WorldWideScience

Sample records for bulbs

  1. Bulb Miser

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    The Bulb-Miser was developed during NASA's Apollo program to protect the Saturn launch vehicle from electrical current surge. It is now being produced for the commercial market by Bulb-Miser, Inc., Houston, Texas. Technically known as a "temperature compensating thermistor," the Bulb-Miser is a simple, inexpensive device which looks like a washer about the size of a quarter. It is slipped between bulb and socket and can be used with any incandescent bulb that screws into a standard socket. In addition to delaying burnout, the Bulb-Miser also offers some reduction of electrical energy. But the economy of the device goes beyond energy use or bulb cost; to big users of bulbs, it makes possible substantially lower maintenance labor costs. One field test involving an apartment complex showed that it took two men 30 man hours monthly to replace light bulbs; after Bulb-Miser installation only nine man hours a month were needed. Bulb-Misers are used not only in private homes but also by hospitals, schools, hotels and motels, restaurants, banks and firms providing contract maintenance for large outdoor electric signs. The broadest use is in industrial facilities; the list of big companies which have purchased the Bulb-Miser reads like a Who's Who of American industry.

  2. Luminescence of carbon nanotube bulbs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI ChuanGang; WU DeHai; WANG KunLin; WEI JinQuan; WEI BingQing; ZHU HongWei; WANG ZhiCheng; LUO JianBin; LIU WenJin; ZHENG MingXin

    2007-01-01

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) bulbs made of decimeter-scale double-walled carbon nanotube (DWCNT) strands and films were fabricated and their luminescence properties, including the lighting efficiency, voltage-current relation and thermal stability were investigated. The results show that the DWCNT bulb has a comparable spectrum of visible light with tungsten bulb and its average efficiency is 40% higher than that of a tungsten filament at the same temperature (1400-2300 K). The nanotube filaments show both resistance and thermal stability over a large temperature region. No obvious damage was found for a nanotube bulb illuminating at 2300 K for more than 24 hours in vacuum.

  3. Closed suction drain with bulb

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000039.htm Closed suction drain with bulb To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A closed suction drain is used to remove fluids that build up ...

  4. Botrytis species on bulb crops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lorbeer, J.W.; Seyb, A.M.; Boer, de M.; Ende, van den J.E.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract. A number of Botrytis species are pathogens of bulb crops. Botrytis squamosa (teleomorph= Botrytotinia squamosa) causal agent of botrytis leaf blight and B. allii the causal agent of botrytis neck rot are two of the most important fungal diseases of onion. The taxonomics of several of the n

  5. How to handle and care for bulbs in ophthalmic equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismael Cordero

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Many devices used in eye care rely on light bulbs or lamps for their operation. All light bulbs have a limited lifespan and when the bulb fails the device becomes unusable. Therefore, knowing how to handle, how to inspect and how to replace bulbs is important. Just as important is keeping spare bulbs to hand!

  6. Fabricating a hollow bulb obturator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Sari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Obturators are generally used in the rehabilitation of the maxillectomy defects. Ideally, obturators should be light, properly fit and construction should be made easily. By decreasing the weight of the prosthesis, the retention and stability may be optimized to allow the obturator for function comfortably during mastication, phonation, and deglutition. In this case, a 65-year-old male patient underwent surgical removal of left part of the maxilla due to the squamous cell carcinoma. In this technique fabrication of a hollow bulb obturator prosthesis as a single unit in heat-cured acrylic resin using a single-step flasking procedure was described. The patient’s functional and esthetic expectations were satisfied.

  7. Olfactory bulb as an alternative in neurotransplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Руслан Романович Новиков

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the ethical and legal aspects of transplantation of embryonic neural tissue, structure of the rat olfactory bulb. It is given substantiation for its use as a possible alternative version of the embryonic neural tissue at damage in the cerebral hemispheres in the experiment.Materials and methods. Detailed description of the fault model of the cerebral hemispheres of the brain of rats, olfactory bulb biopsy procedure, cultivation of olfactory bulb suspension and fetal neural tissue, comparison of the functional aspects of transplantation of the olfactory bulb and the embryonic neural tissue.Results. The obtained data are similar to structure of olfactory bulb and fetal tissues during culturing. Recovery in the motor areas varies by the time factor and less intense in the group of the olfactory bulb and the group without tissue transplantation.Conclusions. Comparative analysis of the effectiveness of transplantation of embryonic neural tissue and olfactory bulb in the injured brain allows us to speak about the positive results of these groups to the difference in the duration of the recovery process

  8. A Method to Measure Humidity Based on Dry-Bulb and Wet-Bulb Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongping Huang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study tries to analyze the theory of measuring humidity based on dry-bulb and wet-bulb temperatures. And a theoretical formula is deduced for the calculation of relative humidity from dry-bulb and wet-bulb temperatures. Through analysis of the theoretical formula, a two-dimensional conversion table is produced to transform dry-bulb and wet-bulb temperatures into relative humidity. A method is proposed to obtain humidity by combining searching table and linear smoothing algorithm, which is suitable for rapid control. Error analysis and experimental data indicate that the relative error is less than 4%. The proposed method has certain value for humidity control in industrial control process.

  9. Jugular bulb diverticulum combined with high jugular bulb: a case report with CT and MRA findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Seog Wan [College of Medicine, Chonbuk National Univ., Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-12-01

    Jugular bulb diverticulum is a rare condition that is characterized by the outpouching of the jugular bulb, and this can lead to hearing loss, tinnitus and vertigo. A few reports have revealed the radiologic findings about jugular bulb diverticulum, but none of them have described the MRA findings concerning this lesion. We present here the CT and MR venography findings in regards to a large high jugular blub and diverticulum we observed in a 47-year-old woman.

  10. Light On the Behavior of Light Bulbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, H. L.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses a problem (on page 523 of "College Physics," by Sears, Zemansky, and Young, published by Addison-Wesley, 1980) concerning light bulbs and resistance. Shows why the assumption of constant resistance is unrealistic and provides guidelines for revision. (DH)

  11. Fuzzy linear programming for bulb production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siregar, I.; Suantio, H.; Hanifiah, Y.; Muchtar, M. A.; Nasution, T. H.

    2017-01-01

    The research was conducted at a bulb company. This company has a high market demand. The increasing of the market demand has caused the company’s production could not fulfill the demand due to production planning is not optimal. Bulb production planning is researched with the aim to enable the company to fulfill the market demand in accordance with the limited resources available. From the data, it is known that the company cannot reach the market demand in the production of the Type A and Type B bulb. In other hands, the Type C bulb is produced exceeds market demand. By using fuzzy linear programming, then obtained the optimal production plans and to reach market demand. Completion of the simple method is done by using software LINGO 13. Application of fuzzy linear programming is being able to increase profits amounted to 7.39% of the ordinary concept of linear programming.

  12. Neuronal organization of olfactory bulb circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin eNagayama

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Olfactory sensory neurons extend their axons solely to the olfactory bulb, which is dedicated to odor information processing. The olfactory bulb is divided into multiple layers, with different types of neurons found in each of the layers. Therefore, neurons in the olfactory bulb have conventionally been categorized based on the layers in which their cell bodies are found; namely, juxtaglomerular cells in the glomerular layer, tufted cells in the external plexiform layer, mitral cells in the mitral cell layer, and granule cells in the granule cell layer. More recently, numerous studies have revealed the heterogeneous nature of each of these cell types, allowing them to be further divided into subclasses based on differences in morphological, molecular, and electrophysiological properties. In addition, technical developments and advances have resulted in an increasing number of studies regarding cell types other than the conventionally categorized ones described above, including short-axon cells and adult-generated interneurons. Thus, the expanding diversity of cells in the olfactory bulb is now being acknowledged. However, our current understanding of olfactory bulb neuronal circuits is mostly based on the conventional and simplest classification of cell types. Few studies have taken neuronal diversity into account for understanding the function of the neuronal circuits in this region of the brain. This oversight may contribute to the roadblocks in developing more precise and accurate models of olfactory neuronal networks. The purpose of this review is therefore to discuss the expanse of existing work on neuronal diversity in the olfactory bulb up to this point, so as to provide an overall picture of the olfactory bulb circuit.

  13. Centrifugal innervation of the mammalian olfactory bulb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsutani, Shinji; Yamamoto, Noboru

    2008-12-01

    Although it has been known for decades that the mammalian olfactory bulb receives a substantial number of centrifugal inputs from other regions of the brain, relatively few data have been available on the function of the centrifugal olfactory system. Knowing the role of the centrifugal projection and how it works is of critical importance to fully understanding olfaction. The centrifugal fibers can be classified into two groups, a group that release neuromodulators, such as noradrenaline, serotonin, or acetylcholine, and a group originating in the olfactory cortex. Accumulating evidence suggests that centrifugal neuromodulatory inputs are associated with acquisition of odor memory. Because the distribution of the terminals on these fibers is diffuse and widespread, the neuromodulatory inputs must affect diverse subsets of bulbar neurons at the same time. In contrast, knowledge of the role of centrifugal fibers from the olfactory cortical areas is limited. Judging from recent morphological evidence, these fibers may modify the activity of neurons located in sparse and discrete loci in the olfactory bulb. Given the modular organization of the olfactory bulb, centrifugal fibers from the olfactory cortex may help coordinate the activities of restricted subsets of neurons belonging to distinct functional modules in an odor-specific manner. Because the olfactory cortex receives inputs from limbic and neocortical areas in addition to inputs from the bulb, the centrifugal inputs from the cortex can modulate odor processing in the bulb in response to non-olfactory as well as olfactory cues.

  14. Ship's stern bulb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allan, R.G.; Diepen, P.J.

    1988-06-07

    This invention relates to the propulsion of self-propelled vessels, and in particular to the form of a ship's stern. The invention describes a new and distinctive form of bulbous-shaped stern from which, unlike other stern bulbs developed to date, does not fair into the hull, instead intersecting it to create a sharp discontinuity between surfaces. This discontinuity creates a turbulent zone along the said intersection, allowing the wake to reorganize and to follow in a desired pattern the bulb's shape in the proximity of the propeller. Thus a more uniform wake field is formed within the propeller disc, consequently improving propeller efficiency and reducing propeller induced vibration. These effects, which result in improved quietness and overall efficiency of a running propeller, along with other improved characteristics, have been confirmed by a preliminary series of model tests. The form of the bulb, and its attendant benefits, are described.

  15. Organic Flower Bulbs From Holland - Outlook for the French Market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamphuis, Elise

    2002-01-01

    The Netherlands is a major exporter of flower bulbs in the world. France is amongst the top10 of the biggest importers of Dutch flower bulbs. However, the growing of bulbs is very damaging to the environment. With the use of 1,5 million kilograms of pesticide and 16 million kilograms of artificial f

  16. Effect of olive mill wastewater on growth and bulb production of tulip plants infected by bulb diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lykas, C.; Vegalas, I.; Gougaulias, N.

    2014-06-01

    The effect of olive mill wastewater (OMW) on growth of tulip plants infected by common diseases as well as on their new bulbs production is analyzed in this work. Filtered and sterilized OMW was tested as growth inhibitor of Botrytis tulipae, Fusarium oxysporum, Aspergillus niger and Penicillium spp. mycelium. The effect of filtered OMW on uninfected tulip bulbs was also tested as well as on the growth of bulbs infected with the fungus B. tulipae and A. niger in vivo. The mycelium length, severity of scab-like lesions, plant height (PH), fresh mass (FM) and dry mass (DM) of plants and production of new bulbs were recorded. Only the filtered OMW inhibited the in vitro mycelium growth of all tested fungi. However filtered OMW caused infections when it sprayed on uninfected bulbs, malformations on 30% of the plants grown from these bulbs and decrease PH, FM and DM as well as new bulbs production at 75%, 72.4%, 79.1% and 50% respectively. The treatment of B. tulipae infected bulbs with filtered OMW reduced further the PH, FM, DM and the production of new bulbs in 92.1%, 81.4%, 78.7% and 97% respectively. In contrast the treatment of infected bulbs by B. tulipae + A. niger with filtered OMW did not affect PH, FM and the number of new bulbs produced and significantly improved plants DM and the mass of new bulbs. (Author)

  17. Spectroscopic Analysis of Today's Compact Fluorescent Light Bulbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluhar, Edward

    2012-03-01

    In today's consumer market, there are many different light bulbs that claim to produce `natural' light. In my research, I both quantitatively and qualitatively analyzed this claim. First, utilizing a spectroscope, I compared the spectra emitted by different brands and types of compact fluorescent light (CFL) bulbs to the spectra emitted by the Sun. Once the bulbs were quantitatively analyzed, I proceeded to qualitatively analyze them by exposing subjects to the different bulbs. The subjects were asked to rate the quality of color in different pictures illuminated by each type of CFL. From these tests, I was able to determine the ``best'' CFL bulbs, and conclude whether the health risks associated with CFL bulbs outweigh the cost savings, longevity of the bulbs, and/or quality of light benefits.

  18. Neurogenesis in the adult olfactory bulb

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Angela Pignatelli; Cristina Gambardella; Ottorino Belluzzi

    2011-01-01

    Neurogenesis is the process by which cells divide, migrate, and subsequently differentiate into a neuronal phenotype. Significant rates of neurogenesis persist into adulthood in two brain regions, the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus and the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricles. Cells of the subventricular zone divide and migrate via the rostral migratory stream to the olfactory bulb where they differentiate into granule and periglomerular cells. With the discovery of large-scale neurogenesis in the adult brain, there have been significant efforts to identify the mechanisms that control this process as well as the role of these cells in neuronal functioning. Although many questions remain unanswered, new insights appear daily about adult neurogenesis, regulatory mechanisms, and the fates of the progeny. In this review we highlight the main studies investigating factors that regulate neurogenesis in the subventricular zone, neuronal migration to the olfactory bulb, neuronal integration into the existing bulbar network and shortly discuss the functional meaning of this process.

  19. Hearing light from an incandescent bulb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zheyuan; Du, Li; Zhang, Youtian; Wang, Sihui; Zhou, Huijun; Gao, Wenli

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present an interesting experiment to turn the vibratory light from an incandescent light bulb into audible sound. Inspired by research on the photoacoustic effect (PAE) using lasers, we construct a similar device in an undergraduate physics laboratory with everyday articles including light bulbs, glass beakers and soot. Using our device, a distinct sound is detected and analysed experimentally. Particular attention is paid to the attenuation effect of the acoustic signal, which can be explained by modifying the existing theory and using the adiabatic boundary condition according to the incident light source we use. This demonstration is a comprehensive experiment with the combination of sound, light and heat. The modification on the model can help undergraduate students gain an intuitive understanding of different boundary conditions.

  20. Olfactory bulb encoding during learning under anesthesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicol, Alister U.; Sanchez-Andrade, Gabriela; Collado, Paloma; Segonds-Pichon, Anne; Kendrick, Keith M.

    2014-01-01

    Neural plasticity changes within the olfactory bulb are important for olfactory learning, although how neural encoding changes support new associations with specific odors and whether they can be investigated under anesthesia, remain unclear. Using the social transmission of food preference olfactory learning paradigm in mice in conjunction with in vivo microdialysis sampling we have shown firstly that a learned preference for a scented food odor smelled on the breath of a demonstrator animal occurs under isofluorane anesthesia. Furthermore, subsequent exposure to this cued odor under anesthesia promotes the same pattern of increased release of glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the olfactory bulb as previously found in conscious animals following olfactory learning, and evoked GABA release was positively correlated with the amount of scented food eaten. In a second experiment, multiarray (24 electrodes) electrophysiological recordings were made from olfactory bulb mitral cells under isofluorane anesthesia before, during and after a novel scented food odor was paired with carbon disulfide. Results showed significant increases in overall firing frequency to the cued-odor during and after learning and decreases in response to an uncued odor. Analysis of patterns of changes in individual neurons revealed that a substantial proportion (>50%) of them significantly changed their response profiles during and after learning with most of those previously inhibited becoming excited. A large number of cells exhibiting no response to the odors prior to learning were either excited or inhibited afterwards. With the uncued odor many previously responsive cells became unresponsive or inhibited. Learning associated changes only occurred in the posterior part of the olfactory bulb. Thus olfactory learning under anesthesia promotes extensive, but spatially distinct, changes in mitral cell networks to both cued and uncued odors as well as in evoked glutamate and GABA

  1. Olfactory bulb encoding during learning under anaesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alister U Nicol

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Neural plasticity changes within the olfactory bulb are important for olfactory learning, although how neural encoding changes support new associations with specific odours and whether they can be investigated under anaesthesia, remain unclear. Using the social transmission of food preference olfactory learning paradigm in mice in conjunction with in vivo microdialysis sampling we have shown firstly that a learned preference for a scented food odour smelled on the breath of a demonstrator animal occurs under isofluorane anaesthesia. Furthermore, subsequent exposure to this cued odour under anaesthesia promotes the same pattern of increased release of glutamate and GABA in the olfactory bulb as previously found in conscious animals following olfactory learning, and evoked GABA release was positively correlated with the amount of scented food eaten. In a second experiment, multiarray (24 electrodes electrophysiological recordings were made from olfactory bulb mitral cells under isofluorane anaesthesia before, during and after a novel scented food odour was paired with carbon disulfide. Results showed significant increases in overall firing frequency to the cued-odour during and after learning and decreases in response to an uncued odour. Analysis of patterns of changes in individual neurons revealed that a substantial proportion (>50% of them significantly changed their response profiles during and after learning with most of those previously inhibited becoming excited. A large number of cells exhibiting no response to the odours prior to learning were either excited or inhibited afterwards. With the uncued odour many previously responsive cells became unresponsive or inhibited. Learning associated changes only occurred in the posterior part of the olfactory bulb. Thus olfactory learning under anaesthesia promotes extensive, but spatially distinct, changes in mitral cell networks to both cued and uncued odours as well as in evoked glutamate and

  2. Defining sale ethylene for long term storage of tulip bulbs

    OpenAIRE

    Wild, de, H.P.J.; Peppelenbos, H.W.; Dijkstra, M.H.G.E.; Gude, H.

    2002-01-01

    The maximum ethylene level that can be permitted in storage rooms, without causing damage to tulip bulbs, is not exactly known. Therefore, a zero-tolerance for the presence of ethylene during storage of tulip bulbs is common practice. This results in excessive ventilation and coherent large energy costs. It is questioned whether this is always necessary. In different phases of the storage period the critical levels of ethylene were determined. Bulbs of eight economically important cultivars (...

  3. Somatic Embryogenesis in Lily Bulb Scale Cultures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Shasha; WANG Jingang; FAN Jinping; CHE Daidi

    2008-01-01

    Somatic embryogenesis from lily bulb scales has not been studied in details, although tissue culture methods have been applied to the propagation for decades. The effects of different kinds and concentration of auxins for oriental lily somatic embryogenesis were investigated (Lilium hybrida car. Sorbonne).2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), thidiazuron (TDZ) and α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) media with benzyladenine(6-BA) and lactalbumin hydrolysate (LH) were used for embryogenic callus in the darkness. The best response onembryogenic callus formation was obtained on MS media supplemented 2, 4-D 2.0 mg·L-1,6-BA 0.5 mg·L-1 and LH 300 mg·L-1. Transfer embryogenic callus to the media with TDZ, 6-BA, kinetin (KT) supplemented 2, 4-D. The highest number of somatic embryos has been produced on medium with 0.5 mg.L-1 2, 4-D and 0.3 mg·L-1 KT. Germinated embryos with shoot axes were changed to MS media with 6-BA 0.5 mg· L-1. The results suggest that in vitro culture of somatic embryogenesis from lily bulb scales can be used for plant regeneration.

  4. Conservation of garlic bulbs (Allium sativum L. ) by gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, J.; Arranz, T.

    1979-01-01

    The effect of different doses of gamma radiation (from 5 to 30 krad) on the conservation of garlic bulbs during a 12 months period is studied. Irradiations were made at three different times and the best results were obtained with the treatment given during the two months following harvest. During this period, 5 krad are enough to inhibit garlic bulbs sprouting.

  5. Defining sale ethylene for long term storage of tulip bulbs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wild, de H.P.J.; Peppelenbos, H.W.; Dijkstra, M.H.G.E.; Gude, H.

    2002-01-01

    The maximum ethylene level that can be permitted in storage rooms, without causing damage to tulip bulbs, is not exactly known. Therefore, a zero-tolerance for the presence of ethylene during storage of tulip bulbs is common practice. This results in excessive ventilation and coherent large energy c

  6. Broadcasting of cortical activity to the olfactory bulb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Alison M; Kato, Hiroyuki K; Komiyama, Takaki; Isaacson, Jeffry S

    2015-02-24

    Odor representations are initially formed in the olfactory bulb, which contains a topographic glomerular map of odor molecular features. The bulb transmits sensory information directly to piriform cortex, where it is encoded by distributed ensembles of pyramidal cells without spatial order. Intriguingly, piriform cortex pyramidal cells project back to the bulb, but the information contained in this feedback projection is unknown. Here, we use imaging in awake mice to directly monitor activity in the presynaptic boutons of cortical feedback fibers. We show that the cortex provides the bulb with a rich array of information for any individual odor and that cortical feedback is dependent on brain state. In contrast to the stereotyped, spatial arrangement of olfactory bulb glomeruli, cortical inputs tuned to different odors commingle and indiscriminately target individual glomerular channels. Thus, the cortex modulates early odor representations by broadcasting sensory information diffusely onto spatially ordered bulbar circuits.

  7. Fabrication of Closed Hollow Bulb Obturator Using Thermoplastic Resin Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bidhan Shrestha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Closed hollow bulb obturators are used for the rehabilitation of postmaxillectomy patients. However, the time consuming process, complexity of fabrication, water leakage, and discoloration are notable disadvantages of this technique. This paper describes a clinical report of fabricating closed hollow bulb obturator using a single flask and one time processing method for an acquired maxillary defect. Hard thermoplastic resin sheet has been used for the fabrication of hollow bulb part of the obturator. Method. After fabrication of master cast conventionally, bulb and lid part of the defect were formed separately and joined by autopolymerizing acrylic resin to form one sized smaller hollow body. During packing procedure, the defect area was loaded with heat polymerizing acrylic resin and then previously fabricated smaller hollow body was adapted over it. The whole area was then loaded with heat cure acrylic. Further processes were carried out conventionally. Conclusion. This technique uses single flask which reduces laboratory time and makes the procedure simple. The thickness of hollow bulb can be controlled and light weight closed hollow bulb prosthesis can be fabricated. It also minimizes the disadvantages of closed hollow bulb obturator such as water leakage, bacterial infection, and discoloration.

  8. Fabrication of Closed Hollow Bulb Obturator Using Thermoplastic Resin Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Bidhan; Hughes, E Richard; Kumar Singh, Raj; Suwal, Pramita; Parajuli, Prakash Kumar; Shrestha, Pragya; Sharma, Arati; Adhikari, Galav

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. Closed hollow bulb obturators are used for the rehabilitation of postmaxillectomy patients. However, the time consuming process, complexity of fabrication, water leakage, and discoloration are notable disadvantages of this technique. This paper describes a clinical report of fabricating closed hollow bulb obturator using a single flask and one time processing method for an acquired maxillary defect. Hard thermoplastic resin sheet has been used for the fabrication of hollow bulb part of the obturator. Method. After fabrication of master cast conventionally, bulb and lid part of the defect were formed separately and joined by autopolymerizing acrylic resin to form one sized smaller hollow body. During packing procedure, the defect area was loaded with heat polymerizing acrylic resin and then previously fabricated smaller hollow body was adapted over it. The whole area was then loaded with heat cure acrylic. Further processes were carried out conventionally. Conclusion. This technique uses single flask which reduces laboratory time and makes the procedure simple. The thickness of hollow bulb can be controlled and light weight closed hollow bulb prosthesis can be fabricated. It also minimizes the disadvantages of closed hollow bulb obturator such as water leakage, bacterial infection, and discoloration.

  9. Effect of Atmospheric Press on Wet Bulb Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Raymond M.; Stasiak, Michael A.; Lawson, Jamie; Wehkamp, Cara Ann P.; Dixon, Michael A.

    2008-01-01

    Our measurements of wet bulb depression at different pressures matched the modeled adiabatic saturation temps reasonably well. At a dry bulb temp of 25 C, the normal wet bulb temp for 30% RH and 100 kPa is approx.15 C, but this dropped to approx.8 C at 10 kPa. The results suggest that psychrometers need direct calibration at the target pressures or that pressure corrected charts are required. For a given vapour pressure deficit, any moist surfaces, including transpiring plant leaves, will be cooler at lower pressures due to the increased evaporation rates.

  10. Synaptic clusters function as odor operators in the olfactory bulb

    OpenAIRE

    Migliore, Michele; Cavarretta, Francesco; Marasco, Addolorata; Tulumello, Eleonora; Michael L Hines; Shepherd, Gordon M.

    2015-01-01

    How the olfactory bulb organizes and processes odor inputs through fundamental operations of its microcircuits is still controversial. To reveal these operations we hypothesize that one of the key mechanisms underlying odor coding is the interaction among spatially restricted and well-defined clusters of potentiated mitral–granule cell synapses. These experimentally observed clusters selectively gate the propagation of neuronal activity within the olfactory bulb and extensively contribute to ...

  11. Endovascular treatment of jugular bulb diverticula causing debilitating pulsatile tinnitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortimer, Alex M; Harrington, Tim; Steinfort, Brendan; Faulder, Ken

    2016-03-01

    We describe the case of a patient who presented with debilitating pulsatile tinnitus in association with two jugular bulb diverticula. The diverticula were treated with stenting of the jugular bulb and coil embolization of the diverticula over two procedures. This resulted in successful resolution of symptoms and at 10 months follow-up the patient is asymptomatic. The technique is discussed with regard to similar published cases and surrogate measures of safety taken from the literature pertaining to idiopathic intracranial hypertension.

  12. Olfactory dysfunction, olfactory bulb pathology and urban air pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; Franco-Lira, Maricela; Henríquez-Roldán, Carlos; Osnaya, Norma; González-Maciel, Angelica; Reynoso-Robles, Rafael; Villarreal-Calderon, Rafael; Herritt, Lou; Brooks, Diane; Keefe, Sheyla; Palacios-Moreno, Juan; Villarreal-Calderon, Rodolfo; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo; Medina-Cortina, Humberto; Delgado-Chávez, Ricardo

    2009-01-01

    Mexico City (MC) residents are exposed to severe air pollution and exhibit olfactory bulb inflammation. We compared the olfactory function of individuals living under conditions of extreme air pollution to that of controls from a relatively clean environment and explore associations between olfaction scores, apolipoprotein E (APOE) status, and pollution exposure. The olfactory bulbs (OBs) of 35 MC and 9 controls 20.8 ± 8.5 y were assessed by light and electron microscopy. The University of Pe...

  13. MRI of the olfactory bulbs and sulci in human fetuses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azoulay, Robin; Grabar, Sophie; Kalifa, Gabriel; Adamsbaum, Catherine [Paris V, Faculte de Medecine, Department of Radiology, Hopital Saint Vincent de Paul, Paris Cedex 14 (France); Fallet-Bianco, Catherine [Hopital Sainte-Anne, Paris (France); Garel, Catherine [Hopital Robert Debre, Paris (France)

    2006-02-01

    There is limited knowledge of the MRI pattern of the development of fetal olfactory bulbs and sulci. To describe the MRI appearance of olfactory bulbs and sulci in normal in vivo fetuses according to gestational age. Olfactory bulbs and sulci were retrospectively assessed on brain MRI examinations of 88 normal fetuses between 24 and 39 weeks gestational age. Two reference centres were involved in the study and both used routine protocols that included axial and coronal T2- and T1-weighted sequences at 1.5 T. The results were compared both with the commonly used neuropathological data in the literature and with personal neuropathological data. Pearson's chi-squared test or Fisher's exact test were performed. One case of olfactory agenesis associated with CHARGE syndrome was identified. T2-weighted coronal sequences were the most sensitive for detecting olfactory bulbs and sulci. Olfactory sulci were significantly better detected from 30 weeks onwards (90.9-100%; P<0.001). MRI showed a posteroanterior development of these sulci. Olfactory bulbs were better detected from 30 to 34 weeks (80-90.9%; P<0.002). Comparison with neuropathological data confirmed the posteroanterior development of the sulci and showed an important delay in detection of the olfactory structures (bulbs and sulci). No difference was observed between the two centres involved. To date, fetal MRI can depict olfactory sulci from 30 weeks gestational age onwards and olfactory bulbs from 30 to 34 weeks gestational age. This preliminary reference standard is useful to assess the normality of the olfactory system and to diagnose olfactory agenesis. (orig.)

  14. Radioinhibition process in Argentinian garlic and onion bulbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curzio, O. A.; Croci, C. A.

    Technological aspects of garlic and onion bulbs subjected to the radioinhibition process and extended storage under warehouse conditions were studied. Garlic and onion of the "Colorado" and "Valenciana sintética 14" varieties respectively, were irradiated in dormancy period with an average dose of 50.0 Gy of 60Co gamma rays and kept in storage up to ten months post-harvest. Throughout the control period (180-300 days post-harvest) obvious benefits were attained as to reducing the weight loss and increasing the percentage of marketable bulbs. In general, the irradiated bulbs were superior to the non-irradiated ones with regard to the external aspect, firmness and internal aspect, while the odor of the bulbs was not affected by the process. The radioinhibition process does not seem to affect adversely the levels of dry matter, carbohydrates and ascorbic acid as well as the acidity in onion bulbs. In two marketing trials a very favourable reception was perceived in the consumer public regarding the quality of the products. These studies have promoted the construction of a multipurpose irradiation facility in the Universidad Nacional del Sur for the development of the radiation processing technology.

  15. Analytical processing of binary mixture information by olfactory bulb glomeruli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max L Fletcher

    Full Text Available Odors are rarely composed of a single compound, but rather contain a large and complex variety of chemical components. Often, these mixtures are perceived as having unique qualities that can be quite different than the combination of their components. In many cases, a majority of the components of a mixture cannot be individually identified. This synthetic processing of odor information suggests that individual component representations of the mixture must interact somewhere along the olfactory pathway. The anatomical nature of sensory neuron input into segregated glomeruli with the bulb suggests that initial input of odor information into the bulb is analytic. However, a large network of interneurons within the olfactory bulb could allow for mixture interactions via mechanisms such as lateral inhibition. Currently in mammals, it is unclear if postsynaptic mitral/tufted cell glomerular mixture responses reflect the analytical mixture input, or provide the initial basis for synthetic processing with the olfactory system. To address this, olfactory bulb glomerular binary mixture representations were compared to representations of each component using transgenic mice expressing the calcium indicator G-CaMP2 in olfactory bulb mitral/tufted cells. Overall, dorsal surface mixture representations showed little mixture interaction and often appeared as a simple combination of the component representations. Based on this, it is concluded that dorsal surface glomerular mixture representations remain largely analytical with nearly all component information preserved.

  16. IN VITRO BULB PRODUCTION IN HIPPEASTRUM (HIPPEASTRUM HYBRIDUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Sutlana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An in vitro experiment was conducted to find out the optimum hormonal supplement and sucrose level for the bulb production of Hippeastrum. Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with different hormone concentrations of BAP (0.0, 2.0, 4.0, 6.0 and 8.0 mg/L and CCC (0.0, 125, 250 and 500 mg/L and sucrose levels (30, 60, 80, 90 and 110 g/L were used in this study. Sucrose level at 90 g/L produced the maximum average weight as well as the highest regeneration percentage. The increasing rate of CCC increased the number and average weight of bulb. The maximum bulb formation observed in media supplement with 6.0 mg/L BAP and 500 mg/L CCC fortified with 90 g/L sucrose.

  17. Parvalbumin-expressing interneurons linearly control olfactory bulb output.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Hiroyuki K; Gillet, Shea N; Peters, Andrew J; Isaacson, Jeffry S; Komiyama, Takaki

    2013-12-04

    In the olfactory bulb, odor representations by principal mitral cells are modulated by local inhibitory circuits. While dendrodendritic synapses between mitral and granule cells are typically thought to be a major source of this modulation, the contributions of other inhibitory neurons remain unclear. Here we demonstrate the functional properties of olfactory bulb parvalbumin-expressing interneurons (PV cells) and identify their important role in odor coding. Using paired recordings, we find that PV cells form reciprocal connections with the majority of nearby mitral cells, in contrast to the sparse connectivity between mitral and granule cells. In vivo calcium imaging in awake mice reveals that PV cells are broadly tuned to odors. Furthermore, selective PV cell inactivation enhances mitral cell responses in a linear fashion while maintaining mitral cell odor preferences. Thus, dense connections between mitral and PV cells underlie an inhibitory circuit poised to modulate the gain of olfactory bulb output.

  18. Neural sensitivity to odorants in deprived and normal olfactory bulbs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco B Rodríguez

    Full Text Available Early olfactory deprivation in rodents is accompanied by an homeostatic regulation of the synaptic connectivity in the olfactory bulb (OB. However, its consequences in the neural sensitivity and discrimination have not been elucidated. We compared the odorant sensitivity and discrimination in early sensory deprived and normal OBs in anesthetized rats. We show that the deprived OB exhibits an increased sensitivity to different odorants when compared to the normal OB. Our results indicate that early olfactory stimulation enhances discriminability of the olfactory stimuli. We found that deprived olfactory bulbs adjusts the overall excitatory and inhibitory mitral cells (MCs responses to odorants but the receptive fields become wider than in the normal olfactory bulbs. Taken together, these results suggest that an early natural sensory stimulation sharpens the receptor fields resulting in a larger discrimination capability. These results are consistent with previous evidence that a varied experience with odorants modulates the OB's synaptic connections and increases MCs selectivity.

  19. Radiation Dose–Volume Effects and the Penile Bulb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, Mack; Nam, Jiho; Gagliardi, Giovanna; Naqa, Issam El; Deasy, Joseph O.; Marks, Lawrence B.

    2016-01-01

    The dose, volume, and clinical outcome data for penile bulb are reviewed for patients treated with external-beam radiotherapy. Most, but not all, studies find an association between impotence and dosimetric parameters (e.g., threshold doses) and clinical factors (e.g., age, comorbid diseases). According to the data available, it is prudent to keep the mean dose to 95% of the penile bulb volume to <50 Gy. It may also be prudent to limit the D70 and D90 to 70 Gy and 50 Gy, respectively, but coverage of the planning target volume should not be compromised. It is acknowledged that the penile bulb may not be the critical component of the erectile apparatus, but it seems to be a surrogate for yet to be determined structure(s) critical for erectile function for at least some techniques. PMID:20171507

  20. A Fan-tastic Alternative to Bulbs: Learning Circuits with Fans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekey, Robert; Edwards, Andrea; McCullough, Roy; Reitz, William; Mitchell, Brandon

    2017-01-01

    The incandescent bulb has been a useful tool for teaching basic electrical circuits, as brightness is related to the current or power flowing through a bulb. This has led to the development of qualitative pedagogical treatments for examining resistive combinations in simple circuits using bulbs and batteries, which were first introduced by James…

  1. Special branches: organic greenhouse production, bulbs, ornamentals and aquaculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sukkel, W.; Hommes, M.; Meijer, R.J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Organic production methods are gaining ground in Dutch specialised production branches. Interest is growing among greenhouse horticulturalists and growers of flower bulbs, ornamentals and mushrooms. In organic horticulture Dutch research is unique in the world in thinking up innovative concepts and

  2. Genetic Analyses of Soluble Carbohydrate Concentrations in Onion Bulbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fructans are the primary soluble carbohydrate in onion (Allium cepa L.) bulbs and show significant correlations with dry weights and pungency. In this research, we estimated the genetic effects and interactions between two chromosome regions associated with higher amounts of soluble carbohydrates i...

  3. Voltage-Dependent Intrinsic Bursting in Olfactory Bulb Golgi Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressler, R. Todd; Rozman, Peter A.; Strowbridge, Ben W.

    2013-01-01

    In the mammalian olfactory bulb (OB), local synaptic circuits modulate the evolving pattern of activity in mitral and tufted cells following olfactory sensory stimulation. GABAergic granule cells, the most numerous interneuron subtype in this brain region, have been extensively studied. However, classic studies using Golgi staining methods…

  4. The "Green Lab": Power Consumption by Commercial Light Bulbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einsporn, James A.; Zhou, Andrew F.

    2011-01-01

    Going "green" is a slogan that is very contemporary, both with industry and in the political arena. Choosing more energy-efficient devices is one way homeowners can "go green." A simple method is to change home lighting from hot incandescent bulbs to compact fluorescent lights (CFLs). But do they really save energy? How do their illuminations…

  5. Function of attention in learning process in the olfactory bulb

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马宝生; 王顺鹏; 李岩; 冯春华; 郭爱克

    2003-01-01

    It has been suggested that in the olfactory bulb, odor information is processed through parallel channels and learning depends on the cognitive environment. The synapse's spike effective time is defined as the effective time for a spike from pre-synapse to post-synapse, which varies with the type of synapse. A learning model of the olfactory bulb was constructed for synapses with varying spike effective times. The simulation results showed that such a model can realize the multi-channel processing of information in the bulb. Furthermore, the effect of the cognitive environment on the learning process was also studied. Different feedback frequencies were used to express different attention states. Considering the information's multi-channel processing requirement for learning, a learning rule considering both spike timing and average spike frequency is proposed. Simulation results showed that habituation and anti-habituation of an odor in the olfactory bulb might be the result of learning guided by a common local learning rule but at different attention states.

  6. Groeimetingen bij de tulpebol = Growth measurements on the tulip bulb

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraaijenga, D.A.

    1960-01-01

    Tulips did not require a specific soil, if pH was not below 6.5 and water supply was sufficient. Influence of weather conditions was studied by comparing bulb production in different years and areas. Low temperatures after planting and during winter, a gradual increase in spring, sunshine in April a

  7. Role of oxidative damage in tulip bulb scale micropropagation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossum, van M.W.P.C.; Plas, van der L.H.W.

    1997-01-01

    The activation of oxygen stress-related enzymes was compared in regenerating and non-regenerating tulip bulb scale explants and regenerating stalk explants. The phospholipid composition of scale explants showed an increase of linolenic acid (1-15%) and a decrease in linoleic acid (70-55%). After inc

  8. Local neurons play key roles in the mammalian olfactory bulb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saghatelyan, Armen; Carleton, Alan; Lagier, Samuel; de Chevigny, Antoine; Lledo, Pierre-Marie

    2003-01-01

    Over the past few decades, research exploring how the brain perceives, discriminates, and recognizes odorant molecules has received a growing interest. Today, olfaction is no longer considered a matter of poetry. Chemical senses entered the biological era when an increasing number of scientists started to elucidate the early stages of the olfactory pathway. A combination of genetic, biochemical, cellular, electrophysiological and behavioral methods has provided a picture of how odor information is processed in the olfactory system as it moves from the periphery to higher areas of the brain. Our group is exploring the physiology of the main olfactory bulb, the first processing relay in the mammalian brain. From different electrophysiological approaches, we are attempting to understand the cellular rules that contribute to the synaptic transmission and plasticity at this central relay. How olfactory sensory inputs, originating from the olfactory epithelium located in the nasal cavity, are encoded in the main olfactory bulb remains a crucial question for understanding odor processing. More importantly, the persistence of a high level of neurogenesis continuously supplying the adult olfactory bulb with newborn local neurons provides an attractive model to investigate how basic olfactory functions are maintained when a large proportion of local neurons are continuously renewed. For this purpose, we summarize the current ideas concerning the molecular mechanisms and organizational strategies used by the olfactory system to encode and process information in the main olfactory bulb. We discuss the degree of sensitivity of the bulbar neuronal network activity to the persistence of this high level of neurogenesis that is modulated by sensory experience. Finally, it is worth mentioning that analyzing the molecular mechanisms and organizational strategies used by the olfactory system to transduce, encode, and process odorant information in the olfactory bulb should aid in

  9. An improved method of preparing onion bulbs for the Alium test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Wierzbicka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The tests on storage and preparation of onion (Allium cepa L. bulbs presented in this paper were performed in order to obtain the highest possible number of roots of similar length, which would be suitable for performing the Allium test. The results were subject to a detailed statistical analysis and allowed the following procedure to be recommended: 1 Store the bulbs at room temperature rather than in a refrigerator for two weeks before starting the experiments. 2 Do not use the biggest bulbs (over 80-100 g; use medium and small bulbs with the largest possible diameter of the reduced stem. 3 Just before starting the culture, wash the bottom part of the bulb, cut out the central part of the reduced stem and cut off the upper part of the bulb. At least 70% of bulbs prepared this way are expected to be suitable for cytological tests.

  10. Student Active Participation in the Study of the Light Bulbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petre Ogrutan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an initiative approach to the study of light bulbs, involving active participation of the students engaged in interactive problem-/project-based learning of electromagnetic compatibility and energetic efficiency belonging to the environmental issues. The paper includes preliminary and complementary simulations of the hardware firmware-software-net ware development of a laboratory test bench for the study of conducted perturbations generated during the bulb firing sequence. This laboratory sub-system is useful both in association with traditional methods of learning as well as with e-Learning platforms. Finally, the paper presents the results of a concise survey of opinions on the outcomes of this research.

  11. Neuronal circuits and computations: pattern decorrelation in the olfactory bulb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Rainer W; Wiechert, Martin T

    2014-08-01

    Neuronal circuits in the olfactory bulb transform odor-evoked activity patterns across the input channels, the olfactory glomeruli, into distributed activity patterns across the output neurons, the mitral cells. One computation associated with this transformation is a decorrelation of activity patterns representing similar odors. Such a decorrelation has various benefits for the classification and storage of information by associative networks in higher brain areas. Experimental results from adult zebrafish show that pattern decorrelation involves a redistribution of activity across the population of mitral cells. These observations imply that pattern decorrelation cannot be explained by a global scaling mechanism but that it depends on interactions between distinct subsets of neurons in the network. This article reviews insights into the network mechanism underlying pattern decorrelation and discusses recent results that link pattern decorrelation in the olfactory bulb to odor discrimination behavior.

  12. LEDs Illuminate Bulbs for Better Sleep, Wake Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Life on the International Space Station (ISS) wreaks havoc on an astronaut’s biological rhythms, and one way NASA mitigates the problem is through the use of LED lighting to alternately stimulate energy and focus and induce relaxation. Satellite Beach, Florida-based Lighting Science partnered with Kennedy Space Center to commercialize an LED system designed for the ISS, resulting in its DefinityDigital product line of light bulbs now used in numerous homes, hotel chains, and resorts.

  13. New Penicillium species associated with bulbs and root vegetables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overy, David Patrick; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2003-01-01

    Taxa of the Penicillium series Corymbifera are known for their strongly fasciculate growth and association with the rhizosphere of vegetables and flower bulbs. Using micromorphology, colony characteristics on various media and chemotaxonomic profiling, P. albocoremium sensu stricto and two new...... species, P. radicicola and P. tulipae, are redescribed during a taxonomic survey of P. albocoremium isolates contained within the IBT culture collection. Although these novel taxa are micromorphologically quite similar, their unique secondary metabolite profiles individually distinguish them from isolates...

  14. The Soft Palate Friendly Speech Bulb for Velopharyngeal Insufficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahlon, Monaliza; Gupta, Shilpa; Dhingra, Parvinder Singh

    2016-01-01

    Velopharyngeal insufficiency is an anatomic defect of the soft palate making palatopharyngeal sphincter incomplete. It is an important concern to address in patients with bilateral cleft lip and palate. Speech aid prosthesis or speech bulbs are best choice in cases where surgically repaired soft palate is too short to contact pharyngeal walls during function but these prosthesis have been associated with inadequate marginal closure, ulcerations and patient discomfort. Here is a case report of untreated bilateral cleft lip and palate associated with palatal insufficiency treated by means of palate friendly innovative speech bulb. This modified speech bulb is a combination of hard acrylic and soft lining material. The hard self-curing acrylic resin covers only the hard palate area and a permanent soft silicone lining material covering the soft palate area. A claw-shaped wire component was extended backwards from acrylic and was embedded in soft silicone to aid in retention and approximation of two materials. The advantage of adding the soft lining material in posterior area helped in covering the adequate superior extension and margins for maximal pharyngeal activity. This also improved the hypernasality, speech, comfort and overall patient acceptance. PMID:27790589

  15. Signal processing inspired from the olfactory bulb for electronic noses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Ya-Qi; Meng, Qing-Hao; Qi, Pei-Feng; Zeng, Ming; Liu, Ying-Jie

    2017-01-01

    A bio-inspired signal processing method is proposed for electronic noses (e-noses). The proposed method contains an olfactory bulb model and a feature generation step. The structure of the olfactory bulb model is similar to the anatomical structure of mammals’ olfactory bulb. It consists of olfactory receptor neurons, mitral cells, granule cells, periglomerular cells, and short axon cells. This model uses gas sensors’ original response curves and transforms them to neuron spiking series no matter what kind the response curve is. This largely simplifies the follow-up feature generation step. Recurrence quantification analysis is employed to perform feature generation and the five most important features are selected. Finally, in order to verify the performance of the proposed method, seven kinds of Chinese liquors are tested and three classification methods are used to classify them. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method has a higher classification rate (99.05%) and also a steadier performance with the change of sensor number and types than the classic one.

  16. Quality evaluation of onion bulbs during low temperature drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djaeni, M.; Asiah, N.; Wibowo, Y. P.; Yusron, D. A. A.

    2016-06-01

    A drying technology must be designed carefully by evaluating the foods' final quality properties as a dried material. Thermal processing should be operated with the minimum chance of substantial flavour, taste, color and nutrient loss. The main objective of this research was to evaluate the quality parameters of quercetin content, color, non-enzymatic browning and antioxidant activity. The experiments showed that heating at different temperatures for several drying times resulted in a percentage of quercetin being generally constant. The quercetin content maintained at the value of ±1.2 % (dry basis). The color of onion bulbs was measured by CIE standard illuminant C. The red color (a*) of the outer layer of onion bulbs changed significantly when the drying temperature was increased. However the value of L* and b* changed in a fluctuating way based on the temperature. The change of onion colors was influenced by temperature and moisture content during the drying process. The higher the temperature, the higher it affects the rate of non-enzymatic browning reaction. The correlation between temperature and reaction rate constant was described as Arrhenius equation. The rate of non-enzymatic browning increases along with the increase of drying temperature. The results showed that higher drying temperatures were followed by a lower IC10. This condition indicated the increase of antioxidant activity after the drying process.

  17. Anticancer Active Homoisoflavone from the Underground Bulbs of Ledebouria hyderabadensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakaiah Chinthala

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ledebouria is a genus of deciduous or weakly evergreen bulbs in the Hyacinthaceae family. This is recognized as the first collection made of the new taxon Ledebouria hyderabadensis, exist in the Hyderabad city of Andhra Pradesh, India. Objective: The goal of this work was to investigate the phytochemical constituents present in the new specifies and also to evaluate the cytotoxic properties of the extracts and pure compounds against human cancer cell lines. Materials and Methods: The anticancer activity was evaluated in in vitro mode by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT test. Results: Phytochemical investigation of underground bulbs of indigenous, rare, and recently identified herb L. hyderabadensis yielded a bioactive homoisoflavanone, Scillascillin 1. The structure of the compound was established on the basis of various nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectral data. The compound Scillascillin was isolated for the first time from L. hyderabadensis. In vitro anticancer activity, performed using MTT assay, showed compound 1 as significantly active against human cancer cell lines MCF-7 (breast cancer and DU-145 (prostate cancer with inhibitory concentration (IC 50 values 9.59 and 11.32 μg/ml respectively when compared with herb methanol extract (IC 50 values 36.21 and 44.86 μg/ml respectively.

  18. Construction of odor representations by olfactory bulb microcircuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleland, Thomas A

    2014-01-01

    Like other sensory systems, the olfactory system transduces specific features of the external environment and must construct an organized sensory representation from these highly fragmented inputs. As with these other systems, this representation is not accurate per se, but is constructed for utility, and emphasizes certain, presumably useful, features over others. I here describe the cellular and circuit mechanisms of the peripheral olfactory system that underlie this process of sensory construction, emphasizing the distinct architectures and properties of the two prominent computational layers in the olfactory bulb. Notably, while the olfactory system solves essentially similar conceptual problems to other sensory systems, such as contrast enhancement, activity normalization, and extending dynamic range, its peculiarities often require qualitatively different computational algorithms than are deployed in other sensory modalities. In particular, the olfactory modality is intrinsically high dimensional, and lacks a simple, externally defined basis analogous to wavelength or pitch on which elemental odor stimuli can be quantitatively compared. Accordingly, the quantitative similarities of the receptive fields of different odorant receptors (ORs) vary according to the statistics of the odor environment. To resolve these unusual challenges, the olfactory bulb appears to utilize unique nontopographical computations and intrinsic learning mechanisms to perform the necessary high-dimensional, similarity-dependent computations. In sum, the early olfactory system implements a coordinated set of early sensory transformations directly analogous to those in other sensory systems, but accomplishes these with unique circuit architectures adapted to the properties of the olfactory modality.

  19. Olfactory bulb size, odor discrimination and magnetic insensitivity in hummingbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioalé, P; Papi, F

    1989-05-01

    Relative olfactory bulb size with respect to telencephalic hemispheres (olfactory ratio) was measured in five species of hummingbirds. Trochiliformes were found to be next to last among 25 avian orders with respect to olfactory bulb development. One hummingbird species, the White-vented Violetear (Colibri serrirostris), was trained in a successive go/no-go discrimination task, and learned to feed or not to feed from a container dependent on the olfactory stimuli associated with it. Test birds learned to discriminate amyl acetate vs. turpentine essence, jasmine essence vs. lavender essence, eucalyptus essence vs. no odor, beta-ionone vs. no odor, carvone vs. eucalyptol. In contrast, 1-phenylethanol vs. beta-ionone discrimination, two odorants which appear similar to humans, was unsuccessful. Using a similar procedure, attempts were made to condition a White-vented Violetear and a Versicolored Emerald (Amazilia versicolor) to magnetic stimuli. The birds were unable to discriminate between a normal field and an oscillating field (square wave, 1 Hz, amplitude +/- 0.40 G).

  20. Enhanced assymetrical noradrenergic transmission in the olfactory bulb of deoxycorticosterone acetate-salt hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramoff, Tamara; Guil, María J; Morales, Vanina P; Hope, Sandra I; Soria, Celeste; Bianciotti, Liliana G; Vatta, Marcelo S

    2013-10-01

    The ablation of olfactory bulb induces critical changes in dopamine, and monoamine oxidase activity in the brain stem. Growing evidence supports the participation of this telencephalic region in the regulation blood pressure and cardiovascular activity but little is known about its contribution to hypertension. We have previously reported that in the olfactory bulb of normotensive rats endothelins enhance noradrenergic activity by increasing tyrosine hydroxylase activity and norepinephrine release. In the present study we sought to establish the status of noradrenergic activity in the olfactory bulb of deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt hypertensive rats. Different steps in norepinephrine transmission including tyrosine hydroxylase activity, neuronal norepinephrine release and uptake were assessed in the left and right olfactory bulb of DOCA-salt hypertensive rats. Increased tyrosine hydroxylase activity, and decreased neuronal norepinephrine uptake were observed in the olfactory bulb of DOCA-salt hypertensive rats. Furthermore the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase and its phosphorylated forms were also augmented. Intriguingly, asymmetrical responses between the right and left olfactory bulb of normotensive and hypertensive rats were observed. Neuronal norepinephrine release was increased in the right but not in the left olfactory bulb of DOCA-salt hypertensive rats, whereas non asymmetrical differences were observed in normotensive animals. Present findings indicate that the olfactory bulb of hypertensive rats show an asymmetrical increase in norepinephrine activity. The observed changes in noradrenergic transmission may likely contribute to the onset and/or progression of hypertension in this animal model.

  1. The source of spontaneous activity in the main olfactory bulb of the rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josif Stakic

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: In vivo, most neurons in the main olfactory bulb exhibit robust spontaneous activity. This paper tests the hypothesis that spontaneous activity in olfactory receptor neurons drives much of the spontaneous activity in mitral and tufted cells via excitatory synapses. METHODS: Single units were recorded in vivo from the main olfactory bulb of a rat before, during, and after application of lidocaine to the olfactory nerve. The effect of lidocaine on the conduction of action potentials from the olfactory epithelium to the olfactory bulb was assessed by electrically stimulating the olfactory nerve rostral to the application site and monitoring the field potential evoked in the bulb. RESULTS: Lidocaine caused a significant decrease in the amplitude of the olfactory nerve evoked field potential that was recorded in the olfactory bulb. By contrast, the lidocaine block did not significantly alter the spontaneous activity of single units in the bulb, nor did it alter the field potential evoked by electrical stimulation of the lateral olfactory tract. Lidocaine block also did not change the temporal patters of action potential or their synchronization with respiration. CONCLUSIONS: Spontaneous activity in neurons of the main olfactory bulb is not driven mainly by activity in olfactory receptor neurons despite the extensive convergence onto mitral and tufted cells. These results suggest that spontaneous activity of mitral and tufted is either an inherent property of these cells or is driven by centrifugal inputs to the bulb.

  2. The presence and survival of soft rot (Erwinia) in flower bulb production systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorn, van J.; Vreeburg, P.J.M.; Leeuwen, van P.J.; Dees, R.H.L.

    2011-01-01

    Soft rot is causing increasing damage in the flower bulb industry. Bulbous ornamentals such as Hyacinthus, Dahlia, Iris, Muscari, Freesia and Zantedeschia can be infected. Soft rot in flower bulbs is mainly caused by Dickeya spp. (Dickeya spp.) and Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora (Pectobacteriu

  3. Extending the shelf life of flower bulbs and perennials in consumer packages by modiefied atmosphere packaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gude, H.; Dijkema, M.H.G.E.; Miller, C.T.

    2011-01-01

    The quality of flower bulbs and herbaceous perennials in consumer packages declines rapidly due to sprouting and drying out. The present study was undertaken to develop Modified Atmosphere Packages (MAP) with suitable filling materials for a prolonged shelf life of different species of flower bulbs

  4. A Simplified Method to Calculate the Wet Bulb Globe Temperature(WBGT)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Lei; MENG Qing-lin; ZHAO Li-hua; ZHANG Yu-feng

    2009-01-01

    Wet bulb globe temperature(WBGT) is a comprehensive index obtained mainly from three pa-rameters:black globe temperature(Tg),wet bulb temperature(Tw),and dry bulb temperature(Ta).While in field observation and numerical simulation,black globe temperature and wet bulb temperature were not easy to obtain, so WBGT was difficult to measure and calculate directly.In order to solve this problem,air dry bulb temperature, wet bulb temperature,globe temperature,relative humidity,mean air velocity,solar radiation and wet bulb globe temperature were collected during the summer(July)in Guangzhou.Correlation analysis and regression analysis were used to get a simplified method to calculate WBGT.The results showed that dry bulb temperature,relative humidity,solar radiation and WBGT were interrelated to some extent.These three pa-rameters could be used in the simplified method to predict WBGT,and the linear correlation and precision of this model were high.In addition,we used the measured data to verify the simplified method,and the results showed that the error of the calculated value and the measured value was all below 5%,which means the simpli-fied calculating method is feasible and can be used in field observation and simulation research of urban thermal environment.

  5. Controlling tulip stem nematodes in tulip bulbs by a hot water treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van M.F.N.

    2013-01-01

    A hot water treatment (HWT) protocol is needed to control tulip stem nematode (TSN) in tulip bulbs. A HWT above approximately 45°C in tulips is assumed to be harmful to the bulbs. Experience with HWT to destroy stem nematodes in daffodils shows that the required temperature for this is 4 hours at 47

  6. A Fan-tastic Alternative to Bulbs: Learning Circuits with Fans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekey, Robert; Edwards, Andrea; McCullough, Roy; Reitz, William; Mitchell, Brandon

    2017-01-01

    The incandescent bulb has been a useful tool for teaching basic electrical circuits, as brightness is related to the current or power flowing through a bulb. This has led to the development of qualitative pedagogical treatments for examining resistive combinations in simple circuits using bulbs and batteries, which were first introduced by James Evans and thoroughly expanded upon by McDermott and others. This paper argues that replacing bulbs with small computer fans leads to similar, if not greater, insight of experimental results that can be qualitatively observed using a variety of senses. The magnitude of current through a fan is related to the frequency of the rotating fan blades, which can be seen, heard, and felt by the students. Experiments using incandescent bulbs only utilize vision, which is not ideal as the human eyes' perception of brightness is skewed because the response to light intensity is logarithmic rather than linear.

  7. Structure and diversity in mammalian accessory olfactory bulb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisami, E; Bhatnagar, K P

    1998-12-15

    The accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) is the first neural integrative center for the olfactory-like vomeronasal sensory system. In this article, we first briefly present an overview of vomeronasal system organization and review the history of the discovery of mammalian AOB. Next, we briefly review the evolution of the vomeronasal system in vertebrates, in particular the reptiles. Following these introductory aspects, the structure of the rodent AOB, as typical of the well-developed mammalian AOB, is presented, detailing laminar organization and cell types as well as aspects of the homology with the main olfactory bulb. Then, the evolutionary origin and diversity of the AOB in mammalian orders and species is discussed, describing structural, phylogenetic, and species-specific variation in the AOB location, shape, and size and morphologic differentiation and development. The AOB is believed to be absent in fishes but present in terrestrial tetrapods including amphibians; among the reptiles AOB is absent in crocodiles, present in turtles, snakes, and some lizards where it may be as large or larger than the main bulb. The AOB is absent in bird and in the aquatic mammals (whales, porpoises, manatees). Among other mammals, AOB is present in the monotremes and marsupials, edentates, and in the majority of the placental mammals like carnivores, herbivores, as well as rodents and lagomorphs. Most bat species do not have an AOB and among those where one is found, it shows marked variation in size and morphologic development. Among insectivores and primates, AOB shows marked variation in occurrence, size, and morphologic development. It is small in shrews and moles, large in hedgehogs and prosimians; AOB continues to persist in New World monkeys but is not found in the adults of the higher primates such as the Old World monkeys, apes, and humans. In many species where AOB is absent in the adult, it often develops in the embryo and fetus but regresses in later stages of

  8. Sulfur-containing components of gamma-irradiated garlic bulbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Joong-Ho; Choi, Jong-Uck; Yoon, Hyung-Sik

    Sulfur-containing components associated with garlic flavors were investigated to determine the effect of γ-irradiation at 0.1 kGy on the quality of garlic bulbs ( Allium sativum L.) during storage at 3±1°C and 80±5% RH for 10 months. Irradiation treatment had no influence on the amount of total sulfur and thiosulfinate of stored garlic for 10 months, while the storage period brought about a significant reduction ( P<0.05) in the content of both components after the 6-8th month of storage compared with that at the beginning of storage period. The identity of irradiated alliin ( S-allyl- L-cysteine sulfoxide) at sprout-inhibition dose was confirmed according to thin-layer chromatography, i.r. and NMR spectroscopy data.

  9. Numerical simulation of draft tube flow of a bulb turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho, J.G. [Federal University of Triangulo Mineiro, Institute of Technological and Exact Sciences, Avenida Doutor Randolfo Borges Junior, 1250 – Uberaba – MG (Brazil); Brasil, A.C.P. Jr. [University of Brasilia, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Campus Darcy Ribeiro, Brasilia – DF (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    In this work a numerical study of draft tube of a bulb hydraulic turbine is presented, where a new geometry is proposed. This new proposal of draft tube has the unaffected ratio area, a great reduction in his length and approximately the same efficiency of the draft tube conventionally used. The numerical simulations were obtained in commercial software of calculation of flow (CFX-14), using the turbulence model SST, that allows a description of the field fluid dynamic near to the wall. The simulation strategy has an intention of identifying the stall of the boundary layer precisely limits near to the wall and recirculations in the central part, once those are the great causes of the decrease of efficiency of a draft tube. Finally, it is obtained qualitative and quantitative results about the flow in draft tubes.

  10. Serotonin increases synaptic activity in olfactory bulb glomeruli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brill, Julia; Shao, Zuoyi; Puche, Adam C; Wachowiak, Matt; Shipley, Michael T

    2016-03-01

    Serotoninergic fibers densely innervate olfactory bulb glomeruli, the first sites of synaptic integration in the olfactory system. Acting through 5HT2A receptors, serotonin (5HT) directly excites external tufted cells (ETCs), key excitatory glomerular neurons, and depolarizes some mitral cells (MCs), the olfactory bulb's main output neurons. We further investigated 5HT action on MCs and determined its effects on the two major classes of glomerular interneurons: GABAergic/dopaminergic short axon cells (SACs) and GABAergic periglomerular cells (PGCs). In SACs, 5HT evoked a depolarizing current mediated by 5HT2C receptors but did not significantly impact spike rate. 5HT had no measurable direct effect in PGCs. Serotonin increased spontaneous excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs and sIPSCs) in PGCs and SACs. Increased sEPSCs were mediated by 5HT2A receptors, suggesting that they are primarily due to enhanced excitatory drive from ETCs. Increased sIPSCs resulted from elevated excitatory drive onto GABAergic interneurons and augmented GABA release from SACs. Serotonin-mediated GABA release from SACs was action potential independent and significantly increased miniature IPSC frequency in glomerular neurons. When focally applied to a glomerulus, 5HT increased MC spontaneous firing greater than twofold but did not increase olfactory nerve-evoked responses. Taken together, 5HT modulates glomerular network activity in several ways: 1) it increases ETC-mediated feed-forward excitation onto MCs, SACs, and PGCs; 2) it increases inhibition of glomerular interneurons; 3) it directly triggers action potential-independent GABA release from SACs; and 4) these network actions increase spontaneous MC firing without enhancing responses to suprathreshold sensory input. This may enhance MC sensitivity while maintaining dynamic range.

  11. Immobilization of trypsin on miniature incandescent bulbs for infrared-assisted proteolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ge, Huimin; Bao, Huimin; Zhang, Luyan; Chen, Gang, E-mail: gangchen@fudan.edu.cn

    2014-10-03

    Highlights: • Trypsin was immobilized on miniature incandescent bulbs via chitosan coating. • The bulbs acted as enzymatic reactors and the generators of infrared radiation. • The bulb bioreactors were successfully employed in infrared-assisted proteolysis. • The proteolysis could accomplish within 5 min with high sequence coverages. - Abstract: A novel efficient proteolysis approach was developed based on trypsin-immobilized miniature incandescent bulbs and infrared (IR) radiation. Trypsin was covalently immobilized in the chitosan coating on the outer surface of miniature incandescent bulbs with the aid of glutaraldehyde. When an illuminated enzyme-immobilized bulb was immersed in protein solution, the emitted IR radiation could trigger and accelerate heterogeneous protein digestion. The feasibility and performance of the novel proteolysis approach were demonstrated by the digestion of hemoglobin (HEM), cytochrome c (Cyt-c), lysozyme (LYS), and ovalbumin (OVA) and the digestion time was significantly reduced to 5 min. The obtained digests were identified by MALDI-TOF-MS with the sequence coverages of 91%, 77%, 80%, and 52% for HEM, Cyt-c, LYS, and OVA (200 ng μL{sup −1} each), respectively. The suitability of the prepared bulb bioreactors to complex proteins was demonstrated by digesting human serum.

  12. Odor recognition and segmentation by coupled olfactory bulb and cortical networks

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Z; Li, Zhaoping; Hertz, John

    1999-01-01

    We present a model of a coupled system of the olfactory bulb and cortex. Odor inputs to the epithelium are transformed to oscillatory bulbar activities. The cortex recognizes the odor by resonating to the bulbar oscillating pattern when the amplitude and phase patterns from the bulb match an odor memory stored in the intracortical synapses. We assume a cortical structure which transforms the odor information in the oscillatory pattern to a slow DC feedback signal to the bulb. This feedback suppresses the bulbar response to the pre-existing odor, allowing subsequent odor objects to be segmented out for recognition.

  13. Blood Supply--Susceptible Formation of Melanin Pigment in Hair Bulb Melanocytes of Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shogo Maeda, MD

    2015-03-01

    Conclusions: Melanin pigment formation in the hair bulb melanocytes appeared to be susceptible to the blood supply, and melanocytosis was promoted in the follicles and in the epidermis of Kitl-Tg C57BL/6 mice.

  14. Volumetric study of the olfactory bulb in patients with chronic rhinonasal sinusitis using MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reda A. Alarabawy

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: MRI with volumetric analysis is a useful tool in assessment of the olfactory bulb volume in patients with olfactory loss and appears to be of help in assessment of the degree of recovery in patients after sinus surgery.

  15. Ectopic Opening of the Common Bile Duct into the Duodenal Bulb: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Seong Su; Park, Soo Youn [Catholic University St. Vincent' s Hospital, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-08-15

    An ectopic opening of the common bile duct into the duodenal bulb is a very rare congenital malformation of the bile duct, which may cause a recurrent duodenal ulcer or biliary diseases including choledocholithiasis or cholangitis. ERCP plays major role in the diagnosis of this biliary malformation. We report a case of an ectopic opening of the common bile duct into the duodenal bulb, which was detected on the upper gastrointestinal series.

  16. No Reported Species, Botrytis aclada Causing Gray Mold Neck Rot Disease on Onion Bulbs in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Hwang, Sun–Kyoung; Lee, Seung–Yeol; Back, Chang–Gi; Kang, In–Kyu; Lee, Hyang–Burm; Jung, Hee-Young; Ohga, Shoji; Oga, Shoji

    2016-01-01

    Gray mold neck rot was observed on onion bulbs (Allium cepa L.) in low–temperature warehouses in Changnyeong–gun, Korea. The causative pathogen was isolated from rotted onion bulb lesions and identified as Botrytis aclada based on morphological and culture characteristics, the sequences of three nuclear genes (G3PDH, HSP60, and RPB2), and polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR–RFLP) for Botrytis spp. identification. Although onion gray mold disease caused by B...

  17. Centrifugal telencephalic afferent connections to the main and accessory olfactory bulbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia eMohedanoMoriano

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Parallel to the olfactory system, most mammals possess an accessory olfactory or vomeronasal system. The olfactory and vomeronasal epithelia project to the main and accessory olfactory bulbs, which in turn project to adjacent areas of the telencephalon, respectively. New data indicate that projections arising from the main and accessory olfactory bulbs partially converge in the rostral telencephalon and are non-overlapping at caudal telencephalic levels. Therefore, the basal telencephalon should be reclassified in olfactory, vomeronasal and mixed areas. On the other hand, it has been demonstrated that virtually all olfactory- and vomeronasal-recipient structures send reciprocal projections to the main and accessory olfactory bulbs, respectively. Further, non-chemosensory recipient structures also projects centrifugally to the olfactory bulbs. These feed-back projections appear to be essential modulating processing of chemosensory information. The present work aims at characterizing centrifugal projections to the main and accessory olfactory bulbs arising from olfactory, vomeronasal, mixed and non-chemosensory recipient telencephalic areas. This issue has been addressed by using tracer injections in the rat and mouse brain. Tracer injections were delivered into the main and accessory olfactory bulbs as well as in olfactory, vomeronasal, mixed and non-chemosensory recipient telencephalic structures. The results confirm that olfactory- and vomeronasal-recipient structures project to the main and accessory olfactory bulbs, respectively. Interestingly, olfactory (e.g., piriform cortex, vomeronasal (e.g., posteromedial cortical amygdala, mixed (e.g., the medial amygdala and non-chemosensory-recipient (e.g., the nucleus of the diagonal band structures project to the main and to the accessory olfactory bulbs thus providing the possibility of simultaneous modulation and interaction of both systems at different stages of chemosensory processing.

  18. Centrifugal telencephalic afferent connections to the main and accessory olfactory bulbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohedano-Moriano, Alicia; de la Rosa-Prieto, Carlos; Saiz-Sanchez, Daniel; Ubeda-Bañon, Isabel; Pro-Sistiaga, Palma; de Moya-Pinilla, Miguel; Martinez-Marcos, Alino

    2012-01-01

    Parallel to the olfactory system, most mammals possess an accessory olfactory or vomeronasal system. The olfactory and vomeronasal epithelia project to the main and accessory olfactory bulbs, which in turn project to adjacent areas of the telencephalon, respectively. New data indicate that projections arising from the main and accessory olfactory bulbs partially converge in the rostral telencephalon and are non-overlapping at caudal telencephalic levels. Therefore, the basal telencephalon should be reclassified in olfactory, vomeronasal, and mixed areas. On the other hand, it has been demonstrated that virtually all olfactory- and vomeronasal-recipient structures send reciprocal projections to the main and accessory olfactory bulbs, respectively. Further, non-chemosensory recipient structures also projects centrifugally to the olfactory bulbs. These feed-back projections appear to be essential modulating processing of chemosensory information. The present work aims at characterizing centrifugal projections to the main and accessory olfactory bulbs arising from olfactory, vomeronasal, mixed, and non-chemosensory recipient telencephalic areas. This issue has been addressed by using tracer injections in the rat and mouse brain. Tracer injections were delivered into the main and accessory olfactory bulbs as well as in olfactory, vomeronasal, mixed, and non-chemosensory recipient telencephalic structures. The results confirm that olfactory- and vomeronasal-recipient structures project to the main and accessory olfactory bulbs, respectively. Interestingly, olfactory (e.g., piriform cortex), vomeronasal (e.g., posteromedial cortical amygdala), mixed (e.g., the anterior medial amygdaloid nucleus), and non-chemosensory-recipient (e.g., the nucleus of the diagonal band) structures project to the main and to the accessory olfactory bulbs thus providing the possibility of simultaneous modulation and interaction of both systems at different stages of chemosensory processing

  19. Closed hollow bulb obturator--one-step fabrication: a clinical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzayan, Muaiyed M; Ariffin, Yusnidar T; Yunus, Norsiah

    2013-10-01

    A method is described for the fabrication of a closed hollow bulb obturator prosthesis using a hard thermoforming splint material and heat-cured acrylic resin. The technique allowed the thickness of the thermoformed bulb to be optimized for weight reduction, while the autopolymerized seal area was covered in heat-cured acrylic resin, thus eliminating potential leakage and discoloration. This technique permits the obturator prosthesis to be processed to completion from the wax trial denture without additional laboratory investing, flasking, and processing.

  20. Culture and purification of human fetal olfactory bulb ensheathing cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To obtain high purity of human fetal olfactory bulb ensheathing cells (OB-hOECs) in vitro and to develop a simple and effective method for primary culture of OB-hOECs. Methods: OB-hOECs were cultured based on the differential rates of attachment of the various harvested cell types. Then the method was combined with arabinoside cytosine (Ara-C)inhibition, serum-free starvation or intermittent neurotrophin 3 (NT3) nutrition method to observe cell states in different cultural environments. The purity of OB-hOECs was assessed with immunocytochemical analysis. Results: OB-hOECs appeared bipolar and tripolar shape, with slender processes forming network. The purity of OECs reached 88% with the selective attachment method on day 6, and then fibroblast proliferated quickly and reduced the purity. When combined with the starvation method, the purity of OECs was 91% on day 6 and 86% on day 9, however, OECs were in a poor state. While combined with the NT3 method, the purity reached 95% on day 9 and 83% on day 12, respectively. The cells still remained in a good state. Conclusion: A combination of selective attachment and intermittent NT3 nutrition is an effective method to obtain OECs with higher purity and quality.

  1. Odor Memory Stability after Reinnervation of the Olfactory Bulb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco-Hernández, Eduardo; Valle-Leija, Pablo; Zomosa-Signoret, Viviana; Drucker-Colín, René; Vidaltamayo, Román

    2012-01-01

    The olfactory system, particularly the olfactory epithelium, presents a unique opportunity to study the regenerative capabilities of the brain, because of its ability to recover after damage. In this study, we ablated olfactory sensory neurons with methimazole and followed the anatomical and functional recovery of circuits expressing genetic markers for I7 and M72 receptors (M72-IRES-tau-LacZ and I7-IRES-tau-GFP). Our results show that 45 days after methimazole-induced lesion, axonal projections to the bulb of M72 and I7 populations are largely reestablished. Furthermore, regenerated glomeruli are re-formed within the same areas as those of control, unexposed mice. This anatomical regeneration correlates with functional recovery of a previously learned odorant-discrimination task, dependent on the cognate ligands for M72 and I7. Following regeneration, mice also recover innate responsiveness to TMT and urine. Our findings show that regeneration of neuronal circuits in the olfactory system can be achieved with remarkable precision and underscore the importance of glomerular organization to evoke memory traces stored in the brain. PMID:23071557

  2. Mitotic activity in cells of the wool follicle bulb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hynd, P I; Schlink, A C; Phillips, P M; Scobie, D R

    1986-01-01

    Mitotic activity in the cells of the germinative region of wool follicle bulbs was quantified by using small (0.1-0.5 ml) intradermal doses of colchicine and selective staining of the metaphase-blocked nuclei using either crystal violet, iodine and eosin or haematoxylin and eosin. The number of metaphase nuclei present 3 h after colchicine administration increased with colchicine dose from 0 to 1 microgram and thereafter remained relatively constant up to 200 micrograms colchicine. The accumulation of metaphase nuclei was linear for up to 6 h after intradermal colchicine. The metaphase-blocking effect of intradermal colchicine was confined to a radius of less than 5 cm from the injection site, allowing a number of estimates of mitotic rates to be made over a small area of skin. Such estimates revealed little variation in mitotic activity over the midside region of the sheep, although there were substantial differences in follicle activity at different sites over the body. The technique is simple, allows serial or concurrent estimates of mitotic activity to be made in the same animal, and eliminates problems associated with intravenous colchicine administration. It was used to derive the relationship between follicle activity and fibre production after nutritional changes, and to define the time course of mitotic events after administration of the antimitotic defleecing agent cyclophosphamide.

  3. Rapid odor perception in rat olfactory bulb by microelectrode array

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun ZHOU; Qi DONG; Liu-jing ZHUANG; Rong LI; Ping WANG

    2012-01-01

    Responses of 302 mitral/tufted (M/T) cells in the olfactory bulb were recorded from 42 anesthetized freely breathing rats using a 16-channel microwire electrode array.Saturated vapors of four pure chemicals,anisole,carvone,citral and isoamyl acetate were applied.After aligning spike trains to the iritial phase of the inhalation after odor onset,the responses of M/T cells showed transient temporal features including excitatory and inhibitory patterns.Both odor-evoked patterns indicated that mammals recognize odors within a short respiration cycle after odor stimulus.Due to the small amount of information received from a single cell,we pooled results from all responsive M/T cells to study the ensemble activity.The firing rates of the cell ensembles were computed over 100 ms bins and population vectors were constructed.The high dimension vectors were condensed into three dimensions for visualization using principal component analysis.The trajectories of both excitatory and inhibitory cell ensembles displayed strong dynamics during odor stimulation.The distances among cluster centers were enlarged compared to those of the resting state.Thus,we presumed that pictures of odor information sent to higher brain regions were depicted and odor discrimination was completed within the first breathing cycle.

  4. Topological reorganization of odor representations in the olfactory bulb.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emre Yaksi

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Odors are initially represented in the olfactory bulb (OB by patterns of sensory input across the array of glomeruli. Although activated glomeruli are often widely distributed, glomeruli responding to stimuli sharing molecular features tend to be loosely clustered and thus establish a fractured chemotopic map. Neuronal circuits in the OB transform glomerular patterns of sensory input into spatiotemporal patterns of output activity and thereby extract information about a stimulus. It is, however, unknown whether the chemotopic spatial organization of glomerular inputs is maintained during these computations. To explore this issue, we measured spatiotemporal patterns of odor-evoked activity across thousands of individual neurons in the zebrafish OB by temporally deconvolved two-photon Ca(2+ imaging. Mitral cells and interneurons were distinguished by transgenic markers and exhibited different response selectivities. Shortly after response onset, activity patterns exhibited foci of activity associated with certain chemical features throughout all layers. During the subsequent few hundred milliseconds, however, MC activity was locally sparsened within the initial foci in an odor-specific manner. As a consequence, chemotopic maps disappeared and activity patterns became more informative about precise odor identity. Hence, chemotopic maps of glomerular input activity are initially transmitted to OB outputs, but not maintained during pattern processing. Nevertheless, transient chemotopic maps may support neuronal computations by establishing important synaptic interactions within the circuit. These results provide insights into the functional topology of neural activity patterns and its potential role in circuit function.

  5. Odor memory stability after reinnervation of the olfactory bulb.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Blanco-Hernández

    Full Text Available The olfactory system, particularly the olfactory epithelium, presents a unique opportunity to study the regenerative capabilities of the brain, because of its ability to recover after damage. In this study, we ablated olfactory sensory neurons with methimazole and followed the anatomical and functional recovery of circuits expressing genetic markers for I7 and M72 receptors (M72-IRES-tau-LacZ and I7-IRES-tau-GFP. Our results show that 45 days after methimazole-induced lesion, axonal projections to the bulb of M72 and I7 populations are largely reestablished. Furthermore, regenerated glomeruli are re-formed within the same areas as those of control, unexposed mice. This anatomical regeneration correlates with functional recovery of a previously learned odorant-discrimination task, dependent on the cognate ligands for M72 and I7. Following regeneration, mice also recover innate responsiveness to TMT and urine. Our findings show that regeneration of neuronal circuits in the olfactory system can be achieved with remarkable precision and underscore the importance of glomerular organization to evoke memory traces stored in the brain.

  6. Speech rehabilitation of maxillectomy patients with hollow bulb obturator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pravesh Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the effect of hollow bulb obturator prosthesis on articulation and nasalance in maxillectomy patients. Materials and Methods: A total of 10 patients, who were to undergo maxillectomy, falling under Aramany classes I and II, with normal speech and hearing pattern were selected for the study. They were provided with definitive maxillary obturators after complete healing of the defect. The patients were asked to wear the obturator for six weeks and speech analysis was done to measure changes in articulation and nasalance at four different stages of treatment, namely, preoperative, postoperative (after complete healing, that is, 3-4 months after surgery, after 24 hours, and after six weeks of providing the obturators. Articulation was measured objectively for distortion, addition, substitution, and omission by a speech pathologist, and nasalance was measured by Dr. Speech software. Results: The statistical comparison of preoperative and six weeks post rehabilitation levels showed insignificance in articulation and nasalance. Comparison of post surgery complete healing with six weeks after rehabilitation showed significant differences in both nasalance and articulation. Conclusion: Providing an obturator improves the speech closer to presurgical levels of articulation and there is improvement in nasality also.

  7. 番红花种球定量留芽增产效果研究简报%Bulb yield of saffron as influenced by number of seed bulb sprouts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董卫明

    2012-01-01

    为实现番红花球茎高产,提高繁殖率,开展了番红花种球定量留芽田间试验.结果表明:26~30 g的大球茎留3芽、18~25 g的中球茎留2芽、18 g以下的小球茎留1芽为合理留芽量.%In order to improve the bulb yield and reproduction rate of saffron,field experiments with saffron were carried out under different numbers of sprouts reserved on the seed bulb. The result showed that the suitable number of sprouts reserved on the bulb was 3 if the bulb weighed 26 - 30 g,2 if the bulb weighed 18-25 g,and 1 if the bulb weighed less than 18 g.

  8. Dendrodendritic Synapses in the Mouse Olfactory Bulb External Plexiform Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartel, Dianna L.; Rela, Lorena; Hsieh, Lawrence; Greer, Charles A.

    2014-01-01

    Odor information relayed by olfactory bulb projection neurons, mitral and tufted cells (M/T), is modulated by pairs of reciprocal dendrodendritic synaptic circuits in the external plexiform layer (EPL). Interneurons, which are accounted for largely by granule cells, receive depolarizing input from M/T dendrites and in turn inhibit current spread in M/T dendrites via hyperpolarizing reciprocal dendrodendritic synapses. Because the location of dendrodendritic synapses may significantly affect the cascade of odor information, we assessed synaptic properties and density within sublaminae of the EPL and along the length of M/T secondary dendrites. In electron micrographs the M/T to granule cell synapse appeared to predominate and were equivalent in both the outer and inner EPL. However, the dendrodendritic synapses from granule cell spines onto M/T dendrites, were more prevalent in the outer EPL. In contrast, individual gephyrin-IR puncta, a postsynaptic scaffolding protein at inhibitory synapses used here as a proxy for the granule to M/T dendritic synapse was equally distributed throughout the EPL. Of significance to the organization of intrabulbar circuits, gephyrin-IR synapses are not uniformly distributed along M/T secondary dendrites. Synaptic density, expressed as a function of surface area, increases distal to the cell body. Furthermore, the distributions of gephyrin-IR puncta are heterogeneous and appear as clusters along the length of the M/T dendrites. Consistent with computational models, our data suggest that temporal coding in M/T cells is achieved by precisely located inhibitory input and that distance from the soma is compensated with an increase in synaptic density. PMID:25420934

  9. Simulation of leading edge cavitation on bulb turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaithacha Sudsuansee

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Cavitation caused by phases exchange between fluids of large density difference occurs in a region where thepressure of water falls below its vapor pressure. The density of water in a water-vapor contact area decreases dramatically.As a result, the flow in this region is compressible, which affects directly turbulent dissipation structures. Leading edgecavitation is naturally time dependent. Re-entrant jet generated by liquid flow over a cavity is a main actor of cavity shedding.Simulation of unsteady leading edge cavitation flows through a 4-blade runner bulb turbine was performed. Particular attentionwas given to the phenomena of re-entrant jet, cavity shedding, and cavitation vortices in the flow over turbine blade.The Reynolds-Average Navier-Stokes equations with finite volume discretization were used. The calculations were donewith pressure-based algorithms since the flow possesses a wide range of density change and high complexity turbulence.The new formula for dilatation dissipation parameter in k- model was introduced and the turbulent Mach number wascalculated from density of mixture instead. 2-D and 3-D hydrofoils based on both numerical and experimental results accomplisheda validation. The results show that re-entrant jet, shedding of cavity, and cavitation vortices can be captured. Inaddition, this paper also calculates the cycle frequency of torque generated by the runner and vapor area evolution on theblade surface. The cycle frequency varies with cavitation number. At normal operation of this turbine ( = 1 it is found thatboth of them have a frequency of 46 Hertz.

  10. A circadian clock in the olfactory bulb anticipates feeding during food anticipatory activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahum Nolasco

    Full Text Available Rabbit pups ingest food, in this case milk, once a day with circadian periodicity and are a natural model of food anticipatory activity. During nursing, several sensory systems receive information about properties of the food, one of them being the olfactory system, which has received little attention in relation to synchronization by food. In addition, the olfactory bulb has a circadian pacemaker that exhibits rhythms independently of the suprachiasmatic nucleus, but the biological functions of these rhythms are largely unknown. In the present contribution, we hypothesized that circadian suckling of milk synchronizes rhythms in the olfactory bulb. To this aim we explored by immunohistochemistry, rhythms of FOS and PER1 proteins, as indicators of activation and reporter of oscillations, respectively, through a complete 24-h cycle in periglomerular, mitral and granular cell layers of both the main and the accessory olfactory bulb. Subjects were 7-day-old rabbit pups scheduled to nurse during the night (02:00 h or day (10:00 h, and also fasted subjects, to explore the possible persistence of oscillations. In the three layers of the main olfactory bulb, FOS was high at time of nursing, then further increased 1.5 h afterward, and then decreased to increase again in advance of the next nursing bout. This pattern persisted, without the postprandial increase, in fasted subjects with a shift in subjects nursed at 02:00. PER1 was increased 2-8 h after nursing and this increase persisted in most cell layers, with a shift, in fasted subjects. In the accessory olfactory bulb we only observed a consistent pattern of FOS expression in the mitral cell layer of nursed subjects, similar to that of the main olfactory bulb. We conclude that the main olfactory bulb is synchronized during milk ingestion, but during fasting its oscillations perhaps are modulated by the suprachiasmatic nucleus, as proposed for rodents.

  11. Diversity in olfactory bulb size in birds reflects allometry, ecology and phylogeny

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Richard Corfield

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The relative size of olfactory bulbs is correlated with olfactory capabilities across vertebrates and is widely used to assess the relative importance of olfaction to a species’ ecology. In birds, variations in the relative size of olfactory bulbs are correlated with some behaviors, however, the factors that have led to the high level of diversity seen in olfactory bulb sizes across birds are still not well understood. In this study, we use the relative size of olfactory bulbs as a neuroanatomical proxy for olfactory capabilities in 135 species of birds, representing 21 orders. We examine the scaling of olfactory bulbs with brain size across avian orders, determined likely ancestral states and test for correlations between OB sizes and habitat, ecology and behavior. The size of avian OBs varied with the size of the brain and this allometric relationship was for the most part isometric, although species did deviate from this trend. Large olfactory bulbs were characteristic of more basal species and in more recently derived species the OBs were small. Living and foraging in a semi aquatic environment was the strongest variable driving the evolution of large olfactory bulbs in birds; olfaction may provide cues for navigation and foraging in this otherwise featureless environment. Some of the diversity in OB sizes was also undoubtedly due to differences in migratory behavior, foraging strategies and social structure. In summary, relative OB size in birds reflect allometry, phylogeny and behavior in ways that parallel that of other vertebrate classes. This provides comparative evidence that supports recent experimental studies into avian olfaction and suggests that olfaction is a critically important sensory modality for all avian species.

  12. Comparison of social interaction and neural activation in the main olfactory bulb and the accessory olfactory bulb between Microtus mandarinus and Microtus fortis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadao TAI, Wanying WANG, Hugh BRODERS, Ruyong SUN, Limin LIU , Hongyuan WANG

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available To gain insight into the function of AOB and MOB during different social interaction and in different vole species, the behaviors and neural activation of the olfactory bulbs in social interactions of mandarin voles Microtus mandarinus and reed voles Microtus fortis were compared in the present research. Mandarin voles spent significantly more time attacking and sniffing its opponent and sniffing sawdust than reed voles. During same sex encounters, mandarin voles attacked its opponent for a significantly longer time and sniffed its opponent for shorter time compared with male-female interactions. However, no significant behavioral differences were found during encounters of two individual reed voles, regardless of gender composition of the pair. Using c-Fos as an indicator of neural activation, we observed that neural activation was significantly higher in almost all sub-regions of the main olfactory bulb (MOB and the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB of mandarin voles compared with reed voles. Numbers of c-Fos-ir neurons in almost all sub-regions of the AOB and the MOB during male-female interactions were also higher than those in interactions of the same sex. Anterior-posterior ratios of Fos-ir neurons in the AOBM (AOBMR and the AOBG (AOBGR in male-female interaction were significantly higher than those in interaction of the same sex. The AOBMR of male mandarin voles and reed voles were larger than those of females in male-female interactions. Behavioral patterns are consistent with cellular activity patterns. Consistent level of neural activation in MOB and AOB suggests important roles of both the main olfactory bulb and the accessory olfactory bulb in social interaction in two species [Current Zoology 55(4: 279 –287, 2009].

  13. Genetic mapping of sulfur assimilation genes reveals a QTL for onion bulb pungency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCallum, John; Pither-Joyce, Meeghan; Shaw, Martin; Kenel, Fernand; Davis, Sheree; Butler, Ruth; Scheffer, John; Jakse, Jernej; Havey, Michael J

    2007-03-01

    Onion exhibits wide genetic and environmental variation in bioactive organosulfur compounds that impart pungency and health benefits. A PCR-based molecular marker map that included candidate genes for sulfur assimilation was used to identify genomic regions affecting pungency in the cross 'W202A' x 'Texas Grano 438'. Linkage mapping revealed that genes encoding plastidic ferredoxin-sulfite reductase (SiR) and plastidic ATP sulfurylase (ATPS) are closely linked (1-2 cM) on chromosome 3. Inbred F(3) families derived from the F(2 )population used to construct the genetic map were grown in replicated trials in two environments and bulb pungency was evaluated as pyruvic acid or lachrymatory factor. Broad-sense heritability of pungency was estimated to be 0.78-0.80. QTL analysis revealed significant associations of both pungency and bulb soluble solids content with marker intervals on chromosomes 3 and 5, which have previously been reported to condition pleiotropic effects on bulb carbohydrate composition. Highly significant associations (LOD 3.7-8.7) were observed between ATPS and SiR Loci and bulb pungency but not with bulb solids content. This association was confirmed in two larger, independently derived F(2) families from the same cross. Single-locus models suggested that the partially dominant locus associated with these candidate genes controls 30-50% of genetic variation in pungency in these pedigrees. These markers may provide a practical means to select for lower pungency without correlated selection for lowered solids.

  14. Organization and distribution of glomeruli in the bowhead whale olfactory bulb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takushi Kishida

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Although modern baleen whales (Mysticeti retain a functional olfactory system that includes olfactory bulbs, cranial nerve I and olfactory receptor genes, their olfactory capabilities have been reduced to a great degree. This reduction likely occurred as a selective response to their fully aquatic lifestyle. The glomeruli that occur in the olfactory bulb can be divided into two non-overlapping domains, a dorsal domain and a ventral domain. Recent molecular studies revealed that all modern whales have lost olfactory receptor genes and marker genes that are specific to the dorsal domain. Here we show that olfactory bulbs of bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus lack glomeruli on the dorsal side, consistent with the molecular data. In addition, we estimate that there are more than 4,000 glomeruli elsewhere in the bowhead whale olfactory bulb, which is surprising given that bowhead whales possess only 80 intact olfactory receptor genes. Olfactory sensory neurons that express the same olfactory receptors in rodents generally project to two specific glomeruli in an olfactory bulb, implying an approximate 1:2 ratio of the number of olfactory receptors to the number of glomeruli. Here we show that this ratio does not apply to bowhead whales, reiterating the conceptual limits of using rodents as model organisms for understanding the initial coding of odor information among mammals.

  15. Evidence of a novel allergenic protein Narcin in the bulbs of Narcissus tazetta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Mau; Singh, Amar; Shokeen, Akshita; Sharma, Pradeep; Kaushik, Sanket; Mitra, Dipendra K; Kaur, Punit; Sharma, Sujata; Singh, Tej P

    2013-01-01

    Several plant-derived allergens have been identified which result in the formation of immunoglobulin E antibodies. Primarily, these allergens belong to the protein families including seed storage proteins, structural proteins and pathogenesis-related proteins. Several allergens are also reported from flower bulbs which cause contact dermatitis. Such symptoms are highly common with the bulb growers handling different species of Narcissus. Narcissus toxicity is also reported if the bulbs are consumed accidentally. The present study aimed to characterize the protein from the bulbs of Narcissus tazetta responsible for its allergenic response. A 13 kDa novel allergenic protein, Narcin was isolated from the bulbs of Narcissus tazetta. The protein was extracted using ammonium sulfate fractionation. The protein was further purified by anion exchange chromatography followed by gel filtration chromatography. The N-terminal sequence of the first 15 amino-acid residues was determined using Edman degradation. The allergenicity of the protein was measured by cytokine production using flow cytometry in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Further estimation of total IgE was performed by ELISA method. This novel protein was found to induce pro-inflammatory cytokines and thus induce allergy by elevating total IgE level. The novel protein, Narcin isolated from Narcissus tazetta was found to exhibit allergenic properties. PMID:23936740

  16. An arterially perfused nose-olfactory bulb preparation of the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez de los Cobos Pallarés, Fernando; Stanić, Davor; Farmer, David; Dutschmann, Mathias; Egger, Veronica

    2015-09-01

    A main feature of the mammalian olfactory bulb network is the presence of various rhythmic activities, in particular, gamma, beta, and theta oscillations, with the latter coupled to the respiratory rhythm. Interactions between those oscillations as well as the spatial distribution of network activation are likely to determine olfactory coding. Here, we describe a novel semi-intact perfused nose-olfactory bulb-brain stem preparation in rats with both a preserved olfactory epithelium and brain stem, which could be particularly suitable for the study of oscillatory activity and spatial odor mapping within the olfactory bulb, in particular, in hitherto inaccessible locations. In the perfused olfactory bulb, we observed robust spontaneous oscillations, mostly in the theta range. Odor application resulted in an increase in oscillatory power in higher frequency ranges, stimulus-locked local field potentials, and excitation or inhibition of individual bulbar neurons, similar to odor responses reported from in vivo recordings. Thus our method constitutes the first viable in situ preparation of a mammalian system that uses airborne odor stimuli and preserves these characteristic features of odor processing. This preparation will allow the use of highly invasive experimental procedures and the application of techniques such as patch-clamp recording, high-resolution imaging, and optogenetics within the entire olfactory bulb.

  17. Organisation and chemical neuroanatomy of the African elephant (Loxodonta africana) olfactory bulb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngwenya, Ayanda; Patzke, Nina; Ihunwo, Amadi O; Manger, Paul R

    2011-11-01

    The olfactory system of mammals can be divided into a main and accessory olfactory system with initial processing for each system occurring in the olfactory bulb. The main and accessory olfactory bulbs have similar structural features, even though they appear to be functionally independent. In mammals the main olfactory bulb (MOB) is also one of two established sites of lifelong generation of new cells. The present study describes the histological and immunohistochemical neuroanatomy of the olfactory bulb of the African elephant (Loxodonta africana). The morphology of MOB of the elephant does not differ significantly from that described in other mammals; however, it lacks the internal plexiform layer. In addition, the glomeruli of the glomerular layer are organised in 2-4 "honey-combed" layers, a feature not commonly observed. The cell types and structures revealed with immunohistochemical stains (parvalbumin, calbindin, calretinin, tyrosine hydroxylase, orexin-A, glial fibrillary acidic protein) were similar to other mammals. Neurogenesis was examined using the neurogenic marker doublecortin. Migration of newly generated cells was observed in most layers of the MOB. No accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) was observed. Based on the general anatomy and the immunohistochemical observations, it is evident that the morphology of the African elephant MOB is, for the most part, similar to that of all mammals, although very large in absolute size.

  18. Spatial assessment of net mercury emissions from the use of fluorescent bulbs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthew J. Eckelman; Paul T. Anastas; Julie B. Zimmerman [Yale University, New Haven, CT (United States). Department of Chemical Engineering

    2008-11-15

    While fluorescent lighting is an important technology for reducing electrical energy demand, mercury used in the bulbs is an ongoing concern. Using state and country level data, net emissions of mercury from the marginal use of fluorescent lightbulbs are examined for a base year of 2004 for each of the 50 United States and 130 countries. Combustion of coal for electric power generation is generally the largest source of atmospheric mercury pollution; reduction in electricity demand from the substitution of incandescent bulbs with fluorescents leads to reduced mercury emissions during the use of the bulb. This analysis considers the local mix of power sources, coal quality, thermal conversion efficiencies, distribution losses, and any mercury control technologies that might be in place. Emissions of mercury from production and end-of-life treatment of the bulbs are also considered, providing a life-cycle perspective. Net reductions in mercury over the entire life cycle range from -1.2 to 97 mg per bulb depending on the country. The consequences for atmospheric mercury emissions of several policy scenarios are also discussed. 46 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Spatial assessment of net mercury emissions from the use of fluorescent bulbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckelman, Matthew J; Anastas, Paul T; Zimmerman, Julie B

    2008-11-15

    While fluorescent lighting is an important technology for reducing electrical energy demand, mercury used in the bulbs is an ongoing concern. Using state and country level data, net emissions of mercury from the marginal use of fluorescent lightbulbs are examined for a base year of 2004 for each of the 50 United States and 130 countries. Combustion of coal for electric power generation is generally the largest source of atmospheric mercury pollution; reduction in electricity demand from the substitution of incandescent bulbs with fluorescents leads to reduced mercury emissions during the use of the bulb. This analysis considers the local mix of power sources, coal quality, thermal conversion efficiencies, distribution losses, and any mercury control technologies that might be in place. Emissions of mercury from production and end-of-life treatment of the bulbs are also considered, providing a life-cycle perspective. Net reductions in mercury over the entire life cycle range from -1.2 to 97 mg per bulb depending on the country. The consequences for atmospheric mercury emissions of several policy scenarios are also discussed.

  20. The effect of bulb planting time and type of mulch on the yield of Allium aflatunense B. Fedtsch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halina Laskowska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the effect of bulb planting time and the type of mulch on the morphological traits of plants and on bulb yield of Allium aflatunense B. Fedtsch. 'Purple Sensation'. Bulbs of 12 cm diameter were used as the study material. The bulbs were planted in plots on three dates: September 15th, October 1st, and October 15th. The plantation was mulched after frost with two types of mulch: composted pine bark and wheat straw. Phenological phases of the plants were observed during the growing season. At the full flowering stage, several observations and measurements were taken: length of leaves, length of inflorescence peduncle, peduncle diameter, inflorescence diameter, and number of flowers per inflorescence. After harvest, total numerical and weight yield of bulbs were evaluated as well as number and weight of the largest bulbs (21–22 cm diameter. The study showed that in order to obtain Allium aflatunense of high ornamental value, which is determined by the number of flowers per inflorescence and the inflorescence peduncle diameter, bulbs need to be planted in the middle of September. Bulb planting in October leads to production of inflorescences of greater diameter. The optimum method of Allium aflatunense cultivation which ensures production of good total yield of bulbs, expressed in its weight, is bulb planting on September 15th and soil mulching with composted pine bark or straw. Mulching a plantation of Allium aflatunense planted on September 15th with bark has a positive effect on the number and weight of bulbs of 21–22 cm diameter.

  1. Effect of fertilizers on galanthamine and metabolite profiles in Narcissus bulbs by 1H NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubbe, Andrea; Choi, Young Hae; Vreeburg, Peter; Verpoorte, Robert

    2011-04-13

    Narcissus bulbs contain the biologically active alkaloid galanthamine, and Narcissus is being developed as a natural source of the molecule for the pharmaceutical industry. The effect of fertilizer on galanthamine production was investigated in a field study using a (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) metabolite profiling approach. Galanthamine was quantitated and major metabolites in the bulbs were identified. The application of standard fertilization levels of nitrogen and potassium caused a significant increase in galanthamine as compared to a control. Multivariate data analysis of the (1)H NMR data revealed that applying double the standard level of nitrogen fertilizer resulted in production of more amino acids and citric acid cycle intermediates, but not more galanthamine. The results indicated that standard levels of fertilizer currently applied in The Netherlands are sufficient for optimal galanthamine accumulation in the bulbs. This study shows how (1)H NMR-based metabolic profiling can provide insight into the response of plant metabolism to agricultural practices.

  2. Antioxidant activity of bulbs and aerial parts of Crocus caspius, impact of extraction methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalili, Masomeh; Fathi, Hamed; Ebrahimzadeh, Mohammad Ali

    2016-05-01

    Crocus genus (Iridaceae) is comprises approximately 80 species. In this study in vitro antioxidant activities of extracts from C. caspius bulbs and aerial parts were investigated. Ultrasonically assisted extraction (US), percolation method (PE) and polyphenolic fraction (PP) were used. Antioxidant activities were evaluated with five different tests. Aerial parts US extract with high levels of phenol and flavonoids were the most potent extract in DPPH radical scavenging than others. Aerial parts PE extract had shown very potent reducing power, which was so better than other extracts (p<0.01). Aerial parts PP fraction showed very good Fe(2+) chelating ability. Aerial parts US extract were the most potent extract in scavenging of H(2)O(2). Bulb PP fraction with IC(50)=22.8±0.7 µg ml(-1) was the most potent fraction in nitric oxide scavenging. The results improved high levels of antioxidant activities of C. caspius bulbs and aerial parts in all tested models.

  3. A rare cause of conductive hearing loss: High lateralized jugular bulb with bony dehiscence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, James G; Singh, Pranay K

    2016-06-01

    We present a rare case of pediatric conductive hearing loss due to a high lateralized jugular bulb. An 8-year-old boy with a right-sided conductive hearing loss of 40 dB was found to have a pink bulge toward the inferior part of the right eardrum. Computed tomography showed a high, lateralized right jugular bulb that had a superolaterally pointing diverticulum that bulged into the lower mesotympanum and posterior external auditory meatus. It was explained to the child's parents that it is important never to put any sharp objects into the ears because of the risk of injury to the jugular vein. A high, lateralized jugular bulb with a diverticulum is a rare anatomic abnormality. Correct diagnosis of this abnormality is important so that inappropriate intervention does not occur.

  4. Olfactory bulb and retrobulbar regions in the hedgehog tenrec: organization and interconnections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radtke-Schuller, S; Künzle, H

    2000-08-01

    The Madagascan lesser hedgehog tenrec (Echinops telfairi) is a terrestrial, nocturnal insectivore with a low encephalization index and a huge olfactory bulb. To gain insight into the organization and evolution of olfactory regions in placental mammals, the cytoarchitecture (Nissl), neurochemical attributes [zinc and acetylcholinesterase stain, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPh)-diaphorase, and calcium-binding proteins], and interconnections (injections of wheat germ agglutinin-horseradish peroxidase and biotinylated dextran amine) of tenrec bulbar and retrobulbar regions were examined. The tenrec has a well-laminated main olfactory bulb, and modified (atypical) glomeruli are found that, to date, have been demonstrated only in murine rodents. Compared with the main olfactory bulb, the accessory bulb is relatively small, with clearly different staining characteristics, particularly with respect to NADPh-diaphorase, anticalbindin, and anticalretinin. External and central anterior olfactory nuclei also show characteristic cytoarchitectural and chemoarchitectural features. The medial olfactory peduncle seems to differ considerably from that in rodents. A small taenial structure can be separated from the hippocampal continuation. This taenia tecti presumably corresponds to the superior part of the tenia tecti in rodents, but no homologue of the rodent's prominent inferior taenia tecti could be found. The connections of bulbar and retrobulbar regions are similar to those seen in other mammals. Interbulbar projection systems connect the two olfactory bulbs through an external (topographic) and central (nontopographic) anterior nucleus; however, the topographic arrangement of the intrabulbar association system seems to differ from that seen in rodents. A reciprocity of direct olfactory bulb connections with the frontal (sulcal/orbital) cortex was found in the tenrec that has not been reported so far in other species.

  5. Seasonal dynamics of non-structural carbohydrates in bulbs and shoots of the geophyte Galanthus nivalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orthen, Birgit; Wehrmeyer, Andreas

    2004-04-01

    Seasonal dynamics of non-structural carbohydrates were studied in Galanthus nivalis L. over a 2-year period. The plants were collected in the field and separated into above- and below-ground biomass. The polysaccharide fraction of the bulbs consisted of fructans and starch. Seasonal variations suggest that the polysaccharides were utilized for carbon and energy supply for re-growth and flower development. With the re-sprouting of the bulbs in autumn the fructans within the bulbs were depolymerized and an increase of low degree of polymerization fructans as well as sucrose was observable. Within shoots the major polysaccharides were fructans, the starch content was much lower. Gas liquid chromatography and high-performance, anion-exchange chromatographyanalysis of the fructan fraction revealed that the fructans within the shoots were predominantly those with a low degree of polymerization. In addition to the two polysaccharides the other dominant sugar in shoots was sucrose. During the period of slow re-growth and flowering, fructan and starch pools were depleted to different degrees. Calculation of the difference between the carbohydrate content at the start of visible growth and at the time of lowest content revealed that the starch pool showed a higher depletion than the fructan pool. During the re-growth periods in 1996/97 and 1997/98 fructans were catabolized by 39 and 32% only, whereas the starch pool was depleted by 92% (1996/97) and 79% (1997/98), respectively. During rapid shoot growth and fruiting, the bulbs and above-ground organs appeared to be competing sinks for the photosynthetically fixed carbon. Refilling of the bulbs carbohydrate reserve started in February/March In shoots, the period of refilling the bulbs was characterized by a low content of oligosaccarides and a high content of hexoses.

  6. Radiation preservation of foods of plant origin. Part 2. Onions and other bulb crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, P.

    1984-01-01

    The various factors contributing to post harvest losses in onions and other bulb crops are briefly outlined in terms of the current storage methods. The present status of research on sprout inhibition by irradiation is reviewed in detail with respect to dose requirements, effect of time interval between harvest and irradiation, and the influence of environment on sprouting during storage. Biochemical mechanisms of sprout inhibition, metabolic and compositional changes (particularly sugars, anthocyanins, flavor and lachrymatory principles), and the culinary and processing qualities of irradiated onions are discussed. The future prospects for the commercial irradiation for sprout inhibition of bulb crops are considered.

  7. Sprout inhibition in roots, tubers and bulbs; Inhibicion de brotes en raices, tuberculos y bulbos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luna C, P.C

    1992-05-15

    The treatment with ionizing radiations to low dose impedes that appear sprouts in the tubers (potatoes); bulbs (onion and garlic) and in roots like the ginger and the yucca. The purpose is to inhibit the germination during the process of manipulation and storage, and this way to avoid the lost ones post crop of these products. The radiation dose required to inhibit the germination goes to depend of: the development conditions, the differences of variety, of the storage state of the bulbs and the conditions of cured and storage. (Author)

  8. Plant regeneration from excised bulb scale segments of Zephyranthes robusta Baker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirosława Furmanowa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Zephyranthes robusta Baker excised bulb scale segments with the basal plate were grown on Murashige and Skoog (MS medium in four modifications. The cultures were kept at 25°C in darkness. The best results (bulbing, leaf development and rooting were obtained on MS medium with 1 mg/l IBA, 2-6 bulblets being developed from one explant. After 6 weeks the plantlets (4-6 cm high were transferred to pots filled with sterilized soil mixes. After two months the leaves of the plants reached a length of 20 cm.

  9. Functional neurology of a brain system: a 3D olfactory bulb model to process natural odorants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliore, Michele; Cavarretta, Francesco; Hines, Michael L; Shepherd, Gordon M

    2013-01-01

    The network of interactions between mitral and granule cells in the olfactory bulb is a critical step in the processing of odor information underlying the neural basis of smell perception. We are building the first computational model in 3 dimensions of this network in order to analyze the rules for connectivity and function within it. The initial results indicate that this network can be modeled to simulate experimental results on the activation of the olfactory bulb by natural odorants, providing a much more powerful approach for 3D simulation of brain neurons and microcircuits.

  10. Effect of selenium treatment on mineral nutrition, bulb size, and antioxidant properties of garlic (Allium sativum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Põldma, Priit; Tõnutare, Tõnu; Viitak, Anu; Luik, Anne; Moor, Ulvi

    2011-05-25

    Foliar selenium (Se) treatment of garlic at concentrations of 10, 50, and 100 μg of Se/mL was carried out in open field conditions in 2008 and 2009 in Estonia. Bulb weight and yield structure, content of total Se, S, N, P, K, Ca, and Mg, ascorbic acid content (AAC), pungency, total phenolics, and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were determined. The highest level of Se decreased total S, K, and Ca in both years; no negative impact on bulb weight was observed. In 2009 Se10 treatment had significantly more bulbs with the largest diameter compared to the other treatments. In 2008, the AAC was decreased by Se50 and the content of total phenolics by all Se treatments; however, TAC was increased. Foliar Se fertilization of garlic at rates of 10-50 μg of Se/mL can be recommended to increase the number of large bulbs and increase bulb antioxidant capacity.

  11. Fermentation of Allium chinense Bulbs With Lactobacillus plantarum ZDY 2013 Shows Enhanced Biofunctionalities, and Nutritional and Chemical Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Mingfang; Wu, Qinglong; Tao, Xueying; Wan, Cuixiang; Shah, Nagendra P; Wei, Hua

    2015-10-01

    In this study, fermentation of Allium chinense bulbs was carried out with Lactobacillus plantarum ZDY 2013. A decrease in pH from 6.8 to 3.5 and a stable lactic acid bacteria population were observed during 7-d fermentation. The total phenolic content increased by 2.7-fold in the aqueous and ethanol extracts of A. chinense bulbs after fermentation. Antioxidant capacity including 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging effect and reducing power of both extracts was significantly (P fermentation. Antagonistic test against 6 pathogens showed that fermentation significantly (P fermented bulbs, especially in the ethanol extracts of fermented bulbs against L. monocytogenes. Analysis of the free amino acid (FAA) profile by ion-exchange chromatography revealed that fermentation significantly (P fermentation. Our results suggested that fermentation of A. chinense bulbs with L. plantarum could improve their biofunctionalities, and nutritional and chemical properties.

  12. Effect of fertilizers on galanthamine and metabolite profiles in narcissus bulbs by 1H NMR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lubbe, A.; Choi, Y.H.; Vreeburg, P.J.M.; Verpoorte, R.

    2011-01-01

    Narcissus bulbs contain the biologically active alkaloid galanthamine, and Narcissus is being developed as a natural source of the molecule for the pharmaceutical industry. The effect of fertilizer on galanthamine production was investigated in a field study using a 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NM

  13. Chlorocholine chloride and paclobutrazol treatments promote carbohydrate accumulation in bulbs of Lilium Oriental hybrids‘Sorbonne’

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ri-ru ZHENG; Yun WU; Yi-ping XIA

    2012-01-01

    The present study was to test the hypothesis that the plant growth retardants chlorocholine chloride (CCC) and paclobutrazol (PBZ) could improve the carbohydrate accumulation in lily bulbs by enhancing photosynthetic capacity and changing endogenous hormones.Plants of Lilium Oriental hybrids ‘Sorbonne’ were treated with a foliar spray of CCC or PBZ (both at 300 mg/L) solution,at six weeks after planting (6 WAP).The morphological parameters,endogenous hormone contents (gibberellic acid (GA),abscisic acid (ABA),and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA)),and carbohydrate contents were measured from 6 to 18 WAP,at 2-week intervals.The results showed that CCC increased the biomass of leaves and stems which might produce more photoassimilates available for transportation and utilization.However,PBZ treatment suppressed vegetative growth and favored photoassimilate transportation into bulbs.A slight delay of bud and anthesis formation was observed in both treated plants.CCC and PBZ treatments substantially enhanced the sucrose contents in leaves probably due to the increase of chlorophyll contents.Treatment with CCC or PBZ decreased GA but increased IAA contents in lily bulbs which might stimulate starch accumulation and formation of new scales.Our experiment suggested that CCC or PBZ treatment is an effective method to promote carbohydrate accumulation in lily bulbs.

  14. First report of Serratia plymuthica causing onion bulb rot in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalska, Beata; Smolińska, Urszula; Oskiera, Michał

    2011-01-01

    Specific bacterial disease symptoms were observed on onion bulbs in almost all regions in Poland. For the purpose of identification of agents causing disease, bacteria were isolated from the symptomatic plants. Their pathogenicity was confirmed by using pathogenicity test on onion scales. These bacteria were identified biochemically and molecularly as Serratia plymuthica.

  15. Impaired adult olfactory bulb neurogenesis in the R6/2 mouse model of Huntington's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohl Zacharias

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Huntington's disease (HD is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder linked to expanded CAG-triplet nucleotide repeats within the huntingtin gene. Intracellular huntingtin aggregates are present in neurons of distinct brain areas, among them regions of adult neurogenesis including the hippocampus and the subventricular zone/olfactory bulb system. Previously, reduced hippocampal neurogenesis has been detected in transgenic rodent models of HD. Therefore, we hypothesized that mutant huntingtin also affects newly generated neurons derived from the subventricular zone of adult R6/2 HD mice. Results We observed a redirection of immature neuroblasts towards the striatum, however failed to detect new mature neurons. We further analyzed adult neurogenesis in the granular cell layer and the glomerular layer of the olfactory bulb, the physiological target region of subventricular zone-derived neuroblasts. Using bromodeoxyuridine to label proliferating cells, we observed in both neurogenic regions of the olfactory bulb a reduction in newly generated neurons. Conclusion These findings suggest that the striatal environment, severely affected in R6/2 mice, is capable of attracting neuroblasts, however this region fails to provide sufficient signals for neuronal maturation. Moreover, in transgenic R6/2 animals, the hostile huntingtin-associated microenvironment in the olfactory bulb interferes with the survival and integration of new mature neurons. Taken together, endogenous cell repair strategies in HD may require additional factors for the differentiation and survival of newly generated neurons both in neurogenic and non-neurogenic regions.

  16. Identification and developmental expression profiling of putative alkaloid biosynthetic genes in Corydalis yanhusuo bulbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Dengqun; Wang, Pengfei; Jia, Chan; Sun, Peng; Qi, Jianjun; Zhou, Lili; Li, Xian'en

    2016-01-18

    Alkaloids in bulbs of Corydalis (C.) yanhusuo are the major pharmacologically active compounds in treatment of blood vessel diseases, tumors and various pains. However, due to the absence of gene sequences in C. yanhusuo, the genes involved in alkaloid biosynthesis and their expression during bulb development remain unknown. We therefore established the first transcriptome database of C. yanhusuo via Illumina mRNA-Sequencing of a RNA composite sample collected at Bulb initiation (Day 0), early enlargement (Day 10) and maturation (Day 30). 25,013,630 clean 90 bp paired-end reads were de novo assembled into 47,081 unigenes with an average length of 489 bp, among which 30,868 unigenes (65.56%) were annotated in four protein databases. Of 526 putative unigenes involved in biosynthesis o f various alkaloids, 187 were identified as the candidate genes involved in the biosynthesis of benzylisoquinoline alkaloids (BIAs), the only alkaloid type reported in C. yanhusuo untill now. BIAs biosynthetic genes were highly upregulated in the overall pathway during bulb development. Identification of alkaloid biosynthetic genes in C. yanhusuo provide insights on pathways and molecular regulation of alkaloid biosynthesis, to initiate metabolic engineering in order to improve the yield of interesting alkaloids and to identify potentially new alkaloids predicted from the transcriptomic information.

  17. Regulation of granule cell excitability by a low-threshold calcium spike in turtle olfactory bulb

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinato, Giulietta; Midtgaard, Jens

    2003-01-01

    Granule cells excitability in the turtle olfactory bulb was analyzed using whole cell recordings in current- and voltage-clamp mode. Low-threshold spikes (LTSs) were evoked at potentials that are subthreshold for Na spikes in normal medium. The LTSs were evoked from rest, but hyperpolarization...

  18. Endoscopic resection of duodenal bulb neuroendocrine tumor larger than 10 mm in diameter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naka Teiji

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Endoscopic treatment for duodenal bulb neuroendocrine tumor larger than 10 mm is still controversial. This report presents four cases successfully treated with endosonography (EUS-assisted endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR procedure for duodenal bulb neuroendocrine tumor larger than 10 mm in diameter. Methods The case series of four patients diagnosed with neuroendocrine tumor from 2003 to 2008 were reviewed. EUS demonstrated well-defined hypoechoic tumors confined to the submucosal hyperechoic layer and the underlying hypoechoic muscularis propria was intact in all four patients. EMR were planned and performed for the duodenal bulb neuroendocrine tumors larger than 10 mm. Results En bloc resections with tumor free lateral and basal margins were accomplished using an endoscopic diathermic snare with forward-viewing instruments without any complications. Neither residual duodenal neuroendocrine tumors nor metastatic lesions were detected during the observation period ranging 19 to 78 months Conclusion Duodenal bulb neuroendocrine, larger than 10 mm in diameter, can be treated by endoscopic procedure, after confirming that the tumor confined to the submucosal layer in EUS examination, and no lymph node involvement by abdominal CT and US.

  19. Continuous spatial representations in the olfactory bulb may reflect perceptual categories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin eAuffarth

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In sensory processing of odors, the olfactory bulb is an important relay station, where odor representations are noise-filtered, sharpened, and possibly re-organized. An organization by perceptual qualities has been found previously in the piriform cortex, however several recent studies indicate that the olfactory bulb code reflects behaviorally relevant dimensions spatially as well as at the population level. We apply a statistical analysis on 2-deoxyglucose images, taken over the entire bulb of glomerular layer of the rat, in order to see how the recognition of odors in the nose is translated into a map of odor quality in the brain. We first confirm previous studies that the first principal component could be related to pleasantness, however the next higher principal components are not directly clear. We then find mostly continuous spatial representations for perceptual categories. We compare the space spanned by spatial and population codes to human reports of perceptual similarity between odors and our results suggest that perceptual categories could be already embedded in glomerular activations and that spatial representations give a better match than population codes. This suggests that human and rat perceptual dimensions of odorant coding are related and indicates that perceptual qualities could be represented as continuous spatial codes of the olfactory bulb glomerulus population.

  20. Hypothesis That Urethral Bulb (Corpus Spongiosum Plays an Active Role in Male Urinary Continence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Rehder

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The proximal urethral bulb in men is enlarged, surrounds the bulbous urethra, and extends dorsally towards the perineum. During intercourse engorgement takes place due to increased blood flow through the corpus spongiosum. Antegrade ejaculation is facilitated by contraction of the bulbospongiosus muscles during climax. Micturition during sexual stimulation is functionally inhibited. Supporting the bulb may indirectly facilitate continence in a certain subset of patients with postprostatectomy incontinence. During physical activity with increased abdominal pressure, reflex contraction of the pelvic floor muscles as well as the bulbospongiosus muscles occurs to support sphincter function and limit urinary incontinence. Operations to the prostate may weaken urinary sphincter function. It is hypothesized that the distal urinary sphincter may be supported indirectly by placing a hammock underneath the urethral bulb. During moments of physical stress the “cushion” of blood within the supported corpus spongiosum helps to increase the zone of coaptation within the sphincteric (membranous urethra. This may lead to urinary continence in patients treated by a transobturator repositioning sling in patients with postprostatectomy incontinence. This paper describes the possible role of the urethral bulb in male urinary continence, including its function after retroluminal sling placement (AdVance, AdVance XP® Male Sling System, Minnetonka, USA.

  1. Synaptic connectivity of the cholinergic axons in the olfactory bulb of the cynomolgus monkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa eLiberia

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The olfactory bulb of mammals receives cholinergic afferents from the horizontal limb of the diagonal band of Broca. At present, the synaptic connectivity of the cholinergic axons on the circuits of the olfactory bulb has only been investigated in the rat. In this report, we analyze the synaptic connectivity of the cholinergic axons in the olfactory bulb of the cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis. Our aim is to investigate whether the cholinergic innervation of the bulbar circuits is phylogenetically conserved between macrosmatic and microsmatic mammals. Our results demonstrate that the cholinergic axons form synaptic contacts on interneurons. In the glomerular layer, their main targets are the periglomerular cells, which receive axo-somatic and axo-dendritic synapses. In the inframitral region, their main targets are the granule cells, which receive synaptic contacts on their dendritic shafts and spines. Although the cholinergic boutons were frequently found in close vicinity of the dendrites of principal cells, we have not found synaptic contacts on them. From a comparative perspective, our data indicate that the synaptic connectivity of the cholinergic circuits is highly preserved in the olfactory bulb of macrosmatic and microsmatic mammals.

  2. Protesa Maksilofasial Thermoplastic Nylon (Valplast dengan Hollow Bulb (Klas III Aramany palate schisis hereditary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Azhindra

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Latar Belakang: pada penderita palato schisis (celah langit-langityang disebkan hereditary atau bawaan lahir terlihat defect yang menyebabkan gangguan bicara (sengau, penelanan, pengunyahan, estetik, dan psikologis. Untuk dapat mencapai fungsi bicara, fungsi mengunyah dan fungsi estetika diperlukan protesa untuk menutup celah tersebut. Tujuan: untuk meninformasikan cara rehabilitas defect atau cacat pada wajah dengan protesa maksilofasial thermoplastic nylon dengan hollow buib yang berguna untuk mengembalikan fungsi bicara, penelanan, pengunyahan, estetik dan psikologis penderita. Kasus dan penanganan: pasien pria berusia 46 tahun dating ke RSGM Prof. Soedomo atas rujukan dari poli RS. Dr. Sardjito. Saat datang pasien terganggu berbicara, menguyah dan menelan disebkan adanya celah langit-langit terbuka dan merupakan kelainan bawaan. Pasien kehilangan banyak gigi terutama pada gigi posterior pada rahang atas dan ingin dibuatkan gigi tiruan. Obturator ini dibuat segera dengan mempertimbangkan penutupan celah langit-langit, menggunakan bahan yang lebih ringan (menggunakan hoolow bulb agar keluhan pasien dapat diatasi didesain alat yang mempunyai retensi maksimal dan mengembalikan pengunyahan, fungsi bicara, penelanan, estetis dan psikologis sehingga pasien akan akan mempunyai bentuk wajah yang mendekati normal. Hollow bulb adalah rongga yang dibuat pada protesa maksilofasial untuk menutup rongga mulut, rongga hidung dan defect. Pada waktu insersi diperiksa retensi, stabilisasi, oklusi, estetik dan pengucapan. Kontrol dilakukan 1 minggu dan 1 bulan setelah pemakaian. Hasil pemeriksaan dan evaluasi setelah 1 minggu dan 1 bulan setelah pemakaian protesa maksilofasial hollow bulb didapatkan hasil dengan retensi, stabilisasi, olusi dan pengucapan lebih baik. Kesimpulan: setelah menggunakan protesa maksilofasial thermoplastic nylon dengan hollow buib pada penderita palato scisis, pasien dapat berbicara dan mengunyah dengan normal. Protesa maksilofasial

  3. Mesenchymal stem cells from rat olfactory bulbs can differentiate into cells with cardiomyocyte characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yuahn-Sieh; Li, I-Hsun; Chueh, Sheau-Huei; Hueng, Dueng-Yuan; Tai, Ming-Cheng; Liang, Chang-Min; Lien, Shiu-Bii; Sytwu, Huey-Kang; Ma, Kuo-Hsing

    2015-12-01

    Mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) are widely distributed in different tissues such as bone marrow, adipose tissues, peripheral blood, umbilical cord and amnionic fluid. Recently, MSC-like cells were also found to exist in rat olfactory bulb and are capable of inducing differentiation into mesenchymal lineages - osteocytes, chondrocytes and adipocytes. However, whether these cells can differentiate into myocardial cells is not known. In this study, we examined whether olfactory bulb-derived MSCs could differentiate into myocardial cells in vitro. Fibroblast-like cells isolated from the olfactory bulb of neonatal rats were grown under four conditions: no treatment; in the presence of growth factors (neuregulin-1, bFGF and forskolin); co-cultured with cardiomyocytes; and co-cultured with cardiomyocytes plus neuregulin-1, bFGF and forskolin. Cell differentiation into myocardial cells was monitored by RT-PCR, light microscopy immunofluorescence, western blot analysis and contractile response to pharmacological treatments. The isolated olfactory bulb-derived fibroblast-like cells expressed CD29, CD44, CD90, CD105, CD166 but not CD34 and CD45, consistent with the characteristics of MSCs. Long cylindical cells that spontaneously contracted were only observed following 7 days of co-culture of MSCs with rat cardiomyocytes plus neuregulin-1, bFGF and forskolin. RT-PCR and western blot analysis indicated that the cylindrical cells expressed myocardial markers, such as Nkx2.5, GATA4, sarcomeric α-actinin, cardiac troponin I, cardiac myosin heavy chain, atrial natriuretic peptide and connexin 43. They also contained sarcomeres and gap junction and were sensitive to pharmacological treatments (adrenal and cholinergic agonists and antagonists). These findings indicate that rat olfactory bulb-derived fibroblast-like cells with MSC characteristics can differentiate into myocardial-like cells.

  4. Pharmacological analysis of ionotropic glutamate receptor function in neuronal circuits of the zebrafish olfactory bulb.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rico Tabor

    Full Text Available Although synaptic functions of ionotropic glutamate receptors in the olfactory bulb have been studied in vitro, their roles in pattern processing in the intact system remain controversial. We therefore examined the functions of ionotropic glutamate receptors during odor processing in the intact olfactory bulb of zebrafish using pharmacological manipulations. Odor responses of mitral cells and interneurons were recorded by electrophysiology and 2-photon Ca(2+ imaging. The combined blockade of AMPA/kainate and NMDA receptors abolished odor-evoked excitation of mitral cells. The blockade of AMPA/kainate receptors alone, in contrast, increased the mean response of mitral cells and decreased the mean response of interneurons. The blockade of NMDA receptors caused little or no change in the mean responses of mitral cells and interneurons. However, antagonists of both receptor types had diverse effects on the magnitude and time course of individual mitral cell and interneuron responses and, thus, changed spatio-temporal activity patterns across neuronal populations. Oscillatory synchronization was abolished or reduced by AMPA/kainate and NMDA receptor antagonists, respectively. These results indicate that (1 interneuron responses depend mainly on AMPA/kainate receptor input during an odor response, (2 interactions among mitral cells and interneurons regulate the total olfactory bulb output activity, (3 AMPA/kainate receptors participate in the synchronization of odor-dependent neuronal ensembles, and (4 ionotropic glutamate receptor-containing synaptic circuits shape odor-specific patterns of olfactory bulb output activity. These mechanisms are likely to be important for the processing of odor-encoding activity patterns in the olfactory bulb.

  5. Potential environmental impacts from the metals in incandescent, compact fluorescent lamp (CFL), and light-emitting diode (LED) bulbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Seong-Rin; Kang, Daniel; Ogunseitan, Oladele A; Schoenung, Julie M

    2013-01-15

    Artificial lighting systems are transitioning from incandescent to compact fluorescent lamp (CFL) and light-emitting diode (LED) bulbs in response to the U.S. Energy Independence and Security Act and the EU Ecodesign Directive, which leads to energy savings and reduced greenhouse gas emissions. Although CFLs and LEDs are more energy-efficient than incandescent bulbs, they require more metal-containing components. There is uncertainty about the potential environmental impacts of these components and whether special provisions must be made for their disposal at the end of useful life. Therefore, the objective of this study is to analyze the resource depletion and toxicity potentials from the metals in incandescent, CFL, and LED bulbs to complement the development of sustainable energy policy. We assessed the potentials by examining whether the lighting products are to be categorized as hazardous waste under existing U.S. federal and California state regulations and by applying life cycle impact-based and hazard-based assessment methods (note that "life cycle impact-based method" does not mean a general life cycle assessment (LCA) but rather the elements in LCA used to quantify toxicity potentials). We discovered that both CFL and LED bulbs are categorized as hazardous, due to excessive levels of lead (Pb) leachability (132 and 44 mg/L, respectively; regulatory limit: 5) and the high contents of copper (111,000 and 31,600 mg/kg, respectively; limit: 2500), lead (3860 mg/kg for the CFL bulb; limit: 1000), and zinc (34,500 mg/kg for the CFL bulb; limit: 5000), while the incandescent bulb is not hazardous (note that the results for CFL bulbs excluded mercury vapor not captured during sample preparation). The CFLs and LEDs have higher resource depletion and toxicity potentials than the incandescent bulb due primarily to their high aluminum, copper, gold, lead, silver, and zinc. Comparing the bulbs on an equivalent quantity basis with respect to the expected lifetimes of

  6. Anomalous opening of the common bile duct into the duodenal bulb: endoscopic treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oguz Dilek

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anomalous biliary opening especially the presence of the ampulla of Vater in the duodenal bulb is a very rare phenomenon. We report clinical implications, laboratory and ERCP findings and also therapeutic approaches in 53 cases. Methods The data were collected from the records of 12.158 ERCP. The diagnosis was established as an anomalous opening of the common bile duct (CBD into the duodenal bulb when there is an orifice observed in the bulb with the absence of a papillary structure at its normal localization and when the CBD is visualized by cholangiography through this orifice without evidence of any other opening. Results A total of 53 cases were recruited. There was an obvious male preponderance (M/F: 49/4. Demographic data and ERCP findings were available for all, but clinical characteristics and laboratory findings could be obtained from 39 patients with full records. Thirty – seven of 39 cases had abdominal pain (95% and 23 of them (59% had cholangitis as well. Elevated AP and GGT were found in 97.4% (52/53. History of cholecystectomy was present in 64% of the cases, recurrent cholangitis in 26% and duodenal ulcer in 45%. Normal papilla was not observed in any of the patients and a cleft-like opening was evident instead. The CBD was hook shaped at the distal part that opens to the duodenal bulb. Pancreatic duct (PD was opening separately into the bulb in all the cases when it was possible to visualize. Dilated CBD in ERCP was evident in 94% and the CBD stone was demonstrated in 51%. PD was dilated in four of 12 (33% cases. None of them has a history of pancreatitis. Endoscopically, Papillary Balloon Dilatation instead of Sphincterotomy carried out in 19 of 27 patients (70% with choledocholithiazis. Remaining eight patients had undergone surgery (30%. Clinical symptoms were resolved with medical treatment in 16(32% patients with dilated CBD but no stone. Perforation and bleeding were occurred only in two patients

  7. Modeling and simulation of residual stresses during glass bulb pressing process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The residual stresses accumulated in the forming process have great effects on the product quality of the glass bulb. Based on the characteristics analysis of glass bulb forming, a mathematical model has been established for calculating residual stresses of glass pressing process. The material is assumed as thermorheologi-cally simple thermoviscoelastic material, and the flow-induced stress is neglected. The consequences of equilibrium and compatibility equations are discussed in detail, and the boundary conditions are specified for various stages of the forming process. The numerical solution is based on the theory of thin layers, combined with finite difference method in the time and layer difference in the thickness di-rection. The presented model and solution method could easily be extended to general pressing process of glass, and applied to problems relative to glass pressing, providing extensive reference values.

  8. Computational modeling suggests distinct, location-specific function of norepinephrine in olfactory bulb and piriform cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Licurgo; Reiner, Seungdo J; Ennis, Matthew; Linster, Christiane

    2015-01-01

    Noradrenergic modulation from the locus coerulus is often associated with the regulation of sensory signal-to-noise ratio. In the olfactory system, noradrenergic modulation affects both bulbar and cortical processing, and has been shown to modulate the detection of low concentration stimuli. We here implemented a computational model of the olfactory bulb and piriform cortex, based on known experimental results, to explore how noradrenergic modulation in the olfactory bulb and piriform cortex interact to regulate odor processing. We show that as predicted by behavioral experiments in our lab, norepinephrine can play a critical role in modulating the detection and associative learning of very low odor concentrations. Our simulations show that bulbar norepinephrine serves to pre-process odor representations to facilitate cortical learning, but not recall. We observe the typical non-uniform dose-response functions described for norepinephrine modulation and show that these are imposed mainly by bulbar, but not cortical processing.

  9. Computational modeling suggests distinct, location-specific function of norepinephrine in olfactory bulb and piriform cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Licurgo ede Almeida

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Noradrenergic modulation from the locus coerulus is often associated with the regulation of sensory signal-to-noise ratio. In the olfactory system, noradrenergic modulation affects both bulbar and cortical processing, and has been show to modulate the detection of low concentration stimuli. We here implemented a computational model of the olfactory bulb and piriform cortex, based on known experimental results, to explore how noradrenergic modulation in the olfactory bulb and piriform cortex interact to regulate odor processing. We show that as predicted by behavioral experiments in our lab, norepinephrine can play a critical role in modulating the detection and associative learning of very low odor concentrations. Our simulations show that bulbar norepinephrine serves to pre-process odor representations to facilitate cortical learning, but not recall. We observe the typical non-uniform dose – response functions described for norepinephrine modulation and show that these are imposed mainly by bulbar, but not cortical processing.

  10. A model of cholinergic modulation in olfactory bulb and piriform cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Licurgo; Idiart, Marco; Linster, Christiane

    2013-03-01

    In this work we investigate in a computational model how cholinergic inputs to the olfactory bulb (OB) and piriform cortex (PC) modulate odor representations. We use experimental data derived from different physiological studies of ACh modulation of the bulbar and cortical circuitry and the interaction between these two areas. The results presented here indicate that cholinergic modulation in the OB significantly increases contrast and synchronization in mitral cell output. Each of these effects is derived from distinct neuronal interactions, with different groups of interneurons playing different roles. Both bulbar modulation effects contribute to more stable learned representations in PC, with pyramidal networks trained with cholinergic-modulated inputs from the bulb exhibiting more robust learning than those trained with unmodulated bulbar inputs. This increased robustness is evidenced as better recovery of memories from corrupted patterns and lower-concentration inputs as well as increased memory capacity.

  11. Postnatal Developmental Expression of Calbindin, Calretinin and Parvalbumin in Mouse Main Olfactory Bulb

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao-Ping QIN; Shu-Ming YE; Ji-Zeng DU; Gong-Yu SHEN

    2005-01-01

    The distribution of calbindin, calretinin and parvalbumin during the development of the mouse main olfactory bulb (MOB) was studied using immunohistochemistry techniques. The results are as follows:(1) caibindin-immunoreactive profiles were mainly located in the glomerular layer, and few large calbindinimmunoreactive cells were found in the subependymal layer of postnatal day 10 (P10) to postnatal day 40 (P40) mice; (2) no calbindin was detected in the mitral cell layer at any stage; (3) calretinin-immunoreactive profiles were present in all layers of the main olfactory bulb at all stages, especially in the olfactory nerve layer, glomerular layer and granule cell layer; (4) parvalbumin-immunoreactive profiles were mainly located in the external plexiform layer (except for P10 mice); (5) weakly stained parvalbumin-immunoreactive profiles were present in the glomerular layer at all stages; and (6) no parvalbumin was detected in the mitral cell layer at any stage.

  12. Cerebral complexity preceded enlarged brain size and reduced olfactory bulbs in Old World monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Lauren A; Benefit, Brenda R; McCrossin, Monte L; Spoor, Fred

    2015-07-03

    Analysis of the only complete early cercopithecoid (Old World monkey) endocast currently known, that of 15-million-year (Myr)-old Victoriapithecus, reveals an unexpectedly small endocranial volume (ECV) relative to body size and a large olfactory bulb volume relative to ECV, similar to extant lemurs and Oligocene anthropoids. However, the Victoriapithecus brain has principal and arcuate sulci of the frontal lobe not seen in the stem catarrhine Aegyptopithecus, as well as a distinctive cercopithecoid pattern of gyrification, indicating that cerebral complexity preceded encephalization in cercopithecoids. Since larger ECVs, expanded frontal lobes, and reduced olfactory bulbs are already present in the 17- to 18-Myr-old ape Proconsul these features evolved independently in hominoids (apes) and cercopithecoids and much earlier in the former. Moreover, the order of encephalization and brain reorganization was apparently different in hominoids and cercopithecoids, showing that brain size and cerebral organization evolve independently.

  13. Activity-induced remodeling of olfactory bulb microcircuits revealed by monosynaptic tracing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin R Arenkiel

    Full Text Available The continued addition of new neurons to mature olfactory circuits represents a remarkable mode of cellular and structural brain plasticity. However, the anatomical configuration of newly established circuits, the types and numbers of neurons that form new synaptic connections, and the effect of sensory experience on synaptic connectivity in the olfactory bulb remain poorly understood. Using in vivo electroporation and monosynaptic tracing, we show that postnatal-born granule cells form synaptic connections with centrifugal inputs and mitral/tufted cells in the mouse olfactory bulb. In addition, newly born granule cells receive extensive input from local inhibitory short axon cells, a poorly understood cell population. The connectivity of short axon cells shows clustered organization, and their synaptic input onto newborn granule cells dramatically and selectively expands with odor stimulation. Our findings suggest that sensory experience promotes the synaptic integration of new neurons into cell type-specific olfactory circuits.

  14. Cluster Analysis of the Rat Olfactory Bulb Activity in Response to Different Odorants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falasconi, M.; Gutierrez, A.; Auffarth, B.; Sberveglieri, G.; Marco, S.

    2009-05-01

    With the goal of deepen in the understanding of coding of chemical information in the olfactory system, a large data set consisting of rat's olfactory bulb activity values in response to several different volatile compounds has been analyzed by fuzzy c-means clustering methods. Clustering should help to discover groups of glomeruli that are similary activated according to their response profiles across the odorants. To investigate the significance of the achieved fuzzy partitions we developed and applied a novel validity approach based on cluster stability. Our results show certain level of glomerular clustering in the olfactory bulb and indicate that exist a main chemo-topic subdivision of the glomerular layer in few macro-area which are rather specific to particular functional groups of the volatile molecules.

  15. Evolution of some physicochemical and antioxidant properties of black garlic whole bulbs and peeled cloves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledano-Medina, M Angeles; Pérez-Aparicio, Jesús; Moreno-Rojas, Rafael; Merinas-Amo, Tania

    2016-05-15

    Black garlic was processed at three different temperatures of heat treatment (72°, 75° and 78°C) and close to 90% of relative humidity. Two types of material source were used: whole bulbs and peeled cloves. Total soluble solids content (°Brix), pH, water activity (aw), browning intensive (L value), total polyphenol content, antioxidant capacity and total polyphenol index of the raw and heated garlic were determined. This study showed the changes occurring in the physicochemical and antioxidant properties of the garlic during the heat-treatment evolution. The soluble solids content (°Brix) in garlic increased gradually and the pH decreased in whole bulbs and peeled garlics. The polyphenol content measured by the Folin-Ciocalteu method showed a significant increase during the heat-treatment in all the cases. Also, the antioxidant capacity measured by the ABTS radical increased significantly during the heat-treatment.

  16. Study on a Concentric Tube Bulb Manometer and its Performance Compared to U-shaped Manometer

    OpenAIRE

    Butt, Muhammad A.; Aamir Ijaz; Daood, Syed S.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents comparative study of a new type of manometer called concentric tube bulb (C.T.B) manometer. Its performance of measuring differential height is studied against conventional U-shaped manometer. Pressure drops and mass flow rates are calculated by taking various systems comprising of different flow measuring devices such as orifice and venturimeters using both U- shaped and C.T.B manometers. Comparison between the physically measured values of differential pressure drops and...

  17. Transcriptome Analysis of Sucrose Metabolism during Bulb Swelling and Development in Onion (Allium cepa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Liang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Allium cepa L. is a widely cultivated and economically significant vegetable crop worldwide, with beneficial dietary and health-related properties, but its sucrose metabolism is still poorly understood. To analyze sucrose metabolism during bulb swelling, and the development of sweet taste in onion, a global transcriptome profile of onion bulbs was undertaken at three different developmental stages, using RNA-seq. A total of 79,376 unigenes, with a mean length of 678 bp, was obtained. In total, 7% of annotated Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COG were involved in carbohydrate transport and metabolism. In the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG database, starch and sucrose metabolism (147, 2.40% constituted the primary metabolism pathway in the integrated library. The expression of sucrose transporter genes was greatest during the early-swelling stage, suggesting that sucrose transporters participated in sucrose metabolism mainly at an early stage of bulb development. A gene-expression analysis of the key enzymes of sucrose metabolism suggested that sucrose synthase, cell wall invertase and invertase were all likely to participate in the hydrolysis of sucrose, generating glucose and fructose. In addition, trehalose was hydrolyzed to two molecules of glucose by trehalase. From 15 to 40 days after swelling (DAS, both the glucose and fructose contents of bulbs increased, whereas the sucrose content decreased. The growth rate between 15 and 30 DAS was slower than that between 30 and 40 DAS, suggesting that the latter was a period of rapid expansion. The dataset generated by our transcriptome profiling will provide valuable information for further research.

  18. Transcriptome Analysis of Sucrose Metabolism during Bulb Swelling and Development in Onion (Allium cepa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chunsha; Zhang, Hongwei; Zhan, Zongxiang; Liu, Bingjiang; Chen, Zhentai; Liang, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Allium cepa L. is a widely cultivated and economically significant vegetable crop worldwide, with beneficial dietary and health-related properties, but its sucrose metabolism is still poorly understood. To analyze sucrose metabolism during bulb swelling, and the development of sweet taste in onion, a global transcriptome profile of onion bulbs was undertaken at three different developmental stages, using RNA-seq. A total of 79,376 unigenes, with a mean length of 678 bp, was obtained. In total, 7% of annotated Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COG) were involved in carbohydrate transport and metabolism. In the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database, "starch and sucrose metabolism" (147, 2.40%) constituted the primary metabolism pathway in the integrated library. The expression of sucrose transporter genes was greatest during the early-swelling stage, suggesting that sucrose transporters (SUTs) participated in sucrose metabolism mainly at an early stage of bulb development. A gene-expression analysis of the key enzymes of sucrose metabolism suggested that sucrose synthase, cell wall invertase, and invertase were all likely to participate in the hydrolysis of sucrose, generating glucose, and fructose. In addition, trehalose was hydrolyzed to two molecules of glucose by trehalase. From 15 to 40 days after swelling (DAS), both the glucose and fructose contents of bulbs increased, whereas the sucrose content decreased. The growth rate between 15 and 30 DAS was slower than that between 30 and 40 DAS, suggesting that the latter was a period of rapid expansion. The dataset generated by our transcriptome profiling will provide valuable information for further research.

  19. Calretinin-Periglomerular Interneurons in Mice Olfactory Bulb: Cells of Few Words

    OpenAIRE

    Alex Fogli Iseppe; Angela Pignatelli; Ottorino Belluzzi

    2016-01-01

    Within the olfactory bulb (OB), periglomerular (PG) cells consist of various types of interneurons, generally classified by their chemical properties such as neurotransmitter and calcium binding proteins.Calretinin (CR) characterizes morphologically and functionally the more numerous and one of the less known subpopulation of PG cells in the OB. Using of transgenic mice expressing eGFP under the CR promoter, we have tried to obtain the first functional characterization of these cells. Electro...

  20. Transcriptome Analysis of Sucrose Metabolism during Bulb Swelling and Development in Onion (Allium cepa L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chunsha; Zhang, Hongwei; Zhan, Zongxiang; Liu, Bingjiang; Chen, Zhentai; Liang, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Allium cepa L. is a widely cultivated and economically significant vegetable crop worldwide, with beneficial dietary and health-related properties, but its sucrose metabolism is still poorly understood. To analyze sucrose metabolism during bulb swelling, and the development of sweet taste in onion, a global transcriptome profile of onion bulbs was undertaken at three different developmental stages, using RNA-seq. A total of 79,376 unigenes, with a mean length of 678 bp, was obtained. In total, 7% of annotated Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COG) were involved in carbohydrate transport and metabolism. In the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database, “starch and sucrose metabolism” (147, 2.40%) constituted the primary metabolism pathway in the integrated library. The expression of sucrose transporter genes was greatest during the early-swelling stage, suggesting that sucrose transporters (SUTs) participated in sucrose metabolism mainly at an early stage of bulb development. A gene-expression analysis of the key enzymes of sucrose metabolism suggested that sucrose synthase, cell wall invertase, and invertase were all likely to participate in the hydrolysis of sucrose, generating glucose, and fructose. In addition, trehalose was hydrolyzed to two molecules of glucose by trehalase. From 15 to 40 days after swelling (DAS), both the glucose and fructose contents of bulbs increased, whereas the sucrose content decreased. The growth rate between 15 and 30 DAS was slower than that between 30 and 40 DAS, suggesting that the latter was a period of rapid expansion. The dataset generated by our transcriptome profiling will provide valuable information for further research. PMID:27713754

  1. Cerebral complexity preceded enlarged brain size and reduced olfactory bulbs in Old World monkeys

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzales, L.; Benefit, B.; McCrossin, M.; Spoor, F.

    2015-01-01

    Analysis of the only complete early cercopithecoid (Old World monkey) endocast currently known, that of 15-million-year (Myr)-old Victoriapithecus, reveals an unexpectedly small endocranial volume (ECV) relative to body size and a large olfactory bulb volume relative to ECV, similar to extant lemurs and Oligocene anthropoids. However, the Victoriapithecus brain has principal and arcuate sulci of the frontal lobe not seen in the stem catarrhine Aegyptopithecus, as well as a distinctive cercopi...

  2. Mature and Precursor Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Have Individual Roles in the Mouse Olfactory Bulb

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Gerald Mast; Debra Ann Fadool

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sensory deprivation induces dramatic morphological and neurochemical changes in the olfactory bulb (OB) that are largely restricted to glomerular and granule layer interneurons. Mitral cells, pyramidal-like neurons, are resistant to sensory-deprivation-induced changes and are associated with the precursor to brain-derived neurotrophic factor (proBDNF); here, we investigate its unknown function in the adult mouse OB. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: As determined using brain-slice electrophysio...

  3. Novel subdomains of the mouse olfactory bulb defined by molecular heterogeneity in the nascent external plexiform and glomerular layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yona Golan

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the mouse olfactory system, the role of the olfactory bulb in guiding olfactory sensory neuron (OSN axons to their targets is poorly understood. What cell types within the bulb are necessary for targeting is unknown. What genes are important for this process is also unknown. Although projection neurons are not required, other cell-types within the external plexiform and glomerular layers also form synapses with OSNs. We hypothesized that these cells are important for targeting, and express spatially differentially expressed guidance cues that act to guide OSN axons within the bulb. Results We used laser microdissection and microarray analysis to find genes that are differentially expressed along the dorsal-ventral, medial-lateral, and anterior-posterior axes of the bulb. The expression patterns of these genes divide the bulb into previously unrecognized subdomains. Interestingly, some genes are expressed in both the medial and lateral bulb, showing for the first time the existence of symmetric expression along this axis. We use a regeneration paradigm to show that several of these genes are altered in expression in response to deafferentation, consistent with the interpretation that they are expressed in cells that interact with OSNs. Conclusion We demonstrate that the nascent external plexiform and glomerular layers of the bulb can be divided into multiple domains based on the expression of these genes, several of which are known to function in axon guidance, synaptogenesis, and angiogenesis. These genes represent candidate guidance cues that may act to guide OSN axons within the bulb during targeting.

  4. Bifurcation analysis of oscillating network model of pattern recognition in the rabbit olfactory bulb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Bill

    1986-08-01

    A neural network model describing pattern recognition in the rabbit olfactory bulb is analysed to explain the changes in neural activity observed experimentally during classical Pavlovian conditioning. EEG activity recorded from an 8×8 arry of 64 electrodes directly on the surface on the bulb shows distinct spatial patterns of oscillation that correspond to the animal's recognition of different conditioned odors and change with conditioning to new odors. The model may be considered a variant of Hopfield's model of continuous analog neural dynamics. Excitatory and inhibitory cell types in the bulb and the anatomical architecture of their connection requires a nonsymmetric coupling matrix. As the mean input level rises during each breath of the animal, the system bifurcates from homogenous equilibrium to a spatially patterned oscillation. The theory of multiple Hopf bifurcations is employed to find coupled equations for the amplitudes of these unstable oscillatory modes independent of frequency. This allows a view of stored periodic attractors as fixed points of a gradient vector field and thereby recovers the more familiar dynamical systems picture of associative memory.

  5. Nonlinear dynamics of pattern formation and pattern recognition in the rabbit olfactory bulb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Bill

    1986-10-01

    A mathematical model of the process of pattern recognition in the first olfactory sensory cortex of the rabbit is presented. It explains the formation and alteration of spatial patterns in neural activity observed experimentally during classical Pavlovian conditioning. On each inspiration of the animal, a surge of receptor input enters the olfactory bulb. EEG activity recorded at the surface of the bulb undergoes a transition from a low amplitude background state of temporal disorder to coherent oscillation. There is a distinctive spatial pattern of rms amplitude in this oscillation which changes reliably to a second pattern during each successful recognition by the animal of a conditioned stimulus odor. When a new odor is paired as conditioned stimulus, these patterns are replaced by new patterns that stabilize as the animal adapts to the new environment. I will argue that a unification of the theories of pattern formation and associative memory is required to account for these observations. This is achieved in a model of the bulb as a discrete excitable medium with spatially inhomogeneous coupling expressed by a connection matrix. The theory of multiple Hopf bifurcations is employed to find coupled equations for the amplitudes of competing unstable oscillatory modes. These may be created in the system by proper coupling and selectively evoked by specific classes of inputs. This allows a view of limit cycle attractors as “stored” fixed points of a gradient vector field and thereby recovers the more familiar dynamical systems picture of associative memory.

  6. De Novo Transcriptome Analysis of Allium cepa L. (Onion) Bulb to Identify Allergens and Epitopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkumar, Hemalatha; Ramagoni, Ramesh Kumar; Anchoju, Vijayendra Chary; Vankudavath, Raju Naik; Syed, Arshi Uz Zaman

    2015-01-01

    Allium cepa (onion) is a diploid plant with one of the largest nuclear genomes among all diploids. Onion is an example of an under-researched crop which has a complex heterozygous genome. There are no allergenic proteins and genomic data available for onions. This study was conducted to establish a transcriptome catalogue of onion bulb that will enable us to study onion related genes involved in medicinal use and allergies. Transcriptome dataset generated from onion bulb using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 technology showed a total of 99,074,309 high quality raw reads (~20 Gb). Based on sequence homology onion genes were categorized into 49 different functional groups. Most of the genes however, were classified under 'unknown' in all three gene ontology categories. Of the categorized genes, 61.2% showed metabolic functions followed by cellular components such as binding, cellular processes; catalytic activity and cell part. With BLASTx top hit analysis, a total of 2,511 homologous allergenic sequences were found, which had 37-100% similarity with 46 different types of allergens existing in the database. From the 46 contigs or allergens, 521 B-cell linear epitopes were identified using BepiPred linear epitope prediction tool. This is the first comprehensive insight into the transcriptome of onion bulb tissue using the NGS technology, which can be used to map IgE epitopes and prediction of structures and functions of various proteins.

  7. The ultrastructural characteristics of the hair bulb of segmented heterochromia in the scalp hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Seonghyang; Lee, Joong Sun; Lee, Eun-So; Yoon, Kyeong Han; Kang, Hee Young

    2004-01-01

    Segmented heterochromia is a pigmentary disorder characterized by alternating dark and light segments on each hair shaft. Our aim was to observe the ultrastructure of hair shafts and bulbs to understand the pathogenesis of the disease. Biopsy specimens including normal or diseased hair follicles were prepared for transmission electron microscopy. In dark segments, dense and ellipsoidal melanosomes were noted while small, round ones were found in the light segments. Two groups of melanosomes lined up on the matrix, one of which was composed of compact ellipsoidal melanosomes, and the other was composed of melanosomes with irregular sizes and shapes. Melanocytes seemed to be under necrosis, apoptosis, or dark cell transformation. Langerhans cells were found in the bulb. Two kinds of melanosomes were produced in the same hair bulb simultaneously. Degenerating melanocytes might produce deformed melanosomes. Langerhans cells might be involved in the death of melanocytes. It is unknown how either group of melanosomes is adopted and transferred to the hair cortex producing the characteristic pattern of pigmentation.

  8. Olfactory aversive conditioning alters olfactory bulb mitral/tufted cell glomerular odor responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max L Fletcher

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The anatomical organization of receptor neuron input into the olfactory bulb (OB allows odor information to be transformed into an odorant-specific spatial map of mitral/tufted cell glomerular activity at the upper level of the olfactory bulb. In other sensory systems, neuronal representations of stimuli can be reorganized or enhanced following learning. While the mammalian OB has been shown to undergo experience-dependent plasticity at the glomerular level, it is still unclear if similar representational change occurs within mitral/tufted cell glomerular odor representations following learning. To address this, odorant-evoked glomerular activity patterns were imaged in mice expressing a GFP-based calcium indicator (GCaMP2 in OB mitral/tufted cells. Glomerular odor responses were imaged before and after olfactory associative conditioning to aversive foot shock. Following conditioning, we found no overall reorganization of the glomerular representation. Training, however, did significantly alter the amplitudes of individual glomeruli within the representation in mice in which the odor was presented together with foot shock. Further, the specific pairing of foot shock with odor presentations lead to increased responses primarily in initially weakly activated glomeruli. Overall, these results suggest that associative conditioning can enhance the initial representation of odors within the olfactory bulb by enhancing responses to the learned odor in some glomeruli.

  9. Timescale-dependent shaping of correlation by olfactory bulb lateral inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giridhar, Sonya; Doiron, Brent; Urban, Nathaniel N

    2011-04-05

    Neurons respond to sensory stimuli by altering the rate and temporal pattern of action potentials. These spike trains both encode and propagate information that guides behavior. Local inhibitory networks can affect the information encoded and propagated by neurons by altering correlations between different spike trains. Correlations introduce redundancy that can reduce encoding but also facilitate propagation of activity to downstream targets. Given this trade-off, how can networks maximize both encoding and propagation efficacy? Here, we examine this problem by measuring the effects of olfactory bulb inhibition on the pairwise statistics of mitral cell spiking. We evoked spiking activity in the olfactory bulb in vitro and measured how lateral inhibition shapes correlations across timescales. We show that inhibitory circuits simultaneously increase fast correlation (i.e., synchrony increases) and decrease slow correlation (i.e., firing rates become less similar). Further, we use computational models to show the benefits of fast correlation/slow decorrelation in the context of odor coding. Olfactory bulb inhibition enhances population-level discrimination of similar inputs, while improving propagation of mitral cell activity to cortex. Our findings represent a targeted strategy by which a network can optimize the correlation structure of its output in a dynamic, activity-dependent manner. This trade-off is not specific to the olfactory system, but rather our work highlights mechanisms by which neurons can simultaneously accomplish multiple, and sometimes competing, aspects of sensory processing.

  10. Report of an exploratory study on vacuum drying of flower bulbs; Verslag orienterend onderzoek vacuumdrogen bloembollen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dijkema, M.; Van der Klugt, J.W.

    2010-03-15

    In an exploratory practical study, several questions were answered with regard to vacuum drying. What are the effects on growing and flowering of flower bulbs: (1) of vacuum drying; (2) of half an hour of zero oxygen immediately after harvesting; and (3) of strong temperature shift immediately after harvesting? In addition, the following questions were answered: (4) do flower bulbs dry sufficiently in half an hour of vacuum?; (5) how do fungi and bacteria respond to half an hour in vacuum?; (6) how do animal pests (e.g. bulb mite)react to vacuum? [Dutch] In een orienterende praktijkproef is een aantal vragen beantwoord met betrekking tot vacuumdrogen. Wat zijn de effecten op de groei en de bloei van bloembollen: (1) van vacuumdrogen; (2)van een half uur zuurstofloosheid direct na de oogst?; en (3) van een sterke temperatuurwisseling direct na de oogst?. Daarnaast werden de volgende vragen beantwoord: (4) drogen bloembollen voldoende in een half uur vacuum?; (5) hoe reageren schimmels en bacterien op het vacuum?; (6) hoe reageren dierlijke aantasters (o.a. bollenmijt) op het vacuum?.

  11. Isolation and characterization of a novel trypsin inhibitor from fresh lily bulbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoqing; Wang, Hexiang; Ng, Tzi Bun

    2008-04-01

    A 17-kDa trypsin inhibitor was isolated from fresh lily bulbs with an isolation procedure that involved ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose, affinity chromatography on Affi-gel blue gel, ion exchange chromatography on SP-Sepharose, and gel filtration by FPLC on Superdex 75. Its N-terminal sequence displayed similarity to a short segment of the sequences of the Populus tremula trypsin inhibitor, a putative trypsin inhibitor from Arabidopsis thaliana and sporamin B from sweet potato. The trypsin inhibitor was adsorbed on DEAE-cellulose, unadsorbed on Affi-gel blue gel, and adsorbed on SP-Sepharose. It dose-dependently inhibited trypsin with an IC (50) value of 1.3 microM. There was a stimulatory effect on macrophage production of nitric oxide. Unlike field bean trypsin inhibitor it did not inhibit [methyl-(3)H]thymidine incorporation by leukemia L1210 cells and MBL2 cells when tested up to 100 microM. In contrast to broad bean trypsin inhibitor, there was no inhibitory effect on HIV-1 reverse transcriptase when lily bulb trypsin inhibitor was tested up to 100 microM. The present report is one of the very few on bulbs in contrast to the voluminous literature on seeds.

  12. Disruption of adult neurogenesis in the olfactory bulb affects social interaction but not maternal behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia E Feierstein

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Adult-born neurons arrive to the olfactory bulb and integrate into the existing circuit throughout life. Despite the prevalence of this phenomenon, its functional impact is still poorly understood. Recent studies point to the importance of newly generated neurons to olfactory learning and memory. Adult neurogenesis is regulated by a variety of factors, notably by instances related to reproductive behavior, such as exposure to mating partners, pregnancy and lactation, and exposure to offspring. To study the contribution of olfactory neurogenesis to maternal behavior and social recognition, here we selectively disrupted olfactory bulb neurogenesis using focal irradiation of the subventricular zone in adult female mice. We show that reduction of olfactory neurogenesis results in an abnormal social interaction pattern with male, but not female, conspecifics; we suggest that this effect could result from inability to detect or discriminate male odors and could therefore have implications for the recognition of potential mating partners. Disruption of olfactory bulb neurogenesis, however, neither impaired maternal-related behaviors, nor did it affect the ability of mothers to discriminate their own progeny from others.

  13. Equipment for fully homologous bulb turbine model testing in Laval University

    Science.gov (United States)

    R, Fraser; D, Vallée; Y, Jean; C, Deschênes

    2014-03-01

    Within the context of liberalisation of the energy market, hydroelectricity remains a first class source of clean and renewable energy. Combining the growing demand of energy, its increasing value and the appreciation associated to the sustainable development, low head sites formerly considered as non-profitable are now exploitable. Bulb turbines likely to equip such sites are traditionally developed on model using right angle transmission leading to piers enlargement for power take off shaft passage, thus restricting possibilities to have fully homologous hydraulic passages. Aiming to sustain good quality development on fully homologous scale model of bulb turbines, the Hydraulic Machines Laboratory (LAMH) of Laval University has developed a brake with an enhanced power to weight ratio. This powerful brake is small enough to be located in the bulb shell while dissipating power without mandatory test head reduction. This paper first presents the basic technology of this brake and its application. Then both its main performance capabilities and dimensional characteristics will be detailed. The instrumentation used to perform accurate measurements will be finally presented.

  14. De Novo Transcriptome Analysis of Allium cepa L. (Onion Bulb to Identify Allergens and Epitopes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemalatha Rajkumar

    Full Text Available Allium cepa (onion is a diploid plant with one of the largest nuclear genomes among all diploids. Onion is an example of an under-researched crop which has a complex heterozygous genome. There are no allergenic proteins and genomic data available for onions. This study was conducted to establish a transcriptome catalogue of onion bulb that will enable us to study onion related genes involved in medicinal use and allergies. Transcriptome dataset generated from onion bulb using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 technology showed a total of 99,074,309 high quality raw reads (~20 Gb. Based on sequence homology onion genes were categorized into 49 different functional groups. Most of the genes however, were classified under 'unknown' in all three gene ontology categories. Of the categorized genes, 61.2% showed metabolic functions followed by cellular components such as binding, cellular processes; catalytic activity and cell part. With BLASTx top hit analysis, a total of 2,511 homologous allergenic sequences were found, which had 37-100% similarity with 46 different types of allergens existing in the database. From the 46 contigs or allergens, 521 B-cell linear epitopes were identified using BepiPred linear epitope prediction tool. This is the first comprehensive insight into the transcriptome of onion bulb tissue using the NGS technology, which can be used to map IgE epitopes and prediction of structures and functions of various proteins.

  15. Relation of the volume of the olfactory bulb to psychophysical measures of olfactory function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazal, Patricia Portillo; Haehner, Antje; Hummel, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this review is to investigate whether changes in olfactory bulb volume relate to changes in specific olfactory functions. We studied currently available peer-reviewed articles on the volume of the human olfactory bulb that also included a psychophysical measure of olfactory function. In the present review, we observed a very clear and consistent correlation between general olfactory function and olfactory bulb (OB) volume. We were not able to find a clear relationship between a specific smell component and OB volume, even when analyzing pathologic conditions separately. In some cases, changes were observed for different subtests, but these changes did not significantly correlate with OB volume or had only a borderline correlation. In other cases, we found contradictory data. Several factors may contribute to the difficulties in finding correlations with the different components of smell: (1) the OB volume may be influenced by information from olfactory receptor neurons (bottom-up effect), information from central nervous system (top-down effect) and by direct damage; (2) most pathologic conditions affect more than one area of the olfactory pathway; (3) small sample sizes of hyposmic subjects were used. We believe that it is necessary to do further studies with larger numbers of subjects to answer the currently investigated question.

  16. Sparse distributed representation of odors in a large-scale olfactory bulb circuit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuguo Yu

    Full Text Available In the olfactory bulb, lateral inhibition mediated by granule cells has been suggested to modulate the timing of mitral cell firing, thereby shaping the representation of input odorants. Current experimental techniques, however, do not enable a clear study of how the mitral-granule cell network sculpts odor inputs to represent odor information spatially and temporally. To address this critical step in the neural basis of odor recognition, we built a biophysical network model of mitral and granule cells, corresponding to 1/100th of the real system in the rat, and used direct experimental imaging data of glomeruli activated by various odors. The model allows the systematic investigation and generation of testable hypotheses of the functional mechanisms underlying odor representation in the olfactory bulb circuit. Specifically, we demonstrate that lateral inhibition emerges within the olfactory bulb network through recurrent dendrodendritic synapses when constrained by a range of balanced excitatory and inhibitory conductances. We find that the spatio-temporal dynamics of lateral inhibition plays a critical role in building the glomerular-related cell clusters observed in experiments, through the modulation of synaptic weights during odor training. Lateral inhibition also mediates the development of sparse and synchronized spiking patterns of mitral cells related to odor inputs within the network, with the frequency of these synchronized spiking patterns also modulated by the sniff cycle.

  17. Entorhinal cortex stimulation modulates amygdala and piriform cortex responses to olfactory bulb inputs in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouly, A-M; Di Scala, G

    2006-01-01

    The rodent olfactory bulb sends direct projections to the piriform cortex and to two structures intimately implicated in memory processes, the entorhinal cortex and the amygdala. The piriform cortex has monosynaptic projections with the amygdala and the piriform cortex and is therefore in a position to modulate olfactory input either directly in the piriform cortex, or via the amygdala. In order to investigate this hypothesis, field potential signals induced in anesthetized rats by electrical stimulation of the olfactory bulb or the entorhinal cortex were recorded simultaneously in the piriform cortex (anterior part and posterior part) and the amygdala (basolateral nucleus and cortical nucleus). Single-site paired-pulse stimulation was used to assess the time courses of short-term inhibition and facilitation in each recording site in response to electrical stimulation of the olfactory bulb and entorhinal cortex. Paired-pulse stimulation of the olfactory bulb induced homosynaptic inhibition for short interpulse interpulse intervals (20-30 ms) in all the recording sites, with a significantly lower degree of inhibition in the anterior piriform cortex than in the other structures. At longer intervals (40-80 ms), paired-pulse facilitation was observed in all the structures. Paired-pulse stimulation of the entorhinal cortex mainly resulted in inhibition for the shortest interval duration (20 ms) in anterior piriform cortex, posterior piriform cortex and amygdala basolateral but not cortical nucleus. Double-site paired-pulse stimulation was then applied to determine if stimulation of the entorhinal cortex can modulate responses to olfactory bulb stimulation. For short interpulse intervals (20 ms) heterosynaptic inhibition was observed in anterior piriform cortex, posterior piriform cortex and amygdala basolateral but not cortical nucleus. The level of inhibition was greater in the basolateral nucleus than in the other structures. Taken together these data suggest that the

  18. Evaluation of wound healing potential of methanolic Crinum jagus bulb extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunday Ositadimma Udegbunam

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Crinum jagus (J. Thomps. Dandy commonly called Harmattan or St. Christopher's lily belonging to the family Lilliaceae is widely used traditionally in Southeastern Nigeria for treatment of skin sores. This study investigated the wound healing potentials of methanolic Crinum jagus bulb extract (MCJBE using incision, excision and dead space wound healing models. Phytochemical screening showed the presence of alkaloids, glycosides, tannins, saponins in the extract but absence of flavonoids. In the incision and dead space wound models, rats were dosed orally with 300 mg/kg body weight (bw of 10 and 5% of methanolic Crinum jagus bulb extract (MCJBE solution, respectively, while in the excision wound model, rats were treated topically with 10 and 5% methanolic Crinum jagus bulb extract ointments (MCJBEO, respectively. The 10% MCJBE gave significantly (p<0.05 highest percentage rate of wound contraction, shortest re-epithelialization and complete healing time when compared with 5% MCJBE and reference drug, framycetin sulphate. The extract of Crinum jagus showed significant (p<0.05 concentration-dependent wound healing activity in incision, dead space and excision wound models. No contaminating microbial organism was isolated from wound sites of the rats dosed and treated with MCJBE throughout the study period. At day 7 post infliction of excision wound, histomorphological and histochemical studies revealed more fibroblasts and type 1 collagen deposits in wound site sections of rats treated with both 10 and 5% MCJBEO while those of the control showed more inflammatory cells and fewer type 1 collagen deposits. At day 14 post infliction of excision wound, more epithelial regeneration with overlying keratin were seen in the histological sections of wounds of rats treated with both 10 and 5% MCJBEO while histochemical study showed more type 1 collagen deposits in wound site sections of rats in 10% MECJ treated group. This study established that methanolic

  19. Erwinia chrysanthemi Burkholder, McFadden and Dimock and other Phytobacteria Causal Agents of Onion (Allium cepa L.) Bulb Decay, and their Detection

    OpenAIRE

    María de Jesús Yáñez; Leopold Fucikovsky; James W. Lorbeer; Armando González; Sergio Aranda

    2003-01-01

    For the first time, a severe soft rot of onion bulbs in commercial fields was detected in southern Tamaulipas and eastern San Luis Potosi States, Mexico, in 1989. To identify the causal agent, 50 rotten bulbs were analyzed. Commercial seed lots, soil, and irrigation water were also investigated as a potential sources of inoculum. Pathogenic bacteria isolated from bulbs were identified by the biolog microplate system (BMS), Ouchterlony double diffusion serology, physiological tests, and only b...

  20. Evaluation of wound healing potential of methanolic Crinum jagus bulb extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udegbunam, Sunday Ositadimma; Kene, Raphael Okoli Chukwujekwu; Anika, Silvanus Maduka; Udegbunam, Rita Ijeoma; Nnaji, Theophilus Okafor; Anyanwu, Madubuike Umunna

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Crinum jagus (J. Thomps.) Dandy commonly called Harmattan or St. Christopher’s lily belonging to the family Liliaceae is widely used traditionally in Southeastern Nigeria for treatment of skin sores. This study investigated the wound healing potentials of methanolic C. jagus bulb extract (MCJBE) using incision, excision, and dead space wound healing models. Materials and Methods: Phytochemical screening showed the presence of alkaloids, glycosides, tannins, saponins in the extract, but absence of flavonoids. In the incision and dead space wound models, rats were dosed orally with 300 mg/kg body weight (bw) of 10 and 5% of MCJBE solution, respectively, while in the excision wound model, rats were treated topically with 10 and 5% MCJBE ointments (MCJBEO), respectively. Result: The 10% MCJBE gave significantly (P < 0.05) highest percentage rate of wound contraction, shortest re-epithelialization and complete healing time when compared with 5% MCJBE and reference drug, framycetin sulfate. The extract of C. jagus showed significant (P < 0.05) concentration-dependent wound healing activity in incision, dead space and excision wound models. No contaminating microbial organism was isolated from wound sites of the rats dosed and treated with MCJBE throughout the study period. At day 7, post infliction of excision wound, histomorphological, and histochemical studies revealed more fibroblasts and Type 1 collagen deposits in wound site sections of rats treated with both 10 and 5% MCJBEO while those of the control showed more inflammatory cells and fewer Type 1 collagen deposits. At day 14 post infliction of excision wound, more epithelial regeneration with overlying keratin were seen in the histological sections of wounds of rats treated with both 10 and 5% MCJBEO, while histochemical study showed more Type 1 collagen deposits in wound site sections of rats in 10% MCJBEO treated group. Conclusion: This study established that methanolic C. jagus bulb extract

  1. Olfactory consciousness and gamma oscillation couplings across the olfactory bulb, olfactory cortex, and orbitofrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Kensaku; Manabe, Hiroyuki; Narikiyo, Kimiya; Onisawa, Naomi

    2013-01-01

    The orbitofrontal cortex receives multi-modality sensory inputs, including olfactory input, and is thought to be involved in conscious perception of the olfactory image of objects. Generation of olfactory consciousness may require neuronal circuit mechanisms for the "binding" of distributed neuronal activities, with each constituent neuron representing a specific component of an olfactory percept. The shortest neuronal pathway for odor signals to reach the orbitofrontal cortex is olfactory sensory neuron-olfactory bulb-olfactory cortex-orbitofrontal cortex, but other pathways exist, including transthalamic pathways. Here, we review studies on the structural organization and functional properties of the shortest pathway, and propose a model of neuronal circuit mechanisms underlying the temporal bindings of distributed neuronal activities in the olfactory cortex. We describe a hypothesis that suggests functional roles of gamma oscillations in the bindings. This hypothesis proposes that two types of projection neurons in the olfactory bulb, tufted cells and mitral cells, play distinct functional roles in bindings at neuronal circuits in the olfactory cortex: tufted cells provide specificity-projecting circuits which send odor information with early-onset fast gamma synchronization, while mitral cells give rise to dispersedly-projecting feed-forward binding circuits which transmit the response synchronization timing with later-onset slow gamma synchronization. This hypothesis also suggests a sequence of bindings in the olfactory cortex: a small-scale binding by the early-phase fast gamma synchrony of tufted cell inputs followed by a larger-scale binding due to the later-onset slow gamma synchrony of mitral cell inputs. We discuss that behavioral state, including wakefulness and sleep, regulates gamma oscillation couplings across the olfactory bulb, olfactory cortex, and orbitofrontal cortex.

  2. Olfactory consciousness and gamma oscillation couplings across the olfactory bulb, olfactory cortex and orbitofrontal cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kensaku eMori

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The orbitofrontal cortex receives multi-modality sensory inputs, including olfactory input, and is thought to be involved in conscious perception of the olfactory image of objects. Generation of olfactory consciousness requires neuronal circuit mechanisms for the ‘binding’ of distributed neuronal activities, with each constituent neuron representing a specific component of an olfactory percept. The shortest neuronal pathway for odor signals to reach the orbitofrontal cortex is olfactory sensory neuron – olfactory bulb – olfactory cortex – orbitofrontal cortex, but other pathways exist, including transthalamic pathways. Here, we review studies on the structural organization and functional properties of the shortest pathway, and propose a model of neuronal circuit mechanisms underlying the temporal bindings of distributed neuronal activities in the olfactory cortex. We describe a hypothesis that suggests functional roles of gamma oscillations in the bindings. This hypothesis proposes that two types of projection neurons in the olfactory bulb, tufted cells and mitral cells, play distinct functional roles in bindings at neuronal circuits in the olfactory cortex: tufted cells provide specificity-projecting circuits which send odor information with early-onset fast gamma synchronization, while mitral cells give rise to dispersedly-projecting feed-forward binding circuits which transmit the response synchronization timing with later-onset slow gamma synchronization. This hypothesis also suggests a sequence of bindings in the olfactory cortex: a small-scale binding by the early-phase fast gamma synchrony of tufted cell inputs followed by a larger-scale binding due to the later-onset slow gamma synchrony of mitral cell inputs. We discuss that behavioral state, including wakefulness and sleep, regulates gamma oscillation couplings across the olfactory bulb, olfactory cortex, and orbitofrontal cortex.

  3. Photoperiod mediated changes in olfactory bulb neurogenesis and olfactory behavior in male white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James C Walton

    Full Text Available Brain plasticity, in relation to new adult mammalian neurons generated in the subgranular zone of the hippocampus, has been well described. However, the functional outcome of new adult olfactory neurons born in the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricles is not clearly defined, as manipulating neurogenesis through various methods has given inconsistent and conflicting results in lab mice. Several small rodent species, including Peromyscus leucopus, display seasonal (photoperiodic brain plasticity in brain volume, hippocampal function, and hippocampus-dependent behaviors; plasticity in the olfactory system of photoperiodic rodents remains largely uninvestigated. We exposed adult male P. leucopus to long day lengths (LD and short day lengths (SD for 10 to 15 weeks and then examined olfactory bulb cell proliferation and survival using the thymidine analog BrdU, olfactory bulb granule cell morphology using Golgi-Cox staining, and behavioral investigation of same-sex conspecific urine. SD mice did not differ from LD counterparts in granular cell morphology of the dendrites or in dendritic spine density. Although there were no differences due to photoperiod in habituation to water odor, SD mice rapidly habituated to male urine, whereas LD mice did not. In addition, short day induced changes in olfactory behavior were associated with increased neurogenesis in the caudal plexiform and granule cell layers of the olfactory bulb, an area known to preferentially respond to water-soluble odorants. Taken together, these data demonstrate that photoperiod, without altering olfactory bulb neuronal morphology, alters olfactory bulb neurogenesis and olfactory behavior in Peromyscus leucopus.

  4. EUS diagnosis of ectopic opening of the common bile duct in the duodenal bulb: A case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Miodrag Krstic; Bojan Stimec; Radmilo Krstic; Milenko Ugljesic; Srbislav Knezevic; Ivan Jovanovic

    2005-01-01

    Among the various congenital anomalies of the biliary system,an ectopic opening of the common bile duct (CBD) in the duodenal bulb is extremely rare. ERCP is essential for diagnosing the anomaly. A 55-year-old male was admitted to hospital for severe right upper quadrant abdominal pain,followed by fever, chills, elevated body temperature and mild icterus. The diagnosis of ectopic opening of CBD in the duodenal bulb was established on endoscopic ultraso-nography (EUS),which clearly demonstrated dilated CBD, with multiple stones and air in the lumen, draining into the bulb. A normal pancreatic duct, which did not drain into the bulb, was also observed. This finding was confirmed on ERCP and surgery.As far as we know, this is the first case of this anomaly diagnosed by EUS. Ectopic opening of the CBD in the duodenal bulb is not an incidental finding, but a pathologic condition which can be associated with clinical entities such as recurrent or intractable duodenal ulcer, recurrent biliary pain,choledocholithiasis or acute cholangitis. Endoscopic ultrasonography features allow preoperative diagnosis of this anomaly and can replace ERCP as a first diagnostic tool in such clinical circumstances. Embryology of the anomalies of the extrahepatic biliary tree has been also reviewed.

  5. Expression Profiling Reveals Genes Involved in the Regulation of Wool Follicle Bulb Regression and Regeneration in Sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangbin Liu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Wool is an important material in textile manufacturing. In order to investigate the intrinsic factors that regulate wool follicle cycling and wool fiber properties, Illumina sequencing was performed on wool follicle bulb samples from the middle anagen, catagen and late telogen/early anagen phases. In total, 13,898 genes were identified. KRTs and KRTAPs are the most highly expressed gene families in wool follicle bulb. In addition, 438 and 203 genes were identified to be differentially expressed in wool follicle bulb samples from the middle anagen phase compared to the catagen phase and the samples from the catagen phase compared to the late telogen/early anagen phase, respectively. Finally, our data revealed that two groups of genes presenting distinct expression patterns during the phase transformation may have important roles for wool follicle bulb regression and regeneration. In conclusion, our results demonstrated the gene expression patterns in the wool follicle bulb and add new data towards an understanding of the mechanisms involved in wool fiber growth in sheep.

  6. Optimized aperiodic broadband thermal emitters for use as light bulb filaments

    CERN Document Server

    Granier, Christopher H; Veronis, Georgios; Dowling, Jonathan P

    2016-01-01

    We present optimized aperiodic structures for use as broadband thermal incandescent emitters which are capable of increasing the emittance by nearly a factor of two over the visible wavelength range when compared to bulk tungsten. These aperiodic multilayer structures are designed with alternating layers of tungsten and air or tungsten and silicon carbide on top of a tungsten substrate. We investigate the properties of these structures for use as lightbulb filaments. We find that these structures greatly enhance the emittance over the visible wavelength range, while also increasing the overall efficiency of the bulb and could lead to a decrease in incandescent lightbulb power consumption by nearly 50%.

  7. Rehabilitation of patient with acquired maxillary defect, using a closed hollow bulb obturator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhilasha S Bhasin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Palliative care means providing support and care for patients with life-threatening or debilitating illness so that they can live their life as comfortably as possible. The fact that cure is no longer a reality does not mean that care cannot be made available. Partial maxillectomy defect presents a prosthodontic challenge in terms of re-establishing oronasal separation. Such defect has direct effect on cosmetic, function and psychology of the patient. This article describes step by step clinical and laboratory procedures involved in the rehabilitation of a hemimaxillectomy patient, using a definitive closed hollow bulb obturator, which improved his physical, emotional, functional, social and spiritual needs.

  8. Effects of Moderate Hyperventilation on Jugular Bulb Gases under Propofol or Isoflurane Anesthesia during Supratentorial Craniotomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lan Meng; Shu-Qin Li; Nan Ji; Fang Luo

    2015-01-01

    Background:The optimal ventilated status under total intravenous or inhalation anesthesia in neurosurgical patients with a supratentorial tumor has not been ascertained.The purpose of this study was to intraoperatively compare the effects of moderate hyperventilation on the jugular bulb oxygen saturation (SjO2),cerebral oxygen extraction ratio (O2ER),mean arterial blood pressure (MAP),and heart rate (HR) in patients with a supratentorial tumor under different anesthetic regimens.Methods:Twenty adult patients suffered from supratentorial tumors were randomly assigned to receive a propofol infusion followed by isoflurane anesthesia after a 30-min stabilization period or isoflurane followed by propofol.The patients were randomized to one of the following two treatment sequences:hyperventilation followed by normoventilation or normoventilation followed by hyperventilation during isoflurane or propofol anesthesia,respectively.The ventilation and end-tidal CO2 tension were maintained at a constant level for 20 min.Radial arterial and jugular bulb catheters were inserted for the blood gas sampling.At the end of each study period,we measured the change in the arterial and jugular bulb blood gases.Results:The mean value of the jugular bulb oxygen saturation (SjO2) significantly decreased,and the oxygen extraction ratio (O2ER) significantly increased under isoflurane or propofol anesthesia during hyperventilation compared with those during normoventilation (SjO2:t =-2.728,P =0.011 or t =-3.504,P =0.001;O2ER:t =2.484,P =0.020 or t =2.892,P =0.009).The SjO2 significantly decreased,and the O2ER significantly increased under propofol anesthesia compared with those values under isoflurane anesthesia during moderate hyperventilation (SjO2:t =-2.769,P =0.012;O2ER:t =2.719,P =0.013).In the study,no significant changes in the SjO2 and the O2ER were observed under propofol compared with those values under isoflurane during normoventilation.Conclusions:Our results suggest that the

  9. Subtype-specific reduction of olfactory bulb interneurons in Pax6 heterozygous mutant mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haba, Hasumi; Nomura, Tadashi; Suto, Fumikazu; Osumi, Noriko

    2009-09-01

    Interneurons in the olfactory bulb (OB) play essential roles in the processing of olfactory information. They are classified into several subpopulations by the expression of different neurochemical markers. Here we focused on a transcription factor Pax6, and examined its expression and function in distinct subtypes of OB interneurons. We identified Pax6 expression in specific subtypes of interneurons in the external plexiform layer (EPL). The number of these interneuron subtypes was dramatically decreased in Pax6 heterozygous mutant mice. These results indicate that Pax6 is required for differentiation and/or maintenance of EPL interneurons in the adult mouse OB.

  10. Odor-Induced Neuronal Rhythms in the Olfactory Bulb Are Profoundly Modified in ob/ob Obese Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelminski, Yan; Magnan, Christophe; Luquet, Serge H.; Everard, Amandine; Meunier, Nicolas; Gurden, Hirac; Martin, Claire

    2017-01-01

    Leptin, the product of the Ob(Lep) gene, is a peptide hormone that plays a major role in maintaining the balance between food intake and energy expenditure. In the brain, leptin receptors are expressed by hypothalamic cells but also in the olfactory bulb, the first central structure coding for odors, suggesting a precise function of this hormone in odor-evoked activities. Although olfaction plays a key role in feeding behavior, the ability of the olfactory bulb to integrate the energy-related signal leptin is still missing. Therefore, we studied the fate of odor-induced activity in the olfactory bulb in the genetic context of leptin deficiency using the obese ob/ob mice. By means of an odor discrimination task with concomitant local field potential recordings, we showed that ob/ob mice perform better than wild-type (WT) mice in the early stage of the task. This behavioral gain of function was associated in parallel with profound changes in neuronal oscillations in the olfactory bulb. The distribution of the peaks in the gamma frequency range was shifted toward higher frequencies in ob/ob mice compared to WT mice before learning. More notably, beta oscillatory activity, which has been shown previously to be correlated with olfactory discrimination learning, was longer and stronger in expert ob/ob mice after learning. Since oscillations in the olfactory bulb emerge from mitral to granule cell interactions, our results suggest that cellular dynamics in the olfactory bulb are deeply modified in ob/ob mice in the context of olfactory learning.

  11. Experimental investigation of the draft tube inlet flow of a bulb turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuillemard, J.; Aeschlimann, V.; Fraser, R.; Lemay, S.; Deschênes, C.

    2014-03-01

    In the BulbT project framework, a bulb turbine model was studied with a strongly diverging draft tube. At high discharge, flow separation occurs in the draft tube correlated to significant efficiency and power drops. In this context, a focus was put on the draft tube inlet flow conditions. Actually, a precise inlet flow velocity field is required for comparison and validation purposes with CFD simulation. This paper presents different laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV) measurements at the draft tube inlet and their analysis. The LDV was setup to measure the axial and circumferential velocity on a radius under the runner and a diameter under the hub. A method was developed to perform indirect measurement of the mean radial velocity component. Five operating conditions were studied to correlate the inlet flow to the separation in the draft tube. Mean velocities, fluctuations and frequencies allowed characterizing the flow. Using this experimental database, the flow structure was characterized. Phase averaged velocities based on the runner position allowed detecting the runner blade wakes. The velocity gradients induced by the blade tip vortices were captured. The guide vane wakes was also detected at the draft tube inlet. The recirculation in the hub wake was observed.

  12. Purification and characterization of polyphenol oxidase from jackfruit ( Artocarpus heterophyllus ) bulbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Yi-Ming; Yao, Le-Yi; Qin, Qiu-Yan; Shen, Wang

    2013-12-26

    Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) from jackfruit bulb was purified through acetone precipitation, ion-exchange column, and gel filtration column. PPO was a dimer with the molecular weight of 130 kDa determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and gel filtration. The Km was 8.3 and 18.2 mM using catechol and 4-methylcatechol as substrates, respectively. The optimum pH was 7.0 (catechol as the substrate) or 6.5 (4-methylcatechol as the substrate). The optimum temperature was 8 °C. The enzyme was stable below 40 °C. The activation energy (Ea) of heat inactivation was estimated to be 103.30 kJ/mol. The PPO activity was activated by Mn(2+), SDS, Tween-20, Triton X-100, citric acid, and malic acid but inhibited by K(+), Zn(2+), Mg(2+), Ca(2+), Ba(2+), cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB), kojic acid, tropolone, glutathione (GSH), cysteine (Cys), and ascorbic acid (AA). Cys and AA were effective to reduce browning of jackfruit bulbs during the storage at 8 °C for 15 days.

  13. Chelating, antioxidant and hypoglycaemic potential of Muscari comosum (L.) Mill. bulb extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loizzo, Monica R; Tundis, Rosa; Menichini, Federica; Pugliese, Alessandro; Bonesi, Marco; Solimene, Umberto; Menichini, Francesco

    2010-12-01

    The metal chelating activity, antioxidant properties and the effect on carbohydrate-hydrolysing enzyme inhibition of Muscari comosum extracts have been investigated. M. comosum bulbs contain a total amount of the phenols with a value of 56.6 mg chlorogenic acid equivalent per gram of extract and a flavonoid content of 23.4 mg quercetin equivalent per gram of extract. In order to evaluate the non-polar constituents, n-hexane extract was obtained. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis revealed the presence of fatty acids and ethyl esters as major constituents, with different aldehydes and alkanes as minor components. Ethanolic extract had the highest ferric-reducing ability power (66.7 μM Fe(II)/g) and DPPH scavenging activity with a concentration giving 50% inhibition (IC₅₀) value of 40.9 μg/ml. Moreover, this extract exhibited a good hypoglycaemic activity with IC₅₀ values of 81.3 and 112.8 μg/ml for α-amylase and α-glucosidase, respectively. In conclusion, M. comosum bulbs show promising antioxidant and hypoglycaemic activity via the inhibition of carbohydrate digestive enzymes. These activities may be of interest from a functional point of view and for the revalorization of this ancient non-cultivated vegetable of Mediterranean traditional gastronomy.

  14. BDNF over-expression increases olfactory bulb granule cell dendritic spine density in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDole, B; Isgor, C; Pare, C; Guthrie, K

    2015-09-24

    Olfactory bulb granule cells (GCs) are axon-less, inhibitory interneurons that regulate the activity of the excitatory output neurons, the mitral and tufted cells, through reciprocal dendrodendritic synapses located on GC spines. These contacts are established in the distal apical dendritic compartment, while GC basal dendrites and more proximal apical segments bear spines that receive glutamatergic inputs from the olfactory cortices. This synaptic connectivity is vital to olfactory circuit function and is remodeled during development, and in response to changes in sensory activity and lifelong GC neurogenesis. Manipulations that alter levels of the neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in vivo have significant effects on dendritic spine morphology, maintenance and activity-dependent plasticity for a variety of CNS neurons, yet little is known regarding BDNF effects on bulb GC spine maturation or maintenance. Here we show that, in vivo, sustained bulbar over-expression of BDNF in transgenic mice produces a marked increase in GC spine density that includes an increase in mature spines on their apical dendrites. Morphometric analysis demonstrated that changes in spine density were most notable in the distal and proximal apical domains, indicating that multiple excitatory inputs are potentially modified by BDNF. Our results indicate that increased levels of endogenous BDNF can promote the maturation and/or maintenance of dendritic spines on GCs, suggesting a role for this factor in modulating GC functional connectivity within adult olfactory circuitry.

  15. Parallel odor processing by two anatomically distinct olfactory bulb target structures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colleen A Payton

    Full Text Available The olfactory cortex encompasses several anatomically distinct regions each hypothesized to provide differential representation and processing of specific odors. Studies exploring whether or not the diversity of olfactory bulb input to olfactory cortices has functional meaning, however, are lacking. Here we tested whether two anatomically major olfactory cortical structures, the olfactory tubercle (OT and piriform cortex (PCX, differ in their neural representation and processing dynamics of a small set of diverse odors by performing in vivo extracellular recordings from the OT and PCX of anesthetized mice. We found a wealth of similarities between structures, including odor-evoked response magnitudes, breadth of odor tuning, and odor-evoked firing latencies. In contrast, only few differences between structures were found, including spontaneous activity rates and odor signal-to-noise ratios. These results suggest that despite major anatomical differences in innervation by olfactory bulb mitral/tufted cells, the basic features of odor representation and processing, at least within this limited odor set, are similar within the OT and PCX. We predict that the olfactory code follows a distributed processing stream in transmitting behaviorally and perceptually-relevant information from low-level stations.

  16. Spontaneous firing in olfactory bulb neurons of Bufo bufo gargarizans in and after hibernation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chuancheng Liang; Shaokang Bian; Xia Peng; Liwen Wang

    2011-01-01

    Microelectrode technique was used to record the spontaneous electrical activities of the neurons in olfactory bulb of the Bufo bufo gargarizans, both in hibernation and after hibernation. This study investigated the electrophysiological characteristics of amphibian olfactory bulb in the period of hibernation and after hibernation and its effects on the start of hibernation and spontaneous awakening. The research showed four forms of spontaneous firings: single spontaneous firing, burst spontaneous firing, irregular spontaneous firing and consecutive single spontaneous firing. The single spontaneous firing includes slow depolarized spontaneous firing and fast depolarized spontaneous firing, and the slow depolarized spontaneous firing occurs only during the hibernation period. In hibernation, the low amplitude and low frequency firing with a longer duration may be relevant to maintaining the tonicity of the central nervous system in toads that are in hibernation, and this kind of firing may also provide an excited basis for their arousal from hibernation. After hibernation, the amplitude and frequency of firing increase, but the firing duration gets shorter. This form of short-term firing, which may be a phenomenon of sensory neurons fast adapting, is one of the neuronal mechanisms for the arousal of hibernating animals.

  17. Preliminary investigation of flow dynamics during the start-up of a bulb turbine model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulaud, M.; Fraser, R.; Lemay, J.; Duquesne, P.; Aeschlimann, V.; Deschênes, C.

    2016-11-01

    Nowadays, the electricity network undergoes more perturbations due to the market demand. Additionally, an increase of the production from alternative resources such as wind or solar also induces important variations on the grid. Hydraulic power plants are used to respond quickly to these variations to stabilize the network. Hydraulic turbines have to face more frequent start-up and stop sequences that might shorten significantly their life time. In this context, an experimental analysis of start-up sequences has been conducted on the bulb turbine model of the BulbT project at the Hydraulic Machines Laboratory (LAMH) of Laval University. Maintaining a constant head, guide vanes are opened from 0 ° to 30 °. Three guide vanes opening speed have been chosen from 5 °/s to 20 °/s. Several repetitions were done for each guide vanes opening speed. During these sequences, synchronous time resolved measurements have been performed. Pressure signals were recorded at the runner inlet and outlet and along the draft tube. Also, 25 pressure measurements and strain measurements were obtained on the runner blades. Time resolved particle image velocimetry were used to evaluate flowrate during start-up for some repetitions. Torque fluctuations at shaft were also monitored. This paper presents the experimental set-up and start-up conditions chosen to simulate a prototype start-up. Transient flowrate methodology is explained and validation measurements are detailed. The preliminary results of global performances and runner pressure measurements are presented.

  18. A transient, RCK4-like K+ current in cultured Xenopus olfactory bulb neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, J; Rabba, J; Schild, D

    1996-09-01

    A transient K+ current in cultured olfactory bulb neurons of Xenopus tadpoles was studied using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. The current, which was resistant to 80 mM tetraethylammoniumchloride (TEA) and 10 nM charybdotoxin but blocked by 5 mM 4-aminopyridine (4-AP), activated between -60 and -40 mV and showed time- and voltage-dependent inactivation. Its peak amplitude was nearly independent of the extracellular K+ concentration ([K+]o) in the range of 0.05 to 10 mM, indicating that its conductance increased upon increasing [K+]o. The transient K+ current showed a slow recovery from inactivation with the time for half-maximum recovery from a conditioning pulse to 80 mV for 1 s varying from 100 ms to 500 ms. Complete recovery required as much as 5-10 s at -80 mV, but could be speeded up at hyperpolarized potentials. The current resembles the RCK4 (Kv1.4) current of rat neurons except that its recovery from inactivation was independent of [K+]o. High-frequency stimulation (20-67 Hz) of the neurons with short (5 ms) voltage pulses resulted in a frequency-dependent, progressive inactivation of the transient K+ current. This suggests that, during phasic responses of olfactory bulb neurons, inactivation of the transient K+ current occurs and may lead to lengthening of action potentials and facilitation of synaptic transmission.

  19. The olfactory bulb and the number of its glomeruli in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriya-Ito, Keiko; Tanaka, Ikuko; Umitsu, Yoshitomo; Ichikawa, Masumi; Tokuno, Hironobu

    2015-04-01

    The olfactory system has been well studied in mammals such as mice and rats. However, few studies have focused on characterizing this system in diurnal primates that rely on their sense of smell to a lesser extent due to their ecological environment. In the present study, we determined the histological organization of the olfactory bulb in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus). We then constructed 3-dimensional models of the glomeruli of the olfactory bulb, and estimated the number of glomeruli. Olfactory glomeruli are the functional units of olfactory processing, and have been investigated in detail using mice. There are approximately 1800 glomeruli in a mouse hemibulb, and olfactory sensory neurons expressing one selected olfactory receptor converge onto one or two glomeruli. Because mice have about 1000 olfactory receptor genes, it is proposed that the number of glomeruli in mammals is nearly double that of olfactory receptor genes. The common marmoset carries only about 400 intact olfactory receptor genes. The present study revealed that the number of glomeruli in a marmoset hemibulb was approximately 1500-1800. This result suggests that the number of glomeruli is not positively correlated with the number of intact olfactory receptor genes in mammals.

  20. [Comparative analysis of the monopodial and sympodial models of bulb branching in Galanthus L].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chub, V V; Kozhevnikova, A D

    2000-01-01

    We have examined sympodial and monopodial models of bulb branching in Galanthus. The issue of the position of the reduced prophyll is discussed. We proposed a method of formal interpretation: parts of the plant were positioned on diagrams; several variants of axial schemes were matched to each diagram; the schemes were divided into two classes, monopodial and sympodial ones, and stability of each class was estimated. In order to decide about the model of Galanthus bulb branching, we have examined plants with additional inflorescences and plants with additional leaf series. We have shown that the sympodial model predicts the presence of the reduced prophyll at the base of the innovation bud in all studied cases. Consecutive stages of prophyll reduction (prophyll of the innovation bud) can be followed in Amaryllidaceae in the following sequence: Zephyranthes, a well-developed large prophyll with green lamina; Vallota, a developed prophyll with reduced green lamina; Haemanthus, a thin chaffy short-living prophyll. At the end of this sequence is Galanthus with completely reduced prophyll at the innovation bud.

  1. Functional differentiation of cholinergic and noradrenergic modulation in a biophysical model of olfactory bulb granule cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guoshi; Linster, Christiane; Cleland, Thomas A

    2015-12-01

    Olfactory bulb granule cells are modulated by both acetylcholine (ACh) and norepinephrine (NE), but the effects of these neuromodulators have not been clearly distinguished. We used detailed biophysical simulations of granule cells, both alone and embedded in a microcircuit with mitral cells, to measure and distinguish the effects of ACh and NE on cellular and microcircuit function. Cholinergic and noradrenergic modulatory effects on granule cells were based on data obtained from slice experiments; specifically, ACh reduced the conductance densities of the potassium M current and the calcium-dependent potassium current, whereas NE nonmonotonically regulated the conductance density of an ohmic potassium current. We report that the effects of ACh and NE on granule cell physiology are distinct and functionally complementary to one another. ACh strongly regulates granule cell firing rates and afterpotentials, whereas NE bidirectionally regulates subthreshold membrane potentials. When combined, NE can regulate the ACh-induced expression of afterdepolarizing potentials and persistent firing. In a microcircuit simulation developed to investigate the effects of granule cell neuromodulation on mitral cell firing properties, ACh increased spike synchronization among mitral cells, whereas NE modulated the signal-to-noise ratio. Coapplication of ACh and NE both functionally improved the signal-to-noise ratio and enhanced spike synchronization among mitral cells. In summary, our computational results support distinct and complementary roles for ACh and NE in modulating olfactory bulb circuitry and suggest that NE may play a role in the regulation of cholinergic function.

  2. Functional differentiation of cholinergic and noradrenergic modulation in a biophysical model of olfactory bulb granule cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linster, Christiane

    2015-01-01

    Olfactory bulb granule cells are modulated by both acetylcholine (ACh) and norepinephrine (NE), but the effects of these neuromodulators have not been clearly distinguished. We used detailed biophysical simulations of granule cells, both alone and embedded in a microcircuit with mitral cells, to measure and distinguish the effects of ACh and NE on cellular and microcircuit function. Cholinergic and noradrenergic modulatory effects on granule cells were based on data obtained from slice experiments; specifically, ACh reduced the conductance densities of the potassium M current and the calcium-dependent potassium current, whereas NE nonmonotonically regulated the conductance density of an ohmic potassium current. We report that the effects of ACh and NE on granule cell physiology are distinct and functionally complementary to one another. ACh strongly regulates granule cell firing rates and afterpotentials, whereas NE bidirectionally regulates subthreshold membrane potentials. When combined, NE can regulate the ACh-induced expression of afterdepolarizing potentials and persistent firing. In a microcircuit simulation developed to investigate the effects of granule cell neuromodulation on mitral cell firing properties, ACh increased spike synchronization among mitral cells, whereas NE modulated the signal-to-noise ratio. Coapplication of ACh and NE both functionally improved the signal-to-noise ratio and enhanced spike synchronization among mitral cells. In summary, our computational results support distinct and complementary roles for ACh and NE in modulating olfactory bulb circuitry and suggest that NE may play a role in the regulation of cholinergic function. PMID:26334007

  3. Spatio-temporal characteristics of inhibition mapped by optical stimulation in mouse olfactory bulb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander eLehmann

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Mitral and tufted cells (MTCs of the mammalian olfactory bulb (OB are connected via dendrodendritic synapses with inhibitory interneurons in the external plexiform layer. The range, spatial layout and temporal properties of inhibitory interactions between MTCs mediated by inhibitory interneurons remain unclear. Therefore we tested for inhibitory interactions using an optogenetic approach. We optically stimulated MTCs expressing channelrhodopsin-2 in transgenic mice, while recording from individual MTCs in juxtacellular or whole-cell configuration in vivo. We used a spatial noise stimulus for mapping interactions between MTCs belonging to different glomeruli in the dorsal bulb. Analyzing firing responses of MTCs to the stimulus, we did not find robust lateral inhibitory effects that were spatially specific. However, analysis of sub-threshold changes in the membrane potential revealed evidence for inhibitory interactions between MTCs that belong to different glomerular units. These lateral inhibitory effects were short-lived and spatially specific. MTC response maps showed hyperpolarizing effects radially extending over more than 5 glomerular diameters. The inhibitory maps exhibited non-symmetrical yet distance-dependent characteristics.

  4. Contribution of explant carbohydrate reserves and sucrose in the medium to bulb growth of lily regenerated on scale segments in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langens-Gerrits, M.M.; Kuijpers, A.M.; Klerk, de G.J.M.; Croes, A.

    2003-01-01

    Bulb size is an important factor determining phase change in Lilium: phase change only occurs in bulblets over a certain threshold weight. After phase change has occurred, bulblets sprout with a stem with many leaves. Juvenile bulblets sprout with only a few leaves. The factors contributing to bulb

  5. Antimicrobial and antioxidant effect of methanolic Crinum jagus bulb extract in wound healing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udegbunam, Sunday Ositadimma; Udegbunam, Rita Ijeoma; Nnaji, Theophilus Okafor; Anyanwu, Madubuike Umunna; Kene, Raphel Okoli Chukwujekwu; Anika, Silavanus Maduka

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial and antioxidant effects of Crinum jagus (J. Thomps.) Dandy methanolic bulb extract in wound healing. Materials and Methods: Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, glycosides, tannins, and saponins in the extract. In vitro antimicrobial activity of the extract was determined by agar well diffusion method. In vivo antimicrobial activity of the extract was determined by microbial assay of excision wound in rats contaminated with Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas areuginosa, and Candida albicans and treated with 300 mg/kg body weight (bw) of 10 and 5% methanolic C. jagus bulb extract ointment (MCJBEO), respectively. Enzymatic antioxidant effect of the extract was determined in vivo by assaying superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activity, and malondialdehyde (MDA) level in excision wound biopsies of rats treated with 10 and 5% MCJBEO, respectively, following standard methods. Non-enzymatic antioxidant effect of the extract was determined in vitro using diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method following standard procedure. Results: The extract exhibited in vitro antimicrobial effect in a concentration-dependent manner with one hundred (100) mg/ml concentration of the extract having the highest inhibitory zone diameter for B. subtilis (25 mm), S. aureus (21 mm), and C. albicans (14 mm) followed by the 50, 25 and 12.5 mg/ml concentrations, respectively. B. subtilis, S. aureus, and C. albicans were not isolated from wounds of animals treated with both extract concentrations 10% and 5% MCJBEO, and reference drug (framycetin sulfate/clotrimazole). Activities of the enzymatic antioxidants SOD and CAT in wound biopsies treated with 10% MCJBEO were significantly (P < 0.05) higher when compared with those treated with 5% MCJBEO. Significantly (P < 0.05) decreased MDA level of wound biopsies from extract-treated rats was observed. The extract exhibited non

  6. Factors affecting efficient in vitro micropropagation of Muscari muscarimi Medikus using twin bulb scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozel, Cigdem Alev; Khawar, Khalid Mahmood; Unal, Fatma

    2015-03-01

    Endemic Muscari muscarimi Medikus is the most fragrant plant among Muscari species and has a high ornamental potential. The natural populations of M. muscarimi, are severely affected by increased environmental pollution and urbanization. There is a need to develop a micropropagation method that should serve effectively for commercial propagation and conservation. Therefore, the study targeted to set up a strategy for efficient in vitro bulblet regeneration system of M. muscarimi using twin scale bulb explants on 1.0 × MS medium containing 4.44, 8.88, 17.76 μM BAP (6-Benzylaminopurine) plus 2.685, 5.37, 10.74 μM NAA (α-Naphthalene acetic acid). Maximum number of 19 daughter axillary bulblets and 16 daughter adventitious bulblets per twin bulb scale explant was regenerated on 1.0 × MS medium containing 17.76 μM BAP plus 10.74 μM NAA and 17.76 μM BAP plus 2.685 μM NAA respectively. The daughter bulblets regenerated on twin bulb scales on 8 out of 9 regeneration treatment could be easily rooted on 1.0 × MS medium containing 4.9 μM IBA (Indole-3-butyric acid). The daughter bulblets regenerated on 9th treatment (1.0 × MS medium containing 17.76 μM BAP plus 10.74 μM NAA) were transferred to 1.0 × MS medium containing 30 g/l sucrose to break negative carry over effect of this dose of BAP-NAA, where they grew 2-3 roots of variable length. Daughter bulblet diameter was increased by culturing them on 1.0 × MS medium containing 4.44 μM BAP plus 5.37 μM NAA. The results verified that both age and the source of explants had significant effect on regeneration. In another set of experiments, twin scales were obtained from in vitro regenerated daughter bulblets, although they induced bulblets, yet their bulblet regeneration percentage, mean number of bulblets per explant and their diameter were significantly reduced. In vitro regenerated bulblets were acclimatized in growth chamber under ambient conditions of temperature and humidity on

  7. EU ecodesign regulation. More as only a light bulb ban; EU-Oekodesign-Richtlinie. Mehr als ein Gluehbirnenverbot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Corinna [Oeko-Institut e.V., Freiburg (Germany)

    2011-10-15

    Within a broader public, the EU Ecodesign Directive (Directive 2009/125/EC) was known and notoriously as a 'light bulb ban'. This resulted in strong emotions. But it has shown an impact in many other areas - usually unnoticed and often for the financial and practical benefits of the consumers. Now, the EU Commission wants to go one step further.

  8. Temporal physiological and biochemical changes in Hippeastrum vittatum ‘Red Lion’ bulbs stored at different temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaonan Yu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Starch and soluble sugar concentrations, α-amylase activity and soluble protein of Hippeastrum vittatum ‘Red Lion’ bulbs were assessed under different storage temperatures and storage periods. Bulbs were stored for 45 days at 20°, 12°, 8° or 4°C. Starch concentration decreased most at 4°C on the 45th day, changing from 29.7% to 10.9% in the exterior scales and from 33.0% to 13.0% in the interior scales. The α-amylase activity in the exterior scales, except at 4° and 8°C, decreased significantly between 0 and 15 days of storage, and then increased significantly from the 15th day until the end of the trial. The soluble sugar concentration increased most at 4°C: in the exterior scales it changed from 54.73 to 153.93 mg•g-1 while in the interior scales it increased from 39.67 to 148.11 mg•g-1. The soluble protein concentration in all treatments peaked on the 30th day at 8°C in the exterior scales (2.15 mg•g-1 and at 12°C in the interior scales (2.17 mg•g-1. Understanding these physiological and biochemical changes in the bulbs of H. vittatum after storage would serve as a reference for bulb dormancy mechanisms in future studies.

  9. Genetic analyses of anthocyanin concentrations and intensity of red bulb color among segregating haploid progenies of onion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higher concentrations of anthocyanins in vegetables are important for attractive appearance and may offer health benefits for consumers. The red color of onion bulbs is due primarily to the accumulation of anthocyanins. The goals of this study were to identify chromosome regions that condition yello...

  10. Variation in antioxidant, and antibacterial activities and total phenolic content of the bulbs of mooseer (Allium hirtifolium Boiss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdollah GHASEMI PIRBALOUTI

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Allium hirtifolium Boiss. (mooseer belonging to the family Alliaceae, is an endemic species of Iran which grows wild in the Zagros Mountains range, western and southwestern Iran. The bulb of A. hirtifolium has been used as a flavouring agent, especially dairy foods and pickles by the indigenous people, southwestern Iran. In this study, the bulbs of various populations of the plant were collected from the alpine regions in Chaharmahal va Bakhtiari province, Iran. The total phenolic content of the ethanol extract was determined by Folin– Ciocalteu method, the antioxidant activity was evaluated by measuring 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, and the antibacterial activity of the extracts against four bacteria, including Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes, Proteus vulgaris, and Salmonella typhimurium was determined by serial dilution assay. Results indicated that the total phenolic content in the ethanol extracts of different populations of A. hirtifolium ranged between 34 to 44 mg gallic acid/g extract. In addition, the extracts of A. hirtifolium indicated moderate– to–good inhibitory activities (MICs = 0.062 to 0.250 mg/ml against four bacteria, especially against B. cereus. The antioxidant activity of the bulbs of A. hirtifolium indicated the extract acted as an effective DPPH scavenger, but were not as effective as the BHT control. This finding suggests that the bulbs of A. hirtifolium may be considered as a natural source of antioxidants and antimicrobial agents.

  11. Improved correlation between carotid and coronary atherosclerosis SYNTAX score using automated ultrasound carotid bulb plaque IMT measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Nobutaka; Gupta, Ajay; Dey, Nilanjan; Bose, Soumyo; Shafique, Shoaib; Arak, Tadashi; Godia, Elisa Cuadrado; Saba, Luca; Laird, John R; Nicolaides, Andrew; Suri, Jasjit S

    2015-05-01

    Described here is a detailed novel pilot study on whether the SYNTAX (Synergy between percutaneous coronary intervention with TAXUS and cardiac surgery) score, a measure of coronary artery disease complexity, could be better predicted with carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) measures using automated IMT all along the common carotid and bulb plaque compared with manual IMT determined by sonographers. Three hundred seventy consecutive patients who underwent carotid ultrasound and coronary angiography were analyzed. SYNTAX score was determined from coronary angiograms by two experienced interventional cardiologists. Unlike most methods of cIMT measurement commonly used by sonographers, our method involves a computerized automated cIMT measurement all along the carotid artery that includes the bulb region and the region proximal to the bulb (under the class of AtheroEdge systems from AtheroPoint, Roseville, CA, USA). In this study, the correlation between automated cIMT that includes bulb plaque and SYNTAX score was found to be 0.467 (p SYNTAX score. The correlation between the automated cIMT and the sonographer's IMT was 0.882. When compared against the radiologist's manual tracings, automated cIMT system performance had a lumen-intima error of 0.007818 ± 0.0071 mm, media-adventitia error of 0.0179 ± 0.0125 mm and automated cIMT error of 0.0099 ± 0.00988 mm. The precision of automated cIMT against the manual radiologist's reading was 98.86%. This current automated algorithm revealed a significantly stronger correlation between cIMT and coronary SYNTAX score as compared with the sonographer's cIMT measurements with multiple cardiovascular risk factors. We benchmarked our correlation between the automated cIMT that includes bulb plaque and SYNTAX score against a previously published (Ikeda et al. 2013) AtheroEdgeLink (AtheroPoint) correlation between the automated cIMT that does not include bulb plaque and SYNTAX score and had an improvement of 44.58%. By sampling

  12. Nerinine and homolycorine, amaryllidaceae alkaloids from the bulbs of Galanthus transcaucasicus Fomin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Babashpour-Asl

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Many members of the Amaryllidaceae are regarded as toxic. The toxic constituents that occur in the whole family are referred to as the Amaryllidaceae alkaloids. The main aim of this study was the identification of alkaloid compounds from Galanthus transcaucasicus Fomin, a medicinal plant from Amaryllidaceae. Methods: Planar and column chromatography techniques were used for isolation of alkaloid components. GC/MS analysis was carried out for the identification of alkaloid compounds. Results: Silica gel column chromatography of the alkaloidal extract of G. transcaucasicus bulbs afforded seven fractions. Preparative thin layer chromatography of these fractions led to the isolation of compounds 1 (nerinineand 2 (homolycorine. Galantamine was not detected in any of these fractions. Conclusion: Our findings showed that G. transcaucasicus could be a new source of bioactive alkaloids for possible applications in pharmaceutical industries.

  13. Sensory-Evoked Intrinsic Imaging Signals in the Olfactory Bulb Are Independent of Neurovascular Coupling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Vincis

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Functional brain-imaging techniques used in humans and animals, such as functional MRI and intrinsic optical signal (IOS imaging, are thought to largely rely on neurovascular coupling and hemodynamic responses. Here, taking advantage of the well-described micro-architecture of the mouse olfactory bulb, we dissected the nature of odor-evoked IOSs. Using in vivo pharmacology in transgenic mouse lines reporting activity in different cell types, we show that parenchymal IOSs are largely independent of neurotransmitter release and neurovascular coupling. Furthermore, our results suggest that odor-evoked parenchymal IOSs originate from changes in light scattering of olfactory sensory neuron axons, mostly due to water movement following action potential propagation. Our study sheds light on a direct correlate of neuronal activity, which may be used for large-scale functional brain imaging.

  14. NUMERICAL PREDICTION OF PROCESS-INDUCED RESIDUAL STRESSES IN GLASS BULB PANEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Hua-min; SUN Qiang; XI Guo-dong; LI De-qun

    2006-01-01

    A numerical simulation model for predicting residual stresses which arise during the solidification process of pressed glass bulb panel was developed. The solidification of a molten layer of glass between cooled parallel plates was used to model the mechanics of the buildup of residual stresses in the forming process. A thermorheologically simple thermoviscoelastic model was assumed for the material. The finite element method employed was based on the theory of shells as an assembly of flat elements. This approach calculates residual stresses layer by layer like a truly three-dimensional calculation; which is well suited for thin pressed products of complex shape. An experimental comparison was employed to verifythe proposed models and methods.

  15. Checklist energy efficient building in the flower bulbs sector; Checklist energiezuinig bouwen in de bloembollensector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Paridon, W.J.A.; Dol, J.J.

    2002-11-15

    This checklist shows the energy saving options for investments in buildings and installations for flower bulb businesses. Next to an energy efficiency improvement of 22%, the Long-term agreement for energy has also adopted the target of 4% sustainable energy deployment. This checklist therefore indicates for each category whether it is in the sustainable energy category or part of the regular saving options [Dutch] In deze checklist wordt aangegeven waar de mogelijkheden liggen tot besparing van energie bij investeringen in gebouwen en installaties voor bloembollenteeltbedrijven. In de meerjarenafspraak energie heeft de bloembollensector naast de energie efficiency verbetering van 22% ook de doelstelling opgenomen om 4% duurzame energie te gebruiken. In de checklist staat daarom per aspect of deze behoort tot de categorie duurzame energie of tot de normale besparingsopties.

  16. Climate-neutral flower bulb businesses. Vision for 2020; Klimaatneutrale bloembollenbedrijven. Visie op 2020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wildschut, J. [Praktijkonderzoek Plant en Omgeving PPO, Wageningen UR, Lisse (Netherlands)

    2011-02-15

    The flower bulb sector has the ambition to realize economically viable climate-neutral (no net CO2 emission in the business)breeding and cultivation practices in new businesses as of 2020. Based on available statistics (Statistics Netherlands) and data from businesses who have been participating in the Energy monitor since 1995, trends and developments have been identified for the three types of business in this sector, addressing area, forcing production, crop composition and energy use (electricity and heat) [Dutch] De bloembollensector heeft de ambitie om in nieuwe bedrijven vanaf 2020 economisch rendabel klimaatneutraal (geen netto CO2-uitstoot op het bedrijf) te kweken en te telen. Op basis van de beschikbare statistieken (CBS) en van gegevens van de bedrijven die sinds 1995 aan de Energiemonitor deelnemen zijn voor de drie bedrijfstypen in deze sector de trends en ontwikkelingen m.b.t. areaal, broeiproductie, gewassamenstelling en het energieverbruik (elektra en warmte), in kaart gebracht.

  17. The olfactory bulb theta rhythm follows all frequencies of diaphragmatic respiration in the freely behaving rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel eRojas-Líbano

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Sensory-motor relationships are part of the normal operation of sensory systems. Sensing occurs in the context of active sensor movement, which in turn influences sensory processing. We address such a process in the rat olfactory system. Through recordings of the diaphragm electromyogram (EMG, we monitored the motor output of the respiratory circuit involved in sniffing behavior, simultaneously with the local field potential (LFP of the olfactory bulb (OB in rats moving freely in a familiar environment, where they display a wide range of respiratory frequencies. We show that the OB LFP represents the sniff cycle with high reliability at every sniff frequency and can therefore be used to study the neural representation of motor drive in a sensory cortex.

  18. Coding Odorant Concentration through Activation Timing between the Medial and Lateral Olfactory Bulb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhishang Zhou

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In mammals, each olfactory bulb (OB contains a pair of mirror-symmetric glomerular maps organized to reflect odorant receptor identity. The functional implication of maintaining these symmetric medial-lateral maps within each OB remains unclear. Here, using in vivo multielectrode recordings to simultaneously detect odorant-induced activity across the entire OB, we reveal a timing difference in the odorant-evoked onset latencies between the medial and lateral halves. Interestingly, the latencies in the medial and lateral OB decreased at different rates as odorant concentration increased, causing the timing difference between them to also diminish. As a result, output neurons in the medial and lateral OB fired with greater synchrony at higher odorant concentrations. Thus, we propose that temporal differences in activity between the medial and lateral OB can dynamically code odorant concentration, which is subsequently decoded in the olfactory cortex through the integration of synchronous action potentials.

  19. No evidence for reproductive isolation through sexual conflict in the bulb mite Rhizoglyphus robini.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Plesnar-Bielak

    Full Text Available Sexual conflict leading to sexual antagonistic coevolution has been hypothesized to drive reproductive isolation in allopatric populations and hence lead to speciation. However, the generality of this speciation mechanism is under debate. We used experimental evolution in the bulb mite Rhizoglyphusrobini to investigate whether sexual conflict promotes reproductive isolation measured comprehensively to include all possible pre- and post-zygotic mechanisms. We established replicate populations in which we either enforced monogamy, and hence removed sexual conflict by making male and female evolutionary interests congruent, or allowed promiscuity. After 35 and 45 generations of experimental evolution, we found no evidence of reproductive isolation between the populations in any of the mating systems. Our results indicate that sexual conflict does not necessarily drive fast reproductive isolation and it may not be a ubiquitous mechanism leading to speciation.

  20. LED lamp or bulb with remote phosphor and diffuser configuration with enhanced scattering properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Tao; Le Toquin, Ronan; Keller, Bernd; Tarsa, Eric; Youmans, Mark; Lowes, Theodore; Medendorp, Jr., Nicholas W; Van De Ven, Antony; Negley, Gerald

    2014-11-11

    An LED lamp or bulb is disclosed that comprises a light source, a heat sink structure and an optical cavity. The optical cavity comprises a phosphor carrier having a conversions material and arranged over an opening to the cavity. The phosphor carrier comprises a thermally conductive transparent material and is thermally coupled to the heat sink structure. An LED based light source is mounted in the optical cavity remote to the phosphor carrier with light from the light source passing through the phosphor carrier. A diffuser dome is included that is mounted over the optical cavity, with light from the optical cavity passing through the diffuser dome. The properties of the diffuser, such as geometry, scattering properties of the scattering layer, surface roughness or smoothness, and spatial distribution of the scattering layer properties may be used to control various lamp properties such as color uniformity and light intensity distribution as a function of viewing angle.

  1. Comprehensive connectivity of the mouse main olfactory bulb: analysis and online digital atlas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houri eHintiryan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available We introduce the first open resource for mouse olfactory connectivity data produced as part of the Mouse Connectome Project (MCP at UCLA. The MCP aims to assemble a whole-brain connectivity atlas for the C57Bl/6J mouse using a double coinjection tracing method. Each coinjection consists of one anterograde and one retrograde tracer, which affords the advantage of simultaneously identifying efferent and afferent pathways and directly identifying reciprocal connectivity of injection sites. The systematic application of double coinjections potentially reveals interaction stations between injections and allows for the study of connectivity at the network level. To facilitate use of the data, raw images are made publicly accessible through our online interactive visualization tool, the iConnectome, where users can view and annotate the high-resolution, multi-fluorescent connectivity data (www.MouseConnectome.org. Systematic double coinjections were made into different regions of the main olfactory bulb (MOB and data from 18 MOB cases (~72 pathways; 36 efferent/36 afferent currently are available to view in iConnectome within their corresponding atlas level and their own bright-field cytoarchitectural background. Additional MOB injections and injections of the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB, anterior olfactory nucleus (AON, and other cortical olfactory areas gradually will be made available. Analysis of connections from different regions of the MOB revealed a novel, topographically arranged MOB projection roadmap, demonstrated disparate MOB connectivity with anterior versus posterior piriform cortical area, and exposed some novel aspects of well-established cortical olfactory projections.

  2. Intrinsic conductances actively shape excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic responses in olfactory bulb external tufted cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shaolin; Shipley, Michael T

    2008-10-08

    The initial synapse in the olfactory system is from olfactory nerve (ON) terminals to postsynaptic targets in olfactory bulb glomeruli. Recent studies have disclosed multiple presynaptic factors that regulate this important linkage, but less is known about the contribution of postsynaptic intrinsic conductances to integration at these synapses. The present study demonstrates voltage-dependent amplification of EPSPs in external tufted (ET) cells in response to monosynaptic (ON) inputs. This amplification is mainly exerted by persistent Na(+) conductance. Larger EPSPs, which bring the membrane potential to a relatively depolarized level, are further boosted by the low-voltage-activated Ca(2+) conductance. In contrast, the hyperpolarization-activated nonselective cation conductance (I(h)) attenuates EPSPs mainly by reducing EPSP duration; this also reduces temporal summation of multiple EPSPs. Regulation of EPSPs by these subthreshold, voltage-dependent conductances can enhance both the signal-to-noise ratio and the temporal summation of multiple synaptic inputs and thus help ET cells differentiate high- and low-frequency synaptic inputs. I(h) can also transform inhibitory inputs to postsynaptic excitation. When the ET cell membrane potential is relatively depolarized, as during a burst of action potentials, IPSPs produce classic inhibition. However, near resting membrane potentials where I(h) is engaged, IPSPs produce rebound bursts of action potentials. ET cells excite GABAergic PG cells. Thus, the transformation of inhibitory inputs to postsynaptic excitation in ET cells may enhance intraglomerular inhibition of mitral/tufted cells, the main output neurons in the olfactory bulb, and hence shape signaling to olfactory cortex.

  3. Energy monitor of the Dutch flower bulb sector 2010; Energiemonitor van de Nederlandse Bloembollensector 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wildschut, J. [Praktijkonderzoek Plant en Omgeving PPO, Bloembollen, Boomkwekerij en Fruit, Lisse (Netherlands)

    2011-09-15

    1313 flower bulb businesses were approached for the Dutch Energy Monitor 2010. The response rate was 60%. Compared to 2008, the energy use per hectare decreased with 6.6% in 2010. The energy use per 1000 forced bulbs has decreased with 18.0%. Energy saving measures were implemented at a larger scale compared to 2009. What is most striking is the strong increase in deployment of a lower circulation standard and multi-layer cultivation. The purchase of green electricity is the most frequently used deployment of sustainable energy for electricity (9.2% of the businesses). Deployment of hot air from the greenhouse for drying purposes is the most frequently used deployment of sustainable thermal energy (18.1% of the businesses). The share of sustainable energy amounts to 2.2%. The CO2 emission from direct use of fossil fuels has decreased with 11.8% compared to 2008 [Dutch] Voor de Energiemonitor 2010 zijn 1313 bloembollenbedrijven aangeschreven. De response was 60%. T.o.v. 2008 is het energieverbruik per hectare in 2010 met 6,6% afgenomen. Het energieverbruik per 1000 stuks broeibollen is met 18,0% afgenomen. Energiebesparende maatregelen werden iets meer toegepast dan in 2009. Opvallend is de sterke toename van het toepassen van een lagere circulatienorm en van meerlagenteelt. Aankoop van groene stroom is de meest toegepaste benutting van duurzame energie voor elektra (9,2% van de bedrijven). Het toepassen van warme kaslucht voor het drogen is de meest toegepaste benutting van duurzame thermische energie (18,1% van de bedrijven). Het aandeel duurzame energie komt op 2,2%. De CO2-uitstoot door het directe verbruik van fossiele brandstoffen is t.o.v. 2008 met 11,8% afgenomen.

  4. Direction of Head Trauma and its Effect on Olfactory Bulb Volume in Post-Traumatic Anosmia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Farshchi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anosmia is a physical sign in post-traumatic patients, which significantly reduces the quality of life. Anosmia occurs in up to 30% of cases with head trauma. In this study we aimed to compare the Olfactory Bulb Volume (OBV in patients with posttraumatic anosmia in different impact positions and also with healthy individuals to find the relation between the two variables. Methods: Thirty-eight patients with posttraumatic anosmia and 27 healthy individuals with normal olfactory function were recruited in this case-control study performed in Amir Alam Hospital in Tehran, Iran. Variables of age, sex, time of trauma, site of trauma (frontoparietal/occipital, side of trauma, OBV, the results of olfactory identification tests and olfactory threshold were extracted and evaluated. We used non-contrasted 1.5-Tesla coronal brain MRI for the measurement of OBV.Results: There were no significant differences between cases and controls regarding sex and age. Olfactory bulb volume was significantly smaller in cases compared to the controls (P=0.004. Among the case group, OBV was smaller in anterior versus posterior head traumas (P=0.02. OBV was also smaller in ipsilateral rather than the contralateral side of trauma (P=0.01.Conclusion: The direction of trauma had a significant effect on OBV and it was smaller in traumas to the anterior and also ipsilateral sides of the head. It seems that changes in OBV differ due to the direction of head trauma and it can be helpful in predicting the prognosis of posttraumatic anosmia. Further studies are required for more conclusive statements.

  5. Sexual activity increases the number of newborn cells in the accessory olfactory bulb of male rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy ePortillo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In rodents, sexual behavior depends on the adequate detection of sexually relevant stimuli. The olfactory bulb (OB is a region of the adult mammalian brain undergoing constant cell renewal by continuous integration of new granular and periglomerular neurons in the accessory (AOB and main (MOB olfactory bulbs. The proliferation, migration, survival, maturation, and integration of these new cells to the OB depend on the stimulus that the subjects received. We have previously shown that 15 days after females control (paced the sexual interaction an increase in the number of cells is observed in the AOB. No changes are observed in the number of cells when females are not allowed to control the sexual interaction. In the present study we investigated if in male rats sexual behavior increases the number of new cells in the OB. Male rats were divided in five groups: 1 males that did not receive any sexual stimulation, 2 males that were exposed to female odors, 3 males that mated for 1 h and could not pace their sexual interaction, 4 males that paced their sexual interaction and ejaculated 1 time and 5 males that paced their sexual interaction and ejaculated 3 times. All males received three injections of the DNA synthesis marker bromodeoxyuridine at 1h intervals, starting 1h before the beginning of the behavioral test. Fifteen days later, males were sacrificed and the brains were processed to identify new cells and to evaluate if they differentiated into neurons. The number of newborn cells increased in the granular cell layer (also known as the internal cell layer of the AOB in males that ejaculated one or three times controlling (paced the rate of the sexual interaction. Some of these new cells were identified as neurons. In contrast, no significant differences were found in the mitral cell layer (also known as the external cell layer and glomerular cell layer of the AOB. In addition, no significant differences were found between groups in the MOB in

  6. Duodenal Bulb Mucosa with Hypertrophic Gastric Oxyntic Heterotopia in Patients with Zollinger Ellison Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Kohan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome (ZES results in hypersecretion of gastric acid (via gastrinoma leading to peptic ulcers, diarrhea, and abdominal pain. We describe the novel discovery of hypertrophic, heterotopic gastric mucosa in the proximal duodenal bulb in patients with ZES, which we hypothesize results in an increased incidence of postbulbar ulcers in patients with ZES (a mechanism previously unreported. We determined the incidence of the novel finding of duodenal gastric oxyntic hypertrophic heterotopia (GOH in patients with ZES. Methods. Seven patients with ZES were enrolled. The diagnosis of ZES was established by hypergastrinemia, gastric acid hypersecretion, and a positive secretin test or based on biopsy specimens (evaluated via tissue staining. Basal acid output (BAO and baseline gastrin secretion were determined by established methods. Endoscopic examinations with methylene blue staining and biopsy of the gastric and duodenal mucosa were conducted in all patients every 3–6 months for an average of 5 years. Results. The duodenal mucosa demonstrated hypertrophic GOH in 5 out of 7 patients with ZES and an intact stomach and duodenum. Biopsies from the bowel mucosa demonstrated patchy replacement of surface epithelium by gastric-type epithelium with hypertrophic oxyntic glands in the lamina propria in 5 patients. Two of the patients had no evidence of GOH in the duodenal bulb. Patients with GOH had an average serum gastrin level of 1245 pg/mL and BAO of 2.92 mEq/hr versus 724 pg/mL and 0.8 mEq/hr in patients without GOH. Conclusions. This study demonstrated the presence of duodenal mucosa with GOH in 5 out of 7 patients with ZES and an intact stomach and duodenum. The presence of hypertrophic and heterotopic gastric mucosa is proposed to result from increased gastrin levels and may contribute to the increased incidence of postbulbar ulcers in these patients.

  7. Dopaminergic modulation of mitral cell activity in the frog olfactory bulb: a combined radioligand binding-electrophysiological study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duchamp, A.; Moyse, E.; Delaleu, J.-C.; Coronas, V.; Duchamp-Viret, P. [Laboratoire de Physiologie Neurosensorielle, Universite Claude Bernard and CNRS, F69622 Villeurbanne (France)

    1997-04-28

    Dopamine content in the amphibian olfactory bulb is supplied by interneurons scattered among mitral cells in the external plexiform/mitral cell layer. In mammals, dopamine has been found to be involved in various aspects of bulbar information processing by influencing mitral cell odour responsiveness. Dopamine action in the bulb depends directly on the localization of its receptor targets, found to be mainly of the D{sub 2} type in mammals. The present study assessed, in the frog, both the anatomical localization of D{sub 2}-like, radioligand-labelled receptors of dopamine and the in vivo action of dopamine on unitary mitral cell activity in response to odours delivered over a wide range of concentrations. The [{sup 125}I]iodosulpride-labelled D{sub 2} binding sites were visualized on frozen sagittal sections of frog brains by film radioautography. The sites were found to be restricted to the external plexiform/mitral cell layer; other layers of the olfactory bulb were devoid of specific labelling. Electrophysiological recordings of mitral unit activity revealed that dopamine or its agonist apomorphine induced a drastic reduction of spontaneous firing rate of mitral cells in most cases without altering odour intensity coding properties of these cells. Moreover, pre-treatment with the D{sub 2} antagonist eticlopride blocked the dopamine-induced reduction of mitral cell spontaneous activity.In the frog olfactory bulb, both anatomical localization of D{sub 2}-like receptors and functional data on dopamine involvement in information processing differ from those reported in mammals. This suggests a phylogenetic evolution of dopamine action in the olfactory bulb. In the frog, anatomical data perfectly corroborate electrophysiological results, together strongly suggesting a direct action of dopamine on mitral cells. In a physiologically operating system, such an action would result in a global improvement of signal-to-noise ratio. (Copyright (c) 1997 Elsevier Science B

  8. Calretinin periglomerular interneurons in mice olfactory bulb: cells of few words

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Fogli Iseppe

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Within the olfactory bulb (OB, periglomerular (PG cells consist of various types of interneurons, generally classified by their chemical properties such as neurotransmitter and calcium binding proteins.Calretinin (CR characterizes morphologically and functionally the more numerous and one of the less known subpopulation of PG cells in the OB. Using of transgenic mice expressing eGFP under the CR promoter, we have tried to obtain the first functional characterization of these cells. Electrophysiological recordings were made in these cells using the patch-clamp technique in thin slices. Using ion substitution methods and specific blockers, we dissected the main voltage-dependent conductances present, obtaining a complete kinetic description for each of them.The more peculiar property of these cells from the electrophysiological point of view is the presence only of a single K-current, the IA - there is no trace of delayed rectifier or of Ca-dependent K-current. Other currents identified, isolated and fully characterised are two inward currents, a fast sodium current and a small L-type calcium current, and an inward rectifier, h-type cationic current. As a consequence of the peculiar complement of voltage-dependent conductances present in these cells, and in particular the absence of delayed-rectifier potassium currents, under the functional point of view these cells present two interesting properties.First, in response to prolonged depolarisations, after the inactivation of the A-current, these cells behave as a purely ohmic elements, showing no outward rectification. Second, the CR cells studied can respond only with a single action potential to excitatory inputs; since they send inhibitory synapses to projection neurones, they seem to be designed to inhibit responses of the main neurones to isolated, random excitatory signals, losing their vetoing effect for more structured, repetitive excitatory signals, as result from odour detection

  9. [Oxidative metabolism of main and accessory olfactory bulbs, limpic system and hypothalamus during the estral cycle of the rat (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Criado, J E

    1979-06-01

    The in vitro oxidative metabolism of hypothalamus, olfactory and limbic systems from female rats in the estrous cycle have been measured. The accessory olfactory bulb becomes most active during diestrous when the hypothalamus reaches its lowest values.

  10. EVALUATION OF BIOAGENTS FOR MANAGEMENT OF THE ONION PURPLE BLOTCH AND BULB YIELD LOSS ASSESSMENT UNDER FIELD CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. M. YADAV

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Among the several diseases, purple blotch diseases of onion (Allium cepa L. caused by Alternaria porri (Ellis Cif. is one of the most destructive disease causing accountable losses of about 80 to 90 per cent. The results obtained on the field efficacy of different bioagents tested, Pseudomonas fluorescens--I (0.5% was found most antifungal against A. porri and recorded significantly least mean disease intensity (37.19% and gave maximum bulb yield (27183 kg/ha. Both the fungal and bacterial antagonists tested were also found effective against A. porri and recorded significantly reduced mean disease intensity thereby increased the bulb yield over unsprayed control. Based on incremental cost:benefit ratio (ICBR of the bioagents spray treatments, P. fluorescens--I (ICBR, 1:13.87 was found economical and effective for the management of purple blotch of onion followed by Bacillus subtilis (ICBR, 1:12.93.

  11. A divergent pattern of sensory axonal projections is rendered convergent by second-order neurons in the accessory olfactory bulb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Punta, Karina; Puche, Adam; Adams, Niels C; Rodriguez, Ivan; Mombaerts, Peter

    2002-09-12

    The mammalian vomeronasal system is specialized in pheromone detection. The neural circuitry of the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) provides an anatomical substrate for the coding of pheromone information. Here, we describe the axonal projection pattern of vomeronasal sensory neurons to the AOB and the dendritic connectivity pattern of second-order neurons. Genetically traced sensory neurons expressing a given gene of the V2R class of vomeronasal receptors project their axons to six to ten glomeruli distributed in globally conserved areas of the AOB, a theme similar to V1R-expressing neurons. Surprisingly, second-order neurons tend to project their dendrites to glomeruli innervated by axons of sensory neurons expressing the same V1R or the same V2R gene. Convergence of receptor type information in the olfactory bulb may represent a common design in olfactory systems.

  12. De Novo Assembly and Transcriptome Analysis of Bulb Onion (Allium cepa L.) during Cold Acclimation Using Contrasting Genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jeongsukhyeon; Thamilarasan, Senthil Kumar; Natarajan, Sathishkumar; Park, Jong-In; Chung, Mi-Young; Nou, Ill-Sup

    2016-01-01

    Bulb onion (Allium cepa) is the second most widely cultivated and consumed vegetable crop in the world. During winter, cold injury can limit the production of bulb onion. Genomic resources available for bulb onion are still very limited. To date, no studies on heritably durable cold and freezing tolerance have been carried out in bulb onion genotypes. We applied high-throughput sequencing technology to cold (2°C), freezing (-5 and -15°C), and control (25°C)-treated samples of cold tolerant (CT) and cold susceptible (CS) genotypes of A. cepa lines. A total of 452 million paired-end reads were de novo assembled into 54,047 genes with an average length of 1,331 bp. Based on similarity searches, these genes were aligned with entries in the public non-redundant (nr) database, as well as KEGG and COG database. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified using log10 values with the FPKM method. Among 5,167DEGs, 491 genes were differentially expressed at freezing temperature compared to the control temperature in both CT and CS libraries. The DEG results were validated with qRT-PCR. We performed GO and KEGG pathway enrichment analyses of all DEGs and iPath interactive analysis found 31 pathways including those related to metabolism of carbohydrate, nucleotide, energy, cofactors and vitamins, other amino acids and xenobiotics biodegradation. Furthermore, a large number of molecular markers were identified from the assembled genes, including simple sequence repeats (SSRs) 4,437 and SNP substitutions of transition and transversion types of CT and CS. Our study is the first to provide a transcriptome sequence resource for Allium spp. with regard to cold and freezing stress. We identified a large set of genes and determined their DEG profiles under cold and freezing conditions using two different genotypes. These data represent a valuable resource for genetic and genomic studies of Allium spp.

  13. The neuroanatomical organization of projection neurons associated with different olfactory bulb pathways in the sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warren W Green

    Full Text Available Although there is abundant evidence for segregated processing in the olfactory system across vertebrate taxa, the spatial relationship between the second order projection neurons (PNs of olfactory subsystems connecting sensory input to higher brain structures is less clear. In the sea lamprey, there is tight coupling between olfaction and locomotion via PNs extending to the posterior tuberculum from the medial region of the olfactory bulb. This medial region receives peripheral input predominantly from the accessory olfactory organ. However, the axons from olfactory sensory neurons residing in the main olfactory epithelium extend to non-medial regions of the olfactory bulb, and the non-medial bulbar PNs extend their axons to the lateral pallium. It is not known if the receptive fields of the PNs in the two output pathways overlap; nor has the morphology of these PNs been investigated. In this study, retrograde labelling was utilized to investigate the PNs belonging to medial and non-medial projections. The dendrites and somata of the medial PNs were confined to medial glomerular neuropil, and dendrites of non-medial PNs did not enter this territory. The cell bodies and dendrites of the non-medial PNs were predominantly located below the glomeruli (frequently deeper in the olfactory bulb. While PNs in both locations contained single or multiple primary dendrites, the somal size was greater for medial than for non-medial PNs. When considered with the evidence-to-date, this study shows different neuroanatomical organization for medial olfactory bulb PNs extending to locomotor control centers and non-medial PNs extending to the lateral pallium in this vertebrate.

  14. The neuroanatomical organization of projection neurons associated with different olfactory bulb pathways in the sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Warren W; Basilious, Alfred; Dubuc, Réjean; Zielinski, Barbara S

    2013-01-01

    Although there is abundant evidence for segregated processing in the olfactory system across vertebrate taxa, the spatial relationship between the second order projection neurons (PNs) of olfactory subsystems connecting sensory input to higher brain structures is less clear. In the sea lamprey, there is tight coupling between olfaction and locomotion via PNs extending to the posterior tuberculum from the medial region of the olfactory bulb. This medial region receives peripheral input predominantly from the accessory olfactory organ. However, the axons from olfactory sensory neurons residing in the main olfactory epithelium extend to non-medial regions of the olfactory bulb, and the non-medial bulbar PNs extend their axons to the lateral pallium. It is not known if the receptive fields of the PNs in the two output pathways overlap; nor has the morphology of these PNs been investigated. In this study, retrograde labelling was utilized to investigate the PNs belonging to medial and non-medial projections. The dendrites and somata of the medial PNs were confined to medial glomerular neuropil, and dendrites of non-medial PNs did not enter this territory. The cell bodies and dendrites of the non-medial PNs were predominantly located below the glomeruli (frequently deeper in the olfactory bulb). While PNs in both locations contained single or multiple primary dendrites, the somal size was greater for medial than for non-medial PNs. When considered with the evidence-to-date, this study shows different neuroanatomical organization for medial olfactory bulb PNs extending to locomotor control centers and non-medial PNs extending to the lateral pallium in this vertebrate.

  15. Mating behavior induces changes of expression of Fos protein, plasma testosterone and androgen receptors in the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) of the male mandarin vole Microtus mandarinus

    OpenAIRE

    Fengqin HE, Fadao TAI

    2009-01-01

    In order to investigate the neuroendocrine mechanism of the mating behavior in the adult male mandarin voles Microtus mandarinus, the radioimmunoassay (RIA) and immunohistochemistry methods were used to investigate the differences in plasma testosterone (T) concentrations and distribution of T immunoreactive neurons (T-IRs), androgen receptor immunoreactive neurons (AR-IRs) and Fos protein immunoreactive neurons (Fos-IRs) in the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) and the main olfactory bulb (MOB)...

  16. Conventional curing practices reduce generic Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. on dry bulb onions produced with contaminated irrigation water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emch, Alexander W; Waite-Cusic, Joy G

    2016-02-01

    Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA) has emphasized microbial risks associated with irrigation water. Treasure Valley (eastern Oregon/western Idaho) has the highest yield of dry bulb onions in the country; however, their irrigation water is often non-compliant with current industry and proposed federal standards for fresh produce. Conventional curing practices may provide a mechanism to mitigate irrigation water quality to comply with FSMA regulations. Dry bulb onions were grown in Owyhee silt loam and Semiahmoo muck soils in greenhouses and irrigated with water containing a cocktail of rifampicin-resistant generic Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. (4.80 log CFU/ml). To mimic conventional practices, mature onions remained undisturbed in soil without irrigation for 12 days prior to being lifted and cured for 16 additional days. Surviving generic E. coli and Salmonella spp. were selectively enumerated on using standard plating (Hektoen Enteric Agar with rifampicin; HE + rif) or most probable number (lactose broth with rifampicin; HE + rif) methods. Generic E. coli and Salmonella spp. on onions decreased 0.19-0.26 log CFU/g·d during the initial 12 days of finishing. At lifting, generic E. coli and Salmonella spp. had been reduced to <1 CFU/g and persisted through the end of curing. This study demonstrates conventional curing practices as an effective mitigation strategy for dry bulb onions produced with water of poor microbiological quality.

  17. Wet-bulb globe temperature index estimation using meteorological data from São Paulo State, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Paulo Alves; Ruas, Álvaro Cézar; Bitencourt, Daniel Pires

    2015-10-01

    It is well known that excessive heat exposure causes heat disorders and can lead to death in some situations. Evaluation of heat stress on workers performing indoor and outdoor activities is, nowadays, conducted worldwide by wet-bulb globe temperature (WBGT) index, which calculation parameters are dry-bulb, natural wet-bulb, and globe temperatures, which must be measured at the same time and in location where the worker is conducting his/her activities. However, for some activities performed in large outdoor areas such as those of agricultural ones, it is not feasible to measure directly those temperatures in all work periods and locations where there are workers. Taking this into account, this work aims to introduce a WBGT index estimation using atmospheric variables observed by automatic meteorological stations. In order to support our estimation method, we used, as a test-bed, data recorded in the State of São Paulo (SP), Brazil. By adding the cloudiness factor in the calculation through measurement of solar radiation, the algorithm proved to be as efficient as those mentioned in this work. It was found that this method is viable, with WBGT-estimated values obtained from meteorological data measured by stations with a distance of less than 80 km. This estimate can be used for monitoring heat stress in real time as well as to investigate heat-related disorders and agricultural work.

  18. Mapping of odor-related neuronal activity in the olfactory bulb by high-resolution 2-deoxyglucose autoradiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lancet, D.; Greer, C.A.; Kauer, J.S.; Shepherd, G.M.

    1982-01-01

    The spatial distribution of odor-induced neuronal activity in the olfactory bulb, the first relay station of the olfactory pathway, is believed to reflect important aspects of chemosensory coding. We report here the application of high-resolution 2-deoxyglucose autoradiography to the mapping of spatial patterns of metabolic activity at the level of single neurons in the olfactory bulb. It was found that glomeruli, which are synaptic complexes containing the first synaptic relay, tend to be uniformly active or inactive during odor exposure. Differential 2-deoxyglucose uptake was also observed in the somata of projection neurons (mitral cells) and interneurons (periglomerular and granule cells). This confirms and extends our previous studies in which odor-specific laminar and focal uptake patterns were revealed by the conventional x-ray film 2-deoxyglucose method due to Sokoloff and colleagues (Sokoloff, L., Reivich, M., Kennedy, C., DesRosiers, M. H., Patlak, C. S., Pettigrew, K. D., Sakurada, O. and Shinohara, M. (1977) J. Neurochem. 28, 897-916). Based on results obtained by the two methods, it is suggested that the glomerulus as a whole serves as a functional unit of activity. The high-resolution results are interpreted in terms of the well-characterized synaptic organization of the olfactory bulb and also serve to illustrate the capability of the 2-deoxyglucose autoradiographic technique to map metabolic activity in single neurons of the vertebrate central nervous system.

  19. The content of active constituents of stored sliced and powdered preparations of turmeric rhizomes and zedoary (bulb and finger rhizomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanan Subhadhirasakul

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The stability of active constituents (curcuminoids and volatile oil in turmeric (Curcuma longa Linn. rhizomes and zedoary [Curcuma zedoaria (Berg. Roscoe] bulb and finger rhizomes during storage have been investigated. They were prepared as sliced and powdered and separately packed, either in black polyethylene bags or in paper bags, and stored at room temperature (28-31oC. Samples at initial and three monthly intervals were examined over 12-15 months storage to determine the contents of curcuminoids, volatile oil and moisture. The results showed that storage of rhizomes in black polyethylene bags could prevent samples from taking up moisture better than those stored in paper bags. The sliced and powderedturmeric rhizomes exhibited no decrease in curcuminoids content after 15 months of storage irrespective of the nature of the packing material. However, the slices of zedoary (bulb and finger rhizomes lost curcuminoids to a lesser extent than powdered rhizomes during storage period. Volatile oil content of turmeric rhizomes, zedoary (bulb and finger rhizomes decreased slower when stored as slices rather than as powders. The result from the present study suggested that in order to maintain the quality of turmeric and zedoary rhizomes as raw material for food and medicinal uses, they should be prepared in sliced form and stored in black polyethylene bags in order to maintain their content of active constituents during storage period.

  20. Olfactory sensory deprivation increases the number of proBDNF-immunoreactive mitral cells in the olfactory bulb of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biju, K C; Mast, Thomas Gerald; Fadool, Debra Ann

    2008-12-05

    In the olfactory bulb, apoptotic cell-death induced by sensory deprivation is restricted to interneurons in the glomerular and granule cell layers, and to a lesser extent in the external plexiform layer, whereas mitral cells do not typically undergo apoptosis. With the goal to understand whether brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mediates mitral cell survival, we performed unilateral naris occlusion on mice at postnatal day one (P1) and examined the subsequent BDNF-immunoreactive (BDNF-ir) profile of the olfactory bulb at P20, P30, and P40. Ipsilateral to the naris occlusion, there was a significant increase in the number of BDNF-ir mitral cells per unit area that was independent of the duration of the sensory deprivation induced by occlusion. The number of BDNF-ir juxtaglomerular cells per unit area, however, was clearly diminished. Western blot analysis revealed the presence of primarily proBDNF in the olfactory bulb. These data provide evidence for a neurotrophic role of proBDNF in the olfactory system of mice and suggest that proBDNF may act to protect mitral cells from the effects of apoptotic changes induced by odor sensory deprivation.

  1. Accepted 15 March 2012Available online 20 May 2012%Insecticidal, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of bulb extracts of Allium sativum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Balaji Meriga; Ramgopal Mopuri; T MuraliKrishna

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective:To evaluate the insecticidal, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of bulb extracts ofAllium sativum(A. sativum).Methods:Dried bulbs ofA. sativum were extracted with different solvents and evaluated for insecticidal, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities.Results:Aqueous and methanol extracts showed highest insecticidal activity (mortality rate of81% and 64% respectively) against the larvae ofSpodoptera litura (S. litura) at a concentration of1 000 ppm. With regard to antimicrobial activity, aqueous extract exhibited antibacterial activity against gram positive (Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureu,) and gram negative (Escherichia coliandKlebsiella pneumonia) strains and antifungal activity againstCandida albicans. While methanol extract showed antimicrobial activity against all the tested micro organisms except two (Staphylococcus aureus andCandida albicans), the extracts of hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate did not show any anti microbial activity. Minimum inhibitory concentration of aqueous and methanol extracts against tested bacterial and fungal strains was100-150 μg/mL. Antioxidant activity of the bulb extracts was evaluated in terms of inhibition of free radicals by 2, 2’-diphenly-1-picrylhydrazyl. Aqueous and methanol extracts exhibited strong antioxidant activity(80%-90% of the standard).Conclusions: Antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of A. sativum against the tested organisms therefore, provides scientific basis for its utilization in traditional and folk medicine. Also, our results demonstrated the insecticidal efficacy ofA. sativum againstS. litura, a polyphagous insect.

  2. Cytotoxic and Antimalarial Amaryllidaceae Alkaloids from the Bulbs of Lycoris radiata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Hao

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemical investigation of the 80% ethanol extract of the bulbs of Lycoris radiata resulted in the isolation of five new Amaryllidaceae alkaloids: (+-5,6-dehydrolycorine (1, (+-3α,6β-diacetyl-bulbispermine (2, (+-3α-hydroxy-6β-acetyl- bulbispermine (3, (+-8,9-methylenedioxylhomolycorine-N-oxide (5, and 5,6-dihydro-5- methyl-2-hydroxyphenanthridine (7, together with two known compounds, (+-3α-methoxy- 6β-acetylbulbispermine (4 and (+-homolycorine- N-oxide (6. Structural elucidation of all the compounds were performed by spectral methods such as 1D and 2D (1H-1H COSY, HMQC, and HMBC NMR spectroscopy, in addition to high resolution mass spectrometry. Alkaloid 1 showed potent cytotoxicity against astrocytoma and glioma cell lines (CCF-STTG1, CHG-5, SHG-44, and U251, as well as HL-60, SMMC-7721, and W480 cell lines with IC50 values of 9.4–11.6 μM. Additonally, compound 1 exhibited antimalarial activity with IC50 values of 2.3 μM for D-6 strain and 1.9 μM for W-2 strain of Plasmodium falciparum.

  3. Retronasal odor concentration coding in glomeruli of the rat olfactory bulb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ShreeHari eGautam

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The mammalian olfactory system processes odorants presented orthonasally (inhalation through the nose and also retronasally (exhalation, enabling identification of both external as well as internal objects during food consumption. There are distinct differences between ortho- and retronasal air flow patterns, psychophysics, multimodal integration and glomerular responses. Recent work indicates that rats can also detect odors retronasally, that rats can associate retronasal odors with tastes, and that their olfactory bulbs (OBs can respond to retronasal odorants but differently than to orthonasal odors. To further characterize retronasal OB input activity patterns, experiments here focus on determining the effects of odorant concentration on glomerular activity by monitoring calcium activity in the dorsal OB of rats using a dextran-conjugated calcium-sensitive dye in vivo. Results showed reliable concentration-response curves that differed between odorants, and recruitment of additional glomeruli, as odorant concentration increases. We found evidence of different concentration-response functions between glomeruli, that in turn depended on odor. Further, the relation between dynamics and concentration differed remarkably among retronasal odorants. These dynamics are suggested to reduce the odor map ambiguity based on response amplitude. Elucidating the coding of retronasal odor intensity is fundamental to the understanding of feeding behavior and the neural basis of flavor. These data further establish and refine the rodent model of flavor neuroscience.

  4. Retronasal odor concentration coding in glomeruli of the rat olfactory bulb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Shree Hari; Short, Shaina M.; Verhagen, Justus V.

    2014-01-01

    The mammalian olfactory system processes odorants presented orthonasally (inhalation through the nose) and also retronasally (exhalation), enabling identification of both external as well as internal objects during food consumption. There are distinct differences between ortho- and retronasal air flow patterns, psychophysics, multimodal integration, and glomerular responses. Recent work indicates that rats can also detect odors retronasally, that rats can associate retronasal odors with tastes, and that their olfactory bulbs (OBs) can respond to retronasal odorants but differently than to orthonasal odors. To further characterize retronasal OB input activity patterns, experiments here focus on determining the effects of odor concentration on glomerular activity by monitoring calcium activity in the dorsal OB of rats using a dextran-conjugated calcium-sensitive dye in vivo. Results showed reliable concentration-response curves that differed between odorants, and recruitment of additional glomeruli, as odor concentration increased. We found evidence of different concentration-response functions between glomeruli, that in turn depended on odor. Further, the relation between dynamics and concentration differed remarkably among retronasal odorants. These dynamics are suggested to reduce the odor map ambiguity based on response amplitude. Elucidating the coding of retronasal odor intensity is fundamental to the understanding of feeding behavior and the neural basis of flavor. These data further establish and refine the rodent model of flavor neuroscience. PMID:25386123

  5. In-reactor tests of the nuclear light bulb rocket concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauntt, R. O.; Slutz, S. A.; Latham, T. S.; Roman, W. C.; Rogers, R. J.

    1992-07-01

    An overview is given of the closed-cycle Gas Core Nuclear Rocket outlining scenarios for its use in short-duration Mars missions and results of Nuclear Light Bulb (NLB) tests. Isothermal and nonnuclear tests are described which confirmed the fundamental concepts behind the NLB. NLB reference-engine performance characteristics are given for hypothetical engines that could be used for manned Mars missions. Vehicle/propulsion sizing is based on a Mars mission with three trans-Mars impulse burns, capture and escape burns, and a total mission duration of 600 days. The engine would have a specific impulse of 1870 seconds, a 412-kN thrust, and a thrust/weight ratio of 1.3. Reactor tests including small-scale in-reactor tests are shown to be prerequisites for studying: (1) fluid mechanical confinement of the gaseous nuclear fuel; (2) buffer gas separation and circulation; and (3) the minimization of transparent wall-heat loading. The reactor tests are shown to be critical for establishing the feasibility of the NLB concept.

  6. The Adult Ventricular-Subventricular Zone (V-SVZ) and Olfactory Bulb (OB) Neurogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Daniel A; Alvarez-Buylla, Arturo

    2016-05-02

    A large population of neural stem/precursor cells (NSCs) persists in the ventricular-subventricular zone (V-SVZ) located in the walls of the lateral brain ventricles. V-SVZ NSCs produce large numbers of neuroblasts that migrate a long distance into the olfactory bulb (OB) where they differentiate into local circuit interneurons. Here, we review a broad range of discoveries that have emerged from studies of postnatal V-SVZ neurogenesis: the identification of NSCs as a subpopulation of astroglial cells, the neurogenic lineage, new mechanisms of neuronal migration, and molecular regulators of precursor cell proliferation and migration. It has also become evident that V-SVZ NSCs are regionally heterogeneous, with NSCs located in different regions of the ventricle wall generating distinct OB interneuron subtypes. Insights into the developmental origins and molecular mechanisms that underlie the regional specification of V-SVZ NSCs have also begun to emerge. Other recent studies have revealed new cell-intrinsic molecular mechanisms that enable lifelong neurogenesis in the V-SVZ. Finally, we discuss intriguing differences between the rodent V-SVZ and the corresponding human brain region. The rapidly expanding cellular and molecular knowledge of V-SVZ NSC biology provides key insights into postnatal neural development, the origin of brain tumors, and may inform the development regenerative therapies from cultured and endogenous human neural precursors.

  7. Persistent Structural Plasticity Optimizes Sensory Information Processing in the Olfactory Bulb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sailor, Kurt A; Valley, Matthew T; Wiechert, Martin T; Riecke, Hermann; Sun, Gerald J; Adams, Wayne; Dennis, James C; Sharafi, Shirin; Ming, Guo-Li; Song, Hongjun; Lledo, Pierre-Marie

    2016-07-20

    In the mammalian brain, the anatomical structure of neural circuits changes little during adulthood. As a result, adult learning and memory are thought to result from specific changes in synaptic strength. A possible exception is the olfactory bulb (OB), where activity guides interneuron turnover throughout adulthood. These adult-born granule cell (GC) interneurons form new GABAergic synapses that have little synaptic strength plasticity. In the face of persistent neuronal and synaptic turnover, how does the OB balance flexibility, as is required for adapting to changing sensory environments, with perceptual stability? Here we show that high dendritic spine turnover is a universal feature of GCs, regardless of their developmental origin and age. We find matching dynamics among postsynaptic sites on the principal neurons receiving the new synaptic inputs. We further demonstrate in silico that this coordinated structural plasticity is consistent with stable, yet flexible, decorrelated sensory representations. Together, our study reveals that persistent, coordinated synaptic structural plasticity between interneurons and principal neurons is a major mode of functional plasticity in the OB.

  8. Efferent and afferent connections of the olfactory bulb and prepiriform cortex in the pigeon (Columba livia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atoji, Yasuro; Wild, J Martin

    2014-06-01

    Although olfaction in birds is known to be involved in a variety of behaviors, there is comparatively little detailed information on the olfactory brain. In the pigeon brain, the olfactory bulb (OB) is known to project to the prepiriform cortex (CPP), piriform cortex (CPi), and dorsolateral corticoid area (CDL), which together are called the olfactory pallium, but centrifugal pathways to the OB have not been fully explored. Fiber connections of CPi and CDL have been reported, but those of other olfactory pallial nuclei remain unknown. The present study examines the fiber connections of OB and CPP in pigeons to provide a more detailed picture of their connections using tract-tracing methods. When anterograde and retrograde tracers were injected in OB, projections to a more extensive olfactory pallium were revealed, including the anterior olfactory nucleus, CPP, densocellular part of the hyperpallium, tenia tecta, hippocampal continuation, CPi, and CDL. OB projected commissural fibers to the contralateral OB but did not receive afferents from the contralateral olfactory pallium. When tracers were injected in CPP, reciprocal ipsilateral connections with OB and nuclei of the olfactory pallium were observed, and CPP projected to the caudolateral nidopallium and the limbic system, including the hippocampal formation, septum, lateral hypothalamic nucleus, and lateral mammillary nucleus. These results show that the connections of OB have a wider distribution throughout the olfactory pallium than previously thought and that CPP provides a centrifugal projection to the OB and acts as a relay station to the limbic system.

  9. Regional Specializations of the PAZ Proteomes Derived from Mouse Hippocampus, Olfactory Bulb and Cerebellum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weingarten, Jens; Laßek, Melanie; Mueller, Benjamin F.; Rohmer, Marion; Baeumlisberger, Dominic; Beckert, Benedikt; Ade, Jens; Gogesch, Patricia; Acker-Palmer, Amparo; Karas, Michael; Volknandt, Walter

    2015-01-01

    Neurotransmitter release as well as structural and functional dynamics at the presynaptic active zone (PAZ) comprising synaptic vesicles attached to the presynaptic plasma membrane are mediated and controlled by its proteinaceous components. Here we describe a novel experimental design to immunopurify the native PAZ-complex from individual mouse brain regions such as olfactory bulb, hippocampus, and cerebellum with high purity that is essential for comparing their proteome composition. Interestingly, quantitative immunodetection demonstrates significant differences in the abundance of prominent calcium-dependent PAZ constituents. Furthermore, we characterized the proteomes of the immunoisolated PAZ derived from the three brain regions by mass spectrometry. The proteomes of the release sites from the respective regions exhibited remarkable differences in the abundance of a large variety of PAZ constituents involved in various functional aspects of the release sites such as calcium homeostasis, synaptic plasticity and neurogenesis. On the one hand, our data support an identical core architecture of the PAZ for all brain regions and, on the other hand, demonstrate that the proteinaceous composition of their presynaptic active zones vary, suggesting that changes in abundance of individual proteins strengthen the ability of the release sites to adapt to specific functional requirements.

  10. Anti-Acetylcholinesterase and Antioxidant Appraisal of the Bulb Extracts of Five Sternbergia Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilkay Erdogan Orhan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the current study, we examined anti-acetylcholinesterase (AChE and antioxidant activities of the ethyl acetate, methanol, and water extracts from the bulbs of Turkish Sternbergia Waldst. & Kit. (Amaryllidaceae species; S. candida, S. clusiana, S. fisheriana, S. lutea subsp. lutea, and S. lutea subsp. sicula. Anti-AChE activity was tested by spectrophotometric method of Ellman using ELISA microplate reader at 50, 100, and 200 μg mL -1 concentrations. Antioxidant activity of the extracts was evaluated by DPPH radical scavenging activity, ferrous ion-chelating capacity, ferric-reducing antioxidant power, and beta-carotene bleaching assays at 500, 1000, and 2000 μg mL -1. Total phenol and flavonoid contents of the extracts were determined via Folin-Ciocalteau’s and AlCl3 reagents, respectively. The ethyl acetate extract of S. fischeriana was the most active in anti-AChE assay (90.94% and 98.02% of inhibitions at 100 and 200 μg mL -1 concentrations, respectively. Antioxidant activity of the extracts was found to be not significant.

  11. Antispasmodic saponins from bulbs of red onion, Allium cepa L. var. Tropea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corea, Gabriella; Fattorusso, Ernesto; Lanzotti, Virginia; Capasso, Raffaele; Izzo, Angelo A

    2005-02-23

    A phytochemical analysis of the polar extract from the red bulbs of Allium cepa L. var. Tropea, typical of Calabria, a southern region of Italy, was performed extensively for the first time, leading to the isolation of four new furostanol saponins, named tropeoside A1/A2 (1a/1b) and tropeoside B1/B2 (3a/3b), along with the respective 22-O-methyl derivatives (2a/2b and 4a/4b), almost certainly extraction artifacts. High concentrations of ascalonicoside A1/A2 (5a/5b) and ascalonicoside B (6), previously isolated from Allium ascalonicum Hort., were also found. This is the first report of furostanol saponins in this A. cepa variety. The chemical structures of the new compounds were established through a combination of extensive nuclear magnetic resonance, mass spectrometry and chemical analyses. High concentrations of quercetin, quercetin 4(I)-glucoside, taxifolin, taxifolin 7-glucoside, and phenylalanine were also isolated. The new saponins were found to possess antispasmodic activity in the guinea pig isolated ileum; such an effect might contribute to explaining the traditional use of onion in the treatment of disturbances of the gastrointestinal tract.

  12. Profound context-dependent plasticity of mitral cell responses in olfactory bulb.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilder Doucette

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of its primary circuit it has been postulated that the olfactory bulb (OB is analogous to the retina in mammals. In retina, repeated exposure to the same visual stimulus results in a neural representation that remains relatively stable over time, even as the meaning of that stimulus to the animal changes. Stability of stimulus representation at early stages of processing allows for unbiased interpretation of incoming stimuli by higher order cortical centers. The alternative is that early stimulus representation is shaped by previously derived meaning, which could allow more efficient sampling of odor space providing a simplified yet biased interpretation of incoming stimuli. This study helps place the olfactory system on this continuum of subjective versus objective early sensory representation. Here we show that odor responses of the output cells of the OB, mitral cells, change transiently during a go-no-go odor discrimination task. The response changes occur in a manner that increases the ability of the circuit to convey information necessary to discriminate among closely related odors. Remarkably, a switch between which of the two odors is rewarded causes mitral cells to switch the polarity of their divergent responses. Taken together these results redefine the function of the OB as a transiently modifiable (active filter, shaping early odor representations in behaviorally meaningful ways.

  13. Age-Dependent Neurogenesis and Neuron Numbers within the Olfactory Bulb and Hippocampus of Homing Pigeons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meskenaite, Virginia; Krackow, Sven; Lipp, Hans-Peter

    2016-01-01

    Many birds are supreme long-distance navigators that develop their navigational ability in the first months after fledgling but update the memorized environmental information needed for navigation also later in life. We studied the extent of juvenile and adult neurogenesis that could provide such age-related plasticity in brain regions known to mediate different mechanisms of pigeon homing: the olfactory bulb (OB), and the triangular area of the hippocampal formation (HP tr). Newly generated neurons (visualized by doublecortin, DCX) and mature neurons were counted stereologically in 35 pigeon brains ranging from 1 to 168 months of age. At the age of 1 month, both areas showed maximal proportions of DCX positive neurons, which rapidly declined during the first year of life. In the OB, the number of DCX-positive periglomerular neurons declined further over time, but the number of mature periglomerular cells appeared unchanged. In the hippocampus, the proportion of DCX-positive neurons showed a similar decline yet to a lesser extent. Remarkably, in the triangular area of the hippocampus, the oldest birds showed nearly twice the number of neurons as compared to young adult pigeons, suggesting that adult born neurons in these regions expanded the local circuitry even in aged birds. This increase might reflect navigational experience and, possibly, expanded spatial memory. On the other hand, the decrease of juvenile neurons in the aging OB without adding new circuitry might be related to the improved attachment to the loft characterizing adult and old pigeons. PMID:27445724

  14. Morphological analysis of activity-reduced adult-born neurons in the mouse olfactory bulb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey E Dahlen

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Adult born neurons are added to the olfactory bulb (OB throughout life in rodents. While many factors have been identified as regulating the survival and integration of adult-born neurons (ABNs into existing circuitry, the understanding of how these factors affect ABN morphology and connectivity is limited. Here we compare how cell intrinsic (siRNA knock down of voltage gated sodium channels NaV1.1-1.3 and circuit level (naris occlusion reductions in activity affect ABN morphology during integration into the OB. We found that both manipulations reduce the number of dendritic spines (and thus likely the number of reciprocal synaptic connections formed with the surrounding circuitry and inhibited dendritic ramification of ABNs. Further, we identified regions of ABN apical dendrites where the largest and most significant decreases occur following siRNA knock down or naris occlusion. In siRNA knock down cells, reduction of spines is observed in proximal regions of the apical dendrite. This suggests that distal regions of the dendrite may remain active independent of NaV1.1-1.3 channel expression, perhaps facilitated by activation of T-type calcium channels and NMDA receptors. By contrast, circuit level reduction of activity by naris occlusion resulted in a global depression of spine number. Together, these results indicate that ABNs retain the ability to develop their typical overall morphological features regardless of experienced activity, and activity modulates the number and location of formed connections.

  15. Diabetes Impairs Wnt3 Protein-induced Neurogenesis in Olfactory Bulbs via Glutamate Transporter 1 Inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakabayashi, Tamami; Hidaka, Ryo; Fujimaki, Shin; Asashima, Makoto; Kuwabara, Tomoko

    2016-07-15

    Diabetes is associated with impaired cognitive function. Streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats exhibit a loss of neurogenesis and deficits in behavioral tasks involving spatial learning and memory; thus, impaired adult hippocampal neurogenesis may contribute to diabetes-associated cognitive deficits. Recent studies have demonstrated that adult neurogenesis generally occurs in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, the subventricular zone, and the olfactory bulbs (OB) and is defective in patients with diabetes. We hypothesized that OB neurogenesis and associated behaviors would be affected in diabetes. In this study, we show that inhibition of Wnt3-induced neurogenesis in the OB causes several behavioral deficits in STZ-induced diabetic rats, including impaired odor discrimination, cognitive dysfunction, and increased anxiety. Notably, the sodium- and chloride-dependent GABA transporters and excitatory amino acid transporters that localize to GABAergic and glutamatergic terminals decreased in the OB of diabetic rats. Moreover, GAT1 inhibitor administration also hindered Wnt3-induced neurogenesis in vitro Collectively, these data suggest that STZ-induced diabetes adversely affects OB neurogenesis via GABA and glutamate transporter systems, leading to functional impairments in olfactory performance.

  16. Regional Specializations of the PAZ Proteomes Derived from Mouse Hippocampus, Olfactory Bulb and Cerebellum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Weingarten

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Neurotransmitter release as well as structural and functional dynamics at the presynaptic active zone (PAZ comprising synaptic vesicles attached to the presynaptic plasma membrane are mediated and controlled by its proteinaceous components. Here we describe a novel experimental design to immunopurify the native PAZ-complex from individual mouse brain regions such as olfactory bulb, hippocampus, and cerebellum with high purity that is essential for comparing their proteome composition. Interestingly, quantitative immunodetection demonstrates significant differences in the abundance of prominent calcium-dependent PAZ constituents. Furthermore, we characterized the proteomes of the immunoisolated PAZ derived from the three brain regions by mass spectrometry. The proteomes of the release sites from the respective regions exhibited remarkable differences in the abundance of a large variety of PAZ constituents involved in various functional aspects of the release sites such as calcium homeostasis, synaptic plasticity and neurogenesis. On the one hand, our data support an identical core architecture of the PAZ for all brain regions and, on the other hand, demonstrate that the proteinaceous composition of their presynaptic active zones vary, suggesting that changes in abundance of individual proteins strengthen the ability of the release sites to adapt to specific functional requirements.

  17. Expression of transient receptor potential (TRP) channel mRNAs in the mouse olfactory bulb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Hong-Wei; Davis, James C; Ding, ShengYuan; Nai, Qiang; Zhou, Fu-Ming; Ennis, Matthew

    2012-08-22

    Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels are a large family of cation channels. The 28 TRP channel subtypes in rodent are divided into 6 subfamilies: TRPC1-7, TRPV1-6, TRPM1-8, TRPP2/3/5, TRPML1-3 and TRPA1. TRP channels are involved in peripheral olfactory transduction. Several TRPC channels are expressed in unidentified neurons in the main olfactory bulb (OB), but the expression of most TRP channels in the OB has not been investigated. The present study employed RT-PCR as an initial survey of the expression of TRP channel mRNAs in the mouse OB and in 3 cell types: external tufted, mitral and granule cells. All TRP channel mRNAs except TRPV5 were detected in OB tissue. Single cell RT-PCR revealed that external tufted, mitral and granule cell populations expressed in aggregate 14 TRP channel mRNAs encompassing members of all 6 subfamilies. These different OB neuron populations expressed 7-12 channel mRNAs. Common channel expression was more similar among external tufted and mitral cells than among these cells and granule cells. These results indicate that a large number of TRP channel subtypes are expressed in OB neurons, providing the molecular bases for these channels to regulate OB neuron activity and central olfactory processing.

  18. Prolonged Intracellular Na+ Dynamics Govern Electrical Activity in Accessory Olfactory Bulb Mitral Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asaph Zylbertal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Persistent activity has been reported in many brain areas and is hypothesized to mediate working memory and emotional brain states and to rely upon network or biophysical feedback. Here, we demonstrate a novel mechanism by which persistent neuronal activity can be generated without feedback, relying instead on the slow removal of Na+ from neurons following bursts of activity. We show that mitral cells in the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB, which plays a major role in mammalian social behavior, may respond to a brief sensory stimulation with persistent firing. By combining electrical recordings, Ca2+ and Na+ imaging, and realistic computational modeling, we explored the mechanisms underlying the persistent activity in AOB mitral cells. We found that the exceptionally slow inward current that underlies this activity is governed by prolonged dynamics of intracellular Na+ ([Na+]i, which affects neuronal electrical activity via several pathways. Specifically, elevated dendritic [Na+]i reverses the Na+-Ca2+ exchanger activity, thus modifying the [Ca2+]i set-point. This process, which relies on ubiquitous membrane mechanisms, is likely to play a role in other neuronal types in various brain regions.

  19. Chronic Spinal Injury Repair by Olfactory Bulb Ensheathing Glia and Feasibility for Autologous Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Quiles, Cintia; Santos-Benito, Fernando F.; Llamusí, M. Beatriz; Ramón-Cueto, Almudena

    2009-01-01

    Olfactory bulb ensheathing glia (OB-OEG) promote repair of spinal cord injury (SCI) in rats after transplantation at acute or subacute (up to 45 days) stages. The most relevant clinical scenario in humans, however, is chronic SCI, in which no more major cellular or molecular changes occur at the injury site; this occurs after the third month in rodents. Whether adult OB-OEG grafts promote repair of severe chronic SCI has not been previously addressed. Rats with complete SCI that were transplanted with OB-OEG 4 months after injury exhibited progressive improvement in motor function and axonal regeneration from different brainstem nuclei across and beyond the SCI site. A positive correlation between motor outcome and axonal regeneration suggested a role for brainstem neurons in the recovery. Functional and histological outcomes did not differ at subacute or chronic stages. Thus, autologous transplantation is a feasible approach as there is time for patient stabilization and OEG preparation in human chronic SCI; the healing effects of OB-OEG on established injuries may offer new therapeutic opportunities for chronic SCI patients. PMID:19915486

  20. Sequential generation of olfactory bulb glutamatergic neurons by Neurog2-expressing precursor cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brill Monika S

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While the diversity and spatio-temporal origin of olfactory bulb (OB GABAergic interneurons has been studied in detail, much less is known about the subtypes of glutamatergic OB interneurons. Results We studied the temporal generation and diversity of Neurog2-positive precursor progeny using an inducible genetic fate mapping approach. We show that all subtypes of glutamatergic neurons derive from Neurog2 positive progenitors during development of the OB. Projection neurons, that is, mitral and tufted cells, are produced at early embryonic stages, while a heterogeneous population of glutamatergic juxtaglomerular neurons are generated at later embryonic as well as at perinatal stages. While most juxtaglomerular neurons express the T-Box protein Tbr2, those generated later also express Tbr1. Based on morphological features, these juxtaglomerular cells can be identified as tufted interneurons and short axon cells, respectively. Finally, targeted electroporation experiments provide evidence that while the majority of OB glutamatergic neurons are generated from intrabulbar progenitors, a small portion of them originate from extrabulbar regions at perinatal ages. Conclusions We provide the first comprehensive analysis of the temporal and spatial generation of OB glutamatergic neurons and identify distinct populations of juxtaglomerular interneurons that differ in their antigenic properties and time of origin.

  1. Mature and precursor brain-derived neurotrophic factor have individual roles in the mouse olfactory bulb.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Gerald Mast

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sensory deprivation induces dramatic morphological and neurochemical changes in the olfactory bulb (OB that are largely restricted to glomerular and granule layer interneurons. Mitral cells, pyramidal-like neurons, are resistant to sensory-deprivation-induced changes and are associated with the precursor to brain-derived neurotrophic factor (proBDNF; here, we investigate its unknown function in the adult mouse OB. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: As determined using brain-slice electrophysiology in a whole-cell configuration, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, but not proBDNF, increased mitral cell excitability. BDNF increased mitral cell action potential firing frequency and decreased interspike interval in response to current injection. In a separate set of experiments, intranasal delivery of neurotrophic factors to awake, adult mice was performed to induce sustained interneuron neurochemical changes. ProBDNF, but not BDNF, increased activated-caspase 3 and reduced tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity in OB glomerular interneurons. In a parallel set of experiments, short-term sensory deprivation produced by unilateral naris occlusion generated an identical phenotype. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that only mature BDNF increases mitral cell excitability whereas proBDNF remains ineffective. Our demonstration that proBDNF activates an apoptotic marker in vivo is the first for any proneurotrophin and establishes a role for proBDNF in a model of neuronal plasticity.

  2. BDNF promoter-mediated beta-galactosidase expression in the olfactory epithelium and bulb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clevenger, Amy C; Salcedo, Ernesto; Jones, Kevin R; Restrepo, Diego

    2008-07-01

    The neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been implicated in the generation and differentiation of new olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) and in the regulation of branching of OSN axons in their target glomeruli. However, previous reports of BDNF mRNA and protein expression in olfactory epithelium and olfactory bulb (OB) have been inconsistent, raising questions on the proposed roles for BDNF. Here, we report on beta-galactosidase (beta-gal) expression in adult gene-targeted mice where the BDNF promoter drives expression of the Escherichia coli lacZ gene (BDNF(lacZneo) mice). We find that beta-gal is expressed in a small subset of OSNs with axons that reach the olfactory nerve layers throughout the OB. In the OB, we find expression of beta-gal in gamma-aminobutyric acidergic but not dopaminergic periglomerular cells and external tufted cells and in interneurons located in the mitral cell layer. Our results are inconsistent with the regulation of generation and differentiation of new OSNs elicited by the release of BDNF from horizontal basal cells. The results are consistent with a role for BDNF in competitive branching of OSN axons within the glomeruli of the OB.

  3. Rhythm sequence through the olfactory bulb layers during the time window of a respiratory cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buonviso, Nathalie; Amat, Corine; Litaudon, Philippe; Roux, Stephane; Royet, Jean-Pierre; Farget, Vincent; Sicard, Gilles

    2003-05-01

    The mammalian olfactory bulb is characterized by prominent oscillatory activity of its local field potentials. Breathing imposes the most important rhythm. Other rhythms have been described in the beta- and gamma-frequency ranges. We recorded unitary activities in different bulbar layers simultaneously with local field potentials in order to examine the different relationships existing between (i) breathing and field potential oscillations, and (ii) breathing and spiking activity of different cell types. We show that, whatever the layer, odour-induced gamma oscillations always occur around the transition point between inhalation and exhalation while beta oscillations appear during early exhalation and may extend up to the end of inhalation. By contrast, unitary activities exhibit different characteristics according to the layer. They vary in (i) their temporal relationship with respect to the respiratory cycle; (ii) their spike rates; (iii) their temporal patterns defined according to the respiratory cycle. The time window of a respiratory cycle might thus be split into three main epochs based on the deceleration of field potential rhythms (from gamma to beta oscillations) and a simultaneous gradient of spike discharge frequencies ranging from 180 to 30 Hz. We discuss the possibility that each rhythm could serve different functions as priming, gating or tuning for the bulbar network.

  4. Ablation of mouse adult neurogenesis alters olfactory bulb structure and olfactory fear conditioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Valley

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Adult neurogenesis replenishes olfactory bulb (OB interneurons throughout the life of most mammals, yet during this constant fl ux it remains unclear how the OB maintains a constant structure and function. In the mouse OB, we investigated the dynamics of turnover and its impact on olfactory function by ablating adult neurogenesis with an x-ray lesion to the subventricular zone (SVZ. Regardless of the magnitude of the lesion to the SVZ, we found no change in the survival of young adult born granule cells (GCs born after the lesion, and a gradual decrease in the population of GCs born before the lesion. After a lesion producing a 96% reduction of incoming adult born GCs to the OB, we found a diminished behavioral fear response to conditioned odor cues but not to audio cues. Interestingly, despite this behavioral defi cit and gradual anatomical changes, we found no electrophysiological changes in the GC population assayed in vivo through dendro-dendritic synaptic plasticity and odor-evoked local fi eld potential oscillations. These data indicate that turnover in the granule cell layer is generally decoupled from the rate of adult neurogenesis, and that OB adult neurogenesis plays a role in a wide behavioral system extending beyond the OB.

  5. Effect of dietary garlic bulb and husk on the physicochemical properties of chicken meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y J; Jin, S K; Yang, H S

    2009-02-01

    This study was carried out to compare the physicochemical and sensory properties of chicken thigh muscles from broilers fed different levels of garlic bulb (GB) and garlic husk (GH). Two hundred male Arbor Acre broiler chickens were fed either a control diet (based on corn and soybean meal) or the control diet supplemented with 2 and 4% of GB and GH powder for 5 wk. There were no differences among diets in moisture and ash contents. However, dietary supplementation with GB and GH resulted in significantly greater protein content and lower fat content in chicken thigh muscle compared with muscle from birds fed nonsupplemented diets (Pgarlic supplementation resulted in lower shear force and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances values (Pgarlic led to decreased total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in broiler blood, and the greatest level of garlic supplementation decreased saturated fatty acid and increased unsaturated fatty acid levels (%) in broiler thigh muscle (Pgarlic dietary supplementation (Pgarlic can produce chicken meat with favorable lipid profiles and can enhance eating quality because sensory panels found that thigh meat from chickens fed a garlic-supplemented diet had better texture and flavor. Therefore, the treatment with the most significant effects in this study was that with the high level of garlic husk.

  6. Dissecting local circuits: parvalbumin interneurons underlie broad feedback control of olfactory bulb output.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamichi, Kazunari; Shlomai-Fuchs, Yael; Shu, Marvin; Weissbourd, Brandon C; Luo, Liqun; Mizrahi, Adi

    2013-12-04

    In the mouse olfactory bulb, information from sensory neurons is extensively processed by local interneurons before being transmitted to the olfactory cortex by mitral and tufted (M/T) cells. The precise function of these local networks remains elusive because of the vast heterogeneity of interneurons, their diverse physiological properties, and their complex synaptic connectivity. Here we identified the parvalbumin interneurons (PVNs) as a prominent component of the M/T presynaptic landscape by using an improved rabies-based transsynaptic tracing method for local circuits. In vivo two-photon-targeted patch recording revealed that PVNs have exceptionally broad olfactory receptive fields and exhibit largely excitatory and persistent odor responses. Transsynaptic tracing indicated that PVNs receive direct input from widely distributed M/T cells. Both the anatomical and functional extent of this M/T→PVN→M/T circuit contrasts with the narrowly confined M/T→granule cell→M/T circuit, suggesting that olfactory information is processed by multiple local circuits operating at distinct spatial scales.

  7. Binding properties of a mannose-specific lectin from the snowdrop (Galanthus nivalis) bulb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibuya, N; Goldstein, I J; Van Damme, E J; Peumans, W J

    1988-01-15

    Carbohydrate binding properties of a new plant lectin (GNA) isolated from snowdrop bulbs were studied using the technique of quantitative precipitation, hapten inhibition, and affinity chromatography on immobilized lectin. Purified GNA precipitated highly branched yeast mannans but did not react with most glucans. Hapten inhibition experiments showed that D-mannose is an inhibitor of GNA-mannan interaction but neither N-acetyl-D-mannosamine nor D-glucose is an inhibitor. Hapten inhibition with various sugars showed that GNA requires the presence of equatorial hydroxyl groups at the C-3 and C-4 positions and an axial group at the C-2 position of the D-pyranose ring. A nonreducing terminal D-mannose residue is necessary for the interaction of oligosaccharides, and oligosaccharides with terminal Man(alpha-1-3)Man units showed the highest inhibitory potency (10-30 times greater than D-mannose) among the manno-oligosaccharides tested. The presence of the hydrophobic p-nitrophenyl aglycone increased the affinity of D-mannose only slightly. Immobilized GNA bound yeast mannan but did not bind glycogen. The behavior of glycoproteins with high mannose type glycan chains depended on the density and the structure of their glycan chains. Glycopeptides which carry Man(alpha 1-3)Man units were retarded on the immobilized GNA column whereas those lacking this unit or with hybrid type glycan chains were not retarded on the column.

  8. Sustainable energy in the flower bulb sector; Duurzame energie in de bloembollensector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-06-15

    The aim of this study is to get a clear view on the technical and economic options for the deployment of sustainable technologies in the flower bulb sector. It subsequently addresses the energy demand of the sector and its distribution across various company processes. Next it addresses the penetration degree of sustainable techniques in use. After this, the opportunities for new sustainable techniques are elaborated. The most appealing techniques are calculated: wood-fired boiler (base load), gas-fired boiler (peak load) and the use of surface water; bio-CHP; PV modules and/or sustainable electricity [Dutch] Het doel van deze studie is de technische en economische mogelijkheden voor de toepassing van duurzame technologieën in de sector helder te krijgen. Hierbij is achtereenvolgens ingegaan op de energievraag van de sector en de opdeling daarvan over de verschillende bedrijfsprocessen. Vervolgens is ingegaan op de penetratiegraad waarin duurzame technieken zijn toegepast. Daarna zijn de mogelijkheden voor nieuwe duurzame technieken uitgewerkt. De meest aantrekkelijke technieken zijn doorgerekend: Houtketel (basislast), gasketel (pieklast) en het gebruik van oppervlaktewater; Bio-WKK; PV-panelen en/of duurzame elektriciteit.

  9. How many principles does it take to change a light bulb ... into a laser?

    CERN Document Server

    Wiseman, Howard M

    2015-01-01

    Quantum optics did not, and could not, flourish without the laser. The present paper is not about the principles of laser construction, still less a history of how the laser was invented. Rather, it addresses the question: what are the fundamental features that distinguish laser light from thermal light? The answers do, however, show, in a quantitative way --- involving, indeed, very large dimensionless quantities (up to $\\sim 10^{51}$) --- that a laser must be constructed very differently from a light bulb. Some of this paper is based on material I use to introduce advanced undergraduate students to quantum optics. The theory presented is mostly quite simple, and yet it is not to be found in any text-books on quantum optics to my knowledge. The obvious answer, ``laser light is coherent'', is, I argue, so vague that it must be put aside at the start, albeit to revisit later. A specific version, ``laser light is in a coherent state'', is simply wrong in this context, since both laser light and thermal light ca...

  10. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide mediates circadian rhythms in mammalian olfactory bulb and olfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jae-Eun Kang; Granados-Fuentes, Daniel; Wang, Thomas; Marpegan, Luciano; Holy, Timothy E; Herzog, Erik D

    2014-04-23

    Accumulating evidence suggests that the olfactory bulbs (OBs) function as an independent circadian system regulating daily rhythms in olfactory performance. However, the cells and signals in the olfactory system that generate and coordinate these circadian rhythms are unknown. Using real-time imaging of gene expression, we found that the isolated olfactory epithelium and OB, but not the piriform cortex, express similar, sustained circadian rhythms in PERIOD2 (PER2). In vivo, PER2 expression in the OB of mice is circadian, approximately doubling with a peak around subjective dusk. Furthermore, mice exhibit circadian rhythms in odor detection performance with a peak at approximately subjective dusk. We also found that circadian rhythms in gene expression and odor detection performance require vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) or its receptor VPAC2R. VIP is expressed, in a circadian manner, in interneurons in the external plexiform and periglomerular layers, whereas VPAC2R is expressed in mitral and external tufted cells in the OB. Together, these results indicate that VIP signaling modulates the output from the OB to maintain circadian rhythms in the mammalian olfactory system.

  11. Changes in the neural representation of odorants after olfactory deprivation in the adult mouse olfactory bulb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kass, Marley D; Pottackal, Joseph; Turkel, Daniel J; McGann, John P

    2013-01-01

    Olfactory sensory deprivation during development has been shown to induce significant alterations in the neurophysiology of olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs), the primary sensory inputs to the brain's olfactory bulb. Deprivation has also been shown to alter the neurochemistry of the adult olfactory system, but the physiological consequences of these changes are poorly understood. Here we used in vivo synaptopHluorin (spH) imaging to visualize odorant-evoked neurotransmitter release from ORNs in adult transgenic mice that underwent 4 weeks of unilateral olfactory deprivation. Deprivation reduced odorant-evoked spH signals compared with sham-occluded mice. Unexpectedly, this reduction was equivalent between ORNs on the open and plugged sides. Changes in odorant selectivity of glomerular subpopulations of ORNs were also observed, but only in ORNs on the open side of deprived mice. These results suggest that naris occlusion in adult mice produces substantial changes in primary olfactory processing which may reflect not only the decrease in olfactory stimulation on the occluded side but also the alteration of response properties on the intact side. We also observed a modest effect of true sham occlusions that included noseplug insertion and removal, suggesting that conventional noseplug techniques may have physiological effects independent of deprivation per se and thus require more careful controls than has been previously appreciated.

  12. Dendritic branching of olfactory bulb mitral and tufted cells: regulation by TrkB.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumiaki Imamura

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Projection neurons of mammalian olfactory bulb (OB, mitral and tufted cells, have dendrites whose morphologies are specifically differentiated for efficient odor information processing. The apical dendrite extends radially and arborizes in single glomerulus where it receives primary input from olfactory sensory neurons that express the same odor receptor. The lateral dendrites extend horizontally in the external plexiform layer and make reciprocal dendrodendritic synapses with granule cells, which moderate mitral/tufted cell activity. The molecular mechanisms regulating dendritic development of mitral/tufted cells is one of the unsolved important problems in the olfactory system. Here, we focused on TrkB receptors to test the hypothesis that neurotrophin-mediate mechanisms contributed to dendritic differentiation of OB mitral/tufted cells. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: With immunohistochemical analysis, we found that the TrkB neurotrophin receptor is expressed by both apical and lateral dendrites of mitral/tufted cells and that expression is evident during the early postnatal days when these dendrites exhibit their most robust growth and differentiation. To examine the effect of TrkB activation on mitral/tufted cell dendritic development, we cultured OB neurons. When BDNF or NT4 were introduced into the cultures, there was a significant increase in the number of primary neurites and branching points among the mitral/tufted cells. Moreover, BDNF facilitated filopodial extension along the neurites of mitral/tufted cells. SIGNIFICANCE: In this report, we show for the first time that TrkB activation stimulates the dendritic branching of mitral/tufted cells in developing OB. This suggests that arborization of the apical dendrite in a glomerulus is under the tight regulation of TrkB activation.

  13. Amyloid beta inhibits olfactory bulb activity and the ability to smell.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reynaldo Alvarado-Martínez

    Full Text Available Early olfactory dysfunction has been consistently reported in both Alzheimer's disease (AD and in transgenic mice that reproduce some features of this disease. In AD transgenic mice, alteration in olfaction has been associated with increased levels of soluble amyloid beta protein (Aβ as well as with alterations in the oscillatory network activity recorded in the olfactory bulb (OB and in the piriform cortex. However, since AD is a multifactorial disease and transgenic mice suffer a variety of adaptive changes, it is still unknown if soluble Aβ, by itself, is responsible for OB dysfunction both at electrophysiological and behavioral levels. Thus, here we tested whether or not Aβ directly affects OB network activity in vitro in slices obtained from mice and rats and if it affects olfactory ability in these rodents. Our results show that Aβ decreases, in a concentration- and time-dependent manner, the network activity of OB slices at clinically relevant concentrations (low nM and in a reversible manner. Moreover, we found that intrabulbar injection of Aβ decreases the olfactory ability of rodents two weeks after application, an effect that is not related to alterations in motor performance or motivation to seek food and that correlates with the presence of Aβ deposits. Our results indicate that Aβ disrupts, at clinically relevant concentrations, the network activity of the OB in vitro and can trigger a disruption in olfaction. These findings open the possibility of exploring the cellular mechanisms involved in early pathological AD as an approach to reduce or halt its progress.

  14. Specific entrainment of mitral cells during gamma oscillation in the rat olfactory bulb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, François O; Hugues, Etienne; Cenier, Tristan; Fourcaud-Trocmé, Nicolas; Buonviso, Nathalie

    2009-10-01

    Local field potential (LFP) oscillations are often accompanied by synchronization of activity within a widespread cerebral area. Thus, the LFP and neuronal coherence appear to be the result of a common mechanism that underlies neuronal assembly formation. We used the olfactory bulb as a model to investigate: (1) the extent to which unitary dynamics and LFP oscillations can be correlated and (2) the precision with which a model of the hypothesized underlying mechanisms can accurately explain the experimental data. For this purpose, we analyzed simultaneous recordings of mitral cell (MC) activity and LFPs in anesthetized and freely breathing rats in response to odorant stimulation. Spike trains were found to be phase-locked to the gamma oscillation at specific firing rates and to form odor-specific temporal patterns. The use of a conductance-based MC model driven by an approximately balanced excitatory-inhibitory input conductance and a relatively small inhibitory conductance that oscillated at the gamma frequency allowed us to provide one explanation of the experimental data via a mode-locking mechanism. This work sheds light on the way network and intrinsic MC properties participate in the locking of MCs to the gamma oscillation in a realistic physiological context and may result in a particular time-locked assembly. Finally, we discuss how a self-synchronization process with such entrainment properties can explain, under experimental conditions: (1) why the gamma bursts emerge transiently with a maximal amplitude position relative to the stimulus time course; (2) why the oscillations are prominent at a specific gamma frequency; and (3) why the oscillation amplitude depends on specific stimulus properties. We also discuss information processing and functional consequences derived from this mechanism.

  15. Impact of actin filament stabilization on adult hippocampal and olfactory bulb neurogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronenberg, Golo; Gertz, Karen; Baldinger, Tina; Kirste, Imke; Eckart, Sarah; Yildirim, Ferah; Ji, Shengbo; Heuser, Isabella; Schröck, Helmut; Hörtnagl, Heide; Sohr, Reinhard; Djoufack, Pierre Chryso; Jüttner, René; Glass, Rainer; Przesdzing, Ingo; Kumar, Jitender; Freyer, Dorette; Hellweg, Rainer; Kettenmann, Helmut; Fink, Klaus Benno; Endres, Matthias

    2010-03-03

    Rearrangement of the actin cytoskeleton is essential for dynamic cellular processes. Decreased actin turnover and rigidity of cytoskeletal structures have been associated with aging and cell death. Gelsolin is a Ca(2+)-activated actin-severing protein that is widely expressed throughout the adult mammalian brain. Here, we used gelsolin-deficient (Gsn(-/-)) mice as a model system for actin filament stabilization. In Gsn(-/-) mice, emigration of newly generated cells from the subventricular zone into the olfactory bulb was slowed. In vitro, gelsolin deficiency did not affect proliferation or neuronal differentiation of adult neural progenitors cells (NPCs) but resulted in retarded migration. Surprisingly, hippocampal neurogenesis was robustly induced by gelsolin deficiency. The ability of NPCs to intrinsically sense excitatory activity and thereby implement coupling between network activity and neurogenesis has recently been established. Depolarization-induced [Ca(2+)](i) increases and exocytotic neurotransmitter release were enhanced in Gsn(-/-) synaptosomes. Importantly, treatment of Gsn(-/-) synaptosomes with mycotoxin cytochalasin D, which, like gelsolin, produces actin disassembly, decreased enhanced Ca(2+) influx and subsequent exocytotic norepinephrine release to wild-type levels. Similarly, depolarization-induced glutamate release from Gsn(-/-) brain slices was increased. Furthermore, increased hippocampal neurogenesis in Gsn(-/-) mice was associated with a special microenvironment characterized by enhanced density of perfused vessels, increased regional cerebral blood flow, and increased endothelial nitric oxide synthase (NOS-III) expression in hippocampus. Together, reduced filamentous actin turnover in presynaptic terminals causes increased Ca(2+) influx and, subsequently, elevated exocytotic neurotransmitter release acting on neural progenitors. Increased neurogenesis in Gsn(-/-) hippocampus is associated with a special vascular niche for neurogenesis.

  16. Generation of GABAergic and dopaminergic interneurons from endogenous embryonic olfactory bulb precursor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergaño-Vera, Eva; Yusta-Boyo, María J; de Castro, Fernando; Bernad, Antonio; de Pablo, Flora; Vicario-Abejón, Carlos

    2006-11-01

    During the embryonic period, many olfactory bulb (OB) interneurons arise in the lateral ganglionic eminence (LGE) from precursor cells expressing Dlx2, Gsh2 and Er81 transcription factors. Whether GABAergic and dopaminergic interneurons are also generated within the embryonic OB has not been studied thoroughly. In contrast to abundant Dlx2 and Gsh2 expression in ganglionic eminences (GE), Dlx2 and Gsh2 proteins are not expressed in the E12.5-13.5 mouse OB, whereas the telencephalic pallial domain marker Pax6 is abundant. We found GABAergic and dopaminergic neurons originating from dividing precursor cells in E13.5 OB and in short-term dissociated cultures prepared from the rostral half of E13.5 OB. In OB cultures, 22% of neurons were GAD+, of which 53% were Dlx2+, whereas none expressed Gsh2. By contrast, 70% of GAD+ cells in GE cultures were Dlx2+ and 16% expressed Gsh2. In E13.5 OB slices transplanted with EGFP-labeled E13.5 OB precursor cells, 31.7% of EGFP+ cells differentiated to GABAergic neurons. OB and LGE precursors transplanted into early postnatal OB migrated and differentiated in distinct patterns. Transplanted OB precursors gave rise to interneurons with dendritic spines in close proximity to synaptophysin-positive boutons. Interneurons were also abundant in differentiating OB neural stem cell cultures; the neurons responded to the neurotrophin Bdnf and expressed presynaptic proteins. In vivo, the Bdnf receptor TrkB colocalized with synaptic proteins at the glomeruli. These findings suggest that, in addition to receiving interneurons from the LGE, the embryonic OB contains molecularly distinct local precursor cells that generate mature GABAergic and dopaminergic neurons.

  17. Histone acetylation in the olfactory bulb of young rats facilitates aversive olfactory learning and synaptic plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y-J; Okutani, F; Murata, Y; Taniguchi, M; Namba, T; Kaba, H

    2013-03-01

    Epigenetic mechanisms play an important role in memory formation and synaptic plasticity. Specifically, histone-associated heterochromatin undergoes changes in structure during the early stages of long-term memory formation. In keeping with the classical conditioning paradigm, young rats have been shown to exhibit aversion to an odor stimulus initially presented during foot shock. We previously showed that synaptic plasticity at the dendrodendritic synapses between mitral and granule cells in the olfactory bulb (OB) underlies this aversive olfactory learning. However, the epigenetic mechanisms involved are not well characterized. Therefore, we examined whether intrabulbar infusion of trichostatin A (TSA), a histone deacetylase inhibitor, facilitates olfactory learning in young rats. TSA infusion during odor-shock training enhanced a conditioned odor aversion in a dose-dependent manner and prolonged the learned aversion. Western blot and immunohistochemical analyses showed that the level of histone H4 acetylation significantly increased until 4 h after odor-shock training in both mitral and granule cells in the OB, whereas histone H3 acetylation returned to the control level at 2 h after the training. We also obtained evidence that TSA infusion elevated acetylation of histone H4 or H3. Furthermore, in vitro electrophysiological analysis using slices of the OB revealed that application of TSA significantly enhanced the long-term potentiation induced in synaptic transmission from mitral to granule cells at dendrodendritic synapses. Taken together, these results provide evidence that histone H4 and H3 acetylation in the OB is an epigenetic mechanism associated with aversive olfactory learning in young rats.

  18. Not all sharks are "swimming noses": variation in olfactory bulb size in cartilaginous fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yopak, Kara E; Lisney, Thomas J; Collin, Shaun P

    2015-03-01

    Olfaction is a universal modality by which all animals sample chemical stimuli from their environment. In cartilaginous fishes, olfaction is critical for various survival tasks including localizing prey, avoiding predators, and chemosensory communication with conspecifics. Little is known, however, about interspecific variation in olfactory capability in these fishes, or whether the relative importance of olfaction in relation to other sensory systems varies with regard to ecological factors, such as habitat and lifestyle. In this study, we have addressed these questions by directly examining interspecific variation in the size of the olfactory bulbs (OB), the region of the brain that receives the primary sensory projections from the olfactory nerve, in 58 species of cartilaginous fishes. Relative OB size was compared among species occupying different ecological niches. Our results show that the OBs maintain a substantial level of allometric independence from the rest of the brain across cartilaginous fishes and that OB size is highly variable among species. These findings are supported by phylogenetic generalized least-squares models, which show that this variability is correlated with ecological niche, particularly habitat. The relatively largest OBs were found in pelagic-coastal/oceanic sharks, especially migratory species such as Carcharodon carcharias and Galeocerdo cuvier. Deep-sea species also possess large OBs, suggesting a greater reliance on olfaction in habitats where vision may be compromised. In contrast, the smallest OBs were found in the majority of reef-associated species, including sharks from the families Carcharhinidae and Hemiscyllidae and dasyatid batoids. These results suggest that there is great variability in the degree to which these fishes rely on olfactory cues. The OBs have been widely used as a neuroanatomical proxy for olfactory capability in vertebrates, and we speculate that differences in olfactory capabilities may be the result of

  19. Multiple conductances cooperatively regulate spontaneous bursting in mouse olfactory bulb external tufted cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shaolin; Shipley, Michael T

    2008-02-13

    External tufted (ET) cells are juxtaglomerular neurons that spontaneously generate bursts of action potentials, which persist when fast synaptic transmission is blocked. The intrinsic mechanism of this autonomous bursting is unknown. We identified a set of voltage-dependent conductances that cooperatively regulate spontaneous bursting: hyperpolarization-activated inward current (I(h)), persistent Na+ current (I(NaP)), low-voltage-activated calcium current (I(L/T)) mediated by T- and/or L-type Ca2+ channels, and large-conductance Ca2+-dependent K+ current (I(BK)). I(h) is important in setting membrane potential and depolarizes the cell toward the threshold of I(NaP) and I(T/L), which are essential to generate the depolarizing envelope that is crowned by a burst of action potentials. Action potentials depolarize the membrane and induce Ca2+ influx via high-voltage-activated Ca2+ channels (I(HVA)). The combined depolarization and increased intracellular Ca2+ activates I(BK), which terminates the burst by hyperpolarizing the membrane. Hyperpolarization activates I(h) and the cycle is regenerated. A novel finding is the role of L-type Ca2+ channels in autonomous ET cells bursting. A second novel feature is the role of BK channels, which regulate burst duration. I(L) and I(BK) may go hand-in-hand, the slow inactivation of I(L) requiring I(BK)-dependent hyperpolarization to deactivate inward conductances and terminate the burst. ET cells receive monosynaptic olfactory nerve input and drive the major inhibitory interneurons of the glomerular circuit. Modulation of the conductances identified here can regulate burst frequency, duration, and spikes per burst in ET cells and thus significantly shape the impact of glomerular circuits on mitral and tufted cells, the output channels of the olfactory bulb.

  20. Dendritic Arborization Patterns of Small Juxtaglomerular Cell Subtypes within the Rodent Olfactory Bulb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bywalez, Wolfgang G.; Ona-Jodar, Tiffany; Lukas, Michael; Ninkovic, Jovica; Egger, Veronica

    2017-01-01

    Within the glomerular layer of the rodent olfactory bulb, numerous subtypes of local interneurons contribute to early processing of incoming sensory information. Here we have investigated dopaminergic and other small local juxtaglomerular cells in rats and mice and characterized their dendritic arborization pattern with respect to individual glomeruli by fluorescent labeling via patching and reconstruction of dendrites and glomerular contours from two-photon imaging data. Dopaminergic neurons were identified in a transgenic mouse line where the expression of dopamine transporter (DAT) was labeled with GFP. Among the DAT+ cells we found a small short-axon cell (SAC) subtype featuring hitherto undescribed dendritic specializations. These densely ramifying structures clasped mostly around somata of other juxtaglomerular neurons, which were also small, non-dopaminergic and to a large extent non-GABAergic. Clasping SACs were observed also in wild-type mice and juvenile rats. In DAT+ SAC dendrites, single backpropagating action potentials evoked robust calcium entry throughout both clasping and non-clasping compartments. Besides clasping SACs, most other small neurons either corresponded to the classical periglomerular cell type (PGCs), which was never DAT+, or were undersized cells with a small dendritic tree and low excitability. Aside from the presence of clasps in SAC dendrites, many descriptors of dendritic morphology such as the number of dendrites and the extent of branching were not significantly different between clasping SACs and PGCs. However, a detailed morphometric analysis in relation to glomerular contours revealed that the dendrites of clasping SACs arborized mostly in the juxtaglomerular space and never entered more than one glomerulus (if at all), whereas most PGC dendrites were restricted to their parent glomerulus, similar to the apical tufts of mitral cells. These complementary arborization patterns might underlie a highly complementary functional

  1. In vitro Antiproliferative and Apoptosis Inducing Effect of Allium atroviolaceum Bulb Extract on Breast, Cervical, and Liver Cancer Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazaei, Somayeh; Esa, Norhaizan M.; Ramachandran, Vasudevan; Hamid, Roslida A.; Pandurangan, Ashok K.; Etemad, Ali; Ismail, Patimah

    2017-01-01

    Natural products are considered potent sources for novel drug discovery and development. The multiple therapeutic effects of natural compounds in traditional medicine motivate us to evaluate the cytotoxic activity of bulb of Allium atroviolaceum in MCF7 and MDA-MB-231, HeLa and HepG2 cell lines. The bulb methanol extract of A. atroviolaceum was found to be an active cell proliferation inhibitor at the time and dose dependent manner. Determination of DNA content by flow cytometry demonstrated S and G2/M phase arrest of MCF-7 cell, correlated to Cdk1 downregulation, S phase arrest in MDA-MB-231 which is p53 and Cdk1-dependent, sub-G0 cell cycle arrest in HeLa aligned with Cdk1 downregulation, G0/G1, S, G2/M phase arrest in HepG2 which is p53-dependent. Apoptosis as the mechanism of cell death was confirmed by morphology study, caspases activity assay, as well as apoptosis related gene expression, Bcl-2. Caspase-8, -9, and -3 activity with downregulation of Bcl-2 illustrated occurrence of both intrinsic and extrinsic pathways in MCF7, while caspase-3 and -8 activity revealed extrinsic pathway of apoptosis, although Bcl-2 downregulated. In HeLa cells, the activity of caspase-9 and -3 and downregulation of Bcl-2 shows intrinsic pathway or mitochondrial pathway, whereas HepG2 shows caspase independent apoptosis. Further, the combination of the extract with tamoxifen against MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 and combination with doxorubicin against HeLa and HeG2 demonstrated synergistic effect in most concentrations, suggests that the bulb of A. atroviolaceum may be useful for the treatment of cancer lonely or in combination with other drugs. PMID:28197098

  2. Isolation and Structural Analysis In Vivo of Newly Synthesized Fructooligosaccharides in Onion Bulbs Tissues (Allium cepa L. during Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaki Fujishima

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Fructooligosaccharides are involved in physiological activities and quality attributes of onion bulbs. This work describes structures of newly synthesized oligosaccharides formed by fructose moieties in onion bulb tissues during storage. Onion bulbs were stored for four weeks at 10∘C. HPAEC-PAD analysis showed that saccharide 1 was eluted after 1-kestose while saccharide 2 was eluted after nystose (a. Saccharides 1 and 2 have R-sucrose values of 1.55 and 2.15 by HPAEC, a reducing terminal, a reducing sugar-to-fructose ratio of 0.5 and 0.3, and a degree of polymerization of 2 and 3 by TOF-MS, respectively. GLC analysis of the methyl derivatives and NMR measurement of the saccharides confirmed the presence of two different structures: the structure of saccharide 1 is composed by two fructose moieties and linked by (2→1 linkage and was identified as inulobiose [-D-fructofuranosyl-(2→1--D-fructopyranose]. The structure of saccharide 2 consists of three units of fructose linked by (2→1 linkage and was identified as inulotriose [-D-fructofuranosyl-(2→1--D-fructofuranosyl-(2→1--D-fructopyranose]. The spectra also showed that 70 to 80% of the terminal fructose residue of the two saccharides is of pyranosyl form, while 20 to 30% is of furanosyl form. This finding demonstrated that these newly produced saccharides, catalyzed by onion-purified 6G-FFT, were synthesized by the action of 1-FFT fructosyltransfer from 1-kestose to free fructopyranose yielding inulobiose and sucrose, while elongation of fructofuranosyl units occurs at this transferred fructofuranosyl residue to produce inulooligosaccharide having an additional unit of fructofuranose.

  3. Trajectory and terminal distribution of single centrifugal axons from olfactory cortical areas in the rat olfactory bulb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsutani, S

    2010-08-11

    The olfactory bulb receives a large number of centrifugal fibers whose functions remain unclear. To gain insight into the function of the bulbar centrifugal system, the morphology of individual centrifugal axons from olfactory cortical areas was examined in detail. An anterograde tracer, Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin, was injected into rat olfactory cortical areas, including the pars lateralis of the anterior olfactory nucleus (lAON) and the anterior part of the piriform cortex (aPC). Reconstruction from serial sections revealed that the extrabulbar segments of centrifugal axons from the lAON and those from the aPC had distinct trajectories: the former tended to innervate the pars externa of the AON before entering the olfactory bulb, while the latter had extrabulbar collaterals that extended to a variety of targets. In contrast to the extrabulbar segments, no clear differences were found between the intrabulbar segments of axons from the lAON and from the aPC. The intrabulbar segments of centrifugal axons were mainly found in the granule cell layer but a few axons extended into the external plexiform and glomerular layer. Approximately 40% of centrifugal axons innervated both the medial and lateral aspects of the olfactory bulb. The number of boutons found on single intrabulbar segments was typically less than 1000. Boutons tended to aggregate and form complex terminal tufts with short axonal branches. Terminal tufts, no more than 10 in single axons from ipsilateral cortical areas, were localized to the granule cell layer with varying intervals; some tufts formed patchy clusters and others were scattered over areas that extended for a few millimeters. The patchy, widespread distribution of terminals suggests that the centrifugal axons are able to couple the activity of specific subsets of bulbar neurons even when the subsets are spatially separated.

  4. Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Activity of Bulb Extracts of Six Lilium Species Native to China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixin Niu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Lily (Lilium is used as an important edible and medical plant species with a vague taxonomic classification and a long history in China. Bulbs of six Lilium species (L. regale, L. concolor, L. pumilum, L. leucanthum, L. davidii var. unicolor and L. lancifolium native to China were investigated with a view to their exploitation as a potential source of natural antioxidants due to their phenolic composition and dietary antioxidant potential. The results showed that all bulb extracts exhibited strong antioxidant activities, which generally correlated positively with the total phenolic contents (r = 0.68 to 0.94, total flavonoid contents (r = 0.51 to 0.89 and total flavanol contents (r = 0.54 to 0.95. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC analysis revealed that rutin and kaempferol were the major phenolic components in the extracts. Hierarchical cluster analysis showed that L. regale belonged to the group with high phenolic content and strong antioxidant power. L. concolor and L. pumilum were arranged in one group characterized by moderate phenolic content and antioxidant capacity, while L. leucanthum, L. davidii var. unicolor and L. lancifolium were clustered in the third group with low phenolic content and weak antioxidant activity. These strongly suggest that lily bulbs may serve as a potential source of natural antioxidant for food and pharmaceutical applications.

  5. Reduction of Glucose Metabolism in Olfactory Bulb is an Earlier Alzheimer's Disease-related Biomarker in 5XFAD Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nai-An Xiao; Jing Zhang; Meng Zhou; Zhen Wei; Xi-Lin Wu; Xiao-Man Dai; Yuan-Gui Zhu

    2015-01-01

    Background:Early diagnosis assumes a vital role in an effective treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD).Most of the current studies can only make anAD diagnosis after the manifestation of typical clinical symptoms.The present study aimed to investigate typical and other biomarkers of AD to find a possible early biomarker.Methods:A total of 14 5XFAD mice (at 3 and 6 months old),with 14 age-matched wild-type (WT) mice as control,were enrolled in this case-control study.Morris water maze test was performed to evaluate the cognitive function;buried food pellet test and olfactory maze test were employed to investigate the olfactory function;immunofluorescence to detect amyloid deposition and positron emission tomography to examine 2-deoxy-2-(18F) fluoro-D-glucose ([18F]-FDG) uptake in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex.Results:With the increasing age,cognitive performance (P =0.0262) and olfactory function were significantly deteriorated (day 1 P =0.0012,day 2 P =0.0031,day 3 P =0.0160,respectively) and the (18F)-FDG uptake was markedly decreased in multi-cerebral regions including the olfactory bulb (P < 0.0001),hippocampus (P =0.0121),and cerebral cortex (P < 0.0001).Of note,in 3-month-old 5XFAD mice,a significant decline of (18F)-FDG uptake in the olfactory bulb was found when compared with that of age-matched WT mice (P =0.023) while no significant difference was present when the uptakes in other cerebral regions were compared.Conclusions:The decline of (18F)-FDG uptake in the olfactory bulb occurs earlier than other incidents,serving as an earlier in vivo biological marker of AD in 5XFAD mice and making early diagnosis of AD possibly.

  6. The use of bio-guided fractionation to explore the use of leftover biomass in Dutch flower bulb production as allelochemicals against weeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahyuni, Dinar S C; van der Kooy, Frank; Klinkhamer, Peter G L; Verpoorte, Rob; Leiss, Kirsten

    2013-04-17

    A major problem in flower bulb cultivation is weed control. Synthetic herbicides are mainly used, although they cause a range of problems, and integrated weed control through application of naturally occurring allelochemicals would be highly desirable. Flower bulb production creates large amounts of leftover biomass. Utilizing this source for weed control may provide new applications of the bulb crops. We therefore screened 33 flower bulb extracts for allelochemical activity against weeds. Several methanol and chloroform extracts were observed to inhibit germination and growth of Senecio vulgaris L. and Lolium perenne L., as representatives of di- and mono-cotyledonous weeds, respectively. Narciclasine was identified as the bioactive compound in Narcissus. The extract of Amaryllis belladonna L. was equally active, but did not contain any narciclasine. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the A. belladonna extract resulted in the identification of lycorine as the bio-active compound. The IC₅₀ measured for radicle growth inhibition was 0.10 µM for narciclasine and 0.93 µM for lycorine, compared to 0.11 mM of chlorpropham, a synthetic herbicide. Therefore, the leftover biomass from the spring bulb industry represents an interesting potential source for promising allelochemicals for further studies on weed growth inhibition.

  7. The Origin, Development and Molecular Diversity of Rodent Olfactory Bulb Glutamatergic Neurons Distinguished by Expression of Transcription Factor NeuroD1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Roybon

    Full Text Available Production of olfactory bulb neurons occurs continuously in the rodent brain. Little is known, however, about cellular diversity in the glutamatergic neuron subpopulation. In the central nervous system, the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor NeuroD1 (ND1 is commonly associated with glutamatergic neuron development. In this study, we utilized ND1 to identify the different subpopulations of olfactory bulb glutamategic neurons and their progenitors, both in the embryo and postnatally. Using knock-in mice, transgenic mice and retroviral transgene delivery, we demonstrate the existence of several different populations of glutamatergic olfactory bulb neurons, the progenitors of which are ND1+ and ND1- lineage-restricted, and are temporally and regionally separated. We show that the first olfactory bulb glutamatergic neurons produced - the mitral cells - can be divided into molecularly diverse subpopulations. Our findings illustrate the complexity of neuronal diversity in the olfactory bulb and that seemingly homogenous neuronal populations can consist of multiple subpopulations with unique molecular signatures of transcription factors and expressing neuronal subtype-specific markers.

  8. The olfactory bulb in newborn piglet is a reservoir of neural stem and progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Lee J; Katzenelson, Alyssa; Koehler, Raymond C; Chang, Qing

    2013-01-01

    The olfactory bulb (OB) periventricular zone is an extension of the forebrain subventricular zone (SVZ) and thus is a source of neuroprogenitor cells and neural stem cells. While considerable information is available on the SVZ-OB neural stem cell (NSC)/neuroprogenitor cell (NPC) niche in rodents, less work has been done on this system in large animals. The newborn piglet is used as a preclinical translational model of neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain damage, but information about the endogenous sources of NSCs/NPCs in piglet is needed to implement endogenous or autologous cell-based therapies in this model. We characterized NSC/NPC niches in piglet forebrain and OB-SVZ using western blotting, histological, and cell culture methods. Immunoblotting revealed nestin, a NSC/NPC marker, in forebrain-SVZ and OB-SVZ in newborn piglet. Several progenitor or newborn neuron markers, including Dlx2, musashi, doublecortin, and polysialated neural cell adhesion molecule were also detected in OB-SVZ by immunoblotting. Immunohistochemistry confirmed the presence of nestin, musashi, and doublecortin in forebrain-SVZ and OB-SVZ. Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) labeling showed that the forebrain-SVZ and OB-SVZ accumulate newly replicated cells. BrdU-positive cells were immunolabeled for astroglial, oligodendroglial, and neuronal markers. A lateral migratory pathway for newly born neuron migration to primary olfactory cortex was revealed by BrdU labeling and co-labeling for doublecortin and class III β tubulin. Isolated and cultured forebrain-SVZ and OB-SVZ cells from newborn piglet had the capacity to generate numerous neurospheres. Single cell clonal analysis of neurospheres revealed the capacity for self-renewal and multipotency. Neurosphere-derived cells differentiated into neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes and were amenable to permanent genetic tagging with lentivirus encoding green fluorescent protein. We conclude that the piglet OB-SVZ is a reservoir of NSCs and NPCs suitable

  9. Calretinin-Periglomerular Interneurons in Mice Olfactory Bulb: Cells of Few Words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogli Iseppe, Alex; Pignatelli, Angela; Belluzzi, Ottorino

    2016-01-01

    Within the olfactory bulb (OB), periglomerular (PG) cells consist of various types of interneurons, generally classified by their chemical properties such as neurotransmitter and calcium binding proteins. Calretinin (CR) characterizes morphologically and functionally the more numerous and one of the less known subpopulation of PG cells in the OB. Using of transgenic mice expressing eGFP under the CR promoter, we have tried to obtain the first functional characterization of these cells. Electrophysiological recordings were made in these cells using the patch-clamp technique in thin slices. Using ion substitution methods and specific blockers, we dissected the main voltage-dependent conductances present, obtaining a complete kinetic description for each of them. The more peculiar property of these cells from the electrophysiological point of view is the presence only of a single K-current, A-type - there is no trace of delayed rectifier or of Ca-dependent K-current. Other currents identified, isolated and fully characterized are a fast sodium current, a small L-type calcium current, and an inward rectifier, h-type cationic current. As a consequence of the peculiar complement of voltage-dependent conductances present in these cells, and in particular the absence of delayed-rectifier potassium currents, under the functional point of view these cells present two interesting properties. First, in response to prolonged depolarisations, after the inactivation of the A-current these cells behave as a purely ohmic elements, showing no outward rectification. Second, the CR cells studied can respond only with a single action potential to excitatory inputs; since they send inhibitory synapses to projection neurones, they seem to be designed to inhibit responses of the main neurones to isolated, random excitatory signals, rapidly losing their vetoing effect in response to more structured, repetitive excitatory signals. We propose that a possible role for these rather untalkative

  10. The production of consuming less: Energy efficiency, climate change, and light bulbs in North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoyre, Autumn

    In this research, I have analyzed the production of consuming less electricity through a case study of promotions of compact fluorescent light bulbs (CFLs). I focused on the CFL because it has been heavily promoted by environmentalists and electricity companies as a key tool for solving climate change, yet such promotions appear counter-intuitive. The magnitude of CFL promotions by environmentalists is surprising because CFLs can only impact less than 1% of U.S. greenhouse gas emissions. CFL promotions by electricity providers are surprising given such companies' normal incentives to sell more of their product. I used political ecological and symbolic interactionist theories, qualitative methods of data collection (including interviews, participant-observation, texts, and images), and a grounded theory analysis to understand this case. My findings suggest that, far from being a self-evident technical entity, energy efficiency is produced as an idea, a part of identities, a resource, and a source of value through social, political, and economic processes. These processes include identity formation and subjectification; gender-coded household labor; and corporate appropriation of household value resulting from environmental governance. I show how environmentalists use CFLs to make and claim neoliberal identities, proposing the concept of green neoliberal identity work as a mechanism through which neoliberal ideologies are translated into practices. I analyze how using this seemingly easy energy efficient technology constitutes labor that is gendered in ways that reflect and reproduce inequalities. I show how electricity companies have used environmental governance to valorize and appropriate home energy efficiency as an accumulation strategy. I conclude by discussing the symbolic power of CFLs, proposing a theory of green obsolescence, and framing the production of energy efficiency as a global production network. I found that promoting energy efficiency involves

  11. Contouring Variability of the Penile Bulb on CT Images: Quantitative Assessment Using a Generalized Concordance Index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carillo, Viviana [Department of Medical Physics, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milano (Italy); Cozzarini, Cesare [Department of Radiotherapy, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milano (Italy); Perna, Lucia; Calandra, Mauro [Department of Medical Physics, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milano (Italy); Gianolini, Stefano [Medical Software Solutions GmbH, Hagendorn (Switzerland); Rancati, Tiziana [Prostate Cancer Program, IRCCS National Institute of Cancer, Milano (Italy); Spinelli, Antonello Enrico [Department of Medical Physics, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milano (Italy); Vavassori, Vittorio [Department of Radiotherapy, Cliniche Gavazzeni Humanitas, Bergamo (Italy); Villa, Sergio [Department of Radiotherapy 1, IRCCS National Institute of Cancer, Milano (Italy); Valdagni, Riccardo [Prostate Cancer Program, IRCCS National Institute of Cancer, Milano (Italy); Department of Radiotherapy 1, IRCCS National Institute of Cancer, Milano (Italy); Fiorino, Claudio, E-mail: fiorino.claudio@hsr.it [Department of Medical Physics, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milano (Italy)

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: Within a multicenter study (DUE-01) focused on the search of predictors of erectile dysfunction and urinary toxicity after radiotherapy for prostate cancer, a dummy run exercise on penile bulb (PB) contouring on computed tomography (CT) images was carried out. The aim of this study was to quantitatively assess interobserver contouring variability by the application of the generalized DICE index. Methods and Materials: Fifteen physicians from different Institutes drew the PB on CT images of 10 patients. The spread of DICE values was used to objectively select those observers who significantly disagreed with the others. The analyses were performed with a dedicated module in the VODCA software package. Results: DICE values were found to significantly change among observers and patients. The mean DICE value was 0.67, ranging between 0.43 and 0.80. The statistics of DICE coefficients identified 4 of 15 observers who systematically showed a value below the average (p value range, 0.013 - 0.059): Mean DICE values were 0.62 for the 4 'bad' observers compared to 0.69 of the 11 'good' observers. For all bad observers, the main cause of the disagreement was identified. Average DICE values were significantly worse from the average in 2 of 10 patients (0.60 vs. 0.70, p < 0.05) because of the limited visibility of the PB. Excluding the bad observers and the 'bad' patients,' the mean DICE value increased from 0.67 to 0.70; interobserver variability, expressed in terms of standard deviation of DICE spread, was also reduced. Conclusions: The obtained values of DICE around 0.7 shows an acceptable agreement, considered the small dimension of the PB. Additional strategies to improve this agreement are under consideration and include an additional tutorial of the so-called bad observers with a recontouring procedure, or the recontouring by a single observer of the PB for all patients included in the DUE-01 study.

  12. The olfactory bulb in newborn piglet is a reservoir of neural stem and progenitor cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee J Martin

    Full Text Available The olfactory bulb (OB periventricular zone is an extension of the forebrain subventricular zone (SVZ and thus is a source of neuroprogenitor cells and neural stem cells. While considerable information is available on the SVZ-OB neural stem cell (NSC/neuroprogenitor cell (NPC niche in rodents, less work has been done on this system in large animals. The newborn piglet is used as a preclinical translational model of neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain damage, but information about the endogenous sources of NSCs/NPCs in piglet is needed to implement endogenous or autologous cell-based therapies in this model. We characterized NSC/NPC niches in piglet forebrain and OB-SVZ using western blotting, histological, and cell culture methods. Immunoblotting revealed nestin, a NSC/NPC marker, in forebrain-SVZ and OB-SVZ in newborn piglet. Several progenitor or newborn neuron markers, including Dlx2, musashi, doublecortin, and polysialated neural cell adhesion molecule were also detected in OB-SVZ by immunoblotting. Immunohistochemistry confirmed the presence of nestin, musashi, and doublecortin in forebrain-SVZ and OB-SVZ. Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU labeling showed that the forebrain-SVZ and OB-SVZ accumulate newly replicated cells. BrdU-positive cells were immunolabeled for astroglial, oligodendroglial, and neuronal markers. A lateral migratory pathway for newly born neuron migration to primary olfactory cortex was revealed by BrdU labeling and co-labeling for doublecortin and class III β tubulin. Isolated and cultured forebrain-SVZ and OB-SVZ cells from newborn piglet had the capacity to generate numerous neurospheres. Single cell clonal analysis of neurospheres revealed the capacity for self-renewal and multipotency. Neurosphere-derived cells differentiated into neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes and were amenable to permanent genetic tagging with lentivirus encoding green fluorescent protein. We conclude that the piglet OB-SVZ is a reservoir of NSCs

  13. Dichotomous Distribution of Putative Cholinergic Interneurons in Mouse Accessory Olfactory Bulb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marking, Sarah; Krosnowski, Kurt; Ogura, Tatsuya; Lin, Weihong

    2017-01-01

    Sensory information processing in the olfactory bulb (OB) relies on diverse populations of bulbar interneurons. In rodents, the accessory OB (AOB) is divided into two bulbar regions, the anterior (aAOB) and posterior (pAOB), which differ substantially in their circuitry connections and associated behaviors. We previously identified and characterized a large number of morphologically diverse cholinergic interneurons in the main OB (MOB) using transgenic mice to visualize the cell bodies of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT-expressing neurons and immunolabeling (Krosnowski et al., 2012)). However, whether there are cholinergic neurons in the AOB is controversial and there is no detailed characterization of such neurons. Using the same line of ChAT(bacterial artificial chromosome, BAC)-enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) transgenic mice, we investigated cholinergic neurons in the AOB. We found significant differences in the number and location of GFP-expressing (GFP+), putative cholinergic interneurons between the aAOB and pAOB. The highest numbers of GFP+ interneurons were found in the aAOB glomerular layer (aGL) and pAOB mitral/tufted cell layer (pMCL). We also noted a high density of GFP+ interneurons encircling the border region of the pMCL. Interestingly, a small subset of glomeruli in the middle of the GL receives strong MCL GFP+ nerve processes. These local putative cholinergic-innervated glomeruli are situated just outside the aGL, setting the boundary between the pGL and aGL. Many but not all GFP+ neurons in the AOB were weakly labeled with antibodies against ChAT and vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT). We further determined if these GFP+ interneurons differ from other previously characterized interneuron populations in the AOB and found that AOB GFP+ interneurons express neither GABAergic nor dopaminergic markers and most also do not express the glutamatergic marker. Similar to the cholinergic interneurons of the MOB, some AOB GFP+ interneurons

  14. Early in vivo Effects of the Human Mutant Amyloid-β Protein Precursor (hAβPPSwInd) on the Mouse Olfactory Bulb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusznák, Zoltán; Kim, Woojin Scott; Hsiao, Jen-Hsiang T; Halliday, Glenda M; Paxinos, George; Fu, YuHong

    2016-01-01

    The amyloid-β protein precursor (AβPP) has long been linked to Alzheimer's disease (AD). Using J20 mice, which express human AβPP with Swedish and Indiana mutations, we studied early pathological changes in the olfactory bulb. The presence of AβPP/amyloid-β (Aβ) was examined in mice aged 3 months (before the onset of hippocampal Aβ deposition) and over 5 months (when hippocampal Aβ deposits are present). The number of neurons, non-neurons, and proliferating cells was assessed using the isotropic fractionator method. Our results demonstrate that although AβPP is overexpressed in some of the mitral cells, widespread Aβ deposition and microglia aggregates are not prevalent in the olfactory bulb. The olfactory bulbs of the younger J20 group harbored significantly fewer neurons than those of the age-matched wild-type mice (5.57±0.13 million versus 6.59±0.36 million neurons; p = 0.011). In contrast, the number of proliferating cells was higher in the young J20 than in the wild-type group (i.e., 6617±425 versus 4455±623 cells; p = 0.011). A significant increase in neurogenic activity was also observed in the younger J20 olfactory bulb. In conclusion, our results indicate that (1) neurons participating in the mouse olfactory function overexpress AβPP; (2) the cellular composition of the young J20 olfactory bulb is different from that of wild-type littermates; (3) these differences may reflect altered neurogenic activity and/or delayed development of the J20 olfactory system; and (4) AβPP/Aβ-associated pathological changes that take place in the J20 hippocampus and olfactory bulb are not identical.

  15. Human olfactory bulb neural stem cells expressing hNGF restore cognitive deficit in Alzheimer's disease rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marei, Hany E S; Farag, Amany; Althani, Asma; Afifi, Nahla; Abd-Elmaksoud, Ahmed; Lashen, Samah; Rezk, Shaymaa; Pallini, Roberto; Casalbore, Patrizia; Cenciarelli, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we aim to demonstrate the fate of allogenic adult human olfactory bulb neural stem/progenitor cells (OBNSC/NPCs) transplanted into the rat hippocampus treated with ibotenic acid (IBO), a neurotoxicant specific to hippocampal cholinergic neurons that are lost in Alzheimer's disease. We assessed their possible ability to survive, integrate, proliferate, and differentiate into different neuronal and glial elements: we also evaluate their possible therapeutic potential, and the mechanism(s) relevant to neuroprotection following their engraftment into the CNS milieu. OBNSC/NPCs were isolated from adult human olfactory bulb patients, genetically engineered to express GFP and human nerve growth factor (hNGF) by lentivirus-mediated infection, and stereotaxically transplanted into the hippocampus of IBO-treated animals and controls. Stereological analysis of engrafted OBNSCs eight weeks post transplantation revealed a 1.89 fold increase with respect to the initial cell population, indicating a marked ability for survival and proliferation. In addition, 54.71 ± 11.38%, 30.18 ± 6.00%, and 15.09 ± 5.38% of engrafted OBNSCs were identified by morphological criteria suggestive of mature neurons, oligodendrocytes and astrocytes respectively. Taken together, this work demonstrated that human OBNSCs expressing NGF ameliorate the cognitive deficiencies associated with IBO-induced lesions in AD model rats, and the improvement can probably be attributed primarily to neuronal and glial cell replacement as well as the trophic influence exerted by the secreted NGF.

  16. In Vivo Study of Dynamics and Stability of Dendritic Spines on Olfactory Bulb Interneurons in Xenopus laevis Tadpoles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Bin Huang

    Full Text Available Dendritic spines undergo continuous remodeling during development of the nervous system. Their stability is essential for maintaining a functional neuronal circuit. Spine dynamics and stability of cortical excitatory pyramidal neurons have been explored extensively in mammalian animal models. However, little is known about spiny interneurons in non-mammalian vertebrate models. In the present study, neuronal morphology was visualized by single-cell electroporation. Spiny neurons were surveyed in the Xenopus tadpole brain and observed to be widely distributed in the olfactory bulb and telencephalon. DsRed- or PSD95-GFP-expressing spiny interneurons in the olfactory bulb were selected for in vivo time-lapse imaging. Dendritic protrusions were classified as filopodia, thin, stubby, or mushroom spines based on morphology. Dendritic spines on the interneurons were highly dynamic, especially the filopodia and thin spines. The stubby and mushroom spines were relatively more stable, although their stability significantly decreased with longer observation intervals. The 4 spine types exhibited diverse preferences during morphological transitions from one spine type to others. Sensory deprivation induced by severing the olfactory nerve to block the input of mitral/tufted cells had no significant effects on interneuron spine stability. Hence, a new model was established in Xenopus laevis tadpoles to explore dendritic spine dynamics in vivo.

  17. A new genus of Theraphosid spider from Mexico, with a particular palpal bulb structure (Araneae, Theraphosidae, Theraphosinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge I. Mendoza

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Magnacarina gen. nov. from Mexico is described. Hapalopus aldanus West, 2000 from Nayarit, is transferred to the new genus with an emended diagnosis creating the new combination Magnacarina aldana comb. nov. Three new species are described: Magnacarina moderata Locht, Mendoza & Medina sp. nov. from Nayarit and Sinaloa; Magnacarina primaverensis Mendoza & Locht sp. nov. and Magnacarina cancer Mendoza & Locht sp. nov., both from Jalisco. Magnacarina gen. nov. is characterized by an unusual bifid palpal bulb, and has a primary projection located in the central area of the palpal bulb and directed retrolaterally; this projection possesses the prolateral superior and retrolateral keels. Next to the primary projection is a secondary projection, which may be short or long, ending in the prolateral inferior and apical keel surrounding the sperm pore. This secondary projection may have prolateral accessory keels and is diagnosed by possessing a nodule of inwardly curled megaspines, located in the basal ventro-retrolateral region of metatarsi I in adult males. Additionally, male tibiae I possess three apophyses. Females of Magnacarina gen. nov. have a single reduced and strongly sclerotized spermatheca, with an apical lobe projecting ventrally, and with a uterus externus that is longer and wider than the spermatheca.

  18. A novel bioelectronic nose based on brain-machine interface using implanted electrode recording in vivo in olfactory bulb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Qi; Du, Liping; Zhuang, Liujing; Li, Rong; Liu, Qingjun; Wang, Ping

    2013-11-15

    The mammalian olfactory system has merits of higher sensitivity, selectivity and faster response than current electronic nose system based on chemical sensor array. It is advanced and feasible to detect and discriminate odors by mammalian olfactory system. The purpose of this study is to develop a novel bioelectronic nose based on the brain-machine interface (BMI) technology for odor detection by in vivo electrophysiological measurements of olfactory bulb. In this work, extracellular potentials of mitral/tufted (M/T) cells in olfactory bulb (OB) were recorded by implanted 16-channel microwire electrode arrays. The odor-evoked response signals were analyzed. We found that neural activities of different neurons showed visible different firing patterns both in temporal features and rate features when stimulated by different small molecular odorants. The detection low limit is below 1 ppm for some specific odors. Odors were classified by an algorithm based on population vector similarity and support vector machine (SVM). The results suggested that the novel bioelectonic nose was sensitive to odorant stimuli. The best classifying accuracy was up to 95%. With the development of the BMI and olfactory decoding methods, we believe that this system will represent emerging and promising platforms for wide applications in medical diagnosis and security fields.

  19. INSECTICIDAL ACTIVITY OF PROTEIN EXTRACTS OBTAINED FROM BULBS OF CHILEAN AMARYLLIDACEAE AGAINST TRIALEURODES VAPORARIORUM WESTWOOD AND PSEUDOCOCCUS VIBURNI SIGNORET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata, N; Vargas, M; Coronado, A; Van Damme, E J M; Smagghe, G

    2015-01-01

    Entomotoxic proteins are produced by plants in defence against insect herbivory. Some carbohydrate-binding proteins exhibit strong insecticidal activity affecting the survival, growth, development and feeding behavior of phytophagous insects. The occurrence of entomotoxic lectins is well documented in the Amaryllidaceae, a plant family spread world-wide. In Chile, this family is represented by numerous species, many of which are also of high ornamental value. Protein extracts were obtained from bulbs of five different species of Chilean Amaryllidaceae. A dose-response assay was carried out with two important pests: the greenhouse whitefly Trialeurodes vaporariorum Westwood and the mealybug Pseudococcus viburni Signoret. The extracts were offered to insects in a liquid artificial diet for three days and the mortality was scored. The Phycella australis Ravenna extract caused the highest insecticidal activity (T. vaporariorum LC₅₀: 7200 µg/mL; P. viburni LC₅₀: 9500 µg/mL). Applied at 1000 µg/mL in the diet the P. australis extract did not repel feeding of these pests. A mannose-binding lectin isolated from the bulbs of P. australis proved to be moderately toxic for these pests (T. vaporariorum LC₅₀: 1127 µg/mL; P. viburni LC₅₀: 2320 µg/mL).

  20. Regulation of spike timing-dependent plasticity of olfactory inputs in mitral cells in the rat olfactory bulb.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teng-Fei Ma

    Full Text Available The recent history of activity input onto granule cells (GCs in the main olfactory bulb can affect the strength of lateral inhibition, which functions to generate contrast enhancement. However, at the plasticity level, it is unknown whether and how the prior modification of lateral inhibition modulates the subsequent induction of long-lasting changes of the excitatory olfactory nerve (ON inputs to mitral cells (MCs. Here we found that the repetitive stimulation of two distinct excitatory inputs to the GCs induced a persistent modification of lateral inhibition in MCs in opposing directions. This bidirectional modification of inhibitory inputs differentially regulated the subsequent synaptic plasticity of the excitatory ON inputs to the MCs, which was induced by the repetitive pairing of excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs with postsynaptic bursts. The regulation of spike timing-dependent plasticity (STDP was achieved by the regulation of the inter-spike-interval (ISI of the postsynaptic bursts. This novel form of inhibition-dependent regulation of plasticity may contribute to the encoding or processing of olfactory information in the olfactory bulb.

  1. Structure of the native (unligated) mannose-specific bulb lectin from Scilla campanulata (bluebell) at 1.7 A resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, S D; Wright, L M; Reynolds, C D; Rizkallah, P J; Allen, A K; Peumans, W J; Van Damme, E J

    1999-07-01

    The X-ray crystal structure of native Scilla campanulata agglutinin, a mannose-specific lectin from bluebell bulbs and a member of the Liliaceae family, has been determined by molecular replacement and refined to an R value of 0.186 at 1.7 A resolution. The lectin crystallizes in space group P21212 with unit-cell parameters a = 70. 42, b = 92.95, c = 46.64 A. The unit cell contains eight protein molecules of Mr = 13143 Da (119 amino-acid residues). The asymmetric unit comprises two chemically identical molecules, A and B, related by a non-crystallographic twofold axis perpendicular to c. This dimer further associates by crystallographic twofold symmetry to form a tetramer. The fold of the polypeptide backbone closely resembles that found in the lectins from Galanthus nivalis (snowdrop) and Hippeastrum (amaryllis) and contains a threefold symmetric beta-prism made up of three antiparallel four-stranded beta-sheets. Each of the four-stranded beta-sheets (I, II and III) possesses a potential saccharide-binding site containing conserved residues; however, site II has two mutations relative to sites I and III which may prevent ligation at this site. Our study provides the first accurate and detailed description of a native (unligated) structure from this superfamily of mannose-specific bulb lectins and will allow comparisons with a number of lectin-saccharide complexes which have already been determined or are currently under investigation.

  2. Genetic variation for bulb size, soluble solids content and pungency in the Spanish sweet onion variety Fuentes de Ebro. Response to selection for low pungency

    OpenAIRE

    Mallor Giménez, Cristina; Balcells Oliván, María; Mallor, F.; Sales, E.

    2011-01-01

    The cultivar ‘Fuentes de Ebro’ is a long-day onion grown in the northeast of Spain, which is characterized by its succulence and low pungency. However, to match the market demand the size, pungency, and storability need to be improved. We have evaluated these quality-related bulb traits in 15 grower’s open-pollinated lines of this cultivar. Phenotypic variation observed for bulb weight, size and soluble solids content was significantly affected by location, growing season and line, while pung...

  3. Energy monitor of the Dutch flower bulb sector 2008; Energiemonitor van de Nederlandse Bloembollensector 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wildschut, J. [Praktijkonderzoek Plant en Omgeving PPO, Bloembollen, Boomkwekerij en Fruit, Lisse (Netherlands)

    2009-09-15

    1450 flower bulb businesses were approached for the Dutch Energy Monitor 2008. The response rate was 56%. A comparison with the energy use of 2007 or 2006 proved to be of little use due to the differences between the various databases. The calculated energy use data per crop in 2008 are suitable as reference values for the monitoring up to 2011. The Energy Efficiency Index of 2008 was set at 100. 25 energy saving measures have been examined in the monitoring to see to what extent they are used. Strikingly, only 11% of the businesses used the ethylene analyzer. Insulation of the cold store, frequency-controlled ventilators and rounded outlets in the system wall were used relatively often (by respectively 70%, 50% and 38% of the businesses). In forcing, energy shields, façade insulation and pre-growing/multi-layer cultivation score relatively high (respectively 55%, 53% and 24%). Deployment of the climate computer in growing and forcing also scores relatively high at 65%. The most frequently used measure is deployment of a high efficiency condensing boiler (77%). Sustainable energy is used in nearly 20% of the businesses, deployment of hot greenhouse air for drying being the most frequently used measure (76 businesses). Green electricity is the second sustainable energy source (purchased by nearly 5% of businesses). The share of sustainable energy is thus 2.3%. The CO2 emission resulting from direct use of fossil fuels at 495 of the monitored businesses was calculated to amount to 30,541 tons in cultivation (drying and storage) and 25.002 in forcing (greenhouse heating). The total amount is thus 55.544 tons. [Dutch] Voor de Energiemonitor 2008 zijn 1450 bloembollenbedrijven aangeschreven. De response was 56%. Een vergelijking met het energieverbruik in 2007 of in 2006 is door de afwijkende samenstellingen van de verschillende databases weinig zinvol gebleken. De berekende energieverbruikscijfers per gewas van 2008 zijn wel goed bruikbaar als referentiewaarden voor

  4. Experimental Study on the Optimization of Heat and Mass Transfer of Industrial Drying of the TiO2 Bulb.Infrared Radiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhuKai; JiangJuyuan; 等

    1996-01-01

    The characteristics of radiation and drying properties of TiO2 bulb in the fixed bed with infrared radiation have been studied in this paper,and the experiments on drying dynamics has been analysed also.The optimization of heat and mass transfer data has been determined,which could provide the scientific basis engineering design.

  5. Over-expression of hNGF in adult human olfactory bulb neural stem cells promotes cell growth and oligodendrocytic differentiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.E.S. Marei (Hany); A. Althani (Asmaa); N. Afifi (Nahla); A. Abd-Elmaksoud (Ahmed); C. Bernardini (Camilla); F. Michetti (Fabrizio); M. Barba (Marta); M. Pescatori (Mario); G. Maira (Giulio); E. Paldino (Emanuela); L. Manni (Luigi); P. Casalbore (Patrizia); C. Cenciarelli (Carlo)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThe adult human olfactory bulb neural stem/progenitor cells (OBNC/PC) are promising candidate for cell-based therapy for traumatic and neurodegenerative insults. Exogenous application of NGF was suggested as a promising therapeutic strategy for traumatic and neurodegenerative diseases, h

  6. In pursuit of a light bulb and a smokeless kitchen : longitudinal analysis of the role of energy sector policies to alleviate rural energy poverty in India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinha, S.

    2012-01-01

    After more than six decades of development planning, the majority of India’s population,especially those living in villages, continue to wait for access to energy forms that enable them to switch on an electric light bulb and to cook food on a clean stove in a smokeless kitchen. India is a country o

  7. Calcium Signaling in Mitral Cell Dendrites of Olfactory Bulbs of Neonatal Rats and Mice during Olfactory Nerve Stimulation and Beta-Adrenoceptor Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Qi; Mutoh, Hiroki; Debarbieux, Franck; Knopfel, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    Synapses formed by the olfactory nerve (ON) provide the source of excitatory synaptic input onto mitral cells (MC) in the olfactory bulb. These synapses, which relay odor-specific inputs, are confined to the distally tufted single primary dendrites of MCs, the first stage of central olfactory processing. Beta-adrenergic modulation of electrical…

  8. Gene expression changes in the olfactory bulb of mice induced by exposure to diesel exhaust are dependent on animal rearing environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Yokota

    Full Text Available There is an emerging concern that particulate air pollution increases the risk of cranial nerve disease onset. Small nanoparticles, mainly derived from diesel exhaust particles reach the olfactory bulb by their nasal depositions. It has been reported that diesel exhaust inhalation causes inflammation of the olfactory bulb and other brain regions. However, these toxicological studies have not evaluated animal rearing environment. We hypothesized that rearing environment can change mice phenotypes and thus might alter toxicological study results. In this study, we exposed mice to diesel exhaust inhalation at 90 µg/m(3, 8 hours/day, for 28 consecutive days after rearing in a standard cage or environmental enrichment conditions. Microarray analysis found that expression levels of 112 genes were changed by diesel exhaust inhalation. Functional analysis using Gene Ontology revealed that the dysregulated genes were involved in inflammation and immune response. This result was supported by pathway analysis. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis confirmed 10 genes. Interestingly, background gene expression of the olfactory bulb of mice reared in a standard cage environment was changed by diesel exhaust inhalation, whereas there was no significant effect of diesel exhaust exposure on gene expression levels of mice reared with environmental enrichment. The results indicate for the first time that the effect of diesel exhaust exposure on gene expression of the olfactory bulb was influenced by rearing environment. Rearing environment, such as environmental enrichment, may be an important contributive factor to causation in evaluating still undefined toxic environmental substances such as diesel exhaust.

  9. 嗅球结构及其对生物节律的调控%Structure and regulation of biological rhythms of olfactory bulb

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐兴远; 王毅群

    2011-01-01

    Olfactory bulb is a key component of olfaction. Recent researches have found that olfactory bulb regulates the biological rhythms, and it expresses regulatory genes relatively independent of suprachiasmatic nucleus. Based on the research of the structure and regulation of biological rhythms of olfactory bulb, it has become a new focus in basic and clinical medicineto study some nervous system diseases and biological rhythms such as sleep. This article summarizes the structure and the effect on regulating biological rhythms of olfactory bulb.%嗅球是人体控制嗅觉的关键部位.近年来研究发现,嗅球还参与了生物节律的调控,其相对独立于视交叉上核表达节律调控基因.基于嗅球与脑内的神经联系以及其对生物节律调控的作用,深入研究一些神经系统疾病和睡眠等人体自身节律可能会成为基础和临床医学研究的新热点.本文将介绍嗅球的结构,并对其参与调控生物节律的功能进行分析总结.

  10. Automatic segmentation of odor maps in the mouse olfactory bulb using regularized non-negative matrix factorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soelter, Jan; Schumacher, Jan; Spors, Hartwig; Schmuker, Michael

    2014-09-01

    Segmentation of functional parts in image series of functional activity is a common problem in neuroscience. Here we apply regularized non-negative matrix factorization (rNMF) to extract glomeruli in intrinsic optical signal (IOS) images of the olfactory bulb. Regularization allows us to incorporate prior knowledge about the spatio-temporal characteristics of glomerular signals. We demonstrate how to identify suitable regularization parameters on a surrogate dataset. With appropriate regularization segmentation by rNMF is more resilient to noise and requires fewer observations than conventional spatial independent component analysis (sICA). We validate our approach in experimental data using anatomical outlines of glomeruli obtained by 2-photon imaging of resting synapto-pHluorin fluorescence. Taken together, we show that rNMF provides a straightforward method for problem tailored source separation that enables reliable automatic segmentation of functional neural images, with particular benefit in situations with low signal-to-noise ratio as in IOS imaging.

  11. Glycyrrhizin ameliorates oxidative stress and inflammation in hippocampus and olfactory bulb in lithium/pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Reyes, Susana; Santillán-Cigales, Juan Jair; Jiménez-Osorio, Angélica Saraí; Pedraza-Chaverri, José; Guevara-Guzmán, Rosalinda

    2016-10-01

    Glycyrrhizin (GL) is a triterpene present in the roots and rhizomes of Glycyrrhiza glabra that has anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective and neuroprotective effects. Recently, it was demonstrated that GL produced neuroprotective effects on the postischemic brain as well as on the kainic acid injury model in rats. In addition to this, GL also prevented excitotoxic effects on primary cultures. The aims of the present study were to evaluate GL scavenging properties and to investigate GL's effect on oxidative stress and inflammation in the lithium/pilocarpine-induced seizure model in two cerebral regions, hippocampus and olfactory bulb, at acute time intervals (3 or 24h) after status epilepticus (SE). Fluorometric methods showed that GL scavenged three reactive oxygen species: hydrogen peroxide, peroxyl radicals and superoxide anions. In contrast, GL was unable to scavenge peroxynitrite, hydroxyl radicals, singlet oxygen and 2,2-diphenil-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals suggesting that GL is a weak scavenger. Additionally, administration of GL (50mg/kg, i.p.) 30min before pilocarpine administration significantly suppressed oxidative stress. Moreover, malondialdehyde levels were diminished and glutathione levels were maintained at control values in both cerebral regions at 3 and 24 after SE. At 24h after SE, glutathione S-transferase and superoxide dismutase activity increased in the hippocampus, while both glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase activity were unchanged in the olfactory bulb at that time. In addition, GL suppressed the induction of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) in both cerebral regions evaluated. These results suggest that GL confers protection against pilocarpine damage via antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects.

  12. 热力膨胀阀感温元件特性实验研究%A Study on Temperature Sensing Bulb of Thermal Expansion Valve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐博; 江挺候; 陈江平; 陈亮; 潘保国; 叶奇昉

    2011-01-01

    热力膨胀阀的感温包是影响膨胀阀性能的主要因素之一,制冷系统常常因为回气温度不稳定导致的温包压力波动而造成振荡,影响系统的稳定运行.在R410A热力膨胀阀的感温包内加入吸附填充物,对带填充物温包的温度压力特性进行了研究,发现温包填充物有效增大了升温压力变化的时间常数,而且温包填充尺寸决定了感温包的工作温度区间,并在家用空调上使用带不同感温包的热力膨胀阀进行了系统实验,发现温包充填物的改进可以减小系统的振荡.%Charging characteristic of TEV temperature sensing bulb is one of the most affective factors of TEV performance. Refrigeration systems are often unstable because of bulb pressure fluctuations caused by oscillation of back air temperature of compressor. Temperature and pressure characteristics of TEV bulb with adsorption filler in R410a system was studied. It was found that adsorption filler increase the time constant of pressure change caused by bulb temperature rising and the dimension of adsorption filler determined the operating temperature range of bulb. These TEVs with adsorption filler are experimentally investigated in the domestic air-conditioning systems, which relieve the system hunting compared with TEV without adsorption filler.

  13. The effect of storage temperature of steckling bulbs on seed stalk development and seed yield of shallot (Allium cepa L. var. ascalonicum Backer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Tendaj

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study, conducted in the years 2010–2012, was to evaluate bolting and seed production of shallot depending on storage temperature of steckling bulbs with different diameters. The present study included 4 cultivars (‘Toto’, ‘Ambition F1’, ‘Bonilla F1’, and ‘Matador F1’ and one local population (‘U’. Bulbs with the following diameters: 20–30 mm, 31–40 mm, 41–50 mm, and 51–60 mm, were stored from the first 10-day period of November (2010 and 2011 until the end of March (2011 and 2012 at a temperature of 0–1 oC, 4–6 oC, and 8–10 oC. After they were planted in the field (the second 10-day period of April, observations of bolting were carried out, while the weight of seed umbels and seed yield were determined only for the cultivar ‘Toto’ and the population ‘U’. The storage temperature of steckling bulbs in the range of 4–6 oC and 8–10 oC was most conducive to bolting, in particular in plants grown from large bulbs with a diameter above 40 mm. In the cultivar ‘Toto’, plants from bulbs with a diameter above 40 mm and stored at a temperature of 4–6 oC were characterized by the highest weight of seed umbels. This had an effect on obtaining the highest seed yield (on average 1604.16-2300.7 g per 100 m2 of area. Shallot plants from the population ‘U’ grown from bulbs with a diameter of 20–30 mm were characterized by a distinctly lower percentage of bolting plants compared to the cultivars studied. For this reason, this population does not promise positive effects in shallot production for seed.

  14. Effect of gamma radiation on the meristematic activity of garlic (Allium sativum L. ) bulbs; Efecto de la radiacion gamma sobre la actividad meristematica de bulbos de ajo (Allium sativum L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, J.; Aparicio, C.

    1979-07-01

    The effect of 10 krad of gamma radiation on the sprouting and mieristematic activity of garlic bulbs is studied. Results show that the Irradiation inhibits the meristematic activity of the bulbs independently of the epoch of treatment. When the treatment is applied several months after harvest (five or more), some apparent sprouting could be detected. This is due to a cellular elongation process rather than to cellular divisions. (Author) 47 refs.

  15. Effects of total saponins of Panax notoginseng on immature neuroblasts in the adult olfactory bulb following global cerebral ischemia/reperfusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu He

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The main active components extracted from Panax notoginseng are total saponins. They have been shown to inhibit platelet aggregation, increase cerebral blood flow, improve neurological behavior, decrease infarct volume and promote proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells in the hippocampus and lateral ventricles. However, there is a lack of studies on whether total saponins of Panax notoginseng have potential benefits on immature neuroblasts in the olfactory bulb following ischemia and reperfusion. This study established a rat model of global cerebral ischemia and reperfusion using four-vessel occlusion. Rats were administered total saponins of Panax notoginseng at 75 mg/kg intraperitoneally 30 minutes after ischemia then once a day, for either 7 or 14 days. Total saponins of Panax notoginseng enhanced the number of doublecortin (DCX + neural progenitor cells and increased co-localization of DCX with neuronal nuclei and phosphorylated cAMP response element-binding/DCX + neural progenitor cells in the olfactory bulb at 7 and 14 days post ischemia. These findings indicate that following global brain ischemia/reperfusion, total saponins of Panax notoginseng promote differentiation of DCX + cells expressing immature neuroblasts in the olfactory bulb and the underlying mechanism is related to the activation of the signaling pathway of cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element binding protein.

  16. Functional ultrasound imaging reveals different odor-evoked patterns of vascular activity in the main olfactory bulb and the anterior piriform cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osmanski, B F; Martin, C; Montaldo, G; Lanièce, P; Pain, F; Tanter, M; Gurden, H

    2014-07-15

    Topographic representation of the outside world is a key feature of sensory systems, but so far it has been difficult to define how the activity pattern of the olfactory information is distributed at successive stages in the olfactory system. We studied odor-evoked activation patterns in the main olfactory bulb and the anterior piriform cortex of rats using functional ultrasound (fUS) imaging. fUS imaging is based on the use of ultrafast ultrasound scanners and detects variations in the local blood volume during brain activation. It makes deep brain imaging of ventral structures, such as the piriform cortex, possible. Stimulation with two different odors (hexanal and pentylacetate) induced the activation of odor-specific zones that were spatially segregated in the main olfactory bulb. Interestingly, the same odorants triggered the activation of the entire anterior piriform cortex, in all layers, with no distinguishable odor-specific areas detected in the power Doppler images. These fUS imaging results confirm the spatial distribution of odor-evoked activity in the main olfactory bulb, and furthermore, they reveal the absence of such a distribution in the anterior piriform cortex at the macroscopic scale in vivo.

  17. Imaging of olfactory bulb and gray matter volumes in brain areas associated with olfactory function in patients with Parkinson's disease and multiple system atrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Shun, E-mail: shchen_2013@163.com [Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical College (China); Tan, Hong-yu, E-mail: honhyutan@21cn.com [Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical College (China); Wu, Zhuo-hua, E-mail: zhh88@126.com [Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical College (China); Sun, Chong-peng, E-mail: Suncp2002@gmail.com [Imaging Center, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical College (China); He, Jian-xun, E-mail: xundog@163.com [Imaging Center, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical College (China); Li, Xin-chun, E-mail: xinchunli@163.com [Imaging Center, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical College (China); Shao, Ming, E-mail: yimshao@126.com [Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical College (China)

    2014-03-15

    We explored if magnetic resonance imaging sequences might aid in the clinical differential diagnosis of idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD) and multiple system atrophy (MSA). We measured the volumes of the olfactory bulb, the olfactory tract, and olfaction-associated cortical gray matter in 20 IPD patients, 14 MSA patients, and 12 normal subjects, using high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging sequences in combination with voxel-based statistical analysis. We found that, compared to normal subjects and MSA patients, the volumes of the olfactory bulb and tract were significantly reduced in IPD patients. The gray matter volume of IPD patients decreased in the following order: the olfactory area to the right of the piriform cortex, the right amygdala, the left entorhinal cortex, and the left occipital lobe. Further, the total olfactory bulb volume of IPD patients was associated with the duration of disease. The entorhinal cortical gray matter volume was negatively associated with the UPDRS III score. Conclusion: Structural volumes measured by high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging may potentially be used for differential diagnosis of IPD from MSA.

  18. Effects of total saponins of Panax notoginseng on immature neuroblasts in the adult olfactory bulb following global cerebral ischemia/reperfusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu He; Feng-jun Deng; Jin-wen Ge; Xiao-xin Yan; Ai-hua Pan; Zhi-yuan Li

    2015-01-01

    The main active components extracted from Panax notoginseng are total saponins. They have been shown to inhibit platelet aggregation, increase cerebral blood lfow, improve neurological behavior, decrease infarct volume and promote proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells in the hippocampus and lateral ventricles. However, there is a lack of studies on whether total saponins of Panax notoginseng have potential benefits on immature neuroblasts in the olfactory bulb following ischemia and reperfusion. This study established a rat model of global cerebral ischemia and reperfusion using four-vessel occlusion. Rats were administered total sa-ponins of Panax notoginseng at 75 mg/kg intraperitoneally 30 minutes after ischemia then once a day, for either 7 or 14 days. Total saponins of Panax notoginseng enhanced the number of dou-blecortin (DCX)+ neural progenitor cells and increased co-localization of DCX with neuronal nuclei and phosphorylated cAMP response element-binding/DCX+ neural progenitor cells in the olfactory bulb at 7 and 14 days post ischemia. These ifndings indicate that following global brain ischemia/reperfusion, total saponins of Panax notoginseng promote differentiation of DCX+ cells expressing immature neuroblasts in the olfactory bulb and the underlying mechanism is related to the activation of the signaling pathway of cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element binding protein.

  19. Study on design of LED bulb for poultry farming%家禽养殖专用LED球泡灯的设计研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈永航

    2013-01-01

    针对家禽养殖业的照明需求,提出了家禽养殖专用LED球泡灯的设计输入,研究了现有LED球泡灯的外观及发光角度等设计特点,提出了全角度发光、防尘防水及整体结构设计的方法及解决方案最后,通过对样品的试制与检测以及对检测结果与设计输入的比较,验证了家禽养殖专用LED球泡灯的结构设计及照明需求的可行性.%To meet the needs of lighting for poultry framing,design inputs of LED bulbs applied in poultry farming are put forward; the features of the existing LED bulb such as appearance and lighting angle are studied,then the design methods and solutions about 360° lighting,waterproof,dustproof and overall structural are proposed.Finally,through the sample testing and the comparision between the testing results and design input,the feasibility of the structural design and the needs of lighting of LED bulb applied in poultry farming are verified.

  20. Neonatal citalopram exposure decreases serotonergic fiber density in the olfactory bulb of male but not female adult rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junlin eZhang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Manipulation of serotonin (5HT during early development has been shown to induce long-lasting morphological changes within the raphe nuclear complex and serotonergic circuitry throughout the brain. Recent studies have demonstrated altered raphe-derived 5HT transporter (SERT immunoreactive axonal expression in several cortical target sites after brief perinatal exposure to selective 5HT reuptake inhibitors such as citalopram (CTM. Since the serotonergic raphe nuclear complex projects to the olfactory bulb (OB and perinatal 5HT disruption has been shown to disrupt olfactory behaviors, the goal of this study was to further investigate such developmental effects in the OB of CTM exposed animals. Male and female rat pups were exposed to CTM from postnatal day 8-21. After animals reach adulthood (>90 days, OB tissue sections were processed immunohistochemically for SERT antiserum. Our data revealed that the density of the SERT immunoreactive fibers decreased ~40% in the OB of CTM exposed male rats, but not female rats. Our findings support a broad and long-lasting change throughout most of the 5HT system, including the OB, after early manipulation of 5HT. Because dysfunction of the early 5HT system has been implicated in the etiology of neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorders (ASDs, these new findings may offer insight into the abnormal olfactory perception often noted in patients with ASD.

  1. Head losses prediction and analysis in a bulb turbine draft tube under different operating conditions using unsteady simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, S.; Balarac, G.; Métais, O.; Ségoufin, C.

    2016-11-01

    Flow prediction in a bulb turbine draft tube is conducted for two operating points using Unsteady RANS (URANS) simulations and Large Eddy Simulations (LES). The inlet boundary condition of the draft tube calculation is a rotating two dimensional velocity profile exported from a RANS guide vane- runner calculation. Numerical results are compared with experimental data in order to validate the flow field and head losses prediction. Velocity profiles prediction is improved with LES in the center of the draft tube compared to URANS results. Moreover, more complex flow structures are obtained with LES. A local analysis of the predicted flow field using the energy balance in the draft tube is then introduced in order to detect the hydrodynamic instabilities responsible for head losses in the draft tube. In particular, the production of turbulent kinetic energy next to the draft tube wall and in the central vortex structure is found to be responsible for a large part of the mean kinetic energy dissipation in the draft tube and thus for head losses. This analysis is used in order to understand the differences in head losses for different operating points. The numerical methodology could then be improved thanks to an in-depth understanding of the local flow topology.

  2. Altered morphologies and functions of the olfactory bulb and hippocampus induced by miR-30c

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingting eSun

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Adult neurogenesis is considered to contribute to a certain degree of plasticity for the brain. However, the effects of adult-born neurons on the brain are still largely unknown. Here, we specifically altered the expression of miR-30c in the subventricular zone (SVZ and dentate gyrus (DG by stereotaxic injection with their respective up-and down-regulated lentiviruses. Results showed an increased level of miR-30c enhanced adult neurogenesis by prompting cell-cycles of stem cells, whereas down-regulated miR-30c led to the opposite results. When these effects of miR-30c lasted for three months, we detected significant morphological changes in the olfactory bulb (OB and lineage alteration in the hippocampus. Tests of olfactory sensitivity and associative and spatial memory showed that a certain amount of adult-born neurons are essential for the normal functions of the OB and hippocampus, but there also exist redundant newborn neurons that do not further improve the functioning of these areas. Our study revealed the interactions between miRNA, adult neurogenesis, brain morphology and function, and this provides a novel insight into understanding the role of newborn neurons in the adult brain.

  3. Selenomethionine Ameliorates Neuropathology in the Olfactory Bulb of a Triple Transgenic Mouse Model of Alzheimer’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhong-Hao; Chen, Chen; Wu, Qiu-Yan; Zheng, Rui; Chen, Yao; Liu, Qiong; Ni, Jia-Zuan; Song, Guo-Li

    2016-01-01

    Olfactory dysfunction is an early and common symptom in Alzheimer′s disease (AD) and is reported to be related to several pathologic changes, including the deposition of Aβ and hyperphosphorylated tau protein as well as synaptic impairment. Selenomethionine (Se-Met), the major form of selenium in animals and humans, may be a promising therapeutic option for AD as it decreases the deposition of Aβ and tau hyperphosphorylation in a triple transgenic mouse model of AD (3× Tg-AD). In this study, 4-month-old AD mice were treated with 6 µg/mL Se-Met in drinking water for 12 weeks and the effect of Se-Met on neuropathological deficits in olfactory bulb (OB) of 3× Tg-AD mice was investigated. The administration of Se-Met effectively decreased the production and deposition of Aβ by inhibiting β-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1)-regulated amyloid precursor protein (APP) processing and reduced the level of total tau and phosphorylated tau, which depended on depressing the activity and expression of glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) and cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5). Meanwhile, Se-Met reduced glial activation, relieved neuroinflammation and attenuated neuronal cell death in the OB of AD mice. So Se-Met could improve pathologic changes of AD in the OB, which further demonstrated the potential therapeutic effect of Se-Met in AD. PMID:27689994

  4. Mitral and tufted cells are potential cellular targets of nitration in the olfactory bulb of aged mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myung Jae Yang

    Full Text Available Olfactory sensory function declines with age; though, the underlying molecular changes that occur in the olfactory bulb (OB are relatively unknown. An important cellular signaling molecule involved in the processing, modulation, and formation of olfactory memories is nitric oxide (NO. However, excess NO can result in the production of peroxynitrite to cause oxidative and nitrosative stress. In this study, we assessed whether changes in the expression of 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT, a neurochemical marker of peroxynitrite and thus oxidative damage, exists in the OB of young, adult, middle-aged, and aged mice. Our results demonstrate that OB 3-NT levels increase with age in normal C57BL/6 mice. Moreover, in aged mice, 3-NT immunoreactivity was found in some blood vessels and microglia throughout the OB. Notably, large and strongly immunoreactive puncta were found in mitral and tufted cells, and these were identified as lipofuscin granules. Additionally, we found many small-labeled puncta within the glomeruli of the glomerular layer and in the external plexiform layer, and these were localized to mitochondria and discrete segments of mitral and tufted dendritic plasma membranes. These results suggest that mitral and tufted cells are potential cellular targets of nitration, along with microglia and blood vessels, in the OB during aging.

  5. The role of the bacterial community in the nutritional ecology of the bulb mite Rhizoglyphus robini (Acari: Astigmata: Acaridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zindel, Renate; Ofek, Maya; Minz, Dror; Palevsky, Eric; Zchori-Fein, Einat; Aebi, Alexandre

    2013-04-01

    The biology of many arthropods can only be understood when their associated microbiome is considered. The nutritional requirements of the bulb mite Rhizoglyphus robini Claparede (Acari: Astigmata: Acaridae) in the laboratory have been shown to be very easily satisfied, and in the field the mites prefer fungus-infected over uninfected plants. To test whether symbiotic bacteria facilitate the survival of R. robini on a temporarily nutritionally unbalanced diet, we investigated the composition of its microbiome. Using 454 pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene fragments, 3 genera were found to dominate the bacterial community: Myroides (41.4%), Serratia (11.4%), and Alcaligenes (4.5%); the latter 2 are known to include chitinase-producing species. Laboratory experiments demonstrated that mite fecundity is significantly higher (2 times) on fungus than on controls (sterilized potato dextrose agar and filter paper). Also, when mite homogenate was applied to a chitin layer, the halo produced through degradation was clearly visible, while the saline control did not produce a halo. We thus concluded that R. robini utilizes fungal chitin, at least to a certain extent, as a food source with the help of its associated bacteria. This information supports the general concept of multigenome organisms and the involvement of bacteria in the mite's nutritional ecology.

  6. Life History Consequences of the Facultative Expression of a Dispersal Life Stage in the Phoretic Bulb Mite (Rhizoglyphus robini.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques A Deere

    Full Text Available Life history traits play an important role in population dynamics and correlate, both positively and negatively, with dispersal in a wide range of taxa. Most invertebrate studies on trade-offs between life history traits and dispersal have focused on dispersal via flight, yet much less is known about how life history trade-offs influence species that disperse by other means. In this study, we identify effects of investing in dispersal morphology (dispersal expression on life history traits in the male dimorphic bulb mite (Rhizoglyphus robini. This species has a facultative juvenile life stage (deutonymph during which individuals can disperse by phoresy. Further, adult males are either fighters (which kill other mites or benign scramblers. Here, in an experiment, we investigate the effects of investing in dispersal on size at maturity, sex and male morph ratio, and female lifetime reproductive success. We show that life history traits correlate negatively with the expression of the dispersal stage. Remarkably, all males that expressed the dispersal life stage developed into competitive fighters and none into scramblers. This suggests that alternative, male reproductive strategies and dispersal should not be viewed in isolation but considered concurrently.

  7. Lack of effect on sexual behaviour or the development of testicular function after removal of olfactory bulbs in prepubertal boars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, W D; Baldwin, B A

    1980-01-01

    Bilateral olfactory bulb ablation was carried out surgically on 8 prepubertal Large White boars when they were 10-12 weeks of age. Between 26 weeks and slaughter at 47-49 weeks of age, androgen was determined in peripheral blood plasma of bulbectomized and unoperated control animals. The pigs were exposed to oestrous female pigs to observe mating behaviour, and to alien boars to observe aggressive behaviour. Saliva produced during behaviour tests was extracted with diethyl ether and levels of the pheromonal 16-androstene steroids in the extracts were determined by a colorimetric assay. After slaughter the testes, accessory organs and submaxillary glands were weighed, and pices of tissue together with olfactory epithelium were processed for light microscopy; fructose and zinc were determined in the seminal vesicles. The results showed that, contrary to findings in some rodents, prepubertal bilateral bulbectomy in the male pig had no significant effect on mating or aggressive behaviour, or testicular function in so far as complete spermatogenesis was present and normal levels of androgen and pheromone were maintained together with the integrity of the accessory organs. However, in keeping with findings in other species, the height of the olfactory epithelium was generally reduced in the bulbectomized pigs.

  8. Opposite-sex attraction in male mice requires testosterone-dependent regulation of adult olfactory bulb neurogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellino, Roberta; Trova, Sara; Cimino, Irene; Farinetti, Alice; Jongbloets, Bart C.; Pasterkamp, R. Jeroen; Panzica, Giancarlo; Giacobini, Paolo; De Marchis, Silvia; Peretto, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Opposite-sex attraction in most mammals depends on the fine-tuned integration of pheromonal stimuli with gonadal hormones in the brain circuits underlying sexual behaviour. Neural activity in these circuits is regulated by sensory processing in the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB), the first central station of the vomeronasal system. Recent evidence indicates adult neurogenesis in the AOB is involved in sex behaviour; however, the mechanisms underlying this function are unknown. By using Semaphorin 7A knockout (Sema7A ko) mice, which show a reduced number of gonadotropin-releasing-hormone neurons, small testicles and subfertility, and wild-type males castrated during adulthood, we demonstrate that the level of circulating testosterone regulates the sex-specific control of AOB neurogenesis and the vomeronasal system activation, which influences opposite-sex cue preference/attraction in mice. Overall, these data highlight adult neurogenesis as a hub for the integration of pheromonal and hormonal cues that control sex-specific responses in brain circuits. PMID:27782186

  9. Inducible activation of ERK5 MAP kinase enhances adult neurogenesis in the olfactory bulb and improves olfactory function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenbin; Lu, Song; Li, Tan; Pan, Yung-Wei; Zou, Junhui; Abel, Glen M; Xu, Lihong; Storm, Daniel R; Xia, Zhengui

    2015-05-20

    Recent discoveries have suggested that adult neurogenesis in the subventricular zone (SVZ) and olfactory bulb (OB) may be required for at least some forms of olfactory behavior in mice. However, it is unclear whether conditional and selective enhancement of adult neurogenesis by genetic approaches is sufficient to improve olfactory function under physiological conditions or after injury. Furthermore, specific signaling mechanisms regulating adult neurogenesis in the SVZ/OB are not fully defined. We previously reported that ERK5, a MAP kinase selectively expressed in the neurogenic regions of the adult brain, plays a critical role in adult neurogenesis in the SVZ/OB. Using a site-specific knock-in mouse model, we report here that inducible and targeted activation of the endogenous ERK5 in adult neural stem/progenitor cells enhances adult neurogenesis in the OB by increasing cell survival and neuronal differentiation. This conditional ERK5 activation also improves short-term olfactory memory and odor-cued associative olfactory learning under normal physiological conditions. Furthermore, these mice show enhanced recovery of olfactory function and have more adult-born neurons after a zinc sulfate-induced lesion of the main olfactory epithelium. We conclude that ERK5 MAP kinase is an important endogenous signaling pathway regulating adult neurogenesis in the SVZ/OB, and that conditional activation of endogenous ERK5 is sufficient to enhance adult neurogenesis in the OB thereby improving olfactory function both under normal conditions and after injury.

  10. Purification, amino acid sequence, and cDNA cloning of trypsin inhibitors from onion (Allium cepa L.) bulbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshimaru, Masanobu; Watanabe, Akira; Suematsu, Keiko; Hatano, Maki; Terada, Shigeyuki

    2003-08-01

    Three protease inhibitors (OTI-1-3) have been purified from onion (Allium cepa L.) bulbs. Molecular masses of these inhibitors were found to be 7,370.2, 7,472.2, and 7,642.6 Da by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS), respectively. Based on amino acid composition and N-terminal sequence, OTI-1 and -2 are the N-terminal truncated proteins of OTI-3. All the inhibitors are stable to heat and extreme pH. OTI-3 inhibited trypsin, chymotrypsin, and plasmin with dissociation constants of 1.3 x 10(-9) M, 2.3 x 10(-7) M, and 3.1 x 10(-7) M, respectively. The complete amino acid sequence of OTI-3 showed a significant homology to Bowman-Birk family inhibitors, and the first reactive site (P1) was found to be Arg17 by limited proteolysis by trypsin. The second reactive site (P1) was estimated to be Leu46, that may inhibit chymotrypsin. OTI-3 lacks an S-S bond near the second reactive site, resulting in a low affinity for the enzyme. The sequence of OTI-3 was also ascertained by the nucleotide sequence of a cDNA clone encoding a 101-residue precursor of the onion inhibitor.

  11. Functional roles of distributed synaptic clusters in the mitral-granule cell network of the olfactory bulb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Migliore

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Odors are encoded in spatio-temporal patterns within the olfactory bulb, but the mechanisms of odor recognition and discrimination are poorly understood. It is reasonable to postulate that the olfactory code is sculpted by lateral and feedforward inhibition mediated by granule cells onto the mitral cells. Recent viral tracing and physiological studies revealed patterns of distributed granule cell synaptic clusters that provided additional clues to the possible mechanisms at the network level. The emerging properties and functional roles of these patterns, however, are unknown. Here, using a realistic model of 5 mitral and 100 granule cells we show how their synaptic network can dynamically self-organize and interact through an activity-dependent dendrodendritic mechanism. The results suggest that the patterns of distributed mitral-granule cell connectivity may represent the most recent history of odor inputs, and may contribute to the basic processes underlying mixture perception and odor qualities. The model predicts how and why the dynamical interactions between the active mitral cells through the granule cell synaptic clusters can account for a variety of puzzling behavioral results on odor mixtures and on the emergence of synthetic or analytic perception.

  12. Neuroanatomical relationships between FMRFamide-immunoreactive components of the nervus terminalis and the topology of olfactory bulbs in teleost fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Aniello, Biagio; Polese, Gianluca; Luongo, Luciano; Scandurra, Anna; Magliozzi, Laura; Aria, Massimo; Pinelli, Claudia

    2016-04-01

    The nervus terminalis (NT) is the most anterior of the vertebrate cranial nerves. In teleost fish, the NT runs across all olfactory components and shows high morphological variability within this taxon. We compare the anatomical distribution, average number and size of the FMRFamide-immunoreactive (ir) NT cells of fourteen teleost species with different positions of olfactory bulbs (OBs) with respect to the ventral telencephalic area. Based on the topology of the OBs, three different neuroanatomical organizations of the telencephalon can be defined, viz., fish having sessile (Type I), pseudosessile (short stalked; Type II) or stalked (Type III) OBs. Type III topology of OBs appears to be a feature associated with more basal species, whereas Types I and II occur in derived and in basal species. The displacement of the OBs is positively correlated with the peripheral distribution of the FMRFamide-ir NT cells. The number of cells is negatively correlated with the size of the cells. A dependence analysis related to the type of OB topology revealed a positive relationship with the number of cells and with the size of the cells, with Type I and II topologies of OBs showing significantly fewer cells and larger cells than Type III. A dendrogram based on similarities obtained by taking into account all variables under study, i.e., the number and size of the FMRFamide-ir NT cells and the topology of OBs, does not agree with the phylogenetic relationships amongst species, suggesting that divergent or convergent evolutionary phenomena produced the olfactory components studied.

  13. Giant Brunner’s Gland Adenoma of the Duodenal Bulb Presenting with Ampullary and Duodenal Obstruction Mimicking Pancreatic Malignancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishal Gupta

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Context Brunner’s gland adenoma is a rare benign duodenal neoplasm. It usually presents with luminal obstruction or gastrointestinal bleeding. In rare cases, it may mimic a pancreatic malignancy and may present with obstructive jaundice. Case report A 65-year-old female presented with a two-month history of abdominal pain, early satiety and retrosternal burning pain. Liver function tests showed elevated enzymes with normal bilirubin. Imaging studies revealed a large mass in relation to the uncinate process of the pancreas and the distal duodenum along with the dilated common bile duct and the main pancreatic duct. Initial endoscopic evaluation failed to make a correct diagnosis. Repeat endoscopic evaluation combined with endoscopic sonography, however, revealed a large polypoid mass arising from the duodenal bulb. The patient underwent a transduodenal polypectomy. A diagnosis of Brunner’s gland adenoma was made on histopathological examination. Conclusion Giant Brunner’s adenoma may have unusual presentations. It may present with the features of ampullary obstruction mimicking periampullary or pancreatic malignancies. Extensive preoperative evaluation is required to reach a correct diagnosis in order to avoid more extensive surgery.

  14. The transcription factor Sp8 is required for the production of parvalbumin-expressing interneurons in the olfactory bulb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaosu; Sun, Chifei; Lin, Chao; Ma, Tong; Madhavan, Mayur C; Campbell, Kenneth; Yang, Zhengang

    2011-06-08

    Interneurons in the olfactory bulb (OB) represent a heterogeneous population, which are first produced at embryonic stages and persisting into adulthood. Using the BrdU birthdating method combined with immunostaining for several different neuronal markers, we provide the integrated temporal patterns of distinct mouse OB interneuron production from embryonic day 14 to postnatal day 365. We show that although the majority of OB interneuron subtypes continue to be generated throughout life, most subtypes show a similar "bell-like" temporal production pattern with a peak around birth. Tyrosine hydroxylase and calretinin-expressing interneurons are produced at a relatively low rate in the adult OB, while parvalbumin-expressing (PV+) interneuron production is confined to later embryonic and early postnatal stages. We also show that Dlx5/6-expressing progenitors contribute to PV+ interneurons in the OB. Interestingly, all PV+ interneurons in the external plexiform layer (EPL) express the transcription factor Sp8. Genetic ablation of Sp8 by cre/loxP-based recombination severely reduces the number of PV+ interneurons in the EPL of the OB. Our results suggest that Sp8 is required for the normal production of PV+ interneurons in the EPL of the OB. These data expand our understanding of the temporal and molecular regulation of OB interneuron neurogenesis.

  15. Reduction of rat hippocampal calcium-binding protein following commissural, amygdala, septal, perforant path, and olfactory bulb kindling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baimbridge, K G; Mody, I; Miller, J J

    1985-01-01

    The calcium-binding protein (CaBP) content of the hippocampal formation was determined by radioimmunoassay in control and kindled rats. Kindling of a number of different sites resulted in a reduction in the CaBP content of the hippocampal formation, which was shown immunohistochemically to be restricted to the dentate granule cells and their processes. The maximum decline in CaBP varied with the different kindling sites: perforant path, 33%; commissural path, 32%; septum, 30%; amygdala, 18%; and olfactory bulbs, 15%. There were no changes in the CaBP content of the stimulated areas themselves. In cases where the kindling stimulus was delivered unilaterally (perforant path and amygdala), the maximum decrease in hippocampal CaBP was observed ipsilateral to the site of stimulation when the criterion for full kindling was established (six consecutive stage 5 motor seizures). Further kindling trials were required to produce a similar magnitude decrease in the CaBP content of the contralateral hippocampus. These observations are discussed both in relation to the possible role of CaBP in the establishment of a seizure response to kindling and also as a potential compensatory mechanism that may serve to overcome the epileptogenic effects of kindling.

  16. Ocular bulb as a matrix of selection in detection of clenbuterol: an effective monitoring in breeding turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Roncada

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Clenbuterol is a 2-agonist licensed in Europe solely as a muscle relaxant in pregnant cattle, usually during calf delivery, and for tocolysis and treatment of respiratory diseases in horses. Different use in animals is considered illegal because this growth promoter can endanger human health. The aim of this work was to monitor the presence of clenbuterol in a not official and inedible matrix (where there is strong evidence of its potential accumulation, as ocular bulb, collected in 2007-2009 from turkeys at public slaughterhouses in Central-Northern Italy. The 280 collected samples were analysed with a new and effective method of extraction and purification based on HPLC analysis with UV-DAD detection. The average extraction recoveries were 80.60 ± 1.57%. All the samples were below the quantification limit (0.010 µg/mL. At 95% confidence level the percentage of positive turkeys breeding-farms was below 14%. This allows extending positive evaluations on the safety of edible tissues of Italian turkey.

  17. The production of somatostatin interneurons in the olfactory bulb is regulated by the transcription factor sp8.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuhua Jiang

    Full Text Available Somatostatin (Som, one of the most concentrated neuropeptides in the brain, is highly expressed in the olfactory bulb (OB. However, the temporal profile by which OB somatostatin-expressing (Som+ interneurons are produced and the molecular mechanisms controlling this profile are totally unknown. In the present study, we found that all the Som+ interneurons in the mouse external plexiform layer (EPL and the rat glomerular layer (GL express the transcription factor Sp8.Using the 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU birth dating method, combined with immunostaining, we showed that the generation of Som+ interneurons in the mouse and rat OB is confined to the later embryonic and earlier postnatal stages. Within the mouse OB, the production of Som+ interneurons is maximal during late embryogenesis and decreases after birth, whereas the generation of Som+ interneurons is low during embryogenesis and increases gradually after birth in the rat OB. Interestingly, genetic ablation of Sp8 by cre/loxP-based recombination severely reduces the number of Som+ interneurons in the EPL of the mouse OB. Taken together, these results suggest that Sp8 is required for the normal production of Som+ interneurons in the EPL of the mouse OB.

  18. Npas4 Regulates Mdm2 and thus Dcx in Experience-Dependent Dendritic Spine Development of Newborn Olfactory Bulb Interneurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sei-ichi Yoshihara

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Sensory experience regulates the development of various brain structures, including the cortex, hippocampus, and olfactory bulb (OB. Little is known about how sensory experience regulates the dendritic spine development of OB interneurons, such as granule cells (GCs, although it is well studied in mitral/tufted cells. Here, we identify a transcription factor, Npas4, which is expressed in OB GCs immediately after sensory input and is required for dendritic spine formation. Npas4 overexpression in OB GCs increases dendritic spine density, even under sensory deprivation, and rescues reduction of dendrite spine density in the Npas4 knockout OB. Furthermore, loss of Npas4 upregulates expression of the E3-ubiquitin ligase Mdm2, which ubiquitinates a microtubule-associated protein Dcx. This leads to reduction in the dendritic spine density of OB GCs. Together, these findings suggest that Npas4 regulates Mdm2 expression to ubiquitinate and degrade Dcx during dendritic spine development in newborn OB GCs after sensory experience.

  19. Selenomethionine Ameliorates Neuropathology in the Olfactory Bulb of a Triple Transgenic Mouse Model of Alzheimer’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong-Hao Zhang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Olfactory dysfunction is an early and common symptom in Alzheimer′s disease (AD and is reported to be related to several pathologic changes, including the deposition of Aβ and hyperphosphorylated tau protein as well as synaptic impairment. Selenomethionine (Se-Met, the major form of selenium in animals and humans, may be a promising therapeutic option for AD as it decreases the deposition of Aβ and tau hyperphosphorylation in a triple transgenic mouse model of AD (3× Tg-AD. In this study, 4-month-old AD mice were treated with 6 µg/mL Se-Met in drinking water for 12 weeks and the effect of Se-Met on neuropathological deficits in olfactory bulb (OB of 3× Tg-AD mice was investigated. The administration of Se-Met effectively decreased the production and deposition of Aβ by inhibiting β-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1-regulated amyloid precursor protein (APP processing and reduced the level of total tau and phosphorylated tau, which depended on depressing the activity and expression of glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β and cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5. Meanwhile, Se-Met reduced glial activation, relieved neuroinflammation and attenuated neuronal cell death in the OB of AD mice. So Se-Met could improve pathologic changes of AD in the OB, which further demonstrated the potential therapeutic effect of Se-Met in AD.

  20. Shared and differential traits in the accessory olfactory bulb of caviomorph rodents with particular reference to the semiaquatic capybara.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez, Rodrigo; Santibáñez, Rodrigo; Parra, Daniela; Coppi, Antonio A; Abrahão, Luciana M B; Sasahara, Tais H C; Mpodozis, Jorge

    2011-05-01

    The vomeronasal system is crucial for social and sexual communication in mammals. Two populations of vomeronasal sensory neurons, each expressing Gαi2 or Gαo proteins, send projections to glomeruli of the rostral or caudal accessory olfactory bulb, rAOB and cAOB, respectively. In rodents, the Gαi2- and Gαo-expressing vomeronasal pathways have shown differential responses to small/volatile vs. large/non-volatile semiochemicals, respectively. Moreover, early gene expression suggests predominant activation of rAOB and cAOB neurons in sexual vs. aggressive contexts, respectively. We recently described the AOB of Octodon degus, a semiarid-inhabiting diurnal caviomorph. Their AOB has a cell indentation between subdomains and the rAOB is twice the size of the cAOB. Moreover, their AOB receives innervation from the lateral aspect, contrasting with the medial innervation of all other mammals examined to date. Aiming to relate AOB anatomy with lifestyle, we performed a morphometric study on the AOB of the capybara, a semiaquatic caviomorph whose lifestyle differs remarkably from that of O. degus. Capybaras mate in water and scent-mark their surroundings with oily deposits, mostly for male-male communication. We found that, similar to O. degus, the AOB of capybaras shows a lateral innervation of the vomeronasal nerve, a cell indentation between subdomains and heterogeneous subdomains, but in contrast to O. degus the caudal portion is larger than the rostral one. We also observed that four other caviomorph species present a lateral AOB innervation and a cell indentation between AOB subdomains, suggesting that those traits could represent apomorphies of the group. We propose that although some AOB traits may be phylogenetically conserved in caviomorphs, ecological specializations may play an important role in shaping the AOB.

  1. Inter-observer variability in contouring the penile bulb on CT images for prostate cancer treatment planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perna, Lucia; Cozzarini, Cesare; Maggiulli, Eleonora; Fellin, Gianni; Rancati, Tiziana; Valdagni, Riccardo; Vavassori, Vittorio; Villa, Sergio; Fiorino, Claudio

    2011-09-24

    Several investigations have recently suggested the existence of a correlation between the dose received by the penile bulb (PB) and the risk of erectile dysfunction (ED) after radical radiotherapy for clinically localized prostate carcinoma. A prospective multi-Institute study (DUE-01) was implemented with the aim to assess the predictive parameters of ED. Previously, an evaluation of inter-observer variations of PB contouring was mandatory in order to quantify its impact on PB dose-volume parameters by means of a dummy run exercise. Fifteen observers, from different Institutes, drew the PB on the planning CT images of ten patients; inter-observer variations were analysed in terms of PB volume variation and cranial/caudal limits. 3DCRT treatment plans were simulated to evaluate the impact of PB contouring inter-variability on dose-volume statistics parameters. For DVH analysis the values of PB mean dose and the volume of PB receiving more than 50 Gy and 70 Gy (V50 and V70, respectively) were considered. Systematic differences from the average values were assessed by the Wilcoxon test. Seven observers systematically overestimated or underestimated the PB volume with deviations from the average volumes ranging between -48% and +34% (p V50 and V70 respectively. In conclusion, despite the large inter-observer variation in contouring PB, a large multi-centric study may have the possibility to detect a possible correlation between PB % dose-volume parameters and ED. The impact of contouring uncertainty could be reduced by "a posteriori" contouring from a single observer or by introducing Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) in the planning procedures and/or in improving the skill of observers through post-dummy run tutoring of those observers showing large systematic deviations from the mean.

  2. Erectile dysfunction after prostate three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy. Correlation with the dose to the penile bulb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magli, A.; Ceschia, T.; Titone, F.; Parisi, G.; Fongione, S. [University Hospital Udine (Italy). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Giangreco, M. [Udine Univ. (Italy). Hygiene and Epidemiology Inst.; Crespi, M.; Negri, A. [University Hospital Udine (Italy). Dept. of Medical Physics; De Giorgi, G. [University Hospital Udine (Italy). Dept. of Urology

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: Erectile dysfunction is associated with all the common treatment options for prostate cancer. The aim of this research was to evaluate the relationship between erectile function and radiation dose to the penile bulb (PB) and other proximal penile structures in men receiving conformal radiotherapy (CRT) without hormonal therapy (HT) for prostate cancer, whose sexual function was known before treatment. Patients and methods: The study included 19 patients treated with 3D-CRT for localized prostate cancer at our department, who were self-reported to be potent before treatment, had not received HT, and had complete follow-up data available. Our evaluation was based on the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5). Dose-volume histograms (DVHs) were used to evaluate the dose to the PB. Statistical analysis was performed with an unconditional logistic regression model. Results: All patients reported change in potency after radiation. Eight patients (42%) remained potent but showed a decrease of 1 or 2 levels of potency, as defined by the IIEF-5 questionnaire (reduced potency group), while 11 patients (58%) reported a change of higher levels and revealed a severe erectile dysfunction after 2 years (impotence group). Multivariate analysis of morphological and dosimetric variables yielded significance for the mean dose (p = 0.05 with an odds ratio of 1.14 and 95% CI 1-1.30). Patients receiving a mean dose of less than 50 Gy to the PB appear to have a much greater likelihood of maintaining potency. Conclusion: Our data suggest a possible existence of a dose-volume correlation between the dose applied to the PB and radiation-induced impotence. (orig.)

  3. Pheromones from males of different familiarity exert divergent effects on adult neurogenesis in the female accessory olfactory bulb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jyun-Han; Han, Yueh-Ting; Yu, Jenn-Yah; Wang, Tsu-Wei

    2013-08-01

    Pheromones from urine of unfamiliar conspecific male animals can reinitiate a female's estrus cycle to cause pregnancy block through the vomeronasal organ (VNO)-accessory olfactory bulb (AOB)-hypothalamic pathway. This phenomenon is called the Bruce effect. Pheromones from the mate of the female, however, do not trigger re-entrance of the estrus cycle because an olfactory memory toward its mate is formed. The activity of the VNO-AOB-hypothalamic pathway is negatively modulated by GABAergic granule cells in the AOB. Since these cells are constantly replenished by neural stem cells in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricle throughout adulthood and adult neurogenesis is required for mate recognition and fertility, we tested the hypothesis that pheromones from familiar and unfamiliar males may have different effects on adult AOB neurogenesis in female mice. When female mice were exposed to bedding used by a male or lived with one, cell proliferation and neuroblast production in the SVZ were increased. Furthermore, survival of newly generated cells in the AOB was enhanced. This survival effect was transient and mediated by norepinephrine. Interestingly, male bedding-induced newborn cell survival in the AOB but not cell proliferation in the SVZ was attenuated when females were subjected to bedding from an unfamiliar male. Our results indicate that male pheromones from familiar and unfamiliar males exert different effects on neurogenesis in the adult female AOB. Given that adult neurogenesis is required for reproductive behaviors, these divergent pheromonal effects may provide a mechanism for the Bruce effect. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 73: 632-645, 2013.

  4. Long-term plasticity in the regulation of olfactory bulb activity by centrifugal fibers from piriform cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cauthron, Joy L; Stripling, Jeffrey S

    2014-07-16

    Olfactory bulb granule cells are activated synaptically via two main pathways. Mitral/tufted (M/T) cells form dendrodendritic synapses on granule cells that can be activated by antidromic stimulation of the lateral olfactory tract (LOT). Centrifugal fibers originating from the association fiber (AF) system in piriform cortex (PC) make axodendritic synapses on granule cells within the granule cell layer (GCL) that can be activated by orthodromic stimulation of AF axons in the PC. We explored functional plasticity in the AF pathway by recording extracellularly from individual M/T cells and presumed granule cells in male Long-Evans rats under urethane anesthesia while testing their response to LOT and AF stimulation. Presumed granule cells driven synaptically by LOT stimulation (type L cells) were concentrated in the superficial half of the GCL and were activated at short latencies, whereas those driven synaptically by AF stimulation (type A cells) were concentrated in the deep half of the GCL and were activated at longer latencies. Type A cells were readily detected only in animals in which the AF input to the GCL had been previously potentiated by repeated high-frequency stimulation. An additional bout of high-frequency stimulation administered under urethane caused an immediate increase in the number of action potentials evoked in type A cells by AF test stimulation and a concomitant increase in inhibition of M/T cells. These results underscore the importance of the role played in olfactory processing by PC regulation of OB activity and document the long-lasting potentiation of that regulation by repeated high-frequency AF activation.

  5. Context-driven activation of odor representations in the absence of olfactory stimuli in the olfactory bulb and piriform cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandairon, Nathalie; Kermen, Florence; Charpentier, Caroline; Sacquet, Joelle; Linster, Christiane; Didier, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Sensory neural activity is highly context dependent and shaped by experience and expectation. In the olfactory bulb (OB), the first cerebral relay of olfactory processing, responses to odorants are shaped by previous experiences including contextual information thanks to strong feedback connections. In the present experiment, mice were conditioned to associate an odorant with a visual context and were then exposed to the visual context alone. We found that the visual context alone elicited exploration of the odor port similar to that elicited by the stimulus when it was initially presented. In the OB, the visual context alone elicited a neural activation pattern, assessed by mapping the expression of the immediate early gene zif268 (egr-1) that was highly similar to that evoked by the conditioned odorant, but not other odorants. This OB activation was processed by olfactory network as it was transmitted to the piriform cortex. Interestingly, a novel context abolished neural and behavioral responses. In addition, the neural representation in response to the context was dependent on top-down inputs, suggesting that context-dependent representation is initiated in cortex. Modeling of the experimental data suggests that odor representations are stored in cortical networks, reactivated by the context and activate bulbar representations. Activation of the OB and the associated behavioral response in the absence of physical stimulus showed that mice are capable of internal representations of sensory stimuli. The similarity of activation patterns induced by imaged and the corresponding physical stimulus, triggered only by the relevant context provides evidence for an odor-specific internal representation.

  6. Functional imaging of olfaction by CBV fMRI in monkeys: insight into the role of olfactory bulb in habituation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Fuqiang; Holahan, Marie A; Houghton, Andrea K; Hargreaves, Richard; Evelhoch, Jeffrey L; Winkelmann, Christopher T; Williams, Donald S

    2015-02-01

    Cerebral blood volume (CBV) fMRI with superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (USPIO) as contrast agent was used to investigate the odorant-induced olfaction in anesthetized rhesus monkeys. fMRI data were acquired in 24 axial slices covering the entire brain, with isoamyl-acetate as the odor stimulant. For each experiment, multiple fMRI measurements were made during a 1- or 2-h period, with each measurement consisting of a baseline period, a stimulation period, and a recovery period. Three different stimulation paradigms with a stimulation period of 1 min, 2 min, or 8 min, respectively, were used to study the olfactory responses in the olfactory bulb (OB). Odorant-induced CBV increases were observed in the OB of each individual monkey. The spatial and temporal activation patterns were reproducible within and between animals. The sensitivity of CBV fMRI in OB was comparable with the sensitivities reported in previous animal fMRI studies. The CBV responses during the 1-min, 2-min, or 8-min odor stimulation period were relatively stable, and did not show attenuation. The amplitudes of CBV response to the repeated stimuli during the 1- or 2-h period were also stable. The stable CBV response in the OB to both continuous and repeated odor stimuli suggests that the OB may not play a major role in olfactory habituation. The technical approach described in this report can enable more extensive fMRI studies of olfactory processing in OB of both humans and non-human primates.

  7. Role of intraglomerular circuits in shaping temporally structured responses to naturalistic inhalation-driven sensory input to the olfactory bulb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Ryan M; Sherwood, William Erik; Shipley, Michael T; Borisyuk, Alla; Wachowiak, Matt

    2015-05-01

    Olfaction in mammals is a dynamic process driven by the inhalation of air through the nasal cavity. Inhalation determines the temporal structure of sensory neuron responses and shapes the neural dynamics underlying central olfactory processing. Inhalation-linked bursts of activity among olfactory bulb (OB) output neurons [mitral/tufted cells (MCs)] are temporally transformed relative to those of sensory neurons. We investigated how OB circuits shape inhalation-driven dynamics in MCs using a modeling approach that was highly constrained by experimental results. First, we constructed models of canonical OB circuits that included mono- and disynaptic feedforward excitation, recurrent inhibition and feedforward inhibition of the MC. We then used experimental data to drive inputs to the models and to tune parameters; inputs were derived from sensory neuron responses during natural odorant sampling (sniffing) in awake rats, and model output was compared with recordings of MC responses to odorants sampled with the same sniff waveforms. This approach allowed us to identify OB circuit features underlying the temporal transformation of sensory inputs into inhalation-linked patterns of MC spike output. We found that realistic input-output transformations can be achieved independently by multiple circuits, including feedforward inhibition with slow onset and decay kinetics and parallel feedforward MC excitation mediated by external tufted cells. We also found that recurrent and feedforward inhibition had differential impacts on MC firing rates and on inhalation-linked response dynamics. These results highlight the importance of investigating neural circuits in a naturalistic context and provide a framework for further explorations of signal processing by OB networks.

  8. Purification, Biological Activities, and Molecular Cloning of a Novel Mannose-Binding Lectin from Bulbs of Zephyranthes candida Herb (Amaryllidaceae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A novel mannose-binding agglutinin was purified from bulbs of Zephyranthes candida Herb by extraction,precipitation with 80% (NH4)2SO4, and ion-exchange chromatography on DEAE-Sepharose followed by gel filtration on Sephacryl S-100. The purified Z. candidaagglutinin (ZCA) migrated as a single band of 12 kDa on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis under reducing and non-reducing conditions. The apparent molecular mass of the lectin, as determined by gel filtration chromatography, was 48 kDa. The results indicated that ZCA was composed of four identical subunits of 12 kDa each (homotetrameric nature). The ZCA agglutinated rabbit erythrocytes, Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells at concentrations of 0.95, 1.90,and 31.30 μg/mL, respectively. Bioassays indicated that ZCA has a significant effect on wheat aphid survival.Mortality after 7 d was > 90% at 0.26%. A degenerate primer was designed in accordance with the N-terminal partial sequence of purified ZCA. The full-length cDNA was cloned by 3'- and 5'-rapid amplification of cDNA ends.The full-length cDNA had 661 bp and the sequence encoded an open reading frame of 168 amino acids. The mature protein of ZCA includes 109 amino acid residues and the molecular weight of the protein was 12.1 kDa.The result show that the zca gene encodes a protein precursor with a signal peptide, a mature protein, and a Cterminal cleavage amino acids sequence. Molecular modeling of ZCA indicated that its three-dimensional structure strongly resembles that of the snowdrop agglutinin. Blocks' analysis revealed that the deduced amino acid sequence of ZCA has three functional domains specific for agglutination and three carbohydrate binding boxes (QDNY).

  9. A new method to measure bowen ratios using high resolution vertical dry and wet bulb temperature profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Euser

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Bowen ratio surface energy balance method is a relatively simple method to determine the latent heat flux and the actual land surface evaporation. Despite its simplicity, the Bowen ratio method is generally considered to be unreliable due to the use of two-level sensors that are installed by default in operational Bowen ratio systems. In this paper we present the concept of a new measurement methodology to estimate the Bowen ratio from high resolution vertical dry and wet bulb temperature profiles. A short field experiment with Distributed Temperature Sensing (DTS in a fibre optic cable having 13 levels was undertaken. A dry and a wetted section of a fibre optic cable were suspended on a 6 m high tower installed over a sugar beet trial near Pietermaritzburg (South Africa. Using the DTS cable as a psychrometer, a near continuous observation of vapour pressure and temperature at 0.20 m intervals was established. These data allows the computation of the Bowen ratio with a high precision. By linking the Bowen ratio to net radiation and soil heat flux, the daytime latent heat flux was estimated. The latent heat flux derived from DTS-based Bowen ratio (BR-DTS showed consistent agreement (correlation coefficients between 0.97 and 0.98 with results derived from eddy covariance, surface layer scintillometer and surface renewal techniques. The latent heat from BR-DTS overestimated the latent heat derived with the eddy covariance by 4% and the latent heat derived with the surface layer scintillometer by 8%. Through this research, a new window is opened to engage on simplified, inexpensive and easy to interpret in situ measurement techniques for measuring evaporation.

  10. [The prognostic value of gastric metaplasia in the duodenal mucosa in patients with Helicobacter pylori positive duodenal bulb ulcer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshalko, O V; Konorev, M R

    2008-01-01

    The predictive value of gastric metaplasia in the duodenal mucosa in patients Helicobacter pylori-positive patients with duodenal bulb ulcer (DBU) was investigated. One hundred and twenty four randomly selected patients with DBU were included in this prospective study. The detection of Helicobacter pylori (HP) in the stomach and duodenum was carried out with Giemsa (using standard visual analogue scale), rapid urease test (standard Jatrox-HP test, Rohm Pharma, Germany), and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect the specific fragment of ureC HP gene (Helicopol II, Lytech, Russia). Regions of gastric metaplasia of the duodenum were confirmed by periodic acid-Schiff and alcian blue (Serva) staining (pH 1.0; 2.5) Duodenal ulcer (DU) complications were registered within 8 to 10 years. Estimation of the predictive factor (gastric metaplasia in the duodenum) was carried out in patients with non-complicated DU (Group 1; n = 73), and with such complications as bleeding, perforation, penetration, pyloroduodenal stenosis (Group 2; n = 51) which were revealed within the 8 to 10 years of observation. Gastric metaplasia in the duodenum was found in 64 or 87.7% of the 73 patients with non-complicated DU and in 5 or 9.8% of the 51 patients with complicated DU within 8 to 10 years of observation. The following facts about the predictive factor for the prognosis of DU complication were found: the sensitivity of 83.6%, the specificity of 92.8%, the predictive accuracy of 88.7%, the relative risk of the predicted outcome of 7.5, the relative risk of a different outcome of 0.11, the odds ration of 65.4. The study revealed a high and significant (p gastric metaplasia in the duodenum as a marker of non-complicated clinical course of DU in HP-positive patients within an 8 to 10-year period.

  11. Heat index and adjusted temperature as surrogates for wet bulb globe temperature to screen for occupational heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Thomas E; Iheanacho, Ivory

    2015-01-01

    Ambient temperature and relative humidity are readily ava-ilable and thus tempting metrics for heat stress assessment. Two methods of using air temperature and relative humidity to create an index are Heat Index and Adjusted Temperature. The purposes of this article are: (1) to examine how well Heat Index and Adjusted Temperature estimated the wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) index, and (2) to suggest how Heat Index and Adjusted Temperature can be used to screen for heat stress level. Psychrometric relationships were used to estimate values of actual WBGT for conditions of air temperature, relative humidity, and radiant heat at an air speed of 0.5 m/s. A relationship between Heat Index [°F] and WBGT [°C] was described by WBGT = -0.0034 HI(2) + 0.96 HI - 34. At lower Heat Index values, the equation estimated WBGTs that were ± 2 °C-WBGT around the actual value, and to about ± 0.5 °C-WBGT for Heat Index values > 100 °F. A relationship between Adjusted Temperature [°F] and WBGT [°C] was described by WBGT = 0.45 Tadj - 16. The actual WBGT was between 1 °C-WBGT below the estimated value and 1.4 °C-WBGT above. That is, there was a slight bias toward overestimating WBGT from Adjusted Temperature. Heat stress screening tables were constructed for metabolic rates of 180, 300, and 450 W. The screening decisions were divided into four categories: (1) exposure limit at rest. The authors do not recommend using Heat Index or Adjusted Temperature instead of WBGT, but they may be used to screen for circumstances when a more detailed analysis using WBGT is appropriate. A particular weakness is accounting for radiant heat; and neither air speed nor clothing was considered.

  12. Dynamic development of the first synapse impinging on adult-born neurons in the olfactory bulb circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katagiri, Hiroyuki; Pallotto, Marta; Nissant, Antoine; Murray, Kerren; Sassoè-Pognetto, Marco; Lledo, Pierre-Marie

    2011-02-01

    The olfactory bulb (OB) receives and integrates newborn interneurons throughout life. This process is important for the proper functioning of the OB circuit and consequently, for the sense of smell. Although we know how these new interneurons are produced, the way in which they integrate into the pre-existing ongoing circuits remains poorly documented. Bearing in mind that glutamatergic inputs onto local OB interneurons are crucial for adjusting the level of bulbar inhibition, it is important to characterize when and how these inputs from excitatory synapses develop on newborn OB interneurons. We studied early synaptic events that lead to the formation and maturation of the first glutamatergic synapses on adult-born granule cells (GCs), the most abundant subtype of OB interneuron. Patch-clamp recordings and electron microscopy (EM) analysis were performed on adult-born interneurons shortly after their arrival in the adult OB circuits. We found that both the ratio of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) to α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (AMPAR), and the number of functional release sites at proximal inputs reached a maximum during the critical period for the sensory-dependent survival of newborn cells, well before the completion of dendritic arborization. EM analysis showed an accompanying change in postsynaptic density shape during the same period of time. Interestingly, the latter morphological changes disappeared in more mature newly-formed neurons, when the NMDAR to AMPAR ratio had decreased and functional presynaptic terminals expressed only single release sites. Together, these findings show that the first glutamatergic inputs to adult-generated OB interneurons undergo a unique sequence of maturation stages.

  13. Organization of the main olfactory bulbs of some mammals: musk shrews, moles, hedgehogs, tree shrews, bats, mice, and rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosaka, Katsuko; Kosaka, Toshio

    2004-04-19

    We immunohistochemically examined the organization of the main olfactory bulbs (MOBs) in seven mammalian species, including moles, hedgehogs, tree shrews, bats, and mice as well as laboratory musk shrews and rats. We focused our investigation on two points: 1) whether nidi, particular spheroidal synaptic regions subjacent to glomeruli, which we previously reported for the laboratory musk shrew MOBs, are also present in other animals and 2) whether the compartmental organization of glomeruli and two types of periglomerular cells we proposed for the rat MOBs are general in other animals. The general laminar pattern was similar among these seven species, but discrete nidi and the nidal layer were recognized only in two insectivores, namely, the mole and laboratory musk shrew. Olfactory marker protein-immunoreactive (OMP-IR) axons extended beyond the limits of the glomerular layer (GL) into the superficial region of the external plexiform layer (EPL) or the nidal layer in the laboratory musk shrew, mole, hedgehog, and tree shrew but not in bat, mouse, and rat. We observed, in nidi and the nidal layer in the mole and laboratory musk shrew MOBs, only a few OMP-IR axons. In the hedgehog, another insectivore, OMP-IR processes extending from the glomeruli were scattered and intermingled with calbindin D28k-IR cells at the border between the GL and the EPL. In the superficial region of the EPL of the tree shrew MOBs, there were a small number of tiny glomerulus-like spheroidal structures where OMP-IR axons protruding from glomeruli were intermingled with dendritic branches of surrounding calbindin D28k-IR cells. Furthermore, we recognized the compartmental organization of glomeruli and two types of periglomerular cells in the MOBs of all of the mammals we examined. These structural features are therefore considered to be common and important organizational principles of the MOBs.

  14. Baseline status and dose to the penile bulb predict impotence 1 year after radiotherapy for prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cozzarini, Cesare; Badenchini, Fabio [San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Radiotherapy, Milano (Italy); Rancati, Tiziana [Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Prostate Cancer Program, Milan (Italy); Palorini, Federica; Improta, Ilaria; Fiorino, Claudio [San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Medical Physics, Milan (Italy); Avuzzi, Barbara [Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Radiation Oncology 1, Milan (Italy); Degli Esposti, Claudio [Ospedale Bellaria, Radiotherapy, Bologna (Italy); Girelli, Giuseppe [Ospedale ASL9, Radiotherapy, Ivrea (Italy); Vavassori, Vittorio [Cliniche Gavazzeni-Humanitas, Radiotherapy, Bergamo (Italy); Valdagni, Riccardo [Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Prostate Cancer Program, Milan (Italy); Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Radiation Oncology 1, Milan (Italy)

    2016-05-15

    To assess the predictors of the onset of impotence 1 year after radiotherapy for prostate cancer. In a multi-centric prospective study, the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) questionnaire-based potency of 91 hormone-naive and potent patients (IIEF1-5 > 11 before radiotherapy) was assessed. At the time of this analysis, information on potency 1 year after treatment was available for 62 of 91 patients (42 treated with hypofractionation: 2.35-2.65 Gy/fr, 70-74.2 Gy; 20 with conventional fractionation: 74-78 Gy). Prospectively collected individual information and D{sub max}/D{sub mean} to the penile bulb were available; the corresponding 2 Gy-equivalent values (EQD2 {sub max}/EQD2 {sub mean}) were also considered. Predictors of 1-year impotency were assessed through uni- and multi-variable backward logistic regression: The best cut-off values discriminating between potent and impotent patients were assessed by ROC analyses. The discriminative power of the models and goodness-of-fit were measured by AUC analysis and the Hosmer-Lemeshow (H and L) test. At 1-year follow-up, 26 of 62 patients (42 %) became impotent. The only predictive variables were baseline IIEF1-5 values (best cut-off baseline IIEF1-5 ≥ 19), D{sub max} ≥ 68.5 Gy and EQD2 {sub max} ≥ 74.2 Gy. The risk of 1-year impotence may be predicted by a two-variable model including baseline IIEF1-5 (OR: 0.80, p = 0.003) and EQD2 {sub max} ≥ 74.2 Gy (OR: 4.1, p = 0.022). The AUC of the model was 0.77 (95% CI: 0.64-0.87, p = 0.0007, H and L: p = 0.62). The 1-year risk of impotency after high-dose radiotherapy in potent men depends on the EQD2 {sub max} to the penile bulb and on baseline IIEF1-5 values. A significant reduction in the risk may be expected mainly when sparing the bulb in patients with no/mild baseline impotency (IIEF1-5 > 17). (orig.) [German] Beurteilung von Praediktoren fuer das Auftreten von Impotenz 1 Jahr nach Radiotherapie bei Prostatakrebs. In einer multizentrischen

  15. 基于LM-BP神经网络的湿球温度计算模型%Wet-bulb Temperature Calculation Model Based on Levenberg-Marquardt BP Neural Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林婵; 王起峰; 朱良山

    2013-01-01

    湿球温度是电力工程中常用的气象设计参数,而目前气象站安装的地面气象自动观测设备中无湿球温度观测工具,且已有的湿球温度计算方法存在不足.为了满足工程设计需要,分析了湿球温度与干球温度、相对湿度、大气压强及平均风速等4个气象参数的非线性关系,建立了基于LM-BP神经网络的湿球温度计算模型,并将其应用于潍坊气象站湿球温度计算中.结果表明,该模型计算精度较高,且较为合理地反映了湿球温度与干球温度等影响因子之间复杂的非线性关系.%The wet-bulb temperature is a common weather parameter in power engineering design, but at present most ground automatic weather observation equipments installed in the weather station do not include the wet-bulb temperature observation equipment. The common wet-bulb temperature calculation methods have shortcomings. In order to meet the needs in engineering design, this paper analyzes the non-linear relationship between wet-bulb temperature and four meteorological parameters, which include dry-bulb temperature, relative humidity, atmospheric pressure and wind speed. And then it established a wet-bulb temperature calculation model based on Levenberg-Marquardt BP neural network. Finally, this model is applied to calculate wet-bulb temperature in Weifang weather station. The results show that the proposed model has high precision and it can well reflect the non-linear relationship between wet-bulb temperature and dry-bulb temperature.

  16. In Vitro Evaluation Of Selected Plant Extracts As Biocontrol Agents Against Black Mold Aspergillus Niger Van Tieghem Of Onion Bulbs Allium Cepa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saifeldin A. F. El-Nagerabi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Black mold disease caused by Aspergillus niger V. Tiegh. is the most devastating infection occurs in onions Allium cepa L. under field and store conditions. The use of biocontrol agents is ecofriendly approach for controlling seedborne and soilborne diseases compared to the use of toxic synthetic fungicides. This study has been designed to assess the contamination levels of onion seeds with A. niger and its effect on seed germination and to evaluate the in vitro antifungal activity of Prunus mahaleb seeds Commiphora myrrha resin 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 g100 ml Syzygium aromaticum dry buds clove and Panax ginseng roots extracts 0.5 1.0 2.0 2.5 g100 ml against black mold of onion bulbs. The fungus is seedborne pathogen which significantly contaminated onion seeds 89-100 and reduced seed germination 39-83. The extracts of clove caused 43-96 inhibition in spore germination followed by mahaleb 37-96 myrrha 33-88 and ginseng 34-87. The highest concentration of these extracts 3.0 did not affect seed germination but significantly reduced seed contamination by A. niger up to 84 80 71 and 65 for Syzygium aromaticum Syzygium aromaticum Panax ginseng and Prunus mahaleb respectively. The extracts apparently inhibited the fungal growth and mold development on stored onion bulbs which indicates the antifungal property of these extracts against A. niger. Therefore they can be recommended as effective biocontrol agents to reduce seed contamination and enhance the storability of onion bulbs. Thus the use of healthy and certified seeds for onion production is a priority.

  17. Energy consumption of storing special flower bulbs. Allium, Muscari, Zantedeschia and Fritillaria; Energieverbruik bij het bewaren van bijzondere bolgewassen. Allium, Muscari, Zantedeschia en Fritillaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wildschut, J. [Praktijkonderzoek Plant en Omgeving PPO, Bloembollen, Boomkwekerij en Fruit, Lisse (Netherlands); Vasen, R. [DLV Plant, Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2010-03-15

    The energy use of drying and storing special flower bulbs has been mapped. From the variation in energy use between various businesses, more energy efficient ventilation, circulation and temperature standards can be derived. This way the costs for energy use in a business and at sector level can be reduced significantly [Dutch] Het energieverbruik voor drogen en bewaren van bijzondere bolgewassen is in kaart gebracht. Uit de variatie in het energieverbruik tussen de verschillende bedrijven kunnen energiezuiniger ventilatie-, circulatie- en temperatuursnormen worden afgeleid. Hiermee kunnen de kosten voor energieverbruik op het bedrijf en op sectorniveau fors verlaagd worden.

  18. 鹭兰种子无菌繁殖球根%Sterile Propagation of Bulbs from White Egret Orchid (Habenaria radiate) Seeds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵习姮; 李进才

    2012-01-01

    为建立鹭兰(Habenaria radiata)种子繁殖法,对无菌培养条件下的种子发芽和幼苗生长进行了观测,并对无菌繁殖获得的球根进行了种植试验.结果表明,鹭兰种子不进行处理难以无菌培养发芽,种子通过75%乙醇10 s+1% NaClO 10 min处理,或者40 kHz超声波2.5 min+1% NaClO 10 min处理,在1/2MS培养基的发芽率可达58%以上;在1/2MS培养基中,添加GA3 1 mg·L-1对叶片生长有促进作用,添加IAA 1 mg·L-1对根生长和球根形成有促进作用,球根形成率达55%;无菌繁殖的球根贮存至春季盆栽,成苗率约72%.%In order to establish the seed propagation method of white egret orchid, we observed the germination and seedling growth of seeds cultured under sterile condition and conducted the planting trial of bulbs from sterile propagation. The results showed that seeds without treatment are difficult to germinate in sterile culture. The germination rate of seeds after treatment of 75% ethanol for 10 s and 1% NaCIO for 10 min, or treatment of 40 kHz ultrasonic for 2. 5 min and 1% NaCIO for 10 min is higher than 58% in 1/2MS medium; addition of 1 mg · L-1 GA3 in 1/2MS medium can promote leaf growth, and addition of 1 mg · L-1 IAA can promote root growth and bulb formation, the bulb formation rate of seedlings reached 55% ; sterile breeding bulbs were stored for spring potting, they have seedling formation rate of 72%.

  19. Reply to Els\\"asser's Comment on "How many principles does it take to change a light bulb ... into a laser?"

    CERN Document Server

    Wiseman, Howard M

    2016-01-01

    In his Comment, Els\\"asser claims that the answer to my titular question is one, not four as I have it. He goes on to give the singular principle that supposedly captures the difference between a light-bulb and a laser: $g^{(2)}(\\tau=0)=1$. His claim is unconsidered and wrong, his proposed principle is impossible to apply and, when corrected, redundant (it then becomes one of the four I list already), his arguments are manifestly misdirected. My paper stands as is.

  20. Inter-observer variability in contouring the penile bulb on CT images for prostate cancer treatment planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdagni Riccardo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Several investigations have recently suggested the existence of a correlation between the dose received by the penile bulb (PB and the risk of erectile dysfunction (ED after radical radiotherapy for clinically localized prostate carcinoma. A prospective multi-Institute study (DUE-01 was implemented with the aim to assess the predictive parameters of ED. Previously, an evaluation of inter-observer variations of PB contouring was mandatory in order to quantify its impact on PB dose-volume parameters by means of a dummy run exercise. Fifteen observers, from different Institutes, drew the PB on the planning CT images of ten patients; inter-observer variations were analysed in terms of PB volume variation and cranial/caudal limits. 3DCRT treatment plans were simulated to evaluate the impact of PB contouring inter-variability on dose-volume statistics parameters. For DVH analysis the values of PB mean dose and the volume of PB receiving more than 50 Gy and 70 Gy (V50 and V70, respectively were considered. Systematic differences from the average values were assessed by the Wilcoxon test. Seven observers systematically overestimated or underestimated the PB volume with deviations from the average volumes ranging between -48% and +34% (p Inter-observer contouring variability strongly impacts on DVH parameters, although standard deviations of inter-patient differences were larger than inter-observer variations: 14.5 Gy versus 6.8 Gy for mean PB dose, 23.0% versus 11.0% and 16.8% versus 9.3% for V50 and V70 respectively. In conclusion, despite the large inter-observer variation in contouring PB, a large multi-centric study may have the possibility to detect a possible correlation between PB % dose-volume parameters and ED. The impact of contouring uncertainty could be reduced by "a posteriori" contouring from a single observer or by introducing Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI in the planning procedures and/or in improving the skill of observers

  1. Exploring parameter space in detailed single neuron models: simulations of the mitral and granule cells of the olfactory bulb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhalla, U S; Bower, J M

    1993-06-01

    1. Detailed compartmental computer simulations of single mitral and granule cells of the vertebrate olfactory bulb were constructed using previously published geometric data. Electrophysiological properties were determined by comparing model output to previously published experimental data, mainly current-clamp recordings. 2. The passive electrical properties of each model were explored by comparing model output with intracellular potential data from hyperpolarizing current injection experiments. The results suggest that membrane resistivity in both cells is nonuniform, with somatas having a substantially lower resistivity than the dendrites. 3. The active properties of these cells were explored by incorporating active ion channels into modeled compartments. On the basis of evidence from the literature, the mitral cell model included six channel types: fast sodium, fast delayed rectifier (Kfast), slow delayed rectifier (K), transient outward potassium current (KA), voltage- and calcium-dependent potassium current (KCa), and L-type calcium current. The granule cell model included four channel types: rat brain sodium, K, KA, and the non-inactivating muscarinic potassium current (KM). Modeled channels were based on the Hodgkin-Huxley formalism. 4. Representative kinetics for each of the channel classes above were obtained from the literature. The experimentally unknown spatial distributions of each included channel were obtained by systematic parameter searches. These were conducted in two ways: large-scale simulation series, in which each parameter was varied in turn, and an adaptation of a multidimensional conjugate gradient method. In each case, the simulated results were compared wtih experimental data using a curve-matching function evaluating mean squared differences of several aspects of the simulated and experimental voltage waveforms. 5. Systematic parameter variations revealed a single distinct region of parameter space in which the mitral cell model best

  2. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor selectively regulates dendritogenesis of parvalbumin-containing interneurons in the main olfactory bulb through the PLCgamma pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berghuis, Paul; Agerman, Karin; Dobszay, Marton B; Minichiello, Liliana; Harkany, Tibor; Ernfors, Patrik

    2006-11-01

    Molecular mechanisms of neurotrophin signaling on dendrite development and dynamics are only partly understood. To address the role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the morphogenesis of GABAergic neurons of the main olfactory bulb, we analyzed mice lacking BDNF, mice carrying neurotrophin-3 (NT3) in the place of BDNF, and TrkB signaling mutant mice with a receptor that can activate phospholipase Cgamma (PLCgamma) but is unable to recruit the adaptors Shc/Frs2. BDNF deletion yielded a compressed olfactory bulb with a significant loss of parvalbumin (PV) immunoreactivity in GABAergic interneurons of the external plexiform layer. Dendrite development of PV-positive interneurons was selectively attenuated by BDNF since other Ca2+ -binding protein-containing neuron populations appeared unaffected. The deficit in PV-positive neurons could be rescued by the NT3/NT3 alleles. The degree of PV immunoreactivity was dependent on BDNF and TrkB recruitment of the adaptor proteins Shc/Frs2. In contrast, PLCgamma signaling from the TrkB receptor was sufficient for dendrite growth in vivo and consistently, blocking PLCgamma prevented BDNF-dependent dendrite development in vitro. Collectively, our results provide genetic evidence that BDNF and TrkB signaling selectively regulate PV expression and dendrite growth in a subset of neurochemically-defined GABAergic interneurons via activation of the PLCgamma pathway.

  3. Ultrastructure and synaptic connectivity of main and accessory olfactory bulb efferent projections terminating in the rat anterior piriform cortex and medial amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sook Kyung; Kim, Jong Ho; Yang, Eun Sun; Ahn, Dong Kuk; Moon, Cheil; Bae, Yong Chul

    2014-09-01

    Neurons in the main olfactory bulb relay peripheral odorant signals to the anterior piriform cortex (aPir), whereas neurons of the accessory olfactory bulb relay pheromone signals to the medial amygdala (MeA), suggesting that they belong to two functionally distinct systems. To help understand how odorant and pheromone signals are further processed in the brain, we investigated the synaptic connectivity of identified axon terminals of these neurons in layer Ia of the aPir and posterodorsal part of the MeA, using anterograde tracing with horseradish peroxidase, quantitative ultrastructural analysis of serial thin sections, and immunogold staining. All identified boutons contained round vesicles and some also contained many large dense core vesicles. The number of postsynaptic dendrites per labeled bouton was significantly higher in the aPir than in the MeA, suggesting higher synaptic divergence at a single bouton level. While a large fraction of identified boutons (29%) in the aPir contacted 2-4 postsynaptic dendrites, only 7% of the identified boutons in the MeA contacted multiple postsynaptic dendrites. In addition, the majority of the identified boutons in the aPir (95%) contacted dendritic spines, whereas most identified boutons in the MeA (64%) contacted dendritic shafts. Identified boutons and many of the postsynaptic dendrites showed glutamate immunoreactivity. These findings suggest that odorant and pheromone signals are processed differently in the brain centers of the main and accessory olfactory systems.

  4. Noradrenaline-induced enhancement of oscillatory local field potentials in the mouse accessory olfactory bulb does not depend on disinhibition of mitral cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leszkowicz, Emilia; Khan, Selina; Ng, Stephanie; Ved, Nikita; Swallow, Daniel L; Brennan, Peter A

    2012-05-01

    The olfactory bulb differs from other brain regions by its use of bidirectional synaptic transmission at dendrodendritic reciprocal synapses. These reciprocal synapses provide tight coupling of inhibitory feedback from granule cell interneurons to mitral cell projection neurons in the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB), at the first stage of vomeronasal processing. It has been proposed that both the mGluR2 agonist DCG-IV and noradrenaline promote mate recognition memory formation by reducing GABAergic feedback on mitral cells. The resultant mitral cell disinhibition is thought to induce a long-lasting enhancement in the gain of inhibitory feedback from granule to mitral cells, which selectively gates the transmission of the learned chemosensory information. However, we found that local infusions of both noradrenaline and DCG-IV failed to disinhibit AOB neural activity in urethane-anaesthetised mice. DCG-IV infusion had similar effects to the GABA(A) agonist isoguvacine, suggesting that it increased GABAergic inhibition in the AOB rather than reducing it. Noradrenaline infusion into the AOB also failed to disinhibit mitral cells in awake mice despite inducing long-term increases in power of AOB local field potentials, similar to those observed following memory formation. These results suggest that mitral cell disinhibition is not essential for the neural changes in the AOB that underlie mate recognition memory formation in mice.

  5. Expression of estrogen receptor (ER) -α and -β transcripts in the neonatal and adult rat cerebral cortex, cerebellum, and olfactory bulb

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In the present study expression of estrogen receptor subtype -α (ERα) and -β (ERβ) in the cerebral cortex, cerebellum, and olfactory bulb was investigated and compared between neonatal (1~ 3-days-old) and adult (250~350g) rats, using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). No ERα transcripts were detectable in the adult cerebellum and olfactory bulb, whereas very weak expression of ERα was present in the adult cerebral cortex. No significant difference in ERβ transcripts was detectable between the neonatal and adult rats. While transcripts for both ER subtypes were co-expressed in these brain areas of neonatal rats, although ERα expression was significantly weaker than ERβ. Even in the cerebral cortex known to contain both ER subtypes in adult rats, ERα transcripts in neonatal rats were much higher than in adult. These observations provide evidence for the existence of different expression patterns of ERα/ERβ transcripts in these three brain areas between the neonatal and adult rats, suggesting that each ER subtype may play a distinct role in the regulation of differentiation, development, and functions of the brain by estrogen.

  6. Acute Immobilization Stress Modulate GABA Release from Rat Olfactory Bulb: Involvement of Endocannabinoids—Cannabinoids and Acute Stress Modulate GABA Release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Delgado

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied the effects of cannabinoids and acute immobilization stress on the regulation of GABA release in the olfactory bulb. Glutamate-stimulated 3H-GABA release was measured in superfused slices. We report that cannabinoids as WIN55, 212-2, methanandamide, and 2-arachidonoylglycerol were able to inhibit glutamate- and KCl-stimulated 3H-GABA release. This effect was blocked by the CB1 antagonist AM281. On the other hand, acute stress was able per se to increase endocannabinoid activity. This effect was evident since the inhibition of stimulated GABA release by acute stress was reversed with AM281 and tetrahydrolipstatin. Inhibition of the endocannabinoid transport or its catabolism showed reduction of GABA release, antagonized by AM281 in control and stressed animals. These results point to endocannabinoids as inhibitory modulators of GABA release in the olfactory bulb acting through an autocrine mechanism. Apparently, stress increases the endocannabinoid system, modulating GABAergic synaptic function in a primary sensory organ.

  7. 朝鲜百合鳞茎诱导及再生体系建立%Induction of Lilium amabile Bulb and Establishment of Regeneration System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈丽静; 葛菱; 张丽; 郭志富; 孙红梅; 李天来; 陶承光

    2011-01-01

    野生百合种类稀少,个别种类是中国特有,植物离体快速繁殖是保护稀少濒危百合种的有效方法,本研究为了探究一种朝鲜百合快速繁殖的方法.本研究以野生百合朝鲜为试材,以MS培养基为基础培养基,附加不同种类和浓度的植物生长调节物质(6-BA,NAA)诱导丛生芽及再生植株.以朝鲜百合的鳞茎为外植体,确定鳞茎的最佳消毒时间、影响鳞茎芽诱导的最佳激素组合以及不同激素对鳞茎芽增殖的影响.结果表明:最佳灭菌时间为0.1% HgCl2消毒10min;由于内源激素比例不同,鳞茎诱导的最佳培养基为MS+6-BA 1.0 mg/L+NAA 0.2 mg/L;最佳继代培养基为MS+6-BA 1.0 mg/L+NAA 0.1 mg/L;最佳增殖培养基为MS+6-BA 1.0 mg/L+NAA 0.15 mg/L.%Wild lily species is exiguous, individual species is unique to China, rapid propagation is an effective method to protect endangered or rare wild lily species. The purpose of this experiment was to develop a rapid propagation of lilium amabile. This study used wild lily Lilium amabile as test materials, based on MS culture medium, additional different type and concentration of plant growth regulating substances (6-BA, NAA) induced adventitious bud and regenerative plants. With Lilium amabile bulb as explant, and determine the best sterilization time, bulbs affected bulb bud induction best hormone combination and different hormone of bulb buds proliferation influence. The results showed that the best disinfecting time was 0.1 % HgCl disinfection 10 minutes; Due to the different proportion endogenous hormones, the best bulb inductive medium: MS + 6-BA 1.0 mg/L + NAA 0.2 mg/L; the best subculture medium: MS + 6-BA 1.0 mg/L + NAA 0.1 mg/L; the best proliferation medium: MS + 6-BA1.0 mg/L + NAA 0.15 mg/L.

  8. 远程荧光LED球泡灯热仿真分析%Thermal Simulation Analysis of LED Remote Fluorescence Bulb

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张寅; 赵宝洲; 卓宁泽; 施丰华; 王海波

    2013-01-01

    采用FloEFD流体分析软件分析了改变LED散热器翅片数和基板厚度对LED球泡灯热量的影响.首先对LED芯片进行仿真,然后用蓝宝石替换LED芯片其他部分简化后仿真,将两者进行了对比.接着对远程荧光LED集成封装光源进行了热模拟,发现将大功率芯片集成在铝基板上,工作时产生的热量非常大,模拟时芯片的结温在159.9℃,超过了LED正常工作结温,所以仅仅依靠铝基板难以达到散热要求.最后对LED球泡灯散热器不同翅片数和不同基板厚度分别进行了热仿真,得出当翅片数为16,基板厚度为2 mm时,LED球泡灯的整体散热良好,模拟结果显示LED芯片的温度只有83.8℃,完全满足散热要求.%The FloEFD fluid software was used to analyze the changes of LED bulb heat under different number of fins and substrate thickness of LED heat sink.First,simulations were performed on the LED chip,and then sapphire was used to replace the remaining part of LED chips to make simplified simulations.Then thermal simulations were carried out on remote fluorescence integrated package LED light source,in which the high-power chip was integrated on the aluminum substrate.It is shown that the LED during working generates great heat and the junction temperature of the chip is 159.9 ℃,which is higher than the normal junction temperature,so only using aluminum plate can not meet cooling requirements.Lastly,thermal simulations were performed on LED bulb radiators with different number of fins and substrate thickness.It is concluded that when the fins are 16 and the substrate thickness is 2mm,the LED bulb show good heat dissipation.And the simulation results indicate the temperature of LED chips is only 83.8 ℃,fully meeting the cooling requirements.

  9. 75 years of a overflowable power plant Rostin at the Persante. First steps in the use of bulb turbines; 75 Jahre ueberstroembares Kraftwerk Rostin an der Persante. Erste Schritte zum Einsatz der Rohrturbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lang, Tobias

    2011-07-01

    The technical development of bulb turbines is not separable from difficult from socio-political conditions of their times of origin. Without knowing the associated emotions and personal problems, 70 to 75 years later an assessment of the facts is difficult. Therefore, the contribution under consideration is limited to the message of different sources.

  10. Pathogen identification of edible lily(Lilium brownie var.viridulum) bulb rot during growth season in Hunan%湖南省食用百合生长期鳞茎腐烂病的病原鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱海燕; 夏花; 高必达

    2012-01-01

    Bulb rot disease is one of the most important restrictive factors on edible lily (Lilium brownie var. viridulum cv. Longya) production in Longhui County, Hunan. To investigate the causal agent, the rotted bulbs were collected from Longhui and kept in moist condition. Generally 3-septate falciform macroconidia and one-celled, ovoid or oval microconidia, typical of Fusarium oxysporum, were observed from the mold on the rot tissues under microscope. After a needle-pricking inoculation with isolate HNLH07 on healthy lily scales, rot symptom was reproduced. However, HNLH07 was failed to infect bulbs of gladiolus or tulip in a same inoculation test. PCR amplification was carried out by using universal rDNA-ITS primers. Sequence of PCR product showed 99% identity with those of F. oxysporum by BLAST analysis at NCBI. Phylogenetic analysis showed that HNLH07 was clustered to F. oxysporum with a high bootstrap value of 99% . It comes to a conclusion that the pathogen causing bulb rot of cv. Longya in Longhui County should be F. oxysporum f. sp. lilii.

  11. The type 3 adenylyl cyclase is required for the survival and maturation of newly generated granule cells in the olfactory bulb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jie; Chen, Xuanmao; Pan, Yung-Wei; Lu, Song; Xia, Zhengui; Storm, Daniel R

    2015-01-01

    The type 3 adenylyl cyclase (AC3) is localized to olfactory cilia in the main olfactory epithelium (MOE) and primary cilia in the adult mouse brain. Although AC3 has been strongly implicated in odor perception and olfactory sensory neuron (OSN) targeting, its role in granule cells (GCs), the most abundant interneurons in the main olfactory bulb (MOB), remains largely unknown. Here, we report that the deletion of AC3 leads to a significant reduction in the size of the MOB as well as the level of adult neurogenesis. The cell proliferation and cell cycle in the subventricular zone (SVZ), however, are not suppressed in AC3-/- mice. Furthermore, AC3 deletion elevates the apoptosis of GCs and disrupts the maturation of newly formed GCs. Collectively, our results identify a fundamental role for AC3 in the development of adult-born GCs in the MOB.

  12. The type 3 adenylyl cyclase is required for the survival and maturation of newly generated granule cells in the olfactory bulb.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Luo

    Full Text Available The type 3 adenylyl cyclase (AC3 is localized to olfactory cilia in the main olfactory epithelium (MOE and primary cilia in the adult mouse brain. Although AC3 has been strongly implicated in odor perception and olfactory sensory neuron (OSN targeting, its role in granule cells (GCs, the most abundant interneurons in the main olfactory bulb (MOB, remains largely unknown. Here, we report that the deletion of AC3 leads to a significant reduction in the size of the MOB as well as the level of adult neurogenesis. The cell proliferation and cell cycle in the subventricular zone (SVZ, however, are not suppressed in AC3-/- mice. Furthermore, AC3 deletion elevates the apoptosis of GCs and disrupts the maturation of newly formed GCs. Collectively, our results identify a fundamental role for AC3 in the development of adult-born GCs in the MOB.

  13. The use of partial thickness method and zero wet bulb temperature for discriminating precipitation type during winter months at the Ebro basin in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buisan, S.; Revuelto, J.

    2010-09-01

    The forecast office of the State Meteorological Agency of Spain (AEMET) which is located in the city of Zaragoza provides weather forecast, warnings and aviation forecast products for Aragón, Navarra and La Rioja regions. This area of Spain lies mainly on the Ebro river basin. Although the likelihood of snowfall in this territory is low, a forecasting of snow-depth higher than 5cm for low elevations activates the orange warning which must be issued to local emergency management and civil protection authorities. Zero wet bulb temperature has been historically the main tool for forecasting the altitude of snow-rain boundary at the forecast office; it shows the freezing level limit due to evaporational cooling when lower troposphere is saturated from aloft. This work adds two new parameters, the 1000-850 mb and the 850-700 mb thickness in order to characterize the thermal structure of surface based cold air and atmospheric mid-levels. The three main airports in this area Zaragoza-Aragón, Logroño-La Rioja and Pamplona-Navarra are located at altitudes below 500 m. They are thus suitable for this study. In addition, more than 16 years of meteorological observations every hour, known as METAR (Meteorological Aerodrome Report), are available at these locations. These observations were analysed and the predominant precipitation type during a six-hour period was characterized. The 00h, 06h, 12h and 18h analysis time of the ECMWF Forecast model were employed in order to get the parameters at the day and time when the precipitation took place. The most representative grid point of the model for each airport was chosen in order to illustrate the atmospheric conditions. A correlation between precipitation type and zero wet bulb temperature, 1000-850 mb and the 850-700 mb thickness was done for more than 230 different situations during a 16 year period. As a result, we plotted a series of site specific charts for each airport based on these parameters, in order to describe the

  14. Influence of inoculum density and aeration volume on biomass and bioactive compound production in bulb-type bubble bioreactor cultures of Eleutherococcus koreanum Nakai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun-Jung; Moh, Sang-Hyun; Paek, Kee-Yoeup

    2011-07-01

    This study deals with the effects of initial inoculum density and aeration volume on biomass and bioactive compound production in adventitious roots of Eleutherococcus koreanum Nakai in bulb-type bubble bioreactors (3-L capacity). While the fresh and dry weights of the roots increased with increasing inoculum density, the highest percentage dry weight and accumulation of total target compounds (eleutheroside B and E, chlorogenic acid, total phenolics, and flavonoids) were noted at an inoculum density of 5.0 g L(-1). Poor aeration volume (0.05 vvm) stunted root growth, and high aeration volume (0.4 vvm) caused physiological disorders. Moreover, an inoculum density of 5.0 g L(-1) and an aeration volume of 0.1 vvm resulted in the highest concentration of total target compounds and least root death. Such optimization of culture conditions will be beneficial for the large-scale production of E. koreanum biomass and bioactive compounds.

  15. A comparative study of prenatal development in the olfactory bulb, neocortex and hippocampal region of the precocial mouse Acomys cahirinus and rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunjes, P C

    1989-09-01

    Unlike the remainder of the rodent subfamily Muridae, Acomys cahirinus (the 'spiny' mouse) is born in a precocial state after a long (39 day) gestation. In this paper, the development of the olfactory bulb, neocortex and hippocampal formation of Acomys from prenatal days 14-34 was examined and the rate of maturation compared with that of its cousin, the laboratory rat (Rattus norvegicus). At the earliest stages examined, Acomys was approximately 2 days less mature than the same post-conception aged rat. The difference between the two species increased: Acomys at 28 days postconception resembled the 22-day rat. By the end of gestation, Acomys and the rat were in a relatively similar developmental state. Therefore, Acomys exhibits a quite different timetable of early maturation which includes a protracted period of relatively slow growth during mid-gestation. As such, it offers many benefits as a subject for studies of both early ontogenesis and the mechanisms which result in species differences.

  16. 灯泡贯流式机组调速器的特点及应用%Characteristic of Bulb Hydraulic Turbine Governor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈艳; 李学礼

    2016-01-01

    Bulb hydraulic generating units are development very quickly in recent years in low water-head power station for its smaller volume, compact construction and high efficiency. Turbine governor as important control equipment in hydraulic power station provide high-quality, reliable power protection for the industrial production and people's daily lives, the regulation performance will affect the power quality and power plant safety and economic operation. A Special regulation model for bulb generating units has been introduced in this paper through the Thailand NARESUANA station on-site testing.%以泰国NARESUANA电站灯泡贯流式水轮发电机组及其调速器为例证,着重说明了灯泡贯流机组的特点,阐述了调速器的步进电机系统研制和应用:①采用适应式、变结构、变参数、并联 PID 调节模式,使机组在不同状态下均能稳定运行;②采用变参数导叶分段关闭装置,根据水头、负荷、频率等机组工况自动改变导叶分段关闭投入点,减少了快速关闭时造成水击压力的升高,并防止涌浪、低频及水锤的发生;③桨叶根据机组频率自动改变关闭速度,防止涌浪、低频及水锤的发生。

  17. Mating behavior induces changes of expression of Fos protein, plasma testosterone and androgen receptors in the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB of the male mandarin vole Microtus mandarinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengqin HE, Fadao TAI

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the neuroendocrine mechanism of the mating behavior in the adult male mandarin voles Microtus mandarinus, the radioimmunoassay (RIA and immunohistochemistry methods were used to investigate the differences in plasma testosterone (T concentrations and distribution of T immunoreactive neurons (T-IRs, androgen receptor immunoreactive neurons (AR-IRs and Fos protein immunoreactive neurons (Fos-IRs in the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB and the main olfactory bulb (MOB following exposure to clean hard-wood shavings (control group, soiled bedding (exposure group or contact with an estrous female (mating group. Results showed that plasma T concentration was significantly higher in the mating group than that in the exposure group, and both the mating group and the exposure group displayed significantly higher plasma T concentration than the control group. T-IRs, AR-IRs and Fos-IRs were investigated with the immunohistochemistry method in granule cell (GC and mitral cell (MC of the MOB and the AOB in the three groups. There were significantly more T-IRs, AR-IRs and Fos-IRs in MC and GC of the AOB in the mating group than that in the exposure group or the control group. T-IRs, AR-IRs and Fos-IRs did not show significant differences between the exposure group and the control group. Furthermore, obvious differences in MC and GC of the MOB were not found among the three groups. The results confirm that both changes of T and AR in the AOB might be underlying mating behavior in the adult male mandarin voles [Current Zoology 55 (4: 288–295, 2009].

  18. 十二指肠球部癌临床观察(附11例报告)%The clinical characteristics of the malignant tumor of theduodenal bulb

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾月如; 葛相栓; 刘小玲; 李建平; 王慧超

    2013-01-01

    [目的]分析十二指肠球部癌的内镜及临床特点,以提高对十二指肠癌的认识和早期诊断率.[方法]回顾性分析河南宏力医院2007年1月1日至2012年12月31日经病理确诊为十二指肠球部癌11例患者的临床资料.[结果]首发症状表现为腹痛6例,反酸3例,黑便2例.肿瘤位于十二指肠球部前壁3例,小弯侧4例,后壁2例,弥漫型2例.病理类型腺癌9例,黏液细胞癌1例,鳞状细胞癌1例.11例患者全部经组织学检查确诊.血液肿瘤标志物癌胚抗原(CEA)检查10例,其中升高8(占72.72%),正常2例.6例患者具有典型的上消化道并发症,分别是食管癌术后复发、食管静脉曲张(重度)、食管高级别上皮内瘤变、胃角癌、贲门癌术后复发、反流性食管炎(LA-D级).治疗方式:外科手术治疗7例,内科化疗2例,保守治疗2例.[结论]十二指肠球部癌的首发症状多为腹痛,病变主要位于前壁及小弯侧,病理类型以腺癌为主,血肿瘤标志物CEA多升高,部分病例并发严重上消化道疾病,治疗方式主要为外科手术.总之,提高对十二指肠球部癌的全面认识,重视上消化道内镜检查及组织学检查,以便提高其诊断率.%[Objective]To analyze the endoscopic and clinical characteristics of the malignant tumor of the duodenal bulb and to improve the diagnosis and treatment.[Methods]The clinical data of eleven cases who suffered from the malignant tumor of the duodenal bulb confirmed by pathology in Henan Honliv Hospital from January 2007 to December 2012 were studied retrospectively,[Results]The primary symptoms of duodenal bulb tumors were abdominal pain in 6 cases,sour regurgitation in 3 cases,and melena in 2 cases.Three of them were located in the antetheca of the duodenal bulb,four were in the lesser curvature side and two in backwall.Two were diffuse type.For the classifications of pathology,nine were adenocarcinoma,one was mucinous cell carcinoma and one was squamous cell

  19. Size-dependent of Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau Viola tuberifera (Violaceae)bulbs allocation%青藏高原东缘块茎堇菜鳞茎分配的个体大小依赖性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝楠; 苏雪; 吴琼; 常立博; 张世虎; 孙坤

    2016-01-01

    Viola tuberifera is a typical dimorphic cleistogamous plant which endemic to Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau and its eastern neighbour region, belongs to perennial herb, possessing mixed-mating reproductive system, which conducts not only sexual propagation via both open, aerial chasmogamous (CH) flowers in spring and closed, obligate self-pollinating aerial and subterranean cleistogamous (CL) flowers in summer, but also asexual reproduction via new bulbs in autumn reproducing offsprings through winter. Chasmogamous flowers depend on pollinator, such as bumblebees, obligate cross-fertilization producting bigger and few seeds. Cleistogamous flowers do not need pollinators, they can pollinate by them-selves and produce smaller and abundant seeds. Further to say, survival ratio of chasmogamous flowers seedings is lower than the cleistogamous flowers offprings. In particular, while plant under harsh environment, cleistogamy can provide re-productive assurance and cost economically. Three flowers are all sexual propagation. Only vegetative organ-bulbs via asexual propagation. Bulbs prapagation can also assure reproduction under adverse habitat. Especially in alpine ecosys-tem, plants always face to pollination limatation, at this time vegetative propagation can produce offsprings which are similar to stock plant and form ramets to fight for habitats and resources. Parents and offsprings together resist stern cli-mate and through cold environment. That is to say, bulbs reproduction can ensure V. tuberifera surivial and continuation in the high alpine environment and cost mininum resources to through winter. Sexual reproduction is conducted before asexual reproduction and two opposite reproductive strategies can ensure survival together in the whole life history. In the alpine district, allogamy always face pollen limitation and cannot assure plants reproduction, whereas autogamy and clonal reproduction are alternative choices to ensure propagation of plants populations, as well

  20. Fish passage through a simulated horizontal bulb turbine pressure regime: A supplement to "Laboratory Studies of the Effects of Pressure and Dissolved Gas Supersaturation on Turbine-Passed Fish"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abernethy, C. S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Amidan, B. G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Cada, G. F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2003-07-01

    Migratory and resident fish in the Columbia River Basin are exposed to stresses associated with hydroelectric power production, including pressure changes during turbine passage. The responses of fall chinook salmon and bluegill sunfish to rapid pressure change was investigated at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Previous test series evaluated the effects of passage through a vertical Kaplan turbine under the “worst case” pressure conditions (Abernethy et al. 2001) and under less severe conditions where pressure changes were minimized (Abernethy et al. 2002). For this series of tests, pressure changes were modified to simulate passage through a horizontal bulb turbine, commonly installed at low-head dams. The results were compared to results from previous test series. Tests indicated that for most of the cross-sectional area of a horizontal bulb turbine, pressure changes occurring during turbine passage are not harmful to fall chinook salmon and only minimally harmful to bluegill. However, some areas within a horizontal bulb turbine may have extreme pressure conditions that would be harmful to fish. These scenarios were not tested because they represent a small cross-sectional area of the turbine compared to the centerline pressures scenarios used in these tests.

  1. Inducible and targeted deletion of the ERK5 MAP kinase in adult neurogenic regions impairs adult neurogenesis in the olfactory bulb and several forms of olfactory behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Wei Pan

    Full Text Available Although adult-born neurons in the subventricular zone (SVZ and olfactory bulb (OB have been extensively characterized at the cellular level, their functional impact on olfactory behavior is still highly controversial with many conflicting results reported in the literature. Furthermore, signaling mechanisms regulating adult SVZ/OB neurogenesis are not well defined. Here we report that inducible and targeted deletion of erk5, a MAP kinase selectively expressed in the adult neurogenic regions of the adult brain, impairs adult neurogenesis in the SVZ and OB of transgenic mice. Although erk5 deletion had no effect on olfactory discrimination among discrete odorants in the habituation/dishabituation assay, it reduced short-term olfactory memory as well as detection sensitivity to odorants and pheromones including those evoking aggression and fear. Furthermore, these mice show impaired acquisition of odor-cued associative olfactory learning, a novel phenotype that had not been previously linked to adult neurogenesis. These data suggest that ERK5 MAP kinase is a critical kinase signaling pathway regulating adult neurogenesis in the SVZ/OB, and provide strong evidence supporting a functional role for adult neurogenesis in several distinct forms of olfactory behavior.

  2. Targeted deletion of the ERK5 MAP kinase impairs neuronal differentiation, migration, and survival during adult neurogenesis in the olfactory bulb.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Li

    Full Text Available Recent studies have led to the exciting idea that adult-born neurons in the olfactory bulb (OB may be critical for complex forms of olfactory behavior in mice. However, signaling mechanisms regulating adult OB neurogenesis are not well defined. We recently reported that extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK 5, a MAP kinase, is specifically expressed in neurogenic regions within the adult brain. This pattern of expression suggests a role for ERK5 in the regulation of adult OB neurogenesis. Indeed, we previously reported that conditional deletion of erk5 in adult neurogenic regions impairs several forms of olfactory behavior in mice. Thus, it is important to understand how ERK5 regulates adult neurogenesis in the OB. Here we present evidence that shRNA suppression of ERK5 in adult neural stem/progenitor cells isolated from the subventricular zone (SVZ reduces neurogenesis in culture. By contrast, ectopic activation of endogenous ERK5 signaling via expression of constitutive active MEK5, an upstream activating kinase for ERK5, stimulates neurogenesis. Furthermore, inducible and conditional deletion of erk5 specifically in the neurogenic regions of the adult mouse brain interferes with cell cycle exit of neuroblasts, impairs chain migration along the rostral migratory stream and radial migration into the OB. It also inhibits neuronal differentiation and survival. These data suggest that ERK5 regulates multiple aspects of adult OB neurogenesis and provide new insights concerning signaling mechanisms governing adult neurogenesis in the SVZ-OB axis.

  3. Sniff-Like Patterned Input Results in Long-Term Plasticity at the Rat Olfactory Bulb Mitral and Tufted Cell to Granule Cell Synapse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez de los Cobos Pallares, Fernando; Loebel, Alex; Lukas, Michael

    2016-01-01

    During odor sensing the activity of principal neurons of the mammalian olfactory bulb, the mitral and tufted cells (MTCs), occurs in repetitive bursts that are synchronized to respiration, reminiscent of hippocampal theta-gamma coupling. Axonless granule cells (GCs) mediate self- and lateral inhibitory interactions between the excitatory MTCs via reciprocal dendrodendritic synapses. We have explored long-term plasticity at this synapse by using a theta burst stimulation (TBS) protocol and variations thereof. GCs were excited via glomerular stimulation in acute brain slices. We find that TBS induces exclusively long-term depression in the majority of experiments, whereas single bursts (“single-sniff paradigm”) can elicit both long-term potentiation and depression. Statistical analysis predicts that the mechanism underlying this bidirectional plasticity involves the proportional addition or removal of presynaptic release sites. Gamma stimulation with the same number of APs as in TBS was less efficient in inducing plasticity. Both TBS- and “single-sniff paradigm”-induced plasticity depend on NMDA receptor activation. Since the onset of plasticity is very rapid and requires little extra activity, we propose that these forms of plasticity might play a role already during an ongoing search for odor sources. Our results imply that components of both short-term and long-term olfactory memory may be encoded at this synapse. PMID:27747107

  4. Sniff-Like Patterned Input Results in Long-Term Plasticity at the Rat Olfactory Bulb Mitral and Tufted Cell to Granule Cell Synapse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahua Chatterjee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available During odor sensing the activity of principal neurons of the mammalian olfactory bulb, the mitral and tufted cells (MTCs, occurs in repetitive bursts that are synchronized to respiration, reminiscent of hippocampal theta-gamma coupling. Axonless granule cells (GCs mediate self- and lateral inhibitory interactions between the excitatory MTCs via reciprocal dendrodendritic synapses. We have explored long-term plasticity at this synapse by using a theta burst stimulation (TBS protocol and variations thereof. GCs were excited via glomerular stimulation in acute brain slices. We find that TBS induces exclusively long-term depression in the majority of experiments, whereas single bursts (“single-sniff paradigm” can elicit both long-term potentiation and depression. Statistical analysis predicts that the mechanism underlying this bidirectional plasticity involves the proportional addition or removal of presynaptic release sites. Gamma stimulation with the same number of APs as in TBS was less efficient in inducing plasticity. Both TBS- and “single-sniff paradigm”-induced plasticity depend on NMDA receptor activation. Since the onset of plasticity is very rapid and requires little extra activity, we propose that these forms of plasticity might play a role already during an ongoing search for odor sources. Our results imply that components of both short-term and long-term olfactory memory may be encoded at this synapse.

  5. Robo-2 controls the segregation of a portion of basal vomeronasal sensory neuron axons to the posterior region of the accessory olfactory bulb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Janet E A; Cho, Jin Hyung; Dumontier, Emilie; Andrews, William; Cutforth, Tyler; Tessier-Lavigne, Marc; Parnavelas, John; Cloutier, Jean-François

    2009-11-11

    The ability of sensory systems to detect and process information from the environment relies on the elaboration of precise connections between sensory neurons in the periphery and second order neurons in the CNS. In mice, the accessory olfactory system is thought to regulate a wide variety of social and sexual behaviors. The expression of the Slit receptors Robo-1 and Robo-2 in vomeronasal sensory neurons (VSNs) suggests they may direct the stereotypic targeting of their axons to the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB). Here, we have examined the roles of Robo-1 and Robo-2 in the formation of connections by VSN axons within the AOB. While Robo-1 is not necessary for the segregation of VSN axons within the anterior and posterior regions of the AOB, Robo-2 is required for the targeting of some basal VSN axons to the posterior region of the AOB but is dispensable for the fasciculation of VSN axons. Furthermore, the specific ablation of Robo-2 expression in VSNs leads to mistargeting of a portion of basal VSN axons to the anterior region of the AOB, indicating that Robo-2 expression is required on projecting VSN axons. Together, these results identify Robo-2 as a receptor that controls the targeting of basal VSN axons to the posterior AOB.

  6. Differential effect of functional olfactory bulb deafferentation on tyrosine hydroxylase and glutamic acid decarboxylase messenger RNA levels in rodent juxtaglomerular neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, D M; Grillo, M; Margolis, F L; Joh, T H; Baker, H

    1991-09-08

    Expression of the dopaminergic phenotype in olfactory bulb (OB) juxtaglomerular neurons (constituting a population of periglomerular and external tufted cells) is dependent upon functional innervation by peripheral olfactory receptors. Loss of functional input in rodents, by either peripheral deafferentation or deprivation of odorant access, results in a profound decrease in the expression of juxtaglomerular tyrosine hydroxylase (TH). We have examined the effects of such treatments on the expression of the neurotransmitter biosynthetic enzyme glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), which is colocalized with TH in the majority of TH-containing juxtaglomerular neurons. Following either chemically induced OB deafferentation in adult mice or unilateral odor deprivation in neonatal rats, steady-state OB GAD messenger RNA levels remained essentially unchanged as assessed by Northern blot analysis 20-40 days after treatment. These results were confirmed by in situ hybridization analysis, which demonstrated a profound loss of juxtaglomerular TH messenger RNA but no accompanying decrease in regionally colocalized GAD message. Since GAD is found in nearly all dopaminergic OB cells, the preservation of juxtaglomerular GAD message implies that olfactory receptor neurons exert a differential transneuronal regulation of TH and GAD gene transcription.

  7. Physiology Mechanism of Metabolisms in the Middle Scales of Lilium davidii var. unicolor Bulbs Stored at Low Temperature for Dormancy-Release

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Hong-mei; LI Tian-lai; LI Yun-fei

    2005-01-01

    Changes in carbohydrate, phenols, free amino acids and endogenous hormones in middle scales of Lilium davidii var.unicolor bulbs during the 101 days storage at 2, 6 and 10℃ in moist sawdust were studied. The results indicated that as the storage time increased and the storage temperature delined, contents of starch and abscisic acid (ABA) decreased markedly, and the level of total soluble sugar, phenols, gibberellic acid (GA3) and indole acetic acid (IAA) increased sharply. In the first 34 days, the contents of the above substances changed most actively. Correlation analysis revealed that the increase in content of total soluble sugar and phenols was respectively caused by activation of amylase and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL). During the storage, the content of free amino acids decreased, and the level of arginine was the highest and changed most remarkably. According to the results of stepwise regression analysis and path analysis, we could primarily conclude that the metabolism of carbohydrates, phenols and free amino acids in the middle scales may be mainly regulated by endogenous GA3.

  8. Afterhyperpolarization (AHP) regulates the frequency and timing of action potentials in the mitral cells of the olfactory bulb: role of olfactory experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duménieu, Maël; Fourcaud-Trocmé, Nicolas; Garcia, Samuel; Kuczewski, Nicola

    2015-05-01

    Afterhyperpolarization (AHP) is a principal feedback mechanism in the control of the frequency and patterning of neuronal firing. In principal projection neurons of the olfactory bulb, the mitral cells (MCs), the AHP is produced by three separate components: classical potassium-mediated hyperpolarization, and the excitatory and inhibitory components, which are generated by the recurrent dendrodendritic synaptic transmission. Precise spike timing is involved in olfactory coding and learning, as well as in the appearance of population oscillatory activity. However, the contribution of the AHP and its components to these processes remains unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that the AHP is developed with the MC firing frequency and is dominated by the potassium component. We also show that recurrent synaptic transmission significantly modifies MC AHP and that the strength of the hyperpolarization produced by the AHP in the few milliseconds preceding the action potential (AP) emission determines MC firing frequency and AP timing. Moreover, we show that the AHP area is larger in younger animals, possibly owing to increased Ca(2+) influx during MC firing. Finally, we show that olfactory experience selectively reduces the early component of the MC AHP (under 25 msec), thus producing a modification of the AP timing limited to the higher firing frequency. On the basis of these results, we propose that the AHP, and its susceptibility to be selectively modulated by the recurrent synaptic transmission and olfactory experience, participate in odor coding and learning by modifying the frequency and pattern of MC firing.

  9. The Isosteroid Alkaloid Imperialine from Bulbs of Fritillaria cirrhosa Mitigates Pulmonary Functional and Structural Impairment and Suppresses Inflammatory Response in a COPD-Like Rat Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Houcong; Wang, Shu

    2016-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the third leading cause of death in the world. Present therapies for COPD have limited effect on reducing the progression of COPD and suppressing the inflammatory response in the lung. Bulbs of Fritillaria cirrhosa D. Don (BFC) have been used in many Asian countries for a long time to treat pulmonary diseases, such as cough, expectoration, and asthma. Steroidal alkaloids are the major biological active constituents in BFC, whereby imperialine is one of the important steroidal alkaloids. So far, there are no studies reporting the effect of imperialine on COPD. In this study, we investigated the effect of imperialine on pulmonary function and structure and inflammation in a COPD-like rat model which was induced by the combination of exposure to CS and intratracheal administration of LPS. Our data show that imperialine mitigates pulmonary functional and structural impairment and suppressed inflammatory response in a COPD-like rat model by mediating expression of related cytokines in lung tissues of the COPD-like rats, such as IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, NF-κB, TGF-β1, MMP-9, and TIMP-1. PMID:27524867

  10. The Isosteroid Alkaloid Imperialine from Bulbs of Fritillaria cirrhosa Mitigates Pulmonary Functional and Structural Impairment and Suppresses Inflammatory Response in a COPD-Like Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongdong Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is the third leading cause of death in the world. Present therapies for COPD have limited effect on reducing the progression of COPD and suppressing the inflammatory response in the lung. Bulbs of Fritillaria cirrhosa D. Don (BFC have been used in many Asian countries for a long time to treat pulmonary diseases, such as cough, expectoration, and asthma. Steroidal alkaloids are the major biological active constituents in BFC, whereby imperialine is one of the important steroidal alkaloids. So far, there are no studies reporting the effect of imperialine on COPD. In this study, we investigated the effect of imperialine on pulmonary function and structure and inflammation in a COPD-like rat model which was induced by the combination of exposure to CS and intratracheal administration of LPS. Our data show that imperialine mitigates pulmonary functional and structural impairment and suppressed inflammatory response in a COPD-like rat model by mediating expression of related cytokines in lung tissues of the COPD-like rats, such as IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, NF-κB, TGF-β1, MMP-9, and TIMP-1.

  11. A single identified glomerulus in the zebrafish olfactory bulb carries the high-affinity response to death-associated odor cadaverine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieris, Milan; Ahuja, Gaurav; Krishna, Venkatesh; Korsching, Sigrun I.

    2017-01-01

    The death-associated odor cadaverine, generated by bacteria-mediated decarboxylation of lysine, has been described as the principal activator of a particular olfactory receptor in zebrafish, TAAR13c. Low concentrations of cadaverine activated mainly TAAR13c-expressing olfactory sensory neurons, suggesting TAAR13c as an important element of the neuronal processing pathway linking cadaverine stimulation to a strongly aversive innate behavioral response. Here, we characterized the initial steps of this neuronal pathway. First we identified TAAR13c-expressing cells as ciliated neurons, equivalent to the situation for mammalian taar genes, which shows a high degree of conservation despite the large evolutionary distance between teleost fishes and mammals. Next we identified the target area of cadaverine-responsive OSNs in the olfactory bulb. We report that cadaverine dose-dependently activates a group of dorsolateral glomeruli, at the lowest concentration down to a single invariant glomerulus, situated at the medial border of the dorsolateral cluster. This is the first demonstration of a single stereotyped target glomerulus in the fish olfactory system for a non-pheromone odor. A mix of different amines activates many glomeruli within the same dorsolateral cluster, suggesting this area to function as a general amine response region. PMID:28102357

  12. High-Field MRI Reveals a Drastic Increase of Hypoxia-Induced Microhemorrhages upon Tissue Reoxygenation in the Mouse Brain with Strong Predominance in the Olfactory Bulb.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelika Hoffmann

    Full Text Available Human pathophysiology of high altitude hypoxic brain injury is not well understood and research on the underlying mechanisms is hampered by the lack of well-characterized animal models. In this study, we explored the evolution of brain injury by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and histological methods in mice exposed to normobaric hypoxia at 8% oxygen for 48 hours followed by rapid reoxygenation and incubation for further 24 h under normoxic conditions. T2*-, diffusion-weighted and T2-relaxometry MRI was performed before exposure, immediately after 48 hours of hypoxia and 24 hours after reoxygenation. Cerebral microhemorrhages, previously described in humans suffering from severe high altitude cerebral edema, were also detected in mice upon hypoxia-reoxygenation with a strong region-specific clustering in the olfactory bulb, and to a lesser extent, in the basal ganglia and cerebral white matter. The number of microhemorrhages determined immediately after hypoxia was low, but strongly increased 24 hours upon onset of reoxygenation. Histologically verified microhemorrhages were exclusively located around cerebral microvessels with disrupted interendothelial tight junction protein ZO-1. In contrast, quantitative T2 and apparent-diffusion-coefficient values immediately after hypoxia and after 24 hours of reoxygenation did not show any region-specific alteration, consistent with subtle multifocal but not with regional or global brain edema.

  13. High-Field MRI Reveals a Drastic Increase of Hypoxia-Induced Microhemorrhages upon Tissue Reoxygenation in the Mouse Brain with Strong Predominance in the Olfactory Bulb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Angelika; Kunze, Reiner; Helluy, Xavier; Milford, David; Heiland, Sabine; Bendszus, Martin; Pham, Mirko; Marti, Hugo H

    2016-01-01

    Human pathophysiology of high altitude hypoxic brain injury is not well understood and research on the underlying mechanisms is hampered by the lack of well-characterized animal models. In this study, we explored the evolution of brain injury by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and histological methods in mice exposed to normobaric hypoxia at 8% oxygen for 48 hours followed by rapid reoxygenation and incubation for further 24 h under normoxic conditions. T2*-, diffusion-weighted and T2-relaxometry MRI was performed before exposure, immediately after 48 hours of hypoxia and 24 hours after reoxygenation. Cerebral microhemorrhages, previously described in humans suffering from severe high altitude cerebral edema, were also detected in mice upon hypoxia-reoxygenation with a strong region-specific clustering in the olfactory bulb, and to a lesser extent, in the basal ganglia and cerebral white matter. The number of microhemorrhages determined immediately after hypoxia was low, but strongly increased 24 hours upon onset of reoxygenation. Histologically verified microhemorrhages were exclusively located around cerebral microvessels with disrupted interendothelial tight junction protein ZO-1. In contrast, quantitative T2 and apparent-diffusion-coefficient values immediately after hypoxia and after 24 hours of reoxygenation did not show any region-specific alteration, consistent with subtle multifocal but not with regional or global brain edema.

  14. Optimization of Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Total Alkaloids, Peimisine, Peimine and Peiminine from the Bulb of Fritillaria thunbergii Miq, and Evaluation of Antioxidant Activities of the Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Ruan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE was used to extract total alkaloids, peimisine, peimine and peiminine from the bulb of Fritillaria thunbergii Miq. The antioxidant capacity of the extracts was evaluated by DPPH radical scavenging activity (DPPH-RSA, ABTS radical scavenging activity (ABTS-RSA and ferric reducing capacity (FRAP assay. A central composite design (CCD with four variables and five levels was employed for optimization of process parameters, and response surface plots were constructed in accordance with a second order polynomial model. Under optimal conditions of 3.0 h, 60.4 °C, 26.5 MPa and 89.3% ethanol, the highest yields were predicted to be 3.8 mg/g for total alkaloids, 0.5 mg/g for peimisine, 1.3 mg/g for peimine and 1.3 mg/g for peiminine, and the antioxidant capacity of extracts displayed EC50, DPPH value of 5.5 mg/mL, EC50, ABTS value of 0.3 mg/mL and FRAP value of 118.2 mg ascorbic acid equivalent (AAE/100 g.

  15. 土贝母中一个新的三萜皂苷%A novel triterpenoid saponin from bulbs of Bolbostemma paniculatum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马挺军; 李军; 屠鹏飞; 吕飞杰

    2006-01-01

    Objective To study the triterpenoid saponin from bulbs of Bolbostemma paniculatum.Methods The compound was isolated by repeated silica gel chromatographies and its strcuture was eluci-dated on the basis of physico chemical property and spectral analysis. Results A novel triterpenoidsaponin was isolated and determined as olean 12-en-28-oic acid, 3- {[2-O-[6-O-[(3R)-4-carboxy-3-hydrox-y-3-methyl-1-oxobutyl]-β-D-glucopyranosyl]-β-D-glucopyranosyl] oxy}-2, 16, 23-trihydroxy-28-[2-O-α-L-rhamnose (1→2)-α-L-arabinopyranosyl] ester ( I φ. Conclusion Compound I is a novel compoundnamed as dexylosyltubeimoside Ⅲ.%目的对土贝母Bolbostemma paniculatum的三萜皂苷成分进行分离和结构鉴定.方法采用反复柱色谱方法进行分离,通过理化性质和波谱分析鉴定结构.结果从土贝母中分离并鉴定了1个新的三萜皂苷脱木糖土贝母苷丙(dexylosyltubeimoside Ⅲ).结论化合物Ⅰ为新化合物.

  16. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels influence the balance of migration and differentiation of subventricular zone cells, but not guidance to the olfactory bulb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petridis, Athanasios K; El Maarouf, Abderrahman

    2011-02-01

    New progenitor cells in the subventricular zone (SVZ) migrate rostrally and differentiate into interneurons in the olfactory bulb (OB) throughout life. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) may influence the normal progression of this migration. In the present study, mouse SVZ explant cultures were used to investigate how BDNF modulates the behavior of these migrating progenitors. Concentrations of BDNF in the physiological range (e.g. 1ng/mL) stimulated migration, whereas doses of 10 ng/mL or higher induced SVZ cell differentiation and reduced migration. Pharmacological inhibition of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway blocked the BDNF-induced differentiation of SVZ progenitors, indicating that differentiation of SVZ progenitors in response to high-dose BDNF is initiated through MAPK. Physiological concentrations of BDNF, like the presence of polysialic acid in the tissue, stimulated migration of cells from the explant without affecting the speed at which this occurs. Interestingly, in vivo immunohistochemical and molecular analysis showed similar levels of BDNF in both the SVZ and OB; that is, there was no positive gradient attracting SVZ cells towards the OB. Our data show that SVZ cells respond differently to different concentrations of BDNF.

  17. The Past and Future Trends of Heat Stress Based On Wet Bulb Globe Temperature Index in Outdoor Environment of Tehran City, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid HABIBI MOHRAZ

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The workers who are working in the open and warm environments are at risk of health effects of climate and heat changes. It is expected that the risk is increase with global warming. This study aimed to investigate the changes of Wet Bulb Globe Temperature (WBGT index in the past and to predict their trend of future changes in Tehran, capital of Iran.Methods: The meteorological data recorded in Tehran, Iran during the statistical period between 1961 and 2009 were obtained from the Iran Meteorological Organization and based on them, WBGT index was calculated and processed using Man-Kendall correlation test.Results: The results of Man-Kendall correlation test showed that the trend of changes of annual mean WBGT during the statistical period under study (1961-2009 has been significantly increasing. In addition, the result of proposed predictive model estimated that an increase of about 1.55 degree in WBGT index will be seen over 40 years from 2009 to 2050 in Tehran.Conclusion: Climate change in Tehran has had an effect on person's exposure to heat stresses consistent with global warming. Keywords: Climate change, Heat stress, WBGT, Global warming

  18. Anatomy and physiology of the clitoris, vestibular bulbs, and labia minora with a review of the female orgasm and the prevention of female sexual dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puppo, Vincenzo

    2013-01-01

    This review, with 21 figures and 1 video, aims to clarify some important aspects of the anatomy and physiology of the female erectile organs (triggers of orgasm), which are important for the prevention of female sexual dysfunction. The clitoris is the homologue of the male's glans and corpora cavernosa, and erection is reached in three phases: latent, turgid, and rigid. The vestibular bulbs cause "vaginal" orgasmic contractions, through the rhythmic contraction of the bulbocavernosus muscles. Because of the engorgement with blood during sexual arousal, the labia minora become turgid, doubling or tripling in thickness. The corpus spongiosum of the female urethra becomes congested during sexual arousal; therefore, male erection equals erection of the female erectile organs. The correct anatomical term to describe the erectile tissues responsible for female orgasm is the female penis. Vaginal orgasm and the G-spot do not exist. These claims are found in numerous articles that have been written by Addiego F, Whipple B, Jannini E, Buisson O, O'Connell H, Brody S, Ostrzenski A, and others, have no scientific basis. Orgasm is an intense sensation of pleasure achieved by stimulation of erogenous zones. Women do not have a refractory period after each orgasm and can, therefore, experience multiple orgasms. Clitoral sexual response and the female orgasm are not affected by aging. Sexologists should define having sex/love making when orgasm occurs for both partners with or without vaginal intercourse.

  19. KAPASITAS ANTIOKSIDAN DAN INHIBITOR ALFA GLUKOSIDASE EKSTRAK UMBI BAWANG DAYAK [Antioxidant and Alpha-Glucosidase Inhibitory Properties of Bawang Dayak Bulb Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andi Early Febrinda*

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Bawang dayak (Eleutherine palmifolia is an indigenous plant in Borneo traditionally used by Dayak tribes to treat any kind of degenerative deseases including diabetes mellitus. The purpose of this research was to measure antioxidant and antidiabetic capacities of water and ethanolic extracts of bawang dayak bulb. Parameters evaluated in this research were phytochemical screening, total phenolics, flavonoid content, DPPH free-radical scavenging activity, and alpha glucosidase inhibiting (AGI activity. The result showed that the total phenolics and flavonoid content in bawang dayak ethanolic extract (217.71 mg GAE/g and 65.35 mg QE/g were higher than that of the water extract (139.93 mg GAE/g and 16.95 mg QE/g. The ethanolic extract also had higher antioxidant and AGI activities (IC50 112 and 241 ppm than that of the water extract (IC50 526 and 505 ppm. In addition, the IC50 values for AGI in bawang dayak ethanolic extract was lower than acarbose which is known as a commercial antidiabetic agent.

  20. Polyurethane/polylactide-based biomaterials combined with rat olfactory bulb-derived glial cells and adipose-derived mesenchymal stromal cells for neural regenerative medicine applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzesiak, Jakub; Marycz, Krzysztof; Szarek, Dariusz; Bednarz, Paulina; Laska, Jadwiga

    2015-01-01

    Research concerning the elaboration and application of biomaterial which may support the nerve tissue regeneration is currently one of the most promising directions. Biocompatible polymer devices are noteworthy group among the numerous types of potentially attractive biomaterials for regenerative medicine application. Polylactides and polyurethanes may be utilized for developing devices for supporting the nerve regeneration, like nerve guide conduits or bridges connecting the endings of broken nerve tracts. Moreover, the combination of these biomaterial devices with regenerative cell populations, like stem or precursor cells should significantly improve the final therapeutic effect. Therefore, the composition and structure of final device should support the proper adhesion and growth of cells destined for clinical application. In current research, the three polymer mats elaborated for connecting the broken nerve tracts, made from polylactide, polyurethane and their blend were evaluated both for physical properties and in vitro, using the olfactory-bulb glial cells and mesenchymal stem cells. The evaluation of Young's modulus, wettability and roughness of obtained materials showed the differences between analyzed samples. The analysis of cell adhesion, proliferation and morphology showed that the polyurethane-polylactide blend was the most neutral for cells in culture, while in the pure polymer samples there were significant alterations observed. Our results indicated that polyurethane-polylactide blend is an optimal composition for culturing and delivery of glial and mesenchymal stem cells.

  1. In vitro investigation of the toxic effects of extracts of Allium sativum bulbs on adults of Hyalomma marginatum rufipes and Rhipicephalus pulchellus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Nchu

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The toxic effects of the extracts of Allium sativum (Garlic were evaluated against adults of Hyalomma marginatum rufipes and Rhipicephalus pulchellus using three types (Types A, B and C of contact toxicity bioassays. A. sativum bulbs were extracted with acetone, ethanol and dichloromethane (DCM solvents. Among these three solvents, it is the DCM extract of A. sativum that appears to have anti-tick activity. In the Type A contact toxicity bioassay, DCM extracts of A. sativum demonstrated a high acaricidal bioactivity against H. m. rufipes with 100 % of ticks killed in less than an hour, and toxicity persisted to the second day. A weak acaricidal activity of aqueous extracts of A. sativum was observed in the Type B contact toxicity bioassay. In the Type C contact toxicity bioassay, a concentration of 24 % w/v of DCM extracts of garlic in sunflower oil (Helianthus annuus had killed 100% of H. m. rufipes (LC50= 5.9 % w/v and R. pulchellus (LC50 = 10.3 % w/v by 24 hours post-treatment of ticks. The results obtained from this study suggest that DCM extract of A. sativum is a potential source of novel acaricidal agents.

  2. Cost estimation 2012 for the electrical and mechanical equipment of the power house in hydropower projects and pumped storage projects. Equipment with Pelton turbines, Francis turbines, Kaplan Turbines, Kaplan tube turbines, bulb turbines and Francis pump-turbines; Kostenschaetzung 2012 fuer die elektrische und mechanische Ausruestung des Krafthauses in Wasserkraft- und Pumpspeicher-Projekten. Ausruestung mit Pelton-, Francis-, Kaplan-, Kaplan-Rohr-, Bulb-Turbinen oder Francis-Pumpturbinen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarado-Ancieta, Cesar Adolfo

    2012-07-01

    The compilation of statistical data on costs for the electrical and mechanical equipment of approximately 140 selected hydropower projects and pumped storage projects in 46 countries in America, Europe, Asia and Africa provides helpful diagrams with which the cost of the electrical and mechanical equipment of Pelton turbines, Francis turbines, Kaplan Turbines, Kaplan tube turbines, bulb turbines and Francis pump-turbines can be determined.

  3. Efeitos de tipos de bulbos e adubação nitrogenada sobre a produtividade e características comerciais do alho cv. "Quitéria" Effects of bulbs types and nitrogen on the yield and marketable characteristics of garlic cv. "Quitéria"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo M. Resende

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho foi conduzido no período de abril a outubro de 1991 na UFLA, Lavras (MG, com o objetivo de avaliar a influência de doses de nitrogênio e tipos de bulbos como fonte de bulbilhos para plantio sobre a produtividade e características comerciais do alho (Allium sativum L.. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso em esquema fatorial 5x2, compreendendo cinco doses de nitrogênio (0; 40; 80; 120 e 160 kg/ha de N e dois tipos de bulbos para plantio como fonte de bulbilhos (bulbos normais e pseudoperfilhados e quatro repetições. Constatou-se que o uso de bulbilhos de bulbos pseudoperfilhados é viável, não havendo diferenças em termos de produtividade total ou comercial, peso médio de bulbo, número de bulbilhos por bulbo e incidência de pseudoperfilhamento em relação ao uso de bulbilhos de bulbos normais. A produtividade total de bulbos aumentou até a dose de 149,2 kg/ha de N, sendo que houve redução linear na produtividade comercial com o incremento da dose de nitrogênio. O peso médio de bulbo e a percentagem de bulbos pseudoperfilhados aumentaram linearmente com o incremento das doses de nitrogênio. O número de bulbilhos por bulbo não foi influenciado pelos tratamentos.This study was carried out from April to October 1991, in the experimental field of UFLA, Lavras, Brazil, with the objective of evaluating the influence of nitrogen rates and planting bulbs types on yield and marketable traits of garlic (Allium sativum L.. The experimental design was a randomized complete block in a 5 x 2 factorial scheme, with four replications. The first factor was N rates (0; 40; 80; 120 and 160 kg/ha N and the second one was planting bulbs types (normal and bulbs with secondary growth. Both normal and secondary growth garlic bulbs were feasible for planting. No differences between them were observed in total yield, commercial yield, average weight of bulb, number of cloves per bulb, and secondary growth

  4. Histogenesis of olfactory bulb and rostral migration stream in mice%小鼠嗅球以及吻侧迁移流的发生

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高文静; 王志新; 徐高磊; 邓锦波; 高晓群

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨嗅球结构和吻侧迁移流(RMS)的发生及其中神经干细胞的变化趋势.方法:利用H-E染色、Nissl染色标记嗅球形态结构,BrdU免疫荧光技术观察吻侧迁移流中增殖的神经干细胞.结果:嗅球组织结构的发生:胚胎期,嗅球各层的结构轮廓尚未发育完全;生后3d时,各层结构虽然发育完善,但层与层之间的交界处模糊不清,生后5d时,整个嗅球结构发育已经完善,也就意味着嗅觉系统发育成熟.迁移流的发生:胚胎初期,侧脑室是一个很大的空腔,管腔膜上布满了增殖的神经于细胞,脑室下区延伸入中空的嗅球中,之后管腔闭合,形成了原始的吻侧迁移流;出生时,吻侧迁移流中的细胞密度达到最大值,之后逐渐降低,直至消失.结论:嗅球片层化结构是从无到有,从不成熟到成熟的过程.吻侧迁移流的发生是侧脑室腔的闭合和室管下层上神经干细胞遗留的痕迹.%Objective:To discuss the structure of the olfactory bulb (OB), the occurrence of the rostral migration streams (RMS) and the change trend of neural stem cells in RMS. Methods: The histological structure of the OB was marked by the methods of HE staining and Nissl staining. Using bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU)-immunofluorescence to observe the proliferation of neural stem cells in RMS. Results: (1)In the embryonic period, the outline of the structure of the OB layers was not fully developed yet. On the third day after birth the structure developed well, but the junctions between layers were blurred. In P5, the development of the entire olfactory bulb was improved. (2)In the early embryo, the lateral ventricle was a large cavity. The lumen membrance was full of the proliferation of neural stem cells. The subventricular zone extended into the hollow of OB, and then closed the lumen, forming the original rostral migration stream. In P0, the cell density in RMS reached its maximum value, then gradually reduced until it

  5. Polyurethane/polylactide-based biomaterials combined with rat olfactory bulb-derived glial cells and adipose-derived mesenchymal stromal cells for neural regenerative medicine applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grzesiak, Jakub, E-mail: grzesiak.kuba@gmail.com [Electron Microscopy Laboratory, University of Environmental and Life Sciences, Kozuchowska 5b, 51-631 Wroclaw (Poland); Marycz, Krzysztof [Electron Microscopy Laboratory, University of Environmental and Life Sciences, Kozuchowska 5b, 51-631 Wroclaw (Poland); Szarek, Dariusz [Department of Neurosurgery, Lower Silesia Specialist Hospital of T. Marciniak, Emergency Medicine Center, Traugutta 116, 50-420 Wroclaw (Poland); Bednarz, Paulina [State Higher Vocational School in Tarnów, Mickiewicza 8, 33-100 Tarnów (Poland); Laska, Jadwiga [AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Materials Science and Ceramics, Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków (Poland)

    2015-07-01

    Research concerning the elaboration and application of biomaterial which may support the nerve tissue regeneration is currently one of the most promising directions. Biocompatible polymer devices are noteworthy group among the numerous types of potentially attractive biomaterials for regenerative medicine application. Polylactides and polyurethanes may be utilized for developing devices for supporting the nerve regeneration, like nerve guide conduits or bridges connecting the endings of broken nerve tracts. Moreover, the combination of these biomaterial devices with regenerative cell populations, like stem or precursor cells should significantly improve the final therapeutic effect. Therefore, the composition and structure of final device should support the proper adhesion and growth of cells destined for clinical application. In current research, the three polymer mats elaborated for connecting the broken nerve tracts, made from polylactide, polyurethane and their blend were evaluated both for physical properties and in vitro, using the olfactory-bulb glial cells and mesenchymal stem cells. The evaluation of Young's modulus, wettability and roughness of obtained materials showed the differences between analyzed samples. The analysis of cell adhesion, proliferation and morphology showed that the polyurethane–polylactide blend was the most neutral for cells in culture, while in the pure polymer samples there were significant alterations observed. Our results indicated that polyurethane–polylactide blend is an optimal composition for culturing and delivery of glial and mesenchymal stem cells. - Highlights: • Polyurethane–polylactide blends exhibit different characteristics from pure polymers. • Pure PU and PLA negatively influence on morphology of glial and mesenchymal cells. • PU/PLA blend was neutral for glial and mesenchymal cell proliferation and morphology.

  6. Changes in flavor precursors, pungency, and sugar content in short-day onion bulbs during 5-month storage at various temperatures or in controlled atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Kil S; Lee, Eun J; Patil, Bhimanagouda S

    2012-02-01

    Short-day onion bulbs (cv. TG 1015Y) were stored in 1% O(2,) 99% N(2) air at 5 °C (controlled atmosphere [CA]), or in ambient air at 5, 24, or 30 °C, for 5 mo. Changes in flavor precursors, pungency, and sugar content were investigated. After 5 mo of storage, 1-propenyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide concentrations increased continuously at 5 °C, gradually decreased in CA, slightly increased for 3 mo, and returned to initial levels at 24 °C and decreased below initial levels at 34 °C. Methyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide concentrations remained unchanged in all storage conditions. Onion pungency levels significantly increased at 5 °C, and decreased at 30 °C. Storage in CA and at 24 °C resulted in some fluctuations in pungency but the levels remained similar to initial levels. The calculated pyruvic acid concentrations were approximately 1.0 μmole/mL higher than the measured concentrations, and showed an increase at 5 °C and a slight reduction at 30 °C, consistent with the pungency results. Storage at 5 °C and in CA resulted in slight increases in fructose and glucose concentrations for 3 to 4 mo with subsequent rapid decreases, while sucrose concentrations remained unchanged. However, at 24 and 30 °C, fructose and glucose concentrations continuously decreased, accompanied by a continuous increase in sucrose concentrations. Storage in CA maintained the quality of onions best, as evidenced by the smallest changes in flavor precursors, pungency, and sugar concentrations, while storage at 5 °C resulted in increased pungency. Storage at 24 and 30 °C was tested for the purpose of comparison only; these temperatures are not recommended for commercial storage.

  7. Slits and Robo-2 regulate the coalescence of subsets of olfactory sensory neuron axons within the ventral region of the olfactory bulb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jin H; Kam, Joseph W K; Cloutier, Jean-François

    2012-11-15

    Olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) project their axons to second-order neurons in the olfactory bulb (OB) to form a precise glomerular map and these stereotypic connections are crucial for accurate odorant information processing by animals. To form these connections, olfactory sensory neuron (OSN) axons respond to axon guidance molecules that direct their growth and coalescence. We have previously implicated the axon guidance receptor Robo-2 in the accurate coalescence of OSN axons within the dorsal region of the OB (Cho et al., 2011). Herein, we have examined whether Robo-2 and its ligands, the Slits, contribute to the formation of an accurate glomerular map within more ventral regions of the OB. We have ablated expression of Robo-2 in OSNs and assessed the targeting accuracy of axons expressing either the P2 or MOR28 olfactory receptors, which innervate two different regions of the ventral OB. We show that P2-positive axons, which express Robo-2, coalesce into glomeruli more ventrally and form additional glomeruli in the OB of robo-2(lox/lox);OMP-Cre mice. We also demonstrate that Robo-2-mediated targeting of P2 axons along the dorsoventral axis of the OB is controlled by Slit-1 and Slit-3 expression. Interestingly, although MOR28-positive OSNs only express low levels of Robo-2, a reduced number of MOR28-positive glomeruli is observed in the OB of robo-2(lox/lox);OMP-Cre mice. Taken together, our results demonstrate that Slits and Robo-2 are required for the formation of an accurate glomerular map in the ventral region of the OB.

  8. Linear correlation between the number of olfactory sensory neurons expressing a given mouse odorant receptor gene and the total volume of the corresponding glomeruli in the olfactory bulb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressel, Olaf Christian; Khan, Mona

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Chemosensory specificity in the main olfactory system of the mouse relies on the expression of ∼1,100 odorant receptor (OR) genes across millions of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) in the main olfactory epithelium (MOE), and on the coalescence of OSN axons into ∼3,600 glomeruli in the olfactory bulb. A traditional approach for visualizing OSNs and their axons consists of tagging an OR gene genetically with an axonal marker that is cotranslated with the OR by virtue of an internal ribosome entry site (IRES). Here we report full cell counts for 15 gene‐targeted strains of the OR‐IRES‐marker design coexpressing a fluorescent protein. These strains represent 11 targeted OR genes, a 1% sample of the OR gene repertoire. We took an empirical, “count every cell” strategy: we counted all fluorescent cell profiles with a nuclear profile within the cytoplasm, on all serial coronal sections under a confocal microscope, a total of 685,673 cells in 56 mice at postnatal day 21. We then applied a strain‐specific Abercrombie correction to these OSN counts in order to obtain a closer approximation of the true OSN numbers. We found a 17‐fold range in the average (corrected) OSN number across these 11 OR genes. In the same series of coronal sections, we then determined the total volume of the glomeruli (TGV) formed by coalescence of the fluorescent axons. We found a strong linear correlation between OSN number and TGV, suggesting that TGV can be used as a surrogate measurement for estimating OSN numbers in these gene‐targeted strains. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:199–209, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26100963

  9. Reduction in subventricular zone-derived olfactory bulb neurogenesis in a rat model of Huntington's disease is accompanied by striatal invasion of neuroblasts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh Kandasamy

    Full Text Available Huntington's disease (HD is an inherited progressive neurodegenerative disorder caused by an expanded CAG repeat in exon 1 of the huntingtin gene (HTT. The primary neuropathology of HD has been attributed to the preferential degeneration of medium spiny neurons (MSN in the striatum. Reports on striatal neurogenesis have been a subject of debate; nevertheless, it should be considered as an endogenous attempt to repair the brain. The subventricular zone (SVZ might offer a close-by region to supply the degenerated striatum with new cells. Previously, we have demonstrated that R6/2 mice, a widely used preclinical model representing an early onset HD, showed reduced olfactory bulb (OB neurogenesis but induced striatal migration of neuroblasts without affecting the proliferation of neural progenitor cell (NPCs in the SVZ. The present study revisits these findings, using a clinically more relevant transgenic rat model of late onset HD (tgHD rats carrying the human HTT gene with 51 CAG repeats and mimicking many of the neuropathological features of HD seen in patients. We demonstrate that cell proliferation is reduced in the SVZ and OB of tgHD rats compared to WT rats. In the OB of tgHD rats, although cell survival was reduced, the frequency of neuronal differentiation was not altered in the granule cell layer (GCL compared to the WT rats. However, an increased frequency of dopamenergic neuronal differentiation was noticed in the glomerular layer (GLOM of tgHD rats. Besides this, we observed a selective proliferation of neuroblasts in the adjacent striatum of tgHD rats. There was no evidence for neuronal maturation and survival of these striatal neuroblasts. Therefore, the functional role of these invading neuroblasts still needs to be determined, but they might offer an endogenous alternative for stem or neuronal cell transplantation strategies.

  10. Evaluation of cardioprotective effect of aqueous extract of Allium cepa Linn. bulb on isoprenaline-induced myocardial injury in Wistar albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharadi, Geeta B; Patel, Kaksha J; Purohit, Bhargav M; Baxi, Seema N; Tripathi, C B

    2016-10-01

    To investigate the cardioprotective potential of the aqueous extract of Allium cepa Linn. bulb in isoprenaline-induced myocardial injury in Wistar albino rats. In vitro total phenolic, total flavonoid content and 2, 2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl hydrate radical scavenging activity was measured. Isoprenaline-induced myocardial injury model was used to evaluate in vivo effect of aqueous extract of A. cepa in Wistar albino rats. Seventy two rats were randomly divided in 6 groups. Rats were treated with A. cepa 400 mg/kg and 800 mg/kg doses for 30 days and myocardial injury was produced by subcutaneous injection of isoprenaline (ISO) 85 mg/kg on day 28 and 29. Carvedilol 1 mg/kg for 30 days served as active control. Electrocardiogram parameters, cardiac injury markers, oxidative stress markers and histopathological changes were evaluated in each group and compared using appropriate statistical tests. In vitro evaluation of aqueous extract of A. cepa showed significant antioxidant property. ISO produced significant myocardial injury as compared to normal control group (P cepa in the dose of 400 mg/kg significantly recovered the altered parameters (Troponin-I, Creatine kinase-MB, glutamate-pyruvate transaminase, HR, R-R interval, and oxidative stress markers) compared to disease control group (P cepa in the dose 800 mg/kg recovered the altered parameters (HR, heart weight/body weight ratio, and superoxide dismutase level) compared to disease control group. Histopathological parameters did not recover in the doses of 400 and 800 mg/kg (P > 0.05). The aqueous extract of A. cepa 400 mg/kg was found to be cardioprotective against myocardial injury while A. cepa 800 mg/kg did not show significant cardioprotective activity. So, we presume that A. cepa might be effective within certain dose range only.

  11. Proteomic Characterization of Differential Abundant Proteins Accumulated between Lower and Upper Epidermises of Fleshy Scales in Onion (Allium cepa L.) Bulbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaolin

    2016-01-01

    The onion (Allium cepa L.) is widely planted worldwide as a valuable vegetable crop. The scales of an onion bulb are a modified type of leaf. The one-layer-cell epidermis of onion scales is commonly used as a model experimental material in botany and molecular biology. The lower epidermis (LE) and upper epidermis (UE) of onion scales display obvious differences in microscopic structure, cell differentiation and pigment synthesis; however, associated proteomic differences are unclear. LE and UE can be easily sampled as single-layer-cell tissues for comparative proteomic analysis. In this study, a proteomic approach based on 2-DE and mass spectrometry (MS) was applied to compare LE and UE of fleshy scales from yellow and red onions. We identified 47 differential abundant protein spots (representing 31 unique proteins) between LE and UE in red and yellow onions. These proteins are mainly involved in pigment synthesis, stress response, and cell division. Particularly, the differentially accumulated chalcone-flavanone isomerase and flavone O-methyltransferase 1-like in LE may result in the differences in the onion scale color between red and yellow onions. Moreover, stress-related proteins abundantly accumulated in both LE and UE. In addition, the differential accumulation of UDP-arabinopyranose mutase 1-like protein and β-1,3-glucanase in the LE may be related to the different cell sizes between LE and UE of the two types of onion. The data derived from this study provides new insight into the differences in differentiation and developmental processes between onion epidermises. This study may also make a contribution to onion breeding, such as improving resistances and changing colors. PMID:28036352

  12. Microglia and their CX3CR1 signaling are involved in hippocampal- but not olfactory bulb-related memory and neurogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reshef, Ronen; Kreisel, Tirzah; Beroukhim Kay, Dorsa; Yirmiya, Raz

    2014-10-01

    Recent studies demonstrate that microglia play an important role in cognitive and neuroplasticity processes, at least partly via microglial CX3C receptor 1 (CX3CR1) signaling. Furthermore, microglia are responsive to environmental enrichment (EE), which modulates learning, memory and neurogenesis. In the present study we examined the role of microglial CX3CR1 signaling in hippocampal- and olfactory-bulb (OB)-related memory and neurogenesis in homozygous mice with microglia-specific transgenic expression of GFP under the CX3CR1 promoter (CX3CR1(-/-) mice), in which the CX3CR1 gene is functionally deleted, as well as heterozygous CX3CR1(+/-) and WT controls. We report that the CX3CR1-deficient mice displayed better hippocampal-dependent memory functioning and olfactory recognition, along with increased number and soma size of hippocampal microglia, suggestive of mild activation status, but no changes in OB microglia. A similar increase in hippocampal-dependent memory functioning and microglia number was also induced by pharmacological inhibition of CX3CR1 signaling, using chronic (2weeks) i.c.v. administration of CX3CR1 blocking antibody. In control mice, EE improved hippocampal-dependent memory and neurogenesis, and increased hippocampal microglia number and soma size, whereas odor enrichment (OE) improved olfactory recognition and OB neurogenesis without changing OB microglia status. In CX3CR1-deficient mice, EE and OE did not produce any further improvement in memory functioning or neurogenesis and had no effect on microglial status. These results support the notion that in the hippocampus microglia and their interactions with neurons via the CX3CR1 play an important role in memory functioning and neurogenesis, whereas in the OB microglia do not seem to be involved in these processes.

  13. Optical dissection of odor information processing in vivo using GCaMPs expressed in specified cell types of the olfactory bulb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachowiak, Matt; Economo, Michael N; Díaz-Quesada, Marta; Brunert, Daniela; Wesson, Daniel W; White, John A; Rothermel, Markus

    2013-03-20

    Understanding central processing requires precise monitoring of neural activity across populations of identified neurons in the intact brain. In the present study, we used recently optimized variants of the genetically encoded calcium sensor GCaMP (GCaMP3 and GCaMPG5G) to image activity among genetically and anatomically defined neuronal populations in the olfactory bulb (OB), including two types of GABAergic interneurons (periglomerular [PG] and short axon [SA] cells) and OB output neurons (mitral/tufted [MT] cells) projecting to the piriform cortex. We first established that changes in neuronal spiking can be related accurately to GCaMP fluorescence changes via a simple quantitative relationship over a large dynamic range. We next used in vivo two-photon imaging from individual neurons and epifluorescence signals reflecting population-level activity to investigate the spatiotemporal representation of odorants across these neuron types in anesthetized and awake mice. Under anesthesia, individual PG and SA cells showed temporally simple responses and little spontaneous activity, whereas MT cells were spontaneously active and showed diverse temporal responses. At the population level, response patterns of PG, SA, and MT cells were surprisingly similar to those imaged from sensory inputs, with shared odorant-specific topography across the dorsal OB and inhalation-coupled temporal dynamics. During wakefulness, PG and SA cell responses increased in magnitude but remained temporally simple, whereas those of MT cells changed to complex spatiotemporal patterns reflecting restricted excitation and widespread inhibition. These results suggest multiple circuit elements with distinct roles in transforming odor representations in the OB and provide a framework for further study of early olfactory processing using optical and genetic tools.

  14. Optogenetic Activation of Accessory Olfactory Bulb Input to the Forebrain Differentially Modulates Investigation of Opposite versus Same-Sex Urinary Chemosignals and Stimulates Mating in Male Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Elizabeth A.; Korzan, Wayne J.; Doctor, Danielle; Han, Xue; Baum, Michael J.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Surgical or genetic disruption of vomeronasal organ (VNO)-accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) function previously eliminated the ability of male mice to processes pheromones that elicit territorial behavior and aggression. By contrast, neither disruption significantly affected mating behaviors, although VNO lesions reduced males’ investigation of nonvolatile female pheromones. We explored the contribution of VNO-AOB pheromonal processing to male courtship using optogenetic activation of AOB projections to the forebrain. Protocadherin-Cre male transgenic mice received bilateral AOB infections with channelrhodopsin2 (ChR2) viral vectors, and an optical fiber was implanted above the AOB. In olfactory choice tests, males preferred estrous female urine (EFU) over water; however, this preference was eliminated when diluted (5%) EFU was substituted for 100% EFU. Optogenetic AOB activation concurrent with nasal contact significantly augmented males’ investigation compared to 5% EFU alone. Conversely, concurrent optogenetic AOB activation significantly reduced males’ nasal investigation of diluted urine from gonadally intact males (5% IMU) compared to 5% IMU alone. These divergent effects of AOB optogenetic activation were lost when males were prevented from making direct nasal contact. Optogenetic AOB stimulation also failed to augment males’ nasal investigation of deionized water or of food odors. Finally, during mating tests, optogenetic AOB stimulation delivered for 30 s when the male was in physical contact with an estrous female significantly facilitated the occurrence of penile intromission. Our results suggest that VNO-AOB signaling differentially modifies males’ motivation to seek out female vs male urinary pheromones while augmenting males’ sexual arousal leading to intromission and improved reproductive performance. PMID:28374006

  15. Evaluation of wet bulb globe temperature index for estimation of heat strain in hot/humid conditions in the Persian Gulf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habibolah Dehghan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Heat exposure among construction workers in the Persian Gulf region is a serious hazard for health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT Index for estimation of heat strain in hot/humid conditions by the use of Physiological Strain Index (PSI as the gold standard. Material and Methods : This cross-sectional study was carried out on 71 workers of two Petrochemical Companies in South of Iran in 2010 summer. The WBGT index, heart rate, and aural temperature were measured by Heat Stress Monitor (Casella Microtherm WBGT, Heart Rate Monitor (Polar RS100, and Personal Heat Strain Monitor (Questemp II, respectively. The obtained data were analyzed with descriptive statistics and Pearson correlation analysis. Results: The mean (SD of WBGT values was 33.1 (2.7. The WBGT values exceed from American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH standard (30°C in 96% work stations, whereas the PSI values were more than 5.0 (moderate strain in 11% of workstations. The correlation between WBGT and PSI values was 0.61 ( P = 0.001. When WBGT values were less and more than 34°C, the mean of PSI was 2.6 (low strain and 5.2 (moderate strain, respectively. Conclusion: In the Persian Gulf weather, especially hot and humid in the summer months, due to the WBGT values exceeding 30°C (in 96% of cases and weak correlation between WBGT and PSI, the work/rest cycles of WBGT Index is not suitable for heat stress management. Therefore, in Persian Gulf weather, heat stress evaluation based on physiologic variables may have higher validity than WBGT index.

  16. 钢箱梁正交异性桥面板球扁钢纵肋球头朝向和黄隔板空孔的优化%Optimization of Bulb Direction and Diaphragm Cutout of Bulb Flat Ribs in Steel Orthotropic Deck of Box Girder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴臻旺; 郑凯锋; 税彦斌; 张昊

    2011-01-01

    某钢箱梁正交异性桥面板行车道范围内采用球扁钢纵肋,在横隔板对应部位设置空孔让纵肋连续通过,为研究横隔板的空孔圆弧、空孔与纵肋连接端部等两个细节部位的受力特性,以某立交桥F匝道为工程背景,建立全桥有限元模型,对称荷载作用,对比横隔板对称位置空孔应力分布,分析纵肋球头朝向和背对邻近腹板两种布置对空孔受力的影响.荷栽位于不同横向位置,分析横隔板空孔面内受力.荷载位于不同纵向位置,分析横隔板空孔面外受力.对横隔板空孔圆弧半径进行参数分析.研究表明,球扁钢纵肋球头背对邻近腹板和适当增大空孔圆弧半径等措施,可明显改善横隔板空孔圆弧部位受力,但对空孔与纵肋连接端部效果不够明显,需采取进一步措施以改善该细节部位的受力性能.%Bulb flat ribs were used in the range of driveways on the steel orthotropic deck of a box girder, and cutout was set on the diaphragm to let the longitudinal ribs to pass through continuously. In order to probe into the stress characteristics of two details of diaphragm cutout, such as arc of cutout and its joint to rib, finite element analysis was carried out based on the ramp F of an overpass. With the symmetrical vehicle load action, stress distributions of symmetrical cutouts were compared, and the influences of bulb towards and/or back against the adjacent web plate on the stress characteristics of the cutout were studied respectively. For different transverse positions of vehicle load, the in-plane stress characteristics of diaphragm cutout were studied. For different longitudinal positions of vehicle load, the out-of-plane stress characteristics of diaphragm cutout were studied. Then, the parameter optimization of arc radius of cutout was carried out. The results show that the stress along the arc of the diaphragm cutout will be more appropriate when the bulb of longitudinal ribs is back

  17. Qualidade dos bulbos de cebola 'Superex' armazenados sob refrigeração, quando expostos à condição ambiente Quality of onion bulbs cv. Superex stored under refrigeration, when exposed to environmental conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Almeida Miguel

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available O armazenamento refrigerado da cebola tem sido recomendado como ideal, mas os produtores sempre questionam sobre a qualidade comercial e o consumo dos bulbos durante este período e depois de levados à condição ambiente. Avaliou-se a qualidade de bulbos de cebola ´Superex' acondicionados em sacos de rede de fibra plástica e armazenados a 10-12°C (68% UR por até 91 dias, quando levados à condição ambiente. Após 1; 16; 31; 61 e 91 dias foram tomadas amostras, ao acaso, que eram levadas à condição ambiente (22°C, 59% UR. Estas cebolas foram avaliadas quanto à massa fresca, aparência e ocorrência de podridões, e quanto à coloração interna, luminosidade, ângulo de cor e cromaticidade, atividade da aliinase e teores de sólidos solúveis e de acidez titulável. Os bulbos, quando levados ao ambiente, perderam massa com maior intensidade do que quando armazenados sob refrigeração e mantiveram qualidade aceitável por até 38 dias. Somente os armazenados sob refrigeração por 91 dias tinham aparência ruim. Os bulbos analisados apresentaram tendência ao amarelecimento interno, sem alteração significativa nos teores de SS e de AT. Durante o período refrigerado a pungência dos mesmos aumentou, de "pungente" para "picante", que se manteve estável durante o armazenamento ao ambiente.Cold storage has been recommended to preserve onion bulbs, but producers always have doubts about its quality, during this period and when they are exposed to environmental conditions. We evaluated the onion bulbs quality, cv. Superex, packed in plastic fiber bags, during storage under 10-12°C (68% RH during 91 days. After 1; 16; 31; 61 and 91 days, samples were transferred to environmental conditions (22°C, 59% RH. Onion bulbs were evaluated for fresh mass, appearance and occurrence of rot, internal color, lightness, color or hue angle and chromaticity, alliinase activity, soluble solids and titratable acidity content. Bulbs under environmental

  18. 基于模型试验的灯泡式水轮机轴向水推力研究%Research on Axial Thrust for Bulb Turbine Bases on Model Tests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李广府; 卢池; 姚丹

    2014-01-01

    In order to do research on the axial thrust of bulb turbines ,a bulb turbine model taken as the research object ,hydraulic axial thrust model test is carried out on test stand for hydraulic machinery .The concept of the ratio Z(axial thrust /driving force)is pro‐posed and the variety regulation of ratio Z with the speed factor ,blade angle and guide vane opening are obtained from the study .The research results indicate that the ratio Z is expressed in ranges in this bulb turbine model and the ratio Z become larger along with the increase in the speed factor and guide vane opening ,while smaller along with the increase in blade angle .%为了研究灯泡贯流式水轮机的轴向水推力问题,以某灯泡贯流式水轮机模型为研究对象,进行了该模型的轴向水推力试验。提出了比值 Z(轴向水推力/水轮机驱动力)这一概念,研究了其随转速因数、叶片角度、导叶开度的变化规律。研究结果表明:该灯泡贯流式水轮机模型比值 Z在某一区间范围,比值 Z随转速因数的增大而增大、随导叶开度的增大而增大、随叶片角度的增大而减小。

  19. Effects of light on the propagation and growth of bulbs of Hippeastrum hybridum cv. Apple Blossom (Amaryllidaceae Efeitos da luz na propagação e crescimento de bulbos de Hippeastrum hibridum cv. Apple Blossom (Amaryllidaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.C. Stancato

    1995-08-01

    Full Text Available Commercially bulbs of Hippeastrum hybridum are propagated by twin scales, which are cultured in wet vermiculite in the darkness until bulbil appearance. We showed that twin scales kept under sun light produced bulbils, that once transferred to the field, did not undergo severe light stress. They had higher bulb dry weight and due to the presence of green leaves they grew faster when transplanted to the field than bulbils produced from scales kept in the darkness. An intermediary treatment (a period of darkness followed by transference to light confirmed the advantages of producing bulbils under sun light conditions. It appears that in the field, growth of bulbs from dark grown bulbils was retarded due to the strong competition among leaves and roots for nutrients and assimilates.Comercialmente, bulbos de Hippeastrum hybridum são propagados por escamas duplas, as quais são mantidas em vermiculita umedecida e no escuro até o aparecimento do bulbilho. No presente trabalho demonstrou-se que escamas duplas mantidas sob luz solar plena produziram bulbilhos que uma vez transferidos para condições de campo não sofreram o estresse imposto pela luz. Tais bulbilhos possuíam maior peso seco de bulbo e, devido a presença de folhas verdes, cresceram mais rápido do que bulbilhos produzidos no escuro. Um tratamento intermediário, em que as escamas foram mantidas na escuridão por um período e depois transferidas para a luz, confirmou as vantagens em se produzir bulbilhos na luz. Muito provavelmente, bulbilhos produzidos no escuro tiveram seu desenvolvimento atrasado devido a forte competição entre folhas e raízes por nutrientes e fotoassimilados.

  20. Final report of the project 'Survey of the consequences liberalization energy market for the flower bulb sector'. Annexes; Eindrapportage van het project 'Inventarisatie consequenties liberalisering energiemarkt voor de bolbloemen- en bloembollenteler'. Bijlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-01-15

    The aim of this project is to demonstrate the business-economic consequences of the liberalization of the gas and electricity markets for the various types of businesses per region in the flower bulb and bulb flower sector. Based on this information, it can be concluded what will be the consequences for the sector and what will be the consequences of realizing the sector target for energy. These annexes contain an overview of the types of businesses, the questionnaire used, example calculations for a certain type of business, the set-up of the Commodity Services System, the costs per product or area unit. Moreover, a brief overview is given of the main features of a free energy market. Some recommendations are provided on how the flower bulb sector can profit from the consequences of the liberalized energy market [Dutch] De doelstelling van het project is het zichtbaar maken van de bedrijfseconomische consequenties van de liberalisering van de gas- en elektriciteitsmarkt voor de verschillende bedrijfstypen per regio in de bloembollen- en bolbloemensector. Daaruit kan geconcludeerd worden wat de gevolgen zijn voor de sector en de gevolgen van het halen van de sectordoelstelling voor energie. In deze bijlagen wordt een overzicht gegeven van de bedrijfstypen, de gebruikte vragenlijst, een voorbeeldberekeningen voor een bepaald bedrijfstype, de opbouw van het Commodity Diensten Systeem, de kosten per product of oppervlakte-eenheid. Daarnaast wordt een beknopt overzicht gegeven van de belangrijkste kenmerken van een vrije energiemarkt. Ook worden enkele praktische aanbevelingen gedaan voor de wijze waarop de bloembollensector kan inspelen op de gevolgen van de geliberaliseerde energiemarkt.

  1. 冷藏对郁金香鳞茎可溶性糖和蛋白质的影响%Effect of Cold Storage of Tulip Bulb on the Contents Total Soluble Sugar and Soluble Protein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛洪玉; 宁国龙; 刘迪

    2012-01-01

    以郁金香鳞茎阿波罗、检阅、小黑人、普瑞斯玛、巴塞罗娜为试材,对不同冷藏处理时间的郁金香鳞茎不同部位的可溶性总糖、还原糖、蔗糖、可溶性蛋白质含量进行研究.结果表明:5个品种郁金香鳞茎在冷藏处理期间可溶性总糖、还原糖、蔗糖、可溶性蛋白质含量呈规律性变化.蔗糖是可溶性总糖的主要形式;初步认为解除休眠的过程是由外向内,通过鳞茎盘调节来实现的;5个品种郁金香鳞茎还原糖、蔗糖在第7周出现明显的波峰和拐点;检阅较其它4个品种表现出较高的可溶性糖含量和活性.%Effects of cold storage of tulip bulbs of the cultivars of Apeldoorn, Parade, Nigrita, Purissima, Banja Luka Apollo during dormancy on the contents of nutrients contained in different parts of the bulbs were investigated, such as total soluble sugar, reducing sugar, sucrose, and soluble protein. . Regular changes of the nutrients were observed in the bulbs of 5 cultivars. Sucrose was the main component of the soluble sugar. It was concluded preliminarily that the dormancy breaking occurred from outside to inside through the adjustment of the bulb. The contents of reductive sugar and sucrose reached their maximum values in the seventh week of the cold storage. Cultivar Parade exhibited higher contents of soluble sugar than other 4 cultivars.

  2. Studies on Development Regularity of Root, Bulb and Leaf of Hippeastrum hybridum%朱顶红根·鳞茎·叶发育规律的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕文涛; 周玉珍; 成海钟; 娄晓鸣; 金立敏; 陆桂梅

    2009-01-01

    [Objective]Regularity of growth and development of Hippeastrum hybridum was studied to improve the vision effect of potted Hippeastrum hybridum as spring festival flowers and provide a foundation for commercializing seed balls of Hippeastrum hybridum .[Method] The roots, bulbs, leaves of Hippeastrum vittatum were observed regularly. The regularity of the growth and development of Hippeastrum vittatum was studied.[Result] Taking into account the development regularity of root, bulb and leaf of Hippeastrum hybridum , the potted Hippeastrum hybridum as spring festival flowers could be put into the flowerpot after it's nature flowering period in time.By taking the flower forcing technique, it could be kept eracting and get better vision. The bulb coule be dug after 50 days when the leaf began to die, and the full developed bulb could be got.[Conclusion] The research provided the basis for controlling flowering.%[目的]通过对朱顶红生长发育规律的研究,提高朱顶红年宵花盆栽的观赏效果,并为朱顶红种球商品化奠定基础.[方法]定期测定朱顶红的根系、鳞茎、叶片,探索朱顶红的生长发育规律.[结果]根据根系、鳞茎、叶片的发育规律,用于年宵花盆栽的朱顶红种球必须在自然花期后及时起挖种球上盆.实施催花措施后,朱顶红在春节前开花并保持植株挺拔不倒伏,具有良好的观赏性.只有在叶片枯萎后50 d左右起挖,才能得到完全发育的鳞茎球.[结论]该研究为朱顶红花期促控提供根据.

  3. Experimenting with wires, batteries, bulbs and the induction coil: Narratives of teaching and learning physics in the electrical investigations of Laura, David, Jamie, myself and the nineteenth century experimenters. Our developments and instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavicchi, Elizabeth Mary

    Physics is conventionally taught as a fixed curriculum which students must master. This thesis changes that: curriculum emerges from what learners try and question in experiments they invent. The thesis narrates: three adult students exploring wires, batteries and bulbs with me as teacher; nineteenth century investigations of electromagnetism; my laboratory work replicating historic instruments. In each case, learning arose through activity with materials. Evidences of this are analyzed within narratives and reflections. I used teaching-research, a method developed by Duckworth from Piaget's clinical interviewing, to research and simultaneously extend students' evolving understandings. What I learned through questioning students informed my next interactions; what they learned extended their experimenting. Similarly, I researched historical accounts interactively: improvising experiments to develop my understandings. Studying my own learning deepened my interpretations of students' learning. My students Laura, David and Jamie experimented by: soldering bulbs to wires, making series and parallel circuits, inserting resistive wire that dimmed bulbs, conducting electricity through salt water They noticed bulb brightness and battery heat, compared electricity's paths, questioned how voltage and current relate. They inferred electricity's effects manifest magnitudes of material properties. They found their experiences while learning were inseparable from what they learned. I researched investigations connected with Cavendish's leather fish, Galvani's frogs, Schweigger's wire spiraled around a compass needle, Henry's electromagnets, Faraday's induction ring, induction devices of Page, Callan, Hearder. Experimentally, I made galvanometers, electromagnets, induction rings, induction coil. I observed effects of electromagnetism, internal resistance, induced sparking. Across these investigations, learning developed with instrumental innovations; confusions were productive

  4. EFEITO DE DIFERENTES FOTOPERÍODOS NA BULBIFICAÇÃO DE DOIS CULTIVARES DE ALHO (Allium sativum L. EFFECT OF DIFFERENT PHOTOPERIODS IN THE BULBING OF TWO GARLIC (Allium sativum L. CULTIVARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Henrique Monnerat

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Este experimento foi realizado com duas variedades de alho, Amarante e Centenário, em condições de casa-de-vegetação com o objetivo de verificar o efeito de fotoperíodos de 9, 12, 15 horas e natural, sobre a bulbificação dessa hortaliça. Plantas submetidas a fotoperíodos de 12 e 15 horas receberam 9 horas de luz natural e complementação com luz incandescente, com intensidade luminosa de 180 lux, aproximadamente. Observou-se que fotoperíodos mais longos antecipam o início de bulbificação, reduzindo o ciclo da cultura, em ambos os cultivares. O aumento do comprimento do dia promoveu decréscimo no peso dos bulbos na ocasião da colheita como resultado da redução do estágio de crescimento dos bulbos. A ocorrência de bulbificação em todos os tratamentos indica que o fotoperíodo crítico é inferior a 9 horas, em ambos os cultivares.

    This experiment was carried out with two garlic varieties, Amarante and Centenário, under greenhouse conditions in order to verify the effect of the photoperiod of 9, 12, 15 hours, and natural, on the bulbing of that vegetable. Plants exposed to photoperiod of 12 and 15 hours, received 9 hours of sunlight followed by incandescent light (180 lux, aproximately. Results show that long-day treatments hasten the bulb formation with reduction of the culture cycle, in both varieties. The increase of day-length caused decrease of bulb weight at the time of harvesting, as result of the shortening of the bulb’s growth stage. The occurrence of bulbing in all treatments indicated that the critical photoperiod is lower than 9 hours, in both varieties.

  5. Over-expression of hNGF in adult human olfactory bulb neural stem cells promotes cell growth and oligodendrocytic differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hany E S Marei

    Full Text Available The adult human olfactory bulb neural stem/progenitor cells (OBNC/PC are promising candidate for cell-based therapy for traumatic and neurodegenerative insults. Exogenous application of NGF was suggested as a promising therapeutic strategy for traumatic and neurodegenerative diseases, however effective delivery of NGF into the CNS parenchyma is still challenging due mainly to its limited ability to cross the blood-brain barrier, and intolerable side effects if administered into the brain ventricular system. An effective method to ensure delivery of NGF into the parenchyma of CNS is the genetic modification of NSC to overexpress NGF gene. Overexpression of NGF in adult human OBNSC is expected to alter their proliferation and differentiation nature, and thus might enhance their therapeutic potential. In this study, we genetically modified adult human OBNS/PC to overexpress human NGF (hNGF and green fluorescent protein (GFP genes to provide insight about the effects of hNGF and GFP genes overexpression in adult human OBNS/PC on their in vitro multipotentiality using DNA microarray, immunophenotyping, and Western blot (WB protocols. Our analysis revealed that OBNS/PC-GFP and OBNS/PC-GFP-hNGF differentiation is a multifaceted process involving changes in major biological processes as reflected in alteration of the gene expression levels of crucial markers such as cell cycle and survival markers, stemness markers, and differentiation markers. The differentiation of both cell classes was also associated with modulations of key signaling pathways such MAPK signaling pathway, ErbB signaling pathway, and neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction pathway for OBNS/PC-GFP, and axon guidance, calcium channel, voltage-dependent, gamma subunit 7 for OBNS/PC-GFP-hNGF as revealed by GO and KEGG. Differentiated OBNS/PC-GFP-hNGF displayed extensively branched cytoplasmic processes, a significant faster growth rate and up modulated the expression of oligodendroglia

  6. The Alzheimer's β-secretase enzyme BACE1 is required for accurate axon guidance of olfactory sensory neurons and normal glomerulus formation in the olfactory bulb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajapaksha Tharinda W

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The β-secretase, β-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1, is a prime therapeutic target for lowering cerebral β-amyloid (Aβ levels in Alzheimer's disease (AD. Clinical development of BACE1 inhibitors is being intensely pursued. However, little is known about the physiological functions of BACE1, and the possibility exists that BACE1 inhibition may cause mechanism-based side effects. Indeed, BACE1-/- mice exhibit a complex neurological phenotype. Interestingly, BACE1 co-localizes with presynaptic neuronal markers, indicating a role in axons and/or terminals. Moreover, recent studies suggest axon guidance molecules are potential BACE1 substrates. Here, we used a genetic approach to investigate the function of BACE1 in axon guidance of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs, a well-studied model of axon targeting in vivo. Results We bred BACE1-/- mice with gene-targeted mice in which GFP is expressed from the loci of two odorant-receptors (ORs, MOR23 and M72, and olfactory marker protein (OMP to produce offspring that were heterozygous for MOR23-GFP, M72-GFP, or OMP-GFP and were either BACE1+/+ or BACE1-/-. BACE1-/- mice had olfactory bulbs (OBs that were smaller and weighed less than OBs of BACE1+/+ mice. In wild-type mice, BACE1 was present in OSN axon terminals in OB glomeruli. In whole-mount preparations and tissue sections, many OB glomeruli from OMP-GFP; BACE1-/- mice were malformed compared to wild-type glomeruli. MOR23-GFP; BACE1-/- mice had an irregular MOR23 glomerulus that was innervated by randomly oriented, poorly fasciculated OSN axons compared to BACE1+/+ mice. Most importantly, M72-GFP; BACE1-/- mice exhibited M72 OSN axons that were mis-targeted to ectopic glomeruli, indicating impaired axon guidance in BACE1-/- mice. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that BACE1 is required for the accurate targeting of OSN axons and the proper formation of glomeruli in the OB, suggesting a role for BACE1 in

  7. Variation of phenology and bulbs of Fritillaria unibracteata along altitudinal gradients%暗紫贝母的物候和鳞茎在海拔梯度上的变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈文年; 陈发军; 谢玉华; 王淯; 段辉国; 齐泽民

    2012-01-01

    To provide theoretical support for artificial cultivation of Fritillaria unibracteata , and to lay a foun-dation for protection of its wild resource, the effects of altitudinal height on phenology and bulbs of the species were studied. In this study, three locations (low, medium and high) were established along altitudinal gradients on a mountain slope of the eastern Tibetan Plateau, and a transplant experiment was carried out. In this experiment, 30 turfs in which individuals of F. unibracteata grew were transplanted between the high and the low location. Ecological factors at each location, such as snowmelt timing, soil water content, air temperature and soil pH were tested. In addition, phenological phases including plant emergence, first flowering, peak flowering and consenescence were observed at three day intervals, and bulbs at each location were weighed in September,2009. The results showed that phenological phases and most ecological factors given above were significantly different between locations. Snowmelt timing at the low location was nearly a month earlier than that at the high location and soil water content at the low location was 30. 3% lower than that at the high one. Air temperature was 2. 7℃ (March), 3. 0℃(April) and 5. 3 ℃ (May) higher at the low location than that at the high location. However, pH at all locations did not differ. All phenological phases appeared first at the low location, second at the medium location and finally at the high location. Compared with the low location, phenological phases at the high location were 14-25 d later. Single bulb weight at the low location was the heaviest, reaching 282. 4 mg. With an increase of elevation, weight of single bulbs decreased. At the high location, single bulb weight was only 217. 4 mg, a decrease of 23. 1 % compared with the low location. That the phenology and bulb weight changed with altitude was further confirmed by the results of a transplant between high and low locations

  8. Olfactory disturbance in aged rats in association with mitochondrial changes in the olfactory bulb neurons%衰老大鼠嗅觉障碍与嗅球神经元内线粒体的变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁志敏; 赵淑敏

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Mutation of the mitochondrial DNA may occur during the aging process of organisms, which is especially likely in the central nervous system. Evidences have been obtained that mitochondrial dysfunction may ensue from genetic impairment involved in oxidative phosphorylation, which is accompanied by corresponding morphological changes.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between olfactory disturbance and ultrastructural mitochondrial changes in olfactory bulb neurons of aged rats in comparison with young rats.DESIGN: Randomized controlled experiment.SETTING: Department of Internal Medicine, Affiliated Hospital of Chende Medical College and Department of Electron Microscopy of Chende Medical College.MATERIALS: This experiment was conducted in the Department of Electron Microscopy of Chende Medical College between April and December 2002. Sixteen male Wistar rats were divided equally into aged group (> 24 months) with body mass of 300-350 g and young group (6 months) with body mass of 180-220 g.METHODS: The rats in the two groups were anaesthetized by intraperitoneal injection of 10 g/L urethane (1 g/kg) and the chest was opened to insert a tube into the ascending aorta for perfusion with 200 mL of the mixture containing glutaric dialdehyde and paraformaldehyde for fixation.The olfactory bulb was then obtained and sliced, fixed in perosmic acid and embedded. Each layer of the olfactory bulb was observed under optical microscope and ultra-thin sections were prepared for observation under transmission electron microscope.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The stratification of rat olfactory bulb and ultrastructural changes of the mitochondria in the major neurons in the olfactory bulb.REULSTS: No obvious changes were found in the stratification of the olfactory bulb in the two groups. From the exterior to the interior of the olfactory bulb, the olfactory nerve fiber layer, glomerular layer, external plexiform layer, mitral cell lalyer, internal plexiform layer and

  9. A Toolkit for bulk PCR-based marker design from next-generation sequence data: application for development of a framework linkage map in bulb onion (Allium cepa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baldwin Samantha

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although modern sequencing technologies permit the ready detection of numerous DNA sequence variants in any organisms, converting such information to PCR-based genetic markers is hampered by a lack of simple, scalable tools. Onion is an example of an under-researched crop with a complex, heterozygous genome where genome-based research has previously been hindered by limited sequence resources and genetic markers. Results We report the development of generic tools for large-scale web-based PCR-based marker design in the Galaxy bioinformatics framework, and their application for development of next-generation genetics resources in a wide cross of bulb onion (Allium cepa L.. Transcriptome sequence resources were developed for the homozygous doubled-haploid bulb onion line ‘CUDH2150’ and the genetically distant Indian landrace ‘Nasik Red’, using 454™ sequencing of normalised cDNA libraries of leaf and shoot. Read mapping of ‘Nasik Red’ reads onto ‘CUDH2150’ assemblies revealed 16836 indel and SNP polymorphisms that were mined for portable PCR-based marker development. Tools for detection of restriction polymorphisms and primer set design were developed in BioPython and adapted for use in the Galaxy workflow environment, enabling large-scale and targeted assay design. Using PCR-based markers designed with these tools, a framework genetic linkage map of over 800cM spanning all chromosomes was developed in a subset of 93 F2 progeny from a very large F2 family developed from the ‘Nasik Red’ x ‘CUDH2150’ inter-cross. The utility of tools and genetic resources developed was tested by designing markers to transcription factor-like polymorphic sequences. Bin mapping these markers using a subset of 10 progeny confirmed the ability to place markers within 10 cM bins, enabling increased efficiency in marker assignment and targeted map refinement. The major genetic loci conditioning red bulb colour (R and fructan

  10. 电生理法对豚鼠副嗅球功能分区的显示%Functional subdivisions of the guinea pig accessory olfactory bulb revealed by electrophysiology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余青松; 须贝外喜夫

    2001-01-01

    目的:探讨豚鼠副嗅球(AOB)是否存在多个功能分区。方法:在豚鼠副嗅球矢状位切片上,将双钨电极插入副嗅球前部或后部的犁鼻神经纤维层(VNL),以单个方波刺激传入神经纤维,用玻璃微电极记录AOB前部或后部外橄状层(EPL)细胞外场电位。结果:电刺激VNL,可在EPL记录到典型的衰减性场电位,且后EPL记录到的场电位的持续时间较前部分明显延长。刺激前VNL仅在前EPL记录到场电位,而刺激后VNL只在后EPL记录到场电位。结论:豚鼠副嗅球可分为前后两个亚区,两区存在解剖学上的差异,说明在犁鼻系统中至少存在两个不同的传入-传出通路。%Objective:To elucidate possible functional subdivisions in the guinea pig accessory olfactory bulb.Method:The guinea pig accessory olfactory bulbs were cut in sagittal slice.Bipolar tungsten electrodes were inserted into anterior or posterior vomeronasal nerve layers and single square-pulses were delivered through the eletrodes to activate afferent fibres.Glass microelectrodes were used to record extracellular field potentials of anterior or posterior external plexiform layers.Result:A single shook of the VNL provoked a characteristic damped oscillatory field potential and the oscillation in the pAOB was more distinct in wave form and longer in duration than those in the aAOB.The stimulation of anterior VNL elicited field potentials exelusively in the anterior region of EPL,whereas shocks to the posterior VNL provoked oscillatory responses only within the posterior EPL.Conclusion:The accessory olfactory bulb in the guinea-pig is distinctly segregated into the anterior and posterior subdivisions and an anatomical boundary exists in both regions.The results suggested that there are at least two different input-output pathways in vomeronasal systems.

  11. Pathogen identification from soft rot disease of onion bulbs in Jiayuguan, Gansu province%甘肃省嘉峪关市洋葱鳞茎软腐病病原鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕和平; 魏晖; 漆永红; 张彦梅; 曹素芳; 杨发荣; 李敏权; 沈慧敏

    2013-01-01

    结合形态学与分子生物学特征对甘肃省嘉峪关市洋葱鳞茎软腐病病原种类进行了鉴定,在KB培养基上对两株典型菌株的菌落形态和培养特征进行了观察和描述,16S rDNA序列测定和同源性比对结果表明两菌株的16SrDNA序列分别与GenBank数据库已知胡萝卜软腐果胶杆菌胡萝卜亚种和格氏沙雷氏菌的序列同源性均达99%,其片段大小分别为1 386 bp和1 379 bp.致病性测定结果表明,2种菌均能引起洋葱鳞茎软腐病,且洋葱基部的发病程度高于顶部,其中胡萝卜软腐果胶杆菌胡萝卜亚种的致病力强于格氏沙雷氏菌.按柯赫氏法则初步确定甘肃省嘉峪关市洋葱鳞茎软腐病病原种类为胡萝卜软腐果胶杆菌胡萝卜亚种和格氏沙雷氏菌2种,由格氏沙雷氏菌引起的洋葱鳞茎软腐病属首次报道.本研究将为洋葱软腐病的防治提供理论依据.%A severe soft rot disease of onion (Allium cepa) bulbs occurred in Jiayuguan,Gansu province.The causal agent was isolated and identified based on morphological characteristics of two strains on KB culture medium and on molecular characters.The 16S rDNA region of the two strains had homoeology with the known species Serratia grimesii and Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp.carotovorum from the GenBank database.The sequence lengths were 1 379 bp and 1 386 bp,respectively with a maximum similarity of 99%and 100%.Both strains caused soft rot disease on onion bulbs in pathogenicity tests.The disease index from roots was higher than that from the tops and P.carotovorum subsp.carotovorum was more pathogenic than S.grimesii.The pathogens causing soft rot disease on onion bulbs in Jiayuguan,Gansu province were P.carotovorum subsp.carotovorum and S.grimesii.This is the first report of S.grimesii causing soft rot disease on onion bulbs and this study should provide a theoretical basis for controlling this disease.

  12. Almacenamiento en frío de los bulbos y uso de paclobutrazol para producir tulipán en macetas Bulb cold storage and use of paclobutrazol for pot tulip production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Francescangeli

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Se compararon los efectos del paclobutrazol (PBZ y del tiempo de almacenamiento en frío de los bulbos (TA sobre características comerciales de tulipán Tulipa gesneriana L. (Leen van der Mark en maceta. Se evaluaron las concentraciones de PBZ: 0 y 5 ppm aplicadas por inmersión de bulbos durante 24 horas, previo al transplante, y los TA a 5 °C: 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 y 12 semanas. La temperatura promedio del aire de los ocho ciclos fue: 15 a 15,7 °C. El PBZ no afectó la longitud del ciclo, y los TA explicaron el 83% de la variabilidad en la duración del período transplante- momento de la venta, con una relación inversa. El PBZ no afectó el tamaño de la flor. La altura en el momento de la venta y a fin de floración mostró interacción de los tratamientos: a mayor TA aumentó la altura en todos los casos, pero este incremento fue menor en las plantas tratadas con PBZ. Sin utilizar PBZ y con bulbos de 5 a 8 semanas de almacenamiento fue posible producir plantas comerciales de altura equivalente o menor a las obtenidas con bulbos de 12 semanas de almacenamiento tratados con PBZ a 5 ppm por inmersión durante 24 horas.The effect of bulb cold storage time (ST and paclobutrazol (PBZ on commercial characteristics of pot tulips Tulipa gesneriana L. (Leen van der Mark was tested. PBZ concentrations (0 and 5 ppm applied by dipping bulbs for 24 hours before transplanting and 5 °C ST (5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12 weeks were evaluated. Mean air temperature throughout the experiment remained between 15 and 15.7 °C. PBZ did not affect the duration of the cycle. ST explained 83% of the variation in the duration of the period transplant-sale time, and the relationship was inverse. PBZ did not affect flower size. There was a significant interaction between treatments for plant height at sale time and at the end of flowering: plant height increased with ST in all cases, but the increase was lower in the PBZ treated plants. Without PBZ and with bulbs

  13. Fumigant Toxicity of Crushed Bulbs of Two Allium Species to Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius (Coleoptera: Bruchidae Toxicidad Fumigante para Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabriciu (Coleoptera: Bruchidae de Bulbos Trozados de Especies Allium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.I Ofuya

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Fumigant toxicity of crushed fresh bulbs of Allium sativum L. and A. cepa L. to the Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius, a major pest of stored cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. seeds was assessed under laboratory conditions in Akure, Nigeria. In the tests, 20 g of infested cowpea seeds were suspended in a piece of muslin cloth, over an amount of crushed bulb in a container with a tightly fitted lid. Adult emergence was completely prevented from freshly laid eggs of C. maculatus on cowpea seeds that was fumigated with 6.0 g or more of crushed bulbs of A. sativum. Such fumigated seeds were not holed at all. Other amounts of A. sativum tested (1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0 and 5.0 g significantly reduced C. maculatus adult emergence from fumigated eggs and seed holing in comparison with the control. Crushed A. sativum was ineffective in preventing adult emergence from fumigated C. maculatus larvae in seeds. The fumigant effect of crushed A. cepa did not kill all C. maculatus eggs. An amount of 7.0 g significantly reduced C. maculatus adult emergence from fumigated eggs and seed holing in comparison with the control. There is good prospect in using crushed bulbs of A. sativum> as fumigant in C. maculatus control in stored cowpea seeds.Se evaluó la toxicidad fumigante de bulbos frescos trozados de Allium sativum L. y A. cepa L. sobre Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius, una importante plaga de semilla almacenada de caupí Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. bajo condiciones de laboratorio en Akure, Nigeria. En las pruebas, 20 g de semillas infestadas se suspendieron en un trozo de tela sobre cierta cantidad de bulbos trozados en un contenedor con una tapa ajustada. Se previno completamente la emergencia de adultos desde huevos recién puestos de C. maculatus en semillas de caupí que se fumigaron con 6,0 g o más de bulbos de A. sativum. Estas semillas fumigadas no estaban ahuecadas. Otras cantidades de A. sativum probadas (1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0 y 5.0 g redujeron

  14. 基于M2M技术的智能灯泡系统设计与实现%DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF M2M TECHNOLOGY-BASED INTELLIGENT BULBS SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐光宪; 陆伟; 高峰

    2014-01-01

    The article presents an intelligent lamp system,it is based on M2M (machine to machine)technology.The wireless receiving module is put into the removable LED bulbs,and through it the connection with wireless network is set up.At the same time the control command is sent to LED bulbs through Android mobile phone,and finally achieves the control of the lamp’s on and off and the brightness adjustment by Android mobile phones.BCH encoding and decoding method is used in data communication.The system has good price-performance ratio,the cost is only RMB150.Physical test results show that the communication of the system works in order,the real-time property and stability are all quite good,it is suitable for practical use.%提出一种基于M2M(Machine to Machine)技术的智能灯泡系统。在可拆卸LED灯泡中装入无线接收模块,通过它与无线网络连接。同时通过Android手机将控制命令传送给LED灯泡,最终实现Android手机对灯泡开、关和亮度的调节。数据通信采用BCH编译码方法。系统有较好的性价比,成本只需要150元左右。测试结果表明,系统通信正常,实时性和稳定性都比较好,适合实际应用。

  15. EFEITO DA COBERTURA MORTA NO CRESCIMENTO E NA PRODUÇÃO DO ALHO (Allium sativum L. THE EFFECT OF THE MULCHING IN THE GROWTH AND BULB PRODUCTION OF GARLIC (Allium sativum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jácomo Divino Borges

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Foi avaliado o efeito das coberturas mortas do solo: palha de arroz, casca de arroz, cepilho de madeira, grama cortada e folhas de árvores, no crescimento e na produção do alho (Allium sativum L. cultivar Cateto Roxo. Os tratamentos de cobertura do solo foram feitos logo após o plantio e em camada suficiente apenas para cobrir o solo. Concluiu-se que a cobertura morta favoreceu o crescimento inicial e a produção de bulbos. Os materiais testados em cobertura do solo mostraram-se equivalentes, porém com tendência para o tratamento com casca de arroz superar os demais.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Alho; AIlium sativum; cobertura morta dos solos; produção.

    The effect of flue mulching in the growth and bulb production of garlic (Allium sativum L. cv. ‘Cateto Roxo’, was evaluated. The soil cover treatments: rice straw, rice husk, smoothing plane, cut grass and dry leaves of tree, was done just after planting and in layers just to cover the soil. It was concluded that mulching favoured initial growing and bulb production. Tested materials were showed to be equivalent however with tendency to rice husk overcome the other ones.

    KEY-WORDS: Garlic; production; mulching; growth.

  16. 成年大鼠嗅球嗅鞘细胞的纯化实验%Purifying olfactory ensheathing cells from the olfactory bulb of adult rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱仲庚; 吴小涛; 蒋赞利

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The diversity of purification procedures resulting in various purities of olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) used for grafting is considered to be relevant in the effectiveness of OECs transplant. It is important to develop a well-defined method which produces OECs of great purity and is easy to unify for the future standardization of research involving OECs.OBJECTIVE: To establish a method being easy to unify for purifying OECs to acquire highly and uniformly enriched population of OECs for standardized studies on cell transplantation.DESIGN: Randomized and controlled experiment.SETTING: Department of Orthopaedics, Affiliated Zhongda Hospital of Southeast University School of Clinical Medicine;Central Laboratory of Southeast University School of Clinical Medicine; Experimental Animal Center of Southeast University School of Clinical Medicine.MATERIALS: This experiment was carried out in the Central Laboratory of Southeast University School of Clinical Medicine from February to August 2006. Twenty-eight adult female SD rats weighing 200-250 g were selected in this study. The main reagents were detailed as follows: DMEM/F-12 (GIBCO); 2.5 g/L trypsin (GIBCO); poly-L-lysine (SIGMA); bovine pituitary extract (BPE, SIGMA); fetal bovine serum (FBS, Sijiqing Biological Agent Co., Ltd., Hangzhou);rabbit anti-low-affinity nerve growth factor receptor (anti-P75, SIGMA); biotinylated goat anti-rabbit IgG (Boster Bioengineering Co., Ltd., Wuhan); methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) kit (SIGMA).METHODS: Primary cultures of OECs were separated from adult SD rats olfactory bulbs. At day 8 in vitro, the primary cultures were divided randomly into 4 groups, namely differential adhesion method group, immunoadsorption method group,the modified method group,and control group.①The cell suspension in the modified method group was seeded into uncoated flasks and incubated at 37 ℃ in 0.05 volume fraction of CO2 for 1 hours. The supematants were seeded into flasks that had

  17. The Beneficial Impact of Antidepressant Drugs on Prenatal Stress-Evoked Malfunction of the Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 (IGF-1) Protein Family in the Olfactory Bulbs of Adult Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trojan, Ewa; Głombik, Katarzyna; Ślusarczyk, Joanna; Budziszewska, Bogusława; Kubera, Marta; Roman, Adam; Lasoń, Władysław; Basta-Kaim, Agnieszka

    2016-02-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) promotes the growth, differentiation, and survival of both neurons and glial cells, and it is believed to exert antidepressant-like activity. Thus, disturbances in the IGF-1 system could be responsible for the course of depression. To date, there have been no papers showing the impact of chronic antidepressant treatment on the IGF-1 network in the olfactory bulb (OB) in an animal model of depression. Prenatal stress was used as model of depression. Twenty-four 3-month-old male offspring of control and stressed mothers were subjected to behavioral testing (forced swim test). The mRNA expression of IGF-1 and IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R) and the protein level of IGF-1 and its phosphorylation, as well as the concentrations of IGF-binding proteins (IGFBP-2, -4, -3, and -6), were measured in OBs before and after chronic imipramine, fluoxetine, or tianeptine administration. Adult rats exposed prenatally to stressful stimuli displayed not only depression-like behavior but also decreased IGF-1 expression, dysregulation in the IGFBP network, and diminished mRNA expression, as well as IGF-1R phosphorylation, in the OB. The administration of antidepressants normalized most of the changes in the IGF-1 system of the OB evoked by prenatal stress. These results suggested a beneficial effect of chronic antidepressant drug treatment in the alleviation of IGF-1 family malfunction in OBs in an animal model of depression.

  18. Effects of Human Alpha-Synuclein A53T-A30P Mutations on SVZ and Local Olfactory Bulb Cell Proliferation in a Transgenic Rat Model of Parkinson Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faustine Lelan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A transgenic Sprague Dawley rat bearing the A30P and A53T α-synuclein (α-syn human mutations under the control of the tyrosine hydroxylase promoter was generated in order to get a better understanding of the role of the human α-syn mutations on the neuropathological events involved in the progression of the Parkinson’s disease (PD. This rat displayed olfactory deficits in the absence of motor impairments as observed in most early PD cases. In order to investigate the role of the mutated α-syn on cell proliferation, we focused on the subventricular zone (SVZ and the olfactory bulbs (OB as a change of the proliferation could affect OB function. The effect on OB dopaminergic innervation was investigated. The human α-syn co-localized in TH-positive OB neurons. No human α-syn was visualized in the SVZ. A significant increase in resident cell proliferation in the glomerular but not in the granular layers of the OB and in the SVZ was observed. TH innervation was significantly increased within the glomerular layer without an increase in the size of the glomeruli. Our rat could be a good model to investigate the role of human mutated α-syn on the development of olfactory deficits.

  19. 密集烘烤定色阶段不同湿球温度对烤后烟叶品质的影响%Effect of Wet Bulb Temperature of Bulk Curing in Process of Color Setting on Baked Tobacco Quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张保占; 孟智勇; 马浩波; 马永建; 谢德平; 王伟超; 朱均田; 曹晓涛; 李伟观

    2012-01-01

    为提高烟叶烘烤质量,优化烟叶密集烘烤工艺技术,研究了密集烘烤过程中不同定色湿球温度对烤后烟叶品质的影响,结果表明:采用较高定色湿球温度(干球温度升至48℃前将湿球温度升高到39℃并保持稳定;超过48℃,湿球温度稳定在40℃)烤后烟叶经济效益较好,每千克烤后烟叶均价提高0.18~0.42元,耗煤量减少0.01~0.07 kg;油分、身份、结构、色度等外观质量改善,嗅香较好;内在化学成分表现为多数样品总糖、还原糖含量增加,分别平均增加14.79%和11.99%,总氮、蛋白质、烟碱、淀粉含量减少,糖碱比(多在7.00~10.44)、氮碱比(多在0.60~0.98)更趋于协调;单料烟评吸质量高半个到一个档次,香气量、杂气、刺激性和余味等指标较优.较高定色湿球温度处理提高了中、上部烟叶的挥发性香气物质总量和新植二烯、类胡萝卜素降解产物、芳香族氨基酸类降解产物、西柏烷类香气物质含量,以及中部烟叶的棕色化产物含量;下部烟叶以较低定色湿球温度(干球温度升至48℃前将湿球温度升高到38℃并保持稳定;超过48℃,湿球温度稳定在39℃)烤后两糖含量相对较低,化学成分比较协调,挥发性香气物质总量、新植二烯、类胡萝卜素降解产物、芳香族氨基酸类降解产物、棕色化产物含量得到提高.综合分析认为,下部烟叶采用较低定色湿球温度烤后烟叶化学成分比较协调,香气物质含量高;中上部烟叶采用较高定色湿球温度烤后烟叶经济效益较好,外观质量好,化学成分协调,评吸档次高,香气物质含量高.%To improve the quality of tobacco flue-curing and to optimize the curing technology in bulk curing, we researched the effect of wet bulb temperature in process of color setting on baked tobacco quality. The results showed that higher wet bulb temperature (gradually climbed to and sustained 39 ℃ prior to

  20. Interaction between different cells in an olfactory bulb and synchronous kinematic analysis%嗅球中神经元间的相互作用及同步运动分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐爱蕾; 杜莹; 王如彬

    2013-01-01

    Olfactory bulb plays an important part in signal encoding of an olfactory system. The interaction between excitatory mitral cells and inhibitory granule cells is particularly crucial. Here, the current situation of synchronous oscillation in the network of an olfactory system was firstly introduced. Then, the dynamic models of a mitral cell and a granular cell in the olfactory bulb were built. The simulation figures showed the firing patterns of a single mitral cell, a single granular cell, and these two kinds of cells having a coupling relationship. The results indicated that mitral cells have an excitatory effect on granular cells, and granular cells have an inhibitory effect on mitral cells; the firing pattern varies with different synaptic strength. In addition, simple olfactory network models were built, the influence of ring-like and grid-like neuronal network of granular cells on the synchronization of two mitral cells was analyzed. Different types of firing synchronization were diagnosed by means of ISI-distance method. The numerical analysis indicated that grid-like neuronal network of granular cells can make mitral cells synchronize better.%嗅球对嗅觉信息的处理是嗅觉系统信号编码的一个重要环节,其中兴奋性的僧帽细胞(Mitral Cell,MC)与抑制性的颗粒细胞(Granular Cell,GC)的相互作用尤为关键.本文首先介绍了嗅觉系统网络中关于同步振荡的研究现状,然后建立嗅球中僧帽细胞及颗粒细胞的动力学模型,仿真得到了单个僧帽细胞、颗粒细胞以及僧帽细胞与颗粒细胞在耦合条件下神经元的发放模式.结果表明,僧帽细胞对颗粒细胞有兴奋性作用,而颗粒细胞对僧帽细胞有抑制性作用,细胞放电序列随着突触连接强度的改变而改变.此外,建立简单的嗅觉网络模型,分析了当颗粒细胞分别构成环形和网格状两种拓扑结构时,不同网络对两个僧帽细胞同步性的影响,用同步性指标ISI

  1. Comparison of Motor Cooling System of Large Bulb Tubular Pump Unit%大型灯泡贯流泵机组电机冷却系统比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申剑; 仇宝云; 裴蓓; 黄海田; 黄根; 杨兴丽

    2011-01-01

    从可靠性、经济性和维修性等不同角度,分析比较了灯泡贯流泵机组电机开敞式强迫空气冷却-水外冷、密闭式强迫空气循环冷却-水外冷和定子水冷-转子空冷3种典型电机冷却方式的特点.结果表明,开敞式强迫空气冷却-水外冷系统安装维修性及可靠性较好;密闭式强迫空气循环冷却-水外冷电机温升均匀,延长电机绝缘寿命;定子水冷-转子空冷系统冷却费用低、冷却效果好.成果对选用和设计电机冷却系统有一定参考价值.%The three types of motor cooling system of large bulb tubular pump unit, open forced air-cooling and outer watercooling, closed forced circular air-cooling and outer water-cooling and stator water-cooling and rotor air-cooling, were analyzed and compared from the aspects of the system's safety, economy, maintenance and so on.Results indicate that open forced aircooling and outer water-cooling system has the best installation, maintainability and reliability, closed forced circular air-cooling and outer water-cooling system makes the motor's temperature rise symmetrically and prolong the motor's insulated life, stator water-cooling and rotor air-cooling system has low cooling expenses and the best cooling effect.The results could provide references to design and select motor cooling system.

  2. Differences in the heat stress associated with white sportswear and being semi-nude in exercising humans under conditions of radiant heat and wind at a wet bulb globe temperature of greater than 28 °C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Michio; Kume, Masashi; Tuneoka, Hideyuki; Yoshida, Tetsuya

    2014-08-01

    This study investigated whether wearing common white sportswear can reduce heat stress more than being semi-nude during exercise of different intensities performed under radiant heat and wind conditions, such as a hot summer day. After a 20-min rest period, eight male subjects performed three 20 min sessions of cycling exercise at a load intensity of 20 % or 50 % of their peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) in a room maintained at a wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) of 28.7 ± 0.1 °C using two spot lights and a fan (0.8 m/s airflow). Subjects wore common white sportswear (WS) consisting of a long-sleeved shirt (45 % cotton and 55 % polyester) and short pants (100 % polyester), or only swimming pants (SP) under the semi-nude condition. The mean skin temperature (Tsk) was greater when subjects wore SP than WS under both the 20 % and 50 % exercise conditions. During the 50 % exercise, the rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and thermal sensation (TS), and the increases in esophageal temperature (ΔTes) and heart rate were significantly higher (Pheat storage (S), calculated from the changes in the mean body temperature (0.9Tes + 0.1 Tsk), was significantly lower in the WS trials than in the SP trials during the 20 min resting period before exercise session. However, S was similar between conditions during the 20 % exercise, but was greater in the WS than in the SP trials during 50 % exercise. These results suggest that, under conditions of radiant heat and wind at a WBGT greater than 28 °C, the heat stress associated with wearing common WS is similar to that of being semi-nude during light exercise, but was greater during moderate exercise, and the storage of body heat can be reduced by wearing WS during rest periods.

  3. Activity of the principal cells of the olfactory bulb promotes a structural dynamic on the distal dendrites of immature adult-born granule cells via activation of NMDA receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breton-Provencher, Vincent; Coté, Daniel; Saghatelyan, Armen

    2014-01-29

    The adult olfactory bulb is continuously supplied with neuronal precursors that differentiate into granule and periglomerular cells. Little is known about the structural dynamic of adult-born granule cells (GCs) at their different maturational stages, the mechanisms controlling the integration of new neurons into the pre-existing neuronal circuitry, or the role of principal cell activity in these processes. We used two-photon time-lapse imaging to reveal a high level of filopodia formation and retraction on the distal dendrites of adult-born GCs at their early maturational stages. This dynamic decreased as the adult-born interneurons matured. Filopodia formation/retraction on the dendrites of adult-born GCs at the early maturational stages depended on the activation of NMDA receptors (NMDARs). The stimulation of mitral cells using a pattern that mimics activity of these principal neurons to odor presentation promotes the NMDAR-dependent filopodia dynamic of adult-born GCs during their early but not late maturational stages. Moreover, NMDA iontophoresis was sufficient to induce the formation of new filopodia on the distal dendrites of immature adult-born GCs. The maturation of adult-born interneurons was accompanied by a progressive hyperpolarization of the membrane potential and an increased Mg(2+) block of NMDARs. Decreasing the extracellular Mg(2+) concentration led to filopodia formation on the dendrites of mature adult-born GCs following NMDA iontophoresis. Our findings reveal an increased structural dynamic of adult-born GCs during the early stages of their integration into the mouse bulbar circuitry and highlight a critical period during which the principal cells' activity influences filopodia formation/retraction on the dendrites of interneurons.

  4. 叶片尾部形状对双向贯流式水轮机性能的影响%Effect of blade tail’s shape on hydraulic performance of bidirectional bulb turbine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑小波; 翁凯; 王玲军

    2015-01-01

    为了研究双向贯流式水轮机反向工况效率低下的问题,该文以某带有后置导叶的双向贯流式机组为对象,针对不同形状和不同厚度的叶片尾部,分析了反向工况下叶片尾部对机组性能的影响。采用 UG 建模软件对机组进行几何建模,基于CFX软件,采用SST k-ω湍流模型对不同形状和厚度的叶片尾部的转轮进行了数值模拟。结果表明:反向工况下采用圆形尾部的叶片其机组效率为59.55%,高于矩形尾部的58.4%和弧形尾部的58.01%,说明反向工况下矩形尾部和弧形尾部的冲击损失较大。增加叶片尾部厚度对机组反向工况的效率提高较为明显,其效率最高能抬高到79%,但叶片尾部厚度增加到一定程度后效率不再增加,叶片尾部厚度的增加使得反向工况下叶片尾部最低压力值降低了1.2×106 Pa,对其反向工况下的空化性能有较大影响,且增加了正向工况运行是出现卡门涡的概率。研究成果为双向贯流式水轮机反向工况下叶片尾部形状的优化设计提供了经验参考。%Tidal power is pollution-free renewable energy and an effective way to reduce coal consumption and guarantee normal social electricity consumption in China. Bidirectional bulb turbine is widely used in tidal power station. Scholars at home and abroad have carried out extensive researches in bidirectional tubular turbine in terms of internal blade clearance flow, the occurrence and location of cavitation and blade airfoil optimization .Scholars in China firstly put forward improving the operating efficiency of the bidirectional tubular turbine under the reverse working condition by means of setting rear guide vanes. In order to solve the low efficiency problem under the reverse condition in bidirectional bulb turbine, how blade tail affected the units' hydraulic performance under reverse working condition by studying bade tails of different shapes and different

  5. Changes of Phenolic Compounds Content and Activity of Enzymes Related to Phenolic Compounds in Fritillaria thunbergii Miq.Bulbs Stored at Different Cold Temperatures for Breaking Dormancy%浙贝母鳞茎酚类物质含量及相关酶活性与休眠解除的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭昕; 金文韬; 凌庆枝; 何军邀

    2012-01-01

    [目的]探讨浙贝母鳞茎中酚类物质及相关酶活性与休眠解除的关系.[方法]将浙贝母鳞茎分别在4和10C条件下保湿贮藏至75 d,贮藏过程中定期取样测定鳞茎各部位酚类物质含量、苯丙氨酸解氨酶(PAL)活性和多酚氧化酶(PPO)活性,同时比较了发芽鳞茎与休眠鳞茎中酚类物质含量和PAL与PPO活性的差异.[结果]低温解除休眠过程中,鳞茎及芽内酚类物质含量均呈降低趋势;10℃处理30 ~45 d和4℃处理45~60 d是酚类物质减少、解除休眠的关键时期;浙贝母各部位酚类物质含量与其PPO活性均呈显著负相关;顶芽中酚类物质含量与PAL活性呈显著正相关;鳞片中酚类物质含量与PAL活性没有明显的相关性.[结论]酚类物质与浙贝母鳞茎休眠有一定相关性,酚类物质含量下降是低温处理解除浙贝母鳞茎休眠的生理机制之一.%[ Objective ] To analyze changes of phenolic compounds content and activity of enzymes related to phenolic compounds in Fritillaria thunbergii Miq. bulbs stored at different cold temperatures for breaking dormancy. [ Method] Bulbs of F. thunbergii were stored in moist sawdust up to 75 d at 4 or 10 ℃. The samples were taken periodically, and were used to determine phenolic compounds content, PAL activity, PPO activity in different parts of bulb. Differences in phenolic compounds content, PAL activity and PPO activity between dormant and dormancy-broken bulbs were analyzed. [ Result ] The results showed that a downward trend of phenolic compounds content in bulb was observed during the breaking of dormancy; 10 ℃ for 30 -45 d and 4 ℃ for 45 -60 d were the crucial period of dormancy release and the phenolic compounds decrease; phenolic compounds content and PPO activity were negatively correlated; phenolic compounds content and PAL activity in buds were significantly positive correlation; phenolic compounds content and PAL activity in bulbs had no significant

  6. Aplicação foliar de tratamentos para o controle do míldio e da podridão-de-escamas de bulbos de cebola Foliar spray of treatments in the control of downy mildew and bulb rot in onion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Américo Wordell Filho

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Em experimento de campo, avaliou-se o efeito da aplicação foliar de tratamentos para o controle do míldio (Peronospora destructor e da podridão de bulbos (Burkholderia cepacia de cebola: testemunha, clorotalonil/metalaxyl + clorotalonil, fosfito de potássio, fertilizante foliar (03-00-16, N-P-K, calda bordalesa, calda bordalesa/fosfito de potássio, acibenzolar-S-methyl, pulverizados semanalmente; extrato de alga (Ulva fasciata e ulvana, aplicados a cada 7, 14 e 21 dias. Somente a pulverização semanal com fungicidas sintéticos ou com o fertilizante (03-00-16; 400 mL de p.c./100 L foi capaz de reduzir significativamente a severidade do míldio, em 60 ou 23%, respectivamente, em relação à testemunha não pulverizada, sem aumentar o rendimento de bulbos. O tratamento com fertilizantes ricos em potássio resultou em maior incidência da podridão de bulbos armazenados por cinco meses. O conteúdo de açúcares solúveis e incidência da podridão de bulbos de cebola foram correlacionados significativamente (-0,629, p A field experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of foliar sprays with the following treatments on the downy mildew (Peronospora destructor and bulb rot (Burkholderia cepacia in onions: non-treated control, fungicide chlorotalonil/metalaxyl + chlorotalonil, potassium phosphite, foliar fertilizer (03-00-16, N-P-K, bordeaux mixture, bordeaux mixture/potassium phosphite, acibenzolar-S-methyl weekly applied; extract of alga Ulva fasciata and ulvan sprayed every 7, 14 and 21 days. Only the weekly spraying of fungicides and fertilizer (03-00-16, 400 mL/100 L significantly reduced the mildew severity by 60 and 23%, respectively, but did not increase the bulb yield. The foliar application of potassium rich fertilizers resulted in a higher incidence of rotten bulbs after 5 months in storage. Soluble sugar content and rot incidence of onion bulbs were significantly correlated (-0,629, p < 0,05.

  7. Effect of rosebud extracts on piriform cortical neuronal damage and repair in olfactory bulb damaged rats and its mechanism%玫瑰花蕾萃取物对嗅球毁损大鼠梨形皮质神经元损伤修复的影响及机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卞林翠; 王敏; 贺利敏; 徐金勇; 李光武

    2016-01-01

    目的:观察玫瑰花蕾萃取物对嗅球毁损大鼠梨形皮质神经元损伤修复的影响,探讨其作用机制。方法将60只成年健康雄性SD大鼠随机分为对照组(10只)、模型组(40只)及玫瑰花蕾组(10只)。对照组不做任何处理。模型组及玫瑰花蕾组采用探针破坏嗅球。嗅球毁损后1天,玫瑰花蕾组行玫瑰花蕾萃取物吸嗅,每次持续吸嗅1 h、2次/d,连续14天。分别取对照组、模型组嗅球毁损后24 h、72 h、7 d、14 d(每个时间10只)及玫瑰花蕾组吸嗅14天后脑组织,常规切片,采用尼氏染色法检测各组梨形皮质神经元损伤修复情况,采用免疫组化法检测梨形皮质谷氨酸(Glu)、γ-氨基丁酸(GABA)表达。结果对照组梨形皮质神经元尼式小体灰度值为87.32±3.14,模型组毁损24 h、72 h、7 d、14 d时灰度值分别为101.76±4.52、110.76±2.78、98.35±2.69、94.26±3.01,玫瑰花蕾组为88.47±4.33;模型组毁损72 h时尼式小体灰度值大于对照组和玫瑰花蕾组(P均<0.05)。与对照组比较,模型组毁损72 h、7 d时梨形皮质Glu表达减少、GABA表达增加;与模型组毁损72 h、7 d 比较,玫瑰花蕾组Glu表达增加、GABA表达减少;两组比较P均<0.05。结论玫瑰花蕾萃取物吸嗅对嗅球毁损大鼠梨形皮质神经元损伤修复具有促进作用,抑制Glu释放、促进GABA释放可能是其作用机制。%Objective To investigate the effect of rosebud extracts on piriform cortical neuronal damage and repair in olfactory bulb damaged rats and its mechanism.Methods Healthy adult male SD rats were randomly divided into three groups, namely the control group (n=10), model group (n=40) and rosebud group (n=10).Rats in the control group were not treated.Using probes agitation to damage the olfactory bulb of rats in the model group and rosebud group.One day after the damage of the olfactory

  8. Isolation, culture and purification of offactory ensheathing cells from human fetal olfactory mucosa and from human fetal offactory bulb%人胚嗅球嗅鞘细胞及人胚鼻粘膜嗅鞘细胞的分离培养与纯化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑遵成; 陶宗玉; 魏开斌; 张文正; 任玉水

    2012-01-01

    [目的]采用差速贴壁法及免疫组化对人胚嗅粘膜OECs及人胚嗅球OECs进行体外纯化培养,探讨建立嗅粘膜OECs及嗅球OECs体外培养的方法.[方法]对差速贴壁后的人胚嗅粘膜OECs及嗅球OECs分别交替应用含13%胎牛血清DMEM - F12培养基进行原代培养.观察嗅鞘细胞的形态学变化,采用p75NTR和GFAP免疫细胞化学染色进行鉴定和纯度检测.[结果]人胚嗅粘膜及人胚嗅球均可培养出嗅鞘细胞,嗅粘膜嗅鞘细胞形态多呈双极、三极,伴有细长的突起.p75NTR和GFAP染色均呈阳性反应,体外培养时人胚嗅球嗅鞘细胞纯度比人胚嗅粘膜嗅鞘细胞高.[结论]差速贴壁法可以分离培养出人胚嗅粘膜嗅鞘细胞及人胚嗅球嗅鞘细胞.%[Objective]To investigate differential adhesion method and immunohistochemistry in human embryo and human embryonic olfactory mucosa olfactory mucosal OECs OECs purified in vitro culture,explore the establishment of olfactory mucosa and olfactory bulb OECs OECs in vitro methods. [ Method] The differential adhesion of human fetal olfactory mucosa after olfactory bulb OECs and OECs were alternatively contained DMEM - F12 13% FBS medium in primary culture. The morphological changes of olfactory ensheathing cells were observed,p75NTR and GFAP immunocytochemistry for identification and purity testing was used. [Result] The human embryo and human embryonic olfactory mucosa olfactory bulb could be cultivated olfactory ensheathing cells,olfactory mucosa olfactory ensheathing cells form mostly bipolar,tripolar,with slender processes. p75NTR and GFAP staining were positive reaction. In vitro the purity of human fetal olfactory ensheathing cells cultured from human fetal olfactory ensheathing cells was higher than from olfactory mucosa. [ Conclusion ] The differential adhesion method can be isolated and cultured human embryonic cells and human fetal olfactory mucosa olfactory ensheathing cells, olfactory bulb.

  9. Isolation and identification of alkaloids of bulbs of Lycoris radiata Herb.produced in Guizhou province%黔产红花石蒜中生物碱成分的分离与鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡誉怀; 穆淑珍; 晏晨; 孙志峰; 张建新; 郝小江

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study the alkaloids from the bulbs of Lycoris radiata.Herb.of Guizhou province.Methods The alkaloids were isolated by chromatographic methods such as silica gel,ODS,Sephadex LH-20 and HPLC,and identified by the chemical and physical methods,especially spectral analysis.Results Eleven alkaloids were isolated.The structures of them were identified as galanthamine (1),tazettine (2),haemanthamine (3),O-demethylgalantamine (4),2α-hydroxyl-6-O-methyloduline (5),hippeastrine (6),homolycorine (7),9-O-demethylhomolycorine (8),zephyranthine (9),lycoramine (10),macronine (11).Conclusions Compounds 3,5 and 11 are obtained from the genus Lycoris,and compounds 2 and 4 are obtained from L.radiata Herb.for the first time.The NMR data of compound 11 is assigned for the first time.%目的 对黔产红花石蒜的化学成分进行分离与鉴定.方法 应用硅胶柱色谱、葡聚糖凝胶柱色谱和半制备高效液相色谱分离纯化,根据理化性质和波谱数据确定化合物的结构.结果 从黔产红花石蒜中分离得到11个化合物,分别鉴定为加兰他敏(galanthamine,1)、水仙花碱(tazettine,2)、网球花胺(haemanthamine,3)、去甲基加兰他敏(O-demethylgalantamine,4)、2-羟基-6-甲氧基香水仙灵(2α-hydroxyl-6-O-methyloduline,5)、小星蒜碱(hippeastrine,6)、高石蒜碱(homolycorine,7)、9-O-去甲基高石蒜碱(9-O-demethylhomolycorine,8)、葱莲碱(zephyranthine,9)、力可拉敏(lycoramine,10)、6α-去氧-8-氧多花水仙碱(macronine,11).结论 化合物3、5和11为首次从该属植物中分离得到,化合物2和4为首次从该种植物中分离得到,同时首次对化合物11进行了NMR数据的归属.

  10. 基于微电极阵列的嗅球细胞网络传感器的研究%Study on Olfactory Bulb Cell Network Biosensor Based on Microelectrode Array

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈庆梅; 肖丽丹; 李蓉; 张威; 刘清君; 王平

    2011-01-01

    嗅球(OB)是嗅觉系统的第一中转站,在嗅觉信息的识别和处理中具有重要的作用.嗅球中具有多种类型的神经元,分别具有不同的生理特点和功能.本研究利用细胞培养技术,将嗅球神经元与微电极阵列(MEA)芯片耦合,构建一种细胞网络传感器,用于对多点的嗅球神经元电活动进行同步观察与分析.结果显示,MEA上培养的嗅球细胞生长良好,能够检测多个通道的嗅球神经元的自发电位以及谷氨酸作用下的诱发响应.研究表明,该嗅球细胞网络传感器能够实现信号的多通道同步检测及有效分辨神经元的自发信号和诱发响应,并且能够很好地捕捉不同通道神经元响应的特点.该研究对于进一步分析嗅觉信息在嗅球内的传导和编码具有重要的意义.%Olfactory bulb ( OB ) is the first relay site of the olfactory system, which is important for identifying and processing the olfactory information. There are multi-type neurons in OB, respectively with different physiological characteristics and functions. In the present study, OB neurons were coupled onto MEA chip by cell culture technique to develop a cell network-based biosensor, which was used to synchronously observe and analyze the electrical activities of OB neurons with multi-sites. Experiment results showed that OB cells grew well on MEA, and multi-channel spontaneous signals can be measured. In addition, this biosensor can detect the induced spike potentials and oscillation signals by the OB neurons under the action of glutamic acid ( Clu). All results suggest that OB cell network-based biosensor can realize multi-channel synchronous measurement and effectively differentiate the spontaneous signals from the induced responses, and can also catch the characteristics of neuronal responses of different channels commendably. This research is significant for further investigating the conduction and coding functions of olfactory information in the OB.

  11. Interspecific hybridization of flower bulbs: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuyl, van J.M.

    1997-01-01

    In order to introduce new characters such as resistances, flower shape and colour, from wild species into the cultivar assortment of lily it is necessary to overcome interspecific crossing barriers.. Several techniques have been used for wide interspecific lily crosses with species and cultivars fro

  12. Flow calculation in a bulb turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goede, E.; Pestalozzi, J.

    1987-02-01

    In recent years remarkable progress has been made in the field of computational fluid dynamics. Sometimes the impression may arise when reading the relevant literature that most of the problems in this field have already been solved. Upon studying the matter more deeply, however, it is apparent that some questions still remain unanswered. The use of the quasi-3D (Q3D) computational method for calculating the flow in a fuel hydraulic turbine is described.

  13. Flow calculation of a bulb turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goede, E.; Pestalozzi, J.

    1987-01-01

    In recent years remarkable progress has been made in the field of theoretical flow calculation. Studying the relevant literature one might receive the impression that most problems have been solved. But probing more deeply into details one becomes aware that by no means all questions are answered. The report tries to point out what may be expected of the quasi-three-dimensional flow calculation method employed and - much more important - what it must not be expected to accomplish. (orig.)

  14. One hundred prisoners and a light bulb

    CERN Document Server

    van Ditmarsch, Hans

    2015-01-01

    A group of 100 prisoners, all together in the prison dining area, are told that they will be all put in isolation cells and then will be interrogated one by one in a room containing a light with an on/off switch. The prisoners may communicate with one another by toggling the light switch (and that is the only way in which they can communicate). The light is initially switched off. There is no fixed order of interrogation, or interval between interrogations, and the same prisoner may be interrogated again at any stage. When interrogated, a prisoner can either do nothing, or toggle the light switch, or announce that all prisoners have been interrogated. If that announcement is true, the prisoners will (all) be set free, but if it is false, they will all be executed. While still in the dining room, and before the prisoners go to their isolation cells (forever), can the prisoners agree on a protocol that will set them free? At first glance, this riddle may seem impossible to solve: how can all of the necessary in...

  15. Two-piece hollow bulb obturator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subramaniam Elangovan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There are various types of obturator fabrication achievable by prosthodontist. Maxillectomy, which is a term used by head and neck surgeons and prosthodontists to describe the partial or total removal of the maxilla in patients suffering from benign or malignant neoplasms is a defect for which to provide an effective obturator is a difficult task for the maxillofacial prosthodontist. Multidisciplinary treatment planning is essential to achieve adequate retention and function for the prosthesis. Speech is often unintelligible as a result of the marked defects in articulation and nasal resonance. This paper describes how to achieve the goal for esthetics and phonetics and also describes the fabrication of a hollow obturator by two piece method, which is simple and maybe used as definitive obturator for maximum comfort of the patient.

  16. 基于响应面的渔船球鼻艏参数分析及多航速自动优化%Parameter investigation and multi-speed automatic optimization of fishing vessel's bulb bow based on the response surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘成岗; 毛筱菲; 吴铭浩; 陈煜

    2015-01-01

    The pelagic tuna purse seiner is a medium-high speed fishery vessel. To reduce its wave resis⁃tance, an optimized bulbous bow is usually installed. In order to effectively investigate the bulb bow effect on the wave resistance, a bulb bow transformation method is developed in this paper, through which the bulb bow offsets are transformed into length, breadth, height, and fore-point height parameters and directly used in CFD calculation. The wave resistance is then solved with the Rankine source panel method. Using the method of experimental design, a response surface model of bulb bow parameter effect on wave resis⁃tance is generated. The response surface model indicates that the influences are rather complex, coupled and irregular, and the exact rules differ with speed. Finally, a fast optimization method based on the re⁃sponse surface is applied into the bulb bow optimization, and it is noticed that the optimal solution for the design speed could yield worse resistance performance under service speed, while the multi-speed optimi⁃zation method is more effective for the resistance reduction and energy saving under both design speed and service speed.%远洋金枪鱼围网渔船是一种中、高速的作业型船舶,加装球鼻艏并进行优化可以有效降低其兴波阻力。通过一种改造型值的球鼻艏变换方法,由球鼻艏的长度、宽度、高度及尖点高度参数直接生成用于CFD计算的船体型值,可以快速探讨球鼻艏对兴波阻力的影响。兴波阻力的计算采用Rankine源势流理论,运用试验设计方法生成球鼻艏参数对兴波阻力影响的响应面模型。该模型表明,各参数的影响是复杂且耦合的,难以呈现单调的规律性,且在不同航速下其影响规律也有差异。优化球鼻艏的过程选用结合响应面的快速优化方法,通过优化,发现传统的对单一设计航速的优化可能会出现在较低的服务航速下阻力增加的情形

  17. 1-甲基-4-苯基-1,2,3,6-四氢吡啶对食蟹猴嗅球多巴胺能神经元的影响%Impact on the dopaminergic neurons of olfactory bulb in cynomolgus monkeys damaged by MPTP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程炜; 任振华; 关云谦; 吴迪; 岳峰; 李光武

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the localization and expression of dopaminergic neurons in olfactory bulb of cynomolgus monkeys damaged by 1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP).Methods Three adult cynomolgus monkeys were injected with MPTP to induce the damage of dopamine neurons ( MPTP group ) and three adult cynomolgus monkeys were as a control group .Immunohistochemical staining was performed to examine the localization and expression of dopaminergic neurons in the olfactory bulb in normal and MPTP group monkeys .The numbers of DA-positive and DARPP32-positive cells were counted and the average absorbance was measured in normal and MPTP group .Results DA and DARPP32 positive neurons were concentrated in the glomerular layer ( GL) of olfactory bulb.DA positive nerve fibers were distributed in the GL while DARPP 32 positive nerve fibers appeared in all layers , and most nerve fibers were in GL and external plexiform layers (EPL).After MPTP injury, compared with the normal control group , DA and DARPP32 positive neurons and nerve fibers decreased in MPTP group and DA neurons and nerve fibers decreased significantly . Conclusions DA neurons and nerve fibers are in the GL of cynomolgus monkey olfactory bulb .DA neurons and fibers are significantly reduced in the olfactory bulb of cynomolgus monkeys damaged by MPTP , which may be associated with the dysosmia in Parkinson ’ s disease .%目的:建立食蟹猴1-甲基-4-苯基-1,2,3,6-四氢吡啶(MPTP)帕金森病系统性模型,探讨嗅球中多巴胺(DA)及多巴胺/cAMP调节磷蛋白(DARPP32)的表达情况。方法3只成年健康食蟹猴,静脉注射MPTP,建立帕金森病系统性模型,取出嗅球,切片,免疫组织化学染色DA和DARPP32,摄片并观察DA和DARPP32在食蟹猴嗅球中的分布及表达情况,采用Image Pro-Plus软件,半定量分析模型组和正常组之间DA和DARPP32的表达差异。结果食蟹猴嗅球中DA和DARPP32神经元集

  18. 百合鳞茎蔗糖合成酶活性检测体系的建立%Establishment of Detection System for Sucrose Synthase Activity in Lily Bulb

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙红梅; 王微微; 何玲; 王春夏; 李天来

    2011-01-01

    为了建立富含多糖的百合鳞茎蔗糖合成酶(sucrose synthase,EC2.4.1.13,SuSy)活性检测体系,深入研究其蔗糖代谢机制,以兰州百合(Lilium davidii var.unicolor)鳞茎外层鳞片为试材,分别研究了提取缓冲液种类及pH值、反应温度、底物浓度以及缓冲液pH值对SuSy合成和分解方向活性的影响.结果表明:SuSy合成方向活性检测的最适提取缓冲液是pH值为7.8的TrisHCl,最适反应温度为50℃,底物果糖最适浓度为50 mmol· L-1,UDPG最适浓度为5 mmol·L-1,反应缓冲液Tris-HCl最适pH值为7.5;SuSy分解方向活性检测的最适提取缓冲液为pH值7.8的Hepes-NaOH,最适反应温度为40℃,底物蔗糖最适浓度为10mmol· L-1,UDP最适浓度为7 mmol·L-1,反应缓冲液Mes-NaOH最适pH值为4.5.%This investigation was designed to establish the detection system for sucrose synthase (EC 2.4.1.13, SuSy) activities in lily bulb enriched with polysaccharides, which provided a detection method for the further research on the mechanism of sucrose metabolism. The effects of extracting buffer types, pH, reaction temperature, substrate concentrations, pH of the reaction buffer on the SuSy activities in both synthesis and decomposition direction were respectively studied by using the exterior scales of Lilium davidii var. Unicolor at planting stage as materials. And the results showed that the optimum extraction buffer was Tris-HCl of pH7.8, the appropriate temperature was 50 ℃, the preferential substrate concentration of fructose was 50 mmol·L-1, the preferential substrate concentration of UDPG was 5 mmol·L-1, and the suitable pH for reaction buffer Tris-HCI was 7.5 in the detection of SuSy synthesis activities. In the detection of SuSy decomposition activities, the optimum extraction buffer was Hepes-NaOH of pH7.8, the appropriate temperature was 40 X!, the adequate substrate concentration of sucrose was 10 mmol·L-1, the adequate substrate concentration of UDP was 7 mmol·L-1

  19. 成年小鼠嗅球神经干细胞的培养和鉴定%In vitro culture and identification of neural stem cells derived from the olfactory bulb of adult mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡继良; 姜晓丹; 邹雨汐; 薛杉; 郭燕舞; 周德祥; 徐如祥

    2008-01-01

    目的 建立完善的成年小鼠嗅球神经千细胞分离培养和鉴定方法,探索新的成年神经干细胞种子来源. 方法 用无血清方法 分离培养成年小鼠嗅球来源的神经干细胞;用克隆培养、5-溴2-脱氧尿嘧啶核昔(BrdU)整合的方法 检验培养细胞的干细胞特性;用免疫荧光细胞化学的方法 检测BrdU、神经干细胞标记物巢蛋白(nestin)和SOX2、分化的细胞标记物Tuj1、胶质纤维酸性蛋白(GFAP)、04的表达. 结果 从成年小鼠嗅球能够分离、培养出具有自我更新、增殖能力的神经球.构成神经球的细胞呈nestin和SOX2阳性,它们分化后产生TuJ1阳性的神经元、GFAP阳性的星形胶质细胞、04阳性的少突胶质细胞. 结论 成年小鼠嗅球存在神经干细胞,其能够在体外进行培养、增殖、分化.是神经干细胞的新的种子来源.%Objecfive To establish a method for in vitro culture and identification of neural stem cells(NSCs)derived from the olfactory bulb(OB)of adult mice and test the possibility of the OB as a new source of seed cells of adult NSCs. Methads NSCs were isolated from the OB of adult mice and cultured in serum-free medium.Clonal culture and BrdU incorporation assay were performed to assess the self-renewal and proliferative activities of the NSCs.Fluorescence immunocytochemistry was carried out to examine the expression of the NSC markers nestin and SOX2,neuronal marker Tujl,astrocyte marker GFAP and oligodendroeyte marker 04. Results NSCs possessing self-renewal and proliferative capacities were obtained from the OB of adult mice,and the cells grew in the form of floating neurospheres in the medium.The neurospheres consisted of cells were positive for NSC markers nestin and SOX2,which Were able to differentiate into Tuj1-positive neurons,GFAP-positive astrocytes and 04-positive oligodendrocytes. Conclusion NSCs are present in the OB of adult mice,and the NSCs isolated from the OB can proliferate and

  20. Produção de cebola de dias curtos no Alentejo. Influência da adubação localizada Short-day onion bulb yield in Alentejo. Influence of fertilizer band placement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Manuel Almeida Machado

    2008-12-01

    Spring Star” and “Mineutaka” and fertilizer application method at plantation (broadcasting and banding at 10 cm ± 2 depth, under the crop row. Fertilizer banding did not affect root density (cm cm-3 under the crop row, nor onion bulb yield which was 8.3 and 9.0 kg m-2 for “Spring Star” and “Mineutaka” respectively. Since the studied cultivars presented resistance to waterlogging and low temperature that occurred during the growing season with good production, short - day onion has great agronomical potential for Alentejo region. Additionally, having in consideration the growing season conditions, water will not be a limiting factor.

  1. Análise cromossômica em bulbilhos de sisal (Agave spp. cultivados em diferentes municípios baianos, Brasil Chromosomal analysis of immature bulbs of sisal (Agave spp. cultivated in different districts in Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Regina de Oliveira Domingos Queiroz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O plantio de sisal tornou-se uma das atividades econômicas mais importantes na região do semiárido baiano, onde as adversidades ambientais impedem o plantio de outras culturas. Diante da importância econômica, estudos de citogenética são necessários, pois podem fornecer informações que auxiliem na produção de linhagens melhoradas. A análise de bulbilhos, coletados de cinco localidades diferentes da Bahia, mostrou a presença de indivíduos diplóides e pentaplóides, com comprimento cromossômico variando de 24,56 µm até 0,43 µm nos diferentes exemplares. A formulação cariotípica para o híbrido n° 11648 (2n = 2x = 60, coletado no município de Valente, foi de 2mv + 38m + 10sm + 8st + 2t. Já para os pentaplóides (2n = 5x = 142 c.a. coletadas nos municípios de Conceição do Coité e Valente a classificação cromossômica encontrada foi: 14m + 66sm + 38st + 2a + 22t e 82m + 48sm + 12st, respectivamente. Fatores como maior comprimento genômico, presença de cromossomos acrocêntricos, subtelocêntricos e telocêntricos nos cariótipos bimodais e a diminuição na quantidade de cromossomos grandes com conseqüente aumento no número de cromossomos pequenos podem indicar o andamento de um processo divergente.Sisal plantations have become one of the more important economic activities in the semiarid region of Bahia, where the environmental adversities are too harsh for most other agricultural operations. In the face of economic importance, cytogenetic studies of sisal are necessary because they could provide information that would aid in the production of improved lineages. In this study, the analyses of the immature bulbs, collected from five different areas in Bahia, showed the presence of diploid and pentaploid individuals, with chromosomal lengths varying from 24.56 µm to 0.43 µm in the different samples. The karyotype formulation for the hybrid n° 11648 (2n = 2x = 60, collected in the district of Valente, was 2mv + 38

  2. The mannose-specific bulb lectin from Galanthus nivalis (snowdrop) binds mono- and dimannosides at distinct sites. Structure analysis of refined complexes at 2.3 A and 3.0 A resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hester, G; Wright, C S

    1996-10-01

    Galanthus nivalis agglutinin (GNA, a 50 kDa tetramer) is a mannose-specific lectin of the Amaryllidaceae family of bulb lectins. Crystal structures of GNA complexed with methyl-alpha-D-mannose (MeMan) and mannose-alpha 1,3-D-mannose-alpha-OMe (MeMan-2) have been determined and analyzed in terms of internal structural symmetry and saccharide binding. The final model of the 2.29 A orthorhombic methyl-alpha-Man complex refined with an R-factor of 0.167 (all data) includes 12 bound sugar ligands and 327 water molecules. The four independent subunits (A, B, C and D) of the 222 tetramer and the three four-stranded beta-sheets (I,II and III) that constitute each subunit compare closely (r.m.s. delta = < 1.0 A). The 12 bound methyl-alpha-Man molecules refined with B-factors < 22 A2 and occupancies in the range of 0.5 to 1.0. The highest occupied site is located in beta-sheet I (site 1), where interactions from the dimer-related subunit contribute to complex stabilization. These subunit pairs (A-D and B-C) associate tightly with a buried surface area of 1738 A2 and 33 interchain hydrogen bonds resulting from C-terminal strand exchange. In comparison, the A-B and C-D subunit pairs have narrow interfaces (476 A2) and no direct H-bond contacts. The 3.0 A structure of the cubic Man-alpha 1,3-Man-OMe complex, determined by molecular replacement and refined with X-PLOR using NCS constraints and density modification methods, is less well ordered due to a high crystal solvent content (68%). Complexed disaccharide is responsible for the most crucial lattice contacts, which involve only one of the two independent subunits (A). The second subunit (C) shows a high degree of flexibility (Bav = 41.7 A2). The complete disaccharide molecule is visible in both subunits at site 3, which is the only extended site. The ligand is oriented with its reducing end positioned in the specificity pocket. The non-reducing manose is in contact through hydrogen bonding with a charged subsite (D37-K38) on

  3. 不添加蛋白酶从百合根茎中提取分离纯化水溶性非淀粉多糖%Extraction, isolation and purification of water soluble non-starch polysaccharides from Lily bulb without protease treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Manal M Shehata; 王璋; 许时婴

    2004-01-01

    采用不添加蛋白酶的方法从百合根茎中提取分离水溶性非淀粉多糖(WSNSP).用离子交换色谱和凝胶过滤色谱纯化WSNSP,测定了WSNSP的相对分子质量,其值为97.8 kD.另外,研究发现一些多糖是与蛋白质结合在一起的.%Extraction, and isolation of water-soluble non-starch polysaccharides (WSNSP) from lily bulb without the use of protease was investigated. WSNSP was purified by ion exchange and gel filtration chromatography. Molecular weight was determined and found to be 97.8 kD Furthermore, some polysaccharides would be associated with proteins.

  4. Morphological and quantitative analysis of myenteric plexus neurons of intestinal bulb of Cyprinus carpio (Linnaeus, 1758 (Osteichthyes, Cyprinidae Análise morfológica e quantitativa dos neurônios do plexo mientérico do bulbo intestinal de Cyprinus Carpio. (Linnaeus, 1758 (Osteichthyes, Cyprinidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Marega

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available The myenteric plexus shows morphologic and quantitative variability in the alimentary canals of different species of animals. We have quantified and analyzed the morphology of the myenteric plexus of ten adult Cyprinus carpio intestinal bulbs, by means of histological cross sections stained with HE and Van Gieson methods, as well as Giemsa-stained whole mount preparations. The myenteric plexus, located between the longitudinal and circular layers of the muscular tunic, is formed by isolated neurons and ganglia. Percentages of small, medium and large neurons were 21%, 63.4% and 15.6%, respectively, with a prevalence of intermediary cytoplasmic basophily and peripheral nuclei. Neuronal density in 6.92mm2 of intestinal bulb was of 2,040 neuronsO plexo mientérico apresenta variabilidade morfológica e quantitativa ao longo do tubo digestório das diferentes espécies animais. No presente trabalho quantificamos e analisamos a morfologia dos neurônios do plexo mientérico de dez bulbos intestinais de Cyprinus carpio, por meio de cortes histológicos corados com HE e Van Gieson e de preparados de membrana corados pelo método de Giemsa. O plexo mientérico foi localizado entre os estratos longitudinal e circular da túnica muscular, sendo constituído por neurônios isolados e por gânglios. As porcentagens de neurônios pequenos, médios e grandes foram 21%, 63,4% e 15,6%, respectivamente, predominando neurônios com basofilia citoplasmática intermediária e núcleo em posição periférica. A análise quantitativa revelou a presença de 2.040 neurônios/6,92mm2 de bulbo intestinal

  5. Optimal design of runner blade in bulb turbine base on multidisciplinary feasible method%贯流式水轮机转轮叶片的多学科优化设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱国俊; 郭鹏; 程锜; 罗兴; 齐国庆

    2014-01-01

    of weak coupling was used for multidisciplinary analysis during optimization. After the multidisciplinary optimization system had been built, a bulb model turbine’s runner was optimized using this system. After optimization, the Pareto solution was selected as the optimum solution. The optimum solution was then compared with the initial blade. The comparison results showed that after optimization, the efficiency of blade in optimum operating conditions had been improved 0.3%, and the maximum static stress on blade had been decreased 16.3%. The stress gradient on blade became more uniform, which showed that the optimum blade has better stress performance. In order to comprehensively compare the optimum blade with the initial, performance of initial and optimum blade in other conditions was also calculated and compared. The comparison showed that the optimum blade not only performs better in optimum conditions, but also performs better in other conditions. The comparison results verify that the idea of multidisciplinary optimization design of a hydro turbine runner is feasible, and the optimization system is effective.%为了变革传统的转轮优化设计方法,在缩短转轮研发周期的同时能确保转轮安全、高效的运行,有必要开展转轮的多学科优化设计方法研究。该文基于多学科可行性优化策略(multidisciplinary feasible method,MDF)提出了一种能兼顾水力性能和强度应力的贯流式转轮叶片多学科优化设计方法。该方法以转轮叶片的几何形状参数作为优化变量,以转轮叶片的水力效率以及叶片上的最大静应力值作为优化目标,并通过 MDF 策略构建整个多学科优化求解系统,同时引入NSGA-II算法作为寻优算法开展了贯流式叶片的多学科优化设计。优化过程中,采用弱耦合方法完成每个优化个体的多学科性能分析以缩减整个优化流程的计算时间,提升了该方法的工程实用性。采用该

  6. Compared the abilities of repairing nerve defect between glial cells in lamina propria and in olfactory bulb%嗅黏膜与嗅球神经层胶质细胞修复神经缺损能力的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘夫海; 陈统一

    2009-01-01

    目的 比较嗅黏膜胶质细胞与嗅球神经层胶质细胞修复周围神经缺损的能力.方法 体外培养异体嗅黏膜胶质细胞及嗅球神经层胶质细胞2周后纯化浓缩待用.将60只成年Wistar鼠随机分为对照组(A组,n=20)、嗅球神经层胶质细胞组(B组,n=20)及嗅黏膜胶质细胞组(C组,n=20).左侧坐骨神经切除25mm长轴突,保留神经外膜吻合于近端,将细胞培养液、嗅球神经层胶质细胞、嗅黏膜胶质细胞分别注入A、B、C各组神经外膜腔内.术后3个月,通过大体形态、光学显微镜及透射电镜观察、逆行标记荧光金运输距离、免疫荧光检测胶质纤维酸性蛋白(glial fibre acid protein,GFAP)浓度及神经生长因子(nerve growth factors,NGF)浓度,酶联免疫方法检测髓鞘碱性蛋白(myelin basic protein,MBP)浓度及神经丝蛋白(neurofilament,NF)浓度,伤肢功能评分评估神经缺损的修复效果.结果 大体观察、光学显微镜及透射电镜观察,神经缺损再生C组最完全,A组最差;荧光金在神经中的运行距离,C组最长,A组最短;NGF、GFAP、MBP及NF浓度、伤肢功能评分均为C组最高,A组最低.结论 嗅黏膜胶质细胞及嗅球神经层胶质细胞均能促进坐骨神经缺损再生,嗅黏膜胶质细胞促进神经再生效果优于嗅球神经层胶质细胞.%Objective To compare their competence to repair peripheral nerve defect between lami-na propria glial cells and olfactory bulb glial cells. Methods Glial cells in nasal lamina propria and olfac-tory bulb had been cultured in vitro for 2 weeks, then purified and condensed for later transplantation. 60 adult wistar rats were randomized into three groups of 20 rats each: A (control), B (glial cells in olfactory bulb were transplanted into epineuria lumen) and C (glial cells in lamina propria were transplanted into epineuria lumen). Rats' left sciatic nerves were excised 25 mm long axons and retained epineuria lumen anastomosed to proximal

  7. Efeito do alho (Allium sativum Linn., probiótico e virginiamicina antes, durante e após o estresse induzido pela muda forçada em poedeiras semipesadas Effect of bulb garlic (Allium sativum Linn., probiotic and virginiamycin before, during and after induced forced molt stress in semi-heavily laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Humberto Vilar da Silva

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram realizados três experimentos com 336 poedeiras no segundo ciclo de produção e 24 meses de idade, alojadas em condições de criação comercial (550 cm²/ave. O objetivo foi avaliar o alho (5 kg/t, probiótico (300 g/t e a virginiamicina (20 g/t como aditivos de rações antes, durante e após o estresse induzido pela muda forçada (MF. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente ao acaso e os tratamentos usados foram: dieta controle (DC; DC+alho (A; DC+probiótico (P; DC+virginiamicina (V; DC+A+V; DC+A +P; DC+P+V; DC+A+P+V, constituídos por sete repetições de seis aves. O período pré-experimental foi de 15 dias e o fotoperíodo, de 17 horas de luz/dia. O ensaio 1 foi realizado em quatro semanas antes da MF, com as aves recebendo 110 g de ração contendo os aditivos. O ensaio 2 foi realizado durante os doze dias de MF, com as aves recebendo 10 g de milho moído, usado como veículo para diluir a dose dos aditivos consumida em 110 g de ração. O ensaio 3 foi realizado em seis semanas, durante o terceiro ciclo de produção, com as aves recebendo 110 g de ração, sem os aditivos, e as coletas tiveram início após as aves terem atingido 50% de postura. Antes da MF, o alho reduziu a massa de ovos em relação ao probiótico (48,2 vs. 39,8 g e, durante a MF, a virginiamicina e a mistura P+V reduziram a porcentagem de intestinos em relação ao alho (7,51 e 7,72 vs. 9,43, mas o peso e a porcentagem de baço não foram alterados. Após a MF, as variáveis não foram afetadas pelos tratamentos. Nas condições do experimento, os antimicrobianos usados não melhoram o desempenho de poedeiras antes, durante e após o estresse induzido pela MF em relação à ração sem aditivos.Three trials were carried out with 336 laying hens, aging 24 weeks and after second forced molt, caged in commercial conditions (550 cm²/bird to evaluate the use of bulb garlic (5 kg/t, probiotic (300 g/t and virginiamycin (20 g/t as additives in laying hens

  8. Application of CFD method in prediction of relationship between discharge and differential pressure of inlet passage of bulb tubular pump%CFD方法在灯泡式贯流泵流量与压差关系预测中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于永海; 仇春光; 成斌

    2012-01-01

    The Jinhu Pumping Station, which is located in Jiangsu Province, was built for the Eastern route of the South-to-North Water Diversion Project. In the present study, the flow field within the inlet passage of its bulb tubular pump was numerically simulated with a standard k-∈ turbulence model and SIMPLEC algorithm. A functional relationship between the discharge and the differential pressure, which is linearly fitted from the computed results, was found to agree with the one from the model tests. The comparison indicates thai the CFD method is sufficiently accurate to predict the relationship between the discharge and differential pressure of the inlet passage. The relationship between the discharge and the differential pressure of the prototype pump, which is 10.33 times the model pump, is also numerically predicted with the same CFD method. The results indicate that it is feasible to predict the relationship between discharge and differential pressure of two measuring points in the inlet passage of a bulb tubular pump with the CFD method. The authors therefore present a new approach to determin the relationship between discharge and differential pressure of the inlet passage of low-lift pumps.%以南水北调东线工程金湖灯泡式贯流泵为例,应用标准k-ε紊流模型和SIMPLEC算法对灯泡式贯流泵进水流道模型的水流流场进行CFD数值模拟,得到流量与进水流道上两测压点的压差数据,线性拟合后获得流量与压差的函数关系,与模型试验测得的结果相比两者差异很小,表明用CFD方法预测进水流道中流量与压差的关系精度较高.采用相同的CFD方法对模型放大10.33倍后得到的灯泡式贯流泵进水流道原型流场进行数值模拟,预测灯泡式贯流泵原型流量与压差的函数关系.结果表明,应用CFD方法预测大型灯泡式贯流泵的流量与进水流道上两测压点压差的关系是可行的,为低扬程水泵进水流道中流量与压差函数

  9. Comparison and Characterization of Garlic (Allium sativum L. Bulbs Extracts and Their Effect on Mortality and Repellency of Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae Comparación y Caracterización de Extractos de Bulbos de Ajo (Allium sativum L. y su Efecto en a Mortalidad y Repelencia de Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Augusto Hincapié Ll

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Tetranychus urticae Koch is a pest that causes great economic losses because it attacks a wide range of host plants. Also, some populations have developed resistance against commercial acaricides. This work compares different extracts from garlic (Allium sativum L. bulbs measuring their toxicity and repellency effects on T. urticae. Extracts were obtained using as solvents CO2 in supercritical conditions (CSC, ethanol and petroleum ether using soxhlet and soaking methods and soaking in water. The supercritical fluid extraction technique allows for obtaining extracts at low temperature using high pressures, avoiding compound degradation and making possible solvent separation by exposing the extract at room temperature. Mites were bred on bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L. in a laboratory environment in Laureles Campus, Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana, Medellín, Colombia. Mortality was evaluated putting 10 mites in P. vulgaris 3 cm diameter leaf discs previously submersed in the extract. The lowest mean lethal concentrations (LC50 were obtained with the CSC method (8.1188, 5.4105, 2.8206 mg g-1 at 24, 48 and 72 h, respectively. Extracts were characterized using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS, finding vinyl dithiins (63.11%, diallyl disulfide (10.88% and diallyl trisulfide (10.4% as the main compounds in the CSC extract. The main conclusion is that, in comparison with other techniques of extraction from garlic bulbs used in this study, supercritical fluids allow for obtaining extracts with a higher concentration of biologically active compounds against T. urticae.Tetranychus urticae Koch es una plaga que causa grandes pérdidas económicas porque ataca un numeroso grupo de cultivos. Además, algunas poblaciones han desarrollado resistencia a acaricidas comerciales. Este trabajo compara diferentes extractos a partir de bulbos de ajo (Allium sativum L. a través de su toxicidad y repelencia sobre T. urticae. Los extractos se

  10. Teor de fósforo e pH no bulbo molhado, com diferentes freqüências de fertirrigação, utilizando ácido fosfórico Phosphorous content and pH in the wet bulb, with diferent frequencies of fertigation using phosphoric acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia C. Foratto

    2007-08-01

    the wet bulb; pH of the soil until 30 cm from the drip and until 40 cm in depth was reduced, reaching value of 3.6 while the phosphorous values were higher in this same region of the bulb, exceeding 1,500 mg dm-3. These results allow indicating that the phosphoric acid can be used in localized irrigation systems, controlling soil pH, because low soil pH will be able to influence the development of the cultures and, consequently, the productivity.

  11. Efeitos da exposição ocupacional ao mercúrio em trabalhadores de uma indústria de lâmpadas elétricas localizada em Santo Amaro, São Paulo, Brasil Effects of occupational exposure to mercury in workers at a light bulb factory in Santo Amaro, São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecília Zavariz

    1993-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve como objetivo verificar a intoxicação por mercúrio metálico em trabalhadores de uma indústria de lâmpadas elétricas situada em Santo Amaro, São Paulo. Foram realizadas visitas à empresa para verificação do ambiente e das condições de trabalho, além de reuniões com os trabalhadores para uma melhor compreensão acerca do processo produtivo e de suas repercussões na saúde. Foram investigados 91 trabalhadores, dos quais 77 (84,62% apresentaram quadro de intoxicação crônica. Entre os intoxicados, foram detectadas alterações nos testes neuropsicológicos em 76 (98,70%, alterações neurológicas em 69 (75,82%, alterações no exame clínico em 62 (68,13% e alterações psiquiátricas em 59 (63,96%.The aim of this research was to study metallic mercury poisoning in workers at a light bulb factory in Santo Amaro, São Paulo (Brazil. Visits were made to the factory to check both the work environment and the working conditions. Meetings with the workers took place in order to better understand the production process and how working conditions affect their health. Of the 91 workers investigated, 77 (84.62% were chronically poisoned. Among chronically poisoned workers, 76 (98.70% displayed neuropsychological alterations, 69 (75.82% suffered from neurological impairments, 62 (68.13% showed pathological findings under clinical examination, and 59 (63.96% displayed psychiatric disorders.

  12. Effect of trickle irrigation on root development of the wet bulb and 'pera' orange tree yield in the state of São Paulo, Brazil Efeito da irrigação loclizada no desenvolvimento radicular no bulbo úmido e produção da laranjeira-pera no estado de São Paulo, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina C. de M Pires

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different microirrigation designs on root system distribution in wet bulb region, orange orchard yield and quality of orange fruits. The experiment was installed as random blocks with five treatments and four replicates in an orchard of 'Pêra' orange trees grafted on 'Cleopatra' mandarin rootstock. The treatments consisted of: one drip line (T1, two drip lines (T2, four drip lines (T3 per planting row, microsprinkler irrigation (T4 and without irrigation (T5. Irrigation treatments favored yield and ºBrix. The treatment with a single drip line (T1 showed the greatest quantity of roots in relation to the treatments T2 and T3.O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes configurações da irrigação localizada na distribuição do sistema radicular na região do bulbo úmido, na produção e na qualidade dos frutos de laranjeira. O experimento foi instalado em blocos ao acaso, com cinco tratamentos e quatro repetições, em pomar de plantas adultas de laranjeira-Pera enxertada em tangerina-Cleópatra. Os tratamentos consistiram em parcelas com uma linha de tubogotejador (T1, duas linhas de tubogotejadores (T2, quatro linhas de tubogotejadores (T3 por linha de plantio, microaspersão (T4 e sem irrigação (T5. Os tratamentos irrigados favoreceram a produção e o teor de ºBrix. Observou-se maior concentração de raízes na região do bulbo úmido no T1 em relação ao T2 e ao T3.

  13. 新生小鼠海马、嗅球及皮质神经干细胞的分离培养及鉴定%Isolation and identification of neural stem cells from newborn mouse hippocampus, olfactory bulb and cortex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马浚宁; 高俊玮; 侯博儒; 任海军; 陈四化; 刘吉星; 严贵忠

    2014-01-01

    背景:从体外分离培养出高纯度、生物学性能均一的神经干细胞,建立起一套完整的神经干细胞培养体系,是进行神经干细胞研究的基础。  目的:建立新生小鼠海马、嗅球、皮质组织神经干细胞的分离培养体系,并对其生物学特性进行分析。  方法:分离新生昆明小鼠海马、嗅球、皮质组织,采用机械分离和胰酶消化法提取原代神经干细胞。采用无血清培养技术、机械吹打和酶消化法进行传代培养神经干细胞。以体积分数为10%的胎牛血清诱导分化神经干细胞。对神经干细胞及其分化产物行CD133、巢蛋白、β-微管蛋白Ⅲ、胶质纤维酸性蛋白免疫荧光染色鉴定。  结果与结论:从新生小鼠海马、嗅球、皮质可提取出具有自我更新和多向分化能力的神经干细胞,经巢蛋白、CD133免疫荧光染色检测呈阳性;神经干细胞经胎牛血清诱导后可分化为β-微管蛋白Ⅲ、胶质纤维酸性蛋白阳性细胞,并证实染色阳性细胞为神经元和星形胶质细胞。该实验建立了一套神经干细胞体外分离培养、纯化、鉴定、诱导分化方案,为后续神经干细胞研究的顺利进行奠定了实验基础。%BACKGROUND:To in vitro isolate neural stem cel s with high purity and uniform biological properties and to establish a complete set of neural stem cel culture system is the basis for neural stem cel research. OBJECTIVE:To establish an isolation and culture system for neural stem cel s from newborn mouse hippocampus, olfactory bulb and cortex and to analyze the biological properties of cel s. METHODS:Neural stem cel s were isolated from the hippocampus, olfactory bulb and cortex tissue of newborn Kunming mice by mechanical separation and trypsin digestion. Serum-free culture technology, mechanical pipetting and trypsin digestion were used for subculture of neural stem cel s. 10%fetal bovine serum was used

  14. Antimycobacterial and Antibacterial Activity of Allium sativum Bulbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, V; Phadatare, A G; Mukne, Alka

    2014-05-01

    Tuberculosis is one of the major public health problems faced globally. Resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to antitubercular agents has called for an urgent need to investigate newer drugs to combat tuberculosis. Garlic (Allium sativum) is an edible plant which has generated a lot of curiosity throughout human history as a medicinal plant. Garlic contains sulfur compounds like allicin, ajoene, allylmethyltrisulfide, diallyltrisulfide, diallyldisulphide and others which exhibit various biological properties like antimicrobial, anticancer, antioxidant, immunomodulatory, antiinflammatory, hypoglycemic, and cardiovascular effects. According to various traditional systems of medicine, garlic is one of the established remedies for tuberculosis. The objective of the current study was to investigate in vitro antimycobacterial activity as well as anti-bacterial activity of various extracts rich in specific phytoconstituents from garlic. Preparation of garlic extracts was done based on the chemistry of the constituents and their stability. The estimation of in vitro antimycobacterial activity of different garlic extracts was done using Resazurin microtire plate assay technique whereas activity of garlic oil was evaluated by colony count method. The antibacterial activity of extracts and oil was estimated by zone of inhibition method. Extracts of garlic rich in allicin and ajoene showed appreciable antimycobacterial activity as compared to standard drugs. Garlic oil demonstrated significant antibacterial activity, particularly against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

  15. Playing with a bulb lamp: RTL measurements and modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torzo, G.; D'Anna, M.; Pecori, B.

    2016-09-01

    The electric, thermal and optical behaviour of an incandescent lamp was studied by a real time laboratory (RTL) apparatus, using two voltage probes and a light probe. The software STELLA was used to model the phenomena and to analyse the transient behaviour in absence of thermal equilibrium. We show how the Joule-heating effect explains the non-linear current/voltage relation and how the filament thermal capacity affects the phase lag of light peaks with respect to input power peaks.

  16. Antimycobacterial and antibacterial activity of Allium sativum bulbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Viswanathan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis is one of the major public health problems faced globally. Resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to antitubercular agents has called for an urgent need to investigate newer drugs to combat tuberculosis. Garlic (Allium sativum is an edible plant which has generated a lot of curiosity throughout human history as a medicinal plant. Garlic contains sulfur compounds like allicin, ajoene, allylmethyltrisulfide, diallyltrisulfide, diallyldisulphide and others which exhibit various biological properties like antimicrobial, anticancer, antioxidant, immunomodulatory, antiinflammatory, hypoglycemic, and cardiovascular effects. According to various traditional systems of medicine, garlic is one of the established remedies for tuberculosis. The objective of the current study was to investigate in vitro antimycobacterial activity as well as anti-bacterial activity of various extracts rich in specific phytoconstituents from garlic. Preparation of garlic extracts was done based on the chemistry of the constituents and their stability. The estimation of in vitro antimycobacterial activity of different garlic extracts was done using Resazurin microtire plate assay technique whereas activity of garlic oil was evaluated by colony count method. The antibacterial activity of extracts and oil was estimated by zone of inhibition method. Extracts of garlic rich in allicin and ajoene showed appreciable antimycobacterial activity as compared to standard drugs. Garlic oil demonstrated significant antibacterial activity, particularly against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

  17. Determination of maleic hydrazide residues in garlic bulbs by HPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamani Moreno, Claudia; Stadler, Teodoro; da Silva, Antônio Alberto; Barbosa, Luiz C A; de Queiroz, Maria Eliana L R

    2012-01-30

    In recent years, the release of information about the preventative and curative properties of garlic on different diseases and their benefits to human health has led to an increase in the consumption of garlic. To meet the requirements of international markets and reach competitiveness and profitability, farmers seek to extend the offer period of fresh garlic by increasing post-harvest life. As a result, the use of maleic hydrazide (1,2-dihydropyridazine-3,6-dione) [MH], a plant growth regulator, has been widespread in various garlic growing regions of the world. The present work was undertaken to develop and validate a new analytical procedure based on MH extraction from garlic previously frozen by liquid nitrogen and submitted to low temperature clean-up. The applicability of the method by analysis of garlic samples from a commercial plantation was also demonstrated. The influence of certain factors on the performance of the analytical methodology were studied and optimized. The approach is an efficient extraction, clean-up and determination alternative for MH residue-quantification due to its specificity and sensitivity. The use of liquid nitrogen during the sample preparation prevents the degradation of the analyte due to oxidation reactions, a major limiting factor. Moreover, the method provides good linearity (r(2): 0.999), good intermediate precision (coefficient of variation (CV): 8.39%), and extracts were not affected by the matrix effect. Under optimized conditions, the limit of detection (LOD) (0.33 mg kg(-1)) was well below the maximum residue level (MRL) set internationally for garlic (15 mg kg(-1)), with excellent rates of recovery (over 95%), good repeatability and acceptable accuracy (CV averaged 5.74%), since garlic is a complex matrix. The analytical performance of the methodology presented was compared with other techniques already reported, with highly satisfactory results, lower LOD and higher recoveries rates. In addition, the extraction process is simple, not expensive, easily executable and requires lower volumes of organic solvent. The proposed methodology removes the need of extensive typical laboratory extraction procedures, reducing the amount of time needed for pesticide analysis and increasing sample throughput. Adopting this method gives food safety laboratories the potential to increase cost savings by a suitable technique in routine testing to determine MH residues in garlic.

  18. Produção de bulbos e incidência de pseudoperfilhamento na cultura do alho vernalizado em função de adubações potássicas e nitrogenadas Bulb yield and pseudogrowing incidence of vernalizated garlic as influenced by potassic and nitrogen fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Theodoro Büll

    2002-12-01

    nitrogen in covering (40, 80, 160 and 320 kg.ha-1 applied half at 30 and the remaining at 50 days after seed emergency (DAE; (b the other in 1994, with four potassium levels and four nitrogen levels, both splitted and applied in covering. At 70 DAE two plants per pot were collected for nutritional diagnosis. The results indicated that the leaf concentration of nitrogen was slightly reduced by K fertilization applied in the sowing or in covering. However, there were increases in the potassium concentration with the nitrogen concentration in the leaves; the chlorophyll concentration increased with the potassium levels in the leaves, because of variations in K fertilizer rates applied in the sowing, and with the nitrogen rates in covering; increases in N fertilizer rates in covering enhanced the pseudogrowing incidence in the culture, that was not affected by K fertilization in the sowing or in covering; the bulb yield was slightly increased by nitrogen fertilization in covering.

  19. 白芍提取物对嗅球损毁抑郁模型大鼠行为学及下丘脑-垂体-肾上腺轴的影响%Influences of Extract of Peony Radix Alba on Behavior and Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical Axis in Depressive Rats Model with Damaged Olfactory Bulb

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王景霞; 张建军; 苗春平; 刘妍; 林清; 陈振振

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the influences of extract from Peony Radix Alba on the behavioral and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis changes in rats with damaged olfactory bulb (DOB). Method: The tests of open-field and step-down passive avoidance were used to observe the behaviors of rats.Radioimmunoassay (RIA) was used to analyze the level of corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) in hypothalamus, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) in pituitary gland and cortisol (CORT) in serum of rats with DOB. Result: The rats had a characteristic hyperactivity in the test of "open-field" and learning deficits in stepdown passive avoidance ( P < 0. 05 ), and their levels of CRH, ACTH and CORT increased significantly ( P < 0. 05). The extract of Peony Radix Alba at the dose of 70,35 mg·kg-1 corrected the behavioral changes (P < 0. 05 ) and decreased the levels of CRH, ACTH and CORT ( P < 0. 05). Conclusion: The extract of Peony Radix Alba can correct behavioral changes in rats with DOB, and its regulating effect on HPA axis is one of the mechanisms for treating depression.%目的:研究白芍提取物对嗅球损毁抑郁模型大鼠行为学及下丘脑一垂体.肾上腺(HPA)轴的影响.方法:将嗅球损毁大鼠随机分为对照组、模型组、阳性药氟西汀2.5 mg·kg-1组以及白芍提取物70,35,17.5 mg·kg-1组,采用敞箱法、跳台法观察嗅球损毁大鼠的行为变化,间时用放免法分析白芍提取物对嗅球损毁大鼠下丘脑促肾上腺皮质激素释放素(CRH)、垂体促肾上腺皮质激素(ACTH)和血清皮质酮(CORT)含量的影响.结果:大鼠嗅球损毁后敞箱行为出现明显变化,水平运动和垂直运动显著增加,白芍提取物中、高剂量组可显著降低大鼠水平运动和垂直运动的得分;跳台试验中,造模后大鼠训练期和测试期的错误次数显著增加,自芍提取物中、高剂量组能显著降低嗅球损毁大鼠训练期和测试期的触电次数;嗅球损毁大

  20. 十二指肠球部溃疡患者幽门螺杆菌感染的表型特征及其意义%Characteristic typing of Helicobacter pylori phenotypes and its clinical significance in patients with duodenal bulb ulcers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴炎; 林木贤; 赵娅敏; 康文全; 高燕; 张厚德

    2008-01-01

    目的 研究十二指肠球部溃疡患者中Hp的表型特征及其亚型,并评价Hp表型分型在十二指肠球部溃疡患者中的临床意义.方法 用免疫印迹法检测135例十二指肠球部溃疡(研究组)及140例慢性浅表性胃炎(对照组)患者血清中细胞毒素相关蛋白A(CagA)抗体、空泡细胞毒素A(VacA)抗体和尿素酶(UreA、UreB)抗体及其亚型.结果研究组患者中,中间型Hp感染率为21.5%,明显低于对照组患者的27.9%,P0.05,但尿素酶抗体在研究组患者中的表达率明显高于对照组患者,P<0.05.I型Hp中尿素酶30ku亚基在研究组患者中的表达率(45.5%)亦明显高于对照组患者(33.3%),P<0.05.结论 CagA的表达不依赖于VaeA的表达.Hp多种亚型如128ku CacA、116ku CagA、95ku VaeA、91ku VneA、30ku UreA同时表达在致十二指肠球部溃疡中起综合作用.I型Hp且同时表达30 ku UreA的菌株可能有更强的毒力且更易致十二指肠球部溃疡.%Objective to study the characteristic typing of Helicobacter pylor(Hp)phenotypes and their sub-phenotypes in the patients with duodenal bulb ulcers(DU),and its clinical significance. Methods One hundred thirty-five cases with DU and 140 casses with chronic superficial gastritis were enrolled in this study. Determinations of serum cytotoxin-associated gene protein A (CagA),vacuolating cyto-toxin A(VacA),urease (Ure)A,UreB antibodies and their sub-phenotypes by immunoblotting were carried ou. Results Positive rate of middle-phenotypes of Hp infection in DU was significantly lower than that in chronic superficial gastritis (21.5%vs 27.9%,P<0.05).VacA and CagA antibodies might express alone. There had no significant difference among the expression rate of phenotype CagA, VacA antibodies and their sub-phenotype. But expression rate of Ure antibodies in Du was higher than that in chronic superficial gasstritis (P<0.05).In infection of Hp type I, the expression rate of sub-phenotypes 30ku UreA in DU was hronic

  1. 一种新的甘露糖结合凝集素--朱顶兰凝集素基因的克隆及序列分析%Molecular Cloning of a Novel Mannose-binding Lectin Gene from Bulbs of Amaryllis vittata (Amaryllidaceae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴传芳; 安洁; 何小佳; 邓洁; 洪志霞; 刘超; 吕鸿周; 李宜瑾; 王陈继; 陈放; 鲍锦库

    2004-01-01

    运用同源克隆的方法设计简并引物,通过3′和5′RACE技术,从石蒜科植物朱顶兰(Amaryllis vittata Ait)总RNA中克隆了编码此凝集素(AVA)的全长cDNA序列.该基因全长686 bp,起始密码子位于第41~43 bp,终止密码子位于515~517 bp处,开放阅读框长474 bp,编码158个氨基酸,包含信号肽序列、成熟蛋白序列和C-末端剪切序列的前体蛋白.成熟蛋白由109个氨基酸残基组成,分子量为11.9kD.成熟蛋白在氨基酸水平上与雪花莲凝集素、水仙凝集素、石蒜凝集素和君子兰凝集素分别有73.4%、85.3%、80.7%和83.5%的同源性;朱顶兰凝集素的分子模式显示其与雪花莲凝集素有极其相似的三维结构;在Blocks数据库中检索AVA蛋白氨基酸序列的结构域,发现有3个凝集素功能结构域,并具有3个典型的甘露糖专一结合位点盒(QDNY).%A new mannose-binding agglutinin gene was cloned from bulbs of Amaryllis vittata Ait. The fulllength cDNA of A. vittata agglutinin (AVA) was 686 bp. The start codon of ava cDNA was at 41-43 bp and the stop codon was at 515-517 bp. Analysis in the BLAST of GenBank showed that ava gene encodes a protein precursor composed of a signal peptide, mature protein and C-terminal amino acid cleavage sequence. The mature protein of AVA includes 109 amino acid residues and the molecular weight is 11.9 kD. The homologous analysis showed that the identity between AVA and Galanthus nivalis agglutinin, Narcissus hybrid cultivar agglutinin, Lycoris radiata agglutinin, Clivia miniata agglutinin are 73.4%, 85.3%, 80.7%, 83.5%,respectively. Molecular modeling of AVA indicated that its three-dimensional structure strongly resembles that of the snowdrop agglutinin. Blocks' analysis revealed that the deduced amino acid sequence of AVA has three functional domains specific for agglutination and three carbohydrate-binding boxes (QDNY).

  2. 2,6-二异丙基苯酚逆转嗅球切除抑郁模型大鼠电休克后的Tau蛋白过度磷酸化和认知障碍%2,6-Diisopropylphenol Protects Against The Impairment of Learning-memory and Reduces The Hyperphosphorylation of Protein Tau Induced by Electroconvulsive Shock in The Depression Model Rats Whose Olfactory Bulbs Were Removed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘超; 闵苏; 魏柯; 刘东; 董军; 罗洁; 刘小滨

    2012-01-01

    Protein Tau is a very unequal phosphoric microtubule associated protein, which affect the transport of substances in the axons of the neurons, whose phosphorylation is one of the key methods to regulate neuronal function. The hyperphosphorylation of protein Tau can damage the learning and memory of rats. The impairment of learning-memory induced by electroconvulsive shock in depressed rats is relevant to the function failure of glutamic acid signal system. The phosphorylation of protein Tau can be up-regulated by the individual stress level through the excitatory neurotransmission system. The mechanisms of 2, 6-diisopropylphenol effect on the central nerve system relate to inhibiting the release of glutamic acid and the activity of NMDAR. And the 2, 6-diisopropylphenol can protects against the impairment of learning-memory induced by electroconvulsive shock in depressed rats though inhibiting the excitotoxicty of glutamate. The rise of glutamic acid which induced by electroconvulsive shock in depressed rats can lead to the impairment of learning-memory through up-regulating the hyperphosphorylation of protein Tau? The 2, 6-diisopropylphenol can protect against this process? This study explore the reversion of the 2, 6-diisopropylphenol against the impairment of learning-memory and the hyperphosphorylation of protein Tau induced by electroconvulsive shock in depressed rats, in order to provide experimental evidence for neuropsychological mechanisms on improving learning and memory and the clinical intervention treatment. According to the design of factorial analysis, two intervention factors were set up: the electroconvulsive shock (two levels: no disposition; a course of electroconvulsive shock) and the 2, 6-diisopropylphenol (two levels: 5 ml Saline was injected peritoneally; 5 ml 2, 6-diisopropylphenol was injected peritoneally by dosage of 100 mg/kg). Thirty-two adult depression model rats whose olfactory bulbs were removed were randomly divided into four

  3. Synaptic degeneration and remodelling after fast kindling of the olfactory bulb

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woldbye, D P; Bolwig, T G; Kragh, J

    1996-01-01

    in the basolateral amygdala and dentate gyrus, suggesting that these regions may be functionally altered during the kindling process. In the piriform cortex and dentate gyrus increased NCAM/D3(SNAP-25) ratios found ipsilaterally at seven days after kindling probably reflect an elevated rate of synaptic remodelling....... At this time, however, an overall pattern of ipsilateral decreases in the synaptic marker proteins NCAM and D3(SNAP-25) indicated that this remodelling occurred on a background of synaptic degeneration. These results confirm previous studies showing that kindling is associated with synaptic remodelling...

  4. Host ranges of North American isolates of Penicillium causing blue mold of bulb crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Single isolates of four Penicillium species belonging to series Corymbifera (Penicillium allii, P. hirsutum, P. tulipae, P. venetum) plus an isolate of P. polonicum, all from North American sources, were inoculated individually into Crocus sativus, Allium sativum (garlic), A. cepa (onion), Iris holl...

  5. The global sustainability transition: it is more than changing light bulbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael P. Weinstein

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Current policies and norms to reconcile human demands for resources with the Earth’s ability to supply them have resulted in practices that mainly treat the symptoms of unsustainability rather than their underlying causes. Moreover, the increase in our knowledge about humankind’s role in ecosystems is not keeping pace with our understanding of the consequences of our actions, resulting in a deepening inability to address sustainability issues. The extreme complexity and intricate workings of the world require the expansion of our mental models in a systems-thinking framework if we are to realize a sustainable place for humans in it. The challenge of the emerging transdiscipline of sustainability science lies in developing specific tools and processes, including curriculum development and a new generation of systems models, to help us better understand complexity—uncertainty and surprise, scale, hierarchy, and feedback loops—and to educate a new generation of sustainability scientists to design better policies, to facilitate social learning, and to catalyze the technical, economic, social, political, and personal changes needed to create a sustainable world.

  6. Quality of onion bulbs cv. Superex stored under refrigeration, when exposed to environmental conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Carolina Almeida Miguel; José Fernando Durigan

    2007-01-01

    O armazenamento refrigerado da cebola tem sido recomendado como ideal, mas os produtores sempre questionam sobre a qualidade comercial e o consumo dos bulbos durante este período e depois de levados à condição ambiente. Avaliou-se a qualidade de bulbos de cebola ´Superex' acondicionados em sacos de rede de fibra plástica e armazenados a 10-12°C (68% UR) por até 91 dias, quando levados à condição ambiente. Após 1; 16; 31; 61 e 91 dias foram tomadas amostras, ao acaso, que eram levada...

  7. Complex environmental effects on the expression of alternative reproductive phenotypes in the bulb mite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.M. Smallegange

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the evolution and maintenance of within-sex reproductive morphs, or alternative reproductive phenotypes (ARPs), requires in depth understanding of the proximate mechanisms that determine ARP expression. Most species express ARPs in complex ecological environments, yet little is know ab

  8. Effect of Vacuum Frying on Changes in Quality Attributes of Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Bulb Slices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanushree Maity

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of frying temperatures and durations on the quality of vacuum fried jackfruit (JF chips was evaluated. Moisture content and breaking force of JF chips decreased with increase in frying temperature and time during vacuum frying whereas the oil content increased. The frying time for JF chips was found to be 30, 25, and 20 minutes at 80, 90, and 100°C, respectively. JF chips fried at higher temperature resulted in maximum shrinkage (48%. The lightness in terms of hunter L* value decreased significantly (P<0.05 during frying. Sensory evaluation showed maximum acceptability for JF chips fried at 90°C for 25 min. Frying under vacuum at lower temperatures was found to retain bioactive compounds such as total phenolics, total flavonoids, and total carotenoids in JF chips. Almost 90% of carotenoids were lost from the samples after 30 min of frying at 100°C.

  9. Effect of Vacuum Frying on Changes in Quality Attributes of Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) Bulb Slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maity, Tanushree; Bawa, A S; Raju, P S

    2014-01-01

    The effect of frying temperatures and durations on the quality of vacuum fried jackfruit (JF) chips was evaluated. Moisture content and breaking force of JF chips decreased with increase in frying temperature and time during vacuum frying whereas the oil content increased. The frying time for JF chips was found to be 30, 25, and 20 minutes at 80, 90, and 100°C, respectively. JF chips fried at higher temperature resulted in maximum shrinkage (48%). The lightness in terms of hunter L (*) value decreased significantly (P < 0.05) during frying. Sensory evaluation showed maximum acceptability for JF chips fried at 90°C for 25 min. Frying under vacuum at lower temperatures was found to retain bioactive compounds such as total phenolics, total flavonoids, and total carotenoids in JF chips. Almost 90% of carotenoids were lost from the samples after 30 min of frying at 100°C.

  10. Fetal alcohol exposure leads to abnormal olfactory bulb development and impaired odor discrimination in adult mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.G. Akers (Katherine); S.A. Kushner (Steven); A.T. Leslie (Ana); L. Clarke (Laura); D. van der Kooy (Derek); J.P. Lerch (Jason); P.W. Frankland (Paul)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Children whose mothers consumed alcohol during pregnancy exhibit widespread brain abnormalities and a complex array of behavioral disturbances. Here, we used a mouse model of fetal alcohol exposure to investigate relationships between brain abnormalities and specific behavior

  11. Nitrogen requirements at bulb initiation for production of intermediate-day onions

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of nitrogen application on growth, nitrogen (N) uptake, yield, and quality of intermediate-day onion (Allium cepa L. ‘Guimar’) was evaluated in the field in southern Portugal. Plants were fertilized with 30 kg/ha N at transplanting, 10 kg/ha N at 29 days after transplanting (DAT) during ...

  12. Transcranial Doppler sonography and internal jugular bulb saturation during hyperventilation in patients with fulminant hepatic failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strauss, Gitte Irene; Møller, Kirsten; Holm, Søren;

    2001-01-01

    Mechanical hyperventilation is often used to postpone or ameliorate intracranial hypertension in patients with fulminant hepatic failure (FHF). Because such treatment may critically reduce cerebral blood flow (CBF), bedside techniques to monitor CBF are warranted. In this study, we evaluated...

  13. Beyond Batteries and Bulbs, Circuits and Conductors: Building Green, Activist-Oriented Student Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haun-Frank, Julie; Matthews, Catherine E.; Allen, Melony Holyfield

    2012-01-01

    In this article we provide an example of how to foster an activist-oriented student community by critically examining green technology. We designed this curriculum unit to teach students about the fundamentals of electricity, green technology, and experimental design. Additionally, we viewed this activity as an opportunity for students to apply…

  14. Optimization of Bow-Bulb Forms for Resistance and Seakeeping Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-26

    Johns , NSE Department Dr. Bruce Nehrling, NSE Depa ent Accepted for Trident Scnolar Committee Chairman Date...hull form. It is defined as the volume of displacement divided by the product of length, beam, * iand draft: CB = VOLUME ," L X B X TLXBX...speed of a snip. It is equal to the ship’s speed divided by the square root of the product of the gravitational constant times the ship’s length: I *N

  15. Do-It-Yourself Air Sensors – Exploring the Atmosphere and Turning on Light Bulbs!?

    Science.gov (United States)

    These are educational slides that will be presented in a webinar to the National Science Teachers Association. Topics covered include general air quality, current EPA research, and EPA's particle sensor kit that is a classroom activity.

  16. Mitigation of Vibration on Bulb Turbine in Small Hydro Electric Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Sridharan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Small Hydro Power (SHP development is being increasingly undertaken all over the world, especially in the developing countries, because of their various merits, varied application, and flexibility of utilization. Handling of large hydropower-generating units and keeping the size of the turbine generator sets are economically beneficial, which require higher running speeds and results in greater pressure differences between the two sides of the vanes of a turbine runner. These forces also cause vibrations of the stator, which are transmitted through the frame to any adjoining structure and causes damage to the bearing, stator, and rotor winding as well as reduces the lifetime of the entire machine. Furthermore, cavitations due to discharge cause the major vibration effects in most of the hydroelectric power plants. With modified Concrete support in the stay column, a smooth operation of the turbine generator sets can be achieved.

  17. Olfactory bulb transplantation in complete spinal cord injury: axonal regeneration and locomotor recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Abraham Arellanes-Chávez

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To determine whether the intervention in rats is effective in terms of spinal cord regeneration and locomotor recovery, in order to obtain sufficient evidence to apply the therapy in humans. METHODS: a randomized, controlled, experimental, prospective, randomized trial was conducted, with a sample of 15 adult female Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 250 gr. They were divided into three equal groups, and trained for 2 weeks based on Pavlov's classical conditioning method, to strengthen the muscles of the 4 legs, stimulate the rats mentally, and keep them healthy for the surgery. RESULTS: It was observed that implantation of these cells into the site of injury may be beneficial to the process of spinal cord regeneration after spinal trauma, to mediate secretion of neurotrophic and neuroprotective chemokines, and that the OECs have the ability to bridge the repair site and decrease the formation of gliosis, creating a favorable environment for axonal regeneration. CONCLUSION: It is emphasized that the olfactory ensheathing glial cells possess unique regenerative properties; however, it was not until recently that the activity of promoting central nervous system regeneration was recognized.

  18. Novel flow quantification of the carotid bulb and the common carotid artery with vector flow ultrasound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mads Møller; Pihl, Michael Johannes; Haugaard, Per

    2014-01-01

    Abnormal blood flow is usually assessed using spectral Doppler estimation of the peak systolic velocity. The technique, however, only estimates the axial velocity component, and therefore the complexity of blood flow remains hidden in conventional ultrasound examinations. With the vector ultrasou...

  19. Olfactory consciousness and gamma oscillation couplings across the olfactory bulb, olfactory cortex, and orbitofrontal cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Kensaku eMori; Hiroyuki eManabe; Kimiya eNarikiyo; Naomi eOnisawa

    2013-01-01

    The orbitofrontal cortex receives multi-modality sensory inputs, including olfactory input, and is thought to be involved in conscious perception of the olfactory image of objects. Generation of olfactory consciousness requires neuronal circuit mechanisms for the ‘binding’ of distributed neuronal activities, with each constituent neuron representing a specific component of an olfactory percept. The shortest neuronal pathway for odor signals to reach the orbitofrontal cortex is olfactory senso.