small-scale subsistence farmers in Bulgaria in the way they see them. By applying mental accounting methodology we deduce some significant characteristics of Bulgarian su...

  10. New record of cryoseston in the Rhodope Mountains, Bulgaria

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lukavský, Jaromír; Cepák, Vladislav

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 99, 3-4 (2014), 453-466. ISSN 0029-5035 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TE01020080; GA TA ČR TA03011027 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : Aphanocapsa nivalis * Bulgaria, cryoseston * Rhodope Mountains * snow algae Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics Impact factor: 1.195, year: 2014

  11. The difficult transition to national health insurance in Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Bistra Vladimirova Datzova

    2006-01-01

    Health sector reform in Bulgaria aims to enhance sector efficiency, increase resources allocated to the health sector and target public resources to the most cost-effective interventions. The health system is however currently being changed in two directions-social and commercial. Transition processes in health include the simultaneous creation of market-based behaviour of all participants in the health market, and the establishment of a national social insurance system that should prevent so...

  12. Opportunities for developing communist heritage tourism in Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanov, Stanislav

    2009-01-01

    The paper analyses the possibilities to develop communist heritage tourism in Bulgaria. After a review of related literature, the paper identifies five characteristics of communist heritage tourism: ideologically overburdened type of tourism, controversial, represents a limited time period of history, represents a personality cult, concentration of resources in places related with communist history in the country (in cities and the countryside). The paper summarizes some of the most important...

  13. Possibilities of using geothermal energy for district heating in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An overview of the technical, economic and legal aspects of thermal water resources in Bulgaria is made. There is 137 sources of thermal waters in the country with a total flowrate of 3865 l/s and average temperature 44.5oC. Some recommendations to various governmental bodies concerning thorough investigation, assessment and effective utilization of thermal waters as energy source are presented. 1 tab

  14. Municipal Solid Waste Management in Bulgaria from a Systems Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Kolev, Aleksandar

    2007-01-01

    The European Union membership of Bulgaria since January 2007 imposes higher requirements to the national waste management system and demands changes in the current waste management practices. In this context it is of great interest to study the contemporary and possible future development of the Bulgarian municipal solid waste management system. A systems analysis was carried out to provide better understanding of the Bulgarian municipal solid waste management and to analyze the possibilities...

  15. THE TOURISM REGIONS IN BULGARIA – CONCEPTS AND CHALLENGES

    OpenAIRE

    Stankova, Mariya

    2010-01-01

    Bulgaria’s recent experience as tourism country raised the question about the importance of its tourism regions, and the effectiveness of marketing and advertising strategies. Very weak results were achieved about the “new” tourism region planning. The priority based in 2007 NTA (National Tourism Agency) – the regulator which is controlling the tourism policies in Bulgaria, defined the plan for contemporary needs about tourism planning of regions and the usage of that regions for observ...

  16. The Decline in Intergenerational Mobility in Post-Socialist Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Tom Hertz; Mieke Meurs; Sibel Selcuk

    2007-01-01

    Economists studying developing and transition economies have recently drawn attention to the problem of intergenerational immobility, or the high rate of transmission of inequality from parent to child (World Bank 2005). One readily estimable measure of this intergenerational persistence of economic status is the degree of association between the educational attainment of parents and children. This paper documents that the strength of this association has doubled in Bulgaria since the end of ...

  17. Computer simulations of the atmospheric composition climate of Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some extensive numerical simulations of the atmospheric composition fields in Bulgaria have been recently performed. The US EPA Model-3 system was chosen as a modelling tool. As the NCEP Global Analysis Data with 1 degree resolution was used as meteorological background, the MM5 and CMAQ nesting capabilities were applied for downscaling the simulations to a 3 km resolution over Bulgaria. The TNO emission inventory was used as emission input. Special pre-processing procedures are created for introducing temporal profiles and speciation of the emissions. The biogenic emissions of VOC are estimated by the model SMOKE. The simulations were carried out for years 2000-2007. The numerical experiments have been carried out for different emission scenarios, which makes it possible the contribution of emissions from different source categories to be evaluated. The Models-3 Integrated Process Rate Analysis option is applied to discriminate the role of different dynamic and chemical processes for the air pollution formation. The obtained ensemble of numerical simulation results is extensive enough to allow statistical treatment calculating not only the mean concentrations and different source categories contribution mean fields, but also standard deviations, skewness, etc. with their dominant temporal modes (seasonal and/or diurnal variations). Thus some basic facts about the atmospheric composition climate of Bulgaria can be retrieved from the simulation ensemble. (Author)

  18. Prevalence of American Foulbrood and Paenibacillus Larvae Genotypes in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolina V. RUSENOVA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyse the prevalence of American foulbrood and Paenibacillus larvae genotypes in Bulgaria. For this purpose, data concerning American foulbrood outbreaks were used. Also, available data on the number of destroyed bee families covering a twenty-five-year period (1989 - 2013 was collected from the register of Bulgarian Food Safety Agency. In addition, Paenibacillus larvae genotypes in 15 apiaries were established by rep - PCR with BOXA1R and MBOREP1 primers. Results showed broad incidence of the disease, particularly at the beginning of the analysed period, with a tendency to reduction of affected apiaries and bee families at the end of the period. A statistically significant prevalence of American foulbrood in South Bulgaria compared to the northern regions was observed. Genotyping of Paenibacillus larvae revealed two genotypes: ab and AB, with the preponderance of the more virulent AB in South Bulgaria. The obtained results showed the need for conducting regular mandatory screening of bee colonies for early diagnostics of the disease and the implementation of relevant measures for American foulbrood prevention and control.

  19. Best options for the exposure of traditional and innovative moss bags: A systematic evaluation in three European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capozzi, F; Giordano, S; Aboal, J R; Adamo, P; Bargagli, R; Boquete, T; Di Palma, A; Real, C; Reski, R; Spagnuolo, V; Steinbauer, K; Tretiach, M; Varela, Z; Zechmeister, H; Fernández, J A

    2016-07-01

    To develop an internationally standardized protocol for the moss bag technique application, the research team participating in the FP7 European project "MOSSclone" focused on the optimization of the moss bags exposure in terms of bag characteristics (shape of the bags, mesh size, weight/surface ratio), duration and height of exposure by comparing traditional moss bags to a new concept bag, "Mossphere". In particular, the effects of each variable on the metal uptake from the air were evaluated by a systematic experimental design carried out in urban, industrial, agricultural and background areas of three European countries with oceanic, Mediterranean and continental climate. The results evidenced that the shape, the mesh size of the bags and the exposure height (in the tested ranges), did not significantly influence the uptake capacity of the transplanted moss. The aspects more affecting the element uptake were represented by the density of the moss inside the bags and the relative ratio between its weight and the surface area of the bag. We found that, the lower the density, the higher the uptake recorded. Moreover, three weeks of exposure were not enough to have a consistent uptake signal in all the environments tested, thus we suggest an exposure period not shorter than 6 weeks, which is appropriate in most situations. The above results were confirmed in all the countries and scenarios tested. The adoption of a shared exposure protocol by the research community is strongly recommended since it is a key aspect to make biomonitoring surveys directly comparable, also in view of its recognition as a monitoring method by the EU legislation. PMID:27108040

  20. Atmospheric deposition of cadmium in Croatia studied by using moss bio monitoring technique and ICP-AES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croatia participated for the first time in moss survey in 2005, in the framework of the International Cooperative Programme on Effects of Air Pollution on Natural Vegetation and Crops with heavy metals in Europe (UNECE ICP Vegetation) when different species of moss samples (Hypnum cupressiforme, Pleurozium schreberi, Brachythecium rutabulum and Homalothecium sericeum) were collected from 96 locations evenly distributed over the country. An additional 27 new sampling sites were added for the investigation in 2010. Moss samples were collected during the summer and autumn of 2010. Collected moss samples were air dried, cleaned and totally digested by using microwave digestion system. Digests were analysed for cadmium by atomic emission spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma (ICP-AES). The results for cadmium were compared with the results obtained in previous investigations in Croatia and some other neighboring countries and Norway as a pristine area. The content of cadmium ranges from 0.10 mg kg -1 to 1.42 mg kg-1. It was found that the median value of cadmium (0.38 mg kg-1) is 1.41 times higher than the value obtained in the study performed in 2005. Compared to the other countries, Croatia shows insignificantly higher median value. Highest contents of cadmium were found in the Podravina region (1.14 mg kg-1 and 1.42 mg kg-1) where cadmium inputs as a result of anthropogenic origin from Slovenia and Austria (Pb and Zn mines and smelter plants). High levels of cadmium were also found in moss samples collected at some industrialized areas in northern parts of Croatia as a result of anthropogenic influence as well as in samples collected in the Coastal region where high levels are a result of geological origin. (Author)

  1. Exposures to road traffic, noise, and air pollution as risk factors for type 2 diabetes: A feasibility study in Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzhambov, Angel M; Dimitrova, Donka D

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a growing public health problem in Bulgaria. While individual and lifestyle determinants have been researched; till date there has been no study on environmental risks such as road traffic, noise, and air pollution. As a first step toward designing a large-scale population-based survey, we aimed at exploring the overall associations of prevalent T2DM with exposures to road traffic, noise, and air pollution. A total of 513 residents of Plovdiv city, Bulgaria were recruited. Individual data on self-reported doctor-diagnosed T2DM and confounding factors were linked to objective and self-rated exposure indicators. Logistic and log-link Poisson regressions were conducted. In the fully adjusted logistic models, T2DM was positively associated with exposures to L(den) 71-80 dB (odds ratio (OR) = 4.49, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.38, 14.68), fine particulate matter (PM) 2.5 25.0-66.8 μg/m 3 (OR = 1.32, 95% CI: 0.28, 6.24), benzo alpha pyrene 6.0-14.02 ng/m 3 (OR = 1.76, 95% CI: 0.52, 5.98) and high road traffic (OR = 1.40, 95% CI: 0.48, 4.07). L(den) remained a significant risk factor in the: Poisson regression model. Other covariates with consistently high multivariate effects were age, gender, body mass index, family history of T2DM, subjective sleep disturbance, and especially bedroom location. We concluded that residential noise exposure might be associated with elevated risk of prevalent T2DM. The inferences made by this research and the lessons learned from its limitations could guide the designing of a longitudinal epidemiological survey in Bulgaria. PMID:27157686

  2. Exposures to road traffic, noise, and air pollution as risk factors for type 2 diabetes: A feasibility study in Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzhambov, Angel M; Dimitrova, Donka D

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a growing public health problem in Bulgaria. While individual and lifestyle determinants have been researched; till date there has been no study on environmental risks such as road traffic, noise, and air pollution. As a first step toward designing a large-scale population-based survey, we aimed at exploring the overall associations of prevalent T2DM with exposures to road traffic, noise, and air pollution. A total of 513 residents of Plovdiv city, Bulgaria were recruited. Individual data on self-reported doctor-diagnosed T2DM and confounding factors were linked to objective and self-rated exposure indicators. Logistic and log-link Poisson regressions were conducted. In the fully adjusted logistic models, T2DM was positively associated with exposures to Lden 71-80 dB (odds ratio (OR) = 4.49, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.38, 14.68), fine particulate matter (PM)2.5 25.0-66.8 μg/m3 (OR = 1.32, 95% CI: 0.28, 6.24), benzo alpha pyrene 6.0-14.02 ng/m3 (OR = 1.76, 95% CI: 0.52, 5.98) and high road traffic (OR = 1.40, 95% CI: 0.48, 4.07). Lden remained a significant risk factor in the: Poisson regression model. Other covariates with consistently high multivariate effects were age, gender, body mass index, family history of T2DM, subjective sleep disturbance, and especially bedroom location. We concluded that residential noise exposure might be associated with elevated risk of prevalent T2DM. The inferences made by this research and the lessons learned from its limitations could guide the designing of a longitudinal epidemiological survey in Bulgaria. PMID:27157686

  3. Total Petroleum Systems of the Carpathian - Balkanian Basin Province of Romania and Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlewicz, Mark

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey defined the Moesian Platform Composite Total Petroleum System and the Dysodile Schist-Tertiary Total Petroleum System, which contain three assessment units, in the Carpathian-Balkanian Basin Province of Romania and Bulgaria. The Moesian Platform Assessment Unit, contained within the Moesian Platform Composite Total Petroleum System, is composed of Mesozoic and Cenozoic rocks within the Moesian platform region of southern Romania and northern Bulgaria and also within the Birlad depression in the northeastern platform area. In Romania, hydrocarbon sources are identified as carbonate rocks and bituminous claystones within the Middle Devonian, Middle Jurassic, Lower Cretaceous, and Neogene stratigraphic sequences. In the Birlad depression, Neogene pelitic strata have the best potential for generating hydrocarbons. In Bulgaria, Middle and Upper Jurassic shales are the most probable hydrocarbon sources. The Romania Flysch Zone Assessment Unit in the Dysodile Schist-Tertiary Total Petroleum System encompasses three structural and paleogeographic subunits within the Pre-Carpathian Mountains region: (1) the Getic depression, a segment of the Carpathian foredeep; (2) the flysch zone of the eastern Carpathian Mountains (also called the Marginal Fold nappe); and (3) the Miocene zone (also called the Sub-Carpathian nappe). Source rocks are interpreted to be Oligocene dysodile schist and black claystone, along with Miocene black claystone and marls. Also part of the Dysodile Schist-Tertiary Total Petroleum System is the Romania Ploiesti Zone Assessment Unit, which includes a zone of diapir folds. This zone lies between the Rimnicu Sarat and Dinibovita valleys and between the folds of the inner Carpathian Mountains and the external flanks of the Carpathian foredeep. The Oligocene Dysodile Schist is considered the main hydrocarbon source rock and Neogene black marls and claystones are likely secondary sources; all are thought to be at their maximum

  4. Contribution to the butterfly species of Belasitsa Mountain (SW Bulgaria and second record of Gonepteryx cleopatra (Linnaeus, 1767 from Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liuben Domozetski

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available At present, according to the literature data for Belasitsa Mountain are published 139 butterfly species. This article contributes to the knowleage of the butterfly fauna of the mountain by adding five more species. With this supplement the number of the butterflies’ fauna of Belasitsa Mountain increase to 144 species. This article also presents information about the second record of Gonepteryx cleopatra (Linnaeus, 1767 in Bulgaria.

  5. Contribution to the butterfly species of Belasitsa Mountain (SW Bulgaria) and second record of Gonepteryx cleopatra (Linnaeus, 1767) from Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Liuben Domozetski

    2013-01-01

    At present, according to the literature data for Belasitsa Mountain are published 139 butterfly species. This article contributes to the knowleage of the butterfly fauna of the mountain by adding five more species. With this supplement the number of the butterflies’ fauna of Belasitsa Mountain increase to 144 species. This article also presents information about the second record of Gonepteryx cleopatra (Linnaeus, 1767) in Bulgaria.

  6. Rainfall variability in Bulgaria and its relation with NAO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The variation of climate exerts strong influence on the productivity of agriculture and on the various aspects of human activity. Many research programs at local, regional and global levels show as a main task the action to reduce, avoid, and better understand the risk associated with the climate change. The precipitation determines the availability of drinking water and the level of the soil moisture. The paper is intended to provide information about seasonal and geographical variation of precipitation in Bulgaria and its relation with North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). A Statistical test is applied to test the homogeneity and distribution of the initial data. In order to characterize the long-term and more recent trends linear regression equations are calculated. Correlation analysis is used to define the relationship between precipitation and global circulation mechanisms. The main question of the research is: whether the observed trend in Bulgaria corresponds to the global climate change? The tasks are: - Investigation of short-term and long-term rainfall variability - Assessment of statistical significance of the linear trend - Establishing the relationship between rainfall variability and NAO - what is the influence of the NAO on rainfall variability in Bulgaria In order to characterize the long-term and more recent trends linear regression equations were calculated individually for each station for two periods 1931-2000 and 1961-2000. The trend is negative or close to 0 for the first period. For the second period it is a negative with the values for January to April between -0.2 and -0.7. Correlation analysis is applied to define the relationship between rainfall variability in Bulgaria and NAO. The relationship is stronger for more recent period 1960-2000. The correlation coefficients are negative. Statistical significant coefficients are found for January, February and March. The paper gives information about climate change in regional scale. The results

  7. Hydrogeological controls on post-fire moss recovery in peatlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukenbach, M. C.; Devito, K. J.; Kettridge, N.; Petrone, R. M.; Waddington, J. M.

    2015-11-01

    Wildfire is the largest disturbance affecting boreal peatlands, however, little is known about the controls on post-fire peatland vegetation recovery. While small-scale variation in burn severity can reduce post-fire moss water availability, high water table (WT) positions following wildfire are also critical to enable the re-establishment of keystone peatland mosses (i.e. Sphagnum). Thus, post-fire moss water availability is also likely a function of landscape-scale controls on peatland WT dynamics, specifically, connectivity to groundwater flow systems (i.e. hydrogeological setting). For this reason, we assessed the interacting controls of hydrogeological setting and burn severity on post-fire moss water availability in three burned, Sphagnum-dominated peatlands in Alberta's Boreal Plains. At all sites, variation in burn severity resulted in a dichotomy between post-fire surface covers that: (1) exhibited low water availability, regardless of WT position, and had minimal (50%) moss re-establishment (i.e. lightly burned S. fuscum and where depth of burn was >0.05 m). Notably, hydrogeological setting influenced the spatial coverage of these post-fire surface covers by influencing pre-fire WTs and stand characteristics (e.g., shading). Because feather moss cover is controlled by tree shading, lightly burned feather mosses were ubiquitous (>25%) in drier peatlands (deeper pre-fire WTs) that were densely treed and had little connection to large groundwater flow systems. Moreover, hydrogeological setting also controlled post-fire WT positions, thereby affecting moss re-establishment in post-fire surface covers that were dependent on WT position (e.g., lightly burned S. fuscum). Accordingly, higher recolonization rates were observed in a peatland located in a groundwater flow through system that had a shallow post-fire WT. Therefore, we argue that hydrogeological setting influences post-fire recovery in two ways: (1) by influencing vegetation structure prior to wildfire

  8. Using devitalized moss for active biomonitoring of water pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debén, S; Fernández, J A; Carballeira, A; Aboal, J R

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents the results of an experiment carried out for the first time in situ to select a treatment to devitalize mosses for use in active biomonitoring of water pollution. Three devitalizing treatments for the aquatic moss Fontinalis antipyretica were tested (i.e. oven-drying at 100 °C, oven-drying with a 50-80-100 °C temperature ramp, and boiling in water), and the effects of these on loss of material during exposure of the transplants and on the accumulation of different heavy metals and metalloids were determined. The suitability of using devitalized samples of the terrestrial moss Sphagnum denticulatum to biomonitor aquatic environments was also tested. The structure of mosses was altered in different ways by the devitalizing treatments. Devitalization by boiling water led to significantly less loss of material (p < 0.01) than the oven-drying treatments. However, devitalization by oven-drying with a temperature ramp yielded more stable results in relation to both loss of material and accumulation of elements. With the aim of standardizing the moss bag technique, the use of F. antipyretica devitalized by oven-drying with a temperature ramp is recommended, rather than other devitalization treatments or use of S. denticulatum. PMID:26803787

  9. Assessment of intermittent trace element pollution by moss bags

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moss bags of the aquatic bryophyte Rhynchostegium riparioides (Hedw.) C. Jens. were transplanted into an irrigation ditch in the Province of Vicenza (NE Italy), affected by intermittent trace element contamination due to galvanics. The study aimed at: (a) testing the ability of mosses to detect different patterns of pollution (b) providing information about intensity and temporal extension of pollution events, and (c) localising the main sources. Moss bags were collected after 20, 34, 48 and 62 days of exposure. The concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn in the desiccated apical shoots of mosses were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The mean concentrations measured in non-contaminated stations of a previous work were adopted as background values, to calculate the contamination factor (CF). Transplants were able to: (a) detect spatial patterns of bioaccumulation (b) reveal chronic contamination by Pb and Cu, intermittent contamination by Cr, Zn, and Ni, and a release of Cd by moss bags, and (c) localise the main emission sources. - Transplanted bryophytes are able to detect accidental trace element pollution in freshwaters of industrial areas

  10. Assessment of intermittent trace element pollution by moss bags

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cesa, M. [Dipartimento di Biologia, Universita di Trieste, Via Giorgieri 10, I-34127 Trieste (Italy)]. E-mail: mcesa@units.it; Bizzotto, A. [ARPAV Dipartimento di Vicenza, Servizio Territoriale di Bassano del Grappa, Via Cereria 15, I-36061 Bassano del Grappa (VI) (Italy); Ferraro, C. [ARPAV Dipartimento di Vicenza, Servizio Territoriale di Bassano del Grappa, Via Cereria 15, I-36061 Bassano del Grappa (VI) (Italy); Fumagalli, F. [Dipartimento di Biologia, Universita di Trieste, Via Giorgieri 10, I-34127 Trieste (Italy); Nimis, P.L. [Dipartimento di Biologia, Universita di Trieste, Via Giorgieri 10, I-34127 Trieste (Italy)

    2006-12-15

    Moss bags of the aquatic bryophyte Rhynchostegium riparioides (Hedw.) C. Jens. were transplanted into an irrigation ditch in the Province of Vicenza (NE Italy), affected by intermittent trace element contamination due to galvanics. The study aimed at: (a) testing the ability of mosses to detect different patterns of pollution (b) providing information about intensity and temporal extension of pollution events, and (c) localising the main sources. Moss bags were collected after 20, 34, 48 and 62 days of exposure. The concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn in the desiccated apical shoots of mosses were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The mean concentrations measured in non-contaminated stations of a previous work were adopted as background values, to calculate the contamination factor (CF). Transplants were able to: (a) detect spatial patterns of bioaccumulation (b) reveal chronic contamination by Pb and Cu, intermittent contamination by Cr, Zn, and Ni, and a release of Cd by moss bags, and (c) localise the main emission sources. - Transplanted bryophytes are able to detect accidental trace element pollution in freshwaters of industrial areas.

  11. Global southern limit of flowering plants and moss peat accumulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Convey

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The ecosystems of the western Antarctic Peninsula, experiencing amongst the most rapid trends of regional climate warming worldwide, are important “early warning” indicators for responses expected in more complex systems elsewhere. Central among responses attributed to this regional warming are widely reported population and range expansions of the two native Antarctic flowering plants, Deschampsia antarctica and Colobanthus quitensis. However, confirmation of the predictions of range expansion requires baseline knowledge of species distributions. We report a significant southwards and westwards extension of the known natural distributions of both plant species in this region, along with several range extensions in an unusual moss community, based on a new survey work in a previously unexamined and un-named low altitude peninsula at 69°22.0′S 71°50.7′W in Lazarev Bay, north-west Alexander Island, southern Antarctic Peninsula. These plant species therefore have a significantly larger natural range in the Antarctic than previously thought. This site provides a potentially important monitoring location near the southern boundary of the region currently demonstrated to be under the influence of rapidly changing climate trends. Combined radiocarbon and lead isotope radiometric dating suggests that this location was most likely deglaciated sufficiently to allow peat to start accumulating towards the end of the 19th century, which we tentatively link to a phase of post-1870 climate amelioration. We conclude that the establishment of vegetation in this location is unlikely to be linked to the rapid regional warming trends recorded along the Antarctic Peninsula since the mid-20th century.

  12. Early traces of the Second Demographic Transition in Bulgaria: a joint analysis of marital and non-marital union formation, 1960-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoem, Jan M; Kostova, Dora

    2008-11-01

    We explore trends in first-union formation in Bulgaria from 1960, using data from the national Gender and Generations Survey of 2004. We analyse jointly the transition into cohabitation and directly into marriage. The standardized marriage rate falls dramatically from the early 1980s; the corresponding rate of entry into cohabitation has already increased from the early 1960s but (surprisingly) falls moderately toward the end of our period. Cohabitation also tends to last progressively longer in more recent periods. The analysis shows that a pregnancy leads to a dramatic increase in the rate of both kinds of union formation: the increase is by a factor of almost 20 for marriage formation and about 10 for entry into cohabitation, ceteris paribus. Our findings suggest that, in Bulgaria at least, some manifestations of the Second Demographic Transition can be detected as early as the 1980s. PMID:18937141

  13. Building energy partnership between Bulgaria and Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The project of Energie Verwertungsagentur (EVA) studies the possibilities for partnership between the two countries with respect of background conditions. Energy Efficiency Funds in some Central and East European countries (CEEC) in the framework of the PHARE programme and in co-operation with the EBDR aimed at increasing the market penetration of Combined District Heating and Power (CHP) technologies are being formed. The proposed project includes establishment of a Competence Centre for CHP technologies promotion. The Programme for the promotion of energy efficiency investments foresees co-financing the existing energy-efficiency funds and promotion and support of so called Energy Service Companies (ESCOs) which invest into energy efficiency measures on their own and get re-financing from the cuts in the energy bills. Several surveys show the considerable potential for the use of renewable energy sources (RES) in some CEEC. Proposed projects, as well as creation of Promotion Centres for RES and its future tasks are discussed

  14. International Commercial Contracts, by Giuditta Cordero Moss. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2014)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lando, Ole

    2015-01-01

    Review of: Giuditta Cordero Moss, International Commercial Contracts. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2014. XV + 329 pages. ISBN: 9781107684713......Review of: Giuditta Cordero Moss, International Commercial Contracts. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2014. XV + 329 pages. ISBN: 9781107684713...

  15. Do Nitrogen Concentration and Forage Quality of the Moss Racomitrium lanuginosum Increase with Latitude?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. D. M. Speed

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Mosses are an important component of high latitude ecosystems, contributing the majority of the plant biomass in many communities. In Arctic regions mosses also form a substantial part of the diet of many herbivore species. This may reflect either the availability of moss or its quality as forage. Here we test whether the nitrogen concentration and forage quality of the moss Racomitrium lanuginosum increase with latitude and discuss the findings with reference to herbivore utilisation of moss in the Arctic. In contrast to vascular plants, moss nitrogen concentration significantly decreased with latitude (P<.01, in line with estimates of N deposition at the sampling sites. In addition, no evidence of an increase in nutritional quality of moss with latitude was observed; thus, this study suggests that the utilisation of moss by herbivores in arctic ecosystems maybe a function of their relatively high biomass rather than their quality as forage.

  16. Do Nitrogen Concentration and Forage Quality of the Moss Racomitrium lanuginosum Increase with Latitude?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosses are an important component of high latitude ecosystems, contributing the majority of the plant biomass in many communities. In Arctic regions mosses also form a substantial part of the diet of many herbivore species. This may reflect either the availability of moss or its quality as forage. Here we test whether the nitrogen concentration and forage quality of the moss Racomitrium lanuginosum increase with latitude and discuss the findings with reference to herbivore utilisation of moss in the Arctic. In contrast to vascular plants, moss nitrogen concentration significantly decreased with latitude (P<.01), in line with estimates of N deposition at the sampling sites. In addition, no evidence of an increase in nutritional quality of moss with latitude was observed; thus, this study suggests that the utilisation of moss by herbivores in arctic ecosystems maybe a function of their relatively high biomass rather than their quality as forage.

  17. Bulgaria - Public Expenditure Issues and Directions for Reform : A Public Expenditure and Institutional Review

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2002-01-01

    A long period of economic mismanagement and political instability in the early 1990s, delayed Bulgaria's transition from planned, to market economy by nearly a decade, leading to the collapse of Bulgaria's economy in 1996-97. The introduction of a Currency Board Arrangement (CBA) in July 1997 and the subsequent implementation of sound macroeconomic and structural policies succeeded in rest...

  18. 76 FR 50283 - Finding Regarding Foreign Social Insurance or Pension System-Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-12

    ... ADMINISTRATION Finding Regarding Foreign Social Insurance or Pension System-- Bulgaria AGENCY: Social Security Administration (SSA). ACTION: Notice of finding regarding foreign social insurance or pension system--Bulgaria... Commissioner of Social Security finds has in effect a social insurance or pension system which is of...

  19. Bulgaria's Policy for Regulatory Reform in the European Union : Converging with Europe's Best Regulatory Environments

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2007-01-01

    Bulgaria's entry into the EU Single Market raises new opportunities and new risks for the national economy. As shown in the rest of Europe, a program of regulatory reform offers an effective strategy for managing the risks of more intense competition while preparing Bulgarian companies to prosper within the largest economy in the world. Bulgaria has already made significant progress in reg...

  20. Characterization of freshwater mosses as indicators of radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The necessity of indicators of freshwater contamination has developed the interest for aquatic mosses. From a fundamental point of view, studying the influence of some biotic and abiotic factors has permitted to better know the mechanisms of radionuclides accumulation by these bryophytes. From a radioecological point of view, simulating real cases of water contamination has allowed to give results a very interesting representativeness. The use of mosses as bio-indicators was applied for two in situ experiments, the results of which have been interpreted from those obtained in laboratory. Finally, an approach by a mathematical model has showed that it is possible to have, in a middle term, an evaluation tool of freshwater contamination, based on the radionuclides concentrations measured in aquatic mosses. (author). refs., 57 figs., 24 tabs

  1. Anatomical structure of moss leaves and their photosynthetic activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Krupa

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The photosynthetic activity of the leaf area unit increases depending on the degree of differentiation of the anatomical structure of the leaves of six chosen moss species. There is a correlation between the leaf area and the degree of differentiation of the anatomical structure resulting in enlargement of the area of contact of the assimilating cells with air. The leaves of Catharinea undulata having a one-layer blade and provided with several lamellae show a higher photosynthesis per 1 cm2 of their surface than the one-layer leaves of Mniurnm or Funaria. Aloina leaves are the smallest in area among those of the moss species discussed, however, their photosynthetic rate is almost 4.5 times higher than in Funaria leaves. By analogy to the structure of leaves and their function in vascular, plants, these changes and correlations may be considered as attempts of primeval adaptation of mosses to terrestrial conditions of living.

  2. Research of Mosses Accumulation Properties Used for Assessment of Regional and Local Atmospheric Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Nadezhda K. Ryzhakova; Rogova, Natalia S.; Borisenko, Alex L.

    2014-01-01

    The monitoring of atmospheric heavy metal and other toxic element depositions by using widespread bryophytes as biomonitors has been widely used. Choosing most appropriate moss species in relation to their accumulation properties is the main goal of this research. The accumulation of heavy metals and other toxic elements by widespread mosses of midland have been studied. The research is focused on assessing accumulation properties of 4 species of terrestrial moss, 4 species of paludal moss an...

  3. Usage Tests of Oak Moss Absolutes Containing High and Low Levels of Atranol and Chloroatranol.

    OpenAIRE

    Mowitz, Martin; Svedman, Cecilia; Zimerson, Erik; Bruze, Magnus

    2014-01-01

    Atranol and chloroatranol are strong contact allergens in oak moss absolute, a lichen extract used in perfumery. Fifteen subjects with contact allergy to oak moss absolute underwent a repeated open application test (ROAT) using solutions of an untreated oak moss absolute (sample A) and an oak moss absolute with reduced content of atranol and chloroatranol (sample B). All subjects were in addition patch-tested with serial dilutions of samples A and B. Statistically significantly more subjects ...

  4. Supporting the Co-operative Organisation of Rational Energy Use (SCORE). Bulgaria Country Document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SCORE stands for Supporting the Co-operative Organisation of Rational Energy Use. It aims at assisting the social transformation in the Central and Eastern European countries by creating self-supporting structures that are able to stimulate the efficient use of energy in end-user sectors. This document aims at presenting an in-depth institutional analysis of the energy efficiency situation in Bulgaria, including the current situation with regard to energy supply, consumption and environmental aspects, as well as an analysis of energy efficiency policies, instruments and organisations. Also, the document identifies problems related to energy efficiency in Bulgaria and indicates the areas of actions for an integrated SCORE programme in Bulgaria. The input for this process was provided by a survey among the main actors in the field, consisting of a questionnaire and interviews and a review of available information. The results were discussed in a workshop attended by the main stakeholders. The main characteristics of the Bulgarian energy sector are summarised in chapter 2. They indicate a high dependency on imported resources, a low quality of domestic fuels, a relatively high energy intensity of production and a low efficiency at supply and demand side with consider able potential for improvement. The restructuring of the sector has started but the process is far from completed. In the main towns heat is mainly supplied by district heating generated partly in co-generation plants. Gas distribution for public and residential buildings is quickly developing. In Chapter 3 the existing policies and actors are described and a 'roadmap' for energy efficiency actors is given. This provides the basis for defining the priorities for energy efficiency improvements presented in Chapter 4, by analysing the tools, policy instruments and organisations. Barriers and priority actions were defined in relation to the national policy level, the institutional structure, financial and

  5. Nationalism and Declining Population in Bulgaria after 1990

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana Kotzeva

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Dieser Beitrag liegt nur in englischer Sprache vor.This paper aims to illuminate and provide a critical assessment of the nationalist discourse on declining population in Bulgaria. Nationalist discourse is one of the mainstream approaches in Bulgaria and is widely spread through mass media having been voiced by renowned intellectuals, policy experts, scholars and media celebrities. It can be recognised in the political programmes of left-wing and nationalist parties, but also in governmental documents at both national as well as regional levels. The nationalistically oriented advocates articulate current concerns regarding the declining birth rates and declining population in the country labelling the demographic situation as “Bulgarian national catastrophe” and “Bulgaria’s collapse”. They place an emphasis on the decreasing proportion of ethnic Bulgarians and the growth of the ethnic minorities, especially Roma. The latter trend was labelled by the derogatory term “gypsyisation”, i.e. a distortion of the Bulgarian nation and shrinkage of its core ethnicity – ethnic Bulgarians. The threat of the “gypsyisation” of the Bulgarian nation has not only been viewed in quantitative terms, but also through the lens of an alleged worsening of the national human capital (e.g. level of education, professional skills and civic culture of the population. Another set of arguments exploited in the nationalist discourse is the diminishing size of the Bulgarian nation as a threat to national sovereignty, territorial unity and economic stability. We use a qualitative content analysis and thematic analysis of media textual materials in order to reconstruct the main ideas, arguments and strategies of the proponents of the nationalist discourse regarding the consequences of the declining population in Bulgaria, its social policy implications and future demographic prospects.

  6. Unmanned aerial optical systems for spatial monitoring of Antarctic mosses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucieer, Arko; Turner, Darren; Veness, Tony; Malenovsky, Zbynek; Harwin, Stephen; Wallace, Luke; Kelcey, Josh; Robinson, Sharon

    2013-04-01

    The Antarctic continent has experienced major changes in temperature, wind speed and stratospheric ozone levels during the last 50 years. In a manner similar to tree rings, old growth shoots of Antarctic mosses, the only plants on the continent, also preserve a climate record of their surrounding environment. This makes them an ideal bio-indicator of the Antarctic climate change. Spatially extensive ground sampling of mosses is laborious and time limited due to the short Antarctic growing season. Obviously, there is a need for an efficient method to monitor spatially climate change induced stress of the Antarctic moss flora. Cloudy weather and high spatial fragmentation of the moss turfs makes satellite imagery unsuitable for this task. Unmanned aerial systems (UAS), flying at low altitudes and collecting image data even under a full overcast, can, however, overcome the insufficiency of satellite remote sensing. We, therefore, developed scientific UAS, consisting of a remote-controlled micro-copter carrying on-board different remote sensing optical sensors, tailored to perform fast and cost-effective mapping of Antarctic flora at ultra-high spatial resolution (1-10 cm depending on flight altitude). A single lens reflex (SLR) camera carried by UAS acquires multi-view aerial photography, which processed by the Structure from Motion computer vision algorithm provides an accurate three-dimensional digital surface model (DSM) at ultra-high spatial resolution. DSM is the key input parameter for modelling a local seasonal snowmelt run-off, which provides mosses with the vital water supply. A lightweight multispectral camera on-board of UVS is collecting images of six selected spectral wavebands with the full-width-half-maximum (FWHM) of 10 nm. The spectral bands can be used to compute various vegetation optical indices, e.g. Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) or Photochemical Reflectance Index (PRI), assessing the actual physiological state of polar vegetation. Recently

  7. Heterologous production of patchoulol, beta-santalene, and sclareol in moss cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to methods for preparing patchoulol, β-santalene, and sclareol in transgenic moss cells comprising heterologous nucleic acid molecules encoding a polypeptide or synthasecapable of using FPP or GGPP as substrate, methods for producing the transgenic moss cell, as well...... as the transgenic moss cell itself....

  8. Research of Mosses Accumulation Properties Used for Assessment of Regional and Local Atmospheric Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadezhda K. Ryzhakova

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The monitoring of atmospheric heavy metal and other toxic element depositions by using widespread bryophytes as biomonitors has been widely used. Choosing most appropriate moss species in relation to their accumulation properties is the main goal of this research. The accumulation of heavy metals and other toxic elements by widespread mosses of midland have been studied. The research is focused on assessing accumulation properties of 4 species of terrestrial moss, 4 species of paludal moss and 2 species of epiphytic moss. The concentrations of 32 elements have been determined in moss samples by neutron activation analysis (NAA and atom emission spectrometry (AES. Interspecies and intraspecies comparison revealed significant differences in accumulation properties. The accumulation capacity of Dicranum polysetum was higher than other terrestrial mosses and Aulacomnium palustre had higher accumulation capacity than other paludal mosses. These moss species have been used for monitoring atmospheric pollutants in an immense territory, particularly for research of transboundary transfer of heavy metal pollution. The accumulation property of epiphytic moss was higher than others. The epiphytic moss could be found on the bark of old trees (aspens, poplars, birch that are of frequent occurrence in urban areas. Therefore, epiphytic moss can be used for monitoring atmospheric pollutants in an immense territory and for research of atmospheric pollution in industrial centers, inhabited locations as well as assessment of atmospheric contamination in local pollution source. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.erem.69.3.5566

  9. Hazard assessment for Romania–Bulgaria crossborder region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among the many kinds of natural and man-made disasters, earthquakes dominate with regard to their social and economical impact on the urban environment. Global seismic hazard and vulnerability to earthquakes are steadily increasing as urbanisation and development occupy more areas that are prone to effects of strong earthquakes. The assessment of the seismic hazard is particularly important, because it provides valuable information for seismic safety and disaster mitigation, and it supports decision making for the benefit of society. The main objective of this study is to assess the seismic hazard for Romania-Bulgaria cross-border region on the basis of integrated basic geo-datasets

  10. Kozloduy NPP units 1-4 significance for Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    General data about nuclear power in Bulgaria is presented. The main topics covered are: estimated energy reserve; energy balance, new capacities, installed in 2002; information about the WWER-230 reactors operation; environmental impact and global warming; Bulgarian export and regional electricity demand; public opinion etc. The problem 'Long term safe operation vs forced early closure' is discussed. It is concluded that the decision on early closure of any unit should be made on economic grounds or failure to meet regulatory safety standards and must not be politically motivated

  11. Mosses like it rough-growth form specific responses of mosses, herbaceous and woody plants to micro-relief heterogeneity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leutner, Benjamin F.; Steinbauer, Manuel; Müller, Carina M.; Früh, Andrea J.; Irl, Severin; Jentsch, Anke; Beierkuhnlein, Carl

    2012-01-01

    sampled 40 plots in laurel and pine forests at four altitudinal bands. Species richness was recorded separately for various growth forms (i.e., mosses, herbaceous and woody plants). Site conditions such as altitude, slope, aspect, and tree density were measured. Micro-relief heterogeneity was...... between growth forms. While moss richness was affected significantly by micro-relief heterogeneity, herbaceous and woody plants richness responded mainly to larger-scale site conditions such as aspect and tree density. Our results stress the importance of small-scale relief heterogeneity for the...

  12. Water mosses as indicators of acidification. Practice-oriented biological indication techniques using water mosses for acidification monitoring of running waters with a low buffer capacity; Wassermoose als Versauerungsindikatoren. Praxisorientierte Bioindikationsverfahren mit Wassermoosen zur Ueberwachung des Saeurezustandes von pufferschwachen Fliessgewaessern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tremp, H. [Hohenheim Univ., Stuttgart (Germany). Inst. fuer Landschafts- und Pflanzenoekologie; Kohler, A. [Hohenheim Univ., Stuttgart (Germany). Inst. fuer Landschafts- und Pflanzenoekologie

    1993-12-31

    Since the beginning of the eighties, research in the Federal Republic of Germany on the acidification of rivers and lakes has been dominated by water-chemical investigation programmes. The use of biological indicators of water acidification is to complement water-chemical data surveys; therefore, the development of easily and rapidly applicable techniques must be given priority. This work has the aim to point out opportunities for, and limits to, the use of submersed mosses and liverworts for practice-oriented indication of acidification. Its main points of emphasis are the indicator value of mosses in running waters with a low buffer capacity and their use in passive monitoring, with iron and aluminium accumulation being primarily of interest. Investigations that build on these deal with the simple topochemical verification of these metals in moss leaves. (vhe) [Deutsch] Seit Beginn der achtziger Jahre ist die Erforschung der Gewaesserversauerung in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland in erster Linie von wasserchemischen Untersuchungsprogrammen gepraegt. Der Einsatz von Bioindikatoren fuer die Gewaesserversauerung soll die Erhebung der wasserchemischen Kenngroessen ergaenzen, daher muss die Entwicklung von leicht und schnell anwendbaren Verfahren Vorrang haben. Ziel der vorliegenden Untersuchung ist es, die Moeglichkeiten und Grenzen der Verwendung submerser Laub- und Lebermoose fuer eine praxisorientierte Versauerungsindikation aufzuzeigen. Die Untersuchungsschwerpunkte beschraenken sich auf den Zeigerwert von Moosen pufferschwacher Fliessgewaesser und ihren Einsatz im passiven Monitoring. Im Mittelpunkt stehen dabei die Eisen- und Aluminiumakkumulation. Darauf aufbauende Untersuchungen befassen sich mit dem einfachen topochemischen Nachweis dieser Metalle in Moosblaettern. (vhe)

  13. Prerequisites to promote energy efficiency investments in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The PHARE Energy Programme's team observation and advice to the Committee of Energy in Bulgaria are outlined. In comparison to the Western European countries energy intensity in Bulgaria is 2-3 times higher. It is explained by the energy intensive industrial structure and the old and depreciated capital equipment. Cost-covering energy prices would make energy efficiency investment financially feasible and would attract financiers. But the lesson from Western European experience is that availability of finance capital and cost reflecting energy prices is not at all a necessary prerequisite for energy efficiency improvement. This improvement can be achieved with no cost or low cost measures. The potential for energy efficiency in industry (consuming more than 50% of the energy) is 11%-20%; in buildings - 6%; in transport - 4%. There are other obstacles, as lack of information, other business interests and no internal expertise, especially for small and medium size industries. The basic prerequisite to improve energy efficiency is raising of awareness and change of management culture, as well as radical change in organisational and management structures. (orig.)

  14. Geological formations in Bulgaria suitable for a deep HWL repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The total volume of vitrified high-level waste (HLW) and of intermediate-level wastes containing significant amounts of long-lived alpha emitters, generated over the lifetime of Kozloduy Nuclear Power Plant (NPP), is estimated to be about 2,100 m3. Selection of a suitable formation to host a deep HLW repository in Bulgaria presents serious difficulties owing to the small area of the country, its complex geology, and the expected negative reaction of the local population. After a preliminary categorization of the Bulgarian territory, more than 40 areas were identified initially as potential disposal sites. This number was reduced to 20 using a screening method. A large portion of the selected regions comprises thick (up to 1,000 m) Lower Cretaceous marls, some at a distance of 60-80 km to the south of Kozloduy NPP. There are no active faults in the vicinity of the chosen areas and the seismicity is of degree VII on the MSK scale. Several regions in south-east Bulgaria containing magmatic and metamorphic rocks, have been suggested as prospective sites for deep HLW disposal: the Byala Reka structure of Precambrian highly metamorphic gneisses, the Avren and Zalti Chal areas in meta-ultrabasites, the Sakar Palaeozoic granite pluton, and two areas in volcanogenic-sedimentary rocks. The possibility of subsea geological disposal has also been discussed. At present, a programme is being developed for more detailed investigations of the suitable geological formations. 20 refs

  15. Asbestos exposure and mesothelioma incidence and mortality in Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vangelova, Katya; Dimitrova, Irina

    2016-06-01

    Bulgaria totally banned the import, production and use of asbestos in 2005, but produced and used asbestos products during the last 3-4 decades of the 20th century. The aim of this study was to follow the incidence and mortality of mesothelioma in Bulgaria in relation to past occupational exposures. A literature search between 1960 and 2014 was conducted to obtain information on asbestos consumption, occupational exposure and asbestos-related diseases (ARDs). Data on registered mesotheliomas were provided by the National Cancer Register and data for recognized occupational ARDs were provided by the National Social Security Institute. An increase in the incidence of mesothelioma from 5 to 58 from 1993 to 2013, with 666 cases in the 21-year period, was registered. Incidence, mortality rates, deaths and male-to-female ratios and were lower in comparison to industrialized countries. The increase in mesothelioma incidence is considered as a consequence of more recent production and use of asbestos and asbestos products and the high occupational exposure between 1977 and 1989, while the lower rate of mesothelioma deaths and male-to-female ratio need to be investigated further. PMID:27180335

  16. Aphids (Hemiptera, Aphididae) on ornamental plants in greenhouses in Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yovkova, Mariya; Petrović-Obradović, Olivera; Tasheva-Terzieva, Elena; Pencheva, Aneliya

    2013-01-01

    Investigations on the species composition and host range of aphids on ornamental greenhouse plants in Bulgaria was conducted over a period of five years, from 2008 to 2012. Twenty greenhouses, growing ornamentals for landscaping, plant collections and other purposes were observed. They were located in the regions of Sofia, Plovdiv, Smolyan, Pavlikeni, Varna and Burgas. The total number of collected aphid samples was 279. Their composition included 33 aphid species and one subspecies from 13 genera and 5 subfamilies. Twenty-eight species were found to belong to subfamily Aphidinae. Almost 70 % of all recorded species were polyphagous. The most widespread aphid species was Myzus persicae, detected in 13 greenhouses all year round, followed by Aulacorthum solani (10 greenhouses) and Aphis gossypii (9 greenhouses). The widest host range was shown by Myzus persicae (43 hosts), Aulacorthum solani (32 hosts) and Aulacorthum circumflexum (23 hosts). The list of host plants includes 114 species from 95 genera and 58 families. The greatest variety of aphid species was detected on Hibiscus (9 species). Out of all aphid samples 12.9 % were collected on Hibiscus and 6.8 %, on Dendranthema. The greatest variety of aphid species was detected on Hibiscus (9 species). Periphyllus californiensis and Aphis (Aphis) fabae mordvilkoi are reported for the first time for Bulgaria. Furthermore, Aphis spiraecola has been found in new localities and has widened its host range in this country. PMID:24039530

  17. Derecho-like event in Bulgaria on 20 July 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gospodinov, Ilian; Dimitrova, Tsvetelina; Bocheva, Lilia; Simeonov, Petio; Dimitrov, Rumen

    2015-05-01

    In this work we analyze the development of a severe-convective-storm system in northwestern Bulgaria on 20 July 2011 which exhibited derecho-like characteristics. Prior to this event, a derecho had never been documented in Bulgaria. The convective system was associated with a cold front. We present a synoptic-scale analysis of the evolution of the cold front and an overview of the wind and the damage that has occurred in the region with the strongest impact. The convective system consisted of two multi-cell thunderstorms that are analyzed in some detail, based on radar data. The two storms merged and the convective system evolved into a bow-shape reflectivity structure with two rear inflow notches. The analysis of the radar data revealed cloud top heights of 17 km, with the formation of а bounded weak echo region, a maximum radar reflectivity factor of 63 dBZ, and wind speeds above 30 m/s. The field investigation revealed patterns in the damaged crops typical of strong wind gusts.

  18. Low level radioactive waste disposal in Kozloduy NPP in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozloduy NPP is the biggest power plant in the Republic of Bulgaria. It is in operation since 1974 and for the past 25 years it has generated over 263 billion kWh electric power. The NPP share in the total electric production in 1998 was about 50%. It has six units in operation - four WWER 440 B-230 and two WWER 1000 B-320. In the nuclear reactor operation the generation of radioactive waste (RAW) is an inevitable process. The waste must be conditioned, stored and disposed of in a safe manner. There are no national radioactive waste disposal facilities, for waste generated by an NPP, in Bulgaria to the moment. This situation necessitates the storage of operational RAW to be carried out on site for a long period of time (30 to 50 years). Following the principle for protection of human health and environment now and in the future, Kozloduy NPP adopted the concept for conditioning the RAW to a stable solid form and placing the waste in a package which should keep its features for a sufficiently long term so that the package can be safely transported to the disposal site. (author)

  19. Total, accessible and reserve wind energy resources in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article is a part of the international project 'Bulgaria Country Study to Address Climate Change Inventory of the Greenhouse Gases Emission and Sinks Alternative Energy Balance and Technology Programs' sponsored by the Department of Energy, US. The 'total' average annual wind resources in Bulgaria determined on the basis wind velocity density for more than 100 meteorological stations are estimated on 125 000 TWh. For the whole territory the theoretical wind power potential is about 14200 GW. The 'accessible' wind resources are estimated on about 62000 TWh. The 'reserve' (or usable) wind resources are determined using 8 velocity intervals for WECS (Wind Energy Conversion Systems) operation, number and disposition of turbines, and the usable (3%) part of the territory. The annual reserve resources are estimated at about 21 - 33 TWh. The 'economically beneficial' wind resources (EBWR) are those part of the reserve resources which could be included in the country energy balance using specific technologies in specific time period. It is foreseen that at year 2010 the EBWR could reach 0.028 TWh. 7 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig

  20. Aphids (Hemiptera, Aphididae on ornamental plants in greenhouses in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariya Yovkova

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Investigations on the species composition and host range of aphids on ornamental greenhouse plants in Bulgaria was conducted over a period of five years, from 2008 to 2012. Twenty greenhouses, growing ornamentals for landscaping, plant collections and other purposes were observed. They were located in the regions of Sofia, Plovdiv, Smolyan, Pavlikeni, Varna and Burgas. The total number of collected aphid samples was 279. Their composition included 33 aphid species and one subspecies from 13 genera and 5 subfamilies. Twenty-eight species were found to belong to subfamily Aphidinae. Almost 70 % of all recorded species were polyphagous. The most widespread aphid species was Myzus persicae, detected in 13 greenhouses all year round, followed by Aulacorthum solani (10 greenhouses and Aphis gossypii (9 greenhouses. The widest host range was shown by Myzus persicae (43 hosts, Aulacorthum solani (32 hosts and Aulacorthum circumflexum (23 hosts.The list of host plants includes 114 species from 95 genera and 58 families. The greatest variety of aphid species was detected on Hibiscus (9 species. Out of all aphid samples 12.9 % were collected on Hibiscus and 6.8 %, on Dendranthema. The greatest variety of aphid species was detected on Hibiscus (9 species.Periphyllus californiensis and Aphis (Aphis fabae mordvilkoi are reported for the first time for Bulgaria. Furthermore, Aphis spiraecola has been found in new localities and has widened its host range in this country.

  1. Preliminary Results on the Phytophagous Insect Fauna on Onopordum acanthium (Asteraceae in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vili Harizanova

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Scotch thistle, Onopordum acanthium (Asteraceae has the Eurasian origin and represents an invasive weed in the USA and Australia. It is a serious problem in pastures,along roadsides, rangeland, etc. The weed is very common in Bulgaria and in 2009-2010several sites with large populations of O. acanthium have been located. The weekly surveys of some of the sites, mainly in the region of Plovdiv, revealed a significant diversity of phytophagous insect species, some of which had very high population density.More than 30 species have already been identified and observations on the phenology and biology of some of them have been conducted. For some of the species, such as endophagous Larinus latus, Lixus cardui, Eublemma amoena, Trichosirocalus briesei, or ectophagous Cassida rubiginosa etc. found during our surveys, there are reports in the literature describing them as having been already introduced as successful biocontrol agents in Australia. Endophagous species like lepidopteran Myelois circumvoluta and Pyroderces argyrogrammos which feed on the stems and the head, and the tephritid flies ephritis postica and Chaetostomella cylindrica which feed on the capitula, seem quite destructive for the weed, but need to be further studied regarding host specificity. Species like Vanessacardui and Brachycaudus cardui were found regularly, but in low population density, mainly due to the high rate of parasitism.

  2. Study of moss as air pollution monitor by SRXRF technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG YuanXun; CAO Tong; ATSUO lida; CAO QingChen; LOU YuXia; ZHANG GuiLin; LI Yan

    2009-01-01

    ate rib.Under pollution condition,the excessive Pb was adsorbed and deposited in the leaf.It caused serious damage to plant growth and ultrastructure,also suppressed moss' normal absorption to the nutritive elements of K,Ca,etc.

  3. Entropic interpretation of the Hawking-Moss bounce

    CERN Document Server

    Oshita, Naritaka

    2016-01-01

    We revisit the derivation of the Hawking-Moss transition rate. Using the static coordinates, we show that the Euclidean action is entirely determined by the contribution of the entropy of de Sitter space which is proportional to the surface area of the horizon. This holographic feature is common to any static spacetime with a horizon on which the shift vector vanishes.

  4. Entropic interpretation of the Hawking-Moss bounce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshita, Naritaka; Yokoyama, Jun'ichi

    2016-05-01

    We revisit the derivation of the Hawking-Moss transition rate. Using the static coordinates, we show that the Euclidean action is entirely determined by the contribution of the entropy of de Sitter space that is proportional to the surface area of the horizon. This holographic feature is common to any static spacetime with a horizon on which the shift vector vanishes.

  5. Bacteriohopanepolyol signatures as markers for methanotrophic bacteria in peat moss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Winden, J.F.; Talbot, H.M.; Kip, N.; Reichart, G.J.; Pol, A.; McNamara, N.P.; Jetten, M.S.M.; Op den Camp, H.J.M.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.

    2012-01-01

    Bacteriohopanepolyols (BHPs) are bacterial biomarkers with a likely potential to identify present and past methanotrophic communities. To unravel the methanotrophic community in peat bogs, we report the BHP signatures of type I and type II methanotrophs isolated from Sphagnum mosses and of an extrem

  6. Moss-nitrogen input to boreal forest soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rousk, Kathrin; Jones, Davey; DeLuca, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Cyanobacteria living epiphytically on mosses in pristine, unpolluted areas fix substantial amounts of atmospheric nitrogen (N) and therefore represent a primary source of N in N-limited boreal forests. However, the fate of this N is unclear, in particular, how the fixed N2 enters the soil and bec...

  7. Are Alcohol Expectancies Associations? Comment on Moss and Albery (2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiers, Reinout W.; Stacy, Alan W.

    2010-01-01

    Moss and Albery (2009) presented a dual-process model of the alcohol-behavior link, integrating alcohol expectancy and alcohol myopia theory. Their integrative theory rests on a number of assumptions including, first, that alcohol expectancies are associations that can be activated automatically by an alcohol-relevant context, and second, that…

  8. Metal accumulation in mosses across national boundaries: Uncovering and ranking causes of spatial variation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study aimed at cross-border mapping metal loads in mosses in eight European countries in 1990, 1995, and 2000 and at investigating confounding factors. Geostatistics was used for mapping, indicating high local variances but clear spatial autocorrelations. Inference statistics identified differences of metal concentrations in mosses on both sides of the national borders. However, geostatistical analyses did not ascertain discontinuities of metal concentrations in mosses at national borders due to sample analysis in different laboratories applying a range of analytical techniques. Applying Classification and Regression Trees (CART) to the German moss data as an example, the local variation in metal concentrations in mosses were proved to depend mostly on different moss species, potential local emission sources, canopy drip and precipitation. - Factors affecting the spatial variation in metal accumulation in mosses were mapped by geostatistics and ranked by CART

  9. Air quality for metals and sulfur in Shanghai, China, determined with moss bags

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to better understand the spatial and temporal distribution pattern of metals and sulfur present in Shanghai, moss bags with Haplocladium microphyllum (Hedw.) Broth. were suspended at 14 local monitoring stations from April through June 2006 in Shanghai, the largest city in China. The results showed that the concentrations of S, Cu, Pb, and Zn in the moss bags after exposure were higher at the sites in the industrial district and most urban districts and lower at the sites in suburban areas, and well correlated with SO2 API and PM10 API in the air both in terms of space and time. The present study provided evidence that the moss H. microphyllum is suitable for bio-monitoring air pollution with moss bags and further confirmed that the moss-bag method is a simple, inexpensive and useful technique. - The moss Haplocladium microphyllum is suitable for bio-monitoring air pollution with moss bags

  10. Limited accumulation of copper in heavy metal adapted mosses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antreich, Sebastian; Sassmann, Stefan; Lang, Ingeborg

    2016-04-01

    Copper is an essential micronutrient but has toxic effects at high concentrations. Bryophytes are remarkably tolerant to elevated levels of copper but we wondered if this tolerance might be species dependent. Therefore, in three moss species, Physcomitrella patens, Mielichhoferia elongata and Pohlia drummondii, the accumulation of copper was compared with semiquantitative SEM-EDX analyses after six weeks of cultivation on copper containing media. We investigated the role of the copper-linked anion and applied copper as CuCl2, CuSO4 and CuEDTA, respectively. Line scans along the growth axis of moss gametophores allowed for a detailed analysis of copper detection from the base towards the tip. Mosses originating from metal-containing habitats (i.e. M. elongata and P. drummondii) revealed a lower accumulation of copper when compared to the non-adapted P. patens. CuEDTA had a shielding effect in all three species and copper levels differed greatly from CuCl2 or CuSO4. The detection of reactive oxygen species (ROS), H2O2 and O2(-), was further used to indicate stress levels in the gametophore stems. ROS staining was increased along the whole stem and the tip in the non-adapted species P. patens whereas the tolerant species M. elongata and P. drummondii generally showed less staining located mainly at the base of the stem. We discuss the relation between metal accumulation and ROS production using indicator dyes in the three moss species. As moss gametophores are very delicate structures, ROS staining provide an excellent alternative to spectrophotometric analyses to estimate stress levels. PMID:26878481

  11. Atmospheric deposition of heavy metals in Norway. Nationwide survey 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The geographical distribution of atmospheric deposition of heavy metals in Norway was mapped in 2010 by analysis of moss samples from 464 sites all over the country. This report provides a presentation of the results and a comparison with data from a series of corresponding moss surveys starting 1977. The survey is part of an international program comprising large parts of Europe. The survey primarily concerns the ten metals of priority in the European program: vanadium, chromium, iron, nickel, copper, zinc, arsenic, cadmium, mercury, and lead. In addition data are reported for another 42 elements in the moss. The discussion of the obtained data mainly refers to contributions from air pollution. In addition influence from natural processes to the elemental composition of the moss and how it may influence the interpretation of the data is discussed. (Author)

  12. Molecular Phylogeny and Systematic Revision of the Pleurocarpus Moss Genus Plagiothecium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wynns, Justin Thomas

    A systematic investigation of the pleurocarpous moss genus Plagiothecium Bruch & Schimp. was performed as a part of the author’s PhD study at the University of Copenhagen. Plagiothecium is mostly a well-defined genus, but the species limits and the interspecific relationships are poorly understood....... The relationships between Plagiothecium and other similar pleurocarps are also speculative. In this study, DNA sequence data were used for reconstructing the phylogeny of the genus. Based on the results of a preliminary survey of 16 DNA regions, three regions were chosen for genetic markers: plastid...... were combined to refine the taxonomy of the genus as a whole. A number of new taxa are described, several nomenclatural novelties are proposed, and an improved sectional classification of the genus is offered. A synopsis of the genus is also provided as a contribution toward a worldwide revision....

  13. An Energy Overview of the Republic of Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The DOE Office of Fossil Energy is maintaining a web site that is meant to provide useful business- and energy-related information about countries and regions of the world for exporters, project developers, and researchers. The site consists of more than 130 country pages (organized into seven different world regions), with each country page having its own set of links to information sources about that country. There are also more than 30 Country Energy Overviews at the web site -- each of these is a comprehensive review of a specific country's entire energy situation, including sections on Energy Policy, Oil, Natural Gas, Coal, Hydroelectric/Renewables, Nuclear Power, Energy Transmission Infrastructure, Electricity, Electric Industry Overview, Environmental Activities, Privatization, Trade, and Economic Situation. The specific country highlighted in this Country Energy Overview is Bulgaria. The site is designed to be dynamic. Updates to the overviews will be made as need and resource s permit

  14. Essential oil composition of Achillea clusiana from Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trendafilova, Antoaneta; Todorova, Milka; Vitkova, Antonina

    2010-01-01

    The essential oil compositon of Achillea clusiana Tausch from Bulgaria has been studied by GC and GC/MS. Fifty-four components were registered, representing 92.5% of the oil. The oil was characterized by the presence of oxygenated mono- and sesquiterpenoids. The main components were beta-thujone (17.2%), 1,8-cineole (11.2%), camphor (11.1%) and alpha-thujone (7.8%). Farnesol (3.1%), nerolidol (2.7%) and oxygenated nerolidol derivatives (cabreuva oxides A-D, isohumbertiols A-D, bejarol and 7-hydroxy-6,7-dihydro-5,6E-dehydronerolidol) were the main sesquiterpenoids in the oil. PMID:20184037

  15. The economic crisis and energy consumption in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The economic crisis in Bulgaria is manifested already before 1989 and has strong impact on energy consumption in 1989-1992. The generalized picture of economic development in this period gives the dynamics of the gross national product (GNP). The drop in GNP is about 23% and is accompanied by significant structural changes in different sectors. The final energy consumption decreased with about 50%. Based on the analysis of the economy-energy consumption interaction in different sectors, detailed economic data are given on the structure of the final energy consumption and dynamics of energy intensity by sectors. Some conclusions are drown and proposals for radical changes and long-term measures for improvement the situation are outlined. 2 refs., 3 tabs., 4 figs. (author)

  16. Chromosome study of three species of Dormice from Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Peshev

    1995-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The karyotypes of three species of dormice were studied. The fat dormouse Myoxus glis is reported with 2n=62. The forest dormouse Dryomys nitedula has 2n=48 and the hazel dormouse Muscardinus avellanarius is reported with 2n=46. A secondary constriction is well visible in all three species. Riassunto Studio cromosomico di tre specie di Mioxidi in Bulgaria - Sono stati studiati i cariotipi di tre specie di mioxidi. M. glis è caratterizzato da 2n=62, D. nitedula da 2n=48 e M. avellanarius da 2n=46. Una costrizione secondaria è ben visibile in tutte e tre le specie.

  17. State system for radioactive waste management in Republic of Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sources of radioactive wastes in Bulgaria are the Kozloduy NPP, IRT-2000 Research reactor and more than 2300 industrial or medical facilities. The Government has decided to continue the construction of the new nuclear power plant at Belene site. The development of the nuclear power production and use necessitates the development of a new infrastructure in the field of the radioactive waste management. Bulgarian policy in this field is presented in several laws: Act on the Safe Use of Nuclear Energy; Environment Protection Law and Law of Public Health. The protection of the personnel and population during work with radioactive wastes is realised according to the Basic Norm for Radiation Protection (edition 2000). The institutional framework and the financial activities as well as the National strategy in the field of radioactive waste management are presented

  18. Scenarios of energy demand and efficiency potential for Bulgaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tzvetanov, P.; Ruicheva, M.; Denisiev, M.

    1996-12-31

    The paper presents aggregated results on macroeconomic and final energy demand scenarios developed within the Bulgarian Country Study on Greenhouse Gas Emissions Mitigation, supported by US Country Studies Program. The studies in this area cover 5 main stages: (1) {open_quotes}Baseline{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}Energy Efficiency{close_quotes} socioeconomic and energy policy philosophy; (2) Modeling of macroeconomic and sectoral development till 2020; (3) Expert assessments on the technological options for energy efficiency increase and GHG mitigation in the Production, Transport and Households and Services Sectors; (4) Bottom-up modeling of final energy demand; and (5) Sectoral and overall energy efficiency potential and policy. Within the Bulgarian Country Study, the presented results have served as a basis for the final integration stage {open_quotes}Assessment of the Mitigation Policy and Measures in the Energy System of Bulgaria{close_quotes}.

  19. Economically available resources of renewable energy sources in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report is a part of the Project on Renewable Energy Sources jointly developed by the US National Laboratory on Renewable Energy Sources and the Institute of Meteorology and Hydrology, Sofia. The economically accessible resources (EAR) in different geographical regions of Bulgaria are calculated for the following applications: passive and active use of solar energy for heating, photovoltaic batteries and wind energy equipment. A comparison of EAR values for certain renewable technologies in 2010 and 2020 is made. The analysis comprises: passive use of solar energy, domestic water heating, district heating, industrial water heating, photovoltaics, wind energy conversion systems (WECS) with horizontal axis turbines; burning of municipal, forestry and agricultural residues; small hydro installations, balneology, home heating. The percentage share of EAR values for each technology is calculated and compared with those of corresponding reserve estimates. 4 refs., 1 tab

  20. POLLEN MORPHOLOGY OF CROCUS L.(IRIDACEAE IN BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    UZUNDZHALIEVA KATYA SPASOVA

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The pollen of the wild species from the genus Crocus L., spread in Bulgaria has been analyzed. The investigations, made by light microscope show that the pollen of these species is spherical in shape and round in outlines, comparatively big. These morphological characteristics of the pollen of the wild Bulgarian Crocuses define it as a primitive one [6]. The Scanning Electron Microscope investigations, made by Beug [1], established two types of pollen morphology. The results of our investigation led to the conclusion that the same types are also presented in Bulgarian species: – C.biflorus –type, or syncolpate and C.vernus – type, or inaperturate. Eight of the species belong to the first type and only C. pallasii belongs to the second. The pollen of C. reticulatus is with quite unclear aperture – maybe transition to the inaperturate type.

  1. Investigation of the evapotranspiration regime in some regions of Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The success of water management policies in our country is linked to the accuracy with which variations (temporal and special) in available water resources. Evapotranspiration is one of the most important processes in the land phase of the hydrological cycle. The aim of the presented paper is to estimate and describe the regime of the two river basins. Osam river base is representative for central part of Danube hilly plane and Struma river is the biggest river in south-western part of Bulgaria. The mean monthly potential evapotranspiration is calculated according Thornthwaite and Turc's empirical equations for mean monthly value actual evapotranspiration is applied. The long-term variability of evapotranspiration is analyzed.(Author)

  2. Contamination of soils in Bulgaria with Cs-137

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesium - 137 from the Latin word 'Caeius' - meaning sky blue or heavenly blue) is one of radioisotopes of cesium, which present in the biosphere in small amounts as a result of radiation leaks. It is an artificial radionuclide with a half-life of 30 years, and it was released into the nature by both stratospheric testing of above ground thermonuclear weapons and Chernobyl derived fallout. Cesium - 137 was deposited as fallout and in most environments was rapidly and strongly absorbed by soil particles at the ground surfaces. Its high affinity to fine soil particles, relatively long half-life, and world wide distribution have made it almost a universal environmental tracer. Definition of radiological state of soils in Bulgaria was done by using of nondestructive gamma-spectrometric analysis. Studying of concentration of cesium - 137 was made during the whole year at the specially marked stations at the territory of the country. Providing enough scientific data, scientists can define the real concentration of this radionuclide in soils. This is a very important process, because how we know soil is at the beginning of the food chain. So the good quality control here is very important. Cesium has no biological role. However it is capable of replacing potassium in the body to some extent because of its chemical similarity. Ingestion of any cesium compounds is therefore to be avoided. Because of its similarity the isotope 137CS is very toxic. In Bulgaria there were taken hundreds of samples per year, because of importance of this radioisotope and at the most cases the results are in normal borders. But the concentrations for the different parts of the country can vary from 0.2 Bq/kg to 540 Bq/kg. So it is necessary these parameters to be under control until its full stabilization and achievement of no biological and environmental risk.

  3. 137Cs in carpets of the forest moss Pleurozium schreberi, 1961-1973

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accumulation, retention and internal cycling of the fallout radionuclide 137Cs (physical half-life=30.2 a) were studied in forest moss Pleurozium schreberi (Brid.) Mitt. collected in southern Sweden during the period 1961-1973. The highest 137Cs concentrations occurred in the green top parts of the living moss. A major part of the deposited 137Cs is available for transport from the dying to growing parts of the moss.Elimination of 137Cs from living moss, as well as from dead moss, throughout 1968-1973, can be characterized by the same mean residence time (4+-1 a). 137Cs and naturally occurring stable K show different behaviour in the moss, so that the 137Cs/K ratio is higher by a factor of approximately 2 in the dead parts of the moss than in the living parts. The vertical distribution of 137Cs in the moss-covered ground has been described theoretically. Relative penetration of 137Cs is about 5 times higher in ground covered by moss-carpets than in ground covered by lichen-carpets. Throughout 1969-1973, the total amount of 137Cs retained in the moss-carpet was 64.2+-2.2 nCi.m-2. (author)

  4. Use of pioneer mosses for the revegetation of bare mineral sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campeau, S. [Bryophyta Technologies Inc., Lambton, PQ (Canada); Quinty, F. [Planirest Environnement Inc., St-Charles-de-Bellechasse, PQ (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    Abandoned sand and gravel pits in boreal regions often consist of poor, depleted substrates that are only slowly colonized by plants. Soil compaction and the lack of readily available topsoil can retard the establishment of seedlings during restoration activities. The use of native mosses and lichens in restoration activities has not yet been fully assessed. However, mosses and lichens play an important role in boreal ecosystems, and are readily adapted to poor soil and harsh climates. This paper presented the results of a series of 3 experiments conducted to accelerate the colonization of mosses in soils contaminated by mineral disturbances. Experiments were conducted on (1) a forest road embankment, (2) an abandoned gravel pit, and (3) an abandoned section of a sand and gravel quarry. Two species of moss were used, namely Polytrichum piliferum and Polytrichum juniperum. Moss fragments were collected from moss colonies in the Foret Montmorency and reintroduced into the experimental plots. A straw erosion blanket was used, and phosphorus was applied in the first 2 experiments. A protective cover consisting of wood cellulose fibre mulch was used for the third experiment. The experiment was conducted over a period of 4 years. Results indicated that all the mosses were slow to establish themselves on the experimental plots, which resulted in lower than expected plant cover over the first 2 growing seasons observed. The combined use of straw mulch and phosphorus fertilizer improved moss establishment. However, the moss cover continued to increase during the third and fourth years of the experiment, which suggested that mulch types used during the experiment may need to be improved. Sources of moss diaspores may need to be reconsidered, as large donor sites for pioneer mosses are not easily located. It was concluded that moss communities are an important component of boreal regions. Further research is needed to understand the appropriate conditions for propagating moss

  5. Presentations at TENCompetence Workshop in Sofia, Bulgaria. March 30th-31st, 2006

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Several

    2006-01-01

    Several (2006). Presentations at International Workshop in Learning Networks for Lifelong Competence Development. March, 30-31, 2006, Sofia, Bulgaria: TENCompetence Conference. The full proceedings can be downloaded at: http://hdl.handle.net/1820/836.

  6. Recent Findings of the Epiphytic Mosses from Orthotrichaceae Family in Zlatohorská Vrchovina Highlands (Silesia, Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halfar Jan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The article presents results of bryofloristic survey focused on the epiphytic mosses from Orthotrichaceae family in the area of Zlatohorská vrchovina highlands (NE part of the Czech Republic, which was carried out from September to November 2013. During the research the number of 527 specimens was recorded in 187 localities. The presence of 13 taxa from the Orthotrichaceae family was proved. More specifically, 1 species from the genus Nyhomiella, 9 species and 1 variety from the genus Orthotrichum and 2 species from the genus Ulota. Two taxa, Orthotrichum patens and O. affine var. bohemicum, were recorded in the study area for the first time.

  7. AirMOSS P-Band Radar Retrieval of Subcanopy Soil Moisture Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabatabaeenejad, A.; Burgin, M. S.; Duan, X.; Moghaddam, M.

    2013-12-01

    annealing to minimize a cost function. Considering the required accuracy and reasonableness of the computational cost, and guided by in-situ field observations from several sites and prior field campaigns, the inversion algorithm parameters are chosen judiciously after extensive simulations using synthetic and real radar data. The ancillary data necessary to characterize a pixel are readily available. For example, the slope of each pixel is included in the radar data delivered by JPL. For land cover type within the continental United States, we use the National Land Cover Database (NLCD). Soil texture data are available from the Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for the United States. The handling and processing of the ancillary data is an involved and detailed process that will be briefly presented at the talk. We apply the retrieval method to the data acquired over several AirMOSS sites, and validate the results using in-situ soil moisture measurements. Retrieved profiles from several specific pixels at each site, the retrieval errors, and the retrieved moisture maps of the 100 km by 25 km imaged domains will be reported at the talk.

  8. Cystic echinococcosis in Bulgaria 1996-2013, with emphasis on childhood infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordanova, D P; Harizanov, R N; Kaftandjiev, I T; Rainova, I G; Kantardjiev, T V

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine some features of cystic echinococcosis among children and adolescents, such as epidemiology, diagnosis, organ localization, treatment, and social and environmental factors favoring transmission of the disease. The 18-year study period (1996-2013) includes officially registered primary cases treated surgically, and/or with drug therapy, and/or with the puncture, aspiration, injection, reaspiration technique. Organ localization of the cysts and the most common diagnostic procedures were studied from the patients' medical records. Groups of diseased and healthy children were surveyed to outline some of the environmental and social factors influencing morbidity. From 1996 to 2013, the average annual incidence of cystic echinococcosis in the country was 6.7 per 100,000, but with significant variations in the incidence between different age groups. The hydatid cysts in children aged 0 to 9 years may most frequently be found in the lungs, in contrast to patients from other age groups. Almost 90% of the affected children had sustained contact with dogs. At present, among the countries of the European Union, Bulgaria holds the highest incidence and prevalence of cystic echinococcosis. Childhood echinococcosis remains a serious health problem for the country. Therefore, the study of cystic echinococcosis in children has important epidemiological significance concerning the intensity of transmission. PMID:25864190

  9. Business Cycle Accounting: Bulgaria after the introduction of the currency board arrangement (1999-2014)

    OpenAIRE

    Vasilev, Aleksandar

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on explaining the economic fluctuations in Bulgaria after the introduction of the currency board arrangement in 1997, the period of macroeconomic stability that ensued, the EU accession, and the episode of the recent global financial crisis. This paper follows Chari et al. (2002) and performs business cycle accounting (BCA) for Bulgaria during the period 1999-2014. As in Cavalcanti (2007), who studies the Portuguese business cycles, most of the volatility in output per capi...

  10. Analysis of the Logistics Systems in Bulgaria under the Requirements of the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Caner Cebeci; Marina Yankova

    2013-01-01

    The new EU member countries will participate actively in the growing freight development (Beckmann and Baum, 2002). The new EU member Bulgaria forms the ultimate frontier of the EU and because of its geographical location an important transit country for the transport between Europe and Asia. Because of numerous deficiencies in the Bulgarian transport infrastructure, the Bulgarian sections of the Trans-European road network cannot be used efficiently and thus Bulgaria loses large shares of th...

  11. Flashes from the Past: Establishment of the Bulgarian national Bank as Central bank of Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Bojinov, Bojidar

    2015-01-01

    The study aims to outline the specifics related with the emergence and development of central banking in Bulgaria. Established in 1879 as an ordinary commercial bank, Bulgarian National Bank experienced a number of ups and downs in its 130 year history. In its evolutionary development, it became a central issue and Bank of Bulgaria in 1928. In the years of socialism, Bulgarian National Bank is experiencing its devolution development to become in the period 1971-1982 in the only bank in count...

  12. Origin-labeled Products - Food Quality and Food Safety in Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Plamen Mishev; Emilia Valcheva

    2005-01-01

    Bulgaria has complicated systems for food quality and food safety control. Responsibility for them is divided among several institutions. The control system is still overstaffed and insufficient co-ordination between its different parts prevail; the current control system does not meet the requirements of the new EU approach: traceability and transparency. In the last years the improvement of food quality and food safety systems in Bulgaria has been substantial - both from legislative and ins...

  13. Modelling the water budget and the riverflows of the Maritsa basin in Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    E. Artinyan; F. Habets; Noilhan, J.; Ledoux, Emmanuel; Dimitrov, D; Martin, E.; Le Moigne, P.

    2007-01-01

    A soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfer model coupled with a macroscale distributed hydrological model was used in order to simulate the water cycle for a large region in Bulgaria. To do so, an atmospheric forcing was built for two hydrological years (1 October 1995 to 30 September 1997), at an eight km resolution. It was based on the data available at the National Institute of Meteorology and Hydrology (NIMH) of Bulgaria. Atmospheric parameters were carefully checked and interpolated with a hi...

  14. ODONATA FROM BULGARIA IN THE COLLECTION OF NATIONAL MUSEUM OF BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA

    OpenAIRE

    Kulijer, Dejan; Marinov, Milen

    2010-01-01

    The entomological collection of the National Museum of Bosnia and Herzegovina is one of the oldest Balkan insect collections. Eighty-seven (87) dragonfly specimens from 19 species that originate from Bulgaria were found in this collection. In this paper we present the oldest and till now unknown records of dragonflies from Bulgaria from this collection. Some interesting and new distribution data on several species are also presented and discussed.

  15. A case of integration of organic dairy sheep farm in value chains in Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Bachev, Hrabrin

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the state of integration of small scale dairy farms in value chains in Bulgaria and a case study on organic farming as a new prospective approach for market inclusion. It outlines the evolution of dairy sheep farming and organic production; analyzes the pace, factors and impacts of development of a successful organic dairy sheep farm from North-West Bulgaria; specifies driving factors and prospects of small-scale organic farming development; assesses possibilities for repl...

  16. The adjustment of financial ratios in the presence of soft budget constraints: evidence from Bulgaria.

    OpenAIRE

    Konings, Josef

    2004-01-01

    This paper is the first to study the behaviour of financial ratios in an emerging economy of Central Europe. Using the entire population of company accounts in Bulgaria we find that for the financial ratios we considered, adjustment towards a target takes place but the speed of adjustment is lower than that for Western companies reported in earlier studies. Also, we find the adjustment of financial ratios in Bulgaria to be far slower in firms characterized by soft budget constraints, a widesp...

  17. Future state of the climate change, mitigation and development of sustainable agriculture in Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazandjiev, V.; Georgieva, V.; Moteva, M.; Marinova, T.; Dimitrov, P.

    2010-09-01

    The farming is one of the most important branches that bring the increase to the gross internal production in Bulgaria. At the same time, the agriculture is the only branch, as in home, so in world scale in which the made as well direct production spending and investing regenerating (or not) only in the frameworks to one vegetative season. In addition on this, development of the intensive farming without using the most advanced technologies such as irrigation, automation, selection - for obtaining stable cultivars and hybrids, permanent weather monitoring and agroclimatic zoning and integrated and biochemical protection to the cultures and plantations had not possible. Analysis of long-term meteorological data from different regions shows clear tendencies to warming and drying for the period of contemporary climate (1971-2000) as well in Bulgaria. Hydro-meteorological conditions in the country are worsened. The most entire estimate is made from the Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change (IPCC) 2007. Most of authors proven that the last decades are really warmest for last century, even for the entire period of the most instrumental observations. The causes for global warming was long time debatable, but the last investigations prove it anthropogenetic derive. The main goal of the paper is framing in conditions of the expected climate changes in our country for period 2020-2050-2070 and the most likely impacts on the agriculture with inspection padding to the consequences in them and making physical conditions for development of proof farming in production regions of the country. By the means of the systematized database of meteorological and agrometeorological data which we have at disposition for the period of this survey (1971-2000); Provide assignment of the expected climatic changes according to the scenarios in the centers for observing and investigations of climatic changes in Europe, US., Canada and Australia (ECHAM 4, HadCM 2, CGCM 1, CSIRO-MK2 Bs and

  18. PRELIMINARY RESULTS OF THE STUDY ON THE SPREAD OF APPLE CHLOROTIC LEAF SPOT VIRUS (ACLSV) IN DIFFERENT FRUIT TREE SPECIES IN KYUSTENDIL REGION OF BULGARIA

    OpenAIRE

    Aneliya BORISOVA

    2005-01-01

    The survey was carried out mostly in one of the main fruit tree growing regions of Bulgaria - Kyustendil, during the period of 2004-2005. A total of 632 trees corresponding to 50 apple, 27 pear, 19 plum, 4 peach, 9 sweet cherry and 4 sour cherry cultivars and 21 apricot elites were tested for the presence of Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV) and six other viruses by ELISA. Samples for analyses were collected from different organs of plants: flowers, leaves or phloem tissues. In the pres...

  19. Mosses accumulate heavy metals from the substrata of coal ash

    OpenAIRE

    Vukojević Vanja; Sabovljević Marko; Jovanović S.

    2005-01-01

    Plants that are able to accumulate and tolerate extraordinarily high concentrations of heavy metals (hyperaccumulators) can be used for phytoremediation (removal of contaminants from soils) or phytomining (growing a crop of plants to harvest the metals). Two moss species, Bryum capillare Hedw. and Ceratodon purpureus Hedw., were tested as potential phytoremedies under in vivo conditions on a coal ash disposal site in the surroundings of Obrenovac (NW Serbia). The content of various heavy meta...

  20. Bacteriohopanepolyol signatures as markers for methanotrophic bacteria in peat moss

    OpenAIRE

    van Winden, J.F.; H. M. Talbot; N. Kip; G. J. Reichart; De Pol, A.; N. P. McNamara; M. S. M. Jetten; Op den Camp, H.J.M.; J. S. Sinninghe Damsté

    2012-01-01

    Bacteriohopanepolyols (BHPs) are bacterial biomarkers with a likely potential to identify present and past methanotrophic communities. To unravel the methanotrophic community in peat bogs, we report the BHP signatures of type I and type II methanotrophs isolated from Sphagnum mosses and of an extreme acidophilic verrucomicrobial methanotroph. A type I Methylovulum-like strain (M200) contains a remarkable combination of BHPs, including a complete suite of mono-unsaturated aminobacteriohopanepe...

  1. Burstein Moss effect in nanocrystalline CaS : Ce

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Geeta Sharma; Puja Chawla; S P Lochab; Nafa Singh

    2011-07-01

    The nanocrystalline CaS : Ce nanophosphors are synthesized by wet chemical co-precipitation method. The particles possess an average size of 10 nm as calculated using Debye–Scherrer formula. The particle size and the crystalline nature of the formed nanoparticles are confirmed by TEM micrograph. The optical studies are carried out using UV–Vis absorption spectroscopy. The absorption edge is found to show blue shift with increasing cerium concentration. The shift may be attributed to Burstein Moss effect.

  2. „Kritický outsider“ George L. Mosse

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Petrbok, Václav

    Brno : Matice moravská, 2009 - (Hanuš, J.; Vlček, R.), s. 177-201 ISBN 978-80-86488-59-2. - (Země a kultura ve střední Evropě. 11) Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z90560517 Keywords : history * Mosse, George L. * Jews * nationalism * racism Subject RIV: AJ - Letters, Mass-media, Audiovision

  3. Efficient biolistic transformation of the moss Physcomitrella patens

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šmídková, Markéta; Holá, M.; Angelis, Karel

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 4 (2010), s. 777-780. ISSN 0006-3134 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA521/04/0971; GA AV ČR IBS5038304; GA MŠk 1M0505; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06004 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Helios biolistic gun * moss protonemal tissue * particle size Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics Impact factor: 1.582, year: 2010

  4. Phototropism in gametophytic shoots of the moss Physcomitrella patens

    OpenAIRE

    Liang BAO; Yamamoto, Kotaro T; Fujita, Tomomichi

    2015-01-01

    Shoot phototropism enables plants to position their photosynthetic organs in favorable light conditions and thus benefits growth and metabolism in land plants. To understand the evolution of this response, we established an experimental system to study phototropism in gametophores of the moss Physcomitrella patens. The phototropic response of gametophores occurs slowly; a clear response takes place more than 24 hours after the onset of unilateral light irradiation, likely due to the slow grow...

  5. Survey of volatile oxylipins and their biosynthetic precursors in bryophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croisier, Emmanuel; Rempt, Martin; Pohnert, Georg

    2010-04-01

    Oxylipins are metabolites which are derived from the oxidative fragmentation of polyunsaturated fatty acids. These metabolites play central roles in plant hormonal regulation and defense. Here we survey the production of volatile oxylipins in bryophytes and report the production of a high structural variety of C5, C6, C8 and C9 volatiles of mosses. In liverworts and hornworts oxylipin production was not as pronounced as in the 23 screened mosses. A biosynthetic investigation revealed that both, C18 and C20 fatty acids serve as precursors for the volatile oxylipins that are mainly produced after mechanical wounding of the green tissue of mosses. PMID:20079505

  6. ISO 9001 certification for hospitals in Bulgaria: does it help service?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoimenova, Assena; Stoilova, Ani; Petrova, Guenka

    2014-01-01

    The aim of our study is to review the published literature on establishment and implementation of ISO 9001 QMS in European hospitals, to study the availability of International Organization for Standardization (ISO) quality management systems (QMS) in Bulgarian hospitals and to outline the main advantages of ISO implementation in the hospitals in Bulgaria. The information on availability of ISO QMS in the hospitals in Bulgaria was gathered via Bulgarian certification register, the registries of various quality associations, websites of hospitals and certification companies presented in Bulgaria. A total number of 312 hospitals in Bulgaria were screened for the availability of QMS certified against the ISO 9001 requirements. The experience of European hospitals that implemented QMS is positive and the used approaches to improve the processes and the demonstrated effects from ISO implementation are analysed by the researchers. Unlike other European Union member states, the establishment of quality management systems in Bulgaria is not compulsory. However, our study revealed that 14.42% of the hospitals in Bulgaria have implemented and have certified quality systems against the requirements of ISO 9001. Our study confirmed that a quality management system using the ISO 9001 standard is useful for the hospitals as it can help to increase the operational efficiencies, to reduce errors, improve patient safety and produce a more preventive approach instead of a reactive environment. PMID:26019523

  7. Glyco-engineering for biopharmaceutical production in moss bioreactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva L. Decker

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The production of recombinant biopharmaceuticals (pharmaceutical proteins is a strongly growing area in the pharmaceutical industry. While most products to date are produced in mammalian cell cultures, namely CHO cells, plant-based production systems gained increasing acceptance over the last years. Different plant systems have been established which are suitable for standardization and precise control of cultivation conditions, thus meeting the criteria for pharmaceutical production.The majority of biopharmaceuticals comprise glycoproteins. Therefore, differences in protein glycosylation between humans and plants have to be taken into account and plant-specific glycosylation has to be eliminated to avoid adverse effects on quality, safety and efficacy of the products.The basal land plant Physcomitrella patens (moss has been employed for the recombinant production of high-value therapeutic target proteins (e.g., Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor, Complement Factor H, monoclonal antibodies, Erythropoietin. Being genetically excellently characterized and exceptionally amenable for precise gene targeting via homologous recombination, essential steps for the optimization of moss as a bioreactor for the production of recombinant proteins have been undertaken.Here, we discuss the glyco-engineering approaches to avoid non-human N- and O-glycosylation on target proteins produced in moss bioreactors.

  8. Time trends of metal contents of Bavarian mosses Hypnum cupressiforme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1981, the Bavarian State Office for Environmental Protection has been operating a biomonitoring network of epiphytic mosses Hypnum cupressiforme which is located on a regular grid with distances 16 km. About 300 moss specimens are collected yearly (since 1991 every second year) at the end of the vegetation period, and the content of trace metals in the dry substance is measured. In this paper Ti, V, Cr, As, Cd, Hg, and Ph are treated in detail. The overall temporal trends of metal contents are described by quantile curves; the spatial distributions and their change over time are visualized by consecutive maps. The Ti, V, and Cr loads have not changed substantially since the early eighties, their spatial distributions show a clear gradient with high values in North-Eastern Bavaria. With respect to the As values, a similar spatial gradient has diminished, and the concentration quantiles have decreased up to 1995. For the rest of the metals, no clear and consistent spatial trends were found. Since the early eighties, Hg and Sb levels have been remaining constant, whereas Pb and Cd values have decreased. The temporal and spatial distributions of metals in Bavarian mosses indicate that the transport of metal-containing particles from adjacent areas in the North-East is the major common source for several metals; other known single emission sources are also reflected by the metal-specific maps. (author)

  9. Biomonitoring heavy metal contaminations by moss visible parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yang-Er; Cui, Jun-Mei; Yang, Jin-Chuan; Zhang, Zhong-Wei; Yuan, Ming; Song, Chun; Yang, Hui; Liu, Han-Mei; Wang, Chang-Quan; Zhang, Huai-Yu; Zeng, Xian-Yin; Yuan, Shu

    2015-10-15

    Traditional sampling for heavy metal monitoring is a time-consuming and inconvenient method, which also does not indicate contaminants non-invasively and instantaneously. Moss is sensitive to heavy metals and is therefore considered a pollution indicator. However, it is unknown what kind physiological parameters can indicate metal contaminations quickly and non-invasively. Here, we systematically examined the effects of six heavy metals on physiological parameters and photosynthetic activities of two moss species grown in aquatic media or moist soil surface. We suggest that a phenotype with anthocyanin accumulation pattern and chlorosis pattern and two chlorophyll fluorescence parameters with their images can roughly reflect metal species groups, concentrations and differences between the two moss species. In other words, metal contaminations could be roughly estimated visually using the naked eye. Enzymatic and non-enzymatic anti-oxidative abilities and photosynthetic protein contents of Eurhynchium eustegium were higher than those of Taxiphyllum taxirameum, indicating their differential metal tolerance. Neither anti-oxidative abilities nor photosynthetic proteins were found to be ideal indicators. This study provides new ideas to monitor heavy metals rapidly and non-invasively in water or on wetland and moist soil surface. PMID:25919648

  10. Strong environmental tolerance of moss Venturiella under very high pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It was shown by the present authors group that tardigrade can survive under high pressure of 7.5 GPa. In the case of land plants, however, no result of such experiment has been reported. We have extended our experiments to moss searching for lives under very high pressure. Spore placentas of moss Venturiella were sealed in a small Teflon capsule together with a liquid pressure medium. The capsule was put in the center of a pyrophillite cube, and the maximum pressure of 7.5 GPa was applied using a two-stage cubic anvil press. The pressure was kept constant at the maximum pressure for12, 24, 72 and 144 hours. After the pressure was released, the spores were seeded on a ager medium, and incubated for one week and more longer at 250C with white light of 2000 lux. It was proved that 70-90% of the spores were alive and germinated after exposed to the maximum pressure of 7.5 GPa for up to 72 hours. However, after exposed to 7.5 GPa for 6 days, only 4 individuals in a hundred were germinated. The pressure tolerance of moss Venturiella is found to be stronger than a small animal, tardigrade.

  11. Strong environmental tolerance of moss Venturiella under very high pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, F; Mori, Y; Takarabe, K [Department of Applied Science, Okayama University of Science, 1-1 Ridaicho, Okayama 700-0005 (Japan); Nishihira, N; Shindo, A [Okayama Ichinomiya High School, Okayama 700-0005 (Japan); Saigusa, M [Department of Biology, Okayama University, 3-1-1 Tsushima-Naka, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Matsushima, Y [Department of Physics, Okayama University, 3-1-1 Tsushima-Naka, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Saini, N L [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Roma ' La Sapienza' , Piazzale Aldo Moro 2, 00185 Rome (Italy); Yamashita, M, E-mail: fumihisa@das.ous.ac.j [Aerospace Exploration Agency, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 229-8510 (Japan)

    2010-03-01

    It was shown by the present authors group that tardigrade can survive under high pressure of 7.5 GPa. In the case of land plants, however, no result of such experiment has been reported. We have extended our experiments to moss searching for lives under very high pressure. Spore placentas of moss Venturiella were sealed in a small Teflon capsule together with a liquid pressure medium. The capsule was put in the center of a pyrophillite cube, and the maximum pressure of 7.5 GPa was applied using a two-stage cubic anvil press. The pressure was kept constant at the maximum pressure for12, 24, 72 and 144 hours. After the pressure was released, the spores were seeded on a ager medium, and incubated for one week and more longer at 25{sup 0}C with white light of 2000 lux. It was proved that 70-90% of the spores were alive and germinated after exposed to the maximum pressure of 7.5 GPa for up to 72 hours. However, after exposed to 7.5 GPa for 6 days, only 4 individuals in a hundred were germinated. The pressure tolerance of moss Venturiella is found to be stronger than a small animal, tardigrade.

  12. Copper and cobalt in aquatic mosses and stream sediments from the Idaho Cobalt Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdman, J.A.; Modreski, P.J.

    1984-01-01

    Samples of stream sediments and aquatic mosses were collected from nine sites across several mineralized zones at the southeasternmost extension of the Idaho Cobalt Belt. Because the steepness of the terrain and the attendant high flow rate of the streams made it difficult to obtain adequate sediment samples, mosses were considered as an alternative sampling medium. The results not only showed that the Cu and Co content of the mosses correlated almost perfectly with that of the sediments, but that the contrast between samples taken from mineralized and background areas was greater in mosses, especially for Co. Maximum concentrations of 35,000 ??g/g Cu and 2000 ??g/g Co were observed in the ash of mosses, compared to maximum concentrations of 1700 ??g/g and 320 ??g/g, respectively, in the associated sediments. Species identification was considered unimportant, which should dispel some reluctance to use mosses in mineral exploration. ?? 1984.

  13. Pitfalls and new mechanisms in moss isotope biomonitoring of atmospheric nitrogen deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xue-Yan; Koba, Keisuke; Liu, Cong-Qiang; Li, Xiao-Dong; Yoh, Muneoki

    2012-11-20

    Moss N isotope (δ(15)N(bulk)) has been used to monitor N deposition, but it remains questionable whether inhibition of nitrate reductase activity (NRA) by reduced dissolved N (RDN) engenders overestimation of RDN in deposition when using moss δ(15)N(bulk). We tested this question by investigation of δ(15)N(bulk) and δ(15)NO(3)(-) in mosses under the dominance of RDN in N depositions of Guiyang, SW China. The δ(15)N(bulk) of mosses on bare rock (-7.9‰) was unable to integrate total dissolved N (TDN) (δ(15)N = -6.3‰), but it reflected δ(15)N-RDN (-7.5‰) exactly. Moreover, δ(15)N-NO(3)(-) in mosses (-1.7‰) resembled that of wet deposition (-1.9‰). These isotopic approximations, together with low isotopic enrichment with moss [NO(3)(-)] variations, suggest the inhibition of moss NRA by RDN. Moreover, isotopic mixing modeling indicated a negligible contribution from NO(3)(-) to moss δ(15)N(bulk) when the RDN/NO(3)(-) reaches 3.8, at which maximum overestimation (21%) of RDN in N deposition can be generated using moss δ(15)N(bulk) as δ(15)N-TDN. Moss δ(15)N-NO(3)(-) can indicate atmospheric NO(3)(-) under distinctly high RDN/NO(3)(-) in deposition, although moss δ(15)N(bulk) can reflect only the RDN therein. These results reveal pitfalls and new mechanisms associated with moss isotope monitoring of N deposition and underscore the importance of biotic N dynamics in biomonitoring studies. PMID:23050838

  14. Epiphytic algae on mosses in the vicinity of Syowa Station, Antarctica

    OpenAIRE

    Shuji, Ohtani

    1986-01-01

    Species composition and abundance of epiphytic algae on mosses growing in the vicinity of Syowa Station were investigated. Moss samples were collected from three localities, East Ongul Island, Mukai Rocks and Langhovde. The epiphytic algae identified in these samples were 23 species in total, 16 of blue-green algae, 4 of diatoms, 3 of green algae. Blue-green algae were more frequently found among these epiphytic algae on mosses in each locality. Among the three localities, Langhovde was the m...

  15. Mosses Like It Rough—Growth Form Specific Responses of Mosses, Herbaceous and Woody Plants to Micro-Relief Heterogeneity

    OpenAIRE

    Carl Beierkuhnlein; Anke Jentsch; Severin Irl; Andrea J. Früh; Müller, Carina M.; Manuel J. Steinbauer; Leutner, Benjamin F.

    2012-01-01

    Micro-relief heterogeneity can lead to substantial variability in microclimate and hence niche opportunities on a small scale. We explored the relationship between plant species richness and small-scale heterogeneity of micro-relief on the subtropical island of La Palma, Canary Islands. Overall, we sampled 40 plots in laurel and pine forests at four altitudinal bands. Species richness was recorded separately for various growth forms (i.e., mosses, herbaceous and woody plants). Site conditions...

  16. Use of mosses as biomonitors of atmospheric deposition of trace elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some basic facts about the use of mosses as biomonitors of atmospheric trace element deposition are reviewed, and advantages and limitations of this approach are discussed, largely on the basis of experience from regular use of this technique in Norway over the last 20 years. Topics discussed include different versions of the moss technique, mechanisms and efficiencies of trace element uptake, conversion of concentrations in moss to bulk deposition rates, and contribution from sources other than air pollution to the elemental composition of different elements. Suggestions are presented for further work in order to extend the use of mosses as biomonitors. (author)

  17. Simulator training and human factor reliability in Kozloduy NPP, Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is a PowerPoint presentation. Situated in North Bulgaria, in the vicinity of the town of Kozloduy, near the Danube River bank, there is the Bulgarian Kozloduy Nuclear Power plant operating four WWER-440 and two WWER-1000 units. Units 1 and 2 were commissioned in July, 1974 and November, 1975, respectively. These were shut down at the end of 2003. Units 3 and 4 were commissioned in December, 1980 and May, 1982. They were shut down at the end of 2006 as a precondition for Bulgaria's accession to the European Union. The 1000 MW units 5 and 6 of Kozloduy NPP were commissioned in September, 1988 and December, 1993, respectively. Large-scale modernization have been implemented and now the units meet all international safety standards. The paper describes the multifunctional simulator Kozloduy NPP for the operational staff training. The training stages are as follows: - Preparatory; -Theoretical studies; - Training at the Training Centre by means of technical devices; - Preparation and sitting for an exam before a Kozloduy NPP expert commission; - Simulator training ; - Preparation to obtain a permit for a license, corresponding to the position to begin work at the NPP; - Exams before the Nuclear Regulatory Agency (NRA) and licensing; - Shadow training at the working place; - Permission for unaided operation. The following positions are addressed by the simulator training: - Chief Plant Supervisor; - Shift Unit Supervisor; - Senior Reactor Operator; - Simulator Instructor; - Controller physicist; -Senior Turbine Operator; - Senior Operator of Turbine Feedwater Pumps of Kozloduy NPP. Improving of training method led to a reduction of number of significant events while worldwide practice proves that improvement of engineering resulted in an increase in the percentage of events, related to human factor. Analysis of human reliability in 2005 and 2006 in cooperation with representatives from Great Britain and the Technical University in Sofia were worked on the DTI NSP B

  18. Closedown programme for the uranium ore and processing plant at Eleshnitsa, Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The tailings pond of the uranium ore and resin processing plant at Eleshnitsa, Bulgaria has been subject to a rehabilitation programme under a phare contract. The tailings cover 34 ha behind a 70 m high dam. The volume of waste is 12 million m3. Furhermore, there are considerable areas with contaminated soils within the industrial area. In order to be able to prepare detailed design and full tender documents for the actual contractual works a number of additional studies has been performed. The studies include geophysical, geodetical and geotechnical surveys, piezometer installations, a sub-regional sampling survey of surface and groundwater and a laboratory scale water treatment test. From these studies final design data and parameters have been obtained with respect to long term dam-stability, composition of cover and shape of contouring of the tailings pond area, structures for diversion of upstream surface waters and size and type of waste water treatment plant. Based on this information are contract Dossiers prepared The main part of this paper deals with the rehabilitation concept to be used for the contractual works. A description of present-day conditions, starting point for the rehabilitation concept, is also presented. Specific emphasis is put on the long-term stability of the dam and covering of the tailings by a soil membrane, on the design of the waste water treatment plant and on the monitoring programmes to be put into place. Besides above mentioned more technical and environmental aspects of the closedown programme a preliminary planning as well as cost-estimates for the different contractual works are presented. (orig.)

  19. Advances in molecular surveillance of Clostridium difficile in Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobreva, Elina G; Ivanov, Ivan N; Vathcheva-Dobrevska, Rossitza S; Ivanova, Katucha I; Asseva, Galina D; Petrov, Petar K; Kantardjiev, Todor V

    2013-09-01

    The increasing incidence of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in Bulgaria has indicated the need to implement better surveillance approaches. The aim of the present work was to improve the current surveillance of CDI in Bulgaria by introducing innovative methods for identification and typing. One hundred and twenty stool samples obtained from 108 patients were studied over 4 years from which 32 C. difficile isolates were obtained. An innovative duplex EvaGreen real-time PCR assay based on simultaneous detection of the gluD and tcdB genes was developed for rapid C. difficile identification. Four toxigenic profiles were distinguished by PCR: A(+)B(+)CDT(-) (53.1 %, 17/32), A(-)B(+)CDT(-) (28.1 %, 9/32), A(+)B(+)CDT(+) (9.4 %, 3/32) and A(-)B(-)CDT(-) (9.4 %, 3/32). PCR ribotyping and multilocus variable number of tandem repeat analysis (MLVA7) were used for molecular characterization of the isolates. In total, nine distinct ribotypes were confirmed and the most prevalent for Bulgarian hospitals was 017 followed by 014/020, together accounting for 44 % of all isolates. Eighteen per cent of the isolates (6/32) did not match any of the 25 reference ribotypes available in this study. Twenty-four MLVA7 genotypes were detected among the clinical C. difficile isolates, distributed as follows: five for 017 ribotype, two for 014/020, 001, 002, 012 and 046 each, and one each for ribotypes 023, 070 and 078. The correlation between the typing methods was significant and allowed the identification of several clonal complexes. These results suggest that most C. difficile cases in the eight Bulgarian hospitals studied were associated with isolates belonging to the outbreak ribotypes 017 and 014/20, which are widely distributed in Europe. The real-time PCR protocol for simultaneous detection of gluD and tcdB proved to be very effective and improved C. difficile identification and confirmation of clinical C. difficile isolates. PMID:23598377

  20. Comparative mineralogical characteristics of red soils from South Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlena Yaneva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to compare mineralogical composition of red soils, formed on marbles in South Bulgaria. We used mineralogical analysis of heavy and light mineral fraction in immersion under polarizing microscope and X-ray diffraction analysis of bulk sample and clay fraction. Three test polygons, located in South Bulgaria were examined: Petrovo, Nova Lovcha and Dobrostan, which are characterized with different latitude, altitude, and exposition. Three or more sites from each polygon were sampled and analyzed. The red soils are formed on white and gray calcite and calcite-dolomite marbles, impure silicate-rich marbles and only in one site – on marble breccias. We determined the following mineral phases in red soils: calcite, dolomite, quarts, and feldspars, mica, illite-type mica, illite, smectite, vermiculite-smectite, and kaolinite. Heavy minerals are represented by amphibole, titanite and epidote, and minor amounts of zircon, garnet, tourmaline, rutile, pyroxene, andalusite, kyanite, sillimanite and apatite. Opaque minerals are predominantly goethite and hematite. Plant tissue is abundant in light fraction from the uppermost soil horizons. Analyses of heavy mineral fraction show presence of metamorphic and igneous minerals which indicate participation of weathering products from other rock types in the nearby area. The types of heavy minerals in soils depend more on composition of parent rocks and geomorphic position than on climate type. Soils from Nova Lovcha show similar composition, but the quantity of goethite and hematite significantly increase in soil from plain. Typical high-metamorphic minerals as andalusite, kyanite and sillimanite present only in Nova Lovcha, while garnet dominates in Petrovo and opaque minerals - in Dobrostan. Red soils, formed on slopes, where erosion prevails over accumulation, contain more illite, smectite and vermiculite-smectite, and very few or no kaolinite, whereas the kaolinite is dominant in soils

  1. An ethnobotanical study of wild edible plants in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anely Nedelcheva

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study focuses on the wild vascular plants traditionally used for human consumption in Bulgaria and its aim is to present data about the richness and diversity of plants used as a nutrition source, about folk botanical knowledge and to give an impression about their contemporary state and development in relation to natural plant resources and traditional food culture. The study covers the period from the end of 19th to the middle of the 20th century. Materials and Methods: The study gathered data from more than 30 ethnobotanical and ethnographical sources which provide information for the end of 19th to the middle of the 20th century, in addition to field data collected through semi-structured interviews. Results: A total of 88 wild plant species, 25 families and 52 genera were identified as edible plants. Prevailing are representatives of Rosaceae, Amaranthaceae, Amaryllidaceae, Brassicaceae, Compositae and Polygonaceae. The largest numbers of species are from Allium, Rumex and Chenopodium. Similar in number are the species which are used as leaves (43 and fruits (38, followed by young shoots (9, seeds (7, roots (4, bulbs (4 and inflorescences (2. The largest group is from plants whose aboveground parts are gathered mainly during the spring and used as vegetables. Important species are Urtica dioica, Rumex acetosa, Rumex patientia, Chenopodium album, Atriplex prostrata and Amaranthus retroflexus. The fruits are mostly gathered from Rosaceae, Adoxaceae, Ericaceae and Vitaceae shrubs and trees. The study determined eight major food groups: fresh greens and fruits, stuffed pies, stewed and boiled greens, boiled cereals, sweets (boiled fruit products, dried fruits, snacks and lacto-fermented products. The predominant taste is salty-sour-spicy. Some of wild foods are also used for medicinal purposes and included in preventing or healing diets. Conclusion: Today’s traditional diet is very different from the past. Bulgaria provides a

  2. Mosses in Ohio wetlands respond to indices of disturbance and vascular plant integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapanian, Martin A.; Schumacher, William; Gara, Brian; Viau, Nick

    2016-01-01

    We examined the relationships between an index of wetland habitat quality and disturbance (ORAM score) and an index of vascular plant integrity (VIBI-FQ score) with moss species richness and a moss quality assessment index (MQAI) in 45 wetlands in three vegetation types in Ohio, USA. Species richness of mosses and MQAI were positively associated with ORAM and VIBI-FQ scores. VIBI-FQ score was a better predictor of both moss species richness and MQAI than was either ORAM score or vegetation type. This result was consistent with the strict microhabitat requirements for many moss species, which may be better assessed by VIBI-FQ than ORAM. Probability curves as a function of VIBI-FQ score were then generated for presence of groups of moss species having the same degree of fidelity to substrate and plant communities relative to other species in the moss flora (coefficients of conservatism, CCs). Species having an intermediate- or high degree of fidelity to substrate and plant communities (i.e., species with CC ≥ 5) had a 50% probability of presence (P50) and 90% probability of presence (P90) in wetlands with intermediate- and high VIBI-FQ scores, respectively. Although moss species richness, probability of presence of species based on CC, and MQAI may reflect wetland habitat quality, the 95% confidence intervals around P50 and P90 values may be too wide for regulatory use. Moss species richness, MQAI, and presence of groups of mosses may be more useful for evaluating moss habitat quality in wetlands than a set of “indicator species.”

  3. Polonium 210 content in foodstuffs produced in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study of the content of polonium-210 in a variety of foodstuffs produced in Bulgaria in 1970 revealed peak radionuclide concentration in wheat - 6.7 pCi/kg, followed by prunes - 2.2 pCi/kg, cabbage - 1.86 pCi/kg, peppers - 1.64 pCi/kg. The content of polonium-210 in onions, meat and potatoes was low (0.5, 0.8 and 0.9 pCi/kg accordingly). All other food products studied - milk, bread, beans, eggs, tomatoes, apples, pears, grapes and drinking water - appeared to have approximately equal polonium-210 concentration - from 1.21 to 1.35 pCi/kg. The daily intake of polonium-210 with food and water amounted accordingly to 1.61, 1.79 and 2.08 pCi/kg in preschool children, in school children and in senile individuals. The major part (68 - 82 per cent) of incorporated polonium-210 was eliminated with the stools. In all age groups the amount of polonium-210 removed daily from the body with the excreta corresponded to the intake, i.e. the balance of polonium-210 was in a state of equilibrium. The age factor in all three groups exerted no effect on the radionuclide intake and elimination from the body. (Ch.K.)

  4. Tourism Competitiveness Index – An Empirical Analysis Romania vs. Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai CROITORU

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In the conditions of the current economic downturn, many specialists consider tourism as one of the sectors with the greatest potential to provide worldwide economic growth and development. A growing tourism sector can contribute effectively to employment, increase national income, and can also make a decisive mark on the balance of payments. Thus, tourism can be an important driving force for growth and prosperity, especially in emerging economies, being a key element in reducing poverty and regional disparities. Despite its contribution to economic growth, tourism sector development can be undermined by a series of economic and legislative barriers that can affect the competitiveness of this sector. In this context, the World Economic Forum proposes, via the Tourism Competitiveness Index (TCI, in addition to a methodology to identify key factors that contribute to increasing tourism competitiveness, tools for analysis and evaluation of these factors. In this context, this paper aims to analyze the underlying determinants of TCI from the perspective of two directly competing states, Romania and Bulgaria in order to highlight the effects of communication on the competitiveness of the tourism sector. The purpose of this analysis is to provide some answers, especially in terms of communication strategies, which may explain the completely different performances of the two national economies in the tourism sector.

  5. ECONOMIC AND FINANCIAL ANALYSIS OF PEANUT PRODUCTION IN BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelly BENCHEVA

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Peanut is not listed as one of the major crops in the Bulgarian agricultural sector, but its economic and fi nancial viability is promising, but unknown. We use enterprise budgets, capital budgeting techniques, risk analysis and logistic regression models to examine the fi nancial and economic structure of peanut farms and to evaluate the factors infl uencing short and long-term profi tability. The results show that peanut production is a profi table venture for most peanut farmers in Bulgaria. Long-run analyses show that peanut production may be economically feasible and producers engaged in production for a period of seven years, and at a discount rate of 13%, may generate internal rates of return (IRR that vary from -20.57% to 67.39%. About 70% of the farms studied had IRRs greater than the discount rate. Sensitivity analyses show that profi tability of peanut production was infl uenced by yield and variable costs. There were risks at the village level associated with peanut production.

  6. FACTORS AFFECTING THE VEGETABLE FARMING EFFICIENCY IN BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodora STOEVA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency is the major economic category, which measures the final result and the expenses related to the production and provides value expression. The article aims to analyze the prospects and conditions for the development of field vegetable production in Bulgaria. Field vegetable farming is a traditional and fast developing sector of the Bulgarian agriculture. Its condition and development is determined by the various natural and geographic conditions in the country and the experience in cultivating and farming vegetable crops, which are traditional for the Bulgarian population. The vegetable farming is organized in individual private agricultural farms and agricultural farming cooperatives and is performed in small areas. The crisis in the vegetable farming raised a lot of questions that need to be answered. It is necessary to overcome the decrease in vegetable production. This can happen by establishing efficiently operating organizational companies. The most important reasons for the reported decrease are the result of the improperly conducted reforms in the agriculture industry as a result of which the economic condition of the sector is declining. A serious flaw is that the farmers are selecting certain crop production without conducting any preliminary marketing and without any signed contracts for produce realization.

  7. Alternative energy balances for Bulgaria to mitigate climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christov, Christo

    1996-01-01

    Alternative energy balances aimed to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are developed as alternatives to the baseline energy balance. The section of mitigation options is based on the results of the GHG emission inventory for the 1987 1992 period. The energy sector is the main contributor to the total CO2 emissions of Bulgaria. Stationary combustion for heat and electricity production as well as direct end-use combustion amounts to 80% of the total emissions. The parts of the energy network that could have the biggest influence on GHG emission reduction are identified. The potential effects of the following mitigation measures are discussed: rehabilitation of the combustion facilities currently in operation; repowering to natural gas; reduction of losses in thermal and electrical transmission and distribution networks; penetration of new combustion technologies; tariff structure improvement; renewable sources for electricity and heat production; wasteheat utilization; and supply of households with natural gas to substitute for electricity in space heating and cooking. The total available and the achievable potentials are estimated and the implementation barriers are discussed.

  8. Accumulation of heavy metals in mosses: a biomonitoring study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo-Miranda, G; Avila-Pérez, P; Gil-Vargas, P; Zarazúa, G; Sánchez-Meza, J C; Zepeda-Gómez, C; Tejeda, S

    2016-01-01

    The metropolitan area of the Toluca Valley (MATV) extends over an area of 1208.55 km(2) and has 1,361,500 inhabitants making it the fifth highest populated area in the country and the second highest in the state. The MATV has several environmental problems, with regards to the air quality. Particles PM10 and PM2.5 are considered to be the main pollutant due to these particles frequently exceeding the limit laid down in the standards of the air quality in the country. For this reason, samples of the mosses Fabriona ciliaris and Leskea angustata were collected at different sites in MATV, Mexico in order to establish the atmospheric deposition of heavy metals by means of the analysis of the mosses tissues. Results show the average metal concentrations in the mosses in the order of: Zn > Pb > Cr > Cd. The concentration capacities of heavy metals were higher in Fabriona ciliaris than Leskea angustata. Enrichment factors for Cr, Zn, Pb and Cd were obtained using the soils from the same sampling area. Enrichment factors results show that Cr is conservative in both sampling seasons with a terrigenous origin; Zn is moderately enriched in both sampling seasons and mainly associated to pedological-soil or substrate contribution and anthropogenic activities and Cd is highly enriched in the rainy season and Pb is highly enriched in both sampling seasons, with a predominantly anthropogenic origin. This study provides information to be considered in the strategies for similar environmental problems in the world. PMID:27375984

  9. Air quality study by PIXE method and mosses as bioindicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this work was to demonstrate the applicability of different atomic and nuclear methods to environmental monitoring. Mosses are particularly effective biomonitors of atmospheric heavy metal contamination because of their bioaccumulative properties. These plant groups are amenable to biomonitoring because they are widespread, easy to handle and they lack a cuticle and root system thus reflecting directly atmospheric heavy metal deposition. The ability of moss to accumulate elements in very high concentrations aids chemical analyses of the tissues and may facilitate the detection of elements present in very low concentrations in the environment. High bioaccumulation ability, particularly for heavy metals, where metal concentrations reflect deposition without the complication of additional uptake via a root system, is a chief reason for using moss in air pollution monitoring. Our study was focused on the town of Targoviste and neighboring area, where industrial activity is the main source of pollutants. The main polluting industries in the area under investigation include: a stainless steel mill (Targoviste), cement and related materials production (Fieni), glass and lighting sources production (Targoviste, Fieni), chemicals makers (Targoviste, Doicesti), coal mining and thermal power station (Doicesti), oil drilling (Targoviste, Moreni, Gaiesti). Determination in the samples of environmentally important elements like: Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mn, Ni and Zn, was carried out using the PIXE method by means of a 3 MeV proton beam extracted from the TANDEM accelerator at IFIN-HH Magurele, Bucharest. The quality of the chemical analyses will be checked by means of appropriate international certified reference materials. The authors of the project expect to extend their study beyond these few towns to the entire Dambovita County. The results of the study will be used for establishing correlations between environmental and epidemiological data in the examined area. (authors)

  10. QUESTIONNAIRE FOR STUDENTS FROM FACULTIES OF DENTAL MEDICINE IN BULGARIA REGARDING THEIR MOTIVATION FOR PARTICIPATION IN AND THE WAY THEY ARE FAMILIAR WITH RESEARCH PROJECTS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetoslav Garov

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In recent years there has been a significant increase in the number and value of projects implemented by medical universities in Bulgaria. The involvement of representatives of the student community in the research teams increases their knowledge and skills and in this way they also gain experience in team work and become motivated to further develop their science careers. Aim: The purpose of our study is by analyzing data from our questionnaire to examine the level of students’ willingness to participate in research project activities performed by Bulgarian faculties of Dental Medicine. Material and methods: The written examination technique has been applied as a primary empirical sociological information registration method. For that purpose a 13-question survey (questionnaire has been prepared. The survey is anonymous and it has been completed by 190 students in their 4th and 5th year of studying in medical universities in Sofia, Plovdiv and Varna. Data was collected during the period from January to May 2013. Results: In order for us to achieve the goal of this study we focused on the questions from the questionnaire.Conclusion: The role that research projects play in medical universities and in particular in the faculties of dental medicine in Bulgaria is of key importance for their accreditation. The scientific cooperation between lecturers and students is a prerequisite for developing a competitive environment that defines the future scientific achievements in the relevant research institution.

  11. Cravity modulation of the moss Tortula modica branching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorkavtsiv, Yaroslava; Kit, Nadja

    Among various abiotic factors the sensor system of plants constantly perceives light and gravitation impulses and reacts on their action by photo- and gravitropisms. Tropisms play fundamental part in ontogenesis and determination of plant forms. Essentially important question is how light initiating phototropic bending modulates gravitropism. In contrast to flower plants, red light is phototropically active for mosses, and phytochromic system controls initiation of apical growth, branching and photomorphogenesis of mosses. The aim of this investigation was to analyse cell branching of protonemata Tortula modica Zander depending on the direction of light and gravitation vector. The influence of light and gravitation on the form of protonemal turf T. modica, branching and the angle of lateral branches relative to axis of mother cell growth has been investigated. As moss protonemata is not branched in the darkness, light is necessary for branching activation. Minimally low intensity of the red light (0.2 mmol (.) m (-2) ({) .}sec (-1) ) induced branching without visual display of phototropic growth. It has been established that unidirectional action of light and gravitation intensifies branching, and, on the contrary, perpendicularly oriented vectors of factors weaken branches formation. Besides, parallel oriented vectors initiated branching from both cell sides, but oppositely directed vectors initiated branching only from one side. Clinostate rotation the change of the vector gravity and causes uniform cell branching, hence, light and gravitation mutually influence the branching system form of the protonemata cell. It has been shown that the angle of lateral branches in darkness does not depend on the direction of light and gravitation action. After lighting the local growth of the cell wall took place mainly under the angle 90 (o) to the axes of mother cell growth. Then the angle gradually decreased and in 3-4 cell divisions the lateral branch grew under the angle

  12. Two novel types of hexokinases in the moss Physcomitrella patens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thelander Mattias

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hexokinase catalyzes the phosphorylation of glucose and fructose, but it is also involved in sugar sensing in both fungi and plants. We have previously described two types of hexokinases in the moss Physcomitrella. Type A, exemplified by PpHxk1, the major hexokinase in Physcomitrella, is a soluble protein that localizes to the chloroplast stroma. Type B, exemplified by PpHxk2, has an N-terminal membrane anchor. Both types are found also in vascular plants, and localize to the chloroplast stroma and mitochondrial membranes, respectively. Results We have now characterized all 11 hexokinase encoding genes in Physcomitrella. Based on their N-terminal sequences and intracellular localizations, three of the encoded proteins are type A hexokinases and four are type B hexokinases. One of the type B hexokinases has a splice variant without a membrane anchor, that localizes to the cytosol and the nucleus. However, we also found two new types of hexokinases with no obvious orthologs in vascular plants. Type C, encoded by a single gene, has neither transit peptide nor membrane anchor, and is found in the cytosol and in the nucleus. Type D hexokinases, encoded by three genes, have membrane anchors and localize to mitochondrial membranes, but their sequences differ from those of the type B hexokinases. Interestingly, all moss hexokinases are more similar to each other in overall sequence than to hexokinases from other plants, even though characteristic sequence motifs such as the membrane anchor of the type B hexokinases are highly conserved between moss and vascular plants, indicating a common origin for hexokinases of the same type. Conclusions We conclude that the hexokinase gene family is more diverse in Physcomitrella, encoding two additional types of hexokinases that are absent in vascular plants. In particular, the presence of a cytosolic and nuclear hexokinase (type C sets Physcomitrella apart from vascular plants, and instead

  13. Comparison of desiccation tolerance among mosses from different habitats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šinžar-Sekulić Jasmina B.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Three moss species from the karst region were compared to establish their respective patterns of desiccation tolerance. Different life forms of bryophytes were chosen to obtain evidence of their life strategies during drought conditions. Comparative analyses of electrolyte leakage were performed to screen for tolerance of the membrane to water stress and for signs of damage to the fine structure of the protoplasm. The experiments were carried out by exposing the plants to water stress caused by PEG 600. The results show that the most desiccation tolerant species is Thamnobryum alopecurum, less but fairly tolerant is Anomodon viticulosus, while the aquatic Rhynchostegium riparioides is intolerant of desiccation.

  14. RAZVOJ DELOVNEGA TOKA ZA OBVLADOVANJE NALOG V OKOLJU MOSS

    OpenAIRE

    Kokot, Jernej

    2011-01-01

    Diplomsko delo opisuje postopek načrtovanja in implementacije informacijsko podprtega procesa za obvladovanje nalog v okolju MOSS (Microsoft Office SharePoint Server). Predstavili smo orodja in tehnologije, s katerimi smo načrtovali in izdelali posamezne funkcionalnosti, ki omogočajo uspešno obvladovanje in spremljanje nalog v podjetju. Spletne obrazce smo izdelali z orodjem InfoPath, sekvenčni delovni tok smo razvili v okolju Visual Studio s pomočjo orodja Workflow Designer, rešitev namestil...

  15. 78 FR 72817 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Gulf Intracoastal Waterway, Near Moss Lake, LA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-04

    ... Lake, LA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of deviation from drawbridge regulation. SUMMARY: The... pontoon bridge across the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway, mile 237.5, near Moss Lake, Louisiana. The deviation... 237.5 near Moss Lake, Louisiana. In accordance with 33 CFR 117.5, except as otherwise authorized...

  16. The resilience and functional role of moss in boreal and arctic ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turetsky, M.; Bond-Lamberty, B.; Euskirchen, E.S.; Talbot, J. J.; Frolking, S.; McGuire, A.D.; Tuittila, E.S.

    2012-01-01

    Mosses in northern ecosystems are ubiquitous components of plant communities, and strongly influence nutrient, carbon and water cycling. We use literature review, synthesis and model simulations to explore the role of mosses in ecological stability and resilience. Moss community responses to disturbance showed all possible responses (increases, decreases, no change) within most disturbance categories. Simulations from two process-based models suggest that northern ecosystems would need to experience extreme perturbation before mosses were eliminated. But simulations with two other models suggest that loss of moss will reduce soil carbon accumulation primarily by influencing decomposition rates and soil nitrogen availability. It seems clear that mosses need to be incorporated into models as one or more plant functional types, but more empirical work is needed to determine how to best aggregate species. We highlight several issues that have not been adequately explored in moss communities, such as functional redundancy and singularity, relationships between response and effect traits, and parameter vs conceptual uncertainty in models. Mosses play an important role in several ecosystem processes that play out over centuries – permafrost formation and thaw, peat accumulation, development of microtopography – and there is a need for studies that increase our understanding of slow, long-term dynamical processes.

  17. The resilience and functional role of moss in boreal and arctic ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turetsky, M R; Bond-Lamberty, B; Euskirchen, E; Talbot, J; Frolking, S; McGuire, A D; Tuittila, E-S

    2012-10-01

    Mosses in northern ecosystems are ubiquitous components of plant communities, and strongly influence nutrient, carbon and water cycling. We use literature review, synthesis and model simulations to explore the role of mosses in ecological stability and resilience. Moss community responses to disturbance showed all possible responses (increases, decreases, no change) within most disturbance categories. Simulations from two process-based models suggest that northern ecosystems would need to experience extreme perturbation before mosses were eliminated. But simulations with two other models suggest that loss of moss will reduce soil carbon accumulation primarily by influencing decomposition rates and soil nitrogen availability. It seems clear that mosses need to be incorporated into models as one or more plant functional types, but more empirical work is needed to determine how to best aggregate species. We highlight several issues that have not been adequately explored in moss communities, such as functional redundancy and singularity, relationships between response and effect traits, and parameter vs conceptual uncertainty in models. Mosses play an important role in several ecosystem processes that play out over centuries - permafrost formation and thaw, peat accumulation, development of microtopography - and there is a need for studies that increase our understanding of slow, long-term dynamical processes. PMID:22924403

  18. Comparison of elicitation potential of chloroatranol and atranol--2 allergens in oak moss absolute

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Jeanne D; Bernard, Guillaume; Giménez-Arnau, Elena;

    2006-01-01

    Chloroatranol and atranol are degradation products of chloroatranorin and atranorin, respectively, and have recently been identified as important contact allergens in the natural fragrance extract, oak moss absolute. Oak moss absolute is widely used in perfumery and is the cause of many cases of...

  19. The effects of drying following heat shock exposure of the desert moss Syntrichia caninervis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Shujun; Liu Chunjiang [School of Agriculture and Biology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Jiang Pingan [College of Pratacultural and Environmental Science, Xinjiang Agricultural University, Urumqi 830052 (China); Cai Weimin [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Wang Yan [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)], E-mail: xusj@mail.sjtu.edu.cn

    2009-03-15

    Desert mosses are components of biological soil crusts (BSCs) and their ecological functions make assessment and protection of these mosses a high-ranking management priority in desert regions. Drying is thought to be useful for desert mosses surviving heat shock. In this study, we investigated the role of drying by monitoring the responses of physiological characters and asexual reproduction in the typical desert moss Syntrichia caninervis. Heat significantly decreased chlorophyll content and weakened rapid recovery of photochemical activity, and increased carotenoid content and membrane permeability. Lethal temperatures significantly destroyed shoot regeneration potential. In comparison with heat alone, drying significantly increased protonema emergence time and depressed protonema emergence area. Drying combined with heat accelerated water loss, followed by a decrease of photosynthetic activity. Drying had different influences on membrane permeability at different temperatures. When moss leaves were subjected to a combined stress of drying and heat shock, photosynthesis was maintained mainly due to the effects of drying on physiological activity although the cellular morphological integrity was affected. Drying caused opposing effects on moss physiological and reproductive characteristics. On the one hand, drying caused a positive synergistic effect with heat shock when the temperature was below 40 deg. C. On the other hand, drying showed antagonism with heat shock when the moss was subjected to temperatures higher than 40 deg. C. These findings may help in understanding the survival mechanism of dessert mosses under heat shock stress which will be helpful for the artificial reconstruction of BSCs.

  20. Hydrodynamic characteristics of a trickling bed of peat moss used for bifiltration of wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karamanev, D.G.; Belanger, M.-C.; Chavarie, C.; Chaouki, J.; Mayer, R. [Ecole Polytechnique, Montreal, PQ (Canada). Department of Chemical Engineering

    1994-06-01

    The purpose is to study the flow characteristics and the retention time distribution of trickling filters using peat moss. The results show there are two different flow regimes due to the fractal-like structure of peat moss. At low velocities, the liquid flows through the aggregates of peat moss particles, and the tracer is distributed evenly in all the volume of the liquid, because of the small characteristic time of diffusion. When the superficial liquid velocity is high, the liquid flows mainly between the solid aggregates, and only a small amount of tracer penetrates the liquid inside and between the particles forming the aggregates. The results are important for modelling the process of biofiltration with peat moss. The work is applicable to the operation of peat moss biofilters and trickling bed reactors. 25 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  1. EVOLUTION OF THE MOSS GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM FOR 32-BIT COMPUTER SYSTEMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, R.J.; Oleson, Lyndon R.

    1984-01-01

    The authors discuss the current status and plans regarding the 32-bit implementation of the Map Overly and Statistical System (MOSS) geographic information system. Increasing interest in this system is promoting significant expansion of its capabilities, but any such enhancements will require careful analysis and planning to ensure that the resulting system is functionally complete and efficient yet flexible enough to adapt to a variety of user requirements and systems. All enhancements must be coordinated among centers of development in order to ensure the continued viability of a single MOSS. A baseline software configuration must be defined, and procedures must be developed to ensure coordination of any modifications to the baseline. Finally, there is significant interest in maintaining the public-domain aspects of MOSS to promote its shared use in the Department of the Interior. For these reasons, coordination efforts such as those initiated by the IDCCC and the MOSS Users Workshop should be strongly supported by the MOSS user community.

  2. MOSS spectroscopic camera for imaging time resolved plasma species temperature and flow speed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A MOSS (Modulated Optical Solid-State) spectroscopic camera has been devised to monitor the spatial and temporal variations of temperatures and flow speeds of plasma ion species, the Doppler broadening measurement being made of spectroscopic lines specified. As opposed to a single channel MOSS spectrometer, the camera images light from plasma onto an array of light detectors, being mentioned 2D imaging of plasma ion temperatures and flow speeds. In addition, compared to a conventional grating spectrometer, the MOSS camera shows an excellent light collecting performance which leads to the improvement of signal to noise ratio and of time resolution. The present paper first describes basic items of MOSS spectroscopy, then follows MOSS camera with an emphasis on the optical system of 2D imaging. (author)

  3. Usage tests of oak moss absolutes containing high and low levels of atranol and chloroatranol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowitz, Martin; Svedman, Cecilia; Zimerson, Erik; Bruze, Magnus

    2014-07-01

    Atranol and chloroatranol are strong contact allergens in oak moss absolute, a lichen extract used in perfumery. Fifteen subjects with contact allergy to oak moss absolute underwent a repeated open application test (ROAT) using solutions of an untreated oak moss absolute (sample A) and an oak moss absolute with reduced content of atranol and chloroatranol (sample B). All subjects were in addition patch-tested with serial dilutions of samples A and B. Statistically significantly more subjects reacted to sample A than to sample B in the patch tests. No corresponding difference was observed in the ROAT, though there was a significant difference in the time required to elicit a positive reaction. Still, the ROAT indicates that the use of a cosmetic product containing oak moss absolute with reduced levels of atranol and chloroatranol is capable of eliciting an allergic reaction in previously sensitised individuals. PMID:24287679

  4. Reduced content of chloroatranol and atranol in oak moss absolute significantly reduces the elicitation potential of this fragrance material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Flemming; Andersen, Kirsten H; Bernois, Armand;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Oak moss absolute, an extract from the lichen Evernia prunastri, is a valued perfume ingredient but contains extreme allergens. OBJECTIVES: To compare the elicitation properties of two preparations of oak moss absolute: 'classic oak moss', the historically used preparation, and 'new oak...

  5. The intermediate effect of geographic proximity on intergenerational support: A comparison of France and Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leen Heylen

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The geographic proximity of parents and adult children is a key element of intergenerational solidarity. Many studies have identified geographical distance as an important determinant of intergenerational support: living nearby increases the amount of mutual support provided. It can, however, also be regarded as a dimension of intergenerational solidarity: the current degree of proximity is the result of past migration decisions made by both generations, in which present and future care demands potentially played a key role. OBJECTIVE We take this endogenous nature of geographical distance into account by examining theindirect effect of the determinants of the actual level of support through geographical distance. Both upward support (personal care provided to mother and downward support (help with childcare received from mother are considered. METHODS Path analyses are performed on data from the Generations and Gender Survey for France and Bulgaria using a general latent-variable modelling framework in multiple-group models. RESULTS In addition to strongly affecting the level of support provided and received, geographical distance itself is affected by several individual and family-related variables, which in turn have an indirect effect on the level of intergenerational support. The results suggest that proximity can be used as an adaptive strategy: e.g., working adult children in France receive more help with childcare because of their greater proximity to their mothers. Having a greater care need may have triggered this choice of residence. Similarly, single parents with no partner to rely on tend to live closer to their mothers, and therefore receive more help. CONCLUSIONS Geographic proximity can be considered a latent form of solidarity that functions as a mediator between background factors and manifest, functional solidarity.

  6. Molecular epidemiology of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in Bulgaria-An update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papa, Anna; Pappa, Styliani; Panayotova, Elitsa; Papadopoulou, Elpida; Christova, Iva

    2016-05-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is endemic in Bulgaria. During 2013-2014, 11 confirmed CCHF cases have been reported in the country (seven in 2013 and four in 2014). The present study provides the CCHF molecular epidemiology in Bulgaria based on all currently available S, M, and L RNA segment nucleotide sequences spanning the years 1978-2014. A relatively low genetic difference (0-6%, the maximum seen in the M RNA segment) was seen among the CCHFV sequences suggesting that a slow evolving CCHFV strain belonging to "Europe 1" clade is present in Bulgaria. Although the virus emerged in new foci during the recent years, it is more active in the established endemic foci which seem to offer the most suitable ecosystem and environment. Understanding the CCHF epidemiology and virus evolution is the basis for public health programs and vaccine design. J. Med. Virol. 88:769-773, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26455333

  7. Combating illicit trafficking of nuclear material and other radioactive sources in Republic of Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The turbulent history of the Republic of Bulgaria is proof of its importance for the commercial and military interests of the nations that have conquered and exploited the country through the ages. It is clear that it is the connecting node of two continents, Europe and Asia. It is a natural stop in the movement of goods for transcontinental commercial purposes as well as a natural resting place for the movement of armies during the ancient and medieval times. The geopolitical situation that currently exists in the Republic of Bulgaria may form conditions for illicit trafficking. This paper gives a short description of the efforts of the Government of Bulgaria to combat the illicit trafficking of nuclear material and other radioactive sources. (author)

  8. Fresh and spent nuclear fuel repatriation from the IRT-2000 research reactor facility, Sofia, Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IRT-2000 research reactor, operated by the Bulgarian Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy (INRNE), safely shipped all of their Russian-origin nuclear fuel from the Republic of Bulgaria to the Russian Federation beginning in 2003 and completing in 2008. These fresh and spent fuel shipments removed all highly enriched uranium (HEU) from Bulgaria. The fresh fuel was shipped by air in December 2003 using trucks and a commercial cargo aircraft. One combined spent fuel shipment of HEU and low enriched uranium (LEU) was completed in July 2008 using high capacity VPVR/M casks transported by truck, barge, and rail. The HEU shipments were assisted by the Russian Research Reactor Fuel Return Program (RRRFR) and the LEU spent fuel shipment was funded by Bulgaria. This report describes the work, approvals, organizations, equipment, and agreements required to complete these shipments and concludes with several major lessons learned. (author)

  9. Fresh and Spent Nuclear Fuel Repatriation from the IRT-2000 Research Reactor Facility, Sofia, Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IRT 2000 research reactor, operated by the Bulgarian Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy (INRNE), safely shipped all of their Russian-origin nuclear fuel from the Republic of Bulgaria to the Russian Federation beginning in 2003 and completing in 2008. These fresh and spent fuel shipments removed all highly enriched uranium (HEU) from Bulgaria. The fresh fuel was shipped by air in December 2003 using trucks and a commercial cargo aircraft. One combined spent fuel shipment of HEU and low enriched uranium (LEU) was completed in July 2008 using high capacity VPVR/M casks transported by truck, barge, and rail. The HEU shipments were assisted by the Russian Research Reactor Fuel Return Program (RRRFR) and the LEU spent fuel shipment was funded by Bulgaria. This report describes the work, approvals, organizations, equipment, and agreements required to complete these shipments and concludes with several major lessons learned

  10. Assessment of the mitigation options in the energy system in Bulgaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christov, C.; Vassilev, C.; Simenova, K. [and others

    1996-12-31

    Bulgaria signed the Framework Convention on Climate Change at the UNCEP in Rio in June 1992. The parliament ratified the Convention in March 1995. In compliance with the commitments arising under the Convention, Bulgaria elaborates climate change polity. The underlying principles in this policy are Bulgaria to joint the international efforts towards solving climate change problems to the extent that is adequate to both the possibilities of national economy and the options to attract foreign investments. All policies and measures implemented should be as cost-effective as possible. The Bulgarian GHG emission profile reveals the energy sector as the most significant emission source and also as an area where the great potential for GHG emissions reduction exists. This potential could be achieved in many cases by relatively low cost or even no-cost options. Mitigation analysis incorporates options in energy demand and energy supply within the period 1992-2020.

  11. Fresh and Spent Nuclear Fuel Repatriation from the IRT-2000 Research Reactor Facility, Sofia, Bulgaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. J. Allen; T. G. Apostolov; I. S. Dimitrov

    2009-03-01

    The IRT 2000 research reactor, operated by the Bulgarian Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy (INRNE), safely shipped all of their Russian-origin nuclear fuel from the Republic of Bulgaria to the Russian Federation beginning in 2003 and completing in 2008. These fresh and spent fuel shipments removed all highly enriched uranium (HEU) from Bulgaria. The fresh fuel was shipped by air in December 2003 using trucks and a commercial cargo aircraft. One combined spent fuel shipment of HEU and low enriched uranium (LEU) was completed in July 2008 using high capacity VPVR/M casks transported by truck, barge, and rail. The HEU shipments were assisted by the Russian Research Reactor Fuel Return Program (RRRFR) and the LEU spent fuel shipment was funded by Bulgaria. This report describes the work, approvals, organizations, equipment, and agreements required to complete these shipments and concludes with several major lessons learned.

  12. The resilience and functional role of moss in boreal and arctic ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turetsky, Merritt; Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin; Euskirchen, Eugenie S.; Talbot, Julie; Frolking, Steve; McGuire, A. David; Tuittila, Eeva-Stiina

    2012-08-24

    Mosses in boreal and arctic ecosystems are ubiquitous components of plant communities, represent an important component of plant diversity, and strongly influence the cycling of water, nutrients, energy and carbon. Here we use a literature review and synthesis as well as model simulations to explore the role of moss in ecological stability and resilience. Our literature review of moss community responses to disturbance showed all possible responses (increases, decreases, no change) within most disturbance categories in boreal and arctic regions. Our modeling simulations suggest that loss of moss within northern plant communities will reduce soil carbon accumulation primarily by influencing decomposition rates and soil nitrogen availability. While two models (HPM and STM-TEM) showed a significant effect of moss removal, results from the Biome-BGC and DVM-TEM models suggest that northern, moss-rich ecosystems would need to experience extreme perturbation before mosses were eliminated. We highlight a number of issues that have not been adequately explored in moss communities, such as functional redundancy and singularity, relationships between response and effect traits, phenotypical plasticity in traits, and whether the effects of moss on ecosystem processes scale with local abundance. We also suggest that as more models explore issues related to ecological resilience, issues related to both parameter and conceptual uncertainty should be addressed: are the models more limited by uncertainty in the parameterization of the processes included or by what is not represented in the model at all? It seems clear from our review that mosses need to be incorporated into models as one or more plant functional types, but more empirical work is needed to determine how to best aggregate species.

  13. National magnetic database for the topsoil samples from Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordanova, Diana; Jordanova, Neli; Petrov, Petar

    2015-04-01

    Establishment of topsoil magnetic database on a national scale provides important source of information, necessary for the purposes of soil classification; soil drainage; as an indirect estimate of the total soil carbon and initial planning in precision agriculture. Five hundred and ten topsoil samples from the upper 20cm of natural unpolluted soils from the territory of Bulgaria have been characterized by detailed magnetic measurements, including mass-specific magnetic susceptibility; frequency dependent magnetic susceptibility, Anhysteretic remanence, Isothermal remanence and their ratios; hysteresis parameters and ratios; as well as soil reaction (pH). Histograms of the measured parameters per soil type and for the whole database reveal specific peculiarities and dependence from different factors. According to the results from the factor analysis, 77% from the total variance can be explained by four factors. The main factor is dominated by the contribution from concentration-dependent magnetic parameters. The second factor reflects the role of fine-grained pedogenic magnetic fraction; while the third one is determined by the properties of the parent material. The fourth factor is governed by the effects from the internal structural peculiarities of the magnetic particles. The results from cluster analysis reveal the role of soil type and geology for the observed magnetic characteristics. The first two clusters separate soils, developed on volcanogenic/volcanic rocks and loess sediments. The third cluster is dominated by the soil type variable and includes mainly Cambisols, developed on different parent rocks. The fourth cluster separates soils developed on sedimentary rocks. The results emphasize the major role of geology (parent material) for the magnetic signature of topsoil samples on a national scale using sampling density of 1sample/200km2.

  14. Long-term trend of radioactive contamination of food products in Bulgaria after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results which characterize the dynamics for the power of radioactive contamination of foods in the Bulgaria with Cesium radionuclides from May 1986 to December 1995 are presented. It was done for motivation of some conclusions during the progress of radiation situation in Bulgaria after the Chernobyl accident. The data are compared with Maximum residues limits (MRL) of our country as well as that of international organizations. They are compared with the background contamination of foods descended from regions affected after experimental nuclear explosion till 1963 too

  15. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF DEMAND FOR LOCAL AND FOREIGN WINES IN BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petyo BOSHNAKOV

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We use a semantic differential based instrument to assess the main factors in demand attitudes of Bulgarian customers. We aim to find out whether specific marketing techniques could alter the demand for such a traditional product as the wine in Bulgaria. Given the fact that the Bulgarian customer only recently received the possibility to know them, we find that foreign wines are evaluated mainly with a prejudice of past knowledge, not linked to the actual product. We discover a rigidity in such prejudice and adhering to "standard" definitions of "prestige" and quality of wines. Most likely demanded in Bulgaria will continue to be mainly Bulgarian wines.

  16. First report of Idiopterus nephrelepidis Davis, 1909 (Hemiptera: Aphididae from Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Tasheva-Terzieva

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Idiopterus nephrelepidis (Hemiptera: Aphididae is reported for the first time in Bulgaria on ornamental ferns in four greenhouses in Sofia and Varna. Dense colonies of apterous viviparous females and larvae were observed. The established host plants are Nephrolepis exaltata, Asplenium nidus and Pteris cretica. Infested ferns exhibit leaf deformation. The aphids were reared in laboratory conditions for four months. A morphometric study of apterae was carried out. Taking into account the presence of host plants of I. nephrelepidis in Bulgaria which are native to the local flora and the reports of the aphid from the Balkan area, it may spread in the country outdoors.

  17. Habitats of the Otter (Lutra lutra L. in some Regions of Southern Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgiev D.

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of present study was to gather base information on the distribution and relative quantity of otters in some habitats and regions, and thus to assist future monitoring of the species in Bulgaria. The otter was searched for in 111 UTM-grid squares mainly in Southern Bulgaria. It was found in 88 and absent from 23 of them. Environment stratification and habitat classification for 5 mountains, 3 valleys and Black Sea Coastal region was made. Data on otter quantity in some rivers and reservoirs is also presented.

  18. RATE OF RETURN ON INVESTMENT IN A DAIRY CATTLE BREEDING FARM IN BULGARIA

    OpenAIRE

    Tsvetana HARIZANOVA

    2013-01-01

    The paper analyses the rate of return on investment in a dairy cattle breeding farm in Bulgaria. To achieve the aim, it was investigated a dairy cattle breeding farm in Bulgaria first category with average number of 83 cows in the main herd. Based on information collected from the farm in 2012 and on own calculations it was defined the different types of investments necessary to create a farm. It was calculated also the rate of return of cash inflows, rate of return of cash outflows and inves...

  19. WiN-Bulgaria - work with young people to promote nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the main activities concerning work with youth is the establishment of high school section as a part of WiN - Bulgaria. The nuclear application and achievements of the nuclear industry and new nuclear technology are presented to young people by direct contact with them. WiN - Bulgaria organizes events, competitions and various forums on topics related to nuclear technology and its applications with the high school students participation. Emergency preparedness and how to react in case of radiological accident are also activities with young generation

  20. Current approaches on the management of disused sealed sources in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main options for the safe management of existing Disused Sealed Radioactive Sources (DSRS) in Bulgaria are discussed. The specific installations for handling and conditioning of all type of DSRS are being designed. The necessary equipment and materials for all conditioning operations have been defined. As the final disposal route for the radioactive wastes in Bulgaria is not defined yet, the proposed conditioning process for the DSRS ensures that end-point disposal of DSRS is not jeopardized by actions taken at present. All the DSRS would be packaged in secure, safe, monitorable and retrievable manner for interim storage

  1. A new cyanobacterial species of Anabaena genus (Nostocales, Cyanobacteria) from Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Kirilov Kirjakov, Ivan; Naneva Velichkova, Katya

    2016-01-01

    Una nueva especie de cianobacteria del género Anabaena (Nostocales, Cyanobacteria) de Bulgaria Se describe una nueva especie del género de Cyanobacterias, Anabaena Bory ex Born. et Flah. (Nostocales) de las montañas Ródope de Bulgaria. Anabaena rhodopensis sp. nova. tiene acinetas con paredes celulares esculpidas. Se dan los datos biométricos para el tamaño de las células vegetativas, heterocistos y acinetos. Abstract: A new species of cyanobacterial genus Anabaena Bo...

  2. Treatment of renal stones in Bulgaria in ancient times ('Hissarya' baths).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nenov, D; Nenov, V; Lazarov, G; Tchepilev, A

    1999-01-01

    Well-known mineral baths in Bulgaria, 'Hissarya', are described. Their existence dates back more than 25 centuries. 'Hissarya' is an Arabic word meaning 'siege of a castle'. Remains of castle walls are the symbol of 'Hissarya' today. Every year more than 100,000 patients from Bulgaria and other countries visit 'Hissarya'. From the time of the Thracians and the Roman Empire until now renal stones have been successfully treated by drinking the mineral water and by taking baths. The Roman Emperor Septimius Severus (193-211) visited 'Hissarya' every spring to treat his renal disease. PMID:10213812

  3. Legislative and regulatory framework on the safety of radioactive waste management in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are six nuclear power units in operation in Bulgaria. Over 2000 sites use sources of ionizing radiation. NPP radioactive waste is stored on-site and the institutional waste was disposed of at the Novi han repository until 1994. Bulgaria signed the Joint Convention in 1998 and is to ratify it until the end of 1999. A plan on preparation of the country for the obligations following the forthcoming ratification was developed and has been implemented. A National Strategy on SNF and RAW was developed, as well as a Comprehensive Legislative Programme in this field. Emphasis is put on the strengthening the regulatory body, improvement of the supervision and control activities. (author)

  4. Further promotion of the use of mosses and lichens for studies of atmospheric deposition of trace elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some recent and ongoing studies related to the use of mosses as biomonitors of atmospheric metal deposition are briefly reviewed. Issues discussed in particular are the conversion of concentration in moss to absolute deposition values, introduction of a second-generation ICP-MS instrument for moss analysis, determination of stable lead isotope ratios in mosses for source apportionment, and temporal trends of lead and cadmium deposition in Norway. A novel nuclear technique for the determination of fluorine in mosses surrounding an aluminium smelter is presented. (author)

  5. Implementation of the European protocol for quality control of the technical aspects of mammography screening in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results from the national pilot project on implementation of the European protocol for the quality control (QC) of the technical aspects of mammography screening as well as the European protocol for dosimetry in mammography in Bulgaria are presented. A QC programme for mammography equipment and a standardised measurement protocol were created. The full QC programme was tested on four mammography units of different types and ages. A national survey was performed for entrance surface air kerma (ESAK) on 20 units using a 45 mm PMMA standard phantom. Average glandular dose (AGD) was calculated using the conversion coefficients from the European dosimetry protocol. The survey demonstrated considerable differences in the technical condition of the mammography units that resulted in varying image quality. The measured values of ESAK showed significant variations. Doses for ∼45% of the units were found to be below the European reference level. The values for AGD ranged from 0.35 to 3.47 mGy. The main problems found were film processing, optical density (OD) control settings and AEC adjustment. The results showed the importance of film OD measurements parallel to dose measurements. The X-ray mammography in the country needs optimisation. Comprehensive quality assurance programme should be adopted in all departments covering permanent QC of the equipment, image quality and breast dose. (authors)

  6. Reconstructing temporal trends in heavy metal deposition: Assessing the value of herbarium moss samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shotbolt, L. [Geography Department, Queen Mary, University of London, London, E1 4NS (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: l.shotbolt@qmul.ac.uk; Bueker, P. [Stockholm Environment Institute, University of York, Heslington, YO10 5DD (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: pb25@york.ac.uk; Ashmore, M.R. [Environment Department, University of York, Heslington, YO10 5DD (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: ma512@york.ac.uk

    2007-05-15

    The use of the herbarium moss archive for investigating past atmospheric deposition of Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd and Pb was evaluated. Moss samples from five UK regions collected over 150 years were analysed for 26 elements using ICP-MS. Principal components analysis identified soil as a significant source of Ni and As and atmospheric deposition as the main source of Pb and Cu. Sources of Zn and Cd concentrations were identified to be at least partly atmospheric, but require further investigation. Temporal and spatial trends in metal concentrations in herbarium mosses showed that the highest Pb and Cu levels are found in Northern England in the late 19th century. Metal concentrations in herbarium moss samples were consistently higher than those in mosses collected from the field in 2000. Herbarium moss samples are concluded to be a useful resource to contribute to reconstructing trends in Pb and Cu deposition, but not, without further analysis, for Cd, Zn, As and Ni. - Herbarium moss samples can contribute to the reconstruction of past heavy metal deposition.

  7. Electron paramagnetic resonance study of amphiphiles partitioning behavior in desiccation-tolerant moss during dehydration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Desiccation tolerance is a crucial characteristic for desert moss surviving in arid regions. Desiccation procedure always induces amphiphiles transferring from the polar cytoplasm into lipid bodies. The behavior of amphiphiles transferring can contribute to the enhancement of desiccation tolerance and the reduction of plasma membrane integrity simultaneously. The effects of amphiphiles partitioning into the lipid phase during water loss has been studied for pollen and seeds using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. However, desiccation-tolerant high plants occur among mosses, several angiosperms and higher plants seeds or pollens. They have different strategies for survival in dehydration and rehydration. A desiccation-tolerant moss Tortula desertorurn was used to investigate the behaviors of amphiphilic molecules during drying by spin label technology. There are small amount of amphiphilic probes partitioning into membrane during moss leaves dehydration, comparing with that in higher plants. Cytoplasm viscosity changed from 1.14 into glass state only dehydration less than 60 min. Moss leaves lost plasma membrane integrity slightly,from 0.115 to 0.237, occurred simultaneously with amphiphiles partition. The results showed the more advantages of mosses than higher plants in adapting fast dehydration. We propose that EPR spin label is feasible for studying the amphiphiles partitioning mechanisms in membrane protection and damage for desiccation-tolerant mosses.(C) 2007 Yan Wang. Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of Chinese Chemical Society. All rights reserved.

  8. Life at the boundary: photosynthesis at the soil-fluid interface. A synthesis focusing on mosses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raven, John A; Colmer, Timothy D

    2016-04-01

    Mosses are among the earliest branching embryophytes and probably originated not later than the early Ordovician when atmospheric CO2 was higher and O2 was lower than today. The C3 biochemistry and physiology of their photosynthesis suggests, by analogy with tracheophytes, that growth of extant bryophytes in high CO2 approximating Ordovician values would increase the growth rate. This occurs for many mosses, including Physcomitrella patens in suspension culture, although recently published transcriptomic data on this species at high CO2 and present-day CO2 show down-regulation of the transcription of several genes related to photosynthesis. It would be useful if transcriptomic (and proteomic) data comparing growth conditions are linked to measurements of growth and physiology on the same, or parallel, cultures. Mosses (like later-originating embryophytes) have been subject to changes in bulk atmospheric CO2 and O2 throughout their existence, with evidence, albeit limited, for positive selection of moss Rubisco. Extant mosses are subject to a large range of CO2 and O2 concentrations in their immediate environments, especially aquatic mosses, and mosses are particularly influenced by CO2 generated by, and O2 consumed by, soil chemoorganotrophy from organic C produced by tracheophytes (if present) and bryophytes. PMID:26842980

  9. On the retention of uranyl and thorium ions from radioactive solution on peat moss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humelnicu, Doina, E-mail: doinah@uaic.ro [' Al.I. Cuza' University of Iasi, Faculty of Chemistry, Bd. 11 Carol I Boulevard, 700506 Iasi (Romania); Bulgariu, Laura; Macoveanu, Matei [Technical University ' Gh. Asachi' of Iasi, Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Environmental Protection, Department of Environmental Engineering and Management, Bd. D. Mangeron, 71A, 700050 Iasi (Romania)

    2010-02-15

    The efficiency of the radioactive uranyl and thorium ions on the peat moss from aqueous solutions has been investigated under different experimental conditions. The sorption and desorption of uranyl and thorium ions on three types (unmodified peat moss, peat moss treated with HNO{sub 3} and peat moss treated with NaOH) of peat moss were studied by the static method. Peat moss was selected as it is available in nature, in any amount, as a cheap and accessible sorbent. Study on desorption of such ions led to the conclusion that the most favourable desorptive reagent for the uranyl ions is Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} 1 M while, for the thorium ions is HCl 1 M. The results obtained show that the parameters here under investigation exercise a significant effect on the sorption process of the two ions. Also, the investigations performed recommend the peat moss treated with a base as a potential sorbent for the uranyl and thorium ions from a radioactive aqueous solution.

  10. Biologicla monitor and accumulating characteristic of moss to Pb, Fe, Cr pollution by SRXRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to explore accumulating characteristic of moss as a biological monitor to environmental pollution, cultured Physcornitrella patens of the second generation was grown for 45 days in a specially prepared nutrient medium containing different concentrations of Ph, Fe or Cr, or mixture of Fe-Pb, Fe-Cr and Fe-Cu. Elemental contents in the moss tissue were determined using SRXRF (synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence). Cr and K distributions in leaf and stem of the moss were obtained using micro-SRXRF. The results showed that in the sample groups of both types of the medium containing a single heavy metal or the metal mixture, the contents of polluted metal elements in the moss were correlated to the concentrations of corresponding elements in the culture medium. The moss injury was greatly aggravated with increasing content of heavy metal element. Under the contamination of heavy metals, the ability of moss to absorb nutritive elements (K, S) was declined sharply. Also due to the antagonism of excessive Cr, the content of K element deposited in moss stem decreased gradually. (authors)

  11. Distributions and impact factors of antimony in topsoils and moss in Ny-Ålesund, Arctic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The distribution of antimony (Sb) in topsoil and moss (Dicranum angustum) in disturbed and undisturbed areas, as well as coal and gangue, in Ny-Ålesund, Arctic was examined. Results show that the weathering of coal bed could not contribute to the increase of Sb concentrations in topsoil and moss in the study area. The distribution of Sb is partially associated with traffic and historical mining activities. The occurrence of the maximum Sb concentration is due to the contribution of human activities. In addition, the decrease of Sb content in topsoil near the coastline may be caused by the washing of seawater. Compared with topsoils, moss could be a useful tool for monitoring Sb in both highly and lightly polluted areas. - Highlights: ► We examined the distribution of antimony in topsoil and moss in Ny-Ålesund, Arctic. ► The distribution of Sb is associated with traffic and historical mining activities. ► The weathering of coal bed cannot lead to the Sb increase in the surface environment. ► The distribution of Sb in moss could reflect the accumulation of Sb pollution. ► Moss can be a useful tool for monitoring Sb in highly and lightly polluted areas. - The distribution of Sb in Ny-Ålesund is partially associated with traffic and historical mining activities, and moss can be a useful tool for monitoring Sb in both highly and lightly polluted areas.

  12. Microphotometry of underwater shadowing by a moss from a Niagara Escarpment waterfall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swatland, Howard J

    2011-02-01

    Microscope and fiber-optic spectrophotometry of transmittance and backscattering both showed moss leaves to be capable of casting strong shadows, with a single leaf blocking approximately 90% of incident light from a point source. In leaves with only one layer of cells, the transmittance through the cytoplasm of single cells was similar to that for whole leaves. Analysis of cell wall birefringence by polarized-light interferometry indicated that cell walls might normally scatter rather than transmit light. Spectra transmitted through, or backscattered from, the upper green layers of moss were dominated by selective absorbance from chlorophyll, but there was also evidence of wavelength-dependent scattering, as detected in the lower layers of brown, dead moss. Specular reflectance from moss leaves was detected by polarimetry and may have contributed to the relatively high macroscopic transmittance of stationary moss in water. Shadowing by moss leaves was confirmed by dynamic measurements of mosses in turbulent water without bubbles. Flicker patterns from leaves were superimposed on the underwater flicker pattern created at the air-water interface, thus flecks of light were reduced in intensity, increased in frequency, and decreased in duration. This was detected with both point source and diffuse illumination of samples. PMID:21087549

  13. Response of stable carbon isotope in epilithic mosses to atmospheric nitrogen deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Xueyan, E-mail: liuxueyan@vip.skleg.c [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Geochemistry, Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guiyang 550002 (China); Xiao Huayun; Liu Congqiang [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Geochemistry, Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guiyang 550002 (China); Li Youyi; Xiao Hongwei; Wang Yanli [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Geochemistry, Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guiyang 550002 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yuquanlu, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2010-06-15

    Epilithic mosses are characterized by insulation from substratum N and hence meet their N demand only by deposited N. This study investigated tissue C, total Chl and delta{sup 13}C of epilithic mosses along 2 transects across Guiyang urban (SW China), aiming at testing their responses to N deposition. Tissue C and total Chl decreased from the urban to rural, but delta{sup 13}C{sub moss} became less negative. With measurements of atmospheric CO{sub 2} and delta{sup 13}CO{sub 2}, elevated N deposition was inferred as a primary factor for changes in moss C and isotopic signatures. Correlations between total Chl, tissue C and N signals indicated a nutritional effect on C fixation of epilithic mosses, but the response of delta{sup 13}C{sub moss} to N deposition could not be clearly differentiated from effects of other factors. Collective evidences suggest that C signals of epilithic mosses are useful proxies for N deposition but further works on physiological mechanisms are still needed. - Photosynthetic {sup 13}C discrimination of bryophytes might increase with elevated N deposition.

  14. Sensitivity of the xerophytic moss Syntrichia caninervis to chronic simulated nitrogen deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuanming

    2016-04-01

    Biological soil crusts, complex of cyanobacteira, fungi, lichens and mosses, are common in dryland area and act as important elements of these ecosystems. Syntrichia caninervis is the dominant species in moss crusts in many desert ecosystems. Increasing N deposition has lead to great changes in community structure and function in the desert ecosystem worldwide. However, it is unclear how moss crusts respond to increased atmospheric N deposition, especially in term of growth and physiological parameters. The population and individual growth, and physiological responses of S. caninervis to six different doses of simulated N deposition (0, 0.3, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 3.0 g N m-2 a-1) over three years were studied. Simulated N deposition in the Gurbantunggut Desert affected growth and physiological indices of the xerophytic moss S.caninervis. Low N addition increased individual plant length and leaf size. High N addition was detrimental to almost all growth characteristics monitored, although moss abundance was increased. The photosynthesis-related indices were moderately increased at low N addition rates and significantly decreased by high N addition. Changes in osmotic adjustment substance concentrations and activities of antioxidant enzymes facilitated protection of leaf cells from oxidative damage under N addition. Low rates of N additiondid not significantly affect, and may even stimulate growth and physiological activity of moss crusts. However, high rates of N addition decreased moss vitality and might affect the function of moss crusts. Moss crusts are sensitive to N addition and greater attention should be paid to protection of such kinds of biological complexes in desert ecosystems under increasing N deposition. Key words: antioxidant enzyme, chlorophyll, fluorescence, nitrogen deposition, osmotic substance, Syntrichia caninervis

  15. Distributions of 137Cs and 210Pb in moss collected from Belarus and Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present work, moss samples collected in Slovakia and Belarus were assayed with respect to gamma-emitting radionuclides. The results for 137Cs and 210Pb are discussed. Moss was used for the first time in Belarus, as a biological indicator of radioactive environmental pollution in consequence of the Chernobyl accident in 1986. In Belarus, the maximum activity of 137Cs was observed in the Gomel region near Mazyr (6830 Bq/kg) and the minimum activity in the Vitebsyevsk Region near Luzhki-Yazno (5 Bq/kg). “Hot spots” were also observed near the towns Borisow and Yuratsishki. The results of measurements of 137Cs in moss samples collected in 2000, 2006 and 2009 in the same localities of Slovakia are presented and compared with the results of air monitoring of 137Cs carried out in Slovakia from 1977 until 2010. Measurements of the 210Pb concentration in moss samples collected over the territory of Slovakia showed, that the median value exceed 2.3 times median value of 210Pb obtained for Belarus moss. For that reason, the inhalation dose for man from 210Pb and 137Cs in Slovakia is more than twice as high as in Belarus, in spite of the initially very high 137Cs exposure in the latter country. -- Highlights: ► Belarus moss was used as a biological indicator of 137Cs and 210Pb. ► Comparison with concentration of 137Cs and 210Pb in moss from Slovakia. ► Moss samples reflect the original distribution of Chernobyl fallout in Belarus. ► Regular decrease of the annual average activity of 137Cs in surface air in Slovakia. ► Median concentration of 210Pb in moss from Belarus is 2.3 times lower than in Slovakia

  16. Production of greenhouse-grown biocrust mosses and associated cyanobacteria to rehabilitate dryland soil function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoninka, Anita; Bowker, Matthew A.; Reed, Sasha C.; Doherty, Kyle

    2016-01-01

    Mosses are an often-overlooked component of dryland ecosystems, yet they are common members of biological soil crust communities (biocrusts) and provide key ecosystem services, including soil stabilization, water retention, carbon fixation, and housing of N2 fixing cyanobacteria. Mosses are able to survive long dry periods, respond rapidly to precipitation, and reproduce vegetatively. With these qualities, dryland mosses have the potential to be an excellent dryland restoration material. Unfortunately, dryland mosses are often slow growing in nature, and ex situ cultivation methods are needed to enhance their utility. Our goal was to determine how to rapidly produce, vegetatively, Syntrichia caninervis and S. ruralis, common and abundant moss species in drylands of North America and elsewhere, in a greenhouse. We manipulated the length of hydration on a weekly schedule (5, 4, 3, or 2 days continuous hydration per week), crossed with fertilization (once at the beginning, monthly, biweekly, or not at all). Moss biomass increased sixfold for both species in 4 months, an increase that would require years under dryland field conditions. Both moss species preferred short hydration and monthly fertilizer. Remarkably, we also unintentionally cultured a variety of other important biocrust organisms, including cyanobacteria and lichens. In only 6 months, we produced functionally mature biocrusts, as evidenced by high productivity and ecosystem-relevant levels of N2 fixation. Our results suggest that biocrust mosses might be the ideal candidate for biocrust cultivation for restoration purposes. With optimization, these methods are the first step in developing a moss-based biocrust rehabilitation technology.

  17. Atomic Questions Group peer review mission to Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the Atomic Questions Group (AQG) peer review mission (17-19 Nov 2003) was to monitor the status of the recommendations contained in the 2001 Report on Nuclear Safety in the Context of Enlargement focusing specifically those recommendations identified in the 2002 Peer Review Status Report as requiring further attention or monitoring. Most AQG/WPNS 2001 recommendations were found as adequately addressed with the exception of the following to which Bulgaria was expected to devote further attention: 2nd General Recommendation NPP type I regarding Safety Analysis Reports (SARs); 1st Specific Recommendation NPP type I regarding the new nuclear legislation; 1st General Recommendation Other Nuclear Installations type II regarding the storage of radioactive waste. In addition WPNS recommended further monitoring of the following commitments: 1st General Recommendation NPP type I regarding the plant specific safety improvement programmes - to ensure that the programmes are completed in accordance with the plans; 2nd General Recommendation NPP type I regarding Safety Analysis Reports (SARs) - to ensure that the SARs are completed in accordance with the plans; 2nd General Recommendation NPP type I regarding Emergency Operating Procedures (EOPs) - to ensure the completion of work on EOPs in accordance with the plans and so that these provide for the development of appropriate guidance on the management of beyond design basis accidents; 2nd Specific Recommendation NPP type I regarding the resources of the regulator - to ensure that adequate human and financial resources will be provided according to the developed plan; 5th Specific Recommendation NPP type I regarding the implementation of specific upgrading improvements at Kozloduy units 3 and 4- to specifically follow these items during the monitoring associated with 1st General recommendation NPP type I, Upgrading programme; 6th Specific Recommendation NPP type I regarding high-energy pipe breaks at Kozloduy

  18. The nitrogen regime and biological fixation of nitrogen in moss communities (the Khibiny Mountains)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egorov, V. I.

    2007-04-01

    In the vegetation belts of the Khibiny Mountains, the dynamics of the contents of mineral and easily hydrolyzable (according to Cornfield) nitrogen compounds in the litter and the nitrogen-fixing capacity of epiphytic cyanobacteria on dominant mosses were studied. The nitrogen regime of most moss species was shown to be self-supporting probably due to the intense assimilation of molecular nitrogen by epiphytic cyanobacteria (during the growing period, up to 28% of the total nitrogen content in plants) and the low organic matter production by mosses.

  19. Allelopathy of the moss Rhynchostegium pallidifolium and 3-hydroxy-β-ionone

    OpenAIRE

    Kato-Noguchi, Hisashi; Seki, Takahiro

    2010-01-01

    The moss Rhynchostegium pallidifolium (Mitt.) A. Jaeger, which often forms large pure colonies on soils and rocks, inhibited the hypocotyls and root growth of cress (Lepidium sativum L.) seedlings when R. pallidifolium and cress were incubated together on agar medium. The inhibition of cress was greater at the close position from the moss than at the far position from the moss. 3-Hydroxy-β-ionone was found in the medium and concentration of 3-hydroxy-β-ionone in the medium was greater at the ...

  20. In search of a homogeneous nation: the assimilation of Bulgaria's Turkish minority, 1984-1985

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesselin Dimitrov

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the causes of the most extreme nationalist undertaking in Eastern Europe in the 1980s - the Bulgarian government's attempt to change the names of nearly one million Turks in the space of a few weeks in 1984-1985. The article argues that the assimilation campaign emerged as a result of a combination of threats and opportunities on a number of levels. Domestically, the failure of alternative strategies of dealing with the ethnic minorities created a temptation to resort to a radical solution, whilst the political and economic resources which the communist leadership commanded and which reached their high point in the mid-1980s gave it the means to undertake such a policy. Internationally, the Soviet Union, Bulgaria's main strategic ally, was powerful enough to protect it against possible Turkish and Western reprisals, but not strong enough to impose its own more tolerant nationalities policy on Bulgaria. Turkey, Bulgaria's historical enemy and the perceived patron of the Turkish minority, was seen as both posing a threat to Bulgaria after the invasion of Cyprus, and as suffering from weaknesses which would prevent it from undertaking serious counteractions. There thus existed in 1984-1985 a false 'window of opportunity' which encouraged the Bulgarian communist leadership to obliterate once and for all the problem of ethnic diversity with which they were increasingly unable to deal by other means.

  1. Antioxidant activity screening of extracts from Sideritis species (Labiatae) grown in Bulgaria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koleva, I.; Linssen, J.P.H.; Beek, van T.A.; Evstatieva, L.N.; Kortenska, V.; Handjieva, N.

    2003-01-01

    Plant samples from several species and populations of the genus Sideritis (Labiatae) grown in Bulgaria (S scardica, S syriaca and S montana) were extracted with different solvents. Their antioxidant activities were determined by the -carotene bleaching test (BCBT), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPP

  2. THE ECONOMIC AND POLITIC RELATIONS BETWEEN BULGARIA AND GERMANY. A SHORT HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina-Elena Gentimir

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Members of the European Union, Germany and Bulgaria are united by the same values and expectations. Both countries aim to closer relations in order to insure economic growth and a high competitiveness level. The objective of this article is to present, from a historical approach, the evolution of the economic and political relations between Bulgaria and Germany. The methodological process adopted in the present analyses is of both qualitative and quantitative nature. The article uses data from theoretical and empirical research on the economic and politic relations between Germany and Bulgaria and presents them from a historical perspective. Even though they were hit by the economic crisis, the two member states of the EU continued to maintain their economic relation on a positive trend. The recovering German economy continues to help Bulgaria, which has a hard time coming out of the crisis. The good economic relationship between the two partners will continue to be successful, the trade and investment flows being expected to double until 2015.

  3. Terrestrial gastropods of Srebarna Nature Reserve, North-Eastern Bulgaria (Gastropoda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivailo Dedov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We give the results from the first investigation focused on the land snail fauna in Srebarna Nature Reserve in Bulgaria. A total of 23 localities were studied and 27 species of terrestrial gastropods were found, 23 of which were new observations for the Reserve.

  4. How Can Bulgaria Improve Its Education System? An Analysis of PISA 2012 and Past Results

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2012-01-01

    Bulgaria's performance on all three disciplines of the program for international student assessment (PISA) 2012 was slightly better than its PISA 2000 performance, after having dropped between 2000 and 2006. The improvements in performance between 2006 and 2012 promoted shared prosperity, but equality of opportunities is still a major challenge. In fact, disaggregating students' PISA score...

  5. Challenges and Perspectives of the Adult Vocational Training System in Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrova, Elka

    2007-01-01

    This article provides a brief review of recent developments and problems in adult training of the employed and unemployed in Bulgaria. It is presented in three parts: information on legislation and the institutions; information on current problems with vocational training of the employed and unemployed; and some future measures for improving…

  6. Taxonomic status of the roses (Rosa) described by S.G. Dimitrov from Bulgaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zielinski, J.; Petrova, A; Tan, Kit

    2004-01-01

    The original herbarium vouchers for six species of Rosa (Rosaceae) described by S. G. Dimitrov from Bulgaria are taxonomically evaluated. Two species (R. balcanica, R. orphei) are considered hybrids, four other names (R. bulgarica, R. parilica, R. pontica and R. rhodopaea) are taxonomic synonyms of...

  7. Fathers in Context: Comparative Analysis of Father Involvement in Bulgaria and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.A. Conkova (Nina); B.E. Ory (Brett)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractThis report compares father involvement with their children in Bulgaria and the Netherlands by examining country differences in family formation patterns, policy context, and cultural prescriptions regarding family life. In studying the time fathers spend with their children, it is i

  8. Holy Places and Pilgrimage in the Post-Socialist Bulgaria (Karamihova, 2014 [In Bulgarian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Antova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available After the communist regime in Bulgaria, the interest of the people to religion was revived. Many of anthropological dimensions with religious nature are considered in Karamihova’s book (2014. Religious tourism and places of pilgrimages are described. The dynamics of this new social development is studied.

  9. Holy Places and Pilgrimage in the Post-Socialist Bulgaria (Karamihova, 2014) [In Bulgarian

    OpenAIRE

    S. Antova

    2014-01-01

    After the communist regime in Bulgaria, the interest of the people to religion was revived. Many of anthropological dimensions with religious nature are considered in Karamihova’s book (2014). Religious tourism and places of pilgrimages are described. The dynamics of this new social development is studied.

  10. International Trends in Health Science Librarianship Part 19: The Balkan States (Bulgaria and Croatia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirilova, Savina; Skoric, Lea

    2016-09-01

    This is the 19th in a series of articles exploring international trends in health science librarianship in the 21st century. The focus of the present issue is the Balkan Region (Bulgaria and Croatia). The next regular feature column will investigate two other Balkan states - Serbia and Slovenia. JM. PMID:27384106

  11. Forensic analysis of a smuggled HEU sample interdicted in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: A sample of HEU was seized in Rousse, Bulgaria on May 29, 1999, at a border crossing between Bulgaria and Romania. A search of the suspect's vehicle uncovered a lead canister hidden in the car trunk. The initial examination of the contents by Bulgarian scientists indicated that the sample was indeed HEU, and subsequently arrangements were made for a U.S. team of nuclear forensics scientists from several national laboratories to conduct a thorough examination. This report gives a summary of the results. The HEU sample was contained in a glass ampoule that was embedded in a yellow wax, and in turn the wax filled the inside of the cylindrical lead container. A broad set of techniques was used to examine both nuclear and non-nuclear materials. Our general experimental approach has been previously described at meetings of the Nuclear Smuggling International Technical Working Group (ITWG), but this case represents the application of the most diverse set of nuclear forensic measurements for an actual seized sample. Analysis of the HEU itself included particle characterization, stoichiometry, impurity elements, residual nuclides, age-dating, and U and Pu isotopics. Measurements by XRD, SEM, and TEM show that sample is mostly U3O8, with minor amounts of two other phases. The powder is extremely fine-grained (160 nm mean) and quite uniform in size. Most grains (95%) are equidimensional, with the remainder rod-or plate-shaped. The U is 72.7% U-235 with a high U-236 abundance of 12.1%. The sample is reprocessed, reactor-irradiated material. The original U enrichment was 90% and the irradiation burned up about 50% of the initial U-235. Pu is present at a very low-level (3 ppb); the Pu-239 abundance is 82% with 240/239=0.12. Three fission products were detected at low levels, giving unambiguous evidence of fuel recycling. The total impurity content is about 600 ppmw (mostly S, Cl, Fe, and Br), which we interpret as indicating a batch processing operation because the

  12. Does the genetic structure of spring snail Bythinella (Caenogastropoda, Truncatelloidea) in Bulgaria reflect geological history?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osikowski, Artur; Georgiev, Dilian; Hofman, Sebastian; Falniowski, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Bythinella is a minute dioecious caenogastropod that inhabits springs in central and southern Europe. In the Balkans, previous studies have addressed its morphological and genetic differentiation within Greece and Romania while the Bulgarian species have remained poorly known. The aim of the present paper has been to expand the knowledge on the subject in Bulgaria. Shell morphology and anatomy of the reproductive organs were examined, and a fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) gene and the nuclear ribosomal Internal Transcribed Spacer 1 (ITS-1) were sequenced from 15 populations. Additional sequences from eight previously studied populations were included in our analyses. Phylogenetic analyses revealed five main mitochondrial DNA clades, which were partly confirmed by analyses of the ITS-1 sequences. The genetic differentiation between the clades was found to be in the range p=2.4-11.8%. Most of the populations belonged to clade I, representing Bythinella hansboetersi, and were distributed in SW Bulgaria. Clades II and III inhabit areas adjacent to clade I and were most closely related with the latter clade. Much more distinct were clade V, found at one locality in NW Bulgaria, and clade IV, found at one locality in SE Bulgaria, close to the sea. Four populations were found in caves, but only one of these represented a distinct clade. Considering the observed pattern of interpopulation differentiation of Bythinella in Bulgaria, we can suppose that isolation between clades I, II and III may have been caused by glaciations during the Pleistocene. The time of isolation between the above three clades and clade IV coincides with the Messinian Salinity Crisis, and the time of isolation between the clade V and the other four most probably reflects the isolation of the Rhodopes from western Balkan Mts by the seawater of the Dacic Basin. PMID:26448701

  13. Potential environmental factors that influence the nitrogen concentration and δ15N values in the moss Hypnum cupressiforme collected inside and outside canopy drip lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samples of the moss Hypnum cupressiforme were collected at 103 locations in forests of Slovenia. At each location, samples were taken at two types of sites: under tree canopies and in adjacent forest openings. The results show that the moss collected in the forest openings reflects the surrounding land-use characteristics and, consequently, the main N emission sources. For moss sampled under canopies, the characteristics of the forest at the moss-sampling locations are more important than the main emission sources outside the forest. A regression model was used to provide the nitrogen (N) concentration in moss from the forest openings in relation to the N concentration in moss under canopies and other environmental variables. The spatial distribution of the locations of the N concentrations and δ15N values in moss collected in the forest openings and under the canopies in relation to main N deposition sources is discussed. - Highlights: • Moss samples were collected under the canopy and in adjacent forest opening. • How environmental factors influence the N and δ15N content in moss was researched. • Moss sampled in forest opening reflects the surrounding land-use characteristics. • Moss from under the canopy reflects also characteristics of the surrounding forest. • A regression model between moss N in open and moss N under the canopy is presented. - Moss collected in forest openings reflect the surrounding land-use characteristics; moss collected under tree canopies reflect the characteristics of the forest at the sample location

  14. Atmospheric deposition of heavy metals in Norway. Nationwide survey 2010.; Atmosfareisk nedfall av tungmetaller i Norge. Landsomfattende undersoekelse i 2010,

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinnes, Eiliv; Berg, Torunn; Uggerud, Hilde Thelle; Pfaffhuber, Katrine Aspmo

    2011-07-01

    The geographical distribution of atmospheric deposition of heavy metals in Norway was mapped in 2010 by analysis of moss samples from 464 sites all over the country. This report provides a presentation of the results and a comparison with data from a series of corresponding moss surveys starting 1977. The survey is part of an international program comprising large parts of Europe. The survey primarily concerns the ten metals of priority in the European program: vanadium, chromium, iron, nickel, copper, zinc, arsenic, cadmium, mercury, and lead. In addition data are reported for another 42 elements in the moss. The discussion of the obtained data mainly refers to contributions from air pollution. In addition influence from natural processes to the elemental composition of the moss and how it may influence the interpretation of the data is discussed. (Author)

  15. The antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of extracts obtained from some moss species in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ertürk Ömer

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pharmaceutical industry is forced to develop new pharmacologically active molecules. Like other plants, mosses are considered to be potential source of new biologically active compounds.

  16. Composition and structure of photosystem I in the moss Physcomitrella patens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busch, Andreas; Petersen, Jørgen; Webber-Birungi, Miriam T.; Powikrowska, Marta; Lassen, Lærke Marie Münter; Naumann-Busch, Bianca; Nielsen, Agnieszka Janina Zygadlo; Ye, Juanying; Boekema, Egbert J.; Jensen, Ole Nørregaard; Lunde, Christina; Jensen, Poul Erik

    2013-01-01

    intact photosystem I (PSI) with its associated light-harvesting complex (LHCI) from the moss Physcomitrella patens and characterized its structure, polypeptide composition, and light-harvesting function using electron microscopy, mass spectrometry, biochemical, and physiological methods. It became...

  17. Moss cushions facilitate water and nutrient supply for plant species on bare limestone pavements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kaj Sand; Hammer, Kathrine

    2012-01-01

    Dense moss cushions of different size are distributed across the bare limestone pavements on Øland, SE Sweden. Increasing cushion size is predicted to physically protect and improve performance and colonization by vascular plants. Therefore, we tested water balance, phosphorus supply, and species...... under stagnant conditions. One moss species was added to the species pool for every nine-fold increase in cushion area. Vascular plants were absent from the smallest cushions, whereas one or two species, on average, appeared in 375- and 8,500-cm(2) cushions with water available for 6 and 10 days during...... desiccation. Phosphorus concentrations increased stepwise and four-fold from detritus to surface mosses and to vascular plants, and all three pools increased with cushion size. We conclude that cushion mosses and cushion size play a critical role in this resource-limited limestone environment by offering an...

  18. Seasonal comparison of moss bag technique against vertical snow samples for monitoring atmospheric pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salo, Hanna; Berisha, Anna-Kaisa; Mäkinen, Joni

    2016-03-01

    This is the first study seasonally applying Sphagnum papillosum moss bags and vertical snow samples for monitoring atmospheric pollution. Moss bags, exposed in January, were collected together with snow samples by early March 2012 near the Harjavalta Industrial Park in southwest Finland. Magnetic, chemical, scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX), K-means clustering, and Tomlinson pollution load index (PLI) data showed parallel spatial trends of pollution dispersal for both materials. Results strengthen previous findings that concentrate and slag handling activities were important (dust) emission sources while the impact from Cu-Ni smelter's pipe remained secondary at closer distances. Statistically significant correlations existed between the variables of snow and moss bags. As a summary, both methods work well for sampling and are efficient pollutant accumulators. Moss bags can be used also in winter conditions and they provide more homogeneous and better controlled sampling method than snow samples. PMID:26969058

  19. Plutonium and americium concentrations and vertical profiles in some Italian mosses used as bioindicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have examined the uptake of actinide elements Am and Pu by different species of lichen and moss collected in two locations (Urbino, Central Italy; Alps region, North-east Italy). Plutonium and americium were separated and determined by extraction chromatography, electrodeposition and alpha-spectrometry. This paper summarizes our results with a special emphasis on the vertical profiles of these actinides in two different species of mosses. Several 1-2 cm depth sections were obtained and dated by 210Pb method. A typical peak for 239,240Pu and 241Am was found in the very old moss species ('Sphagnum Compactum') at a depth corresponding to the period 1960-1970 which was the period characterized by the maximum nuclear weapon tests. In a younger moss species ('Neckeria Crispa') no peak was observed and the regression curves showed that Am is more mobile than 239,240Pu and 238Pu. (author)

  20. 基于MOSS 2007的网络协作学习研究与实现%Study and Implementation of MOSS 2007-based Online Collaborative Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓妮

    2009-01-01

    网络课程作为网络教育的核心资源,已日益受到教育部门和教育专家、学者的广泛关注.同时,协作学习是目前教育界比较提倡的一种教育模式.该丈以分析利用Microsoft Office SharePoint Server 2007(MOSS 2007)网络教学平台开展协作学习的可行性为起点,阐述MOSS 2007知识共享和协同工作的功能,继而描述MOSS 2007网络教学平台的基本结构,最后讨论该平台可实现的协作学习功能.

  1. Ammonium first: natural mosses prefer atmospheric ammonium but vary utilization of dissolved organic nitrogen depending on habitat and nitrogen deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xue-Yan; Koba, Keisuke; Makabe, Akiko; Li, Xiao-Dong; Yoh, Muneoki; Liu, Cong-Qiang

    2013-07-01

    Mosses, among all types of terrestrial vegetation, are excellent scavengers of anthropogenic nitrogen (N), but their utilization of dissolved organic N (DON) and their reliance on atmospheric N remain uncharacterized in natural environments, which obscures their roles in N cycles. Natural (15) N abundance of N sources (nitrate (NO(3)(-)), ammonium (NH(4)(+)) and DON in deposition and soil) for epilithic and terricolous mosses was analyzed at sites with different N depositions at Guiyang, China. Moss NO(3)(-) assimilation was inhibited substantially by the high supply of NH(4)(+) and DON. Therefore, contributions of NH(4)(+) and DON to moss N were partitioned using isotopic mass-balance methods. The N contributions averaged 56% and 46% from atmospheric NH(4)(+), and 44% and 17% from atmospheric DON in epilithic and terricolous mosses, respectively. In terricolous mosses, soil NH(4)(+) and soil DON accounted for 16% and 21% of bulk N, which are higher than current estimations obtained using (15) N-labeling methods. Moreover, anthropogenic NH(4)(+) deposition suppressed utilization of DON and soil N because of the preference of moss for NH(4)(+) under elevated NH(4)(+) deposition. These results underscore the dominance of, and preference for, atmospheric NH(4)(+) in moss N utilization, and highlight the importance of considering DON and soil N sources when estimating moss N sequestration and the impacts of N deposition on mosses. PMID:23692546

  2. Forensic analysis of smuggled high enriched uranium interdicted in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A sample of HEU was seized in Rousse, Bulgaria on May 29, 1999 and arrangements were made for a U.S. team of nuclear forensics scientists from several national laboratories to conduct a thorough examination. A broad set of techniques was used to examine both nuclear and non-nuclear materials. This case represents the application of the most diverse set of nuclear forensic measurements for an actual seized sample. Analysis of the HEU itself included particle characterization, stoichiometry, impurity elements, residual nuclides, age-dating, and U and Pu isotopics. Measurements by XRD, SEM, and TEM show that sample is mostly U3O8, with minor amounts of two other phases. The U was 72.7% 235U with a high 236U abundance of 12.1%. The sample was reprocessed, reactor-irradiated material. The original U enrichment was 90% and the irradiation burned up about 50% of the initial 235U. Plutonium was present at a very low-level (3 ppb); the 239Pu abundance was 82% with 240/239=0.12. We determined the age of the chemical reprocessing by using seven nuclide systems. Using the multiple clocks enables us to evaluate the validity of the assumptions in the dating schemes. The slightly higher ages for Am and Ac chronometers are consistent with a Purex process. The mean age of the remaining clocks is October 30, 1993, with an uncertainty of only 25 days. The similar age for the Pu/Am clock suggests that the Pu is not from postprocessing contamination. The non-nuclear materials provide a number of forensic clues. Taken all together, the non-nuclear evidence is most consistent with assembly of the package in Eastern Europe from local sources. The nuclear isotopics can be used to constrain the type of reactor in which the HEU was irradiated. Detailed reactor calculations were performed using WIMS and GLASS codes for a pin fuel cell geometry. The results point to a light-water reactor with a very thermal spectrum. We calculate that a burn-up exposure of more than 300,000 MWD/MT are required

  3. Mosses and Some Mushroom Species as Bioindicators of Radiocaesium Contamination and Risk Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Marović, Gordana; Franić, Zdenko; Senčar, Jasminka; Bituh, Tomislav; Vugrinec, Ozren

    2008-01-01

    Mosses, lichens, mushrooms are able to efficiently accumulate different radioactive elements from their environment to a much higher degree than other vegetation. They are sensitive bioindicators of radioactive contamination for various ecosystems, particularly in the event of a nuclear accident and uncontrolled emission oh fission products. Results of systematic, long-term measurements of 137Cs activities in mosses and in some edible mushroom species in North Croatia for the post...

  4. Detection, Isolation, and Characterization of Acidophilic Methanotrophs from Sphagnum Mosses

    OpenAIRE

    N. Kip; Ouyang, W.J.; van der Winden, J.; Raghoebarsing, A.; van Niftrik, L.; De Pol, A.; Pan, Y.; L. Bodrossy; van Donselaar, E. G.; G. J. Reichart; M. S. M. Jetten; J. S. Sinninghe Damsté; Op den Camp, H.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Sphagnum peatlands are important ecosystems in the methane cycle. Methane-oxidizing bacteria in these ecosystems serve as a methane filter and limit methane emissions. Yet little is known about the diversity and identity of the methanotrophs present in and on Sphagnum mosses of peatlands, and only a few isolates are known. The methanotrophic community in Sphagnum mosses, originating from a Dutch peat bog, was investigated using a pmoA microarray. A high biodiversity of both gamma- and alphapr...

  5. Detection, Isolation, and Characterization of Acidophilic Methanotrophs from Sphagnum Mosses ▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Kip, Nardy; Ouyang, Wenjing; van Winden, Julia; Raghoebarsing, Ashna; van Niftrik, Laura; Pol, Arjan; Pan, Yao; Bodrossy, Levente; Van Donselaar, Elly G.; Reichart, Gert-Jan; Jetten, Mike S. M.; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.; Op Den Camp, Huub J M

    2011-01-01

    Sphagnum peatlands are important ecosystems in the methane cycle. Methane-oxidizing bacteria in these ecosystems serve as a methane filter and limit methane emissions. Yet little is known about the diversity and identity of the methanotrophs present in and on Sphagnum mosses of peatlands, and only a few isolates are known. The methanotrophic community in Sphagnum mosses, originating from a Dutch peat bog, was investigated using a pmoA microarray. A high biodiversity of both gamma- and alphapr...

  6. Relationship between formation of gametophore buds in the protonema of mosses and increase in ribonuclease activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Spychała

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Changes in RNase activity similar to those accompanying cytokinin-induced formation of gametophore buds in mosses (a decrease in the early phase of bud formation and later an increase in enzyme activity have also been found during spontaneous formation of gametophores in moss ontogenesis. Using various factors affecting the cytokinin-induced process of bud formation a correlation has been found between this process and the increase in RNase activity.

  7. Sr-Nd ISOTOPES IN MOSSES FROM ROMAGNA (ITALY) AND THEIR ENVIRONMENTAL SIGNIFICANCE

    OpenAIRE

    Francesca Castorina; Umberto Masi

    2010-01-01

    Sr-Nd isotopes were applied for the first time to the study of several moss samples from a transect stretching through Romagna from the Apennines to the Adriatic sea coast. The isotopic data suggest that the mosses uptake Sr and Nd via atmospheric depositions from both marine carbonates and old siliceous crustal rocks. Anthropic pollution cannot be precisely evaluated because of the lack of univocal isotopic signature of the sources.

  8. Sr-Nd ISOTOPES IN MOSSES FROM ROMAGNA (ITALY AND THEIR ENVIRONMENTAL SIGNIFICANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Castorina

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Sr-Nd isotopes were applied for the first time to the study of several moss samples from a transect stretching through Romagna from the Apennines to the Adriatic sea coast. The isotopic data suggest that the mosses uptake Sr and Nd via atmospheric depositions from both marine carbonates and old siliceous crustal rocks. Anthropic pollution cannot be precisely evaluated because of the lack of univocal isotopic signature of the sources.

  9. Monitoring of heavy metal concentrations in home outdoor air using moss bags

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One monitoring station is insufficient to characterize the high spatial variation of traffic-related heavy metals within cities. We tested moss bags (Hylocomium splendens), deployed in a dense network, for the monitoring of metals in outdoor air and characterized metals' long-term spatial distribution and its determinants in Girona, Spain. Mosses were exposed outside 23 homes for two months; NO2 was monitored for comparison. Metals were not highly correlated with NO2 and showed higher spatial variation than NO2. Regression models explained 61-85% of Cu, Cr, Mo, Pb, Sb, Sn, and Zn and 72% of NO2 variability. Metals were strongly associated with the number of bus lines in the nearest street. Heavy metals are an alternative traffic-marker to NO2 given their toxicological relevance, stronger association with local traffic and higher spatial variability. Monitoring heavy metals with mosses is appealing, particularly for long-term exposure assessment, as mosses can remain on site many months without maintenance. - Research highlights: → Moss bags can be used to measure the metal's long-term spatial distribution within cities. → Heavy metals in mosses are not highly correlated with ambient NO2 concentrations. → Heavy metals show higher spatial variation and association with traffic than NO2. → Bus lines in the nearest street explain 75-85% of Mo, Cr, Sb, Sn and Cu variability. → Moss bags are useful for long-term at home exposure assessment in epidemiological studies. - The long-term spatial distribution of heavy metals, measured with moss bags, is mainly determined by proximity to bus lines.

  10. Monitoring of heavy metal concentrations in home outdoor air using moss bags

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivera, Marcela, E-mail: arivera@creal.ca [Centre for Research in Environmental Epidemiology CREAL, Barcelona (Spain); Municipal Institute of Medical Research (IMIM-Hospital del Mar), Barcelona (Spain); Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona (Spain); CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain); Zechmeister, Harald [University of Vienna, Faculty of Life Sciences, Vienna (Austria); Medina-Ramon, Mercedes; Basagana, Xavier [Centre for Research in Environmental Epidemiology CREAL, Barcelona (Spain); Municipal Institute of Medical Research (IMIM-Hospital del Mar), Barcelona (Spain); CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain); Foraster, Maria [Centre for Research in Environmental Epidemiology CREAL, Barcelona (Spain); Municipal Institute of Medical Research (IMIM-Hospital del Mar), Barcelona (Spain); Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona (Spain); CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain); Bouso, Laura [Centre for Research in Environmental Epidemiology CREAL, Barcelona (Spain); Municipal Institute of Medical Research (IMIM-Hospital del Mar), Barcelona (Spain); CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain); Moreno, Teresa [Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA-CSIC), Barcelona (Spain); Solanas, Pascual; Ramos, Rafael [Research Unit, Family Medicine, Girona, Jordi Gol Institute for Primary Care Research (IDIAP Jordi Gol), Catalan Institute of Health, Catalunya (Spain); Department of Medical Sciences, School of Medicine, University of Girona (Spain); Koellensperger, Gunda [University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Vienna (Austria); Deltell, Alexandre [Polytechnic School, GREFEMA, University of Girona (Spain); Vizcaya, David [Centre for Research in Environmental Epidemiology CREAL, Barcelona (Spain); Municipal Institute of Medical Research (IMIM-Hospital del Mar), Barcelona (Spain); Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona (Spain); CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain)

    2011-04-15

    One monitoring station is insufficient to characterize the high spatial variation of traffic-related heavy metals within cities. We tested moss bags (Hylocomium splendens), deployed in a dense network, for the monitoring of metals in outdoor air and characterized metals' long-term spatial distribution and its determinants in Girona, Spain. Mosses were exposed outside 23 homes for two months; NO{sub 2} was monitored for comparison. Metals were not highly correlated with NO{sub 2} and showed higher spatial variation than NO{sub 2}. Regression models explained 61-85% of Cu, Cr, Mo, Pb, Sb, Sn, and Zn and 72% of NO{sub 2} variability. Metals were strongly associated with the number of bus lines in the nearest street. Heavy metals are an alternative traffic-marker to NO{sub 2} given their toxicological relevance, stronger association with local traffic and higher spatial variability. Monitoring heavy metals with mosses is appealing, particularly for long-term exposure assessment, as mosses can remain on site many months without maintenance. - Research highlights: > Moss bags can be used to measure the metal's long-term spatial distribution within cities. > Heavy metals in mosses are not highly correlated with ambient NO{sub 2} concentrations. > Heavy metals show higher spatial variation and association with traffic than NO{sub 2}. > Bus lines in the nearest street explain 75-85% of Mo, Cr, Sb, Sn and Cu variability. > Moss bags are useful for long-term at home exposure assessment in epidemiological studies. - The long-term spatial distribution of heavy metals, measured with moss bags, is mainly determined by proximity to bus lines.

  11. Moss and liverwort epiphytes on trunks of Cyathea delgadii in a fragment of tropical rain forest, São Paulo State, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Vital, Daniel M.; Prado, Jefferson

    2006-01-01

    This study is a survey of the bryophyte species that occur on the trunks of Cyathea delgadii Sternb. (Cyatheaceae), a native tree fern, encountered in a fragment of Atlantic forest located in the area of the „Parque Estadual das Fontes do Ipiranga (PEFI)“, São Paulo State, Brazil. Specimens of bryophytes were collected from March 2001 to October 2003. We found 35 bryophyte species (12 spp. of mosses and 23 of liverworts). Ceratolejeuenea dentacornuta Steph. is presented as a new record for Br...

  12. Phylogenetic analysis and in vitro culture of mosses from the Antarctic Fildes Peninsula

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Shenghao; ZHANG Zhaohui; WANG Nengfei; CONG Bailin; ZHANG Pengying; LIN Xuezheng; HUANG Xiaohang

    2014-01-01

    Molecular genetic techniques have proven very useful for initial analysis of the extent of genetic variation and dispersal in several Antarctic moss species. In the present study, the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rDNA) and internal transcribed spacers of the nuclear ribosomal DNA (ITS rDNA) were sequenced in nine individuals of different mosses from the Fildes Peninsula of Antarctica. Sequence alignment showed that the extreme environment tended to increase the genetic diversity of Antarctic mosses. In addition, in our phylogenetic analysis, one previously unidentiifed Antarctic moss species was characterized by comparison with SSU and ITS rDNA sequences of known moss species. Moreover, the optimal culture medium and conditions for surface explant sterilization and protonemata induction in tissue culture of Pohlia nutans were investigated. The successful establishment of a tissue culture protocol together with the phylogenetic analysis of Antarctic mosses will provide technological support to establish an effective resource regeneration method for discovering new functional genes and gaining novel insights into the mechanisms of stress acclimation.

  13. Water dispersal of methanotrophic bacteria maintains functional methane oxidation in Sphagnum mosses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuliina ePutkinen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available It is known that Sphagnum associated methanotrophy (SAM changes in relation to the peatland water table (WT level. After drought, rising WT is able to reactivate SAM. We aimed to reveal whether this reactivation is due to activation of indigenous methane (CH4 oxidizing bacteria (MOB already present in the mosses or to MOB present in water. This was tested through two approaches: In a transplantation experiment, Sphagna lacking SAM activity were transplanted into flark water next to Sphagna oxidizing CH4. Already after 3 d, most of the transplants showed CH4 oxidation activity. Microarray showed that the MOB community compositions of the transplants and the original active mosses had become more similar within 28 d thus indicating MOB movement through water between mosses. Methylocystis-related type II MOB dominated the community. In a following experiment, SAM inactive mosses were bathed overnight in non-sterile and sterile-filtered SAM active site flark water. Only mosses bathed with non-sterile flark water became SAM active, which was also shown by the pmoA copy number increase of over 60 times. Thus, it was evident that MOB present in the water can colonize Sphagnum mosses. This colonization could act as a resilience mechanism for peatland CH4 dynamics by allowing the re-emergence of CH4 oxidation activity in Sphagnum.

  14. Trace element accumulation in the moss Pseudoscleropodium purum in south Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAJLINDA TERPO

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available For the first time the moss biomonitoring technique has been applied to air pollution monitoring in south Albania. The most important environmental features of mosses as a suitable tool of biomonitoring are: rootless, large surface, wide - spread population, a habit to grow in groups, long life – cycle, survival in a high – polluted environment, an ability to obtain nutrients from wet and dry deposition. The moss Pseudoscleropodium purum was used as a bioindicator and biomonitor of metal pollution. In this work the bioaccumulation of trace metals (Cd, Pb, Cu, Mn, Fe, Na, K and Zn in moss samples collected from 9 sites of the southern part of Albania is presented. Moss samples were collected during the period September – October 2010 according to the guidelines of the UNECE ICP Vegetation. The concentrations of heavy metals in moss samples were determined using AAS technique equipped with flame and/or electro-thermal systems. AES method was used for Na and K determination. The variations of heavy metals concentrations with sampling sites are shown in heavy metal contamination diagrams. PCA and cluster analysis was used to identify the most polluted areas and characterize different pollution sources.

  15. Vegetative and Productive Behaviors of Cape Gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.), Grown by Direct Sowing Outside Under Conditions of Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    PANAYOTOV, Nikolay; POPOVA, Ani

    2014-01-01

    Cape gooseberry is a new crop for Bulgaria. Therefore, the establishment of appropriate technology is important. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different date of direct sowing outside under Bulgarian condition on the morphological development and on the productivity of cape gooseberry. The experiments were carried out with two varieties cape gooseberry - first Bulgarian variety Plovdiv and Columbian ecotype Obrazec 1 in region of Plovdiv, Bulgaria. Three dates of dir...

  16. Present status and progress of safeguards activities and physical protection on the eve of year 2000 in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From the very beginning of the IAEA safeguards implementation in Bulgaria, up to now the IAEA inspections verified no deviations or uncertainties in accounting of the nuclear materials. According to the official IAEA reports Bulgaria has fulfilled completely its duties under the safeguards and the Non-proliferation Treaty and has fully assisted the IAEA inspection activity. As for the physical protection, the complicated up-to-date system was established contributing to the safety of Kozloduy NPP and the plant operation

  17. TECHNOLOGICAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP OF SMALL AND MEDIUM BUSINESS IN THE REPUBLIC OF BULGARIA AS A FACTOR FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Angel Mirchev; Vesela Dicheva

    2013-01-01

    In the context of deepening economic and social crisis the importance of small and medium enterprises in the Republic of Bulgaria is steadily increasing. They have provided significant number of jobs on the labour market and have created much of the gross domestic product of Bulgaria. Our thesis is that technological entrepreneurship is a factor for the sustainable development of small and medium business in the country as a whole and stimulates overcoming the crisis in the country. This rese...

  18. The complete mitochondrial genome of the moss Oxystegus tenuirostris (Hook. & Taylor) A.J.E. Sm. (Pottiaceae, Bryophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Marta; Medina, Rafael; Cano, María Jesús; Jiménez, Juan Antonio; Goffinet, Bernard

    2016-09-01

    The mitochondrial genome of mosses is characterized by a highly conserved structure and genic content. This is confirmed here through the assembly and annotation of the mt genome of the moss Oxystegus tenuirostris, family Pottiaceae, for which it is assembled. A phylogenetic tree is inferred from the whole genome of 16 species of mosses to validate the sequence of O. tenuirostris by confirming its shared ancestry with Syntrichia. The genome is 105 001 bp long, with a GC content of 39.2%, comprising 40 protein coding, 24 tRNA, and 3 rRNA genes. All introns reported from the mt genome of all but one peristomate moss are present, whereas no region of 50 bp or more is repeated within the genome. The genic content and order is identical to that of most mosses, highlighting that the mt genome is static not only across the phylogenetic depth but also breadth of the moss tree of life. PMID:26370465

  19. Bulgaria; 2008 Article IV Consultation: Staff Report; Staff Statement; Public Information Notice on the Executive Board Discussion; and Statement by the Executive Director for Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2009-01-01

    This 2008 Article IV Consultation discusses that Bulgaria has been hit by the global financial crisis, with clear signs that the country’s capital inflows-driven boom has come to an end and that the real economy is slowing down. Executive Directors have commended the Bulgarian authorities for their prudent policies that have built strong balance sheets in the public sector. Directors have also welcomed the authorities’ commitment to maintaining prudent fiscal policies, which will provide ...

  20. Bringing back the rare - biogeochemical constraints of peat moss establishment in restored cut-over bogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raabe, Peter; Blodau, Christian; Hölzel, Norbert; Kleinebecker, Till; Knorr, Klaus-Holger

    2016-04-01

    In rewetted cut-over bogs in north-western Germany and elsewhere almost no spontaneous recolonization of hummock peat mosses, such as Sphagnum magellanicum, S. papillosum or S. rubellum can be observed. However, to reach goals of climate protection every restoration of formerly mined peatlands should aim to enable the re-establishment of these rare but functionally important plant species. Besides aspects of biodiversity, peatlands dominated by mosses can be expected to emit less methane compared to sites dominated by graminoids. To assess the hydrological and biogeochemical factors constraining the successful establishment of hummock Sphagnum mosses we conducted a field experiment by actively transferring hummock species into six existing restoration sites in the Vechtaer Moor, a large peatland complex with active peat harvesting and parallel restoration efforts. The mosses were transferred as intact sods in triplicate at the beginning of June 2016. Six weeks (mid-July) and 18 weeks later (beginning of October) pore water was sampled in two depths (5 and 20 cm) directly beneath the inoculated Sphagnum sods as well as in untreated control plots and analysed for phosphate, ferrous iron, ammonia, nitrate and total organic carbon (TOC). On the same occasions and additionally in December, the vitality of mosses was estimated. Furthermore, the increment of moss height between July and December was measured by using cranked wires and peat cores were taken for lab analyses of nutrients and major element inventories at the depths of pore water sampling. Preliminary results indicate that vitality of mosses during the period of summer water level draw down was strongly negatively related to plant available phosphate in deeper layers of the residual peat. Furthermore, increment of moss height was strongly negatively related to TOC in the upper pore waters sampled in October. Concentration of ferrous iron in deeper pore waters was in general significantly higher beneath

  1. Microtubules restrict plastid sedimentation in protonemata of the moss Ceratodon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwuchow, J.; Sack, F. D.

    1994-01-01

    Apical cells of protonemata of the moss Ceratodon purpureus are unusual among plant cells with sedimentation in that only some amyloplasts sediment and these do not fall completely to the bottom of vertical cells. To determine whether the cytoskeleton restricts plastid sedimentation, the effects of amiprophos-methyl (APM) and cytochalasin D (CD) on plastid position were quantified. APM treatments of 30-60 min increased the plastid sedimentation that is normally seen along the length of untreated or control cells. Longer APM treatments often resulted in more dramatic plastid sedimentation, and in some cases almost all plastids sedimented to the lowermost point in the cell. In contrast, the microfilament inhibitor CD did not affect longitudinal plastid sedimentation compared to untreated cells, although it did disturb or eliminate plastid zonation in the tip. These data suggest that microtubules restrict the sedimentation of plastids along the length of the cell and that microtubules are load-bearing for all the plastids in the apical cell. This demonstrates the importance of the cytoskeleton in maintaining organelle position and cell organization against the force of gravity.

  2. Estimating the Chromospheric Absorption of Transition Region Moss Emission

    CERN Document Server

    De Pontieu, Bart; McIntosh, Scott W; Patsourakos, Spiros

    2009-01-01

    Many models for coronal loops have difficulty explaining the observed EUV brightness of the transition region, which is often significantly less than theoretical models predict. This discrepancy has been addressed by a variety of approaches including filling factors and time-dependent heating. Here we focus on an effect that has been ignored so far: the absorption of EUV light with wavelengths below 912 {\\AA} by the resonance continua of neutral hydrogen and helium. Such absorption is expected to occur in the low-lying transition region of hot, active region loops, that is co-located with cool chromospheric features and called ``moss'' as a result of the reticulated appearance resulting from the absorption. We use co-temporal and co-spatial spectroheliograms obtained with SOHO/SUMER and Hinode/EIS of Fe XII 1242 {\\AA}, 195 {\\AA} and 186.88 {\\AA}, and compare the density determination from the 186/195 {\\AA} line ratio to that resulting from the 195/1242 {\\AA} line ratio. We find significant absorption of 195 {...

  3. Probabilistic seismic hazard map for Bulgaria as a basis for a new building code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. D. Simeonova

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A seismic hazard map proposed as part of a new building code for Bulgaria is presented here on basis of the recommendations in EUROCODE 8. Seismic source zones within an area of about 200 km around Bulgaria were constructed considering seismicity, neotectonic and geological development. The most time consuming work was to establish a homogeneous earthquake catalogue out of different catalogues. The probabilistic seismic hazard assessment in terms of intensities is performed following Cornell (1968 with the program EQRISK (see McGuire, 1976, modified by us for use of intensities. To cope with the irregular isoseismals of the Vrancea intermediate depth earthquakes a special attenuation factor is introduced (Ardeleanu et al., 2005, using detailed macroseismic maps of three major earthquakes. The final seismic hazard is the combination of both contributions, of zones with crustal earthquakes and of the Vrancea intermediate depth earthquakes zone. Calculations are done for recurrence periods of 95, 475 and 10 000 years.

  4. 'Mafia Baroque': post-socialist architecture and urban planning in Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holleran, Max

    2014-03-01

    This paper traces the reception of the architectural style known as 'Mafia Baroque' within the professions of architecture and urban planning in Bulgaria. The debate within these professions was strongly linked to the general decline of power among former intellectual elites and the specific decline of architects and planners, who were sidelined as arbiters of 'good taste' and disempowered as regulators of urban growth. The reaction to this style also highlights the rise in public concern over corruption and organized crime and dissatisfaction with post-socialist urbanization. This paper chronicles the extent of changes in construction and regulation in Bulgaria during the 1990s and argues that planners and architects were challenged not only by their professional marginalization but also by a deeper embarrassment over cultural change. It then relates this debate to broader post-socialist anxieties over insufficient regulation of urbanization and fear of failing to meet Western European goals for economic and political change. PMID:24697714

  5. Seismic Hazard and risk assessment for Romania -Bulgaria cross-border region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simeonova, Stela; Solakov, Dimcho; Alexandrova, Irena; Vaseva, Elena; Trifonova, Petya; Raykova, Plamena

    2016-04-01

    Among the many kinds of natural and man-made disasters, earthquakes dominate with regard to their social and economical impact on the urban environment. Global seismic hazard and vulnerability to earthquakes are steadily increasing as urbanization and development occupy more areas that are prone to effects of strong earthquakes. The assessment of the seismic hazard and risk is particularly important, because it provides valuable information for seismic safety and disaster mitigation, and it supports decision making for the benefit of society. Romania and Bulgaria, situated in the Balkan Region as a part of the Alpine-Himalayan seismic belt, are characterized by high seismicity, and are exposed to a high seismic risk. Over the centuries, both countries have experienced strong earthquakes. The cross-border region encompassing the northern Bulgaria and southern Romania is a territory prone to effects of strong earthquakes. The area is significantly affected by earthquakes occurred in both countries, on the one hand the events generated by the Vrancea intermediate-depth seismic source in Romania, and on the other hand by the crustal seismicity originated in the seismic sources: Shabla (SHB), Dulovo, Gorna Orjahovitza (GO) in Bulgaria. The Vrancea seismogenic zone of Romania is a very peculiar seismic source, often described as unique in the world, and it represents a major concern for most of the northern part of Bulgaria as well. In the present study the seismic hazard for Romania-Bulgaria cross-border region on the basis of integrated basic geo-datasets is assessed. The hazard results are obtained by applying two alternative approaches - probabilistic and deterministic. The MSK64 intensity (MSK64 scale is practically equal to the new EMS98) is used as output parameter for the hazard maps. We prefer to use here the macroseismic intensity instead of PGA, because it is directly related to the degree of damages and, moreover, the epicentral intensity is the original

  6. The renewable energy resources position in the fuel - energy balance forecast of R. Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The renewable energy resources position in the current fuel energy balance of the country is clearly defined. There have been discussed the solar energy usage possibilities mainly for hot water preparation, for industrial uses, in agriculture, as well as the geothermal water, hydro energy etc. The energy development expectations from renewable resources in the period up to 2015 have been forecasted with the aim of local renewable most efficient usage as well as the country's possibilities to meet the EU requirements for renewable resources development in order to decrease the import fuel and energy dependence and to increase the energy independence of Bulgaria. There have been presented the forecast expectations of renewable development structure by economic sectors in the Republic of Bulgaria. (author)

  7. Socio-economic restructuring and vulnerability to environmental hazards in Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarnal, B

    1994-06-01

    The restructuring of Bulgaria's social, economic and political system includes a change in the way it handles disaster preparation and response. During the Cold War, the entire country drilled regularly in civil defense, which was under the control of the army. A recent decree and pending legislation transfers civil defense from the military to the Council of Ministers, which has developed a national plan for defense against environmental hazards. This research shows that the transformation from command to market economy, plus the country's severe economic crisis, is degrading existing civil defense structures, preventing the implementation of the proposed new organization and increasing the population's vulnerability to hazards. Case studies of a small city, a petrochemical complex, coastal-zone hazards management, earthquake hazards regulation and the Kozloduy nuclear facility demonstrate Bulgaria's increasing vulnerability to environmental hazards. PMID:8076162

  8. RUSSIAN-ORIGIN HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL SHIPMENT FROM BULGARIA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly Cummins; Igor Bolshinsky; Ken Allen; Tihomir Apostolov; Ivaylo Dimitrov

    2009-07-01

    In July 2008, the Global Threat Reduction Initiative and the IRT 2000 research reactor in Sofia, Bulgaria, operated by the Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy (INRNE), safely shipped 6.4 kilograms of Russian origin highly enriched uranium (HEU) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) to the Russian Federation. The shipment, which resulted in the removal of all HEU from Bulgaria, was conducted by truck, barge, and rail modes of transport across two transit countries before reaching the final destination at the Production Association Mayak facility in Chelyabinsk, Russia. This paper describes the work, equipment, organizations, and approvals that were required to complete the spent fuel shipment and provides lessons learned that might assist other research reactor operators with their own spent nuclear fuel shipments.

  9. Possibilities for construction of small hydroelectric power plants in the Republic of Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The hydroenergy potential of Bulgaria and its utilization until 2000 is discussed. An assessment is made of the possibilities of the use of additional micro-hydroenergy potential (the preliminary evaluation gives about 1.3 bill. kWh/y with total power 250 MW). In the National Strategy for the development, use and preservation of water in Bulgaria till 2020 it is envisioned 60 micro HPP with power of 36 MW power to be constructed. The Program for hydro energy to 2010 envisioned including of private investments if the construction, buying up the electric energy by the National Electric Company and two-stage construction of the cascade 'Sreden Iskyr' with 10 small NPPs. The necessity of the development of a Manual of express investigation and design of small NPP is substantiated

  10. Development of Waste Reduction System of Wastewater Treatment Process Using a Moss: Production of Useful Materials from Remainder of a Moss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fumihisa, Kobayashi

    Landfill leachate pollution presents a serious environmental problem. It would be valuable to develop a sustainable method, one that is inexpensive and requires little energy, to eliminate the pollution and dispose of the waste. In a previous study, we reported the results of a leachate treatment for landfills in which we relied on the moss, Scopelophia cataractae, to support a sustainable method of waste reduction. In this study, for the development of a waste reduction system of landfill leachate treatment, we attempted to produce zinc as useful metal and ethanol as fuel from the remainder of moss after wastewater treatment. Steam explosions, which were used as physicochemical pretreatments to expose the raw material to saturated steam under high pressure and temperature, were used to pretreat the moss. By electrolysis, zinc recovered, and the maximum zinc recovery after wastewater treatment was 0.504 at 2.0 MPa steam pressure (211 °C) and 5 min steaming time. After that time, by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation using a Meicelase and Saccharomyces cerevisiae AM12, 0.42 g dm-3 of the maximum ethanol concentration was produced from 10 g dm-3 of exploded moss at 2.5 MPa steam pressure (223 °C) and 1 min steaming time.

  11. Influence of canopy drip on the indicative N, S and δ15N content in moss Hypnum cupressiforme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samples of Hypnum cupressiforme were collected at two types of site in forest areas: within the forest stand and within forest openings, and analyzed for N and S concentrations and δ15N. Mosses sampled within forest openings reflect the atmospheric N deposition; however, no influence of throughfall N deposition on the N in the moss that was sampled within the forest stand was found, nor was any influence of S deposition on the S in the moss found. For the N and S concentrations in the mosses sampled within forest openings, the within-site variability was comparable to the between-site variability, and for the δ15N, the within-site variability was lower than the between-site. The results showed that a short distance (15N content in moss on atmospheric deposition. • Moss sampled within forest openings reflect the atmospheric N but not S deposition. • Higher N and S content was found in mosses sampled in areas within the forest stand. • Metadata describing the boundary condition of moss sampling location is important. - H. cupressiforme reflects the atmospheric deposition of N but not S; a distance less than 1 m between the sampling site and the nearest tree crown increases the N and S concentrations in the moss

  12. Response of CH4 emission to moss removal and N addition in boreal peatland of Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. N. Meng

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Boreal peatlands are an important natural source of atmospheric methane (CH4. Recently, boreal peatlands have been experiencing increased nitrogen (N input and decreased moss production. However, little is known about the interactive effect of moss and N availability on CH4 emission in boreal peatlands. In this study, the effects of moss removal and N addition (6 g N m−2 yr−1 on CH4 emission were examined during the growing seasons of 2011 to 2013 in a boreal peatland in the Great Hinggan Mountain of Northeast China. Notably, the response of CH4 emission to moss removal and N addition varied with experimental duration. Moss removal and N addition did not affect CH4 emission in 2011 and 2012, but respectively declined CH4 emission by 50% and 66% in 2013. However, moss removal and N addition did not produce an interactive effect on CH4 emission. Specifically, moss removal plus N addition had no effect on CH4 emission in 2011 and 2012, but decreased CH4 emission by 68% in 2013. These results suggest that the effects of moss removal and N enrichment on CH4 emission are time-dependent in boreal peatlands, and also imply that increased N loading and decreased moss growth would independently inhibit CH4 emission in the boreal peatlands of Northeast China.

  13. Assessing the Quality of Education in Bulgaria using PISA 2009

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2010-01-01

    This report reflects and analyzes the recently released survey results from the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) conducted in 2009 by the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). The report examines the change in scores from 2006 to 2009 and looks at how much of the change can be attributed to improvements in the quality of the education system, how...

  14. QUESTIONNAIRE SURVEY ON CRANIOMANDIBULAR DISORDER ISSUES IN STUDENTS' AND POST-GRADUATE TRAINING IN BULGARIA.

    OpenAIRE

    Mariana Dimova; Yavor Kalachev

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of craniomandibular disorders (CMD) among the Bulgarian population as well as the risk factors for unlocking bruxism and bruxomania mechanisms pose a demand for education on these issues reflecting modern science. The authors' aim is to examine the subjective assessment of participants in “DAYS OF PROSTHETICS, Sofia, 15 -16 March 2014”, regarding: 1.Prevelance of CMD in the country; 2. Education and training of students and post-graduates in the issues related to diagnostic...

  15. Moss biomonitoring of air pollution with heavy metals in the vicinity of a ferronickel smelter plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bačeva, Katerina; Stafilov, Trajče; Sajn, Robert; Tănăselia, Claudiu

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish the atmospheric deposition of various elements in the Kavadarci region, Republic of Macedonia (known for its ferronickel mining and metallurgical activities) using moss biomonitoring, and to determine whether the deposition is anthropogenic or from geogenic influences. The sampling network includes 31 moss samples evenly distributed over a territory of about 600 km(2). A total of 46 elements (Ag, Al, As, Au, Ba, Be, Ca, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Dy, Er, Eu, Fe, Ga, Gd, Ge, Hg, Ho, K, La, Li, Lu, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Nb, Ni, P, Pb, Rb, Sb, Sm, Sr, Tb, Th, Ti, U, V, Yb, Zn, Zr) were determined by mass spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma (ICP-MS). Based on a distribution pattern of elements determined in moss, two anthropogenic geochemical associations (Co-Cr-Cu-Fe-Mg-Ni and As-Cd-Cu-Hg-Pb-Zn), were detected. The distribution of these elements shows an increased content (especially Ni, Co and Cr) in the moss samples from the surroundings of the smelter plant compared to the rest of the samples. Thus, the median value of Ni in moss samples from the whole region (40 mg kg(-1)) is much higher than the median for Macedonia (5.82 mg kg(-1)). Moreover, the median content of Ni in the moss samples from the polluted area (around the smelter) is 178 mg kg(-1) with an enrichment ratio in the moss samples of almost 5.5 times higher than the unpolluted areas (32 mg kg(-1)). This fact confirms the influence of the dust from the ferronickel plant to the air pollution in this region. PMID:22375548

  16. Moss and soil contributions to the annual net carbon flux of a maturing boreal forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, J.W.; O'Neill, K. P.; Trumbore, S.E.; Veldhuis, H.; Stocks, B.J.

    1997-01-01

    We used input and decomposition data from 14C studies of soils to determine rates of vertical accumulation of moss combined with carbon storage inventories on a sequence of burns to model how carbon accumulates in soils and moss after a stand-killing fire. We used soil drainage - moss associations and soil drainage maps of the old black spruce (OBS) site at the BOREAS northern study area (NSA) to areally weight the contributions of each moderately well drained, feathermoss areas; poorly drained sphagnum - feathermoss areas; and very poorly drained brown moss areas to the carbon storage and flux at the OBS NSA site. On this very old (117 years) complex of black spruce, sphagnum bog veneer, and fen systems we conclude that these systems are likely sequestering 0.01-0.03 kg C m-2 yr-' at OBS-NSA today. Soil drainage in boreal forests near Thompson, Manitoba, controls carbon storage and flux by controlling moss input and decomposition rates and by controlling through fire the amount and quality of carbon left after burning. On poorly drained soils rich in sphagnum moss, net accumulation and long-term storage of carbon is higher than on better drained soils colonized by feathermosses. The carbon flux of these contrasting ecosystems is best characterized by soil drainage class and stand age, where stands recently burned are net sources of CO2, and maturing stands become increasingly stronger sinks of atmospheric CO2. This approach to measuring carbon storage and flux presents a method of scaling to larger areas using soil drainage, moss cover, and stand age information.

  17. Does the core circadian clock in the moss Physcomitrella patens (Bryophyta comprise a single loop?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedman Harald

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The endogenous circadian clock allows the organism to synchronize processes both to daily and seasonal changes. In plants, many metabolic processes such as photosynthesis, as well as photoperiodic responses, are under the control of a circadian clock. Comparative studies with the moss Physcomitrella patens provide the opportunity to study many aspects of land plant evolution. Here we present a comparative overview of clock-associated components and the circadian network in the moss P. patens. Results The moss P. patens has a set of conserved circadian core components that share genetic relationship and gene expression patterns with clock genes of vascular plants. These genes include Myb-like transcription factors PpCCA1a and PpCCA1b, pseudo-response regulators PpPRR1-4, and regulatory elements PpELF3, PpLUX and possibly PpELF4. However, the moss lacks homologs of AtTOC1, AtGI and the AtZTL-family of genes, which can be found in all vascular plants studied here. These three genes constitute essential components of two of the three integrated feed-back loops in the current model of the Arabidopsis circadian clock mechanism. Consequently, our results suggest instead a single loop circadian clock in the moss. Possibly as a result of this, temperature compensation of core clock gene expression appears to be decreased in P. patens. Conclusions This study is the first comparative overview of the circadian clock mechanism in a basal land plant, the moss P. patens. Our results indicate that the moss clock mechanism may represent an ancestral state in contrast to the more complex and partly duplicated structure of subsequent land plants. These findings may provide insights into the understanding of the evolution of circadian network topology.

  18. Investigation about the presence of organochlorine pollutants in mussels from the Black Sea, Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgieva Stanislava

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, organochlorine pesticides (HCB, DDT and its metabolites and HCBD in mussels from Bulgarian Black Sea coast. Mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis are aquatic organisms which are immobile so that the concentration of pollutants should primarily be considered as an indication of local levels of organochlorine compounds. Samples were collected from three areas of Black Sea coast of Bulgaria in summer 2015.

  19. 14 October 2014 - R. Plevneliev President of the Republic of Bulgaria

    CERN Multimedia

    Brice, Maximilien

    2014-01-01

    His Excellency Mr Rosen Plevneliev President Republic of Bulgaria welcoming by CERN Director-General at CMS (Point 5); visiting the CMS cavern with CMS Spokesperson T. Camporesi; visiting the LHC tunnel at Point 5 with Technology Department Head J.M. Jiménez; signing the Guest-Book; assisting to a meeting with Bulgarians at CERN and family photograph with Bulgarians at CERN.

  20. Comparative Analysis of the Evolution of Business Travel Romania – Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Anca Gabriela Turtureanu; Cornelia Tureac; Bogdan Andronic; Florian Nuta

    2012-01-01

    The authors aim to analyze the evolution of the main tourism indicators in the two neighboringcountries Romania and Bulgaria. Current development of tourism is characterized by a profound renewal ofthe world tourism offer, in particular by developing a range of new tourism products, superior bothqualitatively and quantitatively. Romanian tourism revival will involve reshaping the development of tourismproducts based incentives at national and international tourism. Currently, the Romanian tou...

  1. DIVERSITY AND MORPHOMETRIC DATA OF BLOOD FILARIAL lARVAE IN CARNIVOROUS FROM BULGARIA

    OpenAIRE

    Panayotova–Pencheva M.; Trifonova A.; Mirchev R.; Movsesyan S.

    2014-01-01

    During the period 2012-2013 investigations of blood samples from domestic dogs ( Canis familiaris ), goldon jackals ( Canis aureus ) and red foxes ( Vulpes vulpes ) originated from different regions of Bulgaria were performed aiming to document diversity and morphometric characteristics of established filarial larvae. Following features of microfilariae were analyzed: peculiarities in the shape, body length and maximum body width. According to the morphological characteristics three types of ...

  2. Antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory potential of Arnica montana cultivated in Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Zheleva-Dimitrova, Dimitrina; BALABANOVA, Vessela

    2012-01-01

    The antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory potential of methanol extract from Arnica montana cultivated in Bulgaria was evaluated. For the determination of antioxidant activity 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) di-ammonium salt (ABTS) free radicals, and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay were used. Modified Ellman's colorimetric method was used for quantitative assessment of acetylcholinesterase inhibiti...

  3. Bulgaria : The Road to Successful EU integration, The Policy Agenda, A Country Economic Memorandum

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2005-01-01

    As Bulgaria approaches European Union accession, it has the opportunity to narrow the income gap, and raise productivity and investment, and set the economy on a higher growth path. To address these challenges and accelerate convergence with the European Union, this report proposes a reform agenda focused on five areas: productivity and growth, trade and investment integration, public expenditure policy, labor market adjustment, and the regulatory and institutional framework. Chapter 1 focuse...

  4. Inclusive education in Bulgaria and Bosnia and Herzegovina: policy and practice

    OpenAIRE

    Tsokova, Diana; Becirevic, Majda

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines developments in inclusive education in Bulgaria (BG) and Bosnia and Herzegovina (B&H) in the context of actual and desired accession to the European Union respectively. It seeks to provide insights into the national special education traditions in these countries and aims to establish how these have influenced current developments in inclusive education together with and alongside powerful external change agents. This research focuses on policy makers' perspectives on chan...

  5. Technology Development and Product Life Cycle: The Case of Counter-pressure Casting in Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Tonchev, T.; Djarova, J.; Nenov, I.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents the second part of the case study developed at the Metals Technology Company, in Bulgaria, which created and is applying the new original Bulgarian technology of casting by counter-pressure. After an investigation of the technology life cycle in the first part, the second part of the study concentrates on the inter-relation between technology and product life cycles. Selected product areas were investigated, and the product life cycle was applied in analyzing the product s...

  6. Problems and management of radioactive sources and measures against illicit trafficking of nuclear materials in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Illicit trafficking of nuclear materials continues to pose a danger to public health and safety and to nuclear non proliferation efforts. The majority of cases so far have involved only small amounts of fissile materials or mainly radioactive sources in Bulgaria. A proper scheme for analysis of seized nuclear materials will be developed based on existing equipment for NDA analysis of nuclear materials supplemented by new system through PHARE project assistance by EU experts. (author)

  7. Firm Culture in Bulgaria as A Problem of the Economic Anthropology

    OpenAIRE

    Adelina Milanova

    2004-01-01

    Drawn are views for the conditioning between the national and firm culture in theoretical aspect and based on concrete studies for Bulgaria. Firm culture in its quality of certain management mechanism is identified and analyzed as a subject in the frames of the economic anthropology. Based on the interdisciplinary approach are applied alternative instruments as an answer of current questions concerning the firm culture. Presented are results of study of the conditioning between the national a...

  8. Observable Effects of Atmospheric Pollution on Outpatient and Inpatient Morbidity in Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    PLATIKANOVA, Magdalena; PENKOVA-RADICHEVA, Mariana

    2016-01-01

    Background: One of Europe’s most well-developed industrial regions is found in the Republic of Bulgaria. The industrialization of the region has a big impact on air pollution. Thermal power plant “Maritza East” (the largest of its kind in southeastern Europe), the army training range, machine manufacturers, household heating and high volume of automobile traffic are all major sources of pollution in the region. Methods: A five year study (2009–2013) followed yearly concentrations of principal...

  9. Smalholders’ Market Inclusion through Improved Eco-management – The Case of Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    BACHEV, Hrabrin Ianouchev

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. Enhancing environmental performance is a prospective way for increasing market inclusion, effectiveness and sustainability of small-scale farms around the globe. With a very few exceptions, there are no studies on forms, factors and efficiency of “eco-driven” market inclusion of smallholders in modern supply chains in Bulgaria. This paper presents findings of a first large-scale study on state, driving forces, and efficiency of market inclusion of farms through enhanced eco-manageme...

  10. Filamentous cyanoprokaryotes (Cyanoprokaryota/Cyanobacteria in standing waters of Bulgaria: diversity and ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PLAMEN STOYANOV

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Cyanoprokaryotes are widespread organisms, which dominate in different water basins. In the present study, we have investigated the diversity of this group and related physicochemical parameters in 35 standing water basins in Bulgaria. We found 29 cyanoprokaryotic species, which belong to 13 genera from the orders Synechococcales, Spirulinales and Oscillatoriales. The frequency quotient of each species was calculated. Information about the distribution of the identified species and typology of the water basins is also provided.

  11. Macrophyte-Based Assessment of the Ecological Status of Lakes in Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Gana M. Gecheva

    2011-01-01

    The aquatic macrophytes of lakes, situated in the whole territory of Bulgaria, were monitored during 2009. Six lake groups were established using differences in characteristics reflecting altitude, high calcium content and salinity, and altered hydromorphology and/or artificial origin. Abundance and species composition were assessed at each lake according to the requirements of the EU Water Framework Directive, using the assessment procedure of macrophyte-based assessment system, proposed by ...

  12. THE SOCIAL ORIENTATION OF THE ACTIVITY OF THE LABOUR WORKING COOPERATIVES FOR DISABLED PEOPLE IN BULGARIA

    OpenAIRE

    Albena MITEVA; Zornitsa STOYANOVA

    2014-01-01

    Bulgaria's membership in the European Union defines the orientation of our country in line with the key strategic priorities of Europe 2020, which aims to achieve smart, sustainable and inclusive growth. The role of the cooperative system becomes especially important at this time when the EU itself is constructed as a union of equal socially oriented states. In the paper is depicted the role of the labour working producer cooperatives for disabled people as one of the main actors of the socia...

  13. The renewable energy resources future in the electricity energy balance forecast of R. Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The usage of renewable resources for electricity production in Bulgaria could be extended significantly in reality, through the utilization of the existing high technical potential. Options for expected electricity production development in future period have been presented for the country on the base of two expected scenarios for economic development. Forecasted variations of structural mix for renewable energy sources electricity production have been proposed with respect of the existing options for better use of the RES economical potential

  14. Improvisation and Variation: Post-Communist Bulgaria Challenges National Folklore Tradition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elka Agoston-Nikolova

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the tension in post-totalitarian Bulgaria betweenthe national folklore tradition of Communist times with government sanctioned state ensembles and festivals and age-old Balkan multiculturalism now represented in a westernized free-market consumer society, where spontaneity and improvisation bridge the urban and the rural, the local and the global. Folk pop, folk jazz or other mixed genres reverberate with humor , parody and, above all, freedom and love of improvisation.

  15. ANALYSIS OF INTENSITY OF COMPETITION IN MILK AND MILK PRODUCTS SECTOR IN BULGARIA

    OpenAIRE

    Radev, Radko

    2013-01-01

    The following paper presents the results of an analysis of the intensity of competition in the milk and milk products sector in Bulgaria. The analysis is performed by adapting the Porter’s five forces model and based on the specific features of the sector concerned. For this purpose the author accepts the industrial concept of interpretation of competition: two levels of consideration of the competition intensity are differentiated - product class as a whole and separate product categories. A...

  16. Comparative analysis of the prices of essential medicines among Bulgaria and Macedonia

    OpenAIRE

    Angelovska, Bistra; Bukilica, M; Todorov, Todor; Petrova, Guenka

    2005-01-01

    The prices of medicines differ because of many reasons as the sector that is purchasing medicines, distribution channel, patent status, trade mark and methodology of pricing. The current study aims at comparing the manufactoring, wholesale and retail prices of 30 30 INN essential medicines in Bulgaria and Macedonia as well their affordability to the population. There are presented the results for amoxicillin and glibenclamid. The collection, verification and data analysis are following the ne...

  17. CONCEPTUALIZATION AND CLASSIFICATION OF BALNEO, SPA AND WELLNESS ESTABLISHMENTS IN BULGARIA

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Trifonova Vasileva; Georgi Georgiev

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzes the origin, the process of development and consolidation of the health, SPA and wellness tourism in different regions of the world as well as in Bulgaria. Special attention is paid to the etymology of the words “wellness” and “SPA”, used as a basis for differentiation of their structural elements as tourism segments. Under observations are some theoretical issues, including the significant need of term clarification of these forms of tourism. Other matters of high importan...

  18. Conceptualization and classification of balneo, SPA and wellness establichments in Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Georgiev, Georgi; Vasileva, Maria Trifonova

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzes the origin, the process of development and consolidation of the health, SPA and wellness tourism in different regions of the world as well as in Bulgaria. Special attention is paid to the etymology of the words 'wellness' and 'SPA', used as a basis for differentiation of their structural elements as tourism segments. Under observations are some theoretical issues, including the significant need of term clarification of these forms of tourism. Other matters of high importan...

  19. Spiritual belief, social support, physical functioning and depression among older people in Bulgaria and Romania

    OpenAIRE

    Coleman, Peter G.; Carare, Roxana O; Petrov, Ignat; Forbes, Elizabeth; Saigal, Anita; Spreadbury, John H.; Yap, Andrea; Kendrick, Tony

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: An exploratory investigation is reported into the role of spirituality and religious practice in protecting against depression among older people living in rural villages in Bulgaria and Romania, two neighbouring countries with similar cultural, political and religious histories, but with differing levels of current religiosity. Methods: In both countries, interviews were conducted with samples of 160 persons of 60 years and over in villages of similar socio-economic status. The H...

  20. Analysis of the Logistics Systems in Bulgaria under the Requirements of the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caner Cebeci

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The new EU member countries will participate actively in the growing freight development (Beckmann and Baum, 2002. The new EU member Bulgaria forms the ultimate frontier of the EU and because of its geographical location an important transit country for the transport between Europe and Asia. Because of numerous deficiencies in the Bulgarian transport infrastructure, the Bulgarian sections of the Trans-European road network cannot be used efficiently and thus Bulgaria loses large shares of the transit transport. To meet the challenges of the globalization and to benefit from the growing Euro-Asian logistics services in the future, the Bulgarian government has set the main objectives in the national transport policy in a master plan, which should be implemented by the year 2020. The aim of this study is to analyze the transport situation and the national strategic reference framework in the transport sector of the Eastern European EU member Bulgaria and based on the EU requirements for efficiency and sustainability of the European transport systems, to derive recommendations for the future development of the logistics systems in the accession country.

  1. Current status, surveillance and control of avian influenza in domestic and wild bird populations in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the history and current status of avian influenza (AI) infection and control in Bulgaria. The country has a unique geographic position in Europe with regard to wild bird populations and their migration routes which pass through its territory. In recent years, Bulgaria did not remain free from AI. The region with the highest rate of isolation of H5N1 virus strains were the Black Sea coast and wet territories connected with the Via Pontica migration pathway in the administrative districts of Dobrich, Varna and Bourgas. Low pathogenic (LP) AI strains isolated from ducks were subtypes H3, H4 and H6 from the areas of Plovdiv, Pazardjik, St. Zagora, Yambol, Sliven and Haskovo. Raising ducks for liver production is a popular practice in south and southeast Bulgaria. From an epidemiological standpoint, controlling circulation of AI viruses among duck flocks, especially before their gathering in larger farms for fattening is a mandatory requirement of official authorities. To prevent the spread of highly pathogenic (HP) AI, surveillance of domestic poultry as well as wild birds should be strengthened in countries at risk, especially along bird migration routes. Monitoring, sampling and analysis of the viral subtypes of AI found in wild birds needs to be carried out to fully understand their role in the propagation and spread of HPAI viruses. (author)

  2. Musgos (Bryophyta na Ilha Trambioca, Barcarena, PA, Brasil Mosses (Bryophyta in Trambioca Island, Barcarena, Pará State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Paula da Silva Souza

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado o inventário dos musgos em diferentes ecossistemas da Ilha Trambioca, município de Barcarena, PA. Foram encontradas 40 espécies, pertencentes a 20 gêneros e 13 famílias. As famílias com maior número de espécies foram Calymperaceae (12 spp., Sematophyllaceae (6 spp. e Leucobryaceae (5 spp., as quais destacaram-se também quanto ao número de indivíduos. As espécies mais comuns foram Sematophyllum subsimplex (Hedw. Mitt, Calymperes erosum Müll. Hal., Pilosium chlorophyllum (Hornsch. Müll. Hal., Taxithelium planum (Brid. Mitt., Callicostella pallida (Hornsch. Årgstr. e Trichosteleum papillosum (Hornsch. A. Jaeger. Evidenciou-se maior diversidade de espécies na mata de terra firme, confirmando a preferência das briófitas por este ecossistema. Philonotis gracillima Ångstr. é citada como primeira referência para o Estado do Pará.This work presents a survey of mosses from different ecosystems of Trambioca Island, municipality of Barcarena, Pará State, Brazil. Forty taxa of mosses were found, belonging to 20 genera and 13 families. The families with highest number of species were Calymperaceae (12 spp., Sematophyllaceae (6 spp., and Leucobryaceae (5 spp., which also presented the highest number of individuals. The most common species were Sematophyllum subsimplex (Hedw. Mitt, Calymperes erosum Müll. Hal., Pilosium chlorophyllum (Hornsch. Müll. Hal., Callicostella pallida (Hornsch. Årgstr., and Trichosteleum papillosum (Honrsch. A. Jaeger. It was observed a higher richness of species in the primary low land rainforest, confirming the preference of bryophytes for this ecosystem. Philonotis gracillima Ångstr. is mentioned as the first report to Pará State.

  3. Bryogeographical elements of moss flora in glacial cirques "Śnieżne Kotły" (Karkonosze Mts. and their threat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Fudali

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Based on geographical and ecological analysis of the present moss flora occurring in two contiguous glacial cirques Śnieżne Kotły (Western Karkonosze Mts., the occurrence of 20 species representing arctic-alpine and subarctic-subalpine elements is discussed. The majority of (subarctic- (subalpine elements (70% occurred sporadically or very rarely (no more than 5 records, which indicates their general threat. Nine historically recorded species of these geographic elements could not be retrieved during the recent survey, however four of the recently found species have not been found during the systematic survey of historical sites on the Czech, southern, side of Karkonosze Mts. This proves that the northern localization of Śnieżne Kotły cirques favours the survival of relict species. The question of relictness with respect to the Düll's phytogeographical characterization is discussed; only in ten of the (subarctic- (subalpine species the relict character could be considered as granted due to their present distribution range. The full list of the Śnieżne Kotły present moss flora with the brief characteristics of their ecological distribution has been included, first such attempt since 1930.

  4. Stable sulphur and nitrogen isotopes of the moss Haplocladium microphyllum at urban, rural and forested sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Hua-Yun; Tang, Cong-Guo; Xiao, Hong-Wei; Liu, Xue-Yan; Liu, Cong-Qiang

    2010-11-01

    Elemental (S and N) and isotopic ( δ34S and δ15N) contents in the moss Haplocladium microphyllum at urban, rural and forested sites in acid rain area of South China have been analyzed for comparisons to show whether they are different and can be effectively used to identify S and N sources of atmospheric deposition. Average moss S content at rural sites (0.29 ± 0.06%) was found to be in between those at urban (0.35 ± 0.05%) and forested (0.25 ± 0.04%) sites, which are significantly different. Average N contents of urban (2.60 ± 0.56%) and rural mosses (2.84 ± 0.77%) are not significantly different, while both are significantly different to that of forested mosses at most areas, indicating that the atmosphere over rural sites has been polluted by N as seriously as that over urban sites. Nitrogen supply, relative to S supply, was in excess of the requirement for protein synthesis, especially at rural and forested sites. Moss stable isotope signatures have been proven to be effective tools for deciphering atmospheric S and N sources at these sites. Through moss δ34S signatures, we found that atmospheric S at urban and forested sites was mainly from local coal combustion and domestic biomass burning, respectively, whereas northerly air masses contributed more S to forested sites. The relatively negative moss δ15N values (-7.5 ± 3.0, -3.4 ± 2.1 and -0.8 ± 2.1‰) demonstrated that the main form in the N deposition was NH x in these sites. More negative δ15N signatures in urban mosses (-7.5 ± 3.0‰) indicated the contribution of NH 3 released from untreated city sewage and wastes, while relatively less negative δ15N for rural and forested mosses (3.4 ± 2.1 and -0.8 ± 2.1‰) was largely derived from agricultural NH 3.

  5. Biocrust-forming mosses mitigate the negative impacts of increasing aridity on ecosystem multifunctionality in drylands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Baquerizo, Manuel; Maestre, Fernando T; Eldridge, David J; Bowker, Matthew A; Ochoa, Victoria; Gozalo, Beatriz; Berdugo, Miguel; Val, James; Singh, Brajesh K

    2016-03-01

    The increase in aridity predicted with climate change will have a negative impact on the multiple functions and services (multifunctionality) provided by dryland ecosystems worldwide. In these ecosystems, soil communities dominated by mosses, lichens and cyanobacteria (biocrusts) play a key role in supporting multifunctionality. However, whether biocrusts can buffer the negative impacts of aridity on important biogeochemical processes controlling carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P) pools and fluxes remains largely unknown. Here, we conducted an empirical study, using samples from three continents (North America, Europe and Australia), to evaluate how the increase in aridity predicted by climate change will alter the capacity of biocrust-forming mosses to modulate multiple ecosystem processes related to C, N and P cycles. Compared with soil surfaces lacking biocrusts, biocrust-forming mosses enhanced multiple functions related to C, N and P cycling and storage in semiarid and arid, but not in humid and dry-subhumid, environments. Most importantly, we found that the relative positive effects of biocrust-forming mosses on multifunctionality compared with bare soil increased with increasing aridity. These results were mediated by plant cover and the positive effects exerted by biocrust-forming mosses on the abundance of soil bacteria and fungi. Our findings provide strong evidence that the maintenance of biocrusts is crucial to buffer negative effects of climate change on multifunctionality in global drylands. PMID:26452175

  6. Monitoring of heavy metal load - by mosses or rain water chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruoho-Airola, T. [Finnish Meteorological Inst., Helsinki (Finland); Maekelae, K. [National Board of Waters and the Environment, Helsinki (Finland)

    1995-12-31

    The deposition of heavy metals is usually determined from precipitation chemistry but the moss technique has been increasingly used, particularly in the Nordic countries. Some international monitoring programmes, e.g. UN/ECE Integrated Monitoring, give them as alternative methods. However, their comparability has not been sufficiently determined. This study compares the two monitoring methods for Pb, Cd, Cu and Zn, which have different sources. The metal industry is an important source of Pb and Cd emissions. Long- range transport as well as traffic and local emissions are also important sources for Pb. The use of fertilizers and fossil fuels also result in Cd emissions. Cu and Zn are emitted from metal industries and local sources. Unlike Pb and Cd, Cu and Zn are essential elements for living organisms. Cu and Zn are needed in many enzymes and Zn in proteins. Mosses are thought to take all their nutrients from the air. The deposition of heavy metals is also effectively retained by mosses and may be used to indicate levels of heavy metal deposition. In northern countries the mosses are isolated from air (and therefore also from deposition) by snow in winter. In this study both the bulk deposition of the whole year (later `total deposition`) and the bulk deposition of the snow-free period (later `bare ground deposition`) are compared to the metal concentrations in mosses. (author)

  7. Natural radionuclides and 137Cs in moss and lichen in eastern Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čučulović Ana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of radionuclides determination in moss (Homolothecium sp., Hypnum Cupressiforme sp., and Brachythecium sp. and lichen (Cladonia sp. sampled in the region of Eastern Serbia during 1996-2010. The activities in moss are in the range of 100-500 Bq/kg d. w. for 40K, and 5-50 Bq/kg d. w. for 226Ra and 232Th, while the “soil-to-moss” transfer factors are 0.45 for 40K, 3 for 226Ra, and 0.3 for 232Th. The spatial distribution of the 137Cs activities is highly non-uniform; some values reach 500 Bq/kg d. w., with less than 10% of the samples, mainly the ones taken prior to 2000, with the activity above 1000 Bq/kg d. w. The variations in the content of natural radionuclides among the moss species are not significant. The frequency pattern of the activities of natural radionuclides in lichen is similar to the one in moss, but the activities in lichen are to some extent lower. The mean activity of 137Cs in lichen is below 400 Bq/kg d. w. The mean activities of 7Be in moss and lichen sampled in 2006 and 2008 are in the range of 41-122 Bq/kg d. w., with pronounced variations between the sampling sites.

  8. Trade-Offs in Resource Allocation Among Moss Species Control Decomposition in Boreal Peatlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turetsky, M. R.; Crow, S. E.; Evans, R. J.; Vitt, D. H.; Wieder, R. K.

    2008-01-01

    We separated the effects of plant species controls on decomposition rates from environmental controls in northern peatlands using a full factorial, reciprocal transplant experiment of eight dominant bryophytes in four distinct peatland types in boreal Alberta, Canada. Standard fractionation techniques as well as compound-specific pyrolysis molecular beam mass spectrometry were used to identify a biochemical mechanism underlying any interspecific differences in decomposition rates. We found that over a 3-year field incubation, individual moss species and not micro-environmental conditions controlled early stages of decomposition. Across species, Sphagnum mosses exhibited a trade-off in resource partitioning into metabolic and structural carbohydrates, a pattern that served as a strong predictor of litter decomposition. Decomposition rates showed a negative co-variation between species and their microtopographic position, as species that live in hummocks decomposed slowly but hummock microhabitats themselves corresponded to rapid decomposition rates. By forming litter that degrades slowly, hummock mosses appear to promote the maintenance of macropore structure in surface peat hummocks that aid in water retention. Many northern regions are experiencing rapid climate warming that is expected to accelerate the decomposition of large soil carbon pools stored within peatlands. However, our results suggest that some common peatland moss species form tissue that resists decomposition across a range of peatland environments, suggesting that moss resource allocation could stabilize peatland carbon losses under a changing climate.

  9. Response of stable carbon isotope in epilithic mosses to atmospheric nitrogen deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epilithic mosses are characterized by insulation from substratum N and hence meet their N demand only by deposited N. This study investigated tissue C, total Chl and δ13C of epilithic mosses along 2 transects across Guiyang urban (SW China), aiming at testing their responses to N deposition. Tissue C and total Chl decreased from the urban to rural, but δ13Cmoss became less negative. With measurements of atmospheric CO2 and δ13CO2, elevated N deposition was inferred as a primary factor for changes in moss C and isotopic signatures. Correlations between total Chl, tissue C and N signals indicated a nutritional effect on C fixation of epilithic mosses, but the response of δ13Cmoss to N deposition could not be clearly differentiated from effects of other factors. Collective evidences suggest that C signals of epilithic mosses are useful proxies for N deposition but further works on physiological mechanisms are still needed. - Photosynthetic 13C discrimination of bryophytes might increase with elevated N deposition.

  10. Moss and vascular plant indices in Ohio wetlands have similar environmental predictors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapanian, Martin A.; Schumacher, William; Gara, Brian; Adams, Jean V.; Viau, Nick

    2016-01-01

    Mosses and vascular plants have been shown to be reliable indicators of wetland habitat delineation and environmental quality. Knowledge of the best ecological predictors of the quality of wetland moss and vascular plant communities may determine if similar management practices would simultaneously enhance both populations. We used Akaike's Information Criterion to identify models predicting a moss quality assessment index (MQAI) and a vascular plant index of biological integrity based on floristic quality (VIBI-FQ) from 27 emergent and 13 forested wetlands in Ohio, USA. The set of predictors included the six metrics from a wetlands disturbance index (ORAM) and two landscape development intensity indices (LDIs). The best single predictor of MQAI and one of the predictors of VIBI-FQ was an ORAM metric that assesses habitat alteration and disturbance within the wetland, such as mowing, grazing, and agricultural practices. However, the best single predictor of VIBI-FQ was an ORAM metric that assessed wetland vascular plant communities, interspersion, and microtopography. LDIs better predicted MQAI than VIBI-FQ, suggesting that mosses may either respond more rapidly to, or recover more slowly from, anthropogenic disturbance in the surrounding landscape than vascular plants. These results supported previous predictive studies on amphibian indices and metrics and a separate vegetation index, indicating that similar wetland management practices may result in qualitatively the same ecological response for three vastly different wetland biological communities (amphibians, vascular plants, and mosses).

  11. Immobilization of Lead from Pb-Contaminated Soil Amended with Peat Moss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seul-Ji Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Immobilization of lead (Pb using soil amendments can reduce Pb toxicity and bioavailability in soil. This study evaluated Pb immobilization in a Pb-contaminated soil by using peat moss through various tests. The Pb-contaminated soil (2000 mg Pb·kg−1 was amended with 1%, 5%, and 10% of peat moss to immobilize Pb in the soil. The immobilization properties of Pb in the contaminated soil were evaluated by a column leaching experiment, a microcosm test, and a batch incubation test. Peat moss significantly reduced the Pb leaching in all of the experiments and more effectively reduced mobility and toxicity of Pb in the column leaching and microcosm tests than bioavailability in the batch incubation test. The immobilized lead from the soils amended with 1%, 5%, and 10% of peat moss was 37.9%, 87.1%, and 95.4% from the column leaching test, 18.5%, 90.9%, and 96.4% from the microcosm test, and 2.0%, 36.9%, and 57.9% from the NH4NO3 extraction method, respectively, indicating that peat moss can be effectively used for the remediation of Pb-contaminated soil.

  12. Heavy metal content in forest mosses (Hylocomiun splendens) in Kuhmo 1989. Kerrossammalten raskasmetallipitoisuudet Kuhmossa 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Virkanen, J.; Heikkilae, R.; Lindholm, T.

    1994-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the amount and quality of the heavy metal deposition caused by the Kostamus metal refinery in Kuhmo town area in the Year 1989. Forest mosses (Hylocomium splendens) were collected from different part of the town of Kuhmo, covering c. 5500 sq.km. 230 moss samples were treated using wet combustion and Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni and Zn content was determined by AAS. The dependence of metal content was tested statistically with following factors: distance from Kostamus refinery, distance from Kuhmo town centre, annual growth of the mosses, and metals with each other. In addition it was tested, if the heavy metal content of mosses depended on the age of the forest at sampling sites. The results showed that so far the Kostamus metal refinery has had very little influence on the heavy metal load in Kuhmo. Greatest deal of it probably origins from long distance transport. Cu and Zn content correlated slightly negatively with the growth of mosses and Fe content correlated positively. The age of forest was not found to correlate with heavy metal content, with the exclusion of copper, the content of which was clearly lower in young than in old forests. (orig.)

  13. Changes in Species, Areal Cover, and Production of Moss across a Fire Chronosequence in Interior Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, J.W.; Munster, J.; Manies, K.L.; Mack, M.C.; Bubier, J.L.

    2009-01-01

    In an effort to characterize the species and production rates of various upland mosses and their relationship to both site drainage and time since fire, annual net primary production of six common moss species was measured. Several stands located near Delta Junction, interior Alaska, were located. These stands ranged from one to 116 years since fire in well-drained (dry) and moderately to somewhat poorly drained (wet) black spruce (Picea mariana)-feathermoss systems. Moss species composition varied greatly during the fire cycle, with Ceratodon purpureus dominating the earliest years after a fire, Aulacomnium palustre dominating the transitional and older stages, and Hylocomium splendens dominating the oldest, mature sites. Polytrichum spp. was found at all sites. Average moss cover ranged from <10 percent in the youngest sites to almost 90 percent in the mature sites. Species from the genus Polytrichum were the most productive and contributed up to 30 g m2 of organic matter in one growing season. Least productive was Rhytidium rugosum, which contributed about 1.5 g m2 of organic matter in mature stands. Recovery of moss productivity after fire was not significantly different for wet and dry sites.

  14. Quality control in diagnostic radiology in Bulgaria - Regulation, implementation, procedures, first results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: X ray equipment in Bulgaria comprises about 1200 conventional radiography units, 650 image intensifier based fluoroscopy systems, 15 modern angiography systems, 110 computed tomography (CT) scanners, 140 dedicated mammography units, 610 dental units and 9 DEXA systems. Quality assurance (QA), as a means for optimization of patient radiation protection was legally introduced in the country in October 2005 with a new Ordinance of the Ministry of Health for Protection of Individuals at Medical Exposure. It requires Quality control (QC) of imaging equipment and patient dose measurements to be implemented as an important physical and technical aspect of QA. QC programmes were elaborated and are presented here for each type of X ray diagnostic equipment - for conventional radiography, fluoroscopy, mammography, CT and dental radiology. They include a list of parameters to be tested, level of expertise needed, as well as two action levels: remedial and suspension. On the basis of the international experience, measurement protocols were developed for all parameters tested. This work presents the first results of implementation of the QC programme for a number of X ray units of different types. The local protocols of three groups working independently were collected and this database was used to analyse the results by specially designed software. The survey comprises commissioning tests of 40 conventional radiography, 15 fluoroscopy and 10 mammography units of different ages and gives fist overview on the status of the X ray equipment in the country. The important parameters having suspension levels were analysed - tube potential accuracy and reproducibility, half value layer and corresponding tube total filtration, timer accuracy, absolute value and reproducibility of the tube output. Additionally for radiography equipment were tested the light and X ray field alignment, film processor performance and dark room conditions. For fluoroscopy were included also tests

  15. A detailed study of the Pernik (Bulgaria) seismic sequence of 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raykova, Plamena; Solakov, Dimcho; Simeonova, Stela; Dimitrova, Liliya

    2014-05-01

    A detailed study of the Pernik (Bulgaria) seismic sequence of 2012 D.Solakov, S.Simeonova ,I. Georgiev, P.Raykova, L.Dimitrova and V.Protopopova National Institute of Geophysics, Geodesy and Geography-BAS, Sofia, Bulgaria The spatial and temporal clustering of aftershocks is the dominant non-random element of seismicity, so that when aftershocks are removed, the remaining activity can be modelled (as first approximation) as a Poisson process. The properties of aftershock sequences (distinct cluster, for example; even aftershocks can have aftershocks) allow time-dependent prediction of aftershock probabilities. Consideration of recent earthquake sequences suggests that aftershocks to large earthquakes although they are still, by definition, smaller events, can be very damaging and should be addressed in emergence planning scenarios. Because of the factors such as location and radiation pattern and the cumulative nature of building damage, aftershocks can cause more damage than the main shock. An earthquake of moment magnitude 5.6 hit Sofia seismic zone, on May 22nd, 2012. The earthquake occurred in the vicinity of Pernik city, at about 25 km south west of the city of Sofia (the capital of Bulgaria). The event was followed by intensive activity. The active area is situated in the central part of western Bulgaria. That is the most populated (more than 1.2 mil. inhabitants), industrial and cultural region of Bulgaria. Seismicity in the zone is related to the marginal neotectonic faults of Sofia graben. The boundaries of the graben are represented by SE-NW fault system with expressive neotectonic activity. This zone is characterized by shallow earthquakes. The strongest known event in the region is the 1858 quake with intensity I0=9-10 MSK. The 1858 earthquake caused heavy destruction in the city of Sofia and the appearance of thermal spring. It is worth mentioning that the seismic sequence of May 2912 occurred in an area characterized by a long quiescence (of 95 years

  16. Bioindicating potential of strontium contamination with Spanish moss Tillandsia usneoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Guiling; Pemberton, Robert; Li, Peng

    2016-02-01

    Tillandsia species have been recognized as efficient biomonitors of air pollution, but rarely exploited in bioindicating of strontium, an important nuclide. We exposed Tillandsia usneoides, colloquially known as Spanish moss due to its filamentous morphology but is an atypical angiosperm in the family Bromeliaceae, to the solutions with different Sr concentrations (0.1-100 mmol/L). The results showed that plants were able to endure Sr stress for a relatively long period, which suggests that T. usneoides is able to resist this toxic element. T. usneoides had the highest uptake ratio of Sr (82.21 ± 0.12%) when the plants were exposed to 0.1 mmol/L Sr solutions. Sr contents in T. usneoides increased significantly with the increase in applied metal solution concentrations. Low Sr stimulated the formation of chlorophyll, but high Sr decreased the contents of chlorophyll, and no significant effect on the total biomass was found in T. usneoides. In contrast, the permeability of plasma membrane based on the relative electronic conductivity in T. usneoides increased significantly under Sr stress, indicating that Sr probably caused oxidative stress. Moreover, correlation analysis showed that the leaf relative conductivity was significantly positively correlated with Sr contents in the plants after Sr treatments. Therefore, T. usneoides has considerable potential for monitoring Sr polluted environments through measuring Sr contents in the plant directly or exploiting the leaf relative conductivity as an indirect biomarker. PMID:26630037

  17. Is the sword moss (Bryoxiphium) a preglacial Tertiary relict?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patiño, Jairo; Goffinet, Bernard; Sim-Sim, Manuela; Vanderpoorten, Alain

    2016-03-01

    The disjunction of floras between East Asia, Southeast North America, West North America, and Southwest Eurasia has been interpreted in terms of the fragmentation of a once continuous mixed mesophytic forest that occurred throughout the Northern Hemisphere due to the climatic and geological changes during the late Tertiary. The sword moss, Bryoxiphium, exhibits a distribution that strikingly resembles that of the mesophytic forest elements such as Liriodendron and is considered as the only living member of an early Tertiary flora in Iceland. These hypotheses are tested here using molecular dating analyses and ancestral area estimations. The results suggest that the extant range of Bryoxiphium results from the fragmentation of a formerly wider range encompassing North America and Southeast Asia about 10 million years ago. The split of continental ancestral populations is too recent to match with a continental drift scenario but is spatially and temporally remarkably congruent with that observed in Tertiary angiosperm relict species. The timing of the colonization of Iceland from Macaronesian ancestors, about two million years ago, is, however, incompatible with the hypothesis that Bryoxiphium is the only living member of an early Tertiary flora of the island. Alaska was recurrently colonized from East Asia. The ability of Bryoxiphium to overcome large oceanic barriers is further evidenced by its occurrence on remote oceanic archipelagos. In particular, Madeira was colonized twice independently from American and East Asian ancestors, respectively. The striking range disjunction of Bryoxiphium is interpreted in terms of its mating system, as the taxon exhibits a very singular pattern of spatial segregation of the sexes. PMID:26708122

  18. Gibberellin influence on the morphogenesis of the moss Bryum argenteum Hedw. in in vitro conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabovljević Aneta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The moss Bryum argenteum Hedw. was treated with gibberellins as well as some inhibitors of gibberellin biosynthesis in order to investigate their influence on B. argenteum morphogenesis. Generally, gibberellins have not been chemically identified in bryophytes, while other groups of classical phytohormones (auxins, cytokinins, abscisic acid and ethylene have been chemically identified in these plants. The in vitro culture of the moss Bryum argenteum was established from sterilized spores. The apical shoots of untreated gametophytes grown in vitro were used to investigate the influence of different substances on secondary protonema and on the growth and multiplication of the gametophytes. B. argenteum reacts differently to the growth regulators applied. Both gibberellins applied in vitro (GA3 and GA7 have a positive effect on B. argenteum morphogenesis. Shoot multiplication was negatively affected by three tested growth retardants (ancymidol, BX-112 and chlorocholine chloride, while these substances did not have such strong effects on the moss protonema development.

  19. Methods for processing aquatic mosses used as monitors of heavy metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wehr, J.D.; Empain, A.; Mouvet, C.; Say, P.J.; Whitton, B.A.

    1983-01-01

    An evaluation is reported of methods used to prepare mosses for analysis when required for monitoring metal pollution. Fontinalis antipyretica and Rhynchostegium riparioides taken from the River Hoegne, Belgium, were used for the study. The stages in preparation studied critically were the storage of the moss after it had been collected from the river, washing, choice of which particular fraction to use and the conditions for final drying prior to digestion. For any one particular treatment, the concentrations of metals analysed (Ca, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb) were usually lower in Fontinalis than Rhynchostegium. Metal concentrations found as a result of the various treatments differed markedly for some metals, including Zn, Cd and Pb. However not one sequence of methods is ideal for all purposes. Criteria that need to be considered when selecting methods include the time and facilities available and whether the moss is to be used for monitoring long-term or short-term pollution.

  20. MOSSES AND LICHENS – BIOINDICATORS OF HEAVY METALS POLLUTION OF FOREST ECOSYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BEGU A.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study is a comparative investigation of the content of heavy metals (Pb, Cu, Ni, Zn and Cr in mosses and lichens recorded in ten deciduous forests in the Republic of Moldova included in a transnational grid (16x16 km of forest monitoring throughout Europe. The content of heavy metals doesn’t differ significant by depending on the location of studied forest ecosystems. The trends of larger accumulation are observed near the local stationary and mobile sources of pollution. Mosses were confirmed as good indicators of air pollution with heavy metals to forest ecosystems located near sources of pollution and lichens show good bio-indicators particularities for background pollution. The good correlation between the concentrations of moss and lichen were Cr, Cu and Ni, and the low correlation between Pb and Zn, which are considered to be metals which are amenable to long-distance dispersal.

  1. Using of Hylocomium Splendeus moss as radiation bio indicator in Libya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1982, environmental surveillance of radioactivity, around the 10 MW swimming pool reactor at the Renewable Energies and Water Distillation Research Centre (REWDRC), Libya, has been carried out by measuring aerosol, fallout on plan sheet, water samples, soil and vegetation.Recently, Hylocomium Splendeus moss, which is abundant within the vicinity area of REWDRC and its surrounding, has been used as radiation bio indicator for radioactive contamination measurements by using gamma spectroscopy technique.The data obtained from the moss samples collected from the studied area showed significant values of Cs-137 and K-40, while soil and grass samples collected from the same area showed negligible value of Cs-137. The data in study indicated that moss sample could be used as environmental surveillance tool to assess the impact of radioactivity in the environment

  2. Atmospheric deposition of heavy metals in Wuxi, China: estimation based on native moss analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yun; Zhang, Qiang; Wang, G Geoff; Fang, Yan-Ming

    2016-06-01

    We studied atmospheric deposition of heavy metals in Wuxi, China, using moss (Haplocladium microphyllum and H. angustifolium) as a biomonitoring agent. Moss samples were collected from 49 sites determined by a systematic sampling method. The top layer of soil on each site was also sampled. No significant correlation (P pollutants. Based on concentrations of the heavy metals in mosses and the calculated contamination factors, we evaluated the contamination level of each heavy metal on the 49 sampling sites. Spatial distribution maps of heavy metal deposition for each element were interpolated using ArcGIS 9.0. A total pollution coefficient was calculated for each sampling site to identify the seriously polluted areas in the region. PMID:27207630

  3. Activity concentrations of 137Cs and 40K in mosses from spas in Eastern Serbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the aim of detecting the presence of radionuclides in moss samples in eastern Serbia, 129 samples of mosses were collected from 2000 to 2010 in the region of the spas: Sokobanja, Banja Jošanica and Gamzigradska banja. The data obtained show that 137Cs was present in all of the 129 samples from 3 sampling areas and 15 sampling localities and in 20 moss taxa. This indicates that pollution with this radionuclide resulting from the Chernobyl accident still exists. Changes in the average activity concentrations of 40K are within measurement error limits, while for 137Cs changes in the average activity concentrations are more noticeable, i.e. they have decreased with tim

  4. Distributions and impact factors of antimony in topsoils and moss in Ny-Ålesund, Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Nan; Sun, Liguang; He, Xin; You, Kehua; Zhou, Xin; Long, Nanye

    2012-12-01

    The distribution of antimony (Sb) in topsoil and moss (Dicranum angustum) in disturbed and undisturbed areas, as well as coal and gangue, in Ny-Ålesund, Arctic was examined. Results show that the weathering of coal bed could not contribute to the increase of Sb concentrations in topsoil and moss in the study area. The distribution of Sb is partially associated with traffic and historical mining activities. The occurrence of the maximum Sb concentration is due to the contribution of human activities. In addition, the decrease of Sb content in topsoil near the coastline may be caused by the washing of seawater. Compared with topsoils, moss could be a useful tool for monitoring Sb in both highly and lightly polluted areas. PMID:22885219

  5. Comparison of regenerative capacity among six ornamental mosses on vertical planting carrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XIA Qiaoli

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Six ornamental mosses (Campylopus flexuosus,Hypnum plumaeforme,Racomitrium japonicum,Thuidium cymbifolium,Grimmia pilifera and Dicranum scoparium were transplanted onto vertical planting carrier(a palm pad with a thin layer of peat and vermiculite.After a two-month cultivation,their new branch coverage,newly-developed branches and their ratio with old branches,branches,fresh weight,chlorophyll content,and maximal photochemical efficiency were measured.Based on these indices,an integrated index revealing their growth capacity was calculated.Based on their integrated indices from high to low,six mosses were ranked as Hypnum plumaeforme,Racomitrium japonicum,Thuidium cymbifolium,Campylopus flexuosus,Dicranum scoparium,Grimmia pilifera.Finally,Hypnum plumaeforme,Racomitrium japonicum were recommended as ornamental mosses in vertical greening combined our observation on their landscape values.

  6. Differentiating moss from higher plants is critical in studying the carbon cycle of the boreal biome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Wenping; Liu, Shuguang; Dong, Wenjie; Liang, Shunlin; Zhao, Shuqing; Chen, Jingming; Xu, Wenfang; Li, Xianglan; Barr, Alan; Andrew Black, T; Yan, Wende; Goulden, Mike L; Kulmala, Liisa; Lindroth, Anders; Margolis, Hank A; Matsuura, Yojiro; Moors, Eddy; van der Molen, Michiel; Ohta, Takeshi; Pilegaard, Kim; Varlagin, Andrej; Vesala, Timo

    2014-01-01

    The satellite-derived normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), which is used for estimating gross primary production (GPP), often includes contributions from both mosses and vascular plants in boreal ecosystems. For the same NDVI, moss can generate only about one-third of the GPP that vascular plants can because of its much lower photosynthetic capacity. Here, based on eddy covariance measurements, we show that the difference in photosynthetic capacity between these two plant functional types has never been explicitly included when estimating regional GPP in the boreal region, resulting in a substantial overestimation. The magnitude of this overestimation could have important implications regarding a change from a current carbon sink to a carbon source in the boreal region. Moss abundance, associated with ecosystem disturbances, needs to be mapped and incorporated into GPP estimates in order to adequately assess the role of the boreal region in the global carbon cycle. PMID:24967601

  7. Contributions to the study of Cs-137 migration from the soil in moss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: This study was carried out to identify, analyze and interpret the presence of the Cs-137 radionuclide in soil and moss in various zones of Romania. Radionuclide activity levels in moss samples, taken in 2009, were measured using a gamma spectrometer equipped with germanium detector (HPGe) of high purity and resolution. Cs-137 activity concentration in moss samples was compared to that in soil samples taken from the same place, to assess the transfer from the soil to plants. The results of this study was the completion Romanian map of Cs-137 distribution in soil and the radionuclide transfer factors from soil to plant, on Romanian territory, after 23 years from NPP Chernobylsk nuclear accident, were verified and established. (authors)

  8. Biomonitoring of atmospheric pollution by moss bags: Discriminating urban-rural structure in a fragmented landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capozzi, F; Giordano, S; Di Palma, A; Spagnuolo, V; De Nicola, F; Adamo, P

    2016-04-01

    In this paper we investigated the possibility to use moss bags to detect pollution inputs - metals, metalloids and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) - in sites chosen for their different land use (agricultural, urban/residential scenarios) and proximity to roads (sub-scenarios), in a fragmented conurbation of Campania (southern Italy). We focused on thirty-nine elements including rare earths. For most of them, moss uptake was higher in agricultural than in urban scenarios and in front road sites. Twenty PAHs were analyzed in a subset of agricultural sites; 4- and 5-ringed PAHs were the most abundant, particularly chrysene, fluoranthene and pyrene. Overall results indicated that investigated pollutants have a similar spatial distribution pattern over the entire study area, with road traffic and agricultural practices as the major diffuse pollution sources. Moss bags proved a very sensitive tool, able to discriminate between different land use scenarios and proximity to roads in a mixed rural-urban landscape. PMID:26855226

  9. Sulfur isotopic signatures in rainwater and moss Haplocladium microphyllum indicating atmospheric sulfur sources in Nanchang City (SE China)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao Huayun, E-mail: xiaohuayun@vip.skleg.cn; Zhu Renguo; Lin Bina; Liu Congqiang

    2011-05-01

    Sulfur source identification previously reported has been based on sulfur isotopic ratios in either rainwater or mosses. The {delta}{sup 34}S values of rainwater sulfate and the epilithic moss Haplocladium microphyllum in Nanchang region (China) were determined for comparisons and used to delineate atmospheric sulfur sources. At the urban and rural sites, similar mean {delta}{sup 34}S values were observed between rainwater sulfate (+ 1.6 per mille and - 0.2 per mille , respectively) and epilithic mosses (+ 1.7 per mille and + 0.6 per mille , respectively), suggesting that mosses acquire {delta}{sup 34}S values similar to those found for rainwater sulfate. This has further demonstrated that moss {delta}{sup 34}S signatures hold valuable source-specific information as rainwater {delta}{sup 34}S values do. The {delta}{sup 34}S values of both rainwater sulfate and epilithic mosses indicated that atmospheric sulfur in Nanchang region was mainly associated with coal combustion. The lower {delta}{sup 34}S values at the rural site can be explained by higher contribution of local coals (lower {delta}{sup 34}S values relative to those of north Chinese coals) and biogenic sulfur. - Research Highlights: {yields} Mosses acquire {delta}{sup 34}S values similar to those found for rainwater sulfate. {yields} Moss {delta}{sup 34}S signatures hold valuable source-specific information. {yields} Atmospheric S in Nanchang region was mainly associated with coal combustion.

  10. The contribution of mosses to the carbon and water exchange of artic ecosystems: quantification and relationships with system properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douma, J.C.; Wijk, van M.T.; Lang, S.I.; Shaver, G.R.

    2007-01-01

    Water vapour and CO2 exchange were measured in moss-dominated vegetation using a gas analyser and a 0.3 × 0.3 m chamber at 17 sites near Abisko, Northern Sweden and 21 sites near Longyearbyen, Svalbard, to quantify the contribution of mosses to ecosystem level fluxes. With the help of a simple light

  11. Country-specific correlations across Europe between modelled atmospheric cadmium and lead deposition and concentrations in mosses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous analyses at the European scale have shown that cadmium and lead concentrations in mosses are primarily determined by the total deposition of these metals. Further analyses in the current study show that Spearman rank correlations between the concentration in mosses and the deposition modelled by the European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP) are country and metal-specific. Significant positive correlations were found for about two thirds or more of the participating countries in 1990, 1995, 2000 and 2005 (except for Cd in 1990). Correlations were often not significant and sometimes negative in countries where mosses were only sampled in a relatively small number of EMEP grids. Correlations frequently improved when only data for EMEP grids with at least three moss sampling sites per grid were included. It was concluded that spatial patterns and temporal trends agree reasonably well between lead and cadmium concentrations in mosses and modelled atmospheric deposition. - Highlights: ► Cd and Pb concentration in mosses was determined at up to 7300 sites in Europe. ► Correlations were determined with EMEP modelled Cd and Pb deposition (1990–2005). ► For two thirds or more countries correlations were significantly positive. ► Moss concentrations complement deposition measurements at high spatial resolution. - For the majority of European countries a significant positive correlation was found between modelled atmospheric cadmium and lead deposition and concentration in mosses.

  12. Identifying the change in atmospheric sulfur sources in China using isotopic ratios in mosses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Hua-Yun; Tang, Cong-Guo; Xiao, Hong-Wei; Liu, Xue-Yan; Liu, Cong-Qiang

    2009-08-01

    A considerable number of studies on rainwater sulfur isotopic ratios (δ34Srain) have been conducted to trace sulfur sources at a large number of sites in the past. If longitudinal studies on the isotope composition of precipitation sulfate were conducted, it is possible to relate that to changes in sulfur emissions. But direct measurement needs considerable labor and time. So, in this study, sulfur isotopic ratios in rainwater and mosses were analyzed at Guiyang and Nanchang to evaluate the possibility of using mosses as a substitute for rainwater. We found that present moss sulfur isotopic ratios were comparable to those of present rainwater. Additionally, we investigated the changes of atmospheric sulfur sources and sulfur concentrations using an isotopic graphic analysis at five industrial cities, two forested areas, and two remote areas in China. Mosses in industrial cities show a wide range of δ34S values, with the highest occurring at Chongqing (+3.9‰) and the lowest at Guiyang (-3.1‰). But as compared to those in forested and remote areas, δ34S values of mosses in all the five industrial cities are lower. On the basis of isotopic comparisons between past rainwater (reported in the literature) and present mosses, in the plot of δ34Smoss versus δ34Srain, six zones indicating different atmospheric sulfur change are separated by the 1:1 line and δ34S values of potential sulfur sources. Our results indicate that atmospheric sulfur pollution in most of the industrial cities decreased, while at the two forested areas, no significant changes were observed, and a new anxiousness coming from new energy sources (e.g., oil) appeared in some cities. Studies on the change of ambient SO2 concentrations support these results.

  13. Bioacumulation and ultrastructural effects of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in the moss Scorpiurum circinatum (Brid.) Fleisch. and Loeske

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper tested if culturing the moss Scorpiurum circinatum (Brid.) Fleisch. and Loeske with metal solutions (Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn) for 30 days causes metal bioaccumulation and ultrastructural changes. The results showed that despite the high heavy metal concentrations in treatment solutions, treated samples did not show severe ultrastructural changes and cells were still alive and generally well preserved. Bioaccumulation highlighted that moss cells survived to heavy metal toxicity by immobilizing most toxic ions extracellularly, likely in binding sites of the cell wall, which is the main site of metal detoxification. - Highlights: ► Ultrastructural effects of metal ions on moss cells are not severe. ► Plastids are the main target of heavy metal pollution. ► Moss cells survive to metal toxicity by immobilizing most toxic ions extracellularly. - Moss cells survive to heavy metal toxicity by immobilizing most toxic ions extracellularly.

  14. Live Cell Microscopy-Based RNAi Screening in the Moss Physcomitrella patens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miki, Tomohiro; Nakaoka, Yuki; Goshima, Gohta

    2016-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a powerful technique enabling the identification of the genes involved in a certain cellular process. Here, we discuss protocols for microscopy-based RNAi screening in protonemal cells of the moss Physcomitrella patens, an emerging model system for plant cell biology. Our method is characterized by the use of conditional (inducible) RNAi vectors, transgenic moss lines in which the RNAi vector is integrated, and time-lapse fluorescent microscopy. This method allows for effective and efficient screening of >100 genes involved in various cellular processes such as mitotic cell division, organelle distribution, or cell growth. PMID:27581297

  15. Development of calibration factors of moss (Hylocomium splendens); Utvikling av kalibreringsfaktorer for mose (Hylocomium splendens)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, T.

    1996-01-01

    The present paper relates to atmospheric deposition of trace elements in Norway. These elements are mapped geographically in every fifth year by analysing bio-monitored mosses. This is a part of an original Scandinavian monitoring program which gradually expanded to other parts of Europe. In 1995, 32 countries participated in the program. The investigation of mosses in Norway has also been used as a basis for the development of special environment indicators for monitoring atmospheric long-range transported heavy metals. 9 refs., 1 fig.

  16. Differentiating moss from higher plants is critical in studying the carbon cycle of the boreal biome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, Wenping; Liu, Shuguang; Dong, Wenjie;

    2014-01-01

    The satellite-derived normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), which is used for estimating gross primary production (GPP), often includes contributions from both mosses and vascular plants in boreal ecosystems. For the same NDVI, moss can generate only about one-third of the GPP that...... vascular plants can because of its much lower photosynthetic capacity. Here, based on eddy covariance measurements, we show that the difference in photosynthetic capacity between these two plant functional types has never been explicitly included when estimating regional GPP in the boreal region, resulting...

  17. 基于MOSS2007的OA系统的研究和实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄凤

    2009-01-01

    OA(办公自动化)是现代化办公发展的必然趋势。MOSS(Microsoft Office SharePoint Server)2007是微软公司提供的集文档管理、文档索引、文档检索和协同工作功能于一身的企业门户解决方案.本文主要描述的是企业OA系统的功能需求、MOSS 2007的工作原理及基于MOSS的企业OA系统的实现。

  18. Three ancient hormonal cues co-ordinate shoot branching in a moss

    OpenAIRE

    Coudert, Y.; Palubicki, W.; Ljung, K.; Novák, O. (Ondřej); Leyser, O.; Harrison, C J

    2015-01-01

    eLife digest Most land plants have shoots that form branches and plants can regulate when and where they grow these branches to best exploit their environment. Plants with flowers and the more ancient mosses both have branching shoots, but these two groups of plants evolved to grow in this way independently of each other. Most studies on shoot branching have focused on flowering plants and so it is less clear how branching works in mosses. Three plant hormones—called auxin, cytokinin and stri...

  19. MOSSES AND LICHENS – BIOINDICATORS OF HEAVY METALS POLLUTION OF FOREST ECOSYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    BEGU A.; BRAŞOVEANU V.; LIOGCHI NINA; BREGA V.

    2014-01-01

    This study is a comparative investigation of the content of heavy metals (Pb, Cu, Ni, Zn and Cr) in mosses and lichens recorded in ten deciduous forests in the Republic of Moldova included in a transnational grid (16x16 km) of forest monitoring throughout Europe. The content of heavy metals doesn’t differ significant by depending on the location of studied forest ecosystems. The trends of larger accumulation are observed near the local stationary and mobile sources of pollution. Mosses were c...

  20. Gravi-photomorphogenesis of the moss Pottia intermedia protonemata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demkiv, O. T.; Kyjak, N. Y.; Khorkavtsiv, Y. D.; Kit, N. A.

    The protonemata development proceeds in the process of gradual differentiation of growing apical cells and intercalar cells the shortened lateral branches of the latters being transformed into three-dimensional gametophore buds (Demkiv et al., 1991). Normal course of plant development needs favourable external conditions. Sometimes, however, external environment agents can accelerate the development of organism. So, apical protonema cells of darkgrown gravitropic P. intermedia differentiate gametophore-buds in light of low intensity (Ripetskyj, 1999). We investigate the influence of gravistimulation on bud formation in haploid and diploid P. intermedia protonema. Diploid protonema was found to react on light weaker than haploid one. Under the influence of light the darkgrown apical cells and lateral branches of haploid protonema were directly transformed into buds, while in diploid protonema at first the formation of bundles of rhizoid type filaments takes place on the tips of caulonema and buds appeared in center of such bundles. The participation of gravity in gametophore bud formation was assessed by clinorotating protonema in darkness. Being illuminated such protonema also developed buds quickly the latters being formed along all stolon. It can be suggested that at 1g the growth zone of apical cells actively attract inductors of bud formation. During clinorotation the inductors probably are transferred much more slower than under stationary state and that is why the buds arised not only at the tips of stolons but along all their length. It is known that gametophore bud formation can be stimulated by exogenous phytohormones. As M. Bopp (1980) has shown, that kinetin selectively promotes bud formation on moss protonema. Our observations have shown 0,5 -- 50 μ M of kinetin stimulate the bud formation on diploid aposporic protonema much more effectively that on haploid one. It can be concluded that the amount of endogenous cytokinins in haploid protonemal cells is

  1. Evaluation of the use of moss transplants (Pseudoscleropodium purum) for biomonitoring different forms of air pollutant nitrogen compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela, Z; García-Seoane, R; Arróniz-Crespo, M; Carballeira, A; Fernández, J A; Aboal, J R

    2016-06-01

    We investigated whether three different types of moss transplants (devitalized moss bags with and without cover and auto-irrigated moss transplants) are suitable for use as biomonitors of the deposition of oxidised and/or reduced forms of N. For this purpose, we determined whether the concentration of atmospheric NO2 was related to the % N, δ(15)N and the activity of the enzyme biomarkers phosphomonoesterase (PME) and nitrate reductase (NR) in the tissues of moss transplants. We exposed the transplants in 5 different environments of Galicia (NW Spain) and Cataluña (NE Spain): industrial environments, urban and periurban environments, the surroundings of a cattle farm and in a monitoring site included in the sampling network of the European Monitoring Programme. The results showed that the moss in the auto-irrigated transplants was able of incorporating the N in its tissues because it was metabolically active, whereas in devitalized moss bags transplants, moss simply intercepts physically the N compounds that reached it in particulate or gaseous form. In addition, this devitalization could limit the capacity of moss to capture gaseous compounds (i.e. reduced N) and to reduce the oxidised compounds that reach the specimens. These findings indicate that devitalized moss transplants cannot be used to monitor either oxidised or reduced N compounds, whereas transplants of metabolically active moss can be used for this purpose. Finally, the NR and PME biomarkers should be used with caution because of the high variability in their activities and the limits of quantification should be evaluated in each case. PMID:27038571

  2. INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL DETERMINANTS OF COMMERCIAL BANKS PROFITABILITY: EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE FROM BULGARIA AND ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FIRTESCU BOGDAN

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Our study focuses on commercial banks which are operating in Bulgaria and Romania, two countries whose banking sectors have registered major structural changes in the transition to a market economy and which are showing some similarities. Similar to other EU countries, the financial system from Bulgaria and Romania is dominated by the banking sector, which holds the largest share of total assets. Thus, we can say that health, strength and performance of the banking sector are of major importance for the sustainable economic development of states, but also for efficient transmission of monetary policy decisions on the real economy. The paper aims to identify the key factors that affect bank profitability and to evaluate empirically their contribution to a sample of 29 commercial banks in Bulgaria and Romania, for the period 2003-2012. Our research is based on data from the Bureau Van Dijk database, the World Bank and the European Central Bank and uses panel data estimation techniques. The dependent variable used in our study is the bank profitability, which is measured by two representative indicators the Return on Average Assets (ROAA and Return on Average Equity (ROAE. Regarding the independent variables, our analysis includes capital adequacy, the loan loss reserve rate, cost to income ratio, the ratio of liquid assets to total assets, the interest expenses to deposits ratio, the non-interest income over total gross revenues, bank size, the GDP per capita growth, inflation rate, domestic bank credit to private sector and banking industry concentration. The results of our empirical study shows that among the variables considered, the loan loss reserve rate, the ratio of cost to income, GDP per capita growth and domestic bank credit to the private sector, have a significant impact on bank profitability, results in line with our expectations, but also with the results of other empirical studies.

  3. Advantages and Disadvantages of Fiscal Discipline in Bulgaria in Times of Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasil S. Petkov

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The global economic crisis of 2008 has posed serious challenges to the Bulgarian economy and was reflected in worsened macroeconomic indicators. The subsequent sovereign debt crisis in Europe further aggravated the situation and blocked its path to recovery. In line with the overall sentiment in the European Union (the EU, Bulgaria made maintaining fiscal stability a priority that it set out to accomplish by following a policy of austerity. The country managed to achieve the desired effect relatively quickly. It became one of the best performers in terms of budget deficit and government debt as a share of GDP (which are among the lowest in the EU. These accomplishments underlie international institutions’ greater confidence in Bulgaria, which has led to an increase in its credit rating. Nevertheless, the state has not managed to reap the maximum benefits that this type of policy offers. Fiscal sustainability was accomplished at the expense of economic growth, the slow pace of which was accompanied by impoverishment of the population, high unemployment, restricted consumption, and operational difficulties faced by real-sector companies. These problems fueled doubts about the adequacy of strict budget discipline, especially in times of crisis. They provoked the author to examine in greater depth the benefits and the drawbacks that such a policy ultimately offers to Bulgaria. The results show that the strict fiscal measures have put additional pressure on the already fragile economic growth and have a high social cost as well. All this justifies the need for the government to take on a new course to achieve economic recovery by means of more active state support that would stimulate a pickup in consumption and production activity.

  4. Radioactivity in Virgin Soils and Soils from Some Areas with Closed Uranium Mining Facilities in Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yordanova, I.; Staneva, D.; Misheva, L.; Bineva, Ts.; Banov, M.

    2012-04-01

    The soil radioecology is an important part of the environmental research in the country. Since the beginning of the 1970's regular monitoring of the content of different radionuclides in Bulgarian soils has been done. Objective of the studies were virgin soils from high mountain areas, hills and plains (the region of Kozloduy NPP and the Danube river valley). Natural and men-made radionuclides were observed. In the 25-year period after the the contamination with radionuclides due to the 1986 Chernobyl NPP accident a rich data base has been collected, recording the radiation status of the soils in Bulgaria. Special attention has been paid to the contamination with the long-lived technogenic radionuclides caesium-137 and strontium-90. This paper presents a summary of the obtained results. Caesium-137 and strontium-90 were the main men-made radionuclides detected in the examined Bulgarian soils few years after the Chernobyl NPP accident. Their content in the soils from high mountain areas (Rodopa and Rila mountains) is several times higher than that in the soils from North Bulgaria and Sofia fields. High non-homogenity in the pollution within small areas (even as small as several square meters) has been observed. Natural radioactivity was also studied. Averaged values for natural radionuclides like uranium-238, thorium-232, and radium-226 in virgin soils from different areas in the country are presented. A comparison of the dynamics of their behavior throughout the years is done. Bulgaria is a country with intensive uranium mining activities in the past years. That is why radiological monitoring of closed uranium mining facilities in different regions of the country are obligatory and of great interest. This work presents results from such investigations made in regions where remediation has been done. The results have been evaluated according to the Bulgarian radionuclide environment contamination legislation. The necessity of permanent environmental monitoring is

  5. Opportunities of Establishment of Destination Management and Marketing Organizations in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venelin Terziev

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines tourism sector development in the Republic of Bulgaria in the context of the country’s strategic priorities till 2020 of knowledge-based economy, sustainable growth and smart specialization, the opportunities for its integration with agri-food sector and potential contribution to balanced rural development. The principles and roles of destination management and marketing organizations are discussed and the opportunities for their application in the national conditions are explored. A framework for of establishment, management and functioning of such organizations is proposed based on integrated and participatory approaches, planning, coordination and communication activities, permanent monitoring and controlling.

  6. Anti-Semitism and Islamofobia in Bulgaria. Actual legal and sociological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Ilieva

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This article is based on the lecture held on 23rd September 2011 at the Law faculty of the University of Bologna.SOMMARIO: 1. Introduction – 2. Statistical data – 3. The Muslim community – 4. The Jewish community – 5. General overview of the relevant law provisions in Bulgaria – 6. Anti-Semitism and Islamophobia and the political rights according to the domestic legislation – 7. The Law on Protection against Discrimination, the concept of “positive” discrimination and some new case-laws - 8. Religious Rights and Freedoms – 9. Criminal Law – 10. Some conclusions.

  7. Anti-Semitism and Islamofobia in Bulgaria. Actual legal and sociological aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Irena Ilieva

    2011-01-01

    This article is based on the lecture held on 23rd September 2011 at the Law faculty of the University of Bologna.SOMMARIO: 1. Introduction – 2. Statistical data – 3. The Muslim community – 4. The Jewish community – 5. General overview of the relevant law provisions in Bulgaria – 6. Anti-Semitism and Islamophobia and the political rights according to the domestic legislation – 7. The Law on Protection against Discrimination, the concept of “positive” discrimination and some new case-laws - 8. ...

  8. Solar heating systems: Strategy, status and perspectives in the European Union and Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes and shows data concerning the strategy and the action plan for the development of renewable energy sources (including solar energy) of the European Union. The development of the solar heating systems market in the EU countries is indicated, while the main prerequisites for that development are underlined. Regarding the utilization of solar heating systems in Bulgaria, the current condition of their application are presented. The various barriers are mainly stressed upon: institutional, financial, law and market barriers. The factors supporting the development of renewable energy sources, including solar heating systems, are indicated as well

  9. Bees (Hymenoptera, Apoidea, Apiformes in the Agricultural Landscape of Bulgaria: Species Diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banaszak Józef

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Wild bees (Apiformes were studied in 4 crop fields and 8 refuge habitats for 2 - 5 years in agricultural landscapes in the Pleven and Plovdiv regions of Bulgaria. In total, 233 bee species were recorded. Bee forage plants visited by the honey bee and wild Apiformes are listed for each refuge habitat. Species composition is given for individual habitats, including fields of alfalfa (Medicago sativa, oilseed rape (Brassica napus, sunflower (Helianthus annuus, and radish (Raphanus sativus. Species richness and dominance structure of bee communities in the 2 regions are compared, and species responsible for significant differences are identified.

  10. Construction of new nuclear power plant in Bulgaria - incentives and problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advantages and disadvantages of constriction of new nuclear power plant in Bulgaria are discussed. Several options for further development are considered: Completion of the Belene NPP; Evolutionary design installations PWR technology, 600 MW (AP-600 Westinghouse design; B-407 Russian design); Standard design of Framatome, 900 MW; Standard design - heavy water technology CANDU-6 (700 MW) and other.The results of the preliminary economic analyses show that the first two options are approximately equal, but the all options are acceptable from investment point of view, considering an average macro economic environment. The need of assessment of all aspects (technical, economical, financial, social, environmental, national infrastructure) of nuclear sector development is outlined

  11. Accounting interpretation of concession rights in the Republic of Bulgaria – topical issues  

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rumiana Pozharevska

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this paper covers the topical problems for the Republic of Bulgaria on the recognition, presentation and disclosure of concession rights and transactions for accounting purposes. The issues identified by the authors have a regulatory, theoretical character and concern their practical application. The aspects studied within this paper are: recognition of concession rights as intangible assets and their positioning in the total amount of assets of concessionaire enterprises; requirement and readiness for disclosure of information relating to concession agreements. The authors seek to suggest solutions in the specified directions.

  12. Health expectancy calculations: a novel approach to studying population health in Bulgaria.

    OpenAIRE

    Mutafova, M.; van de Water, H P; Perenboom, R J; Boshuizen, H. C.; Maleshkov, C.

    1997-01-01

    The measurement of life expectancy in terms of either good or poor health is a novel approach to studying the health of the population in Bulgaria. The pilot study reported here-carried out among people aged > or = 60 years in a middle-sized Bulgarian town-was designed to obtain information on the years of functional restrictions expected among the elderly. In accordance with the answers to a series of questions (recommended by WHO), subjects were categorized as disabled, handicapped, or havi...

  13. Programming EU funds in Bulgaria: Challenges, Opportunities and the Role of Civil Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desislava Hristova Kurzydlowski

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available While expectations were high for Bulgaria’s EU membership, it has been marked by numerous domestic challenges. This article explores the application of the principle of partnership in Bulgaria in programming EU funds for 2007-2013 as a litmus test for the capacity of the civil society and the preparedness of the state’s institutions for full-fledged membership. The article displays evidence that unsuitable adaptation and the remnants of the previous institutional establishment filter the EU leverage in the country. Furthermore, the article maps the role of civil society organisations in the process and identifies the main challenges and opportunities for their inclusion.

  14. New records of some rare rodents (Mammalia: Rodentia) from South-East Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Nedko Nedyalkov

    2013-01-01

    New records of three rare rodent species from SE Bulgaria are reported, as follows: European Snow Vole (Chionomys nivalis) – Madzharovo Town, Eastern Rhodope Mountains (UTM MG01); Gray Dwarf Hamster (Cricetulus migratorius) –Matochina Village (UTM MG 63); and Roach's Mouse-tailed Dormouse (Myomimus roachi) –Malki Voden Village, Eastern Rhodope Mountains (UTM MG11). All three species were found in the food remains of two owl species: the Barn Owl (Tyto alba) and the Tawny Owl (Strix aluco), an...

  15. STUDY ON THE BEHAVIOUR OF THE DIFFERENT ORIGIN SILKWORM HYBRIDS UNDER THE CLIMATIC CONDITIONS OF BULGARIA

    OpenAIRE

    ALEXANDRA MATEI; P. TZENOV; Petkov, N.; Petkov, Z.; YOLANDA VASILEVA

    2013-01-01

    Romania, Ukraine, Turkey and Uzbekistan as countries placed in the Black, Caspian Seasand Central Asia (BACSA) region, in comparison with hybrids from China, Japan, Italy andKorea has been carried out in Sericulture Station Vratza – Bulgaria.The study pointed out the superiority of the Japanese hybrid Shunrei + Shogetsu which hadthe highest cocoon yield by one box of eggs (41,10 kg) and the highest raw silk productivity(7,05 kg/box of eggs).The silkworm hybrids produced in BACSA members count...

  16. Agaricus chionodermus Pilát, a species new to Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Nikolova Lacheva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the first record of Agaricus chionoderma Pilát in Bulgaria. Basidiomata of the species were found on June 2004, September 2010, and September 2011 in the Thracian Lowland floristic region. The article brings closer taxonomic profile, ecological requirements and distribution pattern of the species. Differences from similar species are discussed. It also describes macroscopic and microscopic characteristics of the discovered specimens and presents the specification of habitat the fungus concerned. The species are described and illustrated by photographs of macroscopic and microscopic features on the basis of Bulgarian specimens.

  17. METHODS OF CALCULATING THE EMISSIONS OF ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS FROM PIG MANURE WASTES IN BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimo PENKOV

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available An attempt was made to systemize the data and to develop a methodology for a reliable evaluation of the nitrogen emissions and other ecological pollutants from pig manure wastes in the Republic of Bulgaria. The authors find the suggested methodology to be precise enough and easy to be managed as it combines the use of the available official statistical sources and the possibility of its integration into comparatively popular software products (EXCEL. The methodology could be taught in practical seminars for students and specialists in the area of agroecology.

  18. Journalists' Perceptions of Nomenklatura Networks and Media Ownership in Post-communist Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lada Trifonova Price

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the role of the former communist party elite (the nomenklatura in the Bulgarian post-communist media landscape in relation to media ownership and the origin of media outlets’ capital. The spotlight is on Bulgarian journalists’ perceptions explored in semi-structured interviews with media professionals from the capital city, Sofia. The findings indicate that Bulgarian journalists are strongly interested in, and concerned with, the influence of members of the former nomenklatura and their informal networks on the Bulgarian media landscape and particularly on the way Bulgarian media in Bulgaria have been owned and financed since 1989.

  19. Water quality assessment of aquatic ecosystems using ecological criteria – case study in Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Damyanova, Sonya; Ivanova, Iliana; Ignatova, Nadka

    2014-01-01

    Four aquatic ecosystems (two rivers and two dams) situated in the western part of Bulgaria were investigated over a three years’ period. The River Egulya and Petrohan dam are situated in mountainous regions at about 1000 m altitude, and are not influenced by any anthropogenic sources. Petrohan dam is a site for long-term ecosystem research as a part of Bulgarian long-term ecological research network. The other two systems belong to populated industrial areas. The River Martinovska flows throu...

  20. TOURISM INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT IN THE EMERGING ECONOMIES OF CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE (HUNGARY, BULGARIA, ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina-Petronela HALLER

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Emerging Economies from Central and Eastern Europe take steps to ensure growth through tourism. Although they do not have the cultural, historical and artistic potential of the most famous tourist destinations, these economies promote forms of tourism for which they have suitable conditions. For example, Hungary is famous for health tourism, Bulgaria has made progress in terms of coastal tourism and Romania tries to make known the rural area although it has all conditions for practicing a wide diversified range of tourism forms. In this paper we present statistics showing how the tourism industry looks for three Central and Eastern European countries and we do a brief comparative analysis.

  1. Prevalence of enzootic bovine leukosis in the Republic of Bulgaria in 1997-2004

    OpenAIRE

    Sandev, Nikolay; Ilieva, Darinka; Sizov, Ignat; Rusenova, Nikolina; ILIEV, Emil

    2006-01-01

    The serological investigations using the agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test performed in the Republic of Bulgaria in the period 1997-2004 showed a high prevalence of enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL), from 8.47% in 1997 to 22.26% in 2004. The highest percentage of seroreagents was observed in the regions of Silistra (48.61%), Dobrich (47.57%) and Burgas (47.32%), with the lowest, in the regions of Pazardjik (0.28%), Kyustendil (1.89%) and Smolyan (1.95%). Leukosis infection was found to be mor...

  2. RATIONAL PHARMACOTHERAPY BASED ON PHARMACOECONOMIC DATA AUDIT: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATION IN BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Vekov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The theoretical foundations of the application of pharmacoeconomic evaluations of pharmacotherapies in order to improve their economic efficiency and support the process of taking decisions on their payment from public funds are examined. An algorithm is presented for the pharmacoeconomic audit, which is applicable for assessing the objectivity and reliability of the proposed pharmacoeconomic data from pharmaceutical manufacturers in the application process for inclusion in the positive list of medicines in Bulgaria and the reimbursement of economically rational pharmacotherapies from the public health fund.

  3. Using an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) to capture micro-topography of Antarctic moss beds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucieer, Arko; Turner, Darren; King, Diana H.; Robinson, Sharon A.

    2014-04-01

    Mosses, the dominant flora of East Antarctica, show evidence of drying in recent decades, likely due to the regional effects of climate change. Given the relatively small area that such moss beds occupy, new tools are needed to map and monitor these fragile ecosystems in sufficient detail. In this study, we collected low altitude aerial photography with a small multi-rotor Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). Structure from Motion (SfM) computer vision techniques were applied to derive ultra-high resolution 3D models from multi-view aerial photography. A 2 cm digital surface model (DSM) and 1 cm orthophoto mosaic were derived from the 3D model and aerial photographs, respectively. The geometric accuracy of the orthophoto and DSM was 4 cm. A weighted contributing upstream area was derived with the D-infinity algorithm, based on the DSM and a snow cover map derived from the orthophoto. The contributing upstream area was used as a proxy for water availability from snowmelt, one of the key environmental drivers of moss health. A Monte Carlo simulation with 300 realisations was implemented to model the impact of error in the DSM on runoff direction. Significant correlations were found between these simulated water availability values and field measurements of moss health and water content. In the future ultra-high spatial resolution DSMs acquired with a UAV could thus be used to determine the impact of changing snow cover on the health and spatial distribution of polar vegetation non-destructively.

  4. Physcomitrium eurystomum and Pohlia proligera, new mosses in the bryophyte flora of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papp Beáta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Physcomitrium eurystomum Sendtn. and Pohlia proligera (Kindb. Lindb. ex Broth. were recently discovered as new moss species for the bryophyte flora of Serbia. Both species were recorded in the Vlasina Lake area, a large highland wetland plateau in southeastern Serbia.

  5. Does spore ultrastructure mirror different dispersal strategies in mosses? A study of seven iberian orthotrichum species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagore G Medina

    Full Text Available Most mosses have xerochastic dispersal (i.e., they open their capsules when conditions are dry, which is thought to favor long-distance dispersal. However, there are several species that use a hygrochastic strategy: spores are dispersed when conditions are wet. The significance of this strategy in the Mediterranean region is unknown. In this study, we explored whether ultrastructural features related to differences in spore resistance may explain these different strategies of spore dispersal. To this end, we examined the ultrastructural features of the spores of seven closely related species in the moss genus Orthotrichum. These species all grow as epiphytes in sub-Mediterranean forests, and the group includes both xerochastic and hygrochastic members. First, we found that the spore wall layers exhibit several features previously undescribed in mosses. Second, we discovered that there are only subtle differences in spore ultrastructure with regards to spore wall thickness, the degree of plastid development, or the storage substances used. We suggest that the hygrochastic dispersal in mosses from Mediterranean environments might be related to a safe-site strategy, rather than to drought avoidance, and we underscore the necessity of conducting spore ultrastructural studies on a greater number of bryophyte species.

  6. In vivo assembly of DNA-fragments in the moss, Physcomitrella patens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    King, Brian Christopher; Vavitsas, Konstantinos; Ikram, Nur Kusaira Binti Khairul; Schrøder, Josephine; Scharff, Lars B; Hamberger, Björn; Jensen, Poul Erik; Simonsen, Henrik Toft

    2016-01-01

    enabled the complete replacement of eukaryotic chromosomes with heterologous DNA. The moss Physcomitrella patens, a non-vascular and spore producing land plant (Bryophyte), has a well-established capacity for homologous recombination. Here, we demonstrate the in vivo assembly of multiple DNA fragments in...

  7. Doppler shift of hot coronal lines in a moss area of an active region

    CERN Document Server

    Dadashi, Neda; Tripathi, Durgesh; Solanki, Sami K; Wiegelmann, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The moss is the area at the footpoint of the hot (3 to 5 MK) loops forming the core of the active region where emission is believed to result from the heat flux conducted down to the transition region from the hot loops. Studying the variation of Doppler shift as a function of line formation temperatures over the moss area can give clues on the heating mechanism in the hot loops in the core of the active regions. We investigate the absolute Doppler shift of lines formed at temperatures between 1 MK and 2 MK in a moss area within active region NOAA 11243 using a novel technique that allows determining the absolute Doppler shift of EUV lines by combining observations from the SUMER and EIS spectrometers. The inner (brighter and denser) part of the moss area shows roughly constant blue shift (upward motions) of 5 km/s in the temperature range of 1 MK to 1.6 MK. For hotter lines the blue shift decreases and reaches 1 km/s for Fe xv 284 {\\AA} (~2 MK). The measurements are discussed in relation to models of the hea...

  8. Moss-specific changes in nitrogen fixation following two decades of warming, shading, and fertilizer addition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Pernille Lærkedal; Lett, Signe; Michelsen, Anders

    2012-01-01

    that the soil temperature increase induced by the warming treatment was low and insignificant as vegetation height and total vascular plant cover of the warmed plots increased, and moss cover decreased. Hence, truly long-term studies lasting more than two decades provide insights on changes in key...

  9. Heavy metal deposition in the Italian 'triangle of death' determined with the moss Scorpiurum circinatum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, a biomonitoring project using the moss Scorpiurum circinatum was carried out to evaluate the deposition and biological effects of heavy metals in the area of Acerra (Naples, S Italy), one of the vertices of the sadly called 'Italian triangle of death' owing to the dramatic increase in tumours. The results clearly indicated that the study area is heavily polluted by heavy metals, a large proportion of which is likely present in the atmosphere in particulate form. The ultrastructural organization of exposed samples was essentially preserved, but cell membrane pits, cytoplasm vesicles and concentric multilamellar/multivesicular bodies, probably induced by pollution, were found, which may be involved in the tolerance mechanisms to metal pollution in this moss species. Although severe biological effects were not found at the ultrastructural level in the exposed moss, effects on humans, especially after long-term exposure, are to be expected. - The moss Scorpiurum circinatum indicates that the 'Italian triangle of death' is heavily polluted by heavy metals.

  10. Molecular markers reveal cryptic species within Polytrichum commune (common hair-cap moss)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijlsma, R; van der Velde, M; van de Zande, L; Boerema, AC; van Zanten, BO

    2000-01-01

    Based on morphological characters only, the taxonomy of the moss genus Polytrichum has still not been fully resolved. Application of molecular techniques might clarify some of these problems. Within P. commune s.l., the taxonomic status of several varieties, e.g., P. commune var. commune and P. comm

  11. Restoring sedges and mosses into frost heaving iron fens, San Juan Mountains, Colorado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A. Chimner

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Rare iron fens in the San Juan Mountains of Colorado are frequently in poor condition due to mining, roads and ditches, which have left much of the fen completely bare of vegetation. Natural revegetation is slow to occur in the bare areas because of severe frost heave in the cold mountain climate. Therefore, experimental revegetation plots were conducted in a factorial design with mulching and no mulching, crossed with moss diaspores, sedge transplants, and moss and sedge combined. Mulching influenced surface soil temperatures by reducing the midday highs and increasing the night-time lows, which decreased the frequency and amount of frost heave. Peat moisture also modified frost heave, with the greatest frost heaving occurring near 75 % peat moisture content (water table 10–20 cm below the surface and the least when soils were either wetter or drier. Moss survival was dependent on mulch, with no moss surviving in plots without mulch. Mulching also increased sedge transplant survival. In summary, mulching significantly increased the success of vegetation restoration efforts for frost heave areas in mountain fens.

  12. Buoyancy-driven flow in a peat moss layer as a mechanism for solute transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rappoldt, C; Pieters, GJJM; Adema, EB; Baaijens, GJ; Grootjans, AP; van Duijn, CJ; Pieters, Gert-Jan J.M.; Adema, Erwin B.; Baaijens, Gerrit J.; Grootjans, Ab P.; Duijn, Cornelis J. van; Jury, William A.

    2003-01-01

    Transport of nutrients, CO2, methane, and oxygen plays an important ecological role at the surface of wetland ecosystems. A possibly important transport mechanism in a water-saturated peat moss layer (usually Sphagnum cuspidatum) is nocturnal buoyancy flow, the downward flow of relatively cold surfa

  13. Nitrogen immobilization in plant growth substrates: clean chip residual, pine bark and peat moss

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was undertaken to determine the extent of nitrogen (N) immobilization and microbial respiration in a high wood-fiber content substrate (clean chip residual (CCR)). Control treatments of pine bark (PB) and peat moss (PM) were compared to two screen sizes (0.95 cm and 0.48 cm) of CCR for micro...

  14. RESEARCHING OIL CAPACITY OF MOSS FUSCUM PEAT TO THE COMMERCIAL OIL AND STABLE GAS CONDENSATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHUHAREVA N.V.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The articles talks about influence of fractional composition of moss fuscum peat on its oil capacity. The technique for determining oil capacity of peat are discribed. The experiments were carried out for hydrocarbons with different density ( ρ =880 kg/m3 and ρ =770 kg/m3.

  15. High-resolution observations of active region moss and its dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morton, R. J.; McLaughlin, J. A., E-mail: richard.morton@northumbria.ac.uk [Department of Mathematics and Information Sciences, Northumbria University, Newcastle Upon Tyne, NE1 8ST (United Kingdom)

    2014-07-10

    The High Resolution Coronal Imager has provided the sharpest view of the EUV corona to date. In this paper, we exploit its impressive resolving power to provide the first analysis of the fine-scale structure of moss in an active region. The data reveal that the moss is made up of a collection of fine threads that have widths with a mean and standard deviation of 440 ± 190 km (FWHM). The brightest moss emission is located at the visible head of the fine-scale structure and the fine structure appears to extend into the lower solar atmosphere. The emission decreases along the features, implying that the lower sections are most likely dominated by cooler transition region plasma. These threads appear to be the cool, lower legs of the hot loops. In addition, the increased resolution allows for the first direct observation of physical displacements of the moss fine structure in a direction transverse to its central axis. Some of these transverse displacements demonstrate periodic behavior, which we interpret as a signature of kink (Alfvénic) waves. Measurements of the properties of the transverse motions are made and the wave motions have means and standard deviations of 55 ± 37 km for the transverse displacement amplitude, 77 ± 33 s for the period, and 4.7 ± 2.5 km s{sup –1} for the velocity amplitude. The presence of waves in the transition region of hot loops could have important implications for the heating of active regions.

  16. Marine gradients of halogens in moss studied by epithermal neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epithermal neutron activation analysis is known to be a powerful technique for the simultaneous study of chlorine, bromine and iodine in environmental samples. It is shown to be useful to elucidate marine gradients of these elements. Examples are from a transect study in northern Norway where samples of the feather moss Hylocomium splendens were collected at distances 0-300 km from the coastline. All three elements decreased exponentially as a function of distance from the ocean in the moss samples, strongly indicating that atmospheric supply from the marine environment is the predominant source of these elements to the terrestrial ecosystem. These results are compared with similar data for surface soils along the same gradients. Comparison is also made with previous data for halogens in moss in Norway obtained by conventional NAA and covering similar transects in other geographical regions. The Cl/Br and Br/I ratios in moss showed a regular change distance from the ocean in all transects, and hypotheses for this behaviour are presented

  17. Historical trends in the lead isotopic composition of archival Sphagnum mosses from Scotland (1838-2000).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, John G; Eades, Lorna J; Atkins, Hannah; Chamberlain, David F

    2002-01-15

    The analysis of almost 200 Scottish Sphagnum moss samples collected over the past 170 years has revealed trends in the isotopic composition of lead similar to those previously established for dated Scottish lake sediments and peat bogs, lending credibility to these proxy records of atmospheric lead contamination and deposition. The effect of temporal variations in contributions from sources such as smelting of indigenous lead ores (206Pb/207Pb approximately 1.16-1.18), coal combustion (206Pb/207Pb approximately 1.17-1.19), and the use of imported Australian lead (206Pb/207Pb approximately 1.04) was clearly seen in the Scottish moss 206Pb/207Pb record. This showed some differences from the corresponding archival herbage record for the south of England, where the initial influence of Australian lead occurred earlier, at the end of the 19th century. A significant decline from a 206Pb/ 207Pb value of approximately 1.17 in the Scottish moss record began in the 1920s and continued until the 1980s (206Pb/207Pb approximately 1.12). The success of measures to reduce lead emissions to the atmosphere over the past 20 years in the U.K., in particular from petrol-engined vehicles using alkyl lead additives manufactured primarily from Australian lead, is evident in both the increasing 206Pb/207Pb ratio and falling lead concentration data for Scottish moss. PMID:11827048

  18. High contents of very long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in different moss species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beike, Anna K; Jaeger, Carsten; Zink, Felix; Decker, Eva L; Reski, Ralf

    2014-02-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are important cellular compounds with manifold biological functions. Many PUFAs are essential for the human diet and beneficial for human health. In this study, we report on the high amounts of very long-chain (vl) PUFAs (≥C₂₀) such as arachidonic acid (AA) in seven moss species. These species were established in axenic in vitro culture, as a prerequisite for comparative metabolic studies under highly standardized laboratory conditions. In the model organism Physcomitrella patens, tissue-specific differences in the fatty acid compositions between the filamentous protonema and the leafy gametophores were observed. These metabolic differences correspond with differential gene expression of fatty acid desaturase (FADS)-encoding genes in both developmental stages, as determined via microarray analyses. Depending on the developmental stage and the species, AA amounts for 6-31 %, respectively, of the total fatty acids. Subcellular localization of the corresponding FADS revealed the endoplasmic reticulum as the cellular compartment for AA synthesis. Our results show that vlPUFAs are highly abundant metabolites in mosses. Standardized cultivation techniques using photobioreactors along with the availability of the P. patens genome sequence and the high rate of homologous recombination are the basis for targeted metabolic engineering in moss. The potential of producing vlPUFAs of interest from mosses will be highlighted as a promising area in plant biotechnology. PMID:24170342

  19. Heavy Metals and Trace Elements Atmospheric Deposition Studies in Tula Region Using Moss Biomonitors Technique

    CERN Document Server

    Ermakova, E V; Steinnes, E

    2002-01-01

    For the first time the moss biomonitors technique was used in air pollution studies in Tula Region (Central Russia), applying NAA, AAS. Moss samples were collected at 83 sites in accordance with the sampling strategy adopted in European projects on biomonitoring atmospheric deposition. A wide set of trace elements in mosses was determined. The method of epithermal neutron activation at IBR-2 reactor of FLNP JINR has made it possible to identify 33 elements (Na, Mg, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, As, Br, Rb, Sr, Mo, Sb, I, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Sm, Tb, Yb, Hf, Ta, W, Th, U) in the large-scale concentration range - from 10000 ppm for K to 0,001 ppm for Tb and Ta. Cu, Cd and Pb were determined by the flame AAS in the Norwegian Institute of Science and Technology. Using the graphical technique and principal component analysis allowed to separate plant, crustal and general pollution components in the moss. The obtained data will be used for constructing coloured maps of the distribution of elements over t...

  20. Marine Gradients of Halogens in Moss Studied by Epithermal Neutron Activation Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Frontasyeva, M V

    2002-01-01

    Epithermal neutron activation analysis is known to be a powerful technique for the simultaneous study of chlorine, bromine and iodine in environmental samples. In this paper it is shown to be useful to elucidate marine gradients of these elements. Examples are from a transect study in northern Norway where samples of the feather moss Hylocomium splendens were collected at distances 0-300 km from the coastline. All three elements decreased exponentially as a function of distance from the ocean in the moss samples, strongly indicating that atmospheric supply from the marine environment is the predominant source of these elements to the terrestrial ecosystem. These results are compared with similar data for surface soils along the same gradients. Comparison is also made with previous data for halogens in moss in Norway obtained by conventional NAA and covering similar transects in other geographical regions. The Cl/Br and Br/I ratios in moss showed a regular change distance from the ocean in all transects, and h...