WorldWideScience

Sample records for bulbs

  1. Bulb Miser

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    The Bulb-Miser was developed during NASA's Apollo program to protect the Saturn launch vehicle from electrical current surge. It is now being produced for the commercial market by Bulb-Miser, Inc., Houston, Texas. Technically known as a "temperature compensating thermistor," the Bulb-Miser is a simple, inexpensive device which looks like a washer about the size of a quarter. It is slipped between bulb and socket and can be used with any incandescent bulb that screws into a standard socket. In addition to delaying burnout, the Bulb-Miser also offers some reduction of electrical energy. But the economy of the device goes beyond energy use or bulb cost; to big users of bulbs, it makes possible substantially lower maintenance labor costs. One field test involving an apartment complex showed that it took two men 30 man hours monthly to replace light bulbs; after Bulb-Miser installation only nine man hours a month were needed. Bulb-Misers are used not only in private homes but also by hospitals, schools, hotels and motels, restaurants, banks and firms providing contract maintenance for large outdoor electric signs. The broadest use is in industrial facilities; the list of big companies which have purchased the Bulb-Miser reads like a Who's Who of American industry.

  2. Wiring Switches to Light Bulbs

    CERN Document Server

    Buckley, Stephen M

    2011-01-01

    Given n buttons and n bulbs so that the ith button toggles the ith bulb and at most two other bulbs, we compute the sharp lower bound on the number of bulbs that can be lit regardless of the action of the buttons.

  3. Illuminating Physics with Light Bulbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leff, Harvey S.

    1990-01-01

    Presents ideas on how common household light bulbs can be used to develop interest in learning physics. Focuses on supermarket data taking and analyses, filament temperatures, detective work with three-way bulbs, and lifetime statistics. (YP)

  4. Luminescence of carbon nanotube bulbs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI ChuanGang; WU DeHai; WANG KunLin; WEI JinQuan; WEI BingQing; ZHU HongWei; WANG ZhiCheng; LUO JianBin; LIU WenJin; ZHENG MingXin

    2007-01-01

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) bulbs made of decimeter-scale double-walled carbon nanotube (DWCNT) strands and films were fabricated and their luminescence properties, including the lighting efficiency, voltage-current relation and thermal stability were investigated. The results show that the DWCNT bulb has a comparable spectrum of visible light with tungsten bulb and its average efficiency is 40% higher than that of a tungsten filament at the same temperature (1400-2300 K). The nanotube filaments show both resistance and thermal stability over a large temperature region. No obvious damage was found for a nanotube bulb illuminating at 2300 K for more than 24 hours in vacuum.

  5. Shedding Some Light on Fluorescent Bulbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilbert, Nicholas R.

    1996-01-01

    Explores some of the principles behind the working of fluorescent bulbs using a specially prepared fluorescent bulb with the white inner fluorescent coating applied along only half its length. Discusses the spectrum, the bulb plasma, and light production. (JRH)

  6. Adult Olfactory Bulb Neurogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lledo, Pierre-Marie; Valley, Matt

    2016-01-01

    Most organisms use their olfactory system to detect and analyze chemical cues from the external world to guide essential behaviors. From worms to vertebrates, chemicals are detected by odorant receptors expressed by olfactory sensory neurons, which in vertebrates send an axon to the primary processing center called the olfactory bulb (OB). Within the OB, sensory neurons form excitatory synapses with projection neurons and with inhibitory interneurons. Thus, because of complex synaptic interactions, the output of a given projection neuron is determined not only by the sensory input, but also by the activity of local inhibitory interneurons that are regenerated throughout life in the process of adult neurogenesis. Herein, we discuss how it is optimized and why. PMID:27235474

  7. Closed suction drain with bulb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulb drain; Jackson-Pratt drain; JP drain; Blake drain; Wound drain; Surgical drain ... A closed suction drain is used to remove fluids that build up in areas of your body after surgery or when you have ...

  8. Radiosensitivity of garlic air bulbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents data on the radiosensitivity of various sorts of garlic. It is shown that the frequency of chromosomal aberrations in the irradiated aerial bulbs of stemmed varieties of garlic is directly dependent upon the gmma-ray dose. With increasing dose the germination capacity and the viability of the plants diminishes. A dose of 750 r was found to be critical for the bulbs of the garlic varieties studied

  9. No-Light Light Bulbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modern Schools, 1976

    1976-01-01

    A thumbnail sketch of some of the light bulbs manufactured for a purpose other than seeing. These "dark" lamps perform varied tasks including keeping food fresh, detecting and preventing disease, spurring plant growth, heating, and copying printed material. (Author/MLF)

  10. A Method to Measure Humidity Based on Dry-Bulb and Wet-Bulb Temperatures

    OpenAIRE

    Yongping Huang; Ke Zhang; Shufan Yang; Yushan Jin

    2013-01-01

    This study tries to analyze the theory of measuring humidity based on dry-bulb and wet-bulb temperatures. And a theoretical formula is deduced for the calculation of relative humidity from dry-bulb and wet-bulb temperatures. Through analysis of the theoretical formula, a two-dimensional conversion table is produced to transform dry-bulb and wet-bulb temperatures into relative humidity. A method is proposed to obtain humidity by combining searching table and linear smoothing algorithm, which i...

  11. How to handle and care for bulbs in ophthalmic equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismael Cordero

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Many devices used in eye care rely on light bulbs or lamps for their operation. All light bulbs have a limited lifespan and when the bulb fails the device becomes unusable. Therefore, knowing how to handle, how to inspect and how to replace bulbs is important. Just as important is keeping spare bulbs to hand!

  12. Neuronal organization of olfactory bulb circuits

    OpenAIRE

    Shin eNagayama; Ryota eHomma; Fumiaki eImamura

    2014-01-01

    Olfactory sensory neurons extend their axons solely to the olfactory bulb, which is dedicated to odor information processing. The olfactory bulb is divided into multiple layers, with different types of neurons found in each of the layers. Therefore, neurons in the olfactory bulb have conventionally been categorized based on the layers in which their cell bodies are found; namely, juxtaglomerular cells in the glomerular layer, tufted cells in the external plexiform layer, mitral cells in the...

  13. Fabricating a hollow bulb obturator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Sari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Obturators are generally used in the rehabilitation of the maxillectomy defects. Ideally, obturators should be light, properly fit and construction should be made easily. By decreasing the weight of the prosthesis, the retention and stability may be optimized to allow the obturator for function comfortably during mastication, phonation, and deglutition. In this case, a 65-year-old male patient underwent surgical removal of left part of the maxilla due to the squamous cell carcinoma. In this technique fabrication of a hollow bulb obturator prosthesis as a single unit in heat-cured acrylic resin using a single-step flasking procedure was described. The patient’s functional and esthetic expectations were satisfied.

  14. A Method to Measure Humidity Based on Dry-Bulb and Wet-Bulb Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongping Huang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study tries to analyze the theory of measuring humidity based on dry-bulb and wet-bulb temperatures. And a theoretical formula is deduced for the calculation of relative humidity from dry-bulb and wet-bulb temperatures. Through analysis of the theoretical formula, a two-dimensional conversion table is produced to transform dry-bulb and wet-bulb temperatures into relative humidity. A method is proposed to obtain humidity by combining searching table and linear smoothing algorithm, which is suitable for rapid control. Error analysis and experimental data indicate that the relative error is less than 4%. The proposed method has certain value for humidity control in industrial control process.

  15. Jugular bulb diverticulum combined with high jugular bulb: a case report with CT and MRA findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Seog Wan [College of Medicine, Chonbuk National Univ., Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-12-01

    Jugular bulb diverticulum is a rare condition that is characterized by the outpouching of the jugular bulb, and this can lead to hearing loss, tinnitus and vertigo. A few reports have revealed the radiologic findings about jugular bulb diverticulum, but none of them have described the MRA findings concerning this lesion. We present here the CT and MR venography findings in regards to a large high jugular blub and diverticulum we observed in a 47-year-old woman.

  16. Light On the Behavior of Light Bulbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, H. L.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses a problem (on page 523 of "College Physics," by Sears, Zemansky, and Young, published by Addison-Wesley, 1980) concerning light bulbs and resistance. Shows why the assumption of constant resistance is unrealistic and provides guidelines for revision. (DH)

  17. Modeling the Olfactory Bulb - Coupled Nonlinear Oscillators

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Zhaoping; Hopfield, J J

    1989-01-01

    The olfactory bulb of mammals aids in the discrimination of odors. A mathematical model based on the bulbar anatomy and electrophysiology is described. Simulations produce a 35-60 Hz modulated activity coherent across the bulb, mimicing the observed field potentials. The decision states (for the odor information) here can be thought of as stable cycles, rather than point stable states typical of simpler neuro-computing models. Analysis and simulations show that a group of...

  18. Neuronal organization of olfactory bulb circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin eNagayama

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Olfactory sensory neurons extend their axons solely to the olfactory bulb, which is dedicated to odor information processing. The olfactory bulb is divided into multiple layers, with different types of neurons found in each of the layers. Therefore, neurons in the olfactory bulb have conventionally been categorized based on the layers in which their cell bodies are found; namely, juxtaglomerular cells in the glomerular layer, tufted cells in the external plexiform layer, mitral cells in the mitral cell layer, and granule cells in the granule cell layer. More recently, numerous studies have revealed the heterogeneous nature of each of these cell types, allowing them to be further divided into subclasses based on differences in morphological, molecular, and electrophysiological properties. In addition, technical developments and advances have resulted in an increasing number of studies regarding cell types other than the conventionally categorized ones described above, including short-axon cells and adult-generated interneurons. Thus, the expanding diversity of cells in the olfactory bulb is now being acknowledged. However, our current understanding of olfactory bulb neuronal circuits is mostly based on the conventional and simplest classification of cell types. Few studies have taken neuronal diversity into account for understanding the function of the neuronal circuits in this region of the brain. This oversight may contribute to the roadblocks in developing more precise and accurate models of olfactory neuronal networks. The purpose of this review is therefore to discuss the expanse of existing work on neuronal diversity in the olfactory bulb up to this point, so as to provide an overall picture of the olfactory bulb circuit.

  19. Cortical feedback control of olfactory bulb circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Alison M; Sturgill, James F; Poo, Cindy; Isaacson, Jeffry S

    2012-12-20

    Olfactory cortex pyramidal cells integrate sensory input from olfactory bulb mitral and tufted (M/T) cells and project axons back to the bulb. However, the impact of cortical feedback projections on olfactory bulb circuits is unclear. Here, we selectively express channelrhodopsin-2 in olfactory cortex pyramidal cells and show that cortical feedback projections excite diverse populations of bulb interneurons. Activation of cortical fibers directly excites GABAergic granule cells, which in turn inhibit M/T cells. However, we show that cortical inputs preferentially target short axon cells that drive feedforward inhibition of granule cells. In vivo, activation of olfactory cortex that only weakly affects spontaneous M/T cell firing strongly gates odor-evoked M/T cell responses: cortical activity suppresses odor-evoked excitation and enhances odor-evoked inhibition. Together, these results indicate that although cortical projections have diverse actions on olfactory bulb microcircuits, the net effect of cortical feedback on M/T cells is an amplification of odor-evoked inhibition. PMID:23259951

  20. Sprout inhibition in roots, tubers and bulbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The treatment with ionizing radiations to low dose impedes that appear sprouts in the tubers (potatoes); bulbs (onion and garlic) and in roots like the ginger and the yucca. The purpose is to inhibit the germination during the process of manipulation and storage, and this way to avoid the lost ones post crop of these products. The radiation dose required to inhibit the germination goes to depend of: the development conditions, the differences of variety, of the storage state of the bulbs and the conditions of cured and storage. (Author)

  1. Roentgenologic image of penetrating duodenal bulb ulcer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When studying a series of aimed roentgenograms in patients with peptic ulcer a gas bubble of irregular spherical configuration or two-layer niche were determined near the bulb medial contour. Gas bubble was from 0.5-0.7 to 3.5 cm in diameter. In such cases penetrating ulcers were determined in operations. Along with other signs gas bubble symptom, sometimes two-layer signs may be used for timely and exact roentgenological diagnosis of penetrating duodenal bulb ulcer in peptic ulcer disease

  2. Organic Flower Bulbs From Holland - Outlook for the French Market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamphuis, Elise

    2002-01-01

    The Netherlands is a major exporter of flower bulbs in the world. France is amongst the top10 of the biggest importers of Dutch flower bulbs. However, the growing of bulbs is very damaging to the environment. With the use of 1,5 million kilograms of pesticide and 16 million kilograms of artificial f

  3. If the Sun Were a Light Bulb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adney, Kenneth J.

    1991-01-01

    An activity in which students compare the sun's brightness with that of a light bulb of known luminosity (in watts) to determine the luminosity of the sun is presented. As an extension, the luminosity value that the student obtains for the sun can also be used to estimate the sun's surface temperature. (KR)

  4. Effect of olive mill wastewater on growth and bulb production of tulip plants infected by bulb diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos Lykas

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect of olive mill wastewater (OMW on growth of tulip plants infected by common diseases as well as on their new bulbs production is analyzed in this work. Filtered and sterilized OMW was tested as growth inhibitor of Botrytis tulipae, Fusarium oxysporum, Aspergillus niger and Penicillium spp. mycelium. The effect of filtered OMW on uninfected tulip bulbs was also tested as well as on the growth of bulbs infected with the fungus B. tulipae and A. niger in vivo. The mycelium length, severity of scab-like lesions, plant height (PH, fresh mass (FM and dry mass (DM of plants and production of new bulbs were recorded. Only the filtered OMW inhibited the in vitro mycelium growth of all tested fungi. However filtered OMW caused infections when it sprayed on uninfected bulbs, malformations on 30% of the plants grown from these bulbs and decrease PH, FM and DM as well as new bulbs production at 75%, 72.4%, 79.1% and 50% respectively. The treatment of B. tulipae infected bulbs with filtered OMW reduced further the PH, FM, DM and the production of new bulbs in 92.1%, 81.4%, 78.7% and 97% respectively. In contrast the treatment of infected bulbs by B. tulipae + A. niger with filtered OMW did not affect PH, FM and the number of new bulbs produced and significantly improved plants DM and the mass of new bulbs.

  5. Effect of olive mill wastewater on growth and bulb production of tulip plants infected by bulb diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lykas, C.; Vegalas, I.; Gougaulias, N.

    2014-06-01

    The effect of olive mill wastewater (OMW) on growth of tulip plants infected by common diseases as well as on their new bulbs production is analyzed in this work. Filtered and sterilized OMW was tested as growth inhibitor of Botrytis tulipae, Fusarium oxysporum, Aspergillus niger and Penicillium spp. mycelium. The effect of filtered OMW on uninfected tulip bulbs was also tested as well as on the growth of bulbs infected with the fungus B. tulipae and A. niger in vivo. The mycelium length, severity of scab-like lesions, plant height (PH), fresh mass (FM) and dry mass (DM) of plants and production of new bulbs were recorded. Only the filtered OMW inhibited the in vitro mycelium growth of all tested fungi. However filtered OMW caused infections when it sprayed on uninfected bulbs, malformations on 30% of the plants grown from these bulbs and decrease PH, FM and DM as well as new bulbs production at 75%, 72.4%, 79.1% and 50% respectively. The treatment of B. tulipae infected bulbs with filtered OMW reduced further the PH, FM, DM and the production of new bulbs in 92.1%, 81.4%, 78.7% and 97% respectively. In contrast the treatment of infected bulbs by B. tulipae + A. niger with filtered OMW did not affect PH, FM and the number of new bulbs produced and significantly improved plants DM and the mass of new bulbs. (Author)

  6. Neurogenesis in the adult olfactory bulb

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Angela Pignatelli; Cristina Gambardella; Ottorino Belluzzi

    2011-01-01

    Neurogenesis is the process by which cells divide, migrate, and subsequently differentiate into a neuronal phenotype. Significant rates of neurogenesis persist into adulthood in two brain regions, the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus and the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricles. Cells of the subventricular zone divide and migrate via the rostral migratory stream to the olfactory bulb where they differentiate into granule and periglomerular cells. With the discovery of large-scale neurogenesis in the adult brain, there have been significant efforts to identify the mechanisms that control this process as well as the role of these cells in neuronal functioning. Although many questions remain unanswered, new insights appear daily about adult neurogenesis, regulatory mechanisms, and the fates of the progeny. In this review we highlight the main studies investigating factors that regulate neurogenesis in the subventricular zone, neuronal migration to the olfactory bulb, neuronal integration into the existing bulbar network and shortly discuss the functional meaning of this process.

  7. Hearing light from an incandescent bulb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zheyuan; Du, Li; Zhang, Youtian; Wang, Sihui; Zhou, Huijun; Gao, Wenli

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present an interesting experiment to turn the vibratory light from an incandescent light bulb into audible sound. Inspired by research on the photoacoustic effect (PAE) using lasers, we construct a similar device in an undergraduate physics laboratory with everyday articles including light bulbs, glass beakers and soot. Using our device, a distinct sound is detected and analysed experimentally. Particular attention is paid to the attenuation effect of the acoustic signal, which can be explained by modifying the existing theory and using the adiabatic boundary condition according to the incident light source we use. This demonstration is a comprehensive experiment with the combination of sound, light and heat. The modification on the model can help undergraduate students gain an intuitive understanding of different boundary conditions.

  8. Olfactory bulb encoding during learning under anaesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alister U Nicol

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Neural plasticity changes within the olfactory bulb are important for olfactory learning, although how neural encoding changes support new associations with specific odours and whether they can be investigated under anaesthesia, remain unclear. Using the social transmission of food preference olfactory learning paradigm in mice in conjunction with in vivo microdialysis sampling we have shown firstly that a learned preference for a scented food odour smelled on the breath of a demonstrator animal occurs under isofluorane anaesthesia. Furthermore, subsequent exposure to this cued odour under anaesthesia promotes the same pattern of increased release of glutamate and GABA in the olfactory bulb as previously found in conscious animals following olfactory learning, and evoked GABA release was positively correlated with the amount of scented food eaten. In a second experiment, multiarray (24 electrodes electrophysiological recordings were made from olfactory bulb mitral cells under isofluorane anaesthesia before, during and after a novel scented food odour was paired with carbon disulfide. Results showed significant increases in overall firing frequency to the cued-odour during and after learning and decreases in response to an uncued odour. Analysis of patterns of changes in individual neurons revealed that a substantial proportion (>50% of them significantly changed their response profiles during and after learning with most of those previously inhibited becoming excited. A large number of cells exhibiting no response to the odours prior to learning were either excited or inhibited afterwards. With the uncued odour many previously responsive cells became unresponsive or inhibited. Learning associated changes only occurred in the posterior part of the olfactory bulb. Thus olfactory learning under anaesthesia promotes extensive, but spatially distinct, changes in mitral cell networks to both cued and uncued odours as well as in evoked glutamate and

  9. Fabrication of Closed Hollow Bulb Obturator Using Thermoplastic Resin Material

    OpenAIRE

    Bidhan Shrestha; E. Richard Hughes; Raj Kumar Singh; Pramita Suwal; Prakash Kumar Parajuli; Pragya Shrestha; Arati Sharma; Galav Adhikari

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. Closed hollow bulb obturators are used for the rehabilitation of postmaxillectomy patients. However, the time consuming process, complexity of fabrication, water leakage, and discoloration are notable disadvantages of this technique. This paper describes a clinical report of fabricating closed hollow bulb obturator using a single flask and one time processing method for an acquired maxillary defect. Hard thermoplastic resin sheet has been used for the fabrication of hollow bulb part ...

  10. Somatic Embryogenesis in Lily Bulb Scale Cultures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Shasha; WANG Jingang; FAN Jinping; CHE Daidi

    2008-01-01

    Somatic embryogenesis from lily bulb scales has not been studied in details, although tissue culture methods have been applied to the propagation for decades. The effects of different kinds and concentration of auxins for oriental lily somatic embryogenesis were investigated (Lilium hybrida car. Sorbonne).2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), thidiazuron (TDZ) and α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) media with benzyladenine(6-BA) and lactalbumin hydrolysate (LH) were used for embryogenic callus in the darkness. The best response onembryogenic callus formation was obtained on MS media supplemented 2, 4-D 2.0 mg·L-1,6-BA 0.5 mg·L-1 and LH 300 mg·L-1. Transfer embryogenic callus to the media with TDZ, 6-BA, kinetin (KT) supplemented 2, 4-D. The highest number of somatic embryos has been produced on medium with 0.5 mg.L-1 2, 4-D and 0.3 mg·L-1 KT. Germinated embryos with shoot axes were changed to MS media with 6-BA 0.5 mg· L-1. The results suggest that in vitro culture of somatic embryogenesis from lily bulb scales can be used for plant regeneration.

  11. Conservation of garlic bulbs (Allium sativum L. ) by gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, J.; Arranz, T.

    1979-01-01

    The effect of different doses of gamma radiation (from 5 to 30 krad) on the conservation of garlic bulbs during a 12 months period is studied. Irradiations were made at three different times and the best results were obtained with the treatment given during the two months following harvest. During this period, 5 krad are enough to inhibit garlic bulbs sprouting.

  12. Fooling Mother Nature: Forcing Flower Bulbs for Indoor Bloom

    OpenAIRE

    Graine, George; Scoggins, Holly Lynne, 1962-

    2014-01-01

    Think about bulb forcing as an orderly process. This includes choosing the bulb, storing it if necessary, selecting the right size container, determining the potting mix, planting (including fertilizer, water and location), providing a cooling treatment if necessary and after care. Other considerations may be color, fragrance, and timing for seasonal enjoyment of winter or early spring bloom.

  13. The "Brightness Rules" Alternative Conception for Light Bulb Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Joel A.; Stuessy, Carol

    2006-01-01

    An alternative conception for the observed differences in light bulb brightness was revealed during an unguided inquiry investigation in which prospective elementary teachers placed identical bulbs in series, parallel, and combination direct current circuits. Classroom observations, document analyses, and video and audio transcriptions led to the…

  14. Conservation of garlic bulbs (allium sativum L.) by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of different doses of gamma radiation (from 5 to 30 krad) on the conservation of garlic bulbs during a 12 months period is studied. Irradiations were made at three different times and the best results were obtained with the treatment given during the two months following harvest. During this period, 5krad are enough to inhibit garlic bulbs sprouting. (author)

  15. Influence of size of onion bulb cv. 'Czerniakowska' on its dormancy, sprouting and rooting

    OpenAIRE

    M. Bielińska-Czarnecka; A. Kępkowa; E. Kielak; E. Zdanowska

    2013-01-01

    Sprouting and rooting of onion bulb explants (bulbs deprived of open and closed shells) and of whole onion bulbs of three sizes, horizontal diameters: 2.5-3.5 cm, 3.6-5.0 cm, 5.1-7.0 cm were studied. During storage the earliest sprouting and rooting of bulb explants and of the whole onion bulbs was observed in small bulbs of diameters: 2.5-3.5, and the latest in large bulbs of 5.1-7.0 cm. The longer the period of storage the larger the amount of sprouted and rooted bulb explants and whole bul...

  16. Broadcasting of cortical activity to the olfactory bulb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Alison M; Kato, Hiroyuki K; Komiyama, Takaki; Isaacson, Jeffry S

    2015-02-24

    Odor representations are initially formed in the olfactory bulb, which contains a topographic glomerular map of odor molecular features. The bulb transmits sensory information directly to piriform cortex, where it is encoded by distributed ensembles of pyramidal cells without spatial order. Intriguingly, piriform cortex pyramidal cells project back to the bulb, but the information contained in this feedback projection is unknown. Here, we use imaging in awake mice to directly monitor activity in the presynaptic boutons of cortical feedback fibers. We show that the cortex provides the bulb with a rich array of information for any individual odor and that cortical feedback is dependent on brain state. In contrast to the stereotyped, spatial arrangement of olfactory bulb glomeruli, cortical inputs tuned to different odors commingle and indiscriminately target individual glomerular channels. Thus, the cortex modulates early odor representations by broadcasting sensory information diffusely onto spatially ordered bulbar circuits. PMID:25704808

  17. Fabrication of Closed Hollow Bulb Obturator Using Thermoplastic Resin Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bidhan Shrestha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Closed hollow bulb obturators are used for the rehabilitation of postmaxillectomy patients. However, the time consuming process, complexity of fabrication, water leakage, and discoloration are notable disadvantages of this technique. This paper describes a clinical report of fabricating closed hollow bulb obturator using a single flask and one time processing method for an acquired maxillary defect. Hard thermoplastic resin sheet has been used for the fabrication of hollow bulb part of the obturator. Method. After fabrication of master cast conventionally, bulb and lid part of the defect were formed separately and joined by autopolymerizing acrylic resin to form one sized smaller hollow body. During packing procedure, the defect area was loaded with heat polymerizing acrylic resin and then previously fabricated smaller hollow body was adapted over it. The whole area was then loaded with heat cure acrylic. Further processes were carried out conventionally. Conclusion. This technique uses single flask which reduces laboratory time and makes the procedure simple. The thickness of hollow bulb can be controlled and light weight closed hollow bulb prosthesis can be fabricated. It also minimizes the disadvantages of closed hollow bulb obturator such as water leakage, bacterial infection, and discoloration.

  18. Effect of Atmospheric Press on Wet Bulb Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Raymond M.; Stasiak, Michael A.; Lawson, Jamie; Wehkamp, Cara Ann P.; Dixon, Michael A.

    2008-01-01

    Our measurements of wet bulb depression at different pressures matched the modeled adiabatic saturation temps reasonably well. At a dry bulb temp of 25 C, the normal wet bulb temp for 30% RH and 100 kPa is approx.15 C, but this dropped to approx.8 C at 10 kPa. The results suggest that psychrometers need direct calibration at the target pressures or that pressure corrected charts are required. For a given vapour pressure deficit, any moist surfaces, including transpiring plant leaves, will be cooler at lower pressures due to the increased evaporation rates.

  19. Sensory quality of irradiated onion and garlic bulbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioinhibition process has shown to prolong shelf-life of ''Valenciana sintetica 14'' onion variety and ''Colorado'' garlic variety. Sensory attributes of the irradiated bulbs were tested monthly by trained judges during extended storage in warehouse conditions (6-32C, R.H. 40-50%). The sensory properties observed were external and internal appearance, firmness and odor. The irradiated bulbs were judged to be superior in quality with respect to internal and external appearance (p 0.01) and firmness (p 0.01), after 180 days postharvest. The irradiated bulbs showed no difference in odor (p 0.05), when compared to unirradiated ones, through the storage period

  20. The European Commission‘s Light Bulb Decree: Another Costly Regulation?

    OpenAIRE

    Frondel, Manuel; Lohmann, Steffen

    2011-01-01

    Since September 2009, Regulation 244/2009 of the European Commission enforces the gradual phase-out of incandescent light bulbs. As of September 2012, only energy-efficient lighting sources will be allowed for sale. Among these are halogen light bulbs, light-emitting diodes (LED), or compact fluorescent light bulbs - often referred to as energy-saving light bulbs. The Commission's justification for the phase-out of conventional light bulbs maintains that a reduction in the electricity consume...

  1. Olfactory dysfunction, olfactory bulb pathology and urban air pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; Franco-Lira, Maricela; Henríquez-Roldán, Carlos; Osnaya, Norma; González-Maciel, Angelica; Reynoso-Robles, Rafael; Villarreal-Calderon, Rafael; Herritt, Lou; Brooks, Diane; Keefe, Sheyla; Palacios-Moreno, Juan; Villarreal-Calderon, Rodolfo; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo; Medina-Cortina, Humberto; Delgado-Chávez, Ricardo

    2009-01-01

    Mexico City (MC) residents are exposed to severe air pollution and exhibit olfactory bulb inflammation. We compared the olfactory function of individuals living under conditions of extreme air pollution to that of controls from a relatively clean environment and explore associations between olfaction scores, apolipoprotein E (APOE) status, and pollution exposure. The olfactory bulbs (OBs) of 35 MC and 9 controls 20.8 ± 8.5 y were assessed by light and electron microscopy. The University of Pe...

  2. BULB: Onion-Based Measuring of OSS Communities

    OpenAIRE

    Kilamo, Terhi; Aaltonen, Timo; Heinimäki, Teemu J.

    2010-01-01

    Up to date information on the associated developer community plays a key role when a company working with open source software makes business decisions. Although methods for getting such information have been developed, decisions are often based on scarce information. In this paper a measuring model for open source communities, BULB, is introduced. BULB provides a way of collecting relevant information and relates it to the well-known onion model of open source communities.

  3. Acrodynia: exposure to mercury from fluorescent light bulbs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tunnessen, W.W. Jr.; McMahon, K.J.; Baser, M.

    1987-05-01

    Medical attention was sought for a 23-month-old toddler because of anorexia, weight loss, irritability, profuse sweating, peeling and redness of his fingers and toes, and a miliarial rash. The diagnosis was mercury poisoning, and an investigation of his environment disclosed that he had been exposed to mercury from broken fluorescent light bulbs. Acrodynia resulting from fluorescent bulbs has not been previously reported.

  4. Radioinhibition process in Argentinian garlic and onion bulbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technological aspects of garlic and onion bulbs subjected to the radioinhibition process and extended storage under warehouse conditions were studied. Garlic and onion of the Colorado and ''Valenciana sintetica 14'' varieties respectively, were irradiated in dormancy period with an average dose of 50.0 Gy to 60Co gamma rays and kept in storage up to ten months post-harvest. Throughout the control period (180-300 days post-harvest) obvious benefits were attained as to reducing the weight loss and increasing the percentage of marketable bulbs. In general, the irradiated bulbs were superior to the non-irradiated ones with regard to the external aspect, firmness and internal aspect, while the odor of the bulbs was not affected by the process. The radioinhibition process does not seem to affect adversely the levels of dry matter, carbohydrates and ascorbic acid as well as the acidity in onion bulbs. In two marketing trials a very favourable reception was perceived in the consumer public regarding the quality of the products. These studies have promoted the construction of a multipurpose irradiation facility in the Universidad Nacional del Sur for the development of the radiation processing technology. (author)

  5. Radioinhibition process in Argentinian garlic and onion bulbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curzio, O. A.; Croci, C. A.

    Technological aspects of garlic and onion bulbs subjected to the radioinhibition process and extended storage under warehouse conditions were studied. Garlic and onion of the "Colorado" and "Valenciana sintética 14" varieties respectively, were irradiated in dormancy period with an average dose of 50.0 Gy of 60Co gamma rays and kept in storage up to ten months post-harvest. Throughout the control period (180-300 days post-harvest) obvious benefits were attained as to reducing the weight loss and increasing the percentage of marketable bulbs. In general, the irradiated bulbs were superior to the non-irradiated ones with regard to the external aspect, firmness and internal aspect, while the odor of the bulbs was not affected by the process. The radioinhibition process does not seem to affect adversely the levels of dry matter, carbohydrates and ascorbic acid as well as the acidity in onion bulbs. In two marketing trials a very favourable reception was perceived in the consumer public regarding the quality of the products. These studies have promoted the construction of a multipurpose irradiation facility in the Universidad Nacional del Sur for the development of the radiation processing technology.

  6. Voltage-Dependent Intrinsic Bursting in Olfactory Bulb Golgi Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressler, R. Todd; Rozman, Peter A.; Strowbridge, Ben W.

    2013-01-01

    In the mammalian olfactory bulb (OB), local synaptic circuits modulate the evolving pattern of activity in mitral and tufted cells following olfactory sensory stimulation. GABAergic granule cells, the most numerous interneuron subtype in this brain region, have been extensively studied. However, classic studies using Golgi staining methods…

  7. Human Adult Olfactory Bulb Neurogenesis? Novelty Is the Best Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Macklis, Jeffrey Daniel

    2012-01-01

    There is ongoing controversy as to whether the understanding of adult mammalian neurogenesis gained from rodent studies is applicable to humans. In this issue of Neuron, Bergmann et al. (2012) propose that adult human olfactory bulb neurogenesis with long-term neuronal survival is extremely limited.

  8. The ``Green Lab'': Power Consumption by Commercial Light Bulbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einsporn, James A.; Zhou, Andrew F.

    2011-09-01

    Going "green" is a slogan that is very contemporary, both with industry and in the political arena. Choosing more energy-efficient devices is one way homeowners can "go green." A simple method is to change home lighting from hot incandescent bulbs to compact fluorescent lights (CFLs). But do they really save energy? How do their illuminations compare? Even if the CFLs are more energy efficient, they still add to our pollution problem because of the mercury inside them. Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) could be the answer, but they are not available at our local stores. Can LEDs be made to screw right into a standard socket? How expensive are they? What are the power consumptions of so-called "60-W" and "100-W" CFL and LED light bulbs? These are the questions that are answered during this lab activity. Students measure the voltage and current for each of the three types of bulbs, and then calculate the electrical power required by each. An optional experiment is to set the light outputs of each bulb so they are equal in intensity, and then determine the power consumed. While not practical in the home, this experiment gives students an understanding of value for their buck.

  9. Function of attention in learning process in the olfactory bulb

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马宝生; 王顺鹏; 李岩; 冯春华; 郭爱克

    2003-01-01

    It has been suggested that in the olfactory bulb, odor information is processed through parallel channels and learning depends on the cognitive environment. The synapse's spike effective time is defined as the effective time for a spike from pre-synapse to post-synapse, which varies with the type of synapse. A learning model of the olfactory bulb was constructed for synapses with varying spike effective times. The simulation results showed that such a model can realize the multi-channel processing of information in the bulb. Furthermore, the effect of the cognitive environment on the learning process was also studied. Different feedback frequencies were used to express different attention states. Considering the information's multi-channel processing requirement for learning, a learning rule considering both spike timing and average spike frequency is proposed. Simulation results showed that habituation and anti-habituation of an odor in the olfactory bulb might be the result of learning guided by a common local learning rule but at different attention states.

  10. Special branches: organic greenhouse production, bulbs, ornamentals and aquaculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sukkel, W.; Hommes, M.; Meijer, R.J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Organic production methods are gaining ground in Dutch specialised production branches. Interest is growing among greenhouse horticulturalists and growers of flower bulbs, ornamentals and mushrooms. In organic horticulture Dutch research is unique in the world in thinking up innovative concepts and

  11. Experimental characterization of CFL bulbs for power quality assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vugt, van P.; Timens, R.B.; Stievano, I.S.; Leferink, F.B.J.; Canavero, F.G.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a systematic set of voltage and current transient measurements aimed at characterizing the electrical behavior of a typical energy efficient compact fluorescent light bulb. The considered device represents a well-known example of a number of nonlinear loads that ar

  12. On the Intensity Profile of Electric Lamps and Light Bulbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacalla, Xavier; Salumbides, Edcel John

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate that the time profile of the light intensity from domestic lighting sources exhibits simple yet interesting properties that foster lively student discussions. We monitor the light intensity of an industrial fluorescent lamp (also known as TL) and an incandescent bulb using a photodetector connected to an oscilloscope. The light…

  13. The "Green Lab": Power Consumption by Commercial Light Bulbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einsporn, James A.; Zhou, Andrew F.

    2011-01-01

    Going "green" is a slogan that is very contemporary, both with industry and in the political arena. Choosing more energy-efficient devices is one way homeowners can "go green." A simple method is to change home lighting from hot incandescent bulbs to compact fluorescent lights (CFLs). But do they really save energy? How do their illuminations…

  14. Maturation and Dysgenesis of the Human Olfactory Bulb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarnat, Harvey B; Yu, Weiming

    2016-05-01

    The olfactory bulb with its unique architecture was studied for neuronal maturation in human fetuses. Neuroblasts stream into the olfactory bulb from the rostral telencephalon and secondarily migrate radially. The transitory olfactory ventricular recess regresses postnatally. Olfactory is the only sensory system without thalamic projections but incorporates intrinsic thalamic equivalents. The bulb is a repository of progenitor cells. Maturation of the bulb and tract was studied in 18 normal human fetuses of 16-41 weeks gestation; mid-gestational twins with hydrocephalus; 7 arrhinencephaly/holoprosencephaly; 2 olfactory dysgeneses. Multiple immunoreactivities were performed. Synaptophysin around mitral neurons, in a few synaptic glomeruli and concentric lamination of the outer granular layer, was seen at 16 weeks. Outer granular neurons exhibited NeuN at 16 weeks, only 2/3 were reactive at term. Concentric alternating sheets of granular neurons and their dendrodendritic synapses are seen during maturation. Calretinin reactivity is seen in neurons and neurites, primary olfactory nerve axons, periglomerular cells and neuroepithelial cells surrounding the ventricular recess; reactivity occurs later in synaptic glomeruli than with synaptophysin; not all glomeruli are strongly reactive even at term. Nestin- and vimentin-reactive bipolar progenitor cells were demonstrated at all ages and extend into the olfactory tract. Myelin is demonstrated by Luxol fast blue (LFB) only postnatally. In hydrocephalus, the olfactory recess is dilated. Mitral cell dispersion, disrupted glomeruli, heterotopia and maturational delay are seen in some dysgeneses. Malformations exhibit unique findings. Fusion of hypoplastic bulbs can occur. Abnormal architecture is seen in hemimegalencephaly. More documentation of olfactory dysgenesis is needed in other major brain malformations. PMID:26096058

  15. An improved method of preparing onion bulbs for the Alium test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Wierzbicka

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The tests on storage and preparation of onion (Allium cepa L. bulbs presented in this paper were performed in order to obtain the highest possible number of roots of similar length, which would be suitable for performing the Allium test. The results were subject to a detailed statistical analysis and allowed the following procedure to be recommended: 1 Store the bulbs at room temperature rather than in a refrigerator for two weeks before starting the experiments. 2 Do not use the biggest bulbs (over 80-100 g; use medium and small bulbs with the largest possible diameter of the reduced stem. 3 Just before starting the culture, wash the bottom part of the bulb, cut out the central part of the reduced stem and cut off the upper part of the bulb. At least 70% of bulbs prepared this way are expected to be suitable for cytological tests.

  16. A rare case of Burkitt's lymphoma of the duodenal bulb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Joana Rita; Carrilho-Ribeiro, Luís; Zagalo, Alexandra; Medeiros, Fábio Cota; Ferreira, Cristina; Velosa, José

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal tract involvement in immunodeficiency-related Burkitt's lymphoma is not common and the duodenal involvement is very rare. We report the case of a 35-year-old man admitted because of abdominal pain, vomiting and weight loss. Human immunodeficiency virus infection was diagnosed and upper digestive tract endoscopy showed marked edema and hyperemia of the duodenal bulb with some violaceous areas. Immunohistochemical study of the bulbar tissue samples confirmed the diagnosis of Burkitt's lymphoma. To our knowledge, duodenal Burkitt's lymphoma affecting only the bulb has not been previously reported in the medical literature. In patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection who present with upper gastrointestinal symptoms, upper endoscopy may be diagnostic of malignancy and biopsies should be obtained from abnormal areas. PMID:27065741

  17. Optimizing Structure of LED Light Bulb for Heat Transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, in order to optimize the heat transfer structure of LED light bulb, the effects of various parameters on the temperature of the LED device were systematically analyzed, and a design guideline was shown. Although LED device has become popular due to its high-efficiency and long life, the design issues on the heat transfer structure of LED light bulbs has still remained. Because the original efficiency and life of the LED device can not be obtained due to the local temperature rise of LED element and the surrounding polymer molding material. Therefore, heat transfer analysis by finite element method was conducted systematically by changing parameters such as the shape, number and thickness of the radiating fin of the LED. As a result, advantage of open type structure was shown, and the proper design guidance for the structure of the fin shape was obtained.

  18. Optical and thermal design of light emitting diodes omnidirectional bulb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Zhi Ting; Kuo, Hao-Chung; Chen, Cheng-Huan

    2015-10-01

    The penetration of LED light bulbs into the lighting market is growing quickly in recent years due to significant increase of LED efficiency and reduction of cost. One major issue to be improved is the overall light bulb efficiency, which can fulfill "Energy Star for Lamps" while keeping sufficiently high efficiency. The efficiency issue results mainly from the high directionality of the LED sources and the corresponding solutions to make the emission more diverse. In this paper, a diffusion white reflection sheet (DWRS) with an array of holes is proposed as a high efficiency solution for modulating a light emission profile with SMD type LED source. The hole size is adjusted with fixed hole pitch to both maximize the efficiency and meet the omnidirectional specification. In addition, the concept of thermal plastic insertion molding metal is proposed for thermal management without fins for cooling. The prototype demonstrates the efficiency (Ef.) of 87.6% and LED pad temperature of 85°C, which shows the feasibility as a total solution for high efficiency LED omnidirectional bulbs. PMID:26479672

  19. Dilation of the olfactory bulb cavity concurrent with hydrocephalus in four small breed dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jung-Hyun; Jeon, Hyo-Won; Woo, Eung-Je; Park, Hee-Myung

    2009-01-01

    Four small breed dogs were admitted with seizures. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain revealed dilation of the olfactory bulb cavity as well as enlargement of the lateral ventricles. These findings demonstrate that dilation of the olfactory bulb cavity can occur concurrent with hydrocephalus. This is the first description of the clinical and MRI features of dilation of the olfactory bulb cavity concurrent with hydrocephalus in dogs.

  20. A dendrodendritic reciprocal synapse provides a recurrent excitatory connection in the olfactory bulb

    OpenAIRE

    Didier, Anne; Carleton, Alan; Jan G Bjaalie; Vincent, Jean-Didier; Ottersen, Ole Petter; Storm-Mathisen, Jon; Lledo, Pierre-Marie

    2001-01-01

    Neuronal synchronization in the olfactory bulb has been proposed to arise from a diffuse action of glutamate released from mitral cells (MC, olfactory bulb relay neurons). According to this hypothesis, glutamate spills over from dendrodendritic synapses formed between MC and granule cells (GC, olfactory bulb interneurons) to activate neighboring MC. The excitation of MC is balanced by a strong inhibition from GC. Here we show that MC excitation is caused by glutama...

  1. Effect of Gamma and ultraviolet irradiation on post harvest onion bulb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exposing Giza 6 and Giza 20 onion bulbs to different doses of gamma and UV radiation after inoculation with B. Allii and A. niger greatly affected rot development compared with unirradiated and inoculated with the same fungi. Gamma radiation at 1600 Gy gave good results in suppressing the infection and decreasing sprouting as compared with unirradiated ones. Application of gamma radiation to onion bulbs caused marked decrease in sugar content in inoculated bulbs, un inoculated and irradiated bulbs gave higher levels of phenolic compounds compared with unirradiated ones. Exposing onion bulbs to UV rays at different exposure time, then left to natural infection, showed lower percentage of infection and sprouting. Whatever, UV rays at 365 nm for 9 minutes suppressed the infection and sprouting in both C vs. un inoculated onion bulbs and exposed to UV at 365 nm for 9 min. Contained higher amount of total sugars and phenol contents than inoculated and exposed to the same dose and also, un inoculated and unexposed ones. Un inoculated and inoculated onion bulbs and exposed to UV rays contained lower amounts of TSS and vitamin. C than un inoculated and non irradiated bulbs. In contrast, un inoculated and non irradiated bulbs of both Cvs. Contained less amounts of tetra table acidity compared with inoculated and un inoculated and exposed to UV rays. 8 tabs

  2. Can a topical scalp treatment reduce hair bulb extraction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, James V; Bouldin, Lisa; Lou, Kevin

    2007-01-01

    Generally speaking, when people talk about "hair breakage" they are typically referring to the idea that as they comb or brush their hair, the fibers are elongating and snapping at some weak point in the fiber length. It is well established that as people chemically treat their hair, the keratin proteins are degraded further and the hair become more brittle and susceptible to breakage. For the consumer, hair breakage is registered as hair fibers noted in their comb or brush, and in the drain that they see after a cosmetic treatment. However, a fundamental question that needs to be asked is whether or not the hairs that are seen in the drain are really the result of hair breakage (i.e., a fiber snapping) or are they the result of hairs that are actually being extracted from the scalp by their root bulbs. If the bulk of the hair fibers are actually extracted by the bulb, than it seems somewhat superfluous to try and improve hair strength by improving the exterior of the fiber. The fiber is dead and topical treatments can only smooth, and possibly moisten already established fiber structure and integrity. This paper will attempt to address hair strength by looking at the scalp and follicle as the target for treatment, showing that topical application of a product containing a blend of well-known skin active ingredients can demonstrate potential reductions in hair extractions. An in vivo testing protocol in which 15 voluntary participants with at least 12" hair length were professionally shampooed, and then treated, half-head, with a commercial conditioner, or the same conditioner that contained 5% of a mixture of yeast peptides, fruit acids and green tea polyphenols every day for five days will be discussed. At the beginning and end of the treatment period, the number of hairs that either broke along the fiber, or extracted by the bulb were gathered, separated and counted for both the treated and untreated side of the head. The results of this one-week study

  3. Radiological aspects of the mucosal surface of the duodenal bulbe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Double contrast barium meal, endoscopy and hystology of the doudenal bulb were blindly compared in 47 consecutive patients. The agreement in the judgement of normality of the mucosal surface between radiology and endoscopy was 78%. The agreement in the diagnosis of presence or absence of nodularity and thickened folds was respectively 91% and 87%. The findings of nodularity correspond to doudenitis with pyloric metaplasia or to heterotopic gastric mucosa, while the thickened folds correspond to duodenitis with pyloric metaplasia, Brunner's hyperplasia, lymphathic nodular dilatation. The diagnostic errors in the radiological examination in respect to endoscopy is quite important in the case of erosions

  4. Duodenal bulb plasma cells in duodenitis and duodenal ulceration.

    OpenAIRE

    Scott, B B; Goodall, A; Stephenson, P.; D. Jenkins(University of York, UK)

    1985-01-01

    Using an immunoperoxidase technique IgA, IgM, IgE and IgG plasma cells were studied in endoscopic duodenal bulb biopsies taken from 14 controls, 25 patients with grade 1 duodenitis (Whitehead classification), 12 patients with grade 2 duodenitis and three with grade 3 duodenitis. The control counts were compared with those in the jejunum and rectum. In addition cell counts were compared in 16 pairs of patients, with and without duodenal ulcer, exactly matched for grade of duodenitis. The contr...

  5. Numerical investigation of cavitation performance on bulb tubular turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, L. G.; Guo, P. C.; Zheng, X. B.; Luo, X. Q.

    2016-05-01

    The cavitation flow phenomena may occur in the bulb tubular turbine at some certain operation conditions, which even decrease the performance of units and causes insatiably noise and vibration when it goes worse. A steady cavitating flow numerical simulations study is carried out on the bulb tubular unit with the same blade pitch angle and different guide vane openings by using the commercial code ANSYS CFX in this paper. The phenomena of cavitation induction areas and development process are obtained and draws cavitation performance curves. The numerical results show that the travelling bubble cavity is the main types of cavitation development over a wide operating range of discharge and this type of cavitation begins to sensitive to the value of cavitation number when the discharge exceeding a certain valve, in this condition, it can lead to a severe free bubble formation with the gradually decrement of cavitation number. The reported cavitation performance curves results indicate that the flow blockage incident would happen because of a mount of free bubble formation in the flow passage when the cavity developed to certain extend, which caused head drop behavior and power broken dramatically and influenced the output power.

  6. Quality evaluation of onion bulbs during low temperature drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djaeni, M.; Asiah, N.; Wibowo, Y. P.; Yusron, D. A. A.

    2016-06-01

    A drying technology must be designed carefully by evaluating the foods' final quality properties as a dried material. Thermal processing should be operated with the minimum chance of substantial flavour, taste, color and nutrient loss. The main objective of this research was to evaluate the quality parameters of quercetin content, color, non-enzymatic browning and antioxidant activity. The experiments showed that heating at different temperatures for several drying times resulted in a percentage of quercetin being generally constant. The quercetin content maintained at the value of ±1.2 % (dry basis). The color of onion bulbs was measured by CIE standard illuminant C. The red color (a*) of the outer layer of onion bulbs changed significantly when the drying temperature was increased. However the value of L* and b* changed in a fluctuating way based on the temperature. The change of onion colors was influenced by temperature and moisture content during the drying process. The higher the temperature, the higher it affects the rate of non-enzymatic browning reaction. The correlation between temperature and reaction rate constant was described as Arrhenius equation. The rate of non-enzymatic browning increases along with the increase of drying temperature. The results showed that higher drying temperatures were followed by a lower IC10. This condition indicated the increase of antioxidant activity after the drying process.

  7. Light Bulb Presentations in a Mathematics for the Liberal Arts Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Joseph A.

    2008-01-01

    Encouraging students to make independent discoveries is an effective way to get them excited about mathematics, and sharing their triumphant moments (their light bulb moments) helps to spread this excitement to their peers. A Mathematics for the Liberal Arts course is a perfect venue for the sharing of light bulb moments, as it helps to correct…

  8. Non-condensible gas fraction predictions using wet and dry bulb temperature measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A technique is presented whereby non-condensible gas mass fractions in a closed system can be determined using wet bulb and dry bulb temperature and system pressure measurements. This technique would have application in situations where sampling techniques could not be used. Using an energy balance about the wet bulb wick, and expression is obtained which relates the vapor concentration difference between the wet bulb wick and the free stream to the wet and dry bulb temperature difference and a heat to mass transfer coefficient ratio. This coefficient ratio was examined for forced and natural convection flows. This analysis was verified with forced and natural convection tests over the range of pressure and temperature from 50 to 557 psig and 415 to 5760F. All the data could best be fit by the natural convection analysis. This is useful when no information about the flow field is known

  9. Olfactory dysfunction: Correlation of olfactory bulb volume on MRI and objective olfactometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To define the role of olfactory bulb volume measurement by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for detecting olfactory dysfunction in comparison with objective olfactometry. Materials and Methods: Thirty patients with suspected olfactory dysfunction (16 women, 14 men; mean age 52 years, range 20-79 years) were examined by MRI and objective olfactometry between January 2006 and January 2009. Olfactory bulb volumes were measured by two neuroradiologists using 3D MR data sets. The olfactory function was categorized as normosmia, hyposmia, and anosmia on the basis of objective olfactometry. Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated for objective olfactometry and olfactory bulb volumes on MRI. ROC analysis was performed to determine whether MRI bulb volumes can serve to predict anosmia or hyposmia. Results: The bulb volumes measured by MRI ranged from 0 to 135.9 mm3. Based on olfactometry, anosmia was present in 11 patients (total bulb volume of 15.7 ± 23.3 mm3), hyposmia in 9 patients (total bulb volume of 50.0 ± 25.5 mm3), and normosmia in 10 patients (total bulb volume of 110.7 ± 21.5 mm3). There was good correlation (r>0.9) between objective olfactometry and olfactory bulb volume on MRI. ROC analysis yielded a cut-off value of 32 mm3 for anosmia, which had a sensitivity of 0.91 and specificity of 0.947. The cut-off value for olfactory dysfunction was 80.7 mm3 (sensitivity 0.95; specificity of 0.9). Conclusion: The olfactory bulb volume determined by MRI is a suitable parameter for diagnosing complete or partial loss of the sense of smell. (orig.)

  10. Modeling and simulation of heat transfer for glass bulb mold

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Huamin; LI Dequn

    2005-01-01

    Cooling system design in glass bulb pressing operation can greatly affect the productivity and the quality of the final product. The concept of cyclic-averaged steady temperature field is proposed in modeling. Heat transfer in the mold region is considered to be a cyclic-steady, three-dimensional conduction; heat transfer within the glass melt region is treated as a transient, one-dimensional conduction; heat exchange between the cooling system surface and coolant is treated as a steady heat convection. A hybrid model consisting of a three-dimensional boundary element method for the mold region and a finite-difference method with a variable mesh for the melt region is used for numerical simulation. Compared with the experimental data, the numerical model developed here is computationally efficient and sufficiently accurate.

  11. Numerical simulation of draft tube flow of a bulb turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho, J.G. [Federal University of Triangulo Mineiro, Institute of Technological and Exact Sciences, Avenida Doutor Randolfo Borges Junior, 1250 – Uberaba – MG (Brazil); Brasil, A.C.P. Jr. [University of Brasilia, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Campus Darcy Ribeiro, Brasilia – DF (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    In this work a numerical study of draft tube of a bulb hydraulic turbine is presented, where a new geometry is proposed. This new proposal of draft tube has the unaffected ratio area, a great reduction in his length and approximately the same efficiency of the draft tube conventionally used. The numerical simulations were obtained in commercial software of calculation of flow (CFX-14), using the turbulence model SST, that allows a description of the field fluid dynamic near to the wall. The simulation strategy has an intention of identifying the stall of the boundary layer precisely limits near to the wall and recirculations in the central part, once those are the great causes of the decrease of efficiency of a draft tube. Finally, it is obtained qualitative and quantitative results about the flow in draft tubes.

  12. Sulfur-containing components of gamma-irradiated garlic bulbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Joong-Ho; Choi, Jong-Uck; Yoon, Hyung-Sik

    Sulfur-containing components associated with garlic flavors were investigated to determine the effect of γ-irradiation at 0.1 kGy on the quality of garlic bulbs ( Allium sativum L.) during storage at 3±1°C and 80±5% RH for 10 months. Irradiation treatment had no influence on the amount of total sulfur and thiosulfinate of stored garlic for 10 months, while the storage period brought about a significant reduction ( P<0.05) in the content of both components after the 6-8th month of storage compared with that at the beginning of storage period. The identity of irradiated alliin ( S-allyl- L-cysteine sulfoxide) at sprout-inhibition dose was confirmed according to thin-layer chromatography, i.r. and NMR spectroscopy data.

  13. Sulfur-containing components of gamma-irradiated garlic bulbs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joongho Kwon (Korea Advanced Energy Research Inst., Daeduk (Republic of Korea)); Jonguck Choi; Hyungsik Yoon (Kyungpook National Univ., Taegu (Republic of Korea))

    1989-01-01

    Sulfur-containing components associated with garlic flavors were investigated to determine the effect of {gamma}-irradiation at 0.1Gy on the quality of garlic bulbs (Allium sativum L.) during storage at 3{plus minus}1{sup 0}C and 80{plus minus}5% RH for 10 months. Irradiation treatment had no influence on the amount of total sulfur and thiosulfinate of stored garlic for 10 months, while the storage period brought about a significant reduction (P < 0.05) in the content of both components after the 6-8th month of storage compared with that at the beginning of storage period. The identity of irradiated alliin (S-allyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide) at sprout-inhibition dose was confirmed according to thin-layer chromatography, i.r. and NMR spectroscopy data. (author).

  14. Wnt5a controls neurite development in olfactory bulb interneurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngshik Choe

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Neurons born in the postnatal SVZ (subventricular zone must migrate a great distance before becoming mature interneurons of the OB (olfactory bulb. During migration immature OB neurons maintain an immature morphology until they reach their destination. While the morphological development of these cells must be tightly regulated, the cellular pathways responsible are still largely unknown. Our results show that the non-canonical Wnt pathway induced by Wnt5a is important for the morphological development of OB interneurons both in vitro and in vivo. Additionally, we demonstrate that non-canonical Wnt signalling works in opposition to canonical Wnt signalling in neural precursors from the SVZ in vitro. This represents a novel role for Wnt5a in the development of OB interneurons and suggests that canonical and non-canonical Wnt pathways dynamically oppose each other in the regulation of dendrite maturation.

  15. Sulfur-containing components of gamma-irradiated garlic bulbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulfur-containing components associated with garlic flavors were investigated to determine the effect of γ-irradiation at 0.1Gy on the quality of garlic bulbs (Allium sativum L.) during storage at 3±10C and 80±5% RH for 10 months. Irradiation treatment had no influence on the amount of total sulfur and thiosulfinate of stored garlic for 10 months, while the storage period brought about a significant reduction (P < 0.05) in the content of both components after the 6-8th month of storage compared with that at the beginning of storage period. The identity of irradiated alliin (S-allyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide) at sprout-inhibition dose was confirmed according to thin-layer chromatography, i.r. and NMR spectroscopy data. (author)

  16. Draft tube flow phenomena across the bulb turbine hill chart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the framework of the BulbT project launched by the Consortium on Hydraulic Machines and the LAMH (Hydraulic Machine Laboratory of Laval University) in 2011, an intensive campaign to identify flow phenomena in the draft tube of a model bulb turbine has been done. A special focus was put on the draft tube component since it has a particular importance for recuperation in low head turbines. Particular operating points were chosen to analyse flow phenomena in this component. For each of these operating points, power, efficiency and pressure were measured following the IEC 60193 standard. Visualizations, unsteady wall pressure and efficiency measurements were performed in this component. The unsteady wall pressure was monitored at seven locations in the draft tube. The frequency content of each pressure signal was analyzed in order to characterize the flow phenomena across the efficiency hill chart. Visualizations were recorded with a high speed camera using tufts and cavitation bubbles as markers. The predominant detected phenomena were mapped and categorized in relation to the efficiency hill charts obtained for three runner blade openings. At partial load, the vortex rope was detected and characterized. An inflection in the partial load efficiency curves was found to be related to complex vortex rope instabilities. For overload conditions, the efficiency curves present a sharp drop after the best efficiency point, corresponding to an inflection on the power curves. This break off is more severe towards the highest blade openings. It is correlated to a flow separation at the wall of the draft tube. Also, due to the separation occurring in these conditions, a hysteresis effect was observed on the efficiency curves

  17. Olfactory dysfunction, olfactory bulb pathology and urban air pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; Franco-Lira, Maricela; Henríquez-Roldán, Carlos; Osnaya, Norma; González-Maciel, Angelica; Reynoso-Robles, Rafael; Villarreal-Calderon, Rafael; Herritt, Lou; Brooks, Diane; Keefe, Sheyla; Palacios-Moreno, Juan; Villarreal-Calderon, Rodolfo; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo; Medina-Cortina, Humberto; Delgado-Chávez, Ricardo; Aiello-Mora, Mario; Maronpot, Robert R.; Doty, Richard L

    2010-01-01

    Mexico City (MC) residents are exposed to severe air pollution and exhibit olfactory bulb inflammation. We compared the olfactory function of individuals living under conditions of extreme air pollution to that of controls from a relatively clean environment and explore associations between olfaction scores, apolipoprotein E (APOE) status, and pollution exposure. The olfactory bulbs (OBs) of 35 MC and 9 controls 20.8 ± 8.5 y were assessed by light and electron microscopy. The University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT) was administered to 62 MC / 25 controls 21.2 ±2.7 y. MC subjects had significantly lower UPSIT scores: 34.24 ± 0.42 versus controls 35.76 ± 0.40, p=0.03. Olfaction deficits were present in 35.5% MC and 12% of controls. MC APOE ε 4 carriers failed 2.4 ± 0.54 items in the 10-item smell identification scale from the UPSIT related to Alzheimer's disease, while APOE 2/3 and 3/3 subjects failed 1.36 ± 0.16 items, p = 0.01. MC residents exhibited OB endothelial hyperplasia, neuronal accumulation of particles (2/35), and immunoreactivity to beta amyloid βA42 (29/35) and/or α-synuclein (4/35) in neurons, glial cells and/or blood vessels. Ultrafine particles were present in OBs endothelial cytoplasm and basement membranes. Control OBs were unremarkable. Air pollution exposure is associated with olfactory dysfunction and OB pathology, APOE 4 may confer greater susceptibility to such abnormalities, and ultrafine particles could play a key role in the OB pathology. This study contributes to our understanding of the influences of air pollution on olfaction and its potential contribution to neurodegeneration. PMID:19297138

  18. Model test and CFD calculation of a cavitating bulb turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Necker, J; Aschenbrenner, T, E-mail: joerg.necker@voith.co [Voith Hydro Holding GmbH and Co. KG Alexanderstrasse 11, 89522 Heidenheim (Germany)

    2010-08-15

    The flow in a horizontal shaft bulb turbine is calculated as a two-phase flow with a commercial Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD-)-code including cavitation model. The results are compared with experimental results achieved at a closed loop test rig for model turbines. On the model test rig, for a certain operating point (i.e. volume flow, net head, blade angle, guide vane opening) the pressure behind the turbine is lowered (i.e. the Thoma-coefficient {sigma} is lowered) and the efficiency of the turbine is recorded. The measured values can be depicted in a so-called {sigma}-break curve or {eta}- {sigma}-diagram. Usually, the efficiency is independent of the Thoma-coefficient up to a certain value. When lowering the Thoma-coefficient below this value the efficiency will drop rapidly. Visual observations of the different cavitation conditions complete the experiment. In analogy, several calculations are done for different Thoma-coefficients {sigma}and the corresponding hydraulic losses of the runner are evaluated quantitatively. For a low {sigma}-value showing in the experiment significant efficiency loss, the the change of volume flow in the experiment was simulated. Besides, the fraction of water vapour as an indication of the size of the cavitation cavity is analyzed qualitatively. The experimentally and the numerically obtained results are compared and show a good agreement. Especially the drop in efficiency can be calculated with satisfying accuracy. This drop in efficiency is of high practical importance since it is one criterion to determine the admissible cavitation in a bulb-turbine. The visual impression of the cavitation in the CFD-analysis is well in accordance with the observed cavitation bubbles recorded on sketches and/or photographs.

  19. Serotonin increases synaptic activity in olfactory bulb glomeruli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brill, Julia; Shao, Zuoyi; Puche, Adam C; Wachowiak, Matt; Shipley, Michael T

    2016-03-01

    Serotoninergic fibers densely innervate olfactory bulb glomeruli, the first sites of synaptic integration in the olfactory system. Acting through 5HT2A receptors, serotonin (5HT) directly excites external tufted cells (ETCs), key excitatory glomerular neurons, and depolarizes some mitral cells (MCs), the olfactory bulb's main output neurons. We further investigated 5HT action on MCs and determined its effects on the two major classes of glomerular interneurons: GABAergic/dopaminergic short axon cells (SACs) and GABAergic periglomerular cells (PGCs). In SACs, 5HT evoked a depolarizing current mediated by 5HT2C receptors but did not significantly impact spike rate. 5HT had no measurable direct effect in PGCs. Serotonin increased spontaneous excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs and sIPSCs) in PGCs and SACs. Increased sEPSCs were mediated by 5HT2A receptors, suggesting that they are primarily due to enhanced excitatory drive from ETCs. Increased sIPSCs resulted from elevated excitatory drive onto GABAergic interneurons and augmented GABA release from SACs. Serotonin-mediated GABA release from SACs was action potential independent and significantly increased miniature IPSC frequency in glomerular neurons. When focally applied to a glomerulus, 5HT increased MC spontaneous firing greater than twofold but did not increase olfactory nerve-evoked responses. Taken together, 5HT modulates glomerular network activity in several ways: 1) it increases ETC-mediated feed-forward excitation onto MCs, SACs, and PGCs; 2) it increases inhibition of glomerular interneurons; 3) it directly triggers action potential-independent GABA release from SACs; and 4) these network actions increase spontaneous MC firing without enhancing responses to suprathreshold sensory input. This may enhance MC sensitivity while maintaining dynamic range. PMID:26655822

  20. Immobilization of trypsin on miniature incandescent bulbs for infrared-assisted proteolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Trypsin was immobilized on miniature incandescent bulbs via chitosan coating. • The bulbs acted as enzymatic reactors and the generators of infrared radiation. • The bulb bioreactors were successfully employed in infrared-assisted proteolysis. • The proteolysis could accomplish within 5 min with high sequence coverages. - Abstract: A novel efficient proteolysis approach was developed based on trypsin-immobilized miniature incandescent bulbs and infrared (IR) radiation. Trypsin was covalently immobilized in the chitosan coating on the outer surface of miniature incandescent bulbs with the aid of glutaraldehyde. When an illuminated enzyme-immobilized bulb was immersed in protein solution, the emitted IR radiation could trigger and accelerate heterogeneous protein digestion. The feasibility and performance of the novel proteolysis approach were demonstrated by the digestion of hemoglobin (HEM), cytochrome c (Cyt-c), lysozyme (LYS), and ovalbumin (OVA) and the digestion time was significantly reduced to 5 min. The obtained digests were identified by MALDI-TOF-MS with the sequence coverages of 91%, 77%, 80%, and 52% for HEM, Cyt-c, LYS, and OVA (200 ng μL−1 each), respectively. The suitability of the prepared bulb bioreactors to complex proteins was demonstrated by digesting human serum

  1. Immobilization of trypsin on miniature incandescent bulbs for infrared-assisted proteolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ge, Huimin; Bao, Huimin; Zhang, Luyan; Chen, Gang, E-mail: gangchen@fudan.edu.cn

    2014-10-03

    Highlights: • Trypsin was immobilized on miniature incandescent bulbs via chitosan coating. • The bulbs acted as enzymatic reactors and the generators of infrared radiation. • The bulb bioreactors were successfully employed in infrared-assisted proteolysis. • The proteolysis could accomplish within 5 min with high sequence coverages. - Abstract: A novel efficient proteolysis approach was developed based on trypsin-immobilized miniature incandescent bulbs and infrared (IR) radiation. Trypsin was covalently immobilized in the chitosan coating on the outer surface of miniature incandescent bulbs with the aid of glutaraldehyde. When an illuminated enzyme-immobilized bulb was immersed in protein solution, the emitted IR radiation could trigger and accelerate heterogeneous protein digestion. The feasibility and performance of the novel proteolysis approach were demonstrated by the digestion of hemoglobin (HEM), cytochrome c (Cyt-c), lysozyme (LYS), and ovalbumin (OVA) and the digestion time was significantly reduced to 5 min. The obtained digests were identified by MALDI-TOF-MS with the sequence coverages of 91%, 77%, 80%, and 52% for HEM, Cyt-c, LYS, and OVA (200 ng μL{sup −1} each), respectively. The suitability of the prepared bulb bioreactors to complex proteins was demonstrated by digesting human serum.

  2. Effect of gamma radiation on post harvest storage life of onion bulb under ordinary room condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Post harvest storage life of radiated onion bulbs harvested at different stages of maturity and stored at ordinary room temperature (30-39 degree C) was studied at the Department of Horticulture, NWFP Agricultural University, Peshawar, during August 2002. Onion bulbs were harvested at two stages i.e. drooping and complete dried leaf. Four radiation doses of 2, 4, 6 and 8 kilo rad (Kr) were applied with normal (control). The data of experiment was collected from weight loss, rot attack, sprouting, firmness and taste pungency. The results revealed that various radiation doses significantly affected weight loss, rot attack, sprouting, firmness and taste pungency. Onion bulbs radiated with 8 Kr showed minimum percent weight loss (28.59%), decrease in firmness and taste pungency. Minimum percent rot attack (6.3%) was observed in 6 and 8 Kr. Radiation doses of 4, 6 and 8 Kr showed no sprouting at all. Maximum weight loss (43.20%), rot attack (16.2%), sprouting (40.78%), decrease in firmness and taste pungency were recorded for control. The results showed that harvesting stages are statistically non-significant. The interaction between radiation doses and harvesting stages are also non-significant. Harvesting stages significantly affected weight loss, rot attack, sprouting and taste pungency. Onion bulbs of complete dried leaf stage recorded maximum percent weight loss (35.42%), percent sprouting (11.7%) and taste pungency while minimum percent weight loss (31.62%), percent sprouting (5.01%) and taste pungency was observed in onion bulbs of drooping stage. Maximum percent rot attack (10.9%) was noted in onion bulbs of drooping stage while minimum (7.3%) in onion bulbs of complete dried leaf stage. Radiation dose of 8 Kr is recommended to reduce the post-harvest losses in onion bulbs. Drooping stage comparatively prolonged the shelf life of bulb

  3. Histological and lectin histochemical studies on the main and accessory olfactory bulbs in the Japanese striped snake, Elaphe quadrivirgata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondoh, Daisuke; Wada, Akimi; Endo, Daisuke; Nakamuta, Nobuaki; Taniguchi, Kazuyuki

    2013-01-01

    The main and accessory olfactory bulbs were examined by histological methods and lectin histochemistry in the Japanese striped snake. As the results, the histological properties are similar between the main olfactory bulb and the accessory olfactory bulb. In lectin histochemistry, 21 lectins used in this study showed similar binding patterns in the main olfactory bulb and the accessory olfactory bulb. In detail, 15 lectins stained these olfactory bulbs with similar manner, and 6 lectins did not stain them at all. Two lectins, Lycopersicon esculentum lectin (LEL) and Solanum tuberosum lectin (STL), stained the nerve and glomerular layers and did not stain any other layers in both olfactory bulbs. Four lectins, Soybean agglutinin (SBA), Vicia villosa agglutinin (VVA), Peanut agglutinin (PNA) and Phaseolus vulgaris agglutinin-L (PHA-L) stained the nerve and glomerular layers more intensely than other layers in both olfactory bulbs. In addition, VVA showed the dot-like stainings in the glomeruli of both olfactory bulbs. These findings suggest that the degree of development and the properties of glycoconjugates are similar between the main olfactory bulb and the accessory olfactory bulb in the Japanese striped snake. PMID:23257605

  4. Edible Lily Bulb Modulates Colonic Barrier Functions, Microflora and Fermentation in Rats Fed a High-Fat Die

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukako Okazaki

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Lily bulb (Lilium leichtlinii var. maximowiczii Baker is traditionally consumed in Asia as both a root vegetable and a herbal medicine. The objective of this study was to determine if dietary edible lily bulbs modulated the colonic luminal environment in rats fed a high-fat (HF diet. In experiment 1, male SD rats were fed a HF diet (30% beef tallow with or without 5% or 10% raw lily bulb powder for 3 weeks. Dietary raw lily bulb significantly increased cecal and fecal mucins, IgA (indices of intestinal barrier and immune functions and the cecal ratio of Lactobacillales and Bifidobacterium in a dose-dependent manner. In experiment 2, the rats were fed a HF diet with or without 7% steamed or raw lily bulb powder for 3 weeks. Cecal ratio of Lactobacillales was significantly increased in the HF + raw lily bulb group, with a similar trends being observed in the HF + steamed lily bulb group. Consumption of both steamed and raw lily bulb caused markedly increases in cecal and fecal mucins and cecal organic acids, including lactate, propionate, acetate, and butyrate. Unexpectedly, HF + steamed lily bulb diet caused a significant reduction in the fecal activity of mucinase, a risk factor for colon diseases, and mesenteric adipose tissue weight, whereas the HF + raw lily bulb diet did not. These results suggest a favorable effect of lily bulb on colon health by modulating colonic barrier function, microflora profile, and fermentation in rats fed a high-fat diet.

  5. Production of Quorum Sensing Inhibitors in Growing Onion Bulbs Infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa E (HQ324110)

    OpenAIRE

    Abd-Alla, Mohamed H.; Bashandy, Shymaa R.

    2012-01-01

    Eighteen organic compounds were present in growing onion bulbs cultivar Giza 6 infected with P. aeruginosa, but only fourteen of them are present in dry infected onion bulbs; however, four compounds were missing in dry onion. The missing compounds in dry infected onion bulbs are pantolactone, 4,5-dihydro-4,5-dimethylfuran-2(3H)-one, myristic acid, and linoleic acid. All of them were detected in growing onion (living cell) during Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection, and it is hypothesized that it...

  6. Odor recognition and segmentation by coupled olfactory bulb and cortical networks

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Z; Li, Zhaoping; Hertz, John

    1999-01-01

    We present a model of a coupled system of the olfactory bulb and cortex. Odor inputs to the epithelium are transformed to oscillatory bulbar activities. The cortex recognizes the odor by resonating to the bulbar oscillating pattern when the amplitude and phase patterns from the bulb match an odor memory stored in the intracortical synapses. We assume a cortical structure which transforms the odor information in the oscillatory pattern to a slow DC feedback signal to the bulb. This feedback suppresses the bulbar response to the pre-existing odor, allowing subsequent odor objects to be segmented out for recognition.

  7. Accumulation of [35S]taurine in peripheral layers of the olfactory bulb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accumulation of [35S]taurine in the laminae of the olfactory bulb of the adult cat, rat, mouse and rabbit was examined autoradiographically. [35S]Taurine was administered either i.p. or i.v. and olfactory bulbs were excised 24 h post-injection. High concentrations of [35S]taurine were restricted to the olfactory nerve and glomerular layers of the olfactory bulb in all species examined. Olfactory neurons are continuously renewed and the results obtained suggest that taurine may have an important role in olfactory receptor axons. (Auth.)

  8. Linear halogen bulb as a powerful light source for physics experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochníček, Zdeněk

    2015-11-01

    The paper describes the usage of a conventional lamp equipped with a linear halogen bulb for physics experiments. The irradiance gain and limitation of spectral resolution are treated in detail theoretically and verified experimentally. The analysis shows that, in comparison with a standard bulb and slit arrangement, the linear bulb can increase irradiance of the spectrum image by an order of magnitude without a significant loss of spectral resolution in comparable experimental arrangements. Some concrete examples of experiments with a white light spectrum and diffraction are presented.

  9. Volumetric study of the olfactory bulb in patients with chronic rhinonasal sinusitis using MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reda A. Alarabawy

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: MRI with volumetric analysis is a useful tool in assessment of the olfactory bulb volume in patients with olfactory loss and appears to be of help in assessment of the degree of recovery in patients after sinus surgery.

  10. Blood Supply--Susceptible Formation of Melanin Pigment in Hair Bulb Melanocytes of Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shogo Maeda, MD

    2015-03-01

    Conclusions: Melanin pigment formation in the hair bulb melanocytes appeared to be susceptible to the blood supply, and melanocytosis was promoted in the follicles and in the epidermis of Kitl-Tg C57BL/6 mice.

  11. Producing bulbs and perennials : sustainable control of diseases, pests and weeds

    OpenAIRE

    Boer

    2011-01-01

    In the Netherlands every year flower bulbs and perennials are produced representing a value of € 500 m (flower bulbs) and of € 65 m (perennials, 2004). The growers are faced with several threatening pests and diseases during the production. They usually deal with these problems by using pesticides. In 2004 the Ministry of Agriculture and the stakeholders in Agribusiness made an agreement on reducing the environmental impact of pesticides by developing and implementing knowledge on Integrated ...

  12. Effect of gamma radiation on the meristematic activity of garlic (Allium sativum L. ) bulbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of 10 krad of gamma radiation on the sprouting and mieristematic activity of garlic bulbs is studied. Results show that the Irradiation inhibits the meristematic activity of the bulbs independently of the epoch of treatment. When the treatment is applied several months after harvest (five or more), some apparent sprouting could be detected. This is due to a cellular elongation process rather than to cellular divisions. (Author) 47 refs

  13. Whole transcriptome profiling of the vernalization process in Lilium longiflorum (cultivar White Heaven) bulbs

    OpenAIRE

    Villacorta-Martin, Carlos; Núñez de Cáceres González, Francisco F.; de Haan, Jorn; Huijben, Kitty; Passarinho, Paul; Lugassi-Ben Hamo, Maya; Zaccai, Michele

    2015-01-01

    Background Vernalization is an obligatory requirement of extended exposure to low temperatures to induce flowering in certain plants. It is the most important factor affecting flowering time and quality in Easter lily (Lilium longiflorum). Exposing the bulbs to 4 °C gradually decreases flowering time up to 50 % compared to non-vernalized plants. We aim to understand the molecular regulation of vernalization in Easter lily, for which we characterized the global expression in lily bulb meristem...

  14. Sexual activity increases the number of newborn cells in the accessory olfactory bulb of male rats

    OpenAIRE

    Portillo, Wendy; Unda, Nancy; Camacho, Francisco J.; Sánchez, María; Corona, Rebeca; Arzate, Dulce Ma.; Díaz, Néstor F.; Paredes, Raúl G.

    2012-01-01

    In rodents, sexual behavior depends on the adequate detection of sexually relevant stimuli. The olfactory bulb (OB) is a region of the adult mammalian brain undergoing constant cell renewal by continuous integration of new granular and periglomerular neurons in the accessory (AOB) and main (MOB) olfactory bulbs. The proliferation, migration, survival, maturation, and integration of these new cells to the OB depend on the stimulus that the subjects received. We have previously shown that 15 da...

  15. Sexual activity increases the number of newborn cells in the accessory olfactory bulb of male rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Wendy Portillo; Díaz, Néstor F.

    2012-01-01

    In rodents, sexual behavior depends on the adequate detection of sexually relevant stimuli. The olfactory bulb (OB) is a region of the adult mammalian brain undergoing constant cell renewal by continuous integration of new granular and periglomerular neurons in the accessory (AOB) and main (MOB) olfactory bulbs. The proliferation, migration, survival, maturation, and integration of these new cells to the OB depend on the stimulus that the subjects received. We have previously shown that 15 da...

  16. The presence and survival of soft rot (Erwinia) in flower bulb production systems

    OpenAIRE

    Doorn, van, MGLM; Vreeburg, P.J.M.; van, Leeuwen, M.; Dees, R.H.L.

    2011-01-01

    Soft rot is causing increasing damage in the flower bulb industry. Bulbous ornamentals such as Hyacinthus, Dahlia, Iris, Muscari, Freesia and Zantedeschia can be infected. Soft rot in flower bulbs is mainly caused by Dickeya spp. (Dickeya spp.) and Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora (Pectobacterium carotovorum spp. carotovorum).To identify and detect these soft rot bacterial species in several bulbous ornamentals, standard PCR methods were used. During the last four years, research was dire...

  17. Continuous Spatial Representations in the Olfactory Bulb may Reflect Perceptual Categories

    OpenAIRE

    Benjamin Auffarth; Agustín Gutierrez-Galvez; Santiago Marco

    2011-01-01

    In sensory processing of odors, the olfactory bulb is an important relay station, where odor representations are noise-filtered, sharpened, and possibly re-organized. An organization by perceptual qualities has been found previously in the piriform cortex, however several recent studies indicate that the olfactory bulb code reflects behaviorally relevant dimensions spatially as well as at the population level. We apply a statistical analysis on 2-deoxyglucose images, taken over the entire bul...

  18. First report of Fusarium proliferatum causing rot of garlic bulbs in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Palmero Llamas, Daniel; Cara Garcia, Miguel de; Moreno, Marta Maria; Iglesias Gonzalez, Concepcion; Gonzalez, N; Tello Marquina, Julio

    2010-01-01

    In October of 2008, decayed garlic bulbs (Allium sativum cv. Blancomor de Vallelado) were received from a producer in Segovia, Spain. In November of 2009, similar symptoms were observed on stored bulbs (cultivars Blancomor de Vallelado and Garcua) from each of 30 municipalities in northwest Segovia and Valladolid. A minimum of one sample was collected from 12 localities. On the basis of morphological features and pathogenicity tests, the causal agent was identified as Fusarium proliferatum. F...

  19. Osterix is dispensable for the development of the mouse olfactory bulb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ji-Soo; Park, Geon-Il; Kim, Jung-Eun

    2016-09-01

    Osterix (Osx) has been shown to be an osteoblast-specific transcription factor for bone formation. Recently, it has been reported that Osx is significantly expressed in the mouse olfactory bulb, proving that Osx may play a role in olfactory bulb development, as well as bone development. Here, we studied morphological differences and neuronal cell alterations in the olfactory bulb using an Osx gene-modified mouse model. Although Osx expression was reduced, morphological differences were not observed in the olfactory bulb of Osx heterozygous mice compared with that of wild-type mice. Immunofluorescence using the neuronal marker genes DCX, MAP2, NeuN, and GFAP showed neuronal cell alterations caused by Osx deficiency in the mitral cell layer (MCL) and granule cell layer (GCL) of the olfactory bulb at postnatal stage. The number, morphology, and expression patterns of immature neurons, mature neurons, and astrocytes were identical in both wild-type and Osx heterozygous mice. At the post-embryonic stage, the expression of neuronal markers DCX, Nestin, MAP2, and NeuN were examined in the MCL and GCL of the olfactory bulb in wild-type, Osx heterozygous, and Osx knockout embryos. Both DCX- and Nestin-positive immature neurons, and MAP2- and NeuN-positive mature neurons, revealed a similar expression pattern in all mouse types. These results indicated that olfactory bulb development was not significantly impaired in the absence of Osx. Further study may be necessary to explain the functional properties of the olfactory bulb caused by Osx deficiency. PMID:27449610

  20. Accessory Olfactory Bulb Function is Modulated by Input from the Main Olfactory Epithelium

    OpenAIRE

    Slotnick, Burton; Restrepo, Diego; Schellinck, Heather; Archbold, Georgina; Price, Stephen; Lin, Weihong

    2010-01-01

    While it is now established that sensory neurons in both the main olfactory epithelium and the vomeronasal organ may be activated by both general and pheromonal odorants, it remains unclear what initiates sampling by the VNO. Anterograde transport of wheat germ agglutinin-horseradish peroxidase was used to determine that adequate intranasal syringing with zinc sulfate interrupted all inputs to the main olfactory bulb but left intact those to the accessory olfactory bulb. Adult male treated mi...

  1. Transplant connectivity in the rat olfactory bulb traced with DiI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tritiated thymidine pre-labelled presumptive olfactory bulbs (E15-17) were homo-topically transplanted in unilaterally bulbectomized neonatal rats (P3-5). At the time of transplantation a crystal of carbocyanine dye (DiI) was inserted into the center of the donor tissue. The results of in vivo DiI application demonstrated reestablished connections between the transplanted olfactory bulb and the higher olfactory centers of the host.. (authors)

  2. Critical design issues of retrofit light-emitting diode (LED) light bulb

    OpenAIRE

    H Chen; Li, S.; Waffenschmidt, E; Tan, SC; Hui, RSY

    2014-01-01

    For retrofit applications, some high-brightness (HB) light-emitting diode (LED) products have the same form factor restrictions as existing light bulbs. Such form factor constraints may restrict the design and optimal performance of the LED technology. In this paper, some critical design issues for a commercial LED bulb designed for replacing an E27 incandescent lamp are quantitatively analyzed. The analysis involves a power audit on such densely packed LED system so that the amounts of power...

  3. Hypothesis That Urethral Bulb (Corpus Spongiosum) Plays an Active Role in Male Urinary Continence

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Rehder; Staudacher, Nina M.; Joerg Schachtner; Berger, Maria E.; Florian Schillfahrt; Verena Hauser; Raphael Mueller; Viktor Skradski; Wolfgang Horninger; Bernhard Glodny

    2016-01-01

    The proximal urethral bulb in men is enlarged, surrounds the bulbous urethra, and extends dorsally towards the perineum. During intercourse engorgement takes place due to increased blood flow through the corpus spongiosum. Antegrade ejaculation is facilitated by contraction of the bulbospongiosus muscles during climax. Micturition during sexual stimulation is functionally inhibited. Supporting the bulb may indirectly facilitate continence in a certain subset of patients with postprostatectomy...

  4. Effect of gamma radiation on the meristematic activity of garlic (allium sativum L.) bulbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of 10 krad of gamma radiation on the sprouting and meristematic activity of garlic bulbs is studied. Results show that the irradiation inhibits the meristematic activity of the bulbs independently of the epoch of treatment. When the treatment is applied several months after harvest (five or more), some apparent sprouting could be detected. This is due to a cellular elongation process rather than to cellular divisions. (author)

  5. Permanent transparent color-warming glazes for dimmable and non-dimmable LED bulbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanard, Jan-Marie A.

    2014-02-01

    Illuminant metameric failure is frequently experienced when viewing material samples under LED generated light vs. traditional incandescent light. LED light temperatures can be improved with phosphor coatings, but long-wave red light is still generally absent in LED "warm-white" light, resulting in metameric failure of orange-to-red objects. Drawing on techniques developed for the architectural restoration of stained glass, we find that transparent, heat-resistant, permanent, pigmented coatings can be applied to any glass, aluminum or plastic surface of an LED bulb, including the phosphor plate, dome or envelope, to produce warmer visible light than in current warm-light LED bulbs. These glazes can be applied in combination with existing technologies to better tune the LED emitted light or they may be used alone. These pigmented coatings include, but are not limited to, those made by suspending inorganic materials in potassium silicates or durable transparent pigmented resins. The pigmented resin glazes may be produced in either a clear gloss vehicle or an iridescent, light diffusing transparent base. Further, a graduated density of the tinted glazes on dimmable bulbs allow the light to change color as wattage is diminished. The glazes may be applied in the manufacturing of the bulb or marketed to current bulb owners as an after-market product to better tune the thousands of LED light bulbs currently in use.

  6. Culture and purification of human fetal olfactory bulb ensheathing cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To obtain high purity of human fetal olfactory bulb ensheathing cells (OB-hOECs) in vitro and to develop a simple and effective method for primary culture of OB-hOECs. Methods: OB-hOECs were cultured based on the differential rates of attachment of the various harvested cell types. Then the method was combined with arabinoside cytosine (Ara-C)inhibition, serum-free starvation or intermittent neurotrophin 3 (NT3) nutrition method to observe cell states in different cultural environments. The purity of OB-hOECs was assessed with immunocytochemical analysis. Results: OB-hOECs appeared bipolar and tripolar shape, with slender processes forming network. The purity of OECs reached 88% with the selective attachment method on day 6, and then fibroblast proliferated quickly and reduced the purity. When combined with the starvation method, the purity of OECs was 91% on day 6 and 86% on day 9, however, OECs were in a poor state. While combined with the NT3 method, the purity reached 95% on day 9 and 83% on day 12, respectively. The cells still remained in a good state. Conclusion: A combination of selective attachment and intermittent NT3 nutrition is an effective method to obtain OECs with higher purity and quality.

  7. Learning mechanism for column formation in the olfactory bulb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Migliore

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Sensory discrimination requires distributed arrays of processing units. In the olfactory bulb, the processing units for odor discrimination are believed to involve dendrodendritic synaptic interactions between mitral and granule cells. There is increasing anatomical evidence that these cells are organized in columns, and that the columns processing a given odor are arranged in widely distributed arrays. Experimental evidence is lacking on the underlying learning mechanisms for how these columns and arrays are formed. To gain insight into these mechanisms, we have used a simplified realistic circuit model to test the hypothesis that distributed connectivity can self-organize through an activity-dependent dendrodendritic synaptic mechanism. The results point to action potentials propagating in the mitral cell lateral dendrites as playing a critical role in this mechanism. The model predicts that columns emerge from the interaction between the local temporal dynamics of the action potentials and the synapses that they activate during dendritic propagation. The results suggest a novel and robust learning mechanism for the development of distributed processing units in a cortical structure.

  8. Olfactory bulb volume predicts therapeutic outcome in major depression disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negoias, Simona; Hummel, Thomas; Symmank, Anja; Schellong, Julia; Joraschky, Peter; Croy, Ilona

    2016-06-01

    The volume of the olfactory bulb (OB) is strongly reduced in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and this group exhibits markedly decreased olfactory function. It has been suggested that olfactory input is important for maintaining balance in limbic neurocircuits. The aim of our study was to investigate whether reduced OB volume is associated with response to therapy in MDD. Twenty-four inpatients (all women, age 21-49 years, mean 38 ± 10 years SD) with MDD and 36 healthy controls (all women, age 20-52 years, mean 36 ± 10 years SD) underwent structural MRI. OB volume was compared between responders (N = 13) and non-responders (N = 11) to psychotherapy. Retest of OB volume was performed about 6 months after the end of therapy in nine of the patients. Therapy responders exhibited no significant difference in OB volume compared to healthy controls. However, average OB volume of non-responders was 23 % smaller compared to responders (p = .0011). Furthermore, OB volume was correlated with the change of depression severity (r = .46, p = .024). Volume of the OB did not change in the course of therapy. OB volume may be a biological vulnerability factor for the occurrence and/or maintenance of depression, at least in women. PMID:25977168

  9. Topological reorganization of odor representations in the olfactory bulb.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emre Yaksi

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Odors are initially represented in the olfactory bulb (OB by patterns of sensory input across the array of glomeruli. Although activated glomeruli are often widely distributed, glomeruli responding to stimuli sharing molecular features tend to be loosely clustered and thus establish a fractured chemotopic map. Neuronal circuits in the OB transform glomerular patterns of sensory input into spatiotemporal patterns of output activity and thereby extract information about a stimulus. It is, however, unknown whether the chemotopic spatial organization of glomerular inputs is maintained during these computations. To explore this issue, we measured spatiotemporal patterns of odor-evoked activity across thousands of individual neurons in the zebrafish OB by temporally deconvolved two-photon Ca(2+ imaging. Mitral cells and interneurons were distinguished by transgenic markers and exhibited different response selectivities. Shortly after response onset, activity patterns exhibited foci of activity associated with certain chemical features throughout all layers. During the subsequent few hundred milliseconds, however, MC activity was locally sparsened within the initial foci in an odor-specific manner. As a consequence, chemotopic maps disappeared and activity patterns became more informative about precise odor identity. Hence, chemotopic maps of glomerular input activity are initially transmitted to OB outputs, but not maintained during pattern processing. Nevertheless, transient chemotopic maps may support neuronal computations by establishing important synaptic interactions within the circuit. These results provide insights into the functional topology of neural activity patterns and its potential role in circuit function.

  10. Paying attention to smell: Cholinergic signaling in the olfactory bulb.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinaldo David D'Souza

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The tractable, layered architecture of the olfactory bulb (OB, and its function as a relay between odor input and higher cortical processing, makes it an attractive model to study how sensory information is processed at a synaptic and circuit level. The OB is also the recipient of strong neuromodulatory inputs, chief among them being the central cholinergic system. Cholinergic axons from the basal forebrain modulate the activity of various cells and synapses within the OB, particularly the numerous dendrodendritic synapses, resulting in highly variable responses of OB neurons to odor input that is dependent upon the behavioral state of the animal. Behavioral, electrophysiological, anatomical, and computational studies examining the function of muscarinic and nicotinic cholinergic receptors expressed in the OB have provided valuable insights into the role of acetylcholine (ACh in regulating its function. We here review various studies examining the modulation of OB function by cholinergic fibers and their target receptors, and provide putative models describing the role that cholinergic receptor activation might play in the encoding of odor information.

  11. Biophysical constraints on lateral inhibition in the olfactory bulb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Alexa B R; Cleland, Thomas A

    2016-06-01

    The mitral cells (MCs) of the mammalian olfactory bulb (OB) constitute one of two populations of principal neurons (along with middle/deep tufted cells) that integrate afferent olfactory information with top-down inputs and intrinsic learning and deliver output to downstream olfactory areas. MC activity is regulated in part by inhibition from granule cells, which form reciprocal synapses with MCs along the extents of their lateral dendrites. However, with MC lateral dendrites reaching over 1.5 mm in length in rats, the roles of distal inhibitory synapses pose a quandary. Here, we systematically vary the properties of a MC model to assess the capacity of inhibitory synaptic inputs on lateral dendrites to influence afferent information flow through MCs. Simulations using passivized models with varying dendritic morphologies and synaptic properties demonstrated that, even with unrealistically favorable parameters, passive propagation fails to convey effective inhibitory signals to the soma from distal sources. Additional simulations using an active model exhibiting action potentials, subthreshold oscillations, and a dendritic morphology closely matched to experimental values further confirmed that distal synaptic inputs along the lateral dendrite could not exert physiologically relevant effects on MC spike timing at the soma. Larger synaptic conductances representative of multiple simultaneous inputs were not sufficient to compensate for the decline in signal with distance. Reciprocal synapses on distal MC lateral dendrites may instead serve to maintain a common fast oscillatory clock across the OB by delaying spike propagation within the lateral dendrites themselves. PMID:27009162

  12. Speech rehabilitation of maxillectomy patients with hollow bulb obturator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pravesh Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the effect of hollow bulb obturator prosthesis on articulation and nasalance in maxillectomy patients. Materials and Methods: A total of 10 patients, who were to undergo maxillectomy, falling under Aramany classes I and II, with normal speech and hearing pattern were selected for the study. They were provided with definitive maxillary obturators after complete healing of the defect. The patients were asked to wear the obturator for six weeks and speech analysis was done to measure changes in articulation and nasalance at four different stages of treatment, namely, preoperative, postoperative (after complete healing, that is, 3-4 months after surgery, after 24 hours, and after six weeks of providing the obturators. Articulation was measured objectively for distortion, addition, substitution, and omission by a speech pathologist, and nasalance was measured by Dr. Speech software. Results: The statistical comparison of preoperative and six weeks post rehabilitation levels showed insignificance in articulation and nasalance. Comparison of post surgery complete healing with six weeks after rehabilitation showed significant differences in both nasalance and articulation. Conclusion: Providing an obturator improves the speech closer to presurgical levels of articulation and there is improvement in nasality also.

  13. 番红花种球定量留芽增产效果研究简报%Bulb yield of saffron as influenced by number of seed bulb sprouts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董卫明

    2012-01-01

    为实现番红花球茎高产,提高繁殖率,开展了番红花种球定量留芽田间试验.结果表明:26~30 g的大球茎留3芽、18~25 g的中球茎留2芽、18 g以下的小球茎留1芽为合理留芽量.%In order to improve the bulb yield and reproduction rate of saffron,field experiments with saffron were carried out under different numbers of sprouts reserved on the seed bulb. The result showed that the suitable number of sprouts reserved on the bulb was 3 if the bulb weighed 26 - 30 g,2 if the bulb weighed 18-25 g,and 1 if the bulb weighed less than 18 g.

  14. A circadian clock in the olfactory bulb anticipates feeding during food anticipatory activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahum Nolasco

    Full Text Available Rabbit pups ingest food, in this case milk, once a day with circadian periodicity and are a natural model of food anticipatory activity. During nursing, several sensory systems receive information about properties of the food, one of them being the olfactory system, which has received little attention in relation to synchronization by food. In addition, the olfactory bulb has a circadian pacemaker that exhibits rhythms independently of the suprachiasmatic nucleus, but the biological functions of these rhythms are largely unknown. In the present contribution, we hypothesized that circadian suckling of milk synchronizes rhythms in the olfactory bulb. To this aim we explored by immunohistochemistry, rhythms of FOS and PER1 proteins, as indicators of activation and reporter of oscillations, respectively, through a complete 24-h cycle in periglomerular, mitral and granular cell layers of both the main and the accessory olfactory bulb. Subjects were 7-day-old rabbit pups scheduled to nurse during the night (02:00 h or day (10:00 h, and also fasted subjects, to explore the possible persistence of oscillations. In the three layers of the main olfactory bulb, FOS was high at time of nursing, then further increased 1.5 h afterward, and then decreased to increase again in advance of the next nursing bout. This pattern persisted, without the postprandial increase, in fasted subjects with a shift in subjects nursed at 02:00. PER1 was increased 2-8 h after nursing and this increase persisted in most cell layers, with a shift, in fasted subjects. In the accessory olfactory bulb we only observed a consistent pattern of FOS expression in the mitral cell layer of nursed subjects, similar to that of the main olfactory bulb. We conclude that the main olfactory bulb is synchronized during milk ingestion, but during fasting its oscillations perhaps are modulated by the suprachiasmatic nucleus, as proposed for rodents.

  15. Response of garlic (Allium sativum L.) bolting and bulbing to temperature and photoperiod treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Cuinan; Wang, Mengyi; Cheng, Zhihui; Meng, Huanwen

    2016-01-01

    This research was conducted to evaluate the effect of temperature and photoperiod treatments on the bolting and bulb formation of three local garlic cultivars (cvs) in two consecutive years. Naturally vernalized plants of cvs G107, G025 and G064 were transplanted into growth chambers and subjected to various combinations of temperature [T15/10, 15°C/10°C; T20/15, 20°C/15°C and T25/18, 25°C/18°C (day/night)] and photoperiod (L8, 8 h and L14,14 h) treatments. Plant growth, endogenous phytohormone and methyl jasmonate (MeJA) levels, along with the bolting and yield of garlic were evaluated. The experimental results from two consecutive years indicated that higher temperature (20°C or 25°C) and longer photoperiod (14 h) treatments significantly enhanced the garlic bolting, bulbing and cloving with a shorter growth period and a higher bulb weight. Moreover, the endogenous phytohormone and MeJA levels in the test plants were significantly increased by the higher temperature (25°C for the phytohormone level; 20°C for the MeJA level) and longer photoperiod [14 h, except for abscisic acid (ABA), which had the highest level at 8 h] conditions and were decreased by the lowest test temperature (15°C) and shorter photoperiod (8 h, except for ABA) conditions. This response coincided with that of the bulbing index, bolting rate, growth period and bulb weight. In addition, plants treated under the conditions of 20°C/15°C-14 h and 25°C/18°C-14 h produced the highest phytohormone levels (except for ABA) for cvs G025 and G064, respectively, and showed the best bolting and bulbing behavior. It is reasonable to assume that endogenous phytohormone (especially gibberellic acid) and MeJA levels are highly related to garlic bolting and bulbing, which might lead to the different responses of the three studied cultivars to the combination of temperature and photoperiod treatments. Furthermore, cvs G107 and G025 bolt well and have better bulb formation under 20

  16. The applications of VIP 397/418 bulbs in free radical white pigmented coatings: UV curing evaluation for different free radical white pigmented formulations (I)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White pigmented coatings have gained commercial success using a Gallium doped microwave F600-V bulb. A novel VIP 397/418 bulb has been made recently, by Fusion UV Systems, to increase UV curing efficiency of white pigmented coatings. Previous research work has shown that the VIP 397/418 bulb can cure cationic white pigmented coatings 40-60% faster than a F600-V bulb. Further evaluations of free radical white pigmented coatings have produced significant data indicating that better physical properties (40-50%) or higher cure speeds (50%) can be obtained by using the VIP 397/418 bulb than a F600-V bulb

  17. Neuropeptide Y-like immunoreactive neurons in the human olfactory bulb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohm, T G; Braak, E; Probst, A; Weindl, A

    1988-06-01

    Neuropeptide Y-like (NPY) immunoreactivity was localized in the adult human olfactory bulb by the unlabeled antibody enzyme (peroxidase anti-peroxidase; PAP) technique in vibratome sections. The majority of NPY-immunoreactive somata was localized in the white matter surrounding the anterior olfactory nucleus. Immunoreactive neurons were less numerous within the anterior olfactory nucleus and within the olfactory bulb layers. NPY-immunoreactive fibres were present in the white matter, the anterior olfactory nucleus, and in the olfactory bulb layers. Fibres within the white matter were generally aligned in a straight path parallel to the long axis of the olfactory bulb and tract. Fibres within the anterior olfactory nucleus showed no clear orientation and displayed numerous branching points. Coiled plexus of NPY-immunoreactive fibres were present in the glomerular layer of the olfactory bulb. Additional characteristics of the NPY-immunoreactive neurons were studied after decolouring the chromogen and restaining the sections with aldehydefuchsin to demonstrate the presence of lipofuscin granules and also with gallocyanin chrome alum to stain the Nissl substance. This analysis showed that the neurons belong to the class of non-pigmented nerve cells. PMID:3251589

  18. Spatial assessment of net mercury emissions from the use of fluorescent bulbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckelman, Matthew J; Anastas, Paul T; Zimmerman, Julie B

    2008-11-15

    While fluorescent lighting is an important technology for reducing electrical energy demand, mercury used in the bulbs is an ongoing concern. Using state and country level data, net emissions of mercury from the marginal use of fluorescent lightbulbs are examined for a base year of 2004 for each of the 50 United States and 130 countries. Combustion of coal for electric power generation is generally the largest source of atmospheric mercury pollution; reduction in electricity demand from the substitution of incandescent bulbs with fluorescents leads to reduced mercury emissions during the use of the bulb. This analysis considers the local mix of power sources, coal quality, thermal conversion efficiencies, distribution losses, and any mercury control technologies that might be in place. Emissions of mercury from production and end-of-life treatment of the bulbs are also considered, providing a life-cycle perspective. Net reductions in mercury over the entire life cycle range from -1.2 to 97 mg per bulb depending on the country. The consequences for atmospheric mercury emissions of several policy scenarios are also discussed. PMID:19068849

  19. Organization and distribution of glomeruli in the bowhead whale olfactory bulb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takushi Kishida

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Although modern baleen whales (Mysticeti retain a functional olfactory system that includes olfactory bulbs, cranial nerve I and olfactory receptor genes, their olfactory capabilities have been reduced to a great degree. This reduction likely occurred as a selective response to their fully aquatic lifestyle. The glomeruli that occur in the olfactory bulb can be divided into two non-overlapping domains, a dorsal domain and a ventral domain. Recent molecular studies revealed that all modern whales have lost olfactory receptor genes and marker genes that are specific to the dorsal domain. Here we show that olfactory bulbs of bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus lack glomeruli on the dorsal side, consistent with the molecular data. In addition, we estimate that there are more than 4,000 glomeruli elsewhere in the bowhead whale olfactory bulb, which is surprising given that bowhead whales possess only 80 intact olfactory receptor genes. Olfactory sensory neurons that express the same olfactory receptors in rodents generally project to two specific glomeruli in an olfactory bulb, implying an approximate 1:2 ratio of the number of olfactory receptors to the number of glomeruli. Here we show that this ratio does not apply to bowhead whales, reiterating the conceptual limits of using rodents as model organisms for understanding the initial coding of odor information among mammals.

  20. Patterns of olfactory bulb neurogenesis in the adult zebrafish are altered following reversible deafferentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimpe, Darcy M; Byrd-Jacobs, Christine A

    2016-09-01

    Adult brain plasticity can be investigated using reversible methods that remove afferent innervation but allow return of sensory input. Repeated intranasal irrigation with Triton X-100 in adult zebrafish diminishes innervation to the olfactory bulb, resulting in a number of alterations in bulb structure and function, and cessation of the treatment allows for reinnervation and recovery. Using bromodeoxyuridine, Hu, and caspase-3 immunoreactivity we examined cell proliferation, differentiation, migration, and survival under conditions of acute and chronic deafferentation and reafferentation. Cell proliferation within the olfactory bulb was not influenced by acute or chronic deafferentation or reafferentation, but cell fate (including differentiation, migration, and/or survival of newly formed cells) was affected. We found that chronic deafferentation caused a bilateral increase in the number of newly formed cells that migrated into the bulb, although the amount of cell death of these new cells was significantly increased compared to untreated fish. Reafferentation also increased the number of newly formed cells migrating into both bulbs, suggesting that the deafferentation effect on cell fate was maintained. Reafferentation resulted in a decrease in newly formed cells that became neurons and, although death of newly formed cells was not altered from control levels, survival was reduced in relation to that seen in chronically deafferented fish. The potential effect of age on cell genesis was also examined. While the amount of cell migration into the olfactory bulbs was not affected by fish age, more of the newly formed cells became neurons in older fish. Younger fish displayed more cell death under conditions of chronic deafferentation. In sum, our results show that reversible deafferentation affects several aspects of cell fate, including cell differentiation, migration, and survival, and age of the fish influences the response to deafferentation. PMID:27343831

  1. Photokeratitis Linked to Metal Halide Bulbs in Two Gymnasiums - Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 2011 and 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Lauren E; Gutowski, Jennifer; Alles, Steve; Mirowitz, Naomi; Johnson, Caroline; Osterhoudt, Kevin C; Patel, Ami

    2016-01-01

    In December 2011 and December 2013, the Philadelphia Department of Public Health (PDPH) received separate reports of clusters of photokeratitis linked to gymnasium events. Photokeratitis, a painful eye condition resulting from unprotected exposure to ultraviolet radiation, has previously been linked to metal halide lamps with broken outer envelopes (1,2). To investigate the cause of these clusters and further characterize patients with photokeratitis, PDPH administered questionnaires to potentially exposed persons, established a case definition, and conducted environmental assessments of both gymnasiums. Because event attendee registration information was available, a cohort study was conducted to evaluate the 2011 cluster of 242 persons who met the photokeratitis case definition. A case-series investigation was conducted to evaluate the 2013 cluster of 20 persons who met the photokeratitis case definition for that event. These investigations indicated that Type R metal halide bulbs with broken outer envelopes found in both gymnasiums were the probable cause of the photokeratitis. The Food and Drug Administration has made a number of recommendations regarding the use of metal halide bulbs in facilities where bulbs are at elevated risk for breaking, such as schools and indoor sports facilities (3). Because Type R metal halide lamps do not self-extinguish once the outer envelope is broken, these bulbs should be removed from settings with a high risk for outer envelope rupture, such as gymnasiums, or should be placed within enclosed fixtures. In instances where these bulbs cannot be exchanged for self-extinguishing lamps, Type R lamps with a broken outer envelope should be replaced immediately to limit exposure to ultraviolet radiation. A broken outer envelope can be detected by the presence of glass on the floor, or visual examination of the bulb when the power is turned off. A broken outer envelope is difficult to detect when the lamp is emitting light. PMID

  2. Sprout inhibition in roots, tubers and bulbs; Inhibicion de brotes en raices, tuberculos y bulbos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luna C, P.C

    1992-05-15

    The treatment with ionizing radiations to low dose impedes that appear sprouts in the tubers (potatoes); bulbs (onion and garlic) and in roots like the ginger and the yucca. The purpose is to inhibit the germination during the process of manipulation and storage, and this way to avoid the lost ones post crop of these products. The radiation dose required to inhibit the germination goes to depend of: the development conditions, the differences of variety, of the storage state of the bulbs and the conditions of cured and storage. (Author)

  3. Plant regeneration from excised bulb scale segments of Zephyranthes robusta Baker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirosława Furmanowa

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Zephyranthes robusta Baker excised bulb scale segments with the basal plate were grown on Murashige and Skoog (MS medium in four modifications. The cultures were kept at 25°C in darkness. The best results (bulbing, leaf development and rooting were obtained on MS medium with 1 mg/l IBA, 2-6 bulblets being developed from one explant. After 6 weeks the plantlets (4-6 cm high were transferred to pots filled with sterilized soil mixes. After two months the leaves of the plants reached a length of 20 cm.

  4. Ergonomische adviezen bij de ontwikkeling van uniform fust voor bloemenbollen = Ergonomic advices concerning standardized flower bulbs crates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofs, P.F.M.M.; Baltissen, A.H.M.C.; Diepen, van M.; Looije, A.A.J.

    2007-01-01

    In 2006 a study is done to generate ergonomic advices with respect to the design of a standardized crate that is to be used in flower bulb cultivation and flower bulb trade. Reason for this study was an earlier AKK study, which concluded that standardisation of the crates will reduce costs (particul

  5. Effects of postharvest onion curing parameters on bulb rot caused by Pantoea agglomerans, Pantoea ananatis, and Pantoea allii in storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crop loss of onion bulbs during storage carries an exceptionally high economic impact since a large portion of the production expenses have been expended before storage occurs. Because of this, it is important to define practices that can reduce onion bulb losses caused by storage rots. This study...

  6. Structural development and bioactive content of red bulb plant (Eleutherine americana; a traditional medicines for local Kalimantan people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LAURENTIUS HARTANTO NUGROHO

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Kuntorini EM, Nugroho LH (2010 Structural development and bioactive content of red bulb plant (Eleutherine americana; a traditional medicines for local Kalimantan people. Biodiversitas 11 (2: 102-106. Red bulb plant or “bawang dayak” (Eleutherine americana Merr. is commonly used as a traditional medicine especially for anti breast cancer of Kalimantan people, because it contains bioactive naphtoquinone-derivatives. Naphtoquinones is usually used as antimicrobial, antifungal, antiviral and antiparasitic agents. This study was aimed to complete the investigation of Red bulb plant as a traditional medicine from anatomical and phytochemical point of view, especially the anatomical structure of bulb and leaf of red bulb plants during their development and their naphtoquinone derivative contents. The anatomical structures of bulb and leaf were analyzed by paraffin embedding method and naphtoquinone derivative contents were analyzed using HPLC. During plant development, the diameter and the length of bulbs as well as the thickness of mesophyll and epidermis layers of the leaves increased significantly. The size of vascular bundles increased and so did phloem and xylem components. The content of bioactive compounds in bulbs increased significantly as the size of parenchymal cells increased. There was no significant difference in the content of bioactive compounds of leaves during development, despite the rise in the thickness of mesophyll and the constituting cells as the location of synthesis.

  7. Morphological structure and water status in tulip bulbs from dormancy to active growth : visualization by NMR imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toorn, van der A.; Zemah, H.; As, van H.; Bendel, P.; Kamenetsky, R.

    2000-01-01

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to follow time-dependent morphological changes and changes in water status of tulip bulbs (Tulipa gesneriana L., cv. ‘Apeldoorn’) during bulb storage for 12 weeks at 20 °C (non-chilled) or 4 °C (chilled) and

  8. Elemental mercury emission in the indoor environment due to broken compact fluorescent light (CFL) bulbs--paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compact fluorescent light (CFL) bulbs contain a few milligrams (mg) of elemental mercury. When a CFL breaks, some of the mercury is immediately released as elemental mercury vapor and the remainder is deposited on indoor surfaces with the bulb debris. In a controlled study design...

  9. α-Synuclein aggregation in the olfactory bulb of middle-aged common marmoset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Reona; Takahashi-Fujigasaki, Junko; Shiozawa, Seiji; Hara-Miyauchi, Chikako; Inoue, Takashi; Okano, Hirotaka James; Sasaki, Erika; Okano, Hideyuki

    2016-05-01

    The synaptic protein α-synuclein has been identified as a major component of Lewy bodies, a pathological hallmark of Parkinson's disease (PD). Prior to the formation of Lewy bodies, mislocalization and aggregation of the α-synuclein in brain tissue is frequently observed in various neurodegenerative diseases. Aberrant accumulation and localization of α-synuclein are also observed in the aging human brain, for which reason aging is regarded as a risk factor for neurodegenerative disease. To investigate changes in α-synuclein properties in the aging brain, we compared α-synuclein immunoreactivity in brain tissue of young (2-years-old) and middle-aged (6-years-old) common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus). Our analyses revealed marked changes in α-synuclein immunoreactivity in the olfactory bulb of common marmosets of these age cohorts. Perikaryal α-synuclein aggregations were formed in the olfactory bulb in middle-aged animals. We also observed signals of α-synuclein accumulation in hippocampus in this cohort; however, unlike in the olfactory bulb, hippocampal α-synuclein signals were localized in the synaptic terminals. We did not observe either of these features in younger marmosets, which suggest that aging may play a role in these phenomena. Our results using common marmoset brain corresponded with the observation that the α-synuclein aggregations were first occurred from olfactory bulb in human normal aged and PD brain. Therefore, common marmoset is expected as useful model for α-synuclein pathology. PMID:26643383

  10. Gummosis in grape hyacinth (Muscari armeniacum) bulbs: hormonal regulation and chemical composition of gums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Kensuke; Kotake, Toshihisa; Sasamoto, Makiko; Saniewski, Marian; Ueda, Junichi

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the hormonal regulation of gummosis in grape hyacinth (Muscari armeniacum) bulbs, focusing especially on the chemical composition of the gums. The application of ethephon (2-chloroethylphosphonic acid), an ethylene-releasing compound, at 1% and 2% (w/w) in lanolin as well as ethylene induced gummosis in the bulbs within several days. Methyl jasmonate (JA-Me, 0.1-2% in lanolin) alone had no effect on gummosis. However, simultaneous application of JA-Me and ethephon led to extreme stimulation of ethephon-induced gummosis. Ethephon-induced gummosis in the bulbs depended on the maturation stage of the bulbs, increasing from April to July, but decreasing from August to September. Regardless of the presence of JA-Me, the application of ethephon to the inflorescence axis of grape hyacinths did not induce gummosis. Gel permeation chromatography analysis revealed that gums were homogenous polysaccharides with an average molecular mass of ca. 8.3 kDa. Analysis of the sugar composition of the gums after hydrolysis revealed that the molar ratio of Rha:Ara:Gal:GalA:GlcA was 25:10:40:7:15. These results suggest that principal factors of gummosis as well as the chemical composition of gums differ between species of bulbous plants. PMID:19941030

  11. Continuous spatial representations in the olfactory bulb may reflect perceptual categories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Auffarth

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In sensory processing of odors, the olfactory bulb is an important relay station, where odor representations are noise-filtered, sharpened, and possibly re-organized. An organization by perceptual qualities has been found previously in the piriform cortex, however several recent studies indicate that the olfactory bulb code reflects behaviorally relevant dimensions spatially as well as at the population level. We apply a statistical analysis on 2-deoxyglucose images, taken over the entire bulb of glomerular layer of the rat, in order to see how the recognition of odors in the nose is translated into a map of odor quality in the brain. We first confirm previous studies that the first principal component could be related to pleasantness, however the next higher principal components are not directly clear. We then find mostly continuous spatial representations for perceptual categories. We compare the space spanned by spatial and population codes to human reports of perceptual similarity between odors and our results suggest that perceptual categories could be already embedded in glomerular activations and that spatial representations give a better match than population codes. This suggests that human and rat perceptual dimensions of odorant coding are related and indicates that perceptual qualities could be represented as continuous spatial codes of the olfactory bulb glomerulus population.

  12. Improved spatial accuracy of functional maps in the rat olfactory bulb using supervised machine learning approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Matthew C; Poplawsky, Alexander J; Vazquez, Alberto L; Chan, Kevin C; Kim, Seong-Gi; Fukuda, Mitsuhiro

    2016-08-15

    Functional MRI (fMRI) is a popular and important tool for noninvasive mapping of neural activity. As fMRI measures the hemodynamic response, the resulting activation maps do not perfectly reflect the underlying neural activity. The purpose of this work was to design a data-driven model to improve the spatial accuracy of fMRI maps in the rat olfactory bulb. This system is an ideal choice for this investigation since the bulb circuit is well characterized, allowing for an accurate definition of activity patterns in order to train the model. We generated models for both cerebral blood volume weighted (CBVw) and blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) fMRI data. The results indicate that the spatial accuracy of the activation maps is either significantly improved or at worst not significantly different when using the learned models compared to a conventional general linear model approach, particularly for BOLD images and activity patterns involving deep layers of the bulb. Furthermore, the activation maps computed by CBVw and BOLD data show increased agreement when using the learned models, lending more confidence to their accuracy. The models presented here could have an immediate impact on studies of the olfactory bulb, but perhaps more importantly, demonstrate the potential for similar flexible, data-driven models to improve the quality of activation maps calculated using fMRI data. PMID:27236085

  13. Adult Olfactory Bulb Interneuron Phenotypes Identified by Targeting Embryonic and Postnatal Neural Progenitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueres-Oñate, Maria; López-Mascaraque, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Neurons are generated during embryonic development and in adulthood, although adult neurogenesis is restricted to two main brain regions, the hippocampus and olfactory bulb. The subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricles generates neural stem/progenitor cells that continually provide the olfactory bulb (OB) with new granule or periglomerular neurons, cells that arrive from the SVZ via the rostral migratory stream. The continued neurogenesis and the adequate integration of these newly generated interneurons is essential to maintain homeostasis in the olfactory bulb, where the differentiation of these cells into specific neural cell types is strongly influenced by temporal cues. Therefore, identifying the critical features that control the generation of adult OB interneurons at either pre- or post-natal stages is important to understand the dynamic contribution of neural stem cells. Here, we used in utero and neonatal SVZ electroporation along with a transposase-mediated stable integration plasmid, in order to track interneurons and glial lineages in the OB. These plasmids are valuable tools to study the development of OB interneurons from embryonic and post-natal SVZ progenitors. Accordingly, we examined the location and identity of the adult progeny of embryonic and post-natally transfected progenitors by examining neurochemical markers in the adult OB. These data reveal the different cell types in the olfactory bulb that are generated in function of age and different electroporation conditions. PMID:27242400

  14. Newborn Interneurons in the Accessory Olfactory Bulb Promote Mate Recognition in Female Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livio eOboti

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In the olfactory bulb of adult rodents, local interneurons are constantly replaced by immature precursors derived from the subventricular zone. Whether any olfactory sensory process specifically relies on this cell renewal remains largely unclear. By using the well-known model of mating-induced imprinting, we demonstrate that this olfactory memory formation critically depends on the presence of newborn granule neurons in the accessory olfactory bulb. Accordingly, we show that, in adult female mice, exposure to male pheromones increases the number of new granule cells surviving in the accessory olfactory bulb. This neuronal addition depends on the detection of sensory cues by the vomeronasal organ and requires centrifugal feedback activity from the amygdala. The stimuli affecting neuronal survival are contained in the low molecular weight fraction of urine and are implied in pheromonal recognition during mating. By chemical depletion of newly generated bulbar interneurons, we show a direct role of renewed granule cells in the accessory olfactory bulb in preventing pregnancy block by mating male odours. Taken together, our results indicate that adult neurogenesis is essential for specific brain functions such as persistent odour learning and mate recognition.

  15. Ex Vivo Preparations of the Intact Vomeronasal Organ and Accessory Olfactory Bulb

    OpenAIRE

    Doyle, Wayne I.; Hammen, Gary F.; Meeks, Julian P.

    2014-01-01

    The mouse accessory olfactory system (AOS) is a specialized sensory pathway for detecting nonvolatile social odors, pheromones, and kairomones. The first neural circuit in the AOS pathway, called the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB), plays an important role in establishing sex-typical behaviors such as territorial aggression and mating. This small (

  16. Regulation of granule cell excitability by a low-threshold calcium spike in turtle olfactory bulb

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinato, Giulietta; Midtgaard, Jens

    2003-01-01

    Granule cells excitability in the turtle olfactory bulb was analyzed using whole cell recordings in current- and voltage-clamp mode. Low-threshold spikes (LTSs) were evoked at potentials that are subthreshold for Na spikes in normal medium. The LTSs were evoked from rest, but hyperpolarization of...

  17. Endovascular treatment of symptomatic vestibular aqueduct dehiscence as a result of jugular bulb abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thénint, Marie-Aude; Barbier, Charlotte; Hitier, Martin; Patron, Vincent; Saleme, Suzana; Courthéoux, Patrick

    2014-11-01

    A new endovascular treatment consisting of stent-assisted coil implantation is described for jugular bulb abnormalities causing symptomatic vestibular aqueduct dehiscence. Three patients presenting with vertigo associated with pulsatile tinnitus or hearing loss were treated. This technique cured the vertigo and pulsatile tinnitus in all patients and preserved normal cerebral venous drainage with no side effects. PMID:25442142

  18. Numerical prediction of a bulb turbine performance hill chart through RANS simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the framework of an international research consortium on low-head hydraulic turbine flow dynamics, the predictive behavior of Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) simulations of the efficiency (η) hill chart of a bulb turbine is investigated. The paper presents the impacts of the blade tip gap and the hub gaps on performance predictions.

  19. Hypothesis That Urethral Bulb (Corpus Spongiosum) Plays an Active Role in Male Urinary Continence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehder, Peter; Staudacher, Nina M; Schachtner, Joerg; Berger, Maria E; Schillfahrt, Florian; Hauser, Verena; Mueller, Raphael; Skradski, Viktor; Horninger, Wolfgang; Glodny, Bernhard

    2016-01-01

    The proximal urethral bulb in men is enlarged, surrounds the bulbous urethra, and extends dorsally towards the perineum. During intercourse engorgement takes place due to increased blood flow through the corpus spongiosum. Antegrade ejaculation is facilitated by contraction of the bulbospongiosus muscles during climax. Micturition during sexual stimulation is functionally inhibited. Supporting the bulb may indirectly facilitate continence in a certain subset of patients with postprostatectomy incontinence. During physical activity with increased abdominal pressure, reflex contraction of the pelvic floor muscles as well as the bulbospongiosus muscles occurs to support sphincter function and limit urinary incontinence. Operations to the prostate may weaken urinary sphincter function. It is hypothesized that the distal urinary sphincter may be supported indirectly by placing a hammock underneath the urethral bulb. During moments of physical stress the "cushion" of blood within the supported corpus spongiosum helps to increase the zone of coaptation within the sphincteric (membranous) urethra. This may lead to urinary continence in patients treated by a transobturator repositioning sling in patients with postprostatectomy incontinence. This paper describes the possible role of the urethral bulb in male urinary continence, including its function after retroluminal sling placement (AdVance, AdVance XP® Male Sling System, Minnetonka, USA). PMID:27022393

  20. Hypothesis That Urethral Bulb (Corpus Spongiosum Plays an Active Role in Male Urinary Continence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Rehder

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The proximal urethral bulb in men is enlarged, surrounds the bulbous urethra, and extends dorsally towards the perineum. During intercourse engorgement takes place due to increased blood flow through the corpus spongiosum. Antegrade ejaculation is facilitated by contraction of the bulbospongiosus muscles during climax. Micturition during sexual stimulation is functionally inhibited. Supporting the bulb may indirectly facilitate continence in a certain subset of patients with postprostatectomy incontinence. During physical activity with increased abdominal pressure, reflex contraction of the pelvic floor muscles as well as the bulbospongiosus muscles occurs to support sphincter function and limit urinary incontinence. Operations to the prostate may weaken urinary sphincter function. It is hypothesized that the distal urinary sphincter may be supported indirectly by placing a hammock underneath the urethral bulb. During moments of physical stress the “cushion” of blood within the supported corpus spongiosum helps to increase the zone of coaptation within the sphincteric (membranous urethra. This may lead to urinary continence in patients treated by a transobturator repositioning sling in patients with postprostatectomy incontinence. This paper describes the possible role of the urethral bulb in male urinary continence, including its function after retroluminal sling placement (AdVance, AdVance XP® Male Sling System, Minnetonka, USA.

  1. Turn It on with Light Bulb Reading! Sound-Switching Strategies for Struggling Readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Maryellen; Nagano, Patty

    2003-01-01

    Notes that "Light Bulb Reading" is done in short, one-on-one, daily lessons that include oral reading with note-taking and discussions about miscues, skills, and strategies. Suggests that this is an effective approach for assisting struggling readers that focuses on specific, individual, assessed needs. Outlines an 11-step plan. (SG)

  2. Quality evaluation of irradiated Holland onion bulbs and potato tubers after shipment to Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes the general sprouted bulbs and tubers, edible and spoilage percentage of irradiated onions and potatoes treated in the Netherlands and shipped to Egypt. Radiation doses of 0.05, 0.1 KGy inhibited sprouting completely in Dutch onions and potatoes respectively

  3. COMPARISON OF MORPHOLOGICAL TRAITS AND MINERAL CONTENT IN EUCOMIS AUTUMNALIS (MILL. CHITT. PLANTS OBTAINED FROM BULBS TREATED WITH FUNGICIDES AND COATED WITH NATURAL POLYSACCHARIDES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Salachna

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Eucomis autumnalis is an attractive ornamental species from the South Africa, commonly used in natural medicine. Plant protection programs, particularly those concerning plants grown for phytotherapeutics, are focused on prophylactic treatments that facilitate a limited use of pesticides negatively affecting the environment. Polysaccharides, such as chitosan and sodium alginate are exemplary non-toxic and biodegradable substances used for hydrogel coatings. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of treating E. autumnalis bulbs with fungicide or coating with natural polysaccharides on the morphological traits and content of minerals in the leaves and bulbs. Prior to planting, the bulbs were divided into three groups: (I untreated bulbs (control; (II bulbs treated with Kaptan and Topsin fungicides; (III bulbs coated with oligochitosan and sodium alginate. Bulb coating was found to exert a stimulating effect on plant height, number and length of leaf, greenness index (SPAD, number of flowers per inflorescence, fresh weight of the aboveground part and fresh weight of bulbs. The leaves and bulbs of plants grown from coated bulbs contained more nitrogen, potassium and boron. Treating the bulbs with fungicides positively affected the number of leaves, greenness index and fresh weight of the aboveground part.

  4. Isolation and Structural Analysis In Vivo of Newly Synthesized Fructooligosaccharides in Onion Bulbs Tissues (Allium cepa L.) during Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Masaki Fujishima; Kensuke Furuyama; Yojiro Ishihiro; Shuichi Onodera; Eri Fukushi; Noureddine Benkeblia; Norio Shiomi

    2009-01-01

    Fructooligosaccharides are involved in physiological activities and quality attributes of onion bulbs. This work describes structures of newly synthesized oligosaccharides formed by fructose moieties in onion bulb tissues during storage. Onion bulbs were stored for four weeks at 10 ∘ C . HPAEC-PAD analysis showed that saccharide 1 was eluted after 1-kestose while saccharide 2 was eluted after nystose ( a ) . Saccharides 1 and 2 have R-sucrose values of 1.55 and 2.15 by HPAEC, a reducing ter...

  5. Isolation and structural analysis in vivo of newly synthesized fructooligosaccharides in onion bulbs tissues (Allium cepa L.) during storage

    OpenAIRE

    Fujishima, Masaki; Furuyama, Kensuke; Ishihiro, Yojiro; Onodera, Shuichi; Fukushi, Eri; Benkeblia, Noureddine; Shiomi, Norio

    2009-01-01

    Fructooligosaccharides are involved in physiological activities and quality attributes of onion bulbs. This work describes structures of newly synthesized oligosaccharides formed by fructose moieties in onion bulb tissues during storage. Onion bulbs were stored for four weeks at 10C°. HPAEC-PAD analysis showed that saccharide 1 was eluted after 1-kestose while saccharide 2 was eluted after nystose (4a). Saccharides 1 and 2 have R-sucrose values of 1.55 and 2.15 by HPAEC, a reducing terminal,...

  6. [3H]GABA uptake as a marker for cell type in primary cultures of cerebellum and olfactory bulb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uptake of [3H]GABA into cell cultures of rat cerebellum and olfactory bulb was studied by autoradiography, using β-alanine and aminocyclohexane carboxylic acid to distinguish neuronal-specific and glial-specific uptake. Neurons and astrocytes were also labelled by tetanus toxin and anti-GFAP respectively. This combination of markers allowed identification and quantification of several cell types. Cerebellar cultures were found to contain 77% granule neurons, 7.5% inhibitory neurons (probably stellate and basket cells) and 15% astrocytes. Olfactory bulb cultures were over 50% in small neurons which accumulated GABA, the olfactory bulb granule neuron being GABAergic in vivo. (Auth.)

  7. A rare case of Burkitt’s lymphoma of the duodenal bulb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Joana Rita; Carrilho-Ribeiro, Luís; Zagalo, Alexandra; Medeiros, Fábio Cota; Ferreira, Cristina; Velosa, José

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal tract involvement in immunodeficiency-related Burkitt’s lymphoma is not common and the duodenal involvement is very rare. We report the case of a 35-year-old man admitted because of abdominal pain, vomiting and weight loss. Human immunodeficiency virus infection was diagnosed and upper digestive tract endoscopy showed marked edema and hyperemia of the duodenal bulb with some violaceous areas. Immunohistochemical study of the bulbar tissue samples confirmed the diagnosis of Burkitt’s lymphoma. To our knowledge, duodenal Burkitt’s lymphoma affecting only the bulb has not been previously reported in the medical literature. In patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection who present with upper gastrointestinal symptoms, upper endoscopy may be diagnostic of malignancy and biopsies should be obtained from abnormal areas. PMID:27065741

  8. Modeling and simulation of residual stresses during glass bulb pressing process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The residual stresses accumulated in the forming process have great effects on the product quality of the glass bulb. Based on the characteristics analysis of glass bulb forming, a mathematical model has been established for calculating residual stresses of glass pressing process. The material is assumed as thermorheologi-cally simple thermoviscoelastic material, and the flow-induced stress is neglected. The consequences of equilibrium and compatibility equations are discussed in detail, and the boundary conditions are specified for various stages of the forming process. The numerical solution is based on the theory of thin layers, combined with finite difference method in the time and layer difference in the thickness di-rection. The presented model and solution method could easily be extended to general pressing process of glass, and applied to problems relative to glass pressing, providing extensive reference values.

  9. Modeling and simulation of residual stresses during glass bulb pressing process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU HuaMin; XI GuoDong; LI DeQun

    2007-01-01

    The residual stresses accumulated in the forming process have great effects on the product quality of the glass bulb. Based on the characteristics analysis of glass bulb forming, a mathematical model has been established for calculating residual stresses of glass pressing process. The material is assumed as thermorheologically simple thermoviscoelastic material, and the flow-induced stress is neglected. The consequences of equilibrium and compatibility equations are discussed in detail, and the boundary conditions are specified for various stages of the forming process. The numerical solution is based on the theory of thin layers, combined with finite difference method in the time and layer difference in the thickness direction. The presented model and solution method could easily be extended to general pressing process of glass, and applied to problems relative to glass pressing, providing extensive reference values.

  10. Olfactory bulb units - Activity correlated with inhalation cycles and odor quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macrides, F.; Chorover, S. L.

    1972-01-01

    Single olfactory bulb units were studied in two macrosmatic species of rodents under conditions intended to preserve the cyclical stimulation which normally accompanies nasal breathing. Patterns of unit activity related to the inhalation cycle were observed in all animals, often in the absence of specific stimuli, and could not be explained in simple mechanical terms. Distinctive changes in these patterns occurred in response to certain odors, and were generally independent of changes in the overall firing frequency. These findings indicate that a change in the overall firing frequency of unit discharges is neither a necessary nor sufficient measure of responsiveness to odors in the rodent olfactory bulb, and that stimulus-specific temporal distributions of unit firing may be involved in olfacto-endocrine activities.

  11. The impact of adult neurogenesis on olfactory bulb circuits and computations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepousez, Gabriel; Valley, Matthew T; Lledo, Pierre-Marie

    2013-01-01

    Modern neuroscience has demonstrated how the adult brain has the ability to profoundly remodel its neurons in response to changes in external stimuli or internal states. However, adult brain plasticity, although possible throughout life, remains restricted mostly to subcellular levels rather than affecting the entire cell. New neurons are continuously generated in only a few areas of the adult brain-the olfactory bulb and the dentate gyrus-where they integrate into already functioning circuitry. In these regions, adult neurogenesis adds another dimension of plasticity that either complements or is redundant to the classical molecular and cellular mechanisms of plasticity. This review extracts clues regarding the contribution of adult-born neurons to the different circuits of the olfactory bulb and specifically how new neurons participate in existing computations and enable new computational functions. PMID:23190074

  12. Activity-induced remodeling of olfactory bulb microcircuits revealed by monosynaptic tracing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin R Arenkiel

    Full Text Available The continued addition of new neurons to mature olfactory circuits represents a remarkable mode of cellular and structural brain plasticity. However, the anatomical configuration of newly established circuits, the types and numbers of neurons that form new synaptic connections, and the effect of sensory experience on synaptic connectivity in the olfactory bulb remain poorly understood. Using in vivo electroporation and monosynaptic tracing, we show that postnatal-born granule cells form synaptic connections with centrifugal inputs and mitral/tufted cells in the mouse olfactory bulb. In addition, newly born granule cells receive extensive input from local inhibitory short axon cells, a poorly understood cell population. The connectivity of short axon cells shows clustered organization, and their synaptic input onto newborn granule cells dramatically and selectively expands with odor stimulation. Our findings suggest that sensory experience promotes the synaptic integration of new neurons into cell type-specific olfactory circuits.

  13. Study on exploitation of Jerusalem artichoke bulbs in relation to chemical composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorina Ropciuc

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L. known in USA also as sunchoke, is a perennial plant, well-adapted to humid and cold climats, nonpretencious to soil and with good yield increase. The bulbs are the eatable part that grows in the ground that have certain similitudes with the potato. The value of Jerusalem artichoke as a technical and medical vegetable is based on the chemical composition of the plant. The bulbs of the Jerusalem artichoke harvested in autumn have been sensorially and chemically analyzed along the deposition during the cold season. Measurements were made on the light brown variety with a slightly elongated shape. The low mass loss during depostion, the high content of reducing sugar (4.7- 6.12% and total carbohydrates (94.27-96.18% enable their successful use in the functional food and for the production of alcohol.

  14. Experimental research and numerical simulation on impeller exit flow field of bulb tubular pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three dimensional Laser Doppler Velocimetry (3D-LDV) technique was used to measure the impeller exit flow field of bulb tubular pump, the average velocity distribution of the exit section was obtained, and the energy performance of bulb tubular pump was obtained by model test. The flow field of tubular pump also simulated by CFD based on Navier-Stokes equations and RNG k-ε model. The calculated performance curve was consistent with the model test results, and the calculated velocities of impeller exit compared with the LDV measurement results, it was shown that the distribution of circumferential velocity and axial velocity were close to each other, but the radial velocity deviation between the LDV results and the CFD ones was obviously, the reasons of deviation were analyzed. The experimental results can provide the references for the impeller and diffuser design of tubular pumps, it also can improve the accuracy of calculation and perfect simulation.

  15. Convergence of FPR-rs3-expressing neurons in the mouse accessory olfactory bulb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietschi, Quentin; Assens, Alexis; Challet, Ludivine; Carleton, Alan; Rodriguez, Ivan

    2013-09-01

    In the mouse, most members of the FPR receptor family are expressed by vomeronasal sensory neurons. The neural circuitry corresponding to this class of chemical sensors is unknown. Taking advantage of the presence of FPR-rs3 on both vomeronasal dendrites and axonal fibers, we visualized the distribution of sensory cells expressing this member of the FPR family, and their corresponding axonal projections in the olfactory bulb. We found a rostrocaudal gradient of receptor choice frequency in the vomeronasal sensory neuroepithelium, and observed a convergence of FPR-rs3 axons into multiple, linked and deeply located glomeruli. These were homogenously innervated, and spatially restricted to the basal portion of the rostral accessory olfactory bulb. This organization, reminiscent of the one that characterizes axonal projections of V1R-expressing neurons, supports a role played by these receptors in the perception of semiochemicals. PMID:23664818

  16. Evolution of some physicochemical and antioxidant properties of black garlic whole bulbs and peeled cloves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledano-Medina, M Angeles; Pérez-Aparicio, Jesús; Moreno-Rojas, Rafael; Merinas-Amo, Tania

    2016-05-15

    Black garlic was processed at three different temperatures of heat treatment (72°, 75° and 78°C) and close to 90% of relative humidity. Two types of material source were used: whole bulbs and peeled cloves. Total soluble solids content (°Brix), pH, water activity (aw), browning intensive (L value), total polyphenol content, antioxidant capacity and total polyphenol index of the raw and heated garlic were determined. This study showed the changes occurring in the physicochemical and antioxidant properties of the garlic during the heat-treatment evolution. The soluble solids content (°Brix) in garlic increased gradually and the pH decreased in whole bulbs and peeled garlics. The polyphenol content measured by the Folin-Ciocalteu method showed a significant increase during the heat-treatment in all the cases. Also, the antioxidant capacity measured by the ABTS radical increased significantly during the heat-treatment. PMID:26775954

  17. Measurements of the depth-dependent characteristics of light bulb implosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sungho; Kang, Donhyug

    2015-11-01

    Impulsive signals generated by the implosion of an incandescent light bulb were measured in shallow water with implosion depths in the range of 10 - 80 m. The received waveform was characterized by successive negative and positive pressure pulses originating from the bubble oscillation process. The time intervals between successive bubble pulses decreased with increasing implosion depth and the peaks of subsequent bubble oscillations dissipated relatively quickly. In this paper, semi-empirical formulas are derived to model the depth-dependent characteristics of the bulb implosion signal, including the time interval between bubble pulses and peak source level. The model predictions are compared with the measured signals and with the results in the literature. Possible causes of the differences in the comparison with previous results are discussed.

  18. Novel subdomains of the mouse olfactory bulb defined by molecular heterogeneity in the nascent external plexiform and glomerular layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yona Golan

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the mouse olfactory system, the role of the olfactory bulb in guiding olfactory sensory neuron (OSN axons to their targets is poorly understood. What cell types within the bulb are necessary for targeting is unknown. What genes are important for this process is also unknown. Although projection neurons are not required, other cell-types within the external plexiform and glomerular layers also form synapses with OSNs. We hypothesized that these cells are important for targeting, and express spatially differentially expressed guidance cues that act to guide OSN axons within the bulb. Results We used laser microdissection and microarray analysis to find genes that are differentially expressed along the dorsal-ventral, medial-lateral, and anterior-posterior axes of the bulb. The expression patterns of these genes divide the bulb into previously unrecognized subdomains. Interestingly, some genes are expressed in both the medial and lateral bulb, showing for the first time the existence of symmetric expression along this axis. We use a regeneration paradigm to show that several of these genes are altered in expression in response to deafferentation, consistent with the interpretation that they are expressed in cells that interact with OSNs. Conclusion We demonstrate that the nascent external plexiform and glomerular layers of the bulb can be divided into multiple domains based on the expression of these genes, several of which are known to function in axon guidance, synaptogenesis, and angiogenesis. These genes represent candidate guidance cues that may act to guide OSN axons within the bulb during targeting.

  19. Rehabilitation of Partial Maxillectomy Defect with Implant Retained Hollow Bulb Obturator Prosthesis: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Chhabra, Anuj; Anandakrishna, G. N.; Rao, Girish; Makkar, Sumit

    2011-01-01

    Tissue integrated oral implants have initiated a new perspective in oral rehabilitation of tumor patients who have had undergone surgical resection procedure. The present case demonstrated a simple and predictable approach to rehabilitate a patient who had partial maxillectomy using dental implants. The use of an implant in conjunction with hollow bulb obturator shared remarkable improvement in retention and stability of the existing complete denture prosthesis.

  20. The functional significance of newly born neurons integrated into olfactory bulb circuits

    OpenAIRE

    Sakamoto, Masayuki; Kageyama, Ryoichiro; Imayoshi, Itaru

    2014-01-01

    The olfactory bulb (OB) is the first central processing center for olfactory information connecting with higher areas in the brain, and this neuronal circuitry mediates a variety of odor-evoked behavioral responses. In the adult mammalian brain, continuous neurogenesis occurs in two restricted regions, the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricle and the hippocampal dentate gyrus. New neurons born in the SVZ migrate through the rostral migratory stream and are integrated into the ne...

  1. A population of glomerular glutamatergic neurons controls sensory information transfer in the mouse olfactory bulb

    OpenAIRE

    Tatti, Roberta; Bhaukaurally, Khaleel; Gschwend, Olivier; Seal, Rebecca P.; Edwards, Robert H.; Rodriguez, Ivan; Carleton, Alan

    2014-01-01

    In sensory systems, peripheral organs convey sensory inputs to relay networks where information is shaped by local microcircuits before being transmitted to cortical areas. In the olfactory system, odorants evoke specific patterns of sensory neuron activity which are transmitted to output neurons in olfactory bulb glomeruli. How sensory information is transferred and shaped at this level remains still unclear. Here we employ mouse genetics, 2-photon microscopy, electrophysiology and optogenet...

  2. Effects of feeding Beta vulgaris saccharifera bulb for fattening desert lambs under tropical conditions of Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M D Mohammed

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of introducing Sugar Beet bulb as a cheap substitute for grains in rations formulated for sheep fattening. Materials and Methods: This trial was conducted at the Experimental unit of Rural Development and extension center, Faculty of animal production, University of Gezira. Twenty four Sudanese desert lambs (Ashgur ecotype were purchased from local markets to assess the effects of replacing grain with Sugar Beet (Beta vulgaris saccharifera Bulb on feed lot performance, carcass traits under tropical conditions of Sudan. Sugar Beet bulb was incorporated in three rations with a control ration (A: control, B, C, D at percentages of 0, 11, 22, and 33. Results: The results showed that total weight gain and daily feed intake in group D were significantly different at (P<0.05 where values of 5.59±1.73 and 0.94± 0.13 kg were recorded. Total weight gain, daily dry matter intake, daily energy intake and feed conversion ratio were in the range of 10.67- 5.59, 1.03-0.83, 0.33-0.27and 11.77- 7.70 kg respectively. Treatments showed no significant differences at (P<0.05 for slaughter weight, empty body weight, dressing % on slaughter weight basis and dressing % on empty weight basis, the obtained results for these traits were 27.78-25.37, 24.76- 22.22, 45.80- 43.45% and 51.41- 49.65%. Carcass cuts (Leg, Loin, Rack, Plate and Neck & shoulder weight and percentages showed no significant differences among treatments. Conclusion: It is concluded that replacing expensive grains with Beta vulgaris bulb can be practiced in sheep fattening project up to 22% with excellent results. [Vet. World 2012; 5(6.000: 330-334

  3. Effects of feeding Beta vulgaris saccharifera bulb for fattening desert lambs under tropical conditions of Sudan

    OpenAIRE

    M D Mohammed; K.M. ELAMIN; A E Amin; H E Hassan; A F Khalid

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of introducing Sugar Beet bulb as a cheap substitute for grains in rations formulated for sheep fattening. Materials and Methods: This trial was conducted at the Experimental unit of Rural Development and extension center, Faculty of animal production, University of Gezira. Twenty four Sudanese desert lambs (Ashgur ecotype) were purchased from local markets to assess the effects of replacing grain with Sugar Beet (Beta vulgaris sacc...

  4. Comparing the Pain Severity Caused by Muscular Injection of Tramadole in Z and Bulb Methods

    OpenAIRE

    SH Najafi Doulatabad; Z Mohebi Nobandegani; J Malekzadeh

    2008-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Introduction & Objective: Pain, rather than any other problems, would persuade people to pursue remedy and treatment. Muscular injections are among pain producing factors. This technique of prescription can be followed by some complications from which pain is the most prevalent one. This study was performed to compare the pain severity caused by muscular injection of Tramadole in Z and Bulb methods. Materials & Methods: This is a clinical trial study in which 90 women who re...

  5. A rare case of Burkitt’s lymphoma of the duodenal bulb

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, Joana Rita; Carrilho-Ribeiro, Luís; Zagalo, Alexandra; Medeiros, Fábio Cota; Ferreira, Cristina; Velosa, José

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal tract involvement in immunodeficiency-related Burkitt’s lymphoma is not common and the duodenal involvement is very rare. We report the case of a 35-year-old man admitted because of abdominal pain, vomiting and weight loss. Human immunodeficiency virus infection was diagnosed and upper digestive tract endoscopy showed marked edema and hyperemia of the duodenal bulb with some violaceous areas. Immunohistochemical study of the bulbar tissue samples confirmed the diagnosis of Bu...

  6. Map Formation in the Olfactory Bulb by Axon Guidance of Olfactory Neurons

    OpenAIRE

    Benjamin Auffarth; Anders Lansner

    2011-01-01

    The organization of representations in the brain has been observed to locally reflect subspaces of inputs that are relevant to behavioral or perceptual feature combinations, such as in areas receptive to lower and higher-order features in the visual system. The early olfactory system developed highly plastic mechanisms and convergent evidence indicates that projections from primary neurons converge onto the glomerular level of the olfactory bulb (OB) to form a code composed of continuous spat...

  7. Hysteresis in a light bulb: connecting electricity and thermodynamics with simple experiments and simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clauss, D. A.; Ralich, R. M.; Ramsier, R. D.

    2001-07-01

    A method for integrating energy conversion phenomena, nonlinear circuit behaviour and hysteresis into a simple laboratory activity is demonstrated. Current-voltage data for a flashlight bulb driven at various frequencies and amplitudes are measured and simulated. Non-ohmic behaviour and hysteresis are observed experimentally and reproduced numerically with a model that includes the temperature-dependent specific heat capacity and electrical resistivity of the filament. The phenomenological model and simple experimental design could be modified for a variety of audiences.

  8. The relaxant effect induced by Allium sativum L. bulb aqueous extract on rat isolated trachea

    OpenAIRE

    Badreddine Fehri; Mueen Ahmed, K.K.; Jean-Marc Aiache

    2011-01-01

    Background: Garlic plays an important role in complementary and alternative medicine. Most people believe in and use herbal products even when they have not been as thoroughly researched as garlic. Garlic is also known for its beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system. Materials and Methods: The relaxant effect of Allium sativum L. bulb aqueous extract (ASBAE) containing 0.06%-0.10% of allicin was studied on isolated smooth muscle of trachea of rats precontracted using acetylcholine (10...

  9. Sensory-Evoked Intrinsic Imaging Signals in the Olfactory Bulb Are Independent of Neurovascular Coupling

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto Vincis; Samuel Lagier; Dimitri Van De Ville; Ivan Rodriguez; Alan Carleton

    2015-01-01

    Functional brain-imaging techniques used in humans and animals, such as functional MRI and intrinsic optical signal (IOS) imaging, are thought to largely rely on neurovascular coupling and hemodynamic responses. Here, taking advantage of the well-described micro-architecture of the mouse olfactory bulb, we dissected the nature of odor-evoked IOSs. Using in vivo pharmacology in transgenic mouse lines reporting activity in different cell types, we show that parenchymal IOSs are largely independ...

  10. Optophysiological analysis of pattern classification strategies in the zebrafish olfactory bulb

    OpenAIRE

    Niessing, Jörn

    2012-01-01

    Classification of overlapping activity patterns is a common problem for sensory systems. For a robust representation of sensory stimuli, neuronal circuits should generalize over input patterns reflecting variations of the same stimulus but separate patterns representing different stimuli, even if they are highly overlapping. In the olfactory bulb (OB), input patterns evoked by related, yet distinct, odors are often highly overlapping but perceived as a different stimulus. Consistent with this...

  11. Decompression of the Jugular Bulb for Enhanced Infralabyrinthine Access to the Petroclival Region: A Quantitative Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Matthew; Pearl, Monica S; Wyse, Emily; Olivi, Alessandro; Francis, Howard W

    2016-06-01

    Objectives To describe an enhanced infralabyrinthine approach to petroclival lesions with jugular bulb decompression, and to quantify surgical access using a flat-panel computed tomography image protocol. Design Retrospective case series and paired comparison of pre- versus post-dissection anatomy. Setting Tertiary academic medical center. Participants Four patients presenting with petroclival lesions. Six fresh cadaveric specimens were used for temporal bone dissection. Main Outcome Measures Axial and coronal dimensions, and access angles of the infralabyrinthine surgical corridor. Results Decompression of the jugular bulb increased the craniocaudal width of the infralabyrinthine corridor from 0.9 to 7.9 mm to 6.5 to 11.6 mm. The mean increase of 4 mm was statistically significant (t = 3.7; p < .05). There was also a significant widening of the infralabyrinthine window along the axial dimension by 0.9 to 4.5 mm or a mean of 2 mm (t = 3.7; p < .05). Angles of access to the petroclival region were wider following jugular bulb decompression, particularly in the coronal plane (mean difference 7.9 degrees; t = 5.0; p < .005) but less so in the axial plane (mean difference 4.7 degrees; t = 2.5; p = .05). Conclusions Jugular bulb decompression enhances infralabyrinthine access to petroclival lesions, permitting the removal of tissue for diagnoses or partial resection, without significant additional morbidity. PMID:27175321

  12. Activity Regulates Functional Connectivity from the Vomeronasal Organ to the Accessory Olfactory Bulb

    OpenAIRE

    Hovis, Kenneth R.; Ramnath, Rohit; Dahlen, Jeffrey E.; Romanova, Anna L.; LaRocca, Greg; Bier, Mark E.; Urban, Nathaniel N.

    2012-01-01

    The mammalian accessory olfactory system is specialized for the detection of chemicals that identify kin and conspecifics. Vomeronasal sensory neurons (VSNs), residing in the vomeronasal organ, project axons to the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) where they form synapses with principle neurons, known as mitral cells. The organization of this projection is quite precise and is believed to be essential for appropriate function of this system. However, how this precise connectivity is established...

  13. Reliable Sex and Strain Discrimination in the Mouse Vomeronasal Organ and Accessory Olfactory Bulb

    OpenAIRE

    Tolokh, Illya I.; Fu, Xiaoyan; Holy, Timothy E.

    2013-01-01

    Animals modulate their courtship and territorial behaviors in response to olfactory cues produced by other animals. In rodents, detecting these cues is the primary role of the accessory olfactory system (AOS). We sought to systematically investigate the natural stimulus coding logic and robustness in neurons of the first two stages of accessory olfactory processing, the vomeronasal organ (VNO) and accessory olfactory bulb (AOB). We show that firing rate responses of just a few well-chosen mou...

  14. Integrated management of soil-borne diseases in flower bulb production

    OpenAIRE

    Boer, de, F.R.; Ende, van den, J.; Os, van, J.; Bijman, V.P.; Werd, de, H.A.E.; Bruggen, van, C.; Conijn, C.G.M.; Breedeveld, M.E.

    2005-01-01

    Soilborne diseases (e.g. Rhizoctonia, Pythium, Botrytis spp., Pratylenchus penetrans) threaten flower bulb production in the Netherlands. Since measures against these diseases do not result in sufficient control or result in a high input of pesticides Applied Plant Research investigates the development of integrated management strategies to control these diseases. Integrated management combines preventive and control measures. Different aspects and results of several preventive and control me...

  15. Evaluation of arterial and jugular bulb venous blood gase differences during neurosurgical procedures

    OpenAIRE

    Küçük, Dr. Nergiz; Gökmen, Dr. Gökhan; Uslu, Dr. Sebahattin

    1997-01-01

    Retrograde catheterization of the internal jugular venous bulb is a useful technique which is becoming more widespread as it enables monitoring of cerebral blood flow and cerebral metabolism. In this study, we aimed to determine our neuroanaesthesia as an objective technique. After Ethic Committee approval, 10 patients with head trauma were included in this study. Radial arter and jugular venous cannulation were performed in operating room. Blood gases, Hb, osmolality, BUN, Na, and K were ana...

  16. Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 and -2 Expression in the Olfactory Bulb Following Methyl Bromide Gas Exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Bakos, Stephen R.; Schwob, James E.; Costanzo, Richard M.

    2010-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and MMP-2 are important for recovery following direct traumatic injury within the central nervous system (CNS). However, most CNS injury models include both direct trauma and neuronal deafferentation. This limits the ability to determine if these MMPs are important to one or both components of injury. To establish if MMPs play a role in the deafferentation processes, we investigated MMP-9 and MMP-2 in the olfactory bulb following methyl bromide gas exposure....

  17. Neuronal pattern separation in the olfactory bulb improves odor discrimination learning

    OpenAIRE

    Gschwend, Olivier; Abraham, Nixon; Lagier, Samuel; Begnaud, Frédéric; Rodriguez, Ivan; Carleton, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Neuronal pattern separation is thought to enable the brain to disambiguate sensory stimuli with overlapping features thereby extracting valuable information. In the olfactory system, it remains unknown whether pattern separation acts as a driving force for sensory discrimination and the learning thereof. Here we show that overlapping odor-evoked input patterns to the mouse olfactory bulb (OB) are dynamically reformatted in the network at the timescale of a single breath, giving rise to separa...

  18. Evaporation of intercepted rainfall from isolated evergreen oak trees: do the crowns behave as wet bulbs ?

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, F. L.; J. H. C. Gash; David, J. S.; Valente, F.

    2009-01-01

    A new approach is suggested for estimating evaporation of intercepted rainfall from single trees in sparse forests. It is shown that, theoretically, the surface temperature of a wet tree crown will depend on the available energy and windspeed. But for a fully saturated canopy under rainy conditions, surface temperature will approach the wet bulb temperature when available energy tends to zero. This was confirmed experimentally from measurements of the radiation balance, aerodyn...

  19. Effect of Intercropping Bulb Onion and Vegetables on Purple Blotch and Downy Mildew

    OpenAIRE

    F.M. Olubayo; J.H. Nderitu; S.M. Gachu; J.W. Muthomi; R.D. Narla

    2011-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted over two growing seasons to determine the effectiveness of vegetable intercrops in the management of downy mildew (Peronospora destrutor) and purple blotch (Alternaria porri) of bulb onion. Vegetable intercrops evaluated, were carrot (Daucus carota), spider plant (Cleome gynandra) and French bean (Phaseolus vulgarisHowever, further studies are necessary to determine the optimal spatial arrangements of onion and vegetable intercrops in foliar disease management.

  20. Participation of the Olfactory Bulb in Circadian Organization during Early Postnatal Life in Rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarrete, Erika; Ortega-Bernal, Juan Roberto; Trejo-Muñoz, Lucero; Díaz, Georgina; Montúfar-Chaveznava, Rodrigo; Caldelas, Ivette

    2016-01-01

    Experimental evidence indicates that during pre-visual stages of development in mammals, circadian regulation is still not under the control of the light-entrainable hypothalamic pacemaker, raising the possibility that the circadian rhythmicity that occurs during postnatal development is under the control of peripheral oscillators, such as the main olfactory bulb (MOB). We evaluated the outcome of olfactory bulbectomy on the temporal pattern of core body temperature and gross locomotor activity in newborn rabbits. From postnatal day 1 (P1), pups were randomly assigned to one of the following conditions: intact pups (INT), intact pups fed by enteral gavage (INT+ENT), sham operated pups (SHAM), pups with unilateral lesions of the olfactory bulb (OBx-UNI), and pups with bilateral lesions of the olfactory bulb (OBx-BI). At the beginning of the experiment, from P1-8, the animals in all groups were fed at 11:00, from P9-13 the feeding schedule was delayed 6 h (17:00), and finally, from P14-15 the animals were subjected to fasting conditions. The rabbit pups of the INT, INT+ENT, SHAM and OBx-UNI groups exhibited a clear circadian rhythmicity in body temperature and locomotor activity, with a conspicuous anticipatory rise hours prior to the nursing or feeding schedule, which persisted even during fasting conditions. In addition, phase delays in the nursing or feeding schedule induced a clear phase shift in both parameters. In contrast, the OBx-BI group exhibited atypical rhythmicity in both parameters under entrained conditions that altered the anticipatory component, as well as deficient phase control of both rhythms. The present results demonstrate that the expression of circadian rhythmicity at behavioral and physiological levels during early stages of rabbit development largely depends on the integrity of the main olfactory bulb. PMID:27305041

  1. Participation of the Olfactory Bulb in Circadian Organization during Early Postnatal Life in Rabbits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Navarrete

    Full Text Available Experimental evidence indicates that during pre-visual stages of development in mammals, circadian regulation is still not under the control of the light-entrainable hypothalamic pacemaker, raising the possibility that the circadian rhythmicity that occurs during postnatal development is under the control of peripheral oscillators, such as the main olfactory bulb (MOB. We evaluated the outcome of olfactory bulbectomy on the temporal pattern of core body temperature and gross locomotor activity in newborn rabbits. From postnatal day 1 (P1, pups were randomly assigned to one of the following conditions: intact pups (INT, intact pups fed by enteral gavage (INT+ENT, sham operated pups (SHAM, pups with unilateral lesions of the olfactory bulb (OBx-UNI, and pups with bilateral lesions of the olfactory bulb (OBx-BI. At the beginning of the experiment, from P1-8, the animals in all groups were fed at 11:00, from P9-13 the feeding schedule was delayed 6 h (17:00, and finally, from P14-15 the animals were subjected to fasting conditions. The rabbit pups of the INT, INT+ENT, SHAM and OBx-UNI groups exhibited a clear circadian rhythmicity in body temperature and locomotor activity, with a conspicuous anticipatory rise hours prior to the nursing or feeding schedule, which persisted even during fasting conditions. In addition, phase delays in the nursing or feeding schedule induced a clear phase shift in both parameters. In contrast, the OBx-BI group exhibited atypical rhythmicity in both parameters under entrained conditions that altered the anticipatory component, as well as deficient phase control of both rhythms. The present results demonstrate that the expression of circadian rhythmicity at behavioral and physiological levels during early stages of rabbit development largely depends on the integrity of the main olfactory bulb.

  2. Method of Light Bulbs Analysis on Vehicles Damaged in Traffic Accidents

    OpenAIRE

    Horvat, Rajko; Barišić-Jaman, Berislav; Mršić, Gordan; Špoljarić, Igor; Vrdoljak, Andro; Pehar, Ivan

    2010-01-01

    One of the measures to increase road traffic safety in Croatia is the introduction of obligatory use of daily lights on vehicles in road traffic during driving, regardless of the visibility and the time of day. The paper describes the new original technical and technological procedure of analysing automotive light bulbs in order to find the traces of glass particles of the broken glass balloon in the marginal cases of action of small inertia forces generated as result of a traffic accident. I...

  3. Somatostatin-14-like immunoreactive neurons and fibres in the human olfactory bulb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohm, T G; Braak, E; Probst, A

    1988-01-01

    This study describes the morphological features and the distribution pattern of neurons in the human olfactory bulb which are immunoreactive for an antiserum against the neuropeptide somatostatin-14. Immunoreactive nerve cell bodies were mainly found in the white matter surrounding the cell clusters of the anterior olfactory nucleus. Some immunoreactive neurons were also found scattered throughout the anterior olfactory nucleus and the deeper parts of the inner granule cell layer. Only a few immunoreactive neurons were localized in the glomerular layer and the outer granule cell layer. Immunoreactive fibres were found in all layers of the olfactory bulb. In addition, an impressive number of coiled and kinked immunoreactive fibres were localized within the anterior olfactory nucleus forming a dense plexus. Accumulations of twisted and coiled branches of immunoreactive fibres were rarely found either surrounding or within the olfactory glomerula. The characteristics of somatostatin-14 immunoreactive neurons as seen in the combined pigment-Nissl preparation were studied after decolourizing the chromogen and restaining the preparations with aldehydefuchsin in order to demonstrate the lipofuscin pigment and gallocyanin chrome alum for Nissl material. About 90% of the immunoreactive neurons studied in this manner turned out to be devoid of lipofuscin granules. The remaining 10% displayed different patterns of pigmentation. These findings suggest the presence of different types of somatostatin-14-like immunoreactive neurons in the olfactory bulb of the human adult. PMID:2906788

  4. Premature graying as a consequence of compromised antioxidant activity in hair bulb melanocytes and their precursors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Shi

    Full Text Available Intricate coordinated mechanisms that govern the synchrony of hair growth and melanin synthesis remain largely unclear. These two events can be uncoupled in prematurely gray hair, probably due to oxidative insults that lead to the death of oxidative stress-sensitive melanocytes. In this study, we examined the gene expression profiles of middle (bulge and lower (hair bulb segments that had been micro-dissected from unpigmented and from normally pigmented hair follicles from the same donors using quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qPCR arrays. We found a significant down-regulation of melanogenesis-related genes (TYR, TYRP1, MITF, PAX3, POMC in unpigmented hair bulbs and of marker genes typical for melanocyte precursor cells (PAX3, SOX10, DCT in unpigmented mid-segments compared with their pigmented analogues. qPCR, western blotting and spin trapping assays revealed that catalase protein expression and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities are strongly repressed in unpigmented hair follicles. These data provide the first clear evidence that compromised antioxidant activity in gray hair follicles simultaneously affects mature hair bulb melanocytes and their immature precursor cells in the bulge region.

  5. Hormonal regulation of gummosis and composition of gums from bulbs of hyacinth (Hyacinthus orientalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Kensuke; Kotake, Toshihisa; Boncela, Anna Jarecka; Saniewski, Marian; Ueda, Junichi

    2015-02-01

    Hyacinth (Hyacinthus orientalis) bulbs infected by Fusarium oxysporum showed the symptoms of gummosis. The purpose of this study was to clarify the hormonal regulation of gummosis and composition of gums from hyacinth bulbs. The application of ethephon (2-chloroethylphosphonic acid), an ethylene-releasing compound, at 2% (w/w, in lanolin) induced gummosis in hyacinth bulbs. Methyl jasmonate (JA-Me) at 1.5% (w/w, in lanolin) induced gummosis as well. Simultaneous application of JA-Me and ethephon further enhanced gummosis. Molecular mass distribution of hyacinth gums analyzed by gel permeation chromatography indicated that the gums were mainly homogenous polysaccharides with an average molecular weight of ca. 30kDa. Analysis of the sugar composition of the gums after hydrolysis revealed that the majority were arabinose (ca. 35%) and galactose (ca. 40%) together with small amounts of fucose, rhamnose and uronic acids (ca. 5%, respectively), suggesting that the gums are pectic arabinogalactans. These results indicate that jasmonates (JAs) interact with ethylene to stimulate sugar metabolism, producing pectic arabinogalactans, and vice versa, leading to gummosis. These findings, together with those from our previous studies in tulips (Tulipa gesneriana) and grape hyacinth (Muscari armeniacum), revealed that sugar metabolism and hormonal regulation relating to gummosis are different among species of bulbous plants. PMID:25462960

  6. Comparing the Pain Severity Caused by Muscular Injection of Tramadole in Z and Bulb Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SH Najafi Doulatabad

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Introduction & Objective: Pain, rather than any other problems, would persuade people to pursue remedy and treatment. Muscular injections are among pain producing factors. This technique of prescription can be followed by some complications from which pain is the most prevalent one. This study was performed to compare the pain severity caused by muscular injection of Tramadole in Z and Bulb methods. Materials & Methods: This is a clinical trial study in which 90 women who referred to the emergency ward of Shahid Beheshti hospital in Yasooj in 2006 were randomly selected. Data collection instrument was questionnaire. The pain severity was evaluated by visual scale. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistical method, independent T and chi square test using SPSS software. Results: Mean of pain severity in bulb method was 2.84±1.242 and in Z method was 4.56±1.659. The independent T test indicated that the differences in pain severity in two injection methods were statistically significant (p=0.036. No significant differences were found between age, educational level, job, marriatal status, number of previous injections and BMI of samples between two groups. Conclusion: Bulb method injection induces less pain in comparison with Z method therefore it is an ideal method for muscular injections. As such, health care workers, especially nurses, can, through this method, minimize the patients’ pain, which is one of the most important injection complaints.

  7. De Novo Transcriptome Analysis of Allium cepa L. (Onion Bulb to Identify Allergens and Epitopes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemalatha Rajkumar

    Full Text Available Allium cepa (onion is a diploid plant with one of the largest nuclear genomes among all diploids. Onion is an example of an under-researched crop which has a complex heterozygous genome. There are no allergenic proteins and genomic data available for onions. This study was conducted to establish a transcriptome catalogue of onion bulb that will enable us to study onion related genes involved in medicinal use and allergies. Transcriptome dataset generated from onion bulb using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 technology showed a total of 99,074,309 high quality raw reads (~20 Gb. Based on sequence homology onion genes were categorized into 49 different functional groups. Most of the genes however, were classified under 'unknown' in all three gene ontology categories. Of the categorized genes, 61.2% showed metabolic functions followed by cellular components such as binding, cellular processes; catalytic activity and cell part. With BLASTx top hit analysis, a total of 2,511 homologous allergenic sequences were found, which had 37-100% similarity with 46 different types of allergens existing in the database. From the 46 contigs or allergens, 521 B-cell linear epitopes were identified using BepiPred linear epitope prediction tool. This is the first comprehensive insight into the transcriptome of onion bulb tissue using the NGS technology, which can be used to map IgE epitopes and prediction of structures and functions of various proteins.

  8. Investigating the outer-bulb discharge as ignition aid for automotive-HID lamps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work considers the ignition process of mercury-free high-intensity discharge lamps used for car headlights. These lamps have to run-up fast. This is achieved with a high xenon pressure of about 15 bar (cold) in the inner bulb. The high filling-gas pressure causes an increased ignition voltage compared with lower-pressure lamps used in general-lighting applications. In this paper the possibility is investigated to reduce the ignition voltage by optimizing a dielectric-barrier discharge (DBD) in the outer bulb working as ignition aid. A special outer bulb was built up allowing gas exchange and adjustment of the gas pressure. For diagnostic purposes different electrical and optical methods are used, namely the recording of ignition voltage, ignition current and light emission by a photo-diode signal on nanosecond time scale as well as short-time photography by a intensified charge-coupled device camera. It was found that the DBD mainly generates a potential distribution within the lamp which supports ignition by an increase in the E-field in front of the electrodes and the wall. It is shown that this effect is distinctly more effective than UV radiation potentially emitted by the DBD. (paper)

  9. Mechanisms and benefits of granule cell latency coding in the mouse olfactory bulb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonya Giridhar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Inhibitory circuits are critical for shaping odor representations in the olfactory bulb. Individual olfactory bulb granule cells can respond to brief stimulation with extremely long (up to 1000 ms, input-specific latencies that are highly reliable. However, the mechanism and function of this long timescale activity remain unknown. We sought to elucidate the mechanism responsible for long-latency activity, and to understand the impact of widely distributed interneuron latencies on olfactory coding. We used a combination of electrophysiological, optical, and pharmacological techniques to show that long-latency inhibition is driven by late onset synaptic excitation to granule cells. We also provide evidence that tufted cells, which have intrinsic properties that favor longer latency spiking than mitral cells are the major source of this excitation. Using computational modeling, we show that widely distributed interneuron latency can increase the discriminability of similar stimuli. Thus, long-latency inhibition in the olfactory bulb requires a combination of circuit- and cellular-level mechanisms that function to improve stimulus representations.

  10. Olfactory aversive conditioning alters olfactory bulb mitral/tufted cell glomerular odor responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max L Fletcher

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The anatomical organization of receptor neuron input into the olfactory bulb (OB allows odor information to be transformed into an odorant-specific spatial map of mitral/tufted cell glomerular activity at the upper level of the olfactory bulb. In other sensory systems, neuronal representations of stimuli can be reorganized or enhanced following learning. While the mammalian OB has been shown to undergo experience-dependent plasticity at the glomerular level, it is still unclear if similar representational change occurs within mitral/tufted cell glomerular odor representations following learning. To address this, odorant-evoked glomerular activity patterns were imaged in mice expressing a GFP-based calcium indicator (GCaMP2 in OB mitral/tufted cells. Glomerular odor responses were imaged before and after olfactory associative conditioning to aversive foot shock. Following conditioning, we found no overall reorganization of the glomerular representation. Training, however, did significantly alter the amplitudes of individual glomeruli within the representation in mice in which the odor was presented together with foot shock. Further, the specific pairing of foot shock with odor presentations lead to increased responses primarily in initially weakly activated glomeruli. Overall, these results suggest that associative conditioning can enhance the initial representation of odors within the olfactory bulb by enhancing responses to the learned odor in some glomeruli.

  11. Equipment for fully homologous bulb turbine model testing in Laval University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the context of liberalisation of the energy market, hydroelectricity remains a first class source of clean and renewable energy. Combining the growing demand of energy, its increasing value and the appreciation associated to the sustainable development, low head sites formerly considered as non-profitable are now exploitable. Bulb turbines likely to equip such sites are traditionally developed on model using right angle transmission leading to piers enlargement for power take off shaft passage, thus restricting possibilities to have fully homologous hydraulic passages. Aiming to sustain good quality development on fully homologous scale model of bulb turbines, the Hydraulic Machines Laboratory (LAMH) of Laval University has developed a brake with an enhanced power to weight ratio. This powerful brake is small enough to be located in the bulb shell while dissipating power without mandatory test head reduction. This paper first presents the basic technology of this brake and its application. Then both its main performance capabilities and dimensional characteristics will be detailed. The instrumentation used to perform accurate measurements will be finally presented

  12. Equipment for fully homologous bulb turbine model testing in Laval University

    Science.gov (United States)

    R, Fraser; D, Vallée; Y, Jean; C, Deschênes

    2014-03-01

    Within the context of liberalisation of the energy market, hydroelectricity remains a first class source of clean and renewable energy. Combining the growing demand of energy, its increasing value and the appreciation associated to the sustainable development, low head sites formerly considered as non-profitable are now exploitable. Bulb turbines likely to equip such sites are traditionally developed on model using right angle transmission leading to piers enlargement for power take off shaft passage, thus restricting possibilities to have fully homologous hydraulic passages. Aiming to sustain good quality development on fully homologous scale model of bulb turbines, the Hydraulic Machines Laboratory (LAMH) of Laval University has developed a brake with an enhanced power to weight ratio. This powerful brake is small enough to be located in the bulb shell while dissipating power without mandatory test head reduction. This paper first presents the basic technology of this brake and its application. Then both its main performance capabilities and dimensional characteristics will be detailed. The instrumentation used to perform accurate measurements will be finally presented.

  13. Report of an exploratory study on vacuum drying of flower bulbs; Verslag orienterend onderzoek vacuumdrogen bloembollen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dijkema, M.; Van der Klugt, J.W.

    2010-03-15

    In an exploratory practical study, several questions were answered with regard to vacuum drying. What are the effects on growing and flowering of flower bulbs: (1) of vacuum drying; (2) of half an hour of zero oxygen immediately after harvesting; and (3) of strong temperature shift immediately after harvesting? In addition, the following questions were answered: (4) do flower bulbs dry sufficiently in half an hour of vacuum?; (5) how do fungi and bacteria respond to half an hour in vacuum?; (6) how do animal pests (e.g. bulb mite)react to vacuum? [Dutch] In een orienterende praktijkproef is een aantal vragen beantwoord met betrekking tot vacuumdrogen. Wat zijn de effecten op de groei en de bloei van bloembollen: (1) van vacuumdrogen; (2)van een half uur zuurstofloosheid direct na de oogst?; en (3) van een sterke temperatuurwisseling direct na de oogst?. Daarnaast werden de volgende vragen beantwoord: (4) drogen bloembollen voldoende in een half uur vacuum?; (5) hoe reageren schimmels en bacterien op het vacuum?; (6) hoe reageren dierlijke aantasters (o.a. bollenmijt) op het vacuum?.

  14. Disruption of adult neurogenesis in the olfactory bulb affects social interaction but not maternal behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia E Feierstein

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Adult-born neurons arrive to the olfactory bulb and integrate into the existing circuit throughout life. Despite the prevalence of this phenomenon, its functional impact is still poorly understood. Recent studies point to the importance of newly generated neurons to olfactory learning and memory. Adult neurogenesis is regulated by a variety of factors, notably by instances related to reproductive behavior, such as exposure to mating partners, pregnancy and lactation, and exposure to offspring. To study the contribution of olfactory neurogenesis to maternal behavior and social recognition, here we selectively disrupted olfactory bulb neurogenesis using focal irradiation of the subventricular zone in adult female mice. We show that reduction of olfactory neurogenesis results in an abnormal social interaction pattern with male, but not female, conspecifics; we suggest that this effect could result from inability to detect or discriminate male odors and could therefore have implications for the recognition of potential mating partners. Disruption of olfactory bulb neurogenesis, however, neither impaired maternal-related behaviors, nor did it affect the ability of mothers to discriminate their own progeny from others.

  15. Experimental and numerical study on inlet and outlet conditions of a bulb turbine with considering free surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For a bulb turbine, it has a low head and a big runner diameter, and the free surface influences the flow at the inlet and outlet of the turbine, which bring many problems such as vibration, cracks and cavitation to the turbine. Therefore, it is difficult to get the precise internal flow characteristics through a numerical simulation with conventional ideal flow conditions. In this paper, both numerical and experimental methods are adopted to investigate the flow characteristics at the inlet and outlet of the bulb turbine with considering free surface. Firstly, experimental and numerical studies in a low head pressure pipeline are conducted, and the corresponding boundary condition according with reality is obtained through the comparison between the model test result and the CFD simulation result. Then, through an analysis of the velocity and pressure fields at the inlet of the bulb turbine at different heads, the flow characteristics and rules at the entrance of the bulb turbine have been revealed with considering free surface; Finally, the performance predictions for a bulb turbine have been conducted by using the obtained flow rules at the inlet as the boundary condition of a turbine, and the causes that lead to non-uniform forces on blades, cavitation and vibration have been illustrated in this paper, which also provide a theory basis for an accurate numerical simulation and optimization design of a bulb turbine.

  16. Evaluation of wound healing potential of methanolic Crinum jagus bulb extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunday Ositadimma Udegbunam

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Crinum jagus (J. Thomps. Dandy commonly called Harmattan or St. Christopher's lily belonging to the family Lilliaceae is widely used traditionally in Southeastern Nigeria for treatment of skin sores. This study investigated the wound healing potentials of methanolic Crinum jagus bulb extract (MCJBE using incision, excision and dead space wound healing models. Phytochemical screening showed the presence of alkaloids, glycosides, tannins, saponins in the extract but absence of flavonoids. In the incision and dead space wound models, rats were dosed orally with 300 mg/kg body weight (bw of 10 and 5% of methanolic Crinum jagus bulb extract (MCJBE solution, respectively, while in the excision wound model, rats were treated topically with 10 and 5% methanolic Crinum jagus bulb extract ointments (MCJBEO, respectively. The 10% MCJBE gave significantly (p<0.05 highest percentage rate of wound contraction, shortest re-epithelialization and complete healing time when compared with 5% MCJBE and reference drug, framycetin sulphate. The extract of Crinum jagus showed significant (p<0.05 concentration-dependent wound healing activity in incision, dead space and excision wound models. No contaminating microbial organism was isolated from wound sites of the rats dosed and treated with MCJBE throughout the study period. At day 7 post infliction of excision wound, histomorphological and histochemical studies revealed more fibroblasts and type 1 collagen deposits in wound site sections of rats treated with both 10 and 5% MCJBEO while those of the control showed more inflammatory cells and fewer type 1 collagen deposits. At day 14 post infliction of excision wound, more epithelial regeneration with overlying keratin were seen in the histological sections of wounds of rats treated with both 10 and 5% MCJBEO while histochemical study showed more type 1 collagen deposits in wound site sections of rats in 10% MECJ treated group. This study established that methanolic

  17. Endoscopic Mucosal Resection of Mucosal Neoplasm Located on the Duodenal Bulb through Endoscope Retroflexion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua LI; Qiang LI; De-jun ZHOU; Jian-zhang HU; Guo-qing ZHANG; Feng-ling LI

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess the results of endoscopic mucosalresection (EMR) of benign mucosal neoplasms located on theduodenal bulb using endoscope retrofl exion.METHODS This study involved 14 patients with 16 mucosal neoplasms located on the duodenal bulb. The diameter of each neoplasm was less than 15 mm. After endoscope retroflexion within the duodenum for evaluation of the size, extent and depth of the tumor, EMR was a empted with endoscope retrofl exion for removing the lesion in the duodenal bulb. The rate of endoscope retrofl exion, the time required for endoscope retrofl exion, median operation time, curative resection rate, en bloc resection rate,complication, and median follow-up period were evaluated.RESULTS Sixteen lesions in 14 patents (median age of 56 years, 5 female, 9 male) were removed through EMR. The mean size of the lesions resected was 6.9 mm (median size of 5.5 mm, range of 3-15 mm). Post-EMR histologic examination revealed Brunner's gland hyperplasia in 6, gastric mucosal metaplasia in 5, adenoma in 1,chronic inflammation in 3, and benign lymphocytic hyperplasia in 1. The curative resection rate was 100% (16/16), and the en bloc resection rate was 94% (15/16), with EMR. One of the lesions was piecemeal removed through EMR for its large size (15 mm) and for its involving the area from the duodenal bulb to the pyloric ring.The success rate of endoscope retrofl exion within the duodenum was 94% (15/16). The time required for endoscope retrofl exion was longer for the fi rst 10 lesions (median time of 2 min, range of 1-2.5 min) than that for the last 5 lesions (median time of 1.5 min, range of 1-2 min). The median follow-up period was 22 months (range of 4-48 months). During the follow-up, no residual, no pyloric or duodenal stenosis was found in any of the patients after EMR.There was no severe hemorrhage, or perforations occurring. CONCLUSION EMR of mucosal neoplasm located on the duodenal bulb through endoscope retrofl exion, which is a feasible and

  18. Sexual dimorphism in the human olfactory bulb: females have more neurons and glial cells than males.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana V Oliveira-Pinto

    Full Text Available Sex differences in the human olfactory function reportedly exist for olfactory sensitivity, odorant identification and memory, and tasks in which odors are rated based on psychological features such as familiarity, intensity, pleasantness, and others. Which might be the neural bases for these behavioral differences? The number of cells in olfactory regions, and especially the number of neurons, may represent a more accurate indicator of the neural machinery than volume or weight, but besides gross volume measures of the human olfactory bulb, no systematic study of sex differences in the absolute number of cells has yet been undertaken. In this work, we investigate a possible sexual dimorphism in the olfactory bulb, by quantifying postmortem material from 7 men and 11 women (ages 55-94 years with the isotropic fractionator, an unbiased and accurate method to estimate absolute cell numbers in brain regions. Female bulbs weighed 0.132 g in average, while male bulbs weighed 0.137 g, a non-significant difference; however, the total number of cells was 16.2 million in females, and 9.2 million in males, a significant difference of 43.2%. The number of neurons in females reached 6.9 million, being no more than 3.5 million in males, a difference of 49.3%. The number of non-neuronal cells also proved higher in women than in men: 9.3 million and 5.7 million, respectively, a significant difference of 38.7%. The same differences remained when corrected for mass. Results demonstrate a sex-related difference in the absolute number of total, neuronal and non-neuronal cells, favoring women by 40-50%. It is conceivable that these differences in quantitative cellularity may have functional impact, albeit difficult to infer how exactly this would be, without knowing the specific circuits cells make. However, the reported advantage of women as compared to men may stimulate future work on sex dimorphism of synaptic microcircuitry in the olfactory bulb.

  19. Mass-independent fractionation of mercury isotopes in compact fluorescent light bulbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mead, C.; Anbar, A. D.; Lyons, J. R.; Johnson, T. M.

    2010-12-01

    Compact fluorescent lightbulbs (CFLs) are a growing source of Hg pollution. The high-energy environment of the CFLs combined with the known partitioning of Hg into the bulb walls could provide an environment for unusual isotope fractionation that could be used to trace pollution from improper bulb disposal. To investigate this possibility, we analyzed the isotope composition of Hg in CFL glass, phosphor powder, and whole bulbs from CFLs of known ages. We observed large, mass-independent fractionation of Hg isotopes between Hg embedded in the bulb wall and Hg in the liquid and vapor phases, which are the initial reservoir of Hg in the bulb. This fractionation results in the bulb wall showing enrichment of 198Hg, 199Hg, 200Hg, 201Hg, and 204Hg relative to 202Hg, the most abundant isotope. Both the amount of Hg embedded in the glass and the magnitude of the isotope enrichment were found to increase with the number of hours of light bulb use. For a CFL used for 3600 hours (with a rated lifetime of 10,000 hours), the isotopic composition of the Hg in the glass was enriched by 34.5‰, 4.1‰, 6.3‰, 21.1‰, and 12.1‰ for 198Hg/202Hg, 199Hg/202Hg, 200Hg/202Hg, 201Hg/202Hg, and 204Hg/202Hg, respectively, compared to NIST SRM-3133. This pattern of isotope enrichments is not correlated with mass differences for any of the isotope ratios. In contrast, the other mass-independent effects that have recently been observed in Hg isotopes (i.e., the nuclear volume and magnetic isotope effects) resemble mass-dependent fractionation for the even mass isotopes and are anomalous only for the odd mass isotopes, 199Hg and 201Hg. First order theoretical calculations using Hg absorption and emission data for each of the hyperfine components of the 253.7 nm line have shown that similar fractionation can be produced through an optical self-shielding effect. This effect occurs because each Hg isotope has a different degree of optical saturation at their respective absorption wavelength

  20. Simultaneous Detection of Mixed Infection of Onion yellow dwarf virus and an Allexivirus in RT-PCR for Ensuring Virus Free Onion Bulbs

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Sandeep; Baranwal, V. K.; Joshi, Subodh; Arya, Meenakshi; Majumder, S

    2010-01-01

    Reduced seed production in onion is associated with Onion yellow dwarf virus (OYDV), a filamentous Potyvirus. Onion is also infected with other filamentous virus particles suspected to be Allexivirus. RT-PCR was used to detect mixed infection of both the viruses in leaves and bulbs. A duplex RT-PCR was developed, which simultaneously detected the presence of these two viruses in winter (Rabi) onion bulb. In summer (Kharif) onion bulbs only Allexivirus was detected. The absence of OYDV in summ...

  1. The effect of bulb size and application method of asahi sl biostimulator on the growth and yield of Allium moly L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halina Laskowska

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available An experiment aimed at examining the effect of bulb size and the method of application of Asahi SL biostimulator on the growth and yield of Allium moly L. was conducted in the years 2005–2008. Four sizes of bulbs were used in the experiment (3–4, 4–5, 5–6, and 6–7 cm in circumference. Asahi SL was applied in the following combinations: bulb soaking for 45 minutes in the biostimulator solution prior to planting; plant spraying at the green bud stage; soaking combined with plant spraying; and the control treatment without application of the stimulator. Asahi SL was applied at a concentration of 0.2%. After the first frost, the experimental plots were mulched with wheat straw. During the experiment, the decorative value of the plants was evaluated and the following features were determined: inflorescence stem length, inflorescence diameter, and number of flowers per inflorescence. Total yield was evaluated after bulb harvest. The size of Allium moly bulbs planted was found to determine the quality of inflorescence stems and total yield of daughter bulbs expressed in their number and weight. Inflorescence stems of high ornamental value and high total yield of daughter bulbs resulted from planting bulbs of 5–6 and 6–7 cm in circumference. The application of 0.2% solution of Asahi by spraying green buds or the combination of spraying and bulb soaking prior to planting are very beneficial for the quality of inflorescence stems and yield of daughter bulbs. The application of 0.2% solution of Asahi SL by plant spraying leads to an increase in total quantitative yield of bulbs by 10% or 8% in case of the combined use of both application methods. Bulb soaking combined with plant spraying leads to an.

  2. Expression Profiling Reveals Genes Involved in the Regulation of Wool Follicle Bulb Regression and Regeneration in Sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangbin Liu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Wool is an important material in textile manufacturing. In order to investigate the intrinsic factors that regulate wool follicle cycling and wool fiber properties, Illumina sequencing was performed on wool follicle bulb samples from the middle anagen, catagen and late telogen/early anagen phases. In total, 13,898 genes were identified. KRTs and KRTAPs are the most highly expressed gene families in wool follicle bulb. In addition, 438 and 203 genes were identified to be differentially expressed in wool follicle bulb samples from the middle anagen phase compared to the catagen phase and the samples from the catagen phase compared to the late telogen/early anagen phase, respectively. Finally, our data revealed that two groups of genes presenting distinct expression patterns during the phase transformation may have important roles for wool follicle bulb regression and regeneration. In conclusion, our results demonstrated the gene expression patterns in the wool follicle bulb and add new data towards an understanding of the mechanisms involved in wool fiber growth in sheep.

  3. [Activity of glial cells in the olfactory bulb of Niemann-Pick disease type C1 mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xin; Qiao, Liang; Yang, En-Hui; Lin, Jun-Tang

    2016-04-25

    To study the pathological mechanisms of Niemann-Pick disease type C1, we observed the changes of activation of glial cells in the olfactory bulb of Npc1 mutant (Npc1(-/-)) mice. The genomic DNA was extracted from mouse tails for genotyping by PCR. Immunofluorescent histochemistry was performed to examine the activation of microglia and astrocytes in the olfactory bulb of Npc1(-/-) mice on postnatal day 30. NeuN, phosphorylated neurofilament (NF), Doublecortin (DCX), CD68 and GFAP were detected by Western blot. The results showed that Npc1 gene mutation strongly increased the activation of astrocytes and microglia in olfactory bulb associated with increased protein levels of CD68 and GFAP. Furthermore, the expression of phosphorylated NF was also significantly increased in the olfactory bulb of Npc1(-/-) mice compared with that in Npc1(+/+) mice. However, DCX expression was significantly reduced. The above results suggest that there are some early changes in the olfactory bulb of Npc1(-/-) mice. PMID:27108900

  4. EUS diagnosis of ectopic opening of the common bile duct in the duodenal bulb: A case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Miodrag Krstic; Bojan Stimec; Radmilo Krstic; Milenko Ugljesic; Srbislav Knezevic; Ivan Jovanovic

    2005-01-01

    Among the various congenital anomalies of the biliary system,an ectopic opening of the common bile duct (CBD) in the duodenal bulb is extremely rare. ERCP is essential for diagnosing the anomaly. A 55-year-old male was admitted to hospital for severe right upper quadrant abdominal pain,followed by fever, chills, elevated body temperature and mild icterus. The diagnosis of ectopic opening of CBD in the duodenal bulb was established on endoscopic ultraso-nography (EUS),which clearly demonstrated dilated CBD, with multiple stones and air in the lumen, draining into the bulb. A normal pancreatic duct, which did not drain into the bulb, was also observed. This finding was confirmed on ERCP and surgery.As far as we know, this is the first case of this anomaly diagnosed by EUS. Ectopic opening of the CBD in the duodenal bulb is not an incidental finding, but a pathologic condition which can be associated with clinical entities such as recurrent or intractable duodenal ulcer, recurrent biliary pain,choledocholithiasis or acute cholangitis. Endoscopic ultrasonography features allow preoperative diagnosis of this anomaly and can replace ERCP as a first diagnostic tool in such clinical circumstances. Embryology of the anomalies of the extrahepatic biliary tree has been also reviewed.

  5. Photoperiod mediated changes in olfactory bulb neurogenesis and olfactory behavior in male white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James C Walton

    Full Text Available Brain plasticity, in relation to new adult mammalian neurons generated in the subgranular zone of the hippocampus, has been well described. However, the functional outcome of new adult olfactory neurons born in the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricles is not clearly defined, as manipulating neurogenesis through various methods has given inconsistent and conflicting results in lab mice. Several small rodent species, including Peromyscus leucopus, display seasonal (photoperiodic brain plasticity in brain volume, hippocampal function, and hippocampus-dependent behaviors; plasticity in the olfactory system of photoperiodic rodents remains largely uninvestigated. We exposed adult male P. leucopus to long day lengths (LD and short day lengths (SD for 10 to 15 weeks and then examined olfactory bulb cell proliferation and survival using the thymidine analog BrdU, olfactory bulb granule cell morphology using Golgi-Cox staining, and behavioral investigation of same-sex conspecific urine. SD mice did not differ from LD counterparts in granular cell morphology of the dendrites or in dendritic spine density. Although there were no differences due to photoperiod in habituation to water odor, SD mice rapidly habituated to male urine, whereas LD mice did not. In addition, short day induced changes in olfactory behavior were associated with increased neurogenesis in the caudal plexiform and granule cell layers of the olfactory bulb, an area known to preferentially respond to water-soluble odorants. Taken together, these data demonstrate that photoperiod, without altering olfactory bulb neuronal morphology, alters olfactory bulb neurogenesis and olfactory behavior in Peromyscus leucopus.

  6. Cholecystokinin: an excitatory modulator of mitral/tufted cells in the mouse olfactory bulb.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Ma

    Full Text Available Cholecystokinin (CCK is widely distributed in the brain as a sulfated octapeptide (CCK-8S. In the olfactory bulb, CCK-8S is concentrated in two laminae: an infraglomerular band in the external plexiform layer, and an inframitral band in the internal plexiform layer (IPL, corresponding to somata and terminals of superficial tufted cells with intrabulbar projections linking duplicate glomerular maps of olfactory receptors. The physiological role of CCK in this circuit is unknown. We made patch clamp recordings of CCK effects on mitral cell spike activity in mouse olfactory bulb slices, and applied immunohistochemistry to localize CCKB receptors. In cell-attached recordings, mitral cells responded to 300 nM-1 µM CCK-8S by spike excitation, suppression, or mixed excitation-suppression. Antagonists of GABAA and ionotropic glutamate receptors blocked suppression, but excitation persisted. Whole-cell recordings revealed that excitation was mediated by a slow inward current, and suppression by spike inactivation or inhibitory synaptic input. Similar responses were elicited by the CCKB receptor-selective agonist CCK-4 (1 µM. Excitation was less frequent but still occurred when CCKB receptors were blocked by LY225910, or disrupted in CCKB knockout mice, and was also observed in CCKA knockouts. CCKB receptor immunoreactivity was detected on mitral and superficial tufted cells, colocalized with Tbx21, and was absent from granule cells and the IPL. Our data indicate that CCK excites mitral cells postsynaptically, via both CCKA and CCKB receptors. We hypothesize that extrasynaptic CCK released from tufted cell terminals in the IPL may diffuse to and directly excite mitral cell bodies, creating a positive feedback loop that can amplify output from pairs of glomeruli receiving sensory inputs encoded by the same olfactory receptor. Dynamic plasticity of intrabulbar projections suggests that this could be an experience-dependent amplification mechanism for

  7. Slow potentials of the turtle olfactory bulb in response to odor stimulation of the nose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuerman, R W

    1975-10-24

    Odor stimulation of the nose in the box turtle and the gopher tortoise produced a characteristic series of slow potentials in the olfactory bulb which were referred to as the odor evoked response. When recorded with direct coupling, the odor evoked response had 3 components: wave I, a short duration monophasic event; wave II, a long duration variation in the DC potential; and wave III, an oscillatory potential superimposed on wave II. Waves I and II were negative at bulbar surfaces receiving olfactory input and positive deep within the bulb. This series of potentials could be evoked by 3 methods of odor stimulation: (1) large puffs delivered from odorant test bottles, (2) small puffs delivered from a syringe and (3) continuous flow with concentration and nasal flow rate parameters controlled by an olfactometer. When the odor evoked response was recorded at a bulbar locus, these potentials were seen in response to each stimulation and the amplitudes of each wave were reproducible with the same stimulus. The amplitudes of the 3 waves were compared in the gopher tortoise and differed with the 3 odorants tested--high purity geraniol, technical grade geraniol and amyl acetate. Odorant concentration also directly affected the response amplitudes of all 3 wave components. The amplitudes of waves I and III markedly decreased with closely spaced stimulations recovering to near the initial values when the interstimulus interval was increased severalfold. This series of sensory evoked potentials is considered to reflect the processing of odor information from the olfactory receptors by the olfactory bulb. PMID:1175040

  8. Olfactory consciousness and gamma oscillation couplings across the olfactory bulb, olfactory cortex and orbitofrontal cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KensakuMori

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The orbitofrontal cortex receives multi-modality sensory inputs, including olfactory input, and is thought to be involved in conscious perception of the olfactory image of objects. Generation of olfactory consciousness requires neuronal circuit mechanisms for the ‘binding’ of distributed neuronal activities, with each constituent neuron representing a specific component of an olfactory percept. The shortest neuronal pathway for odor signals to reach the orbitofrontal cortex is olfactory sensory neuron – olfactory bulb – olfactory cortex – orbitofrontal cortex, but other pathways exist, including transthalamic pathways. Here, we review studies on the structural organization and functional properties of the shortest pathway, and propose a model of neuronal circuit mechanisms underlying the temporal bindings of distributed neuronal activities in the olfactory cortex. We describe a hypothesis that suggests functional roles of gamma oscillations in the bindings. This hypothesis proposes that two types of projection neurons in the olfactory bulb, tufted cells and mitral cells, play distinct functional roles in bindings at neuronal circuits in the olfactory cortex: tufted cells provide specificity-projecting circuits which send odor information with early-onset fast gamma synchronization, while mitral cells give rise to dispersedly-projecting feed-forward binding circuits which transmit the response synchronization timing with later-onset slow gamma synchronization. This hypothesis also suggests a sequence of bindings in the olfactory cortex: a small-scale binding by the early-phase fast gamma synchrony of tufted cell inputs followed by a larger-scale binding due to the later-onset slow gamma synchrony of mitral cell inputs. We discuss that behavioral state, including wakefulness and sleep, regulates gamma oscillation couplings across the olfactory bulb, olfactory cortex, and orbitofrontal cortex.

  9. Rehabilitation of patient with acquired maxillary defect, using a closed hollow bulb obturator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhilasha S Bhasin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Palliative care means providing support and care for patients with life-threatening or debilitating illness so that they can live their life as comfortably as possible. The fact that cure is no longer a reality does not mean that care cannot be made available. Partial maxillectomy defect presents a prosthodontic challenge in terms of re-establishing oronasal separation. Such defect has direct effect on cosmetic, function and psychology of the patient. This article describes step by step clinical and laboratory procedures involved in the rehabilitation of a hemimaxillectomy patient, using a definitive closed hollow bulb obturator, which improved his physical, emotional, functional, social and spiritual needs.

  10. Hybrid nuclear light bulb-nuclear-pumped laser propulsion for advanced missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miley, G. H.

    1999-01-01

    A hybrid ``nuclear light bulb'' gaseous core reactor that can radiantly transfer energy to a propellant or alternately activate laser action is proposed for advanced space missions. The propellant mode would be employed in the phases of the mission requiring a higher thrust. However, for the bulk of the travel, the propellant would be turned off and the ultrahigh specific impulse laser mode of operation would be employed. The concept is reviewed, research and development issues are identified, and steps necessary for a feasibility demonstration are discussed.

  11. New antifungal and cytotoxic steroidal saponins from the bulbs of an elephant garlic mutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sata, N; Matsunaga, S; Fusetani, N; Nishikawa, H; Takamura, S; Saito, T

    1998-10-01

    Saponins in bulbs of a mutant of elephant garlic were investigated, and three new steroidal saponins named yayoisaponins A-C were obtained together with the known dioscin and aginoside. Their structures, including the relative stereochemistry, were elucidated by spectral data interpretation, while the absolute stereochemistry of the sugar moieties was assigned on the basis of a chiral gas chromatographic analysis of the acid hydrolysates. Yayoisaponins A-C and aginoside exhibited not only in vitro cytotoxicity against P388 cells at 2.1 micrograms/ml, but also antifungal activity against Mortierella ramanniana at 10 micrograms/disk. PMID:9836426

  12. Botrytis species on flower bulb crops: phylogeny, genetic variation and host specificity

    OpenAIRE

    Staats, M.

    2007-01-01

    Fungi of the genus Botrytis (teleomorph Botryotinia) can cause serious damage in a large range of ornamental crops. Except for B. cinerea, Botrytis species that are pathogenic on flower bulb crops are host-specific, i.e. each species is able to infect only one or a few closely related host species. This thesis mainly focuses on the economically important species B. elliptica and B. tulipae, the causal agents of 1eaf blight in lily and tulip, respectively.Molecular markers were developed that ...

  13. Prosthetic rehabilitation of a maxillectomy with a two-piece hollow bulb obturator. A clinical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padmanabhan, T V; Kumar, V Anand; Mohamed, K Kasim; Unnikrishnan, Nandini

    2011-07-01

    Extensive bilateral midfacial defects involving the upper jaw, palate, and sinus present a formidable reconstructive challenge. A combination of total and subtotal maxillectomy is, in general, a rare surgical procedure that affects the cosmetic, functional, and psychological aspects of a patient's life. Prosthetic restoration has become the preferred method for the rehabilitation of such conditions. The use of magnets is an efficient means of providing combined prostheses with retention, quality, and stability. This clinical report describes the rehabilitation of a total and subtotal maxillectomy patient with a two-piece hollow bulb obturator retained with the help of magnets and a retention clasp. PMID:21651640

  14. Optimized aperiodic broadband thermal emitters for use as light bulb filaments

    CERN Document Server

    Granier, Christopher H; Veronis, Georgios; Dowling, Jonathan P

    2016-01-01

    We present optimized aperiodic structures for use as broadband thermal incandescent emitters which are capable of increasing the emittance by nearly a factor of two over the visible wavelength range when compared to bulk tungsten. These aperiodic multilayer structures are designed with alternating layers of tungsten and air or tungsten and silicon carbide on top of a tungsten substrate. We investigate the properties of these structures for use as lightbulb filaments. We find that these structures greatly enhance the emittance over the visible wavelength range, while also increasing the overall efficiency of the bulb and could lead to a decrease in incandescent lightbulb power consumption by nearly 50%.

  15. Neurodegenerative changes in the brainstem and olfactory bulb in people older than 50 years old: a descriptive study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francine Hehn de Oliveira

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available With the increase in life expectancy in Brazil, concerns have grown about the most prevalent diseases in elderly people. Among these diseases are neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases. Protein deposits related to the development of these diseases can pre-date the symptomatic phases by years. The tau protein is particularly interesting: it might be found in the brainstem and olfactory bulb long before it reaches the limbic cortex, at which point symptoms occur. Of the 14 brains collected in this study, the tau protein was found in the brainstems of 10 (71.42% and in olfactory bulbs of 3 out 11. Of the 7 individuals who had a final diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD, 6 presented tau deposits in some region of the brainstem. Our data support the idea of the presence of tau protein in the brainstem and olfactory bulb in the earliest stages of AD.

  16. Experimental investigation of the draft tube inlet flow of a bulb turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the BulbT project framework, a bulb turbine model was studied with a strongly diverging draft tube. At high discharge, flow separation occurs in the draft tube correlated to significant efficiency and power drops. In this context, a focus was put on the draft tube inlet flow conditions. Actually, a precise inlet flow velocity field is required for comparison and validation purposes with CFD simulation. This paper presents different laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV) measurements at the draft tube inlet and their analysis. The LDV was setup to measure the axial and circumferential velocity on a radius under the runner and a diameter under the hub. A method was developed to perform indirect measurement of the mean radial velocity component. Five operating conditions were studied to correlate the inlet flow to the separation in the draft tube. Mean velocities, fluctuations and frequencies allowed characterizing the flow. Using this experimental database, the flow structure was characterized. Phase averaged velocities based on the runner position allowed detecting the runner blade wakes. The velocity gradients induced by the blade tip vortices were captured. The guide vane wakes was also detected at the draft tube inlet. The recirculation in the hub wake was observed

  17. UV-A emission from fluorescent energy-saving light bulbs alters local retinoic acid homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellmann-Regen, Julian; Heuser, Isabella; Regen, Francesca

    2013-12-01

    Worldwide bans on incandescent light bulbs (ILBs) drive the use of compact fluorescent light (CFL) bulbs, which emit ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Potential health issues of these light sources have already been discussed, including speculation about the putative biological effects on light exposed tissues, yet the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. We hypothesized photoisomerization of all-trans retinoic acid (at-RA), a highly light sensitive morphogen, into biologically less active isomers, as a mechanism mediating biological effects of CFLs. Local at-RA is anti-carcinogenic, entrains molecular rhythms and is crucial for skin homeostasis. Therefore, we quantified the impact of CFL irradiation on extra- and intracellular levels of RA isomers using an epidermal cell culture model. Moreover, a biologically relevant impact of CFL irradiation was assessed using highly at-RA-sensitive human neuroblastoma cells. Dose-dependent conversion of extra- and intracellular at-RA into the biologically less active 13-cis-isomer was significantly higher in CFL vs. ILB exposure and completely preventable by employing a UV-filter. Moreover, pre-irradiation of culture media by CFL attenuated at-RA-specific effects on cell viability in human at-RA-sensitive cells in a dose-dependent manner. These findings point towards a biological relevance of CFL-induced at-RA decomposition, providing a mechanism for CFL-mediated effects on environmental health. PMID:24135972

  18. Spontaneous firing in olfactory bulb neurons of Bufo bufo gargarizans in and after hibernation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chuancheng Liang; Shaokang Bian; Xia Peng; Liwen Wang

    2011-01-01

    Microelectrode technique was used to record the spontaneous electrical activities of the neurons in olfactory bulb of the Bufo bufo gargarizans, both in hibernation and after hibernation. This study investigated the electrophysiological characteristics of amphibian olfactory bulb in the period of hibernation and after hibernation and its effects on the start of hibernation and spontaneous awakening. The research showed four forms of spontaneous firings: single spontaneous firing, burst spontaneous firing, irregular spontaneous firing and consecutive single spontaneous firing. The single spontaneous firing includes slow depolarized spontaneous firing and fast depolarized spontaneous firing, and the slow depolarized spontaneous firing occurs only during the hibernation period. In hibernation, the low amplitude and low frequency firing with a longer duration may be relevant to maintaining the tonicity of the central nervous system in toads that are in hibernation, and this kind of firing may also provide an excited basis for their arousal from hibernation. After hibernation, the amplitude and frequency of firing increase, but the firing duration gets shorter. This form of short-term firing, which may be a phenomenon of sensory neurons fast adapting, is one of the neuronal mechanisms for the arousal of hibernating animals.

  19. Map formation in the olfactory bulb by axon guidance of olfactory neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Auffarth

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The organization of representations in the brain has been observed to locally reflect subspaces of inputsthat are relevant to behavioral or perceptual feature combinations, such as in areas receptiveto lower and higher-order features in the visual system. The early olfactory system developedhighly plastic mechanisms and convergent evidence indicates that projections from primaryneurons converge onto the glomerular level of the olfactory bulb (OB to form a code composed ofcontinuous spatial zones that are differentially active for particular physico–-chemical featurecombinations, some of which are known to trigger behavioral responses. In a model study of theearly human olfactory system, we derive a glomerular organization based on a set of real-world,biologically-relevant stimuli, a distribution of receptors that respond each to a set ofodorants of similar ranges of molecular properties, and a mechanism of axon guidance basedon activity. Apart from demonstrating activity-dependent glomeruli formation and reproducing therelationship of glomerular recruitment with concentration, it is shown that glomerular responsesreflect similarities of human odor category perceptions and that further, a spatial code providesa better correlation than a distributed population code. These results are consistent with evidenceof functional compartmentalization in the OB and could suggest a function for the bulb inencoding of perceptual dimensions.

  20. Neurogenesis drives stimulus decorrelation in a model of the olfactory bulb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Siu-Fai; Wick, Stuart D; Riecke, Hermann

    2012-01-01

    The reshaping and decorrelation of similar activity patterns by neuronal networks can enhance their discriminability, storage, and retrieval. How can such networks learn to decorrelate new complex patterns, as they arise in the olfactory system? Using a computational network model for the dominant neural populations of the olfactory bulb we show that fundamental aspects of the adult neurogenesis observed in the olfactory bulb--the persistent addition of new inhibitory granule cells to the network, their activity-dependent survival, and the reciprocal character of their synapses with the principal mitral cells--are sufficient to restructure the network and to alter its encoding of odor stimuli adaptively so as to reduce the correlations between the bulbar representations of similar stimuli. The decorrelation is quite robust with respect to various types of perturbations of the reciprocity. The model parsimoniously captures the experimentally observed role of neurogenesis in perceptual learning and the enhanced response of young granule cells to novel stimuli. Moreover, it makes specific predictions for the type of odor enrichment that should be effective in enhancing the ability of animals to discriminate similar odor mixtures. PMID:22442645

  1. Association between radioinhibition process and membrane phase properties in bulbs of garlic (Allium sativum L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, Monica B.; Curzio, Osvaldo A.; Croci, Clara A. [Universidad Nacional del Sur, Bahia Blanca (Argentina). Dept. de Quimica e Ingenieria Quimica

    1997-12-01

    Garlic bulbs were irradiated 30 days after harvest with a dose of 60.0 Gy of {sup 60} Co gamma rays, Along 270 days of storage phase properties of rough and smooth microsomal membranes isolated from storage leaf of garlic cloves were examined by wide angle X-ray diffraction. The diffractograms features peaks at Bragg spacing of 4.15 A and 3.75 A, revealing the presence of a gel (crystalline) phase, while the characteristics peak of the liquid-crystalline phase (4.6 A) was not observed in the studied membranes. Data from rough microsomal membranes were erratic and unreliable. The intensity of phase gel peaks decreased up to 30 days of the tratment in the smooth microsomal membranes. Radiation-induced inhibition of sprout growth became evident in about 60 days and was synchronous with a marked increase in the intensity of phase gel peaks. The presence of a greater proportion of lipids in crystalline state in irradiated samples 60 days after treatment suggest a decrease in the average fluidity in smooth microsomal menbranes. These results are discussed in relation to the use of wide angle X-ray diffraction of smooth microsomal membranes as a possible indicator of irradiation treatment of garlic bulbs. (author). 16 refs., 3 figs.

  2. Neurogenesis drives stimulus decorrelation in a model of the olfactory bulb.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siu-Fai Chow

    Full Text Available The reshaping and decorrelation of similar activity patterns by neuronal networks can enhance their discriminability, storage, and retrieval. How can such networks learn to decorrelate new complex patterns, as they arise in the olfactory system? Using a computational network model for the dominant neural populations of the olfactory bulb we show that fundamental aspects of the adult neurogenesis observed in the olfactory bulb--the persistent addition of new inhibitory granule cells to the network, their activity-dependent survival, and the reciprocal character of their synapses with the principal mitral cells--are sufficient to restructure the network and to alter its encoding of odor stimuli adaptively so as to reduce the correlations between the bulbar representations of similar stimuli. The decorrelation is quite robust with respect to various types of perturbations of the reciprocity. The model parsimoniously captures the experimentally observed role of neurogenesis in perceptual learning and the enhanced response of young granule cells to novel stimuli. Moreover, it makes specific predictions for the type of odor enrichment that should be effective in enhancing the ability of animals to discriminate similar odor mixtures.

  3. BDNF over-expression increases olfactory bulb granule cell dendritic spine density in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDole, B; Isgor, C; Pare, C; Guthrie, K

    2015-09-24

    Olfactory bulb granule cells (GCs) are axon-less, inhibitory interneurons that regulate the activity of the excitatory output neurons, the mitral and tufted cells, through reciprocal dendrodendritic synapses located on GC spines. These contacts are established in the distal apical dendritic compartment, while GC basal dendrites and more proximal apical segments bear spines that receive glutamatergic inputs from the olfactory cortices. This synaptic connectivity is vital to olfactory circuit function and is remodeled during development, and in response to changes in sensory activity and lifelong GC neurogenesis. Manipulations that alter levels of the neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in vivo have significant effects on dendritic spine morphology, maintenance and activity-dependent plasticity for a variety of CNS neurons, yet little is known regarding BDNF effects on bulb GC spine maturation or maintenance. Here we show that, in vivo, sustained bulbar over-expression of BDNF in transgenic mice produces a marked increase in GC spine density that includes an increase in mature spines on their apical dendrites. Morphometric analysis demonstrated that changes in spine density were most notable in the distal and proximal apical domains, indicating that multiple excitatory inputs are potentially modified by BDNF. Our results indicate that increased levels of endogenous BDNF can promote the maturation and/or maintenance of dendritic spines on GCs, suggesting a role for this factor in modulating GC functional connectivity within adult olfactory circuitry. PMID:26211445

  4. Chelating, antioxidant and hypoglycaemic potential of Muscari comosum (L.) Mill. bulb extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loizzo, Monica R; Tundis, Rosa; Menichini, Federica; Pugliese, Alessandro; Bonesi, Marco; Solimene, Umberto; Menichini, Francesco

    2010-12-01

    The metal chelating activity, antioxidant properties and the effect on carbohydrate-hydrolysing enzyme inhibition of Muscari comosum extracts have been investigated. M. comosum bulbs contain a total amount of the phenols with a value of 56.6 mg chlorogenic acid equivalent per gram of extract and a flavonoid content of 23.4 mg quercetin equivalent per gram of extract. In order to evaluate the non-polar constituents, n-hexane extract was obtained. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis revealed the presence of fatty acids and ethyl esters as major constituents, with different aldehydes and alkanes as minor components. Ethanolic extract had the highest ferric-reducing ability power (66.7 μM Fe(II)/g) and DPPH scavenging activity with a concentration giving 50% inhibition (IC₅₀) value of 40.9 μg/ml. Moreover, this extract exhibited a good hypoglycaemic activity with IC₅₀ values of 81.3 and 112.8 μg/ml for α-amylase and α-glucosidase, respectively. In conclusion, M. comosum bulbs show promising antioxidant and hypoglycaemic activity via the inhibition of carbohydrate digestive enzymes. These activities may be of interest from a functional point of view and for the revalorization of this ancient non-cultivated vegetable of Mediterranean traditional gastronomy. PMID:20465433

  5. Olfactory Bulb Field Potentials and Respiration in Sleep-Wake States of Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessberger, Jakob; Zhong, Weiwei; Brankačk, Jurij; Draguhn, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    It is well established that local field potentials (LFP) in the rodent olfactory bulb (OB) follow respiration. This respiration-related rhythm (RR) in OB depends on nasal air flow, indicating that it is conveyed by sensory inputs from the nasal epithelium. Recently RR was found outside the olfactory system, suggesting that it plays a role in organizing distributed network activity. It is therefore important to measure RR and to delineate it from endogenous electrical rhythms like theta which cover similar frequency bands in small rodents. In order to validate such measurements in freely behaving mice, we compared rhythmic LFP in the OB with two respiration-related biophysical parameters: whole-body plethysmography (PG) and nasal temperature (thermocouple; TC). During waking, all three signals reflected respiration with similar reliability. Peak power of RR in OB decreased with increasing respiration rate whereas power of PG increased. During NREM sleep, respiration-related TC signals disappeared and large amplitude slow waves frequently concealed RR in OB. In this situation, PG provided a reliable signal while breathing-related rhythms in TC and OB returned only during microarousals. In summary, local field potentials in the olfactory bulb do reliably reflect respiratory rhythm during wakefulness and REM sleep but not during NREM sleep. PMID:27247803

  6. Olfactory Bulb Field Potentials and Respiration in Sleep-Wake States of Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakob Jessberger

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well established that local field potentials (LFP in the rodent olfactory bulb (OB follow respiration. This respiration-related rhythm (RR in OB depends on nasal air flow, indicating that it is conveyed by sensory inputs from the nasal epithelium. Recently RR was found outside the olfactory system, suggesting that it plays a role in organizing distributed network activity. It is therefore important to measure RR and to delineate it from endogenous electrical rhythms like theta which cover similar frequency bands in small rodents. In order to validate such measurements in freely behaving mice, we compared rhythmic LFP in the OB with two respiration-related biophysical parameters: whole-body plethysmography (PG and nasal temperature (thermocouple; TC. During waking, all three signals reflected respiration with similar reliability. Peak power of RR in OB decreased with increasing respiration rate whereas power of PG increased. During NREM sleep, respiration-related TC signals disappeared and large amplitude slow waves frequently concealed RR in OB. In this situation, PG provided a reliable signal while breathing-related rhythms in TC and OB returned only during microarousals. In summary, local field potentials in the olfactory bulb do reliably reflect respiratory rhythm during wakefulness and REM sleep but not during NREM sleep.

  7. Spatio-temporal characteristics of inhibition mapped by optical stimulation in mouse olfactory bulb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander eLehmann

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Mitral and tufted cells (MTCs of the mammalian olfactory bulb (OB are connected via dendrodendritic synapses with inhibitory interneurons in the external plexiform layer. The range, spatial layout and temporal properties of inhibitory interactions between MTCs mediated by inhibitory interneurons remain unclear. Therefore we tested for inhibitory interactions using an optogenetic approach. We optically stimulated MTCs expressing channelrhodopsin-2 in transgenic mice, while recording from individual MTCs in juxtacellular or whole-cell configuration in vivo. We used a spatial noise stimulus for mapping interactions between MTCs belonging to different glomeruli in the dorsal bulb. Analyzing firing responses of MTCs to the stimulus, we did not find robust lateral inhibitory effects that were spatially specific. However, analysis of sub-threshold changes in the membrane potential revealed evidence for inhibitory interactions between MTCs that belong to different glomerular units. These lateral inhibitory effects were short-lived and spatially specific. MTC response maps showed hyperpolarizing effects radially extending over more than 5 glomerular diameters. The inhibitory maps exhibited non-symmetrical yet distance-dependent characteristics.

  8. Postnatal characterization of cells in the accessory olfactory bulb of wild type and reeler mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo eMartín-López

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Olfaction is the most relevant chemosensory sense of the rodents. General odors are primarily detected by the main olfactory system while most pheromonal signals are received by the accessory olfactory system. The first relay in the brain occurs in the olfactory bulb, which is subdivided in the main and accessory olfactory bulb (MOB/AOB. Given that the cell generation time is different between AOB and MOB, and the cell characterization of AOB remains limited, the goal of this work was first, the definition of the layering of AOB/MOB and second, the establishment of cellular phenotypes in the AOB in a time window corresponding to the early postnatal development. Moreover, since reelin deficiency has been related to layering and olfactory learning deficits, those data were compared with reeler mice. Firstly, we compared the layering between AOB and MOB at early embryonic stages. Then, cell phenotypes were established using specific neuronal and glial markers as well as the reelin adaptor protein Dab1 to analyze differences in both genetic backgrounds. There was no apparent difference in the cell phenotypes among AOB and MOB or between wild type and reeler animals. However, it was outstanding a disruption in the granular cell layer of reeler with respect to wild type mice. In conclusion, the AOB in reelin deficient mice showed similar neuronal and glial cell types being only affected the layering of granular cells.

  9. Modelling Miniature Incandescent Light Bulbs for Thermal Infrared `THz Torch' Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Fangjing; Lucyszyn, Stepan

    2015-04-01

    The ` THz Torch' concept is an emerging technology that was recently introduced by the authors for implementing secure wireless communications over short distances within the thermal infrared (20-100 THz, 15 μm to 3 μm). In order to predict the band-limited output radiated power from ` THz Torch' transmitters, for the first time, this paper reports on a detailed investigation into the radiation mechanisms associated with the basic thermal transducer. We demonstrate how both primary and secondary sources of radiation emitted from miniature incandescent light bulbs contribute to the total band-limited output power. The former is generated by the heated tungsten filament within the bulb, while the latter is due to the increased temperature of its glass envelope. Using analytical thermodynamic modelling, the band-limited output radiated power is calculated, showing good agreement with experimental results. Finally, the output radiated power to input DC power conversion efficiency for this transducer is determined, as a function of bias current and operation within different spectral ranges. This modelling approach can serve as an invaluable tool for engineering solutions that can achieve optimal performances with both single and multi-channel ` THz Torch' systems.

  10. Stressors impair odor recognition memory via an olfactory bulb-dependent noradrenergic mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura C Manella

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Non-associative habituation and odor recognition tasks have been widely used to probe questions social recognition, odor memory duration, and odor memory specificity. Among others, these paradigms have provided valuable insight into how neuromodulation, and specifically norepinephrine/noradrenaline (NE influences odor memory. In general, NE levels are modulated by arousal, stress, and behavioral state, and there is sparse evidence of a direct relationship between NE and odor memory in adult rodents. The present study uses simple mild psychological stressors (bright light and sound, to modulate NE levels physiologically in order to probe its effect on olfactory memory. In rats with bilateral bulbar cannulations, we show that these stressors modulate olfactory memory and that this effect is at least partially mediated by olfactory bulb. Specifically, we show that the presence of stressors during the acquisition of odor memory suppresses memory for an odor when tested 30 minutes after the acquisition. This suppression is blocked by infusing NE antagonists into the olfactory bulb prior to odor acquisition. Additionally, we find that infusion of bulbar NE is sufficient to suppress odor memory in a manner mimicking that of our stressors. These effects are unlikely to be solely mediated by locomotor/exploratory changes produced by stressors, although these stressors influence certain behaviors not directly related to odor investigation. This study provides important information about how behaviorally relevant changes in NE can influence top-down sensory processing and odor memory.

  11. The Olfactory Bulb: An Immunosensory Effector Organ during Neurotropic Viral Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durrant, Douglas M; Ghosh, Soumitra; Klein, Robyn S

    2016-04-20

    In 1935, the olfactory route was hypothesized to be a portal for virus entry into the central nervous system (CNS). This hypothesis was based on experiments in which nasophayngeal infection with poliovirus in monkeys was prevented from spreading to their CNS via transection of olfactory tracts between the olfactory neuroepithelium (ONE) of the nasal cavity and the olfactory bulb (OB). Since then, numerous neurotropic viruses have been observed to enter the CNS via retrograde transport along axons of olfactory sensory neurons whose cell bodies reside in the ONE. Importantly, this route of infection can occur even after subcutaneous inoculation of arboviruses that can cause encephalitis in humans. While the olfactory route is now accepted as an important pathway for viral entry into the CNS, it is unclear whether it provides a way for infection to spread to other brain regions. More recently, studies of antiviral innate and adaptive immune responses within the olfactory bulb suggest it provides early virologic control. Here we will review the data demonstrating that neurotropic viruses gain access to the CNS initially via the olfactory route with emphasis on findings that suggest the OB is a critical immunosensory effector organ that effectively clears virus. PMID:27058872

  12. Association between radioinhibition process and membrane phase properties in bulbs of garlic (Allium sativum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garlic bulbs were irradiated 30 days after harvest with a dose of 60.0 Gy of 60 Co gamma rays, Along 270 days of storage phase properties of rough and smooth microsomal membranes isolated from storage leaf of garlic cloves were examined by wide angle X-ray diffraction. The diffractograms features peaks at Bragg spacing of 4.15 A and 3.75 A, revealing the presence of a gel (crystalline) phase, while the characteristics peak of the liquid-crystalline phase (4.6 A) was not observed in the studied membranes. Data from rough microsomal membranes were erratic and unreliable. The intensity of phase gel peaks decreased up to 30 days of the tratment in the smooth microsomal membranes. Radiation-induced inhibition of sprout growth became evident in about 60 days and was synchronous with a marked increase in the intensity of phase gel peaks. The presence of a greater proportion of lipids in crystalline state in irradiated samples 60 days after treatment suggest a decrease in the average fluidity in smooth microsomal menbranes. These results are discussed in relation to the use of wide angle X-ray diffraction of smooth microsomal membranes as a possible indicator of irradiation treatment of garlic bulbs. (author). 16 refs., 3 figs

  13. Effects of gamma irradiation dose and timing of treatment after harvest on the storeability of garlic bulbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of gamma irradiation dose and time of treatment after harvest on the storage of garlic bulbs was investigated. The effectiveness of irradiation for external sprout inhibition was not affected by the treatment time within 45 days after harvest. At 285 days after harvest, irradiation of 50 - 150 Gy caused about 6% less decrease in weight loss compared with the unirradiated group, and spoilage rates of the unirradiated and irradiated cloves were 100% and 17 - 20%, respectively. For the overall storageability of garlic bulbs, 75 Gy was shown to be the minimal optimum dose, and there was no apparent effect depending upon the time of irradiation treatment after harvest

  14. The importance of radiation doses to the penile bulb vs. crura in the development of postbrachytherapy erectile dysfunction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Recent studies have implicated the proximal penis as a potential site-specific structure for radiation-related erectile dysfunction (ED). In this study, we evaluated by means of a validated patient-administered questionnaire whether radiation doses to the bulb of the penis and/or the proximal corporeal bodies were predictive for the development of brachytherapy-induced ED. Methods and Materials: Thirty patients who underwent permanent prostate brachytherapy between April 1995 and October 1999 and developed brachytherapy-induced ED were paired with 30 similar men who maintained potency after implantation. None of the 60 patients received supplemental external beam radiation therapy, either before or after implantation. Potency was assessed by patient self-administration of the specific erectile questions of the International Index of Erectile Function. The questionnaire consisted of 5 questions with a maximum score of 25. Postimplant potency was defined as an International Index of Erectile Function score ≥11. Mean and median follow-up was 48.3 ± 14.4 months and 48.0 months, respectively (range: 26.6-79.3 months). The bulb of the penis and the proximal crura were outlined at 0.5-cm intervals on the Day 0 postimplant CT scan. The radiation dose distribution to the bulb of the penis and adjacent crura was defined in terms of the minimum dose delivered to 25%, 50%, 70%, 75%, 90%, and 95% of the bulb (D25, D50, D70, D75, D90, and D95). Results: The radiation dose delivered to the bulb of the penis and the proximal crura in men with brachytherapy-induced ED was statistically greater for all evaluated dosimetric parameters (D25, D50, D70, D75, D90, and D95). Stepwise linear regression analysis indicated that penile bulb dose parameter D50, the postimplant prostate CT volume, and patient age at implant were predictive of postimplant ED, whereas the crura dose D25 approached statistical significance. Seventy-five percent of the impotent men had a bulb D25 >60

  15. Health in relation to occupational exposure to pesticides in the Dutch flower bulb culture : Part 3A : neurobehavioral assessment of workers occupationally exposed to pesticides in the bulb growing industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emmen, H.H.; Hooisma, J.; Kullig, B.M.; Brouwer, E.J.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the possible effects of occupational exposure to pesticides on central nervous system (CNS) function. A variety of neurobehavioral functions were assessed in a group of 129 workers in the bulb growing industry with at least ten years occupational expo

  16. Olfactory dysfunction: Correlation of olfactory bulb volume on MRI and objective olfactometry; Riechstoerungen. Korrelation von objektiver Olfaktometrie und volumetrischer Messungen des Bulbus olfactorius in der MRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauknecht, H.C.; Jach, C. [Inst. fuer Radiologie, Universitaetsmedizin Berlin (Germany); Fleiner, F.; Sedlmaier, B.; Goektas, Oe. [Hals-Nasen-Ohrenklinik, Universitaetsmedizin Berlin (Germany)

    2010-02-15

    Purpose: To define the role of olfactory bulb volume measurement by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for detecting olfactory dysfunction in comparison with objective olfactometry. Materials and Methods: Thirty patients with suspected olfactory dysfunction (16 women, 14 men; mean age 52 years, range 20-79 years) were examined by MRI and objective olfactometry between January 2006 and January 2009. Olfactory bulb volumes were measured by two neuroradiologists using 3D MR data sets. The olfactory function was categorized as normosmia, hyposmia, and anosmia on the basis of objective olfactometry. Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated for objective olfactometry and olfactory bulb volumes on MRI. ROC analysis was performed to determine whether MRI bulb volumes can serve to predict anosmia or hyposmia. Results: The bulb volumes measured by MRI ranged from 0 to 135.9 mm{sup 3}. Based on olfactometry, anosmia was present in 11 patients (total bulb volume of 15.7 {+-} 23.3 mm{sup 3}), hyposmia in 9 patients (total bulb volume of 50.0 {+-} 25.5 mm{sup 3}), and normosmia in 10 patients (total bulb volume of 110.7 {+-} 21.5 mm{sup 3}). There was good correlation (r>0.9) between objective olfactometry and olfactory bulb volume on MRI. ROC analysis yielded a cut-off value of 32 mm{sup 3} for anosmia, which had a sensitivity of 0.91 and specificity of 0.947. The cut-off value for olfactory dysfunction was 80.7 mm{sup 3} (sensitivity 0.95; specificity of 0.9). Conclusion: The olfactory bulb volume determined by MRI is a suitable parameter for diagnosing complete or partial loss of the sense of smell. (orig.)

  17. From Tulip Bulbs to Sub-Prime Mortgages Examining the Sub-Prime Crisis: The Case for a Systemic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Alan A.; Atwater, J. Brian; Kannan, Vijay R.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The collapse of the sub-prime mortgage market parallels several earlier failures within the financial services sector, begging the question why the lessons of past failures were not learned. Throughout history from the tulip bulb crisis of the 1600s to the most recent economic crisis, decision-makers keep making the same mistakes. This…

  18. Expression of polysialyltransferases (STX and PST) in adult rat olfactory bulb after an olfactory associative discrimination task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mione, J; Manrique, C; Duhoo, Y; Roman, F S; Guiraudie-Capraz, G

    2016-04-01

    Neuronal plasticity and neurogenesis occur in the adult hippocampus and in other brain structures such as the olfactory bulb and often involve the neural cell adhesion molecule NCAM. During an olfactory associative discrimination learning task, NCAM polysialylation triggers neuronal plasticity in the adult hippocampus. The PST enzyme likely modulates this polysialylation, but not STX, a second sialyltransferase. How the two polysialyltransferases are involved in the adult olfactory bulb remains unknown. We addressed this question by investigating the effect of olfactory associative learning on plasticity and neurogenesis. After a hippocampo-dependent olfactory associative task learning, we measured the expression of both PST and STX polysialyltransferases in the olfactory bulbs of adult rats using quantitative PCR. In parallel, immunohistochemistry was used to evaluate both NCAM polysialylation level and newly-born cells, with or without learning. After learning, no changes were observed neither in the expression level of PST and NCAM polysialylation, nor in STX gene expression level and newly-born cells number in the olfactory bulb. PMID:26844880

  19. EU ecodesign regulation. More as only a light bulb ban; EU-Oekodesign-Richtlinie. Mehr als ein Gluehbirnenverbot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Corinna [Oeko-Institut e.V., Freiburg (Germany)

    2011-10-15

    Within a broader public, the EU Ecodesign Directive (Directive 2009/125/EC) was known and notoriously as a 'light bulb ban'. This resulted in strong emotions. But it has shown an impact in many other areas - usually unnoticed and often for the financial and practical benefits of the consumers. Now, the EU Commission wants to go one step further.

  20. Draft Genome Sequence of Streptomyces sp. Strain Wigar10, Isolated from a Surface-Sterilized Garlic Bulb

    OpenAIRE

    Klassen, Jonathan L.; Adams, Sandye M; Bramhacharya, Shanti; Giles, Steven S.; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Woyke, Tanja; Currie, Cameron R

    2011-01-01

    Streptomyces sp. strain Wigar10 was isolated from a surface-sterilized garlic bulb (Allium sativum var. Purple Stripe). Its genome encodes several novel secondary metabolite biosynthetic gene clusters and provides a genetic basis for further investigation of this strain's chemical biology and potential for interaction with its garlic host.

  1. Localisation of 3H-GABA in the rat olfactory bulb: An in vivo and in vitro autoradiographic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In an attempt to further clarify the localisation of GABAergic elements in the olfactory bulb we have performed, in vivo and in vitro, autoradiographic studies with 3H-GABA (#betta#-amino butyric acid) and 3H-DABA (L-2,4 diamino butyric acid). The results have shown a strong labelling with 3H-GABA of the glial cells in all the layers of the olfactory bulb. A high concentration of grains was observed in the periglomerular region. The labelling in the external plexiform layer was uniformly distributed in the neuropile with the strongest activity at the level of the dendritic processes of the granule cells, leaving the mitral cell dendrites and cell bodies almost free of grains. 3H-DABA showed a very similar pattern to 3H-GABA. When olfactory bulb slices were preincubated with #betta#-alanine the labelling of the glial elements almost disappeared especially at the level of the olfactory nerve layer. The labelling pattern of the other layers of the bulb remained mostly unchanged. This supports the view that a population of periglomerular and granule cells are GABAergic and that #betta#-alanine competes with GABA uptake sites only in glial cells. (orig.)

  2. Variation in antioxidant, and antibacterial activities and total phenolic content of the bulbs of mooseer (Allium hirtifolium Boiss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdollah GHASEMI PIRBALOUTI

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Allium hirtifolium Boiss. (mooseer belonging to the family Alliaceae, is an endemic species of Iran which grows wild in the Zagros Mountains range, western and southwestern Iran. The bulb of A. hirtifolium has been used as a flavouring agent, especially dairy foods and pickles by the indigenous people, southwestern Iran. In this study, the bulbs of various populations of the plant were collected from the alpine regions in Chaharmahal va Bakhtiari province, Iran. The total phenolic content of the ethanol extract was determined by Folin– Ciocalteu method, the antioxidant activity was evaluated by measuring 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, and the antibacterial activity of the extracts against four bacteria, including Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes, Proteus vulgaris, and Salmonella typhimurium was determined by serial dilution assay. Results indicated that the total phenolic content in the ethanol extracts of different populations of A. hirtifolium ranged between 34 to 44 mg gallic acid/g extract. In addition, the extracts of A. hirtifolium indicated moderate– to–good inhibitory activities (MICs = 0.062 to 0.250 mg/ml against four bacteria, especially against B. cereus. The antioxidant activity of the bulbs of A. hirtifolium indicated the extract acted as an effective DPPH scavenger, but were not as effective as the BHT control. This finding suggests that the bulbs of A. hirtifolium may be considered as a natural source of antioxidants and antimicrobial agents.

  3. Response of direct-seeded dry bulb onion to simulated glyphosate drift with variable rates and application timings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field studies were conducted in 2011 at the Malheur Experiment Station, Ontario, OR and Prosser, WA to evaluate the effect of simulated glyphosate drift on direct-seeded dry bulb onion. Glyphosate was applied at 8.6, 25.8, 86, 290, 434, and 860 g ae ha-1 when onion plants were at the flag-, 2-, 4-, ...

  4. The Role of Astrocytes in the Generation, Migration, and Integration of New Neurons in the Adult Olfactory Bulb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gengatharan, Archana; Bammann, Rodrigo R; Saghatelyan, Armen

    2016-01-01

    In mammals, new neurons in the adult olfactory bulb originate from a pool of neural stem cells in the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricles. Adult-born cells play an important role in odor information processing by adjusting the neuronal network to changing environmental conditions. Olfactory bulb neurogenesis is supported by several non-neuronal cells. In this review, we focus on the role of astroglial cells in the generation, migration, integration, and survival of new neurons in the adult forebrain. In the subventricular zone, neural stem cells with astrocytic properties display regional and temporal specificity when generating different neuronal subtypes. Non-neurogenic astrocytes contribute to the establishment and maintenance of the neurogenic niche. Neuroblast chains migrate through the rostral migratory stream ensheathed by astrocytic processes. Astrocytes play an important regulatory role in neuroblast migration and also assist in the development of a vasculature scaffold in the migratory stream that is essential for neuroblast migration in the postnatal brain. In the olfactory bulb, astrocytes help to modulate the network through a complex release of cytokines, regulate blood flow, and provide metabolic support, which may promote the integration and survival of new neurons. Astrocytes thus play a pivotal role in various processes of adult olfactory bulb neurogenesis, and it is likely that many other functions of these glial cells will emerge in the near future. PMID:27092050

  5. Reproductive performance of the bulb mite, ''Rhizoglyphus echinopus'' (F. et R.), after treatment with low doses of gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Substerile bulb mite, ''Rhizoglyphus echinopus'' (F. et R.), survivors of gamma radiation treatment with low doses provide partial protection against future infestation of stored product. The invading mites mate with their substerile partners and their productivity is lowered for a few successive generations. (author). 8 refs, 3 figs, 3 tabs

  6. [Complex metabolic disorders revealing a gastric ulcer of the bulb. A case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neffati, F; Hellara, I; Jelizi, M A; Bahri, J; Douki, W; Amor, A Ben; Najjar, M F

    2009-01-01

    We report the case of a 54-year-old man, without particular pathological antecedents admitted to the emergency of the university hospital of Monastir, for right renal colic. Radiography of the urinary tract without preparation and renal echography showed bilateral renal lithiasis and a right ureteral lithiasis. The interrogation revealed concept of vomiting after which the patient felt relieved. The biological assessment objectified an hypochloremic metabolic alcalosis, an increase in the anion gap, a severe impaired renal function of obstructive origin and an hypokaliemia. The presence of the lithiasis did not explain on its own the metabolic disorders of this patient. The other investigations showed that initial pathology was an evolutionary bulb ulcer into pre-stenosis justifying treatment by omeprazole and explaining the biological disorders. PMID:19654086

  7. Some experiences with flow measurement in bulb turbines using the differential pressure method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamkowski, A.; Lewandowski, M.

    2012-11-01

    The paper presents selected experiences of authors resulting from the optimization tests carried out for double-regulated bulb turbines using method based on measurement of differential pressure between two points properly located at the turbine flow system. These tests do not require measurement of absolute values of discharge, so this method can be applied without calibration to determine the relative values of discharge. This allows to determine the optimal setting of runner blades and wicket gates opening rates in order to maximize the use of the available hydropower potential at relatively low cost. The paper presents the effects that can be expected in some cases using such method - which is very advantageous as due to low costs.

  8. Adult Born Olfactory Bulb Dopaminergic Interneurons: Molecular Determinants and Experience-Dependent Plasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonzano, Sara; Bovetti, Serena; Gendusa, Claudio; Peretto, Paolo; De Marchis, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    The olfactory bulb (OB) is a highly plastic brain region involved in the early processing of olfactory information. A remarkably feature of the OB circuits in rodents is the constitutive integration of new neurons that takes place during adulthood. Newborn cells in the adult OB are mostly inhibitory interneurons belonging to chemically, morphologically and functionally heterogeneous types. Although there is general agreement that adult neurogenesis in the OB plays a key role in sensory information processing and olfaction-related plasticity, the contribution of each interneuron subtype to such functions is far to be elucidated. Here, we focus on the dopaminergic (DA) interneurons: we highlight recent findings about their morphological features and then describe the molecular factors required for the specification/differentiation and maintenance of the DA phenotype in adult born neurons. We also discuss dynamic changes of the DA interneuron population related to age, environmental stimuli and lesions, and their possible functional implications. PMID:27199651

  9. Climate-neutral flower bulb businesses. Vision for 2020; Klimaatneutrale bloembollenbedrijven. Visie op 2020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wildschut, J. [Praktijkonderzoek Plant en Omgeving PPO, Wageningen UR, Lisse (Netherlands)

    2011-02-15

    The flower bulb sector has the ambition to realize economically viable climate-neutral (no net CO2 emission in the business)breeding and cultivation practices in new businesses as of 2020. Based on available statistics (Statistics Netherlands) and data from businesses who have been participating in the Energy monitor since 1995, trends and developments have been identified for the three types of business in this sector, addressing area, forcing production, crop composition and energy use (electricity and heat) [Dutch] De bloembollensector heeft de ambitie om in nieuwe bedrijven vanaf 2020 economisch rendabel klimaatneutraal (geen netto CO2-uitstoot op het bedrijf) te kweken en te telen. Op basis van de beschikbare statistieken (CBS) en van gegevens van de bedrijven die sinds 1995 aan de Energiemonitor deelnemen zijn voor de drie bedrijfstypen in deze sector de trends en ontwikkelingen m.b.t. areaal, broeiproductie, gewassamenstelling en het energieverbruik (elektra en warmte), in kaart gebracht.

  10. Checklist energy efficient building in the flower bulbs sector; Checklist energiezuinig bouwen in de bloembollensector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Paridon, W.J.A.; Dol, J.J.

    2002-11-15

    This checklist shows the energy saving options for investments in buildings and installations for flower bulb businesses. Next to an energy efficiency improvement of 22%, the Long-term agreement for energy has also adopted the target of 4% sustainable energy deployment. This checklist therefore indicates for each category whether it is in the sustainable energy category or part of the regular saving options [Dutch] In deze checklist wordt aangegeven waar de mogelijkheden liggen tot besparing van energie bij investeringen in gebouwen en installaties voor bloembollenteeltbedrijven. In de meerjarenafspraak energie heeft de bloembollensector naast de energie efficiency verbetering van 22% ook de doelstelling opgenomen om 4% duurzame energie te gebruiken. In de checklist staat daarom per aspect of deze behoort tot de categorie duurzame energie of tot de normale besparingsopties.

  11. Sensory-Evoked Intrinsic Imaging Signals in the Olfactory Bulb Are Independent of Neurovascular Coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincis, Roberto; Lagier, Samuel; Van De Ville, Dimitri; Rodriguez, Ivan; Carleton, Alan

    2015-07-14

    Functional brain-imaging techniques used in humans and animals, such as functional MRI and intrinsic optical signal (IOS) imaging, are thought to largely rely on neurovascular coupling and hemodynamic responses. Here, taking advantage of the well-described micro-architecture of the mouse olfactory bulb, we dissected the nature of odor-evoked IOSs. Using in vivo pharmacology in transgenic mouse lines reporting activity in different cell types, we show that parenchymal IOSs are largely independent of neurotransmitter release and neurovascular coupling. Furthermore, our results suggest that odor-evoked parenchymal IOSs originate from changes in light scattering of olfactory sensory neuron axons, mostly due to water movement following action potential propagation. Our study sheds light on a direct correlate of neuronal activity, which may be used for large-scale functional brain imaging. PMID:26146075

  12. LED lamp or bulb with remote phosphor and diffuser configuration with enhanced scattering properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tong, Tao; Le Toquin, Ronan; Keller, Bernd; Tarsa, Eric; Youmans, Mark; Lowes, Theodore; Medendorp, Jr., Nicholas W; Van De Ven, Antony; Negley, Gerald

    2014-11-11

    An LED lamp or bulb is disclosed that comprises a light source, a heat sink structure and an optical cavity. The optical cavity comprises a phosphor carrier having a conversions material and arranged over an opening to the cavity. The phosphor carrier comprises a thermally conductive transparent material and is thermally coupled to the heat sink structure. An LED based light source is mounted in the optical cavity remote to the phosphor carrier with light from the light source passing through the phosphor carrier. A diffuser dome is included that is mounted over the optical cavity, with light from the optical cavity passing through the diffuser dome. The properties of the diffuser, such as geometry, scattering properties of the scattering layer, surface roughness or smoothness, and spatial distribution of the scattering layer properties may be used to control various lamp properties such as color uniformity and light intensity distribution as a function of viewing angle.

  13. Activation of raphe nuclei triggers rapid and distinct effects on parallel olfactory bulb output channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Vikrant; Provost, Allison C; Agarwal, Prateek; Murthy, Venkatesh N

    2016-02-01

    The serotonergic raphe nuclei are involved in regulating brain states over timescales of minutes and hours. We examined more rapid effects of raphe activation on two classes of principal neurons in the mouse olfactory bulb, mitral and tufted cells, which send olfactory information to distinct targets. Brief stimulation of the raphe nuclei led to excitation of tufted cells at rest and potentiation of their odor responses. While mitral cells at rest were also excited by raphe activation, their odor responses were bidirectionally modulated, leading to improved pattern separation of odors. In vitro whole-cell recordings revealed that specific optogenetic activation of raphe axons affected bulbar neurons through dual release of serotonin and glutamate. Therefore, the raphe nuclei, in addition to their role in neuromodulation of brain states, are also involved in fast, sub-second top-down modulation similar to cortical feedback. This modulation can selectively and differentially sensitize or decorrelate distinct output channels. PMID:26752161

  14. Control of Mitral/Tufted Cell Output by Selective Inhibition among Olfactory Bulb Glomeruli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Economo, Michael N; Hansen, Kyle R; Wachowiak, Matt

    2016-07-20

    Inhibition is fundamental to information processing by neural circuits. In the olfactory bulb (OB), glomeruli are the functional units for odor information coding, but inhibition among glomeruli is poorly characterized. We used two-photon calcium imaging in anesthetized and awake mice to visualize both odorant-evoked excitation and suppression in OB output neurons (mitral and tufted, MT cells). MT cell response polarity mapped uniformly to discrete OB glomeruli, allowing us to analyze how inhibition shapes OB output relative to the glomerular map. Odorants elicited unique patterns of suppression in only a subset of glomeruli in which such suppression could be detected, and excited and suppressed glomeruli were spatially intermingled. Binary mixture experiments revealed that interglomerular inhibition could suppress excitatory mitral cell responses to odorants. These results reveal that inhibitory OB circuits nonlinearly transform odor representations and support a model of selective and nonrandom inhibition among glomerular ensembles. PMID:27346531

  15. Sensory-Evoked Intrinsic Imaging Signals in the Olfactory Bulb Are Independent of Neurovascular Coupling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Vincis

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Functional brain-imaging techniques used in humans and animals, such as functional MRI and intrinsic optical signal (IOS imaging, are thought to largely rely on neurovascular coupling and hemodynamic responses. Here, taking advantage of the well-described micro-architecture of the mouse olfactory bulb, we dissected the nature of odor-evoked IOSs. Using in vivo pharmacology in transgenic mouse lines reporting activity in different cell types, we show that parenchymal IOSs are largely independent of neurotransmitter release and neurovascular coupling. Furthermore, our results suggest that odor-evoked parenchymal IOSs originate from changes in light scattering of olfactory sensory neuron axons, mostly due to water movement following action potential propagation. Our study sheds light on a direct correlate of neuronal activity, which may be used for large-scale functional brain imaging.

  16. Launching Light: Beyond the Bulb for the United Nations' International Year of Light 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcand, K. K.; Watzke, M.

    2015-09-01

    In astronomy, light is the language used to understand the Universe. From radio waves to gamma rays, light in all its forms delivers information that helps astronomers learn about the Universe. When the United Nations declared 2015 to be the International Year of Light and Light-based Technologies (IYL2015), it presented an opportunity to share the role that light plays in astronomy and beyond. The IYL2015 also offered a chance to build on experiences and sustain networks from the International Year of Astronomy in 2009. Light: Beyond the Bulb is an IYL2015 project that melds both of these goals. The project takes the form of an exhibit that showcases what light can do, from here on Earth and across the vastness of space, hosted by volunteer networks in public spaces for informal science learning.

  17. Novel flow quantification of the carotid bulb and the common carotid artery with vector flow ultrasound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mads Møller; Pihl, Michael Johannes; Haugaard, Per;

    2014-01-01

    and by vector concentration calculation. A vortex with complex flow was found in all carotid bulbs, whereas the CCA had mainly laminar flow. The medical experts evaluated the flow to be mainly laminar in the CCA (0.82 +/- 0.14) and mainly complex (0.23 +/- 0.22) in the CB. Likewise, the estimated vector......Abnormal blood flow is usually assessed using spectral Doppler estimation of the peak systolic velocity. The technique, however, only estimates the axial velocity component, and therefore the complexity of blood flow remains hidden in conventional ultrasound examinations. With the vector ultrasound...... technique transverse oscillation the blood velocities of both the axial and the transverse directions are obtained and the complexity of blood flow can be visualized. The aim of the study was to determine the technical performance and interpretation of vector concentration as a tool for estimation of flow...

  18. Irradiation of bulbs and tuber crops. A compilation of technical data for its authorization and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication contains a compilation of available scientific and technical data on the irradiation of bulbs and tuber crops. It is intended to assist governments in considering the authorization of this particular application of radiation processing of food and in ensuring its control in the facility and the control of irradiated food products moving in trade. The compilation was prepared in response to the requirement of the Codex General Standard for Irradiated Foods and associated Code that radiation treatment of food be justified on the basis of a technological need or of a need to improve the hygienic quality of the food. It was also in response to the recommendations of the FAO/IAEA/WHO/ITC-UNCTAD/GATT International Conference on the Acceptance, Control of and Trade in Irradiated Food (Geneva, 1989) concerning the need for regulatory control of radiation processing of food. 448 refs, 6 tabs

  19. Neuronal pattern separation in the olfactory bulb improves odor discrimination learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagier, Samuel; Begnaud, Frédéric; Rodriguez, Ivan; Carleton, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Neuronal pattern separation is thought to enable the brain to disambiguate sensory stimuli with overlapping features thereby extracting valuable information. In the olfactory system, it remains unknown whether pattern separation acts as a driving force for sensory discrimination and the learning thereof. Here we show that overlapping odor-evoked input patterns to the mouse olfactory bulb (OB) are dynamically reformatted in the network at the timescale of a single breath, giving rise to separated patterns of activity in ensemble of output neurons (mitral/tufted cells; M/T). Strikingly, the extent of pattern separation in M/T assemblies predicts behavioral discrimination performance during the learning phase. Furthermore, exciting or inhibiting GABAergic OB interneurons, using optogenetics or pharmacogenetics, altered pattern separation and thereby odor discrimination learning in a bidirectional way. In conclusion, we propose that the OB network can act as a pattern separator facilitating olfactory stimuli distinction, a process that is sculpted by synaptic inhibition. PMID:26301325

  20. Dopaminergic modulation of mitral cell activity in the frog olfactory bulb: a combined radioligand binding-electrophysiological study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dopamine content in the amphibian olfactory bulb is supplied by interneurons scattered among mitral cells in the external plexiform/mitral cell layer. In mammals, dopamine has been found to be involved in various aspects of bulbar information processing by influencing mitral cell odour responsiveness. Dopamine action in the bulb depends directly on the localization of its receptor targets, found to be mainly of the D2 type in mammals. The present study assessed, in the frog, both the anatomical localization of D2-like, radioligand-labelled receptors of dopamine and the in vivo action of dopamine on unitary mitral cell activity in response to odours delivered over a wide range of concentrations. The [125I]iodosulpride-labelled D2 binding sites were visualized on frozen sagittal sections of frog brains by film radioautography. The sites were found to be restricted to the external plexiform/mitral cell layer; other layers of the olfactory bulb were devoid of specific labelling. Electrophysiological recordings of mitral unit activity revealed that dopamine or its agonist apomorphine induced a drastic reduction of spontaneous firing rate of mitral cells in most cases without altering odour intensity coding properties of these cells. Moreover, pre-treatment with the D2 antagonist eticlopride blocked the dopamine-induced reduction of mitral cell spontaneous activity.In the frog olfactory bulb, both anatomical localization of D2-like receptors and functional data on dopamine involvement in information processing differ from those reported in mammals. This suggests a phylogenetic evolution of dopamine action in the olfactory bulb. In the frog, anatomical data perfectly corroborate electrophysiological results, together strongly suggesting a direct action of dopamine on mitral cells. In a physiologically operating system, such an action would result in a global improvement of signal-to-noise ratio. (Copyright (c) 1997 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  1. Dopaminergic modulation of mitral cell activity in the frog olfactory bulb: a combined radioligand binding-electrophysiological study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duchamp, A.; Moyse, E.; Delaleu, J.-C.; Coronas, V.; Duchamp-Viret, P. [Laboratoire de Physiologie Neurosensorielle, Universite Claude Bernard and CNRS, F69622 Villeurbanne (France)

    1997-04-28

    Dopamine content in the amphibian olfactory bulb is supplied by interneurons scattered among mitral cells in the external plexiform/mitral cell layer. In mammals, dopamine has been found to be involved in various aspects of bulbar information processing by influencing mitral cell odour responsiveness. Dopamine action in the bulb depends directly on the localization of its receptor targets, found to be mainly of the D{sub 2} type in mammals. The present study assessed, in the frog, both the anatomical localization of D{sub 2}-like, radioligand-labelled receptors of dopamine and the in vivo action of dopamine on unitary mitral cell activity in response to odours delivered over a wide range of concentrations. The [{sup 125}I]iodosulpride-labelled D{sub 2} binding sites were visualized on frozen sagittal sections of frog brains by film radioautography. The sites were found to be restricted to the external plexiform/mitral cell layer; other layers of the olfactory bulb were devoid of specific labelling. Electrophysiological recordings of mitral unit activity revealed that dopamine or its agonist apomorphine induced a drastic reduction of spontaneous firing rate of mitral cells in most cases without altering odour intensity coding properties of these cells. Moreover, pre-treatment with the D{sub 2} antagonist eticlopride blocked the dopamine-induced reduction of mitral cell spontaneous activity.In the frog olfactory bulb, both anatomical localization of D{sub 2}-like receptors and functional data on dopamine involvement in information processing differ from those reported in mammals. This suggests a phylogenetic evolution of dopamine action in the olfactory bulb. In the frog, anatomical data perfectly corroborate electrophysiological results, together strongly suggesting a direct action of dopamine on mitral cells. In a physiologically operating system, such an action would result in a global improvement of signal-to-noise ratio. (Copyright (c) 1997 Elsevier Science B

  2. Deformity of duodenal bulb, gastric metaplasia of duodenal regenerating mucosa and recurrence of duodenal ulcer: A correlated study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun-Chao Chang; Shiann Pan; Gi-Shih Lien; Cheng-Hsiung Liao; Sheng-Hsuan Chen; Yeong-Shan Cheng

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the correlation among the presence and degree of gastric metaplasia of duodenal regenerating mucosa, the deformity of bulb and the recurrence of duodenal ulcer.METHODS: A total of 99 patients with duodenal ulcer were treated with H2-antagonist with or without antimicrobial therapy. All patients received follow-up endoscopic examinations 6 wk after treatment. When the ulcer(s) were noted to be healed, two biopsies were taken from the ulcer scar for histological study of gastric metaplasia, and 4 biopsies were taken from antrum for Helicobacter pylori(H pylori) study. Out of these cases,44 received further follow-up endoscopic examinations after 3, 6 and 12 mo respectively for studying the recurrence rate of duodenal ulcers. The correlation among ulcer recurrence, degree of gastric metaplasia of regenerating mucosa, bulbar deformity, and colonization of Hpylori in the stomach was then studied.RESULTS: The results showed that there was a strong correlation between the deformity of duodenal bulb and the degree of gastric metaplasia of regenerating duodenal mucosa. The recurrence rate of duodenal ulcer had a significant difference between patients with and without Hpyloricolonization in the stomach (P<0.001). The greater the degree of gastric metaplasia of duodenal regenerating mucosa, the higher the recurrence rate of duodenal ulcer (P= 0.021). The more deformed the duodenal bulb, the higher the incidence of recurrence of duodenal ulcer (P = 0.03).CONCLUSION: There is a correlation among deformity of duodenal bulb, gastric metaplasia of duodenal regenerating mucosa and recurrence of duodenal ulcer.A more severely deformed duodenal bulb is closely related to a greater extent of gastric metaplasia. Both factors contribute to the recurrence of duodenal ulcer.

  3. Energy monitor of the Dutch flower bulb sector 2010; Energiemonitor van de Nederlandse Bloembollensector 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wildschut, J. [Praktijkonderzoek Plant en Omgeving PPO, Bloembollen, Boomkwekerij en Fruit, Lisse (Netherlands)

    2011-09-15

    1313 flower bulb businesses were approached for the Dutch Energy Monitor 2010. The response rate was 60%. Compared to 2008, the energy use per hectare decreased with 6.6% in 2010. The energy use per 1000 forced bulbs has decreased with 18.0%. Energy saving measures were implemented at a larger scale compared to 2009. What is most striking is the strong increase in deployment of a lower circulation standard and multi-layer cultivation. The purchase of green electricity is the most frequently used deployment of sustainable energy for electricity (9.2% of the businesses). Deployment of hot air from the greenhouse for drying purposes is the most frequently used deployment of sustainable thermal energy (18.1% of the businesses). The share of sustainable energy amounts to 2.2%. The CO2 emission from direct use of fossil fuels has decreased with 11.8% compared to 2008 [Dutch] Voor de Energiemonitor 2010 zijn 1313 bloembollenbedrijven aangeschreven. De response was 60%. T.o.v. 2008 is het energieverbruik per hectare in 2010 met 6,6% afgenomen. Het energieverbruik per 1000 stuks broeibollen is met 18,0% afgenomen. Energiebesparende maatregelen werden iets meer toegepast dan in 2009. Opvallend is de sterke toename van het toepassen van een lagere circulatienorm en van meerlagenteelt. Aankoop van groene stroom is de meest toegepaste benutting van duurzame energie voor elektra (9,2% van de bedrijven). Het toepassen van warme kaslucht voor het drogen is de meest toegepaste benutting van duurzame thermische energie (18,1% van de bedrijven). Het aandeel duurzame energie komt op 2,2%. De CO2-uitstoot door het directe verbruik van fossiele brandstoffen is t.o.v. 2008 met 11,8% afgenomen.

  4. Direction of Head Trauma and its Effect on Olfactory Bulb Volume in Post-Traumatic Anosmia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Farshchi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anosmia is a physical sign in post-traumatic patients, which significantly reduces the quality of life. Anosmia occurs in up to 30% of cases with head trauma. In this study we aimed to compare the Olfactory Bulb Volume (OBV in patients with posttraumatic anosmia in different impact positions and also with healthy individuals to find the relation between the two variables. Methods: Thirty-eight patients with posttraumatic anosmia and 27 healthy individuals with normal olfactory function were recruited in this case-control study performed in Amir Alam Hospital in Tehran, Iran. Variables of age, sex, time of trauma, site of trauma (frontoparietal/occipital, side of trauma, OBV, the results of olfactory identification tests and olfactory threshold were extracted and evaluated. We used non-contrasted 1.5-Tesla coronal brain MRI for the measurement of OBV.Results: There were no significant differences between cases and controls regarding sex and age. Olfactory bulb volume was significantly smaller in cases compared to the controls (P=0.004. Among the case group, OBV was smaller in anterior versus posterior head traumas (P=0.02. OBV was also smaller in ipsilateral rather than the contralateral side of trauma (P=0.01.Conclusion: The direction of trauma had a significant effect on OBV and it was smaller in traumas to the anterior and also ipsilateral sides of the head. It seems that changes in OBV differ due to the direction of head trauma and it can be helpful in predicting the prognosis of posttraumatic anosmia. Further studies are required for more conclusive statements.

  5. Duodenal Bulb Mucosa with Hypertrophic Gastric Oxyntic Heterotopia in Patients with Zollinger Ellison Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Kohan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome (ZES results in hypersecretion of gastric acid (via gastrinoma leading to peptic ulcers, diarrhea, and abdominal pain. We describe the novel discovery of hypertrophic, heterotopic gastric mucosa in the proximal duodenal bulb in patients with ZES, which we hypothesize results in an increased incidence of postbulbar ulcers in patients with ZES (a mechanism previously unreported. We determined the incidence of the novel finding of duodenal gastric oxyntic hypertrophic heterotopia (GOH in patients with ZES. Methods. Seven patients with ZES were enrolled. The diagnosis of ZES was established by hypergastrinemia, gastric acid hypersecretion, and a positive secretin test or based on biopsy specimens (evaluated via tissue staining. Basal acid output (BAO and baseline gastrin secretion were determined by established methods. Endoscopic examinations with methylene blue staining and biopsy of the gastric and duodenal mucosa were conducted in all patients every 3–6 months for an average of 5 years. Results. The duodenal mucosa demonstrated hypertrophic GOH in 5 out of 7 patients with ZES and an intact stomach and duodenum. Biopsies from the bowel mucosa demonstrated patchy replacement of surface epithelium by gastric-type epithelium with hypertrophic oxyntic glands in the lamina propria in 5 patients. Two of the patients had no evidence of GOH in the duodenal bulb. Patients with GOH had an average serum gastrin level of 1245 pg/mL and BAO of 2.92 mEq/hr versus 724 pg/mL and 0.8 mEq/hr in patients without GOH. Conclusions. This study demonstrated the presence of duodenal mucosa with GOH in 5 out of 7 patients with ZES and an intact stomach and duodenum. The presence of hypertrophic and heterotopic gastric mucosa is proposed to result from increased gastrin levels and may contribute to the increased incidence of postbulbar ulcers in these patients.

  6. Evaluation of the quality of hot air dehydrated onion coming from gamma radiated bulbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this work was to evaluate the quality of hot air dehydrated onion, as regards physical and chemical characteristics, coming from the regional product that was gamma irradiated for sprout inhibition. We worked with the onion variety Valenciana Sintetica 14. Radio inhibition was made 30 days post harvest with gamma radiation from a 60Co source at the Centro Atomico Ezeiza-CNEA, using a dose of 60 Gy. The skin of the bulbs was manually removed and the bulbs were cut in pieces 3 mm thick and between 1 and 3 cm long. The material was dehydrated in a rotating dryer with forced air circulation at 60 C degrees, between 0.8 and 1.7 m/s air speed and at ambient relative humidity. Dehydration was made 80 days after post-irradiation. The quality of the dehydrated onion was evaluated by the following physical- chemical analysis: total solids content, pungency (indirectly measured by pyruvic acid content assessment), color, pH, carbon hydrates and sensorial analysis. All analytical determinations were made in triplicate. The results obtained showed there are no significant changes between the averages of the physical-chemical properties of the control dehydrated samples and those coming from the radio-inhibited raw matter. According to the sensorial analysis, only the color of dehydrated onion was affected by the radio inhibition process. However, and according to the panel members comment, the greatest browning degree observed in ionizing radiation treated onion seemed to result more attractive to them. It may be concluded that radio inhibited regional onion can be useful as raw matter for hot air dehydrated product. It must be remarked that its use would extend the product use by dehydration plants, thus implying an increase of their processing capacity with the corresponding financial benefit. (author)

  7. Comprehensive connectivity of the mouse main olfactory bulb: analysis and online digital atlas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houri eHintiryan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available We introduce the first open resource for mouse olfactory connectivity data produced as part of the Mouse Connectome Project (MCP at UCLA. The MCP aims to assemble a whole-brain connectivity atlas for the C57Bl/6J mouse using a double coinjection tracing method. Each coinjection consists of one anterograde and one retrograde tracer, which affords the advantage of simultaneously identifying efferent and afferent pathways and directly identifying reciprocal connectivity of injection sites. The systematic application of double coinjections potentially reveals interaction stations between injections and allows for the study of connectivity at the network level. To facilitate use of the data, raw images are made publicly accessible through our online interactive visualization tool, the iConnectome, where users can view and annotate the high-resolution, multi-fluorescent connectivity data (www.MouseConnectome.org. Systematic double coinjections were made into different regions of the main olfactory bulb (MOB and data from 18 MOB cases (~72 pathways; 36 efferent/36 afferent currently are available to view in iConnectome within their corresponding atlas level and their own bright-field cytoarchitectural background. Additional MOB injections and injections of the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB, anterior olfactory nucleus (AON, and other cortical olfactory areas gradually will be made available. Analysis of connections from different regions of the MOB revealed a novel, topographically arranged MOB projection roadmap, demonstrated disparate MOB connectivity with anterior versus posterior piriform cortical area, and exposed some novel aspects of well-established cortical olfactory projections.

  8. INFLUENCE OF PROTECTIVE COATINGS UNDER DIFFERENT STORAGE CONDITIONS OF GARLIC BULBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naumova G. M.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The influence of protective coatings on quantitative loss of garlic was investigated at its warm and cold storage under various conditions of relative humidity. The following varieties of garlic people's selection were studied: winter varieties – Tian Shansky, Otradnensky; spring varieties – Sochinsky and Iglinsky Local. Paraffin-ceresin composition (PK-1 was first proposed as a protective hydrophobic coating of garlic bulbs and its combination was scientifically based (the main component is paraffin, plasticizer is Ceresin C-65 and surface-active supplement is a fraction of synthetic fatty acids. Physical and mechanical performance properties of PK-1: melting temperature 58 C; resistance at 20 C 1,0 МПа; volumetric shrinkage 15%; plasticity 0,5·10-4 1/МПа; water vapour permeability 6,5g/m2 per day.Waterproof properties of hydrophobic protective coatings (paraffin-ceresin PK-1, alloy of paraffin with beewax PК-4, paraffin without supplements P were compared with hydrophilic water solution of polyvinyl alcohol PWS-5. According to the increase of the moisture-proof properties, the investigated coatings form the following series: P. PWS -5, PК-4, PК-1. The maximum efficiency of garlic storage under various temperature conditions and relative air humidity was achieved when using a protection film of PК-1. Compared with control (without coating PК-1 reduced moisture loss in garlic bulbs for 3-13 times depending on the variety, and storage duration of winter garlic varieties increased for 2 times. Iglinsky Local is the most moisture resistant of all the investigated varieties, and Tian Shansky variety is less moisture resistant

  9. Age and gender-related differences in mitral cells of olfactory bulb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the age and gender-related differences in mitral cells of the human cadaveric olfactory bulbs. Sixty olfactory bulbs, 30 each from male and female (age 20-76 years) human cadavers divided into six groups of age and gender-wise were collected from the mortuary of the King Edward Medical University, Lahore. Mitral cells were counted and their diameter was calculated from 10 micro m thick cresyl violet stained histological sections. Statistical analysis was done using ANOVA for age-related differences and independent t-test for gender-related differences. There was significant reduction in the number of mitral cells and diameter of their nuclei with age. There was significant decrease in the number of mitral cells in males, between groups I and II (p < 0.001); II and III (p < 0.001); and I and III (p < 0.001); statistically significant decrease also occurred in females, between groups IV and V (p < 0.001); V and VI (p < 0.001); and IV and VI (p < 0.001). In most cases, the distance between individual mitral cells was seen to be much greater than in younger group. In group VI, few mitral cells were observed in the cell layer. There was also significant decrease in the diameter of mitral cell nuclei in males, between groups I and III (p < 0.001); and II and III (p < 0.010); in females, between groups IV and VI (p < 0.001); and V and VI (p < 0.001). No gender-related differences were observed. The number of mitral cells and diameter of their nuclei decreased with advancing age. (author)

  10. Sexual activity increases the number of newborn cells in the accessory olfactory bulb of male rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy ePortillo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In rodents, sexual behavior depends on the adequate detection of sexually relevant stimuli. The olfactory bulb (OB is a region of the adult mammalian brain undergoing constant cell renewal by continuous integration of new granular and periglomerular neurons in the accessory (AOB and main (MOB olfactory bulbs. The proliferation, migration, survival, maturation, and integration of these new cells to the OB depend on the stimulus that the subjects received. We have previously shown that 15 days after females control (paced the sexual interaction an increase in the number of cells is observed in the AOB. No changes are observed in the number of cells when females are not allowed to control the sexual interaction. In the present study we investigated if in male rats sexual behavior increases the number of new cells in the OB. Male rats were divided in five groups: 1 males that did not receive any sexual stimulation, 2 males that were exposed to female odors, 3 males that mated for 1 h and could not pace their sexual interaction, 4 males that paced their sexual interaction and ejaculated 1 time and 5 males that paced their sexual interaction and ejaculated 3 times. All males received three injections of the DNA synthesis marker bromodeoxyuridine at 1h intervals, starting 1h before the beginning of the behavioral test. Fifteen days later, males were sacrificed and the brains were processed to identify new cells and to evaluate if they differentiated into neurons. The number of newborn cells increased in the granular cell layer (also known as the internal cell layer of the AOB in males that ejaculated one or three times controlling (paced the rate of the sexual interaction. Some of these new cells were identified as neurons. In contrast, no significant differences were found in the mitral cell layer (also known as the external cell layer and glomerular cell layer of the AOB. In addition, no significant differences were found between groups in the MOB in

  11. Protective Effect of Dietary Lily Bulb on Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis in Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okazaki, Yukako; Chiji, Hideyuki; Kato, Norihisa

    2016-01-01

    Lily bulb is traditionally consumed in East Asia and contains high amounts of glucomannan. This study investigated the effect of dietary lily bulb on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in rats fed a high-fat (HF) diet. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a diet containing 30% beef tallow with or without 7% steamed lily bulb powder for 17 d. Experimental colitis was induced by replacing drinking water with DSS during the last 7 d. The disease activity index (DAI) was significantly lower in the lily bulb+DSS group than in the DSS group on day 17. The fecal abundance of Bifidobacterium was significantly reduced in the DSS group compared with that in the control group, but it was recovered by lily bulb intake. Cecal butyrate, fecal mucins, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity were significantly higher in the DSS group than in the control group. Dietary lily bulb potentiated the increase in cecal butyrate, fecal mucins, and the ALP activity caused by DSS treatment. These results indicate that lily bulb attenuates DSS-induced colitis by modulating colonic microflora, organic acids, mucins, and ALP activity in HF diet-fed rats. PMID:27465728

  12. Greater addition of neurons to the olfactory bulb than to the cerebral cortex of eulipotyphlans but not rodents, afrotherians or primates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Furtado De Mattos Ribeiro

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The olfactory bulb is an evolutionarily old structure that antedates the appearance of a six-layered mammalian cerebral cortex. As such, the neuronal scaling rules that apply to scaling the mass of the olfactory bulb as a function of its number of neurons might be shared across mammalian groups, as we have found to be the case for the ensemble of non-cortical, non-cerebellar brain structures. Alternatively, the neuronal scaling rules that apply to the olfactory bulb might be distinct in those mammals that rely heavily on olfaction. The group previously referred to as Insectivora includes small mammals, some of which are now placed in Afrotheria, a base group in mammalian radiation, and others in Eulipotyphla, a group derived later, at the base of Laurasitheria. Here we show that the neuronal scaling rules that apply to building the olfactory bulb differ across eulipotyphlans and other mammals such that eulipotyphlans have more neurons concentrated in an olfactory bulb of similar size than afrotherians, glires and primates. Most strikingly, while the cerebral cortex gains neurons at a faster pace than the olfactory bulb in glires, and afrotherians follow this trend, it is the olfactory bulb that gains neurons at a faster pace than the cerebral cortex in eulipotyphlans, which contradicts the common view that the cerebral cortex is the fastest expanding structure in brain evolution. Our findings emphasize the importance of not using brain structure size as a proxy for numbers of neurons across mammalian orders, and are consistent with the notion that different selective pressures have acted upon the olfactory system of eulipotyphlans, glires and primates, with eulipotyphlans relying more on olfaction for their behavior than glires and primates. Surprisingly, however, the neuronal scaling rules for primates predict that the human olfactory bulb has as many neurons as the larger eulipotyphlan olfactory bulbs, which questions the classification of

  13. Greater addition of neurons to the olfactory bulb than to the cerebral cortex of eulipotyphlans but not rodents, afrotherians or primates

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro, Pedro F. M.; Manger, Paul R.; Catania, Kenneth C.; Kaas, Jon H.; Herculano-Houzel, Suzana

    2014-01-01

    The olfactory bulb is an evolutionarily old structure that antedates the appearance of a six-layered mammalian cerebral cortex. As such, the neuronal scaling rules that apply to scaling the mass of the olfactory bulb as a function of its number of neurons might be shared across mammalian groups, as we have found to be the case for the ensemble of non-cortical, non-cerebellar brain structures. Alternatively, the neuronal scaling rules that apply to the olfactory bulb might be distinct in those...

  14. RoBuST: An Integrated Resource of Genomics Information for Plants in the Root and Bulb Crop Families Apiaceae and Alliaceae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root and bulb vegetables (RBV) include carrots, celeriac (root celery), parsnips (Apiaceae), onions, garlic, and leek (Alliaceae) – food crops grown globally and consumed worldwide. Few data analysis platforms are currently available where data collection, annotation and integration initiatives are ...

  15. Power break off in a bulb turbine: wall pressure sensor investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A measurement campaign using unsteady wall pressure sensors on a bulb turbine draft tube was performed over the power and efficiency break off range of a N11 curve. This study is part of the BulbT project, undertaken by the Consortium on hydraulic machines and the LAMH (Hydraulic Machine Laboratory of Laval University). The chosen operating points include the best efficiency point for a high runner blade angle and a high N11. Three other points, with the same N11, have been selected in the break off zone of the efficiency curve. Flow conditions have been set using the guide vanes while the runner blade angle remained constant. The pressure sensors were developed from small piezoresistive chips with high frequency response. The calibration gave an instrumental error lower than 0.3% of the measurement range. The unsteady wall pressure was measured simultaneously at 13 locations inside the first part of the draft tube, which is conical, and at 16 locations in the circular to rectangular transition part just downstream. It was also measured at 11 locations along a streamwise line path at the bottom left part of the draft tube, where flow separation occurs, covering the whole streamwise extent of the draft tube. For seven radial-azimuthal planes, four sensors were distributed azimuthally. As confirmed by tuft visualizations, the break off phenomenon is correlated to the presence of flow separation inside the diffuser at the wall. The break off is linked to the appearance of a large recirculation in the draft tube. The efficiency drop increases with the size of the separated region. Analysis of the draft tube pressure coefficients confirms that the break off is related to diffuser losses. The streamwise evolution of the mean pressure coefficient is analyzed for the different operating conditions. An azimuthal dissymmetry of the mean pressure produced by the separation is detected. The pressure signals have been analyzed and used to track the separation zone depending on

  16. EVALUATION OF BIOAGENTS FOR MANAGEMENT OF THE ONION PURPLE BLOTCH AND BULB YIELD LOSS ASSESSMENT UNDER FIELD CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. M. YADAV

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Among the several diseases, purple blotch diseases of onion (Allium cepa L. caused by Alternaria porri (Ellis Cif. is one of the most destructive disease causing accountable losses of about 80 to 90 per cent. The results obtained on the field efficacy of different bioagents tested, Pseudomonas fluorescens--I (0.5% was found most antifungal against A. porri and recorded significantly least mean disease intensity (37.19% and gave maximum bulb yield (27183 kg/ha. Both the fungal and bacterial antagonists tested were also found effective against A. porri and recorded significantly reduced mean disease intensity thereby increased the bulb yield over unsprayed control. Based on incremental cost:benefit ratio (ICBR of the bioagents spray treatments, P. fluorescens--I (ICBR, 1:13.87 was found economical and effective for the management of purple blotch of onion followed by Bacillus subtilis (ICBR, 1:12.93.

  17. Thermal Design and Characteristics of LED Light Bulbs%LED灯泡的散热设计及特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨光

    2012-01-01

    Combined with the cooling requirements of LED light bulbs in the application, typical cooling methods and heat dissipation materials are analyzed. Some problems existing are posed. These will have positive significance for the technical improvement and the more extensive application of LED light bulbs in the future.%结合LED灯泡在应用中需具备的散热性能,分析常用LED灯泡的散热设计方式及散热材料,并提出存在的问题,对于今后LED灯泡的技术改进及更加广泛的应用具有积极的意义。

  18. Quasars Are Not Light-Bulbs: Testing Models of Quasar Lifetimes with the Observed Eddington Ratio Distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Hopkins, Philip F

    2008-01-01

    We use the observed distribution of Eddington ratios as a function of supermassive black hole (BH) mass to constrain models of AGN lifetimes and lightcurves. Given the observed AGN luminosity function, a model for AGN lifetimes (time above a given luminosity) translates directly to a predicted Eddington ratio distribution. Models for self-regulated BH growth, in which feedback produces a 'blowout' decay phase after some peak luminosity (shutting down accretion) make specific predictions for the lifetimes distinct from those expected if AGN are simply gas starved (without feedback) and very different from simple phenomenological 'light bulb' models. Present observations of the Eddington ratio distribution, spanning 5 decades in Eddington ratio, 3 in BH mass, and redshifts z=0-1, agree with the predictions of self-regulated models, and rule out 'light-bulb', pure exponential, and gas starvation models at high significance. We compare the Eddington ratio distributions at fixed BH mass and fixed luminosity (both ...

  19. Ocular bulb as a matrix of selection in detection of clenbuterol: an effective monitoring in breeding turkey

    OpenAIRE

    P.Roncada; L. Stancampiano; Sori, F.; A. Zaghini; D. Ferrara

    2011-01-01

    Clenbuterol is a 2-agonist licensed in Europe solely as a muscle relaxant in pregnant cattle, usually during calf delivery, and for tocolysis and treatment of respiratory diseases in horses. Different use in animals is considered illegal because this growth promoter can endanger human health. The aim of this work was to monitor the presence of clenbuterol in a not official and inedible matrix (where there is strong evidence of its potential accumulation), as ocular bulb, colle...

  20. Recording Temperature-induced Neuronal Activity through Monitoring Calcium Changes in the Olfactory Bulb of Xenopus laevis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kludt, Eugen; Schild, Detlev

    2016-01-01

    The olfactory system, specialized in the detection, integration and processing of chemical molecules is likely the most thoroughly studied sensory system. However, there is piling evidence that olfaction is not solely limited to chemical sensitivity, but also includes temperature sensitivity. Premetamorphic Xenopus laevis are translucent animals, with protruding nasal cavities deprived of the cribriform plate separating the nose and the olfactory bulb. These characteristics make them well suited for studying olfaction, and particularly thermosensitivity. The present article describes the complete procedure for measuring temperature responses in the olfactory bulb of X. laevis larvae. Firstly, the electroporation of olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) is performed with spectrally distinct dyes loaded into the nasal cavities in order to stain their axon terminals in the bulbar neuropil. The differential staining between left and right receptor neurons serves to identify the γ-glomerulus as the only structure innervated by contralateral presynaptic afferents. Secondly, the electroporation is combined with focal bolus loading in the olfactory bulb in order to stain mitral cells and their dendrites. The 3D brain volume is then scanned under line-illumination microscopy for the acquisition of fast calcium imaging data while small temperature drops are induced at the olfactory epithelium. Lastly, the post-acquisition analysis allows the morphological reconstruction of the thermosensitive network comprising the γ-glomerulus and its innervating mitral cells, based on specific temperature-induced Ca2+ traces. Using chemical odorants as stimuli in addition to temperature jumps enables the comparison between thermosensitive and chemosensitive networks in the olfactory bulb. PMID:27286501

  1. Predictive factors for erectile dysfunction in men with prostate cancer after brachytherapy: Is dose to the penile bulb important?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To determine predictive factors for postimplant erectile dysfunction (ED) in a cohort of patients, according to prospectively collected data; specifically, to assess the impact of penile bulb volume and D50 and D95 (dose covering 50% and 95% of the penile bulb volume, respectively) on ED. Methods and Materials: Three hundred forty-two patients were identified who were potent before implant and who had at least 2 years' follow-up. Patient, tumor, treatment, and dosimetric data were collected on all patients. Postimplant ED was defined according to both physician-documented and patient-documented outcome data. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to create multivariable models of predictors for ED at 1, 2, and 3 years after implant. Results: Physician-documented rates of ED were 57%, 48%, and 38% at 1, 2, and 3 years after implant, respectively. Patient-documented rates of ED were 70% and 66% at 1 and 2 years, respectively. Multivariable analyses revealed age and degree of preimplant erectile function to be consistently significant predictors of ED. Use of hormones was significant at the 1-year physician-documented ED endpoint but not thereafter, in keeping with the time course of testosterone recovery. Penile bulb volume, D50, and D95 were not found to be predictive for ED at any time point, in contrast to previous studies. In addition, planning ultrasound target volume, number of needles, and institutional case sequence number were significant predictors of ED at various time points, consistent with a traumatic etiology of ED. Conclusions: We found no evidence to support penile bulb dosimetry as an independent predictive factor for ED after implant, using physician-documented or patient-documented outcomes

  2. In-vivo Vomeronasal Stimulation Reveals Sensory Encoding of Conspecific and Allospecific Cues by the Mouse Accessory Olfactory Bulb

    OpenAIRE

    Dulac, Catherine; Ben-Shaul, Yoram; Katz, Lawrence C.; Mooney, Richard

    2010-01-01

    The rodent vomeronasal system plays a critical role in mediating pheromone-evoked social and sexual behaviors. Recent studies of the anatomical and molecular architecture of the vomeronasal organ (VNO) and of its synaptic target, the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB), have suggested that unique features underlie vomeronasal sensory processing. However, the neuronal representation of pheromonal information leading to specific behavioral and endocrine responses has remained largely unexplored due ...

  3. Changes in Olfactory Bulb Volume in Parkinson’s Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Jia; Gu, Cheng-zhi; Su, Jian-bin; Zhu, Lian-hai; Zhou, Yong; Huang, Huai-yu; LIU Chun-feng

    2016-01-01

    Objective The changes in olfactory bulb (OB) volume in Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients have not yet been comprehensively evaluated. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to explore whether the OB volume was significantly different between PD patients and healthy controls. Methods PubMed and Embase were searched up to March 6, 2015 with no language restrictions. Two independent reviewers screened eligible studies and extracted data on study characteristics and OB volume. Additionally, a syst...

  4. Mapping of odor-related neuronal activity in the olfactory bulb by high-resolution 2-deoxyglucose autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spatial distribution of odor-induced neuronal activity in the olfactory bulb, the first relay station of the olfactory pathway, is believed to reflect important aspects of chemosensory coding. We report here the application of high-resolution 2-deoxyglucose autoradiography to the mapping of spatial patterns of metabolic activity at the level of single neurons in the olfactory bulb. It was found that glomeruli, which are synaptic complexes containing the first synaptic relay, tend to be uniformly active or inactive during odor exposure. Differential 2-deoxyglucose uptake was also observed in the somata of projection neurons (mitral cells) and interneurons (periglomerular and granule cells). This confirms and extends our previous studies in which odor-specific laminar and focal uptake patterns were revealed by the conventional x-ray film 2-deoxyglucose method due to Sokoloff and colleagues [Sokoloff, L., Reivich, M., Kennedy, C., DesRosiers, M. H., Patlak, C. S., Pettigrew, K. D., Sakurada, O. and Shinohara, M. (1977) J. Neurochem. 28, 897-916]. Based on results obtained by the two methods, it is suggested that the glomerulus as a whole serves as a functional unit of activity. The high-resolution results are interpreted in terms of the well-characterized synaptic organization of the olfactory bulb and also serve to illustrate the capability of the 2-deoxyglucose autoradiographic technique to map metabolic activity in single neurons of the vertebrate central nervous system

  5. A study of some chemical changes in onion bulbs and their inner buds as affected by gamma radiation and storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the aim of detecting the break of dormancy and of investigating the effects of gamma irradiation at the 5 krad dose level, the length of inner buds and the content of vitamin C, reducing and total sugars of Mako onion bulbs and their inner buds were determined periodically during storage at 0 to 40C. A temporary increase in vitamin C content was detected shortly before the inner buds started to grow. The vitamin C content was considerably higher in the growing buds than that in the whole bulbs. Both reducing and non-reducing sugars increased gradually during the dormancy period and levelled off after the break in dormancy. Irradiation of onions before the break in dormancy resulted in much stronger sprout inhibition than radiation treatment during the non-dormant stage. Inner buds of onions irradiated after the break of dormancy tended to darken during post-irradiation storage. Bulbs radiation-treated in the dormant stage resulted in an onion powder of a lighter colour on drying than onions untreated or radiation-treated at the non-dormant stage. The vitamin C, reducing and non-reducing sugar contents and the amino acid composition of the onion flesh and the inner buds were investigated in the final stage of storage, 8 to 10 months after harvest. Compositional differences found between irradiated and untreated onions seem to be of no nutritional significance. Free radicals formed in the outer scales of onions by irradiation diminished within 96 hours at room temperature. (author)

  6. Accepted 15 March 2012Available online 20 May 2012%Insecticidal, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of bulb extracts of Allium sativum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Balaji Meriga; Ramgopal Mopuri; T MuraliKrishna

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective:To evaluate the insecticidal, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of bulb extracts ofAllium sativum(A. sativum).Methods:Dried bulbs ofA. sativum were extracted with different solvents and evaluated for insecticidal, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities.Results:Aqueous and methanol extracts showed highest insecticidal activity (mortality rate of81% and 64% respectively) against the larvae ofSpodoptera litura (S. litura) at a concentration of1 000 ppm. With regard to antimicrobial activity, aqueous extract exhibited antibacterial activity against gram positive (Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureu,) and gram negative (Escherichia coliandKlebsiella pneumonia) strains and antifungal activity againstCandida albicans. While methanol extract showed antimicrobial activity against all the tested micro organisms except two (Staphylococcus aureus andCandida albicans), the extracts of hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate did not show any anti microbial activity. Minimum inhibitory concentration of aqueous and methanol extracts against tested bacterial and fungal strains was100-150 μg/mL. Antioxidant activity of the bulb extracts was evaluated in terms of inhibition of free radicals by 2, 2’-diphenly-1-picrylhydrazyl. Aqueous and methanol extracts exhibited strong antioxidant activity(80%-90% of the standard).Conclusions: Antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of A. sativum against the tested organisms therefore, provides scientific basis for its utilization in traditional and folk medicine. Also, our results demonstrated the insecticidal efficacy ofA. sativum againstS. litura, a polyphagous insect.

  7. The content of active constituents of stored sliced and powdered preparations of turmeric rhizomes and zedoary (bulb and finger rhizomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanan Subhadhirasakul

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The stability of active constituents (curcuminoids and volatile oil in turmeric (Curcuma longa Linn. rhizomes and zedoary [Curcuma zedoaria (Berg. Roscoe] bulb and finger rhizomes during storage have been investigated. They were prepared as sliced and powdered and separately packed, either in black polyethylene bags or in paper bags, and stored at room temperature (28-31oC. Samples at initial and three monthly intervals were examined over 12-15 months storage to determine the contents of curcuminoids, volatile oil and moisture. The results showed that storage of rhizomes in black polyethylene bags could prevent samples from taking up moisture better than those stored in paper bags. The sliced and powderedturmeric rhizomes exhibited no decrease in curcuminoids content after 15 months of storage irrespective of the nature of the packing material. However, the slices of zedoary (bulb and finger rhizomes lost curcuminoids to a lesser extent than powdered rhizomes during storage period. Volatile oil content of turmeric rhizomes, zedoary (bulb and finger rhizomes decreased slower when stored as slices rather than as powders. The result from the present study suggested that in order to maintain the quality of turmeric and zedoary rhizomes as raw material for food and medicinal uses, they should be prepared in sliced form and stored in black polyethylene bags in order to maintain their content of active constituents during storage period.

  8. Wet-bulb globe temperature index estimation using meteorological data from São Paulo State, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Paulo Alves; Ruas, Álvaro Cézar; Bitencourt, Daniel Pires

    2015-10-01

    It is well known that excessive heat exposure causes heat disorders and can lead to death in some situations. Evaluation of heat stress on workers performing indoor and outdoor activities is, nowadays, conducted worldwide by wet-bulb globe temperature (WBGT) index, which calculation parameters are dry-bulb, natural wet-bulb, and globe temperatures, which must be measured at the same time and in location where the worker is conducting his/her activities. However, for some activities performed in large outdoor areas such as those of agricultural ones, it is not feasible to measure directly those temperatures in all work periods and locations where there are workers. Taking this into account, this work aims to introduce a WBGT index estimation using atmospheric variables observed by automatic meteorological stations. In order to support our estimation method, we used, as a test-bed, data recorded in the State of São Paulo (SP), Brazil. By adding the cloudiness factor in the calculation through measurement of solar radiation, the algorithm proved to be as efficient as those mentioned in this work. It was found that this method is viable, with WBGT-estimated values obtained from meteorological data measured by stations with a distance of less than 80 km. This estimate can be used for monitoring heat stress in real time as well as to investigate heat-related disorders and agricultural work.

  9. Paced-mating increases the number of adult new born cells in the internal cellular (granular layer of the accessory olfactory bulb.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebeca Corona

    Full Text Available The continuous production and addition of new neurons during life in the olfactory bulb is well accepted and has been extensively studied in rodents. This process could allow the animals to adapt to a changing environment. Olfactory neurogenesis begins in the subventricular zone where stem cells proliferate and give rise to young undifferentiated neuroblasts that migrate along the rostral migratory stream to the olfactory bulb (OB. Olfaction is crucial for the expression of sexual behavior in rodents. In female rats, the ability to control the rate of sexual interactions (pacing has important physiological and behavioral consequences. In the present experiment we evaluated if pacing behavior modifies the rate of new cells that reach the main and accessory olfactory bulb. The BrdU marker was injected before and after different behavioral tests which included: females placed in a mating cage (control, females allowed to pace the sexual interaction, females that mated but were not able to control the rate of the sexual interaction and females exposed to a sexually active male. Subjects were sacrificed fifteen days after the behavioral test. We observed a significant increase in the density of BrdU positive cells in the internal cellular layer of the accessory olfactory bulb when females paced the sexual interaction in comparison to the other 3 groups. No differences in the cell density in the main olfactory bulb were found. These results suggest that pacing behavior promotes an increase in density of the new cells in the accessory olfactory bulb.

  10. Thermal Management of Novel 12 W LED Bulb for the Substitution of 100 W Incandescent Bulb%替代100W白炽灯的新型12WLED球泡灯的散热性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘娇; 刘娟芳; 陈清华; 何凡

    2014-01-01

    基于冷喷涂技术,提出了一种替代传统100 W白炽灯的新型12 W LED球泡灯,其散热器由纯铝板裁剪和弯折而成。在分析铜基板内部结构基础上,借助ANSYS软件模拟不同覆铜层厚度和不同形状散热器的球泡灯温度场,获得了具有最低芯片结温的LED球泡灯。研究结果表明,铜基板厚度一定时,芯片结温随覆铜层厚度的增加而降低。选择纯铝质散热器和增加覆铜层厚度可使LED球泡灯的结温降低为71.25益,低于芯片安全温度85益,满足散热和照明习惯要求。%A new-type 12 W LED bulb was proposed based on the cold spray technology and the in-tegrated design of an aluminous heat sink to replace the traditional incandescent bulb. The heat sink was made of aluminum and manufactured by cutting and bending. The temperature fields for the dif-ferent shape LED bulbs were simulated by ANSYS to obtain the optimal shape with the lowest tem-perature. The internal structure of the copper-based plate was analyzed. Meanwhile, simulation was performed to get the temperature fields with the different copper circuit layers. The results show that the junction temperature of LED decreases with the thickness of the copper circuit layer when the thickness of the copper-based plate keeps constant. The maximum junction temperature of the 12 W LED bulb is 71 . 252 ℃ lower than the safe temperature of 85 ℃. It implies that the new-type 12 W LED bulb could meet the requirements of heat dissipation and lighting habits.

  11. Age-Dependent Neurogenesis and Neuron Numbers within the Olfactory Bulb and Hippocampus of Homing Pigeons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meskenaite, Virginia; Krackow, Sven; Lipp, Hans-Peter

    2016-01-01

    Many birds are supreme long-distance navigators that develop their navigational ability in the first months after fledgling but update the memorized environmental information needed for navigation also later in life. We studied the extent of juvenile and adult neurogenesis that could provide such age-related plasticity in brain regions known to mediate different mechanisms of pigeon homing: the olfactory bulb (OB), and the triangular area of the hippocampal formation (HP tr). Newly generated neurons (visualized by doublecortin, DCX) and mature neurons were counted stereologically in 35 pigeon brains ranging from 1 to 168 months of age. At the age of 1 month, both areas showed maximal proportions of DCX positive neurons, which rapidly declined during the first year of life. In the OB, the number of DCX-positive periglomerular neurons declined further over time, but the number of mature periglomerular cells appeared unchanged. In the hippocampus, the proportion of DCX-positive neurons showed a similar decline yet to a lesser extent. Remarkably, in the triangular area of the hippocampus, the oldest birds showed nearly twice the number of neurons as compared to young adult pigeons, suggesting that adult born neurons in these regions expanded the local circuitry even in aged birds. This increase might reflect navigational experience and, possibly, expanded spatial memory. On the other hand, the decrease of juvenile neurons in the aging OB without adding new circuitry might be related to the improved attachment to the loft characterizing adult and old pigeons. PMID:27445724

  12. Perceptual stability during dramatic changes in olfactory bulb activation maps and dramatic declines in activation amplitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homma, R.; Cohen, L. B.; Kosmidis, E. K.; Youngentob, S. L.

    2009-01-01

    We compared the concentration dependence of the ability of rats to identify odorants with the calcium signals in the nerve terminals of the olfactory receptor neurons. Although identification performance decreased with concentrations both above and below the training stimuli it remained well above random at all concentrations tested (between 0.0006% and 35% of saturated vapor). In contrast, the calcium signals in the same awake animals were much smaller than their maximum values at odorant concentrations less than 1% of saturated vapor. In addition, maps of activated glomeruli changed dramatically as odorant concentration was reduced. Thus perceptual stability exists in the face of dramatic changes in both the amplitude and the maps of the input to the olfactory bulb. The data for the concentration dependence of the response of the most sensitive glomeruli for each of five odorants was fitted with a Michaelis-Menten (Hill) equation. The fitted curves were extrapolated to odorant concentrations several orders of magnitude lower the smallest observed signals and suggest that the calcium response at low odorant concentrations is more than 1000 times smaller than the response at saturating odorant concentrations. We speculate that only a few spikes in olfactory sensory neurons may be sufficient for correct odorant identification. PMID:19291227

  13. Activation of the OVOL1-OVOL2 Axis in the Hair Bulb and in Pilomatricoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Takamichi; Tsuji, Gaku; Ohno, Fumitaka; Uchi, Hiroshi; Nakahara, Takeshi; Hashimoto-Hachiya, Akiko; Yoshida, Yuichi; Yamamoto, Osamu; Oda, Yoshinao; Furue, Masutaka

    2016-04-01

    OVOL1 and OVOL2, ubiquitously conserved genes encoding C2H2 zinc finger transcription factors in mammals, control epithelial cell proliferation, and differentiation, including those in skin. OVOL1 and OVOL2 expression is coordinately mediated via the Wnt signaling pathway, and OVOL1 negatively regulates OVOL2 expression in a transcriptional manner. Our previous study of OVOL1 expression in human skin revealed that OVOL1 is preferentially expressed in the inner root sheath of the hair follicle. Therefore, we hypothesized that the OVOL1-OVOL2 axis is involved in normal and neoplastic follicular differentiation. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that OVOL1 and OVOL2 were strongly expressed in a mutually exclusive manner in the cytoplasm of inner root sheath cells and matrix cells, respectively, in normal follicles. OVOL2 was also expressed in pilomatricoma, with only partial expression of OVOL1. Cultured human keratinocytes expressed OVOL1 and OVOL2 on both the mRNA and protein levels. The expression of OVOL2 was higher in keratinocytes transfected with siRNA of OVOL1. Ketoconazole, a hair growth stimulant, up-regulated the expression of OVOL1 but did not affect OVOL2 expression. These results indicated that the OVOL1-OVOL2 axis may actively contribute to cell differentiation and proliferation in the hair bulb, suggesting that the OVOL1 and OVOL2 may be therapeutic targets of hair disorders, including alopecia, and play important roles in the tumorigenesis of pilomatricoma. PMID:26873447

  14. Odorant recognition using biological responses recorded in olfactory bulb of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vizcay, Marcela A; Duarte-Mermoud, Manuel A; Aylwin, María de la Luz

    2015-01-01

    In this study we applied pattern recognition (PR) techniques to extract odorant information from local field potential (LFP) signals recorded in the olfactory bulb (OB) of rats subjected to different odorant stimuli. We claim that LFP signals registered on the OB, the first stage of olfactory processing, are stimulus specific in animals with normal sensory experience, and that these patterns correspond to the neural substrate likely required for perceptual discrimination. Thus, these signals can be used as input to an artificial odorant classification system with great success. In this paper we have designed and compared the performance of several configurations of artificial olfaction systems (AOS) based on the combination of four feature extraction (FE) methods (Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Fisher Transformation (FT), Sammon NonLinear Map (NLM) and Wavelet Transform (WT)), and three PR techniques (Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA), Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) and Support Vector Machine (SVM)), when four different stimuli are presented to rats. The best results were reached when PCA extraction followed by SVM as classifier were used, obtaining a classification accuracy of over 95% for all four stimuli. PMID:25464359

  15. Retronasal odor concentration coding in glomeruli of the rat olfactory bulb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justus V Verhagen

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The mammalian olfactory system processes odorants presented orthonasally (inhalation through the nose and also retronasally (exhalation, enabling identification of both external as well as internal objects during food consumption. There are distinct differences between ortho- and retronasal air flow patterns, psychophysics, multimodal integration and glomerular responses. Recent work indicates that rats can also detect odors retronasally, that rats can associate retronasal odors with tastes, and that their olfactory bulbs (OBs can respond to retronasal odorants but differently than to orthonasal odors. To further characterize retronasal OB input activity patterns, experiments here focus on determining the effects of odorant concentration on glomerular activity by monitoring calcium activity in the dorsal OB of rats using a dextran-conjugated calcium-sensitive dye in vivo. Results showed reliable concentration-response curves that differed between odorants, and recruitment of additional glomeruli, as odorant concentration increases. We found evidence of different concentration-response functions between glomeruli, that in turn depended on odor. Further, the relation between dynamics and concentration differed remarkably among retronasal odorants. These dynamics are suggested to reduce the odor map ambiguity based on response amplitude. Elucidating the coding of retronasal odor intensity is fundamental to the understanding of feeding behavior and the neural basis of flavor. These data further establish and refine the rodent model of flavor neuroscience.

  16. Olfactory bulb ablation in the rat: behavioural changes and their reversal by antidepressant drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Riezen, H; Schnieden, H; Wren, A F

    1977-01-01

    1. The effects of bilateral olfactory bulbectomy, sham-operation and inducement of peripheral anosmia were studied on locomotor activity, passive avoidance acquisition and irritability. 2. Bulbectomized rats were hyperactive, deficient at learning a step-down passive avoidance response and hyperirritable. Peripheral anosmia, induced by intranasal infusion of ZnSO4 solution resulted in no behavioural changes. 3. Chronic pretreatment with amitriptyline (3 and 10 mg/kg) and a tetracyclic antidepressant mianserin (Org GB 94, 5 and 15 mg/kg) reversed the hyperactivity and reduced the learning deficit of bulbectomized rats. These drugs had no significant effects on sham-operated animals. 4. Neither amitriptyline nor mianserin reduced the exaggerated responses of bulbectomized rats to external stimuli. 5. (+)-Amphetamine (1 and 3 mg/kg) accelerated the acquisition of the passive avoidance response, greatly enhanced the locomotor activity and slightly increased the irritability score of both sham-operated and bulbectomized rats. 6. Chlorpromazine (1 and 3 mg/kg) and chlordiazepoxide (10 mg/kg) significantly reduced the acquisition, locomotor activity and irritability of experimental and control rats. 7. Lithium sulphate (1 and 3 mg/kg) had no effect on activity or irritability but produced a small impairment in acquistion of bulbectomized rats. 8. It is concluded that the reversal by antidepressant drugs of the behavioural syndrome seen after olfactory bulb ablation could constitute a new model for the detection of this group of centrally acting compounds. PMID:907867

  17. Optimization of Extraction and Enrichment of Steroidal Alkaloids from Bulbs of Cultivated Fritillaria cirrhosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongdong Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The bulbs of cultivated Fritillaria cirrhosa (BCFC are used in China both for food and folk medicine due to its powerful biological activities. The aim of this study is to optimize the extraction and enrichment conditions of alkaloids from BCFC. Firstly, the orthogonal experimental design was used to optimize and evaluate four variables (ethanol concentration, solid-liquid ratio, extraction time, and temperature. Thereafter, resin adsorption was as a means to enrich alkaloids. Among 16 tested resins, H-103 resin presented higher adsorption capacity and desorption ratio. The equilibrium experimental data of the adsorption of total alkaloids, imperialine, and peimisine were well-fitted to the pseudo-first-order kinetics model, Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms models. Finally, in order to optimize the parameters for purifying alkaloids, dynamic adsorption and desorption tests were carried out. After one run treatment with H-103 resin, the contents of total alkaloids, imperialine, and peimisine in the product were 21.40-, 18.31-, and 22.88-fold increased with recovery yields of 94.43%, 90.57%, and 96.16%, respectively.

  18. Morphological analysis of activity-reduced adult-born neurons in the mouse olfactory bulb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey E Dahlen

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Adult born neurons are added to the olfactory bulb (OB throughout life in rodents. While many factors have been identified as regulating the survival and integration of adult-born neurons (ABNs into existing circuitry, the understanding of how these factors affect ABN morphology and connectivity is limited. Here we compare how cell intrinsic (siRNA knock down of voltage gated sodium channels NaV1.1-1.3 and circuit level (naris occlusion reductions in activity affect ABN morphology during integration into the OB. We found that both manipulations reduce the number of dendritic spines (and thus likely the number of reciprocal synaptic connections formed with the surrounding circuitry and inhibited dendritic ramification of ABNs. Further, we identified regions of ABN apical dendrites where the largest and most significant decreases occur following siRNA knock down or naris occlusion. In siRNA knock down cells, reduction of spines is observed in proximal regions of the apical dendrite. This suggests that distal regions of the dendrite may remain active independent of NaV1.1-1.3 channel expression, perhaps facilitated by activation of T-type calcium channels and NMDA receptors. By contrast, circuit level reduction of activity by naris occlusion resulted in a global depression of spine number. Together, these results indicate that ABNs retain the ability to develop their typical overall morphological features regardless of experienced activity, and activity modulates the number and location of formed connections.

  19. The Adult Ventricular-Subventricular Zone (V-SVZ) and Olfactory Bulb (OB) Neurogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Daniel A; Alvarez-Buylla, Arturo

    2016-01-01

    A large population of neural stem/precursor cells (NSCs) persists in the ventricular-subventricular zone (V-SVZ) located in the walls of the lateral brain ventricles. V-SVZ NSCs produce large numbers of neuroblasts that migrate a long distance into the olfactory bulb (OB) where they differentiate into local circuit interneurons. Here, we review a broad range of discoveries that have emerged from studies of postnatal V-SVZ neurogenesis: the identification of NSCs as a subpopulation of astroglial cells, the neurogenic lineage, new mechanisms of neuronal migration, and molecular regulators of precursor cell proliferation and migration. It has also become evident that V-SVZ NSCs are regionally heterogeneous, with NSCs located in different regions of the ventricle wall generating distinct OB interneuron subtypes. Insights into the developmental origins and molecular mechanisms that underlie the regional specification of V-SVZ NSCs have also begun to emerge. Other recent studies have revealed new cell-intrinsic molecular mechanisms that enable lifelong neurogenesis in the V-SVZ. Finally, we discuss intriguing differences between the rodent V-SVZ and the corresponding human brain region. The rapidly expanding cellular and molecular knowledge of V-SVZ NSC biology provides key insights into postnatal neural development, the origin of brain tumors, and may inform the development regenerative therapies from cultured and endogenous human neural precursors. PMID:27048191

  20. The functional significance of newly born neurons integrated into olfactory bulb circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masayuki eSakamoto

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The olfactory bulb (OB is the first central processing center for olfactory information connecting with higher areas in the brain, and this neuronal circuitry mediates a variety of odor-evoked behavioral responses. In the adult mammalian brain, continuous neurogenesis occurs in two restricted regions, the subventricular zone (SVZ of the lateral ventricle and the hippocampal dentate gyrus. New neurons born in the SVZ migrate through the rostral migratory stream and are integrated into the neuronal circuits of the OB throughout life. The significance of this continuous supply of new neurons in the OB has been implicated in plasticity and memory regulation. Two decades of huge investigation in adult neurogenesis revealed the biological importance of integration of new neurons into the olfactory circuits. In this review, we highlight the recent findings about the physiological functions of newly generated neurons in rodent OB circuits and then discuss the contribution of neurogenesis in the brain function. Finally, we introduce cutting edge technologies to monitor and manipulate the activity of new neurons.

  1. Role of the Retinoblastoma protein, Rb, during adult neurogenesis in the olfactory bulb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naser, Rayan; Vandenbosch, Renaud; Omais, Saad; Hayek, Dayana; Jaafar, Carine; Al Lafi, Sawsan; Saliba, Afaf; Baghdadi, Maarouf; Skaf, Larissa; Ghanem, Noël

    2016-01-01

    Adult neural stem cells (aNSCs) are relatively quiescent populations that give rise to distinct neuronal subtypes throughout life, yet, at a very low rate and restricted differentiation potential. Thus, identifying the molecular mechanisms that control their cellular expansion is critical for regeneration after brain injury. Loss of the Retinoblastoma protein, Rb, leads to several defects in cell cycle as well as neuronal differentiation and migration during brain development. Here, we investigated the role of Rb during adult neurogenesis in the olfactory bulb (OB) by inducing its temporal deletion in aNSCs and progenitors. Loss of Rb was associated with increased proliferation of adult progenitors in the subventricular zone (SVZ) and the rostral migratory stream (RMS) but did not alter self-renewal of aNSCs or neuroblasts subsequent migration and terminal differentiation. Hence, one month after their birth, Rb-null neuroblasts were able to differentiate into distinct subtypes of GABAergic OB interneurons but were gradually lost after 3 months. Similarly, Rb controlled aNSCs/progenitors proliferation in vitro without affecting their differentiation capacity. This enhanced SVZ/OB neurogenesis associated with loss of Rb was only transient and negatively affected by increased apoptosis indicating a critical requirement for Rb in the long-term survival of adult-born OB interneurons. PMID:26847607

  2. Ablation of mouse adult neurogenesis alters olfactory bulb structure and olfactory fear conditioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Valley

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Adult neurogenesis replenishes olfactory bulb (OB interneurons throughout the life of most mammals, yet during this constant fl ux it remains unclear how the OB maintains a constant structure and function. In the mouse OB, we investigated the dynamics of turnover and its impact on olfactory function by ablating adult neurogenesis with an x-ray lesion to the subventricular zone (SVZ. Regardless of the magnitude of the lesion to the SVZ, we found no change in the survival of young adult born granule cells (GCs born after the lesion, and a gradual decrease in the population of GCs born before the lesion. After a lesion producing a 96% reduction of incoming adult born GCs to the OB, we found a diminished behavioral fear response to conditioned odor cues but not to audio cues. Interestingly, despite this behavioral defi cit and gradual anatomical changes, we found no electrophysiological changes in the GC population assayed in vivo through dendro-dendritic synaptic plasticity and odor-evoked local fi eld potential oscillations. These data indicate that turnover in the granule cell layer is generally decoupled from the rate of adult neurogenesis, and that OB adult neurogenesis plays a role in a wide behavioral system extending beyond the OB.

  3. Adult neurogenesis and specific replacement of interneuron subtypes in the mouse main olfactory bulb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LaRocca Greg

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background New neurons are generated in the adult brain from stem cells found in the subventricular zone (SVZ. These cells proliferate in the SVZ, generating neuroblasts which then migrate to the main olfactory bulb (MOB, ending their migration in the glomerular layer (GLL and the granule cell layer (GCL of the MOB. Neuronal populations in these layers undergo turnover throughout life, but whether all neuronal subtypes found in these areas are replaced and when neurons begin to express subtype-specific markers is not known. Results Here we use BrdU injections and immunohistochemistry against (calretinin, calbindin, N-copein, tyrosine hydroxylase and GABA and show that adult-generated neurons express markers of all major subtypes of neurons in the GLL and GCL. Moreover, the fractions of new neurons that express subtype-specific markers at 40 and 75 days post BrdU injection are very similar to the fractions of all neurons expressing these markers. We also show that many neurons in the glomerular layer do not express NeuN, but are readily and specifically labeled by the fluorescent nissl stain Neurotrace. Conclusion The expression of neuronal subtype-specific markers by new neurons in the GLL and GCL changes rapidly during the period from 14–40 days after BrdU injection before reaching adult levels. This period may represent a critical window for cell fate specification similar to that observed for neuronal survival.

  4. Ex vivo preparations of the intact vomeronasal organ and accessory olfactory bulb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Wayne I; Hammen, Gary F; Meeks, Julian P

    2014-01-01

    The mouse accessory olfactory system (AOS) is a specialized sensory pathway for detecting nonvolatile social odors, pheromones, and kairomones. The first neural circuit in the AOS pathway, called the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB), plays an important role in establishing sex-typical behaviors such as territorial aggression and mating. This small (organization of this system presents unique opportunities for recording from large portions of the circuit simultaneously, investigation of sensory processing in the AOB remains challenging, largely due to its experimentally disadvantageous location in the brain. Here, we demonstrate a multi-stage dissection that removes the intact AOB inside a single hemisphere of the anterior mouse skull, leaving connections to both the peripheral vomeronasal sensory neurons (VSNs) and local neuronal circuitry intact. The procedure exposes the AOB surface to direct visual inspection, facilitating electrophysiological and optical recordings from AOB circuit elements in the absence of anesthetics. Upon inserting a thin cannula into the vomeronasal organ (VNO), which houses the VSNs, one can directly expose the periphery to social odors and pheromones while recording downstream activity in the AOB. This procedure enables controlled inquiries into AOS information processing, which can shed light on mechanisms linking pheromone exposure to changes in behavior. PMID:25145699

  5. Reliable sex and strain discrimination in the mouse vomeronasal organ and accessory olfactory bulb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolokh, Illya I; Fu, Xiaoyan; Holy, Timothy E

    2013-08-21

    Animals modulate their courtship and territorial behaviors in response to olfactory cues produced by other animals. In rodents, detecting these cues is the primary role of the accessory olfactory system (AOS). We sought to systematically investigate the natural stimulus coding logic and robustness in neurons of the first two stages of accessory olfactory processing, the vomeronasal organ (VNO) and accessory olfactory bulb (AOB). We show that firing rate responses of just a few well-chosen mouse VNO or AOB neurons can be used to reliably encode both sex and strain of other mice from cues contained in urine. Additionally, we show that this population code can generalize to new concentrations of stimuli and appears to represent stimulus identity in terms of diverging paths in coding space. Together, the results indicate that firing rate code on the temporal order of seconds is sufficient for accurate classification of pheromonal patterns at different concentrations and may be used by AOS neural circuitry to discriminate among naturally occurring urine stimuli. PMID:23966710

  6. N-Vinylcarbazole as Versatile Photoinaddimer of Photopolymerization under Household UV LED Bulb (392 nm).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Pu; Lalevée, Jacques; Zhao, Jiacheng; Stenzel, Martina H

    2015-09-01

    N-vinylcarbazole (NVK) can act simultaneously as a photoinitiator, an additive, and a mono-mer (photoinaddimer) of photopolymerization upon exposure to the household ultraviolet (UV) light-emitting diode (LED) bulb (emission wavelength centered at 392 nm). Even though the light absorption spectrum of NVK exhibits weak overlapping with the emission spectrum of the UV LED, the active species (i.e., radicals and cations) can be generated from the interaction between NVK and diphenyliodonium hexafluorophosphate (Iod) under irradiation of this LED device, which is investigated by steady state photolysis and electron spin resonance spin-trapping methods. Interestingly, the generated radicals and cations from the NVK/Iod system demonstrate high efficiency to initiate the free radical photopolymerization of (meth)acrylates and the cationic photopolymerization of epoxide and divinyl ether under the UV LED irradiation, and the one-step simultaneous catonic/radical photopolymerization of expoxide/acrylate blend can lead to the formation of tack free polyacrylate/polyether-based interpenetrated polymer network film within 10 min even when the polymerization process is exposed to the atmosphere highlighting the high efficiency of the system to reduce the oxygen inhibition effect. More interestingly, NVK/Iod system can also initiate the photopolymerization of NVK under the UV LED irradiation to produce polyvinylcarbazole, and NVK acts as both a photoinitiator and a monomer in the system. PMID:26174706

  7. Efficiency prediction for a low head bulb turbine with SAS SST and zonal LES turbulence models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comparison between results of numerical simulations and measurements for a 3-blade bulb turbine is presented in order to determine an appropriate numerical setup for accurate and reliable simulations of flow in low head turbines. Numerical analysis was done for three angles of runner blades at two values of head. For the smallest blade angle the efficiency was quite accurately predicted, but for the optimal and maximal blade angles steady state analysis entirely failed to predict the efficiency due to underestimated torque on the shaft and incorrect results in the draft tube. Transient simulation with SST did not give satisfactory results, but with SAS and zonal LES models the prediction of efficiency was significantly improved. From the results obtained by SAS and zonal LES the interdependence between turbulence models, vortex structures in the flow, values of eddy viscosity and flow energy losses in the draft tube can be seen. Also the effect of using the bounded central differential scheme instead of the high resolution scheme was evident. To test the effect of grid density, simulations were performed on four grids. While a difference between results obtained on the basic grid and on the fine grid was small, the results obtained on the coarse grids were not satisfactory

  8. Chronic Spinal Injury Repair by Olfactory Bulb Ensheathing Glia and Feasibility for Autologous Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Quiles, Cintia; Santos-Benito, Fernando F.; Llamusí, M. Beatriz; Ramón-Cueto, Almudena

    2009-01-01

    Olfactory bulb ensheathing glia (OB-OEG) promote repair of spinal cord injury (SCI) in rats after transplantation at acute or subacute (up to 45 days) stages. The most relevant clinical scenario in humans, however, is chronic SCI, in which no more major cellular or molecular changes occur at the injury site; this occurs after the third month in rodents. Whether adult OB-OEG grafts promote repair of severe chronic SCI has not been previously addressed. Rats with complete SCI that were transplanted with OB-OEG 4 months after injury exhibited progressive improvement in motor function and axonal regeneration from different brainstem nuclei across and beyond the SCI site. A positive correlation between motor outcome and axonal regeneration suggested a role for brainstem neurons in the recovery. Functional and histological outcomes did not differ at subacute or chronic stages. Thus, autologous transplantation is a feasible approach as there is time for patient stabilization and OEG preparation in human chronic SCI; the healing effects of OB-OEG on established injuries may offer new therapeutic opportunities for chronic SCI patients. PMID:19915486

  9. Scillapersicene: a new homoisoflavonoid with cytotoxic activity from the bulbs of Scilla persica HAUSSKN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafez Ghoran, Salar; Saeidnia, Soodabeh; Babaei, Esmaeil; Kiuchi, Fumiyuki; Hussain, Hidayat

    2016-06-01

    The phytochemical investigation of Scilla persica HAUSSKN bulbs led to the isolation of a novel homoisoflavonoid that named Scillapersicene (1) and identified as 3-(3',4'-dihydroxybenzylidene)-8-hydroxy-5,7-dimethoxychroman-4-one along with five known homoisoflavonoids 2-6, whose structures were elucidated using HRFAB-MS, 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic data. The known compounds were identified as 3-(3',4'-dihydroxybenzyl)-5,8-dihydroxy-7-methoxychroman-4-one (2), 3,9-dihydro-autumnalin (3), autumnalin (4), 3-(3',4'-dihydroxybenzylidene)-5,8-dihydroxy-7-methoxychroman-4-one (5) and scillapersicone (6). All compounds obtained, expect 2 and 4, showed strong cytotoxic activity against AGS cell line. The toxicity on AGS cell line was measured by 1, 3, 5 and 6 with IC50 values of 8.4, 30.5, 10.7 and 24.2 μM, respectively. In addition, the physico-chemical properties of these natural compounds were optimised using density functional method (B3LYP) with standard 6-311+G* basis set. These natural products have low-energy gaps between the first ionisation potentials and highest occupied molecular orbital. In conclusion, the low-energy gap could cause reason for cytotoxic activity of homoisoflavonoids. PMID:26140544

  10. Statistical analysis of coding for molecular properties in the olfactory bulb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin eAuffarth

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between molecular properties of odorants and neural activities is arguably one of the most important issues in olfaction and the rules governing this relationship are still not clear. In the olfactory bulb (OB, glomeruli relay olfactory information to second-order neurons which in turn project to cortical areas. We investigate relevance of odorant properties, spatial localization of glomerular coding sites, and size of coding zones in a dataset of 2-deoxyglucose images of glomeruli over the entire OB of the rat. We relate molecular properties to activation of glomeruli in the OB using a nonparametric statistical test and a support-vector machine classification study. Our method permits to systematically map the topographic representation of various classes of odorants in the OB. Our results suggest many localized coding sites for particular molecular properties and some molecular properties that could form the basis for a spatial map of olfactory information. We found that alkynes, alkanes, alkenes, and amines affect activation maps very strongly as compared to other properties and that amines, sulfur-containing compounds, and alkynes have small zones and high relevance to activation changes, while aromatics, alkanes, and carboxylics acid recruit very big zones in the dataset. Results suggest a local spatial encoding for molecular properties.

  11. Cytotoxic and Antimalarial Amaryllidaceae Alkaloids from the Bulbs of Lycoris radiata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Hao

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemical investigation of the 80% ethanol extract of the bulbs of Lycoris radiata resulted in the isolation of five new Amaryllidaceae alkaloids: (+-5,6-dehydrolycorine (1, (+-3α,6β-diacetyl-bulbispermine (2, (+-3α-hydroxy-6β-acetyl- bulbispermine (3, (+-8,9-methylenedioxylhomolycorine-N-oxide (5, and 5,6-dihydro-5- methyl-2-hydroxyphenanthridine (7, together with two known compounds, (+-3α-methoxy- 6β-acetylbulbispermine (4 and (+-homolycorine- N-oxide (6. Structural elucidation of all the compounds were performed by spectral methods such as 1D and 2D (1H-1H COSY, HMQC, and HMBC NMR spectroscopy, in addition to high resolution mass spectrometry. Alkaloid 1 showed potent cytotoxicity against astrocytoma and glioma cell lines (CCF-STTG1, CHG-5, SHG-44, and U251, as well as HL-60, SMMC-7721, and W480 cell lines with IC50 values of 9.4–11.6 μM. Additonally, compound 1 exhibited antimalarial activity with IC50 values of 2.3 μM for D-6 strain and 1.9 μM for W-2 strain of Plasmodium falciparum.

  12. New insights into the role of histamine in subventricular zone-olfactory bulb neurogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Francisca eEiriz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The subventricular zone (SVZ contains neural stem cells (NSCs that generate new neurons throughout life. Many brain diseases stimulate NSCs proliferation, neuronal differentiation and homing of these newborns cells into damaged regions. However, complete cell replacement has never been fully achieved. Hence, the identification of proneurogenic factors crucial for stem cell-based therapies will have an impact in brain repair. Histamine, a neurotransmitter and immune mediator, has been recently described to modulate proliferation and commitment of NSCs. Histamine levels are increased in the brain parenchyma and at the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF upon inflammation and brain injury, thus being able to modulate neurogenesis. Herein, we add new data showing that in vivo administration of histamine in the lateral ventricles has a potent proneurogenic effect, increasing the production of new neuroblasts in the SVZ that ultimately reach the olfactory bulb (OB. This report emphasizes the multidimensional effects of histamine in the modulation of NSCs dynamics and sheds light into the promising therapeutic role of histamine for brain regenerative medicine.

  13. Functional optical coherence tomography of rat olfactory bulb with periodic odor stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Hideyuki; Rajagopalan, Uma Maheswari; Nakamichi, Yu; Igarashi, Kei M; Kadono, Hirofumi; Tanifuji, Manabu

    2016-03-01

    In rodent olfactory bulb (OB), optical intrinsic signal imaging (OISI) is commonly used to investigate functional maps to odorant stimulations. However, in such studies, the spatial resolution in depth direction (z-axis) is lost because of the integration of light from different depths. To solve this problem, we propose functional optical coherence tomography (fOCT) with periodic stimulation and continuous recording. In fOCT experiments of in vivo rat OB, propionic acid and m-cresol were used as odor stimulus presentations. Such a periodic stimulation enabled us to detect the specific odor-responses from highly scattering brain tissue. Swept source OCT operating at a wavelength of 1334 nm and a frequency of 20 kHz, was employed with theoretical depth and lateral resolutions of 6.7 μm and 15.4 μm, respectively. We succeeded in visualizing 2D cross sectional fOCT map across the neural layer structure of OCT in vivo. The detected fOCT signals corresponded to a few glomeruli of the medial and lateral parts of dorsal OB. We also obtained 3D fOCT maps, which upon integration across z-axis agreed well with OISI results. We expect such an approach to open a window for investigating and possibly addressing toward inter/intra-layer connections at high resolutions in the future. PMID:27231593

  14. FABRICATION OF A HOLLOW BULB OBTURATOR FOR A HEMI- MAXILLECTOMY DEFECT: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Benign or malignant tumors of mouth and oropharyngeal region often result in the maxillofacial defects. The acquired maxillectomy defects results in the impairment of speech, mastication, swallowing and facial esthetics. The Prosthodontist plays a significant role in the rehabilitation of the acquired maxillectomy defects with the special emphasis to the reduction of the weight of the prosthesis and thereby enhancing the retention and stability. The weight of the obturator can cause a dislodging force. It must therefore be as light as possible. A suitable technique of fabrication should be selected to achieve this. This case report describes the fabrication of a hollow bulb obturator for a hemi- maxillectomy patient (Aramany’s class 1 defect who had undergone wide excision and alveolar resection squeal of management of adenoid cystic carcinoma of the right palate. This article describes the step by step clinical and laboratory procedure involved in the rehabilitation of a hemimaxillectoy dentate patients using obturator lined with soft liner to restore the functions such as esthetics, mastication, deglutition and speech

  15. How many principles does it take to change a light bulb ... into a laser?

    CERN Document Server

    Wiseman, Howard M

    2015-01-01

    Quantum optics did not, and could not, flourish without the laser. The present paper is not about the principles of laser construction, still less a history of how the laser was invented. Rather, it addresses the question: what are the fundamental features that distinguish laser light from thermal light? The answers do, however, show, in a quantitative way --- involving, indeed, very large dimensionless quantities (up to $\\sim 10^{51}$) --- that a laser must be constructed very differently from a light bulb. Some of this paper is based on material I use to introduce advanced undergraduate students to quantum optics. The theory presented is mostly quite simple, and yet it is not to be found in any text-books on quantum optics to my knowledge. The obvious answer, ``laser light is coherent'', is, I argue, so vague that it must be put aside at the start, albeit to revisit later. A specific version, ``laser light is in a coherent state'', is simply wrong in this context, since both laser light and thermal light ca...

  16. "Light: Beyond the Bulb": A Project for the International Year of Light 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megan, Watzke; Arcand, Kimberly K.

    2015-01-01

    'Light: Beyond the Bulb' (LBTB) is a free grass-roots international exhibition program for the International Year of Light 2015 that showcases the different types and behaviors of light across the electromagnetic spectrum as well as a multitude of ways that light is being used in research and technology (including astronomy) today. LBTB contains striking images and informative captions that have been crowd-sourced and then expert-curated for science content, high-quality printability, beauty, and ability to engage the greater public. Spearheaded by the team that created "From Earth to the Universe" for the International Year of Astronomy 2009 and 'From Earth to the Solar System' for NASA's Year of the Solar System 2010-2011, LBTB will bring this 'public science' model to IYL and place light-based content into traditional and non-traditional science outreach locations. This talk will outline the LBTB project, describe opportunities for how the astronomical community can get involved, and discuss the potential benefits that LBTB may provide for the disciplines related to the AAS and its members.

  17. Prolonged Intracellular Na+ Dynamics Govern Electrical Activity in Accessory Olfactory Bulb Mitral Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asaph Zylbertal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Persistent activity has been reported in many brain areas and is hypothesized to mediate working memory and emotional brain states and to rely upon network or biophysical feedback. Here, we demonstrate a novel mechanism by which persistent neuronal activity can be generated without feedback, relying instead on the slow removal of Na+ from neurons following bursts of activity. We show that mitral cells in the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB, which plays a major role in mammalian social behavior, may respond to a brief sensory stimulation with persistent firing. By combining electrical recordings, Ca2+ and Na+ imaging, and realistic computational modeling, we explored the mechanisms underlying the persistent activity in AOB mitral cells. We found that the exceptionally slow inward current that underlies this activity is governed by prolonged dynamics of intracellular Na+ ([Na+]i, which affects neuronal electrical activity via several pathways. Specifically, elevated dendritic [Na+]i reverses the Na+-Ca2+ exchanger activity, thus modifying the [Ca2+]i set-point. This process, which relies on ubiquitous membrane mechanisms, is likely to play a role in other neuronal types in various brain regions.

  18. Biological Properties and Characterization of ASL50 Protein from Aged Allium sativum Bulbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Suresh; Jitendra, Kumar; Singh, Kusum; Kapoor, Vaishali; Sinha, Mou; Xess, Immaculata; Das, Satya N; Sharma, Sujata; Singh, Tej P; Dey, Sharmistha

    2015-08-01

    Allium sativum is well known for its medicinal properties. The A. sativum lectin 50 (ASL50, 50 kDa) was isolated from aged A. sativum bulbs and purified by gel filtration chromatography on Sephacryl S-200 column. Agar well diffusion assay were used to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of ASL50 against Candida species and bacteria then minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined. The lipid A binding to ASL50 was determined by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) technology with varying concentrations. Electron microscopic studies were done to see the mode of action of ASL50 on microbes. It exerted antimicrobial activity against clinical Candida isolates with a MIC of 10-40 μg/ml and clinical Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates with a MIC of 10-80 μg/ml. The electron microscopic study illustrates that it disrupts the cell membrane of the bacteria and cell wall of fungi. It exhibited antiproliferative activity on oral carcinoma KB cells with an IC50 of 36 μg/ml after treatment for 48 h and induces the apoptosis of cancer cells by inducing 2.5-fold higher caspase enzyme activity than untreated cells. However, it has no cytotoxic effects towards HEK 293 cells as well as human erythrocytes even at higher concentration of ASL50. Biological properties of ASL50 may have its therapeutic significance in aiding infection and cancer treatments. PMID:26043852

  19. Selection for bulb maturity in onion Seleção para maturidade de bulbos em cebola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Ismael Inácio Cardoso

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available It is possible to produce onions (Allium cepa all over the year in Brazil, but most of the Brazilian cultivars have poor quality bulbs, a fact that favours onion imports from Argentina, a producer of Valenciana type cultivars that does not bulb in Brazil, but please Brazilian consumers. To study the effect of selection for bulb maturity, seventeen half sib progenies selected for early maturity and twenty five for late maturity, from the intervarietal triple cross [Crioula x (Pira Ouro x Valenciana Sintetica 14] were grown, along with the triple cross itself and the cultivars Pira Ouro (short-day, Crioula (intermediate-day and Armada (long-day. A total of forty six treatments were tested in a randomized block design with three replications of 32 plants per plot. The progenies selected for earliness had cycles from 67 to 83 days, whereas those selected for lateness had cycles of 85 to 103 days. This difference was evident when comparisons were made for the percent thick neck bulbs, which varied from 0 to 6.2% and from 8.1 to 59.8% for the early and late progenies, respectively. High heritability estimates were obtained for all characters and they varied from 0.65 (thick neck percentage, in the late selection to 0.80 (average bulb weight, in the early selection. Progenies of higher bulb weight and maturity similar to the standard cultivars were obtained. Selection for maturity was highly efficient and the population selected for early maturity has potential to originate adapted cultivars, with bulb yield and quality superior to the available cultivars.Embora seja possível produzir cebola (Allium cepa o ano inteiro no Brasil, a maioria dos cultivares nacionais apresentam bulbos com baixa qualidade, o que proporcionou grande importação de cebola da Argentina, do tipo Valenciana, que não bulbifica no Brasil, mas que agradou os consumidores brasileiros. Para estudar o efeito da seleção para maturidade de bulbos baseada em progênies de meios irm

  20. Cellular and molecular cues of glucose sensing in the rat olfactory bulb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolly eAl Koborssy

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In the brain, glucose homeostasis of extracellular fluid is crucial to the point that systems specifically dedicated to glucose sensing are found in areas involved in energy regulation and feeding behavior. Olfaction is a major sensory modality regulating food consumption. Nutritional status in turn modulates olfactory detection. Recently it has been proposed that some olfactory bulb (OB neurons respond to glucose similarly to hypothalamic neurons. However, the precise molecular cues governing glucose sensing in the OB are largely unknown. To decrypt these molecular mechanisms, we first used immunostaining to demonstrate a strong expression of two neuronal markers of glucose-sensitivity, insulin-dependent glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4, and sodium glucose co-transporter type 1 (SGLT1 in specific OB layers. We showed that expression and mapping of GLUT4 but not SGLT1 were feeding state-dependent. In order to investigate the impact of metabolic status on the delivery of blood-borne glucose to the OB, we measured extracellular fluid glucose concentration using glucose biosensors simultaneously in the OB and cortex of anesthetized rats. We showed that glucose concentration in the OB is higher than in the cortex, that metabolic steady-state glucose concentration is independent of feeding state in the two brain areas, and that acute changes in glycemic conditions affect bulbar glucose concentration alone. These data provide new evidence of a direct relationship between the OB and peripheral metabolism, and emphasize the importance of glucose for the OB network, providing strong arguments toward establishing the OB as a glucose-sensing organ.

  1. Calcium buffering in rodent olfactory bulb granule cells and mitral cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egger, Veronica; Stroh, Olga

    2009-09-15

    In the mammalian olfactory bulb, axonless granule cells (GCs) mediate self- and lateral inhibitory interactions between mitral cells (MCs) via reciprocal dendrodendritic synapses. Calcium signals in the GC dendrites and reciprocal spines appear to decay unusually slowly, hence GC calcium handling might contribute to the known asynchronous release at this synapse. By recording fluorescence transients of different Ca(2+)-sensitive dyes at variable concentrations evoked by backpropagating action potentials (APs) and saturating AP trains we extrapolated Ca(2+) dynamics to conditions of zero added buffer for juvenile rat GC apical dendrites and spines and MC lateral dendrites. Resting [Ca(2+)] was at approximately 50 nM in both GC dendrites and spines. The average endogenous GC buffer capacities (kappa(E)) were within a range of 80-90 in the dendrites and 110-140 in the spines. The extrusion rate (gamma) was estimated as 570 s(-1) for dendrites and 870 s(-1) for spines and the decay time constant as approximately 200 ms for both. Single-current-evoked APs resulted in a [Ca(2+)] elevation of approximately 250 nM. Calcium handling in juvenile and adult mouse GCs appeared mostly similar. In MC lateral dendrites, we found AP-mediated [Ca(2+)] elevations of approximately 130 nM with a similar decay to that in GC dendrites, while kappa(E) and gamma were roughly 4-fold higher. In conclusion, the slow GC Ca(2+) dynamics are due mostly to sluggish Ca(2+) extrusion. Under physiological conditions this slow removal may well contribute to delayed release and also feed into other Ca(2+)-dependent mechanisms that foster asynchronous output from the reciprocal spine. PMID:19635818

  2. Partial Conservation between Mice and Humans in Olfactory Bulb Interneuron Transcription Factor Codes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Nana; Cave, John W

    2016-01-01

    The mammalian main olfactory bulb (OB) has a large population of GABAergic inhibitory interneurons that contains several subtypes defined by the co-expression other neurotransmitters and calcium binding proteins. The three most commonly studied OB interneuron subtypes co-express either Calretinin, Calbindin, or Tyrosine hydroxylase (Th). Combinations of transcription factors used to specify the phenotype of progenitors are referred to as transcription factor codes, and the current understanding of transcription factor codes that specify OB inhibitory neuron phenotypes are largely based on studies in mice. The conservation of these transcription factor codes in the human OB, however, has not been investigated. The aim of this study was to establish whether transcription factor codes in OB interneurons are conserved between mice and humans. This study compared the co-expression of Foxp2, Meis2, Pax6, and Sp8 transcription factors with Calretinin, Calbindin, or Th in human and mouse OB interneurons. This analysis found strong conservation of Calretinin co-expression with Sp8 and Meis2 as well as Th co-expression with Pax6 and Meis2. This analysis also showed that selective Foxp2 co-expression with Calbindin was conserved between mice and humans, which suggests Foxp2 is a novel determinant of the OB Calbindin interneuron phenotype. Together, the findings in this study provide insight into the conservation of transcription codes for OB interneuron phenotypes between humans and mice, as well as reveal some important differences between the species. This advance in our understanding of transcription factor codes in OB interneurons provides an important complement to the codes that have been established for other regions within the mammalian central nervous system, such as the cortex and spinal cord. PMID:27489533

  3. Extracting Behaviorally Relevant Traits from Natural Stimuli: Benefits of Combinatorial Representations at the Accessory Olfactory Bulb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahan, Anat; Ben-Shaul, Yoram

    2016-03-01

    For many animals, chemosensation is essential for guiding social behavior. However, because multiple factors can modulate levels of individual chemical cues, deriving information about other individuals via natural chemical stimuli involves considerable challenges. How social information is extracted despite these sources of variability is poorly understood. The vomeronasal system provides an excellent opportunity to study this topic due to its role in detecting socially relevant traits. Here, we focus on two such traits: a female mouse's strain and reproductive state. In particular, we measure stimulus-induced neuronal activity in the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) in response to various dilutions of urine, vaginal secretions, and saliva, from estrus and non-estrus female mice from two different strains. We first show that all tested secretions provide information about a female's receptivity and genotype. Next, we investigate how these traits can be decoded from neuronal activity despite multiple sources of variability. We show that individual neurons are limited in their capacity to allow trait classification across multiple sources of variability. However, simple linear classifiers sampling neuronal activity from small neuronal ensembles can provide a substantial improvement over that attained with individual units. Furthermore, we show that some traits are more efficiently detected than others, and that particular secretions may be optimized for conveying information about specific traits. Across all tested stimulus sources, discrimination between strains is more accurate than discrimination of receptivity, and detection of receptivity is more accurate with vaginal secretions than with urine. Our findings highlight the challenges of chemosensory processing of natural stimuli, and suggest that downstream readout stages decode multiple behaviorally relevant traits by sampling information from distinct but overlapping populations of AOB neurons. PMID:26938460

  4. Extracting Behaviorally Relevant Traits from Natural Stimuli: Benefits of Combinatorial Representations at the Accessory Olfactory Bulb.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anat Kahan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available For many animals, chemosensation is essential for guiding social behavior. However, because multiple factors can modulate levels of individual chemical cues, deriving information about other individuals via natural chemical stimuli involves considerable challenges. How social information is extracted despite these sources of variability is poorly understood. The vomeronasal system provides an excellent opportunity to study this topic due to its role in detecting socially relevant traits. Here, we focus on two such traits: a female mouse's strain and reproductive state. In particular, we measure stimulus-induced neuronal activity in the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB in response to various dilutions of urine, vaginal secretions, and saliva, from estrus and non-estrus female mice from two different strains. We first show that all tested secretions provide information about a female's receptivity and genotype. Next, we investigate how these traits can be decoded from neuronal activity despite multiple sources of variability. We show that individual neurons are limited in their capacity to allow trait classification across multiple sources of variability. However, simple linear classifiers sampling neuronal activity from small neuronal ensembles can provide a substantial improvement over that attained with individual units. Furthermore, we show that some traits are more efficiently detected than others, and that particular secretions may be optimized for conveying information about specific traits. Across all tested stimulus sources, discrimination between strains is more accurate than discrimination of receptivity, and detection of receptivity is more accurate with vaginal secretions than with urine. Our findings highlight the challenges of chemosensory processing of natural stimuli, and suggest that downstream readout stages decode multiple behaviorally relevant traits by sampling information from distinct but overlapping populations of AOB neurons.

  5. Understanding odor information segregation in the olfactory bulb by means of mitral and tufted cells.

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    Davide Polese

    Full Text Available Odor identification is one of the main tasks of the olfactory system. It is performed almost independently from the concentration of the odor providing a robust recognition. This capacity to ignore concentration information does not preclude the olfactory system from estimating concentration itself. Significant experimental evidence has indicated that the olfactory system is able to infer simultaneously odor identity and intensity. However, it is still unclear at what level or levels of the olfactory pathway this segregation of information occurs. In this work, we study whether this odor information segregation is performed at the input stage of the olfactory bulb: the glomerular layer. To this end, we built a detailed neural model of the glomerular layer based on its known anatomical connections and conducted two simulated odor experiments. In the first experiment, the model was exposed to an odor stimulus dataset composed of six different odorants, each one dosed at six different concentrations. In the second experiment, we conducted an odor morphing experiment where a sequence of binary mixtures going from one odor to another through intermediate mixtures was presented to the model. The results of the experiments were visualized using principal components analysis and analyzed with hierarchical clustering to unveil the structure of the high-dimensional output space. Additionally, Fisher's discriminant ratio and Pearson's correlation coefficient were used to quantify odor identity and odor concentration information respectively. Our results showed that the architecture of the glomerular layer was able to mediate the segregation of odor information obtaining output spiking sequences of the principal neurons, namely the mitral and external tufted cells, strongly correlated with odor identity and concentration, respectively. An important conclusion is also that the morphological difference between the principal neurons is not key to achieve odor

  6. Insulin modulates network activity in olfactory bulb slices: impact on odour processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuczewski, Nicola; Fourcaud-Trocmé, Nicolas; Savigner, Agnès; Thevenet, Marc; Aimé, Pascaline; Garcia, Samuel; Duchamp-Viret, Patricia; Palouzier-Paulignan, Brigitte

    2014-01-01

    Odour perception depends closely on nutritional status, in animals as in humans. Insulin, the principal anorectic hormone, appears to be one of the major candidates for ensuring the link between olfactory abilities and nutritional status, by modifying processing in the olfactory bulb (OB), one of its main central targets. The present study investigates whether and how insulin can act in OB, by evaluating its action on the main output neurons activities, mitral cells (MCs), in acute rat OB slices. Insulin was found to act at two OB network levels: (1) on MCs, by increasing their excitability, probably by inhibiting two voltage-gated potassium (K+) channels; (2) on interneurons by modifying the GABAergic and on glutamatergic synaptic activity impinging on MCs, mainly reducing them. Insulin also altered the olfactory nerve (ON)-evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents in 60% of MCs. Insulin decreased or increased the ON-evoked responses in equal proportion and the direction of its effect depended on the initial neuron ON-evoked firing rate. Indeed, insulin tended to decrease the high and to increase the low ON-evoked firing rates, thereby reducing inter-MC response firing variability. Therefore, the effects of insulin on the evoked firing rates were not carried out indiscriminately in the MC population. By constructing a mathematical model, the impact of insulin complex effects on OB was assessed at the population activity level. The model shows that the reduction of variability across cells could affect MC detection and discrimination abilities, mainly by decreasing and, less frequently, increasing them, depending on odour quality. Thus, as previously proposed, this differential action of insulin on MCs across odours would allow this hormone to put the olfactory function under feeding signal control, given the discerning valence of an odour as a function of nutritional status. PMID:24710056

  7. Functional recovery of odor representations in regenerated sensory inputs to the olfactory bulb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James E Schwob

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The olfactory system has a unique capacity for recovery from peripheral damage. After injury to the olfactory epithelium, olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs regenerate and re-converge on target glomeruli of the olfactory bulb (OB. Thus far, this process has been described anatomically for only a few defined populations of OSNs. Here we characterize this regeneration at a functional level by assessing how odor representations carried by OSN inputs to the OB recover after massive loss and regeneration of the sensory neuron population. We used chronic imaging of mice expressing synaptopHluorin in OSNs to monitor odor representations in the dorsal OB before lesion by the olfactotoxin methyl bromide and after a 12 week recovery period. Methyl bromide eliminated functional inputs to the OB, and these inputs recovered to near-normal levels of response magnitude within 12 weeks. We also found that the functional topography of odor representations recovered after lesion, with odorants evoking OSN input to glomerular foci within the same functional domains as before lesion. At a finer spatial scale, however, we found evidence for mistargeting of regenerated OSN axons onto OB targets, with odorants evoking synaptopHluorin signals in small foci that did not conform to a typical glomerular structure but whose distribution was nonetheless odorant-specific. These results indicate that OSNs have a robust ability to reestablish functional inputs to the OB and that the mechanisms underlying the topography of bulbar reinnervation during development persist in the adult and allow primary sensory representations to be largely restored after massive sensory neuron loss.

  8. Not all sharks are "swimming noses": variation in olfactory bulb size in cartilaginous fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yopak, Kara E; Lisney, Thomas J; Collin, Shaun P

    2015-03-01

    Olfaction is a universal modality by which all animals sample chemical stimuli from their environment. In cartilaginous fishes, olfaction is critical for various survival tasks including localizing prey, avoiding predators, and chemosensory communication with conspecifics. Little is known, however, about interspecific variation in olfactory capability in these fishes, or whether the relative importance of olfaction in relation to other sensory systems varies with regard to ecological factors, such as habitat and lifestyle. In this study, we have addressed these questions by directly examining interspecific variation in the size of the olfactory bulbs (OB), the region of the brain that receives the primary sensory projections from the olfactory nerve, in 58 species of cartilaginous fishes. Relative OB size was compared among species occupying different ecological niches. Our results show that the OBs maintain a substantial level of allometric independence from the rest of the brain across cartilaginous fishes and that OB size is highly variable among species. These findings are supported by phylogenetic generalized least-squares models, which show that this variability is correlated with ecological niche, particularly habitat. The relatively largest OBs were found in pelagic-coastal/oceanic sharks, especially migratory species such as Carcharodon carcharias and Galeocerdo cuvier. Deep-sea species also possess large OBs, suggesting a greater reliance on olfaction in habitats where vision may be compromised. In contrast, the smallest OBs were found in the majority of reef-associated species, including sharks from the families Carcharhinidae and Hemiscyllidae and dasyatid batoids. These results suggest that there is great variability in the degree to which these fishes rely on olfactory cues. The OBs have been widely used as a neuroanatomical proxy for olfactory capability in vertebrates, and we speculate that differences in olfactory capabilities may be the result of

  9. Impaired olfactory bulb neurogenesis depends on the presence of human wild-type alpha-synuclein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, V E L; Nuber, S; Marxreiter, F; Riess, O; Winner, B; Winkler, J

    2012-10-11

    Synucleinopathies including Parkinson's disease (PD) are characterized by the accumulation of alpha-synuclein (α-syn) within neural cell bodies and their processes. Transgenic mice overexpressing human wild-type or mutant forms of α-syn under the control of different promoters were developed to analyse the underlying neuropathology of PD. One of the earliest clinical symptoms associated with PD is olfactory impairment. The generation of new neurons persists up to adulthood in mammals, in particular the olfactory bulb (OB). In order to assess this process in relation to α-syn accumulation, we used mice overexpressing human wild-type α-syn under the regulatable control (tet-off) of the calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IIα-promoter (CaMKII). We observed a decrease in OB neurogenesis in transgenic animals compared to controls using 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) to label newly generated cells (neuron-specific nuclear protein; NeuN). After cessation of transgene expression we detected an increase in newly generated cells both in granular (GCL) and glomerular (GLOM) layers of the OB. This led to a rescue of newly generated neurons (BrdU(+)/NeuN(+)) within the GLOM with a distinct specificity for the dopaminergic subpopulation. In contrast, we did not detect a cell-specific rescue of neuronal cells in the GCL suggesting diverse effects of alpha-synucleinopathy in both interneuronal layers of the OB. Colabelling of BrdU with glial markers showed that a differentiation into neither astroglia nor microglia attributed to the observed phenotype in the GCL. In particular, BrdU(+) particles located within microglial cells were predominantly associated close to the membrane therefore the resembling phagocytosed nuclear fragments of BrdU(+) cells. Thus, our study further contributes insights into α-syn accumulation as a causative player in the impairment of adult neurogenesis and emphasizes its diverse role in cell renewal of distinct OB cell layers. PMID:22814000

  10. Oxytocin facilitates the induction of long-term potentiation in the accessory olfactory bulb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Long-Yun; Quan, Rong-Dan; Kaba, Hideto

    2008-06-20

    When female mice are mated, they form a memory to the pheromonal signal of their male partner. Several lines of evidence indicate that the neural changes underlying this memory occur in the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) at the first stage of the vomeronasal system. The formation of this memory depends on the mating-induced release of noradrenaline in the AOB. In addition to noradrenaline, the neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) is also released within the central nervous system during mating. Because OT has been implicated in social memory and its receptors are expressed in the AOB, we hypothesized that OT might promote the strength of synaptic transmission from mitral to granule cells in the AOB. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed the lateral olfactory tract-evoked field potential that represents the granule cell response to mitral cell activation and its plasticity in parasagittal slices of the AOB. Of the 10-, 20-, 50-, and 100-Hz stimulations tested, the 100-Hz stimulation was optimal for inducing long-term potentiation (LTP). OT paired with 100-Hz stimulation that only produced short-term potentiation enhanced LTP induction in a dose-dependent manner. OT-paired LTP was blocked by both the selective OT antagonist desGly-NH(2),d(CH(2))(5)[Tyr(Me)(2),Thr(4)]-ornithine vasotocin and the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist dl-2-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid. These results indicate that OT can function as a gate to modulate the establishment of NMDA receptor-dependent LTP at the mitral-to-granule cell synapse in the AOB. PMID:18468792

  11. The Use of Bio-Guided Fractionation to Explore the Use of Leftover Biomass in Dutch Flower Bulb Production as Allelochemicals against Weeds

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    Rob Verpoorte

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A major problem in flower bulb cultivation is weed control. Synthetic herbicides are mainly used, although they cause a range of problems, and integrated weed control through application of naturally occurring allelochemicals would be highly desirable. Flower bulb production creates large amounts of leftover biomass. Utilizing this source for weed control may provide new applications of the bulb crops. We therefore screened 33 flower bulb extracts for allelochemical activity against weeds. Several methanol and chloroform extracts were observed to inhibit germination and growth of Senecio vulgaris L. and Lolium perenne L., as representatives of di- and mono-cotyledonous weeds, respectively. Narciclasine was identified as the bioactive compound in Narcissus. The extract of Amaryllis belladonna L. was equally active, but did not contain any narciclasine. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the A. belladonna extract resulted in the identification of lycorine as the bio-active compound. The IC50 measured for radicle growth inhibition was 0.10 µM for narciclasine and 0.93 µM for lycorine, compared to 0.11 mM of chlorpropham, a synthetic herbicide. Therefore, the leftover biomass from the spring bulb industry represents an interesting potential source for promising allelochemicals for further studies on weed growth inhibition.

  12. Investigation into the healing properties of walnut (Tetracarpidium conophorum leaf and onion (Allium cepa bulb residues in Clarias gariepinus

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    OS Bello

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The study evaluated the effect of dietary inclusion levels of walnut leaf (WL and onion bulb (OB residues on dermal wound healing of Clarias gariepinus. The experiment was carried out in 9 experimental tanks (1.8 m x 2 m x 1.2 m for 14 days. Nine experimental diets were formulated at 40% crude protein representing the following inclusion levels: Control (0%, OB2 (0.5%, OB3 (1.0%, OB4 (1.5%, OB5 (2.0%, WL6 (0.5%, WL7 (1.0%, WL8 (1.5% and WL9 (2.0%. Fish (mean weight of 1kg were fed twice daily at 3% body weight. Percentage healing and daily healing rate on lateral and caudal parts of the male and female Clarias gariepinus were investigated at 0, 7 and 14 days. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and ANOVA at P < 0.05. The results demonstrated that the fish fed with walnut leaf and onion bulb residues showed better performance than the control. Dermal wound healing of Clarias gariepinus was better on lateral and caudal parts (100%, 14.29; 100%, 14.29 in WL 8 compared to the control (98%, 14.00; 80%, 11.43 respectively. The results obtained showed that the male Clarias gariepinus had better healing compared to the female (100%, 14.29; 82%, 11.71, respectively. Diets with walnut leaf and onion bulb residues had wound healing properties and they could be use in fish farming. Also, the inclusion of 1.5% of walnut leaf residue in fish feed promotes wound healing in Clarias gariepinus.

  13. A Study of Some Chemical Changes in Onion Bulbs and Their Inner Buds as Affected by Gamma Radiation and Storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the aim of detecting the break of dormancy and of investigating the effects of gamma irradiation at the 5 krad dose level, the length of inner buds and the content of vitamin C, reducing and total sugars of Makó onion bulbs and their inner buds were determined periodically during storage at 0 to 4°C. A temporary increase in vitamin C content was detected shortly before the inner buds started to grow. The vitamin C content was considerably higher in the growing buds than that in the whole bulbs. Both reducing and non-reducing sugars increased gradually during the dormancy period and levelled off after the break in dormancy. Irradiation of onions before the break in dormancy resulted in much stronger sprout inhibition than radiation treatment during the non-dormant stage. Inner buds of onions irradiated after the break of dormancy tended to darken during post-irradiation storage. Bulbs radiation-treated in the dormant stage resulted in an onion powder of a lighter colour on drying than onions untreated or radiation-treated at the non-dormant stage. The vitamin C, reducing and nonreducing sugar contents and the amino acid composition of the onion flesh and the inner buds were investigated in the final stage of storage, 8 to 10 months after harvest. Compositional differences found between irradiated and untreated onions seem to be of no nutritional significance. Free radicals formed in the outer scales of onions by irradiation diminished within 96 hours at room temperature. (author)

  14. Reduction of Glucose Metabolism in Olfactory Bulb is an Earlier Alzheimer's Disease-related Biomarker in 5XFAD Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nai-An Xiao; Jing Zhang; Meng Zhou; Zhen Wei; Xi-Lin Wu; Xiao-Man Dai; Yuan-Gui Zhu

    2015-01-01

    Background:Early diagnosis assumes a vital role in an effective treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD).Most of the current studies can only make anAD diagnosis after the manifestation of typical clinical symptoms.The present study aimed to investigate typical and other biomarkers of AD to find a possible early biomarker.Methods:A total of 14 5XFAD mice (at 3 and 6 months old),with 14 age-matched wild-type (WT) mice as control,were enrolled in this case-control study.Morris water maze test was performed to evaluate the cognitive function;buried food pellet test and olfactory maze test were employed to investigate the olfactory function;immunofluorescence to detect amyloid deposition and positron emission tomography to examine 2-deoxy-2-(18F) fluoro-D-glucose ([18F]-FDG) uptake in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex.Results:With the increasing age,cognitive performance (P =0.0262) and olfactory function were significantly deteriorated (day 1 P =0.0012,day 2 P =0.0031,day 3 P =0.0160,respectively) and the (18F)-FDG uptake was markedly decreased in multi-cerebral regions including the olfactory bulb (P < 0.0001),hippocampus (P =0.0121),and cerebral cortex (P < 0.0001).Of note,in 3-month-old 5XFAD mice,a significant decline of (18F)-FDG uptake in the olfactory bulb was found when compared with that of age-matched WT mice (P =0.023) while no significant difference was present when the uptakes in other cerebral regions were compared.Conclusions:The decline of (18F)-FDG uptake in the olfactory bulb occurs earlier than other incidents,serving as an earlier in vivo biological marker of AD in 5XFAD mice and making early diagnosis of AD possibly.

  15. Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Activity of Bulb Extracts of Six Lilium Species Native to China

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    Lixin Niu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Lily (Lilium is used as an important edible and medical plant species with a vague taxonomic classification and a long history in China. Bulbs of six Lilium species (L. regale, L. concolor, L. pumilum, L. leucanthum, L. davidii var. unicolor and L. lancifolium native to China were investigated with a view to their exploitation as a potential source of natural antioxidants due to their phenolic composition and dietary antioxidant potential. The results showed that all bulb extracts exhibited strong antioxidant activities, which generally correlated positively with the total phenolic contents (r = 0.68 to 0.94, total flavonoid contents (r = 0.51 to 0.89 and total flavanol contents (r = 0.54 to 0.95. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC analysis revealed that rutin and kaempferol were the major phenolic components in the extracts. Hierarchical cluster analysis showed that L. regale belonged to the group with high phenolic content and strong antioxidant power. L. concolor and L. pumilum were arranged in one group characterized by moderate phenolic content and antioxidant capacity, while L. leucanthum, L. davidii var. unicolor and L. lancifolium were clustered in the third group with low phenolic content and weak antioxidant activity. These strongly suggest that lily bulbs may serve as a potential source of natural antioxidant for food and pharmaceutical applications.

  16. Effects of irradiation and storage on the gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase activity of garlic bulbs cv 'Red'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of 50 Gy gamma-irradiation 30 days after harvest on gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GTP) activity (the first enzyme in the catabolism of gamma-glutamyl peptides) of garlic bulbs of 'Red' during storage for 300 days were evaluated. GTP activity was determined by spectrophotometry using gamma-glutamyl-p-nitroanilide as exogenous substrate, and was correlated with parameters related to the metabolic-respiratory activity, such as sprouting index in control bulbs, and cumulative weight losses (CWL) and non-enzymic or control pyruvate (CP: metabolite of the respiratory chain) in irradiated and control bulbs. GTP activity was also correlated with flavour parameters, such as enzymic pyruvate (EP; metabolite of the reaction of alliinase and sulphur amino acids in crushed garlic) and primary sulphur compounds. From these results, three storage stages are suggested: (i) the internal dormancy period, (ii) the first post-dormant stage, and (iii) the second post-dormant stage. During the first 90 days of storage (first stage) all the parameters remained nearly constant in the controls, while GTP activity and CP content increased in irradiated garlic because of radioinduced metabolic-respiratory activation. From 90 to 180 days of storage (second stage) the correlation between the increases of GTP and EP in irradiated garlic and controls was due to the action of GTP on gamma-glutamyl peptides that finally released substrates of alliinase. Both enzymes increased EP contact, which was higher in irradiated garlic (major flavour enhancement) than in controls. After 180 days of storage (third stage) EP and primary sulphur compounds decreased in irradiated garlic and in the controls. while GTP, CWL and CP kept increasing in both samples with lower rates of increase in irradiated garlic. These increases were related to metabolic activation. reserve exhaustion and finally rotting. Therefore, irradiated garlic was of better quality at the end of storage

  17. Acute changes in murine hippocampus and olfactory bulb after nasal instillation of varying size cerium dioxide particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Li, Yuanyuan; Yang, Tongwang; Yang, Jing; Wang, He; Wu, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Cerium (Ce)-containing compounds are now widely applied in medicine, agriculture, and animal breeding. However, the effects of Ce on humans, especially on the central nervous system (CNS), remain to be determined. In order to investigate whether Ce exposure affected the CNS, the aim of this study was to expose female ICR mice to varying nanoparticle sizes of 35 nm and 300 nm, and to a mixture of 1-5 µM cerium dioxide (CeO2) particles through intranasal (i.n.) instillation at daily dose of 40 mg/kg body weight. Immunohistochemical data showed that glial fibrillary acidic protein expression (GFAP) increased significantly in the hippocampus and olfactory bulb in all Ce-administered groups. The ultrastructure of olfactory bulb cells displayed chromatin reduction. In the hippocampus decreased chromatin was associated with ribosome shedding as evidenced from transmission electron microscopy (TEM). No significant differences in immunohistochemistry were noted between varying sizes of CeO2 groups. The results of inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) analysis group exposed to 1-5 µM demonstrated that Ce levels were significantly higher in whole brain (0.17 ng/mg) than for the control (0.04 ng/mg). Data thus demonstrated that i.n. instillation of different sized CeO2 particles induced damage in the olfactory bulb and hippocampus and that CeO2 particle size did not appear to play a role in the observed adverse responses. PMID:27599233

  18. Effect of x-ray irradiation upon the epithelial melanin unit of the hair bulb in hooded rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostanecki, W.; Radwan, I.; Mroczkowski, T.

    1976-10-27

    A marked increase in the quantity of pigment in the upper bulb, penetration of melanosomes into the papillae and vacuolisation of the bulk keratinocytes occurred as early as 4 to 6 h after irradiation with a dose 600 to 1200 R. Afterwards considerable hyperpigmentations appeared in the proximal segments of dystrophic and catagen hairs and melanin was found in the catagen columns and beyond them. In most animals within 4 to 6 h after irradiation occurred a distinct vacuolisation of the Malpighian layer and the granular layer became more prominent.

  19. Contouring Variability of the Penile Bulb on CT Images: Quantitative Assessment Using a Generalized Concordance Index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carillo, Viviana [Department of Medical Physics, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milano (Italy); Cozzarini, Cesare [Department of Radiotherapy, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milano (Italy); Perna, Lucia; Calandra, Mauro [Department of Medical Physics, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milano (Italy); Gianolini, Stefano [Medical Software Solutions GmbH, Hagendorn (Switzerland); Rancati, Tiziana [Prostate Cancer Program, IRCCS National Institute of Cancer, Milano (Italy); Spinelli, Antonello Enrico [Department of Medical Physics, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milano (Italy); Vavassori, Vittorio [Department of Radiotherapy, Cliniche Gavazzeni Humanitas, Bergamo (Italy); Villa, Sergio [Department of Radiotherapy 1, IRCCS National Institute of Cancer, Milano (Italy); Valdagni, Riccardo [Prostate Cancer Program, IRCCS National Institute of Cancer, Milano (Italy); Department of Radiotherapy 1, IRCCS National Institute of Cancer, Milano (Italy); Fiorino, Claudio, E-mail: fiorino.claudio@hsr.it [Department of Medical Physics, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milano (Italy)

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: Within a multicenter study (DUE-01) focused on the search of predictors of erectile dysfunction and urinary toxicity after radiotherapy for prostate cancer, a dummy run exercise on penile bulb (PB) contouring on computed tomography (CT) images was carried out. The aim of this study was to quantitatively assess interobserver contouring variability by the application of the generalized DICE index. Methods and Materials: Fifteen physicians from different Institutes drew the PB on CT images of 10 patients. The spread of DICE values was used to objectively select those observers who significantly disagreed with the others. The analyses were performed with a dedicated module in the VODCA software package. Results: DICE values were found to significantly change among observers and patients. The mean DICE value was 0.67, ranging between 0.43 and 0.80. The statistics of DICE coefficients identified 4 of 15 observers who systematically showed a value below the average (p value range, 0.013 - 0.059): Mean DICE values were 0.62 for the 4 'bad' observers compared to 0.69 of the 11 'good' observers. For all bad observers, the main cause of the disagreement was identified. Average DICE values were significantly worse from the average in 2 of 10 patients (0.60 vs. 0.70, p < 0.05) because of the limited visibility of the PB. Excluding the bad observers and the 'bad' patients,' the mean DICE value increased from 0.67 to 0.70; interobserver variability, expressed in terms of standard deviation of DICE spread, was also reduced. Conclusions: The obtained values of DICE around 0.7 shows an acceptable agreement, considered the small dimension of the PB. Additional strategies to improve this agreement are under consideration and include an additional tutorial of the so-called bad observers with a recontouring procedure, or the recontouring by a single observer of the PB for all patients included in the DUE-01 study.

  20. Reduced proliferation in the adult mouse subventricular zone increases survival of olfactory bulb interneurons.

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    Yi Sui

    Full Text Available Neurogenesis in the adult brain is largely restricted to the subependymal zone (SVZ of the lateral ventricle, olfactory bulb (OB and the dentate subgranular zone, and survival of adult-born cells in the OB is influenced by factors including sensory experience. We examined, in mice, whether survival of adult-born cells is also regulated by the rate of precursor proliferation in the SVZ. Precursor proliferation was decreased by depleting the SVZ of dopamine after lesioning dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra compacta with 6-hydroxydopamine. Subsequently, we examined the effect of reduced SVZ proliferation on the generation, migration and survival of neuroblasts and mature adult-born cells in the SVZ, rostral migratory stream (RMS and OB. Proliferating cells in the SVZ, measured by 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU injected 2 hours prior to death or by immunoreactivity against Ki67, were reduced by 47% or 36%, respectively, 7 days after dopamine depletion, and by 29% or 31% 42 days after dopamine depletion, compared to sham-treated animals. Neuroblast generation in the SVZ and their migration along the RMS were not affected, neither 7 nor 42 days after the 6-hydroxydopamine injection, since the number of doublecortin-immunoreactive neuroblasts in the SVZ and RMS, as well as the number of neuronal nuclei-immunoreactive cells in the OB, were stable compared to control. However, survival analysis 15 days after 6-hydroxydopamine and 6 days after BrdU injections showed that the number of BrdU+ cells in the SVZ was 70% higher. Also, 42 days after 6-hydroxydopamine and 30 days after BrdU injections, we found an 82% increase in co-labeled BrdU+/γ-aminobutyric acid-immunoreactive cell bodies in the granular cell layer, while double-labeled BrdU+/tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive cell bodies in the glomerular layer increased by 148%. We conclude that the number of OB interneurons following reduced SVZ proliferation is maintained through an increased

  1. The production of consuming less: Energy efficiency, climate change, and light bulbs in North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoyre, Autumn

    In this research, I have analyzed the production of consuming less electricity through a case study of promotions of compact fluorescent light bulbs (CFLs). I focused on the CFL because it has been heavily promoted by environmentalists and electricity companies as a key tool for solving climate change, yet such promotions appear counter-intuitive. The magnitude of CFL promotions by environmentalists is surprising because CFLs can only impact less than 1% of U.S. greenhouse gas emissions. CFL promotions by electricity providers are surprising given such companies' normal incentives to sell more of their product. I used political ecological and symbolic interactionist theories, qualitative methods of data collection (including interviews, participant-observation, texts, and images), and a grounded theory analysis to understand this case. My findings suggest that, far from being a self-evident technical entity, energy efficiency is produced as an idea, a part of identities, a resource, and a source of value through social, political, and economic processes. These processes include identity formation and subjectification; gender-coded household labor; and corporate appropriation of household value resulting from environmental governance. I show how environmentalists use CFLs to make and claim neoliberal identities, proposing the concept of green neoliberal identity work as a mechanism through which neoliberal ideologies are translated into practices. I analyze how using this seemingly easy energy efficient technology constitutes labor that is gendered in ways that reflect and reproduce inequalities. I show how electricity companies have used environmental governance to valorize and appropriate home energy efficiency as an accumulation strategy. I conclude by discussing the symbolic power of CFLs, proposing a theory of green obsolescence, and framing the production of energy efficiency as a global production network. I found that promoting energy efficiency involves

  2. Conventional curing practices reduce generic Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. on dry bulb onions produced with contaminated irrigation water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emch, Alexander W; Waite-Cusic, Joy G

    2016-02-01

    Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA) has emphasized microbial risks associated with irrigation water. Treasure Valley (eastern Oregon/western Idaho) has the highest yield of dry bulb onions in the country; however, their irrigation water is often non-compliant with current industry and proposed federal standards for fresh produce. Conventional curing practices may provide a mechanism to mitigate irrigation water quality to comply with FSMA regulations. Dry bulb onions were grown in Owyhee silt loam and Semiahmoo muck soils in greenhouses and irrigated with water containing a cocktail of rifampicin-resistant generic Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. (4.80 log CFU/ml). To mimic conventional practices, mature onions remained undisturbed in soil without irrigation for 12 days prior to being lifted and cured for 16 additional days. Surviving generic E. coli and Salmonella spp. were selectively enumerated on using standard plating (Hektoen Enteric Agar with rifampicin; HE + rif) or most probable number (lactose broth with rifampicin; HE + rif) methods. Generic E. coli and Salmonella spp. on onions decreased 0.19-0.26 log CFU/g·d during the initial 12 days of finishing. At lifting, generic E. coli and Salmonella spp. had been reduced to microbiological quality. PMID:26678128

  3. INSECTICIDAL ACTIVITY OF PROTEIN EXTRACTS OBTAINED FROM BULBS OF CHILEAN AMARYLLIDACEAE AGAINST TRIALEURODES VAPORARIORUM WESTWOOD AND PSEUDOCOCCUS VIBURNI SIGNORET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata, N; Vargas, M; Coronado, A; Van Damme, E J M; Smagghe, G

    2015-01-01

    Entomotoxic proteins are produced by plants in defence against insect herbivory. Some carbohydrate-binding proteins exhibit strong insecticidal activity affecting the survival, growth, development and feeding behavior of phytophagous insects. The occurrence of entomotoxic lectins is well documented in the Amaryllidaceae, a plant family spread world-wide. In Chile, this family is represented by numerous species, many of which are also of high ornamental value. Protein extracts were obtained from bulbs of five different species of Chilean Amaryllidaceae. A dose-response assay was carried out with two important pests: the greenhouse whitefly Trialeurodes vaporariorum Westwood and the mealybug Pseudococcus viburni Signoret. The extracts were offered to insects in a liquid artificial diet for three days and the mortality was scored. The Phycella australis Ravenna extract caused the highest insecticidal activity (T. vaporariorum LC₅₀: 7200 µg/mL; P. viburni LC₅₀: 9500 µg/mL). Applied at 1000 µg/mL in the diet the P. australis extract did not repel feeding of these pests. A mannose-binding lectin isolated from the bulbs of P. australis proved to be moderately toxic for these pests (T. vaporariorum LC₅₀: 1127 µg/mL; P. viburni LC₅₀: 2320 µg/mL). PMID:27145586

  4. Ligand binding studies in the mouse olfactory bulb: identification and characterisation of a L-[3H]carnosine binding site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binding sites for the dipeptide L-carnosine (β-alanyl-t-histidine) have been detected in membranes prepared from mouse olfactory bulbs. The binding of L-[3H]- carnosine was saturable, reversible and stereospecific and had a Ksub(d) of about 770 nM. The stereospecific binding of L-carnosine represented about 30% of the totoal binding at pH 6.8, and decreased markedly with increasing pH. Binding was stimulated by calcium, unaffected by zinc, magnesium or manganese and inhibted by sodium and potassium. Carnosine binding was sensitive to trypsin and phospholipases A and C, but not to neuraminidase. Nystatin and filipin, which interact with membrane lipids, also interfered with binding. Some peptide analogues of carnosine were potent inhibitors of binding, but a variety of drugs serving as potent inhibitors in other binding systems had no effect on carnosine binding. Carnosine binding to mouse olfactory bulb membranes was 15-fold higher than that seen in membranes prepared from cerebral hemispheres, 5-fold higher than in cerebellum membranes and 3-fold higher than in membranes from spinal medulla and the olfactory tubercle-lateral olfactory tract area. (Auth.)

  5. Regulation of spike timing-dependent plasticity of olfactory inputs in mitral cells in the rat olfactory bulb.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teng-Fei Ma

    Full Text Available The recent history of activity input onto granule cells (GCs in the main olfactory bulb can affect the strength of lateral inhibition, which functions to generate contrast enhancement. However, at the plasticity level, it is unknown whether and how the prior modification of lateral inhibition modulates the subsequent induction of long-lasting changes of the excitatory olfactory nerve (ON inputs to mitral cells (MCs. Here we found that the repetitive stimulation of two distinct excitatory inputs to the GCs induced a persistent modification of lateral inhibition in MCs in opposing directions. This bidirectional modification of inhibitory inputs differentially regulated the subsequent synaptic plasticity of the excitatory ON inputs to the MCs, which was induced by the repetitive pairing of excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs with postsynaptic bursts. The regulation of spike timing-dependent plasticity (STDP was achieved by the regulation of the inter-spike-interval (ISI of the postsynaptic bursts. This novel form of inhibition-dependent regulation of plasticity may contribute to the encoding or processing of olfactory information in the olfactory bulb.

  6. Immunohistochemical localization of GABAergic key molecules in the main olfactory bulb of the Korean roe deer, Capreolus pygargus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeongtae; Takayama, Chitoshi; Park, Changnam; Ahn, Meejung; Moon, Changjong; Shin, Taekyun

    2015-09-01

    Gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) negatively regulates the excitatory activity of neurons and is a predominant neurotransmitter in the nervous system. The olfactory bulb, the main center in the olfactory system, is modulated by inhibitory interneurons that use GABA as their main neurotransmitter. The present study aimed to evaluate GABAergic transmission in the main olfactory bulb (MOB) of the Korean roe deer (Capreolus pygargus) by examining the immunohistochemical localization of GABAergic key molecules, including glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), vesicular GABA transporter (VGAT), GABA transporters (GATs; GAT-1 and GAT-3), and potassium sodium chloride co-transporter 2 (KCC2). GAD, VGAT, and KCC2 were expressed in the glomerular layer (GL), external plexiform layer (ePL), mitral cell layer (ML), and granule cell layer (GrL). Intense GAT-1 expression was observed in the GL; GAT-1 expression was discernible in the ePL, ML, and GrL. However, intense GAT-3 expression was extensively observed in all layers of the MOB. These results suggest that substantial GABAergic synapses are present in the GL, ePL, ML, and GrL. Furthermore, the released GABA may be removed by GAT-1 and GAT-3 in the GL, and the majority of GABA, which is present in the ePL to GrL, may undergo reuptake by GAT-3. This is the first morphological and descriptive study of GABAergic transmission in the MOB of Korean roe deer. PMID:26115600

  7. Effect of slow versus rapid rewarming on jugular bulb oxygen saturation in adult patients undergoing open heart surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohmaed Shaaban Ali

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A debate has appeared in the recent literature about the optimum rewarming strategy (slow vs. rapid for the best brain function. This study was designed to compare the effect of slow versus rapid rewarming on jugular bulb oxygen saturation (SjO 2 in adult patients undergoing open heart surgery. Materials and Methods: A total of 80 patients undergoing valve and adult congenital heart surgery were randomly allocated equally to rapid rewarming group 0.5 (0.136°C/min and slow rewarming group 0.219 (0.055°C/min in jugular bulb sampling was taken before, during and after surgery. Surgery was done at cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB temperature of 28-30°C and rewarming was performed at the end of the surgical procedure. Results: CPB time, rewarming period were significantly longer in the slow rewarming group. Significant difference was observed in the number of the desaturated patients (SjO 2 ≤ 50% between the two groups; 14 (35% in rapid rewarming versus 6 (15% in the slow rewarming group; P = 0.035 by Fisher′s exact test. Conclusions: Slow rewarming could reduce the incidence of SjO 2 desaturation during rewarming in adult patients undergoing open heart surgery.

  8. In Vivo Study of Dynamics and Stability of Dendritic Spines on Olfactory Bulb Interneurons in Xenopus laevis Tadpoles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Bin Huang

    Full Text Available Dendritic spines undergo continuous remodeling during development of the nervous system. Their stability is essential for maintaining a functional neuronal circuit. Spine dynamics and stability of cortical excitatory pyramidal neurons have been explored extensively in mammalian animal models. However, little is known about spiny interneurons in non-mammalian vertebrate models. In the present study, neuronal morphology was visualized by single-cell electroporation. Spiny neurons were surveyed in the Xenopus tadpole brain and observed to be widely distributed in the olfactory bulb and telencephalon. DsRed- or PSD95-GFP-expressing spiny interneurons in the olfactory bulb were selected for in vivo time-lapse imaging. Dendritic protrusions were classified as filopodia, thin, stubby, or mushroom spines based on morphology. Dendritic spines on the interneurons were highly dynamic, especially the filopodia and thin spines. The stubby and mushroom spines were relatively more stable, although their stability significantly decreased with longer observation intervals. The 4 spine types exhibited diverse preferences during morphological transitions from one spine type to others. Sensory deprivation induced by severing the olfactory nerve to block the input of mitral/tufted cells had no significant effects on interneuron spine stability. Hence, a new model was established in Xenopus laevis tadpoles to explore dendritic spine dynamics in vivo.

  9. Effects of cultural methods and physical weed control on intrarow weed numbers, manual weeding and marketable yield in direct-sown leek and bulb onion

    OpenAIRE

    Melander, Senior scientist Bo; Rasmussen, Scientist Gitte

    2001-01-01

    Manual weeding of intrarow weeds in seeded leek and bulb onion grown organically can be very labour-intensive. Four field experiments, two in direct-sown leek (Allium porrum L.) and two in direct-sown bulb onion (Allium cepa L.), were made in this investigation to study the effects of physical and cultural methods on intrarow weed numbers, time consumption for hand-weeding and marketable yield parameters. The physical methods considered were: pre-emergence flaming and harrowing, and post-emer...

  10. Genetic variation for bulb size, soluble solids content and pungency in the Spanish sweet onion variety Fuentes de Ebro. Response to selection for low pungency

    OpenAIRE

    Mallor Giménez, Cristina; Balcells Oliván, María; Mallor, F.; Sales, E.

    2011-01-01

    The cultivar ‘Fuentes de Ebro’ is a long-day onion grown in the northeast of Spain, which is characterized by its succulence and low pungency. However, to match the market demand the size, pungency, and storability need to be improved. We have evaluated these quality-related bulb traits in 15 grower’s open-pollinated lines of this cultivar. Phenotypic variation observed for bulb weight, size and soluble solids content was significantly affected by location, growing season and line, while pung...

  11. A comparison of radiation dose to the bulb of the penis in men with and without prostate brachytherapy-induced erectile dysfunction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To retrospectively evaluate the relationship between the radiation dose to the bulb of the penis and the development of erectile dysfunction (ED) in patients undergoing permanent prostate brachytherapy without external beam radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: Twenty-three men who developed ED after transperineal ultrasound-guided permanent prostate brachytherapy for clinical T1/T2 adenocarcinoma of the prostate gland were paired with 23 similar men who maintained potency after implantation. Potency was defined as an erection sufficient for vaginal penetration. The mean and median follow-up for the entire group was 34.6 ± 13.7 months and 32.8 months, respectively. Patients were implanted with either 125I (145 Gy TG-43) or 103Pd (115 Gy, pre-NIST-99). No patient received external beam radiation therapy either before or after brachytherapy. The bulb of the penis was outlined at 0.5-cm intervals on the Day 0 postimplant CT scan. The radiation dose distribution to the bulb of the penis was defined in terms of the minimal dose delivered to 25%, 50%, 70%, 75%, 90%, and 95% of the bulb (D25, D50, D70, D75, D90, and D95). Results: The radiation dose delivered to the bulb of the penis in men with postbrachytherapy-induced ED was statistically greater for all evaluated dosimetric parameters (D25, D50, D70, D75, D90, and D95). Multivariate analysis indicated that dose to the bulb of the penis and patient age at the time of implant were predictive of postimplant ED, whereas choice of isotope had no effect. Among potent patients, 19/23 had D50 ≤ 40% of prescribed minimal peripheral dose, whereas for the impotent patients, 19/23 had D50 >40% of the minimal peripheral dose. Of the impotent patients, 17 utilized sildenafil, with 15 experiencing a favorable response (88%). Conclusion: Our data suggest that prostate brachytherapy-induced impotence is highly correlated with the radiation dose delivered to the bulb of the penis. With Day 0 dosimetric evaluation, the

  12. Comment on "How many principles does it take to change a light bulb ... into a laser?" by Howard M. Wiseman, Physica Scripta 91 (3), 033001 (2016)

    CERN Document Server

    Elsäßer, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    In this comment on "How many principles does it take to change a light bulb ... into a laser?" by Howard M. Wiseman, Physica Scripta 91 (3), 033001 (2016) I am analyzing this extremely nicely formulated question in the framework of the Hanbury-Brown & Twiss experiment thus celebrating also its 60th anniversary. I am giving a straightforward, concise and unique answer on this question, emphasizing that the intensity correlations or the photon statistics make the difference between a light bulb and a laser.

  13. Energy monitor of the Dutch flower bulb sector 2008; Energiemonitor van de Nederlandse Bloembollensector 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wildschut, J. [Praktijkonderzoek Plant en Omgeving PPO, Bloembollen, Boomkwekerij en Fruit, Lisse (Netherlands)

    2009-09-15

    1450 flower bulb businesses were approached for the Dutch Energy Monitor 2008. The response rate was 56%. A comparison with the energy use of 2007 or 2006 proved to be of little use due to the differences between the various databases. The calculated energy use data per crop in 2008 are suitable as reference values for the monitoring up to 2011. The Energy Efficiency Index of 2008 was set at 100. 25 energy saving measures have been examined in the monitoring to see to what extent they are used. Strikingly, only 11% of the businesses used the ethylene analyzer. Insulation of the cold store, frequency-controlled ventilators and rounded outlets in the system wall were used relatively often (by respectively 70%, 50% and 38% of the businesses). In forcing, energy shields, façade insulation and pre-growing/multi-layer cultivation score relatively high (respectively 55%, 53% and 24%). Deployment of the climate computer in growing and forcing also scores relatively high at 65%. The most frequently used measure is deployment of a high efficiency condensing boiler (77%). Sustainable energy is used in nearly 20% of the businesses, deployment of hot greenhouse air for drying being the most frequently used measure (76 businesses). Green electricity is the second sustainable energy source (purchased by nearly 5% of businesses). The share of sustainable energy is thus 2.3%. The CO2 emission resulting from direct use of fossil fuels at 495 of the monitored businesses was calculated to amount to 30,541 tons in cultivation (drying and storage) and 25.002 in forcing (greenhouse heating). The total amount is thus 55.544 tons. [Dutch] Voor de Energiemonitor 2008 zijn 1450 bloembollenbedrijven aangeschreven. De response was 56%. Een vergelijking met het energieverbruik in 2007 of in 2006 is door de afwijkende samenstellingen van de verschillende databases weinig zinvol gebleken. De berekende energieverbruikscijfers per gewas van 2008 zijn wel goed bruikbaar als referentiewaarden voor

  14. Electrophysiological evidence for a direct link between the main and accessory olfactory bulbs in the adult rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor eVargas-Barroso

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is accepted that the main- and accessory- olfactory systems exhibit overlapping responses to pheromones and odorants. We performed whole-cell patch-clamp recordings in adult rat olfactory bulb slices to define a possible interaction between the first central relay of these systems: the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB and the main olfactory bulb (MOB. This was tested by applying electrical field stimulation in the dorsal part of the MOB while recording large principal cells (LPCs of the anterior AOB (aAOB. Additional recordings of LPCs were performed at either side of the plane of intersection between the aAOB and posterior-AOB (pAOB halves, or linea alba, while applying field stimulation to the opposite half. A total of 92 recorded neurons were filled during whole-cell recordings with biocytin and studied at the light microscope. Neurons located in the aAOB (n = 6, 8% send axon collaterals to the MOB since they were antidromically activated in the presence of glutamate receptor antagonists (APV and CNQX. Recorded LPCs evoked orthodromic excitatory post-synaptic responses (n = 6, aAOB; n = 1, pAOB or antidromic action potentials (n = 8, aAOB; n = 7, pAOB when applying field stimulation to the opposite half of the recording site (e.g. recording in aAOB; stimulating in pAOB and vice-versa. Observation of the filled neurons revealed that indeed, LPCs send axon branches that cross the linea alba to resolve in the internal cellular layer. Additionally, LPCs of the aAOB send axon collaterals to dorsal-MOB territory. Notably, while performing AOB recordings we found a sub-population of neurons (24 % of the total that exhibited voltage-dependent bursts of action potentials. Our findings support the existence of: 1. a direct projection from aAOB LPCs to dorsal-MOB, 2. physiologically active synapses linking aAOB and pAOB, and 3. pacemaker-like neurons in both AOB halves. This work was presented in the form of an Abstract on SfN 2014 (719.14/EE17.

  15. Olfactory Bulb [alpha][subscript 2]-Adrenoceptor Activation Promotes Rat Pup Odor-Preference Learning via a cAMP-Independent Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakhawat, Amin MD.; Harley, Carolyn W.; Yuan, Qi

    2012-01-01

    In this study, three lines of evidence suggest a role for [alpha][subscript 2]-adrenoreceptors in rat pup odor-preference learning: olfactory bulb infusions of the [alpha][subscript 2]-antagonist, yohimbine, prevents learning; the [alpha][subscript 2]-agonist, clonidine, paired with odor, induces learning; and subthreshold clonidine paired with…

  16. The Development of RoBuST: An integrated genomics resource for the root and bulb crop families Apiaceae and Alliaceae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root and bulb vegetables (RBV) include carrots, celeriac, parsnips (Apiaceae), onions, garlic, and leek (Alliaceae) – food crops that are grown globally and consumed worldwide. Few data analysis platforms are currently available where data collection, annotation and integration initiatives are focus...

  17. In pursuit of a light bulb and a smokeless kitchen : longitudinal analysis of the role of energy sector policies to alleviate rural energy poverty in India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinha, S.

    2012-01-01

    After more than six decades of development planning, the majority of India’s population,especially those living in villages, continue to wait for access to energy forms that enable them to switch on an electric light bulb and to cook food on a clean stove in a smokeless kitchen. India is a country o

  18. Gene expression changes in the olfactory bulb of mice induced by exposure to diesel exhaust are dependent on animal rearing environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Yokota

    Full Text Available There is an emerging concern that particulate air pollution increases the risk of cranial nerve disease onset. Small nanoparticles, mainly derived from diesel exhaust particles reach the olfactory bulb by their nasal depositions. It has been reported that diesel exhaust inhalation causes inflammation of the olfactory bulb and other brain regions. However, these toxicological studies have not evaluated animal rearing environment. We hypothesized that rearing environment can change mice phenotypes and thus might alter toxicological study results. In this study, we exposed mice to diesel exhaust inhalation at 90 µg/m(3, 8 hours/day, for 28 consecutive days after rearing in a standard cage or environmental enrichment conditions. Microarray analysis found that expression levels of 112 genes were changed by diesel exhaust inhalation. Functional analysis using Gene Ontology revealed that the dysregulated genes were involved in inflammation and immune response. This result was supported by pathway analysis. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis confirmed 10 genes. Interestingly, background gene expression of the olfactory bulb of mice reared in a standard cage environment was changed by diesel exhaust inhalation, whereas there was no significant effect of diesel exhaust exposure on gene expression levels of mice reared with environmental enrichment. The results indicate for the first time that the effect of diesel exhaust exposure on gene expression of the olfactory bulb was influenced by rearing environment. Rearing environment, such as environmental enrichment, may be an important contributive factor to causation in evaluating still undefined toxic environmental substances such as diesel exhaust.

  19. Oromaxillary Prosthetic Rehabilitation of a Maxillectomy Patient Using a Magnet Retained Two-Piece Hollow Bulb Definitive Obturator; A Clinical Report

    OpenAIRE

    Jafar Abdulla Mohamed Usman; Anuroopa Ayappan; Dhanraj Ganapathy; Nilofer Nisha Nasir

    2013-01-01

    Resection of a malignant lesion involving the maxilla produces severe oromaxillary defect that can seriously jeopardize the normal phonetics of the patient. These defects are effectively managed by well-designed and fabricated obturator. This paper discusses the oromaxillary prosthetic rehabilitation of a maxillectomy patient using a magnet retained two-piece hollow bulb definitive obturator.

  20. Investigation into the healing properties of walnut (Tetracarpidium conophorum) leaf and onion (Allium cepa) bulb residues in Clarias gariepinus

    OpenAIRE

    OS Bello; BO Emikpe; AK Olaifa; FE Olaifa

    2013-01-01

    The study evaluated the effect of dietary inclusion levels of walnut leaf (WL) and onion bulb (OB) residues on dermal wound healing of Clarias gariepinus. The experiment was carried out in 9 experimental tanks (1.8 m x 2 m x 1.2 m) for 14 days. Nine experimental diets were formulated at 40% crude protein representing the following inclusion levels: Control (0%), OB2 (0.5%), OB3 (1.0%), OB4 (1.5%), OB5 (2.0%), WL6 (0.5%), WL7 (1.0%), WL8 (1.5%) and WL9 (2.0%). Fish (mean weight of 1kg) were fe...

  1. Rainfall interception modelling: Is the wet bulb approach adequate to estimate mean evaporation rate from wet/saturated canopies in all forest types?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, F. L.; Valente, F.; David, J. S.; Jackson, N.; Minunno, F.; Gash, J. H.

    2016-03-01

    The Penman-Monteith equation has been widely used to estimate the maximum evaporation rate (E) from wet/saturated forest canopies, regardless of canopy cover fraction. Forests are then represented as a big leaf and interception loss considered essentially as a one-dimensional process. With increasing forest sparseness the assumptions behind this big leaf approach become questionable. In sparse forests it might be better to model E and interception loss at the tree level assuming that the individual tree crowns behave as wet bulbs ("wet bulb approach"). In this study, and for five different forest types and climate conditions, interception loss measurements were compared to modelled values (Gash's interception model) based on estimates of E by the Penman-Monteith and the wet bulb approaches. Results show that the wet bulb approach is a good, and less data demanding, alternative to estimate E when the forest canopy is fully ventilated (very sparse forests with a narrow canopy depth). When the canopy is not fully ventilated, the wet bulb approach requires a reduction of leaf area index to the upper, more ventilated parts of the canopy, needing data on the vertical leaf area distribution, which is seldom-available. In such cases, the Penman-Monteith approach seems preferable. Our data also show that canopy cover does not per se allow us to identify if a forest canopy is fully ventilated or not. New methodologies of sensitivity analyses applied to Gash's model showed that a correct estimate of E is critical for the proper modelling of interception loss.

  2. There Is No Correlation Between Erectile Dysfunction and Dose to Penile Bulb and Neurovascular Bundles Following Real-Time Low-Dose-Rate Prostate Brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: We evaluated the relationship between the onset of erectile dysfunction and dose to the penile bulb and neurovascular bundles (NVBs) after real-time ultrasound-guided prostate brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: One hundred forty-seven patients who underwent prostate brachytherapy met the following eligibility criteria: (1) treatment with 125I brachytherapy to a prescribed dose of 160 Gy with or without hormones without supplemental external beam radiation therapy, (2) identification as potent before the time of implantation based on a score of 2 or higher on the physician-assigned Mount Sinai Erectile Function Score and a score of 16 or higher on the abbreviated International Index of Erectile Function patient assessment, and (3) minimum follow-up of 12 months. Median follow-up was 25.7 months (range, 12-47 months). Results: The 3-year actuarial rate of impotence was 23% (34 of 147 patients). An additional 43% of potent patients (49 of 113 patients) were using a potency aid at last follow-up. The penile bulb volume receiving 100% of the prescription dose (V100) ranged from 0-0.05 cc (median, 0 cc), with a dose to the hottest 5% (D5) range of 12.5-97.9 Gy (median, 40.8 Gy). There was no correlation between penile bulb D5 or V100 and postimplantation impotency on actuarial analysis. For the combined right and left NVB structures, V100 range was 0.3-5.1 cc (median, 1.8 cc), and V150 range was 0-1.5 cc (median, 0.31 cc). There was no association between NVB V100 or V150 and postimplantation impotency on actuarial analysis. Conclusion: Penile bulb doses are low after real-time ultrasound-guided prostate brachytherapy. We found no correlation between dose to either the penile bulb or NVBs and the development of postimplantation impotency.

  3. RoBuST: an integrated genomics resource for the root and bulb crop families Apiaceae and Alliaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Philge

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Root and bulb vegetables (RBV include carrots, celeriac (root celery, parsnips (Apiaceae, onions, garlic, and leek (Alliaceae—food crops grown globally and consumed worldwide. Few data analysis platforms are currently available where data collection, annotation and integration initiatives are focused on RBV plant groups. Scientists working on RBV include breeders, geneticists, taxonomists, plant pathologists, and plant physiologists who use genomic data for a wide range of activities including the development of molecular genetic maps, delineation of taxonomic relationships, and investigation of molecular aspects of gene expression in biochemical pathways and disease responses. With genomic data coming from such diverse areas of plant science, availability of a community resource focused on these RBV data types would be of great interest to this scientific community. Description The RoBuST database has been developed to initiate a platform for collecting and organizing genomic information useful for RBV researchers. The current release of RoBuST contains genomics data for 294 Alliaceae and 816 Apiaceae plant species and has the following features: (1 comprehensive sequence annotations of 3663 genes 5959 RNAs, 22,723 ESTs and 11,438 regulatory sequence elements from Apiaceae and Alliaceae plant families; (2 graphical tools for visualization and analysis of sequence data; (3 access to traits, biosynthetic pathways, genetic linkage maps and molecular taxonomy data associated with Alliaceae and Apiaceae plants; and (4 comprehensive plant splice signal repository of 659,369 splice signals collected from 6015 plant species for comparative analysis of plant splicing patterns. Conclusions RoBuST, available at http://robust.genome.com, provides an integrated platform for researchers to effortlessly explore and analyze genomic data associated with root and bulb vegetables.

  4. Olfactory dysfunction and neurotransmitter disturbance in olfactory bulb of transgenic mice expressing human A53T mutant α-synuclein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sufang Zhang

    Full Text Available Parkinson disease is a multi-system neurodegenerative disease characterized by both motor and non-motor symptoms. Hyposmia is one of the early non-motor symptoms occurring in more than 90% of Parkinson disease cases, which can precede motor symptoms even several years. Up to now, the relationship between hyposmia and Parkinson disease remains elusive. Lack of proper animal models of hyposmia restricts the investigation. In this study we assessed olfactory function in Prp-A53T-α-synuclein transgenic (αSynA53T mice which had been reported to show age-dependent motor impairments and intracytoplasmic inclusions. We also examined cholinergic and dopaminergic systems in olfactory bulb of αSynA53T mice by immunofluorescent staining, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and western blot. We found that compared to wild type littermates, αSynA53T mice at 6 months or older displayed a deficit of odor discrimination and odor detection. No significant changes were found in olfactory memory and odor habituation. Furthermore compared to wildtype littermates, in olfactory bulb of αSynA53T mice at 10 months old we detected a marked decrease of cholinergic neurons in mitral cell layer and a decrease of acetylcholinesterase activity, while dopaminergic neurons were found increased in glomerular layer, accompanied with an increase of tyrosine hydroxylase protein. Our studies indicate that αSynA53T mice have olfactory dysfunction before motor deficits occur, and the cholinergic and dopaminergic disturbance might be responsible for the Parkinson disease-related olfactory dysfunction.

  5. Numerical study on the performance of bulb turbine by using runaway condition to flood discharge and sediment dredging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When the floodwater of the bulb tubular type power station is released, a large number of sediment carried by the flood silts up at outlet of the tube, and has a serious impact on the later normal operation of the power station. In order to solve this problem, this paper presents a method that treats the tube sluice as the energy dissipation facility, use the small opening runaway conditions to carry out a regular and short time sediment flush during discharge, and set the sediment self-flushing corridor in the downstream river to achieve sediment flushing and dredging. Unsteady three-dimensional numerical study which considers free-surface of the Reservoir for different tube sluice conditions is conducted to reveal the flow capacity of the turbine and the flow characteristics in the draft tube. In particular, through analyzing the flow characteristics in the tube, the maximum particle size of the sand that can be washed away can be determined, assuming the outlet velocity of the tube is the starting speed, and then the sediment flushing capability of the turbine can also be estimated. The results show that: using the runaway conditions for flood discharge and dropping the height of the tube sluice to achieve the purpose of energy dissipation not only can improve the flood discharge capacity of the power plant, but also can increase flushing distance at the tailrace, and thus enhance the ability to remove silt. Setting the sediment self-flushing corridor at the downstream river would be a good solution to tailrace siltation problems of the bulb turbine

  6. Sexual stimulation increases the survival of new cells in the accessory olfactory bulb of the male rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy M Unda

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Sexual behavior in rodents is modulated by the olfactory system. The olfactory bulb (OB is a structure that undergoes continues neurogenesis in adulthood. We have previously shown that 15 days after males rats pace the sexual interaction and ejaculate 1 or 3 times, there is an increase in the density of new cells that reach the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB. The aim of the present study was to evaluate if sexual behavior in male rats increases the density of new neurons that survive 45 days after sexual behavior in the AOB and in the main OB (MOB. Male rats were randomly divided in four groups: 1 Control (Ctr, males without sexual interaction; 2 Exposed (Exp, males only exposed to a sexually receptive female; 3 No pacing (NP, males that mated in conditions in which the female paced the sexual interaction; 4 One ejaculation (1E, males that paced the sexual interaction with a receptive female and ejaculated once; and 5 Three ejaculations (3E, males that paced the sexual interaction and were allowed to ejaculate three times. All males were injected with the DNA synthesis marker 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU, and were tested in one of the above conditions. 45 days later they were sacrificed, and the OBs were processed to identify new cells and evaluate if they had differentiated into neurons. Our data indicate that males that ejaculated 3 times showed an increase in the density of new cells that survive in the posterior part of the granular cell layer of the AOB and have more new neurons that the control group. However, no significant differences were found in the percentage of new cells that differentiate into neurons. No significant increase in the density of new cells was observed in the MOB. Our data show that pacing the sexual interaction until 3 ejaculations increases the density of new cells and neurons in the granular layer of the AOB, confirming that sexual behavior induces long-lasting plastic changes in the OB.

  7. Effect of gamma radiation on the meristematic activity of garlic (Allium sativum L. ) bulbs; Efecto de la radiacion gamma sobre la actividad meristematica de bulbos de ajo (Allium sativum L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, J.; Aparicio, C.

    1979-07-01

    The effect of 10 krad of gamma radiation on the sprouting and mieristematic activity of garlic bulbs is studied. Results show that the Irradiation inhibits the meristematic activity of the bulbs independently of the epoch of treatment. When the treatment is applied several months after harvest (five or more), some apparent sprouting could be detected. This is due to a cellular elongation process rather than to cellular divisions. (Author) 47 refs.

  8. EFSA BIOHAZ Panel (EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards), 2014. Scientific Opinion on the risk posed by pathogens in food of non-animal origin. Part 2 (Salmonella Yersinia, Shigella and Norovirus in bulb and stem vegetables, and carrots)

    OpenAIRE

    Hald, Tine; Baggesen, Dorte Lau

    2014-01-01

    Bulb and stem vegetables as well as carrots may be minimally processed to obtain ready-to-eat products, and these steps include selection, washing, cleaning, cutting, packaging and storage. Risk factors for the contamination of bulb and stem vegetables as well as carrots with Salmonella, Yersinia, Shigella and Norovirus were considered in the context of the whole food chain. Available estimates of their occurrence in these vegetables were evaluated together with mitigation options relating to...

  9. A direct main olfactory bulb projection to the ‘vomeronasal’ amygdala in female mice selectively responds to volatile pheromones from males

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Ningdong; Baum, Michael J.; Cherry, James A.

    2009-01-01

    The main olfactory system, like the accessory olfactory system, responds to pheromones involved in social communication. Whereas pheromones detected by the accessory system are transmitted to the hypothalamus via the medial (‘vomeronasal’) amygdala, the pathway by which pheromones are detected and transmitted by the main system is not well understood. We examined in female mice whether a direct projection from mitral/tufted (M/T) cells in the main olfactory bulb (MOB) to the medial amygdala e...

  10. Effects of total saponins of Panax notoginseng on immature neuroblasts in the adult olfactory bulb following global cerebral ischemia/reperfusion

    OpenAIRE

    Xu He; Feng-jun Deng; Jin-wen Ge; Xiao-xin Yan; Ai-hua Pan; Zhi-yuan Li

    2015-01-01

    The main active components extracted from Panax notoginseng are total saponins. They have been shown to inhibit platelet aggregation, increase cerebral blood flow, improve neurological behavior, decrease infarct volume and promote proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells in the hippocampus and lateral ventricles. However, there is a lack of studies on whether total saponins of Panax notoginseng have potential benefits on immature neuroblasts in the olfactory bulb following ische...

  11. In vitro investigation of the toxic effects of extracts of Allium sativum bulbs on adults of Hyalomma marginatum rufipes and Rhipicephalus pulchellus

    OpenAIRE

    F. Nchu; S.R. Magano; Eloff, J N

    2005-01-01

    The toxic effects of the extracts of Allium sativum (Garlic) were evaluated against adults of Hyalomma marginatum rufipes and Rhipicephalus pulchellus using three types (Types A, B and C) of contact toxicity bioassays. A. sativum bulbs were extracted with acetone, ethanol and dichloromethane (DCM) solvents. Among these three solvents, it is the DCM extract of A. sativum that appears to have anti-tick activity. In the Type A contact toxicity bioassay, DCM extracts of A. sativum demonstrated a ...

  12. Olfactory Associative Conditioning in Infant Rats with Brain Stimulation as Reward: II. Norepinephrine Mediates a Specific Component of the Bulb Response to Reward

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Donald A.; Sullivan, Regina M

    1991-01-01

    One of the circuits modified by early olfactory learning is in the olfactory bulb. Specifically, response patterns of mitral-tufted cells are modified by associative conditioning during the early postnatal period. In addition, previous work has demonstrated that mitral-tufted cell single units respond to both olfactory conditioned stimuli and rewarding stimulation of the medial forebrain bundle-lateral hypothalamus (MFB-LH). The present study suggests that norepinephrine β-receptor activation...

  13. Olfactory bulb proteome dynamics during the progression of sporadic Alzheimer's disease: identification of common and distinct olfactory targets across Alzheimer-related co-pathologies

    OpenAIRE

    Zelaya, María Victoria; Pérez-Valderrama, Estela; de Morentin, Xabier Martínez; Tuñon, Teresa; Ferrer, Isidro; Luquin, María Rosario; Fernandez-Irigoyen, Joaquín; Santamaría, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Olfactory dysfunction is present in up to 90% of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. Although deposition of hyperphosphorylated tau and β-amyloid substrates are present in olfactory areas, the molecular mechanisms associated with decreased smell function are not completely understood. We have applied mass spectrometry-based quantitative proteomics to probe additional molecular disturbances in postmortem olfactory bulbs (OB) dissected from AD cases respect to neurologically intact controls (n=2...

  14. Imaging of olfactory bulb and gray matter volumes in brain areas associated with olfactory function in patients with Parkinson's disease and multiple system atrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Shun, E-mail: shchen_2013@163.com [Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical College (China); Tan, Hong-yu, E-mail: honhyutan@21cn.com [Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical College (China); Wu, Zhuo-hua, E-mail: zhh88@126.com [Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical College (China); Sun, Chong-peng, E-mail: Suncp2002@gmail.com [Imaging Center, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical College (China); He, Jian-xun, E-mail: xundog@163.com [Imaging Center, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical College (China); Li, Xin-chun, E-mail: xinchunli@163.com [Imaging Center, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical College (China); Shao, Ming, E-mail: yimshao@126.com [Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical College (China)

    2014-03-15

    We explored if magnetic resonance imaging sequences might aid in the clinical differential diagnosis of idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD) and multiple system atrophy (MSA). We measured the volumes of the olfactory bulb, the olfactory tract, and olfaction-associated cortical gray matter in 20 IPD patients, 14 MSA patients, and 12 normal subjects, using high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging sequences in combination with voxel-based statistical analysis. We found that, compared to normal subjects and MSA patients, the volumes of the olfactory bulb and tract were significantly reduced in IPD patients. The gray matter volume of IPD patients decreased in the following order: the olfactory area to the right of the piriform cortex, the right amygdala, the left entorhinal cortex, and the left occipital lobe. Further, the total olfactory bulb volume of IPD patients was associated with the duration of disease. The entorhinal cortical gray matter volume was negatively associated with the UPDRS III score. Conclusion: Structural volumes measured by high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging may potentially be used for differential diagnosis of IPD from MSA.

  15. Increased Olfactory Bulb BDNF Expression Does Not Rescue Deficits in Olfactory Neurogenesis in the Huntington's Disease R6/2 Mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smail, Shamayra; Bahga, Dalbir; McDole, Brittnee; Guthrie, Kathleen

    2016-03-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is an inherited neurodegenerative disorder caused by expansion of CAG trinucleotide repeats in the huntingtin gene. Mutant huntingtin protein (mhtt) interferes with the actions of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and BDNF signaling is reduced in the diseased striatum. Loss of this trophic support is thought to contribute to loss of striatal medium spiny neurons in HD. Increasing BDNF in the adult striatum or ventricular ependyma slows disease progression in HD mouse models, and diverts subventricular zone (SVZ)-derived neuroblasts from their normal destination, the olfactory bulb, to the striatum, where some survive and develop features of mature neurons. Most neuroblasts that migrate to the olfactory bulb differentiate as granule cells, with approximately half surviving whereas others undergo apoptosis. In the R6/2 HD mouse model, survival of adult-born granule cells is reduced. Newly maturing cells express the BDNF receptor TrkB, suggesting that mhtt may interfere with normal BDNF trophic activity, increasing their loss. To determine if augmenting BDNF counteracts this, we examined granule cell survival in R6/2 mice that overexpress BDNF in olfactory bulb. Although we detected a decline in apoptosis, increased BDNF was not sufficient to normalize granule cell survival within their normal target in R6/2 mice. PMID:26783111

  16. Effects of atmospheric CO2 enrichment on the growth and development of Hymenocallis littoralis (Amaryllidaceae) and the concentrations of several antineoplastic and antiviral constituents of its bulbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idso, S B; Kimball, B A; Pettit Iii, G R; Garner, L C; Pettit, G R; Backhaus, R A

    2000-06-01

    Two 2-yr crops of tropical spider lily (Hymenocallis littoralis) plants were grown in field soil in clear-plastic-wall open-top enclosures in the Sonoran Desert environment of central Arizona. Half of the plants were exposed to ambient air of 400 ppm atmospheric CO(2) concentration and half of them were exposed to air of 700 ppm CO(2). This 75% increase in the air's CO(2) content resulted in a 48% increase in aboveground plant biomass and a 56% increase in belowground (bulb) biomass. It also increased the concentrations of five bulb constituents that have been demonstrated to possess anticancer and antiviral activities. Mean percentage increases in these concentrations were 6% for a two-constituent (1:1) mixture of 7-deoxynarciclasine and 7-deoxy-trans-dihydronarciclasine, 8% for pancratistatin, 8% for trans-dihydronarciclasine, and 28% for narciclasine, for a mean active ingredient percentage concentration increase of 12%. Combined with the 56% increase in bulb biomass, these percentage concentration increases resulted in a mean active ingredient increase of 75% for the 75% increase in the air's CO(2) concentration used in our experiments. PMID:10860907

  17. Effects of total saponins of Panax notoginseng on immature neuroblasts in the adult olfactory bulb following global cerebral ischemia/reperfusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu He; Feng-jun Deng; Jin-wen Ge; Xiao-xin Yan; Ai-hua Pan; Zhi-yuan Li

    2015-01-01

    The main active components extracted from Panax notoginseng are total saponins. They have been shown to inhibit platelet aggregation, increase cerebral blood lfow, improve neurological behavior, decrease infarct volume and promote proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells in the hippocampus and lateral ventricles. However, there is a lack of studies on whether total saponins of Panax notoginseng have potential benefits on immature neuroblasts in the olfactory bulb following ischemia and reperfusion. This study established a rat model of global cerebral ischemia and reperfusion using four-vessel occlusion. Rats were administered total sa-ponins of Panax notoginseng at 75 mg/kg intraperitoneally 30 minutes after ischemia then once a day, for either 7 or 14 days. Total saponins of Panax notoginseng enhanced the number of dou-blecortin (DCX)+ neural progenitor cells and increased co-localization of DCX with neuronal nuclei and phosphorylated cAMP response element-binding/DCX+ neural progenitor cells in the olfactory bulb at 7 and 14 days post ischemia. These ifndings indicate that following global brain ischemia/reperfusion, total saponins of Panax notoginseng promote differentiation of DCX+ cells expressing immature neuroblasts in the olfactory bulb and the underlying mechanism is related to the activation of the signaling pathway of cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element binding protein.

  18. Imaging of olfactory bulb and gray matter volumes in brain areas associated with olfactory function in patients with Parkinson's disease and multiple system atrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We explored if magnetic resonance imaging sequences might aid in the clinical differential diagnosis of idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD) and multiple system atrophy (MSA). We measured the volumes of the olfactory bulb, the olfactory tract, and olfaction-associated cortical gray matter in 20 IPD patients, 14 MSA patients, and 12 normal subjects, using high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging sequences in combination with voxel-based statistical analysis. We found that, compared to normal subjects and MSA patients, the volumes of the olfactory bulb and tract were significantly reduced in IPD patients. The gray matter volume of IPD patients decreased in the following order: the olfactory area to the right of the piriform cortex, the right amygdala, the left entorhinal cortex, and the left occipital lobe. Further, the total olfactory bulb volume of IPD patients was associated with the duration of disease. The entorhinal cortical gray matter volume was negatively associated with the UPDRS III score. Conclusion: Structural volumes measured by high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging may potentially be used for differential diagnosis of IPD from MSA

  19. Design of 24W High Performance COB LED Bulb%24W高性能COB LED球泡灯的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宣炯华; 罗中良; 陈治明; 邓雪晴; 林锋洲

    2014-01-01

    In the field of high-power commercial and industry lighting, LED's qualities of energy saving, long life period, high reliability and low cost have been fully shown. Designs a 24W COB LED bulb by using the inverse primary feedback method. This bulb has the qualities such as low cost, full voltage power up, high current control precision and high power factor. Discusses the structure and radiating design, as well as the driving power source design in details. This can be a reference for high-power LED bulb design.%在大功率商业和工况照明领域,LED节能、长寿命、可靠性高、低成本等优点得以充分展现出。以反激式原边反馈的方式设计一款商用和工况使用的24W COB LED球泡灯,具有成本低,全电压供电,电流控制精度高,功率因数高的特点。给出结构和散热设计,驱动电源设计中给出详细的电路,对大功率LED球泡灯的设计有一定的参考意义。

  20. Study on design of LED bulb for poultry farming%家禽养殖专用LED球泡灯的设计研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈永航

    2013-01-01

    针对家禽养殖业的照明需求,提出了家禽养殖专用LED球泡灯的设计输入,研究了现有LED球泡灯的外观及发光角度等设计特点,提出了全角度发光、防尘防水及整体结构设计的方法及解决方案最后,通过对样品的试制与检测以及对检测结果与设计输入的比较,验证了家禽养殖专用LED球泡灯的结构设计及照明需求的可行性.%To meet the needs of lighting for poultry framing,design inputs of LED bulbs applied in poultry farming are put forward; the features of the existing LED bulb such as appearance and lighting angle are studied,then the design methods and solutions about 360° lighting,waterproof,dustproof and overall structural are proposed.Finally,through the sample testing and the comparision between the testing results and design input,the feasibility of the structural design and the needs of lighting of LED bulb applied in poultry farming are verified.

  1. Ocular bulb as a matrix of selection in detection of clenbuterol: an effective monitoring in breeding turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Roncada

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Clenbuterol is a 2-agonist licensed in Europe solely as a muscle relaxant in pregnant cattle, usually during calf delivery, and for tocolysis and treatment of respiratory diseases in horses. Different use in animals is considered illegal because this growth promoter can endanger human health. The aim of this work was to monitor the presence of clenbuterol in a not official and inedible matrix (where there is strong evidence of its potential accumulation, as ocular bulb, collected in 2007-2009 from turkeys at public slaughterhouses in Central-Northern Italy. The 280 collected samples were analysed with a new and effective method of extraction and purification based on HPLC analysis with UV-DAD detection. The average extraction recoveries were 80.60 ± 1.57%. All the samples were below the quantification limit (0.010 µg/mL. At 95% confidence level the percentage of positive turkeys breeding-farms was below 14%. This allows extending positive evaluations on the safety of edible tissues of Italian turkey.

  2. Value of MRI olfactory bulb evaluation in the assessment of olfactory dysfunction in Bardet-Biedl syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, J J; Noblet, V; Kremer, S; Molière, S; Dollfus, H; Marion, V; Goetz, N; Muller, J; Riehm, S

    2016-07-01

    Olfactory bulb (OB) volume evaluation by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been demonstrated to be related to olfactory dysfunction in many different diseases. Olfactory dysfunction is often overlooked in Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS) patients and is rarely objectively evaluated by MRI. We present a series of 20 BBS patients with olfactory dysfunction. The OB was evaluated separately and blindly by two radiologists (SR and SM) with 3 Tesla MRI imaging comparatively to 12 normal control subjects by global visual evaluation and by quantitative measurement of OB volume. In the 12 control cases OB visual evaluation was considered as normal in all cases for radiologist (SR) and in 10 cases for radiologist (SM). In the 20 BBS patients, OB visual evaluation was considered as abnormal in 18 cases for SR and in all cases for SM. OB volumetric evaluation for SR and SM in BBS patients was able to provide significant correlation between BBS and olfactory dysfunction. This study indicates that OB volume evaluation by MRI imaging like structural MRI scan for gray matter modifications demonstrates that olfactory dysfunction in BBS patients is a constant and cardinal symptom integrated in a genetical syndrome with peripheral and central olfactory structure alterations. PMID:26586152

  3. A Subpopulation of Olfactory Bulb GABAergic Interneurons Is Derived from Emx1- and Dlx5/6-Expressing Progenitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohwi, Minoree; Petryniak, Magdalena A.; Long, Jason E.; Ekker, Marc; Obata, Kunihiko; Yanagawa, Yuchio; Rubenstein, John L. R.; Alvarez-Buylla, Arturo

    2016-01-01

    The subventricular zone (SVZ) of the postnatal brain continuously generates olfactory bulb (OB) interneurons. We show that calretinin+, calbindin+, and dopaminergic (TH+) periglomerular OB interneurons correspond to distinct subtypes of GABAergic cells; all were produced in the postnatal mouse brain, but they matured and were eliminated at different rates. The embryonic lateral ganglionic eminence (LGE) is thought to be the site of origin of postnatal SVZ neural progenitors. Consistently, grafts of the embryonic LGE into the adult brain SVZ generated many OB interneurons, including TH+ and calbindin+ periglomerular interneurons. However, calretinin+ cells were not produced from these LGE grafts. Surprisingly, pallial and septal embryonic progenitors transplanted into the adult brain SVZ also resulted in the generation of OB interneurons, including calretinin+ cells. A subset of Dlx2+ OB interneurons was derived from cells expressing Emx1, a transcription factor largely restricted to the pallium during development. Emx1 lineage-derived cells contributed a substantial portion of GABAergic cells in the OB, including calretinin+ interneurons. This is in contrast to cortex, in which Emx1 lineage-derived cells do not differentiate into GABAergic neurons. Our results suggest that some OB interneurons are derived from progenitors outside the LGE and that precursors expressing what has classically been considered a pallial transcription factor generate GABAergic interneurons. PMID:17596436

  4. Npas4 Regulates Mdm2 and thus Dcx in Experience-Dependent Dendritic Spine Development of Newborn Olfactory Bulb Interneurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sei-ichi Yoshihara

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Sensory experience regulates the development of various brain structures, including the cortex, hippocampus, and olfactory bulb (OB. Little is known about how sensory experience regulates the dendritic spine development of OB interneurons, such as granule cells (GCs, although it is well studied in mitral/tufted cells. Here, we identify a transcription factor, Npas4, which is expressed in OB GCs immediately after sensory input and is required for dendritic spine formation. Npas4 overexpression in OB GCs increases dendritic spine density, even under sensory deprivation, and rescues reduction of dendrite spine density in the Npas4 knockout OB. Furthermore, loss of Npas4 upregulates expression of the E3-ubiquitin ligase Mdm2, which ubiquitinates a microtubule-associated protein Dcx. This leads to reduction in the dendritic spine density of OB GCs. Together, these findings suggest that Npas4 regulates Mdm2 expression to ubiquitinate and degrade Dcx during dendritic spine development in newborn OB GCs after sensory experience.

  5. Enhanced sorption of mercury from compact fluorescent bulbs and contaminated water streams using functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Oxidized (CNT-OX), CNT-I, CNT-S were prepared. • Capacity of CNT-S (151.5 mg/g) was higher than other CNTs. • Applied to the removal of Hg(II) from spiked and natural coal wash waters. • Applied to the removal of Hg(0) from compact fluorescent lamps. - Abstract: Three different functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes were prepared, namely, oxidized CNTs (CNT-OX), iodide incorporated MWCNT (CNT-I) and sulfur incorporated MWCNT (CNT-S). The as prepared adsorbents were structurally characterized by various spectral techniques like scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDAX), Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller (BET) surface area analyzer, Fourier transform infra red (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopy. Loading of iodide and sulfur was evident from the EDAX graphs. The adsorption properties of Hg2+ as a function of pH, contact time and initial metal concentration were characterized by Cold vapor AAS. The adsorption kinetics fitted the Pseudo second order kinetics and equilibrium was reached within 90 min. The experimental data were modeled with Langmuir, Freundlich, Dubinin-Redushkevich and Temkin isotherms and various isotherm parameters were evaluated. It was found that the mercury adsorption capacity for the prepared adsorbents were in the order of CNT-S > CNT-I > CNT-OX > CNT. Studies have been conducted to demonstrate the applicability of the sorbent toward the removal of Hg(0) from broken compact fluorescent light (CFL) bulbs and Hg(II) from contaminated water streams

  6. Neonatal citalopram exposure decreases serotonergic fiber density in the olfactory bulb of male but not female adult rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junlin eZhang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Manipulation of serotonin (5HT during early development has been shown to induce long-lasting morphological changes within the raphe nuclear complex and serotonergic circuitry throughout the brain. Recent studies have demonstrated altered raphe-derived 5HT transporter (SERT immunoreactive axonal expression in several cortical target sites after brief perinatal exposure to selective 5HT reuptake inhibitors such as citalopram (CTM. Since the serotonergic raphe nuclear complex projects to the olfactory bulb (OB and perinatal 5HT disruption has been shown to disrupt olfactory behaviors, the goal of this study was to further investigate such developmental effects in the OB of CTM exposed animals. Male and female rat pups were exposed to CTM from postnatal day 8-21. After animals reach adulthood (>90 days, OB tissue sections were processed immunohistochemically for SERT antiserum. Our data revealed that the density of the SERT immunoreactive fibers decreased ~40% in the OB of CTM exposed male rats, but not female rats. Our findings support a broad and long-lasting change throughout most of the 5HT system, including the OB, after early manipulation of 5HT. Because dysfunction of the early 5HT system has been implicated in the etiology of neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorders (ASDs, these new findings may offer insight into the abnormal olfactory perception often noted in patients with ASD.

  7. Aberrant Adult Neurogenesis in the Subventricular Zone-Rostral Migratory Stream-Olfactory Bulb System Following Subchronic Manganese Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Sherleen; Jiang, Wendy; Gao, Xiang; Zeng, Andrew; Cholger, Daniel; Cannon, Jason; Chen, Jinhui; Zheng, Wei

    2016-04-01

    Adult neurogenesis occurs in brain subventricular zone (SVZ). Our recent data reveal an elevated proliferation of BrdU(+) cells in SVZ following subchronic manganese (Mn) exposure in rats. This study was designed to distinguish Mn effect on the critical stage of adult neurogenesis, ie, proliferation, migration, survival and differentiation from the SVZ via the rostral migratory stream to the olfactory bulb (OB). Adult rats received a single ip-dose of BrdU at the end of 4-week Mn exposure to label proliferating cells. Immunostaining and cell-counting showed a 48% increase of BrdU(+) cells in Mn-exposed SVZ than in controls (Padult rats received 3 daily ip-injections of BrdU followed by subchronic Mn exposure. By 4-week post BrdU labeling, most of the surviving BrdU(+) cells in the OB were differentiated into NeuN(+) matured neurons. However, survival rates of BrdU/NeuN/DAPI triple-labeled cells in OB were 33% and 64% in Mn-exposed and control animals, respectively (Padult SVZ. In the OB, however, Mn exposure significantly reduces the surviving adult-born cells and markedly inhibits their differentiation into mature neurons, resulting in an overall decreased adult neurogenesis in the OB. PMID:26794142

  8. Anosmin-1 over-expression increases adult neurogenesis in the subventricular zone and neuroblast migration to the olfactory bulb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-González, Diego; Murcia-Belmonte, Verónica; Esteban, Pedro F; Ortega, Felipe; Díaz, David; Sánchez-Vera, Irene; Lebrón-Galán, Rafael; Escobar-Castañondo, Laura; Martínez-Millán, Luis; Weruaga, Eduardo; García-Verdugo, José Manuel; Berninger, Benedikt; de Castro, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    New subventricular zone (SVZ)-derived neuroblasts that migrate via the rostral migratory stream are continuously added to the olfactory bulb (OB) of the adult rodent brain. Anosmin-1 (A1) is an extracellular matrix protein that binds to FGF receptor 1 (FGFR1) to exert its biological effects. When mutated as in Kallmann syndrome patients, A1 is associated with severe OB morphogenesis defects leading to anosmia and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Here, we show that A1 over-expression in adult mice strongly increases proliferation in the SVZ, mainly with symmetrical divisions, and produces substantial morphological changes in the normal SVZ architecture, where we also report the presence of FGFR1 in almost all SVZ cells. Interestingly, for the first time we show FGFR1 expression in the basal body of primary cilia in neural progenitor cells. Additionally, we have found that A1 over-expression also enhances neuroblast motility, mainly through FGFR1 activity. Together, these changes lead to a selective increase in several GABAergic interneuron populations in different OB layers. These specific alterations in the OB would be sufficient to disrupt the normal processing of sensory information and consequently alter olfactory memory. In summary, this work shows that FGFR1-mediated A1 activity plays a crucial role in the continuous remodelling of the adult OB. PMID:25300351

  9. Altered Morphologies and Functions of the Olfactory Bulb and Hippocampus Induced by miR-30c.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Tingting; Li, Tianpeng; Davies, Henry; Li, Weiyun; Yang, Jing; Li, Shanshan; Ling, Shucai

    2016-01-01

    Adult neurogenesis is considered to contribute to a certain degree of plasticity for the brain. However, the effects of adult-born neurons on the brain are still largely unknown. Here, we specifically altered the expression of miR-30c in the subventricular zone (SVZ) and dentate gyrus (DG) by stereotaxic injection with their respective up- and down-regulated lentiviruses. Results showed an increased level of miR-30c enhanced adult neurogenesis by prompting cell-cycles of stem cells, whereas down-regulated miR-30c led to the opposite results. When these effects of miR-30c lasted for 3 months, we detected significant morphological changes in the olfactory bulb (OB) and lineage alteration in the hippocampus. Tests of olfactory sensitivity and associative and spatial memory showed that a certain amount of adult-born neurons are essential for the normal functions of the OB and hippocampus, but there also exist redundant newborn neurons that do not further improve the functioning of these areas. Our study revealed the interactions between miRNA, adult neurogenesis, brain morphology and function, and this provides a novel insight into understanding the role of newborn neurons in the adult brain. PMID:27242411

  10. Design and experimental validation of the inlet guide vane system of a mini hydraulic bulb-turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferro, L.M.C. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Escola Superior de Tecnologia de Setubal, Polytechnic Institute of Setubal, Campus do IPS, Estefanilha, 2910-761 Setubal (Portugal); IDMEC, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Technical University of Lisbon, Av. Rovisco Pais,1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Gato, L.M.C.; Falcao, A.F.O. [IDMEC, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Technical University of Lisbon, Av. Rovisco Pais,1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2010-09-15

    The paper presents a fast design method for the inlet guide vanes of low-cost mini hydraulic bulb turbines. The guide vanes are positioned between two conical surfaces with a common vertex and have constant thickness distribution, except close to the leading and the trailing edges. The conical-walled inlet guide vane row is designed using a quasi-three-dimensional calculation method, by prescribing the angular-momentum distribution along the span at the outlet section of the guide vanes. The meridional through-flow is computed by a streamline curvature method and the blade-to-blade flow by a singularity surface method. The stagger angle and the vane camber are computed to fulfil the required design circulation and zero-incidence flow at the leading edge. The final vane shape is a single-curvature surface with straight leading and trailing edges. To validate the design method, a conical-walled inlet guide vane row nozzle-model with six fixed vanes was designed, manufactured and tested in an airflow rig. Traversing measurements along the circumferential and radial directions were made with a five-hole probe. The experimental results are compared with the prescribed design conditions and with numerical results from the three-dimensional inviscid and viscous flow computed with the FLUENT code. (author)

  11. A morphological study of the vomeronasal organ and the accessory olfactory bulb in the Korean roe deer, Capreolus pygargus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Changnam; Ahn, Meejung; Lee, Jae-Yuk; Lee, Sang; Yun, Youngmin; Lim, Yoon-Kyu; Taniguchi, Kazumi; Shin, Taekyun

    2014-01-01

    The vomeronasal organ (VNO) and accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) of the Korean roe deer (Capreolus pygargus) were studied histologically to evaluate their morphological characteristics. Grossly, the VNO, encased by cartilage, has a paired tubular structure with a caudal blind end and a rostral connection through incisive ducts on the hard palate. In the VNO, the vomeronasal sensory epithelium (VSE) consists of galectin-3-positive supporting cells, protein gene product (PGP) 9.5-positive receptor cells, and basal cells. The vomeronasal respiratory epithelium (VRE) consists of a pseudostratified epithelium. The AOB strata included a vomeronasal nerve layer (VNL), a glomerular layer (GL), a mitral/tufted cell layer, and a granular cell layer. All lectins used in this study, including Bandeiraea simplicifolia agglutinin isolectin B4 (BSI-B4), soybean agglutinin (SBA), Ulex europaeus agglutinin I (UEA-I), and Triticum vulgaris wheat germ agglutinin (WGA), labeled the VSE with varying intensity. In the AOB, both the VNL and the GL reacted with BSI-B4, SBA, and WGA with varying intensity, but not with UEA-I. This is the first morphological study of the VNO and AOB of the Korean roe deer, which are similar to those of goats. PMID:24055195

  12. 2D-gel based proteomics unravels neurogenesis and energetic metabolism dysfunction of the olfactory bulb in CUMS rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ke; Li, Juan; Yang, Deyu; Yang, Yongtao; Rao, Chenglong; Zhang, Shuxiao; Wang, Wei; Guo, Hua; Fang, Liang; Zhu, Dan; Han, Yu; Xie, Peng

    2016-10-15

    Major depression is a devastating psychiatric disease worldwide currently. A reduced olfactory sensitivity in MDD patients was well evidenced. We previously interrogated the mechanism of decreasing hippocampus neurogenesis in CUMS rat model of depression. The Olfactory Bulb (OB) is crucial part of the olfactory system which functions in post-developmental neurogenesis. However, the mechanism of the dysfunction of OB induced by CUMS is still largely unknown. Herein, by using the chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) rat model of depression, differential protein expression between the OB proteomes of CUMS and control group was interrogated through two-dimensional electrophoresis coupling with matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight tandem mass spectrometry. Twenty nine differential protein expression was analyzed by Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway over-representation and Ingenuity pathways analysis (IPA). Seven identified differential proteins were selected for Western blotting validation. This study provides insight that neurogenesis and Energy metabolism disorder is involved in OB dysfunction induced by CUMS. PMID:27340088

  13. In-reactor testing of the closed cycle gas core reactor---the nuclear light bulb concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nuclear Light Bulb (NLB) concept is an advanced closed cycle space propulsion rocket engine design that offers unprecidented performance characteristics in terms of specific impulse (>1800 s) and thrust (>445 kN). The NLB is a gas-core nuclear reactor making use of thermal radiation from a high temperature U-plasma core to heat the hydrogen propellant to very high temperatures (∼4000 K). The following paper describes analyses performed in support of the design of in-reactor tests that are planned to be performed in the Annular Core Research Reactor (ACRR) at Sandia National Laboratories in order to demonstrate the technical feasibility of this advanced concept. The tests will examine the stability of a hydrodynamically confined fissioning U-plasma under steady and transient conditions. Testing will also involve study of propellant heating by thermal radiation from the plasma and materials performance in the nuclear environment of the NLB. The analyses presented here include neutronic performance studies and U-plasma radiation heat-transport studies of small vortex-confined fissioning U-plasma experiments that are irradiated in the ACRR. These analyses indicate that high U-plasma temperatures (4000 to 9000 K) can be sustained in the ACRR for periods of time on the order of 5 to 20 s. These testing conditions are well suited to examine the stability and performance requirements necessary to demonstrate the feasibility of this concept

  14. A Study on Tulip Bulb Wilt%郁金香种球枯萎病研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常瑾; 郭新军

    2011-01-01

    郁金香枯萎病是贮藏期郁金香鳞茎上发生普遍、危害严重的病害之一.对病原菌Fusarium proliferatum的生物学特性及六种杀菌剂对其的抑制作用进行了研究,生物学特性实验表明:该菌在5~35℃,pH 3~9条件下均能生长,最适生长温度为25℃,最适生长pH为7.室内药剂筛选结果表明:430 g/L戊唑醇悬浮剂对该菌菌丝生长的抑制效果最好.%Tulip wilt is one of the very harmful and common diseases that impair tulip bulbs.We made a study of the biological characteristics of Fusarium proliferatum and the inhibitory effect of six fungicides.The experimental results show that the suitable conditions for the growth of pathogen is 5~35℃ and pH 3~9.The favorable environment for its growth is 25℃ and pH7.Fungicide results show that 430 g/L tebuconazole on mycelial growth inhibition is the best solution.

  15. Giant Brunner’s Gland Adenoma of the Duodenal Bulb Presenting with Ampullary and Duodenal Obstruction Mimicking Pancreatic Malignancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishal Gupta

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Context Brunner’s gland adenoma is a rare benign duodenal neoplasm. It usually presents with luminal obstruction or gastrointestinal bleeding. In rare cases, it may mimic a pancreatic malignancy and may present with obstructive jaundice. Case report A 65-year-old female presented with a two-month history of abdominal pain, early satiety and retrosternal burning pain. Liver function tests showed elevated enzymes with normal bilirubin. Imaging studies revealed a large mass in relation to the uncinate process of the pancreas and the distal duodenum along with the dilated common bile duct and the main pancreatic duct. Initial endoscopic evaluation failed to make a correct diagnosis. Repeat endoscopic evaluation combined with endoscopic sonography, however, revealed a large polypoid mass arising from the duodenal bulb. The patient underwent a transduodenal polypectomy. A diagnosis of Brunner’s gland adenoma was made on histopathological examination. Conclusion Giant Brunner’s adenoma may have unusual presentations. It may present with the features of ampullary obstruction mimicking periampullary or pancreatic malignancies. Extensive preoperative evaluation is required to reach a correct diagnosis in order to avoid more extensive surgery.

  16. Life History Consequences of the Facultative Expression of a Dispersal Life Stage in the Phoretic Bulb Mite (Rhizoglyphus robini.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques A Deere

    Full Text Available Life history traits play an important role in population dynamics and correlate, both positively and negatively, with dispersal in a wide range of taxa. Most invertebrate studies on trade-offs between life history traits and dispersal have focused on dispersal via flight, yet much less is known about how life history trade-offs influence species that disperse by other means. In this study, we identify effects of investing in dispersal morphology (dispersal expression on life history traits in the male dimorphic bulb mite (Rhizoglyphus robini. This species has a facultative juvenile life stage (deutonymph during which individuals can disperse by phoresy. Further, adult males are either fighters (which kill other mites or benign scramblers. Here, in an experiment, we investigate the effects of investing in dispersal on size at maturity, sex and male morph ratio, and female lifetime reproductive success. We show that life history traits correlate negatively with the expression of the dispersal stage. Remarkably, all males that expressed the dispersal life stage developed into competitive fighters and none into scramblers. This suggests that alternative, male reproductive strategies and dispersal should not be viewed in isolation but considered concurrently.

  17. Two distinct olfactory bulb sublaminar networks involved in gamma and beta oscillation generation: a CSD study in the anesthetized rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas eFourcaud-Trocmé

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A prominent feature of olfactory bulb (OB dynamics is the expression of characteristic local field potential (LFP rhythms, including a slow respiration-related rhythm and two fast alternating oscillatory rhythms, beta (15-30 Hz and gamma (40-90 Hz. All of these rhythms are implicated in olfactory coding. Fast oscillatory rhythms are known to involve the mitral-granule cell loops. Although the underlying mechanisms of gamma oscillation have been studied, the origin of beta oscillation remains poorly understood. Whether these two different rhythms share the same underlying mechanism is unknown. This study uses a quantitative and detailed current-source density analysis combined with multi-unit activity recordings to shed light on this question in freely breathing anesthetized rats. In particular, we show that gamma oscillation generation involves mainly upper half of the external plexiform layer (EPL and superficial areas of granule cell layer. In contrast, the generation of beta oscillation involves the lower part of the EPL and deep granule cells. This differential involvement of sublaminar networks is neither dependent on odor quality nor on the precise frequency of the fast oscillation under study. Overall, this study demonstrates a functional sublaminar organization of the rat OB, which is supported by previous anatomical findings.

  18. Altered morphologies and functions of the olfactory bulb and hippocampus induced by miR-30c

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingting eSun

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Adult neurogenesis is considered to contribute to a certain degree of plasticity for the brain. However, the effects of adult-born neurons on the brain are still largely unknown. Here, we specifically altered the expression of miR-30c in the subventricular zone (SVZ and dentate gyrus (DG by stereotaxic injection with their respective up-and down-regulated lentiviruses. Results showed an increased level of miR-30c enhanced adult neurogenesis by prompting cell-cycles of stem cells, whereas down-regulated miR-30c led to the opposite results. When these effects of miR-30c lasted for three months, we detected significant morphological changes in the olfactory bulb (OB and lineage alteration in the hippocampus. Tests of olfactory sensitivity and associative and spatial memory showed that a certain amount of adult-born neurons are essential for the normal functions of the OB and hippocampus, but there also exist redundant newborn neurons that do not further improve the functioning of these areas. Our study revealed the interactions between miRNA, adult neurogenesis, brain morphology and function, and this provides a novel insight into understanding the role of newborn neurons in the adult brain.

  19. Three-dimensional reconstruction of electron micrographs reveals intrabulbar circuit differences between accessory and main olfactory bulbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriya-Ito, Keiko; Endoh, Kentaroh; Fujiwara-Tsukamoto, Yoko; Ichikawa, Masumi

    2013-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of synaptic arrangement on a particular dendrite provides essential information regarding neuronal properties and neural microcircuits. Unconventional synapses are particularly good candidates for such steric attribution. In main and accessory olfactory bulbs (MOBs and AOBs), there are dendrodendritic reciprocal synapses (RSs) between excitatory projection neurons and inhibitory interneurons. Although the fine structure and configuration of these synapses have been investigated in MOB, their characteristics in AOB were unknown. In this study, we performed 3D AOB reconstruction using serial section transmission electron microscopy. We found numerous RSs on primary dendrites from glomeruli to mitral/tufted (MT) cell somas. These synapses formed between dendritic shafts of MT cells and large dendritic spines, or so-called gemmules, of granule (Gr) cells. This indicates that chemical signals received by a glomerulus are regulated in the primary dendrite of an MT cell before reaching its soma. In MOB, RSs are located on secondary dendrites and act as lateral and self-inhibiting following mitral cell depolarization. Our results indicate that AOB intrabulbar microcircuitry is quite different from that in the MOB. PMID:23626525

  20. Three-dimensional reconstruction of electron micrographs reveals intrabulbar circuit differences between accessory and main olfactory bulbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiko Moriya-Ito

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Three-dimensional (3D reconstruction of synaptic arrangement on a particular dendrite provides essential information regarding neuronal properties and neural microcircuits. Unconventional synapses are particularly good candidates for such steric attribution. In main and accessory olfactory bulbs (MOBs and AOBs, there are dendrodendritic reciprocal synapses (RSs between excitatory projection neurons and inhibitory interneurons. Although the fine structure and configuration of these synapses have been investigated in MOB, their characteristics in AOB were unknown. In this study, we performed 3D AOB reconstruction using serial section transmission electron microscopy. We found numerous RSs on primary dendrites from glomeruli to mitral/tufted (MT cell somas. These synapses formed between dendritic shafts of MT cells and large dendritic spines, or so-called gemmules, of granule (Gr cells. This indicates that chemical signals received by a glomerulus are regulated in the primary dendrite of an MT cell before reaching the AOB. In MOB, RSs are located on secondary dendrites and act as lateral and self-inhibiting following mitral cell depolarization. Our results indicate that AOB intrabulbar microcircuitry is quite different from that in the MOB.

  1. Neuroanatomical relationships between FMRFamide-immunoreactive components of the nervus terminalis and the topology of olfactory bulbs in teleost fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Aniello, Biagio; Polese, Gianluca; Luongo, Luciano; Scandurra, Anna; Magliozzi, Laura; Aria, Massimo; Pinelli, Claudia

    2016-04-01

    The nervus terminalis (NT) is the most anterior of the vertebrate cranial nerves. In teleost fish, the NT runs across all olfactory components and shows high morphological variability within this taxon. We compare the anatomical distribution, average number and size of the FMRFamide-immunoreactive (ir) NT cells of fourteen teleost species with different positions of olfactory bulbs (OBs) with respect to the ventral telencephalic area. Based on the topology of the OBs, three different neuroanatomical organizations of the telencephalon can be defined, viz., fish having sessile (Type I), pseudosessile (short stalked; Type II) or stalked (Type III) OBs. Type III topology of OBs appears to be a feature associated with more basal species, whereas Types I and II occur in derived and in basal species. The displacement of the OBs is positively correlated with the peripheral distribution of the FMRFamide-ir NT cells. The number of cells is negatively correlated with the size of the cells. A dependence analysis related to the type of OB topology revealed a positive relationship with the number of cells and with the size of the cells, with Type I and II topologies of OBs showing significantly fewer cells and larger cells than Type III. A dendrogram based on similarities obtained by taking into account all variables under study, i.e., the number and size of the FMRFamide-ir NT cells and the topology of OBs, does not agree with the phylogenetic relationships amongst species, suggesting that divergent or convergent evolutionary phenomena produced the olfactory components studied. PMID:26453401

  2. Secreted factors from olfactory mucosa cells expanded as free-floating spheres increase neurogenesis in olfactory bulb neurosphere cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caldwell Maeve A

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The olfactory epithelium is a neurogenic tissue comprising a population of olfactory receptor neurons that are renewed throughout adulthood by a population of stem and progenitor cells. Because of their relative accessibility compared to intra-cranially located neural stem/progenitor cells, olfactory epithelium stem and progenitor cells make attractive candidates for autologous cell-based therapy. However, olfactory stem and progenitor cells expand very slowly when grown as free-floating spheres (olfactory-spheres under growth factor stimulation in a neurosphere assay. Results In order to address whether olfactory mucosa cells extrinsically regulate proliferation and/or differentiation of immature neural cells, we cultured neural progenitor cells derived from mouse neonatal olfactory bulb or subventricular zone (SVZ in the presence of medium conditioned by olfactory mucosa-derived spheres (olfactory-spheres. Our data demonstrated that olfactory mucosa cells produced soluble factors that affect bulbar neural progenitor cell differentiation but not their proliferation when compared to control media. In addition, olfactory mucosa derived soluble factors increased neurogenesis, especially favouring the generation of non-GABAergic neurons. Olfactory mucosa conditioned medium also contained several factors with neurotrophic/neuroprotective properties. Olfactory-sphere conditioned medium did not affect proliferation or differentiation of SVZ-derived neural progenitors. Conclusion These data suggest that the olfactory mucosa does not contain factors that are inhibitory to neural stem/progenitor cell proliferation but does contain factors that steer differentiation toward neuronal phenotypes. Moreover, they suggest that the poor expansion of olfactory-spheres may be in part due to intrinsic properties of the olfactory epithelial stem/progenitor cell population.

  3. Enhanced sorption of mercury from compact fluorescent bulbs and contaminated water streams using functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Avinash; Vidyarthi, S.R. [Department of Chemical Engineering Harcourt Butler Technological Institute, Kanpur 208001, U.P. (India); Sankararamakrishnan, Nalini, E-mail: nalini@iitk.ac.in [Centre for Environmental Science and Engineering Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur 208016, U.P. (India)

    2014-06-01

    Highlights: • Oxidized (CNT-OX), CNT-I, CNT-S were prepared. • Capacity of CNT-S (151.5 mg/g) was higher than other CNTs. • Applied to the removal of Hg(II) from spiked and natural coal wash waters. • Applied to the removal of Hg(0) from compact fluorescent lamps. - Abstract: Three different functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes were prepared, namely, oxidized CNTs (CNT-OX), iodide incorporated MWCNT (CNT-I) and sulfur incorporated MWCNT (CNT-S). The as prepared adsorbents were structurally characterized by various spectral techniques like scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDAX), Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller (BET) surface area analyzer, Fourier transform infra red (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopy. Loading of iodide and sulfur was evident from the EDAX graphs. The adsorption properties of Hg{sup 2+} as a function of pH, contact time and initial metal concentration were characterized by Cold vapor AAS. The adsorption kinetics fitted the Pseudo second order kinetics and equilibrium was reached within 90 min. The experimental data were modeled with Langmuir, Freundlich, Dubinin-Redushkevich and Temkin isotherms and various isotherm parameters were evaluated. It was found that the mercury adsorption capacity for the prepared adsorbents were in the order of CNT-S > CNT-I > CNT-OX > CNT. Studies have been conducted to demonstrate the applicability of the sorbent toward the removal of Hg(0) from broken compact fluorescent light (CFL) bulbs and Hg(II) from contaminated water streams.

  4. Erectile dysfunction after prostate three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy. Correlation with the dose to the penile bulb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magli, A.; Ceschia, T.; Titone, F.; Parisi, G.; Fongione, S. [University Hospital Udine (Italy). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Giangreco, M. [Udine Univ. (Italy). Hygiene and Epidemiology Inst.; Crespi, M.; Negri, A. [University Hospital Udine (Italy). Dept. of Medical Physics; De Giorgi, G. [University Hospital Udine (Italy). Dept. of Urology

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: Erectile dysfunction is associated with all the common treatment options for prostate cancer. The aim of this research was to evaluate the relationship between erectile function and radiation dose to the penile bulb (PB) and other proximal penile structures in men receiving conformal radiotherapy (CRT) without hormonal therapy (HT) for prostate cancer, whose sexual function was known before treatment. Patients and methods: The study included 19 patients treated with 3D-CRT for localized prostate cancer at our department, who were self-reported to be potent before treatment, had not received HT, and had complete follow-up data available. Our evaluation was based on the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5). Dose-volume histograms (DVHs) were used to evaluate the dose to the PB. Statistical analysis was performed with an unconditional logistic regression model. Results: All patients reported change in potency after radiation. Eight patients (42%) remained potent but showed a decrease of 1 or 2 levels of potency, as defined by the IIEF-5 questionnaire (reduced potency group), while 11 patients (58%) reported a change of higher levels and revealed a severe erectile dysfunction after 2 years (impotence group). Multivariate analysis of morphological and dosimetric variables yielded significance for the mean dose (p = 0.05 with an odds ratio of 1.14 and 95% CI 1-1.30). Patients receiving a mean dose of less than 50 Gy to the PB appear to have a much greater likelihood of maintaining potency. Conclusion: Our data suggest a possible existence of a dose-volume correlation between the dose applied to the PB and radiation-induced impotence. (orig.)

  5. Erectile dysfunction after prostate three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy. Correlation with the dose to the penile bulb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Erectile dysfunction is associated with all the common treatment options for prostate cancer. The aim of this research was to evaluate the relationship between erectile function and radiation dose to the penile bulb (PB) and other proximal penile structures in men receiving conformal radiotherapy (CRT) without hormonal therapy (HT) for prostate cancer, whose sexual function was known before treatment. Patients and methods: The study included 19 patients treated with 3D-CRT for localized prostate cancer at our department, who were self-reported to be potent before treatment, had not received HT, and had complete follow-up data available. Our evaluation was based on the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5). Dose-volume histograms (DVHs) were used to evaluate the dose to the PB. Statistical analysis was performed with an unconditional logistic regression model. Results: All patients reported change in potency after radiation. Eight patients (42%) remained potent but showed a decrease of 1 or 2 levels of potency, as defined by the IIEF-5 questionnaire (reduced potency group), while 11 patients (58%) reported a change of higher levels and revealed a severe erectile dysfunction after 2 years (impotence group). Multivariate analysis of morphological and dosimetric variables yielded significance for the mean dose (p = 0.05 with an odds ratio of 1.14 and 95% CI 1-1.30). Patients receiving a mean dose of less than 50 Gy to the PB appear to have a much greater likelihood of maintaining potency. Conclusion: Our data suggest a possible existence of a dose-volume correlation between the dose applied to the PB and radiation-induced impotence. (orig.)

  6. Pheromones from males of different familiarity exert divergent effects on adult neurogenesis in the female accessory olfactory bulb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jyun-Han; Han, Yueh-Ting; Yu, Jenn-Yah; Wang, Tsu-Wei

    2013-08-01

    Pheromones from urine of unfamiliar conspecific male animals can reinitiate a female's estrus cycle to cause pregnancy block through the vomeronasal organ (VNO)-accessory olfactory bulb (AOB)-hypothalamic pathway. This phenomenon is called the Bruce effect. Pheromones from the mate of the female, however, do not trigger re-entrance of the estrus cycle because an olfactory memory toward its mate is formed. The activity of the VNO-AOB-hypothalamic pathway is negatively modulated by GABAergic granule cells in the AOB. Since these cells are constantly replenished by neural stem cells in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricle throughout adulthood and adult neurogenesis is required for mate recognition and fertility, we tested the hypothesis that pheromones from familiar and unfamiliar males may have different effects on adult AOB neurogenesis in female mice. When female mice were exposed to bedding used by a male or lived with one, cell proliferation and neuroblast production in the SVZ were increased. Furthermore, survival of newly generated cells in the AOB was enhanced. This survival effect was transient and mediated by norepinephrine. Interestingly, male bedding-induced newborn cell survival in the AOB but not cell proliferation in the SVZ was attenuated when females were subjected to bedding from an unfamiliar male. Our results indicate that male pheromones from familiar and unfamiliar males exert different effects on neurogenesis in the adult female AOB. Given that adult neurogenesis is required for reproductive behaviors, these divergent pheromonal effects may provide a mechanism for the Bruce effect. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 73: 632-645, 2013. PMID:23696538

  7. Global Histone H4 Acetylation in the Olfactory Bulb of Lactating Rats with Different Patterns of Maternal Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moura, Ana Carolina; da Silva, Ivy Reichert Vital; Reinaldo, Gustavo; Dani, Caroline; Elsner, Viviane Rostirola; Giovenardi, Márcia

    2016-10-01

    In rats, variations in the levels of neuromodulatory molecules and in the expression of their receptors are observed during pregnancy and postpartum. These changes may contribute to the development and management of maternal behavior. The frequency of licking the pups is used to evaluate maternal care, having mothers with low licking (LL) and high licking (HL) frequencies. Previously, we found that HL had increased levels of transcriptional expression of the receptors for serotonin (HTR1a, HTR1b), estrogen (Erα), dopamine (D1a), and prolactin (Prlr) than LL in the olfactory bulb (OB); however, the molecular mechanisms behind this phenomenon are unknown. Since evidences pointed out that epigenetic marks, which may alter gene expression, are modulated by environmental factors such as exercise, diet, maternal care, and xenobiotic exposure, our objective was to verify the acetylation levels of histone-H4 in the OB of LL and HL rats. Maternal behavior was studied for the first 7 postpartum days. LL (n = 4) and HL (n = 5) mothers were selected according to the behavior of licking their pups. Acetylation levels of histone-H4 were determined using the Global Histone-H4 Acetylation Assay Kit and expressed as ng/mg protein (mean ± SD). Analysis revealed that HL (278.36 ± 68.95) had increased H4 acetylation levels than LL (183.24 ± 73.05; p = 0.045). The enhanced expression of the previously studied receptors in the OB could be related, at least in part, to the hyperacetylation status of histone-H4 here observed. Afterward, the modulation of histone acetylation levels could exert a pivotal role through molecular mechanisms involved in the different patterns of maternal behavior. PMID:26620050

  8. A new method to measure bowen ratios using high resolution vertical dry and wet bulb temperature profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Euser

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Bowen ratio surface energy balance method is a relatively simple method to determine the latent heat flux and the actual land surface evaporation. Despite its simplicity, the Bowen ratio method is generally considered to be unreliable due to the use of two-level sensors that are installed by default in operational Bowen ratio systems. In this paper we present the concept of a new measurement methodology to estimate the Bowen ratio from high resolution vertical dry and wet bulb temperature profiles. A short field experiment with Distributed Temperature Sensing (DTS in a fibre optic cable having 13 levels was undertaken. A dry and a wetted section of a fibre optic cable were suspended on a 6 m high tower installed over a sugar beet trial near Pietermaritzburg (South Africa. Using the DTS cable as a psychrometer, a near continuous observation of vapour pressure and temperature at 0.20 m intervals was established. These data allows the computation of the Bowen ratio with a high precision. By linking the Bowen ratio to net radiation and soil heat flux, the daytime latent heat flux was estimated. The latent heat flux derived from DTS-based Bowen ratio (BR-DTS showed consistent agreement (correlation coefficients between 0.97 and 0.98 with results derived from eddy covariance, surface layer scintillometer and surface renewal techniques. The latent heat from BR-DTS overestimated the latent heat derived with the eddy covariance by 4% and the latent heat derived with the surface layer scintillometer by 8%. Through this research, a new window is opened to engage on simplified, inexpensive and easy to interpret in situ measurement techniques for measuring evaporation.

  9. Changes in adult olfactory bulb neurogenesis in mice expressing the A30P mutant form of alpha-synuclein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marxreiter, Franz; Nuber, Silke; Kandasamy, Mahesh; Klucken, Jochen; Aigner, Robert; Burgmayer, Ralf; Couillard-Despres, Sebastien; Riess, Olaf; Winkler, Jürgen; Winner, Beate

    2009-03-01

    In familial and sporadic forms of Parkinson's disease (PD), alpha-synuclein pathology is present in the brain stem nuclei and olfactory bulb (OB) long before Lewy bodies are detected in the substantia nigra. The OB is an active region of adult neurogenesis, where newly generated neurons physiologically integrate. While accumulation of wild-type alpha-synuclein is one of the pathogenic hallmarks of non-genetic forms of PD, the A30P alpha-synuclein mutation results in an earlier disease onset and a severe clinical phenotype. Here, we study the regulation of adult neurogenesis in the subventricular zone (SVZ)/OB system in a tetracycline-suppressive (tet-off) transgenic model of synucleinopathies, expressing human mutant A30P alpha-synuclein under the control of the calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II alpha (CaMK) promoter. In A30P transgenic mice alpha-synuclein was abundant at the site of integration in the glomerular cell layer of the OB. Without changes in proliferation in the SVZ, significantly fewer newly generated neurons were observed in the OB granule cell and glomerular layers of A30P transgenic mice than in controls, most probably due to increased cell death. By tetracycline-dependent abrogation of A30P alpha-synuclein expression, OB neurogenesis and programmed cell death was restored to control levels. Our results indicate that, using A30P conditional (tet-off) mice, A30P alpha-synuclein has a negative impact on olfactory neurogenesis and suppression of A30P alpha-synuclein enhances survival of newly generated neurons. This finding suggests that interfering with alpha-synuclein pathology can rescue newly generated neurons, possibly leading to new targets for therapeutic interventions in synucleinopathies. PMID:19291219

  10. Baseline status and dose to the penile bulb predict impotence 1 year after radiotherapy for prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cozzarini, Cesare; Badenchini, Fabio [San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Radiotherapy, Milano (Italy); Rancati, Tiziana [Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Prostate Cancer Program, Milan (Italy); Palorini, Federica; Improta, Ilaria; Fiorino, Claudio [San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Medical Physics, Milan (Italy); Avuzzi, Barbara [Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Radiation Oncology 1, Milan (Italy); Degli Esposti, Claudio [Ospedale Bellaria, Radiotherapy, Bologna (Italy); Girelli, Giuseppe [Ospedale ASL9, Radiotherapy, Ivrea (Italy); Vavassori, Vittorio [Cliniche Gavazzeni-Humanitas, Radiotherapy, Bergamo (Italy); Valdagni, Riccardo [Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Prostate Cancer Program, Milan (Italy); Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Radiation Oncology 1, Milan (Italy)

    2016-05-15

    To assess the predictors of the onset of impotence 1 year after radiotherapy for prostate cancer. In a multi-centric prospective study, the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) questionnaire-based potency of 91 hormone-naive and potent patients (IIEF1-5 > 11 before radiotherapy) was assessed. At the time of this analysis, information on potency 1 year after treatment was available for 62 of 91 patients (42 treated with hypofractionation: 2.35-2.65 Gy/fr, 70-74.2 Gy; 20 with conventional fractionation: 74-78 Gy). Prospectively collected individual information and D{sub max}/D{sub mean} to the penile bulb were available; the corresponding 2 Gy-equivalent values (EQD2 {sub max}/EQD2 {sub mean}) were also considered. Predictors of 1-year impotency were assessed through uni- and multi-variable backward logistic regression: The best cut-off values discriminating between potent and impotent patients were assessed by ROC analyses. The discriminative power of the models and goodness-of-fit were measured by AUC analysis and the Hosmer-Lemeshow (H and L) test. At 1-year follow-up, 26 of 62 patients (42 %) became impotent. The only predictive variables were baseline IIEF1-5 values (best cut-off baseline IIEF1-5 ≥ 19), D{sub max} ≥ 68.5 Gy and EQD2 {sub max} ≥ 74.2 Gy. The risk of 1-year impotence may be predicted by a two-variable model including baseline IIEF1-5 (OR: 0.80, p = 0.003) and EQD2 {sub max} ≥ 74.2 Gy (OR: 4.1, p = 0.022). The AUC of the model was 0.77 (95% CI: 0.64-0.87, p = 0.0007, H and L: p = 0.62). The 1-year risk of impotency after high-dose radiotherapy in potent men depends on the EQD2 {sub max} to the penile bulb and on baseline IIEF1-5 values. A significant reduction in the risk may be expected mainly when sparing the bulb in patients with no/mild baseline impotency (IIEF1-5 > 17). (orig.) [German] Beurteilung von Praediktoren fuer das Auftreten von Impotenz 1 Jahr nach Radiotherapie bei Prostatakrebs. In einer multizentrischen

  11. Evaluating the relationship between erectile dysfunction and dose received by the penile bulb: Using data from a randomised controlled trial of conformal radiotherapy in prostate cancer (MRC RT01, ISRCTN47772397)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: To evaluate the relationship between erectile function and the radiation dose to the penile bulb and other proximal penile structures in men receiving conformal radiotherapy (CFRT) for prostate cancer (PCa). Methods: The Medical Research Council (MRC) RT01 trial randomised 843 men who had localised PCa to receive either 64 or 74 Gy after 3-6 months neoadjuvant hormonal treatment. Fifty-one men were selected who were potent prior to hormonal treatment, having completed both pre-hormone and 2-year post-CFRT Quality of Life assessments, and on whom dose volume data were available for analysis. The men were divided into three groups according to 2-year follow-up: potent, reduced potency, and impotent. The bulb of the penis together with the crura, were outlined on restored treatment plans. Dose-volume histograms were generated and compared between the three groups. An ordered logistic regression model was used to calculate the odds ratio of a range of dose-volume parameters to the penile bulb and effect on erectile dysfunction. The dose to the penile bulb was correlated to the dose received by the crura. Results: Of the 51 patients, 12 remained potent, 22 had reduced potency, and 17 were impotent at 2 years. No differences were seen in mean dose to the penile bulb by allocated treatment (t test = 1.61, p = 0.11). The mean doses to the penile bulb received by the potent, reduced potency, and impotent groups were 45.5 Gy (SD 17.1), 48 Gy (SD 16.1), and 59.2 Gy (SD 13.8), respectively. There was a strong correlation between the mean dose received by the penile bulb and dose to the crura (r = 0.82, p < 0.0001). 83.3% of impotent patients received a D90 ≥50 Gy to the penile bulb compared with 29.4% of patients who maintained potency at 2 years (p 0.006). Conclusion: There is evidence from this study to suggest a dose volume effect on the penile bulb and erectile dysfunction. A D90 ≥50 Gy is associated with a significant risk of erectile dysfunction and this should

  12. Produção de bulbinhos de cebola em bandejas de isopor Production of onion bulb sets in styrofoam trays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Ismael Inácio Cardoso

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de estudar a viabilidade de produção de bulbinhos de cebola sob ambiente protegido em diferentes tipos de bandejas de poliestireno expandido foram instalados dois experimentos. No primeiro, trabalhando com a cultivar Serrana, foram avaliadas três tipos de bandejas com diferentes números de plantas por célula: uma planta/célula na bandeja de 288 células, três a cinco plantas/célula na de 128 e cinco a nove plantas/célula na de 72 células. No outro experimento, testaram-se nove cultivares, semeadas somente em bandejas de 128 células com três plantas por célula. Utilizou-se o delineamento em blocos ao acaso com quatro repetições no primeiro ensaio e cinco no segundo, sendo cada parcela constituída por uma bandeja. Observou-se que quanto maior a densidade de plantio menor o tamanho do bulbinho (diâmetro e peso. O manejo adequado de adubações em cobertura pode viabilizar, tecnicamente, a produção de cinco bulbinhos com 1,3 cm de diâmetro (2 g por célula, na bandeja de 128 células. Quanto ao ensaio de cultivares, ‘Crioula’ da Agroflora, ‘Crioula’ da Granja Lotário e ‘Houston’ apresentaram 83%, 67% e 81% de plantas bulbificadas, enquanto que nas demais (‘Aurora’, ‘Baia Periforme’, ‘Brownsville’, ‘Petroline’, ‘Pira Ouro’, ‘Pirana’ e ‘Serrana’ obteve-se 100% de bulbificação. As principais vantagens na produção de bulbinhos em bandeja foram: uniformidade, ausência de plantas daninhas e de patógenos. É um sistema que pode ser útil aos viveiristas que tem entressafra de mudas nos meses de agosto a novembro, período de produção dos bulbinhos. Poderá, também, ser uma alternativa na produção de bulbinhos para conserva, no controle de qualidade de lotes de sementes e em programas de melhoramento de cebola.One objective was to study the production of onion Allium cepa L.. bulb sets in a protected environment in a seedling system with trays with different number of

  13. Formación in vitro del bulbo del ajo morado (Allium sativum L. In vitro formation of purple garlic (Allium sativum L. bulb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Mujica

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Para estudiar la bulbificación in vitro del ajo morado (Allium sativum L. se extrajeron ápices caulinares de los "dientes" del bulbo previamente grelados y desinfectados. Estos ápices se cultivaron en el medio de Murashige y Skoog con 2,0 mg.L-1 de 2 isopenteniladenina (2ip; 0,1 mg.L-1 de ácido naftalenoacético (ANA y 30 g.L-1 de sacarosa. Los cultivos crecieron a 41,54 mmol.m-2 s-1 de luminosidad, fotoperíodo de 16 horas luz y 23 ±2ºC. Las vitroplantas regeneradas fueron seccionadas a 2 cm de longitud desde la corona de la planta, se eliminaron sus raíces y se cultivaron en un medio para inducir la bulbificación, constituido por los mismos componentes anteriores, excluyendo el ANA y aumentando la sacarosa a 90 g.L-1. Para los estudios histológicos se realizaron cinco muestreos de tres vitroplantas cada uno, entre los 0 y 28 días de cultivo. En la bulbificación in vitro se distinguieron dos etapas de desarrollo. La primera correspondió al estado morfogénico iniciado desde el día 0 hasta los 20 días de cultivo, y la segunda, al llenado y maduración del bulbo a partir del día 7 de la inducción a la bulbificación. El bulbo se desarrolló por organogénesis directa, siendo su estructura similar al de cebolla hasta los 21 días, para luego diferenciarse por la formación de los "dientes". Las raíces adventicias se originaron de los meristemos en una región cerca al ápice del tallo.With the purpose of studying the in vitro bulb formation of the purple garlic (Allium sativum L. shoot tips of the "teeth" of the bulbs were extracted, sprouted, and disinfected. These shoot tips were cultivated in Murashige and Skoog medium with 2.0 mg.L-1 of isopenteniadenine (2ip; 0.1 mg.L-1 of naphthalene acetic acid (ANA and 30 g.L-1 of sucrose. The cultures grew up at 41.54 mmol.m-2.s-1 luminosity, 16 hours of light, and 23 + 2ºC. The in vitro regenerated plants were cut off at 2 cm of length from the plant neck; their roots were cut off and

  14. Effects of Temperature on Root-Forcing and Budding Treatment of Lily Bulbs%温度对百合种球催芽生根的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苗振; 缑辉; 钱振权; 吴红芝

    2014-01-01

    以‘西伯利亚’、‘索邦’和‘木门’3个百合品种种球为试验材料,采用泥炭为基质进行箱栽,种植后把种球置于10℃、12℃和14℃的低温冷库中进行催芽生根处理,以直接栽培于大棚条件下的种球为对照,处理14 d后,测定各处理组的种球鲜质量变化、芽长、茎生根数量、生根率和芽粗。结果表明,12℃下处理‘西伯利亚’、‘索邦’和‘木门’种球种植14 d的生根效果最好,可显著促进茎生根的发生和芽的生长,且整齐度较好。%Lily bulbs ‘Siberia’,‘Sorbonne’,‘Conca D′or’were planted in the plastic box with peat moss, and then treated with 10℃,12℃and 14℃for inducing root and budding.Some bulbs were placed in greenhouse for control.After 14 days,fresh weight,length of buds,number of stem-roots,rooting rates,diameter of buds were measured for analysis.The results showed that stem-roots and buds formation of all three varieties bulbs after trea-ted 14 days under 12℃ were the best,and had high uniformity.

  15. 室内鳞片扦插法高效再生麝香百合%Mass propagation of Lilium longiflorum through bulb scale cutting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘菊华; 张静; 金志强; 谭光兰; 贾彩红; 杨小亮; 徐碧玉

    2008-01-01

    Lilium longiflorum was multiplied successfully by using bulb scale cutting technique. The effects of different positions of bulb scales, different media and different concentrations of NAA or IBA on the propagation efficiency were tested. The outer bulb scales were found to produced the highest multiplication rate (900%) when quickly dipped into 100mg/L NAA and 1.5mg/L IBA for 1~2s and cultured on the mixed medium with equal volume of sand, coconut coir and loam soil. The bulbil formation and growth were greatly affected by light. This technique is optimal for rapid propagation of Lilium longiflorum due to its higher multiplication rate and lower investment.%采用鳞片扦插法有效地繁殖了麝香百合鳞茎.研究不同部位的鳞片、不同的培养基质、不同浓度的NAA或IBA对繁殖效率的影响.结果表明:当外部鳞片迅速蘸入NAA(100mg/L)和IBA(1.5mg/L)后插入由等体积的砂,椰糠和壤士配比的培养基质中,所再生小鳞茎的效果最好.研究中还发现,小鳞茎的形成与生长受光照的影响很大.该技术具有繁殖效率高、成本低的优点,是一条快速繁殖麝香百合种球的良好的技术途径.

  16. Effects of low-dose heavy ions on embryonic development in mice and on melanocyte differentiation in the epidermis and hair bulb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of prenatal low-dose irradiation with heavy ions on embryonic development in mice and on melanocyte differentiation are not well understood. We performed whole-body irradiation of pregnant C57BL/10J mice at embryonic Day 9 (E9) with a single dose of γ-rays, silicon, argon or iron ions. The number of living embryos and embryonic body weight at E18 decreased after exposure to heavy ions at high doses. Malformations such as small eyes and limb anomalies were observed in heavy-ion-treated embryos, but not in γ-ray-treated embryos. The frequency of abnormally curved tails was increased by exposure to γ-rays and argon and iron ions even at a dose of 0.1 Gy (P<0.05). In contrast, a dose-dependent decrease in the number of epidermal melanoblasts/melanocytes and hair bulb melanocytes was observed after 0.1 Gy irradiation with γ-rays or heavy ions (P<0.01). The decrease in the number of dorsal hair bulb melanocytes, dorsal and ventral epidermal melanoblasts/melanocytes and ventral hair bulb melanocytes was not necessarily correlated with the linear energy transfer of the radiation tested. Moreover, the effects of heavy ions were larger on the ventral skin than on the dorsal skin, indicating that the sensitivity of melanocytes to heavy ions differs between the dorsal and ventral skin. Taken together, these results suggest that the effects of the low-dose heavy ions differ between cell types and tissues, and the effects on the prenatal development of mice and melanocyte development are not necessarily greater than those of γ-rays. (author)

  17. Towards energy efficient climate control in storage of tulip bulbs. Pilot EB-01; Naar een energiezuiniger klimaatbeheersing bij de bewaring van tulpenbollen. Praktijkproef EB-01

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gude, H.; Dijkema, M.

    2005-09-15

    The aim of this project is to enable energy conservation in the storage of tulip bulbs. To this end, it should be examined if the agent EB-01 (1-methylcycloprene, a protection agent for plants) can be used in practical cells that are not entirely leak proof and if it offers sufficient protection against ethylene damage [Dutch] Doel van dit project is om energiebesparing bij de bewaring van tulpenbollen mogelijk te maken. Om dat te realiseren wordt onderzocht of het middel EB-01 (1- methylcyclopropeen, een beschermingsmiddel voor planten) toepasbaar is in niet volledig lekdichte praktijkcellen en voldoende bescherming tegen ethyleenschade biedt.

  18. Acute Immobilization Stress Modulate GABA Release from Rat Olfactory Bulb: Involvement of Endocannabinoids—Cannabinoids and Acute Stress Modulate GABA Release

    OpenAIRE

    Alejandra Delgado; Erica H. Jaffé

    2011-01-01

    We studied the effects of cannabinoids and acute immobilization stress on the regulation of GABA release in the olfactory bulb. Glutamate-stimulated 3H-GABA release was measured in superfused slices. We report that cannabinoids as WIN55, 212-2, methanandamide, and 2-arachidonoylglycerol were able to inhibit glutamate- and KCl-stimulated 3H-GABA release. This effect was blocked by the CB1 antagonist AM281. On the other hand, acute stress was able per se to increase endocannabinoid activity. Th...

  19. Changes in total protein and amino acids content of the onion bulb fly, Eumerus Amoenus loew (Diptera: Syrphidae) Sterilized with gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work was carried out on the onion bulb fly, Eumerus Amoenus to study the changes which occurred in the components of the sterilized adults, especially the total protein content and amino acid composition. The total protein content in males was more than in females and decreased in sterilized males. An increase from 170.8 in the control to 177.5, 214.3 and 207.7 mg/g body weight was noted in sterilized females. The amino acid contents of the sterilized flies was greatly affected, the effect was obvious in alanine, glycine and glutamic acid. 2 tabs

  20. Qualidade de bulbos de cebola em consequência de tratamentos pré-colheita Onion bulb quality due to pre-harvest treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos David Ferreira

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de se avaliar o efeito de tratamentos pré-colheita na qualidade de bulbos de cebola, através dos parâmetros perda de peso, espessura e coloração da casca, diâmetro e firmeza do bulbo, foi conduzido experimento em Paulínia, Estado de São Paulo, em 1997. Foram utilizados quatro tratamentos: testemunha; oxicloreto de cobre (250 g 100 L-1 de água; ácido bórico (250 g 100 L-1 de água; e a combinação dos dois últimos e seis cultivares: Serrana, Régia, Crioula e três híbridos da SVS, HT, HS-1 e HS-2. Os tratamentos foram aplicados durante a bulbificação. Os bulbos foram armazenados à temperatura ambiente (25ºC e analisados periodicamente para os parâmetros citados. Os resultados permitiram observar que a aplicação pré-colheita do oxicloreto de cobre, nas quatro últimas semanas do ciclo, aumentou significativamente a resistência da casca dos bulbos, reduziu a perda de peso e incrementou a coloração dos mesmos, para todas as cultivares. Cultivares com casca mais escura apresentaram melhor resposta aos tratamentos pré-colheita para a coloração, do que as de casca mais clara. A firmeza dos bulbos, não foi influenciada pelos tratamentos pré-colheita.Pre-harvest treatments were evaluated to enhance onion bulb quality in different onion cultivars adapted to tropical conditions. Parameters used were weight loss, skin color and thickness, bulb and firmness. Trials were carried out in 1997. Four treatments were used: control, copper oxicloride (250 g 100 L-1; boric acid (250 g 100 L-1, and a combination of the two chemical treatments (250 g 100 L-1 of each. Treatments were applied at bulbing stage. The six cultivars were Serrana, Régia, Crioula, and the hybrids HT, HS-1 and HS-2. Bulbs were stored at room temperature prior to evaluations. Results showed that copper oxicloride (250 g 100 L-1 induced an increase in skin thickness, decreased weight loss and enhanced color in cultivars. Dark skin cultivars had a

  1. Energy consumption of storing special flower bulbs. Allium, Muscari, Zantedeschia and Fritillaria; Energieverbruik bij het bewaren van bijzondere bolgewassen. Allium, Muscari, Zantedeschia en Fritillaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wildschut, J. [Praktijkonderzoek Plant en Omgeving PPO, Bloembollen, Boomkwekerij en Fruit, Lisse (Netherlands); Vasen, R. [DLV Plant, Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2010-03-15

    The energy use of drying and storing special flower bulbs has been mapped. From the variation in energy use between various businesses, more energy efficient ventilation, circulation and temperature standards can be derived. This way the costs for energy use in a business and at sector level can be reduced significantly [Dutch] Het energieverbruik voor drogen en bewaren van bijzondere bolgewassen is in kaart gebracht. Uit de variatie in het energieverbruik tussen de verschillende bedrijven kunnen energiezuiniger ventilatie-, circulatie- en temperatuursnormen worden afgeleid. Hiermee kunnen de kosten voor energieverbruik op het bedrijf en op sectorniveau fors verlaagd worden.

  2. Reply to Els\\"asser's Comment on "How many principles does it take to change a light bulb ... into a laser?"

    CERN Document Server

    Wiseman, Howard M

    2016-01-01

    In his Comment, Els\\"asser claims that the answer to my titular question is one, not four as I have it. He goes on to give the singular principle that supposedly captures the difference between a light-bulb and a laser: $g^{(2)}(\\tau=0)=1$. His claim is unconsidered and wrong, his proposed principle is impossible to apply and, when corrected, redundant (it then becomes one of the four I list already), his arguments are manifestly misdirected. My paper stands as is.

  3. Study on the Induction of Polyploid Bulb of Fritillaria Cirrhosa D. Don%卷叶贝母多倍体鳞茎诱导方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王跃华; 胡胜铃; 代勇; 蒋婷婷; 付伟; 杨军

    2011-01-01

    [ Objective ] Rolyploid bulb of Fritillaria cirrhosa D. Don is introduced by tissue culture technique. [ Methods ] The compact callus cell mass of Fritillaria cirrhosa D. Don which are differentiation cultured beforehand are soaked in colchicine solution, and then cultured in the differential medium of MS + 6-BA 1.0 mg/L + NAA 0.3 mg/L. Polyploid bulb are obtained by induction differentiation culture. [ Result] Colchicine solution of 1.2 g/L is used to douse the compact callus cell mass of Fritillaria cirrhosa D. Don for 24 h. The highest inductivity of polyploid bulb was 83.3%. [ Conclusion] Chromosome number is 2n =4x =48 and the total alkaloids content is detected to be 0. 249%. It indicates that it is feasible to obtain high quality and high yield of Fritillaria cirrhosa D. Don polyploid bulb by tissue culture technique.%[目的]利用组织培养技术快速诱导生成卷叶贝母(Fritillaria cirrhosa D.Don)多倍体鳞茎.[方法]用一定浓度的秋水仙素溶液浸泡经预分化培养的卷叶贝母紧密愈伤组织团块,再经过诱导分化培养获得多倍体鳞茎.[结果]用浓度为1.2 g/L的秋水仙素溶液浸泡处理卷叶贝母紧密愈伤组织团块24 h后,接种在Ms+6-BA 1.0 mg/L+NAA 0.3 mg/L的分化培养基上培养,其多倍体鳞茎的诱导率最高为83.3%,细胞染色体数为2n=4x=48,总生物碱含量为0.249%.[结论]用组织培养技术获得优质高产卷叶贝母多倍体鳞茎的方法是可行的.

  4. Streptococcus pneumoniae infection regulates expression of neurotrophic factors in the olfactory bulb and cultured olfactory ensheathing cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Mendoza, S; Macedo-Ramos, H; Santos, F A; Quadros-de-Souza, L C; Paiva, M M; Pinto, T C A; Teixeira, L M; Baetas-da-Cruz, W

    2016-03-11

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is the causative agent of numerous diseases including severe invasive infections such as bacteremia and meningitis. It has been previously shown that strains of S. pneumoniae that are unable to survive in the bloodstream may colonize the CNS. However, information on cellular components and pathways involved in the neurotropism of these strains is still scarce. The olfactory system is a specialized tissue in which olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) are interfacing with the external environment through several microvilli. Olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) which also form the glial limiting membrane at the surface of the olfactory bulb (OB) are the only cells that ensheathe the ORNs axons. Since previous data from our group showed that OECs may harbor S. pneumoniae, we decided to test whether infection of the OB or OEC cultures modulates the expression levels of neurotrophic factor's mRNA and its putative effects on the activation and viability of microglia. We observed that neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) and glial cell-line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) expression was significantly higher in the OB from uninfected mice than in infected mice. A similar result was observed when we infected OEC cultures. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BNDF) expression was significantly lower in the OB from infected mice than in uninfected mice. In contrast, in vitro infection of OECs resulted in a significant increase of BDNF mRNA expression. An upregulation of high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) expression was observed in both OB and OEC cultures infected with S. pneumoniae. Moreover, we found that conditioned medium from infected OEC cultures induced the expression of the pro-apoptotic protein cleaved-caspase-3 and an apparently continuous nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) p65 activation in the N13 microglia. Altogether, our data suggest the possible existence of an OEC-pathogen molecular interface, through which the OECs could interfere on the activation and

  5. Inter-observer variability in contouring the penile bulb on CT images for prostate cancer treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several investigations have recently suggested the existence of a correlation between the dose received by the penile bulb (PB) and the risk of erectile dysfunction (ED) after radical radiotherapy for clinically localized prostate carcinoma. A prospective multi-Institute study (DUE-01) was implemented with the aim to assess the predictive parameters of ED. Previously, an evaluation of inter-observer variations of PB contouring was mandatory in order to quantify its impact on PB dose-volume parameters by means of a dummy run exercise. Fifteen observers, from different Institutes, drew the PB on the planning CT images of ten patients; inter-observer variations were analysed in terms of PB volume variation and cranial/caudal limits. 3DCRT treatment plans were simulated to evaluate the impact of PB contouring inter-variability on dose-volume statistics parameters. For DVH analysis the values of PB mean dose and the volume of PB receiving more than 50 Gy and 70 Gy (V50 and V70, respectively) were considered. Systematic differences from the average values were assessed by the Wilcoxon test. Seven observers systematically overestimated or underestimated the PB volume with deviations from the average volumes ranging between -48% and +34% (p < 0.05). The analysis of the cranial and caudal borders showed a prevalence of random over systematic deviations. Inter-observer contouring variability strongly impacts on DVH parameters, although standard deviations of inter-patient differences were larger than inter-observer variations: 14.5 Gy versus 6.8 Gy for mean PB dose, 23.0% versus 11.0% and 16.8% versus 9.3% for V50 and V70 respectively. In conclusion, despite the large inter-observer variation in contouring PB, a large multi-centric study may have the possibility to detect a possible correlation between PB % dose-volume parameters and ED. The impact of contouring uncertainty could be reduced by 'a posteriori' contouring from a single observer or by introducing

  6. Free sugar contents in onion bulbs on different cultivars and different production areas, and their changes by storage and gamma-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Changes in the contents of free sugar in onion bulbs of different cultivars and different production areas were investigated during storage and processing by using gas-chromatography. No significant difference was observed in the total free sugar contents among the onions of different cultivars and different production areas except early season's cultivars which showed a slightly lower content of sugar. The free sugar was mainly composed with glucose (1.7 - 3.2%), fructose (1.1 - 2.5%) and sucrose (0.7 - 2.6%), and the composition was somewhat different among the onions of different cultivars and different production areas. During the storage at 4 - 50C, the total free suger contents gradually decreased during the first few months but more markedly to about 30% after sprouting. The middle part of onion bulbs contained more amount of total free sugar than the other parts (middle part, 5.6 → 3.5%, inner part, 5.2 → 3.2%, outer part, 4.8 → 1.5%), and the total free sugar contents in the outer part decreased markedly during the storage. The changes of the sugar contents after the freeze-drying were almost negligible, but showed significant decrease after the hot-air drying, especially for sucrose. The gamma irradiation with 5 - 50 krad gave no appreciable effects on the total free sugar contents though it seemed to make a slight increase in the sucrose content. (author)

  7. Evaluation of the long-term agreement on energy efficiency in the flower bulbs sector [in the Netherlands]; Evaluatie Meerjaren Afspraak energie in de Bloembollensector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemmens, P.A.E. [et al.] [HAS KennisTransfer, Den Bosch (Netherlands)

    2005-11-15

    In 1998 the Long Term Agreement on Energy for the flower bulb sector was signed by the Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs and the representatives of the flower bulb businesses, the most important considerations being financial support, sector access of fiscal (lower energy rate) and subsidy schemes, lowering of the energy costs and simplified environmental permit granting. The Long Term Agreement had the objective of realizing a 22% energy efficiency improvement in 2005 compared to 19995 (reference year) and to strive for 4% sustainable energy use in 2005 [Dutch] In 1998 is de Meerjarenafspraak Energie voor de bloembollensector ondertekend door het Ministerie van Economische Zaken en de vertegenwoordiging van de bloembollensector met als belangrijkste overwegingen financiele ondersteuning, sectortoegang van fiscale (lager energietarief) en subsidieregelingen, verlaging energiekosten en gemakkelijker verlening van de milieuvergunning. In de Meerjarenafspraak is als doel gesteld om in 2005 een verbetering van de energie efficientie te realiseren van 22% ten opzichte van het jaar 1995 (basisjaar) en te streven naar 4% gebruik van duurzame energie in 2005.

  8. CT球管智能闭环回路冷却控制系统的研制%The study of cooling control system of the CT bulb tube intelligent closed loop

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李效银; 钱学江; 明爱莲

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To improve the CT bulb tube cooling rate and the testing method of the CT bulb tube temperature, and provide more stable platform for better bulb tube protection and longer life-span. Methods: The designed specified cold air machine could transfer the dry cold wind into machine rack, which can lower the ambient temperature of the machine rack and increase the air flow inside the machine rack and promote the efficiency of the heat exchange of the bulb tube oil cooling circuit. Results:the design of this system’s joint is light and handy, which could collect the instantaneous temperature change of the bulb tube, and carry out simple man-machine interaction monitoring. Conclusion:According to the bulb tube oil-way temperature and ambient temperature and relative humidity, the computer can dynamically adjust the refrigerating capacity and operation/cease of the air cooler. Then it can constitute the closed control loop, and accelerate the efficiency of the bulb tube’s heat dissipation, and promote the heat capacity of the bulb tube equivalently.%目的:研究制作用于提高CT球管降温速度及检测CT球管温度的方法,为更好的保护球管、延长使用寿命,提供更加可靠的平台。方法:设计专用的冷风机,将干燥的冷风送入机架,降低机架的环境温度,增加机架内的空气流量,提高球管油冷却回路热交换的效率。结果:该系统的节点设计轻巧,成功采集球管的瞬间温度变化,进行简洁的人机交互监控。结论:计算机根据球管油路温度和环境温湿度,动态调整冷风机的制冷功率及运行和(或)停止,构成封闭的控制回路,加速球管的散热效率,等效提高球管的热容量。

  9. 高压LED球泡灯的设计与分段优化%A HV-LED Bulb with Optimization of LED String Segment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐子强; 吕卫文; 祝超

    2013-01-01

    近年来在解决以开关电源为基础的传统LED驱动效率低、体积大和成本高等问题的过程中,高压线性分段驱动技术应运而生。为了研究高压线性分段驱动LED球泡灯的设计方法,以高压线性分段驱动芯片SM2087为例,通过实测LED效率得到合适的分段比例为8∶4∶3∶1;并根据该分段比例设计了一种高压LED球泡灯,LED采用COB的方式布置在陶瓷环基板上,散热采用太阳花结构,驱动电路置于灯头内,其具有较高的效率、良好的散热与耐高压能力以及较大的发光角度。%In recent years, muti-stage high-voltage linear LED driver came into being when solving the low efficiency, great volume and high cost problems of LED driver based on the switching power supply. In order to get the design method of LED bulb with muti-stage high-voltage linear LED driver, muti-stage high-voltage linear LED driver SM2087 was taken as a example, and the appropriate segment ratio was got as 8:4:3:1 by measuring the LED efficiency. Then, a HV-LED bulb was designer, the details is as follows:LEDs were placed on the ceramic ring by COB technology, the heat sink used sunflowers structure, the drive circuit was placed inside the lamp. The bulb has advantages of high efficiency, good heat dissipation, high pressure capacity and larger light emission angle.

  10. 远程荧光LED球泡灯热仿真分析%Thermal Simulation Analysis of LED Remote Fluorescence Bulb

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张寅; 赵宝洲; 卓宁泽; 施丰华; 王海波

    2013-01-01

    采用FloEFD流体分析软件分析了改变LED散热器翅片数和基板厚度对LED球泡灯热量的影响.首先对LED芯片进行仿真,然后用蓝宝石替换LED芯片其他部分简化后仿真,将两者进行了对比.接着对远程荧光LED集成封装光源进行了热模拟,发现将大功率芯片集成在铝基板上,工作时产生的热量非常大,模拟时芯片的结温在159.9℃,超过了LED正常工作结温,所以仅仅依靠铝基板难以达到散热要求.最后对LED球泡灯散热器不同翅片数和不同基板厚度分别进行了热仿真,得出当翅片数为16,基板厚度为2 mm时,LED球泡灯的整体散热良好,模拟结果显示LED芯片的温度只有83.8℃,完全满足散热要求.%The FloEFD fluid software was used to analyze the changes of LED bulb heat under different number of fins and substrate thickness of LED heat sink.First,simulations were performed on the LED chip,and then sapphire was used to replace the remaining part of LED chips to make simplified simulations.Then thermal simulations were carried out on remote fluorescence integrated package LED light source,in which the high-power chip was integrated on the aluminum substrate.It is shown that the LED during working generates great heat and the junction temperature of the chip is 159.9 ℃,which is higher than the normal junction temperature,so only using aluminum plate can not meet cooling requirements.Lastly,thermal simulations were performed on LED bulb radiators with different number of fins and substrate thickness.It is concluded that when the fins are 16 and the substrate thickness is 2mm,the LED bulb show good heat dissipation.And the simulation results indicate the temperature of LED chips is only 83.8 ℃,fully meeting the cooling requirements.

  11. 75 years of a overflowable power plant Rostin at the Persante. First steps in the use of bulb turbines; 75 Jahre ueberstroembares Kraftwerk Rostin an der Persante. Erste Schritte zum Einsatz der Rohrturbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lang, Tobias

    2011-07-01

    The technical development of bulb turbines is not separable from difficult from socio-political conditions of their times of origin. Without knowing the associated emotions and personal problems, 70 to 75 years later an assessment of the facts is difficult. Therefore, the contribution under consideration is limited to the message of different sources.

  12. The type 3 adenylyl cyclase is required for the survival and maturation of newly generated granule cells in the olfactory bulb.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Luo

    Full Text Available The type 3 adenylyl cyclase (AC3 is localized to olfactory cilia in the main olfactory epithelium (MOE and primary cilia in the adult mouse brain. Although AC3 has been strongly implicated in odor perception and olfactory sensory neuron (OSN targeting, its role in granule cells (GCs, the most abundant interneurons in the main olfactory bulb (MOB, remains largely unknown. Here, we report that the deletion of AC3 leads to a significant reduction in the size of the MOB as well as the level of adult neurogenesis. The cell proliferation and cell cycle in the subventricular zone (SVZ, however, are not suppressed in AC3-/- mice. Furthermore, AC3 deletion elevates the apoptosis of GCs and disrupts the maturation of newly formed GCs. Collectively, our results identify a fundamental role for AC3 in the development of adult-born GCs in the MOB.

  13. 灯泡贯流式机组调速器的特点及应用%Characteristic of Bulb Hydraulic Turbine Governor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈艳; 李学礼

    2016-01-01

    Bulb hydraulic generating units are development very quickly in recent years in low water-head power station for its smaller volume, compact construction and high efficiency. Turbine governor as important control equipment in hydraulic power station provide high-quality, reliable power protection for the industrial production and people's daily lives, the regulation performance will affect the power quality and power plant safety and economic operation. A Special regulation model for bulb generating units has been introduced in this paper through the Thailand NARESUANA station on-site testing.%以泰国NARESUANA电站灯泡贯流式水轮发电机组及其调速器为例证,着重说明了灯泡贯流机组的特点,阐述了调速器的步进电机系统研制和应用:①采用适应式、变结构、变参数、并联 PID 调节模式,使机组在不同状态下均能稳定运行;②采用变参数导叶分段关闭装置,根据水头、负荷、频率等机组工况自动改变导叶分段关闭投入点,减少了快速关闭时造成水击压力的升高,并防止涌浪、低频及水锤的发生;③桨叶根据机组频率自动改变关闭速度,防止涌浪、低频及水锤的发生。

  14. Expression of G proteins in the olfactory receptor neurons of the newt Cynops pyrrhogaster: their unique projection into the olfactory bulbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakada, Tomoaki; Hagino-Yamagishi, Kimiko; Nakanishi, Koki; Yokosuka, Makoto; Saito, Toru R; Toyoda, Fumiyo; Hasunuma, Itaru; Nakakura, Takashi; Kikuyama, Sakae

    2014-10-15

    We analyzed the expression of G protein α subunits and the axonal projection into the brain in the olfactory system of the semiaquatic newt Cynops pyrrhogaster by immunostaining with antibodies against Gαolf and Gαo , by in situ hybridization using probes for Gαolf , Gαo , and Gαi2 , and by neuronal tracing with DiI and DiA. The main olfactory epithelium (OE) consists of two parts, the ventral OE and dorsal OE. In the ventral OE, the Gαolf - and Gαo -expressing neurons are located in the apical and basal zone of the OE, respectively. This zonal expression was similar to that of the OE in the middle cavity of the fully aquatic toad Xenopus laevis. However, the Gαolf - and Gαo -expressing neurons in the newt ventral OE project their axons toward the main olfactory bulb (MOB) and the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB), respectively, whereas in Xenopus, the axons of both neurons project solely toward the MOB. In the dorsal OE of the newt, as in the principal cavity of Xenopus, the majority of the neurons express Gαolf and extend their axons into the MOB. In the vomeronasal organ (VNO), the neurons mostly express Gαo . These neurons and quite a few Gαolf -expressing neurons project their axons toward the AOB. This feature is similar to that in the terrestrial toad Bufo japonicus and is different from that in Xenopus, in which VNO neurons express solely Gαo , although their axons invariably project toward the AOB. We discuss the findings in the light of diversification and evolution of the vertebrate olfactory system. PMID:24771457

  15. Freezing injury in onion bulb cells: I. Evaluation of the conductivity method and analysis of ion and sugar efflux from injured cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palta, J P; Levitt, J; Stadelmann, E J

    1977-09-01

    Onion (Allium cepa L.) bulbs were frozen to -4 and -11 C and kept frozen for up to 12 days. After slow thawing, a 2.5-cm square from a bulb scale was transferred to 25 ml deionized H(2)O. After shaking for standard times, measurements were made on the effusate and on the effused cells. The results obtained were as follows.Even when the scale tissue was completely infiltrated, and when up to 85% of the ions had diffused out, all of the cells were still alive, as revealed by cytoplasmic streaming and ability to plasmolyze. The osmotic concentration of the cell sap, as measured plasmolytically, decreased in parallel to the rise in conductivity of the effusate. The K(+) content of the effusate, plus its assumed counterion, accounted for only 20% of the total solutes, but for 100% of the conductivity. A large part of the nonelectrolytes in the remaining 80% of the solutes was sugars.The increased cell injury and infiltration in the -11 C treatment, relative to the -4 C and control (unfrozen) treatments, were paralleled by increases in conductivity, K(+) content, sugar content, and pH of the effusate. In spite of the 100% infiltration of the tissue and the large increase in conductivity of the effusate following freezing, no increase in permeability of the cells to water could be detected.The above observations may indicate that freezing or thawing involves a disruption of the active transport system before the cells reveal any injury microscopically. PMID:16660100

  16. Study on Technical of Reducing Tissue Culture Browning of Amorphophallus konjac Bulbs%降低魔芋球茎组培褐变的技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李川; 员艳; 杨松杰

    2012-01-01

    Using Amorphophallus konjac bulbs as explants, the research studied method of reducing browning of explants in tissue culture process. By using MS+6-BA 1 mg/L+ NAA 1 mg/L as the basic medium and the orthogonal experimental method to study the impact on browning with different agar concentrations, adsorbent and light, dark two kinds of different culture conditions. The results showed that the callus growth speed was enhanced and the browning of explants was under control in the combination of MS + 6-BA 1 mg/L + NAA 1 mg/L+ sugar 30 g/L+ agar 6 g/L+AC 0.5 g/L+PVP 0.05 g/L. It can make to reduce the browning rate of 38.3%, callus induction rate increased to 78.3%. The konjac bulbs explants the browning can be effectively controlled, which add a certain amount of activated carbon (AC) and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) in the culture medium and in the dark conditions, its callus can be promptly formed.%以魔芋球茎为外植体,研究组织培养过程中有效降低外植体褐变的方法.采用MS+6-BA1mg/L+NAA1mg/L为基本培养基,用正交试验方法研究不同琼脂浓度、吸附剂及光、暗2种不同培养条件下,对魔芋组织培养过程中褐变的影响.在MS+6-BA 1 mg/L+NAA 1 mg/L+蔗糖30 g/L+琼脂6 g/L+AC 0.5 g/L+PVP 0.05 g/L及暗培养条件下,魔芋外植体的褐变率减低为38.3%,愈伤组织诱导率提高到78.3%.在培养基中加入一定量的活性炭(AC)和聚乙烯吡咯烷酮(PVP),并进行暗培养,可在一定程度上控制魔芋外植体的褐变,促进愈伤组织形成.

  17. Final report of the project 'Survey of the consequences liberalization energy market for the flower bulb sector'; Eindrapportage van het project 'Inventarisatie consequenties liberalisering energiemarkt voor de bolbloemen- en bloembollenteler'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-01-15

    The aim of this project is to demonstrate the business-economic consequences of the liberalization of the gas and electricity markets for the various types of businesses per region in the flower bulb and bulb flower sector. Based on this information, it can be concluded what will be the consequences for the sector and what will be the consequences of realizing the sector target for energy [Dutch] De doelstelling van het project is het zichtbaar maken van de bedrijfseconomische consequenties van de liberalisering van de gas- en elektriciteitsmarkt voor de verschillende bedrijfstypen per regio in de bloembollen- en bolbloemensector. Daaruit kan geconcludeerd worden wat de gevolgen zijn voor de sector en de gevolgen van het halen van de sectordoelstelling voor energie.

  18. Design and implementation of bulb head w ire detection system based on DM 6446%基于DM6446的灯泡头焊丝检测系统设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓亚平; 杜启亮; 田联房; 秦传波

    2015-01-01

    为改善人工检测灯泡头焊丝外漏存在的诸多弊端,开发一套基于DSP+ ARM 双核嵌入式DM6446开发板设备的灯泡头焊丝自动检测系统。设计实现基于V4L2驱动接口的视频采集线程、基于codec engine构架的视频处理线程和基于FBdev驱动接口的视频显示线程,开发运行在DSP侧的灯泡头焊丝检测算法。整个装置有效地对有焊丝外漏的灯泡进行识别,实现了高准确率的灯泡产品合格检测,替代了人工检测。%To overcome the shortcomings of manual inspection of bulb head ,a light bulb wire detection system by using embed‐ded board equipment DM6446 which based on DSP + ARM dual‐core processor was presented .Video capture thread based on V4L2 drive interface ,video processing thread based on codec engine framework and video display thread based on FBdev drive in‐terface were designed and implemented .Moreover a wire detection algorithm of bulb head which ran in the DSP side was deve‐loped .The entire device can effectively identify wire leakage of the bulb and achieves a high accuracy rate of qualified products detection ,w hich is superior to manual inspection .

  19. Fish passage through a simulated horizontal bulb turbine pressure regime: A supplement to "Laboratory Studies of the Effects of Pressure and Dissolved Gas Supersaturation on Turbine-Passed Fish"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abernethy, C. S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Amidan, B. G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Cada, G. F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2003-07-01

    Migratory and resident fish in the Columbia River Basin are exposed to stresses associated with hydroelectric power production, including pressure changes during turbine passage. The responses of fall chinook salmon and bluegill sunfish to rapid pressure change was investigated at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Previous test series evaluated the effects of passage through a vertical Kaplan turbine under the “worst case” pressure conditions (Abernethy et al. 2001) and under less severe conditions where pressure changes were minimized (Abernethy et al. 2002). For this series of tests, pressure changes were modified to simulate passage through a horizontal bulb turbine, commonly installed at low-head dams. The results were compared to results from previous test series. Tests indicated that for most of the cross-sectional area of a horizontal bulb turbine, pressure changes occurring during turbine passage are not harmful to fall chinook salmon and only minimally harmful to bluegill. However, some areas within a horizontal bulb turbine may have extreme pressure conditions that would be harmful to fish. These scenarios were not tested because they represent a small cross-sectional area of the turbine compared to the centerline pressures scenarios used in these tests.

  20. Efeito do espaçamento entre bulbos na produção de sementes de cebola Effect of spacing between bulbs in the production of onion seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Ribeiro de Campos

    1968-01-01

    Full Text Available Ensaio de campo foi conduzido em solo latossolo vermelho-amarelo fase argilosa, série Barão, para estudar o efeito do espaçamento dos bulbos de cebola (Allium cepaL., visando a produção de sementes. Compararam-se quatro espaçamentos em que os bulbos de cebola, na linha de plantio, foram distanciados entre si de 40 cm, 30 cm, 20 cm e 10 cm. O espaçamento menor, de 10 cm entre os bulbos, superou os demais em produção de sementes por área. Como implica na diminuição da área para um mesmo número de bulbos a serem plantados e em menor gasto de adubos e de água para irrigação torna-se ainda mais vantajoso.This paper reports the results of a spacing experiment with bulbs of onion (Allium cepaL. where production of seed was considered. Four spacings were compared in a line, i.e., a 40 cm; b 30 cm; c 20 cm and d 10 cm. The spacing of 10 cm between bulbs showed to be superior to the others in seed production by area. Some other advantages of this spacing are that less space is needed for the same number of bulbs to be planted and that less expenses are incurred in fertilizers, irrigation water and workmanship.

  1. The age of olfactory bulb neurons in humans: an application of dating microgram DNA samples with the C14 bomb peak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The determination of C14 levels in genomic DNA can be used to retrospectively establish the birth date of cells in the human body which was pioneered at the Karolinska Institute. Aboveground nuclear weapons testing between 1950 and 1963 doubled the atmospheric C14 content. After the Partial Nuclear Test Ban Treaty in 1963 the excess C14 decreased again by exchange of carbon dioxide between atmosphere, biosphere and the ocean. As a consequence all humans who lived in the second half of the 20th century have been labelled with this rapidly changing excess C14. During the last years the amount of carbon required for a C14 Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) measurement at the VERA Laboratory in Vienna was reduced to such an extent (mg to μg) that investigations of neurons of particularly interesting small sections of the human brain became possible. C14 measurements of < 5μg carbon DNA samples with an overall precision of 2.0 to 2.5% were achieved. This allowed to study neurogenesis in the human olfactory bulb, which turned out to take place primarily at birth with <1% of these neurons being exchanged at a later time. This identifies a fundamental difference in the plasticity of the human brain compared to other mammals. (author)

  2. Inducible and targeted deletion of the ERK5 MAP kinase in adult neurogenic regions impairs adult neurogenesis in the olfactory bulb and several forms of olfactory behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Wei Pan

    Full Text Available Although adult-born neurons in the subventricular zone (SVZ and olfactory bulb (OB have been extensively characterized at the cellular level, their functional impact on olfactory behavior is still highly controversial with many conflicting results reported in the literature. Furthermore, signaling mechanisms regulating adult SVZ/OB neurogenesis are not well defined. Here we report that inducible and targeted deletion of erk5, a MAP kinase selectively expressed in the adult neurogenic regions of the adult brain, impairs adult neurogenesis in the SVZ and OB of transgenic mice. Although erk5 deletion had no effect on olfactory discrimination among discrete odorants in the habituation/dishabituation assay, it reduced short-term olfactory memory as well as detection sensitivity to odorants and pheromones including those evoking aggression and fear. Furthermore, these mice show impaired acquisition of odor-cued associative olfactory learning, a novel phenotype that had not been previously linked to adult neurogenesis. These data suggest that ERK5 MAP kinase is a critical kinase signaling pathway regulating adult neurogenesis in the SVZ/OB, and provide strong evidence supporting a functional role for adult neurogenesis in several distinct forms of olfactory behavior.

  3. High-Field MRI Reveals a Drastic Increase of Hypoxia-Induced Microhemorrhages upon Tissue Reoxygenation in the Mouse Brain with Strong Predominance in the Olfactory Bulb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Angelika; Kunze, Reiner; Helluy, Xavier; Milford, David; Heiland, Sabine; Bendszus, Martin; Pham, Mirko; Marti, Hugo H

    2016-01-01

    Human pathophysiology of high altitude hypoxic brain injury is not well understood and research on the underlying mechanisms is hampered by the lack of well-characterized animal models. In this study, we explored the evolution of brain injury by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and histological methods in mice exposed to normobaric hypoxia at 8% oxygen for 48 hours followed by rapid reoxygenation and incubation for further 24 h under normoxic conditions. T2*-, diffusion-weighted and T2-relaxometry MRI was performed before exposure, immediately after 48 hours of hypoxia and 24 hours after reoxygenation. Cerebral microhemorrhages, previously described in humans suffering from severe high altitude cerebral edema, were also detected in mice upon hypoxia-reoxygenation with a strong region-specific clustering in the olfactory bulb, and to a lesser extent, in the basal ganglia and cerebral white matter. The number of microhemorrhages determined immediately after hypoxia was low, but strongly increased 24 hours upon onset of reoxygenation. Histologically verified microhemorrhages were exclusively located around cerebral microvessels with disrupted interendothelial tight junction protein ZO-1. In contrast, quantitative T2 and apparent-diffusion-coefficient values immediately after hypoxia and after 24 hours of reoxygenation did not show any region-specific alteration, consistent with subtle multifocal but not with regional or global brain edema. PMID:26863147

  4. KAPASITAS ANTIOKSIDAN DAN INHIBITOR ALFA GLUKOSIDASE EKSTRAK UMBI BAWANG DAYAK [Antioxidant and Alpha-Glucosidase Inhibitory Properties of Bawang Dayak Bulb Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andi Early Febrinda*

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Bawang dayak (Eleutherine palmifolia is an indigenous plant in Borneo traditionally used by Dayak tribes to treat any kind of degenerative deseases including diabetes mellitus. The purpose of this research was to measure antioxidant and antidiabetic capacities of water and ethanolic extracts of bawang dayak bulb. Parameters evaluated in this research were phytochemical screening, total phenolics, flavonoid content, DPPH free-radical scavenging activity, and alpha glucosidase inhibiting (AGI activity. The result showed that the total phenolics and flavonoid content in bawang dayak ethanolic extract (217.71 mg GAE/g and 65.35 mg QE/g were higher than that of the water extract (139.93 mg GAE/g and 16.95 mg QE/g. The ethanolic extract also had higher antioxidant and AGI activities (IC50 112 and 241 ppm than that of the water extract (IC50 526 and 505 ppm. In addition, the IC50 values for AGI in bawang dayak ethanolic extract was lower than acarbose which is known as a commercial antidiabetic agent.

  5. A Pharmacognostical Study on the Fistular Onion Bulb(Allium fistulosum)%葱白的生药研究(英文)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟延君; 康廷国; 柳丽

    2000-01-01

    "Congbai", fistular onion bulb, a Chinese herbal drug, was systematically studied in such aspects as botanical morphology, macroscopical characters, histology and so on. Scientific basis was provided to draw up the standard of identifying "Congbai".%葱白为百合科植物葱Allium fistulosum L.的鳞茎.具有发表通阳解毒的功能.沈阳康达制药厂最新研制的"胰冲剂",用于治疗糖尿病,疗效较好,葱白是该组方药物主要成分之一.但由于该品多见于民间验方,药典及地方标准均无收载,有关其生药鉴定方面的研究尚无报道.为进一步开发利用这一药用资源,为该品的鉴别标准提供依据,本文对其植物形态、药材性状、组织构造等方面进行了研究.

  6. Histological Structure of the Vomeronasal Organ and Accessory Olfactory Bulb of Myospalax Cansus and Microtus oeconomus%甘肃鼢鼠与根田鼠的犁鼻器和副嗅球结构研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王茁; 张淑慧

    2012-01-01

    为了探讨地下鼠犁鼻系统与地面鼠的差异及其与地面鼠嗅觉功能相适应的特点,用组织学方法对甘肃鼢鼠(Myospalax cansus)与根田鼠(Microtus oeconomus)的副嗅球和犁鼻器结构并进行了差异性研究.结果表明,2种鼠的犁鼻器均位于鼻腔前端鼻中隔基部两侧,呈管状;甘肃鼢鼠犁鼻上皮厚度、副嗅球颗粒细胞和僧帽细胞带宽比根田鼠发达;甘肃鼢鼠犁鼻器、副嗅球的性二型分化比根田鼠显著.2种鼠各自犁鼻器和副嗅球的形态有一定的对应关系,甘肃鼢鼠犁鼻上皮、副嗅球厚而短;根田鼠犁鼻上皮、副嗅球薄而长.这种对应关系可能与犁鼻器和副嗅球之间存在着神经投射有关.%In order to explore the difference in the vomeronasal organs and olfactory functions of subterranean rats and ground rats, the histological and immunohistochemistrical methods were used to study the structure of the accessory olfactory bulb and vomeronasal organ in M. cansus and M. oeconomus. The vomeronasal organs of both rats are in the inboard wall of vomeronasal tube, while outside wall protrudes to the central cave slightly, which is pseudostratified epithelium, and its base is bone marrow of a triangle. The vomeronasal epidermis thickness and Ihe band width of accessory olfactory bulb granular cells and mitral cells in M. cansus are well developed than that of M. oeconomus. Compared with the M. oeconomus, the sexually dimorphic of accessory olfactory bulb and vomeronasal organ in M. cansus are significant. There is a certain corresponding relationship between the morphology of accessory olfactory bulb and vomeronasal organ. The vomeronasal epidermis and accessory olfactory bulb of M. cansus are thick and short, while that of M. oecoiwmus are thin and long. The possible reason of this corresponding relationship is related to the nerve projection between these two structures.

  7. Efeitos de tipos de bulbos e adubação nitrogenada sobre a produtividade e características comerciais do alho cv. "Quitéria" Effects of bulbs types and nitrogen on the yield and marketable characteristics of garlic cv. "Quitéria"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo M. Resende

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho foi conduzido no período de abril a outubro de 1991 na UFLA, Lavras (MG, com o objetivo de avaliar a influência de doses de nitrogênio e tipos de bulbos como fonte de bulbilhos para plantio sobre a produtividade e características comerciais do alho (Allium sativum L.. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso em esquema fatorial 5x2, compreendendo cinco doses de nitrogênio (0; 40; 80; 120 e 160 kg/ha de N e dois tipos de bulbos para plantio como fonte de bulbilhos (bulbos normais e pseudoperfilhados e quatro repetições. Constatou-se que o uso de bulbilhos de bulbos pseudoperfilhados é viável, não havendo diferenças em termos de produtividade total ou comercial, peso médio de bulbo, número de bulbilhos por bulbo e incidência de pseudoperfilhamento em relação ao uso de bulbilhos de bulbos normais. A produtividade total de bulbos aumentou até a dose de 149,2 kg/ha de N, sendo que houve redução linear na produtividade comercial com o incremento da dose de nitrogênio. O peso médio de bulbo e a percentagem de bulbos pseudoperfilhados aumentaram linearmente com o incremento das doses de nitrogênio. O número de bulbilhos por bulbo não foi influenciado pelos tratamentos.This study was carried out from April to October 1991, in the experimental field of UFLA, Lavras, Brazil, with the objective of evaluating the influence of nitrogen rates and planting bulbs types on yield and marketable traits of garlic (Allium sativum L.. The experimental design was a randomized complete block in a 5 x 2 factorial scheme, with four replications. The first factor was N rates (0; 40; 80; 120 and 160 kg/ha N and the second one was planting bulbs types (normal and bulbs with secondary growth. Both normal and secondary growth garlic bulbs were feasible for planting. No differences between them were observed in total yield, commercial yield, average weight of bulb, number of cloves per bulb, and secondary growth

  8. Produtividade e rendimento comercial de bulbos de cebola em função da densidade de cultivo Productivity and commercial yield of onion bulbs in function of growth density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Eduardo Baier

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available A distribuição adequada das plantas de cebola (Allium cepa L. na lavoura torna-se necessária devido a influência sobre a competição por água, luz e nutrientes, determinando o tamanho dos bulbos e a produtividade total. Objetivou-se, no trabalho, avaliar a produtividade e os padrões comerciais de bulbos de cebola, em função da densidade de plantio adotada. As mudas de cebola foram produzidas em bandejas de poliestireno de 200 células, com substrato comercial Plantimax®. O experimento foi instalado em delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados (DBC com 4 repetições, com parcelas de 2 m². Utilizou-se a cultivar Buccaneer, nas densidades de 50, 75 e 100 plantas m-2. Foram avaliadas a produção comercial, a produção total e a massa média de bulbos. Observou-se que a densidade de 100 plantas m-2 proporcionou a maior produtividade (92,20 t ha-1. No entanto, a menor densidade de plantas avaliada proporcionou bulbos com a maior massa média (171g. As densidades de 50 e 75 plantas m-2 apresentaram os maiores valores distribuídos na classe 4 (> que 70 até 90 mm de diâmetro e 3 cheio (> que 60 até 70 mm de diâmetro, respectivamente. A densidade de 100 plantas m-2 proporcionou uma maior quantidade de bulbos na classificação 3 cheio. Os resultados obtidos demonstraram que o aumento na densidade de plantas proporcionou uma maior produtividade, uma menor massa média de bulbos e uma maior produção na classificação comercial 3 cheio, considerada ideal para comercialização em função da preferência pelos consumidores.The adequate distribution of onions (Allium cepa L. within a crop becomes necessary due to their influence on the competition for water, light, and nutrients, which determines the size of the bulbs and the total yield. The goal of this work was to evaluate the yield and commercial pattern of onion bulbs as a function of the crop density employed. The onion seedlings were produced on polystyrene trays with 200

  9. Deletion of collapsin response mediator protein 4 results in abnormal layer thickness and elongation of mitral cell apical dendrites in the neonatal olfactory bulb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutiya, Atsuhiro; Watanabe, Hikaru; Nakano, Yui; Nishihara, Masugi; Goshima, Yoshio; Ohtani-Kaneko, Ritsuko

    2016-05-01

    Collapsin response mediator protein 4 (CRMP4), a member of the CRMP family, is involved in the pathogenesis of neurodevelopmental disorders such as schizophrenia and autism. Here, we first compared layer thickness of the olfactory bulb between wild-type (WT) and CRMP4-knockout (KO) mice. The mitral cell layer (MCL) was significantly thinner, whereas the external plexiform layer (EPL) was significantly thicker in CRMP4-KO mice at postnatal day 0 (PD0) compared with WTs. However, differences in layer thickness disappeared by PD14. No apoptotic cells were found in the MCL, and the number of mitral cells (MCs) identified with a specific marker (i.e. Tbx21 antibody) did not change in CRMP4-KO neonates. However, DiI-tracing showed that the length of mitral cell apical dendrites was greater in CRMP4-KO neonates than in WTs. In addition, expression of CRMP4 mRNA in WT mice was most abundant in the MCL at PD0 and decreased afterward. These results suggest that CRMP4 contributes to dendritic elongation. Our in vitro studies showed that deletion or knockdown of CRMP4 resulted in enhanced growth of MAP2-positive neurites, whereas overexpression of CRMP4 reduced their growth, suggesting a new role for CRMP4 as a suppressor of dendritic elongation. Overall, our data suggest that disruption of CRMP4 produces a temporary alteration in EPL thickness, which is constituted mainly of mitral cell apical dendrites, through the enhanced growth of these dendrites. PMID:26739921

  10. Linear correlation between the number of olfactory sensory neurons expressing a given mouse odorant receptor gene and the total volume of the corresponding glomeruli in the olfactory bulb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressel, Olaf Christian; Khan, Mona; Mombaerts, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Chemosensory specificity in the main olfactory system of the mouse relies on the expression of ∼1,100 odorant receptor (OR) genes across millions of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) in the main olfactory epithelium (MOE), and on the coalescence of OSN axons into ∼3,600 glomeruli in the olfactory bulb. A traditional approach for visualizing OSNs and their axons consists of tagging an OR gene genetically with an axonal marker that is cotranslated with the OR by virtue of an internal ribosome entry site (IRES). Here we report full cell counts for 15 gene-targeted strains of the OR-IRES-marker design coexpressing a fluorescent protein. These strains represent 11 targeted OR genes, a 1% sample of the OR gene repertoire. We took an empirical, "count every cell" strategy: we counted all fluorescent cell profiles with a nuclear profile within the cytoplasm, on all serial coronal sections under a confocal microscope, a total of 685,673 cells in 56 mice at postnatal day 21. We then applied a strain-specific Abercrombie correction to these OSN counts in order to obtain a closer approximation of the true OSN numbers. We found a 17-fold range in the average (corrected) OSN number across these 11 OR genes. In the same series of coronal sections, we then determined the total volume of the glomeruli (TGV) formed by coalescence of the fluorescent axons. We found a strong linear correlation between OSN number and TGV, suggesting that TGV can be used as a surrogate measurement for estimating OSN numbers in these gene-targeted strains. PMID:26100963

  11. Gestational methyl donor deficiency alters key proteins involved in neurosteroidogenesis in the olfactory bulbs of newborn female rats and is associated with impaired olfactory performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Hajj Chehadeh, Sarah; Pourié, Grégory; Martin, Nicolas; Alberto, Jean-Marc; Daval, Jean-Luc; Guéant, Jean-Louis; Leininger-Muller, Brigitte

    2014-03-28

    Gestational methyl donor deficiency (MDD) leads to growth retardation as well as to cognitive and motor disorders in 21-d-old rat pups. These disorders are related to impaired neurogenesis in the cerebral neurogenic areas. Olfactory bulbs (OB), the main target of neuronal progenitors originating from the subventricular zone, play a critical role during the postnatal period by allowing the pups to identify maternal odour. We hypothesised that growth retardation could result from impaired suckling due to impaired olfactory discrimination through imbalanced apoptosis/neurogenesis in the OB. Since neurosteroidogenesis modulates neurogenesis in OB, in the present study, we investigated whether altered neurosteroidogenesis could explain some these effects. Pups born to dams fed a normal diet (n 24) and a MDD diet (n 27) were subjected to olfactory tests during the lactation and weaning periods (n 24 and 20, respectively). We studied the markers of apoptosis/neurogenesis and the expression levels of the key neurosteroidogenic enzyme aromatase, the cholesterol-transfer protein StAR (steroidogenic acute regulatory protein) and the ERα oestrogen receptor and the content of oestradiol in OB. The 21-d-old MDD female pups displayed lower body weight and impaired olfactory discrimination when compared with the control pups. MDD led to greater homocysteine accumulation and more pronounced apoptosis, along with impaired cell proliferation in the OB of female pups. The expression levels of aromatase, StAR and ERα as well as the content of oestradiol were lower in the OB of the MDD female pups than in those of the control female pups. In conclusion, gestational MDD may alter olfactory discrimination performances by affecting neurogenesis, apoptosis and neurosteroidogenesis in OB in a sex-dependent manner. It may be involved in growth retardation through impaired suckling. PMID:24229781

  12. Increased doublecortin (DCX expression and incidence of DCX-immunoreactive multipolar cells in the subventricular zone-olfactory bulb system of suicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marissa E Maheu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Postmortem studies have confirmed the occurrence of adult hippocampal neurogenesis in humans and implicated this process in antidepressant response, yet neurogenesis in other regions remains to be examined in the context of depression. Here we assess the extent of subventricular zone-olfactory bulb (SVZ-OB neurogenesis in adult humans having died by suicide. Protein expression of proliferative and neurogenic markers Sox2, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, and doublecortin (DCX were examined in postmortem SVZ and OB samples from depressed suicides and matched sudden-death controls. In the SVZ, DCX-immunoreactive (IR cells displayed phenotypes typical of progenitors, whereas in the olfactory tract (OT, they were multipolar with variable size and morphologies suggestive of differentiating cells. DCX expression was significantly increased in the OB of suicides, whereas SVZ DCX expression was higher among unmedicated, but not antidepressant-treated, suicides. Although very few DCX-IR cells were present in the control OT, they were considerably more common in suicides and correlated with OB DCX levels. Suicides also displayed higher DCX-IR process volumes. These results support the notion that OB neurogenesis is minimal in adult humans. They further indicate that the differentiation and migration of SVZ-derived neuroblasts may be altered in unmedicated suicides, leading to an accumulation of ectopically-differentiating cells in the OT. Normal SVZ DCX expression among suicides receiving antidepressants suggests a potentially novel mode of action of antidepressant medication. Given the modest group sizes and rarity of DCX-IR cells assessed here, a larger-scale characterization will be required before firm conclusions can be made regarding the identity of these cells.

  13. Polyurethane/polylactide-based biomaterials combined with rat olfactory bulb-derived glial cells and adipose-derived mesenchymal stromal cells for neural regenerative medicine applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research concerning the elaboration and application of biomaterial which may support the nerve tissue regeneration is currently one of the most promising directions. Biocompatible polymer devices are noteworthy group among the numerous types of potentially attractive biomaterials for regenerative medicine application. Polylactides and polyurethanes may be utilized for developing devices for supporting the nerve regeneration, like nerve guide conduits or bridges connecting the endings of broken nerve tracts. Moreover, the combination of these biomaterial devices with regenerative cell populations, like stem or precursor cells should significantly improve the final therapeutic effect. Therefore, the composition and structure of final device should support the proper adhesion and growth of cells destined for clinical application. In current research, the three polymer mats elaborated for connecting the broken nerve tracts, made from polylactide, polyurethane and their blend were evaluated both for physical properties and in vitro, using the olfactory-bulb glial cells and mesenchymal stem cells. The evaluation of Young's modulus, wettability and roughness of obtained materials showed the differences between analyzed samples. The analysis of cell adhesion, proliferation and morphology showed that the polyurethane–polylactide blend was the most neutral for cells in culture, while in the pure polymer samples there were significant alterations observed. Our results indicated that polyurethane–polylactide blend is an optimal composition for culturing and delivery of glial and mesenchymal stem cells. - Highlights: • Polyurethane–polylactide blends exhibit different characteristics from pure polymers. • Pure PU and PLA negatively influence on morphology of glial and mesenchymal cells. • PU/PLA blend was neutral for glial and mesenchymal cell proliferation and morphology

  14. Transient and sustained afterdepolarizations in accessory olfactory bulb mitral cells are mediated by distinct mechanisms that are differentially regulated by neuromodulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy eShpak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Social interactions between mammalian conspecifics rely heavily on molecular communication via the main and accessory olfactory systems. These two chemosensory systems show high similarity in the organization of information flow along their early stages: social chemical cues are detected by the sensory neurons of the main olfactory epithelium and the vomeronasal organ. These neurons then convey sensory information to the main (MOB and accessory (AOB olfactory bulbs, respectively, where they synapse upon mitral cells that project to higher brain areas. Yet, the functional difference between these two chemosensory systems remains unclear. We have previously shown that MOB and AOB mitral cells exhibit very distinct intrinsic biophysical properties leading to different types of information processing. Specifically, we found that unlike MOB mitral cells, AOB neurons display persistent firing responses to strong stimuli. These prolonged responses are mediated by long-lasting calcium-activated non-selective cationic current (Ican. In the current study we further examined the firing characteristics of these cells and their modulation by several neuromodulators. We found that AOB mitral cells display transient depolarizing afterpotentials (DAPs following moderate firing. These DAPs are not found in MOB mitral cells that show instead robust hyperpolarizing afterpotentials. Unlike Ican, the DAPs of AOB mitral cells are activated by low levels of intracellular calcium and are relatively insensitive to flufenamic acid. Moreover, the cholinergic agonist carbachol exerts opposite effects on the persistent firing and DAPs of AOB mitral cells. We conclude that these phenomena are mediated by distinct biophysical mechanisms that may serve to mediate different types of information processing in the AOB at distinct brain states.

  15. Transient and sustained afterdepolarizations in accessory olfactory bulb mitral cells are mediated by distinct mechanisms that are differentially regulated by neuromodulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shpak, Guy; Zylbertal, Asaph; Wagner, Shlomo

    2014-01-01

    Social interactions between mammalian conspecifics rely heavily on molecular communication via the main and accessory olfactory systems. These two chemosensory systems show high similarity in the organization of information flow along their early stages: social chemical cues are detected by the sensory neurons of the main olfactory epithelium and the vomeronasal organ. These neurons then convey sensory information to the main (MOB) and accessory (AOB) olfactory bulbs, respectively, where they synapse upon mitral cells that project to higher brain areas. Yet, the functional difference between these two chemosensory systems remains unclear. We have previously shown that MOB and AOB mitral cells exhibit very distinct intrinsic biophysical properties leading to different types of information processing. Specifically, we found that unlike MOB mitral cells, AOB neurons display persistent firing responses to strong stimuli. These prolonged responses are mediated by long-lasting calcium-activated non-selective cationic current (Ican). In the current study we further examined the firing characteristics of these cells and their modulation by several neuromodulators. We found that AOB mitral cells display transient depolarizing afterpotentials (DAPs) following moderate firing. These DAPs are not found in MOB mitral cells that show instead robust hyperpolarizing afterpotentials. Unlike Ican, the DAPs of AOB mitral cells are activated by low levels of intracellular calcium and are relatively insensitive to flufenamic acid. Moreover, the cholinergic agonist carbachol exerts opposite effects on the persistent firing and DAPs of AOB mitral cells. We conclude that these phenomena are mediated by distinct biophysical mechanisms that may serve to mediate different types of information processing in the AOB at distinct brain states. PMID:25642164

  16. A physiological increase of insulin in the olfactory bulb decreases detection of a learned aversive odor and abolishes food odor-induced sniffing behavior in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascaline Aimé

    Full Text Available Insulin is involved in multiple regulatory mechanisms, including body weight and food intake, and plays a critical role in metabolic disorders such as obesity and diabetes. An increasing body of evidence indicates that insulin is also involved in the modulation of olfactory function. The olfactory bulb (OB contains the highest level of insulin and insulin receptors (IRs in the brain. However, a role for insulin in odor detection and sniffing behavior remains to be elucidated. Using a behavioral paradigm based on conditioned olfactory aversion (COA to isoamyl-acetate odor, we demonstrated that an intracerebroventricular (ICV injection of 14 mU insulin acutely decreased olfactory detection of fasted rats to the level observed in satiated animals. In addition, whereas fasted animals demonstrated an increase in respiratory frequency upon food odor detection, this effect was absent in fasted animals receiving a 14 mU insulin ICV injection as well as in satiated animals. In parallel, we showed that the OB and plasma insulin levels were increased in satiated rats compared to fasted rats, and that a 14 mU insulin ICV injection elevated the OB insulin level of fasted rats to that of satiated rats. We further quantified insulin receptors (IRs distribution and showed that IRs are preferentially expressed in the caudal and lateral parts of the main OB, with the highest labeling found in the mitral cells, the main OB projection neurons. Together, these data suggest that insulin acts on the OB network to modulate olfactory processing and demonstrate that olfactory function is under the control of signals involved in energy homeostasis regulation and feeding behaviors.

  17. Polyurethane/polylactide-based biomaterials combined with rat olfactory bulb-derived glial cells and adipose-derived mesenchymal stromal cells for neural regenerative medicine applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grzesiak, Jakub, E-mail: grzesiak.kuba@gmail.com [Electron Microscopy Laboratory, University of Environmental and Life Sciences, Kozuchowska 5b, 51-631 Wroclaw (Poland); Marycz, Krzysztof [Electron Microscopy Laboratory, University of Environmental and Life Sciences, Kozuchowska 5b, 51-631 Wroclaw (Poland); Szarek, Dariusz [Department of Neurosurgery, Lower Silesia Specialist Hospital of T. Marciniak, Emergency Medicine Center, Traugutta 116, 50-420 Wroclaw (Poland); Bednarz, Paulina [State Higher Vocational School in Tarnów, Mickiewicza 8, 33-100 Tarnów (Poland); Laska, Jadwiga [AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Materials Science and Ceramics, Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków (Poland)

    2015-07-01

    Research concerning the elaboration and application of biomaterial which may support the nerve tissue regeneration is currently one of the most promising directions. Biocompatible polymer devices are noteworthy group among the numerous types of potentially attractive biomaterials for regenerative medicine application. Polylactides and polyurethanes may be utilized for developing devices for supporting the nerve regeneration, like nerve guide conduits or bridges connecting the endings of broken nerve tracts. Moreover, the combination of these biomaterial devices with regenerative cell populations, like stem or precursor cells should significantly improve the final therapeutic effect. Therefore, the composition and structure of final device should support the proper adhesion and growth of cells destined for clinical application. In current research, the three polymer mats elaborated for connecting the broken nerve tracts, made from polylactide, polyurethane and their blend were evaluated both for physical properties and in vitro, using the olfactory-bulb glial cells and mesenchymal stem cells. The evaluation of Young's modulus, wettability and roughness of obtained materials showed the differences between analyzed samples. The analysis of cell adhesion, proliferation and morphology showed that the polyurethane–polylactide blend was the most neutral for cells in culture, while in the pure polymer samples there were significant alterations observed. Our results indicated that polyurethane–polylactide blend is an optimal composition for culturing and delivery of glial and mesenchymal stem cells. - Highlights: • Polyurethane–polylactide blends exhibit different characteristics from pure polymers. • Pure PU and PLA negatively influence on morphology of glial and mesenchymal cells. • PU/PLA blend was neutral for glial and mesenchymal cell proliferation and morphology.

  18. Evaluation of wet bulb globe temperature index for estimation of heat strain in hot/humid conditions in the Persian Gulf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habibolah Dehghan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Heat exposure among construction workers in the Persian Gulf region is a serious hazard for health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT Index for estimation of heat strain in hot/humid conditions by the use of Physiological Strain Index (PSI as the gold standard. Material and Methods : This cross-sectional study was carried out on 71 workers of two Petrochemical Companies in South of Iran in 2010 summer. The WBGT index, heart rate, and aural temperature were measured by Heat Stress Monitor (Casella Microtherm WBGT, Heart Rate Monitor (Polar RS100, and Personal Heat Strain Monitor (Questemp II, respectively. The obtained data were analyzed with descriptive statistics and Pearson correlation analysis. Results: The mean (SD of WBGT values was 33.1 (2.7. The WBGT values exceed from American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH standard (30°C in 96% work stations, whereas the PSI values were more than 5.0 (moderate strain in 11% of workstations. The correlation between WBGT and PSI values was 0.61 ( P = 0.001. When WBGT values were less and more than 34°C, the mean of PSI was 2.6 (low strain and 5.2 (moderate strain, respectively. Conclusion: In the Persian Gulf weather, especially hot and humid in the summer months, due to the WBGT values exceeding 30°C (in 96% of cases and weak correlation between WBGT and PSI, the work/rest cycles of WBGT Index is not suitable for heat stress management. Therefore, in Persian Gulf weather, heat stress evaluation based on physiologic variables may have higher validity than WBGT index.

  19. Qualidade dos bulbos de cebola 'Superex' armazenados sob refrigeração, quando expostos à condição ambiente Quality of onion bulbs cv. Superex stored under refrigeration, when exposed to environmental conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Almeida Miguel

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available O armazenamento refrigerado da cebola tem sido recomendado como ideal, mas os produtores sempre questionam sobre a qualidade comercial e o consumo dos bulbos durante este período e depois de levados à condição ambiente. Avaliou-se a qualidade de bulbos de cebola ´Superex' acondicionados em sacos de rede de fibra plástica e armazenados a 10-12°C (68% UR por até 91 dias, quando levados à condição ambiente. Após 1; 16; 31; 61 e 91 dias foram tomadas amostras, ao acaso, que eram levadas à condição ambiente (22°C, 59% UR. Estas cebolas foram avaliadas quanto à massa fresca, aparência e ocorrência de podridões, e quanto à coloração interna, luminosidade, ângulo de cor e cromaticidade, atividade da aliinase e teores de sólidos solúveis e de acidez titulável. Os bulbos, quando levados ao ambiente, perderam massa com maior intensidade do que quando armazenados sob refrigeração e mantiveram qualidade aceitável por até 38 dias. Somente os armazenados sob refrigeração por 91 dias tinham aparência ruim. Os bulbos analisados apresentaram tendência ao amarelecimento interno, sem alteração significativa nos teores de SS e de AT. Durante o período refrigerado a pungência dos mesmos aumentou, de "pungente" para "picante", que se manteve estável durante o armazenamento ao ambiente.Cold storage has been recommended to preserve onion bulbs, but producers always have doubts about its quality, during this period and when they are exposed to environmental conditions. We evaluated the onion bulbs quality, cv. Superex, packed in plastic fiber bags, during storage under 10-12°C (68% RH during 91 days. After 1; 16; 31; 61 and 91 days, samples were transferred to environmental conditions (22°C, 59% RH. Onion bulbs were evaluated for fresh mass, appearance and occurrence of rot, internal color, lightness, color or hue angle and chromaticity, alliinase activity, soluble solids and titratable acidity content. Bulbs under environmental

  20. Final report of the project 'Survey of the consequences liberalization energy market for the flower bulb sector'. Annexes; Eindrapportage van het project 'Inventarisatie consequenties liberalisering energiemarkt voor de bolbloemen- en bloembollenteler'. Bijlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-01-15

    The aim of this project is to demonstrate the business-economic consequences of the liberalization of the gas and electricity markets for the various types of businesses per region in the flower bulb and bulb flower sector. Based on this information, it can be concluded what will be the consequences for the sector and what will be the consequences of realizing the sector target for energy. These annexes contain an overview of the types of businesses, the questionnaire used, example calculations for a certain type of business, the set-up of the Commodity Services System, the costs per product or area unit. Moreover, a brief overview is given of the main features of a free energy market. Some recommendations are provided on how the flower bulb sector can profit from the consequences of the liberalized energy market [Dutch] De doelstelling van het project is het zichtbaar maken van de bedrijfseconomische consequenties van de liberalisering van de gas- en elektriciteitsmarkt voor de verschillende bedrijfstypen per regio in de bloembollen- en bolbloemensector. Daaruit kan geconcludeerd worden wat de gevolgen zijn voor de sector en de gevolgen van het halen van de sectordoelstelling voor energie. In deze bijlagen wordt een overzicht gegeven van de bedrijfstypen, de gebruikte vragenlijst, een voorbeeldberekeningen voor een bepaald bedrijfstype, de opbouw van het Commodity Diensten Systeem, de kosten per product of oppervlakte-eenheid. Daarnaast wordt een beknopt overzicht gegeven van de belangrijkste kenmerken van een vrije energiemarkt. Ook worden enkele praktische aanbevelingen gedaan voor de wijze waarop de bloembollensector kan inspelen op de gevolgen van de geliberaliseerde energiemarkt.

  1. Effects of light on the propagation and growth of bulbs of Hippeastrum hybridum cv. Apple Blossom (Amaryllidaceae Efeitos da luz na propagação e crescimento de bulbos de Hippeastrum hibridum cv. Apple Blossom (Amaryllidaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.C. Stancato

    1995-08-01

    Full Text Available Commercially bulbs of Hippeastrum hybridum are propagated by twin scales, which are cultured in wet vermiculite in the darkness until bulbil appearance. We showed that twin scales kept under sun light produced bulbils, that once transferred to the field, did not undergo severe light stress. They had higher bulb dry weight and due to the presence of green leaves they grew faster when transplanted to the field than bulbils produced from scales kept in the darkness. An intermediary treatment (a period of darkness followed by transference to light confirmed the advantages of producing bulbils under sun light conditions. It appears that in the field, growth of bulbs from dark grown bulbils was retarded due to the strong competition among leaves and roots for nutrients and assimilates.Comercialmente, bulbos de Hippeastrum hybridum são propagados por escamas duplas, as quais são mantidas em vermiculita umedecida e no escuro até o aparecimento do bulbilho. No presente trabalho demonstrou-se que escamas duplas mantidas sob luz solar plena produziram bulbilhos que uma vez transferidos para condições de campo não sofreram o estresse imposto pela luz. Tais bulbilhos possuíam maior peso seco de bulbo e, devido a presença de folhas verdes, cresceram mais rápido do que bulbilhos produzidos no escuro. Um tratamento intermediário, em que as escamas foram mantidas na escuridão por um período e depois transferidas para a luz, confirmou as vantagens em se produzir bulbilhos na luz. Muito provavelmente, bulbilhos produzidos no escuro tiveram seu desenvolvimento atrasado devido a forte competição entre folhas e raízes por nutrientes e fotoassimilados.

  2. 基于模型试验的灯泡式水轮机轴向水推力研究%Research on Axial Thrust for Bulb Turbine Bases on Model Tests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李广府; 卢池; 姚丹

    2014-01-01

    In order to do research on the axial thrust of bulb turbines ,a bulb turbine model taken as the research object ,hydraulic axial thrust model test is carried out on test stand for hydraulic machinery .The concept of the ratio Z(axial thrust /driving force)is pro‐posed and the variety regulation of ratio Z with the speed factor ,blade angle and guide vane opening are obtained from the study .The research results indicate that the ratio Z is expressed in ranges in this bulb turbine model and the ratio Z become larger along with the increase in the speed factor and guide vane opening ,while smaller along with the increase in blade angle .%为了研究灯泡贯流式水轮机的轴向水推力问题,以某灯泡贯流式水轮机模型为研究对象,进行了该模型的轴向水推力试验。提出了比值 Z(轴向水推力/水轮机驱动力)这一概念,研究了其随转速因数、叶片角度、导叶开度的变化规律。研究结果表明:该灯泡贯流式水轮机模型比值 Z在某一区间范围,比值 Z随转速因数的增大而增大、随导叶开度的增大而增大、随叶片角度的增大而减小。

  3. Experimenting with wires, batteries, bulbs and the induction coil: Narratives of teaching and learning physics in the electrical investigations of Laura, David, Jamie, myself and the nineteenth century experimenters. Our developments and instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavicchi, Elizabeth Mary

    Physics is conventionally taught as a fixed curriculum which students must master. This thesis changes that: curriculum emerges from what learners try and question in experiments they invent. The thesis narrates: three adult students exploring wires, batteries and bulbs with me as teacher; nineteenth century investigations of electromagnetism; my laboratory work replicating historic instruments. In each case, learning arose through activity with materials. Evidences of this are analyzed within narratives and reflections. I used teaching-research, a method developed by Duckworth from Piaget's clinical interviewing, to research and simultaneously extend students' evolving understandings. What I learned through questioning students informed my next interactions; what they learned extended their experimenting. Similarly, I researched historical accounts interactively: improvising experiments to develop my understandings. Studying my own learning deepened my interpretations of students' learning. My students Laura, David and Jamie experimented by: soldering bulbs to wires, making series and parallel circuits, inserting resistive wire that dimmed bulbs, conducting electricity through salt water They noticed bulb brightness and battery heat, compared electricity's paths, questioned how voltage and current relate. They inferred electricity's effects manifest magnitudes of material properties. They found their experiences while learning were inseparable from what they learned. I researched investigations connected with Cavendish's leather fish, Galvani's frogs, Schweigger's wire spiraled around a compass needle, Henry's electromagnets, Faraday's induction ring, induction devices of Page, Callan, Hearder. Experimentally, I made galvanometers, electromagnets, induction rings, induction coil. I observed effects of electromagnetism, internal resistance, induced sparking. Across these investigations, learning developed with instrumental innovations; confusions were productive

  4. Management plan for electrical insulation, transformers and bulbs high pressure sodium retired from electrical distribution lines of the Unidad Estrategica de Negocios Servicio al Cliente Electricidad of the Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Unidad Estrategica de Negocios Servicio al Cliente Electricidad of Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad has completed a management plan for electrical insulation, transformers and sodium vapor bulbs high pressure, that are retired from electrical distribution lines. The three residues have been characterized and identified in its physical composition, chemical and hazardous properties, generating selection, analysis and proposals for alternative of recovery, treatment or final disposal, viable from an environmental, technical and economic view. A series of recommendations and procedures have been performed using tabs and instructions for the purpose of unifying management practices appropriate in the Area de Sostenibilidad Ambiental of the ICE. (author)

  5. 冷藏对郁金香鳞茎可溶性糖和蛋白质的影响%Effect of Cold Storage of Tulip Bulb on the Contents Total Soluble Sugar and Soluble Protein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛洪玉; 宁国龙; 刘迪

    2012-01-01

    以郁金香鳞茎阿波罗、检阅、小黑人、普瑞斯玛、巴塞罗娜为试材,对不同冷藏处理时间的郁金香鳞茎不同部位的可溶性总糖、还原糖、蔗糖、可溶性蛋白质含量进行研究.结果表明:5个品种郁金香鳞茎在冷藏处理期间可溶性总糖、还原糖、蔗糖、可溶性蛋白质含量呈规律性变化.蔗糖是可溶性总糖的主要形式;初步认为解除休眠的过程是由外向内,通过鳞茎盘调节来实现的;5个品种郁金香鳞茎还原糖、蔗糖在第7周出现明显的波峰和拐点;检阅较其它4个品种表现出较高的可溶性糖含量和活性.%Effects of cold storage of tulip bulbs of the cultivars of Apeldoorn, Parade, Nigrita, Purissima, Banja Luka Apollo during dormancy on the contents of nutrients contained in different parts of the bulbs were investigated, such as total soluble sugar, reducing sugar, sucrose, and soluble protein. . Regular changes of the nutrients were observed in the bulbs of 5 cultivars. Sucrose was the main component of the soluble sugar. It was concluded preliminarily that the dormancy breaking occurred from outside to inside through the adjustment of the bulb. The contents of reductive sugar and sucrose reached their maximum values in the seventh week of the cold storage. Cultivar Parade exhibited higher contents of soluble sugar than other 4 cultivars.

  6. EFEITO DE DIFERENTES FOTOPERÍODOS NA BULBIFICAÇÃO DE DOIS CULTIVARES DE ALHO (Allium sativum L. EFFECT OF DIFFERENT PHOTOPERIODS IN THE BULBING OF TWO GARLIC (Allium sativum L. CULTIVARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Henrique Monnerat

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Este experimento foi realizado com duas variedades de alho, Amarante e Centenário, em condições de casa-de-vegetação com o objetivo de verificar o efeito de fotoperíodos de 9, 12, 15 horas e natural, sobre a bulbificação dessa hortaliça. Plantas submetidas a fotoperíodos de 12 e 15 horas receberam 9 horas de luz natural e complementação com luz incandescente, com intensidade luminosa de 180 lux, aproximadamente. Observou-se que fotoperíodos mais longos antecipam o início de bulbificação, reduzindo o ciclo da cultura, em ambos os cultivares. O aumento do comprimento do dia promoveu decréscimo no peso dos bulbos na ocasião da colheita como resultado da redução do estágio de crescimento dos bulbos. A ocorrência de bulbificação em todos os tratamentos indica que o fotoperíodo crítico é inferior a 9 horas, em ambos os cultivares.

    This experiment was carried out with two garlic varieties, Amarante and Centenário, under greenhouse conditions in order to verify the effect of the photoperiod of 9, 12, 15 hours, and natural, on the bulbing of that vegetable. Plants exposed to photoperiod of 12 and 15 hours, received 9 hours of sunlight followed by incandescent light (180 lux, aproximately. Results show that long-day treatments hasten the bulb formation with reduction of the culture cycle, in both varieties. The increase of day-length caused decrease of bulb weight at the time of harvesting, as result of the shortening of the bulb’s growth stage. The occurrence of bulbing in all treatments indicated that the critical photoperiod is lower than 9 hours, in both varieties.

  7. Effect of shading on contents of lycorine and galantamine in the bulb of Lycoris aurea%遮荫对忽地笑鳞茎中石蒜碱和加兰他敏含量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    全妙华; 佘朝文; 欧立军; 陈东明

    2012-01-01

    探讨不同光照强度条件下忽地笑鳞茎中石蒜碱和加兰他敏含量变化,为忽地笑规范化栽培提供科学依据。采用HPLC方法测定了100%自然光、50%遮荫和85%遮荫条件下忽地笑鳞茎中石蒜碱和加兰他敏含量。3种不同光强下忽地笑鳞茎中石蒜碱和加兰他敏含量均表现为:50%遮荫〉85%遮荫〉100%自然光,其中在50%遮荫条件下其含量均最高,与100%自然光的相比,分别提高了35.88%和20.56%,差异均达到极显著水平(P〈0.01)。稳定性及回收率实验结果表明:HPLC法测定忽地笑鳞茎中石蒜碱和加兰他敏含量效果好,稳定性强,方法可靠;适度遮荫(如50%遮荫)可以提高忽地笑鳞茎中石蒜碱和加兰他敏含量。忽地笑适宜在一定遮荫环境下栽培。%Changing of lycodne and galantamine contents in the bulb of Lycoris aurea under different light intensity conditions were analyzed in order to provide scientific information for cultivation of Lycoris aurea. Contents of lycorine and galantamine in the bulbs under 100% natural light,50% shading and 85% shading were determined by HPLC. The contents of lycorine and galantamine in the bulbs under the three different conditions were as following:50% shading 〉 85% shading 〉100% natural light. The contents of lycorine and galantamine under 50% shading were both the highest, and increased 35.88% and 20.56% compared with those under 100% natural light, respectively with high significant level (P〈0.01). The results determined by HPLC were highly repeatable, indicating that the method used in this study was reliable. Proper shading, such as 50% shading, increased contents of lycorine and galantamine in the bulb of Lycoris aurea. Thus Lycoris aurea was suitable for cultivation under moderate shading.

  8. Neurogenesis, Neurodegeneration, Interneuron Vulnerability, and Amyloid-β in the Olfactory Bulb of APP/PS1 Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    De la Rosa-Prieto, Carlos; Saiz-Sanchez, Daniel; Ubeda-Banon, Isabel; Flores-Cuadrado, Alicia; Martinez-Marcos, Alino

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most prevalent neurodegenerative disease, mostly idiopathic and with palliative treatment. Neuropathologically, it is characterized by intracellular neurofibrillary tangles of tau protein and extracellular plaques of amyloid β peptides. The relationship between AD and neurogenesis is unknown, but two facts are particularly relevant. First, early aggregation sites of both proteinopathies include the hippocampal formation and the olfactory bulb (OB), which have been correlated to memory and olfactory deficits, respectively. These areas are well-recognized integration zones of newly-born neurons in the adult brain. Second, molecules, such as amyloid precursor protein (APP) and presenilin-1 are common to both AD etiology and neurogenic development. Adult neurogenesis in AD models has been studied in the hippocampus, but only occasionally addressed in the OB and results are contradictory. To gain insight on the relationship between adult neurogenesis and AD, this work analyzes neurogenesis, neurodegeneration, interneuron vulnerability, and amyloid-β involvement in the OB of an AD model. Control and double-transgenic mice carrying the APP and the presenilin-1 genes, which give rise amyloid β plaques have been used. BrdU-treated animals have been studied at 16, 30, 43, and 56 weeks of age. New-born cell survival (BrdU), neuronal loss (using neuronal markers NeuN and PGP9.5), differential interneuron (calbindin-, parvalbumin-, calretinin- and somatostatin-expressing populations) vulnerability, and involvement by amyloid β have been analyzed. Neurogenesis increases with aging in the granule cell layer of control animals from 16 to 43 weeks. No neuronal loss has been observed after quantifying NeuN or PGP9.5. Regarding interneuron population vulnerability: calbindin-expressing neurons remains unchanged; parvalbumin-expressing neurons trend to increase with aging in transgenic animals; calretinin-expressing neurons increase with aging in

  9. The Alzheimer's β-secretase enzyme BACE1 is required for accurate axon guidance of olfactory sensory neurons and normal glomerulus formation in the olfactory bulb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajapaksha Tharinda W

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The β-secretase, β-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1, is a prime therapeutic target for lowering cerebral β-amyloid (Aβ levels in Alzheimer's disease (AD. Clinical development of BACE1 inhibitors is being intensely pursued. However, little is known about the physiological functions of BACE1, and the possibility exists that BACE1 inhibition may cause mechanism-based side effects. Indeed, BACE1-/- mice exhibit a complex neurological phenotype. Interestingly, BACE1 co-localizes with presynaptic neuronal markers, indicating a role in axons and/or terminals. Moreover, recent studies suggest axon guidance molecules are potential BACE1 substrates. Here, we used a genetic approach to investigate the function of BACE1 in axon guidance of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs, a well-studied model of axon targeting in vivo. Results We bred BACE1-/- mice with gene-targeted mice in which GFP is expressed from the loci of two odorant-receptors (ORs, MOR23 and M72, and olfactory marker protein (OMP to produce offspring that were heterozygous for MOR23-GFP, M72-GFP, or OMP-GFP and were either BACE1+/+ or BACE1-/-. BACE1-/- mice had olfactory bulbs (OBs that were smaller and weighed less than OBs of BACE1+/+ mice. In wild-type mice, BACE1 was present in OSN axon terminals in OB glomeruli. In whole-mount preparations and tissue sections, many OB glomeruli from OMP-GFP; BACE1-/- mice were malformed compared to wild-type glomeruli. MOR23-GFP; BACE1-/- mice had an irregular MOR23 glomerulus that was innervated by randomly oriented, poorly fasciculated OSN axons compared to BACE1+/+ mice. Most importantly, M72-GFP; BACE1-/- mice exhibited M72 OSN axons that were mis-targeted to ectopic glomeruli, indicating impaired axon guidance in BACE1-/- mice. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that BACE1 is required for the accurate targeting of OSN axons and the proper formation of glomeruli in the OB, suggesting a role for BACE1 in

  10. Effect of cerebral blood flow on consciousness and outcome after head injury. Assessment by jugular bulb venous metabolism and IMP-SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was performed to elucidate the therapeutical value of arteriojugularvenous oxygen difference (AVDO2) in the ultra-emergent period after head injury. Rational therapeutic strategy after severe head injury needs information concerning the dynamical change of cerebral blood flow (CBF) and metabolism. We monitored the cerebral venous metabolism within 6 hours after head injury until the day IMP-SPECT was performed. Whole brain cerebral blood flow detected by IMP-SPECT and AVDO2 at the same day was compared, which restored to the period within 6 hours after head injury. From this procedure, we could outline cerebral blood flow conditions by only AVDO2 without IMP-SPECT in the ultra-emergent period. Eighty-six patients with head injury who were carried to our emergency center in the period of recent 2 years aged ranging from 15 to 94 years were the subjects. They all performed jugular bulb cannulation within 6 hours after the accident (Martin's phase I: day 0) to know saturation of jugular vein (SjO2), AVDO2 and AVL. They were monitored until the day IMP-SPECT was performed (Martin's phase II; day 1-3 or phase III; day 4-15). The correlation between CBF and AVDO2. The effect of CBF and cerebral venous metabolism on consciousness and outcome was also analyzed. CBF and AVDO2 in phase II and III were reversely correlated (p2. AVDO2 in all cases changed 6.2 vol% at phase I, 4.5 vol% at phase II and 5.1 vol% at phase III. Glasgow comascale (GCS) on admission under 8 (n=47) and over 9 (n=39) significantly differed in AVDO2 and CBF in the period of II and III. The patients with favorable consciousness showed low AVDO2 and hyperemia afterwards. Dead cases in phase I (n=19) showed high AVDO2 and low SjO2. The patients with severe disability (SD) (n=13) showed high AVDO2 and low CBF and the patients with good recovery (GR) showed low AVDO2 and high CBF in phase II and III. GCS on admission correlated with AVDO2 and CBF afterward. Only dead case was correlated with

  11. 荞麦叶大百合鳞茎大小与基生叶的生长关系%Relationship between Bulb Sizes and Basal Leaves’ Growth Rhythm of Cardiocrinum cathayanum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪小飞; 周志光; 王蕾

    2014-01-01

    通过对荞麦叶大百合( Cardiocrinum cathayanum)的仿生栽培与观测,研究鳞茎大小与基生叶生长的关系。结果表明,荞麦叶大百合基生叶的生长变化遵从“S”形曲线,生长最快的时期是3月17日至3月23日,基生叶面积与鳞茎平均直径遵循y=60.856x-48.711的极显著线性关系。%Through the bionic cultivation , observations and measurements of Cardiocrinum cathayanum, we studied the relation-ship between bulb sizes and basal leaves ’ growth rhythm.The basal leave growth rhythm of Cardiocrinum cathayanum obeies“S” curve.The fastest growing period is from March 17th to March 23 rd.The basal leaf area and the average diameter of bulbs follows highly significant linear relationship of y=60.856x-48.711.

  12. Estimativa de dimensões de bulbo molhado em irrigação por gotejamento superficial aplicando modelo de superfície de resposta Estimate of wetted bulb dimensions in surface drip irrigation using response surface model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celsemy Eleutério Maia

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available As informações de profundidade e largura do bulbo molhado na irrigação localizada são importantes tanto para o dimensionamento, quanto para o manejo da irrigação, auxiliando na determinação da quantidade de água aplicada para a planta. Com o objetivo de avaliar o modelo de superfície de resposta, para estimar as dimensões do bulbo molhado em função da vazão do emissor e do tempo de aplicação de água, foram instalados experimentos em seis solos. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que o modelo proposto pode ser utilizado para estimar as dimensões do bulbo molhado.The information of depth and width in wetted zone soil under drip irrigation plays great significance in design and management in the irrigation system for the amount of water required to the plant. For that, six experiments were installed in different soils with the objective of evaluating the dimensions of the wet bulb in the drip irrigation depending on the emitter discharged and of the water application time, using the power model. The obtained results showed that the proposed model can be used to estimate the dimensions of the wetted bulb for the all soils.

  13. The Influence on Lighting and Thermal Performance Deriving from Different Structures and Materials of LED Fluorescent Lamps and LED Bulbs%结构材料对LED日光灯及LED球泡灯光热性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范夏雷; 金尚忠; 陈建锋; 朱伯明

    2015-01-01

    Through experimental tests,we compared and analyzed the lighting and thermal performance of typical LED fluorescent lamps and LED bulbs in the market.We found that all-glass structure LED fluorescent lamps perform best in optical measurement parameters and all -plastic structure LED fluorescent lamps do well in the stability of color coordinates.Different ways of chips arrangement affect the stability of optical measurement parameters and color coordinates.We compared and analyzed the influence of different materials in LED fluorescent lamps and LED bulbs so that we could provide the reasons for selecting the cooling materials.%通过实验研究,对比分析了当前市场上的典型LED日光灯和LED球泡灯的光热性能.全玻璃结构LED日光灯在光度量参数上表现最好,全塑料结构LED日光灯的颜色坐标稳定性最好.不同的芯片排布方式影响LED球泡灯的光度量和颜色坐标稳定性.对比分析了不同散热材料对LED日光灯和LED球泡灯散热性能的影响,为散热材料的选用提供依据.

  14. 电生理法对豚鼠副嗅球功能分区的显示%Functional subdivisions of the guinea pig accessory olfactory bulb revealed by electrophysiology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余青松; 须贝外喜夫

    2001-01-01

    目的:探讨豚鼠副嗅球(AOB)是否存在多个功能分区。方法:在豚鼠副嗅球矢状位切片上,将双钨电极插入副嗅球前部或后部的犁鼻神经纤维层(VNL),以单个方波刺激传入神经纤维,用玻璃微电极记录AOB前部或后部外橄状层(EPL)细胞外场电位。结果:电刺激VNL,可在EPL记录到典型的衰减性场电位,且后EPL记录到的场电位的持续时间较前部分明显延长。刺激前VNL仅在前EPL记录到场电位,而刺激后VNL只在后EPL记录到场电位。结论:豚鼠副嗅球可分为前后两个亚区,两区存在解剖学上的差异,说明在犁鼻系统中至少存在两个不同的传入-传出通路。%Objective:To elucidate possible functional subdivisions in the guinea pig accessory olfactory bulb.Method:The guinea pig accessory olfactory bulbs were cut in sagittal slice.Bipolar tungsten electrodes were inserted into anterior or posterior vomeronasal nerve layers and single square-pulses were delivered through the eletrodes to activate afferent fibres.Glass microelectrodes were used to record extracellular field potentials of anterior or posterior external plexiform layers.Result:A single shook of the VNL provoked a characteristic damped oscillatory field potential and the oscillation in the pAOB was more distinct in wave form and longer in duration than those in the aAOB.The stimulation of anterior VNL elicited field potentials exelusively in the anterior region of EPL,whereas shocks to the posterior VNL provoked oscillatory responses only within the posterior EPL.Conclusion:The accessory olfactory bulb in the guinea-pig is distinctly segregated into the anterior and posterior subdivisions and an anatomical boundary exists in both regions.The results suggested that there are at least two different input-output pathways in vomeronasal systems.

  15. Pathogen identification from soft rot disease of onion bulbs in Jiayuguan, Gansu province%甘肃省嘉峪关市洋葱鳞茎软腐病病原鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕和平; 魏晖; 漆永红; 张彦梅; 曹素芳; 杨发荣; 李敏权; 沈慧敏

    2013-01-01

    结合形态学与分子生物学特征对甘肃省嘉峪关市洋葱鳞茎软腐病病原种类进行了鉴定,在KB培养基上对两株典型菌株的菌落形态和培养特征进行了观察和描述,16S rDNA序列测定和同源性比对结果表明两菌株的16SrDNA序列分别与GenBank数据库已知胡萝卜软腐果胶杆菌胡萝卜亚种和格氏沙雷氏菌的序列同源性均达99%,其片段大小分别为1 386 bp和1 379 bp.致病性测定结果表明,2种菌均能引起洋葱鳞茎软腐病,且洋葱基部的发病程度高于顶部,其中胡萝卜软腐果胶杆菌胡萝卜亚种的致病力强于格氏沙雷氏菌.按柯赫氏法则初步确定甘肃省嘉峪关市洋葱鳞茎软腐病病原种类为胡萝卜软腐果胶杆菌胡萝卜亚种和格氏沙雷氏菌2种,由格氏沙雷氏菌引起的洋葱鳞茎软腐病属首次报道.本研究将为洋葱软腐病的防治提供理论依据.%A severe soft rot disease of onion (Allium cepa) bulbs occurred in Jiayuguan,Gansu province.The causal agent was isolated and identified based on morphological characteristics of two strains on KB culture medium and on molecular characters.The 16S rDNA region of the two strains had homoeology with the known species Serratia grimesii and Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp.carotovorum from the GenBank database.The sequence lengths were 1 379 bp and 1 386 bp,respectively with a maximum similarity of 99%and 100%.Both strains caused soft rot disease on onion bulbs in pathogenicity tests.The disease index from roots was higher than that from the tops and P.carotovorum subsp.carotovorum was more pathogenic than S.grimesii.The pathogens causing soft rot disease on onion bulbs in Jiayuguan,Gansu province were P.carotovorum subsp.carotovorum and S.grimesii.This is the first report of S.grimesii causing soft rot disease on onion bulbs and this study should provide a theoretical basis for controlling this disease.

  16. Fumigant Toxicity of Crushed Bulbs of Two Allium Species to Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius (Coleoptera: Bruchidae Toxicidad Fumigante para Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabriciu (Coleoptera: Bruchidae de Bulbos Trozados de Especies Allium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.I Ofuya

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Fumigant toxicity of crushed fresh bulbs of Allium sativum L. and A. cepa L. to the Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius, a major pest of stored cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. seeds was assessed under laboratory conditions in Akure, Nigeria. In the tests, 20 g of infested cowpea seeds were suspended in a piece of muslin cloth, over an amount of crushed bulb in a container with a tightly fitted lid. Adult emergence was completely prevented from freshly laid eggs of C. maculatus on cowpea seeds that was fumigated with 6.0 g or more of crushed bulbs of A. sativum. Such fumigated seeds were not holed at all. Other amounts of A. sativum tested (1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0 and 5.0 g significantly reduced C. maculatus adult emergence from fumigated eggs and seed holing in comparison with the control. Crushed A. sativum was ineffective in preventing adult emergence from fumigated C. maculatus larvae in seeds. The fumigant effect of crushed A. cepa did not kill all C. maculatus eggs. An amount of 7.0 g significantly reduced C. maculatus adult emergence from fumigated eggs and seed holing in comparison with the control. There is good prospect in using crushed bulbs of A. sativum> as fumigant in C. maculatus control in stored cowpea seeds.Se evaluó la toxicidad fumigante de bulbos frescos trozados de Allium sativum L. y A. cepa L. sobre Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius, una importante plaga de semilla almacenada de caupí Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. bajo condiciones de laboratorio en Akure, Nigeria. En las pruebas, 20 g de semillas infestadas se suspendieron en un trozo de tela sobre cierta cantidad de bulbos trozados en un contenedor con una tapa ajustada. Se previno completamente la emergencia de adultos desde huevos recién puestos de C. maculatus en semillas de caupí que se fumigaron con 6,0 g o más de bulbos de A. sativum. Estas semillas fumigadas no estaban ahuecadas. Otras cantidades de A. sativum probadas (1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0 y 5.0 g redujeron

  17. 大功率高频无极灯灯泡生产工艺的设计%Design on the Bulb Production Technique of High-power High-frequency Electrodeless Lamp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨一平; 程改青

    2011-01-01

    大功率高频无极灯光效高、寿命长,节能效果显著。但其灯泡较高的工艺要求一直是阻碍其批量生产的难题。通过探讨大功率高频无极灯灯泡的生产工艺及设计,可为大功率高频无极灯的发展提供技术上的支撑。%Due to its high luminous efficacy and tong lifetime the high-power high-frequency electrodeless lamp has remarkable energy saving effect. But the higher requirements for bulb production process have become the challenges for volume production. The article

  18. A Teaching Design and Practice of Scientific Inquiry Using Lighting Bulbs as Props%以通电灯泡为道具的科学探究课的教学设计及实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李科敏

    2012-01-01

    A scientific inquiry using lighting bulbs as props is designed and organized. Students have not only learned the knowledge of the heat transfer ancl the operation ability , but the language ability , the inspiration of discovery and the principle of integrating theory with practice in the process of scientific research has been developed.%设计并组织了一场以通电灯泡为道具的科学探究课,学生在开展科学探究的过程中,既学到了热传递方面的科学知识,锻炼了实验操作能力,又训练了语言表达能力,培养了探索精神和理论联系实际的作风。

  19. 植物激素对百合鳞片愈伤组织生长的影响%Influence of Hormone on Callus Growth of Nove Cento's Bulb

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙君社; 方晓华

    2001-01-01

    在植物细胞全能性学说的基础上,采用单因子实验,分析比较了细胞分裂素6-BA,生长素2,4-D,生长素NAA等3种植物激素对路易圣特百合鳞茎愈伤组织生长的影响。实验结果表明,诱导愈伤的最佳培养基为MS+6-BA(0.05mg*L-1)+2,4-D(1.0mg*L-1)+NAA(0.1mg*L-1),6-BA的质量浓度为1.0mg*L-1时有利于芽的形成,NAA质量浓度为0.05mg*L-1时有利于形成小鳞茎。%On the basis of plant cell's totipotency theory, choose one-factor trial and analyze the influence of three hormone, which are cell mitogen (6-BA) auxin (2,4-D) and auxin (NAA) to the callus growth of Nove Cento's bulb. Meanwhile compare the 6-BA with the other two kinds of hormone, and get the best agar medium to callus induction: MS+6-BA(0.05mg*L-1)+2,4-D(1.0mg*L-1)+NAA(0.1mg*L-1) When the concentration of 6-BA comes to 1.0mg*L-1, it's good for the gernination of sprout and when the concentration of NAA is 0.05mg*L-1, it's good to form new little bulb.

  20. EFEITO DA COBERTURA MORTA NO CRESCIMENTO E NA PRODUÇÃO DO ALHO (Allium sativum L. THE EFFECT OF THE MULCHING IN THE GROWTH AND BULB PRODUCTION OF GARLIC (Allium sativum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jácomo Divino Borges

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Foi avaliado o efeito das coberturas mortas do solo: palha de arroz, casca de arroz, cepilho de madeira, grama cortada e folhas de árvores, no crescimento e na produção do alho (Allium sativum L. cultivar Cateto Roxo. Os tratamentos de cobertura do solo foram feitos logo após o plantio e em camada suficiente apenas para cobrir o solo. Concluiu-se que a cobertura morta favoreceu o crescimento inicial e a produção de bulbos. Os materiais testados em cobertura do solo mostraram-se equivalentes, porém com tendência para o tratamento com casca de arroz superar os demais.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Alho; AIlium sativum; cobertura morta dos solos; produção.

    The effect of flue mulching in the growth and bulb production of garlic (Allium sativum L. cv. ‘Cateto Roxo’, was evaluated. The soil cover treatments: rice straw, rice husk, smoothing plane, cut grass and dry leaves of tree, was done just after planting and in layers just to cover the soil. It was concluded that mulching favoured initial growing and bulb production. Tested materials were showed to be equivalent however with tendency to rice husk overcome the other ones.

    KEY-WORDS: Garlic; production; mulching; growth.

  1. 成年大鼠嗅球嗅鞘细胞的纯化实验%Purifying olfactory ensheathing cells from the olfactory bulb of adult rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱仲庚; 吴小涛; 蒋赞利

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The diversity of purification procedures resulting in various purities of olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) used for grafting is considered to be relevant in the effectiveness of OECs transplant. It is important to develop a well-defined method which produces OECs of great purity and is easy to unify for the future standardization of research involving OECs.OBJECTIVE: To establish a method being easy to unify for purifying OECs to acquire highly and uniformly enriched population of OECs for standardized studies on cell transplantation.DESIGN: Randomized and controlled experiment.SETTING: Department of Orthopaedics, Affiliated Zhongda Hospital of Southeast University School of Clinical Medicine;Central Laboratory of Southeast University School of Clinical Medicine; Experimental Animal Center of Southeast University School of Clinical Medicine.MATERIALS: This experiment was carried out in the Central Laboratory of Southeast University School of Clinical Medicine from February to August 2006. Twenty-eight adult female SD rats weighing 200-250 g were selected in this study. The main reagents were detailed as follows: DMEM/F-12 (GIBCO); 2.5 g/L trypsin (GIBCO); poly-L-lysine (SIGMA); bovine pituitary extract (BPE, SIGMA); fetal bovine serum (FBS, Sijiqing Biological Agent Co., Ltd., Hangzhou);rabbit anti-low-affinity nerve growth factor receptor (anti-P75, SIGMA); biotinylated goat anti-rabbit IgG (Boster Bioengineering Co., Ltd., Wuhan); methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) kit (SIGMA).METHODS: Primary cultures of OECs were separated from adult SD rats olfactory bulbs. At day 8 in vitro, the primary cultures were divided randomly into 4 groups, namely differential adhesion method group, immunoadsorption method group,the modified method group,and control group.①The cell suspension in the modified method group was seeded into uncoated flasks and incubated at 37 ℃ in 0.05 volume fraction of CO2 for 1 hours. The supematants were seeded into flasks that had

  2. Growth Regularity and Bulb Propagation Techniques of Lilies in Open Field%露地栽培条件下百合的生长规律及种球繁殖技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王莹; 王良桂; 黄成名; 李玉帆; 袁素霞; 刘春; 明军

    2014-01-01

    Objective] The growth regularity and bulb propagation techniques of the 2 lily groups under the open conditions was studied in order to provide reference for highly efficiency, low cost, large-scale production and landscape planting application.[Method]Using Lilium lancifolium, Lilium‘Yelloween’as materials, the phenophase and the morphology were observed, curve of the measured data of plant height and bud was fitted by logistic equation and exponential equation, the growth model was constructed, meanwhile, the bud picking experience was designed, planting direction and planting density were studied to find out the growth effect of the bulb.[Result]The result showed that, there was a big difference between L. lancifolium and‘Yelloween’on the phenophase. L. lancifolium bloomed later, needed higher active accumulated temperature which was 4 256℃, but‘Yelloween’ needed only about 4 981.5℃. For L. lancifolium, the plant height equation was y=97.5949/(1+e^-(x-62.6822)/22.8819), the diameter equation was y=0.1578e^(0.0358x), the length equation was y=90.2066/(1+e^-(x-117.1807)/8.7295), which were accorded with logistic equation. For ‘Yelloween’, the plant height equation was y=70.3771/(1+e^-(x-19.1133)/9.5840), the bud’s diameter equation was y=41.2215/(1+e^-(x-65.9236)/17.1028), bud length equation was y=158.9531/(1+e^-(x-62.9011)/9.7562), which were accorded or similar with the exponential equation. The bud picking experience showed that picked the bud on the blooming day achieved the best effect on‘Yelloween’, the average fresh weight of bulb was 89.71 g, and 18.93 cm in bulb circumference, no bud picking was the best way for L. lancifolium, with the average fresh weight of bulb was 87.59 g. Planted in NS-trending direction increased the height and steam diameter slight. The best planting spacing of‘Yelloween’was 10 cm×20 cm, then the production was 26 936 kg per 667 m2, which was considered as the best yield, then the bulb

  3. Comparison and Characterization of Garlic (Allium sativum L.) Bulbs Extracts and Their Effect on Mortality and Repellency of Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) Comparación y Caracterización de Extractos de Bulbos de Ajo (Allium sativum L.) y su Efecto en a Mortalidad y Repelencia de Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Augusto Hincapié Ll; Gloria Eugenia López P; Ricardo Torres Ch

    2008-01-01

    Tetranychus urticae Koch is a pest that causes great economic losses because it attacks a wide range of host plants. Also, some populations have developed resistance against commercial acaricides. This work compares different extracts from garlic (Allium sativum L.) bulbs measuring their toxicity and repellency effects on T. urticae. Extracts were obtained using as solvents CO2 in supercritical conditions (CSC), ethanol and petroleum ether using soxhlet and soaking methods and soaking in wate...

  4. Desenvolvimento de plantas, produção e qualidade de bulbos de alho sob condições de deficiência de água no solo Plant growth, yield and quality of garlic bulbs under soil water deficit conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldir A. Marouelli

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o comportamento de plantas de alho submetidas a diferentes níveis de água no solo, em dois estádio de desenvolvimento. O experimento foi conduzido na Embrapa Hortaliças, Brasília, DF. Os tratamentos, dispostos em esquema fatorial 4 x 4, resultaram da combinação de quatro tensões de água no solo no estádio vegetativo (20; 40; 80 e 160 kPa e quatro no de bulbificação (20; 40; 80 e 160 kPa. Plantas submetidas à deficiência hídrica, em qualquer dos estádios, tiveram o desenvolvimento, a produtividade comercial, o tamanho médio de bulbos e a eficiência do uso de água reduzidos em até 70%, 63%, 31% e 57%, respectivamente. O crescimento de plantas e a produtividade de bulbos foram negativamente afetados mesmo para condições de deficiência moderada de água no solo (40 kPa. O número de bulbos por unidade de área foi reduzido linearmente apenas quando as plantas foram submetidas à deficiência hídrica no estádio vegetativo. As percentagens de bulbos pseudoperfilhados, de chochos e de perda de massa de bulbos não foram afetadas significativamente por tensões entre 20 e 160 kPa.The experiment was carried out at Embrapa Hortaliças, Brasília, Brazil, aiming to evaluate the response of garlic plants to different water regimes in the soil at two development stages. Treatments, arranged in a factorial scheme 4 x 4, resulted from the combination of four water tensions in the vegetative stage (20; 40; 80; and 160 kPa and four in the bulbfication (20; 40; 80; and 160 kPa. Plants submitted to soil water deficits in any crop stage had the vegetative growth, marketable yield, bulb size, and water use efficiency reduced up to 70%, 63%, 31%, and 57%, respectively. Plant vegetative growth and bulb yield were negatively affected even for moderate water deficit in the soil (40 kPa.The number of bulbs per unit of area was linearly reduced only when the plants were submitted to water deficits in the vegetative stage. Percentage of

  5. Influência do azoto no crescimento da cebola antes do inicio da formação do bolbo Influence of nitrogen on onion growth before bulb initiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Manuel de Almeida Machado

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objectivo estudar a influência da aplicação de azoto, em pré-plantação, em dois solos distintos, no crescimento aéreo e radical de cebolas de dia curto (cv. Minuetaka, entre a transplantação e o início da formação do bolbo. Para o efeito, realizou-se um ensaio em vasos com 10 tratamentos: dois solos (argilo-arenoso e arenoso e cinco níveis de azoto (0, 10, 30, 40 e 50 kg de N ha-1 aplicados antes da plantação. O crescimento aéreo e radical da cebola, entre a transplantação e o início da formação do bolbo, não foi influenciado pelo nível de azoto, nem pela interacção nível de azoto * tipo de solo. Assim, o azoto fornecido pelo solo (9 kg solo vaso-1, residual e proveniente da mineralização da matéria orgânica, mais o azoto inserido pela água de rega (20 mg N planta-1 foi suficiente para o crescimento das plantas antes do início da formação do bolbo. O tipo de solo afectou significativamente o crescimento e a alocação de matéria seca. A biomassa das plantas no solo argilo-arenoso foi 30 % superior à do arenoso, mas a biomassa das raízes, o comprimento radical total e específico e a alocação de matéria seca nas raízes foram maiores no solo arenoso. O comprimento radical total das plantas no solo arenoso (43,74 m foi 2,3 vezes superior ao do argilo-arenoso (19,26 m.The effect of nitrogen application prior transplanting on aboveground growth and root growth of the short- day onions (cv. Mineutaka, from transplanting to bulb initiation was studied in a pot experiment. The pot experiment was carried out with ten treatments, including two soil types (clay-sandy and sandy soil and five levels of N application (0, 10, 30, 40 and 50 kg N ha-1 applied prior transplanting. Aboveground and root growth and biomass allocation (root: shoot ratio were not significantly affected by nitrogen level or interaction nitrogen level * soil type. The residual soil inorganic N and the released N from

  6. 叶片尾部形状对双向贯流式水轮机性能的影响%Effect of blade tail’s shape on hydraulic performance of bidirectional bulb turbine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑小波; 翁凯; 王玲军

    2015-01-01

    为了研究双向贯流式水轮机反向工况效率低下的问题,该文以某带有后置导叶的双向贯流式机组为对象,针对不同形状和不同厚度的叶片尾部,分析了反向工况下叶片尾部对机组性能的影响。采用 UG 建模软件对机组进行几何建模,基于CFX软件,采用SST k-ω湍流模型对不同形状和厚度的叶片尾部的转轮进行了数值模拟。结果表明:反向工况下采用圆形尾部的叶片其机组效率为59.55%,高于矩形尾部的58.4%和弧形尾部的58.01%,说明反向工况下矩形尾部和弧形尾部的冲击损失较大。增加叶片尾部厚度对机组反向工况的效率提高较为明显,其效率最高能抬高到79%,但叶片尾部厚度增加到一定程度后效率不再增加,叶片尾部厚度的增加使得反向工况下叶片尾部最低压力值降低了1.2×106 Pa,对其反向工况下的空化性能有较大影响,且增加了正向工况运行是出现卡门涡的概率。研究成果为双向贯流式水轮机反向工况下叶片尾部形状的优化设计提供了经验参考。%Tidal power is pollution-free renewable energy and an effective way to reduce coal consumption and guarantee normal social electricity consumption in China. Bidirectional bulb turbine is widely used in tidal power station. Scholars at home and abroad have carried out extensive researches in bidirectional tubular turbine in terms of internal blade clearance flow, the occurrence and location of cavitation and blade airfoil optimization .Scholars in China firstly put forward improving the operating efficiency of the bidirectional tubular turbine under the reverse working condition by means of setting rear guide vanes. In order to solve the low efficiency problem under the reverse condition in bidirectional bulb turbine, how blade tail affected the units' hydraulic performance under reverse working condition by studying bade tails of different shapes and different

  7. Efeitos de doses de nitrogênio e potássio e densidade populacional sobre a classificação de bulbos de cebola Effect of onion bulb classification as a result of nitrogen and potassium levels and planting density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André May

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available O efeito de doses de nitrogênio e de potássio e da população de plantas foi avaliado na classificação de bulbos de duas cultivares de cebola. Os tratamentos foram arranjados em esquema fatorial 2 x 4 x 4 x 4, correspondentes a, respectivamente, cultivares (Optima e Superex, nitrogênio (0; 50; 100 e 150 kg ha-1 de N, potássio (0; 75; 150 e 225 kg ha-1 de K2O e população de plantas (60; 76; 92 e 108 plantas m-2. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi de blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições. Os fertilizantes utilizados foram nitrato de amônio e cloreto de potássio para o fornecimento de N e K, respectivamente. A aplicação de nitrogênio e de potássio reduziu para aproximadamente zero a porcentagem de bulbos não-comerciais para as duas cultivares. A maior percentagem de bulbos com diâmetro transversal entre 50 e 70 mm foi alcançada com 60 plantas m-2 e com a aplicação de 150 kg ha-1 de N, principalmente para a Superex. As maiores porcentagens de bulbos duplos ocorreram na cultivar Superex, com a aplicação de 150 kg ha-1 de N (17% do total de bulbos produzidos e sob população de 60 plantas m-2 (22% do total de bulbos.The effect of nitrogen and potassium fertilizer doses and planting densities were evaluated in bulb classification of two onion cultivars. The treatments were arranged in factorial 2 x 4 x 4 x 4, respectively correspondent by cultivars (Optima and Superex, nitrogen (0; 50; 150 and 150 kg ha-1 of N, potassium (0; 75; 150 and 225 kg ha-1 of K2O and planting density (60; 76; 92 and 108 plants m-2. The experimental design was of randomized blocks, with four replications The fertilizers ammonium nitrate and potassium chloride were employed to provide N and K, respectively. The nitrogen and potassium application reduced to near to zero the incidence of non-comercial bulbs in both cultivars. The largest percentage of bulbs measuring 50 to 70 mm was reached with 60 plants m-2 and application of 150 kg ha-1 of N

  8. Efecto del Fosfito de Potasio en Combinación con el Fungicida Metalaxyl + Mancozeb en el Control de Mildeo Velloso (Peronospora destructor Berk en Cebolla de Bulbo (Allium cepa L. Effect of the Potasium Phosphite in Combination with the Fungicide Metalaxyl plus Mancozeb on the Control of Downy Mildew (Peronospora destructor Berk in Onion Bulb (Allium cepa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Velandia Monsalve

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumen. El hongo Peronospora destructor causa considerables pérdidas en la producción de cebolla de bulbo en el mundo. Fosfito de potasio en combinación con el fungicida Metalaxyl + Mancozeb, fue evaluado por su eficiencia en el control de este patógeno en el híbrido de cebolla de bulbo Yellow Granex. Los tratamientos consistieron en una aplicación de fosfito (5 mL L-1 alternada con una de fungicida (2 g L-1; dos y tres aplicaciones consecutivas de fosfito alternadas con una de fungicida; una aplicación de fungicida alternada con una de fosfito; dos y tres aplicaciones consecutivas de fungicida alternadas con una de fosfito; aplicaciones de sólo fosfito y sólo fungicida y un testigo. Se utilizó el diseño experimental de bloques completos al azar con tres repeticiones. Se evaluó la incidencia y severidad de la enfermedad, el número, tamaño y peso de bulbos de primera, segunda, tercera y peso total de bulbos. Los resultados mostraron que las aplicaciones de fosfito de potasio durante dos semanas consecutivas alternadas en la tercera semana con una de fungicida y las aplicaciones semanales de sólo fosfito, tuvieron efectos altamente significativos en el control de la incidencia y severidad de P. destructor y diferencias significativas en el peso de los bulbos de primera (28,1 y 27,9 t ha-1 y peso total de bulbos (55,5 y 52,1 t ha-1, representando en relación al testigo, un incremento de 200 y 196% en el peso de los bulbos de primera y de 55 y 45,7% en el peso total de bulbos, respectivamente. Se concluye que con el fosfito de potasio se reduce la aplicación de fungicidas y ello es una alternativa viable para el manejo ecológico de P. destructor en la producción de cebolla de bulbo.Abstract. Peronospora destructor fungi causes considerable loses in the production of onion bulb in the world. Potassium phosphite in combination with the fungicide Metalaxyl + Mancozeb was evaluated for its efficiency in the control of this pathogen

  9. Aplicação foliar de tratamentos para o controle do míldio e da podridão-de-escamas de bulbos de cebola Foliar spray of treatments in the control of downy mildew and bulb rot in onion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Américo Wordell Filho

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Em experimento de campo, avaliou-se o efeito da aplicação foliar de tratamentos para o controle do míldio (Peronospora destructor e da podridão de bulbos (Burkholderia cepacia de cebola: testemunha, clorotalonil/metalaxyl + clorotalonil, fosfito de potássio, fertilizante foliar (03-00-16, N-P-K, calda bordalesa, calda bordalesa/fosfito de potássio, acibenzolar-S-methyl, pulverizados semanalmente; extrato de alga (Ulva fasciata e ulvana, aplicados a cada 7, 14 e 21 dias. Somente a pulverização semanal com fungicidas sintéticos ou com o fertilizante (03-00-16; 400 mL de p.c./100 L foi capaz de reduzir significativamente a severidade do míldio, em 60 ou 23%, respectivamente, em relação à testemunha não pulverizada, sem aumentar o rendimento de bulbos. O tratamento com fertilizantes ricos em potássio resultou em maior incidência da podridão de bulbos armazenados por cinco meses. O conteúdo de açúcares solúveis e incidência da podridão de bulbos de cebola foram correlacionados significativamente (-0,629, p A field experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of foliar sprays with the following treatments on the downy mildew (Peronospora destructor and bulb rot (Burkholderia cepacia in onions: non-treated control, fungicide chlorotalonil/metalaxyl + chlorotalonil, potassium phosphite, foliar fertilizer (03-00-16, N-P-K, bordeaux mixture, bordeaux mixture/potassium phosphite, acibenzolar-S-methyl weekly applied; extract of alga Ulva fasciata and ulvan sprayed every 7, 14 and 21 days. Only the weekly spraying of fungicides and fertilizer (03-00-16, 400 mL/100 L significantly reduced the mildew severity by 60 and 23%, respectively, but did not increase the bulb yield. The foliar application of potassium rich fertilizers resulted in a higher incidence of rotten bulbs after 5 months in storage. Soluble sugar content and rot incidence of onion bulbs were significantly correlated (-0,629, p < 0,05.

  10. Two-piece hollow bulb obturator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subramaniam Elangovan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There are various types of obturator fabrication achievable by prosthodontist. Maxillectomy, which is a term used by head and neck surgeons and prosthodontists to describe the partial or total removal of the maxilla in patients suffering from benign or malignant neoplasms is a defect for which to provide an effective obturator is a difficult task for the maxillofacial prosthodontist. Multidisciplinary treatment planning is essential to achieve adequate retention and function for the prosthesis. Speech is often unintelligible as a result of the marked defects in articulation and nasal resonance. This paper describes how to achieve the goal for esthetics and phonetics and also describes the fabrication of a hollow obturator by two piece method, which is simple and maybe used as definitive obturator for maximum comfort of the patient.

  11. Olfactory bulb habituation to odor stimuli

    OpenAIRE

    Chaudhury, Dipesh; Manella, Laura; Arellanos, Adolfo; Escanilla, Olga; Cleland, Thomas A.; Linster, Christiane

    2010-01-01

    Habituation is a simple form of memory, yet its neurobiological mechanisms are only beginning to be understood in mammals. In the olfactory system, the neural correlates of habituation at a fast experimental timescale involving very short intertrial intervals (tens of seconds) have been shown to depend on synaptic adaptation in olfactory cortex. In contrast, behavioral habituation to odorants on a longer timescale with intertrial intervals of several minutes depends on processes in the olfact...

  12. Interspecific hybridization of flower bulbs: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuyl, van J.M.

    1997-01-01

    In order to introduce new characters such as resistances, flower shape and colour, from wild species into the cultivar assortment of lily it is necessary to overcome interspecific crossing barriers.. Several techniques have been used for wide interspecific lily crosses with species and cultivars fro

  13. Changing Light Bulbs: Practice, Motivation, and Autonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Jean A.

    2011-01-01

    The comment on the Ryan, Lynch, Vansteenkiste, and Deci (2011) article on motivation and autonomy in psychotherapy considers motivation and its role as prerequisite, process variable, or appropriate outcome, speculating that all are appropriate ways to conceptualize motivation in the behavior change process. Autonomy, as a useful addition, refers…

  14. One hundred prisoners and a light bulb

    CERN Document Server

    van Ditmarsch, Hans

    2015-01-01

    A group of 100 prisoners, all together in the prison dining area, are told that they will be all put in isolation cells and then will be interrogated one by one in a room containing a light with an on/off switch. The prisoners may communicate with one another by toggling the light switch (and that is the only way in which they can communicate). The light is initially switched off. There is no fixed order of interrogation, or interval between interrogations, and the same prisoner may be interrogated again at any stage. When interrogated, a prisoner can either do nothing, or toggle the light switch, or announce that all prisoners have been interrogated. If that announcement is true, the prisoners will (all) be set free, but if it is false, they will all be executed. While still in the dining room, and before the prisoners go to their isolation cells (forever), can the prisoners agree on a protocol that will set them free? At first glance, this riddle may seem impossible to solve: how can all of the necessary in...

  15. Produção de cebola de dias curtos no Alentejo. Influência da adubação localizada Short-day onion bulb yield in Alentejo. Influence of fertilizer band placement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Manuel Almeida Machado

    2008-12-01

    Spring Star” and “Mineutaka” and fertilizer application method at plantation (broadcasting and banding at 10 cm ± 2 depth, under the crop row. Fertilizer banding did not affect root density (cm cm-3 under the crop row, nor onion bulb yield which was 8.3 and 9.0 kg m-2 for “Spring Star” and “Mineutaka” respectively. Since the studied cultivars presented resistance to waterlogging and low temperature that occurred during the growing season with good production, short - day onion has great agronomical potential for Alentejo region. Additionally, having in consideration the growing season conditions, water will not be a limiting factor.

  16. Efeito do alho (Allium sativum Linn., probiótico e virginiamicina antes, durante e após o estresse induzido pela muda forçada em poedeiras semipesadas Effect of bulb garlic (Allium sativum Linn., probiotic and virginiamycin before, during and after induced forced molt stress in semi-heavily laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Humberto Vilar da Silva

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram realizados três experimentos com 336 poedeiras no segundo ciclo de produção e 24 meses de idade, alojadas em condições de criação comercial (550 cm²/ave. O objetivo foi avaliar o alho (5 kg/t, probiótico (300 g/t e a virginiamicina (20 g/t como aditivos de rações antes, durante e após o estresse induzido pela muda forçada (MF. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente ao acaso e os tratamentos usados foram: dieta controle (DC; DC+alho (A; DC+probiótico (P; DC+virginiamicina (V; DC+A+V; DC+A +P; DC+P+V; DC+A+P+V, constituídos por sete repetições de seis aves. O período pré-experimental foi de 15 dias e o fotoperíodo, de 17 horas de luz/dia. O ensaio 1 foi realizado em quatro semanas antes da MF, com as aves recebendo 110 g de ração contendo os aditivos. O ensaio 2 foi realizado durante os doze dias de MF, com as aves recebendo 10 g de milho moído, usado como veículo para diluir a dose dos aditivos consumida em 110 g de ração. O ensaio 3 foi realizado em seis semanas, durante o terceiro ciclo de produção, com as aves recebendo 110 g de ração, sem os aditivos, e as coletas tiveram início após as aves terem atingido 50% de postura. Antes da MF, o alho reduziu a massa de ovos em relação ao probiótico (48,2 vs. 39,8 g e, durante a MF, a virginiamicina e a mistura P+V reduziram a porcentagem de intestinos em relação ao alho (7,51 e 7,72 vs. 9,43, mas o peso e a porcentagem de baço não foram alterados. Após a MF, as variáveis não foram afetadas pelos tratamentos. Nas condições do experimento, os antimicrobianos usados não melhoram o desempenho de poedeiras antes, durante e após o estresse induzido pela MF em relação à ração sem aditivos.Three trials were carried out with 336 laying hens, aging 24 weeks and after second forced molt, caged in commercial conditions (550 cm²/bird to evaluate the use of bulb garlic (5 kg/t, probiotic (300 g/t and virginiamycin (20 g/t as additives in laying hens

  17. Effects of Shade on the Growth and the Photosvnthetic Characteristics of Different Seed Bulb Size of Cardiocrinum giganteum%遮阴对不同大小种球大百合生长与光合特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘筱; 赵景龙; 邓洁; 余婷; 张帆

    2011-01-01

    [目的]研究不同程度遮阴对不同种球大小的野生大百合(Cardiocrinum giganteum)生长发育和光合特性的影响,探讨野生大百合的引种驯化机制.[方法]将不同大小野生大百合按周径等级分类进行不同程度(0、45%、70%)的遮阴处理,处理13 d后进行各植株株高、叶片数的测量.处理46d时进行光合指标如净光合速率(Pn)、蒸腾速率(Tr)、胞间CO2浓度(Ci)、气孔导度(Gs)的测定并同步测定光合有效辐射(PAR)及叶温(TL).[结果]在45%遮阴处理下大百合具有较高的相对生长率、净光合速率、蒸腾速率和气孔导度,胞间CO2浓度较低.70%遮阴处理下大百合生理特性普遍优于全光照,但过度遮阴使光合速率降低,不利于其生长.此外,种球周径越大的大百合生长发育及生理特性相对更优.因此,生产上应用周径相对大的种球和适当调控光照强度,是大百合引种驯化的重要措施.[结论]该研究可以为大百合在城市园林中的应用提供理论依据.%[ Objective ] The aim was to study the effects of different degree shade on the growth and the photosynthetic characteristics of different seed bulb size of Cardiocrinum giganteum, discuss the mechanism of introduction and domestication of Cardiocrinum giganteum. [ Method] Cardiocrinum giganteum was treated under different shading levels ( 0, 45% ,70% ) according to its diameter grade. After treated 13 days, the plant height and leaf number were measured. At the time of treated 46 days, the photosynthetic indices such as net photosynthetic rate (Pn), transpiration rate ( Tr) , intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) , stomatal conductance (Gs) were determined, and synchronously determined photosynthetic active radiation (PAR) and leaf temperature (TL). [ Result] Cardiocrinum giganteum had high relative growth rate, net photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate and stomatal conductance, while intercellular CO2 concentration was low in 45

  18. Teor de fósforo e pH no bulbo molhado, com diferentes freqüências de fertirrigação, utilizando ácido fosfórico Phosphorous content and pH in the wet bulb, with diferent frequencies of fertigation using phosphoric acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia C. Foratto

    2007-08-01

    the wet bulb; pH of the soil until 30 cm from the drip and until 40 cm in depth was reduced, reaching value of 3.6 while the phosphorous values were higher in this same region of the bulb, exceeding 1,500 mg dm-3. These results allow indicating that the phosphoric acid can be used in localized irrigation systems, controlling soil pH, because low soil pH will be able to influence the development of the cultures and, consequently, the productivity.

  19. Comparison and Characterization of Garlic (Allium sativum L. Bulbs Extracts and Their Effect on Mortality and Repellency of Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae Comparación y Caracterización de Extractos de Bulbos de Ajo (Allium sativum L. y su Efecto en a Mortalidad y Repelencia de Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Augusto Hincapié Ll

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Tetranychus urticae Koch is a pest that causes great economic losses because it attacks a wide range of host plants. Also, some populations have developed resistance against commercial acaricides. This work compares different extracts from garlic (Allium sativum L. bulbs measuring their toxicity and repellency effects on T. urticae. Extracts were obtained using as solvents CO2 in supercritical conditions (CSC, ethanol and petroleum ether using soxhlet and soaking methods and soaking in water. The supercritical fluid extraction technique allows for obtaining extracts at low temperature using high pressures, avoiding compound degradation and making possible solvent separation by exposing the extract at room temperature. Mites were bred on bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L. in a laboratory environment in Laureles Campus, Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana, Medellín, Colombia. Mortality was evaluated putting 10 mites in P. vulgaris 3 cm diameter leaf discs previously submersed in the extract. The lowest mean lethal concentrations (LC50 were obtained with the CSC method (8.1188, 5.4105, 2.8206 mg g-1 at 24, 48 and 72 h, respectively. Extracts were characterized using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS, finding vinyl dithiins (63.11%, diallyl disulfide (10.88% and diallyl trisulfide (10.4% as the main compounds in the CSC extract. The main conclusion is that, in comparison with other techniques of extraction from garlic bulbs used in this study, supercritical fluids allow for obtaining extracts with a higher concentration of biologically active compounds against T. urticae.Tetranychus urticae Koch es una plaga que causa grandes pérdidas económicas porque ataca un numeroso grupo de cultivos. Además, algunas poblaciones han desarrollado resistencia a acaricidas comerciales. Este trabajo compara diferentes extractos a partir de bulbos de ajo (Allium sativum L. a través de su toxicidad y repelencia sobre T. urticae. Los extractos se

  20. Simultaneous determination of the major isosteroidal alkaloids and their glucosides in the bulbs of Fritillaria by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with evaporative light scattering detection%HPLC-ELSD法测定贝母中异甾类生物碱及糖苷类成分的含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李萍; 曾令杰; 李松林; 毕志明; 林鸽

    2004-01-01

    目的建立同时测定贝母中5种异甾类生物碱--peimissine, imperialine, sinpeinine A, imperialine-3β-glucoside和yibeinoside A含量的HPLC分析方法.方法 C18柱;流动相:乙腈-水(含0.1%二乙胺);梯度洗脱,流速1.0 mL·min-1;检测器:Alltech 500蒸发光散射检测器(ELSD).结果线性范围为peimissine 13.1~288.2 mg·L-1(r2=0.997 5), imperialine-3β-glucoside 7.7~169.4 mg·L-1 (r2=0.999 3), yibeinoside A 7.3~160.6 mg·L-1 (r2=0.999 7), imperialine 16.5~363.0 mg·L-1 (r2=0.999 2), sinpeinine A 8.7~191.4 mg·L-1 (r2=0.994 2). 5个化合物的精密度和重现性RSD均<5%.结论本方法简便、有效、可行,可用于贝母中5种异甾类生物碱的含量测定.%Aim To establish an HPLC-ELSD method for the simultaneous determination of five major bioactive isosteroidal alkaloids and gluco-alkaloids in the bulbs of Fritillaria namely peimissine, imperialine, sinpeinine A, imperialine-3β-glucoside and yibeinoside A. Methods A Nova-Pak C18 column (150 mm×3.9 mm ID) was used. The chromatography was carried out with a linear gradient programming. The mobile phase was acetonitrile-water (containing 0.1% diethylamine) and the flow rate was 1.0 mL*min-1. Results The linear range of peimissine was 13.1-288.2 mg*L-1 (r2=0.997 5), imperialine-3β-glucoside 7.7-169.4 mg·L-1 (r2=0.999 3), yibeinoside A 7.3-160.6 mg·L-1 (r2=0.999 7), imperialine 16.5-363.0 mg·L-1 (r2=0.999 2), sinpeinine A 8.7-191.4 mg·L-1 (r2=0.994 2). Conclusion The method is accurate with overall intra- and inter-day variation less than 5% and recovery more than 95%. The method was successfully applied to analyze five major bioactive alkaloids and gluco-alkaloids in three Fritillaria bulbs.