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Sample records for bulgaria moss survey

  1. New Results from Air Pollution Studies in Bulgaria (Moss Survey 2000-2001)

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    Stamenov, J N; Vachev, B; Gueleva, E; Yurukova, L; Ganeva, A; Mitrikov, M; Antonov, A; Srentz, A; Varbanov, Z; Batov, I V; Damov, K; Marinova, E; Frontasyeva, M V; Pavlov, S S; Strelkova, L P

    2002-01-01

    New results of moss survey 2000 of systematic study of air pollution with heavy metals and other toxic elements in Bulgaria are reported. The moss samples collected at 103 sites in Bulgaria, along the borders with Yugoslavia, Macedonia, Greece and Turkey were analyzed by instrumental activation analysis using epithermal neutrons (ENAA) at the IBR-2 pulsed fast reactor for a wide set of elements including heavy metals and rare earth elements (Na, Mg, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, As, Se, Br, Rb, Sr, Mo, Sb, I, Cs, Ba, La, Sm, Tb, Yb, Hf, Ta, W, Au, Th, and U). The results obtained are consistent with the mean European values for most of elements. The principle component analysis is applied to distinguish heavy and light crust elements and vegetation ones from those of anthropogenic origin.

  2. Atmospheric pollution assessment with mosses in Western Rhodopes, Bulgaria

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    Gana Gecheva

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The moss analysis technique was applied to monitor 10 heavy metals and toxic elements deposition. Our study was the first attempt to assess spatial patterns in a border mountain region (area 8732 km2 with a low population density and high proportion of protected territories. The obtained results did not correlate to the results from areas with low air pollution and could be linked to the impact of old and open mines.

  3. Atmospheric pollution assessment with mosses in Western Rhodopes, Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Gana Gecheva; Nikolina Gribacheva; Lilyana Yurukova; Violeta Stefanova; Veselin Kmetov; Marina Frontasieva; Georgi Popgeorgiev

    2016-01-01

    The moss analysis technique was applied to monitor 10 heavy metals and toxic elements deposition. Our study was the first attempt to assess spatial patterns in a border mountain region (area 8732 km2) with a low population density and high proportion of protected territories. The obtained results did not correlate to the results from areas with low air pollution and could be linked to the impact of old and open mines.

  4. First survey of atmospheric heavy metal deposition in Kosovo using moss biomonitoring.

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    Maxhuni, Albert; Lazo, Pranvera; Kane, Sonila; Qarri, Flora; Marku, Elda; Harmens, Harry

    2016-01-01

    Bryophytes act as bioindicators and bioaccumulators of metal deposition in the environment. The atmospheric deposition of Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Ni, Mn, Pb, and Zn in Kosovo was investigated by using carpet-forming moss species (Pseudocleropodium purum and Hypnum cupressiforme) as bioindicators. This research is part of the European moss survey coordinated by the ICP Vegetation, an International Cooperative Programme reporting on the effects of air pollution on vegetation to the UNECE Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution. Sampling was performed during the summer of 2011 at 25 sampling sites homogenously distributed over Kosovo. Unwashed, dried samples were digested by using wet digestion in Teflon tubes. The concentrations of metal elements were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) equipped with flame and/or furnace systems. The heavy metal concentration in mosses reflected local emission sources. The data obtained in this study were compared with those of similar studies in neighboring countries and Europe (2010-2014 survey). The geographical distribution maps of the elements over the sampled territory were constructed using geographic information system (GIS) technology. The concentrations of Cr, Ni, Pb, and Zn were higher than the respective median values of Europe, suggesting that the zones with heavy vehicular traffic and industry emission input are important emitters of these elements. Selected zones are highly polluted particularly by Cd, Pb, Hg, and Ni. The statistical analyses revealed that a strong correlation exists between the Pb and Cd content in mosses, and the degree of pollution in the studied sites was assessed.

  5. A Ten-Year Molecular Survey on Parvoviruses Infecting Carnivores in Bulgaria.

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    Filipov, C; Desario, C; Patouchas, O; Eftimov, P; Gruichev, G; Manov, V; Filipov, G; Buonavoglia, C; Decaro, N

    2016-08-01

    Parvoviruses represent the most important infectious agents that are responsible for severe to fatal disease in carnivores. This study reports the results of a 10-year molecular survey conducted on carnivores in Bulgaria (n = 344), including 262 dogs and 19 cats with gastroenteritis, and 57 hunted wild carnivores. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), followed by virus characterization by minor groove binder (MGB) probe assays, detected 216 parvovirus positive dogs with a predominance of canine parvovirus type 2a (CPV-2a, 79.17%) over CPV-2b (18.52%) and CPV-2c (2.31%). Rottweilers and German shepherds were the most frequent breeds among CPV-positive pedigree dogs (n = 96). Eighteen cats were found to shed parvoviruses in their faeces, with most strains being characterized as FPLV (n = 17), although a single specimen tested positive for CPV-2a. Only two wild carnivores were parvovirus positive, a wolf (Canis lupus) and a red fox (Vulpes vulpes), both being infected by CPV-2a strains. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. QUESTIONNAIRE SURVEY ON CRANIOMANDIBULAR DISORDER ISSUES IN STUDENTS' AND POST-GRADUATE TRAINING IN BULGARIA.

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    Mariana Dimova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of craniomandibular disorders (CMD among the Bulgarian population as well as the risk factors for unlocking bruxism and bruxomania mechanisms pose a demand for education on these issues reflecting modern science. The authors' aim is to examine the subjective assessment of participants in “DAYS OF PROSTHETICS, Sofia, 15 -16 March 2014”, regarding: 1.Prevelance of CMD in the country; 2. Education and training of students and post-graduates in the issues related to diagnostics and treatment of craniomandibular disorders; 3. Theoretical background for successful treatment of patients with bruxism and bruxomania. Materials and methods: For the purpose of the present research 192 participants have been surveyed - among them 163 are dentists and 29 are students in the 4th and 5th year of study. The survey feedback has been obtained via an anonymous questionnaire consisting of 8 questions targeted at dentists' assessment of CMD prevalence and distribution, training in CMD issues in Bulgaria and the treatment of patients with bruxism and bruxomania. The results obtained indicate that 84.0% - 93.1% (95% CI of respondents, working as dentists in the country, expressed the view that students' curriculum lacks an overall concept for training them in the diagnostics and treatment of CMD. 79.6% - 90.2% (95% CI of participants, dentists in the country, define post-graduate training in CMD as insufficient or lacking. Conclusion: The development and promotion of a working platform for early screening, diagnostics and treatment of CMD for timely referral to a specialized treatment is necessary and expected by the professional community in our country.

  7. Flora of the Mediterranean Rivers in Bulgaria

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    Yordanka G. Hristeva; Gana M. Gecheva; Karin Pall

    2015-01-01

    Species composition and distribution of aquatic bryophytes and vascular plants assemblages in Mediteranean Rivers in Bulgaria are presented in this work. Aquatic macrophytes were studied at thirteen rivers in South Bulgaria during 2014, together with abiotic factors (flow velocity, shading, and substrate type), mean depth and altitude. In total, 73 species were registered, of them 13 bryophytes and 60 vascular plants were identified. Aquatic bryophytes included 10 mosses and 3 liverworts. The...

  8. Web-based platform for patient dose surveys in diagnostic and interventional radiology in Bulgaria: Functionality testing and optimisation.

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    Simeonov, F; Palov, N; Ivanova, D; Kostova-Lefterova, D; Georgiev, E; Zagorska, A; Madzharova, R; Vassileva, J

    2017-09-01

    In the period 2013-2016 the National Centre of Radiobiology and Radiation Protection (NCRRP) at the Ministry of Health of Bulgaria has developed a web based platform for performing national patient dose surveys and establishing Diagnostic Reference Levels (DRLs). It is accessible via internet browser, allowing the users to submit data remotely. Electronic questionnaires, specific for radiography, fluoroscopy, image guided interventional procedures, mammography and CT, were provided. Short and clear manuals were added to guide users and minimise human errors. The web-based data collection platform is functional and is currently being used for performing the third national dose survey in Bulgaria, launched in 2016. Data analysis is facilitated due to the standardisation of collected data and their storing. Using the platform, the participating facilities can establish their typical dose levels based on the median value, and compare them to DRLs. A disadvantage of the platform is the need to enter data manually, but it is opened for future upgrades for automatic data harvesting and analysis. Various practical approaches were used to overcome the lack of qualified human resources and insufficient understanding of the DRL and dose tracking concept and to motivate facilities to submit data. Copyright © 2017 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Spatially valid data of atmospheric deposition of heavy metals and nitrogen derived by moss surveys for pollution risk assessments of ecosystems.

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    Schröder, Winfried; Nickel, Stefan; Schönrock, Simon; Meyer, Michaela; Wosniok, Werner; Harmens, Harry; Frontasyeva, Marina V; Alber, Renate; Aleksiayenak, Julia; Barandovski, Lambe; Carballeira, Alejo; Danielsson, Helena; de Temmermann, Ludwig; Godzik, Barbara; Jeran, Zvonka; Karlsson, Gunilla Pihl; Lazo, Pranvera; Leblond, Sebastien; Lindroos, Antti-Jussi; Liiv, Siiri; Magnússon, Sigurður H; Mankovska, Blanka; Martínez-Abaigar, Javier; Piispanen, Juha; Poikolainen, Jarmo; Popescu, Ion V; Qarri, Flora; Santamaria, Jesus Miguel; Skudnik, Mitja; Špirić, Zdravko; Stafilov, Trajce; Steinnes, Eiliv; Stihi, Claudia; Thöni, Lotti; Uggerud, Hilde Thelle; Zechmeister, Harald G

    2016-06-01

    For analysing element input into ecosystems and associated risks due to atmospheric deposition, element concentrations in moss provide complementary and time-integrated data at high spatial resolution every 5 years since 1990. The paper reviews (1) minimum sample sizes needed for reliable, statistical estimation of mean values at four different spatial scales (European and national level as well as landscape-specific level covering Europe and single countries); (2) trends of heavy metal (HM) and nitrogen (N) concentrations in moss in Europe (1990-2010); (3) correlations between concentrations of HM in moss and soil specimens collected across Norway (1990-2010); and (4) canopy drip-induced site-specific variation of N concentration in moss sampled in seven European countries (1990-2013). While the minimum sample sizes on the European and national level were achieved without exception, for some ecological land classes and elements, the coverage with sampling sites should be improved. The decline in emission and subsequent atmospheric deposition of HM across Europe has resulted in decreasing HM concentrations in moss between 1990 and 2010. In contrast, hardly any changes were observed for N in moss between 2005, when N was included into the survey for the first time, and 2010. In Norway, both, the moss and the soil survey data sets, were correlated, indicating a decrease of HM concentrations in moss and soil. At the site level, the average N deposition inside of forests was almost three times higher than the average N deposition outside of forests.

  10. The first survey of airborne trace elements at airport using moss bag technique.

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    Vuković, Gordana; Urošević, Mira Aničić; Škrivanj, Sandra; Vergel, Konstantin; Tomašević, Milica; Popović, Aleksandar

    2017-06-01

    Air traffic represents an important way of social mobility in the world, and many ongoing discussions are related to the impacts that air transportation has on local air quality. In this study, moss Sphagnum girgensohnii was used for the first time in the assessment of trace element content at the international airport. The moss bags were exposed during the summer of 2013 at four sampling sites at the airport 'Nikola Tesla' (Belgrade, Serbia): runway (two), auxiliary runway and parking lot. According to the relative accumulation factor (RAF) and the limit of quantification of the moss bag technique (LOQ T ), the most abundant elements in the samples were Zn, Na, Cr, V, Cu and Fe. A comparison between the element concentrations at the airport and the corresponding values in different land use classes (urban central, suburban, industrial and green zones) across the city of Belgrade did not point out that the air traffic and associated activities significantly contribute to the trace element air pollution. This study emphasised an easy operational and robust (bio)monitoring, using moss bags as a suitable method for assessment of air quality within various microenvironments with restriction in positioning referent instrumental devices.

  11. Swath Bathymetry Surveys of the Monterey Bay Area from Point Ano Nuevo to Moss Landing, San Mateo, Santa Cruz, and Monterey Counties, California

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    Ritchie, Andrew C.; Finlayson, David P.; Logan, Joshua B.

    2010-01-01

    This report describes swath bathymetry and backscatter data acquired by the U.S. Geological Survey on the continental shelf within the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary between Point A?o Nuevo and Moss Landing, in San Mateo, Santa Cruz, and Monterey Counties, Calif. The survey was done for the California Seafloor Mapping Program (CSMP), in field activities S-7-09-MB and S-10-09-MB, by the Western Coastal and Marine Geology (WCMG) Team of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The data were aquired in two seperate surveys: (1) between August 13, 2009 and September 3, 2009, personnel from WCMG completed field activity S-7-09-MB, from Point A?o Nuevo south to Table Rock, as well as a block west of Soquel Canyon; (2) between October 12 and December 16, 2009, WCMG conducted field activity S-10-09-MB, surveying between Table Rock and Moss Landing.

  12. Adaptation and Validation of a Burnout Inventory in a Survey of the Staff of a Correctional Institution in Bulgaria

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    Harizanova Stanislava N.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Burnout syndrome is a phenomenon that seems to be studied globally in relation to all types of populations. The staff in the system of correctional institutions in Bulgaria, however, is oddly left out of this tendency. There is no standardized model in Bulgaria that can be used to detect possible susceptibility to professional burnout. The methods available at present only register the irreversible changes that have already set in the functioning of the individual. V. Boyko’s method for burnout assessment allows clinicians to use individual approach to patients and affords easy comparability of results with data from other psychodiagnostic instruments. Adaptation of the assessment instruments to fit the specificities of a study population (linguistic, ethno-cultural, etc. is obligatory so that the instrument could be correctly used and yield valid results. Validation is one of the most frequently used technique to achieve this.

  13. Terrorism in Bulgaria.

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    Shanduorkov, George

    2003-01-01

    The Republic of Bulgaria is one of the smallest countries in southeastern Europe and has little experience with terrorist acts. During the past 20 years, only nine terrorism-related events have been recorded in Bulgaria, and no unconventional weapons have been used. Factors contributing to terrorism in Bulgaria have been: (1) Communist Party domination of the government and political process from 1944 to 1989; (2) ethnic and religious conflicts between the Bulgarian Orthodox Christian majority and the Turkish Muslim minority from 1983 to 1987; and (3) the relatively high level of organized crime after the Communist regime ended in 1990. The structure and function of the Disaster Relief System in Bulgaria not only are focused on the prevention of terrorism, but also on preparedness for the emergency response to terrorism-related events. Institutional components of the Disaster Relief System structure responsible for the emergency response to terrorism-related events include: (1) the Government of Bulgaria; (2) the State Agency for Civil Protection with 28 regional directorates; (3) the Ministry of Health with five national hospitals, 28 regional hospitals, and 28 EMS systems; (4) the Ministry of Defense with special military units for response to unconventional terrorist events, including nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons; (5) the Ministry of Internal Affairs with 28 police departments, 28 fire departments, and specialized anti-terrorist units; and (6) the Bulgarian Red Cross. A major future challenge in Bulgaria is the prevention of terrorism through political stability, economic prosperity, ethnic and religious tolerance, and more effective measures against organized criminal activities. A related challenge will be to improve the level of preparedness of all components of Disaster Relief.

  14. The effect of sampling scheme in the survey of atmospheric deposition of heavy metals in Albania by using moss biomonitoring.

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    Qarri, Flora; Lazo, Pranvera; Bekteshi, Lirim; Stafilov, Trajce; Frontasyeva, Marina; Harmens, Harry

    2015-02-01

    The atmospheric deposition of heavy metals in Albania was investigated by using a carpet-forming moss species (Hypnum cupressiforme) as bioindicator. Sampling was done in the dry seasons of autumn 2010 and summer 2011. Two different sampling schemes are discussed in this paper: a random sampling scheme with 62 sampling sites distributed over the whole territory of Albania and systematic sampling scheme with 44 sampling sites distributed over the same territory. Unwashed, dried samples were totally digested by using microwave digestion, and the concentrations of metal elements were determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) and AAS (Cd and As). Twelve elements, such as conservative and trace elements (Al and Fe and As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Mn, Pb, V, Zn, and Li), were measured in moss samples. Li as typical lithogenic element is also included. The results reflect local emission points. The median concentrations and statistical parameters of elements were discussed by comparing two sampling schemes. The results of both sampling schemes are compared with the results of other European countries. Different levels of the contamination valuated by the respective contamination factor (CF) of each element are obtained for both sampling schemes, while the local emitters identified like iron-chromium metallurgy and cement industry, oil refinery, mining industry, and transport have been the same for both sampling schemes. In addition, the natural sources, from the accumulation of these metals in mosses caused by metal-enriched soil, associated with wind blowing soils were pointed as another possibility of local emitting factors.

  15. Flora of the Mediterranean Rivers in Bulgaria

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    Yordanka G. Hristeva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Species composition and distribution of aquatic bryophytes and vascular plants assemblages in Mediteranean Rivers in Bulgaria are presented in this work. Aquatic macrophytes were studied at thirteen rivers in South Bulgaria during 2014, together with abiotic factors (flow velocity, shading, and substrate type, mean depth and altitude. In total, 73 species were registered, of them 13 bryophytes and 60 vascular plants were identified. Aquatic bryophytes included 10 mosses and 3 liverworts. The recorded bryophytes species refer to 7 families and 12 genera. The most frequently distributed species was Leptodictyum riparium (Hedw. Warnst., followed by Cratoneuron filicinum (Hedw. Spruce and Platyhypnidium riparioides (Hedw. Dixon, Brachythecium rivulare Schimp. and Hygroamblystegium tenax (Hedw. Jenn. The recorded 60 species of vascular plants refer to 25 families and 43 genera. The most common hydrophyte species was Lemna minor L., followed by Ranunculus trichophyllus Chaix, Myriophyllum spicatum L. and Potamogeton nodosus Poir. The most abundant species from the group of helophytes and amphiphytes was Mentha aquatica L., followed by Agrostis stolonifera L. Mentha spicata L., Berula erecta (Huds. Coville, Juncus effusus L., Lycopus europaeus L., Lythrum salicaria L., Phalaris arundinacea L., Ranunculus repens L., Sparganium erectum L., Typha latifolia L., and Veronica anagalis-aquatica L. The majority of studied rivers sites were sunny, with moderate velocity, stony bottom, average depth up to 0.3 m and altitude between 100 and 500 m a.s.l.

  16. Nitrogen concentrations in mosses indicate the spatial distribution of atmospheric nitrogen deposition in Europe

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    Harmens, H., E-mail: hh@ceh.ac.uk [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Environment Centre Wales, Deiniol Road, Bangor, Gwynedd LL57 2UW (United Kingdom); Norris, D.A., E-mail: danor@ceh.ac.uk [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Environment Centre Wales, Deiniol Road, Bangor, Gwynedd LL57 2UW (United Kingdom); Cooper, D.M., E-mail: cooper@ceh.ac.uk [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Environment Centre Wales, Deiniol Road, Bangor, Gwynedd LL57 2UW (United Kingdom); Mills, G., E-mail: gmi@ceh.ac.uk [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Environment Centre Wales, Deiniol Road, Bangor, Gwynedd LL57 2UW (United Kingdom); Steinnes, E., E-mail: Eiliv.Steinnes@chem.ntnu.no [Department of Chemistry, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, 7491 Trondheim (Norway); Kubin, E., E-mail: Eero.Kubin@metla.fi [Finnish Forest Research Institute, Kirkkosaarentie 7, 91500 Muhos (Finland); Thoeni, L., E-mail: lotti.thoeni@fub-ag.ch [FUB-Research Group for Environmental Monitoring, Alte Jonastrasse 83, 8640 Rapperswil (Switzerland); Aboal, J.R., E-mail: jesusramon.aboal@usc.es [University of Santiago de Compostela, Faculty of Biology, Department of Ecology, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Alber, R., E-mail: Renate.Alber@provinz.bz.it [Environmental Agency of Bolzano, 39055 Laives (Italy); Carballeira, A., E-mail: alejo.carballeira@usc.es [University of Santiago de Compostela, Faculty of Biology, Department of Ecology, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Coskun, M., E-mail: coskunafm@yahoo.com [Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biology, 17100 Canakkale (Turkey); De Temmerman, L., E-mail: ludet@var.fgov.be [Veterinary and Agrochemical Research Centre, Tervuren (Belgium); Frolova, M., E-mail: marina.frolova@lvgma.gov.lv [Latvian Environment, Geology and Meteorology Agency, Riga (Latvia); Gonzalez-Miqueo, L., E-mail: lgonzale2@alumni.unav.es [Univ. of Navarra, Irunlarrea No 1, 31008 Pamplona (Spain)

    2011-10-15

    In 2005/6, nearly 3000 moss samples from (semi-)natural location across 16 European countries were collected for nitrogen analysis. The lowest total nitrogen concentrations in mosses (<0.8%) were observed in northern Finland and northern UK. The highest concentrations ({>=}1.6%) were found in parts of Belgium, France, Germany, Slovakia, Slovenia and Bulgaria. The asymptotic relationship between the nitrogen concentrations in mosses and EMEP modelled nitrogen deposition (averaged per 50 km x 50 km grid) across Europe showed less scatter when there were at least five moss sampling sites per grid. Factors potentially contributing to the scatter are discussed. In Switzerland, a strong (r{sup 2} = 0.91) linear relationship was found between the total nitrogen concentration in mosses and measured site-specific bulk nitrogen deposition rates. The total nitrogen concentrations in mosses complement deposition measurements, helping to identify areas in Europe at risk from high nitrogen deposition at a high spatial resolution. - Highlights: > Nitrogen concentrations in mosses were determined at ca. 3000 sites across Europe. > Moss concentrations were compared with EMEP modelled nitrogen deposition. > The asymptotic relationship for Europe showed saturation at ca. 15 kg N ha{sup -1} y{sup -1}. > Linear relationships were found with measured nitrogen deposition in some countries. > Moss concentrations complement deposition measurements at high spatial resolution. - Mosses as biomonitors of atmospheric nitrogen deposition in Europe.

  17. Chemical Education in Bulgaria

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    Garkov, Vladimir N.

    1999-08-01

    The sociopolitical changes in Eastern Europe of the 1990s and the ongoing globalization of the chemical industry and chemical education prompted this analysis of the current status of chemical education in Bulgaria, which is not very different from the educational practices in the rest of Europe. The level of chemistry knowledge expected from all high-school graduates in Bulgaria is roughly equivalent to the general and organic chemistry courses for science majors at U.S. universities. The newly introduced four-year bachelor's degree curriculum (based on 15-week semesters) at the University of Sofia includes a core of 106 semester hours (labs counted as 1 hour each), 41 semester hours of electives, and 445 contact hours (11 weeks) of research, which ends with a thesis defense. The instructional techniques in Bulgaria are subject-centered and follow the hierarchical structure of knowledge in an integrated and unitary manner. In conclusion, the Bulgarian system of education in chemistry aims at preparing a scientifically literate citizenry and broadly trained chemists by imposing a very challenging and rigid curriculum with very few choices. It is speculated that the laissez-faire climate of free intellectual initiative seen only at American universities provides a more appropriate environment for talent encouragement and scientific innovation for overseas-educated undergraduate and graduate students than their home institutions.

  18. Thysanoptera of Bulgaria

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    Olia Karadjova

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The present checklist includes data on the species composition, geographic distribution and feeding preferences of thrips species in Bulgaria. In total, 155 species in 48 genera are listed. Of these, 125 species belong to suborder Terebrantia and include 103 species of 33 genera in family Thripidae, 14 species of two genera in Aeolothripidae, seven species of two genera in Melanthripidae and one species in Fauriellidae. In suborder Tubulifera, 30 species of 10 genera in the single family Phlaeothripidae are listed. Of the 155 Bulgarian thrips species, 87.7% are phytophagous, 4.5% are obligate predators, 5.8% are mycophagous and 1.9% are with unknown feeding preferences. Fourteen pest species are listed for Bulgaria, of which Frankliniella occidentalis, Thrips tabaci and Haplothrips tritici are of economic importance. The list provides detailed information on the horizontal and vertical distribution of Thysanoptera in 5 regions and 45 subregions of Bulgaria. The present paper also includes an evaluation of the biodiversity of Thysanoptera and the extent to which each region of the country has been studied.

  19. Thysanoptera of bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadjova, Olia; Krumov, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    The present checklist includes data on the species composition, geographic distribution and feeding preferences of thrips species in Bulgaria. In total, 155 species in 48 genera are listed. Of these, 125 species belong to suborder Terebrantia and include 103 species of 33 genera in family Thripidae, 14 species of two genera in Aeolothripidae, seven species of two genera in Melanthripidae and one species in Fauriellidae. In suborder Tubulifera, 30 species of 10 genera in the single family Phlaeothripidae are listed. Of the 155 Bulgarian thrips species, 87.7% are phytophagous, 4.5% are obligate predators, 5.8% are mycophagous and 1.9% are with unknown feeding preferences. Fourteen pest species are listed for Bulgaria, of which Frankliniellaoccidentalis, Thripstabaci and Haplothripstritici are of economic importance. The list provides detailed information on the horizontal and vertical distribution of Thysanoptera in 5 regions and 45 subregions of Bulgaria. The present paper also includes an evaluation of the biodiversity of Thysanoptera and the extent to which each region of the country has been studied.

  20. Biogeography of Mindoro mosses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linis, V.C.

    2009-01-01

    The moss flora of Mindoro Island was updated based on the 2004–2006 expeditions conducted by the author. The island’s moss flora now consists of 282 species in 128 genera and 39 families, which is higher than Palawan but far less than those of Luzon and Mindanao. Generally, the flora is most

  1. [Prehistoric fauna in Bulgaria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manhart, H

    1997-01-01

    Earliest husbandry in Bulgaria is investigated by the example of the Early Neolithic settlement of Koprivec. There was no domestication activity in the region. Pig-keeping was of no importance during the earliest period. Numerous bone-findings from the Aeneolithic up to the Bronze Age settlement of Durankulak build the base of a reconstruction of wildlife. Most of the larger mammals were species that lived in forests. Remarkable is the occurrence of the lion. A rich avifauna shows several species living near inland water or at the coast, different birds of prey as well as in the Aeneolithic layer bones of Otis tarda, which only occurs in the steppe. During the Bronze Age the spectrum of species has changed.

  2. LABOR DISCRIMINATION IN BULGARIA

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    Vyara Slavyanska

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Labor discrimination is a phenomenon with very serious social and economic consequences, which has increased actuality and importance in Bulgaria nowadays. Because of the high price of discrimination, building effective anti-discrimination legislation occupies a special place in the policy of the European Union. Despite the European directives, the presence of anti-discrimination legislation and the broadly declared anti-discrimination inclinations in our country, these are absolutely not enough for providing environment of equality, with a climate of respect and tolerance to the differences. It turns out that certain groups are definitely victims of labor discrimination. In this connection the present article consecutively identifies these groups, as well as the reasons for their discrimination, underlining the necessity and benefits of the integration of the different.

  3. Organ transplantation in Bulgaria.

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    Naumova, Elissaveta; Panchev, Petar; Simeonov, Pencho J; Mihaylova, Anastassia; Penkova, Kalina; Boneva, Petia; Marinova, Daniela; Paskalev, Emil; Simeonov, Petar L; Zlatev, Assen

    2008-12-01

    The transplantation program in Bulgaria started in 1968 with renal transplantations to a child and adult woman. In 1986 the first heart transplantation was performed. To date a total of 10 heart transplants have been performed, including one combined heart/lung. A liver transplantation program was launched in 2005 with a total number of 16 transplantations-7 from living donors and 9 from deceased donors. The highest transplantation activity is registered in the field of renal transplantation. During the period 1980-2006, 462 Bulgarian recipients of kidney were transplanted in Bulgaria. The ratio between transplantations from deceased and living related donors is approximately 1:0.9. Annual transplantation activity varies among the years from 1 to 12 renal transplantations p.m.p./per year. The 1- (80.7% vs. 63.1%), 5- (57.86% vs. 39.0%) and 10-year (42.65% vs. 23.62%) graft survival rates are higher for recipients of living donor kidneys compared to those of deceased donor. In 1983 a National kidney waiting list was established. Currently the number of the registered patients eligible for renal transplantation is 885. The proportion of sensitized patients in the waiting list is 20.45% and 4.34% of them are hyperimmunized. Recently HLAMatchmaker program has been implemented not only for sensitized patients but also for those with rare alleles and haplotypes. Post-transplant immunological monitoring showed a strong association between alloantibody presence and delayed graft function (Chi-square=10.73, P<0.001), acute rejection (Chi-square=14.504, P<0.001), chronic rejection (Chi-square=12.84, P<0.001) and graft loss (Chi-square=20.283, P<0.001). Based on the experience in our transplant center a strategy for improvement of long-term renal graft survival was developed and implemented.

  4. Active Sphagnum girgensohnii Russow Moss Biomonitoring of an Industrial Site in Romania: Temporal Variation in the Elemental Content.

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    Culicov, Otilia A; Zinicovscaia, Inga; Duliu, O G

    2016-05-01

    The moss-bag transplant technique was used to investigate the kinetics of the accumulation of 38 elements in Sphagnum girgensohni moss samples in the highly polluted municipality of Baia Mare, Romania. The moss samples collected from the unpolluted Vitosha Mountain Natural Reserve, Bulgaria, were analyzed after 1, 2, 3, and 4 months of exposure, respectively. The ANOVA method was used to assay the statistical significance of the observed changes in elemental content, as determined by neutron activation analysis. The content of Zn, Se, As, Ag, Cd, and Sb increased steadily, while that of physiologically active K and Cl, as well as Rb and Cs, decreased exponentially. The study showed that an adequate application of the moss transplant technique in an urban environment should consider the exposure time as a critical parameter, since particular elements are depleted in the moss at sites with high atmospheric loading of metals.

  5. Air Pollution with Heavy Metals and Radionuclides in Slovakia Studied by the Moss Biomonitoring Technique

    CERN Document Server

    Florek, M; Mankovska, B; Oprea, K; Pavlov, S S; Steinnes, E; Sykora, I

    2001-01-01

    Applying the moss biomonitoring technique to air pollution studies in Slovakia, heavy metals, rare-earth elements, actinides (U and Th) were determined in 86 moss samples from the European moss survey 2000 by means of epithermal neutron activation analysis at the IBR-2 reactor (Dubna). Such elements as In, Cu, Cd, Hg and Pb were determined by AAS in the Forest Research Institute, Zvolen (Slovakia). The results of measurement of the natural radionuclides ^{210}Pb, ^{7}Be, ^{137}Cs and ^{40}K in 11 samples of moss are also reported. A comparison with the results from moss surveys 1991 and 1995 revealed previously unknown tendencies of air pollution in the examined areas.

  6. Genetic transformation of moss plant

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    akpobome uruemuesiri

    Bryophytes are among the simplest and oldest of the terrestrial plants. Due to the special living ... processes in plants. Mosses grow rapidly when cultured on simple ..... indole-3-acetic acid in gametophytes of the moss, Physcomitrella patens.

  7. The use of mosses in air pollution monitoring in Estonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liiv, S.; Eensaar, A. [Academy of Sciences of Estonia, Tallinn (Estonia). Tallinn Botanic Garden

    1995-12-31

    Mosses Pleurozium schreberi and Hylocomium splendens have been proposed as biomonitors of atmospheric heavy metals. These mosses are wide-used in biomonitoring studies in Scandinavia as well as in other Nordic countries. Some methodical problems of bryoindication, e.g. other factors than the adsorption of precipitation which influence element concentrations in mosses have been studied in Scandinavia as well. Methodical study for determining the intrasite, local variability in Estonia was started in 1991. Despite of the used uniform methodics in sampling, cleaning, digesting and chemical analysing of moss samples in the same laboratory there is high variability of the content of elements at the reference area. There are many reasons for this variability - errors from instrumental procedures (analytical steps in chemical analysing), biological deviation, etc. In this article the results of the methodical study of intrasite variability of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Zn and V in mosses at reference areas of different deposition level in Estonia are presented. The intrasite variability of elemental content in mosses at the reference areas is taken into account in mapping the territorial distribution of the content of elements in mosses, samples of which were collected during the joint Finnish-Estonian-Russian biomonitoring project in 1992 in a more dense network compared with the 1989 and 1990 national moss surveys in Estonia in order to describe more accurately the pollution situation in highly polluted north-eastern Estonia

  8. Mapping atmospheric depositions of cadmium and lead in Germany based on EMEP deposition data and the European Moss Survey 2005; Kartierung atmosphaerischer Depositionen von Blei und Cadmium in Deutschland mit Daten aus dem EMEP-Messnetz und dem europaeischen Moos-Monitoring 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, Winfried; Holy, Marcel; Pesch, Roland [University of Vechta, Chair of Landscape Ecology, P.O.B. 1553, Vechta (Germany); Zechmeister, Harald [Universitaet Wien, Wien (Austria); Harmens, Harry [Environment Centre Wales, Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Bangor, Gwynedd (United Kingdom); Ilyin, Ilia [Meteorological Synthesizing Centre-East of EMEP, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2011-12-15

    Every five years since 1990, the European Heavy Metals in Mosses Survey provided data on atmospheric heavy metal bioaccumulations in mosses throughout Europe at a high spatial resolution. The moss data show the effectiveness of air quality control policies: for Germany the metal bioaccumulations decreased between 1990 and 2000, whilst they increased from 2000 to 2005. This investigation is intended to show how the moss data could be used to map atmospheric depositions of Cd and Pb, which later on might serve for the calculation of Critical Loads Exceedances. In addition, we compared how much heavy metal concentrations in mosses in Germany deviate from background data observed in Greenland. Mapping heavy metals with a high spatial resolution for the German territory was conducted according to the following methodology: EMEP deposition maps (50 km by 50 km spatial resolution) were intersected within a GIS with Kriging maps on Cd and Pb accumulations in mosses (EMEP (European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme) is a scientifically based and politically driven programme under the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution for international co-operation to solve transboundary air pollution problems). Subsequently, the statistical relations between the EMEP modelled depositions and the bioaccumulations in mosses were quantified by using regression analysis. The regression functions were used to transform the moss concentration maps into deposition maps. The resulting maps on Cd and Pb depositions have a spatial resolution of 5 km by 5 km and were added to the respective map on the residuals of the regression functions (Regression Kriging). Finally, the territory of Germany was extracted from the European maps on Cd and Pb depositions and the legends were adjusted accordingly in terms of n standard deviations from the German mean value. The concentrations of Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mo, Pb, Sb, Sn, and Zn in the mosses sampled in 1990, 1995, 2000 and 2005 in Germany

  9. Assessing the Threat of Islamically Motivated Terrorism in Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    by ethnic group and mother tongue , as of January 2, 2011.....................................................................27 Table 4. Religious...national census also polls an individual’s mother tongue and considers it to be the second most important ethno-demographic component surveyed in Bulgaria...Bulgarian language was voluntary pointed out as the mother tongue by 85.2 percent, Turkish by 9.1 percent, and Roma by 4.2 percent of the population

  10. ABSOLUTE AND COMPARATIVE SUSTAINABILITY OF FARMING ENTERPRISES IN BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Bachev

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Evaluating absolute and comparative sustainability of farming enterprises is among the most topical issues for researchers, farmers, investors, administrators, politicians, interests groups and public at large. Nevertheless, in Bulgaria and most East European countries there are no comprehensive assessments on sustainability level of Bulgarian farms of different juridical type. This article applies a holistic framework and assesses absolute and comparative sustainability major farming structures in Bulgaria - unregistered farms of Natural Persons, Sole Traders, Cooperatives, and Companies. First, method of the study is outlined, and overall characteristics of surveyed farming enterprises presented. After that an assessment is made of integral, governance, economic, social, environmental sustainability of farming structures of different juridical type. Next, structure of farming enterprises with different sustainability levels is analyzed. Finally, conclusion from the study and directions for further research and amelioration of sustainability assessments suggested.

  11. Understanding informal payments for health care: the example of Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balabanova, Dina; McKee, Martin

    2002-12-01

    Throughout the 1990s, in response to funding deficits, out-of-pocket payment has grown as a share of total expenditure in countries in transition. A clear policy response to informal payments is, however, lacking. The current study explores informal payments in Bulgaria within a conceptual framework developed by triangulating information using a variety of methodologies. To estimate the scale and determinants of informal payments in the health sector of Bulgaria and to identify who benefits, the characteristics and timing of payments, and the reasons for paying. Data were derived from a national representative survey of 1547 individuals complemented by in-depth interviews and focus groups with over 100 respondents, conducted in Bulgaria in 1997. Informal payments are defined as a monetary or in-kind transaction between a patient and a staff member for services that are officially free of charge in the state sector. Informal payments are relatively common in Bulgaria, especially if in the form of gifts. Informal cash payments are universal for operations and childbirth, clear-cut and life-threatening procedures, in hospitals or elite urban facilities or well-known physicians. Most gifts were given at the end of treatment and most cash payments-before or during treatment. Wealthier, better educated, younger respondents tend to pay more often, as a means of obtaining better-quality treatment in a de facto two-tier system. Since the transition, informal payments had become frequent, explicit, solicited by staff, increasingly in cash, and less affordable. Informal payments stem from the low income of staff, patients seeking better treatment; acute funding shortages; and from tradition. Attitudes to informal payments range from strongly negative (if solicited) to tolerant (if patient-initiated), depending on the circumstances. The study provides important new insights into the incidence and nature of informal payments in the health sector in Bulgaria. Payments were less

  12. Catalog of Investment Projects in Bulgaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-10-15

    This catalog includes information about 129 potential investment projects in Bulgaria and was developed by a team of experts from InvestBulgaria Agency in cooperation with municipalities and private companies. The document presents in brief general facts about the regions in Bulgaria. Projects are divided into the following categories: Tourism, Manufacturing, Urban Planning, Real Estate, Environment and renewable energy sources, Commerce, and Innovative and creative projects. The catalog provides detailed information about each project such as: status of the project, location, ownership, infrastructure, estimated value, contact information, etc.

  13. Bulgaria mental health country profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomov, Toma; Mladenova, Maya; Lazarova, Irina; Sotirov, Vladimir; Okoliyski, Mihail

    2004-01-01

    The mental health profile of Bulgaria has been compiled and following analysis of both the factual findings and the process of data collection a report has been prepared. The subject of discussion in the paper concerns several major findings: the discrepancy between what the policy documents state and the actual situation in mental health; the organizational culture, which alienates; and the peculiarities of the process of change and how it is driven under political pressure from outside the country. Analysis extends to encompass the influence of the general health reform on the mental health sector, the deficits of the leadership and how they impact on the effectiveness of the system, and the interdependence between the country's economy and the health sector. A conclusion is made about the need to consolidate the public health approach using the lever of international collaboration in the field of mental health.

  14. Development, Implementation and Application of the WebGIS MossMet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesch, Roland; Schmidt, Gunther; Schröder, Winfried; Aden, Christian; Kleppin, Lukas; Holy, Marcel

    Since 1990, “Heavy Metals in Mosses Surveys” have been performed every five years in at least 21 European countries, including Germany, in order to map spatial and temporal trends of the metal bioac-cumulation in terrestrial ecosystems. The monitoring data consist of measurement data on metal loads in ectohydrical mosses as well as site-specific metadata to characterize the sampling locations with regard to, e.g., vegetation, land use and the distance of the sites to emission sources. To optimize the data handling for the moss survey 2005/06, we developed the WebGIS MossMet with the help of open-source components. Thus, the metadata can be integrated with the information system via the Internet by the moss samplers. The WebGIS MossMet comprehensively documents the metadata, the measurement values and statistically derived metal bioaccumulation indices regionalized for ecoregions depicting the landscape coverage of Germany. In the German moss survey 2005/06, the WebGIS MossMet was applied routinely.

  15. Alternative tourism in Bulgaria – general characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Penerliev, Milen

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a general overview about the most common types of alternative forms of tourism observed in Bulgaria, considering the regional differences in the concentration of the respective types of tourism, as well as the specialization of the different regions. Basic definitions adopted in Bulgaria and the most important resources for the development of alternative forms of tourism have also been indicated. The study reveals the most important centers and areas of alternative tourism...

  16. WRF-Fire Applied in Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Dobrinkova, Nina; Jordanov, Georgi; Mandel, Jan

    2010-01-01

    WRF-Fire consists of the WRF (Weather Research and Forecasting Model) coupled with a fire spread model, based on the level-set method. We describe a preliminary application of WRF-Fire to a forest fire in Bulgaria, oportunities for research of forest fire models for Bulgaria, and plans for the development of an Environmental Decision Support Systems which includes computational modeling of fire behavior.

  17. Inter-species and intra-annual variations of moss nitrogen utilization: Implications for nitrogen deposition assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yu-Ping; Liu, Xue-Yan; Sun, Xin-Chao; Song, Wei; Zheng, Xu-Dong; Li, Rui; Liu, Cong-Qiang

    2017-11-01

    Moss nitrogen (N) concentrations and natural 15N abundance (δ15N values) have been widely employed to evaluate annual levels and major sources of atmospheric N deposition. However, different moss species and one-off sampling were often used among extant studies, it remains unclear whether moss N parameters differ with species and different samplings, which prevented more accurate assessment of N deposition via moss survey. Here concentrations, isotopic ratios of bulk carbon (C) and bulk N in natural epilithic mosses (Bryum argenteum, Eurohypnum leptothallum, Haplocladium microphyllum and Hypnum plumaeforme) were measured monthly from August 2006 to August 2007 at Guiyang, SW China. The H. plumaeforme had significantly (P < 0.05) lower bulk N concentrations and higher δ13C values than other species. Moss N concentrations were significantly (P < 0.05) lower in warmer months than in cooler months, while moss δ13C values exhibited an opposite pattern. The variance component analyses showed that different species contributed more variations of moss N concentrations and δ13C values than different samplings. Differently, δ15N values did not differ significantly between moss species, and its variance mainly reflected variations of assimilated N sources, with ammonium as the dominant contributor. These results unambiguously reveal the influence of inter-species and intra-annual variations of moss N utilization on N deposition assessment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Evaporation from a sphagnum moss surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.S. Nichols; J.M. Brown

    1980-01-01

    Peat cores, 45 cm in diameter, were collected from a sphagnum bog in northern Minnesota, and used to measure the effects of different temperatures and water levels on evaporation from a sphagnum moss surface in a growth chamber. Under all conditions, evaporation from the moss surface was greater than that from a free-water surface. Evaporation from the moss increased...

  19. Contact allergy to oak moss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernard, Guillaume; Giménez-Arnau, Elena; Rastogi, Suresh Chandra

    2003-01-01

    In addition to pure synthetic fragrance materials several natural extracts are still in use in the perfume industry. Among them oak moss absolute, prepared from the lichen Evernia prunastri (L.) Arch., is considered a major contact sensitizer and is therefore included in the fragrance mix used...... for diagnosing perfume allergy. The process of preparing oak moss absolute has changed during recent years and, even though several potential sensitizers have been identified from former benzene extracts, its present constituents and their allergenic status are not clear. In the study reported here, we applied...

  20. Typology of consumer behavior in times of economic crisis: A segmentation study from Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrandjiev Hristo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the second part of results from a survey-based market research of Bulgarian households. In the first part of the paper the author analyzes the changes of consumer behavior in times of economic crisis in Bulgaria. Here, the author presents market segmentation from the point of view of consumer behavior changes in times of economic crisis. Four segments (clusters were discovered, and profiled. The similarities/dissimilarities between clusters are presented through the technique of multidimensional scaling (MDS The research project is planned, organized and realized within the Scientific Research Program of University of National and World Economy, Sofia, Bulgaria.

  1. Stakeholder analysis for coppice forestry in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IvayloVelichkov

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The study analyzes the state of coppice forestry in Bulgaria during last 18 years. Stakeholders and their interests and preferences in coppice forests are explored and assessed. Forests restitution process in Bulgaria started in 1997 and has not been finished yet. Nevertheless, significant further changes of the current ownershipdistribution are not expected. By the end of 2007, the state was the biggest coppice forest owner/stakeholder in Bulgaria with 71.3% of all coppice forests being state property. The other two important stakeholders are the municipalities (14.0% and private owners (12.0%. Currently, forest owners' number in Bulgaria exceeds 1million, the average holding area being smaller than 1 ha. Only 150 individual plots are larger than 50 ha. The majority of private owners aim at taking maximum and immediate profit from their recently restituted forest properties. In most cases that reflects in clearcuts. Coppice forests management has been one of the problematicissues of Bulgarian forestry for decades. Despite of forest authorities significant efforts, the area of coppice forests in Bulgaria (1.78 million ha in 2007 remained unchanged for a period of 50 years. The official forest policy is still aimed at conversionof coppice forests into seed ones through different silvicultural methods. That policy is applied to almost all coppice forests regardless of their ownership.

  2. Circulation factors affecting precipitation over Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nojarov, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to determine the influence of circulation factors on precipitation in Bulgaria. The study succeeds investigation on the influence of circulation factors on air temperatures in Bulgaria, as the focus here is directed toward precipitation amounts. Circulation factors are represented through two circulation indices, showing west-east or south-north transport of air masses over Bulgaria and four teleconnection indices (patterns)—North Atlantic Oscillation, East Atlantic, East Atlantic/Western Russia, and Scandinavian. Omega values at 700-hPa level show vertical motions in the atmosphere. Annual precipitation trends are mixed and not statistically significant. A significant decrease of precipitation in Bulgaria is observed in November due to the strengthening of the eastward transport of air masses (strengthening of EA teleconnection pattern) and anticyclonal weather (increase of descending motions in the atmosphere). There is also a precipitation decrease in May and June due to the growing influence of the Azores High. An increase of precipitation happens in September. All this leads to a redistribution of annual precipitation course, but annual precipitation amounts remain the same. However, this redistribution has a negative impact on agriculture and winter ski tourism. Zonal circulation has a larger influence on precipitation in Bulgaria compared to meridional. Eastward transport throughout the year leads to lower than the normal precipitation, and vice versa. With regard to the four teleconnection patterns, winter precipitation in Bulgaria is determined mainly by EA/WR teleconnection pattern, spring and autumn by EA teleconnection pattern, and summer by SCAND teleconnection pattern.

  3. CERN exhibition a big hit in Bulgaria

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    The first CERN exhibition in Bulgaria attracted many visitors. In the first ever CERN exhibition to be held in Bulgaria, over 1,400 visitors, many of them students and young physicists, visited the 10-day event in Sofia. The CERN mini-exhibition took place at the National Earth and Mankind Museum between 8 and 17 November. Permanently staffed by young physicists from Sofia University, there were exhibits on display about research activities at CERN, as well as four additional posters describing Bulgaria's participation. The inauguration took place on the morning of 8 November in the presence of the Vice-Minister for Science and Education, Mrs. Vanya Dobreva, and some 200 guests. A series of short speeches were followed by a visit to the exhibition. CERN's representative at the event, Ray Lewis, was then asked by Professor Matey Mateev, President of the Union of Physicists in Bulgaria, to say a few words on behalf of the Organization. Numerous journalists were also present at the inauguration. A painting enti...

  4. Atmospheric heavy metal deposition in Europe estimated by moss analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruehling, Aa. [Swedish Environmental Research Inst., Lund (Sweden). Dept. of Ecology

    1995-12-31

    Atmospheric heavy metal deposition in Europe including 21 countries was monitored in 1990-1992 by the moss technique. This technique is based on the fact that the concentrations of heavy metals in moss are closely correlated to atmospheric deposition. This was the first attempt to map heavy metal deposition in this large area. The objectives of the project were to characterise qualitatively and quantitatively the regional atmospheric deposition pattern of heavy metals in background areas in Europe, to indicate the location of important heavy metal pollution sources and to allow retrospective comparisons with similar studies. The present survey is a follow-up of a joint Danish and Swedish project in 1980 and an extended survey in 1985 within the framework of the Nordic Council of Ministers. In Sweden, heavy-metal deposition was first mapped on a nation-wide scale in 1968-1971 and 1975. (author)

  5. Unsaturated hydraulic properties of xerophilous mosses: towards implementation of moss covered soils in hydrological models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voortman, B.R.; Bartholomeus, R.P.; Bodegom, van P.M.; Gooren, H.P.A.; Zee, van der S.E.A.T.M.; Witte, J.P.M.

    2014-01-01

    Evaporation from mosses and lichens can form a major component of the water balance, especially in ecosystems where mosses and lichens often grow abundantly, such as tundra, deserts and bogs. To facilitate moss representation in hydrological models, we parameterized the unsaturated hydraulic

  6. MEDICO-LABORATORY SERVICES IN OUTPATIENT CARE IN NORTHEASTERN BULGARIA – STATE AND PROSPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia P. Georgieva

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this article is to study the satisfaction of patients with laboratory services in outpatient care in Northeastern Bulgaria regarding access and quality of service. Study design: Prospective cohort study Material and methods: The survey was carried out on the territory of Northeastern Bulgaria and covered the districts of Varna, Dobrich and Shumen and thirty municipalities. The following methods were applied in the study: sociological method by applied direct anonymous questionnaire, documentary method and statistical methods for analysis and interpretation of the data in order to reveal the nature of the observed phenomena and their interrelations. Results: The research data show that 24,4% of the respondents live at a distance of more than ten kilometres from the nearest medico-diagnostic laboratory. The larger share of these patients are residents of small settlements in Northeastern Bulgaria. More than half (55% of the respondents are not satisfied with their provision of laboratory services, but the majority of patients claim that the location of the selected laboratory is accessible (69,4% and the quality of the laboratory service is high (83,7%. Conclusion: The main problems in outpatient care are related to the poor provision of medico-laboratory services and specialized outpatient care in the smaller settlements in Northeastern Bulgaria.

  7. Assessing spatial patterns of metal bioaccumulation in French mosses by means of an exposure index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holy, Marcel; Leblond, Sébastien; Pesch, Roland; Schröder, Winfried

    2009-07-01

    The European Heavy Metals in Mosses Surveys (UNECE-ICP Vegetation) is a programme performed every 5 years since 1990 in at least 21 European countries. The moss surveys aim at uncovering the spatiotemporal patterns of metal and nitrogen bioaccumulation in mosses. In France, the moss survey was conducted for the third time in 2006. Five hundred thirty-six monitoring sites were sampled across the whole French territory. The aim of the presented study is to give an integrative picture of the metal bioaccumulation for the entire French territory without geographical gaps. Furthermore, confounding factors of the metal bioaccumulation in mosses should be investigated. Element loads of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), antimony (Sb), vanadium (V) and zinc (Zn) measured in the French campaign 2006 were aggregated to a multi-metal index (MMI). This index was first introduced in the German moss surveys and represents the mean rank of each monitoring site or estimated raster cell regarding all elements referred to. Hence, the spatial variability of the metal bioaccumulation in France could be assessed as a whole. A comparison of the MMI map with the spatial patterns of the Cu loads in mosses was then drawn, as Cu originates to a large extent from urban sources. Applying CHAID, the MMI and the Cu loads in the mosses were further investigated with regard to confounding factors. The said results were discussed on the basis of recent scientific publications. The MMI surface map shows high values in strongly industrialized and urbanized regions as well as at sites of high altitude, lying, for example in the Massif Central and the French Alps. Accordingly, the CHAID decision tree consequently shows the altitude to be the statistically most significant influencing factor of the MMI followed by the sampled moss species. As for the MMI map, the surface map for Cu mirrors urban agglomerations, as high values can be

  8. Perspectives of development of green jobs in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stoyanova Zornitsa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The transformation to green sectors of the economy in Bulgaria leads after it the need of new type of professions, which would be capable to cope with the new conditions and requirements which different businesses are facing. The knowledge of creation of green jobs in Bulgaria is insufficient, which makes this paper state of art. Green jobs in Bulgaria are connected with transfer of business activities to green ones. The paper analyzes and evaluates the current conditions of creation of green jobs in Bulgaria. It is proposed analysis of the requirements in Bulgaria about the eligible criteria to apply for funding under the measurement of green jobs; based on research SWOT analysis of creation of green jobs. The results are systematized in findings, conclusions and policy recommendations, as changing conditions of applying to measurement, payment connected to employees, and etc. As well is proposed cooperation between other existing measurements for reaching sustainable employment in Bulgaria.

  9. Current situation of oil refinery in Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vershkova, Elena; Petkova, Petinka; Grinkevich, Anastasia

    2016-09-01

    This article deals with the classification approach for oil refineries in international practices. Criteria of refinery estimation group, including its financial status estimation, have been investigated. The analysis object is “Lukoil Neftochim Bourgas” AD (LNCHB) activity. This company is a leading enterprise in Bulgaria. The analysis of LNCHB operating: energy intensity index; index of operating costs and return on investment index have been performed.

  10. Efficiency in Bulgaria's schools : a nonparametric study

    OpenAIRE

    Bogetic, Zeljko; Chattophadyay, Sajal

    1995-01-01

    In Eastern European countries in large social sectors such as education, inefficiency and technical deficiencies are the legacy of the old command economy. The authors examine the technical efficiency of classroom use (defined as the number of classes per classroom in one transitional economy -- Bulgaria. They examine the concept of efficiency in 199 urban and rural municipalities, using data envelopment analysis to generate efficiency scores. Those scores -- discussed in terms of frequency a...

  11. OPPORTUNITIES OF GROWING QUINCES IN BULGARIA

    OpenAIRE

    Ivan Semkov

    2016-01-01

    Investments in orchards with quinces are very profitable, as they are the most scarce crops currently in Bulgaria. Yields of quince are eight tons per hectare, making it potentially the most profitable fruit trees (with profit around 4 thousand Lev per hectare). In the list of endangered varieties important for agriculture, for which the amount of the annual subsidies from EU funds is € 787.39 / ha, enters the local variety Apple-like of Pazardzhik.

  12. OPPORTUNITIES OF GROWING QUINCES IN BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Semkov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Investments in orchards with quinces are very profitable, as they are the most scarce crops currently in Bulgaria. Yields of quince are eight tons per hectare, making it potentially the most profitable fruit trees (with profit around 4 thousand Lev per hectare. In the list of endangered varieties important for agriculture, for which the amount of the annual subsidies from EU funds is € 787.39 / ha, enters the local variety Apple-like of Pazardzhik.

  13. Pharmacy Practice and Education in Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkova, Valentina; Atkinson, Jeffrey

    2017-06-22

    Pharmacies in Bulgaria have a monopoly on the dispensing of medicinal products that are authorized in the Republic of Bulgaria, as well as medical devices, food additives, cosmetics, and sanitary/hygienic articles. Aptekari (pharmacists) act as responsible pharmacists, pharmacy owners, and managers. They follow a five year Masters of Science in Pharmacy (M.Sc. Pharm.) degree course with a six month traineeship. Pomoshnik-farmacevti (assistant pharmacists) follow a three year degree with a six month traineeship. They can prepare medicines and dispense OTC medicines under the supervision of a pharmacist. The first and second year of the M.Sc. Pharm. degree are devoted to chemical sciences, mathematics, botany and medical sciences. Years three and four center on pharmaceutical technology, pharmacology, pharmacognosy, pharmaco-economics, and social pharmacy, while year five focuses on pharmaceutical care, patient counselling, pharmacotherapy, and medical sciences. A six month traineeship finishes the fifth year together with redaction of a master thesis, and the four state examinations with which university studies end. Industrial pharmacy and clinical (hospital) pharmacy practice are integrated disciplines in some Bulgarian higher education institutions such as the Faculty of Pharmacy of the Medical University of Sofia. Pharmacy practice and education in Bulgaria are organized in a fashion very similar to that in most member states of the European Union.

  14. Pharmacy Practice and Education in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Petkova

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Pharmacies in Bulgaria have a monopoly on the dispensing of medicinal products that are authorized in the Republic of Bulgaria, as well as medical devices, food additives, cosmetics, and sanitary/hygienic articles. Aptekari (pharmacists act as responsible pharmacists, pharmacy owners, and managers. They follow a five year Masters of Science in Pharmacy (M.Sc. Pharm. degree course with a six month traineeship. Pomoshnik-farmacevti (assistant pharmacists follow a three year degree with a six month traineeship. They can prepare medicines and dispense OTC medicines under the supervision of a pharmacist. The first and second year of the M.Sc. Pharm. degree are devoted to chemical sciences, mathematics, botany and medical sciences. Years three and four center on pharmaceutical technology, pharmacology, pharmacognosy, pharmaco-economics, and social pharmacy, while year five focuses on pharmaceutical care, patient counselling, pharmacotherapy, and medical sciences. A six month traineeship finishes the fifth year together with redaction of a master thesis, and the four state examinations with which university studies end. Industrial pharmacy and clinical (hospital pharmacy practice are integrated disciplines in some Bulgarian higher education institutions such as the Faculty of Pharmacy of the Medical University of Sofia. Pharmacy practice and education in Bulgaria are organized in a fashion very similar to that in most member states of the European Union.

  15. Bulgaria: Ethnic differentials in rapidly declining fertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimiter Philipov

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This chapter provides a detailed description of the fertility changes in Bulgaria during recent decades and discusses possible reasons and consequences. It also gives an overview of the steps that the government has undertaken to offset the considerable decline in fertility. Before the fall of communism, fertility trends in Bulgaria were stable and characterized by a nearly universal entry into parenthood, dominance of a two-child family model, an early start and early end of childbearing, stable mean ages at entry into childbearing and marriage, and low percentages of non-marital births. During the 1990s and in the first years of the new century, we observe a marked, rapid change in fertility behaviour. Together with the severe decline in overall fertility rates, demographic data reveal a significant postponement of entry into motherhood and marriage, a decline of the two-child family model, and an emergence of new family forms. Most research attributes these changes to the particular political and social situation in Bulgaria since 1989.

  16. IMPLEMENTATION OF ISO 14001 IN BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hristina HARIZANOVA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In the last years, the Bulgarian business organizations and government bodies were facing with the increased needs to implement new standards which could bring a higher benefit for companies and also not to affect the environment. The ISO 14 000 Family is based on standards for environmental management and gives the possibility to be applied in any type of organization, public or private sectors, administrations, etc . The main aim of the publication is to trace the implementation of ISO 14001 in Bulgaria by sectors and type of activities. As well this research offers the main reasons to the Bulgarian firms to implement ISO 14001. For reaching the aim, the study made a review of a Evolution of ISO 14001 and its flexibility, in compliance with changes in the environment and business; b Research of the firms which implemented ISO 14001 in Bulgaria, c Content of the activities in the certification cycle. The used methods are according to the research system of the Bulgarian firms which implemented ISO 14001. Finally, some conclusions were drawn about the development of the ISO 14 001 in Bulgaria.

  17. PREREQUISITES FOR DEVELOPMENT OF SPA TOURISM IN BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Vucheva

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The demand for spa tourism in Bulgaria has increased 3 times in the last five years. Worldwide demand for spa for travel increased 2 times since 2004. Indications show that spa tourism is developing in a positive direction, both in Bulgaria and abroad. In Bulgaria there are 25 spa destinations where there are hydromineral fields and complexes for accommodation and rest. The paper provides key conclusions in relation to the development of spa tourism in Bulgaria and recommendations for improvements in marketing and advertising and combination with other types of tourism.

  18. Motivational factors for the adoption of ISO 9001 standards in Eastern Europe: the case of Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetoslav Georgiev

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study analyzes the motivational factors for ISO 9001 certification in Bulgaria from the internal/external motivations perspective, or the so-called dual model.Design/methodology/approach: This study is based on a mixed method research approach, which employed two interviews with experts in the field of quality management at the exploratory stage, and a survey involving 127 companies at the descriptive stage.Findings: This study claims that enhanced company image and competitiveness – an external motivation - is the leading motivational factor for ISO 9001 certification in Bulgaria. At the same time, our primary investigation reveals that Bulgarian firms are not predominantly externally driven, for internal motivations including process improvement and product quality improvement seem to be an important driver for ISO 9001 certification. Last but not least, this research asserts that enhanced company image and competitiveness has a stronger impact on the motivations for ISO 9001 certification than customer and supplier pressure, which is in line with previous research works on developing economy economies such as Bulgaria. Finally, our study indicates a moderate, yet positive correlation between motivations for and benefits of ISO 9001 certification.Social implications: This research work casts some light on the evolution of quality management in Bulgaria since the end of communism, which can serve as an important foundation for the better understanding of quality management in former communist economies in general and Eastern European states in particular.Originality/value: Derived from the acute gap between ISO studies in Western and former communist economies, this research work presents one of the first official, international studies in the field of ISO certification in Bulgaria, and more precisely, a paper describing the motives for ISO 9001 certification among Bulgarian businesses.

  19. How Media Portrayal Affects Perceptions of Minorities : The case of Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Georgieva, Radostina

    2013-01-01

    A connection is often drawn between the way the media represent ethnic minorities and the way majorities perceive them. This paper seeks to investigate further this link by drawing parallels between media portrayal of ethnic minorities in Bulgaria and the majority's attitude towards them. In addition it introduces the results of an online survey in which 250 people took part that directly studies the effects of negative media portrayal on the subject's attitude towards ethnic minorities in Bu...

  20. Union formation and fertility in Bulgaria and Russia: A life table description of recent trends

    OpenAIRE

    Aiva Jasilioniene; Dimiter Philipov

    2008-01-01

    The paper provides an extensive descriptive analysis and comparison of recent trends in union formation and fertility in Bulgaria and Russia. The analysis is based on data from the Generation and Gender Surveys (GGS) carried out in 2004. We generate a large number of single- and multi-decrement life tables describing various life course events: leaving home and separation from the parental family, entry into union, first and second childbirth, divorce. In addition, we provide information abou...

  1. An empirical investigation of economic crisis's impact on consumer behaviour in Bulgaria: Changes of spending, saving and bank credit taking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrandjiev Hristo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results from a survey-based market research of Bulgarian households. The author of the study is trying to understand what changes of consumer behavior occur in times of economic crises in Bulgaria, do consumers change their buying patterns, how consumers attempt to avoid or diminish the negative results from economic crisis, etc. The research project is planned, organized and realized within the Scientific Research Program of The University of National and World Economy, Sofia, Bulgaria. This paper discusses only a part of the research results and analysis. The rest of the research results will be published in a separate paper.

  2. Endemism in the moss flora of North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Benjamin E; Shaw, Blanka; Shaw, A Jonathan

    2016-04-01

    Identifying regions of high endemism is a critical step toward understanding the mechanisms underlying diversification and establishing conservation priorities. Here, we identified regions of high moss endemism across North America. We also identified lineages that contribute disproportionately to endemism and document the progress of efforts to inventory the endemic flora. To understand the documentation of endemic moss diversity in North America, we tabulated species publication dates to document the progress of species discovery across the continent. We analyzed herbarium specimen data and distribution data from the Flora of North America project to delineate major regions of moss endemism. Finally, we surveyed the literature to assess the importance of intercontinental vs. within-continent diversification for generating endemic species. Three primary regions of endemism were identified and two of these were further divided into a total of nine subregions. Overall endemic richness has two peaks, one in northern California and the Pacific Northwest, and the other in the southern Appalachians. Description of new endemic species has risen steeply over the last few decades, especially in western North America. Among the few studies documenting sister species relationships of endemics, recent diversification appears to have played a larger role in western North America, than in the east. Our understanding of bryophyte endemism continues to grow rapidly. Large continent-wide data sets confirm early views on hotspots of endemic bryophyte richness and indicate a high rate of ongoing species discovery in North America. © 2016 Botanical Society of America.

  3. Out of America: Exploring Collaborative Mural Teaching in Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Kong

    2012-01-01

    In February 2010, the author arrived in the city of Sofia, Bulgaria, to teach mural painting at the National Academy of Art for his five-month Fulbright U.S. Scholarship Program lecturing award. He targeted Bulgaria as his host country in his 2009-2010 Fulbright U.S. Scholarship Program application because of its rich mural painting culture. He…

  4. [Fertility trends in Bulgaria (1960-1990)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipov, D

    1992-01-01

    "This paper reports an analysis of fertility in Bulgaria during the period 1960-1990. Alternative demographic indicators are used, such as period and cohort total fertility rates...[and] mean age [at] childbearing, marriage, and divorce. The analysis includes distribution by order of births. Two age patterns of fertility behaviour are distinguished, one for females aged below 22, and the other for females above that age. The report notes the different impact of pronatal policy actions undertaken in 1968 and in 1973...." (SUMMARY IN ENG AND RUS) excerpt

  5. Marketing approaches for OTC analgesics in Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkova, Valentina; Valchanova, Velislava; Ibrahim, Adel; Nikolova, Irina; Benbasat, Niko; Dimitrov, Milen

    2014-03-04

    The marketing management includes analysis of market opportunities, selection of target markets, planning, developing and implementing of marketing strategies, monitoring and result control. The object of the present study was to analyse the marketing approaches applied for non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in Bulgaria. The performed SWOT(planning method used to evaluate the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats) analysis for one of the leading Bulgarian manufacturers marked the complex corporative strategy for stimulating the sales of NSAIDs. The study results show that the legislation frame in the country gives an opportunity for regulation of the NSAID market in order that incorrect marketing approaches such as disloyal competition are avoided.

  6. Immunity in the moss Physcomitrella patens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bressendorff, Simon

    Studies in flowering plants have provided a wealth of information on pathogen recognition, signal transduction and the activation of defense responses. However, very little is known about the immune system of the phylogenetically ancient moss Physcomitrella patens. Mosses represent some...... molecular patterns (MAMPs) including fungal chitin and bacterial MAMPs. The knock out of PpMPK4A renders the moss more susceptible to the pathogenic fungi Botrytis cinerea and Alternaria brassicicola and fails to accumulate several defense related transcripts and ROS production upon treatment with fungal...... to MAMP-triggered immunity, and the moss may use other signaling components to respond to abiotic stresses. In addition, a Physcomitrella knock-out of a homolog of the autophagy related gene ATG5 provides the first analysis of autophagy in non-vascular plants. PpATG5 knock-out mutants show clear signs...

  7. Science and technology in the new Bulgaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denchev, S.

    1993-01-01

    For decades, the field of science and technology in Bulgaria existed as a system based on immorality, avidity, unscrupulousness, and political maneuvering. Links between science and industry were broken. The main reasons were the feudal structure in science and technology, which still exists, and the chaos in the production system. Bulgaria is a country with one of the highest percentages of scientists and research workers in relation to the total number of citizens. Fairly good research centers have been created in the fields of industry and agriculture over the past several decades, but even so the existing scientific and research personnel do not possess the necessary innovative ability. The main reason for that is the Soviet model of science and technology development, which emphasized fundamental studies wholly funded by the State. Despite the fact that some of these research institutions have been acknowledge worldwide for their activities and scientific results, the majority of them have been managed bureaucratically and never realized their full potential. In order to overcome the negative consequences of totalitarianism, a radical restructuring of the Bulgarian science and technological sector is required. This restructuring should be realized simultaneously and in conformity with the building up of both markets and democratic society. Critical and unconventional decisions are required. 6 refs., 1 tab.

  8. Going for Smart Growth : Making Research and Innovation Work for Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2012-01-01

    This policy note provides a detailed assessment of Bulgaria's innovative capacity and offers policy recommendations to increase the impact of science and innovation. Part one of the policy note provides an assessment of Bulgaria's innovation capacity in the public and private spheres. Specifically, the note examines: (i) recent trends in Bulgaria's export performance, benchmarking Bulgaria...

  9. Atmospheric deposition of rare earth elements in Albania studied by the moss biomonitoring technique, neutron activation analysis and GIS technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allajbeu, Sh; Yushin, N S; Qarri, F; Duliu, O G; Lazo, P; Frontasyeva, M V

    2016-07-01

    Rare earth elements (REEs) are typically conservative elements that are scarcely derived from anthropogenic sources. The mobilization of REEs in the environment requires the monitoring of these elements in environmental matrices, in which they are present at trace level. The determination of 11 REEs in carpet-forming moss species (Hypnum cupressiforme) collected from 44 sampling sites over the whole territory of the country were done by using epithermal neutron activation analysis (ENAA) at IBR-2 fast pulsed reactor in Dubna. This paper is focused on REEs (lanthanides) and Sc. Fe as typical consistent element and Th that appeared good correlations between the elements of lanthanides are included in this paper. Th, Sc, and REEs were never previously determined in the air deposition of Albania. Descriptive statistics were used for data treatment using MINITAB 17 software package. The median values of the elements under investigation were compared with those of the neighboring countries such as Bulgaria, Macedonia, Romania, and Serbia, as well as Norway which is selected as a clean area. Geographical distribution maps of the elements over the sampled territory were constructed using geographic information system (GIS) technology. Geochemical behavior of REEs in moss samples has been studied by using the ternary diagram of Sc-La-Th, Spider diagrams and multivariate analysis. It was revealed that the accumulation of REEs in current mosses is associated with the wind-blowing metal-enriched soils that is pointed out as the main emitting factor of the elements under investigation.

  10. In vitro antioxidative activity of moss extract, and effect of moss on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In vitro antioxidative activity of moss extract, and effect of moss on serum lipid level of mice fed with high-fat diet. ... Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research ... as an antioxidative ingredient, for the improvement of overall human health, ...

  11. In vitro antioxidative activity of moss extract, and effect of moss on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    animals living in the tundra. While their uses often vary, moss have been used as a raw material for the production of food, clothing, dyes, medicines, models, and decorations [8]. Moss is still used in traditional medicines to alleviate the pain of burns by Gosuite Indians of. Utha [9], and anticipated as antipyretic and.

  12. TRADITIONAL WOMEN’S APPARELS OF BULGARIA N IMMIGRANTS LIVING IN ESKİŞEHİR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Başak BOĞDAY SAYĞILI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available As part of culture, clothing is a phenomenon which develops with humanity, which is specific to communities, being shap ed according to the ir taste, and reflecting the community’s living conditions and li fe styles . T he Turks who e migrated changed their clothing to adapt to the geo graphical and physical features as well as the living conditions at the places they migrated to, and through being influenced by the people in their region. Bulgaria is one of the countries to which great e migrations from the Ottoman empire took place. Having lived together for many years, the Turks and the Bulgarians were influenced by each other in clothing culture just as in every other field. These migrations , which took place intensively from time to time , are still co ntinuing. This research aims to reveal the traditional women’s apparels of immigrants from Bulgaria living in Eskişehir and the characteristics of their apparel . Historical and review methods were used in the research. From the sources reached using the survey form prepared as data collection tool, apparels reflecting general characteristics of the traditional women’s apparels of the immigrants from Bulgaria livi ng in Eskişehir were examined.

  13. Union formation and fertility in Bulgaria and Russia: A life table description of recent trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiva Jasilioniene

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides an extensive descriptive analysis and comparison of recent trends in union formation and fertility in Bulgaria and Russia. The analysis is based on data from the Generation and Gender Surveys (GGS carried out in 2004. We generate a large number of single- and multi-decrement life tables describing various life course events: leaving home and separation from the parental family, entry into union, first and second childbirth, divorce. Life tables are constructed for real cohorts as well as for synthetic cohorts. We study four real cohorts, born in 1940-44, 1950-54, 1960-64 and 1970-74. Synthetic-cohort life tables are constructed for three periods of time, referring to the pre-transitional demographic situation (1985-1989, the beginning of the transition (1990-1994 and recent demographic developments (1999-2003. We study also Roma and Turkish ethnic groups in Bulgaria. The life tables deliver detailed information that is otherwise unavailable. Our tentative findings indicate that societal transformation had a stronger impact on family-related behavior in the Bulgarian population than in the population of Russia. There is evidence that in some aspects Bulgaria is lagging behind other former socialist and Western European countries where the second demographic transition is more advanced. Evidence also suggests that Russia is lagging behind Bulgaria. However, certain specific features distinctive to Russia, such as the low level of childlessness, a drastic drop in second and subsequent births, and very high divorce rates even compared to Western European countries (it is a long-standing, not just recent trend, lead us to think that Russia may have a model of change particular to the country.

  14. CAS Introduction to Accelerator Physics in Bulgaria

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    The CERN Accelerator School (CAS) and the Institute for Nuclear Research & Nuclear Energy (INRNE – Bulgarian Academy of Sciences) jointly organised a course on Introduction to Accelerators, at the Grand Hotel Varna, Bulgaria, from 19 September to 1 October, 2010.   CERN Accelerator School group photo. The course was extremely well attended with 109 participants representing 34 different nationalities, coming from countries as far away as Australia, Canada and Vietnam. The intensive programme comprised 39 lectures, 3 seminars, 4 tutorials where the students were split into three groups, a poster session where students could present their own work, and 7 hours of guided and private study. Feedback from the participants was extremely positive, praising the expertise and enthusiasm of the lecturers, as well as the high standard and excellent quality of their lectures. For the first time at CAS, the CERN Director-General, Rolf Heuer, visited the school and presented a seminar entitled...

  15. Longshore sediment transport at Golden Sands (Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hristo Nikolov

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of studies on the qualitative and quantitative features of the littoral drift at Golden Sands (Bulgaria, carried out jointly by Polish and Bulgarian researchers. The mathematical modelling of physical coastal processes took wave transformation (wave diffraction and refraction; the effects of shoaling and wave breaking and longshore sediment transport into account. The computations were carried out for the mean statistical annual wave climate, determined on the basis of IO BAS wave data, simulated using the WAM method from long-term Black Sea wind data. The results of sediment transport computations clearly show that its direction off the Golden Sands shore is from north to south.

  16. A wooden calendar from southeastern Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koleva, Vesselina; Georgiev, Iliya

    Wooden calendars are a specific tool for preserving the church calendar in medieval Europe. The Christian symbols are skillfully interwoven with traditional signs, which mark the days of importance for the economic and ritual life in a year. The archaic method of time reckoning has turned into a tool for disseminating and establishing the Christian festival system, and is one of the proofs of the syncretism between the pagan tradition and the new religious ritualism. Bulgarian Christians used such objects until the beginning of the 20th century. The earliest date fixed on a wooden calendar is 1783. These calendars are also called rabosh in Bulgaria. The calendar presented here is based on the Julian (solar) calendar containing the major fixed feasts of the Orthodox Church. It has not been published so far and is kept in a private collection.

  17. Success as a Cultural Value: a Comparison Between the Notions of Success and Well-being in Bulgaria and Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hristina Sokolova

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to compare the notions of personal well-being and individual success in Bulgaria and Hungary. Such comparison has not been studied yet in social and cultural sciences. The analysis is based on the results from the 3rd, 4th and 5th Round of the European Social Survey, the 2011řs Eurobarometer Qualitative Survey on attitudes to well-being and a small survey on the notions of individual success conducted by the author of this paper in Bulgaria and Hungary in January 2012. Results of this paper shed light on the most important motivating force of oneřs existence and could be used as guidance for creating problem-solving practices in business and entrepreneurship, based on cultural values.

  18. [Geographic features of migration among the rural population of Bulgaria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisov, Z

    1990-01-01

    Regional variations in internal migration among rural populations in Bulgaria are described. Consideration is given to length of time of settlement, geographic factors, and size and socioeconomic status of settlements. (SUMMARY IN ENG AND RUS)

  19. BOREAS HYD-08 1994 Gravimetric Moss Moisture Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: Contains the gravimetric moss data collected by HYD-08 at the Black Spruce and Joey Lake sites. It contains the weights of moss turves under two different...

  20. BOREAS HYD-08 1994 Gravimetric Moss Moisture Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Contains the gravimetric moss data collected by HYD-08 at the Black Spruce and Joey Lake sites. It contains the weights of moss turves under two different conditions.

  1. Mosses beta radioactivity in Katirli mountain-Bursa, TURKEY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahraman, A. G.; Kaynak, G.; Akkaya, G.; Gultekin, A.; Gurler, O.; Yalcin, S.

    2007-04-01

    Mosses are one of the most widely used procedures to determine via plant of radioactive contamination. The high concentrating capacity of mosses may be used as bioindicator of environmental radioactive contamination. In this study, the mosses were collected in region of Katirli Mountain in northwestern Turkey, activities were determined using TENNELEC LB 1000-PW detector. Samples of mosses growing on soil, rock, and tree bark were collected.

  2. Oak moss extracts in the diagnosis of fragrance contact allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Heydorn, Siri; Menné, Torkil

    2002-01-01

    Oak moss absolute is one of the eight ingredients of the fragrance mix (FM) used for diagnosing perfume allergy. Oak moss absolute is an extract prepared from the lichen Evernia prunastri growing on oak trees. It has been shown that the oak moss patch test material from one producer contained resin...

  3. Trace element content and molecular biodiversity in the epiphytic moss Leptodon smithii: two independent tracers of human disturbance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spagnuolo, Valeria; Terracciano, Stefano; Giordano, Simonetta

    2009-03-01

    This paper focuses on chemical composition of the epiphytic moss Leptodon smithii, gathered on Quercus ilex bark, assessed in seven sites located in urban and extra-urban/remote areas of southern Italy, a poorly surveyed geographic area. The concentrations of Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn in moss tissue are generally more abundant in moss gathered in the urban sites; among extra-urban/remote sites Valle delle Ferriere showed the highest metal concentrations, mostly related to an industrial activity occurred in the past. L. smithii chemistry seems influenced by airborne dust locally enhanced by erosion phenomena, long-range transport of pollutants and marine aerosols. Element content in moss is compared with genetic variability of L. smithii estimated in the same sites. Pearson's correlation coefficient between gene diversity and total element load (r=-0.851; p=0.03) suggests that anthropogenic pressure, determining habitat disturbance and fragmentation, leads both to genetic impoverishment consequent to population shrink, and to a higher accumulation in moss tissues, as a consequence of increased airborne major/trace elements. Thus, the coupled evaluation of chemical composition in mosses and gene diversity may prove a useful tool to highlight environmental disturbance in a gradient of land use.

  4. Determination of lead uptake in mosses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haseloff, H.P.

    1982-02-01

    Mosses growing in burdened places often contain high rates of heavy metals. They also take up relatively many heavy metal ions from aqueous solutions. The quantity taken up during a period of incubation can be simply determined by a precipitating titration.

  5. Model constructions for Moss' coalgebraic logic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergfeld, J.; Venema, Y.

    2011-01-01

    We discuss two model constructions related to the coalgebraic logic introduced by Moss. Our starting point is the derivation system M T for this logic, given by Kupke, Kurz and Venema. Based on the one-step completeness of this system, we first construct a finite coalgebraic model for an arbitrary M

  6. Chemical Composition Analysis, Antimicrobial Activity and Cytotoxicity Screening of Moss Extracts (Moss Phytochemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Klavina

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Mosses have been neglected as a study subject for a long time. Recent research shows that mosses contain remarkable and unique substances with high biological activity. The aim of this study, accordingly, was to analyze the composition of mosses and to screen their antimicrobial and anticancer activity. The total concentration of polyphenols and carbohydrates, the amount of dry residue and the radical scavenging activity were determined for a preliminary evaluation of the chemical composition of moss extracts. In order to analyze and identify the substances present in mosses, two types of extrahents (chloroform, ethanol and the GC/MS and LC-TOF-MS methods were used. The antimicrobial activity was tested on four bacteria strains, and the anticancer activity on six cancer cell lines. The obtained results show the presence of a high number of primary (fatty acids and amino acids, but mainly secondary metabolites in moss extracts—including, sterols, terpenoids, polyphenols and others—and a high activity with respect to the studied test organisms.

  7. The Kresna earthquake of 1904 in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. N. Ambraseys

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The Kresna earthquake in 1904 in Bulgaria is one of the largest shallow 20th century events on land in the Balkans. This event, which was preceded by a large foreshock, has hitherto been assigned a range of magnitudes up to M S = 7.8 but the reappraisal of instrumental data yields a much smaller value of M S = 7.2 and a re-assement of the intensity distribution suggests 7.1. Thus both instrumental and macroseismic data appear consistent with a magnitude which is also compatible with the fault segmentation and local morphology of the region which cannot accommodate shallow events much larger than about 7.0. The relatively large size of the main shock suggests surface faulting but the available field evidence is insufficient to establish the dimensions, attitude andamount of dislocation, except perhaps in the vicinity of Krupnik. This downsizing of the Kresna earthquake has important consequences for tectonics and earthquake hazard estimates in the Balkans.

  8. Genetic analysis of haemophilia A in Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkova, Rumena; Chakarov, Stoian; Kremensky, Ivo

    2004-01-01

    Haemophilias are the most common hereditary severe disorders of blood clotting. In families afflicted with heamophilia, genetic analysis provides opportunities to prevent recurrence of the disease. This study establishes a diagnostical strategy for carriership determination and prenatal diagnostics of haemophilia A in Bulgarian haemophilic population. A diagnostical strategy consisting of screening for most common mutations in the factor VIII gene and analysis of a panel of eight linked to the factor VIII gene locus polymorphisms was established. Polymorphic analysis for carrier status determination of haemophilia A was successful in 30 families out of 32 (94%). Carrier status was determined in 25 of a total of 28 women at risk (89%). Fourteen prenatal diagnoses in women at high risk of having a haemophilia A - affected child were performed, resulting in 6 healthy boys and 5 girls. The compound approach proves to be a highly informative and cost-effective strategy for prevention of recurrence of haemophilia A in Bulgaria. DNA analysis facilitates carriership determination and subsequent prenatal diagnosis in the majority of Bulgarian families affected by haemophilia A.

  9. Genetic analysis of haemophilia A in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kremensky Ivo

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Haemophilias are the most common hereditary severe disorders of blood clotting. In families afflicted with heamophilia, genetic analysis provides opportunities to prevent recurrence of the disease. This study establishes a diagnostical strategy for carriership determination and prenatal diagnostics of haemophilia A in Bulgarian haemophilic population. Methods A diagnostical strategy consisting of screening for most common mutations in the factor VIII gene and analysis of a panel of eight linked to the factor VIII gene locus polymorphisms was established. Results Polymorphic analysis for carrier status determination of haemophilia A was successful in 30 families out of 32 (94%. Carrier status was determined in 25 of a total of 28 women at risk (89%. Fourteen prenatal diagnoses in women at high risk of having a haemophilia A – affected child were performed, resulting in 6 healthy boys and 5 girls. Conclusion The compound approach proves to be a highly informative and cost-effective strategy for prevention of recurrence of haemophilia A in Bulgaria. DNA analysis facilitates carriership determination and subsequent prenatal diagnosis in the majority of Bulgarian families affected by haemophilia A.

  10. Dynamic Moss Observed with Hi-C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Caroline; Winebarger, Amy; Morton, Richard; Savage, Sabrina

    2014-01-01

    The High-resolution Coronal Imager (Hi-C), flown on 11 July 2012, has revealed an unprecedented level of detail and substructure within the solar corona. Hi-C imaged a large active region (AR11520) with 0.2-0.3'' spatial resolution and 5.5s cadence over a 5 minute period. An additional dataset with a smaller FOV, the same resolution, but with a higher temporal cadence (1s) was also taken during the rocket flight. This dataset was centered on a large patch of 'moss' emission that initially seemed to show very little variability. Image processing revealed this region to be much more dynamic than first thought with numerous bright and dark features observed to appear, move and disappear over the 5 minute observation. Moss is thought to be emission from the upper transition region component of hot loops so studying its dynamics and the relation between the bright/dark features and underlying magnetic features is important to tie the interaction of the different atmospheric layers together. Hi-C allows us to study the coronal emission of the moss at the smallest scales while data from SDO/AIA and HMI is used to give information on these structures at different heights/temperatures. Using the high temporal and spatial resolution of Hi-C the observed moss features were tracked and the distribution of displacements, speeds, and sizes were measured. This allows us to comment on both the physical processes occurring within the dynamic moss and the scales at which these changes are occurring.

  11. UNMET NEEDS FOR HEALTH CARE SERVICES IN BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elka Atanasova

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: In all European countries, an important policy objective is the equity of access to health care. The factors that affect access to health care can differ as the demand- and supply-side factors. Moreover, there are many tools to assess the extent of inequity in access to services. One simple tool is the assessing reports of unmet needs for health care. Purpose: The study has two objectives: to examine the evidence of self-reported unmet needs and to analyze the relationship between foregone medical care and both type of residence and socioeconomic status. Materials and Methods: We use data from the European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions. The access to health care is measured using the concept of unmet need for medical examination or treatment during the last 12 months. The relationship between foregone medical care and both type of residence and socioeconomic status is examined through the representative survey conducted in 2014. Results: The Eurostat results show that treatment costs are the most common reason for foregone medical care in Bulgaria. We observe a gradual decrease in the share of people who reported having unmet needs due to being too expensive. According to the 2014 survey, significant differences between urban and rural areas as well as among the income groups are identified. The results show the problems in access to health care services mainly in small towns and villages. Conclusion: Although major essential changes were made in the Bulgarian health care system, the equity problems remain an important challenge to policy-makers.

  12. Trace element concentrations in the moss Hypnum cupressiforme growing in a presumably unpolluted area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boquete, M T; Fernández, J A; Aboal, J R; Carballeira, A; Martínez-Abaigar, J; Tomás-Las-Heras, R; Núñez-Olivera, E

    2016-09-01

    In this study we determined the concentrations of As, Cd, Hg, Ni and Pb in samples of the moss Hypnum cupressiforme collected during 5 different sampling surveys (2006-2014) in a presumably unpolluted area in northern Spain (25 sampling sites). We then applied factor analysis (FA) to the data to explore the factors underlying the spatial and temporal variability in the concentrations. The percentage of variance explained by the FA ranged between 34 and 98%, and was usually higher than 70%. The FA yielded 5 factors that explained the variance in the concentrations of Cd, As, Hg and Pb in all sampling surveys and also a single factor that explained the variance in Hg and Pb concentrations in 2006. Although the lack of obvious sources of pollution in the study region (at least for the elements considered) suggests that most elements (except perhaps Ni) probably originated from long-range atmospheric transport, this would not explain the results of the FA. We suggest that rather than being due to the origin of the pollutants (as frequently assumed), the spatio-temporal variability in the concentrations of these elements is probably determined by a series of other factors: the physicochemical characteristics of the pollutants and of the moss binding surfaces, physiological processes (e.g. moss growth), and the characteristics of the sampling sites (e.g. vegetation cover, elevation, slope, aspect). We therefore conclude that the assumption that variations in element concentrations in moss tissues are due to the origin of the pollutants is an oversimplification that leads to erroneous interpretation of the results of biomonitoring studies with terrestrial mosses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The species of Ctenophorinae (Diptera: Tipulidae in the fauna of Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitar Bechev

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available List of the species of Ctenophorinae subfamily, known from Bulgaria is given, including Ctenophora elegans Meigen, 1818, species reported for Bulgaria, but not presented in Fauna Europaea and Catalogue of the Craneflies of the World for the country. Ctenophora flaveolata (Fabricius, 1794 is reported for the first time to the fauna of Bulgaria.

  14. Dynamics in the devolopment of donkey population in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Vlaeva

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the recent study was to trace back the development of the donkey population in Bulgaria for the period 1950 – 2015. For that purpose the data from the National Statistic Institute and FAO was processed and other sources related to the problem were analyzed. Donkeys in Bulgaria used to be a comparatively large share of the traction power animals in the past, with the occurance of the social and economical changes after 1990 their number was dramatically reduced. This process is most noticeable after 2000, when for five year period until 2005 the donkey population in Bulgaria drops down from 207000 to 90000 individuals, as in 2013 this number falls down to 35000 according to FAO.

  15. Generic policy in Bulgaria: a policy of failure or success?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assena Stoimenova

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Generic medicines play a key role in managing the financial resources for pharmaceuticals in every country. This study analysed the generic policy legislative framework in Bulgaria with the aim to identify whether the policy implementation can be considered successful in the light of an international review of such policies introduced in other countries, or on the contrary, it has failed to deliver the main benefits. Legislative analysis, desktop study and macroeconomic overview of the Bulgarian pharmaceutical market were included. The study showed that only 3 out of 11 important policy elements are implemented in the country. Bulgaria has one of the highest shares of generics, an average of 81.39% (volume, for the studied period (2006–2014. However, further research is needed to evaluate the success of the existing generic policy in Bulgaria, as the market share of generic drugs is not the only measure of the policy efficiency.

  16. Temporal trends (1990-2005 in heavy metal accumulation in mosses in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanka Maòkovská

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Biomonitoring of multielement atmospheric deposition using terrestrialmoss is a well-established technique in Europe. The moss samples of Hylocomium splendens, Pleurozium schreberi and Dicranum sp. were collected in Slovakia. Separately we evaluated the atmospheric deposition in the National Parks (Vysoké Tatry, Nízke Tatry, Západné Tatry -Jelenec, Slovenský raj and in a landscape protection area (Ve¾ká Fatra. In comparison to the median northern Norway values ofheavy metal contents in moss, the Slovak atmospheric deposition loads of elements were found to be higher. The survey has been repeated and in this paper we report on the temporal trends in the concentration of Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Ni, Pb, V and Zn between 1990 and 2005. Metal- and sites-specific temporal trends were observed. In general, the concentration of Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Ni, Pb, V and Zn in mossesdecreased between 1990 and 2005; the decline was higher for Pb than for Cd. The observed temporal trends for the concentrations in mosses were similar to the trends reported for the modelled total deposition of cadmium, lead and mercury in Europe. The level of elements, determined in bryophytes reflects the relative atmosphericdeposition loads of elements at the investigated sites. Factor analysis was applied to determine possible sources of trace element deposition in the Slovakian mosses.

  17. Alfred E. Moss: 1924 Indy 500 race driver, British dentist and father of Sir Stirling Moss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christen, Joan A

    2005-03-01

    Alfred Ethelbert Moss (1896-1972), a highly successful London dentist, was also a pioneer in English auto racing. In 1923, 27-year old Alfred (already a dentist), arrived in Indianapolis, Indiana, ostensibly to study "advanced dental practice" at the Indiana Dental College. However, his primary motive for coming to Indianapolis was to participate in the Indy 500 race. On Friday, May 30, 1924, 22 car racers started the 12th running of the Indy 500. Among them was Alfred, who finished respectably, in 16th place. Thus, he became the first dentist to compete in the famed Indianapolis 500 race. In 1925, after months of dirt-track running around the U.S., he returned to England. His initial plan was to continue racing in his own country. However, this goal vanished as his dental career began to flourish. Soon he had developed a large and prosperous dental practice in London. In 1927, Moss married Aileen Craufurd, who eventually became a champion female race car driver in England. In 1929, the couple had a son, Stirling. By the 1950s, Stirling Moss was hailed as Britain's best known sports star, and one of the world's fastest and most versatile race drivers of all time. This article follows the life and times of the Moss family, with an emphasis on Alfred's two life endeavors racing and dentistry, and on Stirling's famed racing career. In 1999, Stirling Moss was knighted by Queen Elizabeth II.

  18. Factors influencing acute alcohol poisoning in adolescents in Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loukova, Anelia; Stankova, Eugene

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the current study is to analyze the social dimensions of acute alcohol poisoning in children. We have studied the patients at the age up to 18 years with acute alcohol poisoning hospitalized in the Children Toxicology Department of Emergency Hospital Pirogov, Sofia, Bulgaria, from January 1, 2007 to June 31,2008. All of them were at teen years--between 12 and 17 years old. Data on children were retrived from hospital medical records. We have used the inquiry method - specially created for the purpose of the survey questionnaire comprising 39 questions (location and the reason for drinking, type of alcoholic beverage, age at first drink, combination alcohol - illicit drug, type of family, education and employment of parents, frequency of alcohol consumption by parents, consecutiveness of the children in family, presence of siblings, presence of children in a single room, interests etc.). We have studied 137 Adolescents with acute alcohol poisoning. 77 are boys and 60 girls. The results demonstrate tendency of increase of the poisonings in weekends and in late afternoon and evening. No repeated hospitalization for acute alcohol poisoning in the study group for that period has been registered. The most frequent alcoholic beverage leading to intoxication was vodka (63.1 %). 64 % of the children come from complete families. Both parents have secondary education in 79.7 % and in 53.3 % both parents are employed. 60 % were the first born child in the family. The most frequent reason for alcohol consumption was meeting with friends. The research concerns one important medico-social problem--alcohol consumption among children. The increasing alcohol consumption leads to increasing number of acute alcohol poisonings and associated problems. The proposed preventive program may play in important role in decreasing the consequences of alcohol consumption among young people. It should be further developed and popularized among physicians.

  19. About crisis of moral in social work practice in bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Y. Georgiev

    2017-01-01

    This article is an attempt to outline the situation of social work practice in Bulgaria and the today status of the Bulgarian Association of Social Workers and its Code of Ethics. I argue that there is a crisis of moral in social work practice in Bulgaria. My personal experience and observations on the practice of social workers are rationalized in the methodology of Jurgen Habermas. This article is an attempt to bring the importance of the Code of Ethics for the professional status and profe...

  20. About crisis of moral in social work practice in bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Georgiev

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This article is an attempt to outline the situation of social work practice in Bulgaria and the today status of the Bulgarian Association of Social Workers and its Code of Ethics. I argue that there is a crisis of moral in social work practice in Bulgaria. My personal experience and observations on the practice of social workers are rationalized in the methodology of Jurgen Habermas. This article is an attempt to bring the importance of the Code of Ethics for the professional status and professional identity of the social work profession and the role of the Code of Ethics in overcoming the moral crisis in the social work practice

  1. Desorption of 137Cs+ from mosses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OLGICA NEDIC

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Mosses are biomonitors that accumulate large amounts of various pollutants, including radionuclides. In this work we investigated the possibility of 137Cs extraction from mosses, as well as the significance of species specificity on the efficiency of 137Cs desorption. Salt and acid solutions were used as extraction media. It was shown that a 5 % solution of both ammonium oxalate and phosphoric acid was able to desorb 81.8 % of 137Cs+ from Homalothecium sericeum, which was 39.9 % more than desorption from water. At the same time, most of the desorbed 137Cs+ was incorporated in crystals that precipitated from the solution. An interspecies difference in respect to 137Cs+ desorption was noticed.

  2. Fluorine content in epiphtic lichens and mosses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olech, M.; Kajfosz, J.; Szymczyk, S.; Wodniecki, P.

    1981-01-01

    The fluorine content in epiphytic lichens (Physcia adscendens, Physconia grisea, Parmelia sulcata and Evernia prunastri) and the moss Orthotrichum obtusifolium growing near an aluminum plant is presented. Analyses of lichen samples show the correlation between the distribution of the emitted fluorine and the distance from the source of emission; the most visible effects are in the direction of the prevailing winds. The more resistant lichen species accumulate greater amounts of fluorine than the less resistant ones.

  3. MOSS : a model for open system security

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Ph.D This thesis looks at current security problems within open system environments, that is security problems within heterogeneous computer system environments that are interconnected via computer networks. Thereafter two security models, Kerberos and the Path Context Model, are considered together with their respective ability to address these security problems. Using concepts of the Path Context Model, a new security model, called MOSS (Model for Open System Security), is developed and ...

  4. HORMONE-INDUCED SIGNALING DURING MOSS DEVELOPMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumaker, Karen S.; Dietrich, Margaret A.

    1998-06-01

    Understanding how a cell responds to hormonal signals with a new program of cellular differentiation and organization is an important focus of research in developmental biology. In Funaria hygrometrica and Physcomitrella patens, two related species of moss, cytokinin induces the development of a bud during the transition from filamentous to meristematic growth. Within hours of cytokinin perception, a single-celled initial responds with changes in patterns of cell expansion, elongation, and division to begin the process of bud assembly. Bud assembly in moss provides an excellent model for the study of hormone-induced organogenesis because it is a relatively simple, well-defined process. Since buds form in a nonrandom pattern on cells that are not embedded in other tissues, it is possible to predict which cells will respond and where the ensuing changes will take place. In addition, bud assembly is amenable to biochemical, cellular, and molecular biological analyses. This review examines our current understanding of cytokinin-induced bud assembly and the potential underlying mechanisms, reviews the state of genetic analyses in moss, and sets goals for future research with this organism.

  5. Desiccation Stress and the Effect of Humidity in Mosses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aina Arinola FAJUKE

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Mosses show fair degree of structural adaptations to different environmental conditions. The effects caused by desiccation were determined in the shoots of six moss species, collected from various locations of the Obafemi Awolowo University Ile-Ife campus, Osun State, Nigeria. Using 0.1 g of fresh weights, desiccation of moss species over time at 0%, 52%, and 100% relative humidity, were determined by putting the shoots into desiccators and reweighing at intervals of 15 min, 30 min, 1 hr and on the 8th day. It was concluded that the locations of the moss species, and the fact that the cell walls of all the mosses were thick, were regarded as the adaptations which helped these mosses survived desiccation stress.

  6. Oak moss extracts in the diagnosis of fragrance contact allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Heydorn, Siri; Menné, Torkil

    2002-01-01

    Oak moss absolute is one of the eight ingredients of the fragrance mix (FM) used for diagnosing perfume allergy. Oak moss absolute is an extract prepared from the lichen Evernia prunastri growing on oak trees. It has been shown that the oak moss patch test material from one producer contained resin...... acids which are ingredients of another lichen, tree moss. Resin acids, e.g. abietic acid and dehydroabietic acid, are also the main allergens in colophonium. The aim of the study was to assess whether the contamination of oak moss absolute and thus the FM with resin acids had affected their diagnostic...... value so that they, instead of indicating fragrance allergy, had become indicators of allergy to resin acids and thus colophonium. Two studies were undertaken. First the relationship between patch test reactions to FM, oak moss absolute, both with contents of resin acids, and colophonium were assessed...

  7. Monitoring trace metals using moss bags in Sardinia, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellizzaro, Grazia; Canu, Annalisa; Ventura, Andrea; Arca, Angelo; Duce, Pierpaolo

    2010-05-01

    As well known anthropic activities are producing an increase of trace metal concentration in the terrestrial ecosystems. Previous researches have shown that several species of cryptogams can be used as a low-cost bio-accumulator to detect metal deposition. In this study biomonitoring of airborne trace metals was made using moss bags technique. The moss Hypnum cupressiforme was used as a bio-accumulator for the estimation of atmospheric traces metal deposition in three sites characterized by different source of pollution around an industrialized area and two urban areas (north-west of Sardinia, Italy). Moss carpets were collected from trees in a forest of central Sardinia where air pollution is not present. In the laboratory, the moss plant samples were cleaned and moss bags were prepared by weighing out 2 g air-dried weight, and packing it loosely in nylon nets of 12 x 12 cm with mesh of 4 mm2. In each site the moss bags were exposed for six weeks during autumn, winter, spring and summer seasons from November 2007 to July 2008. Two moss bags, used as control, were not exposed. Following exposure the moss samples were analyzed for total concentration of As, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, V, and Zn by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry. Results obtained showed higher values of trace metal load factor for the following elements: Cu, Ni, Zn, and As. The most accumulation values were found in moss bags exposed in the industrial area for all period of experimentation.

  8. BULGARIA'S PLACE IN WORLD TOURISM (AN ATTEMPT TO POSITIONING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krasimir Levkov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an attempt to determine the place of Bulgaria in global tourism by using the indicators included in the report of the World Economic Forum in 2015. The positions of the country are compared with those of its main competitors in the Balkan region.

  9. Bulgaria: Where the Arts are Alive and Well.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaslin, Nellie

    1998-01-01

    Describes the author's first visit to Bulgaria to visit classes, attend student performances, and talk with the faculty at the National Academy of Theater Arts and Film. Discusses their use of theater technique, such as puppetry, as a therapeutic tool and the vitality and expertise they displayed in their play performances. (CR)

  10. New earthworm (Clitellata: Lumbricidae records from Vitosha Mts. (Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HRISTO VALCHOVSKI

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with earthworm diversity from Vitosha Mountain (Bulgaria. During the investigation 10 earthworm species were collected altogether, belonging to 7 genera. Among them, two taxa are reported for the first time from the explored region. Aporrectodea caliginosa (Savigny, 1826 and Lumbricus terrestris Linnaeus, 1758 are proved to be new records from the territory of Vitosha Mountain.

  11. Earthworm (Clitellata: Lumbricidae records from the Rila Mountains (Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HRISTO VALCHOVSKI

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The current study is a contribution to the knowledge of the earthworm diversity from the Rila Mountains (Bulgaria. During the investigation 13 earthworm species were collected altogether, belonging to eight genera. Among them Aporrectodea handlirschi (Rosa, 1897 and Aporrectodea caliginosa (Savigny, 1826 proved to be new records from the territory of the Rila Mountain.

  12. Transforming Economics Teaching in Bulgaria: A Difficult Transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovea, Stefka; Yakimova, Ivona

    1998-01-01

    Reports on the transformation of higher economic education in Bulgaria as part of the overall change in the society of that country. Describes the slow, painful process of shifting from a command economy to a free market-oriented system. Conservatism and fragmentation have hindered academic reform. (MJP)

  13. Residential heating contribution to level of air pollutants (PAHs, major, trace, and rare earth elements): a moss bag case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuković, Gordana; Aničić Urošević, Mira; Pergal, Miodrag; Janković, Milan; Goryainova, Zoya; Tomašević, Milica; Popović, Aleksandar

    2015-12-01

    In areas with moderate to continental climates, emissions from residential heating system lead to the winter air pollution peaks. The EU legislation requires only the monitoring of airborne concentrations of particulate matter, As, Cd, Hg, Ni, and B[a]P. Transition metals and rare earth elements (REEs) have also arisen questions about their detrimental health effects. In that sense, this study examined the level of extensive set of air pollutants: 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and 41 major elements, trace elements, and REEs using Sphagnum girgensohnii moss bag technique. During the winter of 2013/2014, the moss bags were exposed across Belgrade (Serbia) to study the influence of residential heating system to the overall air quality. The study was set as an extension to our previous survey during the summer, i.e., non-heating season. Markedly higher concentrations of all PAHs, Sb, Cu, V, Ni, and Zn were observed in the exposed moss in comparison to the initial values. The patterns of the moss REE concentrations normalized to North American Shale Composite and Post-Archean Australian Shales were identical across the study area but enhanced by anthropogenic activities. The results clearly demonstrate the seasonal variations in the moss enrichment of the air pollutants. Moreover, the results point out a need for monitoring of air quality during the whole year, and also of various pollutants, not only those regulated by the EU Directive.

  14. Food safety knowledge and hygiene practices among veterinary medicine students at Trakia University, Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratev, Deyan; Odeyemi, Olumide A; Pavlov, Alexander; Kyuchukova, Ralica; Fatehi, Foad; Bamidele, Florence A

    The results from the first survey on food safety knowledge, attitudes and hygiene practices (KAP) among veterinary medicine students in Bulgaria are reported in this study. It was designed and conducted from September to December 2015 using structured questionnaires on food safety knowledge, attitudes and practices. Data were collected from 100 undergraduate veterinary medicine students from the Trakia University, Bulgaria. It was observed that the age and the gender did not affect food safety knowledge, attitudes and practices. There was no significant difference (p>0.05) on food safety knowledge and practices among students based on the years of study. A high level of food safety knowledge was observed among the participants (85.06%), however, the practice of food safety was above average (65.28%) while attitude toward food safety was high (70%). Although there was a significant awareness of food safety knowledge among respondents, there is a need for improvement on food safety practices, interventions on food safety and foodborne diseases. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Development of Bioethics and Clinical Ethics in Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksandrova-Yankulovska, Silviya S

    2017-03-01

    Bioethics and clinical ethics emerged from the classical medical ethics in the 1970s of the 20th century. Both fields are new for the Bulgarian academic tradition. The aims of this paper were to demarcate the subject fields of medical ethics, bioethics, and clinical ethics, to present the developments in the field of medical ethics in Bulgaria, to delineate the obstacles to effective ethics education of medical professionals, and to present the results of the application of an adapted bottom-up methodology for clinical ethics consultation in several clinical units in Bulgaria. Extended literature review and application of an adapted METAP methodology for clinical ethics consultation in six clinical units in the Northern Bulgaria between May 2013 and December 2014. Teaching of medical ethics in Bulgaria was introduced in the 1990s and still stands mainly as theoretical expertise without sufficient dilemma training in clinical settings. Earlier studies revealed need of clinical ethics consultation services in our country. METAP methodology was applied in 69 ethics meetings. In 31.9% of them non-medical considerations affected the choice of treatment and 34.8% resulted in reaching consensus between the team and the patient. Participants' opinion about the meetings was highly positive with 87.7% overall satisfaction. Development of bioethics in Bulgaria follows recent worldwide trends. Several ideas could be applied towards increasing the effectiveness of ethics education. Results of the ethics meetings lead to the conclusion that it is a successful and well accepted approach for clinical ethics consultation with a potential for wider introduction in our medical practice.

  16. Nationalism versus Patriotism, or the Floating Border? National Identification and Ethnic Exclusion in Post-communist Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossalina Latcheva

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with different aspects of national identification and their relations to ethnic exclusion in post-communist Bulgaria. The emphasis is placed on theoretical approaches that refer to nationalism as a social (collective identity and its effects on specific exclusionary practices and individual attitudes. This specific theoretical framework is also used as a source for drawing aconceptual model that is subsequently tested on empirical data for Bulgaria for two time points: 1995 and 2003. The data for the analysis is gathered within the framework of the International SocialSurvey Program (ISSP "National Identity". In order to analyse changes over time a simultaneous multiple group comparison between both samples is conducted by applying Structural EquationModelling. The empirical examination shows that the concepts of patriotism and nationalism as individual attitudes toward the nation could be plausibly differentiated for Bulgaria, yet not withregard to their relationship with chauvinism. Both nationalistic and patriotic sentiments are positively related to chauvinistic attitudes, a result, which seems to contradict the generaltheoretical assumptions. The question whether one can distinguish between ‘patriotism’ as the less extreme and ‘nationalism’ as the ‘blind’ and uncritical form of individuals’ attachment to the nationis addressed.

  17. Precursory studies on Malaysian mosses. II. A preliminary key to the moss genera

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, van der R.

    1958-01-01

    For identifying the mosses collected in different localities of the Malaysian region, the need was felt for a key to the genera. In the preliminary one that I constructed to this end the genera were taken in the delimitation accepted in the second edition of Brotherus, Natürl. Pflanzf. In addition

  18. Continuing Professional Development in the quantity surveying ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Continuing Professional Development in the quantity surveying profession: Quantity surveyors' perceptions. Juan Olwagen, Roy Cumberlege, Ian Moss. Abstract. This research study was conducted in order to investigate Continuing Professional Development (CPD) in the South African quantity surveying profession.

  19. Condensation of water vapour on moss-dominated biological soil ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 123; Issue 2 ... Condensation; water vapour; desert ecosystem; moss; biological soil crust. Abstract. Characteristics of water vapour condensation, including the onset, duration, and amount of water vapour condensation on moss-dominated biological soil crust ...

  20. Using essential oils to control moss and liverwort in containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabil Khadduri

    2011-01-01

    Liverwort and moss are economically significant weeds across a range of US container production sites, including forest seedling greenhouse culture in the Pacific Northwest. We have demonstrated the effectiveness of essential oils, or distilled plant extracts, in controlling liverwort and moss container weeds over three seasons of trials. When applied at the...

  1. Meet the Moss - User Testing Our First Fragrance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    Video highlights of our first public outing with the Fragrant Moss. We demoed the product to passers by at Westfield Mall and Indie.Bio in San Francisco......Video highlights of our first public outing with the Fragrant Moss. We demoed the product to passers by at Westfield Mall and Indie.Bio in San Francisco...

  2. Burstein Moss effect in nanocrystalline CaS: Ce

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Burstein Moss effect; calcium sulphide; nanophosphors. ... are confirmed by TEM micrograph. The optical studies are carried out using UV–Vis absorption spectroscopy. The absorption edge is found to show blue shift with increasing cerium concentration. The shift may be attributed to Burstein Moss effect.

  3. Controls on moss evaporation in a boreal black spruce forest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijmans, M.M.P.D.; Arp, W.J.; Chapin, F.S.

    2004-01-01

    [1] Mosses are an important component of the boreal forest, but little is known about their contribution to ecosystem carbon, water, and energy exchange. We studied the role of mosses in boreal forest evapotranspiration by conducting two experiments in a black spruce forest in Fairbanks, Alaska.

  4. Grimmia brittoniae, a rare moss endemic to northwestern Montana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greven, H.C.; Spribille, T.

    1999-01-01

    The rare moss Grimmia brittoniae Williams Mas recently rediscovered at its type locality and discovered at two additional locations, bringing the total number of known locations to four. This distinct moss is restricted to calcareous rock outcrops at low elevations in northwestern Montana, including

  5. Interaction between the moss Physcomitrella patens and Phytophthora

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overdijk, Elysa J.R.; Keijzer, De Jeroen; Groot, De Deborah; Schoina, Charikleia; Bouwmeester, Klaas; Ketelaar, Tijs; Govers, Francine

    2016-01-01

    Live-cell imaging of plant-pathogen interactions is often hampered by the tissue complexity and multicell layered nature of the host. Here, we established a novel pathosystem with the moss Physcomitrella patens as host for Phytophthora. The tip-growing protonema cells of this moss are ideal for

  6. Contributions to the moss flora of Artvin region (Hatila Valley National Park-Turkey).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batan, Nevzat; Ozdemir, Turan

    2008-07-01

    Field studies were organized for exploring the moss flora of Hatila Valley National Park of Artvin (Turkey) during spring-summer period in 2005-2006. The taxonomic survey yielded eighty-five moss taxa o(comprises of seventy-nine species, six varieties) belonging to 44 genera of 16 families in Hatila Valley National Park of Artvin, Turkey. Bryum rubens Milt., Dicranodontium uncinatufm (Harv.) A. Jaeger., Eurhynchium hians var. rigidum (Boul.) Düll., Hypnum jutlandicum Holmen and Warncke, Rhynchostegiella jacquinii (Garov.) Limpr. and Pseudocrossidium hornschuchianum (Schultz) R. H. Z ander are new records for A4 grid square (40 degrees-42' N, 38 degrees-42' E) determined. All taxa were found for the first time in Artvin. For every each taxon, the habitat pattern and distribution data are presented.

  7. Lichen-moss interactions within biological soil crusts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruckteschler, Nina; Williams, Laura; Büdel, Burkhard; Weber, Bettina

    2015-04-01

    Biological soil crusts (biocrusts) create well-known hotspots of microbial activity, being important components of hot and cold arid terrestrial regions. They colonize the uppermost millimeters of the soil, being composed of fungi, (cyano-) bacteria, algae, lichens, bryophytes and archaea in varying proportions. Biocrusts protect the (semi-) arid landscape from wind and water erosion, and also increase water holding capacity and nutrient content. Depending on location and developmental stage, composition and species abundance vary within biocrusts. As species live in close contact, they are expected to influence each other, but only a few interactions between different organisms have so far been explored. In the present study, we investigated the effects of the lichen Fulgensia fulgens whilst growing on the moss Trichostomum crispulum. While 77% of Fulgensia fulgens thalli were found growing associated with mosses in a German biocrust, up to 95% of Fulgensia bracteata thalli were moss-associated in a Swedish biocrust. In 49% (Germany) and in 78% (Sweden) of cases, thalli were observed on the moss T. crispulum and less frequently on four and three different moss species. Beneath F. fulgens and F. bracteata thalli, the mosses were dead and in close vicinity to the lichens the mosses appeared frail, bringing us to the assumption that the lichens may release substances harming the moss. We prepared a water extract from the lichen F. fulgens and used this to water the moss thalli (n = 6) on a daily basis over a time-span of three weeks. In a control setup, artificial rainwater was applied to the moss thalli (n = 6). Once a week, maximum CO2 gas exchange rates of the thalli were measured under constant conditions and at the end of the experiment the chlorophyll content of the moss samples was determined. In the course of the experiment net photosynthesis (NP) of the treatment samples decreased concurrently with an increase in dark respiration (DR). The control samples

  8. Investigation of metal ions sorption of brown peat moss powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelus, Nadezhda; Blokhina, Elena; Novikov, Dmitry; Novikova, Yaroslavna; Chuchalin, Vladimir

    2017-11-01

    For regularities research of sorptive extraction of heavy metal ions by cellulose and its derivates from aquatic solution of electrolytes it is necessary to find possible mechanism of sorption process and to choice a model describing this process. The present article investigates the regularities of aliovalent metals sorption on brown peat moss powder. The results show that sorption isotherm of Al3+ ions is described by Freundlich isotherm and sorption isotherms of Na+ i Ni2+ are described by Langmuir isotherm. To identify the mechanisms of brown peat moss powder sorption the IR-spectra of the initial brown peat moss powder samples and brown peat moss powder samples after Ni (II) sorption were studied. Metal ion binding mechanisms by brown peat moss powder points to ion exchange, physical adsorption, and complex formation with hydroxyl and carboxyl groups.

  9. Terrestrial mosses as biomonitors of atmospheric POPs pollution: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmens, H; Foan, L; Simon, V; Mills, G

    2013-02-01

    Worldwide there is concern about the continuing release of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) into the environment. In this study we review the application of mosses as biomonitors of atmospheric deposition of POPs. Examples in the literature show that mosses are suitable organisms to monitor spatial patterns and temporal trends of atmospheric concentrations or deposition of POPs. These examples include polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs), dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). The majority of studies report on PAHs concentrations in mosses and relative few studies have been conducted on other POPs. So far, many studies have focused on spatial patterns around pollution sources or the concentration in mosses in remote areas such as the polar regions, as an indication of long-range transport of POPs. Very few studies have determined temporal trends or have directly related the concentrations in mosses with measured atmospheric concentrations and/or deposition fluxes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Phytophthora Root and Crown Rot on Apples in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Nakova

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytophthora is a genus of Oomycota responsible for some of the most serious diseases with great economic impact (Judelson and Blanco, 2005. While 54 species were found in the 20th century (Erwin and Ribeiro, 1996 another 51-54 new species have been identified(Brasier, 2008 since the year 2000. They are spread worldwide and have broad range of host plants – fruit trees, citrus, forest and park species. Phytophthora can cause serious damages in orchards and nurseries of apples, cherries, etc. In Bulgaria they have been found first on young apples and cherries (1998-1999 in Plovdiv region (Nakova, 2003. Surveys have been done for discovering disease symptoms in Plovdiv and Kjustendil regions. Isolates have been obtained from infected plant material (roots and stem bases applying baiting bioassay (green apples, variety Granny Smith and/or PARP 10 selective media. Phytophthora strains were identified based on standard morphology methods – types of colonies on PDA, CMA, V 8, type and size of sporangia, oogonia and antheridia, andoospores. Cardial temperatures for their growth were tested on CMA and PDA.For molecular studies, DNA was extracted from mycelium using the DNA extraction kit.DNA was amplified using universal primers ITS 6 and ITS 4. Amplification products concentrations were estimated by comparison with the standard DNA. Sequencing was done at the Scottish Crop Research Institute (SCRI, Dundee, Scotland. Phytophthora root and crown rot symptoms first appear in early spring. Infected trees show bud break delay, have small chlorotic leaves, and branches die all of a sudden. Later symptoms are found in August-September. Leaves of the infected trees show reddish discoloration and drop down. Both symptoms are connected with lesions (wet, necrotic in appearance at stem bases of the trees.Disease spread was 2-3% in most gardens, only in an apple orchard in Bjaga (Plovdiv region it was up to 8-10%. Morphologically, the isolates acquired from

  11. The Electronic Agora of the British Society in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Rangelova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available H. Rheyngold (1993 introduces the concept of "electronic agora", claiming that virtual communities act on the square - an open space where it all happens. The theoretical framework of this paper will be set by the theory of Schutz for multiplication of reality and will build on the theory of Muggleton virtual identity. Commonwealth in Bulgaria communicates in a parallel to the real world to the virtual. Through virtual identity can reinvent itself, moving freely between multiple online roles, to be the opposite sex, younger, older, anonymous and thus to avoid the presentation of the true self. What roles occupy the British in Bulgaria in the early 21st century in cyberspace and how it used? Do they experiment with their identity? Do they develop strong relationships in social groups? Answers to these questions will be looking for in this study.

  12. Epidemiology and molecular diversity of rabies viruses in Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robardet, E; Ilieva, D; Iliev, E; Gagnev, E; Picard-Meyer, E; Cliquet, F

    2014-04-01

    A health emergency situation occurred in Bulgaria in 2007 when positive rabies cases were notified in Sofia district in the central-western part of the country, suggesting a southward spread of the disease for the first time in the last 10 years. Phylogenetic analysis on 49 isolates sampled between 2009 and 2011 showed, for the first time, evidence of the existence of NEE and D clustered lineages in Bulgaria. Their geographical distribution clearly reveals the permeability of natural barriers, as already suggested by the disease spread that occurred across the Balkan mountain range in 2007. The monitoring and passive surveillance programmes conducted since the first 2009 oral vaccination campaign, the spatio-temporal evolution of the disease in the country since 2007, and the need for further investigation of the role of jackals in virus dispersion are discussed.

  13. Review of the status of mammals in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Peshev

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the territory of Bulgaria are found 97 species of mammals, belonging to 8 orders. 37 of them are protected. 19 mammalian species are included in the Bulgarian Red Data Book. Two of them are extinct, 8 are endangered and 9 are rare. In Bulgaria there are no endemic mammals. Three species are extinct: Eliomys quercinus, Mustela lutreola and Lynx lynx. 5 species are introduced: Ondatra zibethica, Oryctolagus cuniculus, Cervus nippon, Cervus dama and Ovis ammon. The raccon dog (Nyctereustes procyonoides appeared by natural colonisation.

  14. Wet felting tradition in Bulgaria. Ornamented woolen wedding carpets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsvetkova, Elitsa; Frangova, Krassimira; Peneva, Tereza

    2017-01-01

    The tradition of felt making was brought to the Balkan Peninsula during the migration of proto-Bulgarian tribes, who established the First Bulgarian Kingdom and introduced local people to elements of the Asiatic nomads’ culture. Written sources and images dated to the 10-11th c. AD show that felted...... objects were already in use in Bulgaria in the first centuries after its establishment. There is a large number of felted ethnographic artefacts from a later date among which wedding carpets are the most popular. A traditional part of the very specific customs of Bulgarian wedding ritual they are known...... in many of the mountain regions of Northern, Central and Southeastern Bulgaria. The production of felted wedding carpets is maintained as a living tradition in the culture of Bulgarians until the mid-20th century. Wedding felts are notable for their particular functional, iconographic, technical...

  15. Human Capital Formation during Communism and Transition: Evidence from Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Simeonova-Ganeva, Ralitsa

    2005-01-01

    Is it true that communist countries had well-developed human capital, or is it just a myth? What were human capital stocks at the beginning of transition to market economy? What happened to human capital formation during the transition? We attempt to answer these questions using evidence from Bulgaria. This is also a story about how a communist government had coped with labour market problems in a small closed economy. Unfortunately, during communism, there had been quite insufficient public ...

  16. ASSESSMENT OF RELATIONS BETWEEN RENEWABLE ENERGY AND ECONOMIC GROWTH IN BULGARIA - VAR ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamit Can

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The role of existing interconnections between renewable energy on the one hand and economic growth on the other is an emphasis on many studies, but within the scope of Bulgaria, the specificity of these relations requires an in-depth review of the growing importance of renewable energies. The main factors to be surveyed are: consumption of renewable energy, production of renewable energy and per capita GDP. The interaction of these variables is analyzed to show the direction and importance of the relationship. The analyzes include the vector autoregression model and a number of cointegration and causality tests. The period covers the years after the collapse of the socialist system and the integration of modern energy use, as well as the specific crisis moments that changed and reduced the prospects for sustainable growth, part of which are also the alternatives for the extraction of natural energy resources.

  17. Evidences for the Lynx recovery in Bulgaria: the Lynx discovered in Western Rhodopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NIKOLAI SPASSOV

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available On photographs taken by a camera trap in the region of Yagodina village, Western Rhodopes, (Bulgaria the presence of the Eurasian Lynx Lynx lynx L. has been registered in the summer of 2014. This is the most reliable to date argument for the presence in Rhodope mountains of this critically endangered species in Bulgaria and for its gradual dispersal from the western mountainous border region of Bulgaria to more appropriate country habitats inland.

  18. CIVIL PROTECTION MODERN ASPECTS IN CASE OF DISASTERS – BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolina Radeva

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This article aims on the modern aspects of Civil Protection in Bulgaria by thorough research of the management and the organization of its activities. We used descriptive analysis and summary of scientific publications and state documents concerning the nature, goals, objectives, principles and remedies available to the population in disasters. A study of the documents on the establishment and development of civil protection in Bulgaria was made. In Bulgaria the organization of the civil protection in disasters includes actions on prevention, emergency rescue, relief and recovery. The structure of the main Integrated Rescue System components was built throughout the country in accordance with the administrative - territorial division, each of which supports 24-hour readiness to respond. The basic principles for protection and prevention should be known by all the citizens because they give the right for defense for each person and priority of the human life rescue. The conclusion is that the Bulgarian Civil Protection aspects are up to date and correspond to the modern principles of protection, applied in other European Union Мember states.

  19. Catalogue of the ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae of Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albena Lapeva-Gjonova

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The present catalogue of the ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae of Bulgaria is made on a base of critical reconsideration of literature (covering the period from 1892 till 2009 and part of 2010 as well as on examination of the authors‘ and several museum‘s collections. A lot of data were omitted in the previous Bulgarian monograph on ants, lots of new data were recently added and many important additions and alterations were made due to taxonomic revisions of Eurasian Formicidae during the last three decades. Two new species are reported for the country [Temnothorax graecus (Forel, 1911 and Temnothorax cf. korbi (Emery, 1924]. This catalogue contains a list of 163 ant species belonging to 40 genera of 6 subfamilies now known from Bulgaria. Synonyms and information on the previously reported names in relevant publications are given. Known localities of the species are grouped by geographic regions. Maps with concrete localities or regions for each species were prepared. The conservation status of 13 ant species is given as they are included in IUCN Red List of Threatened Species and Bulgarian Biodiversity Act. In comparison with adjacent Balkan regions the ant fauna of Bulgaria is quite rich and its core is composed of South European elements.

  20. First results of the Bulgaria-1300 satellite experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafimov, K.; Chapkanov, S.; Gogoshev, M.; Kutiev, I.; Gousheva, M.; Ivanova, T.; Petkov, N.; Samardjiev, T.; Sargoichev, S.; Balebanov, V.; Podgorni, I.

    The satellite "Intercosmos-Bulgaria-1300" launched on 7 August 1981 is successfully working already more than a year. Aboard the satellite a Bulgarian scientific research complex is mounted for studying the ionosphere, magnetosphere and their mutual relations, containing 12 different instruments and systems. Below, the first results of the direct investigation of the higher atmosphere by means of different systems and instruments is presented in short: graphically we have given the distribution of the ion density obtained by processing of data obtained from one orbiting of the satellite; the optical complex working aboard Bulgaria-1300 is briefly described. The basic characteristics of the optical apparatuses are given. The optical axes of the two photometers EMO-5 and PHOTON-1, which are part of the optical complex, are orientated in nadir. UV-spectrometer works in a spectral region of 1150-2550 Å with a spectral solution of 10 Å. Each 3.5 min there is a spectrum of the daytime or nighttime atmosphere. These data can be used for aeronomic investigations of the higher atmosphere dynamics as well as for determining ozone. As an example of joint work and interpretation of the data from different groups of Bulgarian research devices working aboard the Bulgaria-1300 satellite, the energy deposition in the polar ionosphere as determined by measurements aboard the satellite is given.

  1. Computer simulations of the atmospheric composition climate of Bulgaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gadzhev, G.; Ganev, K.; Syrkov, D.; Prodanova, M.; Georgieva, I.; Georgiev, G.

    2015-07-01

    Some extensive numerical simulations of the atmospheric composition fields in Bulgaria have been recently performed. The US EPA Model-3 system was chosen as a modelling tool. As the NCEP Global Analysis Data with 1 degree resolution was used as meteorological background, the MM5 and CMAQ nesting capabilities were applied for downscaling the simulations to a 3 km resolution over Bulgaria. The TNO emission inventory was used as emission input. Special pre-processing procedures are created for introducing temporal profiles and speciation of the emissions. The biogenic emissions of VOC are estimated by the model SMOKE. The simulations were carried out for years 2000-2007. The numerical experiments have been carried out for different emission scenarios, which makes it possible the contribution of emissions from different source categories to be evaluated. The Models-3 “Integrated Process Rate Analysis” option is applied to discriminate the role of different dynamic and chemical processes for the air pollution formation. The obtained ensemble of numerical simulation results is extensive enough to allow statistical treatment – calculating not only the mean concentrations and different source categories contribution mean fields, but also standard deviations, skewness, etc. with their dominant temporal modes (seasonal and/or diurnal variations). Thus some basic facts about the atmospheric composition climate of Bulgaria can be retrieved from the simulation ensemble. (Author)

  2. Computer simulations of the atmospheric composition climate of Bulgaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gadzhev, G.; Ganev, K.; Syrakov, D.; Prodanova, M.; Georgieva, I.; Georgiev, G.

    2015-07-01

    Some extensive numerical simulations of the atmospheric composition fields in Bulgaria have been recently performed. The US EPA Model-3 system was chosen as a modelling tool. As the NCEP Global Analysis Data with 1 degree resolution was used as meteorological background, the MM5 and CMAQ nesting capabilities were applied for downscaling the simulations to a 3 km resolution over Bulgaria. The TNO emission inventory was used as emission input. Special pre-processing procedures are created for introducing temporal profiles and speciation of the emissions. The biogenic emissions of VOC are estimated by the model SMOKE. The simulations were carried out for years 2000-2007. The numerical experiments have been carried out for different emission scenarios, which makes it possible the contribution of emissions from different source categories to be evaluated. The Models-3 Integrated Process Rate Analysis option is applied to discriminate the role of different dynamic and chemical processes for the air pollution formation. The obtained ensemble of numerical simulation results is extensive enough to allow statistical treatment calculating not only the mean concentrations and different source categories contribution mean fields, but also standard deviations, skewness, etc. with their dominant temporal modes (seasonal and/or diurnal variations). Thus some basic facts about the atmospheric composition climate of Bulgaria can be retrieved from the simulation ensemble. (Author)

  3. [New materials on the history of veterinary medicine in Bulgaria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, M

    1979-01-01

    Several tens of ritual plates are preserved in Bulgaria on which elements of glorification are found of god Mithras who gained popularity particularly in the 1st-IIIrd century in the regions of Thrace and today's North Bulgaria, then provinces of the Eastern Roman Empire. Mithras seemed to be respected by slaves, soldiers, and merchants alike, but was also an exemplar to the Roman emperors, being considered by them as Sol invictus or Deo invicto. The central scene in all plates is that of Mithras tauroctonus (Mithras, the killer of bulls). This scene is likewise of interest to veterinarians as it shows that in such early epoch the people that lived within the territory of Bulgaria of today used a method for the felling of large animals, the elements of which--fixing the head and bending it backwards, fastening the thorax with a belt or another loop, loading the animal's back--are still existing and are used in a number of modern methods of felling (that of Hess, the Caucasian way of felling, the Chinese one of Dou-Chan-Than, etc.) Besides, the people of ancient time knew that ruminants have an incomplete upper dentition. They skilfully employed this to bring animals that had to be felled into an unusual nonphysiologic posture. Not sooner than 16 centuries prior to the preformists (the spermists) they supported the concept that the testes were the source of life.

  4. FORECASTING THE NUMBER OF SPORT TOURISM ARRIVALS IN SOUTHWEST BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preslav Mihaylov Dimitrov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an application of some forecasting methods concerning sport tourism arrivals in Southwest Bulgaria: linear trend forecasting, double exponential forecasting (Holt’s method, triple exponential forecasting (the Holt-Winters Method, and the ARIMA method. A specially designed model for estimating the weight coefficient needed for determining the size of the sport tourism’s sector in the time series of the available data and in the forecast values is presented. In order to test the forecasting methods and produce forecasts up to the year 2030, a time series and past period predictions have been constructed based on statistical records since 1964. Several major problems in the application of the exponential smoothing methods for the purpose of the long-run forecasting and the needs of the sport tourism subsector of Bulgaria tourism industry are addressed. These problems include (a finding a suitable general indicator, (b calculating short-term and long-term forecasts, (c comparing the results of the forecast techniques on the basis of the errors in the forecasts, (d estimating the size of the sport tourism in Southwest Bulgaria in certain terms so that the forecast(s of the above-mentioned general indicator could be particularized especially for examined sub-sector and region. The results from the different forecasting methods and techniques are presented and conclusions are drawn regarding the reliability of the forecasts.

  5. The role of mosses in ecosystem succession and function in Alaska's boreal forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt R. Turetsky; Michelle C. Mack; Teresa N. Hollingsworth; Jennifer W. Harden

    2010-01-01

    Shifts in moss communities may affect the resilience of boreal ecosystems to a changing climate because of the role of moss species in regulating soil climate and biogeochemical cycling. Here, we use long-term data analysis and literature synthesis to examine the role of moss in ecosystem succession, productivity, and decomposition. In Alaskan forests, moss abundance...

  6. Nitrogen multitemporal monitoring through mosses in urban areas affected by mud volcanoes around Mt. Etna, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonanno, Giuseppe

    2013-10-01

    Nitrogen emissions were assessed by using mosses as bioindicators in a densely inhabited area affected by mud volcanoes. Such volcanoes, locally called Salinelle, are phenomena that occur around Mt. Etna (Sicily, Italy), and are interpreted as the surface outflow of a hydrothermal system located below Mt. Etna, which releases sedimentary fluids (hydrocarbons and Na-Cl brines) along with magmatic gases (mainly CO2 and He). To date, N emissions from such mud volcanoes have been only quantitatively assessed, and no biomonitoring campaigns are reported about the cumulative effects of these emissions. This study analyzed N concentrations in moss, water and soil samples, collected in a 4-year monitoring campaign. The bryophyte Bryum argenteum, a species widely adopted in surveys of atmospheric pollution, was used as a biological indicator. N concentrations in biomonitors showed relatively low values in the study sites. However, the results of this study suggest that N emissions from Salinelle may have an impact on surrounding ecosystems because N values in moss and water showed a significant correlation. N oxides, in particular, contribute to acidification of ecosystems, thus multitemporal biomonitoring is recommended, especially in those areas where N emitting sources are anthropogenic and natural.

  7. Correlation patterns of metals in the epiphytic moss Hypnum cupressiforme in Bavaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faus-Kessler, Theresa; Dietl, Claudia; Tritschler, Johannes; Peichl, Ludwig

    Since 1981, the Bavarian State Office for Environmental Protection (LfU) has been operating a bioindication network of epiphytic mosses Hypnum cupressiforme located on a regular grid with distances 16 km, in order to observe immission-derived metal accumulation in plant material. About 300 specimens are collected yearly (since 1991 every second year) at the end of the growth period, and the concentration of trace metals is determined. In order to gain insight into predominant sources of metal pollution in Bavaria, correlation patterns between Al, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Sb, Hg, and Pb are analyzed by Principal Component Analysis. Detailed results are presented for the 1984 and 1995 data. At least 80% of the variance can be explained by five components. The following factors are extracted from both data sets by varimax rotation: factor 1 with similar loadings of Al, Ti, V, Cr, Fe, and As; factor 2 representing Cd and Zn; factor 3 with loadings of Sb, Pb, and Cu; factor 4 representing Mn; factor 5 being nearly identical with the Hg variable. For comparison, published region-specific correlation matrices from the 1991 moss survey performed by the German Federal Environmental Agency (UBA) - observing epigeic mosses Pleurozium schreberi - were submitted to Principal Component Analysis. With respect to the first factor, our 1991 results from Bavaria are similar to those from the Southern former GDR, but different from those from Western Germany (including Bavaria). Possible common and specific sources are discussed.

  8. Multi-element atmospheric deposition in Macedonia studied by the moss biomonitoring technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barandovski, Lambe; Frontasyeva, Marina V; Stafilov, Trajče; Šajn, Robert; Ostrovnaya, Tatyana M

    2015-10-01

    Moss biomonitoring technique using moss species Homolothecium lutescens (Hedw.) Robins and Hypnum cupressiforme (Hedw.) was applied to air pollution studies in the Republic of Macedonia. The study was performed in the framework of the International Cooperative Programme on Effects of Air Pollution on Natural Vegetation and Crops under the auspices of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution (LRTAP). The presence of 47 elements was determined by instrumental epithermal neutron activation analysis, atomic absorption spectrometry and atomic emission spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma. Normality of the datasets of elements was investigated, and Box-Cox transformation was used in order to achieve normal distributions of the data. Different pollution sources were identified and characterized using principal component analysis (PCA). Distribution maps were prepared to point out the regions most affected by pollution and to relate this to the known sources of contamination. The cities of Veles, Skopje, Tetovo, Radoviš and Kavadarci were determined to experience particular environmental stress. Moreover, three reactivated lead-zinc mines were also shown to contribute to a high content of lead and zinc in the eastern part of the country. However, a comparison with the previous moss survey conducted in 2005 showed a decreasing trend of pollution elements that are usually associated with emission from industrial activities.

  9. Mosses accumulate heavy metals from the substrata of coal ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukojević Vanja

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants that are able to accumulate and tolerate extraordinarily high concentrations of heavy metals (hyperaccumulators can be used for phytoremediation (removal of contaminants from soils or phytomining (growing a crop of plants to harvest the metals. Two moss species, Bryum capillare Hedw. and Ceratodon purpureus Hedw., were tested as potential phytoremedies under in vivo conditions on a coal ash disposal site in the surroundings of Obrenovac (NW Serbia. The content of various heavy metals (iron, manganese zinc, lead, nickel, cadmium, and copper in the mosses and substrata were investigated over a period of three years. Iron and zinc were found to have the highest concentration in the mosses.

  10. Evaporation Dynamics of Moss and Bare Soil in Boreal Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempster, S.; Young, J. M.; Barron, C. G.; Bolton, W. R.

    2013-12-01

    Evaporation dynamics of mosses is a critical process in boreal and arctic systems and represents a key uncertainty in hydrology and climate models. At this point, moss evaporation is not well quantified at the plot or landscape scale. Relative to bare soil or litter evaporation, moss evaporation can be challenging to predict because the water flux is not isolated to the moss surface. Evaporation can originate from nearly 10 cm below the surface. Some mosses can wick moisture from even deeper than 10 cm, which subsequently evaporates. The goal of this study was to use field measurements to quantify the moss evaporation dynamics in a coniferous forest relative to bare ground or litter evaporation dynamics in a deciduous forest in Interior Alaska. Measurements were made in two ecosystem types within the boreal forest of Interior Alaska: a deciduous forest devoid of moss and a coniferous forest with a thick moss layer. A small clear chamber was attached to a LiCor 840 infrared gas analyzer in a closed loop system with a low flow rate. Water fluxes were measured for ~ 90 seconds on each plot in dry and wet soil and moss conditions. Additional measurements included: soil temperature, soil moisture, air temperature, barometric pressure, dew point, relative humidity, and wind speed. Thermal infrared images were also captured in congruence with water flux measurements to determine skin temperature. We found that the moss evaporation rate was over 100% greater than the soil evaporation rate (0.057 g/min vs. 0.024 g/min), and evaporation rates in both systems were most strongly driven by relative humidity and surface temperature. Surface temperature was lower at the birch site than the black spruce site because trees shade the surface beneath the birch. High fluxes associated with high water content were sustained for a longer period of time over the mosses compared to the bare soil. The thermal IR data showed that skin temperature lagged the evaporation flux, such that the

  11. Aquatic mosses used as indicators and accumulators of metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cenci, R.M.

    2001-07-01

    Living organisms, especially vegetables, can be used to monitor environmental pollutants either as bio-indicators or bio-accumulators. This project, using aquatic mosses of the species Fontinalis antipyretica, allowed an accurate diagnosis of water quality in lakes and rivers, at the same time mosses accumulated great amounts of heavy metals. The results showed that Fontinalis antipyretica had the ability to accumulate great amounts of trace elements in a short time (few days and/or few weeks), whereas the release occurred in medium time (few months). Aquatic mosses, in a period of 28 days, accumulated a total mass, for all considered elements, of 4 g kg{sup -1} (dry weight).

  12. Similar Diversity of Alphaproteobacteria and Nitrogenase Gene Amplicons on Two Related Sphagnum Mosses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragina, Anastasia; Maier, Stefanie; Berg, Christian; Müller, Henry; Chobot, Vladimir; Hadacek, Franz; Berg, Gabriele

    2012-01-01

    Sphagnum mosses represent a main vegetation component in ombrotrophic wetlands. They harbor a specific and diverse microbial community with essential functions for the host. To understand the extend of host specificity and impact of environment, Sphagnum fallax and Sphagnum angustifolium, two phylogenetically closely related species, which show distinct habitat preference with respect to the nutrient level, were analyzed by a multifaceted approach. Microbial fingerprints obtained by PCR-single-strand conformation polymorphism of 16S rRNA and nitrogenase-encoding (nifH) genes were highly similar for both Sphagnum species. Similarity was confirmed for colonization patterns obtained by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) coupled with confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM): Alphaproteobacteria were the main colonizers inside the hyaline cells of Sphagnum leaves. A deeper survey of Alphaproteobacteria by 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing reveals a high diversity with Acidocella, Acidisphaera, Rhodopila, and Phenylobacterium as major genera for both mosses. Nitrogen fixation is an important function of Sphagnum-associated bacteria, which is fulfilled by microbial communities of Sphagna in a similar way. NifH libraries of Sphagnum-associated microbial communities were characterized by high diversity and abundance of Alphaproteobacteria but contained also diverse amplicons of other taxa, e.g., Cyanobacteria and Deltaproteobacteria. Statistically significant differences between the microbial communities of both Sphagnum species could not be discovered in any of the experimental approach. Our results show that the same close relationship, which exists between the physical, morphological, and chemical characteristics of Sphagnum mosses and the ecology and function of bog ecosystems, also connects moss plantlets with their associated bacterial communities. PMID:22294982

  13. Diagnosis of the socionic temperament of personality and creating a psychological portrait of the Western European SPA and wellness tourists in Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoyanova, Milena

    2017-03-01

    Human personality is a set of psychological characteristics that distinguishes it from others. However people can be classified as congenital personality types, interactions that are precisely defined. The aim of this article is to characterize the socionic temperament and psychological profile of the spa and wellness tourists in Bulgaria. The study is based on a survey of 460 tourists who visited Bulgarian spa centers in the summer and autumn of 2015.

  14. Distinguishing metal bioconcentration from particulate matter in moss tissue: Testing methods of removing particles attached to the moss surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spagnuolo, V.; Giordano, S. [Department of Biology, University of Naples Federico II, Via Cintia 4, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); Pérez-Llamazares, A.; Ares, A.; Carballeira, A.; Fernández, J.A. [Area de Ecología, Facultad de Biología, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Aboal, J.R., E-mail: jesusramon.aboal@usc.es [Area de Ecología, Facultad de Biología, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

    2013-10-01

    Accurate differentiation of the proportion of bioconcentrated metals (i.e. incorporated into cells) and the proportion that is not bioconcentrated (i.e. adsorbed at the surface) would lead to a better understanding of the uptake processes and would represent an advance in the use of mosses as biomonitors. Traditionally the methods used to remove contaminants that are not bioconcentrated were to wash the plant material with water or to apply the sequential elution technique, but nowadays both options are considered inaccurate for these purposes. The remaining possibilities are to clean the moss samples with a nitrogen jet or by power ultrasound. Samples of terrestrial moss Pseudoscleropodium purum (Hewd.) Fleisch. were collected from five sampling stations. Different nitrogen jet cleaning procedures and ultrasound cleaning procedures were applied to the mosses. To determine whether any of the treatments altered the membrane integrity of the moss samples, the concentrations of K were determined. The shoots were observed under a scanning electron microscope, and the size and number of particles were determined. Nitrogen jet cleaning was determined to be unacceptable because it damaged the phyllids and/or altered the membrane permeability and did not eliminate the particles from the moss surface. Moreover, ultrasound cleaning treatment should also discarded because of the loss of extracellular metals that are transferred to the water in which the moss is cleaned. - Highlights: • The cleaning of surface particles on mosses is an unresolved issue • The use of a nitrogen jet as cleaning procedure was ruled out • The use of ultrasound treatments as cleaning procedure was also discarded • Currently it is not possible to quantify the bioconcentrated metal fraction in mosses.

  15. Christo Deltshev & Pavel Stoev (eds (2006: European Arachnology 2005, Acta zoologica bulgaria, Suppl. No. 1; Proceedings of the 22nd European Colloquium of Arachnology, Blagoevgrad, Bulgaria, 1-6 August 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunz, Dirk

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available book review: Christo Deltshev & Pavel Stoev (eds (2006: European Arachnology 2005, Acta zoologica bulgaria, Suppl. No. 1; Proceedings of the 22nd European Colloquium of Arachnology, Blagoevgrad, Bulgaria, 1-6 August 2005

  16. Exposures to road traffic, noise, and air pollution as risk factors for type 2 diabetes: A feasibility study in Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzhambov, Angel M; Dimitrova, Donka D

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a growing public health problem in Bulgaria. While individual and lifestyle determinants have been researched; till date there has been no study on environmental risks such as road traffic, noise, and air pollution. As a first step toward designing a large-scale population-based survey, we aimed at exploring the overall associations of prevalent T2DM with exposures to road traffic, noise, and air pollution. A total of 513 residents of Plovdiv city, Bulgaria were recruited. Individual data on self-reported doctor-diagnosed T2DM and confounding factors were linked to objective and self-rated exposure indicators. Logistic and log-link Poisson regressions were conducted. In the fully adjusted logistic models, T2DM was positively associated with exposures to L(den) 71-80 dB (odds ratio (OR) = 4.49, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.38, 14.68), fine particulate matter (PM) 2.5 25.0-66.8 μg/m 3 (OR = 1.32, 95% CI: 0.28, 6.24), benzo alpha pyrene 6.0-14.02 ng/m 3 (OR = 1.76, 95% CI: 0.52, 5.98) and high road traffic (OR = 1.40, 95% CI: 0.48, 4.07). L(den) remained a significant risk factor in the: Poisson regression model. Other covariates with consistently high multivariate effects were age, gender, body mass index, family history of T2DM, subjective sleep disturbance, and especially bedroom location. We concluded that residential noise exposure might be associated with elevated risk of prevalent T2DM. The inferences made by this research and the lessons learned from its limitations could guide the designing of a longitudinal epidemiological survey in Bulgaria.

  17. Exposures to road traffic, noise, and air pollution as risk factors for type 2 diabetes: A feasibility study in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel M Dzhambov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is a growing public health problem in Bulgaria. While individual and lifestyle determinants have been researched; till date there has been no study on environmental risks such as road traffic, noise, and air pollution. As a first step toward designing a large-scale population-based survey, we aimed at exploring the overall associations of prevalent T2DM with exposures to road traffic, noise, and air pollution. A total of 513 residents of Plovdiv city, Bulgaria were recruited. Individual data on self-reported doctor-diagnosed T2DM and confounding factors were linked to objective and self-rated exposure indicators. Logistic and log-link Poisson regressions were conducted. In the fully adjusted logistic models, T2DM was positively associated with exposures to L den 71-80 dB (odds ratio (OR = 4.49, 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.38, 14.68, fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 25.0-66.8 μg/m 3 (OR = 1.32, 95% CI: 0.28, 6.24, benzo alpha pyrene 6.0-14.02 ng/m 3 (OR = 1.76, 95% CI: 0.52, 5.98 and high road traffic (OR = 1.40, 95% CI: 0.48, 4.07. L den remained a significant risk factor in the: Poisson regression model. Other covariates with consistently high multivariate effects were age, gender, body mass index, family history of T2DM, subjective sleep disturbance, and especially bedroom location. We concluded that residential noise exposure might be associated with elevated risk of prevalent T2DM. The inferences made by this research and the lessons learned from its limitations could guide the designing of a longitudinal epidemiological survey in Bulgaria.

  18. Mapping background values of atmospheric nitrogen total depositions in Germany based on EMEP deposition modelling and the European Moss Survey 2005; Kartierung der Hintergrundwerte atmosphaerischer Stickstoff-Gesamtdepositionen in Deutschland anhand von Daten des EMEP-Messnetzes und des ICP Vegetation Moos-Monitoring 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, Winfried; Holy, Marcel; Pesch, Roland [University of Vechta, Chair of Landscape Ecology, P.O.B. 1553, Vechta (Germany); Harmens, Harry [Environment Centre Wales, Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Bangor, Gwynedd (United Kingdom); Fagerli, Hilde [Norwegian Meteorological Institute, Meteorological Synthesizing Centre-West of EMEP, P.O. Box 43-Blindern, Oslo (Norway)

    2011-12-15

    In order to map exceedances of critical atmospheric deposition loads for nitrogen (N) surface data on the atmospheric deposition of N compounds to terrestrial ecosystems are needed. Across Europe such information is provided by the international European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP) in a resolution of 50 km by 50 km, relying on both emission data and measurement data on atmospheric depositions. The objective of the article at hand is on the improvement of the spatial resolution of the EMEP maps by combining them with data on the N concentration in mosses provided by the International Cooperative Programme on Effects of Air Pollution on Natural Vegetation and Crops (ICP Vegetation) of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution (LTRAP). Methods The map on atmospheric depositions of total N as modelled by EMEP was intersected with geostatistical surface estimations on the N concentration in mosses at a resolution of 5 km by 5 km. The medians of the N estimations in mosses were then calculated for each 50 km by 50 km grid cell. Both medians of moss estimations and corresponding modelled deposition values were ln-transformed and their relationship investigated and modelled by linear regression analysis. The regression equations were applied on the moss kriging estimates of the N concentration in mosses. The respective residuals were projected onto the centres of the EMEP grid cells and were mapped using variogram analysis and kriging procedures. Finally, the residual and the regression map were summed up to the map of total N deposition in terrestrial ecosystems throughout Europe. The regression analysis of the estimated N concentrations in mosses and the modelled EMEP depositions resulted in clear linear regression patterns with coefficients of determination of r{sup 2}=0.62 and Pearson correlations of r{sub p}=0.79 and Spearman correlations of r{sub s}=0.70, respectively. Regarding the German

  19. Assessment of trace metal air pollution in Paris using slurry-TXRF analysis on cemetery mosses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natali, Marco; Zanella, Augusto; Rankovic, Aleksandar; Banas, Damien; Cantaluppi, Chiara; Abbadie, Luc; Lata, Jean -Christophe

    2016-12-01

    Mosses are useful, ubiquitous accumulation biomonitors and as such can be used for biomonitoring surveys. However, the biomonitoring of atmospheric pollution can be compromised in urban contexts if the targeted biomonitors are regularly disturbed, irregularly distributed, or are difficult to access. Here, we test the hypothesis that cemeteries are appropriate moss sampling sites for the evaluation of air pollution in urban areas. We sampled mosses growing on gravestones in 21 urban and peri-urban cemeteries in the Paris metropolitan area. We focused on Grimmia pulvinata (Hedwig) Smith, a species abundantly found in all studied cemeteries and very common in Europe. The concentration of Al, As, Br, Ca, Ce, Cl, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mn, Ni, V, P, Pb, Rb, S, Sr, Ti, and Zn was determined by a total reflection X-ray fluorescence technique coupled with a slurry sampling method (slurry-TXRF). This method avoids a digestion step, reduces the risk of sample contamination, and works even at low sample quantities. Elemental markers of road traffic indicated that the highest polluted cemeteries were located near the highly frequented Parisian ring road and under the influence of prevailing winds. The sites with the lowest pollution were found not only in the peri-urban cemeteries, adjoining forest or farming landscapes, but also in the large and relatively wooded cemeteries located in the center of Paris. Our results suggest that (1) slurry-TXRF might be successfully used with moss material, (2) G. pulvinata might be a good biomonitor of trace metals air pollution in urban context, and (3) cemetery moss sampling could be a useful complement for monitoring urban areas. Graphical abstract We tested the hypothesis that cemeteries are appropriate moss sampling sites for the evaluation of air pollution in urban areas. We sampled 110 moss cushions (Grimmia pulvinata) growing on gravestones in 21 urban and peri-urban cemeteries in the Paris metropolitan area. The concentration of 20

  20. Ado Vabbe preemia laureaat on Rauno Thomas Moss / Indrek Grigor

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Grigor, Indrek

    2011-01-01

    2010. aasta Ado Vabbe preemia pälvinud Rauno Thomas Mossi loomingust, esinemisest näitustel. R. T. Moss on praegu TÜ semiootika ja maalikunsti osakonna õppejõud ning semiootika osakonna doktorant

  1. BOREAS HYD-08 1996 Gravimetric Moss Moisture Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Contains the HYD-08 weights of the dried moss samples. These weights do not include the weight of the tray in which the sample was contained. Contains the HYD-08...

  2. pupil initiatives in urban nature trail development: pmb moss

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    .ritzburg is provided. Negotiations and procedures initiated by standard 9 pupils in stimulating authorities and the public to recog~ nise the need for urban trail development and metropolitan open space. (MOSS) are outlined. long-tenn ...

  3. A New Moss Checklist of Negara Brunei Darussalam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Benito C.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A new moss checklist with updated nomenclature is given for the small country of Brunei Darussalam located in the northern part of Borneo. A total of 103 species in 50 genera are now collected and reported. The country’s moss flora is still very much undercollected, judging from our present results: (i the absence of cosmopolitan and common paleotropical species such as Bryum apiculatum Schwägr., Callicostella papillata (Mont. Mitt., Funaria hygrometrica Hedw., Isopterygium minutirameum (Müll. Hal. A. Jaegr., Octoblepharum albidum Hedw. and Philonotis hastata (Duby Wijk & Margad.; (ii the absence of widespread families such as Pottiaceae and Ditrichaceae; and (iii the under-representation of speciose genera such as Ectropothecium, Macromitrium, Thuidium and Trichosteleum, with only one species collected. The incompleteness of our knowledge of the moss flora makes it impossible to assess the country’s endangered moss species.

  4. A survey of the newborn populations in Belgium, Germany, Poland, Czech Republic, Hungary, Bulgaria, Spain, Turkey, and Japan for the G985 variant allele with haplotype analysis at the medium chain Acyl-CoA dehydrogenase gene locus: clinical and evolutionary consideration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, K; Gregersen, N; Ribes, A; Kim, J; Kølvraa, S; Winter, V; Eiberg, H; Martinez, G; Deufel, T; Leifert, B; Santer, R; François, B; Pronicka, E; László, A; Kmoch, S; Kremensky, I; Kalaydjicva, L; Ozalp, I; Ito, M

    1997-02-01

    Medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) deficiency is an inborn error of fatty acid metabolism. It is one of the most frequent genetic metabolic disorders among Caucasian children. The G985 allele represented 90% of all the variant alleles of the MCAD gene in an extensive series of retrospective studies. To study the distribution of the G985 allele, newborn blood samples from the following countries were tested; 3000 from Germany (1/116). 1000 each from Belgium (1/77). Poland (1/98), Czech Republic (1/240). Hungary (1/168), Bulgaria (1/91), Spain (1/141). Turkey (1/216), and 500 from Japan (none). The frequency is shown in parentheses. The haplotype of G985 alleles in 1 homozygote and 57 heterozygote samples were then analyzed using two intragenic MCAD gene polymorphisms (Iaq1 and GT-repeat). The result indicated that only 1 of the 10 known haplotypes was associated with the G985 mutation, suggesting that G985 was derived originally from a single ancestral source. We made a compilation of the G985 frequencies in these countries and those in nine other European countries studied previously. The G985 distribution was high in the area stretching from Russia to Bulgaria in the east and in all northern countries in western and middle Europe, but low in the southern part of western and middle Europe. The incidence among ethnic Basques appeared to be low. This distribution pattern and the fact that all G985 alleles belong to a single haplotype suggest that G985 mutation occurred later than the delta F508 mutation of the CFTR, possibly in the neolithic or in a later period, and was brought into Europe by IndoEuropean-speaking people. The panEuropean distribution of the G985 allele, including Slavic countries from which patients with MCAD deficiency have rarely been detected, indicates the importance of raising the level of awareness of this disease.

  5. The Moss Flora (Musci) of Ilgaz Mountain National Park

    OpenAIRE

    ABAY, Gökhan

    2003-01-01

    A list of mosses from the Ilgaz Mountain National Park which is an important area because of its location and floristic richness, is presented. A total of 109 taxa belonging to 56 genera and 21 families were found from 650 moss specimens collected between 1997 and 2000. Among them, 15 taxa are new records for the A2 grid square according to the system of Henderson & Prentice (1969).

  6. The moss flora in the central urban area of Belgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grdović Svetlana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In floristic research on mosses in the central urban area of Belgrade, the presence of 58 species classified into 23 genera and 12 families was verified. The mosses occur in different specific and extreme microhabitats. Diversity of the bryoflora in urban ecosystems can be explained in terms of the large number of different habitats found on large greens, old fortress ruins, and roofs, as well as in gardens in the center of the Old Town.

  7. 76 FR 50283 - Finding Regarding Foreign Social Insurance or Pension System-Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-12

    ... ADMINISTRATION Finding Regarding Foreign Social Insurance or Pension System-- Bulgaria AGENCY: Social Security Administration (SSA). ACTION: Notice of finding regarding foreign social insurance or pension system--Bulgaria... Commissioner of Social Security finds has in effect a social insurance or pension system which is of general...

  8. New Data on the Vertical Distribution of Some Species of the Flora in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Tashev

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available During field studies in different floristic regions of Bulgaria in the period 2006-2013, we found localities of Stellaria alsine, Trifolium heldreichianum, Koeleria nitidula, Sieglingia decumbens, Stipa tirsa, Verbascum formanekii, Pedicularis leucodon, Saxifraga stribrnyi, Inula aschersoniana and Scilla bifolia that expand our knowledge of the vertical distribution of these species in Bulgaria, and hence their ecological niche in the country.

  9. HEPATITIS B INFECTION IN EASTERN REGIONS OF BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatina T. Todorova

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bulgaria is a country of moderate endemicity for hepatitis B infection with 3-7% of the general population chronically infected with the virus. Since 1991, an obligatory vaccination has been implemented for all healthy newborns. As a result, twenty years later, hepatitis B prevalence is significantly reduced but viral hepatitides still represent an important public health problem that needs to be addressed especially in some ethno-religious and regional groups. Purpose: No recent published data are available about hepatitis B circulation in Bulgaria and in its Eastern part particularly. In the current study, we analyze the epidemiological data on hepatitis B cases in easternmost Bulgarian regions and try to determine the possible risk, which the infection poses to public health in these regions. Material/Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis (2008-2014 using epidemiological data from the National surveillance system for hepatitis B notification. Results: The incidence of acute hepatitis B in all considered regions has been durably decreasing for the last seven years: while in 2014 its total value was 9,69%000, in 2014 it reached a minimal rate of 3,09%000. We found that young individuals in their 20s years (the borderline generation before and after implementation of mandatory vaccination are most vulnerable to hepatitis B. South regions are also more affected by hepatitis B infection when compared with regions on the North. Conclusions: We reported a stable downward trend in the incidence of hepatitis B infection in all studied regions of Bulgaria. This result can be directly linked with the presence of effective vaccination program at national level.

  10. EMERGENCY PATIENTS RIGHTS AND DIGNITY IN BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desislava Todorova

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In addition to the emergency medical services the victims of various disasters and accidents need to keep their dignity as human beings. Dignity is a term used in morals and ethics to designate that people have the right to be respected and treated ethically. Providers of emergency medical services perform their activities in compliance with the rules of good medical practices while keeping professional secrecy and observing patient rights. Patient rights and in particular moral rights ensure respect for patients’ lives and dignity in the health care system. The aim of the research is to study the ethical dilemma of saving patients’ lives and protecting their dignity in cases of emergency. The purpose of the survey is to study the medical, ethical and legal aspects of the issue. A documentary method of collection data from scientific sources is used with regard to the different aspects of the topic. In a number of cases during their routine medical practice, especially in emergencies, medical experts have to make their choice of medical behavior – whether it has to comply with ethics or law. Making the right decision and choice of behavior depends on the moral values, professional training, knowledge of legal requirements and personal qualities of the relevant medical professional. One should always take into account that protecting victims’ dignity is especially important in emergencies when they feel most vulnerable.

  11. The Complete Moss Mitochondrial Genome in the Angiosperm Amborella Is a Chimera Derived from Two Moss Whole-Genome Transfers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Z Nathan; Rice, Danny W; Palmer, Jeffrey D

    2015-01-01

    Sequencing of the 4-Mb mitochondrial genome of the angiosperm Amborella trichopoda has shown that it contains unprecedented amounts of foreign mitochondrial DNA, including four blocks of sequences that together correspond almost perfectly to one entire moss mitochondrial genome. This implies whole-genome transfer from a single moss donor but conflicts with phylogenetic results from an earlier, PCR-based study that suggested three different moss donors to Amborella. To resolve this conflict, we conducted an expanded set of phylogenetic analyses with respect to both moss lineages and mitochondrial loci. The moss DNA in Amborella was consistently placed in either of two positions, depending on the locus analyzed, as sister to the Ptychomniales or within the Hookeriales. This agrees with two of the three previously suggested donors, whereas the third is no longer supported. These results, combined with synteny analyses and other considerations, lead us to favor a model involving two successive moss-to-Amborella whole-genome transfers, followed by recombination that produced a single intact and chimeric moss mitochondrial genome integrated in the Amborella mitochondrial genome. Eight subsequent recombination events account for the state of fragmentation, rearrangement, duplication, and deletion of this chimeric moss mitochondrial genome as it currently exists in Amborella. Five of these events are associated with short-to-intermediate sized repeats. Two of the five probably occurred by reciprocal homologous recombination, whereas the other three probably occurred in a non-reciprocal manner via microhomology-mediated break-induced replication (MMBIR). These findings reinforce and extend recent evidence for an important role of MMBIR in plant mitochondrial DNA evolution.

  12. The role of multinational enterprises for regional development in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaloyan KOLEV

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers a comprehensive and balanced assessment of the spatial distribution and significance of MNEs activities for the development of regions in Bulgaria. Comprehensive official data and large business samples of foreign affiliates show that the MNEs impact is controversial as benefits are unevenly distributed across regions. The paper states that MNEs activities are not only one of the most important vehicles of local development, but also a factor in extending regional disparities in production, income and living conditions. Possible explanations could be found in the motives and structure of attracted FDI, lagging national development, low absorption capacity of regions and inadequate government policy towards FDI

  13. Diversity of earthworms (Clitellata: Lumbricidae from Sredna Gora Mountain (Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valchovski, H.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the current study the diversity, zoogeographical position and distribution of earthworms from Sredna Gora Mountain (Bulgaria is presented. During the present investigation, altogether ten earthworm species belonging to seven genera were collected. Among them, seven taxa are reported for the first time from the Sredna Gora Mt.: Cernosvitovia rebeli, Dendrobaena alpina, Allolobophoridella eiseni, Dendrodrilus rubidus rubidus, Aporrectodea caliginosa, Aporrectodea rosea and Lumbricus terrestris. On the basis of the new and literature data here we provide the first list of lumbricid earthworms from Sredna Gora Mountain.

  14. The design of the Bulgaria rad waste repository; Diseno del centro de almacenamiento de residuos radiactivos de Bulgaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefonova, I.; Petrov, I.; Navarro, M.; Sanchez, M.; Medinilla, G.

    2012-11-01

    In October 2011 a consortium composed by Westinghouse Engineering Spain SAU, ENRESA and DBE Technology GmbH was awarded a contract for the design of the Bulgaria rad waste repository. The facility, inspired in the spanish centre of El Cabril owned by ENRESA, will consist of a 66 reinforced concrete cells surface repository capable of receiving 18600 already conditioned waste containers of 20 t each, during 60 years, and the related auxiliary facilities and buildings. The project, representing a challenge because of the schedule and required level of detail, goes on fulfilling main milestones and getting customer satisfaction. (Author)

  15. Aphids (Hemiptera, Aphididae) on ornamental plants in greenhouses in Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yovkova, Mariya; Petrović-Obradović, Olivera; Tasheva-Terzieva, Elena; Pencheva, Aneliya

    2013-01-01

    Investigations on the species composition and host range of aphids on ornamental greenhouse plants in Bulgaria was conducted over a period of five years, from 2008 to 2012. Twenty greenhouses, growing ornamentals for landscaping, plant collections and other purposes were observed. They were located in the regions of Sofia, Plovdiv, Smolyan, Pavlikeni, Varna and Burgas. The total number of collected aphid samples was 279. Their composition included 33 aphid species and one subspecies from 13 genera and 5 subfamilies. Twenty-eight species were found to belong to subfamily Aphidinae. Almost 70 % of all recorded species were polyphagous. The most widespread aphid species was Myzus persicae, detected in 13 greenhouses all year round, followed by Aulacorthum solani (10 greenhouses) and Aphis gossypii (9 greenhouses). The widest host range was shown by Myzus persicae (43 hosts), Aulacorthum solani (32 hosts) and Aulacorthum circumflexum (23 hosts). The list of host plants includes 114 species from 95 genera and 58 families. The greatest variety of aphid species was detected on Hibiscus (9 species). Out of all aphid samples 12.9 % were collected on Hibiscus and 6.8 %, on Dendranthema. The greatest variety of aphid species was detected on Hibiscus (9 species). Periphyllus californiensis and Aphis (Aphis) fabae mordvilkoi are reported for the first time for Bulgaria. Furthermore, Aphis spiraecola has been found in new localities and has widened its host range in this country.

  16. Derecho-like event in Bulgaria on 20 July 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gospodinov, Ilian; Dimitrova, Tsvetelina; Bocheva, Lilia; Simeonov, Petio; Dimitrov, Rumen

    2015-05-01

    In this work we analyze the development of a severe-convective-storm system in northwestern Bulgaria on 20 July 2011 which exhibited derecho-like characteristics. Prior to this event, a derecho had never been documented in Bulgaria. The convective system was associated with a cold front. We present a synoptic-scale analysis of the evolution of the cold front and an overview of the wind and the damage that has occurred in the region with the strongest impact. The convective system consisted of two multi-cell thunderstorms that are analyzed in some detail, based on radar data. The two storms merged and the convective system evolved into a bow-shape reflectivity structure with two rear inflow notches. The analysis of the radar data revealed cloud top heights of 17 km, with the formation of а bounded weak echo region, a maximum radar reflectivity factor of 63 dBZ, and wind speeds above 30 m/s. The field investigation revealed patterns in the damaged crops typical of strong wind gusts.

  17. A clinical and educational telemedicine link between Bulgaria and Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anogianakis, George; Ilonidis, George; Anogeianaki, Antonia; Milliaras, Spyros; Klisarova, Anelia; Temelkov, Temel; Vlachakis-Milliaras, Emmanuel

    2004-01-01

    During its transition to a free economy, Bulgaria benefited from foreign aid provided by Greece. One of the projects was the clinical and educational telemedicine link between the Medical University of Varna in Bulgaria and the Faculty of Medicine of Aristotle University of Thessaloniki in Greece. This began in 1997. In terms of the educational activities, the Bulgarian side of the network supports (a) electronic design and publishing activities, (b) web hosting and mail server activities and (c) satellite communications. In addition it supports an electronic classroom equipped with personal workstations, multimedia projectors and videoconference facilities. Communications are via the ISDN network. In terms of its telemedicine activities, the network provides remote medical assistance to "language handicapped" travellers and to migrant workers in both countries. The main clinical experience is remote consultations in immunology. This admittedly limited experience demonstrates that telemedicine can be used to provide assistance to remote colleagues. In cases where the patient cannot communicate with the attending physician, the use of telemedicine can greatly improve the quality of care available to travellers and migrant workers.

  18. V. F. Gening and problems of the Volga Bulgaria archaeology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudenko Konstantin A.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available V.F. Gening’s contribution to the study of the Volga Bulgaria and his views concerning the history and archaeology of this state formation are considered in the article. His sphere of interest first of all included the links between the Volga Bulgaria population and the tribes belonging to preceding cultures, such as Pyanoborye and Imenkovo ones. V.F. Gening investigated the Bolshie Tarkhany, Turaevo and Rozdestveno burial grounds dated by the 8-9th, 5th and 6-7th centuries A.D., and the materials collected modified the notion of the time and character of the Bulgars arrival in the Volga area. He reconsidered the chronology and interpretation of the archaeological monuments, which referred to the epoch preceding the Bulgars appearance on the Volga, and proposed a hypothesis of the Volga Bulgars as a Turkic-Ugrian ethnos. V.F. Gening created a periodization of the Bolgars history in Eastern Europe within the time span between 1st-3rd centuries AD and the early 13th century AD

  19. Chemical and structural characterization of copper adsorbed on mosses (Bryophyta)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    González, Aridane G., E-mail: aridaneglez@gmail.com [GET (Géosciences Environnement Toulouse) UMR 5563CNRS, 14 Avenue Edouard Belin, F-31400 Toulouse (France); Jimenez-Villacorta, Felix [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales Madrid, CSIC, Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Beike, Anna K. [Plant Biotechnology, Faculty of Biology, University of Freiburg, Schaenzlestrasse 1, 79104 Freiburg (Germany); State Museum of Natural History Stuttgart, Rosenstein 1, 70191 Stuttgart (Germany); Reski, Ralf [Plant Biotechnology, Faculty of Biology, University of Freiburg, Schaenzlestrasse 1, 79104 Freiburg (Germany); BIOSS—Centre for Biological Signalling Studies, 79104 Freiburg (Germany); FRIAS—Freiburg Institute for Advanced Studies, 79104 Freiburg (Germany); Adamo, Paola [Department of Agricultural Sciences, University of Naples Federico II, Via Università 100, 80055 Naples (Italy); Pokrovsky, Oleg S. [GET (Géosciences Environnement Toulouse) UMR 5563CNRS, 14 Avenue Edouard Belin, F-31400 Toulouse (France); BIO-GEO-CLIM Laboratory, Tomsk State University, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Institute of Ecological Problems of the North, Russian Academy of Science, Arkhangelsk (Russian Federation)

    2016-05-05

    Highlights: • Cu{sup 2+} was adsorbed on four mosses used in moss-bag pollution monitoring technique. • Thermodynamic approach was used to model Cu speciation based on XAS results. • All studied mosses have ∼4.5 O/N atoms at ∼1.95 Å around Cu likely in a pseudo-square geometry. • Cu(II)-carboxylates and Cu(II)-phosphoryls are the main moss surface binding groups. • Moss growing in batch reactor yielded ∼20% of Cu(I) in the form of Cu–S(CN) complexes. - Abstract: The adsorption of copper on passive biomonitors (devitalized mosses Hypnum sp., Sphagnum denticulatum, Pseudoscleropodium purum and Brachythecium rutabulum) was studied under different experimental conditions such as a function of pH and Cu concentration in solution. Cu assimilation by living Physcomitrella patents was also investigated. Molecular structure of surface adsorbed and incorporated Cu was studied by X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS). Devitalized mosses exhibited the universal adsorption pattern of Cu as a function of pH, with a total binding sites number 0.05–0.06 mmolg{sub dry}{sup −1} and a maximal adsorption capacity of 0.93–1.25 mmolg{sub dry}{sup −1} for these devitalized species. The Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) fit of the first neighbor demonstrated that for all studied mosses there are ∼4.5 O/N atoms around Cu at ∼1.95 Å likely in a pseudo-square geometry. The X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES) analysis demonstrated that Cu(II)-cellulose (representing carboxylate groups) and Cu(II)-phosphate are the main moss surface binding moieties, and the percentage of these sites varies as a function of solution pH. P. patens exposed during one month to Cu{sup 2+} yielded ∼20% of Cu(I) in the form of Cu–S(CN) complexes, suggesting metabolically-controlled reduction of adsorbed and assimilated Cu{sup 2+}.

  20. Cloning and characterization of micro-RNAs from moss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arazi, Tzahi; Talmor-Neiman, Mali; Stav, Ran; Riese, Maike; Huijser, Peter; Baulcombe, David C

    2005-09-01

    Micro-RNAs (miRNAs) are one class of endogenous tiny RNAs that play important regulatory roles in plant development and responses to external stimuli. To date, miRNAs have been cloned from higher plants such as Arabidopsis, rice and pumpkin, and there is limited information on their identity in lower plants including Bryophytes. Bryophytes are among the oldest groups of land plants among the earth's flora, and are important for our understanding of the transition to life on land. To identify miRNAs that might have played a role early in land plant evolution, we constructed a library of small RNAs from the juvenile gametophyte (protonema) of the moss Physcomitrella patens. Sequence analysis revealed five higher plant miRNA homologues, including three members of the miR319 family, previously shown to be involved in the regulation of leaf morphogenesis, and miR156, which has been suggested to regulate several members of the SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING-LIKE (SPL) family in Arabidopsis. We have cloned PpSBP3, a moss SPL homologue that contains an miR156 complementary site, and demonstrated that its mRNA is cleaved within that site suggesting that it is an miR156 target in moss. Six additional candidate moss miRNAs were identified and shown to be expressed in the gametophyte, some of which were developmentally regulated or upregulated by auxin. Our observations suggest that miRNAs play important regulatory roles in mosses.

  1. Mosses, a necessary step for perennial plant dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiaffredo, M. [MCK Environnement (France); Denayer, F.O. [Faculte des Sciences Pharmaceutiques de Lille, Laboratoire de Botanique et de Cryptogamie (France)

    2004-07-01

    Green roofs have the potential to fulfill the requirements of several important ecological functions such as regulating rainwater; creating surfaces of ecological compensation; reducing the greenhouse effect,; improving air quality and reducing noise pollution. This paper described the advantages of both intensive and extensive green roof systems. Intensive green roofs refer to those in which a real garden is planted with bushes and possibly trees. A significant depth of substrate is needed in intensive green roofs, leading to higher construction and maintenance costs. Extensive green roofs refer to those in which rustic drought resistant plants are planted in only a shallow layer of substrate. Extensive green roofs do not require fertilization or watering and do not require much upkeep. Observations at a terraced and waterproofed roof that was planted 15 years ago showed that mosses and sedum grow well in gravel without human intervention. This paper reviewed the important ecological role that mosses play in terms of carbon fixation, nitrogen fixation, effects on vascular plants, water relations and soil stabilization. It was concluded that mosses are well suited for lands where colonization is particularly difficult. Mosses were shown to be among the first colonizers of mineral soils. Moss mats reduce substrate temperature fluctuations and moisture loss, while contributing to pedogenesis and plant succession. They also grow successfully in harsh environments, and can tolerate repeated cycles of drought and rehydration. 34 refs.

  2. International Commercial Contracts, by Giuditta Cordero Moss. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2014)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lando, Ole

    2015-01-01

    Review of: Giuditta Cordero Moss, International Commercial Contracts. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2014. XV + 329 pages. ISBN: 9781107684713......Review of: Giuditta Cordero Moss, International Commercial Contracts. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2014. XV + 329 pages. ISBN: 9781107684713...

  3. Preliminary Results on the Phytophagous Insect Fauna on Onopordum acanthium (Asteraceae in Bulgaria

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    Vili Harizanova

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Scotch thistle, Onopordum acanthium (Asteraceae has the Eurasian origin and represents an invasive weed in the USA and Australia. It is a serious problem in pastures,along roadsides, rangeland, etc. The weed is very common in Bulgaria and in 2009-2010several sites with large populations of O. acanthium have been located. The weekly surveys of some of the sites, mainly in the region of Plovdiv, revealed a significant diversity of phytophagous insect species, some of which had very high population density.More than 30 species have already been identified and observations on the phenology and biology of some of them have been conducted. For some of the species, such as endophagous Larinus latus, Lixus cardui, Eublemma amoena, Trichosirocalus briesei, or ectophagous Cassida rubiginosa etc. found during our surveys, there are reports in the literature describing them as having been already introduced as successful biocontrol agents in Australia. Endophagous species like lepidopteran Myelois circumvoluta and Pyroderces argyrogrammos which feed on the stems and the head, and the tephritid flies ephritis postica and Chaetostomella cylindrica which feed on the capitula, seem quite destructive for the weed, but need to be further studied regarding host specificity. Species like Vanessacardui and Brachycaudus cardui were found regularly, but in low population density, mainly due to the high rate of parasitism.

  4. Two Records of large specimens of Fire Salamander Salamandra salamandra (Linnaeus, 1758 (Amphibia: Caudata in Bulgaria

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    ALEXANDER PULEV

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Two particularly large specimens of Fire Salamander have been registered in southwestern Bulgaria in late winter/early spring. Both of them are adult females with total body length 231 mm, and 219 mm. The two specimens recorded are the largest ones found in Bulgaria so far. Their dimensions are impressive for the entire range of the species. Both specimens have been found during the day in a sunny and dry weather, which has not been registered by other researchers in the cold half of the year in Bulgaria. The winter activity of the species has been confirmed.

  5. Culturable bacteria in hydroponic cultures of moss Racomitrium japonicum and their potential as biofertilizers for moss production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tani, Akio; Akita, Motomu; Murase, Haruhiko; Kimbara, Kazuhide

    2011-07-01

    The use of Racomitrium japonicum, a drought resistant bryophyte used for roof-greening, is gradually increasing. However, its utilization is hampered by slow growth rate. Here we isolated culturable bacteria from hydroponic cultivation samples to identify isolates that could promote moss growth. Most of the isolates belonged to Pseudomonas, Rhodococcus, and Duganella species. The isolates were biochemically characterized according to their type of interaction with plants, i.e., production of auxin, siderophores, or hydrogen cyanate, growth in the absence of an added nitrogen source, calcium phosphate solubilization, utilization of sugars, polymers, or aliphatic compounds, and antifungal activity. The isolates were applied to sterile protonemata and non-sterile adult gametophytes of R. japonicum to evaluate their effect on plant growth. Furthermore, we isolated fungi that inhibited moss growth. Our results suggest that the microbial community structure in hydroponic cultures is important to stabilize moss production and the isolates that promote moss growth have potential to be utilized as biofertilizers for moss production. Copyright © 2011 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The nature of moss and lower atmospheric seismology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pontieu, B; Erdélyi, R

    2006-02-15

    The discovery of so-called solar 'moss', i.e. dynamic and bright upper transition region emission at chromospheric heights above active region plage, provides a novel diagnostic to probe the structure, dynamics, energetics and coupling of the magnetized solar chromosphere and transition region. We briefly review observations of the morphology and connectivity in the low solar atmosphere, with a particular focus on the propagation of oscillations and waves in the moss. We also present recent work that combines moss observations and numerical modelling, and which sheds light on the (quasi-periodic) formation of dynamic jets (spicules), and the propagation of normally evanescent oscillations into the corona. We also briefly explore how coronal oscillations could be exploited to determine the connectivity between photosphere and corona, i.e. perform seismology of the lower solar atmosphere.

  7. Anatomical structure of moss leaves and their photosynthetic activity

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    Jan Krupa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The photosynthetic activity of the leaf area unit increases depending on the degree of differentiation of the anatomical structure of the leaves of six chosen moss species. There is a correlation between the leaf area and the degree of differentiation of the anatomical structure resulting in enlargement of the area of contact of the assimilating cells with air. The leaves of Catharinea undulata having a one-layer blade and provided with several lamellae show a higher photosynthesis per 1 cm2 of their surface than the one-layer leaves of Mniurnm or Funaria. Aloina leaves are the smallest in area among those of the moss species discussed, however, their photosynthetic rate is almost 4.5 times higher than in Funaria leaves. By analogy to the structure of leaves and their function in vascular, plants, these changes and correlations may be considered as attempts of primeval adaptation of mosses to terrestrial conditions of living.

  8. Elemental atmospheric pollution assessment via moss-based measurements in Portland, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demetrios Gatziolis; Sarah Jovan; Geoffrey Donovan; Michael Amacher; Vicente Monleon

    2016-01-01

    Mosses accumulate pollutants from the atmosphere and can serve as an inexpensive screening tool for mapping air quality and guiding the placement of monitoring instruments. We measured 22 elements using 346 moss samples collected across Portland, Oregon, in December 2013. Our objectives were to develop citywide maps showing concentrations of each element in moss and...

  9. Unmanned aerial optical systems for spatial monitoring of Antarctic mosses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucieer, Arko; Turner, Darren; Veness, Tony; Malenovsky, Zbynek; Harwin, Stephen; Wallace, Luke; Kelcey, Josh; Robinson, Sharon

    2013-04-01

    The Antarctic continent has experienced major changes in temperature, wind speed and stratospheric ozone levels during the last 50 years. In a manner similar to tree rings, old growth shoots of Antarctic mosses, the only plants on the continent, also preserve a climate record of their surrounding environment. This makes them an ideal bio-indicator of the Antarctic climate change. Spatially extensive ground sampling of mosses is laborious and time limited due to the short Antarctic growing season. Obviously, there is a need for an efficient method to monitor spatially climate change induced stress of the Antarctic moss flora. Cloudy weather and high spatial fragmentation of the moss turfs makes satellite imagery unsuitable for this task. Unmanned aerial systems (UAS), flying at low altitudes and collecting image data even under a full overcast, can, however, overcome the insufficiency of satellite remote sensing. We, therefore, developed scientific UAS, consisting of a remote-controlled micro-copter carrying on-board different remote sensing optical sensors, tailored to perform fast and cost-effective mapping of Antarctic flora at ultra-high spatial resolution (1-10 cm depending on flight altitude). A single lens reflex (SLR) camera carried by UAS acquires multi-view aerial photography, which processed by the Structure from Motion computer vision algorithm provides an accurate three-dimensional digital surface model (DSM) at ultra-high spatial resolution. DSM is the key input parameter for modelling a local seasonal snowmelt run-off, which provides mosses with the vital water supply. A lightweight multispectral camera on-board of UVS is collecting images of six selected spectral wavebands with the full-width-half-maximum (FWHM) of 10 nm. The spectral bands can be used to compute various vegetation optical indices, e.g. Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) or Photochemical Reflectance Index (PRI), assessing the actual physiological state of polar vegetation. Recently

  10. Rediscovery of the epiphytic moss Ulota coarctata (Orthotrichaceae in Poland

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    Plášek Vítězslav

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Ulota coarctata (P. Beauv. Hammar was recently collected in Poland after more than half a century. This epiphytic moss was found at four localities in the Pojezierze Lubuskie lakeland in the western part of the country. Its diagnostic features are briefly presented, its habitat requirements are considered, the historical and recent findings of the species in Poland are discussed, and its distribution is mapped. It is suggested that the species status should be changed from ‘endangered’ to ‘critically endangered’ on the red list of mosses in Poland.

  11. Epiphytic Moss as a Biomonitor for Nitrogen Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolfe, T.; Deakova, T.; Shortlidge, E.; Rao, M.; Rosenstiel, T. N.; Rice, A. L.; George, L. A.

    2014-12-01

    Tracking nitrogen (N) deposition patterns is important for understanding how anthropogenic sources of nitrogen affect natural habitats, human health, and for evaluating computer models of future N deposition. It can also aid in tracking and modeling anthropogenic fossil fuel emissions. This pilot study investigated the use of Orthotrichum lyellii, a common urban epiphytic moss, as a possible bioindicator for N deposition through the analysis of total moss N content and N isotopic fractionation ( δ15N) for evaluating N sources. In the spring/summer of 2013 we collected 168 O. lyellii samples from the trunks of deciduous trees in 53 locations in the Portland metropolitan area. In the winter of 2013-14, we resampled the same locations to investigate the effect of seasonality. The averaged summer moss N content were plotted against a land use regression model (LUR) developed by taking NOx samples from 144 sites in the Portland area within the Urban Growth Boundary. The correlation between moss N and modeled NO2 was found to be significant at p moss samples N content ranged between 0.71% and 3.36% (mean of 1.87%), the δ15N ranged -8.97‰ and 11.78‰ (mean of -0.91‰). Moss winter N content ranged between .77% and 3.12% (mean of 1.71%), and the δ15N ranged -10.40‰ and 10.27‰ (mean of -3.73‰). The average values for %N and δ15N fall within the range of previous studies in other moss samples, however the maximum values are higher than what other studies have typically found for both %N and δ15N. A significant correlation between δ15N and %N was found (r = 0.67). The moss samples showed a similar pattern of higher N content and δ15N near the urban center decreasing with distance from major roadways and other significant sources of fossil fuel derived NOx. These results indicated the sensitivity of O.lyellii to N and the potential for its use as a biomonitor. With sufficient sampling density, using O. lyellii as an inexpensive biomonitor to evaluate local

  12. Scenarios of energy demand and efficiency potential for Bulgaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tzvetanov, P.; Ruicheva, M.; Denisiev, M.

    1996-12-31

    The paper presents aggregated results on macroeconomic and final energy demand scenarios developed within the Bulgarian Country Study on Greenhouse Gas Emissions Mitigation, supported by US Country Studies Program. The studies in this area cover 5 main stages: (1) {open_quotes}Baseline{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}Energy Efficiency{close_quotes} socioeconomic and energy policy philosophy; (2) Modeling of macroeconomic and sectoral development till 2020; (3) Expert assessments on the technological options for energy efficiency increase and GHG mitigation in the Production, Transport and Households and Services Sectors; (4) Bottom-up modeling of final energy demand; and (5) Sectoral and overall energy efficiency potential and policy. Within the Bulgarian Country Study, the presented results have served as a basis for the final integration stage {open_quotes}Assessment of the Mitigation Policy and Measures in the Energy System of Bulgaria{close_quotes}.

  13. ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF STATE AND DEVELOMENT OF BEEKEEPING IN BULGARIA

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    Vasko KOPRIVLENSKI

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze the trends and development of Bulgarian beekeeping. The study is based on official statistical data of the Ministry of Agriculture and Food and fieldwork study for the period 2009-2012. To achieve the above aim, first of all, the authors trance the changes in the production of honey until 2012 and second they analyze the distribution of farms according the number of bee colonies and prophylactic methods of their feeding up. In addition, in study was revealed the reasons for distribution of the bee colonies and identified the important problems facing the sector in term of the legislation, protection of the bee colonies, the control of the importing the queen bees and market development of the bee products. The one of main results of the study showed that the number of bee colonies in the country decrease even highly expert-oriented production of honey in Bulgaria.

  14. Chromosome study of three species of Dormice from Bulgaria

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    Daniel Peshev

    1995-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The karyotypes of three species of dormice were studied. The fat dormouse Myoxus glis is reported with 2n=62. The forest dormouse Dryomys nitedula has 2n=48 and the hazel dormouse Muscardinus avellanarius is reported with 2n=46. A secondary constriction is well visible in all three species. Riassunto Studio cromosomico di tre specie di Mioxidi in Bulgaria - Sono stati studiati i cariotipi di tre specie di mioxidi. M. glis è caratterizzato da 2n=62, D. nitedula da 2n=48 e M. avellanarius da 2n=46. Una costrizione secondaria è ben visibile in tutte e tre le specie.

  15. POLLEN MORPHOLOGY OF CROCUS L.(IRIDACEAE IN BULGARIA

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    UZUNDZHALIEVA KATYA SPASOVA

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The pollen of the wild species from the genus Crocus L., spread in Bulgaria has been analyzed. The investigations, made by light microscope show that the pollen of these species is spherical in shape and round in outlines, comparatively big. These morphological characteristics of the pollen of the wild Bulgarian Crocuses define it as a primitive one [6]. The Scanning Electron Microscope investigations, made by Beug [1], established two types of pollen morphology. The results of our investigation led to the conclusion that the same types are also presented in Bulgarian species: – C.biflorus –type, or syncolpate and C.vernus – type, or inaperturate. Eight of the species belong to the first type and only C. pallasii belongs to the second. The pollen of C. reticulatus is with quite unclear aperture – maybe transition to the inaperturate type.

  16. Searching a biomedical bibliographic database from Bulgaria: the ABS database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abhijnhan, Akhil; Surcheva, Zhenya; Wright, Judy; Adams, Clive E

    2007-09-01

    The University of Sofia, Bulgaria, disseminates local biomedical literature (1994 to present) through a free online database, ABS. Our objectives were to systematically search ABS, identify citations to controlled trials and discover what proportion of these studies are to be found on medline. We searched using Bulgarian and English phrases; manually selected citations of controlled trials and sought these citations on medline. Using the two languages, we found a total of 628 unique citations, 47 of which seem to be relevant controlled trials (precision 7.48%, 13% of ABS citations were found on medline). The trials in ABS commonly focused on evaluation of care for people with cardiovascular or urological problems. ABS is another source of easily accessed trials not readily available elsewhere.

  17. Tobacco Industry interference in TAPS policy making in Bulgaria

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    Pavel P Antonov

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco industry (TI has a powerful grasp of politics and the media in Bulgaria, but there is limited knowledge of its methods and communication messages. To explore and analyse them, we are using a recent case from the policy advocacy practice of the Smoke-free Life Coalition, ENSP member in Bulgaria. A mixed social research methodology was employed, involving: a case study; qualitative content analysis of documented communication; ethnographic participant observation; and semi-structured interviews with TAPS advocacy campaigners, policy makers and TI representatives, in the action research tradition. The case study analyses TI reaction to a surprising proposal for a complete ban of tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship, submitted to Bulgaria’s Parliament in November 2016 – and consecutively withdrawn. Being involved in all stages of the case and present at meetings between TI and MPs enables the researchers to gather rich information and analyse it, to cast light on: the methods for successful interference with democratic decision making, applied by industry representatives; the specific communication messages and arguments they employ to suppress smoke-free legislation. The paper observes how TI speculates with the interests of different groups, affected by and involved in its operations, to successfully contradict health concerns voiced by MPs. Democratically elected representatives appear unable to uphold the social and health interests of their voters and succumb to TI priorities. The paper concludes that a pro-industry discourse, which favours corporate incomes over concerns for people’s health and life, dominates democratic decision making mechanisms in Bulgaria’s post-socialist political landscape. Funding The Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases

  18. Genetic heterogeneity of polycystic kidney disease in Bulgaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogdanova, N. [Faculty of Medicine, Sofia (Bulgaria)]|[Westfaelische Wihelms-Universitaet, Muenster (Germany); Dragova, D.; Kalaydiieva, L. [Faculty of Medicine, Sofia (Bulgaria)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is a common genetic disorder whose frequency in Bulgaria has been estimated at 1 in 950. One gene (PKD1) causing this disease has been mapped to the short arm of chromosome 16 in 1985. Linkage analysis showed that in a considerable proportion of PKD families (approximately 14% in Europe) the disease is not linked to this locus, suggesting the existance of mutations in additional genes. In 1993 a PKD2-gene has been mapped to the long arm of chromosome 4. Here we report data of the first extensive investigation of PKD in Bulgaria. Initially 35 families with 341 individuals (178 affected, 89 unaffected family members, 74 spouses) were included in the study. Clinical diagnosis, mainly based on ultrasonographic examination of the kidneys, has been performed for all individuals. Linkage analysis was performed on 22 large pedigrees with microsatellites 16SC2.5 (D16S291) and SM7 (D16S283), which are closely linked to the PKD1 locus, as well as microsatellites D4S392, D4S400, D4S231 (proximal to the PDK2 locus) and D4S423, D4S414, D4S411 (distal to PKD2 locus). The study showed that the disease is caused in 14 families by mutations within the PKD1 gene and was clearly linked to the PDK2 locus in 5 families. In 3 families no clear conclusions about the linkage could be reached and analysis of additional markers from this region is in progress. The investigation has revealed the highest proportion of PKD2 families reported so far in Europe (23%). In addition, comparison of the severity of the clinical course of PKD1 and PKD2 families failed to confirm statistically significant differences which have been reported.

  19. Epidemiological analysis of burn patients in east Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zayakova, Yolanda; Vajarov, Ivailo; Stanev, Anton; Nenkova, Natalia; Hristov, Hristo

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to identify the basic epidemiological characteristics of burn patients in East Bulgaria, as well as to analyze trends in burns in the region over the last decade. Retrospective data of burn patients treated at Military Hospital-Varna, in the period January 2002-December 2011, was reviewed and statistically interpreted in terms of patients and burn demographics; etiology; place of incidents; hospital stay and mortality. Trends were observed for the entire period and comparative analyses of patients' data were made between two periods: first - 2002-2006 and second 2007-2011. A total of 2627 burn patients, median age 41 years (IQR 9-61) were admitted to our burn unit. For the entire period the most affected age groups were ≤ 4 years (21.6%) and ≥ 65 years (21.1%). Hospitalized patients increased in the second period (n = 1701) compared to the first one (n = 926), while the size of total burn surface area decreased (first period - 9.8% vs. second period - 10.6%). Scald (51%) and flame (23.8%) were the most frequent aetiological agents for both periods. Work related burns reduced in the second period (9.4% vs. 4.9%), while home burns (90.6 vs. 95.1%) increased. Hospital stay declined from 17 days (2002-2006) to 7 days (2007-2011), whereas mortality rate slightly increased (first period - 2.3% vs. second period - 3.6%). Burns remain a significant health problem in Bulgaria. The future preventive actions should take into account the observed changes in burn demographics and target the most vulnerable groups. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  20. The genetic diversity of hepatitis A genotype I in Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cella, Eleonora; Golkocheva-Markova, Elitsa N.; Trandeva-Bankova, Diljana; Gregori, Giulia; Bruni, Roberto; Taffon, Stefania; Equestre, Michele; Costantino, Angela; Spoto, Silvia; Curtis, Melissa; Ciccaglione, Anna Rita; Ciccozzi, Massimo; Angeletti, Silvia

    2018-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to analyze sequences of hepatitis A virus (HAV) Ia and Ib genotypes from Bulgarian patients to investigate the molecular epidemiology of HAV genotype I during the years 2012 to 2014. Around 105 serum samples were collected by the Department of Virology of the National Center of Infectious and Parasitic Diseases in Bulgaria. The sequenced region encompassed the VP1/2A region of HAV genome. The sequences obtained from the samples were 103. For the phylogenetic analyses, 5 datasets were built to investigate the viral gene in/out flow among distinct HAV subpopulations in different geographic areas and to build a Bayesian dated tree, Bayesian phylogenetic and migration pattern analyses were performed. HAV Ib Bulgarian sequences mostly grouped into a single clade. This indicates that the Bulgarian epidemic is partially compartmentalized. It originated from a limited number of viruses and then spread through fecal-oral local transmission. HAV Ia Bulgarian sequences were intermixed with European sequences, suggesting that an Ia epidemic is not restricted to Bulgaria but can affect other European countries. The time-scaled phylogeny reconstruction showed the root of the tree dating in 2008 for genotype Ib and in 1999 for genotype Ia with a second epidemic entrance in 2003. The Bayesian skyline plot for genotype Ib showed a slow but continuous growth, sustained by fecal-oral route transmission. For genotype Ia, there was an exponential growth followed by a plateau, which suggests better infection control. Bidirectional viral flow for Ib genotype, involving different Bulgarian areas, was observed, whereas a unidirectional flow from Sofia to Ihtiman for genotype Ia was highlighted, suggesting the fecal-oral transmission route for Ia.

  1. How do patch quality and spatial context affect invertebrate communities in a natural moss microlandscape?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trekels, Hendrik; Driesen, Mario; Vanschoenwinkel, Bram

    2017-11-01

    Globally, moss associated invertebrates remain poorly studied and it is largely unknown to what extent their diversity is driven by local environmental conditions or the landscape context. Here, we investigated small scale drivers of invertebrate communities in a moss landscape in a temperate forest in Western Europe. By comparing replicate quadrats of 5 different moss species in a continuous moss landscape, we found that mosses differed in invertebrate density and community composition. Although, in general, richness was similar among moss species, some invertebrate taxa were significantly linked to certain moss species. Only moss biomass and not relative moisture content could explain differences in invertebrate densities among moss species. Second, we focused on invertebrate communities associated with the locally common moss species Kindbergia praelonga in isolated moss patches on dead tree trunks to look at effects of patch size, quality, heterogeneity and connectivity on invertebrate communities. Invertebrate richness was higher in patches under closed canopies than under more open canopies, presumably due to the higher input of leaf litter and/or lower evaporation. In addition, increased numbers of other moss species in the same patch seemed to promote invertebrate richness in K. praelonga, possibly due to mass effects. Since invertebrate richness was unaffected by patch size and isolation, dispersal was probably not limiting in this system with patches separated by tens of meters, or stochastic extinctions may be uncommon. Overall, we conclude that invertebrate composition in moss patches may not only depend on local patch conditions, in a particular moss species, but also on the presence of other moss species in the direct vicinity.

  2. Herbivore impacts to the moss layer determine tundra ecosystem response to grazing and warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gornall, Jemma L; Woodin, Sarah J; Jónsdóttir, Ingibjörg S; Van der Wal, Rene

    2009-10-01

    Herbivory and climate are key environmental drivers, shaping ecosystems at high latitudes. Here, we focus on how these two drivers act in concert, influencing the high arctic tundra. We aim to investigate mechanisms through which herbivory by geese influences vegetation and soil processes in tundra ecosystems under ambient and warmed conditions. To achieve this, two grazing treatments, clipping plus faecal additions and moss removal, were implemented in conjunction with passive warming. Our key finding was that, in many cases, the tundra ecosystem response was determined by treatment impacts on the moss layer. Moss removal reduced the remaining moss layer depth by 30% and increased peak grass biomass by 27%. These impacts were probably due to observed higher soil temperatures and decomposition rates associated with moss removal. The positive impact of moss removal on grass biomass was even greater with warming, further supporting this conclusion. In contrast, moss removal reduced dwarf shrub biomass possibly resulting from increased exposure to desiccating winds. An intact moss layer buffered the soil to increased air temperature and as a result there was no response of vascular plant productivity to warming over the course of this study. In fact, moss removal impacts on soil temperature were nearly double those of warming, suggesting that the moss layer is a key component in controlling soil conditions. The moss layer also absorbed nutrients from faeces, promoting moss growth. We conclude that both herbivory and warming influence this high arctic ecosystem but that herbivory is the stronger driver of the two. Disturbance to the moss layer resulted in a shift towards a more grass-dominated system with less abundant mosses and shrubs, a trend that was further enhanced by warming. Thus herbivore impacts to the moss layer are key to understanding arctic ecosystem response to grazing and warming.

  3. PCA and multidimensional visualization techniques united to aid in the bioindication of elements from transplanted Sphagnum palustre moss exposed in the Gdańsk City area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astel, Aleksander; Astel, Karolina; Biziuk, Marek

    2008-01-01

    for moss-based air pollution surveys. Both biomaterials: dry and living Sphagnum palustre show cumulative properties relative to elements under interest. Dry moss has a very loose collection of the atmospheric particles, which can also easily get lost upon rinsing with rainwater running through exposed dry moss material. The living moss may, on the contrary, incorporate the elements in its tissue, thus being less susceptible to rinsing and thus better reflecting the atmospheric conditions. Despite the differences in element uptake and uphold capabilities dry and living moss reflect characteristic anthropogenic and natural profiles. Visible differences in impacts' map coverage exist mostly due to the accumulation mechanisms differentiating dry from living moss. However, in case of each indicator 'phosphatic fertilizer plant impact' is recognized as the strongest pollution source present in examined region. General types of pollution sources responsible for a structure of monitoring data set were determined as high-risk/low-risk areas and visualized in form of geographic distribution maps. These locations can be targeted for environmental hazards and public health. Chemometric results in the form of easy defined surface maps can became a powerful instrument in hands of decision-makers working in the field of sustainable development implementation.

  4. ISO 9001 certification for hospitals in Bulgaria: does it help service?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoimenova, Assena; Stoilova, Ani; Petrova, Guenka

    2014-03-04

    The aim of our study is to review the published literature on establishment and implementation of ISO 9001 QMS in European hospitals, to study the availability of International Organization for Standardization (ISO) quality management systems (QMS) in Bulgarian hospitals and to outline the main advantages of ISO implementation in the hospitals in Bulgaria. The information on availability of ISO QMS in the hospitals in Bulgaria was gathered via Bulgarian certification register, the registries of various quality associations, websites of hospitals and certification companies presented in Bulgaria. A total number of 312 hospitals in Bulgaria were screened for the availability of QMS certified against the ISO 9001 requirements. The experience of European hospitals that implemented QMS is positive and the used approaches to improve the processes and the demonstrated effects from ISO implementation are analysed by the researchers. Unlike other European Union member states, the establishment of quality management systems in Bulgaria is not compulsory. However, our study revealed that 14.42% of the hospitals in Bulgaria have implemented and have certified quality systems against the requirements of ISO 9001. Our study confirmed that a quality management system using the ISO 9001 standard is useful for the hospitals as it can help to increase the operational efficiencies, to reduce errors, improve patient safety and produce a more preventive approach instead of a reactive environment.

  5. Moss as Indicator of Heavy Metals Pollution in Kano Municipality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MBI

    2015-09-23

    Sep 23, 2015 ... ABSTRACT. Metals accumulation was determined in moss specie funaria hygrometrica collected from industrial and neighbouring residential areas of Kano municipality, using atomic absorption spectrometry with air acetylene flame. The areas under study have been modified by increasing industrial ...

  6. Detection, isolation, and characterization of acidophilic methanotrophs from Sphagnum mosses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kip, Nardy; Ouyang, Wenjing; van Winden, Julia; Raghoebarsing, Ashna; van Niftrik, Laura; Pol, Arjan; Pan, Yao; Bodrossy, Levente; van Donselaar, Elly G; Reichart, Gert-Jan; Jetten, Mike S M; Damsté, Jaap S Sinninghe; Op den Camp, Huub J M

    2011-08-15

    Sphagnum peatlands are important ecosystems in the methane cycle. Methane-oxidizing bacteria in these ecosystems serve as a methane filter and limit methane emissions. Yet little is known about the diversity and identity of the methanotrophs present in and on Sphagnum mosses of peatlands, and only a few isolates are known. The methanotrophic community in Sphagnum mosses, originating from a Dutch peat bog, was investigated using a pmoA microarray. A high biodiversity of both gamma- and alphaproteobacterial methanotrophs was found. With Sphagnum mosses as the inoculum, alpha- and gammaproteobacterial acidophilic methanotrophs were isolated using established and newly designed media. The 16S rRNA, pmoA, pxmA, and mmoX gene sequences showed that the alphaproteobacterial isolates belonged to the Methylocystis and Methylosinus genera. The Methylosinus species isolated are the first acid-tolerant members of this genus. Of the acidophilic gammaproteobacterial strains isolated, strain M5 was affiliated with the Methylomonas genus, and the other strain, M200, may represent a novel genus, most closely related to the genera Methylosoma and Methylovulum. So far, no acidophilic or acid-tolerant methanotrophs in the Gammaproteobacteria class are known. All strains showed the typical features of either type I or II methanotrophs and are, to the best of our knowledge, the first isolated (acidophilic or acid-tolerant) methanotrophs from Sphagnum mosses.

  7. Genetic transformation of moss plant | Jing | African Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bryophytes are among the simplest and oldest of the terrestrial plants. Due to the special living environment and characteristics, bryophytes have become attractive experimental tools for the elucidation of complex biological processes in plants. Mosses grow rapidly when cultured on simple salt media, thereby making them ...

  8. JBJ van Ryssen* & AW Lishman JP Kitching & Moss

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    had a deleterious effect on the fertility of heifers and cows. This was manifested as delayed onset of puberty, reduced conception and disrupted oestrous activity. Phillipo et al. (1987b) mentioned similar observations in sheep. Although the cattle used by Thomas. & Moss. (1951) and Phillipo et al. (1982; 1987b) were Cu defi-.

  9. Antifungal and antibacterial effects of some acrocarpic mosses ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the antifungal and antibacterial effect of 6 different acrocarpous mosses were tested in vitro aganist 8 different microorganisms. For the extraction, ethyl alcohol, methyl alcohol, acetone and chloroform were used as solvents. While the highest antimicrobial effect was seen in methyl alcohol extracts, extracts of ...

  10. New records of mosses for Zhejiang province,China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHENG Liyuan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We have found and reported 31 newly recorded species of mosses of Zhejiang province via investigation and specimen identification for bryophytes in the QingliangFeng.Two of them are new genera of Zhejiang province:Trichodon Schimp.and Zygodon Hook.& Taylor.The maintaxonomic characters,habitats and geographical distributions of these species are presented in this paper.

  11. Protein Kinase Signalling in the Moss Physcomitrella patens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azevedo de Silva, Raquel

    Adaptation to environmental cues trigger a plethora of intracellular pathways capable of maintaining homeostasis. Receptors in the plasma membrane and in the cytosol recognize extracellular or intracellular signals initiating defense against pathogens or stress-adaptation. MAPK cascade are one of...... in the moss Physcomitrella patens” and one draft manuscript summarizing our data regarding the phenotypic analysis of Ppmekk1 knockouts....

  12. Cellular compartmentalization and heavy metal load in the moss ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Natural populations of ectohydric moss Barbula lambarenensis growing in a cement polluted environment were collected and subjected to Sequential Elution Technique using 0.2M EDTA as the extracting agent, in order to quantify the Pb, Cu, Cr, Cd and Zn contents of the extracellular, intracellular and particulate fractions.

  13. Pupil initiatives in urban nature trail development: PMB MOSS and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A brief background to Greenbelt and urban nature trail development in Pietermaritzburg is provided. Negotiations and procedures initiated by standard 9 pupils in stimulating authorities and the public to recognise the need for urban trail development and metropolitan open space (MOSS) are outlined. long-term ...

  14. Comparative Studies on Mosses for Heavy Metals Pollution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ekiti, a rural town was investigated using mosses grown in the localities as possible bio-indicators. The sources of these heavy metals were discovered to include: vehicular emission and incineration of domestic wastes and the heavy metals from ...

  15. Chitin-induced responses in the moss Physcomitrella patens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bressendorff, Simon; Rasmussen, Magnus Wohlfahrt; Petersen, Morten

    2017-01-01

    A MAP kinase pathway below a chitin receptor in the moss Physcomitrella patens induces immune responses including rapid growth inhibition, a novel fluorescence burst, and cell wall depositions. The molecular mechanisms producing these three responses are currently unknown but warrant further...

  16. Burstein Moss effect in nanocrystalline CaS: Ce

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    studies are carried out using UV–Vis absorption spectroscopy. The absorption edge is found to show blue shift ... Burstein Moss effect; calcium sulphide; nanophosphors. 1. Introduction. Calcium sulphide (CaS) is being .... in good agreement with the standard data available in. JCPDS Card number 77-2011 and shows ...

  17. Moss-nitrogen input to boreal forest soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rousk, Kathrin; Jones, Davey; DeLuca, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Cyanobacteria living epiphytically on mosses in pristine, unpolluted areas fix substantial amounts of atmospheric nitrogen (N) and therefore represent a primary source of N in N-limited boreal forests. However, the fate of this N is unclear, in particular, how the fixed N2 enters the soil...

  18. Multiple innovations underpinned branching form diversification in mosses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coudert, Yoan; Bell, Neil E; Edelin, Claude; Harrison, C Jill

    2017-07-01

    Broad-scale evolutionary comparisons have shown that branching forms arose by convergence in vascular plants and bryophytes, but the trajectory of branching form diversification in bryophytes is unclear. Mosses are the most species-rich bryophyte lineage and two sub-groups are circumscribed by alternative reproductive organ placements. In one, reproductive organs form apically, terminating growth of the primary shoot (gametophore) axis. In the other, reproductive organs develop on very short lateral branches. A switch from apical to lateral reproductive organ development is proposed to have primed branching form diversification. Moss gametophores have modular development and each module develops from a single apical cell. Here we define the architectures of 175 mosses by the number of module classes, branching patterns and the pattern in which similar modules repeat. Using ancestral character state reconstruction we identify two stages of architectural diversification. During a first stage there were sequential changes in the module repetition pattern, reproductive organ position, branching pattern and the number of module classes. During a second stage, vegetative changes occurred independently of reproductive fate. The results pinpoint the nature of developmental change priming branching form diversification in mosses and provide a framework for mechanistic studies of architectural diversification. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  19. Are Alcohol Expectancies Associations? Comment on Moss and Albery (2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiers, Reinout W.; Stacy, Alan W.

    2010-01-01

    Moss and Albery (2009) presented a dual-process model of the alcohol-behavior link, integrating alcohol expectancy and alcohol myopia theory. Their integrative theory rests on a number of assumptions including, first, that alcohol expectancies are associations that can be activated automatically by an alcohol-relevant context, and second, that…

  20. Are alcohol expectancies associations? Comment on Moss & Albery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiers, R.W.; Stacy, A.W.

    2010-01-01

    Moss and Albery (2009) presented a dual-process model of the alcohol-behavior link, integrating alcohol expectancy and alcohol myopia theory. Their integrative theory rests on a number of assumptions including, first, that alcohol expectancies are associations that can be activated automatically by

  1. Nitrogen Accumulation in Forests. Exposure Monitoring by Mosses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Pesch

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available At present, there is still little information on nitrogen (N accumulation in forests contrasting with the crucial importance of N in forest ecosystems. This work analyzes the N bioaccumulation in mosses from forested areas from Lower Saxony and North Rhine-Westphalia (two of 16 federal states of Germany, the Weser Ems Region (part of Lower Saxony, and the Euro Region Nissa (covering the Czech Republic, Germany, Poland. The studies involved samples collected from 190 sites between 1998 and 2005. Different spatial scales and regional differences in land use were chosen to assess the factors affecting N bioaccumulation in forested areas. A continuous reduction of N bioaccumulation was found from Lower Saxony (a region where agriculture is most predominant to North Rhine-Westphalia (mostly urban. The Weser Ems Region (an agricultural region showed a higher N concentration in mosses than the Euroregion Nissa (a former industrial region. Statistical analyses performed at the different spatial scales revealed that the areas showing greater agricultural and livestock spatial densities favor N bioaccumulation in mosses. N concentration in mosses was moderately correlated with the N concentration in the leaves and needles of the surrounding trees. No significant relationships were found regarding the crown density of forest trees or N deposition estimations from a combination of atmospheric models and deposition measurements.

  2. Future state of the climate change, mitigation and development of sustainable agriculture in Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazandjiev, V.; Georgieva, V.; Moteva, M.; Marinova, T.; Dimitrov, P.

    2010-09-01

    The farming is one of the most important branches that bring the increase to the gross internal production in Bulgaria. At the same time, the agriculture is the only branch, as in home, so in world scale in which the made as well direct production spending and investing regenerating (or not) only in the frameworks to one vegetative season. In addition on this, development of the intensive farming without using the most advanced technologies such as irrigation, automation, selection - for obtaining stable cultivars and hybrids, permanent weather monitoring and agroclimatic zoning and integrated and biochemical protection to the cultures and plantations had not possible. Analysis of long-term meteorological data from different regions shows clear tendencies to warming and drying for the period of contemporary climate (1971-2000) as well in Bulgaria. Hydro-meteorological conditions in the country are worsened. The most entire estimate is made from the Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change (IPCC) 2007. Most of authors proven that the last decades are really warmest for last century, even for the entire period of the most instrumental observations. The causes for global warming was long time debatable, but the last investigations prove it anthropogenetic derive. The main goal of the paper is framing in conditions of the expected climate changes in our country for period 2020-2050-2070 and the most likely impacts on the agriculture with inspection padding to the consequences in them and making physical conditions for development of proof farming in production regions of the country. By the means of the systematized database of meteorological and agrometeorological data which we have at disposition for the period of this survey (1971-2000); Provide assignment of the expected climatic changes according to the scenarios in the centers for observing and investigations of climatic changes in Europe, US., Canada and Australia (ECHAM 4, HadCM 2, CGCM 1, CSIRO-MK2 Bs and

  3. Comparative mineralogical characteristics of red soils from South Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlena Yaneva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to compare mineralogical composition of red soils, formed on marbles in South Bulgaria. We used mineralogical analysis of heavy and light mineral fraction in immersion under polarizing microscope and X-ray diffraction analysis of bulk sample and clay fraction. Three test polygons, located in South Bulgaria were examined: Petrovo, Nova Lovcha and Dobrostan, which are characterized with different latitude, altitude, and exposition. Three or more sites from each polygon were sampled and analyzed. The red soils are formed on white and gray calcite and calcite-dolomite marbles, impure silicate-rich marbles and only in one site – on marble breccias. We determined the following mineral phases in red soils: calcite, dolomite, quarts, and feldspars, mica, illite-type mica, illite, smectite, vermiculite-smectite, and kaolinite. Heavy minerals are represented by amphibole, titanite and epidote, and minor amounts of zircon, garnet, tourmaline, rutile, pyroxene, andalusite, kyanite, sillimanite and apatite. Opaque minerals are predominantly goethite and hematite. Plant tissue is abundant in light fraction from the uppermost soil horizons. Analyses of heavy mineral fraction show presence of metamorphic and igneous minerals which indicate participation of weathering products from other rock types in the nearby area. The types of heavy minerals in soils depend more on composition of parent rocks and geomorphic position than on climate type. Soils from Nova Lovcha show similar composition, but the quantity of goethite and hematite significantly increase in soil from plain. Typical high-metamorphic minerals as andalusite, kyanite and sillimanite present only in Nova Lovcha, while garnet dominates in Petrovo and opaque minerals - in Dobrostan. Red soils, formed on slopes, where erosion prevails over accumulation, contain more illite, smectite and vermiculite-smectite, and very few or no kaolinite, whereas the kaolinite is dominant in soils

  4. National Decision Making during the Holocaust. Romania and Bulgaria: A Study in Contrasts. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad, 1997. (Romania and Bulgaria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Carolyn B.

    This one-week intensive study is intended for use within a one semester course focusing on the Holocaust and human behavior for the upper level high school student. The unit examines the history of Romania and Bulgaria, especially during Nazi occupation in World War II. Students explore the decisions of each nation and the impact they had on the…

  5. Tourism Competitiveness Index – An Empirical Analysis Romania vs. Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai CROITORU

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In the conditions of the current economic downturn, many specialists consider tourism as one of the sectors with the greatest potential to provide worldwide economic growth and development. A growing tourism sector can contribute effectively to employment, increase national income, and can also make a decisive mark on the balance of payments. Thus, tourism can be an important driving force for growth and prosperity, especially in emerging economies, being a key element in reducing poverty and regional disparities. Despite its contribution to economic growth, tourism sector development can be undermined by a series of economic and legislative barriers that can affect the competitiveness of this sector. In this context, the World Economic Forum proposes, via the Tourism Competitiveness Index (TCI, in addition to a methodology to identify key factors that contribute to increasing tourism competitiveness, tools for analysis and evaluation of these factors. In this context, this paper aims to analyze the underlying determinants of TCI from the perspective of two directly competing states, Romania and Bulgaria in order to highlight the effects of communication on the competitiveness of the tourism sector. The purpose of this analysis is to provide some answers, especially in terms of communication strategies, which may explain the completely different performances of the two national economies in the tourism sector.

  6. Capitalists, Spies and Aliens: Conspiracy Theories in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hristov Todor

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper claims that conspiracy theories in Bulgaria are organized as a milieu rather than as a genre, and that, depending on their intensity, conspiracy theories can perform heterogeneous functions, which range from justification of political claims and popular mobilization to entertainment. Building on that conceptual framework, the paper illustrates the most prominent functional types of Bulgarian conspiracy theories. The higher-intensity theories are exemplified by the narratives of corruption and of the afterlife of the former communist secret services. The lower-intensity theories are illustrated by the fortunately short-lived question if the president of the United States has been abducted by aliens. The impact of the Bulgarian conspiratorial milieu on global theories is represented by the example of the Bulgarian modifications of the traveling narrative of the conspiracy of Jewish bankers. The emancipatory potential of the conspiracy theories is demonstrated by the example of the 2011 anti-GMO protests, motivated by narratives of conspiracy between the government and transnational corporations, which derived their energy from the associated milieu of ecological concerns.

  7. Active moss biomonitoring for extensive screening of urban air pollution: Magnetic and chemical analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuković, Gordana; Urošević, Mira Aničić; Goryainova, Zoya; Pergal, Miodrag; Škrivanj, Sandra; Samson, Roeland; Popović, Aleksandar

    2015-07-15

    In this study, active magnetic biomonitoring of moss for particulate air pollution and an assessment of heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were performed for the entire metropolitan area of Belgrade. Two mosses, Sphagnum girgensohnii (a species of the most recommended biomonitoring moss genus) and Hypnum cupressiforme (a common moss in the study area), were used. During the summer of 2013, moss bags were exposed at 153 sampling sites, forming a dense network of sites. A type II regression model was applied to test the interchangeable use of the two moss species. Significantly higher levels of all measured pollutants were recorded by S. girgensohnii in comparison with H. cupressiforme. Based on the results, the mosses could not be interchangeably used in urban areas, except for the biomonitoring of Cu. Nevertheless, according to the relative accumulation factors obtained for both moss species, similar city zones related to high, moderate and low levels of air pollution were distinguished. Moreover, new pollution hotspots, omitted by regulatory monitoring, were identified. The results demonstrate that moss magnetic analysis represents an effective first step for obtaining an overview of particulate air pollution before more expensive chemical analyses. Active moss biomonitoring could be applied as a pragmatic approach for optimizing the representativeness of regulatory monitoring networks. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Sphagnum palustre clone vs native Pseudoscleropodium purum: A first trial in the field to validate the future of the moss bag technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capozzi, F; Adamo, P; Di Palma, A; Aboal, J R; Bargagli, R; Fernandez, J A; Lopez Mahia, P; Reski, R; Tretiach, M; Spagnuolo, V; Giordano, S

    2017-06-01

    Although a large body of literature exists on the use of transplanted mosses for biomonitoring of air pollution, no article has addressed so far the use and the accumulation performance of a cloned moss for this purpose. In this work, a direct comparison of metal accumulation between bags filled with a Sphagnum palustre L. clone or with native Pseudoscleropodium purum Hedw., one of the most used moss species in biomonitoring surveys, was investigated. The test was performed in sites with different atmospheric contamination levels selected in urban, industrial, agricultural and background areas of Italy and Spain. Among the eighteen elements investigated, S. palustre was significantly enriched in 10 elements (Al, Ba, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Pb, Sr, V and Zn), while P. purum was enriched only in 6 elements (Al, Ba, Cu, Hg, Pb and Sr), and had a consistently lower uptake capacity than S. palustre. The clone proved to be more sensitive in terms of metal uptake and showed a better performance as a bioaccumulator, providing a higher accumulation signal and allowing a finer distinction among the different land uses and levels of pollution. The excellent uptake performance of the S. palustre clone compared to the native P. purum and its low and stable baseline elemental content, evidenced in this work, are key features for the improvement of the moss bag approach and its large scale application. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Grapevine powdery mildew (Uncinula necator (Schw. Burr. – a permanent issue concerning the health status of grapes cenosis in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakova Mariana B.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Grapes powdery mildew appeared permanently in the grapes growing regions of Bulgaria. The disease was reported in our country by Kostov in 1900. More than a century the powdery mildew disease has been causing less or greater yield losses depending on the climate. In the past when the vineyards were small and scattered, the disease was not an economic problem. Later, during the second half of the 20th century, the grapes growing areas consolidated and enlarged, and the concentration and intensification of production took place. The pathogen spread permanently to epidemic in the vineyards and the disease became destructive and economically important. During that period commercial varieties were grown susceptible to the causal agent of the powdery mildew, and organic fungicides were applied in the disease control system. Mistakes in the grapes growing technology are observed and the disease management strategies applied are not always scientifically proved. The statements that in Bulgaria there exist conditions suitable for the appearance and development of grapes powdery mildew only in the Black sea region are disproved. A new research is necessary to be done to answer the questions about: the sources of primary inoculum, the influence of the ecological conditions on the appearance and spread of the powdery mildew, and the timing for the disease control. In the survey the overwintering of the pathogen, the appearance of the first symptoms and the dynamics of the disease spread have been discussed. As for the ecological conditions in Bulgaria, it is considered that the fungus mainly survives as mycelia in the buds and on the shoots of the vines serving as a source of a permanent infection background. The studies carried through during 1994–2002 proved that the pathogen influenced by the ecological conditions could also form cleistothecia and they could be the source of the initial infection. The effect of the leaves removal around the clusters on

  10. Analysis of selected indicators of winegrowing and wine-production industries in the Czech Republic and Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Duda

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with industry analysis of winegrowing and wine-production in Bulgaria and in the Czech Republic. The analysis is more focused on winegrowing and wine-production in Bulgaria with the aim to present the less known information.The annual production of wine in Bulgaria amounts for about 2 million hectoliters, being mostly proce- ssed by industrial producers, even though the area of productive vineyards is decreasing by almost 33% to the level of 100 000 hectares. Czech Republic has a lower area of vineyards than Bulgaria, and thanks to the higher yields per hectare it produces about 0.5 million hectoliters of wine. Wine consumption is also different – Czech Republic reaches about 75% of consumption in Bulgaria.Bulgaria, unlike the Czech Republic, belongs to the wine-export countries, especially focusing on exports of bottled red wine. The most important importers of Bulgarian wine – bottled and cask – are Poland, Russia, Great Britain, and Germany. The average prices of exported bottled wine oscillated around USD 1 per liter, in the monitored period. In case of the cask wine, the prices are almost 50% lower. The prices of wines imported to Bulgaria are slightly lower than prices of wines being exported from Bulgaria. Most of the wine was imported from Moldova and Macedonia, Hungary, and Poland.The wine foreign trade balance of Bulgaria and Czech Republic is active for Bulgaria, which exports about 24 thousand hectoliters of wine to the Czech Republic. Exports of Czech and Moravian wines to Bulgaria are minimal.

  11. The Moss Flora of Akdağ Mountain (Amasya, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerem Canli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The moss flora of Akdağ Mountain (Amasya, Turkey was investigated. At the result of identifications of 1500 moss specimens, collected from the research area, 178 taxa belonging to 69 genera and 26 families were determined. Among them, 94 taxa are new for A3 grid square according to the Turkey grid system which was adopted by Henderson. The location data of Grimmia crinitoleucophaea Cardot and Barbula enderesii Garov. are the first records for Turkey, and Encalypta spathulata Müll. Hal., Schistidium dupretii (Thér. W. A. Weber, Weissia condensa var. armata (Thér. & Trab. M. J. Cano, Ros & J. Guerra, Tortella bambergeri (Schimp., Barbula enderesii Garov., Hedwigia ciliata var. leucophaea Bruch & Schimp., and Campyliadelphus elodes (Lindb. Kanda are recorded for the second time to the byroflora of Turkey.

  12. The moss flora of Akdağ Mountain (Amasya, Turkey).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canli, Kerem; Çetin, Barbaros

    2014-01-01

    The moss flora of Akdağ Mountain (Amasya, Turkey) was investigated. At the result of identifications of 1500 moss specimens, collected from the research area, 178 taxa belonging to 69 genera and 26 families were determined. Among them, 94 taxa are new for A3 grid square according to the Turkey grid system which was adopted by Henderson. The location data of Grimmia crinitoleucophaea Cardot and Barbula enderesii Garov. are the first records for Turkey, and Encalypta spathulata Müll. Hal., Schistidium dupretii (Thér.) W. A. Weber, Weissia condensa var. armata (Thér. & Trab.) M. J. Cano, Ros & J. Guerra, Tortella bambergeri (Schimp.), Barbula enderesii Garov., Hedwigia ciliata var. leucophaea Bruch & Schimp., and Campyliadelphus elodes (Lindb.) Kanda are recorded for the second time to the byroflora of Turkey.

  13. The Moss (Bryophyta Flora of Karasu District (Sakarya/Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamze GÜRSU

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, 180 moss specimens collected from the Karasu (Sakarya district, were identified and a total of 36 taxa belonging to 12 families and 24 genera were determined. While, Pottiaceae is the richest family in terms of the number of taxa (11-%30,5, Brachytheciaceae has the second order (7 -%19,4 and Polytrichaceae has the third order (4-%11,3.

  14. Adaptation Mechanisms in the Evolution of Moss Defenses to Microbes

    OpenAIRE

    Ponce de León, Inés; Montesano, Marcos

    2017-01-01

    Bryophytes, including mosses, liverworts and hornworts are early land plants that have evolved key adaptation mechanisms to cope with abiotic stresses and microorganisms. Microbial symbioses facilitated plant colonization of land by enhancing nutrient uptake leading to improved plant growth and fitness. In addition, early land plants acquired novel defense mechanisms to protect plant tissues from pre-existing microbial pathogens. Due to its evolutionary stage linking unicellular green algae t...

  15. Are Alcohol Expectancies Associations? Comment on Moss and Albery (2009)

    OpenAIRE

    Wiers, Reinout W.; Stacy, Alan W.

    2010-01-01

    A. C. Moss and I. P. Albery (2009) presented a dual-process model of the alcohol-behavior link, integrating alcohol expectancy and alcohol myopia theory. Their integrative theory rests on a number of assumptions including, first, that alcohol expectancies are associations that can be activated automatically by an alcohol-relevant context, and second, that alcohol selectively reduces propositional reasoning. As a result, behavior comes under the control of associative processes after alcohol c...

  16. Reduced content of chloroatranol and atranol in oak moss absolute significantly reduces the elicitation potential of this fragrance material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Flemming; Andersen, Kirsten H; Bernois, Armand

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Oak moss absolute, an extract from the lichen Evernia prunastri, is a valued perfume ingredient but contains extreme allergens. OBJECTIVES: To compare the elicitation properties of two preparations of oak moss absolute: 'classic oak moss', the historically used preparation, and 'new oak...... moss', with reduced contents of the major allergens atranol and chloroatranol. PATIENTS/MATERIALS/METHODS: The two preparations were compared in randomized double-blinded repeated open application tests and serial dilution patch tests in 30 oak moss-sensitive volunteers and 30 non-allergic control...... subjects. RESULTS: In both test models, new oak moss elicited significantly less allergic contact dermatitis in oak moss-sensitive subjects than classic oak moss. The control subjects did not react to either of the preparations. CONCLUSIONS: New oak moss is still a fragrance allergen, but elicits less...

  17. Clinical characteristics of patients seeking medical advice for nasal symptoms in Bulgaria with special focus on children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustakov, Tihomir B; Popov, Todor A; Kralimarkova, Tanya Z; Staevska, Maria T; Dimitrov, Vasil D

    2016-01-01

    In an attempt to circumvent low response rates and high cost of classical epidemiological trials, we carried out a real-life survey among practicing physicians consulting patients for nasal symptoms. In this fragment of our work we analyze similarities and differences between children and adults and within the different strata of pediatric age. A survey was carried out by 69 physicians across Bulgaria (general practitioners, allergists and otorhinolaryngologists) and made possible calculation of the proportion of subjects with nasal symptoms from all other patients seen. Its structure allowed classification of rhinitis according the ARIA guidelines. Out of the 1685 completed survey forms, 506 pertained to the age group below 18 years. The gender predominance differed in children and adults: 57.3 % vs. 42.8 % of males respectively, P expense. As we base our survey on international guidelines, we believe this approach demonstrates the applicability of such consensus documents for practical purposes when in the hands of qualified physicians. Moderate and severe rhinitis symptoms motivate patients and their guardians to seek medical advice. While nasal congestion is a leading bothersome symptom in both adults and children, specific other features characterize the pediatric age and differ across its strata.

  18. Antibacterial activity of ethanolic extracts of some moss species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karpiński Tomasz M.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: For centuries, mosses have been used in traditional medicine due to their antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral activities. Objective: The present study was designed to evaluate the antibacterial activity of ethanolic extracts obtained from 12 moss species: Brachythecium albicans, Bryum argenteum, Ceratodon purpureus, Dicranum scoparium, Dryptodon pulvinatus, Orthotrichum anomalum, Oxyrrhynchium hians, Plagiomnium undulatum, Polytrichum juniperinum, P. piliferum, Schistidium crassipilum, and Syntrichia ruralis. Methods: The antimicrobial activity of extracts was investigated against three Gram(+ bacteria (Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus pyogenes and two Gram(- bacteria (Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae, using the agar disc-diffusion method. Results: The high activity against all investigated bacteria was determined for extracts of D. pulvinatus, P. undulatum, B. argenteum, S. crassipilum, O. anomalum (mean inhibition zone: 11.3-13.1 mm and to a lesser extent in the case of D. scoparium (8.3 mm. Extracts from P. juniperinum and P. piliferum showed activity only against Gram-positive bacteria, with an inhibition zone from 7.3 to 9.7 mm. Four species: B. albicans, C. purpureus, O. hians, and S. ruralis had not antibacterial properties. Conclusions: The obtained results indicate that mosses could be a significant source of antibacterial agents. For the first time, we presented antibacterial activity of ethanolic extracts from S. crassipilum and O. anomalum.

  19. Strong environmental tolerance of moss Venturiella under very high pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, F; Mori, Y; Takarabe, K [Department of Applied Science, Okayama University of Science, 1-1 Ridaicho, Okayama 700-0005 (Japan); Nishihira, N; Shindo, A [Okayama Ichinomiya High School, Okayama 700-0005 (Japan); Saigusa, M [Department of Biology, Okayama University, 3-1-1 Tsushima-Naka, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Matsushima, Y [Department of Physics, Okayama University, 3-1-1 Tsushima-Naka, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Saini, N L [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Roma ' La Sapienza' , Piazzale Aldo Moro 2, 00185 Rome (Italy); Yamashita, M, E-mail: fumihisa@das.ous.ac.j [Aerospace Exploration Agency, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 229-8510 (Japan)

    2010-03-01

    It was shown by the present authors group that tardigrade can survive under high pressure of 7.5 GPa. In the case of land plants, however, no result of such experiment has been reported. We have extended our experiments to moss searching for lives under very high pressure. Spore placentas of moss Venturiella were sealed in a small Teflon capsule together with a liquid pressure medium. The capsule was put in the center of a pyrophillite cube, and the maximum pressure of 7.5 GPa was applied using a two-stage cubic anvil press. The pressure was kept constant at the maximum pressure for12, 24, 72 and 144 hours. After the pressure was released, the spores were seeded on a ager medium, and incubated for one week and more longer at 25{sup 0}C with white light of 2000 lux. It was proved that 70-90% of the spores were alive and germinated after exposed to the maximum pressure of 7.5 GPa for up to 72 hours. However, after exposed to 7.5 GPa for 6 days, only 4 individuals in a hundred were germinated. The pressure tolerance of moss Venturiella is found to be stronger than a small animal, tardigrade.

  20. Glyco-engineering for biopharmaceutical production in moss bioreactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva L. Decker

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The production of recombinant biopharmaceuticals (pharmaceutical proteins is a strongly growing area in the pharmaceutical industry. While most products to date are produced in mammalian cell cultures, namely CHO cells, plant-based production systems gained increasing acceptance over the last years. Different plant systems have been established which are suitable for standardization and precise control of cultivation conditions, thus meeting the criteria for pharmaceutical production.The majority of biopharmaceuticals comprise glycoproteins. Therefore, differences in protein glycosylation between humans and plants have to be taken into account and plant-specific glycosylation has to be eliminated to avoid adverse effects on quality, safety and efficacy of the products.The basal land plant Physcomitrella patens (moss has been employed for the recombinant production of high-value therapeutic target proteins (e.g., Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor, Complement Factor H, monoclonal antibodies, Erythropoietin. Being genetically excellently characterized and exceptionally amenable for precise gene targeting via homologous recombination, essential steps for the optimization of moss as a bioreactor for the production of recombinant proteins have been undertaken.Here, we discuss the glyco-engineering approaches to avoid non-human N- and O-glycosylation on target proteins produced in moss bioreactors.

  1. Passive warming reduces stress and shifts reproductive effort in the Antarctic moss, Polytrichastrum alpinum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shortlidge, Erin E; Eppley, Sarah M; Kohler, Hans; Rosenstiel, Todd N; Zúñiga, Gustavo E; Casanova-Katny, Angélica

    2017-01-01

    The Western Antarctic Peninsula is one of the most rapidly warming regions on Earth, and many biotic communities inhabiting this dynamic region are responding to these well-documented climatic shifts. Yet some of the most prevalent organisms of terrestrial Antarctica, the mosses, and their responses to warming have been relatively overlooked and understudied. In this research, the impacts of 6 years of passive warming were investigated using open top chambers (OTCs), on moss communities of Fildes Peninsula, King George Island, Antarctica. The effects of experimental passive warming on the morphology, sexual reproductive effort and stress physiology of a common dioicous Antarctic moss, Polytrichastrum alpinum ,: were tested, gaining the first species-specific mechanistic insight into moss responses to warming in the Antarctic. Additionally community analyses were conducted examining the impact of warming on overall moss percentage cover and sporophyte production in intact Antarctic moss communities. Our results show a generally greater percentage moss cover under warming conditions as well as increased gametangia production in P. alpinum Distinct morphological and physiological shifts in P. alpinum were found under passive warming compared with those without warming: warmed mosses reduced investment in cellular stress defences, but invested more towards primary productivity and gametangia development. Taken together, results from this study of mosses under passive warming imply that in ice-free moss-dominated regions, continued climate warming will probably have profound impacts on moss biology and colonization along the Western Antarctic Peninsula. Such findings highlight the fundamental role that mosses will play in influencing the terrestrialization of a warming Antarctica. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Mosses like it rough-growth form specific responses of mosses, herbaceous and woody plants to micro-relief heterogeneity

    OpenAIRE

    Leutner, Benjamin F.; Steinbauer, Manuel; Müller, Carina M.; Früh, Andrea J.; Irl, Severin; Jentsch, Anke; Beierkuhnlein, Carl

    2012-01-01

    Micro-relief heterogeneity can lead to substantial variability in microclimate and hence niche opportunities on a small scale. We explored the relationship between plant species richness and small-scale heterogeneity of micro-relief on the subtropical island of La Palma, Canary Islands. Overall, we sampled 40 plots in laurel and pine forests at four altitudinal bands. Species richness was recorded separately for various growth forms (i.e., mosses, herbaceous and woody plants). Site conditions...

  3. Assessment of the mitigation options in the energy system in Bulgaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christov, C.; Vassilev, C.; Simenova, K. [and others

    1996-12-31

    Bulgaria signed the Framework Convention on Climate Change at the UNCEP in Rio in June 1992. The parliament ratified the Convention in March 1995. In compliance with the commitments arising under the Convention, Bulgaria elaborates climate change polity. The underlying principles in this policy are Bulgaria to joint the international efforts towards solving climate change problems to the extent that is adequate to both the possibilities of national economy and the options to attract foreign investments. All policies and measures implemented should be as cost-effective as possible. The Bulgarian GHG emission profile reveals the energy sector as the most significant emission source and also as an area where the great potential for GHG emissions reduction exists. This potential could be achieved in many cases by relatively low cost or even no-cost options. Mitigation analysis incorporates options in energy demand and energy supply within the period 1992-2020.

  4. Comparison of erosion and erosion control works in Macedonia, Serbia and Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Blinkov

    2013-12-01

    Natural conditions in the Balkan countries contribute to the appearance of various erosion forms and the intensity of the erosion processes. Over the history of these countries, people who settled this region used the available natural resources to fill their needs (tree cutting, incorrect plugging, overgrazing, which contributed to soil erosion. Organized erosion control works in the Balkans started in the beginning of the 20th century (1905 in Bulgaria. The highest intensity of erosion control works were carried out during the period 1945 – 1990. Various erosion control works were launched. Bulgaria had a large anti-erosion afforestation, almost 1 million ha. Bulgaria's ecological river restoration approach has been in use for almost 50 years. Serbia contributed significant erosion and torrent control works on hilly agricultural areas. Specific screen barrages and afforestation on extremely dry areas are characteristic in Macedonia. A common characteristic for all countries is a high decrease in erosion control works in the last 20 years.

  5. Trends in Organic Farming Development in Bulgaria: Applying Circular Economy Principles to Sustainable Rural Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrov Dimitar K.

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the development of organic farming in Bulgaria through the viewpoint of its links to circular economy concept and its potential to contribute to sustainable rural development. The significant increase in the number of organic operators and areas is analyzed in the context of stable growth in the European sector and worldwide and the increase in consumer demand. Main indicators reported by the Ministry of Agriculture and Food of the Republic of Bulgaria and the support provided by the National Rural Development Program are used to present the characteristics of organic production and agricultural holdings. The advantages of Bulgaria are underlined as a country offering the necessary conditions, along with the main problems in production and marketing. Recommendations are provided for organic sector encouragement as a sustainable business model and an entrepreneurial initiative for sustainable rural development putting a special accent on networking and capacity building activities in connection to potential solutions and policy development.

  6. Change in tobacco excise policy in Bulgaria: the role of tobacco industry lobbying and smuggling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skafida, Valeria; Silver, Karin E; Rechel, Boika P D; Gilmore, Anna B

    2014-05-01

    To examine how transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) tried to penetrate the Bulgarian cigarette market and influence tobacco excise tax policy after the fall of communism and during Bulgaria's accession to the European Union (EU). Analysis of internal tobacco industry documents supplemented by analysis of press coverage, tobacco industry journals, market reports and key informant interviews. TTCs have been involved in cigarette smuggling to and through Bulgaria since at least 1975 and used smuggling as a market-entry strategy. National tobacco company Bulgartabac appears to have been involved in smuggling its own cigarettes from and reimporting them to Bulgaria. Since Bulgaria's accession to the EU opened the market to the TTCs, TTCs have exaggerated the scale of the illicit trade to successfully convince politicians and public health experts that tax increases lead to cigarette smuggling. Yet, sources point to TTCs' continued complicity in cigarette smuggling to and through Bulgaria between 2000 and 2010. TTCs aimed to influence the Bulgarian tobacco excise tax regime, import duties and pricing mechanism, but appear to have been less successful than in other former communist countries in part due to the co-existence of a state-owned tobacco company. Undisclosed meetings between the tobacco industry and government ministers and officials are ongoing despite Bulgaria being a party to the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). The TTCs continued involvement in smuggling suggests that deals in 2004, 2007 and 2010 which the European Commission has reached with TTCs to address cigarette smuggling are inadequate. The TTCs' continued access to policymakers suggests that the FCTC is not being properly implemented. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  7. QUESTIONNAIRE FOR STUDENTS FROM FACULTIES OF DENTAL MEDICINE IN BULGARIA REGARDING THEIR MOTIVATION FOR PARTICIPATION IN AND THE WAY THEY ARE FAMILIAR WITH RESEARCH PROJECTS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetoslav Garov

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In recent years there has been a significant increase in the number and value of projects implemented by medical universities in Bulgaria. The involvement of representatives of the student community in the research teams increases their knowledge and skills and in this way they also gain experience in team work and become motivated to further develop their science careers. Aim: The purpose of our study is by analyzing data from our questionnaire to examine the level of students’ willingness to participate in research project activities performed by Bulgarian faculties of Dental Medicine. Material and methods: The written examination technique has been applied as a primary empirical sociological information registration method. For that purpose a 13-question survey (questionnaire has been prepared. The survey is anonymous and it has been completed by 190 students in their 4th and 5th year of studying in medical universities in Sofia, Plovdiv and Varna. Data was collected during the period from January to May 2013. Results: In order for us to achieve the goal of this study we focused on the questions from the questionnaire.Conclusion: The role that research projects play in medical universities and in particular in the faculties of dental medicine in Bulgaria is of key importance for their accreditation. The scientific cooperation between lecturers and students is a prerequisite for developing a competitive environment that defines the future scientific achievements in the relevant research institution.

  8. Treatment of renal stones in Bulgaria in ancient times ('Hissarya' baths).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nenov, D; Nenov, V; Lazarov, G; Tchepilev, A

    1999-01-01

    Well-known mineral baths in Bulgaria, 'Hissarya', are described. Their existence dates back more than 25 centuries. 'Hissarya' is an Arabic word meaning 'siege of a castle'. Remains of castle walls are the symbol of 'Hissarya' today. Every year more than 100,000 patients from Bulgaria and other countries visit 'Hissarya'. From the time of the Thracians and the Roman Empire until now renal stones have been successfully treated by drinking the mineral water and by taking baths. The Roman Emperor Septimius Severus (193-211) visited 'Hissarya' every spring to treat his renal disease.

  9. First report of Idiopterus nephrelepidis Davis, 1909 (Hemiptera: Aphididae from Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Tasheva-Terzieva

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Idiopterus nephrelepidis (Hemiptera: Aphididae is reported for the first time in Bulgaria on ornamental ferns in four greenhouses in Sofia and Varna. Dense colonies of apterous viviparous females and larvae were observed. The established host plants are Nephrolepis exaltata, Asplenium nidus and Pteris cretica. Infested ferns exhibit leaf deformation. The aphids were reared in laboratory conditions for four months. A morphometric study of apterae was carried out. Taking into account the presence of host plants of I. nephrelepidis in Bulgaria which are native to the local flora and the reports of the aphid from the Balkan area, it may spread in the country outdoors.

  10. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF DEMAND FOR LOCAL AND FOREIGN WINES IN BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petyo BOSHNAKOV

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We use a semantic differential based instrument to assess the main factors in demand attitudes of Bulgarian customers. We aim to find out whether specific marketing techniques could alter the demand for such a traditional product as the wine in Bulgaria. Given the fact that the Bulgarian customer only recently received the possibility to know them, we find that foreign wines are evaluated mainly with a prejudice of past knowledge, not linked to the actual product. We discover a rigidity in such prejudice and adhering to "standard" definitions of "prestige" and quality of wines. Most likely demanded in Bulgaria will continue to be mainly Bulgarian wines.

  11. Published data and new records to the fauna of Eupelmidae (Insecta: Hymenoptera in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIROSLAV ANTOV

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study presents information about published data on eupelmid fauna of Bulgaria and new records of 16 species distributed in the country. Some of them are reared from Cynipidae (Hymenoptera galls on Quercus, Rosa, Hypecoum, as well as from Cecidomyiidae (Diptera developing in stems of Eryngium campestre L. Other species are reared from pods of Astragalus glycyphyllos L. and seeds of Dianthus giganteus dʼUrv. New host associations are established. As a result of the study 4 species and 1 genus are new to the fauna of Bulgaria.

  12. Study of obligations defined in agreements between parties involved in clinical trials of medicinal products in Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    N Getov, Ilko; Gocheva-Hristova, Tanya; Lebanova, Hristina V; Grigorov, Evgeni E

    2012-08-01

    To analyse and assess the legislative and contractual obligations of the parties involved in the conduct of clinical trials, with identification of the needs for comprehensive contractual regulation of their rights and responsibilities. This survey has been carried out by means of review, analysis of comprehensiveness, comparative legislative analysis and assessment of compliance with the legislation of sample of investigator and site agreements governing the process of conducting clinical trials. The survey comprises analyses of contractual relations between the sponsor of the study and the investigator, and between the sponsor of the study and the trial site, respectively, relevant to clinical trials which are actually conducted in Bulgaria at the time of and following the survey. Comparative method based on pre-defined structured indices was employed to outline the major variances in the volume of responsibilities and obligations of the said parties to the clinical trial, as regulated by the investigator and site agreements. The analysis of comprehensiveness showed evident omissions in the regulation of relations and interactions between the parties to the agreements. The detailed contractual regulation providing for the statutory obligations and responsibilities of the parties involved in the conduct of clinical trials is a good guarantee for proper understanding of the obligations of each party and for compliance with their relevant responsibilities in view of protecting the rights of the participants in the clinical trials - patients or healthy volunteers.

  13. Mosses in Ohio wetlands respond to indices of disturbance and vascular plant integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapanian, Martin A.; Schumacher, William; Gara, Brian; Viau, Nick

    2016-01-01

    We examined the relationships between an index of wetland habitat quality and disturbance (ORAM score) and an index of vascular plant integrity (VIBI-FQ score) with moss species richness and a moss quality assessment index (MQAI) in 45 wetlands in three vegetation types in Ohio, USA. Species richness of mosses and MQAI were positively associated with ORAM and VIBI-FQ scores. VIBI-FQ score was a better predictor of both moss species richness and MQAI than was either ORAM score or vegetation type. This result was consistent with the strict microhabitat requirements for many moss species, which may be better assessed by VIBI-FQ than ORAM. Probability curves as a function of VIBI-FQ score were then generated for presence of groups of moss species having the same degree of fidelity to substrate and plant communities relative to other species in the moss flora (coefficients of conservatism, CCs). Species having an intermediate- or high degree of fidelity to substrate and plant communities (i.e., species with CC ≥ 5) had a 50% probability of presence (P50) and 90% probability of presence (P90) in wetlands with intermediate- and high VIBI-FQ scores, respectively. Although moss species richness, probability of presence of species based on CC, and MQAI may reflect wetland habitat quality, the 95% confidence intervals around P50 and P90 values may be too wide for regulatory use. Moss species richness, MQAI, and presence of groups of mosses may be more useful for evaluating moss habitat quality in wetlands than a set of “indicator species.”

  14. Filling the interspace—restoring arid land mosses: source populations, organic matter, and overwintering govern success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condon, Lea; Pyke, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Biological soil crusts contribute to ecosystem functions and occupy space that could be available to invasive annual grasses. Given disturbances in the semiarid shrub steppe communities, we embarked on a set of studies to investigate restoration potential of mosses in sagebrush steppe ecosystems. We examined establishment and growth of two moss species common to the Great Basin, USA: Bryum argenteum and Syntrichia ruralis from two environmental settings (warm dry vs. cool moist). Moss fragments were inoculated into a third warm dry setting, on bare soil in spring and fall, both with and without a jute net and with and without spring irrigation. Moss cover was monitored in spring seasons of three consecutive years. Both moss species increased in cover over the winter. When Bryum received spring irrigation that was out of sync with natural precipitation patterns, moss cover increased and then crashed, taking two seasons to recover. Syntrichia did not respond to the irrigation treatment. The addition of jute net increased moss cover under all conditions, except Syntrichia following fall inoculation, which required a second winter to increase in cover. The warm dry population of Bryum combined with jute achieved on average 60% cover compared to the cool moist population that achieved only 28% cover by the end of the study. Differences were less pronounced for Syntrichia where moss from the warm dry population with jute achieved on average 51% cover compared to the cool moist population that achieved 43% cover by the end of the study. Restoration of arid land mosses may quickly protect soils from erosion while occupying sites before invasive plants. We show that higher moss cover will be achieved quickly with the addition of organic matter and when moss fragments originate from sites with a climate that is similar to that of the restoration site.

  15. Properties and depositional environment of the Neogene Elhovo Lignite, Bulgaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zdravkov, Alexander; Kortenski, Jordan [Department of Economic Geology, University of Mining and Geology ' ' St. Ivan Rilski' ' , 1700 Sofia (Bulgaria); Kostova, Irena [Department of Geology and Palaeontology, Sofia University ' ' St. Kliment Ohridski' ' , 1000 Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2007-08-01

    Several Mio-Pliocene aged lignite seams occur as part of a non-marine transgressive sequence in the Elhovo graben in south-eastern Bulgaria. The present study is focused on 45 samples collected from three boreholes in the eastern part of the basin. Petrographic data along with ash and sulphur contents were used in order to determine the lateral and vertical variations of the coal facies and depositional environment of the Elhovo lignite. The lignite seams accumulated in a rheotrophic, low-lying mire with high pH value and are characterized by high ash yields and sulphur contents. Despite of the neutral to weakly alkaline environment the bacterial activity was limited and the tissue preservation and gelification were mainly controlled by the redox conditions. Vegetation rich in decay resistant conifers dominated in the Elhovo basin together with mesophytic angiosperm species. The absence of algal remains and sapropelic coal indicated that open water areas were not present during peat accumulation. The latter processed in an environment, characterized by low subsidence rate, in which prior to the burial the woods were subjected to severe mechanical destruction. According to our interpretation, the enhanced impregnation of the tissues bacteria and fungi played only a secondary role in the process of humification. The lignite from borehole 122 and partly from BH 145 deposited in an environment characterized by relatively low (ground)water table, whereas to the south an area dominated by a flooded forest swamp (BH 104) formed. This is suggested by the better tissue preservation and gelification of the organic matter in BH 104. The vertical variation of the maceral composition in the studied lignite is interpreted as a consequence of vegetational changes, rather than to changes in the depositional environment. The low contents of inertinite macerals indicate that despite of the low water level the environment was relatively wet and the thermal and oxidative destruction

  16. Environmental Magnetic Record of the Harletz (NW Bulgaria) Loess Sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagroix, F.; Jordanova, D.; Jordanova, N.; Rousseau, D. D.; Antoine, P.; Lomax, J.; Fuchs, M.; Melot, L.; Habel, T.; Petrov, P.; Taylor, S. N.; Moine, O.; Debret, M.; Hatte, C.; Till, J. L.

    2016-12-01

    The Harletz loess sequence is located in NW Bulgaria on the western bank of the Ogosta River, a tributary of the Danube. The sequence is exposed on a cliff face carved by the meandering paleo-Ogosta River. A 20 m section, sitting on top of the river's alluvial plain was cleaned and sampled for a multi-disciplinary study. OSL age determinations and field observations suggest that the section spans the last two glacial-interglacial cycles equivalent to marine oxygen isotope stage (MOIS) 7 to the present. High-resolution continuous bulk sampling was carried out to characterise the composition, grain-size and concentration of the magnetic mineral assemblage. In addition to features observed in the field, environmental magnetism data reveal unobserved pedogenic alteration likely related to MOIS 3. Oscillations in, for example, coercivity of remanence, are also detected through MOIS 6 unaltered loess, which may be indicative of two different sources. Both low and high coercivity minerals are by-products of pedogenesis in all paleosols of the Harletz sequence supported by peaks in their respective concentration parameters and superparamagnetic behaviour is detected in most paleosols and the topsoil. Finally, evidence for tephra material is unambiguous at about 12 m depth and likely at about 1.5 m depth. Given the OSL age model for the Harletz sequence (Lomax et al., in preparation), the stratigraphic position of the lower tephra is similar to occurrences in other loess sequences of the region (ex. Mostistea in Romania) and the upper tephra, if confirmed, would correlate temporally with the Campanian tephra. Oriented samples were collected for anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) analyses. Triaxial oblate AMS fabrics with horizontal foliation planes are obtained from 15 m depth through the top of MOIS 6 loess. A biaxial oblate AMS fabric with a horizontal foliation plane characterizes the soil complex of the last interglacial. Last glacial loess displays an

  17. Soil hydraulic properties of sphagnum moss and peat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Tobias K. D.; Iden, Sascha C.; Scharnagl, Benedikt; Durner, Wolfgang

    2015-04-01

    The moisture state of the vadose zone (acrotelm) of ombrotrophic peatlands decisively determines whether carbon is contained in soil organic matter or released to the atmosphere. As the pore space is variably saturated with water throughout the year, oxygen diffusion, heat, and solute transport and thus the redox state are a function of water content over time. For prediction purposes, the hydrological processes must be epitomised in computer models which establish a link between the terrestrial water cycle and the carbon cycle. This requires a proper representation of effective soil hydraulic properties which are a mandatory input to the Richards equation, the standard model for variably-saturated flow processes in porous media. By applying the Richards equation to peatlands, one assumes that the acrotelm can be conceptualised as a rigid porous material. To test this approximation and select the most adequate set of soil hydraulic property functions, we conducted a series of specifically designed laboratory evaporation experiments on sphagnum moss and decomposed sphagnum peat. Sampling was carried out in five centimeter depth increments of an ombrotrophic bog profile in the Harz mountains. We selected sphagnum moss as it is a predominant plant species colonising bogs of the Boreal. Inverse modelling was used to test the adequacy of different parameterizations of soil hydraulic property functions. We used pressure head data measured by two tensiometers in the objective function to identify soil hydraulic properties. The Richards equation was used as process model. We critically assess the applicability of the van Genuchten/Mualem model, which finds frequent application in peatland hydrology, and discuss alternatives which account for (1) multimodal pore size distributions, (2) physical plausibility towards the dry end, (3) capillary and non-capillary storage and flow, and (4) isothermal flow of water vapour. Finally, our results indicate that applying the Richards

  18. Adaptation Mechanisms in the Evolution of Moss Defenses to Microbes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce de León, Inés; Montesano, Marcos

    2017-01-01

    Bryophytes, including mosses, liverworts and hornworts are early land plants that have evolved key adaptation mechanisms to cope with abiotic stresses and microorganisms. Microbial symbioses facilitated plant colonization of land by enhancing nutrient uptake leading to improved plant growth and fitness. In addition, early land plants acquired novel defense mechanisms to protect plant tissues from pre-existing microbial pathogens. Due to its evolutionary stage linking unicellular green algae to vascular plants, the non-vascular moss Physcomitrella patens is an interesting organism to explore the adaptation mechanisms developed in the evolution of plant defenses to microbes. Cellular and biochemical approaches, gene expression profiles, and functional analysis of genes by targeted gene disruption have revealed that several defense mechanisms against microbial pathogens are conserved between mosses and flowering plants. P. patens perceives pathogen associated molecular patterns by plasma membrane receptor(s) and transduces the signal through a MAP kinase (MAPK) cascade leading to the activation of cell wall associated defenses and expression of genes that encode proteins with different roles in plant resistance. After pathogen assault, P. patens also activates the production of ROS, induces a HR-like reaction and increases levels of some hormones. Furthermore, alternative metabolic pathways are present in P. patens leading to the production of a distinct metabolic scenario than flowering plants that could contribute to defense. P. patens has acquired genes by horizontal transfer from prokaryotes and fungi, and some of them could represent adaptive benefits for resistance to biotic stress. In this review, the current knowledge related to the evolution of plant defense responses against pathogens will be discussed, focusing on the latest advances made in the model plant P. patens .

  19. Low HIV-1 transmitted drug resistance in Bulgaria against a background of high clade diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alexiev, Ivailo; Shankar, Anupama; Wensing, A. M. J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/30817724X; Beshkov, Danail; Elenkov, Ivaylo; Stoycheva, Mariyana; Nikolova, Daniela; Nikolova, Maria; Switzer, William M.

    Objectives To determine transmitted drug resistance (TDR) and HIV-1 genetic diversity in Bulgaria. Methods The prevalence of TDR and HIV-1 subtypes was determined in 305/1446 (21.1%) persons newly diagnosed with HIV/AIDS from 1988 to 2011. TDR mutations (TDRMs) in protease and reverse transcriptase

  20. Dynamics of Inequalities in Access to Higher Education: Bulgaria in a Comparative Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilieva-Trichkova, Petya; Boyadjieva, Pepka

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims at studying the dynamics of inequalities in access to higher education (HE) both in a historical and a comparative perspective. It uses Bulgaria as a case study and places it among five other countries such as Estonia, Hungary, Poland, Slovakia and Slovenia. The adopted approach differentiates between equity in HE and inequalities…

  1. Post-accession compliance with EU law in Bulgaria and Romania: a comparative perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Trauner

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper takes stock of academic literature and official sources on post-accession compliance in Bulgaria and Romania, the only new member states where the Commission has preserved the right to monitor key reforms following accession. The data used in the analysis suggests that formal compliance with EU law has not decreased since their accession. Quite the contrary; Bulgaria and Romania have performed well with regard to the transposition of EU law, yet signs of shortcomings have appeared at the enforcement level, possibly on a greater scale than in other CEECs. Moreover, it is argued that in the first years of membership, the Commission’s post-accession monitoring did not yield the same results in Bulgaria and Romania. While Romania has managed to convince the Commission of its good will and determination to meet the benchmarks set by the EU, Bulgaria has failed to do so and has faced sanctions in relation to the EU’s extended conditionality. The analysis concludes by presenting possible directions for further research.

  2. Terrestrial gastropods of Srebarna Nature Reserve, North-Eastern Bulgaria (Gastropoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedov, Ivailo; Antonova, Vera

    2015-01-01

    We give the results from the first investigation focused on the land snail fauna in Srebarna Nature Reserve in Bulgaria. A total of 23 localities were studied and 27 species of terrestrial gastropods were found, 23 of which were new observations for the Reserve.

  3. The legal structure of households in Serbia and Bulgaria in the 19th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svirčević Miroslav M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This scholarly work treats only the legal structure of households in Serbia and Bulgaria in the 19th century. The author's intention is to describe and present similarities and differences between the most important household's structural elements (Household Council, Household Head, Household Woman and Household Members, their relationships and status in the Ottoman legal-political order.

  4. Pathogenicity of Phytophthora isolates originating from several woody hosts in Bulgaria and Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyubenova Aneta B.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Our aim was to examine the virulence of eight Phytophthora isolates belonging to three species (Phytophthora cryptogea, Phytophthora plurivora and Phytophthora quercina obtained from diverse European ecosystems (in Bulgaria, Poland and Germany towards three forest tree hosts – English oak (Quercus robur L., Turkey oak (Quercus cerris L. and European beech (Fagus sylvatica L..

  5. [Internal migration in Bulgaria and its impact on demographic development in rural areas (1956-1985)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlatanova, V

    1990-01-01

    The determinants and impact of rural-urban migration in Bulgaria are explored for the period from 1956 to 1985, with a focus on the effects of industrialization and changes in agricultural technology on the rural labor force and life-style. (SUMMARY IN ENG AND RUS)

  6. Antioxidant activity screening of extracts from Sideritis species (Labiatae) grown in Bulgaria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koleva, I.; Linssen, J.P.H.; Beek, van T.A.; Evstatieva, L.N.; Kortenska, V.; Handjieva, N.

    2003-01-01

    Plant samples from several species and populations of the genus Sideritis (Labiatae) grown in Bulgaria (S scardica, S syriaca and S montana) were extracted with different solvents. Their antioxidant activities were determined by the -carotene bleaching test (BCBT), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl

  7. Holy Places and Pilgrimage in the Post-Socialist Bulgaria (Karamihova, 2014 [In Bulgarian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Antova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available After the communist regime in Bulgaria, the interest of the people to religion was revived. Many of anthropological dimensions with religious nature are considered in Karamihova’s book (2014. Religious tourism and places of pilgrimages are described. The dynamics of this new social development is studied.

  8. Guidelines for assessing favourable conservation status of Natura 2000 species and habitat types in Bulgaria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zingstra, H.L.; Kovachev, A.; Kitnaes, K.; Tzonev, R.; Dimova, D.; Tzvetkov, P.

    2009-01-01

    This executive summary describes the methodology for assessing the favourable conservation status of N2000 habitats and species on site level in Bulgaria and gives guidelines for its application. The methodology was developed in the frame of the BBI/Matra project 2006/014 “Favourable Conservation

  9. International Trends in Health Science Librarianship Part 19: The Balkan States (Bulgaria and Croatia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirilova, Savina; Skoric, Lea

    2016-09-01

    This is the 19th in a series of articles exploring international trends in health science librarianship in the 21st century. The focus of the present issue is the Balkan Region (Bulgaria and Croatia). The next regular feature column will investigate two other Balkan states - Serbia and Slovenia. JM. © 2016 Health Libraries Group.

  10. Clinical characteristics, treatment patterns, and socio-economic burden of COPD in Bulgaria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamusheva, Maria; Dimitrova, Maria; van Boven, Job F. M.; Postma, Maarten J.; van der Molen, Thys; Kocks, Janwillem W. H.; Mitov, Konstantin; Doneva, Miglena; Petrova, Daniela; Georgiev, Ognyan; Petkova, Valentina; Petrova, Guenka

    Background: While the impact of COPD in Western-Europe is known, data from Eastern-Europe is scarce. This study aimed to evaluate clinical characteristics, treatment patterns, and the socio-economic burden of COPD in Eastern-Europe, taking Bulgaria as a reference case. Methods: A representative

  11. Taxonomic status of the roses (Rosa) described by S.G. Dimitrov from Bulgaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zielinski, J.; Petrova, A; Tan, Kit

    2004-01-01

    The original herbarium vouchers for six species of Rosa (Rosaceae) described by S. G. Dimitrov from Bulgaria are taxonomically evaluated. Two species (R. balcanica, R. orphei) are considered hybrids, four other names (R. bulgarica, R. parilica, R. pontica and R. rhodopaea) are taxonomic synonyms...

  12. The moss dwelling testacean fauna of Île de la Possession

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vincke, S.; Gremmen, N.J.M.; Beyens, L.; Van de Vijver, B.

    2004-01-01

    An ecological study of the moss dwelling testacean fauna (Protozoa, Rhizopoda) on Île de la Possession (Crozet Archipelago, sub-Antarctica) revealed 83 taxa, belonging to 21 genera. The moss flora was dominated by cosmopolitan and ubiquitous taxa, such as Trinema lineare, T. enchelys, Euglypha

  13. MOSS FLORA OF THE KHANTY-MANSIYSK AUTONOMOUS DISTRICT (WEST SIBERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. D. Lapshina

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Overview of Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous District moss flora was made based on original authors’ data and information from literature sources. List of mosses includes 307 species. 236 species occur on a flat part of the District; theirs distribution and habitats are described. 21 species are reported from the region for the first time.

  14. Differentiating moss from higher plants is critical in studying the carbon cycle of the boreal biome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, Wenping; Liu, Shuguang; Dong, Wenjie

    2014-01-01

    The satellite-derived normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), which is used for estimating gross primary production (GPP), often includes contributions from both mosses and vascular plants in boreal ecosystems. For the same NDVI, moss can generate only about one-third of the GPP that vascu...

  15. The resilience and functional role of moss in boreal and arctic ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turetsky, M.; Bond-Lamberty, B.; Euskirchen, E.S.; Talbot, J. J.; Frolking, S.; McGuire, A.D.; Tuittila, E.S.

    2012-01-01

    Mosses in northern ecosystems are ubiquitous components of plant communities, and strongly influence nutrient, carbon and water cycling. We use literature review, synthesis and model simulations to explore the role of mosses in ecological stability and resilience. Moss community responses to disturbance showed all possible responses (increases, decreases, no change) within most disturbance categories. Simulations from two process-based models suggest that northern ecosystems would need to experience extreme perturbation before mosses were eliminated. But simulations with two other models suggest that loss of moss will reduce soil carbon accumulation primarily by influencing decomposition rates and soil nitrogen availability. It seems clear that mosses need to be incorporated into models as one or more plant functional types, but more empirical work is needed to determine how to best aggregate species. We highlight several issues that have not been adequately explored in moss communities, such as functional redundancy and singularity, relationships between response and effect traits, and parameter vs conceptual uncertainty in models. Mosses play an important role in several ecosystem processes that play out over centuries – permafrost formation and thaw, peat accumulation, development of microtopography – and there is a need for studies that increase our understanding of slow, long-term dynamical processes.

  16. Antarctic moss stress assessment based on chlorophyll content and leaf density retrieved from imaging spectroscopy data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malenovský, Zbyněk; Turnbull, Johanna D; Lucieer, Arko; Robinson, Sharon A

    2015-10-01

    The health of several East Antarctic moss-beds is declining as liquid water availability is reduced due to recent environmental changes. Consequently, a noninvasive and spatially explicit method is needed to assess the vigour of mosses spread throughout rocky Antarctic landscapes. Here, we explore the possibility of using near-distance imaging spectroscopy for spatial assessment of moss-bed health. Turf chlorophyll a and b, water content and leaf density were selected as quantitative stress indicators. Reflectance of three dominant Antarctic mosses Bryum pseudotriquetrum, Ceratodon purpureus and Schistidium antarctici was measured during a drought-stress and recovery laboratory experiment and also with an imaging spectrometer outdoors on water-deficient (stressed) and well-watered (unstressed) moss test sites. The stress-indicating moss traits were derived from visible and near infrared turf reflectance using a nonlinear support vector regression. Laboratory estimates of chlorophyll content and leaf density were achieved with the lowest systematic/unsystematic root mean square errors of 38.0/235.2 nmol g(-1) DW and 0.8/1.6 leaves mm(-1) , respectively. Subsequent combination of these indicators retrieved from field hyperspectral images produced small-scale maps indicating relative moss vigour. Once applied and validated on remotely sensed airborne spectral images, this methodology could provide quantitative maps suitable for long-term monitoring of Antarctic moss-bed health. © 2015 The Authors New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  17. Subirrigation reduces water use, nitrogen loss, and moss growth in a container nursery

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Kasten Dumroese; Jeremy R. Pinto; Douglass F. Jacobs; Anthony S. Davis; Baron Horiuchi

    2006-01-01

    With about half the amount of water, subirrigated Metrosideros polymorpha Gaud. (Myrtaceae) grown 9 mo in a greenhouse were similar to those irrigated with an existing fixed overhead irrigation system; moss growth was about 3X greater in the fixed overhead system after 3 mo. Moss growth was affected by the rate of preplant controlled release fertilizer added (more...

  18. Herbivore impact on moss depth, soil temperature and arctic plant growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wal, R; Loonen, MJJE

    We provide evidence for a mechanism by which herbivores may influence plant abundance in arctic ecosystems, These systems are commonly dominated by mosses, the thickness of which influences the amount of heat reaching the soil surface. Herbivores can reduce the thickness of the moss layer by means

  19. Recent Nitrogen Deposition In Poland Monitored With The Moss Pleurozium Schreberi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapusta Paweł

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, atmospheric deposition of nitrogen was determined for Poland by moss biomonitoring. Nitrogen content was measured in the moss Pleurozium schreberi (Willd. ex Brid. Mitt. sampled in 2010 from 320 sites evenly distributed throughout the country. Mosses (green parts contained an average 1.56% nitrogen. The result places Poland among the European countries most polluted by airborne nitrogen. The highest nitrogen concentrations were found in mosses from the central and southern parts of the country, and the lowest in samples from some eastern and northern regions. Multiple regression showed that this variability was due mostly to nitrogen emissions from agricultural and industrial areas (moss nitrogen was positively associated with the consumption of mineral nitrogen fertilizers and the magnitude of particulate pollution. Some details of the spatial variability of the nitrogen data indicate that local and regional point sources of pollution (e.g., chemical plants played an important role in shaping the nitrogen deposition pattern

  20. Analysis and modeling of daily air pollutants in the city of Ruse, Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheleva, I.; Veleva, E.; Filipova, M.

    2017-10-01

    The city of Ruse is situated in the north-eastern part of Bulgaria. The northern boundary of Ruse region goes along the Danube river valley and coincides with the state boundary of the Republic of Bulgaria and the Republic of Romania. The climate of the region of Ruse is temperate continental, characterized by cold winters and dry, warm summers. Spring and autumn are short. In our previous work we studied information from 40 years period measurements [6] of temperature, air humidity and atmospheric pressure in Ruse region, Bulgaria. It was shown that mean values of the temperature in Ruse region are slightly goes up for the last 10 years and they are bigger than the mean temperature for Bulgaria. This could be a proof for climate change in Ruse region of Bulgaria. The most variable atmospheric parameter is air humidity during the spring seasons. The hardest change of temperature and atmospheric pressure is during January. Temperature has biggest change in January and smallest - in July. Humidity has biggest change in April and smallest - in October. Atmospheric pressure has biggest change in January and smallest - in July [5]. Air pollution maybe affects temperature, atmospheric pressure and humidity. All this in our opinion may be a reason for the increase in average temperatures for the period examined. This paper is devoted to examine air pollution in the Ruse region. It presents a statistical analysis of the level of air pollution in Ruse on data from the monitoring stations in the city. The measurements cover the period from 2015 including up to now. For the most dangerous pollutant PM10 we create an ARIMA model which is in a good agreement with the PM10 measurements.

  1. Anomalies of hydrological cycle components during the 2007 heat wave in Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mircheva, Biliana; Tsekov, Milen; Meyer, Ulrich; Guerova, Guergana

    2017-12-01

    Heat waves have large adverse social, economic and environmental effects which include increased mortality, transport restrictions and a decreased agricultural production. The estimated economic losses of the 2007 heat wave in South-east Europe exceed 2 billion EUR with 19 000 hospitalisation in Romania only. Understanding the changes of the hydrological cycle components is essential for early forecasting of heat wave occurrence. Valuable insight of two components of the hydrological cycle, namely Integrated Water Vapour (IWV) and Terrestrial Water Storage Anomaly (TWSA), is now possible using observations from Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) and Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission. In this study anomalies of temperature, precipitation, IWV and TWS in 2007 are compared to 2003-2013 period for Sofia, Bulgaria. In 2007, positive temperature anomalies are observed in January, February and July. There are negative IWV and precipitation anomalies in July 2007 that coincides with the heat wave in Bulgaria. TWSA in 2007 are negative in January, May and from July to October being largest in August. Long-term trends of: 1) temperatures have a local maximum in March 2007, 2) TWSA has a local minimum in May 2007, 3) IWV has a local minimum in September 2007, and 4) precipitation has a local maximum in July 2007. The TWSA interannual trends in Bulgaria, Hungary and Poland show similar behaviour as indicated by cross correlation coefficients of 0.9 and 0.7 between Bulgaria and Hungary and Bulgaria and Poland respectively. ALADIN-Climate describes the anomalies of temperature and IWV more successfully than those of precipitation and TWS.

  2. Origin and spread of HIV-1 in persons who inject drugs in Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexiev, Ivailo; Shankar, Anupama; Dimitrova, Reneta; Gancheva, Anna; Kostadinova, Asia; Teoharov, Pavel; Golkocheva, Elitsa; Nikolova, Maria; Muhtarova, Mariya; Elenkov, Ivaylo; Stoycheva, Mariyana; Nikolova, Daniela; Varleva, Tonka; Switzer, William M

    2016-12-01

    Increased HIV transmission in persons who inject drugs (PWIDs) has led to subepidemics and outbreaks in several countries in Europe, including Bulgaria. In this study in Bulgaria, we investigate the origin and spatiotemporal evolutionary history of HIV-1 infections in PWIDs and the distribution of antiretroviral resistance mutations and hepatitis co-infections in these populations. We analyzed HIV-1 polymerase sequences available from 117 of 359 PWIDs diagnosed with HIV/AIDS from 1999 to 2011. Of these, 50 (42.7%) were classified as CRF02_AG, 41 (35.0%) CRF01_AE, 12 (10.3%) URFs, ten (8.5%) subtype B, two (1.7%) subtype F1 and two (1.7%) CRF14_BG. Most recent common ancestor dating suggests that CRF01_AE was likely first introduced from Southeast Asia into persons reporting heterosexual infection in Bulgaria in 1992 and spread subsequently to PWIDs in the capital city of Sofia around 2003. Conversely, CRF02_AG in Bulgaria was likely first introduced into PWID from Germany in 2000 and later entered heterosexual populations around 2009. The overall prevalence of resistance mutations was 6.8% (8/117), of which 5.1% (5/117) was observed in patients on antiretroviral therapy and 1.7% (2/117) was from transmitted drug resistance mutations in drug-naïve individuals. 189/204 (92.6%) PWIDs were also co-infected with hepatitis C (HCV) and 31/183 (16.9%) were co-infected with hepatitis B (HBV). Our study provides valuable molecular epidemiological information on the introduction and distribution of the main HIV-1 subtypes, resistance mutations and hepatitis co-infections among PWIDs with HIV-1 in Bulgaria which can be used to target prevention efforts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Cellulose and Lignin Carbon Isotope Signatures in Sphagnum Moss Reveal Complementary Environmental Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loisel, J.; Nichols, J. E.; Kaiser, K.; Beilman, D. W.; Yu, Z.

    2016-12-01

    The carbon isotope signature (δ13C) of Sphagnum moss is increasingly used as a proxy for past surface wetness in peatlands. However, conflicting interpretations of these carbon isotope records have recently been published. While the water film hypothesis suggests that the presence of a thick (thin) water film around hollow (hummock) mosses leads to less (more) negative δ13C values, the carbon source hypothesis poses that a significant (insignificant) amount of CH4 assimilation by hollow (hummock) mosses leads to more (less) negative δ13C values. To evaluate these competing mechanisms and their impact on moss δ13C, we gathered 30 moss samples from 6 peatlands in southern Patagonia. Samples were collected along a strong hydrological gradient, from very dry hummocks (80 cm above water table depth) to submerged hollows (5 cm below water surface). These peat bogs have the advantage of being colonized by a single cosmopolitan moss species, Sphagnum magellanicum, limiting potential biases introduced by species-specific carbon discrimination. We measured δ13C from stem cellulose and leaf waxes on the same samples to quantify compound-specific carbon signatures. We found that stem cellulose and leaf-wax lipids were both strongly negatively correlated with moss water content, suggesting a primary role of water film thickness on carbon assimilation. In addition, isotopic fractionation during wax synthesis was greater than for cellulose. This offset decreases as conditions get drier, due to (i) a more effective carbon assimilation, or (ii) CH4 uptake through symbiosis with methanotrophic bacteria within the leaves of wet mosses. Biochemical analysis (carbohydrates, amino acids, hydrophenols, cutin acids) of surface moss are currently being conducted to characterize moss carbon allocation under different hydrological conditions. Overall, this modern calibration work should be of use for interpreting carbon isotope records from peatlands.

  4. The resilience and functional role of moss in boreal and arctic ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turetsky, Merritt; Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin; Euskirchen, Eugenie S.; Talbot, Julie; Frolking, Steve; McGuire, A. David; Tuittila, Eeva-Stiina

    2012-08-24

    Mosses in boreal and arctic ecosystems are ubiquitous components of plant communities, represent an important component of plant diversity, and strongly influence the cycling of water, nutrients, energy and carbon. Here we use a literature review and synthesis as well as model simulations to explore the role of moss in ecological stability and resilience. Our literature review of moss community responses to disturbance showed all possible responses (increases, decreases, no change) within most disturbance categories in boreal and arctic regions. Our modeling simulations suggest that loss of moss within northern plant communities will reduce soil carbon accumulation primarily by influencing decomposition rates and soil nitrogen availability. While two models (HPM and STM-TEM) showed a significant effect of moss removal, results from the Biome-BGC and DVM-TEM models suggest that northern, moss-rich ecosystems would need to experience extreme perturbation before mosses were eliminated. We highlight a number of issues that have not been adequately explored in moss communities, such as functional redundancy and singularity, relationships between response and effect traits, phenotypical plasticity in traits, and whether the effects of moss on ecosystem processes scale with local abundance. We also suggest that as more models explore issues related to ecological resilience, issues related to both parameter and conceptual uncertainty should be addressed: are the models more limited by uncertainty in the parameterization of the processes included or by what is not represented in the model at all? It seems clear from our review that mosses need to be incorporated into models as one or more plant functional types, but more empirical work is needed to determine how to best aggregate species.

  5. Evolution of niche preference in Sphagnum peat mosses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Matthew G; Granath, Gustaf; Tahvanainen, Teemu; Pouliot, Remy; Stenøien, Hans K; Rochefort, Line; Rydin, Håkan; Shaw, A Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Peat mosses (Sphagnum) are ecosystem engineers-species in boreal peatlands simultaneously create and inhabit narrow habitat preferences along two microhabitat gradients: an ionic gradient and a hydrological hummock-hollow gradient. In this article, we demonstrate the connections between microhabitat preference and phylogeny in Sphagnum. Using a dataset of 39 species of Sphagnum, with an 18-locus DNA alignment and an ecological dataset encompassing three large published studies, we tested for phylogenetic signal and within-genus changes in evolutionary rate of eight niche descriptors and two multivariate niche gradients. We find little to no evidence for phylogenetic signal in most component descriptors of the ionic gradient, but interspecific variation along the hummock-hollow gradient shows considerable phylogenetic signal. We find support for a change in the rate of niche evolution within the genus-the hummock-forming subgenus Acutifolia has evolved along the multivariate hummock-hollow gradient faster than the hollow-inhabiting subgenus Cuspidata. Because peat mosses themselves create some of the ecological gradients constituting their own habitats, the classic microtopography of Sphagnum-dominated peatlands is maintained by evolutionary constraints and the biological properties of related Sphagnum species. The patterns of phylogenetic signal observed here will instruct future study on the role of functional traits in peatland growth and reconstruction. © 2014 The Author(s). Evolution © 2014 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  6. An Innate Immunity Pathway in the Moss Physcomitrella patens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressendorff, Simon; Azevedo, Raquel; Kenchappa, Chandra Shekar; Ponce de León, Inés; Olsen, Jakob V; Rasmussen, Magnus Wohlfahrt; Erbs, Gitte; Newman, Mari-Anne; Petersen, Morten; Mundy, John

    2016-06-01

    MAP kinase (MPK) cascades in Arabidopsis thaliana and other vascular plants are activated by developmental cues, abiotic stress, and pathogen infection. Much less is known of MPK functions in nonvascular land plants such as the moss Physcomitrella patens Here, we provide evidence for a signaling pathway in P. patens required for immunity triggered by pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). This pathway induces rapid growth inhibition, a novel fluorescence burst, cell wall depositions, and accumulation of defense-related transcripts. Two P. patens MPKs (MPK4a and MPK4b) are phosphorylated and activated in response to PAMPs. This activation in response to the fungal PAMP chitin requires a chitin receptor and one or more MAP kinase kinase kinases and MAP kinase kinases. Knockout lines of MPK4a appear wild type but have increased susceptibility to the pathogenic fungi Botrytis cinerea and Alternaria brassisicola Both PAMPs and osmotic stress activate some of the same MPKs in Arabidopsis. In contrast, abscisic acid treatment or osmotic stress of P. patens does not activate MPK4a or any other MPK, but activates at least one SnRK2 kinase. Signaling via MPK4a may therefore be specific to immunity, and the moss relies on other pathways to respond to osmotic stress. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  7. Porphyry-copper mineralisation in the central Srednogorie zone, Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strashimirov, Strashimir; Petrunov, Rumen; Kanazirski, Milko

    2002-08-01

    The porphyry-copper systems in the central part of the Srednogorie zone (Bulgaria) are represented by three major deposits (Elatsite, Medet and Assarel) and several smaller deposits and occurrences, all of them within the Panagyurishte ore district. The hydrothermal systems are related to Late Cretaceous calc-alkaline igneous complexes. Ore mineralisation is developed predominantly in the apical parts of subvolcanic and intrusive bodies as well as within the volcanic and basement metamorphic rocks. Several of the porphyry systems are spatially associated with shallow-level intermediate and high-sulphidation volcanic-hosted epithermal deposits of economic importance, such as the major gold-copper mine at Chelopech located 10 km from the Elatsite porphyry-copper deposit. Mineralisation processes in the porphyry deposits start with intensive hydrothermal alteration of the wall rocks. K-silicate alteration is characteristic for pre-ore hydrothermal activity in all of them, and it is located mostly in their central parts. Propylitic alteration is prominent in the Medet and Assarel deposits. The Assarel deposit is located in the central part of a palaeovolcanic structure and shows a large spectrum of pre-ore alterations, including propylitic, sericitic, and advanced argillic assemblages. The initial stages of the hydrothermal systems are characterised by high temperatures (>550-500 °C) and highly saline (50-20 wt% NaCl equiv.) and vapour-rich fluids of likely magmatic origin. The composition of the fluids gradually changes from H2O-NaCl±FeCl2 to H2O-NaCl-KCl and H2O-NaCl-dominated as the fluids cool, react with wall rocks, and may become diluted with meteoric water. Fe-Ti-oxide mineral associations were formed early in all deposits, later followed, in the Elatsite deposit, by an assemblage of bornite, chalcopyrite, platinum group element (PGE) phases, Co-Ni thiospinels, Ag- and Bi-tellurides, and selenides. The main ore stage in all deposits is dominated by

  8. Mosses Like It Rough—Growth Form Specific Responses of Mosses, Herbaceous and Woody Plants to Micro-Relief Heterogeneity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl Beierkuhnlein

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Micro-relief heterogeneity can lead to substantial variability in microclimate and hence niche opportunities on a small scale. We explored the relationship between plant species richness and small-scale heterogeneity of micro-relief on the subtropical island of La Palma, Canary Islands. Overall, we sampled 40 plots in laurel and pine forests at four altitudinal bands. Species richness was recorded separately for various growth forms (i.e., mosses, herbaceous and woody plants. Site conditions such as altitude, slope, aspect, and tree density were measured. Micro-relief heterogeneity was characterized by surface structure and a subsequently derived surface heterogeneity index. The effect of micro-relief heterogeneity on species richness was analysed by means of linear mixed effect models and variance partitioning. Effects of micro-relief heterogeneity on species richness varied considerably between growth forms. While moss richness was affected significantly by micro-relief heterogeneity, herbaceous and woody plants richness responded mainly to larger-scale site conditions such as aspect and tree density. Our results stress the importance of small-scale relief heterogeneity for the explanation of spatial patterns of species richness. This poses new challenges as small-scale heterogeneity is largely underrepresented, e.g. with regard to its application in species distribution models.

  9. [Pregnancy termination in Bulgaria – past, present and future perspectives. Drugs induced abortion – guidelines by WHO].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinov, B; Andreeva, A

    2013-01-01

    There are still too many unsafe abortions performed worldwide. Together with the efforts to reduce the abortion by choice, we note a rise in the need for mid trimester pregnancy termination for medical reasons. The article looks at the past present and future perspective of the abortion as a procedure in Bulgaria. States the fact that medical abortion is officially not widely performed. We reckon that with the existing guidelines by WHO and with Mifepriston and Misoprostol recently registered in Bulgaria, it is time for the medical abortion to become part of the clinical practice in Bulgaria. We believe that early medical abortion as well as mid trimester induced abortion is and adequate if not better alternative to the existing in Bulgaria procedures.

  10. Latest data on distribution of the Pygmy Owl (Glaucidium passerinum) in Bulgaria and Slovakia including population density comparison

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Samuel Pacenovský; Peter Shurulinkov

    2008-01-01

      Latest data on distribution of the Pygmy Owl ([Glaucidium passerinum]) in Bulgaria and Slovakia including population density comparison The authors provide an outline of actual knowledge on the distribution of the Pygmy Owl...

  11. Identification of mycobacteria in peat moss processing plants : application of molecular biology approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cayer, M.P.; Veillette, M.; Pageau, P.; Cormier, Y.; Duchaine, C.; Meriaux, A. [Laval Univ., Quebec City, PQ (Canada). Inst. Universitaire de pneumologie et de cardiologie; Veillette, M.; Meriaux, A.; Cormier, Y. [Laval Univ., Quebec City, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Biology and Microbiology; Hamelin, R.; Bergeron, M.J. [Natural Resources Canada, Sainte-Foy, PQ (Canada). Canadian Forest Service

    2007-01-15

    Health concerns regarding environmental mycobacteria has led to the development of exposure assessment methods for the evaluation of certain workplaces where the presence of these agents is suspected. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) has been described in peat moss workers who are regularly exposed to significant levels of bioaerosols in peat moss processing plants. Although mycobacteria have been cultured from peat moss, plant workers exposure to mycobacterial bioaerosols has never been studied. This article presented the results of a study that evaluated the presence of mycobacteria in air samples from peat moss processing plants using molecular biology approaches (cloning-sequencing and polymerase chain reaction (PCR)) and the workers exposure using immunoglobin G (IgG) complexes to mycobacteria. It also compared species detected in air samples and in peat moss. Two peat moss processing plants were chosen among 14 previously studied and a total of 49 clones were sequenced. Real-time PCR was also performed on the same air samples to evaluate the airborne concentration of mycobacteria and estimate exposure levels. The article discussed the materials and methods used in the study, the results of the study, and subsequent discussion of the results. It was concluded that peat moss processing plants workers are exposed to mycobacteria in addition to other biological agents. It was suggested that further studies are needed to confirm the specificity of the mycobacterial IgG. 34 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig.

  12. Peatland water repellency: Importance of soil water content, moss species, and burn severity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, P. A.; Lukenbach, M. C.; Kettridge, N.; Petrone, R. M.; Devito, K. J.; Waddington, J. M.

    2017-11-01

    Wildfire is the largest disturbance affecting peatlands, with northern peat reserves expected to become more vulnerable to wildfire as climate change enhances the length and severity of the fire season. Recent research suggests that high water table positions after wildfire are critical to limit atmospheric carbon losses and enable the re-establishment of keystone peatland mosses (i.e. Sphagnum). Post-fire recovery of the moss surface in Sphagnum-feathermoss peatlands, however, has been shown to be limited where moss type and burn severity interact to result in a water repellent surface. While in situ measurements of moss water repellency in peatlands have been shown to be greater for feathermoss in both a burned and unburned state in comparison to Sphagnum moss, it is difficult to separate the effect of water content from species. Consequently, we carried out a laboratory based drying experiment where we compared the water repellency of two dominant peatland moss species, Sphagnum and feathermoss, for several burn severity classes including unburned samples. The results suggest that water repellency in moss is primarily controlled by water content, where a sharp threshold exists at gravimetric water contents (GWC) lower than ∼1.4 g g-1. While GWC is shown to be a strong predictor of water repellency, the effect is enhanced by burning. Based on soil water retention curves, we suggest that it is highly unlikely that Sphagnum will exhibit strong hydrophobic conditions under field conditions.

  13. Beryllium-7 and {sup 210}Pb atmospheric deposition measured in moss and dependence on cumulative precipitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krmar, M., E-mail: krmar@df.uns.ac.rs [Faculty of Science, Physics Department, Trg Dositeja Obradovića 4, Novi Sad (Serbia); Mihailović, D.T.; Arsenić, I. [Faculty of Agriculture, Trg Dositeja Obradovića 8, Novi Sad (Serbia); Radnović, D. [Faculty of Science, Biology Department, Trg Dositeja Obradovića 4, Novi Sad (Serbia); Pap, I. [Faculty of Agriculture, Trg Dositeja Obradovića 8, Novi Sad (Serbia)

    2016-01-15

    This paper focuses on analysis of the time series of {sup 7}Be and {sup 210}Pb activity measured in moss, and the amount, as well as duration of precipitation, to gain a better understanding of the possible relationships between airborne radionuclide deposition and precipitation. Here we consider whether the amount of these airborne radionuclides in moss samples is a cumulative measure of radionuclide deposition and decay, and a new approach for analyses of the relationships between precipitation and moss activity concentrations is suggested. Through these analyses it was shown that comparison of cumulative activity measured at one location using moss, normalized by values of cumulative amount or duration of precipitation, showed different regimes of airborne radionuclide deposition. - Graphical abstract: Correlation between cumulative activity of {sup 7}Be and {sup 210}Pb measured in moss samples normalized by the cumulative precipitation. - Highlights: • Use of mosses in measurement of airborne radionuclides deposition was investigated • Prior work indicated {sup 7}Be and {sup 210}Pb activities were not correlated with precipitation • This is unusual since radionuclides moss tissues depends on depositional fluxes. • A new method for study of {sup 7}Be and {sup 210}Pb depositional dynamics was developed • Different seasonal regimes of {sup 7}Be deposition are more noticeable in new technique.

  14. [Impact of moss soil crust on vegetation indexes interpretation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Shi-bo; Zhang, Xin-shi

    2011-03-01

    Vegetation indexes were the most common and the most important parameters to characterizing large-scale terrestrial ecosystems. It is vital to get precise vegetation indexes for running land surface process models and computation of NPP change, moisture and heat fluxes over surface. Biological soil crusts (BSC) are widely distributed in arid and semi-arid, polar and sub-polar regions. The spectral characteristics of dry and wet BSCs were quite different, which could produce much higher vegetation indexes value for the wet BSC than for the dry BSC as reported. But no research was reported about whether the BSC would impact on regional vegetation indexes and how much dry and wet BSC had impact on regional vegetation indexes. In the present paper, the most common vegetation index NDVI were used to analyze how the moss soil crusts (MSC) dry and wet changes affect regional NDVI values. It was showed that 100% coverage of the wet MSC have a much higher NDVI value (0.657) than the dry MSC NDVI value (0.320), with increased 0.337. Dry and wet MSC NDVI value reached significant difference between the levels of 0.000. In the study area, MSC, which had the average coverage of 12.25%, would have a great contribution to the composition of vegetation index. Linear mixed model was employed to analyze how the NDVI would change in regional scale as wet MSC become dry MSC inversion. The impact of wet moss crust than the dry moss crust in the study area can make the regional NDVI increasing by 0.04 (14.3%). Due to the MSC existence and rainfall variation in arid and semi-arid zones, it was bound to result in NDVI change instability in a short time in the region. For the wet MSC's spectral reflectance curve is similar to those of the higher plants, misinterpretation of the vegetation dynamics could be more severe due to the "maximum value composite" (MVC) technique used to compose the global vegetation maps in the study of vegetation dynamics. The researches would be useful for

  15. Assessment of Zebra Mussel (Dreissena Polymorpha) Infestation Risk Using GIS for Water Basins in the North-West Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-22

    Sofia 1504, Bulgaria 3 Faculty of Biology , Sofia University; 8 Dragan Tsankov Blvd., Sofia 1164, Bulgaria Sponsoring Agency: U.S. Army...al. 1998) or causing shift in their diet (Maguire & Grey 2006), and by adversely impacting benthic invertebrate communities and fish populations...August 9-13, 2004, San Diego, California, 12 pp. Angelov, A., 2000. Catalogus faunae bulgaricae. 4. Mollusca : Gastropoda et Bivalvia aquae dulcis

  16. Feasibility assessment of a solar-powered charging station for electric vehicles in the North Central region of Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilieva Liliya Mihaylova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the topical issue related to the prospects of widespread deployment of electric vehicles and their associated infrastructure in Bulgaria. The main problems hindering the development of electric vehicle transport are summarized and the current status of charging infrastructure in the country is discussed. An approach is proposed for analysis and evaluation of the financial feasibility of investment in a solar-powered charging station for electric vehicles in North Central region of Bulgaria.

  17. Moss-cyanobacteria associations as biogenic sources of nitrogen in boreal forest ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin eRousk

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The biological fixation of atmospheric nitrogen (N is a major pathway for available N entering ecosystems. In N-limited boreal forests, a significant amount of N2 is fixed by cyanobacteria living in association with mosses, contributing up to 50 % to the total N input. In this review, we synthesize reports on the drivers of N2 fixation in feather moss-cyanobacteria associations to gain a deeper understanding of their role for ecosystem-N-cycling. Nitrogen fixation in moss-cyanobacteria associations is inhibited by N inputs and therefore, significant fixation occurs only in low N-deposition areas. While it has been shown that artificial N additions in the laboratory as well as in the field inhibit N2 fixation in moss-cyanobacteria associations, the type, as well as the amounts of N that enters the system, affect N2 fixation differently. Another major driver of N2 fixation is the moisture status of the cyanobacteria-hosting moss, wherein moist conditions promote N2 fixation. Mosses experience large fluctuations in their hydrological status, undergoing significant natural drying and rewetting cycles over the course of only a few hours, especially in summer, which likely compromises the N input to the system via N2 fixation. Perhaps the most central question, however, that remains unanswered is the fate of the fixed N2 in mosses. The cyanobacteria are likely to leak N, but whether this N is transferred to the soil and if so, at which rates and timescales, is unknown. Despite our increasing understanding of the drivers of N2 fixation, the role moss-cyanobacteria associations play in ecosystem-N-cycling remains unresolved. Further, the relationship mosses and cyanobacteria share is unknown to date and warrants further investigation.

  18. Moss-cyanobacteria associations as biogenic sources of nitrogen in boreal forest ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousk, Kathrin; Jones, Davey L.; DeLuca, Thomas H.

    2013-01-01

    The biological fixation of atmospheric nitrogen (N) is a major pathway for available N entering ecosystems. In N-limited boreal forests, a significant amount of N2 is fixed by cyanobacteria living in association with mosses, contributing up to 50% to the total N input. In this review, we synthesize reports on the drivers of N2 fixation in feather moss-cyanobacteria associations to gain a deeper understanding of their role for ecosystem-N-cycling. Nitrogen fixation in moss-cyanobacteria associations is inhibited by N inputs and therefore, significant fixation occurs only in low N-deposition areas. While it has been shown that artificial N additions in the laboratory as well as in the field inhibit N2 fixation in moss-cyanobacteria associations, the type, as well as the amounts of N that enters the system, affect N2 fixation differently. Another major driver of N2 fixation is the moisture status of the cyanobacteria-hosting moss, wherein moist conditions promote N2 fixation. Mosses experience large fluctuations in their hydrological status, undergoing significant natural drying and rewetting cycles over the course of only a few hours, especially in summer, which likely compromises the N input to the system via N2 fixation. Perhaps the most central question, however, that remains unanswered is the fate of the fixed N2 in mosses. The cyanobacteria are likely to leak N, but whether this N is transferred to the soil and if so, at which rates and timescales, is unknown. Despite our increasing understanding of the drivers of N2 fixation, the role moss-cyanobacteria associations play in ecosystem-N-cycling remains unresolved. Further, the relationship mosses and cyanobacteria share is unknown to date and warrants further investigation. PMID:23785359

  19. [Influences of petrophytia moss on vegetation development in evergreen broad-leaved forest].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhongsheng; Fang, Yanming

    2003-06-01

    In order to examine the role of Petrophytia moss in maintaining the stability and integrity of forest vegetation, the distribution patterns of vascular plants among Petrophytia moss layer were investigated in five heterogeneous patches of evergreen broad-leaved forest at Longwangshan, Zhejiang Province. The distribution and composition of vascular plants were jointly affected by various factors, such as disturbance degree in patch, moss growth condition, and water and soil conservation ability of moss layer. Original habitats patch 1 and patch 5 were kept well, and hence, the even depth, dry weight and maximum water-holding capacity of moss layer, as well as the dry weight of soil and the soil water-absorbing rate in moss layer for patch 1 and patch 5 were much more than other patches. For example, the even depth (cm) of moss layer were decreased in the order of patch 5(2.2) > patch 1(2.0) > patch 2(1.5) > patch 3(1.1) > patch 4(0.9); the ranking of vascular plant diversities among moss layer in each patch was patch 5(16) > patch 1(14) > patch 3(9) > patch 4(7), and the general cover of these plants was followed as patch 3(30.0%) > patch 1(28.5%) > patch 5 (26.5%) > patch 2 (17.0%) > patch 4(4.5%). It was concluded that Petrophytia moss had the roles of reserving water and soil, holding litter, concentrating nutrient elements, and corrupting rock, which could improve the environmental condition of rock surface, help to the regeneration of vascular plants, and bring positive effects on the restoration or conversation of vegetation in disturbance sites and on the extension of forest scale.

  20. Sensitivity of the xerophytic moss Syntrichia caninervis to chronic simulated nitrogen deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuanming

    2016-04-01

    Biological soil crusts, complex of cyanobacteira, fungi, lichens and mosses, are common in dryland area and act as important elements of these ecosystems. Syntrichia caninervis is the dominant species in moss crusts in many desert ecosystems. Increasing N deposition has lead to great changes in community structure and function in the desert ecosystem worldwide. However, it is unclear how moss crusts respond to increased atmospheric N deposition, especially in term of growth and physiological parameters. The population and individual growth, and physiological responses of S. caninervis to six different doses of simulated N deposition (0, 0.3, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 3.0 g N m-2 a-1) over three years were studied. Simulated N deposition in the Gurbantunggut Desert affected growth and physiological indices of the xerophytic moss S.caninervis. Low N addition increased individual plant length and leaf size. High N addition was detrimental to almost all growth characteristics monitored, although moss abundance was increased. The photosynthesis-related indices were moderately increased at low N addition rates and significantly decreased by high N addition. Changes in osmotic adjustment substance concentrations and activities of antioxidant enzymes facilitated protection of leaf cells from oxidative damage under N addition. Low rates of N additiondid not significantly affect, and may even stimulate growth and physiological activity of moss crusts. However, high rates of N addition decreased moss vitality and might affect the function of moss crusts. Moss crusts are sensitive to N addition and greater attention should be paid to protection of such kinds of biological complexes in desert ecosystems under increasing N deposition. Key words: antioxidant enzyme, chlorophyll, fluorescence, nitrogen deposition, osmotic substance, Syntrichia caninervis

  1. SURVEY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    SURVEY er en udbredt metode og benyttes inden for bl.a. samfundsvidenskab, humaniora, psykologi og sundhedsforskning. Også uden for forskningsverdenen er der mange organisationer som f.eks. konsulentfirmaer og offentlige institutioner samt marketingsafdelinger i private virksomheder, der arbejder...

  2. Comparison of metal concentrations in three species of mosses and metal freights in bulk precipitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thöni, L; Schnyder, N; Krieg, F

    1996-03-01

    Concentration of 25 trace metals in mosses ( Hylocomium splendens, Pleurozium schreberi and Hypnum cupressiforme) are compared with bulk deposition freights (Bergerhoff method) at 3 sites in Switzerland, one on the plateau, a second in the northern prealps and a third in the southern alps. The three moss species are interchangeable and the atmospheric background deposition can be estimated with sufficient accuracy for Ag, Al, As, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ga, Ge, La, Li, Mo, Nb, Ni, Pb, Th, Ti, U, V, W, Y, Zn. For Hg this study does not give definite results. No seasonal differences in moss concentrations from spring to autumn can be shown.

  3. Are herbarium mosses reliable indicators of historical nitrogen deposition?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Tora Finderup; Larsen, Jesper Ruf; Michelsen, Anders

    2017-01-01

    Mosses collected decades ago and stored in herbaria are often used to assess historical nitrogen deposition. This method is effectively based on the assumption that tissue N concentration remains constant during storage. The present study raises serious doubt about the generality of that assumption....... We measured tissue N and C concentrations as well as δ15N, δ13C, Pb and Mg in herbarium and present day samples of seven bryophyte species from six sites across Denmark. While an increase in nitrogen deposition during the last century is well-documented for the study site, we surprisingly found...... foliar N concentration to be higher in historical samples than in modern samples. Based on δ15N values and Pb concentration, we find nitrogen contamination of herbarium specimens during storage to be the most likely cause, possibly in combination with dilution though growth and/or decomposition during...

  4. Probabilistic seismic hazard map for Bulgaria as a basis for a new building code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. D. Simeonova

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A seismic hazard map proposed as part of a new building code for Bulgaria is presented here on basis of the recommendations in EUROCODE 8. Seismic source zones within an area of about 200 km around Bulgaria were constructed considering seismicity, neotectonic and geological development. The most time consuming work was to establish a homogeneous earthquake catalogue out of different catalogues. The probabilistic seismic hazard assessment in terms of intensities is performed following Cornell (1968 with the program EQRISK (see McGuire, 1976, modified by us for use of intensities. To cope with the irregular isoseismals of the Vrancea intermediate depth earthquakes a special attenuation factor is introduced (Ardeleanu et al., 2005, using detailed macroseismic maps of three major earthquakes. The final seismic hazard is the combination of both contributions, of zones with crustal earthquakes and of the Vrancea intermediate depth earthquakes zone. Calculations are done for recurrence periods of 95, 475 and 10 000 years.

  5. New records of millipedes and centipedes from Bulgaria, with an annotated checklist of the Bulgarian myriapods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachvarova, Darina; Vagalinski, Boyan; Doichinov, Aleksandar; Stoev, Pavel

    2017-05-10

    The present paper records new and poorly known myriapods (Diplopoda, Chilopoda) collected in Bulgaria in the last 10 years. Four new species are reported as new to the Bulgarian fauna: Lithobius melanops Newport, 1845 (Chilopoda: Lithobiomorpha: Lithodiidae), Polydesmus collaris C.L. Koch, 1847, Polydesmus inconstans Latzel, 1884 and Polydesmus schaessburgensis Verhoeff, 1898 (Diplopoda: Polydesmida: Polydesmidae). Scanning electron micrographs of the gonopods and male leg-pairs 5 and 6 are provided for the first time for Bulgarosoma superficiei Strasser, 1975, a species hitherto known only from its original description. This article presents also an updated list of Myriapoda in Bulgaria. The list includes a total of 251 (sub-)species of the classes Diplopoda (127), Chilopoda (104), Pauropoda (18) and Symphyla (2).

  6. The Antisemitic Press in Bulgaria at the End of the 19th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veselina Kulenska

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available With the Russo-Turkish War of 1877/78, the history of Bulgaria entered a new stage. According to the regulations enacted in July 1878 at the Congress of Berlin, summoned by the representatives of the Great Powers, the modern Bulgarian state was founded. Its constitution, proclaimed a year later, provided civic and political equality for the religious and ethnic minorities residing in the country, including the Jews. Although the young state was in many ways relatively backwards compared to other European countries, ideas and demands of the new political antisemitism found their echo here, too. In the 1890s, a series of antisemitic newspapers, magazines, brochures and leaflets were issued in Bulgaria, the authors of which saw the “country’s liberation from the Jewish yoke” as their main task. These antisemitic publications were short lived; their demands, however, found a certain audience and were discussed in the Bulgarian parliament at the turn of the century.

  7. RUSSIAN-ORIGIN HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL SHIPMENT FROM BULGARIA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly Cummins; Igor Bolshinsky; Ken Allen; Tihomir Apostolov; Ivaylo Dimitrov

    2009-07-01

    In July 2008, the Global Threat Reduction Initiative and the IRT 2000 research reactor in Sofia, Bulgaria, operated by the Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy (INRNE), safely shipped 6.4 kilograms of Russian origin highly enriched uranium (HEU) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) to the Russian Federation. The shipment, which resulted in the removal of all HEU from Bulgaria, was conducted by truck, barge, and rail modes of transport across two transit countries before reaching the final destination at the Production Association Mayak facility in Chelyabinsk, Russia. This paper describes the work, equipment, organizations, and approvals that were required to complete the spent fuel shipment and provides lessons learned that might assist other research reactor operators with their own spent nuclear fuel shipments.

  8. Revisiting the ‘invisible hand’ hypothesis: a comparative study between Bulgaria and Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadezhda GESHEVA

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines Adam Smith’s concept of an Invisible Hand of the market in light of the underlying assumptions for the theory to hold. Furthermore, the study focuses on Total Factor Productivity as a measure of efficiency of resource allocation, and employs growth accounting in Bulgaria relative to a frontier country (Germany, and tries to explain the Total Factor Productivity gap with the difference in the quality of institutions and economic freedom performance (where the latter is based on the Freedom Index Indicators. Satisfactory results have been obtained, favouring the hypothesis that freer markets perform better and a “catching up” effect of Bulgaria’s Total Factor Productivity levels towards those of Germany has been observed. Finally, the study provides policy recommendations facilitating the Invisible Hand Process in Bulgaria for a more rapid convergence towards Germany’s productivity levels.

  9. Investigation about the presence of organochlorine pollutants in mussels from the Black Sea, Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgieva Stanislava

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, organochlorine pesticides (HCB, DDT and its metabolites and HCBD in mussels from Bulgarian Black Sea coast. Mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis are aquatic organisms which are immobile so that the concentration of pollutants should primarily be considered as an indication of local levels of organochlorine compounds. Samples were collected from three areas of Black Sea coast of Bulgaria in summer 2015.

  10. New green professions in Bulgaria in the context of transition to green economy

    OpenAIRE

    Stoyanova Zornitsa; Harizanova Hristina

    2016-01-01

    Transition to green economy sets new requirements and challenges for the types of jobs, skills and knowledge. The paper analyzes and evaluates the importance of categories of green professions by sectors in Bulgaria. The main applied methodical approach for analysis and evaluation of green professions is a system approach. Assessment and analysis of the importance of categories of green professions by sectors is made on the basis of structured interviews with municipal experts from regional g...

  11. Shale Gas U-Turns in Bulgaria and Romania: The Turbulent Politics of Energy and Protest

    OpenAIRE

    Devey, Simon; Goussev, Viktor; Schwarzenburg, Bianca; Althaus, Marco

    2014-01-01

    After France, Bulgaria became the second EU country to enact an open-ended ban on hydraulic fracturing in early 2012. This government action was a radical departure from an initially friendly, even enthusiastic stance on unconventional gas development. It resulted in months of unprecedented, broad political pro-test from environmental groups and local communities. The conflict was interpreted as one involving old questions about Bulgaria’s orientation toward Russia or the West. In neighbourin...

  12. Study of Acute Alcohol Poisoning in Children Admitted to a Emergency Hospital Pirogov in Sofia, Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Loukova, Anelia

    2011-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the current study is to analyze the medical and social dimensions of acute alcohol poisoning in children with regard of improving prevention of addictive habitis and develop effective preventative strategies for reducing underage alcohol consumption.Material and Methods: We have studied the patients at the age up to 18 years with acute alcohol poisoning hospitalized in the Children Toxicology Department of Emergency Hospital Pirogov, Sofia, Bulgaria, from January 1, 2007 to Ju...

  13. Published data and new records to the fauna of Eupelmidae (Insecta: Hymenoptera) in Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    MIROSLAV ANTOV; ANELIA STOJANOVA

    2015-01-01

    This study presents information about published data on eupelmid fauna of Bulgaria and new records of 16 species distributed in the country. Some of them are reared from Cynipidae (Hymenoptera) galls on Quercus, Rosa, Hypecoum, as well as from Cecidomyiidae (Diptera) developing in stems of Eryngium campestre L. Other species are reared from pods of Astragalus glycyphyllos L. and seeds of Dianthus giganteus dʼUrv. New host associations are established. As a result of the study 4...

  14. Determinants of Foreign Direct Investments in Bulgaria and Romania in the Context of Recent Economic Crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Mirel-Daniel Simionescu

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to select some relevant macroeconomic determinants for foreign direct investment (FDI) in Bulgaria and Romania since the start of the recent economic crisis (2008-2015). Even if the economic recession installed in 2009 in Romania, the foreign investors’ decisions were influenced by the moment of global recession from 2008. A Bayesian approach was proposed, because of the small sample for the variables in analyzed period: FDI as percent of GDP, real GDP rate, une...

  15. Filamentous cyanoprokaryotes (Cyanoprokaryota/Cyanobacteria in standing waters of Bulgaria: diversity and ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PLAMEN STOYANOV

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Cyanoprokaryotes are widespread organisms, which dominate in different water basins. In the present study, we have investigated the diversity of this group and related physicochemical parameters in 35 standing water basins in Bulgaria. We found 29 cyanoprokaryotic species, which belong to 13 genera from the orders Synechococcales, Spirulinales and Oscillatoriales. The frequency quotient of each species was calculated. Information about the distribution of the identified species and typology of the water basins is also provided.

  16. 14 October 2014 - R. Plevneliev President of the Republic of Bulgaria

    CERN Multimedia

    Brice, Maximilien

    2014-01-01

    His Excellency Mr Rosen Plevneliev President Republic of Bulgaria welcoming by CERN Director-General at CMS (Point 5); visiting the CMS cavern with CMS Spokesperson T. Camporesi; visiting the LHC tunnel at Point 5 with Technology Department Head J.M. Jiménez; signing the Guest-Book; assisting to a meeting with Bulgarians at CERN and family photograph with Bulgarians at CERN.

  17. The Mining of Uranium–Cases from Namibia, Niger, Brazil, and Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Tomislav Tkalec

    2015-01-01

    The text is a dossier focusing on the problems of uranium mining. The first part deals with some general issues and dilemmas associated with nuclear energy production and its environmental impacts; the second deals with case studies of uranium mining in Namibia, Niger, Brazil, and Bulgaria. The dossier is based entirely on the reports and documents of the EJOLT international project. Most of the research and studies mentioned in the article was carried out by CRIIRAD, a French organization...

  18. Environmental correlates of crimean-congo haemorrhagic fever incidence in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vescio Fenicia M

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic Fever (CCHF is a zoonotic viral disease transmitted by ixodid tick bites, mainly of Hyalomma spp., or through contact with blood/tissues from infected people or animals. CCHF is endemic in the Balkan area, including Bulgaria, where it causes both sporadic cases and community outbreaks. Methods We described trends of CCHF in Bulgaria between 1997 and 2009 and investigated the associations between CCHF incidence and a selection of environmental factors using a zero-inflated modelling approach. Results A total of 159 CCHF cases (38 women and 121 men were identified between 1997 and 2009. The incidence was 0.13 cases per 100,000 population/year with a fatality rate of 26%. An epidemic peak was detected close to the Turkish border in the summer of 2002. Most cases were reported between April and September. Increasing mean temperature, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI, savannah-type land coverage or habitat fragmentation increased significantly the incidence of CCHF in the CCHF-affected areas. Similar to that observed in Turkey, we found that areas with warmer temperatures in the autumn prior to the case-reporting year had an increased probability of reporting zero CCHF cases. Conclusions We identified environmental correlates of CCHF incidence in Bulgaria that may support the prospective implementation of public health interventions.

  19. [Physical condition and work capacity of Vietnamese workers in the People's Republic of Bulgaria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ch'ong, N V

    1983-01-01

    The expansion of integration processes on economics between P.R. of Bulgaria and S.R. of Vietnam during the eight 5-year plan period and the increased number of Vietnamese workers in Bulgaria determine the actuality and significance of the problem of the studies on their physical state and working capacity. One hundred sixty newly-come Vietnamese workers, aged between 20 and 35 were examined as well as 89 subjects, working as miners in Madan mines, with three years average length or service and average age 20-30. The following indices were used in the determination of the physical state and working capacity: height, body weight, chest measurements, vital capacity, muscular strength and hand muscular strength, time of simple and complicated visual-motor reaction. The results revealed that the group of workers, with a 3-year stay in Bulgaria, had statistically significant, higher values of the majority of the indices as compared with those of the newly-come Vietnamese. The Vietnamese workers manifested lower values of the indices for physical development (with 5 to 25%) as compared with the Bulgarians, the difference being considerably smaller in the miners' group. The future longitudinal studies on the physical state and working capacity of the Vietnamese workers will be the grounds for the elaboration of norms for physical loading, weight lifting, etc.

  20. Comparative estimate of resistance to drought fro selected karstic aquifers in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orehova Tatiana

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Effective management of water resources requires adequate knowledge of groundwater system including the influence of climate variability and climate change. The drought of 1982-1994 in Bulgaria has led to important decrease of springflow and lowering of water levels. Therefore, groundwater demonstrated its vulnerability to drought. The purpose of this paper is to determine relative resistance of selected aquifers in Bulgaria to a prolonged decrease of recharge to groundwater. The drought resistance indicator has been defined for some karstic aquifers based on the method proposed in report of BRGM. The data from National Hydrogeological Network located in the National Institute of Meteorology and Hydrology were processed. For the aim of this study, time-series of discharge for karstic springs were used. Stations with significant impact of human activity on groundwater were eliminated. The results show that most of studied aquifers in Bulgaria have moderate and weak resistance to the drought. They are vulnerable to droughts and need good management for effective use of groundwater resources.

  1. A review of Sphaeropsis sapinea occurrence on Pinus species in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Georgieva

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Sphaeropsis sapinea (Fr. Dyko & Sutton causes shoot blight and canker disease throughout the world on conifers predisposed by stress. The disease is most important to Pinus species that are affected from the seedling stage in nurseries to mature trees in ornamental planting, forest plantations and natural stands. In Bulgaria, the first findings of the disease were noted in 1989 on Pinus nigra plantations in the North-eastern part of the country. Over the past few years, new emergency and severe damages have developed rapidly as a consequence of the prolonged drought periods during the last growing seasons. The high existence of S. sapinea outbreaks contributed considerably to the physiological weakness of pine trees that become more susceptible to attack by aggressive xylophages and other fungal pathogens. Disease occurrence and its pathogenicity are economically important affecting a number of pine trees from all ages. In Bulgaria, S. sapinea has been obtained on six pine species P. nigra, P. strobus, P. radiata, P. ponderosa, P. pinaster and P. halepensis. The aim of this review is to present the available knowledge on distribution, host specificity, biology, ecology, management of the disease, and to discuss its current prevalence and pathogenicity effect on pine species in Bulgaria.

  2. Craniological study and subspecific status of three species of Dormice from Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Peshev

    1995-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The craniology of three species of dormice was studied and their subspecific status determined. No intersexual differences were found. For the territory of Bulgaria one subspecies of the fat dormouse - Myoxus glis minutus and two subspecies of the forest dormouse - Dryomys nitedula wingei and D. n. robustus and two subspecies of the hazel dormouse - Muscardinus a. avellanarius and M. a. zeus are described. Riassunto Studio craniologico e status sottospecifico di tre specie di Mioxidi della Bulgaria - Tre specie di Mioxidi sono state studiate craniologicamente ed è stato determinato il loro status sottospecifico. Non sono state osservate differenze tra i sessi. Per il territorio della Bulgaria vengono descritte: una sottospecie di Ghiro (M. glis minutus, due sottospecie di Driomio (D. nitedula wingei e D. n. robustus e due sottospecie di Moscardino (M. a. avellanarius e M. a. zeus.

  3. Two New Varieties of Ctenidium molluscum (Hedw.) Mitt. (Hypnaceae, Musci) for the Moss Flora of Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    UYAR, Güray

    2003-01-01

    Two new varieties, Ctenidium molluscum (Hedw.) Mitt. var. condensatum (Schimp.) Britt. and Ctenidium molluscum (Hedw.) Mitt. var. robustum Boul. collected from the western Black Sea region were determined to be new records for the moss flora of Turkey.

  4. Magnetic biomonitoring by moss bags for industry-derived air pollution in SW Finland

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Salo, Hanna; Mäkinen, Joni

    2014-01-01

    We provide the first detailed case study using Sphagnum papillosum moss bags for active magnetic monitoring of airborne industrial pollution in order to evaluate the actual role of various emission...

  5. Composition and structure of photosystem I in the moss Physcomitrella patens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busch, Andreas; Petersen, Jørgen; Webber-Birungi, Miriam T.

    2013-01-01

    intact photosystem I (PSI) with its associated light-harvesting complex (LHCI) from the moss Physcomitrella patens and characterized its structure, polypeptide composition, and light-harvesting function using electron microscopy, mass spectrometry, biochemical, and physiological methods. It became...

  6. The antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of extracts obtained from some moss species in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ertürk Ömer

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pharmaceutical industry is forced to develop new pharmacologically active molecules. Like other plants, mosses are considered to be potential source of new biologically active compounds.

  7. The interactive effects of temperature and moisture on nitrogen fixation in two temperate-arctic mosses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rousk, Kathrin; Pedersen, Pia Agerlund; Dyrnum, Kristine

    2017-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) fixation in moss-cyanobacteria associations is one of the main sources of ‘new’ N in pristine ecosystems like subarctic and arctic tundra. This fundamental ecosystem process is driven by temperature as well as by moisture. Yet, the effects of temperature and moisture stress on N2...... fixation in mosses under controlled conditions have rarely been investigated separately, rendering the interactive effects of the two climatic factors on N2 fixation unknown. Here, we tested the interactive effects of temperature and moisture on N2 fixation in the two most dominant moss species...... in a temperate heath, subarctic tundra and arctic tundra: Pleurozium schreberi and Tomentypnum nitens. Mosses with different moisture levels (25, 50, 100%) were kept at different temperatures (10, 20, 30 °C) and N2 fixation was measured at different times after exposure to these conditions. T. nitens had...

  8. Comparison of elicitation potential of chloroatranol and atranol - 2 allergens in oak moss absolute

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, J.D.; Bernard, G.; Gimenez-Arnau, E.

    2006-01-01

    Chloroatranol and atranol are degradation products of chloroatranorin and atranorin, respectively, and have recently been identified as important contact allergens in the natural fragrance extract, oak moss absolute. Oak moss absolute is widely used in perfumery and is the cause of many cases...... of fragrance allergic contact dermatitis. Chloroatranol elicits reactions at very low levels of exposure. In oak moss absolute, chloroatranol and atranol are present together and both may contribute to the allergenicity and eliciting capacity of the natural extract. In this study, 10 eczema patients with known...... sensitization to chloroatranol and oak moss absolute were tested simultaneously to a serial dilution of chloroatranol and atranol in ethanol, in equimolar concentrations (0.0034-1072 microM). Dose-response curves were estimated and analysed by logistic regression. The estimated difference in elicitation potency...

  9. The Urban Moss Flora of the Çankırı City (NW, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azize YAVUZ

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The mosses found in the urban area of Çankırı city was investigated at five zones depending on the human activities. Two hundreds and thirty five specimens were randomly collected in sampling locations within the zones. As a result of the identification, 66 taxa were recorded. The results were compared with the explored urban floras of the other countries. Data on life forms, frequency of occurrence, presence of sporophytes, habitats and substrata preferences of the mosses were discussed. Detailed topographical features including slope, aspect and altitude analysis of the study area were illustrated and taxa occurrence was evaluated based on these properties. Chi-square analysis revealed that 45 moss species of 235 were correlated with the categorical variables at 0.05 significance level. Moss taxa occurrence within the urban area was mainly correlated with life forms and gametophyte structures, respectively.

  10. Evaluation of Species Richness of Acrocarpous Mosses in Imphal District, Manipur, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Govindapyari

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Mosses are remarkably successful colonizer on the variety of habitats. They can survive in extreme environmental conditions where only a few other plants grow. The main attributes of mosses are compact growth form, ability to retain moisture, ectohydric nature, poikilohydry and low growing habit. The occurrence of a particular species may reflect the microclimate of the locality. The present study reveals 75 species of acrocarpous mosses belonging to 23 genera and nine families from Imphal district which is an urban site of tropical climate. The most frequently occurring family is observed to be Pottiaceae with 28 species and 11 genera. The genus Bryum with 13 species is found to have highest number of species followed by Fissidens and Physcomitrium. Splachnobryum sp. and Bryum argenteum are found to be distributed on the nitrophilous substrata. It seems that changing climatic conditions and pollution are restricting the sexual reproduction and subsequently the genetic variability and adaptability in the moss taxa.

  11. Using Moss to Assess Airborne Heavy Metal Pollution in Taizhou, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoli Zhou

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Bryophytes act as bioindicators and bioaccumulators of metal deposition in the environment. To understand the atmospheric deposition of heavy metals (cadmium (Cd, chromium (Cr, copper (Cu, mercury (Hg, nickel (Ni, lead (Pb, and zinc (Zn in Taizhou, East China, samples of moss (Haplocladium microphyllum were collected from 60 sites selected by a systematic sampling method during the summer of 2012, and the concentrations of these heavy metals were determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES. The results suggested that the concentrations of these metals varied moderately among different sites, indicating a similar contamination level for each element throughout the monitoring region. The mean values under investigation were higher than those from neighboring cities, such as Wuxi, Xuzhou, and Nanjing, and much higher than those in Europe based on a 2010 survey. Significant (p < 0.01 correlations were identified among some of the heavy metals, suggesting that these originated from identical sources. There was no statistically significant correlation between Hg and all the other elements. Spatial distribution maps of the elements over the sampled territory were created using Arc-GIS 9.0. The potential ecological risk index indicated that the air was heavily polluted by Cd and Hg, and that there was a considerable potential ecological risk from all the heavy metals studied.

  12. Effect of 30 years of road traffic abandonment on epiphytic moss diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plášek, Vítězslav; Nowak, Arkadiusz; Nobis, Marcin; Kusza, Grzegorz; Kochanowska, Katarzyna

    2014-12-01

    Road traffic emits a cocktail of pollutants that can influence the vegetation and plant diversity in neighboring areas. However, the recovery potential of bryophytes after traffic abandonment is still little explored. In addition, the effects of the main pollutants of road verges, such as metals and salinity, on moss flora need to be investigated. In our study, we compared the moss richness and diversity in two closely related veteran tree allees of high conservation importance. The allees in Gryżów and Lubrza, Poland, were chosen because of their similarity in age, geographical location, type of surrounding areas, and tree species. The only difference was that the trees in Gryżów had not been exposed to direct road pollution for almost 30 years. The moss richness and diversity differed significantly between the sites. Altogether, 20 moss species were recorded on 229 trees, 17 species in Gryżów (abandoned road), and 13 in Lubrza (busy road). We found considerable differences between moss cover on the road-facing and opposite sides of tree trunks. In Lubrza, mosses on the road-facing side were very scarce. The moss cover in Gryżów was highly balanced between trunk sides as well as among trunk heights. Typical epiphytic species such as Bryum moravicum, Dicranoweisia cirrata, Leskea polycarpa, and Orthodicranum tauricum preferred the Gryżów tree stands, where they were present in numbers almost twice as high as that at Lubrza. The study shows that constructing a bypass road could be an effective conservation measure for veteran tree protection with their epiphytic moss flora.

  13. Monitoring of heavy metal concentrations in home outdoor air using moss bags

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivera, Marcela, E-mail: arivera@creal.ca [Centre for Research in Environmental Epidemiology CREAL, Barcelona (Spain); Municipal Institute of Medical Research (IMIM-Hospital del Mar), Barcelona (Spain); Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona (Spain); CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain); Zechmeister, Harald [University of Vienna, Faculty of Life Sciences, Vienna (Austria); Medina-Ramon, Mercedes; Basagana, Xavier [Centre for Research in Environmental Epidemiology CREAL, Barcelona (Spain); Municipal Institute of Medical Research (IMIM-Hospital del Mar), Barcelona (Spain); CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain); Foraster, Maria [Centre for Research in Environmental Epidemiology CREAL, Barcelona (Spain); Municipal Institute of Medical Research (IMIM-Hospital del Mar), Barcelona (Spain); Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona (Spain); CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain); Bouso, Laura [Centre for Research in Environmental Epidemiology CREAL, Barcelona (Spain); Municipal Institute of Medical Research (IMIM-Hospital del Mar), Barcelona (Spain); CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain); Moreno, Teresa [Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA-CSIC), Barcelona (Spain); Solanas, Pascual; Ramos, Rafael [Research Unit, Family Medicine, Girona, Jordi Gol Institute for Primary Care Research (IDIAP Jordi Gol), Catalan Institute of Health, Catalunya (Spain); Department of Medical Sciences, School of Medicine, University of Girona (Spain); Koellensperger, Gunda [University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Vienna (Austria); Deltell, Alexandre [Polytechnic School, GREFEMA, University of Girona (Spain); Vizcaya, David [Centre for Research in Environmental Epidemiology CREAL, Barcelona (Spain); Municipal Institute of Medical Research (IMIM-Hospital del Mar), Barcelona (Spain); Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona (Spain); CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain)

    2011-04-15

    One monitoring station is insufficient to characterize the high spatial variation of traffic-related heavy metals within cities. We tested moss bags (Hylocomium splendens), deployed in a dense network, for the monitoring of metals in outdoor air and characterized metals' long-term spatial distribution and its determinants in Girona, Spain. Mosses were exposed outside 23 homes for two months; NO{sub 2} was monitored for comparison. Metals were not highly correlated with NO{sub 2} and showed higher spatial variation than NO{sub 2}. Regression models explained 61-85% of Cu, Cr, Mo, Pb, Sb, Sn, and Zn and 72% of NO{sub 2} variability. Metals were strongly associated with the number of bus lines in the nearest street. Heavy metals are an alternative traffic-marker to NO{sub 2} given their toxicological relevance, stronger association with local traffic and higher spatial variability. Monitoring heavy metals with mosses is appealing, particularly for long-term exposure assessment, as mosses can remain on site many months without maintenance. - Research highlights: > Moss bags can be used to measure the metal's long-term spatial distribution within cities. > Heavy metals in mosses are not highly correlated with ambient NO{sub 2} concentrations. > Heavy metals show higher spatial variation and association with traffic than NO{sub 2}. > Bus lines in the nearest street explain 75-85% of Mo, Cr, Sb, Sn and Cu variability. > Moss bags are useful for long-term at home exposure assessment in epidemiological studies. - The long-term spatial distribution of heavy metals, measured with moss bags, is mainly determined by proximity to bus lines.

  14. Metal and proton adsorption capacities of natural and cloned Sphagnum mosses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Aridane G; Pokrovsky, Oleg S; Beike, Anna K; Reski, Ralf; Di Palma, Anna; Adamo, Paola; Giordano, Simonetta; Fernandez, J Angel

    2016-01-01

    Terrestrial mosses are commonly used as bioindicators of atmospheric pollution. However, there is a lack of standardization of the biomonitoring preparation technique and the efficiency of metal adsorption by various moss species is poorly known. This is especially true for in vitro-cultivated moss clones, which are promising candidates for a standardized moss-bag technique. We studied the adsorption of copper and zinc on naturally grown Sphagnum peat moss in comparison with in vitro-cultivated Sphagnum palustre samples in order to provide their physico-chemical characterization and to test the possibility of using cloned peat mosses as bioindicators within the protocol of moss-bag technique. We demonstrate that in vitro-grown clones of S. palustre exhibit acid-base properties similar to those of naturally grown Sphagnum samples, whereas the zinc adsorption capacity of the clones is approx. twice higher than that of the samples from the field. At the same time, the field samples adsorbed 30-50% higher amount of Cu(2+) compared to that of the clones. This contrast may be related to fine differences in the bulk chemical composition, specific surface area, morphological features, type and abundance of binding sites at the cell surfaces and in the aqueous solution of natural and cloned Sphagnum. The clones exhibited much lower concentration of most metal pollutants in their tissues relative to the natural samples thus making the former better indicators of low metal loading. Overall, in vitro-produced clones of S. palustre can be considered as an adequate, environmentally benign substitution for protected natural Sphagnum sp. samples to be used in moss-bags for atmospheric monitoring. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Heterologous stable expression of terpenoid biosynthetic genes using the moss Physcomitrella patens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, Søren Spanner; King, Brian Christopher; Zhan, Xin

    2014-01-01

    , such as streamlining of large scale Agrobacterium infiltration and upregulation of the upstream pathways, transient in planta heterologous expression quickly reaches limitations when used for production of terpenoids. Stable integration of transgenes into the nuclear genome of the moss Physcomitrella patens has...... and cultivation of transgenic lines, and metabolite analysis of terpenoids produced in transgenic moss lines. We also provide tools for metabolic engineering through genome editing using homologous recombination....

  16. A critical evaluation of the use of the moss technique to monitor air pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Boquete Seoane, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Passive biomonitoring with terrestrial mosses, i.e. the “moss biomonitoring technique”, constitutes a useful tool for the study of the atmospheric deposition of heavy metals. However, it has limitations, some of which have been deeply assessed in this doctoral thesis. Thus, the temporal variability of the concentrations of several nutrients and pollutants in Pseudoscleropodium purum and the effect of growth on the concentrations of elements in segments of different ages of P. puru...

  17. Chemical and mineralogical characterization of Etnean volcanic emissions using active biomonitoring technique (moss-bags)

    OpenAIRE

    Calabrese, S.; D'Alessandro, W.; Bellomo, S.; Brusca, L.; Parello, F.

    2011-01-01

    Biomonitoring may be defined as the use of organisms and biomaterials (biomonitors) to obtain informations on certain characteristics of a particular medium (atmosphere, hydrosphere etc.). In particular, mosses accumulate large amounts of trace metals, making them good bioaccumulators to estimate atmospheric pollution. The moss-bags technique, introduced in the early 1970’, has become very popular. Such active biomonitoring technique is particularly useful in highly polluted areas and has bee...

  18. Relationship between formation of gametophore buds in the protonema of mosses and increase in ribonuclease activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Spychała

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Changes in RNase activity similar to those accompanying cytokinin-induced formation of gametophore buds in mosses (a decrease in the early phase of bud formation and later an increase in enzyme activity have also been found during spontaneous formation of gametophores in moss ontogenesis. Using various factors affecting the cytokinin-induced process of bud formation a correlation has been found between this process and the increase in RNase activity.

  19. Hepatitis a virus genotypes and strains from an endemic area of Europe, Bulgaria 2012-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruni, Roberto; Taffon, Stefania; Equestre, Michele; Cella, Eleonora; Lo Presti, Alessandra; Costantino, Angela; Chionne, Paola; Madonna, Elisabetta; Golkocheva-Markova, Elitsa; Bankova, Diljana; Ciccozzi, Massimo; Teoharov, Pavel; Ciccaglione, Anna Rita

    2017-07-14

    Hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection is endemic in Eastern European and Balkan region countries. In 2012, Bulgaria showed the highest rate (67.13 cases per 100,000) in Europe. Nevertheless, HAV genotypes and strains circulating in this country have never been described. The present study reports the molecular characterization of HAV from 105 patients from Bulgaria. Anti-HAV IgM positive serum samples collected in 2012-2014 from different towns and villages in Bulgaria were analysed by nested RT-PCR, sequencing of the VP1/2A region and phylogenetic analysis; the results were analysed together with patient and geographical data. Phylogenetic analysis revealed two main sequence groups corresponding to the IA (78/105, 74%) and IB (27/105, 26%) sub-genotypes. In the IA group, a major and a minor cluster were observed (62 and 16 sequences, respectively). Most sequences from the major cluster (44/62, 71%) belonged to either of two strains, termed "strain 1" and "strain 2", differing only for a single specific nucleotide; the remaining sequences (18/62, 29%) showed few (1 to 4) nucleotide variations respect to strain 1 and 2. Strain 2 is identical to the strain previously responsible for an outbreak in the Czech Republic in 2008 and a large multi-country European outbreak caused by contaminated mixed frozen berries in 2013. Most sequences of the IA minor cluster and the IB group were detected in large/medium centers (LMCs). Overall, sequences from the IA major cluster were more frequent in small centers (SCs), but strain 1 and strain 2 showed an opposite relative frequency in SCs and LMCs (strain 1 more frequent in SCs, strain 2 in LMCs). Genotype IA predominated in Bulgaria in 2012-2014 and phylogenetic analysis identified a major cluster of highly related or identical IA sequences, representing 59% of the analysed cases; these isolates were mostly detected in SCs, in which HAV shows higher endemicity than in LMCs. The distribution of viral sequences suggests the existence

  20. Water dispersal of methanotrophic bacteria maintains functional methane oxidation in Sphagnum mosses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuliina ePutkinen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available It is known that Sphagnum associated methanotrophy (SAM changes in relation to the peatland water table (WT level. After drought, rising WT is able to reactivate SAM. We aimed to reveal whether this reactivation is due to activation of indigenous methane (CH4 oxidizing bacteria (MOB already present in the mosses or to MOB present in water. This was tested through two approaches: In a transplantation experiment, Sphagna lacking SAM activity were transplanted into flark water next to Sphagna oxidizing CH4. Already after 3 d, most of the transplants showed CH4 oxidation activity. Microarray showed that the MOB community compositions of the transplants and the original active mosses had become more similar within 28 d thus indicating MOB movement through water between mosses. Methylocystis-related type II MOB dominated the community. In a following experiment, SAM inactive mosses were bathed overnight in non-sterile and sterile-filtered SAM active site flark water. Only mosses bathed with non-sterile flark water became SAM active, which was also shown by the pmoA copy number increase of over 60 times. Thus, it was evident that MOB present in the water can colonize Sphagnum mosses. This colonization could act as a resilience mechanism for peatland CH4 dynamics by allowing the re-emergence of CH4 oxidation activity in Sphagnum.

  1. Heavy - metal biomonitoring by using moss bags in Florence urban area, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellizzaro, Grazia; Canu, Annalisa; Arca, Angelo; Duce, Pierpaolo

    2013-04-01

    In the last century, pollution has become one of the most important risks for environment. In particular, heavy metal presence in air, water and soil induces toxic effects on ecosystems and human health. Monitoring airborne trace element over large areas is a task not easy to reach since the concentrations of pollutants are variable in space and time. Data from automatic devices are site-specific and very limited in number to describe spatial-temporal trends of pollutants. In addition, especially in Italy, trace elements concentrations are not often recorded by most of the automated monitoring stations. In the last decades, development of alternative and complementary methods as bio-monitoring techniques, allowed to map deposition patterns not only near single pollution sources, but also over relatively large areas at municipal or even regional scale. Bio-monitoring includes a wide array of methodologies finalised to study relationships between pollution and living organisms. Mosses and lichens have been widely used as bio-accumulators for assessing the atmospheric deposition of heavy metals in natural ecosystems and urban areas. In this study bio-monitoring of airborne trace metals was made using moss bags technique. The moss Hypnum cupressiforme was used as bio-indicator for estimating atmospheric traces metal deposition in the urban area of Florence. Moss carpets were collected in a forested area of central Sardinia (municipality of Bolotana - Nuoro), which is characterised by absence of air pollution. Moss bags were located in the urban area of Florence close to three monitoring air quality stations managed by ARPAT (Agenzia Regionale Protezione Ambiente Toscana). Two stations were located in high-traffic roads whereas the other one was located in a road with less traffic density. In each site moss bags were exposed during three campaigns of measurement conducted during the periods March-April, May-July, and August-October 2010. Two moss bags, used as control

  2. Bringing back the rare - biogeochemical constraints of peat moss establishment in restored cut-over bogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raabe, Peter; Blodau, Christian; Hölzel, Norbert; Kleinebecker, Till; Knorr, Klaus-Holger

    2016-04-01

    In rewetted cut-over bogs in north-western Germany and elsewhere almost no spontaneous recolonization of hummock peat mosses, such as Sphagnum magellanicum, S. papillosum or S. rubellum can be observed. However, to reach goals of climate protection every restoration of formerly mined peatlands should aim to enable the re-establishment of these rare but functionally important plant species. Besides aspects of biodiversity, peatlands dominated by mosses can be expected to emit less methane compared to sites dominated by graminoids. To assess the hydrological and biogeochemical factors constraining the successful establishment of hummock Sphagnum mosses we conducted a field experiment by actively transferring hummock species into six existing restoration sites in the Vechtaer Moor, a large peatland complex with active peat harvesting and parallel restoration efforts. The mosses were transferred as intact sods in triplicate at the beginning of June 2016. Six weeks (mid-July) and 18 weeks later (beginning of October) pore water was sampled in two depths (5 and 20 cm) directly beneath the inoculated Sphagnum sods as well as in untreated control plots and analysed for phosphate, ferrous iron, ammonia, nitrate and total organic carbon (TOC). On the same occasions and additionally in December, the vitality of mosses was estimated. Furthermore, the increment of moss height between July and December was measured by using cranked wires and peat cores were taken for lab analyses of nutrients and major element inventories at the depths of pore water sampling. Preliminary results indicate that vitality of mosses during the period of summer water level draw down was strongly negatively related to plant available phosphate in deeper layers of the residual peat. Furthermore, increment of moss height was strongly negatively related to TOC in the upper pore waters sampled in October. Concentration of ferrous iron in deeper pore waters was in general significantly higher beneath

  3. Ecological studies of aquatic moss pillars in Antarctic lakes 1. Macro structure and carbon, nitrogen and Chlorophyll a contents

    OpenAIRE

    Kudoh,Sakae; Tsuchiya,Yasutaka; Ayukawa,Eri; Imura,Satoshi; Kanda,Hiroshi

    2003-01-01

    Structures of a typical 'moss pillar' submerged in Antarctic lakes were investigated to analyze the sizes, age distribution, and composition such as shoot density, dry weight, carbon, nitrogen and chlorophyll a using a sample collected from lake B-4 Ike in the Skarvsnes region, East Antarctica. The moss pillar was mainly composed of shoots of a moss species, Leptobryum sp. Most of the green shoots of the species were located at the top surface of the pillar, and brownish old shoots with promi...

  4. Survival of Moss Reproductive Structures under Simulated Martian Environmental Conditions and Extreme Thermal Stress: Vibrational Spectroscopic Study and Astrobiological Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez Gómez, José María; Estébanez, Belén; Sanz-Arranz, Aurelio; Mateo-Martí, Eva; Medina, Jesús; Rull, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    The principal goal of astrobiology is the search for extraterrestrial life forms. A key aspect is the study of the ability of different kinds of terrestrial organisms to support simulated extraterrestrial environmental conditions. Mosses are multicellular green plants, poorly studied from an astrobiological perspective. In this paper, we report experimental results obtained using two species of moss, which demonstrate that both the spores of the moss Funaria hygrometrica as well a...

  5. Salmonellosis cases caused by a rare Salmonella Enteritidis PT6c associated with travel to Bulgaria, June-July 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, P; Parmakova, K; Siitonen, A; Asseva, G; Kauko, T; Kojouharova, M; Kantardjiev, T

    2009-02-26

    In June 2008 an outbreak of gastroenteritis was registered in Sunny Beach resort situated on the Black Sea coast in Bulgaria, affecting 14 employees of a hotel, five of whom tested positive for Salmonella Enteritidis. During June-July 2008 four sporadic S. Enteritidis cases were also reported and two of them were foreign tourists. In the same period S. Enteritidis cases connected with travel to Bulgaria were reported to the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) from Finland, United Kingdom, Sweden, Germany and Norway. We describe a study performed to find out relatedness between Bulgarian and Finnish S. Enteritidis isolates using phage typing (PT) and pulse-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Fifteen S. Enteritidis isolates from Bulgaria and 195 from Finland (including 28 from travellers to Bulgaria) were phage typed. Within Bulgarian isolates four different PTs were found and PT6c with eight strains was predominant. Nineteen out of 28 strains isolated from the Finns visiting Bulgaria belonged also to PT6c. PFGE typing (with one enzyme) of all S. Enteritidis PT6c strains (8 Bulgarian and 19 Finnish isolates) showed indistinguishable PFGE profile. The typing results thus demonstrated a link between Bulgarian and Finnish S. Enteritidis isolates. We conclude that S. Enteritidis PT6c was the cause of salmonella outbreak in Sunny Beach and was exported to Finland, and likely to the United Kingdom, Norway, Sweden and Germany.

  6. Atmospheric deposition of heavy metals in Norway. Nationwide survey 2010.; Atmosfareisk nedfall av tungmetaller i Norge. Landsomfattende undersoekelse i 2010,

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinnes, Eiliv; Berg, Torunn; Uggerud, Hilde Thelle; Pfaffhuber, Katrine Aspmo

    2011-07-01

    The geographical distribution of atmospheric deposition of heavy metals in Norway was mapped in 2010 by analysis of moss samples from 464 sites all over the country. This report provides a presentation of the results and a comparison with data from a series of corresponding moss surveys starting 1977. The survey is part of an international program comprising large parts of Europe. The survey primarily concerns the ten metals of priority in the European program: vanadium, chromium, iron, nickel, copper, zinc, arsenic, cadmium, mercury, and lead. In addition data are reported for another 42 elements in the moss. The discussion of the obtained data mainly refers to contributions from air pollution. In addition influence from natural processes to the elemental composition of the moss and how it may influence the interpretation of the data is discussed. (Author)

  7. Moss-associated methylobacteria as phytosymbionts: an experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornschuh, M.; Grotha, R.; Kutschera, U.

    2006-10-01

    Methylotrophic bacteria inhabit the surface of plant organs, but the interaction between these microbes and their host cells is largely unknown. Protonemata (gametophytes) of the moss Funaria hygrometrica were cultivated in vitro under axenic conditions and the growth of the protonemal filaments recorded. In the presence of methylobacteria (different strains of Methylobacterium), average cell length and the number of cells per filament were both enhanced. We tested the hypothesis that auxin (indole-3-acetic acid, IAA), secreted by the epiphytic bacteria and taken up by the plant cells, may in part be responsible for this promotion of protonema development. The antiauxin parachlorophenoxyisobutyric acid (PCIB) was used as a tool to analyze the role of IAA and methylobacteria in the regulation of cell growth. In the presence of PCIB, cell elongation and protonema differentiation were both inhibited. This effect was compensated for by the addition of different Methylobacterium strains to the culture medium. Biosynthesis and secretion of IAA by methylobacteria maintained in liquid culture was documented via a colorimetric assay and thin layer chromatography. Our results support the hypothesis that the development of Funaria protonemata is promoted by beneficial phytohormone-producing methylobacteria, which can be classified as phytosymbionts.

  8. Does the core circadian clock in the moss Physcomitrella patens (Bryophyta comprise a single loop?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedman Harald

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The endogenous circadian clock allows the organism to synchronize processes both to daily and seasonal changes. In plants, many metabolic processes such as photosynthesis, as well as photoperiodic responses, are under the control of a circadian clock. Comparative studies with the moss Physcomitrella patens provide the opportunity to study many aspects of land plant evolution. Here we present a comparative overview of clock-associated components and the circadian network in the moss P. patens. Results The moss P. patens has a set of conserved circadian core components that share genetic relationship and gene expression patterns with clock genes of vascular plants. These genes include Myb-like transcription factors PpCCA1a and PpCCA1b, pseudo-response regulators PpPRR1-4, and regulatory elements PpELF3, PpLUX and possibly PpELF4. However, the moss lacks homologs of AtTOC1, AtGI and the AtZTL-family of genes, which can be found in all vascular plants studied here. These three genes constitute essential components of two of the three integrated feed-back loops in the current model of the Arabidopsis circadian clock mechanism. Consequently, our results suggest instead a single loop circadian clock in the moss. Possibly as a result of this, temperature compensation of core clock gene expression appears to be decreased in P. patens. Conclusions This study is the first comparative overview of the circadian clock mechanism in a basal land plant, the moss P. patens. Our results indicate that the moss clock mechanism may represent an ancestral state in contrast to the more complex and partly duplicated structure of subsequent land plants. These findings may provide insights into the understanding of the evolution of circadian network topology.

  9. Molecular characterization and occurrence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase resistance genes among Salmonella enterica serovar Corvallis from Thailand, Bulgaria and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Archambault, Marie; Petrov, P.; Hendriksen, Rene S.

    2006-01-01

    antimicrobial agents tested, whereas 41 were resistant to three or more antimicrobials. Most resistance was observed among the isolates from Bulgaria. Of the 25 isolates from Bulgaria, 20 displayed resistance to ampicillin and the cephalosporins ceftiofur and cephalothin. All 20 isolates tested negative for bla...

  10. Identifying extent of technogenous impact on the coastline of Bulgaria based on GIS methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stancheva, Margarita; Palazov, Atanas; Peychev, Veselin; Stanchev, Hristo

    2010-05-01

    The Bulgarian Black Sea coast is about 412 km long, stretching between cape Sivriburun on the North and Rezovska River mouth on the South. At present, coastal erosion is a common process affecting 61% of the Bulgarian coast, while the sandy beaches comprise at least 30 %. Large number of coast-protection measures has been used to solve and manage the erosion/landslide problems, as most of these methods have involved "hard" stabilisation options such as: solid groins, dikes and seawalls. Design and construction of such protection structures has been increased in particular over the last few decades. About 217 technogenous objects have been indicated as port and coastal defence structures that currently constitute 17 % of the whole Bulgarian coastline. As a result, for a 50-year period (1960-2008) the amount of sediment material, incoming from cliff erosion, river solid discharge and wind-blown material has decreased from 4 979 700 Mg/y to 1 221 300 Mg/y. This in turn has provoked a reduction of sediment supply, sandy beach degradation and even occurrence of new erosion spots. Therefore, the major causes for progressive erosion along the Bulgarian coast could be mostly related to expanding human influence in terms of maritime constructions, dredging works and river corrections. The study is designed to trace the important issues of finding the extent of technogenous impact on the coastal zone of Bulgaria in order to delimitate the areas most influenced by coastline armouring. Topographic maps and GPS field survey data were used for identifying various types of port and coast-protection structures along the coastline. Data processing, mapping and analysis, as well as assessment of technogenous impact on the coastline were methodologically performed with tools of GIS ArcInfo 9.2. To evaluate the extent of anthropogenic influence on the Bulgarian Black Sea coast the coefficient of technogenous impact K was used, which serves for quantitative assessment of the impact of

  11. Investigation of possibilities for appearance of African horse sickness virus and changes in species of the genus "Culicoides" in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenchev I.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available To date, Bulgaria has been free of African Horse Sickness (AHS. Contacts with and proximity to countries, in which it is assumed there are cases of the disease, necessitate surveillance of equine animals near the border strict control of outgoing and incoming animals, especially those returning to the country after a long stay abroad of participation in races. Instructions for carrying out veterinary activities in instances when the disease occurs in Bulgaria have been worked out, since there were occurrences of Blue tongue disease (the disease has the same epizootiological vectors of spreading in regions bordering with Turkey last year. The serological screening investigations of blood sera by ELISA of equine animals from the same villages and regions during one active period of flight of culicoides did not establish the presence of antibodies to this dangerous transmissive disease. The present study contributed to working out scientific-methodological diagnostic preparedness in Bulgaria as regards this exotic transmassive disease.

  12. INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL DETERMINANTS OF COMMERCIAL BANKS PROFITABILITY: EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE FROM BULGARIA AND ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FIRTESCU BOGDAN

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Our study focuses on commercial banks which are operating in Bulgaria and Romania, two countries whose banking sectors have registered major structural changes in the transition to a market economy and which are showing some similarities. Similar to other EU countries, the financial system from Bulgaria and Romania is dominated by the banking sector, which holds the largest share of total assets. Thus, we can say that health, strength and performance of the banking sector are of major importance for the sustainable economic development of states, but also for efficient transmission of monetary policy decisions on the real economy. The paper aims to identify the key factors that affect bank profitability and to evaluate empirically their contribution to a sample of 29 commercial banks in Bulgaria and Romania, for the period 2003-2012. Our research is based on data from the Bureau Van Dijk database, the World Bank and the European Central Bank and uses panel data estimation techniques. The dependent variable used in our study is the bank profitability, which is measured by two representative indicators the Return on Average Assets (ROAA and Return on Average Equity (ROAE. Regarding the independent variables, our analysis includes capital adequacy, the loan loss reserve rate, cost to income ratio, the ratio of liquid assets to total assets, the interest expenses to deposits ratio, the non-interest income over total gross revenues, bank size, the GDP per capita growth, inflation rate, domestic bank credit to private sector and banking industry concentration. The results of our empirical study shows that among the variables considered, the loan loss reserve rate, the ratio of cost to income, GDP per capita growth and domestic bank credit to the private sector, have a significant impact on bank profitability, results in line with our expectations, but also with the results of other empirical studies.

  13. After Euro 620 m arbitration ruling. What next for Bulgaria's Belene nuclear project?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraev, Kamen [NucNet, Brussels (Belgium)

    2016-08-15

    Iran is considering Bulgaria's offer to sell it the Russian-made reactor equipment produced for the abandoned Belene nuclear project. The Belene project was initially planned and started in the 1980s, but was stopped in the early 1990s. In 2008 the project was formally given new life, but suspended again in 2010 and abandoned in 2012. The International Court of Arbitration (ICA) ordered the Bulgarian operator Natsionalna Elektricheska Kompania EAD to pay Euro 620 m in compensation to Russia's Atomstroyexport.

  14. Chemical Analysis of Organic Residues Found in Hellenistic Time Amphorae from SE Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlateva, B.; Rangelov, M.

    2015-05-01

    We have used IR spectroscopy, 1H NMR spectroscopy, high-performance liquid chromatography and thin-layer chromatography to study the composition of resin residues found in 22 amphorae from Apollonia Pontika (SE Bulgaria). In particular this analysis of the resin residues was aimed at discovering the content of the amphorae and to verify the hypothesis on the transport of wine, named "Retsina". Additionally this hypothesis has been confirmed by a similar analysis of the modern resin sample from Aleppo pine (Pinus Halepensis) growing in the Attica region (Greece).

  15. Antibiotic resistance of Gram-negative benthic bacteria isolated from the sediments of Kardzhali Dam (Bulgaria)

    OpenAIRE

    Iliev, Ivan; Marhova, Mariana; Gochev, Velizar; Tsankova, Marinela; Trifonova, Sonya

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to carry out a preliminary assessment for the occurrence of bacterial strains resistant to frequently used antibiotics in the sediments beneath the sturgeon cage farm in Kardzhali Dam (Bulgaria). Samples were taken from the top 2 cm of sediments under a fish farm and from a control station in the aquatory of the reservoir in the period July?October 2011. Surveillance of bacterial susceptibility to 16 antimicrobial agents was performed for 160 Gram-negative str...

  16. New records of some rare rodents (Mammalia: Rodentia from South-East Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedko Nedyalkov

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available New records of three rare rodent species from SE Bulgaria are reported, as follows: European Snow Vole (Chionomys nivalis – Madzharovo Town, Eastern Rhodope Mountains (UTM MG01; Gray Dwarf Hamster (Cricetulus migratorius –Matochina Village (UTM MG 63; and Roach's Mouse-tailed Dormouse (Myomimus roachi –Malki Voden Village, Eastern Rhodope Mountains (UTM MG11. All three species were found in the food remains of two owl species: the Barn Owl (Tyto alba and the Tawny Owl (Strix aluco, and the Eastern Imperial Eagle (Aquila heliaca.

  17. Journalists' Perceptions of Nomenklatura Networks and Media Ownership in Post-communist Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lada Trifonova Price

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the role of the former communist party elite (the nomenklatura in the Bulgarian post-communist media landscape in relation to media ownership and the origin of media outlets’ capital. The spotlight is on Bulgarian journalists’ perceptions explored in semi-structured interviews with media professionals from the capital city, Sofia. The findings indicate that Bulgarian journalists are strongly interested in, and concerned with, the influence of members of the former nomenklatura and their informal networks on the Bulgarian media landscape and particularly on the way Bulgarian media in Bulgaria have been owned and financed since 1989.

  18. RATIONAL PHARMACOTHERAPY BASED ON PHARMACOECONOMIC DATA AUDIT: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATION IN BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Vekov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The theoretical foundations of the application of pharmacoeconomic evaluations of pharmacotherapies in order to improve their economic efficiency and support the process of taking decisions on their payment from public funds are examined. An algorithm is presented for the pharmacoeconomic audit, which is applicable for assessing the objectivity and reliability of the proposed pharmacoeconomic data from pharmaceutical manufacturers in the application process for inclusion in the positive list of medicines in Bulgaria and the reimbursement of economically rational pharmacotherapies from the public health fund.

  19. Agaricus chionodermus Pilát, a species new to Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Nikolova Lacheva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the first record of Agaricus chionoderma Pilát in Bulgaria. Basidiomata of the species were found on June 2004, September 2010, and September 2011 in the Thracian Lowland floristic region. The article brings closer taxonomic profile, ecological requirements and distribution pattern of the species. Differences from similar species are discussed. It also describes macroscopic and microscopic characteristics of the discovered specimens and presents the specification of habitat the fungus concerned. The species are described and illustrated by photographs of macroscopic and microscopic features on the basis of Bulgarian specimens.

  20. Opportunities of Establishment of Destination Management and Marketing Organizations in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venelin Terziev

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines tourism sector development in the Republic of Bulgaria in the context of the country’s strategic priorities till 2020 of knowledge-based economy, sustainable growth and smart specialization, the opportunities for its integration with agri-food sector and potential contribution to balanced rural development. The principles and roles of destination management and marketing organizations are discussed and the opportunities for their application in the national conditions are explored. A framework for of establishment, management and functioning of such organizations is proposed based on integrated and participatory approaches, planning, coordination and communication activities, permanent monitoring and controlling.

  1. Anti-Semitism and Islamofobia in Bulgaria. Actual legal and sociological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Ilieva

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This article is based on the lecture held on 23rd September 2011 at the Law faculty of the University of Bologna. SOMMARIO: 1. Introduction – 2. Statistical data – 3. The Muslim community – 4. The Jewish community – 5. General overview of the relevant law provisions in Bulgaria – 6. Anti-Semitism and Islamophobia and the political rights according to the domestic legislation – 7. The Law on Protection against Discrimination, the concept of “positive” discrimination and some new case-laws - 8. Religious Rights and Freedoms – 9. Criminal Law – 10. Some conclusions.

  2. The Mining of Uranium–Cases from Namibia, Niger, Brazil, and Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Tkalec

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The text is a dossier focusing on the problems of uranium mining. The first part deals with some general issues and dilemmas associated with nuclear energy production and its environmental impacts; the second deals with case studies of uranium mining in Namibia, Niger, Brazil, and Bulgaria. The dossier is based entirely on the reports and documents of the EJOLT international project. Most of the research and studies mentioned in the article was carried out by CRIIRAD, a French organization, which participated in the EJOLT project.

  3. RATIONAL PHARMACOTHERAPY BASED ON PHARMACOECONOMIC DATA AUDIT: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATION IN BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Vekov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The theoretical foundations of the application of pharmacoeconomic evaluations of pharmacotherapies in order to improve their economic efficiency and support the process of taking decisions on their payment from public funds are examined. An algorithm is presented for the pharmacoeconomic audit, which is applicable for assessing the objectivity and reliability of the proposed pharmacoeconomic data from pharmaceutical manufacturers in the application process for inclusion in the positive list of medicines in Bulgaria and the reimbursement of economically rational pharmacotherapies from the public health fund.

  4. Monitoring of heavy metal load - by mosses or rain water chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruoho-Airola, T. [Finnish Meteorological Inst., Helsinki (Finland); Maekelae, K. [National Board of Waters and the Environment, Helsinki (Finland)

    1995-12-31

    The deposition of heavy metals is usually determined from precipitation chemistry but the moss technique has been increasingly used, particularly in the Nordic countries. Some international monitoring programmes, e.g. UN/ECE Integrated Monitoring, give them as alternative methods. However, their comparability has not been sufficiently determined. This study compares the two monitoring methods for Pb, Cd, Cu and Zn, which have different sources. The metal industry is an important source of Pb and Cd emissions. Long- range transport as well as traffic and local emissions are also important sources for Pb. The use of fertilizers and fossil fuels also result in Cd emissions. Cu and Zn are emitted from metal industries and local sources. Unlike Pb and Cd, Cu and Zn are essential elements for living organisms. Cu and Zn are needed in many enzymes and Zn in proteins. Mosses are thought to take all their nutrients from the air. The deposition of heavy metals is also effectively retained by mosses and may be used to indicate levels of heavy metal deposition. In northern countries the mosses are isolated from air (and therefore also from deposition) by snow in winter. In this study both the bulk deposition of the whole year (later `total deposition`) and the bulk deposition of the snow-free period (later `bare ground deposition`) are compared to the metal concentrations in mosses. (author)

  5. Immobilization of Lead from Pb-Contaminated Soil Amended with Peat Moss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seul-Ji Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Immobilization of lead (Pb using soil amendments can reduce Pb toxicity and bioavailability in soil. This study evaluated Pb immobilization in a Pb-contaminated soil by using peat moss through various tests. The Pb-contaminated soil (2000 mg Pb·kg−1 was amended with 1%, 5%, and 10% of peat moss to immobilize Pb in the soil. The immobilization properties of Pb in the contaminated soil were evaluated by a column leaching experiment, a microcosm test, and a batch incubation test. Peat moss significantly reduced the Pb leaching in all of the experiments and more effectively reduced mobility and toxicity of Pb in the column leaching and microcosm tests than bioavailability in the batch incubation test. The immobilized lead from the soils amended with 1%, 5%, and 10% of peat moss was 37.9%, 87.1%, and 95.4% from the column leaching test, 18.5%, 90.9%, and 96.4% from the microcosm test, and 2.0%, 36.9%, and 57.9% from the NH4NO3 extraction method, respectively, indicating that peat moss can be effectively used for the remediation of Pb-contaminated soil.

  6. Biocrust-forming mosses mitigate the negative impacts of increasing aridity on ecosystem multifunctionality in drylands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Baquerizo, Manuel; Maestre, Fernando T; Eldridge, David J; Bowker, Matthew A; Ochoa, Victoria; Gozalo, Beatriz; Berdugo, Miguel; Val, James; Singh, Brajesh K

    2016-03-01

    The increase in aridity predicted with climate change will have a negative impact on the multiple functions and services (multifunctionality) provided by dryland ecosystems worldwide. In these ecosystems, soil communities dominated by mosses, lichens and cyanobacteria (biocrusts) play a key role in supporting multifunctionality. However, whether biocrusts can buffer the negative impacts of aridity on important biogeochemical processes controlling carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P) pools and fluxes remains largely unknown. Here, we conducted an empirical study, using samples from three continents (North America, Europe and Australia), to evaluate how the increase in aridity predicted by climate change will alter the capacity of biocrust-forming mosses to modulate multiple ecosystem processes related to C, N and P cycles. Compared with soil surfaces lacking biocrusts, biocrust-forming mosses enhanced multiple functions related to C, N and P cycling and storage in semiarid and arid, but not in humid and dry-subhumid, environments. Most importantly, we found that the relative positive effects of biocrust-forming mosses on multifunctionality compared with bare soil increased with increasing aridity. These results were mediated by plant cover and the positive effects exerted by biocrust-forming mosses on the abundance of soil bacteria and fungi. Our findings provide strong evidence that the maintenance of biocrusts is crucial to buffer negative effects of climate change on multifunctionality in global drylands. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  7. Moss and vascular plant indices in Ohio wetlands have similar environmental predictors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapanian, Martin A.; Schumacher, William; Gara, Brian; Adams, Jean V.; Viau, Nick

    2016-01-01

    Mosses and vascular plants have been shown to be reliable indicators of wetland habitat delineation and environmental quality. Knowledge of the best ecological predictors of the quality of wetland moss and vascular plant communities may determine if similar management practices would simultaneously enhance both populations. We used Akaike's Information Criterion to identify models predicting a moss quality assessment index (MQAI) and a vascular plant index of biological integrity based on floristic quality (VIBI-FQ) from 27 emergent and 13 forested wetlands in Ohio, USA. The set of predictors included the six metrics from a wetlands disturbance index (ORAM) and two landscape development intensity indices (LDIs). The best single predictor of MQAI and one of the predictors of VIBI-FQ was an ORAM metric that assesses habitat alteration and disturbance within the wetland, such as mowing, grazing, and agricultural practices. However, the best single predictor of VIBI-FQ was an ORAM metric that assessed wetland vascular plant communities, interspersion, and microtopography. LDIs better predicted MQAI than VIBI-FQ, suggesting that mosses may either respond more rapidly to, or recover more slowly from, anthropogenic disturbance in the surrounding landscape than vascular plants. These results supported previous predictive studies on amphibian indices and metrics and a separate vegetation index, indicating that similar wetland management practices may result in qualitatively the same ecological response for three vastly different wetland biological communities (amphibians, vascular plants, and mosses).

  8. Musgos (Bryophyta na Ilha Trambioca, Barcarena, PA, Brasil Mosses (Bryophyta in Trambioca Island, Barcarena, Pará State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Paula da Silva Souza

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado o inventário dos musgos em diferentes ecossistemas da Ilha Trambioca, município de Barcarena, PA. Foram encontradas 40 espécies, pertencentes a 20 gêneros e 13 famílias. As famílias com maior número de espécies foram Calymperaceae (12 spp., Sematophyllaceae (6 spp. e Leucobryaceae (5 spp., as quais destacaram-se também quanto ao número de indivíduos. As espécies mais comuns foram Sematophyllum subsimplex (Hedw. Mitt, Calymperes erosum Müll. Hal., Pilosium chlorophyllum (Hornsch. Müll. Hal., Taxithelium planum (Brid. Mitt., Callicostella pallida (Hornsch. Årgstr. e Trichosteleum papillosum (Hornsch. A. Jaeger. Evidenciou-se maior diversidade de espécies na mata de terra firme, confirmando a preferência das briófitas por este ecossistema. Philonotis gracillima Ångstr. é citada como primeira referência para o Estado do Pará.This work presents a survey of mosses from different ecosystems of Trambioca Island, municipality of Barcarena, Pará State, Brazil. Forty taxa of mosses were found, belonging to 20 genera and 13 families. The families with highest number of species were Calymperaceae (12 spp., Sematophyllaceae (6 spp., and Leucobryaceae (5 spp., which also presented the highest number of individuals. The most common species were Sematophyllum subsimplex (Hedw. Mitt, Calymperes erosum Müll. Hal., Pilosium chlorophyllum (Hornsch. Müll. Hal., Callicostella pallida (Hornsch. Årgstr., and Trichosteleum papillosum (Honrsch. A. Jaeger. It was observed a higher richness of species in the primary low land rainforest, confirming the preference of bryophytes for this ecosystem. Philonotis gracillima Ångstr. is mentioned as the first report to Pará State.

  9. Chemical and Histochemical Analysis of ‘Quatre Saisons Blanc Mousseux’, a Moss Rose of the Rosa × damascena Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    CAISSARD, JEAN-CLAUDE; BERGOUGNOUX, VÉRONIQUE; MARTIN, MAGALI; MAURIAT, MÉLANIE; BAUDINO, SYLVIE

    2006-01-01

    • Background and Aims Moss roses are old garden roses covered with a mossy growth on flower pedicel and calyx. This moss releases a pine-scented oleoresin that is very sticky and odoriferous. Rosa × centifolia ‘muscosa’ was the first moss rose to be obtained by bud-mutation but, interestingly, R. × damascena ‘Quatre Saisons Blanc Mousseux’ was the first repeat-blooming cultivar, thus interesting breeders. In the present study, the anatomy of these sports (i.e. bud-mutations) is characterized and the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced by the moss versus the petals are identified. They are compared between the two lines and their respective parents. • Methods Anatomy of the moss is studied by environmental scanning electron microscopy and histochemical light microscopy. Sudan Red IV and Fluorol Yellow 088 are used to detect lipids, and 1-naphthol reaction with N,N-dimethyl-p-phenylenediamine to detect terpenes (Nadi reaction). Head-space or solid/liquid extraction followed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry are used to identify VOCs in moss, trichomes and petals. • Key Results Moss of the two cultivars has the same structure with trichomes on other trichomes but not exactly the same VOCs. These VOCs are specific to the moss, with lots of terpenes. An identical VOC composition is found in leaves but not in petals. They are nearly the same in the moss mutants and in the respective wild types. • Conclusions Sepals of moss roses and their parents have a specific VOC pattern, different from that of the petals. The moss corresponds to a heterochronic mutation with trichomes developing on other trichomes. Such a mutation has probably appeared twice and independently in the two lines. PMID:16344264

  10. Chemical and histochemical analysis of 'Quatre Saisons Blanc Mousseux', a Moss Rose of the Rosa x damascena group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caissard, Jean-Claude; Bergougnoux, Véronique; Martin, Magali; Mauriat, Mélanie; Baudino, Sylvie

    2006-02-01

    Moss roses are old garden roses covered with a mossy growth on flower pedicel and calyx. This moss releases a pine-scented oleoresin that is very sticky and odoriferous. Rosa x centifolia 'muscosa' was the first moss rose to be obtained by bud-mutation but, interestingly, R. x damascena 'Quatre Saisons Blanc Mousseux' was the first repeat-blooming cultivar, thus interesting breeders. In the present study, the anatomy of these sports (i.e. bud-mutations) is characterized and the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced by the moss versus the petals are identified. They are compared between the two lines and their respective parents. Anatomy of the moss is studied by environmental scanning electron microscopy and histochemical light microscopy. Sudan Red IV and Fluorol Yellow 088 are used to detect lipids, and 1-naphthol reaction with N,N-dimethyl-p-phenylenediamine to detect terpenes (Nadi reaction). Head-space or solid/liquid extraction followed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry are used to identify VOCs in moss, trichomes and petals. Moss of the two cultivars has the same structure with trichomes on other trichomes but not exactly the same VOCs. These VOCs are specific to the moss, with lots of terpenes. An identical VOC composition is found in leaves but not in petals. They are nearly the same in the moss mutants and in the respective wild types. Sepals of moss roses and their parents have a specific VOC pattern, different from that of the petals. The moss corresponds to a heterochronic mutation with trichomes developing on other trichomes. Such a mutation has probably appeared twice and independently in the two lines.

  11. Healing Chains, Relationships of Power and Competing Religious Imageries in the Monastery of Saints Kosmas and Damian in Kuklen (Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Lubanska

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article offers an anthropological analysis of a conflict over the use of a set of 'healing chains' and other focal objects kept in the Orthodox Christian monastery of Saints Kosmas and Damian in Kuklen, Bulgaria. In a nutshell, the conflict captures the leading religious imageries propagated by the custodians of the monastery on the one hand, and the spiritual leaders of a new religious movement, so-called Deunovians, on the other. The analysis helps situate some of the significant changes currently affecting the religious culture of Orthodox Christians in Bulgaria within a broader social and cultural context.

  12. Is the sword moss (Bryoxiphium) a preglacial Tertiary relict?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patiño, Jairo; Goffinet, Bernard; Sim-Sim, Manuela; Vanderpoorten, Alain

    2016-03-01

    The disjunction of floras between East Asia, Southeast North America, West North America, and Southwest Eurasia has been interpreted in terms of the fragmentation of a once continuous mixed mesophytic forest that occurred throughout the Northern Hemisphere due to the climatic and geological changes during the late Tertiary. The sword moss, Bryoxiphium, exhibits a distribution that strikingly resembles that of the mesophytic forest elements such as Liriodendron and is considered as the only living member of an early Tertiary flora in Iceland. These hypotheses are tested here using molecular dating analyses and ancestral area estimations. The results suggest that the extant range of Bryoxiphium results from the fragmentation of a formerly wider range encompassing North America and Southeast Asia about 10 million years ago. The split of continental ancestral populations is too recent to match with a continental drift scenario but is spatially and temporally remarkably congruent with that observed in Tertiary angiosperm relict species. The timing of the colonization of Iceland from Macaronesian ancestors, about two million years ago, is, however, incompatible with the hypothesis that Bryoxiphium is the only living member of an early Tertiary flora of the island. Alaska was recurrently colonized from East Asia. The ability of Bryoxiphium to overcome large oceanic barriers is further evidenced by its occurrence on remote oceanic archipelagos. In particular, Madeira was colonized twice independently from American and East Asian ancestors, respectively. The striking range disjunction of Bryoxiphium is interpreted in terms of its mating system, as the taxon exhibits a very singular pattern of spatial segregation of the sexes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Bryogeographical elements of moss flora in glacial cirques "Śnieżne Kotły" (Karkonosze Mts. and their threat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Fudali

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on geographical and ecological analysis of the present moss flora occurring in two contiguous glacial cirques Śnieżne Kotły (Western Karkonosze Mts., the occurrence of 20 species representing arctic-alpine and subarctic-subalpine elements is discussed. The majority of (subarctic- (subalpine elements (70% occurred sporadically or very rarely (no more than 5 records, which indicates their general threat. Nine historically recorded species of these geographic elements could not be retrieved during the recent survey, however four of the recently found species have not been found during the systematic survey of historical sites on the Czech, southern, side of Karkonosze Mts. This proves that the northern localization of Śnieżne Kotły cirques favours the survival of relict species. The question of relictness with respect to the Düll's phytogeographical characterization is discussed; only in ten of the (subarctic- (subalpine species the relict character could be considered as granted due to their present distribution range. The full list of the Śnieżne Kotły present moss flora with the brief characteristics of their ecological distribution has been included, first such attempt since 1930.

  14. Inventory of the mosses, liverworts, and lichens of Olympic National Park, Washington- Species list

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutten, M.; Woodward, Andrea; Hutten, K.

    2005-01-01

    The identification of non-vascular cryptogam species (lichens, mosses, liverworts, and hornworts) is especially challenging because of their small size, their often microscopic or chemical distinguishing features, and their enormous diversity. Consequently, they are a poorly known component of Olympic National Park, despite their ecological and aesthetic importance. This project is the first attempt at a systematic, comprehensive survey of non-vascular cryptogams in the Park and presents the current species list with descriptions of the substrate and vascular vegetation type where they were observed. The authors strove to collect from as many park environments as feasible, and distributed collections along important environmental gradients in different regions of the park using vascular vegetation as an environmental indicator. They also collected opportunistically when interesting habitats or microhabitats were encountered. Finally, the authors updated the nomenclature in the Park’s previous collection of nonvascular plants. This study identified approximately 13,200 bryophyte and lichen species, adding approximately 425 new species to the Olympic National Park Herbarium. These data, combined with select literature reports and personal data from Martin and Karen Hutten, added more than 350 species to the previously documented Olympic Peninsula lichen and bryophyte list. The authors discuss the list in a local, regional, and global context of rarity, as well as cryptogam conservation and further work needed in Olympic National Park. The improved inventory of Olympic National Park cryptogams represented by this project enables Olympic National Park to protect populations of rare and sensitive species, assess the damage caused by illegal harvest, and contribute information to the Bureau of Land Management and U.S. Forest Service Sensitive Species Programs.

  15. Collembola Diversity of Moss Habitats in the Sopron Region, NW-Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TRASER, György

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The Collembola fauna of the moss flora in the Sopron region was studied. 18 moss species aswell as 3.451 Collembola specimens (belonging to 60 species were collected in 2003/04 in moss samplesof three habitats. The highest Collembola diversity was found in Tómalom (a reed bed habitat where verylow abundance and relatively high species richness were characteristic. The Collembola diversity of theother two habitats (Sopron, Botanic Garden; Fertőrákos – a dry xerophile grass habitat was lower. Theresults have shown a relatively high similarity between the Collembola communities in Sopron andFertőrákos while just the opposite was observed between the Sopron and Tómalom samples.

  16. Comparison of regenerative capacity among six ornamental mosses on vertical planting carrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XIA Qiaoli

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Six ornamental mosses (Campylopus flexuosus,Hypnum plumaeforme,Racomitrium japonicum,Thuidium cymbifolium,Grimmia pilifera and Dicranum scoparium were transplanted onto vertical planting carrier(a palm pad with a thin layer of peat and vermiculite.After a two-month cultivation,their new branch coverage,newly-developed branches and their ratio with old branches,branches,fresh weight,chlorophyll content,and maximal photochemical efficiency were measured.Based on these indices,an integrated index revealing their growth capacity was calculated.Based on their integrated indices from high to low,six mosses were ranked as Hypnum plumaeforme,Racomitrium japonicum,Thuidium cymbifolium,Campylopus flexuosus,Dicranum scoparium,Grimmia pilifera.Finally,Hypnum plumaeforme,Racomitrium japonicum were recommended as ornamental mosses in vertical greening combined our observation on their landscape values.

  17. Moss-specific changes in nitrogen fixation following two decades of warming, shading, and fertilizer addition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Pernille Lærkedal; Lett, Signe; Michelsen, Anders

    2012-01-01

    . To expand the knowledge on species-specific responses, we measured nitrogen fixation associated with two moss species: Hylocomium splendens and Aulacomnium turgidum. Our expectations of decreased nitrogen fixation rates in the fertilizer and shading treatments were met. However, contrary to our expectation...... of increased nitrogen fixation in the warming treatment, we observed either no change (Hylocomium) or a decrease (Aulacomnium) in fixation in the warmed plots. We hypothesize that this could be due to moss-specific responses or to long-term induced effects of the warming. For example, we observed that the soil...... temperature increase induced by the warming treatment was low and insignificant as vegetation height and total vascular plant cover of the warmed plots increased, and moss cover decreased. Hence, truly long-term studies lasting more than two decades provide insights on changes in key biogeochemical processes...

  18. Differentiating moss from higher plants is critical in studying the carbon cycle of the boreal biome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Wenping; Liu, Shuguang; Dong, Wenjie; Liang, Shunlin; Zhao, Shuqing; Chen, Jingming; Xu, Wenfang; Li, Xianglan; Barr, Alan; Andrew Black, T; Yan, Wende; Goulden, Mike L; Kulmala, Liisa; Lindroth, Anders; Margolis, Hank A; Matsuura, Yojiro; Moors, Eddy; van der Molen, Michiel; Ohta, Takeshi; Pilegaard, Kim; Varlagin, Andrej; Vesala, Timo

    2014-06-26

    The satellite-derived normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), which is used for estimating gross primary production (GPP), often includes contributions from both mosses and vascular plants in boreal ecosystems. For the same NDVI, moss can generate only about one-third of the GPP that vascular plants can because of its much lower photosynthetic capacity. Here, based on eddy covariance measurements, we show that the difference in photosynthetic capacity between these two plant functional types has never been explicitly included when estimating regional GPP in the boreal region, resulting in a substantial overestimation. The magnitude of this overestimation could have important implications regarding a change from a current carbon sink to a carbon source in the boreal region. Moss abundance, associated with ecosystem disturbances, needs to be mapped and incorporated into GPP estimates in order to adequately assess the role of the boreal region in the global carbon cycle.

  19. Comparison of metal concentrations in three species of mosses and metal freights in bulk precipitations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thoeni, L. [Forschungsstelle fuer Umweltbeobachtung (FUB), Forchstrasse 100, CH-8132 Egg/ZH (Switzerland); Schnyder, N. [Forschungsstelle fuer Umweltbeobachtung (FUB), Forchstrasse 100, CH-8132 Egg/ZH (Switzerland); Krieg, F. [Forschungsstelle fuer Umweltbeobachtung (FUB), Forchstrasse 100, CH-8132 Egg/ZH (Switzerland)

    1996-03-01

    Concentration of 25 trace metals in mosses (Hylocomium splendens, Pleurozium schreberi and Hypnum cupressiforme) are compared with bulk deposition freights (Bergerhoff method) at 3 sites in Switzerland, one on the plateau, a second in the northern prealps and a third in the southern alps. The three moss species are interchangeable and the atmospheric background deposition can be estimated with sufficient accuracy for Ag, Al, As, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ga, Ge, La, Li, Mo, Nb, Ni, Pb, Th, Ti, U, V, W, Y, Zn. For Hg this study does not give definite results. No seasonal differences in moss concentrations from spring to autumn can be shown. (orig.). With 6 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Atmospheric deposition of arsenic and selenium across Canada using Sphagnum moss as a biomonitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glooschenko, W A; Arafat, N

    1988-07-15

    A biomonitoring study was made of the atmospheric deposition of arsenic and selenium across northern Canada utilizing Sphagnum fuscum moss. Intensive sampling was carried out adjacent to the smelter at Rouyn-Noranda, Quebec. An average background concentration of arsenic in the moss of 0.66 mg kg-1 was determined, while most selenium concentrations were below the detection limit of 0.2 mg kg-1. Elevated arsenic concentrations were found in the vicinity of the mining and smelting areas of Flin Flon, Manitoba, and Atikokan, Ontario. High concentrations of selenium were detected only near Rouyn-Noranda. Both arsenic and selenium occurred in moss at concentrations lower than found in Canadian soils.

  1. Biomonitoring of heavy metals contamination by mosses and lichens around Slovinky tailing pond (Slovakia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demková, Lenka; Bobul'ská, Lenka; Árvay, Július; Jezný, Tomáš; Ducsay, Ladislav

    2017-01-02

    Three moss (Pleurozium spp., Polytrichum spp., and Rhytidiadelphus spp.) and two lichen (Hypogymnia physodes and Pseudevernia furfuracea) taxons covered in the bags were used to monitor air quality. Bags were exposed at the different distances from the tailing pond because of insufficient security and source of heavy metal pollution. Moss/lichen bags were exposed for six weeks at 0-, 50-, 100-, 150- and 200-m distances from Slovinky tailing pond, in the main wind direction (down the valley). Accumulation ability of heavy metals expressed by relative accumulation factor (RAF) increases in the order of Polytrichum spp.Moss/lichen species showed different accumulation capacity for individual heavy metals. Rhytidiadelphus spp. was found to possess the significantly highest (P < 0.01) ability to accumulate Cd, Zn, Ni, Mn and Fe. The highest RAF values of Pb, Zn, Ni and Fe were determined in samples exposed at 200-m distance from pollution source.

  2. Moss cushions facilitate water and nutrient supply for plant species on bare limestone pavements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kaj Sand; Hammer, Kathrine

    2012-01-01

    Dense moss cushions of different size are distributed across the bare limestone pavements on Øland, SE Sweden. Increasing cushion size is predicted to physically protect and improve performance and colonization by vascular plants. Therefore, we tested water balance, phosphorus supply, and species...... richness, and evaluated duration of plant activity during desiccation as a function of ground area, for a large collection of moss cushions. We found that lower evaporation and higher water storage contributed equally to extending the desiccation period with increasing cushion size. Evaporation rates...... under stagnant conditions. One moss species was added to the species pool for every nine-fold increase in cushion area. Vascular plants were absent from the smallest cushions, whereas one or two species, on average, appeared in 375- and 8,500-cm(2) cushions with water available for 6 and 10 days during...

  3. 'Mafia Baroque': post-socialist architecture and urban planning in Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holleran, Max

    2014-03-01

    This paper traces the reception of the architectural style known as 'Mafia Baroque' within the professions of architecture and urban planning in Bulgaria. The debate within these professions was strongly linked to the general decline of power among former intellectual elites and the specific decline of architects and planners, who were sidelined as arbiters of 'good taste' and disempowered as regulators of urban growth. The reaction to this style also highlights the rise in public concern over corruption and organized crime and dissatisfaction with post-socialist urbanization. This paper chronicles the extent of changes in construction and regulation in Bulgaria during the 1990s and argues that planners and architects were challenged not only by their professional marginalization but also by a deeper embarrassment over cultural change. It then relates this debate to broader post-socialist anxieties over insufficient regulation of urbanization and fear of failing to meet Western European goals for economic and political change. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2014.

  4. Patient charges for health services: the opinions of healthcare stakeholders in Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atanasova, Elka; Pavlova, Milena; Moutafovа, Emanuela; Kostadinova, Todorka; Groot, Wim

    2015-01-01

    The reforms of the Bulgarian healthcare sector have been widely discussed, both nationally and internationally. In spite of the reforms, problems with the efficiency, equity and quality in healthcare provision continue to exist in Bulgaria. Among others, the reforms included the implementation of formal patient charges for the use of healthcare services. These were established in the country in 2000. Formal patient charges are applied to all levels of medical services with the exception of emergency care. The aim of this paper is to describe and analyze the attitudes of Bulgarian healthcare stakeholders toward patient charges. The analysis is based on data collected in focus group discussions and in-depth interviews carried out in Bulgaria in May-June 2009. The paper concludes by recommendations for policies related to patient payments. The social sensitivity of these payments requires broad discussion before policy decisions are implemented. There is also a need of a well-thought communication strategy on the issue of patient payments by the Ministry of Health. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. The Toreutics of Volga Bulgaria and the Golden Horde Bulgar Ulus: problems of tradition continuity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudenko Konstantin A.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Peculiarities of the 11th-14th-century jewelry and the progress of jewelry-making traditions in the territory of Volga Bulgaria in the pre-Mongol and Golden Horde period are discussed. In the 11th-12th centuries, there existed two jewelry-making schools in the region: the Bulgar and the Bulgar-Kama ones. Following the Mongol conquest (the mid- to second half of the 13th century, the transformation of the Volga Bulgaria jewelry school was underway, and serial items produced in the Golden Horde tradition became widely spread. The pre-Mongol jewelry center in Bilyar was functioning until the late 1280s. Its Bulgar counterpart that was developing simultaneously, partially adopted the heritage of Bilyar jewelers, but the Golden Horde tradition prevailed, and the earlier production forms were quickly forced out. The tradition of pre-Mongol Bulgar jewelry art continued to develop in the Cis- and Trans-Urals on the basis of the Bulgar-Kama school: in the framework of the Bulgar-Perm school (second half of the 13th to the 14th cc., followed by the Western Siberian artistic trend of the 15th century.

  6. A Politics of Space and the Historical Transformation of Individuals: A Case Study of Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Nikolov

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on non-discursive practices connected to the transformation of individuals in the context of Bulgaria. It constitutes an attempt at presenting a decentred history of the present through the vantage point of the architecture of the panel block. Under totalitarianism, the panel block constitutes an institutionalization of a specific politics of space in Bulgaria through which it is shown that the ‘socialist citizen’ becomes an entity that can be constructed or made. During the last years of the regime and after the transition to democracy, the functioning of power relations within the pan-el block are significantly altered, yet not completely erased. The revolution of 1989 is a symbiosis between a certain discontinuity with the past and a contradiction of the old forms of subjectivities, and on the other, a silent continuity of the everyday lives of individuals. Today, the panel structures remain, in the peripheries of the cities, still reminiscent of a time passed, yet visually signifying a new representation, a façade of the contemporary Bulgarian reality. The panel block is a ‘microcosm’ of the Bulgarian society.

  7. Organisation and financing of the health care systems of Bulgaria and Greece -- what are the parallels?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exadaktylos, Nikolaos M

    2005-05-28

    The Bulgarian and Greek Medical Care systems have been reformated the last fifteen years. The aim of this study was an examination and comparison of the Bulgarian and Greek Medical Care Systems. This study was prepared by using all the published data related to both Bulgarian and Greek Medical Care systems. Besides, personal communications with related offices such as administration offices of hospitals and Ministries of Health were made. In both countries, besides the compulsory insurance there is also additional voluntary insurance which is provided by private companies. The most important difference is the family doctor (specialist in general medicine) existing in Bulgaria. Every insured person needs a 'referral form' completed by the family doctor before visiting a hospital for medical attention (except emergencies). In contrast, in Greece an insured person can directly visit any hospital without needing any forms and independent of the severity of their health problem. An important disadvantage of the Greek health system is the low number of hospitals (139), in relation to population. In contrast, there are 211 hospitals in Bulgaria, although its population is lower than in Greece. In both Greek and Bulgarian health systems changes must be done to solve the problems related to informal payments, limited financing, large debts, lack of appropriate investment policy, lack of an objective method for the costing of medical activities and inefficient management.

  8. The articulation of neoliberalism: narratives of experience of chronic illness management in Bulgaria and the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassilev, Ivaylo; Rogers, Anne; Todorova, Elka; Kennedy, Anne; Roukova, Poli

    2017-03-01

    The shift from social democratic to a neoliberal consensus in modern welfare capitalist states is characterised by an emphasis on individual responsibility, consumer choice, market rationality and growing social inequalities. There has been little exploration of how neoliberalism has shaped the environment within which chronic illness is experienced and managed. This article explores the different articulations of neoliberalism manifest in the arena of personal illness management in Bulgaria and the UK. People with type 2 diabetes discussed their experiences in terms of struggling with diet, diabetes as a personal failure, integrating illness management and valued activities, and the trustworthiness of the healthcare system. The UK narratives were framed within an individual responsibility discourse while in Bulgaria lack of resources dominated discussions, which were framed as structurally generated and unrelated to individual capabilities and choices. Respondents faced personal management challenges related to consumer and healthcare market failures in both countries. Differences in market regulation and emerging stakeholder and interest coalitions influenced users' expectations and their navigation and adaption to market failures in managing their everyday illnesses. The UK and Bulgarian articulations of neoliberalism can be described differently: the first as a logic of managed choice and the second as a logic of unmanaged consumerism. © 2016 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness.

  9. Campylobacteriosis and other bacterial gastrointestinal diseases in Sofia, Bulgaria for the period 1987-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, K; Marina, M; Petrov, P; Kantardjiev, T

    2010-01-28

    Campylobacter is the most commonly reported enteric bacterial pathogen in humans. We still do not have any systematic data concerning campylobacteriosis in Bulgaria. For that reason, we present data of the thermophilic Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in the aetiology of diarrhoeal diseases in Sofia, for the period from 1987 to 2008. The study included patients from 0 to over 65 years-old. A total of 51,607 faecal specimens were screened for Campylobacter. C. jejuni and C. coli were detected in 3.58% (1,847) of the strains, with the highest percentage in 1988 (7.5%) and the lowest in 2006 (0.3%). Campylobacteriosis occurred most frequently in the wet months of March, April, May and June, with 105, 102, 124 and 141 cases, respectively, and was rare in January with 25 cases. The most affected groups were children between 0 and 4 years of age (52%) and between five and 14 years of age (30%). Campylobacter infection occurred in 22% of all bacterial gastrointestinal diseases in the city of Sofia during the study period. Salmonella was the most frequently identified pathogen with 32%, followed by Shigella (30%), Campylobacter (22%) and diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli (16%). The study shows that Campylobacter plays an important role as a bacterial cause of enterocolitis in Sofia, Bulgaria.

  10. STATE AND EFFICIENCY OF MANAGEMENT OF AGROECOSYSTEM SERVICES – THE CASE OF BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HRABRIN BACHEV

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper incorporates New Institutional Economics and analyzes the state and efficiency of management of agro-ecosystem services in Bulgaria. Firstly, it presents framework of analyses of management of agro-ecosystem services including: definition of agroecosystem services and its management; specification of management needs and spectrum of governing modes (institutions, market, private, public, hybrid; assessment of efficiency of different form of management in terms of potential to protect eco-rights and investments, assure socially desirable level of agro-ecosystem services, minimize costs, coordinate and stimulate eco-activities, meet preferences and reconcile conflicts of related agents. Secondly, it identifies and assesses the management of agro-ecosystem services in Bulgaria. Transition and EU integration have brought about significant changes in the state and management of agroecosystems services in the country. Newly evolved market, private and public governance have led to a significant improvement of a part of agro-ecosystems services introducing modern ecostandards and public support, enhancing environmental stewardship, disintensifyingproduction, recovering landscape and traditional productions, diversifying quality, products,and services. At the same time, the novel eco-management is associated with new challenges such as unsustainable exploitation, lost biodiversity, land degradation, water and air contamination. Moreover, implementation of EU common policies would have no desired impact on agro-ecosystem services unless special measures are taken to improve management of public programs, and extend public support to dominating small-scale and subsistence farms.

  11. Effectiveness of the Use and Management of Municipal Real Property in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Statty Stattev

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides an assessment of the effectiveness of the use and management of municipal real property (MRP, using data gathered through 173 questionnaires, addressed to representatives of 39 municipalities in Bulgaria. The paper is structured as follows: The first section gives information about the municipalities and is based on the following criteria: evaluation of the conditions in the cities; appraisal of the financial situation of the municipalities, the main sources of funding, and the sources that should be used in order to improve the their finances; existence of the relevant planning instruments, etc. The second section focuses on MRP and refers to criteria such as: rating of different aspects of MRP; existence of MRP inventory, municipal strategy and municipal unit dealing exclusively with MRP; evaluation of the selling values and the level of actual MPR rents in comparison to market rents; outsourcing of MRP management functions; assessment of the interdependence between different units of the municipalities; analysis of the focus of the attention of the elected decision makers. The paper ends with some conclusions concerning the identified problems in the process of MRP management in Bulgaria.

  12. Determinants of Foreign Direct Investments in Bulgaria and Romania in the Context of Recent Economic Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirel-Daniel Simionescu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to select some relevant macroeconomic determinants for foreign direct investment (FDI in Bulgaria and Romania since the start of the recent economic crisis (2008-2015. Even if the economic recession installed in 2009 in Romania, the foreign investors’ decisions were influenced by the moment of global recession from 2008. A Bayesian approach was proposed, because of the small sample for the variables in analyzed period: FDI as percent of GDP, real GDP rate, unemployment rate, inflation rate, real interest rate, real effective exchange rate index (2010=100 and money demand (M2 as percent of GDP. The estimation results reflected that foreign investors in both countries were attracted by the increase in GDP from a year to another. On the other hand, for Bulgaria the inflation rate was the strongest determinant, indicating the economic stability of the country that made huge efforts in getting one digit inflation rate. In Romania, as expected, the foreign investors were searching for cheap labour force and the increase in unemployment rate attracted more FDI during the crisis period.

  13. FORECAST FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE TOTAL ENERGY BALANCE IN BULGARIA TILL 2025

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velkov, L.; Papazyan, M.; Kanchovsky, S.; Kanev, D.

    2007-07-01

    The paper comprises a long-term energy forecast for the Republic of Bulgaria in the prospective by the year 2025. This forecast aims to ensure a normal functioning of the national economy and meeting the energy demand in the households, while keeping in conformity with the environmental requirements. It evaluates the possibility and the necessity to decrease the energy dependency on foreign suppliers, without making any compromise concerning the security of supplies and the competitiveness of the national energy market. The forecast evaluates also which policy will permit for Bulgaria to fulfill the commitments undertaken as per the Kyoto Protocol and shows the role of the energy efficiency enhancement and the use of the RES potential, as well as the role of the development of a safe and reliable nuclear energy sector. The paper provides also a detailed analysis of the main trends in the development of the total energy balance of the country in the period 1997-2004, as it is considered that the trends, which appear in this period will have an important impact on the development of the energy sector in the next years. (auth)

  14. Lead in the blood of children living close to industrial point sources in Bulgaria and Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willeke-Wetstein, C.; Bainova, A.; Georgieva, R.; Huzior-Balajewicz, A.; Bacon, J. R.

    2003-05-01

    ln Eastern European countries some industrial point sources are still suspected to have unacceptable emission rates of lead that pose a major health risk in particular to children. An interdisciplinary research project under the auspices of the EU had the aims (I) to monitor the current contamination of two industrial zones in Bulgaria and Poland, (2) to relate the Pb levels in ecological strata to the internal exposure of children, (3) to develop public health strategies in order to reduce the health risk by heavy metals. The human monitoring of Pb in Poland did not show increased health risks for the children living in an industrial zone close to Krakow. Bulgarian children, however, exceeded the WHO limit of 100 μg lead per litre blood by over one hundred percent (240 μg/1). Samples of soil, fodder and livestock organs showed elevated concentrations of lead. Recent literature results are compared with the findings in Bulgaria and Poland. The sources of the high internal exposure of children are discussed. Public health strategies to prevent mental dysfunction in Bulgarian children at risk include awareness building and social masures.

  15. CLASSIFICATION OF SEMI-NATURAL GRASSLANDS IN NORTH-EASTERN BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IVA APOSTOLOVA

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the syntaxonomic diversity of the semi-natural grasslands in NorthEastern Bulgaria following the principles of the Ziirich-Montpellier School. A total number of 172 releves, collected during 2002-2004, is used. TWINSPAN clustering is applied for determination vegetation types. The diagnostic species groups for the associations and subassociations are created by Cocktail method using the phi-coefficient with values above 0.3 within the JUICE software. As a result class Fesluco-Brometea is established with the alliances Festucion valesiacae, Pimpinello-Thymion and Chrysopogoni-Danthonion. The originally described Botriochloetum ischaemi Pop 1977 association is considered as typical on the subassociation level and a part of our releves are referred to it. Following the nomenclature rules we determined the subassotiation typicum. One new subassociation named Thymefosum pannonici of more xerophytic character, as compared to typical one, and well represented by differential species is established. The geographical distribution of Agropyro-Thymetum zygoidi and Agrostideto-Chrysopogonetum grylli associations is extended to the territory of Bulgaria. Class Molinio-Arrhenalherefea is represented by Cynosurion alliance and Festuco-Agrostidetum association is established by its probably most eastern area of distribution.

  16. Valuing algal bloom in the Black Sea Coast of Bulgaria: a choice experiments approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Tim; Longo, Alberto

    2010-10-01

    Increased interest in water quality in coastal and marine areas stemming from the Water Framework Directive and the Marine Strategy Framework Directive has led to important questions in relation to policies that address nutrient loadings. This paper presents the results from a choice experiment study to assess the recreational damage associated with algal blooms caused by nutrients flows into Varna Bay, Bulgaria. Varna Bay is an important beach destination on the Black Sea coast of Bulgaria. Algal bloom events have been experienced frequently in the area. A choice experiment questionnaire was developed and applied in the Varna Bay area to assess the extent to which the quantity of algal blooms and the duration of the bloom affect recreational activities. The amount of bloom was found to be important, as respondents were on average willing to pay a one off tax of 18.97 Leva (9.73 euro) for a program that provides beaches free from algal blooms. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. V.F. Gening and issues on the archaeology of Volga Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudenko Konstantin A.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available V.F. Gening’s contribution to the study of the Volga Bulgaria and his views concerning the history and archaeology of this state formation are considered in the article. His sphere of interest first of all included the links between the Volga Bulgaria population and the tribes belonging to preceding cultures, such as Pyanoborye and Imenkovo ones. V.F. Gening investigated the Bolshie Tarkhany, Turaevo and Rozdestveno burial grounds dated by the 8-9th, 5th and 6-7th centuries A.D., and the materials collected modified the notion of the time and character of the Bulgars arrival in the Volga area. He reconsidered the chronology and interpretation of the archaeological monuments, which referred to the epoch preceding the Bulgars appearance on the Volga, and proposed a hypothesis of the Volga Bulgars as a Turkic-Ugrian ethnos. V.F. Gening created a periodization of the Bolgars history in Eastern Europe within the time span between 1st-3rd centuries AD and the early 13th century AD

  18. Interaction between the moss Physcomitrella patens and Phytophthora : a novel pathosystem for live-cell imaging of subcellular defence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overdijk, Elysa J R; DE Keijzer, Jeroen; DE Groot, Deborah; Schoina, Charikleia; Bouwmeester, K.; Ketelaar, Tijs; Govers, Francine

    Live-cell imaging of plant-pathogen interactions is often hampered by the tissue complexity and multicell layered nature of the host. Here, we established a novel pathosystem with the moss Physcomitrella patens as host for Phytophthora. The tip-growing protonema cells of this moss are ideal for

  19. Using NLDAS-2 for initializing integrated watershed models: Model spin-up for the AirMOSS Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airborne Microwave Observatory of Subcanopy and Subsurface (AirMOSS) investigation has been developed for high-resolution in time and space root-zone soil moisture and carbon estimation. AirMOSS will build an ultra-high frequency (UHF) synthetic aperture radar (SAR) that has the capability to penetr...

  20. Sphagnum mosses from 21 ombrotrophic bogs in the athabasca bituminous sands region show no significant atmospheric contamination of "heavy metals".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shotyk, William; Belland, Rene; Duke, John; Kempter, Heike; Krachler, Michael; Noernberg, Tommy; Pelletier, Rick; Vile, Melanie A; Wieder, Kelman; Zaccone, Claudio; Zhang, Shuangquan

    2014-11-04

    Sphagnum moss was collected from 21 ombrotrophic (rain-fed) peat bogs surrounding open pit mines and upgrading facilities of Athabasca bituminous sands in Alberta (AB). In comparison to contemporary Sphagnum moss from four bogs in rural locations of southern Germany (DE), the AB mosses yielded lower concentrations of Ag, Cd, Ni, Pb, Sb, and Tl, similar concentrations of Mo, but greater concentrations of Ba, Th, and V. Except for V, in comparison to the "cleanest", ancient peat samples ever tested from the northern hemisphere (ca. 6000-9000 years old), the concentrations of each of these metals in the AB mosses are within a factor of 3 of "natural, background" values. The concentrations of "heavy metals" in the mosses, however, are proportional to the concentration of Th (a conservative, lithophile element) and, therefore, contributed to the plants primarily in the form of mineral dust particles. Vanadium, the single most abundant trace metal in bitumen, is the only anomaly: in the AB mosses, V exceeds that of ancient peat by a factor of 6; it is therefore enriched in the mosses, relative to Th, by a factor of 2. In comparison to the surface layer of peat cores collected in recent years from across Canada, from British Columbia to New Brunswick, the Pb concentrations in the mosses from AB are far lower.

  1. The contribution of mosses to the carbon and water exchange of artic ecosystems: quantification and relationships with system properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douma, J.C.; Wijk, van M.T.; Lang, S.I.; Shaver, G.R.

    2007-01-01

    Water vapour and CO2 exchange were measured in moss-dominated vegetation using a gas analyser and a 0.3 × 0.3 m chamber at 17 sites near Abisko, Northern Sweden and 21 sites near Longyearbyen, Svalbard, to quantify the contribution of mosses to ecosystem level fluxes. With the help of a simple

  2. 33 CFR 207.169 - Oklawaha River, navigation lock and dam at Moss Bluff, Fla.; use, administration, and navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... and dam at Moss Bluff, Fla.; use, administration, and navigation. 207.169 Section 207.169 Navigation... REGULATIONS § 207.169 Oklawaha River, navigation lock and dam at Moss Bluff, Fla.; use, administration, and... may be designated by the District Engineer, U.S. Army Engineer District, Jacksonville, Fla., at each...

  3. Invited review: climate change impacts in polar regions: lessons from Antarctic moss bank archives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royles, Jessica; Griffiths, Howard

    2015-03-01

    Mosses are the dominant plants in polar and boreal regions, areas which are experiencing rapid impacts of regional warming. Long-term monitoring programmes provide some records of the rate of recent climate change, but moss peat banks contain an unrivalled temporal record of past climate change on terrestrial plant Antarctic systems. We summarise the current understanding of climatic proxies and determinants of moss growth for contrasting continental and maritime Antarctic regions, as informed by 13C and 18O signals in organic material. Rates of moss accumulation are more than three times higher in the maritime Antarctic than continental Antarctica with growing season length being a critical determinant of growth rate, and high carbon isotope discrimination values reflecting optimal hydration conditions. Correlation plots of 13C and 18O values show that species (Chorisodontium aciphyllum / Polytrichum strictum) and growth form (hummock / bank) are the major determinants of measured isotope ratios. The interplay between moss growth form, photosynthetic physiology, water status and isotope composition are compared with developments of secondary proxies, such as chlorophyll fluorescence. These approaches provide a framework to consider the potential impact of climate change on terrestrial Antarctic habitats as well as having implications for future studies of temperate, boreal and Arctic peatlands. There are many urgent ecological and environmental problems in the Arctic related to mosses in a changing climate, but the geographical ranges of species and life-forms are difficult to track individually. Our goal was to translate what we have learned from the more simple systems in Antarctica, for application to Arctic habitats. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. The role of sample preparation in interpretation of trace element concentration variability in moss bioindication studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migaszewski, Z.M.; Lamothe, P.J.; Crock, J.G.; Galuszka, A.; Dolegowska, S.

    2011-01-01

    Trace element concentrations in plant bioindicators are often determined to assess the quality of the environment. Instrumental methods used for trace element determination require digestion of samples. There are different methods of sample preparation for trace element analysis, and the selection of the best method should be fitted for the purpose of a study. Our hypothesis is that the method of sample preparation is important for interpretation of the results. Here we compare the results of 36 element determinations performed by ICP-MS on ashed and on acid-digested (HNO3, H2O2) samples of two moss species (Hylocomium splendens and Pleurozium schreberi) collected in Alaska and in south-central Poland. We found that dry ashing of the moss samples prior to analysis resulted in considerably lower detection limits of all the elements examined. We also show that this sample preparation technique facilitated the determination of interregional and interspecies differences in the chemistry of trace elements. Compared to the Polish mosses, the Alaskan mosses displayed more positive correlations of the major rock-forming elements with ash content, reflecting those elements' geogenic origin. Of the two moss species, P. schreberi from both Alaska and Poland was also highlighted by a larger number of positive element pair correlations. The cluster analysis suggests that the more uniform element distribution pattern of the Polish mosses primarily reflects regional air pollution sources. Our study has shown that the method of sample preparation is an important factor in statistical interpretation of the results of trace element determinations. ?? 2010 Springer-Verlag.

  5. Development of calibration factors of moss (Hylocomium splendens); Utvikling av kalibreringsfaktorer for mose (Hylocomium splendens)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, T.

    1996-01-01

    The present paper relates to atmospheric deposition of trace elements in Norway. These elements are mapped geographically in every fifth year by analysing bio-monitored mosses. This is a part of an original Scandinavian monitoring program which gradually expanded to other parts of Europe. In 1995, 32 countries participated in the program. The investigation of mosses in Norway has also been used as a basis for the development of special environment indicators for monitoring atmospheric long-range transported heavy metals. 9 refs., 1 fig.

  6. Molecular phylogeny and systematic revision of the pleurocarpous moss genus Plagiothecium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wynns, Justin Thomas

    A systematic investigation of the pleurocarpous moss genus Plagiothecium Bruch & Schimp. was performed as a part of the author’s PhD study at the University of Copenhagen. Plagiothecium is mostly a well-defined genus, but the species limits and the interspecific relationships are poorly understood......K-psbA and rpl16 intron, and nuclear ribosomal ITS. Parsimony analyses of DNA sequence data from all three regions were performed to generate phylogenies for 110 specimens of Plagiothecium and similar mosses. Some sequence data were obtained for an additional 76 collections, yielding an rpl16 phylogeny for 147...

  7. Phototolerance of lichens, mosses and higher plants in an alpine environment: analysis of photoreactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heber, U; Bilger, W; Bligny, R; Lange, O L

    2000-11-01

    Adaptation to excessive light is one of the requirements of survival in an alpine environment particularly for poikilohydric organisms which in contrast to the leaves of higher plants tolerate full dehydration. Changes in modulated chlorophyll fluorescence and 820-nm absorption were investigated in the lichens Xanthoria elegans (Link) Th. Fr. and Rhizocarpon geographicum (L.) DC, in the moss Grimmia alpestris Limpr. and the higher plants Geum montanum L., Gentiana lutea L. and Pisum sativum L., all collected at altitudes higher than 2000 m above sea level. In the dehydrated state, chlorophyll fluorescence was very low in the lichens and the moss, but high in the higher plants. It increased on rehydration in the lichens and the moss, but decreased in the higher plants. Light-induced charge separation in photosystem II was indicated by pulse-induced fluorescence increases only in dried leaves, not in the dry moss and dry lichens. Strong illumination caused photodamage in the dried leaves, but not in the dry moss and dry lichens. Light-dependent increases in 820-nm absorption revealed formation of potential quenchers of chlorophyll fluorescence in all dehydrated plants, but energy transfer to quenchers decreased chlorophyll fluorescence only in the moss and the lichens, not in the higher plants. In hydrated systems, coupled cyclic electron transport is suggested to occur concurrently with linear electron transport under strong actinic illumination particularly in the lichens because far more electrons became available after actinic illumination for the reduction of photo-oxidized P700 than were available in the pool of electron carriers between photosystems II and I. In the moss Grimmia, but not in the lichens or in leaves, light-dependent quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence was extensive even under nitrogen, indicating anaerobic thylakoid acidification by persistent cyclic electron transport. In the absence of actinic illumination, acidification by ca. 8% CO2 in

  8. Three ancient hormonal cues co-ordinate shoot branching in a moss

    OpenAIRE

    Coudert, Yoan; Palubicki, Wojtek; Ljung, Karin; Novak, Ondrej; Leyser, Ottoline; Harrison, C Jill

    2015-01-01

    eLife digest Most land plants have shoots that form branches and plants can regulate when and where they grow these branches to best exploit their environment. Plants with flowers and the more ancient mosses both have branching shoots, but these two groups of plants evolved to grow in this way independently of each other. Most studies on shoot branching have focused on flowering plants and so it is less clear how branching works in mosses. Three plant hormones?called auxin, cytokinin and stri...

  9. Acclimation of photosynthetic characteristics of the moss Pleurozium schreberi to among-habitat and within-canopy light gradients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobias, M; Niinemets, U

    2010-09-01

    Light availability varies strongly among moss habitats and within the moss canopy, and vertical variation in light within the canopy further interacts with the age gradient. The interacting controls by habitat and canopy light gradient and senescence have not been studied extensively. We measured light profiles, chlorophyll (Chl), carotenoid (Car) and nitrogen (N) concentrations, and photosynthetic electron transport capacity (J(max)) along habitat and canopy light gradients in the widespread, temperate moss Pleurozium schreberi to separate sources of variation in moss chemical and physiological traits. We hypothesised that this species, like typical feather mosses with both apical and lateral growth, exhibits greater plasticity in the canopy than between habitats due to deeper within-canopy light gradients. For the among-habitat light gradient, Chl, Chl/N and Chl/Car ratio increased with decreasing light availability, indicating enhanced light harvesting in lower light and higher capacity for photoprotection in higher light. N and J(max) were independent of habitat light availability. Within the upper canopy, until 50-60% above-canopy light, changes in moss chemistry and photosynthetic characteristics were analogous to patterns observed for the between-habitat light gradient. In contrast, deeper canopy layers reflected senescence of moss shoots, with pigment and nitrogen concentrations and photosynthetic capacity decreasing with light availability. Thus, variation in chemical and physiological traits within the moss canopy is a balance between acclimation and senescence. This study demonstrates extensive light-dependent variation in moss photosynthetic traits, but also that between-habitat and within-canopy light gradient affects moss physiology and chemistry differently.

  10. Views and beliefs of social studies teachers on citizenship education: a comparative study of the Netherlands, Bulgaria and Croatia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeliazkova, Margarita I.; Cunningham, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on a comparative study of high school social science teachers in three European countries: the Netherlands, Bulgaria, and Croatia, and presents data from teacher interviews using Q methodology. An aim of the study is to make explicit the link between teachers’ views on citizenship

  11. Social developmnet of ecologically sensitive rural areas: Case studies of the Moravian Karst (Czech Republic) and the Devetashko Plato (Bulgaria)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zapletalová, Jana; Stefanová, D.; Vaishar, Antonín; Stefanov, P.; Dvořák, Petr; Tcherkezova, E.

    3-4, 3-4 (2016), s. 65-84 ISSN 0204-7209 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : social development * rural sensitive areas * Devetashko Plato * Bulgaria * Moravian karst - Czech Republic Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography http://geoproblems.eu/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/2016_34/4_zapletalova.pdf

  12. First records of the American wasps Sceliphron caementarium (Drury, 1770 and Isodontia mexicana (de Saussure, 1867 (Hymenoptera: Sphecidae from Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DENIS GRADINAROV

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Two alien sphecid species are reported for the first time for Bulgaria. Nearctic species Sceliphron caementarium (Drury, 1770 and Isodontia mexicana (de Saussure, 1867 were found in Sofia. The first species is collected as well from the Bulgarian Black Sea Coast, near Varna.

  13. Occupational handicap-free life expectancy in Bulgaria 1976-1992 based on the data of the medical expert commissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mutafova, M.; Water, H.P.A. van de; Perenboom, R.J.M.; Boshuizen, H.C.; Maleshkov, C.

    1996-01-01

    This article presents health expectancy calculations from Bulgaria for 1976-1992. The calculations are based on mortality statistics and data from a national information system from the Expert Medical Commissions on Working Capacity about loss of working capacity. Following internationally accepted

  14. Gravi-photomorphogenesis of the moss Pottia intermedia protonemata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demkiv, O. T.; Kyjak, N. Y.; Khorkavtsiv, Y. D.; Kit, N. A.

    The protonemata development proceeds in the process of gradual differentiation of growing apical cells and intercalar cells the shortened lateral branches of the latters being transformed into three-dimensional gametophore buds (Demkiv et al., 1991). Normal course of plant development needs favourable external conditions. Sometimes, however, external environment agents can accelerate the development of organism. So, apical protonema cells of darkgrown gravitropic P. intermedia differentiate gametophore-buds in light of low intensity (Ripetskyj, 1999). We investigate the influence of gravistimulation on bud formation in haploid and diploid P. intermedia protonema. Diploid protonema was found to react on light weaker than haploid one. Under the influence of light the darkgrown apical cells and lateral branches of haploid protonema were directly transformed into buds, while in diploid protonema at first the formation of bundles of rhizoid type filaments takes place on the tips of caulonema and buds appeared in center of such bundles. The participation of gravity in gametophore bud formation was assessed by clinorotating protonema in darkness. Being illuminated such protonema also developed buds quickly the latters being formed along all stolon. It can be suggested that at 1g the growth zone of apical cells actively attract inductors of bud formation. During clinorotation the inductors probably are transferred much more slower than under stationary state and that is why the buds arised not only at the tips of stolons but along all their length. It is known that gametophore bud formation can be stimulated by exogenous phytohormones. As M. Bopp (1980) has shown, that kinetin selectively promotes bud formation on moss protonema. Our observations have shown 0,5 -- 50 μ M of kinetin stimulate the bud formation on diploid aposporic protonema much more effectively that on haploid one. It can be concluded that the amount of endogenous cytokinins in haploid protonemal cells is

  15. Modelling of accidental released toxic gases for emergency responders in Austria, Kosovo and Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenzel, Sirma; Baumann-Stanzer, Kathrin; Gashi, Salih; Thaci, Bashkim; Batchvarova, Ekaterina; Spassova, Tatiana

    2010-05-01

    In the case of accidental release of hazardous gases in the atmosphere, the emergency responders need a reliable and fast tool to assess the possible consequences and apply the optimal countermeasures. A number of models for the prediction and simulation of hazard areas affected by accidental releases of toxic gases are available worldwide. Modelling accidental releases may be required for a variety of reasons: for analyzing different accidental toxic release scenarios ("worst-case scenarios"), for preparing emergency response plans and optimal countermeasures as well as for real-time risk assessment and management (e.g. in the frame of the SEVESO directive). Depending on the demand and the particular purposes, the choice of the appropriate model is up to the authorities. The one year project was funded by the Austrian Science and research liaison Office (ASO, www.aso.zsi.at) as a part of the program: Research Cooperation and Networking between Austria, the public higher education institutions in Kosovo and South Eastern Europe. The project was conducted by the Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG, http://www.zamg.ac.at) in cooperation with the University of Prishtina (Kosovo, www.uni-pr.edu and the National Institute of meteorology and Hydrology (NIHM Bulgaria, www.meteo.bg). One of the main purposes of the project was to provide the both partners with basic knowledge in modelling with accidental release of toxic gases, based on the practical experience of the meteorologists from the ZAMG in the area. This knowledge can be used as scientific response to society driven current or upcoming problems especially in Kosovo. The activities involved know-how transfer on European standards and practice among the project partners, as well as joint efforts to adapt and disseminate the scientific methods and results in Kosovo. Within the project, the partners from Kosovo and Bulgaria were introduced to the atmospheric dispersion model (ALOHA - Areal

  16. High-resolution Observations of Active Region Moss and its Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, R. J.; McLaughlin, J. A.

    2014-07-01

    The High Resolution Coronal Imager has provided the sharpest view of the EUV corona to date. In this paper, we exploit its impressive resolving power to provide the first analysis of the fine-scale structure of moss in an active region. The data reveal that the moss is made up of a collection of fine threads that have widths with a mean and standard deviation of 440 ± 190 km (FWHM). The brightest moss emission is located at the visible head of the fine-scale structure and the fine structure appears to extend into the lower solar atmosphere. The emission decreases along the features, implying that the lower sections are most likely dominated by cooler transition region plasma. These threads appear to be the cool, lower legs of the hot loops. In addition, the increased resolution allows for the first direct observation of physical displacements of the moss fine structure in a direction transverse to its central axis. Some of these transverse displacements demonstrate periodic behavior, which we interpret as a signature of kink (Alfvénic) waves. Measurements of the properties of the transverse motions are made and the wave motions have means and standard deviations of 55 ± 37 km for the transverse displacement amplitude, 77 ± 33 s for the period, and 4.7 ± 2.5 km s-1 for the velocity amplitude. The presence of waves in the transition region of hot loops could have important implications for the heating of active regions.

  17. Physcomitrium eurystomum and Pohlia proligera, new mosses in the bryophyte flora of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papp Beáta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Physcomitrium eurystomum Sendtn. and Pohlia proligera (Kindb. Lindb. ex Broth. were recently discovered as new moss species for the bryophyte flora of Serbia. Both species were recorded in the Vlasina Lake area, a large highland wetland plateau in southeastern Serbia.

  18. Using an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) to capture micro-topography of Antarctic moss beds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucieer, Arko; Turner, Darren; King, Diana H.; Robinson, Sharon A.

    2014-04-01

    Mosses, the dominant flora of East Antarctica, show evidence of drying in recent decades, likely due to the regional effects of climate change. Given the relatively small area that such moss beds occupy, new tools are needed to map and monitor these fragile ecosystems in sufficient detail. In this study, we collected low altitude aerial photography with a small multi-rotor Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). Structure from Motion (SfM) computer vision techniques were applied to derive ultra-high resolution 3D models from multi-view aerial photography. A 2 cm digital surface model (DSM) and 1 cm orthophoto mosaic were derived from the 3D model and aerial photographs, respectively. The geometric accuracy of the orthophoto and DSM was 4 cm. A weighted contributing upstream area was derived with the D-infinity algorithm, based on the DSM and a snow cover map derived from the orthophoto. The contributing upstream area was used as a proxy for water availability from snowmelt, one of the key environmental drivers of moss health. A Monte Carlo simulation with 300 realisations was implemented to model the impact of error in the DSM on runoff direction. Significant correlations were found between these simulated water availability values and field measurements of moss health and water content. In the future ultra-high spatial resolution DSMs acquired with a UAV could thus be used to determine the impact of changing snow cover on the health and spatial distribution of polar vegetation non-destructively.

  19. Moss-inhabiting diatom communities from Heard Island, sub-Antarctic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VandeVijver, B.; Beyens, L.; Vincke, S.; Gremmen, N.J.M.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we list 192 diatom taxa, collected from bryophyte samples from Heard Island (52degrees05'S, 73degrees30'E). The Heard Island diatom flora shows a marked similarity to those of the Crozet and Kerguelen archipelagos, and is quite dissimilar to the moss-dwelling diatom flora of Macquarie

  20. Matrix solid phase dispersion method for determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in moss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concha-Graña, Estefanía; Muniategui-Lorenzo, Soledad; De Nicola, Flavia; Aboal, Jesús R; Rey-Asensio, Ana Isabel; Giordano, Simonetta; Reski, Ralf; López-Mahía, Purificación; Prada-Rodríguez, Darío

    2015-08-07

    In this work a matrix solid-phase dispersion extraction method, followed by programmed temperature vaporization-gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry determination is proposed for the analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in moss samples. A devitalized, cultivated Sphagnum palustre L. moss clone obtained from the "Mossclone" EU-FP7 Project was used for the optimization and validation of the proposed method. Good trueness (84-116%), precision (intermediate precision lower than 11%) and sensitivity (quantitation limits lower than 1.7ngg(-1)) were obtained. The proposed method was compared with other procedures applied for this complex matrix, achieving a considerable reduction of sample amount, solvent volume and time consumption. The procedure was successfully tested for the analysis of PAHs in exposed moss clone samples for the monitoring of air pollution. Finally, the method was also tested for its suitability in the analysis of PAHs in other moss species as well as a lichen species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Heavy Metals and Trace Elements Atmospheric Deposition Studies in Tula Region Using Moss Biomonitors Technique

    CERN Document Server

    Ermakova, E V; Steinnes, E

    2002-01-01

    For the first time the moss biomonitors technique was used in air pollution studies in Tula Region (Central Russia), applying NAA, AAS. Moss samples were collected at 83 sites in accordance with the sampling strategy adopted in European projects on biomonitoring atmospheric deposition. A wide set of trace elements in mosses was determined. The method of epithermal neutron activation at IBR-2 reactor of FLNP JINR has made it possible to identify 33 elements (Na, Mg, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, As, Br, Rb, Sr, Mo, Sb, I, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Sm, Tb, Yb, Hf, Ta, W, Th, U) in the large-scale concentration range - from 10000 ppm for K to 0,001 ppm for Tb and Ta. Cu, Cd and Pb were determined by the flame AAS in the Norwegian Institute of Science and Technology. Using the graphical technique and principal component analysis allowed to separate plant, crustal and general pollution components in the moss. The obtained data will be used for constructing coloured maps of the distribution of elements over t...

  2. Moss Mediates the Influence of Shrub Species on Soil Properties and Processes in Alpine Tundra.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Guillermo Bueno

    Full Text Available In tundra ecosystems, bryophytes influence soil processes directly and indirectly through interactions with overstory shrub species. We experimentally manipulated moss cover and measured seasonal soil properties and processes under two species of deciduous shrubs with contrasting canopy structures, Salix planifolia pulchra and Betula glandulosa-nana complex. Soil properties (seasonal temperature, moisture and C:N ratios and processes (seasonal litter decomposition and soil respiration were measured over twelve months. Shrub species identity had the largest influence on summer soil temperatures and soil respiration rates, which were higher under Salix canopies. Mosses were associated with lower soil moisture irrespective of shrub identity, but modulated the effects of shrubs on winter soil temperatures and soil C:N ratios so that moss cover reduced differences in soil winter temperatures between shrub species and reduced C:N ratios under Betula but not under Salix canopies. Our results suggest a central role of mosses in mediating soil properties and processes, with their influence depending on shrub species identity. Such species-dependent effects need to be accounted for when forecasting vegetation dynamics under ongoing environmental changes.

  3. Restoring sedges and mosses into frost heaving iron fens, San Juan Mountains, Colorado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A. Chimner

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Rare iron fens in the San Juan Mountains of Colorado are frequently in poor condition due to mining, roads and ditches, which have left much of the fen completely bare of vegetation. Natural revegetation is slow to occur in the bare areas because of severe frost heave in the cold mountain climate. Therefore, experimental revegetation plots were conducted in a factorial design with mulching and no mulching, crossed with moss diaspores, sedge transplants, and moss and sedge combined. Mulching influenced surface soil temperatures by reducing the midday highs and increasing the night-time lows, which decreased the frequency and amount of frost heave. Peat moisture also modified frost heave, with the greatest frost heaving occurring near 75 % peat moisture content (water table 10–20 cm below the surface and the least when soils were either wetter or drier. Moss survival was dependent on mulch, with no moss surviving in plots without mulch. Mulching also increased sedge transplant survival. In summary, mulching significantly increased the success of vegetation restoration efforts for frost heave areas in mountain fens.

  4. Detection, Isolation, and Characterization of Acidophilic Methanotrophs from Sphagnum Mosses ▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kip, Nardy; Ouyang, Wenjing; van Winden, Julia; Raghoebarsing, Ashna; van Niftrik, Laura; Pol, Arjan; Pan, Yao; Bodrossy, Levente; van Donselaar, Elly G.; Reichart, Gert-Jan; Jetten, Mike S. M.; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.; Op den Camp, Huub J. M.

    2011-01-01

    Sphagnum peatlands are important ecosystems in the methane cycle. Methane-oxidizing bacteria in these ecosystems serve as a methane filter and limit methane emissions. Yet little is known about the diversity and identity of the methanotrophs present in and on Sphagnum mosses of peatlands, and only a few isolates are known. The methanotrophic community in Sphagnum mosses, originating from a Dutch peat bog, was investigated using a pmoA microarray. A high biodiversity of both gamma- and alphaproteobacterial methanotrophs was found. With Sphagnum mosses as the inoculum, alpha- and gammaproteobacterial acidophilic methanotrophs were isolated using established and newly designed media. The 16S rRNA, pmoA, pxmA, and mmoX gene sequences showed that the alphaproteobacterial isolates belonged to the Methylocystis and Methylosinus genera. The Methylosinus species isolated are the first acid-tolerant members of this genus. Of the acidophilic gammaproteobacterial strains isolated, strain M5 was affiliated with the Methylomonas genus, and the other strain, M200, may represent a novel genus, most closely related to the genera Methylosoma and Methylovulum. So far, no acidophilic or acid-tolerant methanotrophs in the Gammaproteobacteria class are known. All strains showed the typical features of either type I or II methanotrophs and are, to the best of our knowledge, the first isolated (acidophilic or acid-tolerant) methanotrophs from Sphagnum mosses. PMID:21724892

  5. Marine Gradients of Halogens in Moss Studied by Epithermal Neutron Activation Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Frontasyeva, M V

    2002-01-01

    Epithermal neutron activation analysis is known to be a powerful technique for the simultaneous study of chlorine, bromine and iodine in environmental samples. In this paper it is shown to be useful to elucidate marine gradients of these elements. Examples are from a transect study in northern Norway where samples of the feather moss Hylocomium splendens were collected at distances 0-300 km from the coastline. All three elements decreased exponentially as a function of distance from the ocean in the moss samples, strongly indicating that atmospheric supply from the marine environment is the predominant source of these elements to the terrestrial ecosystem. These results are compared with similar data for surface soils along the same gradients. Comparison is also made with previous data for halogens in moss in Norway obtained by conventional NAA and covering similar transects in other geographical regions. The Cl/Br and Br/I ratios in moss showed a regular change distance from the ocean in all transects, and h...

  6. Evaluating carbon stores at the earth-atmosphere interface: moss and lichen mats of subarctic Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert J. Smith; Sarah Jovan; Bruce. McCune

    2015-01-01

    A fundamental goal of the forest inventory in interior Alaska is to accurately estimate carbon pools in a way that sheds light on the feedbacks between forests and climate. In boreal forests, moss and lichen mats often serve as the interface between soils and the atmosphere, therefore characterizing the biomass and composition of mats is essential for understanding how...

  7. Description of a new moss frog from the south-western Cape (Anura ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A new species of moss frog, genus Arthroleptella, is described from the Kleinrivier mountains of the south-western Cape. It is morphologically indistinguishable from the other three species in the area. The four Cape species are allopatric, each has a unique male advertisement call, and preliminary molecular data shows ...

  8. Does spore ultrastructure mirror different dispersal strategies in mosses? A study of seven iberian orthotrichum species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagore G Medina

    Full Text Available Most mosses have xerochastic dispersal (i.e., they open their capsules when conditions are dry, which is thought to favor long-distance dispersal. However, there are several species that use a hygrochastic strategy: spores are dispersed when conditions are wet. The significance of this strategy in the Mediterranean region is unknown. In this study, we explored whether ultrastructural features related to differences in spore resistance may explain these different strategies of spore dispersal. To this end, we examined the ultrastructural features of the spores of seven closely related species in the moss genus Orthotrichum. These species all grow as epiphytes in sub-Mediterranean forests, and the group includes both xerochastic and hygrochastic members. First, we found that the spore wall layers exhibit several features previously undescribed in mosses. Second, we discovered that there are only subtle differences in spore ultrastructure with regards to spore wall thickness, the degree of plastid development, or the storage substances used. We suggest that the hygrochastic dispersal in mosses from Mediterranean environments might be related to a safe-site strategy, rather than to drought avoidance, and we underscore the necessity of conducting spore ultrastructural studies on a greater number of bryophyte species.

  9. In vivo assembly of DNA-fragments in the moss, Physcomitrella patens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    King, Brian Christopher; Vavitsas, Konstantinos; Ikram, Nur Kusaira Binti Khairul

    2016-01-01

    enabled the complete replacement of eukaryotic chromosomes with heterologous DNA. The moss Physcomitrella patens, a non-vascular and spore producing land plant (Bryophyte), has a well-established capacity for homologous recombination. Here, we demonstrate the in vivo assembly of multiple DNA fragments...

  10. Elucidating the roles of MAP kinases in the moss Physcomitrella patens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stanimirovic, Sabrina

    signals from such receptors by phosphorylating substrate proteins, which effectuate appropriate responses. By generating deletion lines of MPK genes in the simple, non-vascular moss Physcomitrella patens, I provide interesting evidence that MPKs may be important in the understanding of evolutionary...

  11. Moss cushions facilitate water and nutrient supply for plant species on bare limestone pavements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kaj Sand; Hammer, Kathrine

    2012-01-01

    Dense moss cushions of different size are distributed across the bare limestone pavements on Øland, SE Sweden. Increasing cushion size is predicted to physically protect and improve performance and colonization by vascular plants. Therefore, we tested water balance, phosphorus supply, and species...

  12. Phylogenetic or environmental control on the elemental and organo-chemical composition of Sphagnum mosses?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Limpens, Juul; Bohlin, Elisabet; Nilsson, Mats B.

    2017-01-01

    Background and aims: Plant litter chemistry is a key driver of decomposition in peatlands. This study explored the relative contributions of phylogeny and environment to litter chemistry of peat mosses (Sphagnum), the key peat-forming plants on earth. Methods: Fifteen Sphagnum species, representing

  13. Contact sensitization to tree moss (Evernia furfuracea extract, INCI) is heterogeneous.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uter, Wolfgang; Schmidt, Erich; Lessmann, Holger; Schnuch, Axel

    2012-07-01

    Evernia prunastri (oak moss) and Evernia furfuracea (tree moss) are lichens from which natural extracts are obtained. To identify possible subgroups of E. furfuracea-sensitized patients according to whether these are allergic to lichen components or to contaminants. A retrospective analysis was performed of surveillance data collected by the Information Network of Departments of Dermatology (www.ivkd.org) in 2003-2010 with oak moss absolute (1% pet.), tree moss absolute (1% pet.), and colophonium (colophony, 20% pet.). In total, 3030 patients had been tested with all three allergens. Positive reactions to E. furfuracea were observed in 6.37%, to E. prunastri in 5.71%, and to colophonium in 4.82%. Concordance between positive reactions to E. prunastri and E. furfuracea was good only in patients not co-sensitized to colophonium (Cohen's κ = 0.681, 95% confidence interval 0.615-0.746). Moreover, E. furfuracea-sensitized patients showed (strong or extreme) concomitant reactions to colophonium significantly more often if not co-sensitized to E. prunastri. Two subgroups of E. furfuracea-sensitized patients are identifiable: (i) those with sensitization to (oxidized) resin acids, as indicated by positive patch test reactions also to colophonium, and (ii) those non-sensitized to resin acids, but sensitized to common constituents of E. prunastri and E. furfuracea. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  14. Seasonal comparison of moss bag technique against vertical snow samples for monitoring atmospheric pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salo, Hanna; Berisha, Anna-Kaisa; Mäkinen, Joni

    2016-03-01

    This is the first study seasonally applying Sphagnum papillosum moss bags and vertical snow samples for monitoring atmospheric pollution. Moss bags, exposed in January, were collected together with snow samples by early March 2012 near the Harjavalta Industrial Park in southwest Finland. Magnetic, chemical, scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX), K-means clustering, and Tomlinson pollution load index (PLI) data showed parallel spatial trends of pollution dispersal for both materials. Results strengthen previous findings that concentrate and slag handling activities were important (dust) emission sources while the impact from Cu-Ni smelter's pipe remained secondary at closer distances. Statistically significant correlations existed between the variables of snow and moss bags. As a summary, both methods work well for sampling and are efficient pollutant accumulators. Moss bags can be used also in winter conditions and they provide more homogeneous and better controlled sampling method than snow samples. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Moss Mediates the Influence of Shrub Species on Soil Properties and Processes in Alpine Tundra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, C Guillermo; Williamson, Scott N; Barrio, Isabel C; Helgadóttir, Ágústa; HiK, David S

    2016-01-01

    In tundra ecosystems, bryophytes influence soil processes directly and indirectly through interactions with overstory shrub species. We experimentally manipulated moss cover and measured seasonal soil properties and processes under two species of deciduous shrubs with contrasting canopy structures, Salix planifolia pulchra and Betula glandulosa-nana complex. Soil properties (seasonal temperature, moisture and C:N ratios) and processes (seasonal litter decomposition and soil respiration) were measured over twelve months. Shrub species identity had the largest influence on summer soil temperatures and soil respiration rates, which were higher under Salix canopies. Mosses were associated with lower soil moisture irrespective of shrub identity, but modulated the effects of shrubs on winter soil temperatures and soil C:N ratios so that moss cover reduced differences in soil winter temperatures between shrub species and reduced C:N ratios under Betula but not under Salix canopies. Our results suggest a central role of mosses in mediating soil properties and processes, with their influence depending on shrub species identity. Such species-dependent effects need to be accounted for when forecasting vegetation dynamics under ongoing environmental changes.

  16. Natural and anthropogenic radioactivity of feedstuffs, mosses and soil in the Belgrade environment, Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grdović Svetlana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available By gamma spectroscopic measurement a content of natural radio-nuclides (40K, 238U, 226Ra, 232Th and 137Cs was determined in samples of soil, alfalfa, maize and moss on six sites in the surroundings of Belgrade. Natural radionuclides in the soil were at the level characteristic for Serbia, whereas a relatively high level of activity of 137Cs (around 30 Bq kg-1 was determined. On the other hand, in plant samples mostly used as feed (such as alfalfa and maize the concentration of natural radio-nuclide activity and 137Cs was relatively low, i.e. below the range of detection. The content of natural radio-nuclides in moss was within the standard range of values specific for Serbia. However, the activity level of 137Cs in moss gathered from the wider area around Belgrade, was high, the highest measured level being in the Avala-Zuce area (158-221 Bq kg-1. Our results show that this radio-nuclide is still present in the living environment of Belgrade even 20 years after the Chernobyl disaster, and that moss is a good indicator of living environment 137Cs contamination.

  17. 33 CFR 207.170 - Federal Dam, Oklawaha River, Moss Bluff, Fla.; pool level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Bluff, Fla.; pool level. 207.170 Section 207.170 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS..., Moss Bluff, Fla.; pool level. (a) The level of the pool shall normally be maintained at elevation 56.5..., Fla., and subject to such conditions as he may specify. (b) When, in the opinion of the District...

  18. Gravitropic moss cells default to spiral growth on the clinostat and in microgravity during spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Volker D.; Schwuchow, Jochen M.; Reed, David W.; Nadeau, Jeanette A.; Lucas, Jessica; Skripnikov, Alexander; Sack, Fred D.

    2005-01-01

    In addition to shoots and roots, the gravity (g)-vector orients the growth of specialized cells such as the apical cell of dark-grown moss protonemata. Each apical cell of the moss Ceratodon purpureus senses the g-vector and adjusts polar growth accordingly producing entire cultures of upright protonemata (negative gravitropism). The effect of withdrawing a constant gravity stimulus on moss growth was studied on two NASA Space Shuttle (STS) missions as well as during clinostat rotation on earth. Cultures grown in microgravity (spaceflight) on the STS-87 mission exhibited two successive phases of non-random growth and patterning, a radial outgrowth followed by the formation of net clockwise spiral growth. Also, cultures pre-aligned by unilateral light developed clockwise hooks during the subsequent dark period. The second spaceflight experiment flew on STS-107 which disintegrated during its descent on 1 February 2003. However, most of the moss experimental hardware was recovered on the ground, and most cultures, which had been chemically fixed during spaceflight, were retrieved. Almost all intact STS-107 cultures displayed strong spiral growth. Non-random culture growth including clockwise spiral growth was also observed after clinostat rotation. Together these data demonstrate the existence of default non-random growth patterns that develop at a population level in microgravity, a response that must normally be overridden and masked by a constant g-vector on earth.

  19. 76 FR 79066 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Escatawpa River, Moss Point, MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-21

    ... of the Mississippi Export Railroad Company swing bridge across the Escatawpa River, mile 3.0, at Moss.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Mississippi Export Railroad Company has requested a temporary deviation from the... consists of commercial tugs with tows, fishing vessels, and other recreational crafts. There is only one...

  20. Stable production of the antimalarial drug artemisinin in the moss Physcomitrella patens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binti Khairul Ikram, Nur Kusaira; Kashkooli, Arman Beyraghdar; Peramuna, Anantha Vithakshana

    2017-01-01

    were engineered into the moss Physcomitrella patens via direct in vivo assembly of multiple DNA fragments. In vivo biosynthesis of artemisinin was obtained without further modifications. A high initial production of 0.21 mg/g dry weight artemisinin was observed after only three days of cultivation. Our...

  1. POPULATION-GENETICS OF THE MOSS PLAGIOTHECIUM-UNDULATUM (HEDW) SCHIMP .1. INHERITANCE OF ALLOZYMES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HOFMAN, A; VANDELDEN, W; VANZANTEN, BO

    Twenty-one allozyme loci were assayed in a subpopulation of the dioecious moss Plagiothecium undulatum. Six loci were polymorphic and could be used to demonstrate the different expression of allozymes at the haploid gametophytic and diploid sporophytic life stage. Progeny analysis on sporelings

  2. Biomass increment in mosses on the example of Aulacomnium palustre (Hedw. Schwaegr.

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    Ewa Tęczyńska-Kamecka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The biomass increment of the moss Aulacomnium palustre growing on two meadows of the Kampinos National Park was studied. The state of the biomass and production in g/m2 were compared on two different sites in two successive vegetation seasons.

  3. Breeding for improved herbage and seed yield in Setaria sphacelata (Schumach.) Stapf and Hubbard ex Moss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, van A.J.P.

    1980-01-01

    The simultaneous selection for yield of herbage and seed in Setaria sphacelata (Schumach.) Stapf and Hubbard ex Moss was studied, and the amount of variation present for each of these traits in relation to various plant characteristics was assessed in a spaced plant population and its

  4. Buoyancy-driven flow in a peat moss layer as a mechanism for solute transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rappoldt, C.; Pieters, G.J.J.M.; Adema, E.B.; Baaijens, G.J.; Grootjans, A.P.; Duijn, van C.J.

    2003-01-01

    Transport of nutrients, CO2, methane, and oxygen plays an important ecological role at the surface of wetland ecosystems. A possibly important transport mechanism in a water-saturated peat moss layer (usually Sphagnum cuspidatum) is nocturnal buoyancy flow, the downward flow of relatively cold

  5. Exploring the fossil history of pleurocarpous mosses: Tricostaceae fam. nov. from the Cretaceous of Vancouver Island, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Glenn W K; Stockey, Ruth A; Rothwell, Gar W; Tomescu, Alexandru M F

    2015-11-01

    Mosses, very diverse in modern ecosystems, are currently underrepresented in the fossil record. For the pre-Cenozoic, fossil mosses are known almost exclusively from compression fossils, while anatomical preservation, which is much more taxonomically informative, is rare. The Lower Cretaceous of Vancouver Island (British Columbia, Canada) hosts a diverse anatomically preserved flora at Apple Bay. While the vascular plant component of the Apple Bay flora has received much attention, the numerous bryophytes identified at the locality have yet to be characterized. Fossil moss gametophytes in more than 20 carbonate concretions collected from the Apple Bay locality on Vancouver Island were studied in serial sections prepared using the cellulose acetate peel technique. We describe Tricosta plicata gen. et sp. nov., a pleurocarpous moss with much-branched gametophytes, tricostate plicate leaves, rhizoid-bearing bases, and delicate gametangia (antheridia and archegonia) borne on specialized branches. A new family of hypnanaean mosses, Tricostaceae fam. nov., is recognized based on the novel combination of characters of T. plicata. Tricosta plicata reveals pleurocarpous moss diversity unaccounted for in extant floras. This new moss adds the first bryophyte component to an already diverse assemblage of vascular plants described from the Early Cretaceous at Apple Bay and, as the oldest representative of the Hypnanae, provides a hard minimum age for the group (136 Ma). © 2015 Botanical Society of America.

  6. Tennantite-tetrahedrite series from the Madan Pb-Zn deposits, Central Rhodopes, Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassileva, Rossitsa D.; Atanassova, Radostina; Kouzmanov, Kalin

    2014-08-01

    Minerals from the tennantite-tetrahedrite series (fahlores) are found as single euhedral crystals and crustiform aggregates in hydrothermal veins of the Gradishte and Petrovitsa Pb-Zn deposits of the Madan ore field, southern Bulgaria. Unusually large compositional variations and fine oscillatory crystal zoning were investigated with electron microprobe analysis. The Gradishte samples correspond dominantly to tennantite, while Petrovitsa crystals have exclusively tetrahedrite composition. Fahlore compositions at Madan correspond to zincian varieties (1.6-1.95 apfu), with low Fe-content (fluid inclusion and stable isotope data suggest that fahlores precipitated in the late stages of mineralization at Madan, at temperature interval of 300-200 °C from oxidizing fluids with mixed (magmatic-meteoric) signatures.

  7. Preliminary comparative analysis of medicinal plants used in the traditional medicine of Bulgaria and Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leporatti, Maria Lucia; Ivancheva, Stephanie

    2003-08-01

    Despite their geographical, historical and cultural differences, Bulgaria and Italy share a surprisingly similar patrimony as regards the popular uses of medicinal plants. The extensive knowledge acquired over the centuries by people living in these countries and engaged in agriculture, derives from continuous contact with natural resources. This paper compares approximately 250 medicinal plants present in both countries and used in popular medicine. From this comparison it emerges that knowledge of medicinal plants and their uses are well founded. In fact, more than 80% of the plants are employed in identical or similar kinds of ailments, their preparation also showing marked similarities. The remaining 20% have very different uses, several of these being particularly noteworthy. The role played by edible plants, moreover, is important, about 30% being employed as medicine.

  8. Institutionalizing Local Government as an Instrument of Democratic Consolidation: The Cases of Bulgaria and Paraguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsamunska Polya

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Multi-level governance is widely used throughout the world, especially in more economically developed countries. In part, this is due to the presumed benefits of decentralization in terms of public-service delivery, and in part, it is due to a desire to disperse political power and governmental authority. Thus, 25 years ago, when major governmental reform initiatives were begun in many countries around the world, especially in Central and Eastern Europe and Latin America, much attention was devoted to establishing and / or strengthening local governments. This was the case in Bulgaria and Paraguay, two countries from different parts of the world, but similar in size, economic development and a history of highly centralized and authoritarian regimes. The purpose of this paper is to examine and better understand the processes of decentralization as they took place in those two countries and those factors which facilitated and / or hindered efforts to initiate effective local government.

  9. A NEW SPORADOTRAGUS (BOVIDAE, MAMMALIA FROM THE LATE MIOCENE OF BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DENIS GERAADS

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available We provide a systematic revision of the late Miocene caprine genus Sporadotragus Kretzoi, 1968, the type-species of which was described from Samos under the specific epithet schafferi. It is distinct from the poorly known Pseudotragus. Some specimens from Samos are rather distinctive, but the whole morphological variation there encompasses that of Palaeoryx parvidens from Pikermi, and we follow earlier authors in considering the two names as synonymous. New material from two late Miocene localities of south-western Bulgaria, Kalimantsi and Strumyani, is referred to a new species, S. vasili, which is more primitive than the Greek one in some skull features, but not in the horn-core morphology. 

  10. A contibution to the knowledge of the trophic spectrum of three lacertid lizards from Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivelin Mollov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A study on the trophic spectrum of three species of lacertid lizards (Lacerta agilis, Lacerta trilineata and Podarcis muralis was carried out, based on 20 specimens collected in the period 1967-1973 in various localities in Bulgaria. The analyzed data showed that the insects (Insecta are the most numerous and the most frequently met among the alimentary components of the total amount of food of the studied stomachs (except for Lacerta agilis, where spiders are slightly predominating. The non-insect components consisted spiders and isopods. The largest niche breadth was recorded in Lacerta trilineata (8.25, followed by Podarcis muralis (5.20 and Lacerta agilis (3.44. The niche overlap between the three species (pair-wise comparison showed medium values and in our opinion there should not be any serious competition for food resources at the places withsympatric distribution.

  11. New green professions in Bulgaria in the context of transition to green economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stoyanova Zornitsa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Transition to green economy sets new requirements and challenges for the types of jobs, skills and knowledge. The paper analyzes and evaluates the importance of categories of green professions by sectors in Bulgaria. The main applied methodical approach for analysis and evaluation of green professions is a system approach. Assessment and analysis of the importance of categories of green professions by sectors is made on the basis of structured interviews with municipal experts from regional government structures involved in the process of implementation of green jobs in the country. According to aggregated and analyzed information are proposed policy recommendations and general conclusions related to implementation of training programs for green employment, use of the best European and world practices for the application of new green professions, improvement of consulting services, changing legal frame work of green jobs, etc.

  12. Alkaloid profiles and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities of Fumaria species from Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrancheva, Radka Z; Ivanov, Ivan G; Aneva, Ina Y; Dincheva, Ivayla N; Badjakov, Ilian K; Pavlov, Atanas I

    2016-01-01

    GC-MS analysis of alkaloid profiles of five Fumaria species, naturally grown in Bulgaria (F. officinalis, F. thuretii, F. kralikii, F. rostellata and F. schrammii) and analysis of acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of alkaloid extracts were performed. Fourteen isoquinoline alkaloids were identified, with the principle ones being protopine, cryptopine, sinactine, parfumine, fumariline, fumarophycine, and fumaritine. Protopine contents, defined by HPLC analysis varied between 210.6 ± 8.8 μg/g DW (F. schrammii) and 334.5 ± 7.1 μg/g DW. (F. rostellata). While all of the investigated alkaloid extracts significantly inhibited acetylcholinesterase activity, the F. kralikii demonstrated the highest level of inhibition (IC(50) 0.13 ± 0.01 mg extract/mL).

  13. THE SOCIAL ORIENTATION OF THE ACTIVITY OF THE LABOUR WORKING COOPERATIVES FOR DISABLED PEOPLE IN BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albena MITEVA

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Bulgaria's membership in the European Union defines the orientation of our country in line with the key strategic priorities of Europe 2020, which aims to achieve smart, sustainable and inclusive growth. The role of the cooperative system becomes especially important at this time when the EU itself is constructed as a union of equal socially oriented states. In the paper is depicted the role of the labour working producer cooperatives for disabled people as one of the main actors of the social economy in the EU which contribute to solving many economic and social problems of a substantial part of the Bulgarian population and to implement the priorities of the strategy "Europe 2020". In line with this aim, are given suggestion for the trends in improving their activity. So that they could provide better labour rehabilitation, strengthen the social integration of their members, promotion of production, improvement of working conditions, proposals for changes in legislation.

  14. Alexander Tomov (1930-2009: A Founder of the Astronomical Photoelectric Photometry in Bulgaria [In Bulgarian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Tomov

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the work of Dr. Alexander Tomov on establishment and equipment of the Astronomical Observatory of Belogradchik. Tomov’s research activity in that observatory is commented as well. The official opening of the observatory took place on July 21st, 1965. During the period 1966-1969 a monitoring program for determining the orbits of artificial satellites was successfully realized. Constructing a new building expanded later observatory. In mid-1969 the observatory was supplied by 60 cm reflector optical system ‘Cassegrain’, produced by Carl Zeiss in Germany; it was the biggest telescope in Bulgaria at that time. In the period 1970-1973 a modern single-channel photoelectric UBV photometer was constructed and put in operation. In 1976 the Belogradchik observatory joined with the Institute of Astronomy of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. In the second half of seventies and early eighties hundreds of galaxies were studied.

  15. ANALYSIS OF THE OPINIONS EXPRESSED BY THE DENTAL AID CONSUMERS IN THE REPUBLIC OF BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelina Perchinska–Poptodorova

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In the Republic of Bulgaria dental disorders concern the prevailing population. They are cumulative, progressive and are not self-healing. The present paper examines the patient's opinions about the dental care. Materials and Methods: The paper is based on a research realized in June-December 2016. The research was conducted among patients with dental care using dental services in the capital. The authors investigate their knowledge of the dental package by NHIF, how often they use it, whether their needs have been satisfied, how many of them have additional voluntary health insurance package for dental services and is there any financial benefit. Results and conclusions: The study shows that the dental healthcare system doesn’t meet the needs of the patients.

  16. Seroprevalence of hepatitis B among pregnant women in Varna Region, Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsankova, Gabriela Staneva; Kostadinova, Tsvetelina; Todorova, Tatina Todorova

    2016-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen among pregnant women in Varna Region, Bulgaria. During the period 2009-2013, an average prevalence of 2.26% (95%CI 1.75, 2.91) was measured in a total number of 2,700 samples. Analysis demonstrated that rural residence and minority ethnic origin are important risk factors for hepatitis B infection among pregnant women with hazard ratios of 2.40 (95%CI 1.46, 3.94), and 2.43 (95%CI 1.46, 4.05) when compared with urban residence and ethnic majority origin, respectively. J. Med. Virol. 88:2012-2015, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. On the structural value of children and its implication on intended fertility in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Bühler

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Personal networks are receiving increasing recognition as structural determinants of fertility. However, the network perspective also helps to explain personal motivations for having children. Using theories of interpersonal exchange, social capital, and the value of children, it is argued in this article that children can substantively improve their parents' social networks. Individuals perceive this potential advantageous development as a structural benefit and consider this value in their reproductive decisions. This argument is empirically explored with data from Bulgaria, collected in 2002. The results document the presence of structural evaluations among subjectively perceived child-related benefits. Moreover, structural evaluations matter for the reproductive decision-making of Bulgarian citizens. Women's fertility intentions are supported by the prospect that a child will bring their parents and relatives closer or will improve their security at old age. Males' intentions are closely associated with the expectation that a child will provide support when they are old.

  18. Screaming at a Wall. Societal accountability from below in Bulgaria and Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea L.P. Pirro

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates engagement in anti-corruption activism in Bulgaria and Hungary. Since the late 2000s, protest events occurred in greater numbers in the two post-communist countries, addressing questions either directly or indirectly related to high-level or political corruption. Bulgarian and Hungarian collective anti-corruption actors share a common framing of the issue ('state corruption' or 'state capture', though their struggles vary in their modes and strategies ('civic self-organisation' versus the dominant role of 'transactional activism'. The article crucially reconstructs the context within which anticorruption activism took place, the different forms of mobilisation, and the specific framing of the issue by means of original interviews with prominent Bulgarian and Hungarian activists. Finally, attention is devoted to the subaltern fortunes of these struggles in attaining the aspired goal of societal accountability.

  19. The Framework of the Maintenance Ecosystem Services Provided by Agroecosystems on the Territory of Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenarova, Anelia; Tzonev, Rossen; Boteva, Silvena; Bogoev, Valentin; Nikolov, Marian; Pachedjieva, Kalina; Traykov, Ivan; Simeonovska-Nikolova, Daniela; Dimitrov, Krastio; Stefanov, Vladimir; Bakardjieva, Hristina; Dimitrova, Tsveta; Nachev, Georgi

    2017-12-01

    Over the past decade, efforts to value and protect ecosystem services have been promoted by many as the last, best hope for making conservation mainstream. Here, we present the results from the evaluation of the maintenance ecosystem services, provided by the agroecosystems in Bulgaria. The evaluation was conducted on a range of national, European and international databases following the methodology of MAES and classification system of CICES adapted by the Bulgarian Ministry of Environment and Water. During the study, 213857 agroecosystems were evaluated referring to their capacity to maintain pollinators, natural pest control, soil quality and atmospheric carbon sequestration. The capacity of agroecosystems to provide the above mentioned ecosystem services was ranged from moderate to very high, tending the mountainous agroecosystems to be more beneficial than that located in the plains and lowlands. The intensive management of the latter in order to achieve perceived efficiencies in the production of agricultural goods reduces their importance for local and regional ecological processes.

  20. First evidence for carrion–feeding of Eurasian Eagle-owl (Bubo bubo in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milchev Boyan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Three cases of carrion-feeding with remains of artiodactyls (0.3%, n=1104 samples with food remains have been documented in a long term diet study of Eurasian Eagle-owls (Bubo bubo in 53 localities at Southeastern Bulgaria. Bone pieces of a sheep/goat (Ovis aries/Carpa hircus, a Fallow Deer (Dama dama and a Domestic Pig (Sus scrofa dom. in three Eurasian Eagle-owl breeding localities (5.7% prove extremely rare feeding on carrion. Northern White-breasted Hedgehog (Erinaceus roumanicus, rats (Rattus sp., waterbirds and gallinaceous birds (total 59.5-72.6% by biomass constituted the main portion of the diets with carrion remains. The comparisons between food niche breadths, diet composition, average prey biomass and values of superpredation of the annual diets in the three localities have not supported the carrion-feeding of the Eurasian Eagle-owl as a result of food shortages.

  1. Differentiation of Xanthomonas spp. Causing Bacterial Spot in Bulgaria Based on Biolog System

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    Mariya Stoyanova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last 20 years, the causative agents of bacterial spot of tomato and pepper have been subjected to many studies and reclassifications. According to the current data, the species are four (X. euvesicatoria, X. vesicatoria, X. gardneri, and X. perforans and cause similar symptoms in plants but possess different phenotypic properties. This work provides the full metabolic characteristics obtained by Biolog system of bacterial spot’s xanthomonads based on a large selection of strains from different vegetable-producing regions of Bulgaria with accent on their major differentiating properties which could be used for species differentiation by metabolic profiles. The results are compared to the data available in the literature in order to clarify the strong features of each species and distinguish the variable ones. Simple characteristics like amylase activity and utilization of cis-aconitate cannot serve alone for differentiation.

  2. New expected loss impairment model – a challenge for the banks in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadezhda Popova-Yosifova

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This article introduces some of the leading works on loan impairment published by supervisory authorities, auditing companies and researchers. It makes analysis of the impairment model on the basis of the expected credit losses introduced with the requirements of International Financial Reporting Standard (IFRS 9 Financial Instruments effective for periods beginning on or after 1 January 2018. There are a number of research works which show that the senior bankers may in some ways manage the financial result through the impairment, where it is assumed that the new impairment model will bring higher recognized losses. It also makes a comparative analysis of the announced information on the loan impairment and the preparation for the introduction of the IFRS 9 Financial Instruments requirements into the annual financial statements of the public banks in Bulgaria for the period 2013 – 2016.

  3. Factors influencing the levels of work engagement in physicians from Poland, Serbia and Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilczyński, Krzysztof Maria; Swamad, Mohammed Abdul; Subotic, Vanja; Wizner, Dominika; Mazgaj, Elżbieta; Wajda, Weronika

    2015-09-01

    Lowered work engagement and burnout are a growing problem in recent years, especially among physicians. Cynicism, lack of energy and decreased efficacy may lead to the occurrence of severe depression. These phenomena influence almost every aspect of affected person's life, both professional and extraprofessional, and decrease its quality. The aim of our study was to evaluate the influence of family life and other factors on levels of work engagement and risk of depression. Our study was conducted on a group of 417 physicians from Poland, Serbia and Bulgaria using a paper questionnaire. The collected data was subjected to statistical analyses using Statsoft Statistica v. 10.0 software. There was no significant correlation between work engagement and sex or age. The highest score on work engagement was in Serbia (m=4.41; Mann-Whitney's U test with p<0.05). The highest score of BDI was in Bulgaria (m=14.73; Mann-Whitney's U test with p<0.05). There was no significant correlation exceeding r=0.5 between UWES and SWING scales. WHI+/WHI- ratio correlates significantly with a BDI scale (Spearman's r=-0.49; p<0.05). Family life of physicians seem to have minor or even no influence on their work engagement and risk of burnout. The negative influence of work on family life may increase the risk of depression, and that effect is not susceptible to either positive or negative interactions of family life with work. The country with the lowest expenditure on a healthcare have also the lowest levels of work engagement.

  4. Adverse effects of maternal age, weight and smoking during pregnancy in Pleven, Bulgaria

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    Mariela Stefanova Kamburova

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This paper aims to study the relationship between mothers’ age, body mass index (BMI, gestational weight gain (GWG and smoking and the risk for premature birth in Pleven, Bulgaria. Methods: A case-control study was conducted in Pleven in 2007. The study was comprehensive for all premature children (N=58 and representative for full-term infants (N=192, or 10.4% of all of the 1827 full-term children born in 2007 at the University Hospital of Pleven and resident in the city of Pleven. Retrospective data on determinants under study were collected from all the mothers included in this study (N=250. Results: Mothers of premature children were more likely to be above 35 years old (27.6%, with a BMI ≥25 kg/m2 (23.1%, GWG below the recommended value (38.5% and to smoke during pregnancy (37.9%. The odds of being a smoker during pregnancy were five times higher among mothers with low birth weight (LBW newborns compared with their counterparts with normal birth weight newborns (OR=5.1, 95%CI=2.4-10.6. There was a positive association between BMI and LBW in infants whose mothers were overweight (OR=2.1, 95%CI=1.0-4.0. The risk of LBW increased when GWG was less than recommended (OR=1.8, 95%CI=1.0-3.1. Conclusion: Our results indicate that pre-pregnancy BMI ≥25 kg/m2, less than recommended GWG and smoking during pregnancy are risk factors for premature birth in Pleven region. Findings from this study suggest the need for active health and educational actions by health professionals in order to avoid premature births in Bulgaria.

  5. Observable Effects of Atmospheric Pollution on Outpatient and Inpatient Morbidity in Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platikanova, Magdalena; Penkova-Radicheva, Mariana

    2016-04-01

    One of Europe's most well-developed industrial regions is found in the Republic of Bulgaria. The industrialization of the region has a big impact on air pollution. Thermal power plant "Maritza East" (the largest of its kind in southeastern Europe), the army training range, machine manufacturers, household heating and high volume of automobile traffic are all major sources of pollution in the region. A five year study (2009-2013) followed yearly concentrations of principal atmospheric pollutants such as sulfur dioxide, dust, nitrogen dioxide, lead aerosols and hydrogen sulfide, and the way in which those levels had an effect on morbidity (outpatient and inpatient medical care) in the area. Statistical processing of data has been completed to represent and analyze the collected data in nonparametric and alternative format. Atmospheric pollution affects human health directly through pathological changes in the human organism. The registered outpatient care provided for the period 2009-2013 is highest for diseases of the cardiovascular system (11.85%), the respiratory system (17.34%) and the genitourinary system (9.76%). The registered rate of hospitalization for the same period is for diseases of the digestive system (11.90%), the cardiovascular system (11.85%), respiratory system (10.86%) and the genitourinary system (8.88%). The observed period shows a decrease in average yearly concentrations of the principal atmospheric pollutants in the industrial region (Bulgaria) and reflects a decrease in morbidity based on outpatient care and an increase in morbidity by inpatient care (hospitalization). Our findings should be corroborated in future longitudinal studies.

  6. The role of Sphagnum mosses in the methane cycling of a boreal mire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larmola, Tuula; Tuittila, Eeva-Stiina; Tiirola, Marja; Nykänen, Hannu; Martikainen, Pertti J; Yrjälä, Kim; Tuomivirta, Tero; Fritze, Hannu

    2010-08-01

    Peatlands are a major natural source of atmospheric methane (CH4). Emissions from Sphagnum-dominated mires are lower than those measured from other mire types. This observation may partly be due to methanotrophic (i.e., methane-consuming) bacteria associated with Sphagnum. Twenty-three of the 41 Sphagnum species in Finland can be found in the peatland at Lakkasuo. To better understand the Sphagnum-methanotroph system, we tested the following hypotheses: (1) all these Sphagnum species support methanotrophic bacteria; (2) water level is the key environmental determinant for differences in methanotrophy across habitats; (3) under dry conditions, Sphagnum species will not host methanotrophic bacteria; and (4) methanotrophs can move from one Sphagnum shoot to another in an aquatic environment. To address hypotheses 1 and 2, we measured the water table and CH4 oxidation for all Sphagnum species at Lakkasuo in 1-5 replicates for each species. Using this systematic approach, we included Sphagnum spp. with narrow and broad ecological tolerances. To estimate the potential contribution of CH4 to moss carbon, we measured the uptake of delta13C supplied as CH4 or as carbon dioxide dissolved in water. To test hypotheses 2-4, we transplanted inactive moss patches to active sites and measured their methanotroph communities before and after transplantation. All 23 Sphagnum species showed methanotrophic activity, confirming hypothesis 1. We found that water level was the key environmental factor regulating methanotrophy in Sphagnum (hypothesis 2). Mosses that previously exhibited no CH4 oxidation became active when transplanted to an environment in which the microbes in the control mosses were actively oxidizing CH4 (hypothesis 4). Newly active transplants possessed a Methylocystis signature also found in the control Sphagnum spp. Inactive transplants also supported a Methylocystis signature in common with active transplants and control mosses, which rejects hypothesis 3. Our

  7. Post-accident recovery of hardware and moss cultures from STS-107

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, V. D.; Reed, D. W.; Sack, F. D.

    In a follow-up investigation to our STS-87 moss experiment, 99 cultures of the moss Ceratodon purpureus were launched on January 16, 2003, and incubated under microgravity conditions for up to 15 days onboard the orbiter Columbia during the STS-107 mission. Following a flawless performance during the on-orbit experiment phase, cultures were chemically fixed in space by the crew at pre-determined intervals. After the accidental break up of Columbia during descent on February 1, 2003, it was assumed that no results would be available since all cultures and data were to be retrieved for analysis post-landing. However, during the subsequent months seven out of eight BRIC (Biological Research in Canisters)-LED containers were recovered on the ground by searchers in Eastern Texas. Each canister housed six polycarbonate Petri Dish Fixation Units (PDFUs) containing petri dishes with 1 or 3 moss cultures each. When these canisters were opened in late April at Kennedy Space Center, 86 out of 87 moss cultures were recovered. Many but not all cultures were severely fragmented and it was impossible to discern growth patterns. However, thousands of well-fixed moss apical cells were found and documented by microscopy. Data retrieved from an internal temperature logger indicated that the canisters experienced intense but transient heat shortly after Columbia broke apart. Some PDFU polycarbonate had fused to the aluminum canister wall. Interior temperatures were sufficient to melt the agarose substrate (˜ 88C), but none of the 41 petri dishes was heat damaged. Initial results from the examination of culture and cell morphology will be presented. (Supported by NASA: NAG10-0179.)

  8. Atmospheric heavy metal deposition in Northern Vietnam: Hanoi and Thainguyen case study using the moss biomonitoring technique, INAA and AAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viet, Hung Nguyen; Frontasyeva, Marina Vladimirovna; Thi, Thu My Trinh; Gilbert, Daniel; Bernard, Nadine

    2010-06-01

    The moss technique is widely used to monitor atmospheric deposition of heavy metals in many countries in Europe, whereas this technique is scarcely used in Asia. To implement this international reliable and cheap methodology in the Asian countries, it is necessary to find proper moss types typical for the Asian environment and suitable for the biomonitoring purposes. Such a case study was undertaken in Vietnam for assessing the environmental situation in strongly contaminated areas using local species of moss Barbula indica. The study is focused on two areas characterized by different pollution sources: the Hanoi urban area and the Thainguyen metallurgical zone. Fifty-four moss samples were collected there according to standard sampling procedure adopted in Europe. Two complementary analytical techniques, atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) and instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), were used for determination of elemental concentrations in moss samples. To characterize the pollution sources, multivariate statistical analysis was applied. A total of 38 metal elements were determined in the moss by the two analytical techniques. The results of descriptive statistics of metal concentration in moss from the city center and periphery of Hanoi determined by AAS are presented. The similar results for moss from Thainguyen province determined by INAA and AAS are given also. A comparison of mean elemental concentrations in moss of this work with those in different environmental conditions of other authors provides reasonable information on heavy metal atmospheric deposition levels. Factor loadings and factor scores were used to identify and apportion contamination sources at the sampling sites. The values of percentage of total of factors show two highly different types of pollution in the two examined areas-the Hanoi pollution composition with high portion of urban-traffic activity and soil dust (62%), and the one of Thainguyen with factors related to industrial

  9. PHYLOGENETIC RELATEDNESS CLUSTERING THRESHOLDS OF POTENTIALLY BACTERIOCINOGENIC CLINICAL AND DAIRY ENTEROCOCCUS SPP. STRAINS WITH RESPECT TO THEIR GEOGRAPHICAL ORIGINS IN BULGARIA

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Svetoslav G Dimov; Tanya Strateva; Veronika Petkova; Maria Dimitrova; Daniela Atanasova; Ivan Mitov

      The aim of the study is to examine different thresholds of similarity coefficients for reliable clustering of clinical and dairy enterococci originating from various geographical regions in Bulgaria...

  10. Air Pollution Studies in Central Russia (Tver and Yaroslavl Regions) Using the Moss Biomonitoring Technique and Neutron Activation Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Ermakova, E V; Pavlov, S S; Povtoreiko, E A; Steinnes, E; Cheremisina, Ye N

    2003-01-01

    Data of 34 elements, including heavy metals, halogens, rare-earth elements, U, and Th in 140 moss samples, collected in central Russia (Tver and Yaroslavl regions and the northern part of Moscow Region) in 2000-2002, are presented. Factor analysis with VARIMAX rotation was applied to identify possible sources of the elements determined in the mosses. The seven resulting factors represent crust, vegetation and anthropogenic components in the moss. Some of the factors were interpreted as being associated with ferrous smelters (Fe, Zn, Sb, Ta); combination of non-ferrous smelters and other industries (Mn, Co, Mo, Cr, Ni, W); an oil-refining plant, and oil combustion at the thermal power plant (V, Ni). The geographical distribution patterns of the factor scores are also presented. The dependency equations of elemental content in mosses versus distance from the source are derived.

  11. Atmospheric Deposition of Trace Elements Around Ulan-Bator City Studied by Moss and Lichen Biomonitoring Technique and INAA

    CERN Document Server

    Ganbold, G; Gundorina, S F; Frontasyeva, M V; Ostrovnaya, T M; Pavlov, S S; Tsendeekhuu, T

    2005-01-01

    For the first time the moss and lichen biomonitoring technique has been applied to air pollution in Mongolia (Ulan-Bator, the capital city). INAA at the IBR-2 reactor has made it possible to determine the content of 35 elements in moss and lichen biomonitors. Samples collected at sites located 10-15 km from the center of Ulan-Bator were analyzed by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) using epithermal neutrons. The mosses (\\textit{Rhytidium rugosum}, \\textit{Thuidium abietinum}, \\textit{Entodon concinnus}) and lichens (\\textit{Cladonia stellaris}, \\textit{Parmelia separata}) were used to study the atmospheric deposition of trace elements. It was shown that the suggested types of mosses could be used as suitable biomonitors to estimate the concentration levels of heavy metals and trace elements in Ulan-Bator atmospheric deposition. The results are compared to the data of atmospheric deposition of some European countries.

  12. Notes on autumn-winter stomach contents of the Stone Marten (Martes foina in the Balkan Mountains, Central Bulgaria

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    Masumi Hisano

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We studied autumn-winter food (November-February, 1997-2003 of the Stone Marten in the Balkan Mountains, Central Bulgaria. A total of 26 stomachs (18 of males and eight of females were examined, of which contents was expressed as the number of occurrence and relative frequency of occurrence. The result clearly showed that rodents are primary prey for the Stone Marten. Birds and insects were the following categories consumed. The edible dormouse was detected as a prey for the first time in Bulgaria. Besides, wild ungulates and domestic animals were occasionally scavenged, while neither fruits nor artificial materials were detected in the marten stomachs. Thus, our study showed that the Stone Marten in the Balkan Mountains tended to be more carnivorous in winter.

  13. The town in Serbia and Bulgaria: A comparative reading of current processes. Introduction

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    Zlatanović Sanja

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The topic of this volume is a result from The Contemporary City in Serbia and Bulgaria: Processes and Changes, a bilateral project of the Institute of Ethnography of the Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts and the Institute of Ethnology and Folklore Studies with Ethnographic Museum of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences (2014-2016. The six papers offer a comparative view of current social processes in two neighbouring Balkan countries, linked by numerous historical and political experiences. Comparative research into societal trends enables a more thorough understanding and monitoring of global processes. In today’s increasingly globalised and glocalised world, towns experience sudden changes and it is in the towns that these changes are most vividly to be seen. The focus of our research is on the dynamism of the contemporary town, on processuality and changes in societal practices. Ana Luleva examines life in the small town of Nessebar in southeast Bulgaria, which has been on the UNESCO World Heritage list since 1983. The protection, management and presentation of Nessebar’s cultural heritage are highly complex issues, further complicated by the problem of collision with the interests of the inhabitants. The author analyses the relations between the various factors - the state administration, municipal authorities and the local population. Here the tourist industry, investment interests, corrupt institutions and civil society all play their part. Ivanka Petrova chose to research Belogradchik, a small town in northwest Bulgaria. Petrova investigates how local social and cultural resources are used in the work of a family tourist enterprise. The author looks for answers to questions such as: how its members identify with the town and its culture and how the work of the enterprise fits into the Belogradchik local context. At the focus of her paper are current societal practices: the local urban economy and the production of images and symbols

  14. On the daily activity of the Red Fox (Vulpes vulpes in two village areas of Bulgaria: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GEORGI DUDIN

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out by digital camera traps in two village areas of South Bulgaria. Total of 99 photos of Red Fox (Vulpes vulpes were made in the villages of Byaga and Isperihovo. They were compared with 1133 photos made in “Sinite Kamani” Nature Park (published by Georgiev et al., 2015. It was evident that there was no any activity during daylight in the villages studied, compared with the natural habitats.

  15. Non-fatal case of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever imported into the United Kingdom (ex Bulgaria), June 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumley, S; Atkinson, B; Dowall, Sd; Pitman, Jk; Staplehurst, S; Busuttil, J; Simpson, Aj; Aarons, Ej; Petridou, C; Nijjar, M; Glover, S; Brooks, Tj; Hewson, R

    2014-07-31

    Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) was diagnosed in a United Kingdom traveller who returned from Bulgaria in June 2014. The patient developed a moderately severe disease including fever, headaches and petechial rash. CCHF was diagnosed following identification of CCHF virus (CCHFV) RNA in a serum sample taken five days after symptom onset. Sequence analysis of the CCHFV genome showed that the virus clusters within the Europe 1 clade, which includes viruses from eastern Europe.

  16. Covenant of Mayors: Fuel Switch and Sustainable Demand in signatories from "stress test" countries Bulgaria, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Slovakia, Finland

    OpenAIRE

    KONA ALBANA; MELICA GIULIA; GABRIELAITIENE IRENA; RIVAS CALVETE SILVIA; ZANCANELLA PAOLO; IANCU ANDREEA; Janssens-Maenhout, Greet; BERTOLDI PAOLO

    2014-01-01

    The Covenant of Mayors (CoM) is the mainstream European movement involving local authorities voluntarily committing to meet and exceed the European Union 20% CO2 reduction objective by 2020 by increasing energy efficiency and through the use of renewable energy sources on their territories. In this report main figures from SEAPs in CoM signatories from "stress test " countries, most exposed to risk related Russian natural gas imports (Bulgaria, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Slovakia Finland) a...

  17. Floristic and habitat diversity of Dospat Dere in the Dabrash mountain (West Rhodopes, Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrov, D.S.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A research has been done of the flora and natural habitats of the Dospat Dere area, which is located on the right bank of the Dospat river, between the Tuhovitsa and Zhizhevo villages, next to the border with Greece. The systematic specter of the flora contains 197 species of vascular plants (excluding the moss species. These vascular plants are referred to 143 genera and 57 families. As a result of this research, 5 habitats were established: 10 Е1 Pseudo-steppe with grasses and annual of the Thero-Brachypodietea, 08H3 Calcareous rocky slopes with chasmophytic vegetation, 21G1 Supra Mediterranean hop-hornbeam woods, 02G1 Southern Helleno-Balkanic swamp alder woods and 07G1 Helleno-Balkanic riparian plane forests.

  18. Biomonitoring Study of Air Pollution with Betula pendula Roth., from Plovdiv, Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slaveya T. Petrova

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study is a small part of a program for application the methods of passive and active biomonitoring with tree, herbaceous, moss and lichen species for assessment of the anthropogenic factor in urban conditions. All reported results here are preliminary. Betula pendula was studied as a possible biomonitor of air pollution in Plovdiv. Eight sampling sites in the urban roadside, city center and suburban areas were investigated. Chlorophyll content was determined as essential and sensitive physiological parameter. The concentrations of 26 micro and macroelements were analyzed by FAAS and ICPMS. Maximum for chlorophyll was found in the birch leaves from west part of the town, minimum – in these from north part. More significant variations were detected for Ni, Mn, B, Cr, Co, Fe, Bi, Cd, Al, Zn. Highest concentrations of 12 elements were found in the samples, collected from the central area of Plovdiv.

  19. Physiological ecology of desert biocrust moss following 10 years exposure to elevated CO2: evidence for enhanced photosynthetic thermotolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coe, Kirsten K.; Belnap, Jayne; Grote, Edmund E.; Sparks, Jed P.

    2012-01-01

    In arid regions, biomes particularly responsive to climate change, mosses play an important biogeochemical role as key components of biocrusts. Using the biocrust moss Syntrichia caninervis collected from the Nevada Desert Free Air CO2 Enrichment Facility, we examined the physiological effects of 10 years of exposure to elevated CO2, and the effect of high temperature events on the photosynthetic performance of moss grown in CO2-enriched air. Moss exposed to elevated CO2 exhibited a 46% decrease in chlorophyll, a 20% increase in carbon and no difference in either nitrogen content or photosynthetic performance. However, when subjected to high temperatures (35–40°C), mosses from the elevated CO2 environment showed higher photosynthetic performance and photosystem II (PSII) efficiency compared to those grown in ambient conditions, potentially reflective of a shift in nitrogen allocation to components that offer a higher resistance of PSII to heat stress. This result suggests that mosses may respond to climate change in markedly different ways than vascular plants, and observed CO2-induced photosynthetic thermotolerance in S. caninervis will likely have consequences for future desert biogeochemistry.

  20. Physiological ecology of desert biocrust moss following 10 years exposure to elevated CO₂: evidence for enhanced photosynthetic thermotolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coe, Kirsten K; Belnap, Jayne; Grote, Edmund E; Sparks, Jed P

    2012-04-01

    In arid regions, biomes particularly responsive to climate change, mosses play an important biogeochemical role as key components of biocrusts. Using the biocrust moss Syntrichia caninervis collected from the Nevada Desert Free Air CO₂ Enrichment Facility, we examined the physiological effects of 10 years of exposure to elevated CO₂, and the effect of high temperature events on the photosynthetic performance of moss grown in CO₂-enriched air. Moss exposed to elevated CO₂ exhibited a 46% decrease in chlorophyll, a 20% increase in carbon and no difference in either nitrogen content or photosynthetic performance. However, when subjected to high temperatures (35-40°C), mosses from the elevated CO₂ environment showed higher photosynthetic performance and photosystem II (PSII) efficiency compared to those grown in ambient conditions, potentially reflective of a shift in nitrogen allocation to components that offer a higher resistance of PSII to heat stress. This result suggests that mosses may respond to climate change in markedly different ways than vascular plants, and observed CO₂-induced photosynthetic thermotolerance in S. caninervis will likely have consequences for future desert biogeochemistry. Copyright © Physiologia Plantarum 2012.

  1. The Moss Flora of Yeşilyurt and Battalgazi (Malatya/Turkey District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mevlüt ALATAŞ

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the moss flora of the Yeşilyurt and Battalgazi District (Malatya was investigated. In total 42 taxa, belonging to 11 families and 24 genera were determined by identifying moss specimens collecting the study area. From these taxa, 16 for Malatya province and 10 for B9 grid square according to the grid-square system of Henderson (1961 are new records. While the highest families in terms of number of taxa are Pottiaceae (12, Brachytheciaceae (7, Grimmiaceae (5, the largest genera are Syntrichia, Didymodon, Orthotrichum, Tortula and Grimmia (3. Also, the life forms of the taxa which were examined in terms of ecological and floristic have been analyzed. From life forms; while Turf life form ranks the first, Mr and Cu life forms ranks the second. The most of taxa within the floristic list are xerophyt, photophyt and subneutrophyt.

  2. Effect of fire on phosphorus forms in Sphagnum moss and peat soils of ombrotrophic bogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guoping; Yu, Xiaofei; Bao, Kunshan; Xing, Wei; Gao, Chuanyu; Lin, Qianxin; Lu, Xianguo

    2015-01-01

    The effect of burning Sphagnum moss and peat on phosphorus forms was studied with controlled combustion in the laboratory. Two fire treatments, a light fire (250 °C) and a severe fire (600 °C), were performed in a muffle furnace with 1-h residence time to simulate the effects of different forest fire conditions. The results showed that fire burning Sphagnum moss and peat soils resulted in losses of organic phosphorus (Po), while inorganic phosphorus (Pi) concentrations increased. Burning significantly changed detailed phosphorus composition and availability, with severe fires destroying over 90% of organic phosphorus and increasing the availability of inorganic P by more than twofold. Our study suggest that, while decomposition processes in ombrotrophic bogs occur very slowly, rapid changes in the form and availability of phosphorus in vegetation and litter may occur as the result of forest fires on peat soils. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Novel biogenic aggregation of moss gemmae on a disappearing African glacier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uetake, Jun; Tanaka, Sota; Hara, Kosuke; Tanabe, Yukiko; Samyn, Denis; Motoyama, Hideaki; Imura, Satoshi; Kohshima, Shiro

    2014-01-01

    Tropical regions are not well represented in glacier biology, yet many tropical glaciers are under threat of disappearance due to climate change. Here we report a novel biogenic aggregation at the terminus of a glacier in the Rwenzori Mountains, Uganda. The material was formed by uniseriate protonemal moss gemmae and protonema. Molecular analysis of five genetic markers determined the taxon as Ceratodon purpureus, a cosmopolitan species that is widespread in tropical to polar region. Given optimal growing temperatures of isolate is 20-30 °C, the cold glacier surface might seem unsuitable for this species. However, the cluster of protonema growth reached approximately 10 °C in daytime, suggesting that diurnal increase in temperature may contribute to the moss's ability to inhabit the glacier surface. The aggregation is also a habitat for microorganisms, and the disappearance of this glacier will lead to the loss of this unique ecosystem.

  4. 137Cs activity concentration in mosses in the Calabria region, south of Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caridi, F.; Belvedere, A.; D'Agostino, M.; Marguccio, S.

    2017-05-01

    Many studies carried out after the Chernobyl nuclear accident in 1986 showed that mosses are suitable bioindicators of the radioactive fall-out, given their long life expectancy. 137Cs activity concentration was measured through HPGe gamma spectrometry in different mosses (Hypnum Cupressiforme, Hypnum Andoi, Homalothecium Sericeum, Philonotis Fontana), collected, in 2008 and 2015, from four sampling sites in the Calabria region, south of Italy. Experimental specific activities allowed us to determine the effective and the biological half-time of 137Cs for the investigated plants. The effective half-time was found in the range from (4.2 ± 1.1) to (7.4 ± 1.8) years; the biological half-time varied from (4.9 ± 1.3) to (9.9 ± 2.4) years. Data reported in this article provide useful information on the environmental risk of the studied area and can be further used for a radiological mapping.

  5. Validating modelled data on major and trace element deposition in southern Germany using Sphagnum moss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempter, Heike; Krachler, Michael; Shotyk, William; Zaccone, Claudio

    2017-10-01

    Sphagnum mosses were collected from four ombrotrophic bogs in two regions of southern Germany: Upper Bavaria (Oberbayern, OB) and the Northern Black Forest (Nordschwarzwald, NBF). Surfaces of Sphagnum carpets were marked with plastic mesh and, one year later, plant matter was harvested and productivity determined. Major and trace element concentrations (Ag, Al, As, Ba, Bi, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Pb, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sr, Th, Ti, Tl, U, V, Zn) were determined in acid digests using sector field ICP-MS. Up to 12 samples (40 × 40 cm) were collected per site, and 6-10 sites investigated per bog. Variation in element accumulation rates within a bog is mostly the result of the annual production rate of the Sphagnum mosses which masks not only the impact of site effects, such as microtopography and the presence of dwarf trees, but also local and regional conditions, including land use in the surrounding area, topography, etc. The difference in productivity between peat bogs results in distinctly higher element accumulation rates at the NBF bogs compared to those from OB for all studied elements. The comparison with the European Monitoring and Evaluation Program (EMEP; wet-only and total deposition) and Modelling of Air Pollutants and Ecosystem Impact (MAPESI; total deposition) data shows that accumulation rates obtained using Sphagnum are in the same range of published values for direct measurements of atmospheric deposition of As, Cd, Cu, Co, Pb, and V in both regions. The accordance is very dependent on how atmospheric deposition rates were obtained, as different models to calculate the deposition rates may yield different fluxes even for the same region. In future studies of atmospheric deposition of trace metals, both Sphagnum moss and deposition collectors have to be used on the same peat bog and results compared. Antimony, however, shows considerable discrepancy, because it is either under-estimated by Sphagnum moss or over-estimated by both atmospheric deposition

  6. The omnivorous Tyrolean Iceman: colon contents (meat, cereals, pollen, moss and whipworm) and stable isotope analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson, J H; Oeggl, K; Holden, T G; Handley, L L; O'Connell, T C; Preston, T

    2000-12-29

    The contents of the colon of the Tyrolean Iceman who lived ca. 5300 years ago include muscle fibres, cereal remains, a diversity of pollen, and most notably that of the hop hornbeam (Ostrya carpinifolia) retaining cellular contents, as well as a moss leaf (Neckera complanata) and eggs of the parasitic whipworm (Trichuris trichiura). Based almost solely on stable isotope analyses and ignoring the work on the colon contents, two recently published papers on the Iceman's diet draw ill-founded conclusions about vegetarianism and even veganism. Neither the pollen nor the moss is likely to have been deliberately consumed as food by the Iceman. All the available evidence concerning the Iceman's broad-based diet is reviewed and the significance of the colon contents for matters other than assessment of food intake is outlined.

  7. Stoichiometry effects and the Moss-Burstein effect for InN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butcher, K.S.A.; Wintrebert-Fouquet, M.; Chen, P.P.T. [Physics Department, Macquarie University, Sydney, 2109 NSW (Australia); Hirshy, H.; Perks, R.M. [Cardiff School of Engineering, Cardiff University, The Parade, Cardiff, CF24 3AA (United Kingdom)

    2006-01-01

    We examine the Moss-Burstein effect for InN and demonstrate an independent method for determining its magnitude for high carrier concentration material. Consequently it is shown that the extent of the Moss-Burstein effect is less than 0.72 eV for a high carrier concentration sample with a 1.88 eV absorption edge. Early results are also provided for high band-gap low carrier concentration InN films that can be grown reproducibly, vindicating the work of early groups in the field. The role of stoichiometry is examined in relation to point defects that appear to be common to many forms of InN. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  8. Novel biogenic aggregation of moss gemmae on a disappearing African glacier.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Uetake

    Full Text Available Tropical regions are not well represented in glacier biology, yet many tropical glaciers are under threat of disappearance due to climate change. Here we report a novel biogenic aggregation at the terminus of a glacier in the Rwenzori Mountains, Uganda. The material was formed by uniseriate protonemal moss gemmae and protonema. Molecular analysis of five genetic markers determined the taxon as Ceratodon purpureus, a cosmopolitan species that is widespread in tropical to polar region. Given optimal growing temperatures of isolate is 20-30 °C, the cold glacier surface might seem unsuitable for this species. However, the cluster of protonema growth reached approximately 10 °C in daytime, suggesting that diurnal increase in temperature may contribute to the moss's ability to inhabit the glacier surface. The aggregation is also a habitat for microorganisms, and the disappearance of this glacier will lead to the loss of this unique ecosystem.

  9. Sphagnum moss as a growing media constituent: some effects of harvesting, processing and storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kumar

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The Sphagnum material used in horticulture so far has been harvested manually, and most of the available data about Sphagnum properties have been obtained from this material. A question that remains unanswered is how changes during harvesting and processing, as well as the use of mechanical methods, affect the important properties of Sphagnum moss as a growing media constituent. Some of the effects have been evaluated in Sphagnum farming projects in Germany during the past ten years, and are described in this article. Different possibilities for drying, screening and cleaning the Sphagnum material are described. The results obtained indicate that Sphagnum moss can be dried and processed using mechanical methods without negative impacts on its quality as a growing media constituent.

  10. Efficient Discrimination of Some Moss Species by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and Chemometrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Cao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR technique was used to classify 16 species from three moss families (Mielichhoferiaceae, Bryaceae, and Mniaceae. The FTIR spectra ranging from 4000 cm−1 to 400 cm−1 of the 16 species were obtained. To group the spectra according to their spectral similarity in a dendrogram, cluster analysis and principal component analysis (PCA were performed. Cluster analysis combined with PCA was used to give a rough result of classification among the moss samples. However, some species belonging to the same genus exhibited very similar chemical components and similar FTIR spectra. Fourier self-deconvolution (FSD was used to enhance the differences of the spectra. Discrete wavelet transform (DWT was used to decompose the FTIR spectra of Mnium laevinerve and M. spinosum. Three scales were selected as the feature extracting space in the DWT domain. Results showed that FTIR spectroscopy combined with DWT was suitable for distinguishing different species of the same genus.

  11. Evidence of morphometric differentiation among Antarctic moss populations as a response to local microenvironment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rayssa Garay Medina

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTStudies on phenotypic variation among populations growing in different microenvironments may provide information about plasticity related to environmental pressures, and thus help to elucidate the potential evolutionary forces contributing to the origin and maintenance of diversity in any region. In this study we investigate morphometric variation on a small geographic scale for three species of Antarctic mosses. All species revealed significant differentiation among populations for all evaluated traits. The comparison of morphometric measures of populations of Polytrichum juniperinumfrom Nelson Island and from southern Brazil suggests that the effects of a small geographic scale in Antarctica are the same as a large geographic scale in environments where the climate is more homogeneous and microhabitats have minor influence on vegetation. However, further investigations over a larger area, evaluating more species, and using controlled garden experiments are recommended in order to evaluate the capacity for plasticity of moss species in different climatic conditions and on different geographic scales.

  12. Probabilistic seismic hazard in terms of intensities for Bulgaria and Romania – updated hazard maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Leydecker

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Since 2007 Bulgaria and Romania are members of the European Union. All member states have to introduce the European earthquake building code EUROCODE 8 (EC 8 in the coming years. Therefore, new seismic hazard maps have to be calculated according to the recommendations in EC 8. Here the authors present a novel approach to compute such hazard maps. We prefer to use the macroseismic intensity as hazard parameter because of two reasons:

    - The irregular azimuthal attenuation pattern of the Vrancea intermediate depth earthquakes can be advantageously taken into account by using detailed macroseismic maps.

    - The intensity is directly related to the degree of damage and is the original information in the historical earthquake catalogues.

    The main base of our probabilistic analysis is the earthquake catalogue for SE-Europe (Shebalin et al., 1998 in combination with national and regional catalogues. Fore- and aftershocks were removed. Seismic source zones inside an area of about 200 km around Romania and Bulgaria were defined based on seismicity, neotectonics and geological development. For each seismic source the intensity-frequency relation was calculated and a maximum possible earthquake as well as a seismogenic depth was estimated. An appropriate attenuation law was assumed. To cope with the irregular isoseismals of the Vrancea intermediate depth earthquakes, a factor Ω was included in the macroseismic attenuation law.

    Using detailed macroseismic maps of three strong intermediate depth earthquakes, Ω was calculated for each observation. Strong local variations of Ω are avoided by averaging within grid cells of 0.5 degree in longitude and 0.25 degree in latitude.

    The contributions of all seismic sources, the crustal normal depth source zones and the Vrancea intermediate depth zone, were summed up and the annual probability of exceedance was calculated. The contribution of the Vrancea intermediate depth

  13. Preliminary assessment of moss flora in Mt. Nebo, Valencia City, Bukidnon Philippines

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    Alven A. Manual

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Description and identification of the morphological characters of moss flora in Mt. Nebo, Valencia Bukidnon Philippines was conducted. Alpha taxonomy across the vicinity of Malingon Falls was employed. Diagnostic characteristics such as habitat, plant habit, leaf features (leaf arrangement, costa, base, apex, margin, cells, alar cells and sporophyte characters through microscopic examination were also conducted. Forty-two (42 species, twenty eight (28 genera and sixteen (16 families of moss in Mt.Nebo were recorded. Of these, family Hypnaceae is the most species-rich among the sixteen families with six (6 species namely: Ectropothecium buitenzorgii (Bel. Mitt., E. ferrugineum (C. Mull. Jaeg., E. striatulum Dix. ex Bartr., Isopterygium minutirameum (C. Mull. Jaeg., Isopterygium sp. and Trachythecium micropyxis (Broth. Bartr. Family Neckeraceae followed next with five (5 species collected: Himantocladium plumula (Nees Fleisch., Homaliodendron microdendron (Mont. Fleisch., Neckeropis gracilenta (Bosch & Lac. Fleisch., Neckeropis lepineana (Mont. Fleisch. and Pinatella ambigua (Bosch & Lac. Fleisch. Family Entodontaceae revealed four (4 species of mosses: Campylodontium flavescens (Hook. Bosch & Lac., Entodon bandongiae (C.Mull. Jaeg, Entodon sp., Erythrodontium julaceum (Schwaegr. Par.. Family Fissidentaceae, Leucobryaceae and Pottiaceae revealed three (3 species and two (2 species for the family Bartramiaceae, Meteoriaceae, Polytrichaceae, Pterobryaceae, Sematophyllaceae and Thuidiaceae. Family Mniaceae, Orthotrichaceae, Phylloginiaceae and Racopilaceae are families with only one (1 species. Fifty percent (50% of the moss species collected were confined in tree trunk, twenty-four percent (24% were confined in moist rock respectively. The least habitat preferences were observed hanging (epiphytic to different substrate comprising five (5% of the total species collected in the area.

  14. Unsaturated hydraulic properties of Sphagnum moss and peat reveal trimodal pore-size distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Tobias K. D.; Iden, Sascha C.; Durner, Wolfgang

    2017-01-01

    In ombrotrophic peatlands, the moisture content of the vadose zone (acrotelm) controls oxygen diffusion rates, redox state, and the turnover of organic matter. Whether peatlands act as sinks or sources of atmospheric carbon thus relies on variably saturated flow processes. The Richards equation is the standard model for water flow in soils, but it is not clear whether it can be applied to simulate water flow in live Sphagnum moss. Transient laboratory evaporation experiments were conducted to observe evaporative water fluxes in the acrotelm, containing living Sphagnum moss, and a deeper layer containing decomposed moss peat. The experimental data were evaluated by inverse modeling using the Richards equation as process model for variably-saturated flow. It was tested whether water fluxes and time series of measured pressure heads during evaporation could be simulated. The results showed that the measurements could be matched very well providing the hydraulic properties are represented by a suitable model. For this, a trimodal parametrization of the underlying pore-size distribution was necessary which reflects three distinct pore systems of the Sphagnum constituted by inter-, intra-, and inner-plant water. While the traditional van Genuchten-Mualem model led to great discrepancies, the physically more comprehensive Peters-Durner-Iden model which accounts for capillary and noncapillary flow, led to a more consistent description of the observations. We conclude that the Richards equation is a valid process description for variably saturated moisture fluxes over a wide pressure range in peatlands supporting the conceptualization of the live moss as part of the vadose zone.

  15. Atmospheric Pb and Ti accumulation rates from Sphagnum moss: dependence upon plant productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempter, H; Krachler, M; Shotyk, W

    2010-07-15

    The accumulation rates of atmospheric Pb and Ti were obtained using the production rates of Sphagnum mosses collected in four ombrotrophic bogs from two regions of southern Germany: Upper Bavaria (Oberbayern, OB) and the Northern Black Forest (Nordschwarzwald, NBF). Surfaces of Sphagnum carpets were marked with plastic mesh and one year later the production of plant matter was harvested. Metal concentrations were determined in acid digests using sector field ICP-MS employing well established analytical procedures. Up to 12 samples (40 x 40 cm) were collected per site, and 6-10 sites were investigated per bog. Variations within a given sampling site were in the range 2.3-4x for Pb concentrations, 1.8-2.5x for Ti concentrations, 3-8.3x for Pb/Ti, 5.6-7.8x for Pb accumulation rates, and 2.3-6.4x for Ti accumulation rates. However, the median values of these parameters for the sites (6-10 per bog) were quite consistent. The mosses from the bogs in NBF exhibited significantly greater productivity (187-202 g m(-2) a(-1)) compared to the OB peat bogs (71-91 g m(-2) a(-1)), and these differences had a pronounced effect on the Pb and Ti accumulation rates. Highly productive mosses showed no indication of a "dilution effect" of Pb or Ti concentrations, suggesting that more productive plants were simply able to accumulate more particles from the air. The median rates of net Pb accumulation by the mosses are in excellent agreement with the fluxes obtained by direct atmospheric measurements at nearby monitoring stations in both regions (EMEP and MAPESI data).

  16. Content of oak moss allergens atranol and chloroatranol in perfumes and similar products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, Suresh C; Bossi, Rossana; Johansen, Jeanne D; Menné, Torkil; Bernard, Guillaume; Giménez-Arnau, Elena; Lepoittevin, Jean-Pierre

    2004-06-01

    Chloroatranol and atranol have been identified as the main allergens in the fragrance material of botanical origin, oak moss absolute. A previous study has shown that nearly all individuals sensitized to chloroatranol will elicit to 5 microg/ml. in a repeated open application test and that 50% will get a reaction to 0.15 micro g/ml under patch test conditions. Thus, chloroatranol is known as a potent allergen. The aim of the current investigation was to quantify exposure to chloroatranol and the chemically related substance atranol in some popular perfumes, eaux de parfum and eaux de toilette available on the European market. In total, 31 products were analysed by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandemmass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS-MS) for their contents of atranol and chloroatranol. The 2 substances were found in 87% (n = 27) of the products. The median concentration of atranol in perfumes was 0.502 micro g/ml and 0.012 micro g/ml in eaux de toilette, and 0.235 micro g/ml and 0.006 micro g/ml for chloroatranol, respectively, in perfumes and eaux de toilette. Chloroatranol was found at a maximum concentration of 53 micro g/ml and atranol at one of 190 micro g/ml. The wide exposure to oak moss allergens, together with significant amounts of these potent allergens in at least half of perfumes and some eaux de toilettes explains the high frequencies of oak moss absolute allergy. It is suggested that regulations should be introduced aimed directly at these substances, and not just at oak moss absolute.

  17. Using an epiphytic moss to identify previously unknown sources of atmospheric cadmium pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geoffrey H. Donovan; Sarah E. Jovan; Demetrios Gatziolis; Igor Burstyn; Yvonne L. Michael; Michael C. Amacher; Vicente J. Monleon

    2016-01-01

    Urban networks of air-quality monitors are often too widely spaced to identify sources of air pollutants, especially if they do not disperse far from emission sources. The objectives of this study were to test the use of moss bio-indicators to develop a fine-scale map of atmospherically-derived cadmium and to identify the sources of cadmium in a complex urban setting....

  18. Using an epiphytic moss to identify previously unknown sources of atmospheric cadmium pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Geoffrey H; Jovan, Sarah E; Gatziolis, Demetrios; Burstyn, Igor; Michael, Yvonne L; Amacher, Michael C; Monleon, Vicente J

    2016-07-15

    Urban networks of air-quality monitors are often too widely spaced to identify sources of air pollutants, especially if they do not disperse far from emission sources. The objectives of this study were to test the use of moss bio-indicators to develop a fine-scale map of atmospherically-derived cadmium and to identify the sources of cadmium in a complex urban setting. We collected 346 samples of the moss Orthotrichum lyellii from deciduous trees in December, 2013 using a modified randomized grid-based sampling strategy across Portland, Oregon. We estimated a spatial linear model of moss cadmium levels and predicted cadmium on a 50m grid across the city. Cadmium levels in moss were positively correlated with proximity to two stained-glass manufacturers, proximity to the Oregon-Washington border, and percent industrial land in a 500m buffer, and negatively correlated with percent residential land in a 500m buffer. The maps showed very high concentrations of cadmium around the two stained-glass manufacturers, neither of which were known to environmental regulators as cadmium emitters. In addition, in response to our findings, the Oregon Department of Environmental Quality placed an instrumental monitor 120m from the larger stained-glass manufacturer in October, 2015. The monthly average atmospheric cadmium concentration was 29.4ng/m(3), which is 49 times higher than Oregon's benchmark of 0.6ng/m(3), and high enough to pose a health risk from even short-term exposure. Both stained-glass manufacturers voluntarily stopped using cadmium after the monitoring results were made public, and the monthly average cadmium levels precipitously dropped to 1.1ng/m(3) for stained-glass manufacturer #1 and 0.67ng/m(3) for stained-glass manufacturer #2. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Mosses and some mushroom species as bioindicators of radiocaesium contamination and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marović, Gordana; Franić, Zdenko; Sencar, Jasminka; Bituh, Tomislav; Vugrinec, Ozren

    2008-10-01

    Mosses, lichens, mushrooms are able to efficiently accumulate different radioactive elements from their environment to a much higher degree than other vegetation. They are sensitive bioindicators of radioactive contamination for various ecosystems, particularly in the event of a nuclear accident and uncontrolled emission oh fission products. Results of systematic, long-term measurements of 137Cs activities in mosses and in some edible mushroom species in North Croatia for the post-Chernobyl period (1986-2007) are summarized. The study was conducted in the Radiation Protection Unit of the Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health in Zagreb, as a part of an extensive monitoring program of the Croatian environment. In the overall observed period the highest activity concentration of 137Cs deposited by fallout has been recorded in 1986, which is the year of Chernobyl accident, causing peak S7Cs activity concentration in moss of 8800 Bq/kg in May 1986. In the same period mean 137Cs activity concentration in grass was 390 Bq/kg. The highest value of 137Cs activity concentration in Cortinarius caperatus mushrooms of 1351 Bq/kg has been recorded in 1989. Fitting the measured 137Cs activity concentrations to the theoretical curve the ecological half-life of 137Cs in moss was found to be around 978 days, in grass around 126 days in the period 1986-1990, in Cortinarius caperatus mushroom around 5865 days (16.1 years). Regarding the risk assessment to Croatian population, due to consumption of mushrooms, the collective effective dose for Croatian population, estimated to be about 35 mSv per year, was found to be quite low. Therefore, it can be concluded that mushroom consumption was not a critical pathway for the transfer of radiocaesium from fallout to humans after the Chernobyl accident.

  20. Systemic acquired resistance in moss: further evidence for conserved defense mechanisms in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Peter S; Bowman, Collin E; Villani, Philip J; Dolan, Thomas E; Hauck, Nathanael R

    2014-01-01

    Vascular plants possess multiple mechanisms for defending themselves against pathogens. One well-characterized defense mechanism is systemic acquired resistance (SAR). In SAR, a plant detects the presence of a pathogen and transmits a signal throughout the plant, inducing changes in the expression of various pathogenesis-related (PR) genes. Once SAR is established, the plant is capable of mounting rapid responses to subsequent pathogen attacks. SAR has been characterized in numerous angiosperm and gymnosperm species; however, despite several pieces of evidence suggesting SAR may also exist in non-vascular plants6-8, its presence in non-vascular plants has not been conclusively demonstrated, in part due to the lack of an appropriate culture system. Here, we describe and use a novel culture system to demonstrate that the moss species Amblystegium serpens does initiate a SAR-like reaction upon inoculation with Pythium irregulare, a common soil-borne oomycete. Infection of A. serpens gametophores by P. irregulare is characterized by localized cytoplasmic shrinkage within 34 h and chlorosis and necrosis within 7 d of inoculation. Within 24 h of a primary inoculation (induction), moss gametophores grown in culture became highly resistant to infection following subsequent inoculation (challenge) by the same pathogen. This increased resistance was a response to the pathogen itself and not to physical wounding. Treatment with β-1,3 glucan, a structural component of oomycete cell walls, was equally effective at triggering SAR. Our results demonstrate, for the first time, that this important defense mechanism exists in a non-vascular plant, and, together with previous studies, suggest that SAR arose prior to the divergence of vascular and non-vascular plants. In addition, this novel moss - pathogen culture system will be valuable for future characterization of the mechanism of SAR in moss, which is necessary for a better understanding of the evolutionary history of SAR in