Sample records for bulbourethral glands

  1. Lectin histochemistry of the boar bulbourethral glands

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    E Badia


    Full Text Available The present study describes, for the first time, the glycosidic content of boar bulbourethral glands using lectin histochemistry. Fourteen horseradish peroxidase- or digoxigeninlabelled lectins with different carbohydrate specificities were used in samples obtained from 3 healthy Landrace boars. The results obtained indicate that endpiece and duct cells synthesize and secrete mainly O-glycoproteins with a- and b-D-N-acetylgalactosamine, b-D-galactose-b(1®3-D-Nacetylgalactosamine, D-N-acetylglucosamine and neuraminic acid residues. Glycoproteins secreted by bulbourethral glands have a role in the protection and lubrication of the urethra. In addition, they may be also involved in the regulation of the sperm metabolic activity and in the maintenance of the structural integrity of acrosomal and plasma membranes.

  2. Llama oviductal sperm reservoirs: involvement of bulbourethral glands. (United States)

    Apichela, S A; Argañaraz, M E; Giuliano, S; Zampini, R; Carretero, I; Miragaya, M; Miceli, D C


    The aim of this study was to elucidate the role of llama seminal plasma in the formation of oviductal sperm reservoirs. Female llamas with follicles in the mature phase were mated with a bulbourethral glands-removed male. Females mated with nonbulbourethral glands-removed males were used as control. Oviducts were obtained by surgery 24 h after mating. The uterotubal junction and isthmus were examined by scanning electron microscopy, and mucopolysaccharides were identified by Alcian blue staining. To know the proteins probably involved in sperm reservoir formation, SDS-PAGE of seminal plasma (8% and 18% resolving gel) was made. Spermatozoa only adhered to the oviductal mucosa surface of uterotubal junction of females mated with nonbulbourethral glands-removed males confirming that seminal plasma and, in particular, bulbourethral secretions are related with the oviductal sperm reservoir formation. Histological sections showed sperm in the lumen, immersed in substance, positive for acid mucopolysaccharides. Alcian blue staining of seminal plasma proteins SDS-PAGE showed a band of high molecular weight containing mucopolysaccharides, only present in nonbulbourethral glands-removed males. Bulbourethral glands would secrete at least eight different proteins that most likely participate in the process of sperm storage in the oviduct.

  3. Effects of a diet containing fusarium toxins on the fertility of gilts and on bulbourethral gland weight in barrows. (United States)

    Gutzwiller, Andreas; Gafner, Jean-Louis; Stoll, Peter


    Nine gilts weighing 80 kg at the beginning of the trial were fed a mycotoxin contaminated diet containing 2 mg deoxynivalenol (DON) and 0.4 mg zearalenone (ZON) per kg (Diet M). Their daily weight gain until 103 kg BW was reduced in comparison to the nine control animals fed an uncontaminated diet (Diet C) (763 vs. 912 g; p = 0.02). There was no treatment effect on the age at first observed oestrus. Seven and eight gilts receiving Diet M and C, respectively, became pregnant after being mated once or being again mated three weeks later. The examination of the uteri of gilts slaughtered 35-61 days after mating showed that the exposure to DON and ZON had no effect on the number of foetuses per gilt (p = 0.54), but increased their growth rate (p = 0.003). Thus, low dietary DON and ZON levels had no negative effects on the reproductive parameters examined. The hypothesis that the bulbourethral gland weight of barrows can be used for the bioassay of low dietary ZON levels was rejected since feeding Diet M from 80-103 kg BW did not increase the weight of that accessory sex gland (p = 0.51).

  4. Morphology of accessory genital glands of spotted paca (Agouti paca Linnaeus, 1766). (United States)

    Borges, Edson Moreira; Branco, Érika; de Lima, Ana Rita; Leal, Leonardo Martins; Martins, Leandro Luiz; Reis, Ana Carolina Gonçalves; Cruz, Claudinei; Machado, Márcia Rita Fernandes; Miglino, Maria Angelica


    The spotted paca is the second largest rodent in Brazil, where it is of great economic interest in impoverished regions in view of its prominence as a low-cost source of protein. Little is known about the morphology of the accessory genital glands of this species. Thus, we studied the position and morphology of the genitals in ten adult male spotted pacas. The animals were divided into two groups, five animals were used for fixing of samples in 10% aqueous formaldehyde for macroscopic studies and the other five animals were designated for microscopic analysis. These were arranged in pairs and had the vesicular, prostate, coagulating and bulbourethral glands identified, being structured as mucous glands, which lead into the pelvic urethra. It was concluded that the accessory genital glands found in the paca are the same as those found in most rodents, showing similar histological aspects.

  5. Structure, histochemistry and ultrastructure of the male reproductive accessory glands in the neotropical flat-faced fruit-eating bat Artibeus planirostris (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae). (United States)

    Puga, Cíntia C I; Beguelini, Mateus R; Negrin, Ana C; Christante, Caroline M; Morielle-Versute, Eliana; Vilamaior, Patricia S L; Taboga, Sebastião R


    Chiroptera, the second largest mammalian order, presents different reproductive strategies and unique reproductive features. However, there are few reports regarding male reproductive accessory glands (RAGs) in Chiroptera. Thus, the aim of the present study was to characterise the RAGs of the exclusively neotropical bat Artibeus planirostris (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae) macroscopically, microscopically and ultrastructurally. The RAGs were composed of a prostatic complex with two regions (ventral and dorsal) and paraurethral and bulbourethral glands, but no seminal vesicles. The ventral region had an undefined epithelium, with secretory and basal cells, and its secretions were periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) positive. The dorsal region received both deferens ducts, had a columnar pseudostratified epithelium with secretory and basal cells. There were two types of secretions from the dorsal region: one that was basophilic and another that was mixed PAS positive and PAS negative. The paraurethral glands were dispersed in the connective tissue of the urethra, whereas the bulbourethral glands were located in the penile root. Histological and ultrastructural data confirmed the prostatic nature of the ventral and dorsal regions and the holocrine nature of the ventral region, with the latter finding never having been described previously for the prostate gland. Our findings demonstrate the wide discrepancy of RAGs between A. planirostris and other mammals in terms of their composition, structure and morphology.

  6. Morphology of the male agouti accessory genital glands (Dasyprocta prymnolopha Wagler, 1831 Morfologia das glândulas genitais acessórias em cutias (Dasyprocta prymnolopha Wagler, 1831

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    Danilo J. Ayres de Menezes


    Full Text Available The morphology of the accessory genital glands of the male agouti was studied in twenty-three animals that were raised in captivity. Twenty animals had their genital glands dissected in situ for macroscopic description. The samples of each gland were recovered, embedded in paraffin, sliced and stained by Hematoxylin-Eosin technique. It was founded four pairs of glands: the vesicular glands, the coagulating glands, the prostate and the bulbourethral glands. Histological characteristics of the vesicular, coagulating and prostate glands showed similar morphology, within the pseudostratified columnar epithelium. The tubulo-alveolar type of the bulbourethral glands showed a lack of connective tissue among the tubules, a small amount of red stained presented it the cytoplasm, and the presence of vacuoles in the tissue. This study concluded that the agouti showed to have similar morphological aspect described in the others species of rodents.A morfologia das glândulas genitais acessórias de cutias foram estudados em 23 animais criados em cativeiros. Vinte animais tiveram suas glândulas genitais dissecadas in situ para as descrições macroscópicas. Para o estudo microscópico foram utilizados três animais. Os fragmentos de cada glândula foram embebidos em parafina, seccionados e corados em hematoxilina e eosina. Foram encontrados quatro pares de glândulas: vesiculares, coaguladoras, próstata e bulbouretrais. As características histológicas da glândula vesicular, coaguladora e próstata mostraram morfologia similar, com epitélio colunar pseudoestratificado. O tipo tuboalveolar da glândula bulbouretral mostrou uma deficiência de tecido conjuntivo, citoplasma pouco corado e presença de vacúolos. Este estudo concluiu que a cutia apresenta as mesmas características morfológicas das glândulas genitais acessórias encontradas em roedores.

  7. Comparative analysis of the male reproductive accessory glands of bat species from the five Brazilian subfamilies of the family Phyllostomidae (Chiroptera). (United States)

    Martins, Fabiane F; Puga, Cintia C I; Beguelini, Mateus R; Morielle-Versute, Eliana; Vilamaior, Patricia S L; Taboga, Sebastião R


    This study aimed to morphologically characterize and compare the male reproductive accessory glands (RAGs) of bats belonging to the five Brazilian subfamilies of the family Phyllostomidae (Carollia perspicillata-Carollinae; Desmodus rotundus-Desmodontinae; Glossophaga soricina-Glossophaginae; Phyllostomus discolor-Phyllostominae and Platyrrhinus lineatus-Stenodermatinae). The study demonstrated that the RAGs of phyllostomid bats were comprised of a pair of extra-abdominal bulbourethral glands and an intra-abdominal complex, composed of paraurethral glands and a prostate with two (Desmodontinae and Stenodermatinae) or three (Carollinae, Glossophaginae and Phyllostominae) different regions, with the absence of the seminal vesicles; this pattern possibly evolved from a process of compaction of the prostatic regions from an ancestor with three regions.

  8. Distribution of lymphocytes, immunoglobulin-containing cells, macrophages, and dendritic cells in the accessory sex glands of rams experimentally infected with Actinobacillus seminis

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    Jorge Acosta-Dibarrat


    Full Text Available Abstract: The distribution of cells involved in the immune response in accessory sex glands of rams experimentally infected with Actinobacillus seminis was studied. Twelve one-year old rams were experimentally infected by intraurethral (IU (n=4 and intraepididymal (IE (n=4 route, and four control (CON animals were used. The animals were slaughtered 35 days post-inoculation, samples were taken from accessory sex glands, and bacteriology and histopathology tests were performed. The presence of CD4, CD8 and TCRγδ (WC1 lymphocytes, CD45RO cells, macrophages (CD14, dendritic cells (CD1b, IgA-, IgG- and IgM-containing cells (IgCC was determined. Animals of the IE group developed clinical epididymitis. No lesions were seen in rams of the IU group; two of the intraepididymal inoculated CON developed small lesions in the epididymis. A. seminis isolates were achieved from 6:16 (37.5% accessory sex glands in the IE group, but not in the IU and CON groups. In the CON group, IgA- and IgM- containing cells predominated in the bulbourethral glands and the disseminated prostate, and they were scarce or null in the vesicles and ampullae. A significant increase of IgA-, IgG- and IgM- containing cells was confirmed in the seminal vesicles, the ampullae and the bulbourethral glands in the IE group. In the IE and IU groups, an increase in CD4, CD8, WC1, CD45RO and CD14 was evidenced in the vesicles and ampullae. CD1b dendritic cells were present in the ampullae and vesicles with inflammatory processes. A. seminis triggered a local immune response in the IE and IU groups. These results indicate a different pattern of infiltrating immune cells in the accessory sex glands of infected A. seminis rams.

  9. Endocrine glands (United States)

    ... Diabetes Gigantism Diabetes insipidus Cushing Disease Watch this video about: Pituitary gland Testes and ovaries: Lack of sex development (unclear genitalia) Thyroid: Congenital hypothyroidism Myxedema Goiter ...

  10. Adrenal Gland Tumors: Statistics (United States)

    ... Gland Tumor: Statistics Request Permissions Adrenal Gland Tumor: Statistics Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 03/ ... primary adrenal gland tumor is very uncommon. Exact statistics are not available for this type of tumor ...

  11. Salivary Gland Cancer Treatment (United States)

    ... and Oropharyngeal Cancer Screening Research Salivary Gland Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Salivary Gland ... in diagnosing salivary gland cancer. Certain factors affect treatment options and prognosis (chance of recovery). The treatment ...

  12. Thymus Gland Anatomy (United States)

    ... historical Searches are case-insensitive Thymus Gland, Adult, Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 720x576 ... Large: 3000x2400 View Download Title: Thymus Gland, Adult, Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the thymus gland; drawing shows ...

  13. Parathyroid gland removal (United States)

    Removal of parathyroid gland; Parathyroidectomy; Hyperparathyroidism - parathyroidectomy; PTH - parathyroidectomy ... and pain-free) for this surgery. Usually the parathyroid glands are removed using a 2- to 4- ...

  14. Structure, histochemistry and seasonal variations of the male reproductive accessory glands in the Pallas's mastiff bat, Molossus molossus (Chiroptera: Molossidae). (United States)

    Christante, Caroline M; Beguelini, Mateus R; Puga, Cintia C I; Negrin, Ana C; Morielle-Versute, Eliana; Vilamaior, Patrícia S L; Taboga, Sebastião R


    Due to their wide geographical distribution, bats suffer considerable influence from abiotic factors on their reproductive strategies, detected through behavioural or functional assessment of the gonads and accessory glands. The present study aimed to characterise anatomically and morphologically the reproductive accessory glands (RAGs) of Molossus molossus (Molossidae) and evaluate their seasonal variations. The RAGs were removed, fixed, sectioned after histological processing and submitted to the following stains: haematoxylin-eosin, periodic acid--Schiff (PAS) and Gömöri's reticulin. Our data demonstrated that the RAGs of M. molossus are composed of a semi-lobed prostatic complex associated with the urethra and a pair of inguinal bulbourethral glands. Histology and three-dimensional reconstruction of the prostatic complex demonstrated the existence of two regions: ventral and dorsal (named according to the position around the urethra). The two regions had distinctive morphological and histological differences, with the ventral region being the most prominent and the dorsal formed by four lobes. Considering the seasonal evaluation, we can infer that the prostatic complex of M. molossus is active throughout the seasons in São Paulo State (Brazil) and, although each of the prostatic regions has inherent characteristics, they synchronise to establish the main reproductive peak in spring (early rainy season).

  15. Regucalcin expression in bovine tissues and its regulation by sex steroid hormones in accessory sex glands.

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    Laura Starvaggi Cucuzza

    Full Text Available Regucalcin (RGN is a mammalian Ca2+-binding protein that plays an important role in intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis. Recently, RGN has been identified as a target gene for sex steroid hormones in the prostate glands and testis of rats and humans, but no studies have focused on RGN expression in bovine tissues. Thus, in the present study, we examined RGN mRNA and protein expression in the different tissues and organs of veal calves and beef cattle. Moreover, we investigated whether RGN expression is controlled through sex steroid hormones in bovine target tissues, namely the bulbo-urethral and prostate glands and the testis. Sex steroid hormones are still illegally used in bovine husbandry to increase muscle mass. The screening of the regulation and function of anabolic sex steroids via modified gene expression levels in various tissues represents a new approach for the detection of illicit drug treatments. Herein, we used quantitative PCR, western blot and immunohistochemistry analyses to demonstrate RGN mRNA and protein expression in bovine tissues. In addition, estrogen administration down-regulated RGN gene expression in the accessory sex glands of veal calves and beef cattle, while androgen treatment reduced RGN gene expression only in the testis. The confirmation of the regulation of RGN gene expression through sex steroid hormones might facilitate the potential detection of hormone abuse in bovine husbandry. Particularly, the specific response in the testis suggests that this tissue is ideal for the detection of illicit androgen administration in veal calves and beef cattle.

  16. Parathyroid glands (image) (United States)

    The 4 parathyroid glands are located near or attached to the back side of the thyroid gland and produce pararthyroid hormone (PTH). Parathyroid hormone regulates calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium balance within ...

  17. Adrenal Gland Cancer (United States)

    ... either benign or malignant. Benign tumors aren't cancer. Malignant ones are. Most adrenal gland tumors are ... and may not require treatment. Malignant adrenal gland cancers are uncommon. Types of tumors include Adrenocortical carcinoma - ...

  18. Prolene (mesh bulbourethral sling in male incontinence

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    Rakesh Kapoor


    Full Text Available Objective : We present our preliminary results of bulbar urethral sling (single bolster in treatment of postprostatectomy urinary incontinence (PPUI. Materials and Methods: From May 2003 to June 2005, six patients with postprostatectomy urinary incontinence (transurethral resection of prostate in five patients and after open prostatectomy in one patient underwent prolene mesh bulbar urethral sling surgery. Preoperative evaluation included physical examination, neurological assessment, stress cystogram and urethrocystoscopy. Urodynamic evaluation was done in all patients for abdominal leak point pressure and ruling out bladder pathology. Results : Urodynamic studies did not demonstrate bladder instability in any patient. Mean abdominal leak point pressure was 43cm of water (range 26-80 cm of water. Mean duration of hospital stay was 3.2 days. Follow-up ranged from 6-22 months. Four patients out of six patients were completely dry till their last follow-up. One patient developed mild stress incontinence after one year of the surgery and required use of one to two pads per day. Mean pad use after surgery was 0.6 pads per day in comparison to mean pad usage of 6.4 pads per day preoperatively. One patient was over-continent after the procedure and required clean intermittent catheterization till last follow-up (six months. Mean cost of the procedure was $ 350+15. Conclusion: Prolene bulbar urethral sling (single bolster is an economically effective option in patients with postprostatectomy urinary incontinence.

  19. Pituitary Gland Disorders Overview (United States)

    ... hormone ( TSH) - TSH stimulates the thyroid gland to produce thyroid hormones, which regulate the body's metabolism, energy balance, growth, and nervous system activity. Read about TSH-secreting ...

  20. Adrenal Gland Disorders (United States)

    ... t live without, including sex hormones and cortisol. Cortisol helps you respond to stress and has many other important functions. With adrenal gland disorders, your glands make too much or not enough hormones. In Cushing's ... too much cortisol, while with Addison's disease, there is too little. ...

  1. Salivary Gland Cancer (United States)

    ... contains antibodies that can kill germs. Salivary gland cancer is a type of head and neck cancer. It is rare. It may not cause any ... pain in your face Doctors diagnose salivary gland cancer using a physical exam, imaging tests, and a ...

  2. Salivary Gland Secretion. (United States)

    Dorman, H. L.; And Others


    Describes materials and procedures for an experiment utilizing a live dog to demonstrate: (1) physiology of the salivary gland; (2) parasympathetic control of the salivary gland; (3) influence of varying salivary flow rates on sodium and potassium ions, osmolarity and pH; and (4) salivary secretion as an active process. (DS)

  3. Mammary gland stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fridriksdottir, Agla J R; Petersen, Ole W; Rønnov-Jessen, Lone


    Distinct subsets of cells, including cells with stem cell-like properties, have been proposed to exist in normal human breast epithelium and breast carcinomas. The cellular origins of epithelial cells contributing to gland development, tissue homeostasis and cancer are, however, still poorly...... and differences between mouse and human gland development with particular emphasis on the identity and localization of stem cells, and the influence of the surrounding microenvironment. It is concluded that while recent advances in the field have contributed immense insight into how the normal mammary gland...... develops and is maintained, significant discrepancies exist between the mouse and human gland which should be taken into consideration in current and future models of mammary stem cell biology....

  4. Pediatric salivary gland imaging

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    Boyd, Zachary T. [University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Medicine, Kansas City, MO (United States); Goud, Asha R. [University of California Irvine Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Orange, CA (United States); Lowe, Lisa H. [Children' s Mercy Hospitals and Clinics and the University of Missouri-Kansas City, Department of Radiology, Kansas City, MO (United States); Shao, Lei [Children' s Mercy Hospitals and Clinics and the University of Missouri-Kansas City, Department of Pathology, Kansas City, MO (United States)


    A variety of lesions occur in the pediatric salivary glands. With modern imaging techniques such as Doppler sonography, helical CT, and MRI, identification of a specific etiology is often possible. Knowledge of clinical information, normal anatomy, and imaging characteristics of salivary gland pathology are essential for appropriate radiologic evaluation. This review illustrates the various congenital, neoplastic, and inflammatory entities that can occur within the parotid, submandibular, and sublingual spaces. (orig.)

  5. Mammary gland development. (United States)

    Macias, Hector; Hinck, Lindsay


    The mammary gland develops through several distinct stages. The first transpires in the embryo as the ectoderm forms a mammary line that resolves into placodes. Regulated by epithelial–mesenchymal interactions, the placodes descend into the underlying mesenchyme and produce the rudimentary ductal structure of the gland present at birth. Subsequent stages of development—pubertal growth, pregnancy, lactation, and involution—occur postnatally under the regulation of hormones. Puberty initiates branching morphogenesis, which requires growth hormone (GH) and estrogen, as well as insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1), to create a ductal tree that fills the fat pad. Upon pregnancy, the combined actions of progesterone and prolactin generate alveoli, which secrete milk during lactation. Lack of demand for milk at weaning initiates the process of involution whereby the gland is remodeled back to its prepregnancy state. These processes require numerous signaling pathways that have distinct regulatory functions at different stages of gland development. Signaling pathways also regulate a specialized subpopulation of mammary stem cells that fuel the dramatic changes in the gland occurring with each pregnancy. Our knowledge of mammary gland development and mammary stem cell biology has significantly contributed to our understanding of breast cancer and has advanced the discovery of therapies to treat this disease.

  6. Radionuclide salivary gland imaging

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    Mishkin, F.S.


    Salivary gland imaging with 99mTc as pertechnetate provides functional information concerning trapping and excretion of the parotid and submandibular glands. Anatomic information gained often adds little to clinical evaluation. On the other hand, functional information may detect subclinical involvement, which correlates well with biopsy of the minor labial salivary glands. Salivary gland abnormalities in systemic disease such as sarcoidosis, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus erythematosus, and other collagenvascular disorders may be detected before they result in the clinical manifestaions of Sjoegren's syndrome. Such glands, after initially demonstrating increased trapping in the acute phase, tend to have decreased trapping and failure to discharge pertechnetate in response to an appropriate physiologic stimulus. Increased uptake of gallium-67 citrate often accompanies these findings. Inflammatory parotitis can be suspected when increased perfusion is evident on radionuclide angiography with any agent. The ability of the salivary gland image to detect and categorize mass lesions, which result in focal areas of diminished activity such as tumors, cysts, and most other masses, is disappointing, while its ability to detect and categorize Warthin's tumor, which concentrates pertechnetate, is much more valuable, although not specific.

  7. Malignant salivary gland tumours

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    Thompson, S.H. (University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa). Dept. of Oral Pathology)


    The most frequent malignant salivary gland tumours are the mucoepidermoid tumour, adenoid cystic carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. The major salivary glands and the minor glands of the mouth and upper respiratory tract may potentially develop any of these malignant lesions. Malignant lesions most frequently present as a palpable mass and tend to enlarge more rapidly than benign neoplasms. Pain, paresthesia, muscle paralysis and fixation to surrounding tissue are all ominous signs and symptoms. The only reliable means of differential diagnosis of these lesions is biopsy and histologic analysis. Therapy involves surgery or a combination of surgery and radiation therapy. The ultimate prognosis is governed by the intrinsic biologic behaviour of the neoplasms, the extent of disease and adequate clinical therapy.

  8. Undifferentiated salivary gland carcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbst, H.; Hamilton-Dutoit, S.; Jakel, K.T.;


    Undifferentiated salivary gland carcinomas may be divided into small cell and large cell types. Among large cell undifferentiated carcinomas, lymphoepithelial carcinomas have to be distinguished, the latter of which are endemic in the Arctic regions and southern China where virtually all cases...... of these tumors are associated with the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Association with EBV may also be observed in sporadic cases, and detection of EBV gene products may aid their diagnosis. Immunohistology may be employed to resolve the differential diagnosis of undifferentiated salivary gland carcinomas, comprising...... malignant lymphomas, amelanotic melanomas, Merkel cell carcinomas, and adenoid cystic carcinomas, in particular in small biopsy materials. Because of the rarity of undifferentiated salivary gland carcinomas, the differential diagnosis should always include metastases of undifferentiated carcinomas arising...

  9. Salivary gland myoepithelial carcinoma. (United States)

    Vilar-González, S; Bradley, K; Rico-Pérez, J; Vogiatzis, P; Golka, D; Nigam, A; Sivaramalingam, M; Kazmi, S


    Salivary gland myoepithelial carcinoma (MC) or malignant myoepithelioma is a rare entity. MC usually presents as a slow-growing painless mass arising in the parotid gland, but may involve other salivary glands. This tumour may be particularly locally aggressive, but its clinical and biological features are not yet fully understood. MC may arise from pre-existing benign lesions, such as pleomorphic adenomas or benign myoepitheliomas, or may arise de novo. It usually affects patients over 50 years old, with no gender preference. Because it is often asymptomatic, the presentation and diagnosis can be delayed by months, even years. The current WHO classification considers MC to be an intermediate- to high-grade malignancy. Other published data suggest it is likely to be a high-grade neoplasm, consistent with its aggressive behaviour. Its epidemiology, histopathological features, immunohistochemical profile, clinical behaviour and optimal management are not well understood. Following review of the current literature we aim to address these.

  10. Morphophysiology and ultrastructure of the male reproductive accessory glands of the bats Carollia perspicillata, Glossophaga soricina and Phyllostomus discolor (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae). (United States)

    Martins, Fabiane F; Beguelini, Mateus R; Puga, Cintia C I; Morielle-Versute, Eliana; Vilamaior, Patricia S L; Taboga, Sebastião R


    The male reproductive accessory glands (RAGs) are important organs that contribute to the secretion of different substances that composed the ejaculate. Despite this important function, their composition, anatomy and function vary widely between species. Thus, the RAGs of three species of phyllostomid bats were morphologically and ultrastructurally characterized and compared in this study. The RAGs of the three analyzed species are composed of a prostate and a pair of bulbourethral glands (BG). In all species, the prostate is composed of three well-defined regions (ventral, dorsolateral and dorsal regions). The ventral region showed an atypical epithelium (undefined) with no obvious cellular limits and a holocrine PAS-positive secretion. The dorsolateral region of Carollia perspicillata and Phyllostomus discolor showed a pseudostratified cubic morphology, and that from Glossophaga soricina had a columnar morphology endowed with cytoplasmic projections and stereocilia. The dorsal region of the three analyzed species is composed of a pseudostratified columnar epithelium endowed with stereocilia; however, G. soricina also presented cytoplasmic projections in the apical portions of the secretory cells similar to those in the dorsolateral region. The BG of the three analyzed species are composed of a pseudostratified columnar epithelium including basal and PAS-positive secretory cells. In conclusion, this study morphologically and ultrastructurally characterized the RAGs of three species of phyllostomid bats, demonstrating the presence of a novel third prostatic region in species of this family. The results also showed the absence of seminal vesicles and ampullary glands, and better characterized the holocrine pattern of the prostatic ventral region, which is unique to bats.

  11. Salivary gland carcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Therkildsen, M H; Andersen, L J; Christensen, M;


    The prognosis of salivary gland carcinomas is difficult to assess. Simple mucin-type carbohydrates (T and sialosyl-T antigens, Tn and sialosyl-Tn antigens) have been shown to be of value in predicting prognosis for carcinomas in other locations. We studied the prognostic significance...... of the expression of these structures in a retrospective study of 133 patients with salivary gland carcinomas, using immunohistochemistry and a panel of well-defined monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues. Sialosyl-Tn, T and sialosyl-T antigens were not correlated with prognosis...

  12. Human Lacrimal Gland Gene Expression (United States)

    Aakalu, Vinay Kumar; Parameswaran, Sowmya; Maienschein-Cline, Mark; Bahroos, Neil; Shah, Dhara; Ali, Marwan; Krishnakumar, Subramanian


    Background The study of human lacrimal gland biology and development is limited. Lacrimal gland tissue is damaged or poorly functional in a number of disease states including dry eye disease. Development of cell based therapies for lacrimal gland diseases requires a better understanding of the gene expression and signaling pathways in lacrimal gland. Differential gene expression analysis between lacrimal gland and other embryologically similar tissues may be helpful in furthering our understanding of lacrimal gland development. Methods We performed global gene expression analysis of human lacrimal gland tissue using Affymetrix ® gene expression arrays. Primary data from our laboratory was compared with datasets available in the NLM GEO database for other surface ectodermal tissues including salivary gland, skin, conjunctiva and corneal epithelium. Results The analysis revealed statistically significant difference in the gene expression of lacrimal gland tissue compared to other ectodermal tissues. The lacrimal gland specific, cell surface secretory protein encoding genes and critical signaling pathways which distinguish lacrimal gland from other ectodermal tissues are described. Conclusions Differential gene expression in human lacrimal gland compared with other ectodermal tissue types revealed interesting patterns which may serve as the basis for future studies in directed differentiation among other areas. PMID:28081151

  13. Anatomy of the thymus gland. (United States)

    Safieddine, Najib; Keshavjee, Shaf


    In the case of the thymus gland, the most common indications for resection are myasthenia gravis or thymoma. The consistency and appearance of the thymus gland make it difficult at times to discern from mediastinal fatty tissues. Having a clear understanding of the anatomy and the relationship of the gland to adjacent structures is important.

  14. Canine mammary gland tumors. (United States)

    Sorenmo, Karin


    The National Consensus Group recommends that all women with tumors larger than 1 cm be offered chemotherapy regardless of tumor histology of lymph node status. This recommendation is to ensure that everyone at risk for failing, even though the risk may be low in women with relatively small tumors and favorable histology, has a choice and receives the benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy. This type of treatment recommendation may also be made in dogs based on recognized, well-accepted prognostic factors such as tumor size, stage, type, and histologic differentiation. Based on the limited clinical information available in veterinary medicine, the drugs that are effective in human breast cancer, such as cyclophosphamide, 5-fluorouracil, and doxorubicin, may also have a role in the treatment of malignant mammary gland tumors in dogs. Randomized prospective studies are needed, however, to evaluate the efficacy of chemotherapy in dogs with high-risk mammary gland tumors and to determine which drugs and protocols are the most efficacious. Until such studies are performed, the treatment of canine mammary gland tumors will be based on the individual oncologist's understanding of tumor biology, experience, interpretation of the available studies, and a little bit of gut-feeling. Table 2 is a proposal for treatment guidelines for malignant canine mammary gland tumors according to established prognostic factors, results from published veterinary studies, and current recommendations for breast cancer treatment in women.

  15. Submandibular gland excision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Springborg, Line Kanstrup; Møller, Martin Nue


    cosmetic result and all scars were ≤6 on the Vancouver Scar Scale. Problems with scarring were more common if there had been postoperative infection. We continue to use the lateral transcervical approach as standard in our institution for patients who cannot be managed by gland-sparing procedures....

  16. Does the polystomatic gland exist? (United States)

    Imai, M; Shibata, T; Moriguchi, K; Kinbara, M


    According to the P.N.A., the N.A.J. and some scholars, the sublingual gland has the ductus sublingualis major and ductus sublinguales minores. This means that the gland is a polystomatic gland. We intended to determine whether the so-called polystomatic gland exists or not. 1. According to the P.N.A., the N.A.J. and some scholars, the gl. sublingualis has the ductus sublingualis major and ductus sublinguales minores. This means the gland is a polystomatic gland. However, the formation of one gland with plural excretory ducts is embryologically impossible, in other words, the polystomatic gland does not exist. 2. Many scholars described that the gl. sublingualis was composed of the gl. sublingualis major and g11. sublinguales minores. However, they are completely different kinds of glands. Accordingly, we suggest the terms for these glands: the g1. sublingualis and its ductus sublingualis ("major" is useless), the g11. sublinguales minores and their ductus sublinguales minores. 3. The N.A.V.J. and some scholars use the term g1. sublingualis polystomatica or parvicanalaris. However, this is a group of a number of independent glands each of which has its own excretory duct. Such a gland should not be regarded as a single gland. We suggest that the term g11. sublinguales minores and their excretory ducts should be replaced with the term the ductus sublinguales minores. 4. The g1. lingualis anterior, g1. retromolaris and g1. lacrimalis are not single glands but a group of several independent glands each of which has its own excretory duct. Accordingly, they should be termed the g11. linguales anteriores, g11. retromolares and g11. lacrimales such as the g11. labiales, g11. buccales and g11. palatinae.

  17. Tumors of the lacrimal gland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Von Holstein, Sarah Linéa; Rasmussen, Peter Kristian; Heegaard, Steffen


    Tumors of the lacrimal gland comprise a wide spectrum, of which the most common demonstrate epithelial and lymphoid differentiation. The diagnosis of lacrimal gland tumors depends primarily on histological evaluation, as do the choice of treatment and prognosis. For some lacrimal gland neoplasms......, such as adenoid cystic carcinoma, the outlook is grave. Optimal treatment for several lacrimal gland tumors is also a matter of controversy. However, recent progress has been made in the molecular and genetic understanding of tumorigenesis for such lesions. This article presents an overview of the histopathology...... of lacrimal gland tumors, together with their epidemiological features, clinical characteristics, and treatment strategies....

  18. Tumors of the sublingual gland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Simon; Bjørndal, K; Agander, T K


    Tumors of the salivary glands are a heterogeneous group of diseases most often originating in the major salivary glands. Only a minor proportion of mainly malignant tumors arise in the sublingual gland. Due to the rarity of sublingual gland tumors (SGTs), little is known about the clinicopathologic...... (ACC). Patient demography was similar to salivary gland tumors in other locations. All fine needle aspiration cytologies (FNACs) interpreted as benign were from ACCs. Metastatic disease was found in 12.5 % of ACCs at diagnosis with one third of all ACC patients having metastases at the end of follow...

  19. Análise histológica das glândulas uretrais da capivara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris Histological analysis of urethral glands of the capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela S. Fernandez


    Full Text Available Para realização do estudo microscópico das glândulas anexas à uretra masculina, foram utilizadas duas capivaras (Hydrochoerus hydrocaeris, adultas, das quais foram coletados fragmentos das glândulas genitais acessórias, imersos em solução fixadora de Bouin e lavados cuidadosamente em álcool de 70% ao absoluto. A seguir foram submetidos aos processos histológicos de rotina e corados pelos métodos de Hematoxilina/Eosina e Tricrômico de Masson. Os resultados morfológicos encontrados foram: o ducto deferente possui um espessamento da parede, onde a luz permanece inalterada e sem presença de epitélio granular. A glândula vesicular possui um epitélio secretor do tipo pseudoestratificado colunar. A glândula prostática possui mucosa com pregueamentos altos e ramificados, revestido por epitélio pseudoestratificado cilíndrico. Machos de capivaras possuem glândulas vesiculares e próstata como glândulas uretrais. No material examinado não foi identificado epitélio secretor correspondente a glândula bulbouretral e morfologicamente assemelha-se aos outros histricomorfos.To perform a microscopic study of the glands attached to the male urethra, we used two adult capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrocaeris from which fragments of the urethral glands were collected, immersed in Bouin's fixative solution, washed thoroughly with 70% to absolute alcohol, submitted to routine histological techniques and stained with hematoxylin/eosin and Masson's trichromic method. The morphological findings were: Vas deferens has a thickening of the wall without granular epithelium and with unchanged lumen; the vesicular gland has a secretory epithelium of pseudostratified columnar type; the prostate gland has a high and ramified mucous membrane covered with pseudostratified cylindrical epithelium. Male capybaras have vesicular, prostate as urethral glands. In the material examined, no secretory epithelium corresponding to bulbourethral glands was identified

  20. Lacrimal glands: Size does matter!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suyash Mohan


    Full Text Available A 40-year-old woman presented with vague headaches and blurred vision. Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of the brain revealed bilaterally symmetrical diffuse enlargement of the lacrimal glands. A fine needle biopsy of the lacrimal gland was consistent with sarcoidosis. Although, isolated lacrimal gland involvement is rare, it may be the initial clinical presentation of sarcoidosis, as seen in this patient. Imaging plays a vital role in these unsuspected cases and careful evaluation of the lacrimal glands with dedicated thin section, fat suppressed, axial and coronal orbital imaging, may help identify a pathological cause and avoid a delay in diagnosis.

  1. Imaging of salivary gland tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Y.Y.P.; Wong, K.T.; King, A.D. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Organ Imaging, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin NT, Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Ahuja, A.T. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Organ Imaging, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin NT, Hong Kong (Hong Kong)], E-mail:


    Salivary gland neoplasms account for <3% of all tumors. Most of them are benign and parotid gland is the commonest site. As a general rule, the smaller the involved salivary gland, the higher is the possibility of the tumor being malignant. The role of imaging in assessment of salivary gland tumour is to define intra-glandular vs. extra-glandular location, detect malignant features, assess local extension and invasion, detect nodal metastases and systemic involvement. Image guided fine needle aspiration cytology provides a safe means to obtain cytological confirmation. For lesions in the superficial parotid and submandibular gland, ultrasound is an ideal tool for initial assessment. These are superficial structures accessible by high resolution ultrasound and FNAC which provides excellent resolution and tissue characterization without a radiation hazard. Nodal involvement can also be assessed. If deep tissue extension is suspected or malignancy confirmed on cytology, an MRI or CT is mandatory to evaluate tumour extent, local invasion and perineural spread. For all tumours in the sublingual gland, MRI should be performed as the risk of malignancy is high. For lesions of the deep lobe of parotid gland and the minor salivary glands, MRI and CT are the modalities of choice. Ultrasound has limited visualization of the deep lobe of parotid gland which is obscured by the mandible. Minor salivary gland lesions in the mucosa of oral cavity, pharynx and tracheo-bronchial tree, are also not accessible by conventional ultrasound. Recent study suggests that MR spectroscopy may differentiate malignant and benign salivary gland tumours as well as distinguishing Warthin's tumor from pleomorphic adenoma. However, its role in clinical practice is not well established. Similarly, the role of nuclear medicine and PET scan, in imaging of parotid masses is limited. Sialography is used to delineate the salivary ductal system and has limited role in assessment of tumour extent.

  2. Treatment Options by Stage (Salivary Gland Cancer) (United States)

    ... and Oropharyngeal Cancer Screening Research Salivary Gland Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Salivary Gland ... in diagnosing salivary gland cancer. Certain factors affect treatment options and prognosis (chance of recovery). The treatment ...

  3. Management of salivary gland tumors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andry, Guy; Hamoir, Marc; Locati, Laura D.; Licitra, Lisa; Langendijk, Johannes A.


    Surgery after proper imaging (MRI or CT scan) is the main stay of treatment for salivary gland tumors. Although excision margins should be >= 5 mm for malignant tumors in cases of parotid gland carcinoma, the facial nerve should be preserved whenever it is not infiltrated. Adjuvant external radiatio

  4. Cryopreservation of Parathyroid Glands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlon A. Guerrero


    Full Text Available The risk of permanent hypoparathyroidism following thyroid and parathyroid surgery is around 1% in the hands of experienced endocrine surgeons. Although this complication is rare, rendering a patient permanently aparathyroid has significant consequences on the health and quality of life of the patient. Immediate autotransplantation of parathyroid glands that are injured or unintentionally removed offers the best possibility of graft viability and functionality. However, since the majority of cases of hypoparathyroidism are transient, immediate autotransplantation can complicate postoperative surveillance in certain patients, especially those with primary hyperparathyroidism. Cryopreservation of parathyroid tissue is an alternate technique that was developed to treat patients with permanent hypoparathyroidism. This method allows for parathyroid tissue to be stored and then autotransplanted in a delayed fashion once permanent hypoparathyroidism is confirmed. This article provides a contemporary review on cryopreservation of parathyroid tissue and its current role in thyroid and parathyroid surgery.

  5. Organizing the thymus gland. (United States)

    Muñoz, Juan José; García-Ceca, Javier; Alfaro, David; Stimamiglio, Marco Augusto; Cejalvo, Teresa; Jiménez, Eva; Zapata, Agustín G


    Eph receptors and their ligands, ephrins, are molecules involved in the morphogenesis of numerous tissues, including the central nervous system in which they play a key role in determining cell positioning and tissue domains containing or excluding nerve fibers. Because common features have been suggested to occur in the microenvironmental organization of brain and thymus, a highly compartmentalized organ central for T cell differentiation, we examined the expression and possible role of Eph/ephrins in the biology of the thymus gland. We reviewed numerous in vivo and in vitro results that confirm a role for Eph and ephrins in the maturation of the thymic epithelial cell (TEC) network and T cell differentiation. Their possible involvement in different steps of early thymus organogenesis, including thymus primordium branching, lymphoid colonization, and thymocyte-TEC interactions, that determine the organization of a mature three-dimensional thymic epithelial network is also analyzed.

  6. Pituitary gland tumors; Hypophysentumoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jesser, J.; Schlamp, K.; Bendszus, M. [Radiologische Klinik, Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg, Abteilung fuer Neuroradiologie, Heidelberg (Germany)


    This article gives an overview of the most common tumors of the pituitary gland and the differential diagnostics with special emphasis on radiological diagnostic criteria. A selective search of the literature in PubMed was carried out. Pituitary adenomas constitute 10-15 % of all intracranial tumors and are the most common tumors of the sellar region. Tumors smaller than 1 cm in diameter are called microadenomas while those larger than 1 cm in diameter are called macroadenomas. Approximately 65 % of pituitary gland adenomas secrete hormones whereby approximately 50 % secrete prolactin, 10 % secrete growth hormone (somatotropin) and 6 % secrete corticotropin. Other tumors located in the sella turcica can also cause endocrinological symptoms, such as an oversecretion of pituitary hormone or pituitary insufficiency by impinging on the pituitary gland or its stalk. When tumors spread into the space cranial to the sella turcica, they can impinge on the optic chiasm and cause visual disorders. A common differential diagnosis of a sellar tumor is a craniopharyngeoma. In children up to 10 % of all intracranial tumors are craniopharyngeomas. Other differential diagnoses for sellar tumors are metastases, meningiomas, epidermoids and in rare cases astrocytomas, germinomas or Rathke cleft cysts As these tumors are located in an anatomically complex region of the skull base and are often very small, a highly focused imaging protocol is required. The currently favored modality is magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with the administration of a contrast agent. The sellar region should be mapped in thin slices. In cases of suspected microadenoma the imaging protocol should also contain a sequence with dynamic contrast administration in order to assess the specific enhancement characteristics of the tumor and the pituitary gland. (orig.) [German] Diese Arbeit ist eine Uebersicht ueber die haeufigsten Hypophysentumoren und deren Differenzialdiagnosen mit Augenmerk auf die

  7. [Applied embryology of parathyroid glands]. (United States)

    Henry, J F; Sebag, F


    The article describes the normal structure of the parathyroid glands (PTG) and their development, anomalies of migration in the process of embryogenesis and congenital ectopias of PTG as well as possible supplementary PTG and their congenital ectopias.

  8. [Inflammation of the parathyroid glands]. (United States)

    Ting, S; Synoracki, S; Sheu, S-Y; Schmid, K W


    Inflammation of the parathyroid glands is rare when compared to other endocrine organs. This leads to the use of descriptive terms as well as the lack of a generally accepted classification for inflammatory disorders of the parathyroid glands. This review article proposes that parathyroid inflammation be subdivided morphologically into (a) non-specific lymphocytic infiltration, which is more an expression of damage to small vessels, due to e. g. severe systemic inflammation or myocardial infarction, (b) autoimmunogenic lymphocytic parathyroiditis, (c) nonimmunogenic inflammation caused by granulomatous diseases or infections and (d) invasive sclerosing (peri) parathyroiditis. As only parathyroid glands removed due to hyperparathyroidism and normal parathyroid glands incidentally removed during thyroid surgery are seen almost exclusively in routine histopathology, virtually no information about the morphological correlate of hypoparathyroidism is available.

  9. Calcium signaling in lacrimal glands. (United States)

    Putney, James W; Bird, Gary S


    Lacrimal glands provide the important function of lubricating and protecting the ocular surface. Failure of proper lacrimal gland function results in a number of debilitating dry eye diseases. Lacrimal glands secrete lipids, mucins, proteins, salts and water and these secretions are at least partially regulated by neurotransmitter-mediated cell signaling. The predominant signaling mechanism for lacrimal secretion involves activation of phospholipase C, generation of the Ca(2+)-mobilizing messenger, IP3, and release of Ca(2+) stored in the endoplasmic reticulum. The loss of Ca(2+) from the endoplasmic reticulum then triggers a process known as store-operated Ca(2+) entry, involving a Ca(2+) sensor in the endoplasmic reticulum, STIM1, which activates plasma membrane store-operated channels comprised of Orai subunits. Recent studies with deletions of the channel subunit, Orai1, confirm the important role of SOCE in both fluid and protein secretion in lacrimal glands, both in vivo and in vitro.

  10. Scent glands in legume flowers. (United States)

    Marinho, C R; Souza, C D; Barros, T C; Teixeira, S P


    Scent glands, or osmophores, are predominantly floral secretory structures that secrete volatile substances during anthesis, and therefore act in interactions with pollinators. The Leguminosae family, despite being the third largest angiosperm family, with a wide geographical distribution and diversity of habits, morphology and pollinators, has been ignored with respect to these glands. Thus, we localised and characterised the sites of fragrance production and release in flowers of legumes, in which scent plays an important role in pollination, and also tested whether there are relationships between the structure of the scent gland and the pollinator habit: diurnal or nocturnal. Flowers in pre-anthesis and anthesis of 12 legume species were collected and analysed using immersion in neutral red, olfactory tests and anatomical studies (light and scanning electron microscopy). The main production site of floral scent is the perianth, especially the petals. The scent glands are distributed in a restricted way in Caesalpinia pulcherrima, Anadenanthera peregrina, Inga edulis and Parkia pendula, constituting mesophilic osmophores, and in a diffuse way in Bauhinia rufa, Hymenaea courbaril, Erythrostemon gilliesii, Poincianella pluviosa, Pterodon pubescens, Platycyamus regnellii, Mucuna urens and Tipuana tipu. The glands are comprised of cells of the epidermis and mesophyll that secrete mainly terpenes, nitrogen compounds and phenols. Relationships between the presence of osmophores and type of anthesis (diurnal and nocturnal) and the pollinator were not found. Our data on scent glands in Leguminosae are original and detail the type of diffuse release, which has been very poorly studied.

  11. Telocytes in parotid glands. (United States)

    Nicolescu, Mihnea I; Bucur, Alexandru; Dinca, Octavian; Rusu, Mugurel C; Popescu, Laurentiu M


    The parotid histological structure includes acinar, ductal, and myoepithelial cells, surrounded by a connective stromal component. The parotid stroma is mostly regarded as an inert shell, consisting of septa, which divide the parenchyma. Telocytes were recently identified as a new stromal cell type in various organs, including exocrine pancreas. We aimed to evaluate telocytes presence in parotid stroma and whether their topographical features might support an involvement in parotid function modulation. Serial ultrathin sections of human and rat parotid glands were studied and compared by transmission electron microscopy. Two-dimensional concatenation of sequenced micrographs allowed the ultrastructural identification of parotid telocytes, with their specific long, thin, and moniliform prolongations (telopodes). Telocyte location appeared frequently as a strategic one, in close contact or vicinity of both secretory (acini and ducts) and regulatory (nerves and blood vessels) apparatuses. They were also found in the interacinar and the subductal stroma. Two previously reported telocyte markers (c-kit/CD117 and vimentin) were assayed by immunohistochemistry. Actin expression was also evaluated. Telocytes are making a network, especially by branching of their long telopodes. Elements of this telocyte network are interacting with each other (homocellular connections) as well as with other cell types (heterocellular connections). These interactions are achieved either by direct contact (stromal synapse), or mediated via shed microvesicles/exosomes. Since telocyte connections include both neurovascular and exocrine elements (e.g., acini and ducts), it is attractive to think that telocytes might mediate and integrate neural and/or vascular input with parotid function.

  12. Adrenal gland and bone. (United States)

    Hardy, Rowan; Cooper, Mark S


    The adrenal gland synthesizes steroid hormones from the adrenal cortex and catecholamines from the adrenal medulla. Both cortisol and adrenal androgens can have powerful effects on bone. The overproduction of cortisol in Cushing's disease leads to a dramatic reduction in bone density and an increase risk of fracture. Overproduction of adrenal androgens in congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) leads to marked changes in bone growth and development with early growth acceleration but ultimately a significant reduction in final adult height. The role of more physiological levels of glucocorticoids and androgens on bone metabolism is less clear. Cortisol levels measured in elderly individuals show a weak correlation with measures of bone density and change in bone density over time with a high cortisol level associated with lower bone density and more rapid bone loss. Cortisol levels and the dynamics of cortisol secretion change with age which could also explain some age related changes in bone physiology. It is also now clear that adrenal steroids can be metabolized within bone tissue itself. Local synthesis of cortisol within bone from its inactive precursor cortisone has been demonstrated and the amount of cortisol produced within osteoblasts appears to increase with age. With regard to adrenal androgens there is a dramatic reduction in levels with aging and several studies have examined the impact that restoration of these levels back to those seen in younger individuals has on bone health. Most of these studies show small positive effects in women, not men, but the skeletal sites where benefits are seen varies from study to study.

  13. Immunology of the mammary gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazarević Miodrag


    Full Text Available The mammary gland is an organ of specific structure whose elementary task is to supply offspring with nutritive and other biologically active substances during the first weeks, or, depending on the species, the first months of life. This prolongs the period of close contact between the mother and her young, which is necessary for their regular growth. Most mammal offspring are born with physiological agammaglobulinaemia, because of the specific structure of the placenta, so that they receive the first specific protection against pathogenic microorganisms through colostrum. Furthermore, this gland is in direct contact with the outer environment through the secretary ducts, so that there are great possibilities for the occurrence of infections. It is therefore necessary to secure protective mechanisms which would prevent such infections. It is clear that there is a distinct connection between the immunological system and the mammary gland, and that link is the central topic of this paper. It presents the basic mechanisms of mammary gland defense which are divided into two categories: nonspecific (innate and specific immune response. The mammary gland secretion contains several types of leukocytes, such as lymphocytes, macrophages, and neutrophiles, as well as 2% epithelial cells. On the average, there are 0.2 x 106 somatic cells in one mililiter of milk. Macrophages account for most of these (58%, as well as lymphocytes (28%, while a smaller number of somatic cells (12% are polymorphonuclears (PMN. The paper considers the characteristics and main functions of these cell types.

  14. Characterization of human pineal gland proteome. (United States)

    Yelamanchi, Soujanya D; Kumar, Manish; Madugundu, Anil K; Gopalakrishnan, Lathika; Dey, Gourav; Chavan, Sandip; Sathe, Gajanan; Mathur, Premendu P; Gowda, Harsha; Mahadevan, Anita; Shankar, Susarla K; Prasad, T S Keshava


    The pineal gland is a neuroendocrine gland located at the center of the brain. It is known to regulate various physiological functions in the body through secretion of the neurohormone melatonin. Comprehensive characterization of the human pineal gland proteome has not been undertaken to date. We employed a high-resolution mass spectrometry-based approach to characterize the proteome of the human pineal gland. A total of 5874 proteins were identified from the human pineal gland in this study. Of these, 5820 proteins were identified from the human pineal gland for the first time. Interestingly, 1136 proteins from the human pineal gland were found to contain a signal peptide domain, which indicates the secretory nature of these proteins. An unbiased global proteomic profile of this biomedically important organ should benefit molecular research to unravel the role of the pineal gland in neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative diseases.

  15. [Brunners gland hiperplasia. Report of two cases]. (United States)

    Padilla Ruiz, Maykel


    Brunner's gland hyperplasia is an infrequent benign injury located on the first or second portion of the duodenum. The disease spectrum includes diffuse nodular hyperplasia, circumscribed nodular hyperplasia, and Brunner's gland adenoma. We report two cases, one with an adenoma of Brunner's glands as a duodenal polyp and the other as a diffuse nodular hyperplasia of the duodenal bulb.

  16. Salivary gland diseases : infections, sialolithiasis and mucoceles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delli, K; Spijkervet, FK; Vissink, A.


    The three most frequently diagnosed salivary gland diseases are salivary gland infections, sialolithiasis and mucoceles. Salivary gland infections are usually of bacterial or viral etiology and can be divided into acute and chronic types. Occasionally they can result from obstruction of the salivary

  17. Arti fi cial Salivary Glands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezwana Begum Mohammed


    Full Text Available Head and neck cancer is the fi fth most common malignancy and accounts for 3% of all new cancer cases each year. Treat- ment for most patients with head and neck cancers includes ionizing radiation. A consequence of this treatment is irreversible damage to salivary glands which is accompanied by a loss of fl uid-secreting acinar-cells and a considerable decrease of saliva output. Despite recent improvements in treating xerostomia (e.g. saliva stimulants, saliva substitutes, and gene therapy, there is a need of more scienti fi c advancements that can be clinically applied toward restoration of compromised salivary gland func- tion. Here we provide a summary of the current salivary cell models that have been used to advance restorative treatments via development of an arti fi cial salivary gland. Although these models are not fully characterized, their improvement may lead to the construction of an arti fi cial salivary gland that is in high demand for improving the quality of life of many patients suffe- ring from salivary secretory dysfunction

  18. The effect of the transplanted pineal gland on the sympathetic innervation of the rat sublingual gland. (United States)

    Chanthaphavong, R S; Murphy, S M; Anderson, C R


    We investigated the effect of the pineal on sympathetic neurons that normally innervate the sublingual gland of the rat. When the pineal gland was transplanted into the sublingual gland, it remained as a distinct mass that was innervated by sympathetic axons. Injection of the retrograde tracer, Fast Blue, into the sublingual gland labelled sympathetic neurons in the ipsilateral superior cervical ganglion (SCG). Thirty per cent of all neurons labelled retrogradely by Fast Blue injection into transplanted pineal glands were immunoreactive for both neuropeptide Y (NPY) and calbindin. This combination is characteristic of sympathetic neurons innervating the pineal gland in its normal location, but not the sympathetic vasoconstrictor neurons normally innervating the sublingual gland. This, and our previous study in which the pineal gland was shown to similarly influence the phenotype of salivary secretomotor neurons, suggests that a range of different functional classes of sympathetic neuron are able to change their phenotype in response to signals released by the pineal gland.

  19. Site of iodination in rat mammary gland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strum, J.M.


    The ability of the mammary gland to take up and organically bind radioiodide was studied in non-pregnant, pregnant, and lactating rats. Autoradiography was used to determine whether duct cells or alveolar cells are responsible for iodination in the rat mammary gland. Iodination was not detected in mammary glands from non-pregnant rats, but occurred late in the twelfth day of gestation and continued throughout pregnancy and lactation. Protein-containing vacuoles in alveolar cells and casein-like proteins in milk were the major sites where iodination occurred within the gland. Milk proteins in the lumens of ductules adjacent to alveoli were also iodinated. In contrast, ducts, myoepithelial cells, fat cells, blood vessels and other histological components of the gland did not show iodinating capability. Cytochemistry was also used to identify endogenous mammary peroxidase activity in the same glands, and it was found that the presence and location of this enzyme were correlated with the ability to iodinate.

  20. Lacrimal gland fistula after upper eyelid blepharoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Bahmani Kashkouli


    Full Text Available To report the first case of lacrimal gland fistula after upper eyelid blepharoplasty for blepharochalasis. Standard upper blepharoplasty and the hooding excision were performed in a female with blepharochalasis. The patient developed a fistulous tract with tearing from the incision few days after hooding excision. Fistula excision and lacrimal gland repositioning were performed. There were no complications after the repositioning procedure (6 months follow up. Prolapsed lacrimal gland and fistula formation can occur after upper blepharoplasty hooding excision.

  1. Parotitis and Sialendoscopy of the Parotid Gland. (United States)

    Hernandez, Stephen; Busso, Carlos; Walvekar, Rohan R


    Nonneoplastic disorders of the salivary glands involve inflammatory processes. These disorders have been managed conservatively with antibiotics, warm compresses, massage, sialogogues, and adequate hydration. Up to 40% of patients may have an inadequate response or persistent symptoms. When conservative techniques fail, the next step is operative intervention. Sialendoscopy offers a minimally invasive option for the diagnosis and management of chronic inflammatory disorders of the salivary glands and offers the option of gland and function preservation. In this article, we review some of the more common nonneoplastic disorders of the parotid gland, indications for diagnostic and interventional sialendoscopy, and operative techniques.

  2. Salivary gland choristoma (heterotopic salivary gland tissue) on the anterior chest wall of a newborn. (United States)

    Aby, Janelle L; Patel, Mayha; Sundram, Uma; Benjamin, Latanya T


    Salivary gland choristoma (heterotopic salivary gland tissue) is a rare condition typically seen in the newborn period. This developmental heterotopia is generally nonprogressive, with little risk of malignant transformation. We present the second known reported case of a salivary gland choristoma located on the anterior chest wall. Knowledge of this rare entity will allow for accurate diagnosis and management of this benign anatomic variant.

  3. Salivary gland hypofunction in elderly patients. (United States)

    Navazesh, M


    Elderly dental patients often complain of mouth dryness. This complaint is most often caused by xerogenic medications or, less often, by systemic diseases. Aging per se has no significant clinical impact on salivary gland output. Salivary gland hypofunction, whether caused by medications or systemic disorders, have a strong negative impact on intraoral tissues, with a significant reduction in the quality of life.

  4. Epithelial tumours of the lacrimal gland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Holstein, Sarah Linéa; Coupland, Sarah E; Briscoe, Daniel;


    Epithelial tumours of the lacrimal gland represent a large spectrum of lesions with similarities in clinical signs and symptoms but with different biological behaviour and prognosis. They are rare, but with aggressive malignant potential. Tumours of the lacrimal gland may present with swelling of...

  5. Flagelliform or coronata glands of Nephila clavipes. (United States)

    Rodríguez, R; Candelas, G C


    The flagelliform or coronata glands of the orb-web spider, Nephila clavipes, have been studied and compared to other silk-producing glands from the organism. The glands, which produce silk for the double filament of the core thread in the sticky spiral, exhibit three distinct morphological areas: tail, sac, and duct. Electrophoretic separation of the solubilized contents of the glands yields an uppermost diffuse band of high molecular size, preceded by a stepladder of well-defined peptides, which have been shown to be products of discontinuous translation in three other sets of glands. The luminal contents do not migrate as a discrete and well-defined band as those of the other glands, but rather as a diffuse area, typical of glycosylated proteins. Fibroin synthesis is stimulated by the mechanical depletion of the organism's stored silks, as in other Nephila glands, judged by the increased intensity of the bands and also by the structural alterations seen in cross sections of the glands' tails.

  6. Pathology of the parathyroid glands in hyperparathyroidism. (United States)

    Baloch, Zubair W; LiVolsi, Virginia A


    This paper reviews the embryology, histology and pathology of the human parathyroid glands. It emphasizes those pathologic lesions which are found in the setting of clinical hyperparathyroidism. Also discussed are certain molecular features of hyperfunctioning parathyroid glands. The difficulties encountered in parathyroid FNA are reviewed and illustrated.

  7. The role of pineal gland and exogenous melatonin on the irradiation stress response of suprarenal gland. (United States)

    Alicelebić, Selma; Mornjaković, Zakira; Susko, Irfan; Cosović, Esad; Beganović-Petrović, Amira


    Pineal gland has and antistressogenic role. Its main hormone, melatonin, has radio protective effect on endocrine and other dynamic tissues. In our previous study, we have shown that pinealectomy changes the behavior of suprarenal gland in totally irradiated rats. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of exogenous melatonin on suprarenal gland of rats with or without pineal gland. Four months after pinealectomy (experimental group) or shampinealectomy (control group), adult Wistar male rats were daily treated with 0,2 mg of melatonin intraperitoneally, during two weeks. Thereafter, all animals were totally irradiated with 8 Gy of Gamma rays produced from Cobalt 60. Animals who survived were sacrificed on the 17(th) post irradiation day. Qualitative and quantitative characteristics of the suprarenal gland were studied using histological methods. The results show that exogenous melatonin had protective role on suprarenal gland in totally irradiated rats and that those effects were more pronounced in the presence of pineal gland.

  8. Submaxillary gland mucocele: presentation of a case. (United States)

    Boneu-Bonet, Fernando; Vidal-Homs, Enric; Maizcurrana-Tornil, Aránzazu; González-Lagunas, Javier


    The term mucocele is referred to two concepts: the extravasation cysts resulting from salivary glandular duct rupture, with mucin leakage into the surrounding peri-glandular soft tissue, and the retention cysts, caused by a glandular duct obstruction and resulting in a decrease or even an absence of glandular secretion. Mucocele can not be considered as a true cyst because its wall lacks an epithelial lining. These lesions are very common in the minor salivary glands (particularly in the labial glands), but are very infrequent in the major salivary glands--including the submaxillary glands. The present study describes a clinical case of a right submaxillary gland mucocele resolved by surgical treatment and reviews the differential diagnosis with other clinical entities.

  9. Orbital Lymphoma Mimicking Lacrimal Gland Pleomorphic Adenoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Strianese


    Full Text Available Purpose: To describe the case of a patient affected by orbital lymphoma mimicking pleomorphic adenoma of the lacrimal gland. Methods: This was a retrospective case report. Results: We present the case of a patient with 15-year history of slowly progressive left proptosis and inferomedial bulbar dislocation who had the presumptive diagnosis of lacrimal gland pleomorphic adenoma based on clinical and radiological features. The patient underwent lateral orbitotomy and lacrimal gland excision. Postoperative histological features were consistent with low-grade B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Conclusion: The accepted clinico-radiological criteria used for the diagnosis of lacrimal gland fossa lesions might have a certain false-positive rate, even in recent years. The initial surgical approach with the appropriate choice between fine-needle aspiration biopsies, intraoperative biopsies and lacrimal gland excisions might be a challenge.

  10. Primary malignant lymphoma of the parotid gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudha H Metikurke


    Full Text Available Lymphoma of the salivary gland accounts for 5% of cases of extranodal lymphoma and 10% of malignant salivary gland tumors. Most primary salivary gland lymphomas are B marginal zone lymphomas arising on a background of sialadenitis associated with an autoimmune disorder such as Sjorgen′s syndrome. This report describes a case of primary B-cell lymphoma arising in the parotid gland in a middle-aged female, which was not associated with an autoimmune disorder. Immunohistochemistry studies confirmed the clonal B-cell nature of the tumor. This case highlights the fact that B-cell lymphoma in the salivary gland can go unrecognized due to its non-specific symptoms and requires immunohistochemistry studies for confirmation. We present this case for its rarity.

  11. The metapleural gland of ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yek, Sze Huei; Mueller, Ulrich G


    The metapleural gland (MG) is a complex glandular structure unique to ants, suggesting a critical role in their origin and ecological success. We synthesize the current understanding of the adaptive function, morphology, evolutionary history, and chemical properties of the MG. Two functions......-compressible invagination of the integument and the secretion is thought to ooze out passively through the non-closable opening of the MG or is groomed off by the legs and applied to target surfaces. MG loss has occurred repeatedly among the ants, particularly in the subfamilies Formicinae and Myrmicinae, and the MG...... is more commonly absent in males than in workers. MG chemistry has been characterized mostly in derived ant lineages with unique biologies (e.g. leafcutter ants, fire ants), currently precluding any inferences about MG chemistry at the origin of the ants. A synthetic approach integrating functional...

  12. Small ampullate glands of Nephila clavipes. (United States)

    Ortíz, R; Céspedes, W; Nieves, L; Robles, I V; Plazaola, A; File, S; Candelas, G C


    The small ampullate glands of the orb-web spider, Nephila clavipes, have been studied and compared to other of the silk producing glands from this organism. They exhibit the same gross morphological features of the other glands. Electrophoretic analyses show that the gland's luminal contents migrate as a single band, while the contents of the secretory epithelium reveal a step-ladder array of peptides in addition to the full size product. Previous studies from our laboratory identified these peptides as products generated by translational pauses. This alternate mode of translation is typical of fibroin synthesis in all the spider glands thus far studied as well as in those of the silkworm. The correlation of the peptides to the process of fibroin synthesis is shown through experimental evidence in this paper. The gradual ultrastructural changes in Golgi vesicles elicited by the fibroin synthesis stimulus can be seen in this paper. The response to stimulation is of a higher magnitude in these glands than in any of those previously analyzed. These studies show the small ampullate glands are a promising and certainly exploitable model system for studies on the synthesis of tissue-specific protein product and its control. J. Exp. Zool. 286:114-119, 2000.

  13. Primary parotid gland lymphoma: a case report

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    Paraskevas Katsaronis


    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Mucosa associated lymphoid tissue lymphomas are the most common lymphomas of the salivary glands. The benign lymphoepithelial lesion is also a lymphoproliferative disease that develops in the parotid gland. In the present case report, we describe one case of benign lymphoepithelial lesion with a subsequent low transformation to grade mucosa associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma appearing as a cystic mass in the parotid gland. Case presentation A 78-year-old Caucasian female smoker was referred to our clinic with a non-tender left facial swelling that had been present for approximately three years. The patient underwent resection of the left parotid gland with preservation of the left facial nerve through a preauricular incision. The pathology report was consistent with a low-grade marginal-zone B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (mucosa associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma following benign lymphoepithelial lesion of the gland. Conclusions Salivary gland mucosa associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of cystic or bilateral salivary gland lesions. Parotidectomy is recommended in order to treat the tumor and to ensure histological diagnosis for further follow-up planning. Radiotherapy and chemotherapy should be considered in association with surgery in disseminated forms or after removal.

  14. Thyroid Gland in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis

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    B T Turumhambetova


    Full Text Available The purpose of our study was to investigate the main parameters of thyroid status in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA, as well as particularities of course of this disease depending on of thyroid gland function disorder. Materials and methods. 52 women with RA were examined. The first group consisted of 11 women with subclinical and manifestive hypothyroidism the second one 41 women without thyroid gland function disorder. The group comparison was conducted on main indexes of thyroid gland condition the hormon level, AT-TPO, ultrasonic data, as well as clinical and laboratory RA data. Results. In women with hypothyroidism the systemic manifestations of RA were more often truely diagnosed; DAS28 indexes, ESR, the number ot swollen joints were higher. The high level ot AT-TPO was diagnosed in 54,55% – I group and in 31,7% – II group TTG level was really less in patients receiving synthetic glycocorticoids. Small thyroid gland volume was diagnosed in 23,07% of examined patients. The thyroid gland status indexes in them did not differ from patients with normal thyroid gland volume. Reliable increasing of the peripheral resistance index was revealed in lower thyroid artery according to the ultrasonic study data under the reduced thyroid gland size. Conclusions. High incidence of hypothyroidism and AT-TPO carriage in RA was revealed. Hypothyroidism development is accompanied by high clinic-laboratory RA activity. The reduction of the thyroid gland volumes in RA is possibly stipulated not only by autoimmunal pathology, but also chronic ischemia of the organ in the conditions of immune-complex vasculitis and early atherosclerosis. The TTG level in patients with RA is defined not only by pathology of the thyroid gland, but glycocorticoid therapy as well.

  15. Imaging of the major salivary glands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afzelius, Pia; Nielsen, Ming-Yuan; Ewertsen, Caroline;


    dental caries or swelling. Imaging plays an important role in visualization of morphology and function, to establish a diagnosis, for treatment, and for surgical planning. There are several options for diagnostic imaging: plain radiography, sialography, ultrasound (US), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI......The major salivary glands, submandibular, parotid and sublingual glands play an important role in preserving the oral cavity and dental health. Patients with problems of the major salivary glands may present with symptoms such as dry mouth, dysphagia and obstruction of duct, inflammation, severe...

  16. Salivary gland carcinomas of the larynx

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Troels Krogh; Bjørndal, Kristine; Krogdahl, Annelise


    OBJECTIVE: Salivary gland carcinomas of the larynx are rare. The purpose of this study is to present a national series of laryngeal salivary gland carcinoma patients and to bring a review of recent literature. METHODS: By merging The Danish Cancer Registry, The National Pathology Registry...... a review of literature from 1991 to 2010 was performed. RESULTS: Six Danish patients with a malignant salivary gland tumor in the larynx were identified resulting in an incidence of 0.001/100,000 inhabitants/year. Four had adenoid cystic carcinoma and two a mucoepidermoid carcinoma. All patients were male...

  17. Homeobox Genes in the Rodent Pineal Gland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rath, Martin Fredensborg; Rohde, Kristian; Klein, David C;


    The pineal gland is a neuroendocrine gland responsible for nocturnal synthesis of melatonin. During early development of the rodent pineal gland from the roof of the diencephalon, homeobox genes of the orthodenticle homeobox (Otx)- and paired box (Pax)-families are expressed and are essential...... functions, homeobox genes appear to be key regulators in postnatal phenotype maintenance in this tissue. In this paper, we review ontogenetic and phylogenetic aspects of pineal development and recent progress in understanding the involvement of homebox genes in rodent pineal development and adult function...

  18. Dysgenetic polycystic disease of the minor and submandibular salivary glands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koudounarakis, Eleftherios; Willems, Stefan; Karakullukcu, Baris


    Background Dysgenetic polycystic salivary gland disease is a rare pathology. No case of minor salivary gland involvement has been reported in the literature. Methods A female patient presented with bilateral tumors of the parotid glands, bilateral submandibular gland enlargement, and multiple cystic

  19. [Pheochromocytomas as adrenal gland incidentalomas]. (United States)

    Cerović, Snezana; Cizmić, Milica; Milović, Novak; Ajdinović, Boris; Brajusković, Goran


    Adrenal incidentalomas are a heterogeneous group of pathological entities, including benign or malignant adrenocortical or medullary tumors, hormonally active or inactive lesions, which are identified incidentally during the examination of nonadrenal-related abdominal complaints. About 1.5% to 23% of adrenal incidentalomas are pheochromocytomas. Composite pheochromocytoma is a rare tumour of adrenal medulla with divergente clinical course. This type of pheochromocytoma is designated "composite" or "mixed," depending on whether pheochromocytoma and nonpheochromocytoma components show the same embryologic origin. Nonpheochromocytoma components found in the composite pheochromocytoma include ganglioneuroma, ganglioneuroblastoma, neuroblastoma, and malignant schwannoma. The biologic behavior of composite pheochromocytomas may be as difficult to predict as more traditional pheochromocytomas; based on the number of cases reported to date the presence of areas resembling ganglioneuroblastoma or neuroblastoma does not necessary indicate a poor prognosis. Some may behave in a malignant fashion with metastasis by a component of the tumour which has neural features. Pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas are well-defined entities. Some of their nonsporadic associations and unusual morphological appearances are not universally appreciated. We report on a rare association of left adrenal CP, with typical right adrenal phochromocytoma and retroperitoneal paraganglioma, and a review of literature. We analyzed the clinical and immunohistochemical features in a 24-year-old woman with composite pheochromocytoma localized in the left adrenal gland and associated with blood pressure of 200/140 mmHg. Abdominal computed tomography and 131-J MIBG revealed a 65 x 60 mm mass in the right adrenal gland, but no revealed 45 x 40 mm retroperitoneal mass and 20 x 20 mm mass in the left adrenal region. Serum and urinary adrenaline levels were high, and catecholamine levels in the blood sample of

  20. Structure and context in prostatic gland segmentation and classification. (United States)

    Nguyen, Kien; Sarkar, Anindya; Jain, Anil K


    A novel gland segmentation and classification scheme applied to an H&E histology image of the prostate tissue is proposed. For gland segmentation, we associate appropriate nuclei objects with each lumen object to create a gland segment. We further extract 22 features to describe the structural information and contextual information for each segment. These features are used to classify a gland segment into one of the three classes: artifact, normal gland and cancer gland. On a dataset of 48 images at 5x magnification (which includes 525 artifacts, 931 normal glands and 1,375 cancer glands), we achieved the following classification accuracies: 93% for artifacts v. true glands; 79% for normal v. cancer glands, and 77% for discriminating all three classes. The proposed method outperforms state of the art methods in terms of segmentation and classification accuracies and computational efficiency.

  1. Myeloid sarcoma of submandibular salivary gland

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    Federico Dagna


    Full Text Available Objective: To report a rare case of a myeloid sarcoma of submandibular salivary gland. Methods: A 65-year-old woman with a history of successfully treated myelodysplastic syndrome, presenting with periodic painful swelling of her right submandibular area. Results: Physical evaluation, ultrasound and CT scan revealed the presence of a 3-cm mass contiguous to the submandibular salivary gland. A core needle biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of myeloid sarcoma. Bone marrow biopsy was still showing complete remission and the submandibular gland was the only extramedullary site involved. The patient was submitted to chemotherapy. Conclusion: Myeloid sarcoma is a rare extramedullary neoplasm. It can virtually involve any anatomic site, but it usually involves lymph nodes, paranasal sinuses, skin, soft tissue and periostium. Myeloid sarcomas of salivary glands are very rare and ENTs should be aware of this disease in order to include it in the differential diagnosis of a solitary neck mass.

  2. Ectopic mineral formation in the prostate gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available This work analyzes the data of cont emporary scientific literature regarding the ectopic mineralization in the prostate gland, its pathogenetic features are considered. The scientific literature of recent decades gives grounds to assert that the processes of concrement formation in the prostate gland are influenced by many factors, pathological mineralization can be realized by different mechanisms. They include chronic inflammation, stagnation fract ions in gland, reflux of urine from the urethra at intravesicle obstruction, malformation of prostate and seminal vesicles, specific inflammation, polymorphism of gene protein inhibitors of calcification. These mechanisms are interconnected, each of them may participate in the overall development of concrement fo rmation in the prostate. In recent years, due to improved instrumental diagnosis we observe a significant increase of the number of patients, who were found with pathogenic prostate gland biol iths, which requires more detailed and in-depth study of the mechanisms of mineral formation in the prostate.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pomar-Blanco P


    Full Text Available Lymphoepitheliomas are malignant tumours with a characteristic histological growth pattern, mixing undifferentiated epithelial cells and a predominant T cell lymphoid infiltrate. Nasopharynx is the main site for this lesion but also can affect salivary glands, so is named lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma (LELC. These are aggressive tumours and they could metastasize into the lymph neck nodes, bones, lung and liver. The treatment for these tumours is the surgery over the parotid gland, homolateral neck nodes dissection and postoperative radiotherapy. The prognosis is determined by distant metastases, related with advanced neck node disease.We report a case of a patient diagnosed of a salivary gland lymphoepithelioma, which consults for located mass into the parotid gland, with almost three years evolution.

  4. Plexiform Neurofibroma Involving the Lacrimal Gland (United States)

    Hofsli, Mikael; Gampenrieder, Nico; Heegaard, Steffen


    Background To present a rare case of a 2-year-old girl with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) who presented with ptosis of the right upper eyelid along with a tumor in the eyelid. Methods A magnetic resonance imaging scan of the orbit revealed a solid tumor located extraconally at the site of the right lacrimal gland. A transcranial orbitotomy was performed. Results Histopathological examination demonstrated expanded nerve branches/fascicles cut in various planes in between normal lacrimal gland acini. These findings were consistent with a plexiform neurofibroma presumably deriving from the lacrimal nerve and/or a supraorbital nerve branch. Conclusion This is the first case of a plexiform neurofibroma involving the lacrimal gland ever described and the tumor shows similarities with neurofibroma in other salivary glands with a high recurrence rate. Plexiform neurofibromas are frequently seen in patients with NF1 and rarely undergo malignant transformation. PMID:28203199

  5. Role of sebaceous glands in inflammatory dermatoses. (United States)

    Shi, Vivian Y; Leo, Michael; Hassoun, Lauren; Chahal, Dev S; Maibach, Howard I; Sivamani, Raja K


    Skin is an important interface between the host and its environment. Inflammatory dermatoses often have disrupted skin barrier function, rendering patients more susceptible to allergenic triggers leading to an exaggerated immune response. The skin surface lipid film, an important component of the skin barrier, comprises a mixture of keratinocyte and sebaceous gland-derived lipids. Recent evidence demonstrated that defective keratinocyte lipid synthesis predisposes for the development of atopic dermatitis. However, the important role of sebaceous gland-derived lipids in skin inflammatory diseases may be underrecognized. This overview focuses on the importance of the contribution of sebaceous glands to barrier function. Sebaceous gland alteration may play a role in the pathogenesis of common skin diseases including acne vulgaris, atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, rosacea, and seborrheic dermatitis.

  6. Salivary Gland Biopsy for Sjogren's Syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delli, Konstantina; Vissink, Arjan; Spijkervet, Fred K. L.


    Salivary gland biopsy is a technique broadly applied for the diagnosis of Sjogren's syndrome (SS), lymphoma accompanying SS, sarcoidosis, amyloidosis, and other connective tissue disorders. SS has characteristic microscopic findings involving lymphocytic infiltration surrounding the excretory ducts

  7. Lymphoepithelial cyst of the submandibular gland

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    A Saneem Ahamed


    Full Text Available Lymphoepithelial cysts are benign, slowly growing unilocular or multilocular lesions that appear in the head and neck. They are also called Branchial cyst. The head and neck sites are the salivary glands(more commonly parotid and rarely submandibular gland and the oral cavity (usually the floor of the mouth. there are various methods of investigation available today, of which Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC can be used to provide an immediate diagnosis of a lymphoepithelial cyst. The other investigations include, Ultrasonogram,and Computed tomography.It usually occurs due to the process of lymphocyte-induced cystic ductular dilatation and the confirmatory diagnosis is always made postoperatively by histopathological examination. The mainstay in the treatment of a lymphoepithelial cyst remains the surgical approach, which includes complete enucleation of the cyst along with total excision of the involved salivary gland. This is a report of a lymphoepithelial cyst involving the submandibular salivary gland and its management.

  8. Effect of P2X(7) receptor knockout on exocrine secretion of pancreas, salivary glands and lacrimal glands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novak, Ivana; Jans, Ida M; Wohlfahrt, Louise


    the P2X(7) receptors affect fluid secretion in pancreas, salivary glands and tear glands. We monitored gland secretions in in vivo preparations of wild-type and P2X(7)(-/-) (Pfizer) mice stimulated with pilocarpine. In cell preparations from pancreas, parotid and lacrimal glands we measured ATP release...

  9. Management of xerostomia and salivary gland hypofunction. (United States)

    Ram, Saravanan; Kumar, Satish; Navazesh, Mahvash


    Xerostomia and salivary gland hypofunction are conditions that have been associated with increased prevalence of caries, periodontitis, and candidiasis. Oral health care providers must be aware of the etiologies and clinical manifestations of salivary gland hypofunction in order to identify patients with this condition and to prevent its potential complications. The various modalities available to manage this condition range from frequent sips of water to the intake of systemic medications like pilocarpine or cevimeline.

  10. Histiocytosis mimicking a pineal gland tumour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gizewski, E.R.; Forsting, M. [Dept. of Neuroradiology, Univ. of Essen (Germany)


    We report an unusual case of isolated Langerhans cell histiocytosis of the central nervous system. A 19-year-old man presented with an incomplete ocular palsy. MRI revealed a solitary mass in the pineal gland with marked contrast enhancement. Complete microsurgical excision was followed by local radiotherapy. Histological examination revealed histiocytosis. Unifocal brain involvement by histiocytosis X is rare with few cases in the literature; the most commonly involved areas are the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland. (orig.)

  11. Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the lacrimal gland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Holstein, Sarah L; Fehr, André; Persson, Marta;


    To investigate genetic alterations in lacrimal gland adenoid cystic carcinomas (ACCs) with emphasis on the MYB-NFIB fusion oncogene and its downstream targets, MYB rearrangements, and copy number alterations in relation to clinical data and survival.......To investigate genetic alterations in lacrimal gland adenoid cystic carcinomas (ACCs) with emphasis on the MYB-NFIB fusion oncogene and its downstream targets, MYB rearrangements, and copy number alterations in relation to clinical data and survival....

  12. Pheromones and exocrine glands in Isoptera. (United States)

    Costa-Leonardo, Ana Maria; Haifig, Ives


    Termites are eusocial insects that have a peculiar and intriguing system of communication using pheromones. The termite pheromones are composed of a blend of chemical substances and they coordinate different social interactions or activities, including foraging, building, mating, defense, and nestmate recognition. Some of these sociochemicals are volatile, spreading in the air, and others are contact pheromones, which are transmitted by trophallaxis and grooming. Among the termite semiochemicals, the most known are alarm, trail, sex pheromones, and hydrocarbons responsible for the recognition of nestmates. The sources of the pheromones are exocrine glands located all over the termite body. The principal exocrine structures considered pheromone-producing glands in Isoptera are the frontal, mandibular, salivary or labial, sternal, and tergal glands. The frontal gland is the source of alarm pheromone and defensive chemicals, but the mandibular secretions have been little studied and their function is not well established in Isoptera. The secretion of salivary glands involves numerous chemical compounds, some of them without pheromonal function. The worker saliva contains a phagostimulating pheromone and probably a building pheromone, while the salivary reservoir of some soldiers contains defensive chemicals. The sternal gland is the only source of trail-following pheromone, whereas sex pheromones are secreted by two glandular sources, the sternal and tergal glands. To date, the termite semiochemicals have indicated that few molecules are involved in their chemical communication, that is, the same compound may be secreted by different glands, different castes and species, and for different functions, depending on the concentration. In addition to the pheromonal parsimony, recent studies also indicate the occurrence of a synergic effect among the compounds involved in the chemical communication of Isoptera.

  13. Sclerosing polycystic adenosis of the parotid gland

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    Hugo Lara-Sánchez


    Conclusion: The SPA is similar to the fibrocystic changes, sclerosing adenosis and adenoid tumors of the mammary gland. The main location of the SPA is the parotid gland and it is considered a disease due to a pseudotumoral inflammatory reaction with a possible association with the Epstein–Barr virus. There is evidence that monoclonal cell populations exist. The treatment consists in excision of the tumor with a superficial parotidectomy, which has demonstrated high cure rates.

  14. [Adenomatoid tumour of the adrenal gland]. (United States)

    Bandier, Philippe Claus; Hansen, Alastair; Thorelius, Lars


    An adenomatoid tumour in the right suprarenal gland was discovered during clinical cancer staging of a 73-year-old woman. Adenomatoid tumours in the suprarenal glands are rare and are most often found incidentally. A definitive diagnosis is made on the basis of histology since imaging methods are non-specific. Differential diagnoses comprise malignant vascular neoplasm or adenocarcinoma. Immunohistochemistry or electron microscopy allows uncomplicated distinction between these tumours. In general, it is recommended to obtain biopsies from suprarenal processes.

  15. The neurobiology of the meibomian glands. (United States)

    Cox, Stephanie M; Nichols, Jason J


    This article compiles research regarding the neuroanatomy of the meibomian glands and their associated blood vessels. After a review of meibomian gland morphology and regulation via hormones, a case for innervation is made based on anatomical findings whereby the nerves lack a myelin sheath and Schwann cells. The localization and co-localization of dopamine beta-hydroxylase, tyrosine hydroxylase, neuropeptide Y, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, calcitonin gene-related peptide, and substance P are explored with emphasis on differences that exist between species. The presence of the various neuropeptides/neurotransmitters adjacent to the meibomian gland versus the vasculature associated with the meibomian gland is documented so that conclusions can be made with regard to direct and indirect effects. Research regarding the presence of receptors and receptor proteins for these neuropeptides is documented. Evidence supporting the influence of certain neurotransmitters and/or neuropeptides on the meibomian gland is given based on research that correlates changes in meibomian gland morphology and/or tear film with changes in neurotransmitter and/or neuropeptide presence. Conclusions are drawn related to direct and indirect regulation and differences between the various nervous systems.

  16. The pineal gland from development to function. (United States)

    Sapède, Dora; Cau, Elise


    The pineal gland is a small neuroendocrine organ whose main and most conserved function is the nighttime secretion of melatonin. In lower vertebrates, the pineal gland is directly photosensitive. In contrast, in higher vertebrates, the direct photosensitivity of the pineal gland had been lost. Rather, the action of this gland as a relay between environmental light conditions and body functions involves reception of light information by the retina. In parallel to this sensory regression, the pineal gland (and its accessory organs) appears to have lost several functions in relation to light and temperature, which are important in lower vertebrate species. In humans, the functions of the pineal gland overlap with the functions of melatonin. They are extremely widespread and include general effects both on cell protection and on more precise functions, such as sleep and immunity. Recently, the role of melatonin has received a considerable amount of attention due to increased cancer risk in shift workers and the discovery that patients suffering from neurodegenerative diseases, autism, or depression exhibit abnormal melatonin rhythms.

  17. Cell therapy for salivary gland regeneration. (United States)

    Lin, C-Y; Chang, F-H; Chen, C-Y; Huang, C-Y; Hu, F-C; Huang, W-K; Ju, S-S; Chen, M-H


    There are still no effective therapies for hyposalivation caused by irradiation. In our previous study, bone marrow stem cells can be transdifferentiated into acinar-like cells in vitro. Therefore, we hypothesized that transplantation with bone marrow stem cells or acinar-like cells may help functional regeneration of salivary glands. Bone marrow stem cells were labeled with nanoparticles and directly co-cultured with acinar cells to obtain labeled acinar-like cells. In total, 140 severely combined immune-deficiency mice were divided into 4 groups for cell therapy experiments: (1) normal mice, (2) mice receiving irradiation around their head-and-neck areas; (3) mice receiving irradiation and intra-gland transplantation with labeled stem cells; and (4) mice receiving irradiation and intra-gland transplantation with labeled acinar-like cells. Our results showed that salivary glands damaged due to irradiation can be rescued by cell therapy with either bone marrow stem cells or acinar-like cells for recovery of saliva production, body weight, and gland weight. Transdifferentiation of bone marrow stem cells into acinar-like cells in vivo was also noted. This study demonstrated that cell therapy with bone marrow stem cells or acinar-like cells can help functional regeneration of salivary glands, and that acinar-like cells showed better therapeutic potentials than those of bone marrow stem cells.

  18. Epithelial myoepithelial carcinoma of the parotid gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin A Badge


    Full Text Available Epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma (EMC is a low-grade malignant tumor of the salivary glands. It is extremely rare neoplasm accounting for <1% of all salivary gland neoplasms. It is most commonly seen in parotid gland, but has also been described in the submandibular gland, minor salivary glands and extra oral sites. It is most commonly seen in females; with a peak occurrence in the seventh decade. We present a case of EMC of parotid gland in a 55-year-old male patient presented with painless swelling of 8 cm × 8 cm in preauricular region since 1-year. There was no history of fever and no palpable cervical lymphadenopathy. Facial nerve function was intact. All other findings in general examination were within normal limit. As EMC is a very rare tumor having high rate of recurrence we must aware of this entity while giving diagnosis on histopathological examination. Surgeons and oncologist must focus on the best treatment approach to prevent the recurrence of this tumor. Wide local excision, followed by radiotherapy remains the treatment of choice.

  19. Iatrogenic causes of salivary gland dysfunction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schubert, M.M.; Izutsu, K.T.


    Saliva is important for maintaining oral health and function. There are instances when medical therapy is intended to decrease salivary flow, such as during general anesthesia, but most instances of iatrogenic salivary gland dysfunction represent untoward or unavoidable side-effects. The clinical expression of the salivary dysfunction can range from very minor transient alteration in saliva flow to a total loss of salivary function. The most common forms of therapy that interfere with salivation are drug therapies, cancer therapies (radiation or chemotherapy), and surgical therapy. These therapies can affect salivation by a number of different mechanisms that include: disruption of autonomic nerve function related to salivation, interference with acinar or ductal cell functions related to salivation, cytotoxicity, indirect effects (vasoconstriction/dilation, fluid and electrolyte balance, etc.), and physical trauma to salivary glands and nerves. A wide variety of drugs is capable of increasing or decreasing salivary flow by mimicking autonomic nervous system actions or by directly acting on cellular processes necessary for salivation: drugs can also indirectly affect salivation by altering fluid and electrolyte balance or by affecting blood flow to the glands. Ionizing radiation can cause permanent damage to salivary glands, damage that is manifest as acinar cell destruction with subsequent atrophy and fibrosis of the glands. Cancer chemotherapy can cause changes in salivation, but the changes are usually much less severe and only transient. Finally, surgical and traumatic injuries interfere with salivation because of either disruption of gland innervation or gross physical damage (or removal) of glandular tissue (including ducts).

  20. The metapleural gland of ants. (United States)

    Yek, Sze Huei; Mueller, Ulrich G


    The metapleural gland (MG) is a complex glandular structure unique to ants, suggesting a critical role in their origin and ecological success. We synthesize the current understanding of the adaptive function, morphology, evolutionary history, and chemical properties of the MG. Two functions of the MG, sanitation and chemical defence, have received the strongest empirical support; two additional possible functions, recognition odour and territorial marking, are less well supported. The design of the MG is unusual for insects; glandular secretions are stored in a rigid, non-compressible invagination of the integument and the secretion is thought to ooze out passively through the non-closable opening of the MG or is groomed off by the legs and applied to target surfaces. MG loss has occurred repeatedly among the ants, particularly in the subfamilies Formicinae and Myrmicinae, and the MG is more commonly absent in males than in workers. MG chemistry has been characterized mostly in derived ant lineages with unique biologies (e.g. leafcutter ants, fire ants), currently precluding any inferences about MG chemistry at the origin of the ants. A synthetic approach integrating functional morphology, phylogenetic transitions and chemical ecology of the MGs of both the derived and the unstudied early-branching (basal) ant lineages is needed to elucidate the evolutionary origin and diversification of the MG of ants.

  1. Rescue of salivary gland function after stem cell transplantation in irradiated glands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle M A Lombaert

    Full Text Available Head and neck cancer is the fifth most common malignancy and accounts for 3% of all new cancer cases each year. Despite relatively high survival rates, the quality of life of these patients is severely compromised because of radiation-induced impairment of salivary gland function and consequential xerostomia (dry mouth syndrome. In this study, a clinically applicable method for the restoration of radiation-impaired salivary gland function using salivary gland stem cell transplantation was developed. Salivary gland cells were isolated from murine submandibular glands and cultured in vitro as salispheres, which contained cells expressing the stem cell markers Sca-1, c-Kit and Musashi-1. In vitro, the cells differentiated into salivary gland duct cells and mucin and amylase producing acinar cells. Stem cell enrichment was performed by flow cytrometric selection using c-Kit as a marker. In vitro, the cells differentiated into amylase producing acinar cells. In vivo, intra-glandular transplantation of a small number of c-Kit(+ cells resulted in long-term restoration of salivary gland morphology and function. Moreover, donor-derived stem cells could be isolated from primary recipients, cultured as secondary spheres and after re-transplantation ameliorate radiation damage. Our approach is the first proof for the potential use of stem cell transplantation to functionally rescue salivary gland deficiency.

  2. Radiation induced cell loss in rat submandibular gland and its relation to gland function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeilstra, LJW; Vissink, A; Konings, AWT; Coppes, RP


    Purpose: To understand early and late radiation-induced loss of function of the submandibular gland, changes in cell number were documented and correlated with data on gland function. Modulation of the radiation effect by sialogogues was used to investigate possible mechanisms of action. Materials a

  3. A kinetic compartment model for evaluating salivary gland scintigraphies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afzelius, Pia; Fuglsang, Stefan


    through a syringe. Time activity curves were generated for each of the four major salivary glands (i.e. the right and left submandibular and right and left parotid glands). Excretion fractions (the fraction of mobilizable radioactivity after administering lemon juice) and the gland activity......-to-thyroid activity ratio were calculated. The data were fitted to both a one- and two-phase uptake model. RESULTS: The median uptake slope and maximal activity were significantly higher in the parotid glands than the submandibular glands (Pparotid glands than...... the submandibular glands (Pparotid glands (Pparotid and submandibular glands. CONCLUSIONS: Tracer accumulation can be represented by a one-phase simple uptake model. The background regions...

  4. Identification of parathyroid glands: anatomical study and surgical implications. (United States)

    Melo, Catarina; Pinheiro, Susana; Carvalho, Lina; Bernardes, António


    While performing thyroid surgery, the unintentional lesion of parathyroid glands and laryngeal nerves results in a profound alteration in patient's quality of life. To minimize thyroid surgery morbidity, the surgeon must have an in-depth knowledge of the thyroid gland morphology and its anatomical relations in the anterior compartment of the neck. This work intended to simulate total thyroidectomies using cadaver parts and isolate fragments that may correspond to parathyroid glands. The thyroid glands and "eventual" parathyroid glands were then submitted to histological study. Ninety-two cadaver parts were used for macroscopic dissection. A total of 242 fragments were isolated, 154 of which were confirmed through histological study to be parathyroid glands. In 36 cases, all "eventual" parathyroid glands isolated during dissection were confirmed through histological verification. In 40 cases, some glands were confirmed. In 16 cases, none of the "eventual" parathyroid glands was confirmed. The 92 thyroid glands isolated during dissection were also submitted to histological study. In 21 thyroid glands, 16 parathyroid glands were identified in the histological cuts: 8 sub-capsular, 8 extra-capsular, 6 intra-thyroidal. There was no statistical difference between the dimensions of the parathyroid glands. Parathyroid gland identification and preservation are sometimes a challenge during thyroid surgery, difficulty that has been demonstrated during dissection of cadaver parts.

  5. [Morphofunctional and molecular bases of pineal gland aging]. (United States)

    Khavinson, V Kh; Lin'kova, N S


    The review analyzed morphology, molecular and functional aspects of pineal gland aging and methods of it correction. The pineal gland is central organ, which regulates activity of neuroimmunoendocrine, antioxidant and other organisms systems. Functional activity of pineal gland is discreased at aging, which is the reason of melatonin level changing. The molecular and morphology research demonstrated, that pineal gland hadn't strongly pronounced atrophy at aging. Long-term experience showed, that peptides extract of pineal gland epithalamin and synthetic tetrapeptide on it base epithalon restored melatonin secretion in pineal gland and had strong regulatory activity at neuroimmunoendocrine and antioxidant organism systems.

  6. Aplasia of the parotid glands with accessory parotid tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higley, Meghan J.; Walkiewicz, Thomas W.; Miller, Jeffrey H.; Curran, John G.; Towbin, Richard B. [Phoenix Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Phoenix, AZ (United States)


    Congenital absence of the parotid gland is a rare entity. Absence is most commonly unilateral, and is not associated with accessory glandular tissue. In the majority of reported cases, parotid gland aplasia is seen with craniofacial abnormalities or hypoplasia of other ectodermal structures, particularly the lacrimal glands. We present a 14-year-old male with bilateral parotid gland aplasia detected incidentally on MRI of the brain and then confirmed on neck CT. The studies also revealed accessory parotid tissue superficial to the left masseter muscle. There were no associated craniofacial abnormalities. The lacrimal glands and submandibular glands were normal. (orig.)

  7. NUT Carcinoma of the Sublingual Gland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hahn, C H; Andreasen, S; French, C A;


    NUT carcinoma (NC) is a recently described, rare and extremely aggressive cancer primarily located to supradiaphragmatic structures and affecting young individuals. NC is characterized by translocations involving the NUT gene on 15q14 with the most common translocation partner gene being BRD4 on 19......p13, resulting in the t(15;19)(q14;p13) karyotype. NC is poorly differentiated and is likely to be overlooked and misdiagnosed as poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) when immunohistochemical evaluation of NUT protein expression is omitted. Previously, NC has been found in the parotid...... and submandibular glands and we present the first case in the sublingual gland arising in a 40-year-old woman. We discuss the diagnostic considerations for poorly differentiated carcinomas of the salivary glands and advocate the inclusion of NUT immunohistochemistry in this setting. Not only does the NC diagnosis...

  8. Thyroid gland in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. (United States)

    Miłkowska-Dymanowska, Joanna; Białas, Adam J; Laskowska, Paulina; Górski, Paweł; Piotrowski, Wojciech J


    The risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), as well as thyroid diseases increases with age. COPD is a common systemic disease associated with chronic inflammation. Many endocrinological disorders, including thyroid gland diseases are related to systemic inflammation. Epidemiological studies suggest that patients with COPD are at higher risk of thyroid disorders. These associations are not well-studied and thyroid gland diseases are not included on the broadly acknowledged list of COPD comorbidities. They may seriously handicap quality of life of COPD patients. Unfortunately, the diagnosis may be difficult, as many signs are masked by the symptoms of the index disease. The comprehension of the correlation between thyroid gland disorders and COPD may contribute to better care of patients. In this review, we attempt to revise available literature describing existing links between COPD and thyroid diseases.

  9. Cadmium effects on the thyroid gland. (United States)

    Jancic, Snezana A; Stosic, Bojan Z


    Cadmium has been listed as one of the 126 priority pollutants and a category I carcinogen. Carcinogenic effects of cadmium on the lungs, testicles, and prostate are widely recognized, but there has been insufficient research on the effect of cadmium on the thyroid gland. Cadmium has the affinity to accumulate not only in the liver, kidneys, and pancreas but also in the thyroid gland. It has been established that cadmium blood concentration correlates positively with its accumulation in the thyroid gland. Women of fertile age have higher cadmium blood and urine concentrations than men. In spite of its redox inertia, cadmium brings about oxidative stress and damage to the tissue by indirect mechanisms. Mitochondria are considered to be the main intracellular targets for cadmium. Colloid cystic goiter, adenomatoid follicular hyperplasia with low-grade dysplasia and thyroglobulin hypo- and asecretion, and parafollicular cell diffuse and nodular hyperplasia and hypertrophy are often found in chronic cadmium toxicity.

  10. Pathophysiology of myoepithelial cells in salivary glands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amisha Ashok Kumar Shah


    Full Text Available Myoepithelial cells (MECs are considered to be a key participant in most salivary gland diseases, particularly tumors. MECs structurally resemble both epithelial cells and smooth muscles. Diagnostic dilemmas caused are due to inadequacy of characterizing the wide spectrum of morphologic and immunologic features which are different for both normal and neoplastic MECs. This article discusses the development, functions and structure of both normal and neoplastic MECs, their staining properties and differences in the morphologic and immunophenotypic properties of the MEC in detail. It also describes the role of MEC in pathogenesis and morphogenesis of various nonneoplastic and neoplastic salivary gland lesions and thereby are responsible for the myriad histopathology of salivary gland tumors.

  11. Osteopontin expression in salivary gland carcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørndal, Kristine; Larsen, Stine R; Godballe, Christian;


    J Oral Pathol Med (2010) Background:  In several cancer types, osteopontin (OPN) expression has been correlated with tumor progression and prognosis. Two earlier studies have examined OPN expression in salivary gland carcinomas with contradictory results. Methods:  One hundred and seventy......-five patients with a primary salivary gland carcinoma diagnosed from January 1, 1990 to December 31, 2005 were identified in the local pathology register, Odense University Hospital. Criteria as documented by Allred et al. were used to assess OPN immunostaining that was performed on surgical specimens. Results......:  Osteopontin was expressed in all salivary gland carcinomas. Adenoid cystic carcinomas had the highest mean sum score (7.3) and a significantly higher proportion of carcinomas with high OPN sum score than both mucoepidermoid carcinoma and acinic cell carcinoma. Correlation of OPN expression with known...

  12. Mistakes in ultrasound examination of salivary glands (United States)

    Jakubowski, Wiesław


    Ultrasonography is the first imaging method applied in the case of diseases of the salivary glands. The article discusses basic mistakes that can be made during an ultrasound examination of these structures. The reasons for these mistakes may be examiner-dependent or may be beyond their control. The latter may include, inter alia, difficult conditions during examination (technical or patient-related), similarity of ultrasound images in different diseases, the lack of clinical and laboratory data as well as the lack of results of other examinations, their insufficient number or incorrectness. Doctor-related mistakes include: the lack of knowledge of normal anatomy, characteristics of ultrasound images in various salivary gland diseases and statistical incidence of diseases, but also attaching excessive importance to such statistical data. The complex anatomical structures of the floor of the oral cavity may be mistaken for benign or malignant tumors. Fragments of correct anatomical structures (bones, arterial wall fibrosis, air bubbles in the mouth) can be wrongly interpreted as deposits in the salivary gland or in its excretory duct. Correct lymph nodes in the parotid glands may be treated as pathologic structures. Lesions not being a simple cyst, e.g. lymphoma, benign or malignant tumors of the salivary glands or metastatic lymph nodes, can be mistaken for one. The image of disseminated focal changes, both anechoic and solid, is not pathognomonic for specific diseases in the salivary glands. However, in part, it occurs typically and requires an extended differential diagnosis. Small focal changes and infiltrative lesions pose a diagnostic problem because their etiology cannot be safely suggested on the basis of an ultrasound examination itself. The safest approach is to refer patients with abnormal focal changes for an ultrasoundguided fine-needle aspiration biopsy. PMID:27446603

  13. [Clinical importance of thyroid gland cytology]. (United States)

    Ting, S; Synoracki, S; Bockisch, A; Führer, D; Schmid, K W


    The cytological evaluation of fine needle biopsies (FNB) of the thyroid gland crucially depends on a close cooperation between clinicians and cytopathologists. Scintigraphy, sonography as well as clinical data and patient history are necessary for a correct interpretation of the indications for FNB; moreover, these data are of outstanding importance for cytopathologists for the correct interpretation of the cytomorphological findings. This overview describes the present standards in the acquisition, technical workup and cytopathological interpretation of thyroid gland tissue obtained by FNB, particularly focusing on the rapidly growing relevance of additional molecular pathological investigations to increase the diagnostic accuracy of thyroid FNB.

  14. Tetrodotoxin secreting glands in the skin of puffer fishes. (United States)

    Kodama, M; Sato, S; Ogata, T; Suzuki, Y; Kaneko, T; Aida, K


    Unique exocrine glands or gland-like structures were found in the skin of several species of puffer fishes of the genus Takifugu. The glands of T. pardalis and T. vermiculare porphyreum consisted only of secretory cells with a large vacuole. These cells were completely enclosed by epithelial cells with developed microfilaments, except at their opening to the lumen. The contents of the large vacuole in the peculiar secretory cell were forced out when the puffer was stimulated. Exocrine glands or gland-like structures with peculiar secretory cells were also found in the skin of T. poecilonotus, T. niphobles and T. vermiculare radiatum. A high concentration of TTX was detected in the gland contents collected directly from live specimens of T. pardalis. We therefore conclude that these glands are TTX secreting glands.

  15. Submandibular gland mucocele associated with a mixed ranula. (United States)

    Hze-Khoong, Eugene Poh; Xu, Liqun; Shen, Shukun; Yin, Xuelai; Wang, Lizhen; Zhang, Chenping


    Mucoceles of the submandibular gland are extremely rare pathologic occurrences that present an investigative and management dilemma owing to their clinical indistinguishability from plunging ranulas. Of the few that have been documented, these mucous extravasation cysts involved the submandibular gland alone. We describe perhaps the first case of an extensive submandibular gland mucocele occurring in conjunction with a mixed ranula from the ipsilateral sublingual gland, and discuss the various considerations in the management of such lesions.

  16. What Are Some Types of Adrenal Gland Disorders? (United States)

    ... Adrenal Gland Tumors Most adrenal gland tumors—abnormal growths on the adrenal glands—are not cancerous. They often do not cause symptoms or require treatment. However, adrenal gland tumors can produce a variety of different hormones, leading hormone levels to get too high. Adrenal ...

  17. Comparative morphology of Liolaemus lizards precloacal glands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soledad Valdecantos


    Full Text Available Liolaemid lizards and amphisbaenids have precloacal pores in the anterior border of the cloaca, where epidermal glands drain and expel pheromonal secretions. Precloacal glands occur usually only in males, but in those few species where both sexes have precloacal glands, these are larger in males. Only the morphology and/or histology of precloacal glands of amphisbaenids have been described, and it is unknown whether in lizards these glands differ across ages, sexes and/or species, and if the lack of pores is associated with a lack of glands. We investigated for the first time the morphology and histology of lizard precloacal glands, by studying three Liolaemus species that differ in the presence of pores in their cloaca: L. irregularis, in which adults and juveniles of both sexes have pores; L. poecilochromus, in which only adult males have pores, and L. neuquensis, in which the adults of both sexes lack pores. Results show that the number of pores varies among species and sexes, but not between ages of a species. Adults, but not juveniles, of L. irregularis have sexual dimorphism in pore sizes; these are larger in males than in females. In addition, pores are larger in adult males of L. irregularis than in L. poecilochromus. Glands are tubuloalveolar with holocrine secretion, having similar structure across individuals, although adult males have larger glands than females and juveniles. Finally, the structure of Liolaemus precloacal glands is very similar to those of the amphisbaenid precloacal glands and the femoral glands of other lizard species.

  18. Ulcerative sialadenitis of minor salivary gland: A short case report. (United States)

    Kashyap, Roopashri Rajesh; Nair, R Gopakumar; Kashyap, Rajesh Shanker


    Minor salivary glands have an important role in the physiology and pathology of the oral cavity though they have been neglected at times. Smoking has a direct effect on the palatal minor salivary glands, and their most common presentation is stomatitis nicotina. We report a case of ulceration in the palatal salivary gland presented with intermittent heavy bleeding from the lesion.

  19. Metastatic liposarcoma of the thyroid gland. (United States)

    Azar, A R; Weynand, B; Daumerie, C; Coche, E


    Metastatic liposarcoma of the thyroid gland is exceptionally rare. A case of pleomorphic liposarcoma, which manifested as a soft tissue lump in the neck, is described in a 30-year-old woman. Fine needle aspiration cytology permitted prompt diagnosis. The ultrasound and CT appearance of this type of thyroid metastasis is described which has not been previously reported in the literature.

  20. Adenomatoid hyperplasia of palatal minor salivary glands


    Bryant, C. J.; Manisali, M.; Barrett, A. W.


    Adenomatoid hyperplasia of palatal minor mucous glands is rare but significant because the clinical appearance mimics malignant disease. The typical history of a painless, indolent palatal swelling, together with the histological picture of benign glandular hyperplasia and hypertrophy, are illustrated in this report.

  1. Cyst of ectopic (choristomatous lacrimal gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao V


    Full Text Available A rare case of cyst of an ectopic lacrimal gland in the bulbar conjunctiva is reported in a 40 year-old-man. The clinical presentation histopathology, differential diagnosis and treatment of this choristomatous lacrimal ductal cyst (Group IV according to Bullock′s classification is described.

  2. Salivary duct carcinoma of the parotid gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Mlika


    Full Text Available Salivary duct carcinoma of the parotid gland is an uncommon tumor, highly aggressive. About 200 cases have been reported in the English literature. Pathomorphologically, these tumors showed great similarities to ductal carcinoma of the female breast, which is why they described this tumor as "salivary duct carcinoma." The authors describe a new case of salivary duct carcinoma of the parotid gland. We present the case of a 50-year-old patient with progressive facial paralysis. The MRI examination of the head showed two ill-defined formations. A malignant tumor was strongly suspected, so that a total left parotidectomy with excision of the adjacent facial nerve and left lymph node dissection was performed. Microscopic examination concluded to a salivary duct carcinoma of the left parotid gland negative with Her2/neu antibody with lymph node metastasis. There were no recurrences or metastases within 3 years of follow-up. Salivary duct carcinoma of the parotid gland is a rare tumor with an aggressive behavior. This is due to its propensity to infiltrate distant organs. The diagnosis is based on microscopic examination. Treatment modalities are non-consensual, but some authors advocate the necessity of aggressive approach, especially in tumors negative with Heur2/neu antibody. This is due to the fact that the overexpression of this antigen was reported to be associated with a poor prognosis.

  3. On the mechanism of salivary gland radiosensitivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konings, AWT; Coppes, RP; Vissink, A


    Purpose: To contribute to the understanding of the enigmatic radiosensitivity of the salivary glands by analysis of appropriate literature, especially with respect to mechanisms of action of early radiation damage, and to supply information on the possibilities of amelioration of radiation damage to

  4. FGF23 and the parathyroid glands. (United States)

    Silver, Justin; Naveh-Many, Tally


    Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) is a phosphatonin that is secreted by osteocytes and osteoblasts in response to hyperphosphatemia and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25D). It acts on its receptor complex, Klotho-FGFR1c (fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 c-splicing form), in the distal convoluted tubule to repress renal phosphorus reabsorption in the proximal tubule and suppress the renal synthesis of 1,25D. Klotho-FGFR1c is also expressed in the parathyroid glands. FGF23 acts on the receptor complex in the parathyroid glands to decrease parathyroid hormone (PTH) gene expression and PTH secretion through activation of the MAPK pathway. In chronic kidney disease (CKD), both FGF23 and PTH are increased, implying resistance of the parathyroid glands to FGF23. There is a decrease in the Klotho-FGFR1c complex in the parathyroid glands in both experimental CKD and in patients with end-stage renal disease. In addition, in advanced experimental CKD, FGF23 has a decreased ability to inhibit PTH expression.

  5. Papillary microcarcinoma of the thyroid gland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Londero, Stefano Christian; Godballe, Christian; Krogdahl, Annelise


    INTRODUCTION: Papillary microcarcinomas (PMC) of the thyroid gland are defined according to The WHO Committee as papillary carcinomas measuring 10 mm or less in diameter. A large proportion of these tumours are found coincidentally in the treatment of symptomatic goitre and most cases follow...

  6. Fibromatosis of thyroid gland (a case report.

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    Samsi A


    Full Text Available Fibromatosis of thyroid gland is a rare condition encountered in surgical practice. Clinically presenting as goitre, it is treated with near total thyroidectomy with good results. We had one such case under our care at the K.E.M. Hospital, Bombay. Rarity of this condition prompted us to publish the data, the literature is briefly reviewed.

  7. Current concepts of salivary gland tumors

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    Raj Kumar Badam


    Full Text Available The embryonic development of salivary glands is a complex process that creates compact, highly organized secretory organs with functions essential for oral health. The development is an example of branching morphogenesis, recent research found to involve unexpectedly dynamic cell motility, and novel regulatory pathways. Numerous growth factors, extracellular matrix molecules, gene regulatory pathways, and mechanical forces contribute to salivary gland morphogenesis, but local gene regulation and morphological changes appear to play particularly notable roles. Salivary gland tumors are one of the most complex and relatively rare groups of lesions encountered in oral pathology practice. Their complexity is attributed to the heterogeneity of the cells of origin of these lesions. Frequent overlap of microscopic features among various neoplasms makes us sometimes even to differentiate benign and malignant lesions leading to a diagnostic dilemma. Here, we review and summarize the current concepts regarding the histogenetic and morphogenetic concepts of salivary gland tumors and their relevance to routine diagnosis and classification of these lesions.

  8. [Dermoid cyst of the parotid gland]. (United States)

    Trandafir, Violeta; Trandafir, Daniela; Ferariu, D; Boişteanu, Otilia; Haba, Danisia


    Dermoid cyst of the parotid gland is a rare clinical entity. Definitive clinical diagnosis is often difficult to determine preoperatively because of the lack of pathognomonic features. The most frequent location of a parotid dermoid cyst is a triangular area lying above the pinna. Imaging studies do not definitely diagnose a parotid dermoid cyst. Although parotid dermoid cyst is (generally) well-encapsulated, complete removal of the cyst wall is not sufficient to cure it, so it is mandatory to perform careful excision of the cyst by parotidectomy, in terms of preserving facial nerve integrity. Histopathology of the parotid gland tumor removed by parotidectomy makes a diagnosis of certainty, by revealing a cyst wall with keratinization of the squamous epithelium and the presence of skin annexes (hair follicles, sweat glands, sebaceous glands). We present a rare case of parotid dermoid cyst in a 21-year-old male patient with symptoms and imaging rather suggestive of arch I branchial cyst and a brief review of data in the medical literature of the last 20 years.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana de Farias Jucá


    and the evaluations performed according to CBRA (1998. The ultrasonographic analyses were performed, before and after ejaculation, beginning with the testicles (parenchyma and mediastinum. The slight testicle calcification was found in high frequency independently of the age. The predominant echotexture of bulbourethral and vesicular glands was hypoechoic with low density. In summary, ultrasonography has shown itself as an efficient tool for parenchyma and testicular mediastinum visualization and classification, as well as for the study of annexes sex glands of Santa Ines rams.

    KEY WORDS: Annexes sexual glands, ram, Santa Ines, testicles, ultrasonography.

  10. GABAergic signaling in the rat pineal gland. (United States)

    Yu, Haijie; Benitez, Sergio G; Jung, Seung-Ryoung; Farias Altamirano, Luz E; Kruse, Martin; Seo, Jong Bae; Koh, Duk-Su; Muñoz, Estela M; Hille, Bertil


    Pinealocytes secrete melatonin at night in response to norepinephrine released from sympathetic nerve terminals in the pineal gland. The gland also contains many other neurotransmitters whose cellular disposition, activity, and relevance to pineal function are not understood. Here, we clarify sources and demonstrate cellular actions of the neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) using Western blotting and immunohistochemistry of the gland and electrical recording from pinealocytes. GABAergic cells and nerve fibers, defined as containing GABA and the synthetic GAD67, were identified. The cells represent a subset of interstitial cells while the nerve fibers were distinct from the sympathetic innervation. The GABAA receptor subunit α1 was visualized in close proximity of both GABAergic and sympathetic nerve fibers as well as fine extensions among pinealocytes and blood vessels. The GABAB 1 receptor subunit was localized in the interstitial compartment but not in pinealocytes. Electrophysiology of isolated pinealocytes revealed that GABA and muscimol elicit strong inward chloride currents sensitive to bicuculline and picrotoxin, clear evidence for functional GABAA receptors on the surface membrane. Applications of elevated potassium solution or the neurotransmitter acetylcholine depolarized the pinealocyte membrane potential enough to open voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels leading to intracellular calcium elevations. GABA repolarized the membrane and shut off such calcium rises. In 48-72-h cultured intact glands, GABA application neither triggered melatonin secretion by itself nor affected norepinephrine-induced secretion. Thus, strong elements of GABA signaling are present in pineal glands that make large electrical responses in pinealocytes, but physiological roles need to be found.

  11. Neutron therapy for salivary and thyroid gland cancer (United States)

    Gribova, O. V.; Musabaeva, L. I.; Choynzonov, E. L.; Lisin, V. A.; Novikov, V. A.


    The purpose of this study was to analyze the results of the combined modality treatment and radiation therapy using 6.3 MeV fast neutrons for salivary gland cancer and prognostically unfavorable thyroid gland cancer. The study group comprised 127 patients with salivary gland cancer and 46 patients with thyroid gland cancer, who received neutron therapy alone and in combination with surgery. The results obtained demonstrated that the combined modality treatment including fast neutron therapy led to encouraging local control in patients with salivary and thyroid gland cancers.

  12. Aquaporins in Salivary Glands: From Basic Research to Clinical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Delporte


    Full Text Available Salivary glands are involved in saliva secretion that ensures proper oral health. Aquaporins are expressed in salivary glands and play a major role in saliva secretion. This review will provide an overview of the salivary gland morphology and physiology of saliva secretion, and focus on the expression, subcellular localization and role of aquaporins under physiological and pathophysiological conditions, as well as clinical applications involving aquaporins. This review is highlighting expression and localization of aquaporins in human, rat and mouse, the most studied species and is pointing out possible difference between major salivary glands, i.e., parotid, submandibular and sublingual glands.

  13. Inducible HSP70 Protects Radiation-Induced Salivary Gland Damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hae-June; Lee, Yoon-Jin; Kwon, Hee-Choong; Lee, Su-Jae; Bae, Sang-Woo; Lee, Yun-Sil [Korea Institute of Radiological Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sung-Ho [Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)


    Irradiation (IR) delivered to the head and neck is a common treatment for malignancies. Salivary glands in the irradiation field are severely damaged, and consequently this resulted in marked salivary hypofunction. While the exact mechanism of salivary gland damage remains enigmatic, fluid secreting acinar cells are lost, and saliva output is dramatically reduced. Previously we have reported that inducible heat shock protein 70 (HSP70i) induced radioresistance in vitro. Moreover, HSP70i localized to salivary glands by gene transfer has great potential for the treatment of salivary gland. Herein, we investigated whether HSP70 can use as radio protective molecules for radiation-induced salivary gland damage in vivo.

  14. Contact endoscopy for identifying the parathyroid glands during thyroidectomy. (United States)

    Guimarães, A V; Brandão, L G; Dedivitis, R A


    Aim of this study was to analyse contact endoscopy as an auxiliary method for identifying parathyroid glands during thyroid surgery and to identify other variables that may interfere with this correlation. Overall, 125 patients underwent thyroid surgery between January 2004 and February 2006. The variables analysed were: the total duration of surgery; time taken to locate and identify parathyroid glands; improvement in identifying these; numbers of parathyroid glands located by the surgeon and confirmed by contact endoscopy; histopathological diagnosis; presence of thyroiditis; thyroid weight; number of parathyroid glands left in thyroid specimens; and number of parathyroid gland autotransplantations. A total of 331 parathyroid glands were observed by the surgeon. However, 282 glands were identified by contact endoscopy. Nine parathyroid glands (7.2%) were observed together with thyroid specimens (Kappa = 0.534). The longer the total duration of surgery (p = 0.03) and time taken to locate and identify (p = 0.00) the parathyroid glands by contact endoscopy, the lower the observed agreement. The second year of performing contact endoscopy led to better agreement between the results (p = 0.02). In conclusion, contact endoscopy is an efficient auxiliary method for identifying parathyroid glands during thyroid surgery. During the period studied, association between total duration of surgery and time taken to locate and identify parathyroid glands was statistically significant.

  15. Clinical criteria for the diagnosis of salivary gland hypofunction. (United States)

    Navazesh, M; Christensen, C; Brightman, V


    There is considerable difficulty in the making of initial clinical decisions as to whether a given patient has salivary gland hypofunction, and hence requires additional salivary gland evaluation. This study identified a set of four clinical measures that, together, successfully predicted the presence or absence of salivary gland hypofunction. The four measures were: dryness of lips, dryness of buccal mucosa, absence of saliva produced by gland palpation, and total DMFT; they were derived from discriminant analysis of data collected from 71 individuals with normal and low salivary flow rates. These measures are proposed as criteria for clinical decision-making, as well as for classification of patients in studies of salivary gland dysfunction syndromes. This study also identified unstimulated whole salivary flow rates of 0.12-0.16 mL/min as the critical range separating individuals with salivary gland hypofunction from those with normal gland function.

  16. Semiochemicals from the predatory stink bug Eocanthecona furcellata (Wolff): components of metathoracic gland, dorsal abdominal gland, and sternal gland secretions. (United States)

    Ho, Hsaio-Yung; Kou, Rong; Tseng, Hsin-Kuang


    Volatile compounds from the metathoracic glands (MTG), dorsal abdominal glands (DAG), and sternal setae of the generalist predatory stink bug Eocanthecona furcellata (Wolff) were studied by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. MTGs of both male and female bugs contained (E)-2-decenal as the major component, with lesser amounts of (E, E)-2,4-decadienal, (E, Z)-2,4-decadienal, and (E)-2,9-decadienal. The relative amount of (E)-2,9-decadienal in the MTGs of female bugs was higher than in male bugs. There was no dimorphism in the morphology of the DAGs of adults. However, the DAG contents of adult bugs were different between the sexes. Geraniol was found only in the DAGs of males, and limonene and alpha-terpineol were found only in the DAGs of females, whereas linalool oxide isomers, linalool, neral, and geranial were found in DAGs of both sexes. The DAG contents of nymphs were also analyzed, with 4-oxo-(E)-2-hexenal, 4-oxo-(E)-2-octenal, tridecane, and tetradecanal being major components. Male bugs but not females possess sternal setae, and 6,10,13-trimethyltetradecyl isovalerate was detected from extracts of the sternal setae of males. The possible biological significance of dimorphism in the contents of the glands in adults is discussed.

  17. Anatomy and histology of rodent and human major salivary glands: -overview of the Japan salivary gland society-sponsored workshop-. (United States)

    Amano, Osamu; Mizobe, Kenichi; Bando, Yasuhiko; Sakiyama, Koji


    MAJOR SALIVARY GLANDS OF BOTH HUMANS AND RODENTS CONSIST OF THREE PAIRS OF MACROSCOPIC GLANDS: parotid, submandibular, and sublingual. These glands secrete serous, mucous or mixed saliva via the proper main excretory ducts connecting the glandular bodies with the oral cavity. A series of discoveries about the salivary ducts in the 17th century by Niels Stensen (1638-1686), Thomas Wharton (1614-1673), and Caspar Bartholin (1655-1738) established the concept of exocrine secretion as well as salivary glands. Recent investigations have revealed the endocrine functions of parotin and a variety of cell growth factors produced by salivary glands.The present review aims to describe macroscopic findings on the major salivary glands of rodents and the microscopic differences between those of humans and rodents, which review should be of interest to those researchers studying salivary glands.

  18. Imaging of the adrenal gland lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herr, Keith [Department of Radiology, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Muglia, Valdair F. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FMRP/USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina; Koff, Walter Jose [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Cirurgia; Westphalen, Antonio Carlos, E-mail: [Departments of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging and Urology, School of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, CA (United States)


    With the steep increase in the use of cross-sectional imaging in recent years, the incidentally detected adrenal lesion, or 'incidentaloma', has become an increasingly common diagnostic problem for the radiologist, and a need for an approach to classifying these lesions as benign, malignant or indeterminate with imaging has spurred an explosion of research. While most incidentalomas represent benign disease, typically an adenoma, the possibility of m alignant involvement of the adrenal gland necessitates a reliance on imaging to inform management decisions. In this article, we review the literature on adrenal gland imaging, with particular emphasis on computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and photon-emission tomography, and discuss how these findings relate to clinical practice. Emerging technologies, such as contrast-enhanced ultrasonography, dual-energy computed tomography, and magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging will also be briefly addressed. (author)

  19. Imaging of the adrenal gland lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith Herr


    Full Text Available With the steep increase in the use of cross-sectional imaging in recent years, the incidentally detected adrenal lesion, or "incidentaloma", has become an increasingly common diagnostic problem for the radiologist, and a need for an approach to classifying these lesions as benign, malignant or indeterminate with imaging has spurred an explosion of research. While most incidentalomas represent benign disease, typically an adenoma, the possibility of malignant involvement of the adrenal gland necessitates a reliance on imaging to inform management decisions. In this article, we review the literature on adrenal gland imaging, with particular emphasis on computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and photon-emission tomography, and discuss how these findings relate to clinical practice. Emerging technologies, such as contrast-enhanced ultrasonography, dual-energy computed tomography, and magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging will also be briefly addressed.

  20. Amplification and expression of a salivary gland DNA puff gene in the prothoracic gland of Bradysia hygida (Diptera: Sciaridae). (United States)

    Candido-Silva, Juliana Aparecida; Machado, Maiaro Cabral Rosa; Hartfelder, Klaus Hartmann; de Almeida, Jorge Cury; Paçó-Larson, Maria Luisa; Monesi, Nadia


    The DNA puff BhC4-1 gene, located in DNA puff C4 of Bradysiahygida, is amplified and expressed in the salivary gland at the end of the fourth larval instar as a late response to the increase in 20-hydroxyecdysone titer that triggers metamorphosis. Functional studies revealed that the mechanisms that regulate BhC4-1 expression in the salivary gland are conserved in transgenic Drosophila. These studies also led to the identification of a cis-regulatory module that drives developmentally regulated expression of BhC4-1-lacZ in the prothoracic gland cells of the ring gland, a compound organ which in Drosophila results from the fusion of the prothoracic glands, the corpus allatum and the corpus cardiacum. Here we have investigated the occurrence of BhC4-1 expression in B. hygida prothoracic glands. We report the identification of the B. hygida prothoracic gland and demonstrate that it releases ecdysone. Using RT-qPCR, western blots and immunolocalization experiments, we demonstrate that the BhC4-1 mRNA and the BhC4-1 protein are both expressed in the B. hygida prothoracic glands at the same time that DNA puff C4 is formed in the salivary gland. We also show that BhC4-1 is concomitantly amplified 4.8-fold in the prothoracic gland and 23-fold in the salivary gland. Our results reveal the occurrence of stage specific expression of a DNA puff gene in the prothoracic glands of B. hygida, and extend previous studies that have shown that DNA puff genes expression is not restricted to the salivary gland. In addition, the description of stage specific gene amplification in the prothoracic glands of B. hygida constitutes the first demonstration that gene amplification in Diptera might occur concomitantly in two different tissues in the same developmental stage.

  1. Breast carcinoma metastasis to the lacrimal gland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nickelsen, Marie N.; Von Holstein, Sarah; Hansen, Alastair B.;


    A 77-year-old female, with proptosis, reduced eye motility and diplopia which had developed over two to three months and a 69-year-old female with proptosis, oedema of the eyelid, reduced motility and ptosis, which had developed over three weeks, are presented in the present study. Computed tomog...... study aimed to describe two such cases and draw attention to breast carcinomas as a differential diagnosis and the most frequent cause of lacrimal gland metastasis....

  2. Apparent diffusion coefficient of normal adrenal glands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Reis Teixeira

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To assess the feasibility and reliability of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC measurements of normal adrenal glands. Materials and methods: This was a retrospective study involving 32 healthy subjects, divided into two groups: prepubertal (PreP, n = 12, aged from 2 months to 12.5 years (4 males; 8 females; and postpubertal (PostP, n = 20, aged from 11.9 to 61 years (5 males; 15 females. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI sequences were acquired at a 1.5 T scanner using b values of 0, 20, 500, and 1000 s/mm2. Two radiologists evaluated the images. ADC values were measured pixel-by-pixel on DW-MRI scans, and automatic co-registration with the ADC map was obtained. Results: Mean ADC values for the right adrenal glands were 1.44 × 10-3 mm2/s for the PreP group and 1.23 × 10-3 mm2/s for the PostP group, whereas they were 1.58 × 10-3 mm2/s and 1.32 × 10-3 mm2/s, respectively, for the left glands. ADC values were higher in the PreP group than in the PostP group (p < 0.05. Agreement between readers was almost perfect (intraclass correlation coefficient, 0.84-0.94; p < 0.05. Conclusion: Our results demonstrate the feasibility and reliability of performing DW-MRI measurements of normal adrenal glands. They could also support the feasibility of ADC measurements of small structures.

  3. Mycobacterium chelonae infection of the parotid gland

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    Hamid S Shaaban


    Full Text Available Mycobacterium chelonae can cause numerous infections, including lung disease, local cutaneous disease, osteomyelitis, joint infections and ocular disease. With the exception of lung disease, these syndromes commonly develop after direct inoculation. The most common clinical presentation in immunocompetent individuals is skin and soft tissue infection. We present a case of M. chelonae infection of the parotid gland that was successfully treated with clarithromycin monotherapy. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of M. chelonae parotitis in an adult.

  4. Apparent diffusion coefficient of normal adrenal glands* (United States)

    Teixeira, Sara Reis; Elias, Paula Condé Lamparelli; Leite, Andrea Farias de Melo; de Oliveira, Tatiane Mendes Gonçalves; Muglia, Valdair Francisco; Elias Junior, Jorge


    Objective To assess the feasibility and reliability of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measurements of normal adrenal glands. Materials and methods This was a retrospective study involving 32 healthy subjects, divided into two groups: prepubertal (PreP, n = 12), aged from 2 months to 12.5 years (4 males; 8 females); and postpubertal (PostP, n = 20), aged from 11.9 to 61 years (5 males; 15 females). Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) sequences were acquired at a 1.5 T scanner using b values of 0, 20, 500, and 1000 s/mm2. Two radiologists evaluated the images. ADC values were measured pixel-by-pixel on DW-MRI scans, and automatic co-registration with the ADC map was obtained. Results Mean ADC values for the right adrenal glands were 1.44 × 10-3 mm2/s for the PreP group and 1.23 × 10-3 mm2/s for the PostP group, whereas they were 1.58 × 10-3 mm2/s and 1.32 × 10-3 mm2/s, respectively, for the left glands. ADC values were higher in the PreP group than in the PostP group (p < 0.05). Agreement between readers was almost perfect (intraclass correlation coefficient, 0.84-0.94; p < 0.05). Conclusion Our results demonstrate the feasibility and reliability of performing DW-MRI measurements of normal adrenal glands. They could also support the feasibility of ADC measurements of small structures. PMID:28057963

  5. Duodenal lipoma associated with ectopic duodenal glands

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    Dianbo Cao


    Full Text Available Duodenal lipomas are relatively uncommon and are rarely responsible for clinical symptoms. Occasionally, searching for aetiology of gastrointestinal bleeding leads to the final diagnosis of duodenal lipomas. Here, we present the case of a 68-year-old woman who suffered with repeated melena and weight loss. Endoscopy, abdominal computed tomography (CT and histopathological outcomes are described in this case of duodenal lipoma with ectopic duodenal glands.

  6. Epigenetic regulation of CFTR in salivary gland. (United States)

    Shin, Yong-Hwan; Lee, Sang-Woo; Kim, Minkyoung; Choi, Se-Young; Cong, Xin; Yu, Guang-Yan; Park, Kyungpyo


    Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) plays a key role in exocrine secretion, including salivary glands. However, its functional expression in salivary glands has not been rigorously studied. In this study, we investigated the expression pattern and regulatory mechanism of CFTR in salivary glands using immunohistochemistry, western blot analysis, Ussing chamber study, methylation-specific PCR, and bisulfite sequencing. Using an organ culture technique, we found that CFTR expression was first detected on the 15th day at the embryonic stage (E15) and was observed in ducts but not in acini. CFTR expression was confirmed in HSG and SIMS cell lines, which both originated from ducts, but not in the SMG C-6 cell line, which originated from acinar cells. Treatment of SMG C-6 cells with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-Aza-CdR) restored the expression level of CFTR mRNA in a time-dependent manner. Restoration of CFTR was further confirmed by a functional study. In the Ussing chamber study, 10 μM Cact-A1, a CFTR activator, did not evoke any currents in SMG C-6 cells. In contrast, in SMG C-6 cells pretreated with 5-Aza-CdR, Cact-A1 evoked a robust increase of currents, which were inhibited by the CFTR inhibitor CFTRinh-172. Furthermore, forskolin mimicked the currents activated by Cact-A1. In our epigenetic study, SMG C-6 cells showed highly methylated CG pairs in the CFTR CpG island and most of the methylated CG pairs were demethylated by 5-Aza-CdR. Our results suggest that epigenetic regulation is involved in the development of salivary glands by silencing the CFTR gene in a tissue-specific manner.

  7. [Salivary gland stem cells : Can they restore radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction?]. (United States)

    Rotter, N; Schwarz, S; Jakob, M; Brandau, S; Wollenberg, B; Lang, S


    Adult stem cells are actively investigated in the fields of regenerative medicine and tissue engineering, as they exhibit specific characteristics that make them promising candidates for cellular therapies. Depending on their tissue of origin these characteristics include long-term proliferation and the capacity to differentiate into various cell types. To date adult stem cells have been isolated from a multitude of tissues. Non-embryogenic adult tissues contain only small numbers of such stem cells and the derivation of such tissues can cause comorbidities. Therefore, there is ongoing interest in the identification and characterisation of novel cell sources for stem cell isolation and characterisation.Recently, salivary gland tissue has also been explored as a possible source of stem cells, first in animals and later in humans. Such salivary gland-derived stem cells might be useful in the treatment of radiation-induced salivary gland hypofunction, and possibly also in other diseases with loss of acinar cells, such as sequelae of radio iodine treatment or Sjögren's disease.In this paper we review the current status of salivary gland stem cell biology and application and discuss the possible role of stem cells in the development of novel therapies for salivary gland dysfunctions such as postradiogenic xerostomia.

  8. Malignant lymphoma and the thyroid gland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, W.; Reiners, C.; Boerner, W.; Mueller, H.A.; Wuensch, P.H.; Schaeffer, R.; Gunzer, U.


    Among 4325 goiter patients first examined in the period from February 1980 to April 1982, 5 cases of lymphoma appearing primarily in the thyroid gland were discovered incidentally. During the same period 13 patients with anaplastic thyroid carcinoma were observed. 5 of 23 systematically examined patients who had already known extrahyroidal malignant non-Hodgkin's lymphomas and lymphoma patient examined by chance exhibited a secondary thyroid gland lymphoma, that is, a secondary infiltration of the enlarged thyroid. Altogether, 29 patients with malignant non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (Kiel classification) were examined. Of 8 Hodgkin's disease patients none showed clinical or cytological evidence of thyroid infiltration. The clinical symptoms of primary lymphoma of the thyroid gland corresponded to those of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. A positive differential diagnosis of the two tumours succeeded cytologically. The secondary lymphoma of the thyroid also could only be diagnosed cytologically. Patients with Hodgkin's lymphoma and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma were always found to be euthyroid. Autoimmunological phenomena (antimicrosomal and antithyreoglobulin autoantibodies) as an indicator of lymphocytic thyroiditis could only be examined among 11 patients. Two patients with secondary lymphoma of the thyroid showed positive titers. A small cell anaplastic thyroid carcinoma could not be diagnosed in any of 37 patients with anaplastic thyroid cancer out of an enlarged patient collective (period under consideration: 1976-1982).

  9. The mystery of the thymus gland. (United States)

    Liu, Daniel; Ellis, Harold


    The thymus is the last organ in the human body to have its mechanisms fully understood, having had its function fully delineated more than 50 years ago (Miller , Tissue Antigens 63:509-517). Prior to this, the thymus gland has had an interesting history with theories having included a role in fetal growth and development before becoming more sinisterly, a cause of sudden infant death in the late 19th century known as status lymphaticus (Paltauf , Wien Klin Wochenschr 2:877-881). Until Miller (, Lancet 278:748-749) eventually proved its primarily immunological role, the history of this mysterious gland has closely mirrored the history of medicine itself, troubling the minds of pathologists such as Virchow (, Ueber die Chlorose und die damit zusammenhängenden Anomalien im Gefässapparate, insbesondere über "Endocarditis puerperalis," vorgetragen in der Sitzung der Berliner Geburtshülflichen Gesellschaft vom 12) and Grawitz (, Deut Med Wochenschr 22:429-431), surgeons such as Astley Cooper (, The Anatomy of the Thymus Gland) and Keynes (1953, Ann R Coll Surg 12:88), and eminent medical epidemiologists such as Greenwood and Woods [, J Hyg (Lond) 26:305-326]. This article will hopefully be of interest therefore to both clinician and historian alike. Clin. Anat. 29:679-684, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Fine needle aspiration cytology of salivary gland lesions: Our experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooja K Suresh


    Full Text Available Introduction: Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC of salivary glands is one of the most commonly done first line investigations in the head and neck region. Objectives: To study the cytological features of various salivary gland lesions and to correlate with histopathological diagnosis wherever possible. Materials and Methods: All the FNAC slides of salivary gland lesions received at cytology lab of a tertiary hospital for a period of 3 years that is, from January 2011 to December 2013 were reviewed retrospectively. Histopathological correlation was done for cases wherever available. Results: During the study period salivary gland FNAC was done for 100 cases. Among them, 51 (51% were reported as nonneoplastic and 49 as neoplastic (49%. Histopathological correlation was available in 18 cases (18%. The accuracy of salivary gland cytology is 77.7% (14/18 cases. The mean age of presentation of all the salivary gland lesions ranged from 12 years to 92 years with the mean age being 47.7 years. The male:female ratio was 1.5:1. Parotid gland was involved in 74 cases and submandibular gland in 26 cases. Bilateral involvement was noted in 1 case (1%. Conclusion: Being a minimally invasive procedure, FNA of salivary glands continues to be an important diagnostic tool in the preoperative diagnosis of salivary gland lesions in spite of few pitfalls in diagnosing due to cytomorphological overlapping.

  11. Morphological characteristics of submandibular glands of miniature pig

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Xin; Li Jun; Liu Xiao-yong; Sun Yi-lin; Zhang Chun-mei; Wang Song-ling


    Background Miniature pig (minipig) is increasingly used as a large animal model for a variety of biomedical studies. Little information is available in the literature on anatomy, histology and sialograghy of the submandibular gland of the minipig. The purpose of this study was to characterize the morphology of a miniature pig's (minipig) submandibular gland as a large animal model for further biomedical studies.Methods Five minipigs were subjected to sialographic, anatomic, histologic, histochemical and ultrastructural evaluations for submandibular glands. Results Sialograms showed a long, horizontal main excretory duct and a pear-shaped gland located inferoposterior to the angle of the mandible. The submandibular glands lied superficial to the suprahyoid, and infrahyoid muscle groups, and were covered by the inferior portion of the parotid gland. The submandibular glands were characterized by a mixed parenchyma of mucous and serous secretory acini. Alcian blue (AB) staining and periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) reactions demon-strated that minipig submandibular glands synthesized and secreted acid mucous substances by serous cells and polysaccharide, and neutral mucous substances, by mucous cells. Conclusion The submandibular gland of the minipig is considered a useful large salivary gland animal model for biomedical studies.

  12. Semi-automatic elastic registration on thyroid gland ultrasonic image (United States)

    Xu, Xia; Zhong, Yue; Luo, Yan; Li, Deyu; Lin, Jiangli; Wang, Tianfu


    Knowledge of in vivo thyroid volume has both diagnostic and therapeutic importance and could lead to a more precise quantification of absolute activity contained in the thyroid gland. However, the shape of thyroid gland is irregular and difficult to calculate. For precise estimation of thyroid volume by ultrasound imaging, this paper presents a novel semiautomatic minutiae matching method in thyroid gland ultrasonic image by means of thin-plate spline model. Registration consists of four basic steps: feature detection, feature matching, mapping function design, and image transformation and resampling. Due to the connectivity of thyroid gland boundary, we choose active contour model as feature detector, and radials from centric points for feature matching. The proposed approach has been used in thyroid gland ultrasound images registration. Registration results of 18 healthy adults' thyroid gland ultrasound images show this method consumes less time and energy with good objectivity than algorithms selecting landmarks manually.

  13. Morphology and protein patterns of honey bee drone accessory glands. (United States)

    Cruz-Landim, Carminda da; Dallacqua, Rodrigo Pires


    We used light and transmission electron microscopy to examine the morphology of the accessory glands of immature and mature adult males of Apis mellifera L. We also made an electrophoretic analysis of the protein content of the mature gland. The glands of the immature male actively secrete a mucous substance that can be seen in the lumen of the gland of the mature male. This secretion stains with mercury bromophenol blue and with periodic acid-Schiff reaction, which stain glyconjugates. The protein content was higher in the lumen secretion than in the gland wall extracts. The electrophoresis patterns of the wall extracts were different from those of the secretion found in the gland lumen.

  14. Evolution of Brunner gland hamartoma associated with Helicobacter pylori infection. (United States)

    Kurella, Ravi R; Ancha, Hanumantha R; Hussain, Sanam; Lightfoot, Stan A; Harty, Richard


    The pathogenesis of Brunner gland hamartoma of the duodenum is unknown. This case report describes the chronology of the development of Brunner gland hamartoma from Brunner gland hyperplasia over a 12-year interval. The study subject, a 64-year-old man with chronic iron deficiency anemia, underwent serial upper endoscopies during this period. Repeated endoscopies demonstrated the evolution of Brunner gland hyperplasia, as manifest endoscopically by a submucosal mass, to a pedunculated polyp with histologic features of Brunner gland hamartoma. The duodenal polypoid mass was removed by snare polypectomy. The patient also had a chronic Helicobacter pylori infection of the stomach. This report details the time-dependent evolution of Brunner gland hyperplasia to hamartoma in association with chronic gastric H. pylori infection.

  15. An unusual presentation of lacrimal gland pleomorphic adenoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josie Naomi Iyeyasu


    Full Text Available Tumors of the lacrimal gland are rare in clinical practice. Among all of them, the most common epithelial tumor is the lacrimal gland pleomorphic adenoma, which is a benign indolent tumor that usually affects adults in the third and fourth decades of life. We present an unusual case of lacrimal gland pleomorphic adenoma. Its management, radiological findings and outcomes are also described, along with a brief review of the literature.

  16. Pineal Gland Lymphoma: Case Report and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akshya Gupta


    Full Text Available A 65-year-old male presented to our institution with acute-onset headache. Imaging studies demonstrated a mass in the region of the pineal gland, with subsequent histopathology findings being consistent with large B cell lymphoma. The patient was treated with methotrexate, but ultimately did not survive. Primary central nervous system (CNS lymphoma rarely involves the pineal gland, but should be considered in the differential diagnosis of pineal gland tumors in the appropriate clinical setting.

  17. Hypoplasia of the parotid gland: computed tomography sialography diagnosis. (United States)

    Sun, Lisha; Sun, Zhipeng; Ma, Xuchen


    We report two unusual cases of non-syndromic hypoplasia of the parotid gland. The hypoplastic parotid gland mimicked a preauricular parotid tumor in one case and presented as an incidental image finding in the other case. Absence of the deep lobe and isthmus of the parotid parenchyma could be determined on axial computed tomography (CT) by revealing fat tissue composition of the parotid space. The underdeveloped superficial lobe of the gland was observed on three-dimensional CT sialography.

  18. 18F-FDG-avid brunner gland hyperplasia. (United States)

    Park, Seol Hoon; Park, Kwang-Min; Kim, Jae Seung


    Brunner gland hyperplasia, a rare duodenal tumor, usually presents with benign features. A 68-year-old man with a history of anemia presented with a polypoid duodenal mass that was detected by CT and esophagogastroduodenoscopy. This mass showed high F-FDG avidity on PET/CT and was histopathologically confirmed as Brunner gland hyperplasia. We suggest that Brunner gland hyperplasia should be considered in the differential diagnosis of F-FDG-avid duodenal tumors.

  19. Cystic Brunner's gland hamartoma in the duodenum: A case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Beom Jin Park; Min Ju Kim; Jeong Hyeon Lee; Sung-Soo Park; Deuk Jae Sung; Sung Bum Cho


    Cystic Brunner's gland hamartoma in the duodenum is exceedingly rare, although microscopic examination may sometimes reveal a Brunner's gland hamartoma containing dilated ducts in the duodenum. We present a case of large cystic Brunner's gland hamartoma in the duodenum with a long stalk, which is described in light of multidetector-row computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and a modified small bowel series, together with pathologic correlation and differential diagnosis.

  20. Retroauricular Pleomorphic Adenoma Arising from Heterotopic Salivary Gland Tissue (United States)

    Bacaj, Patrick; Borah, Gregory


    Summary: A 38-year-old woman is described who presented with a slowly growing mass on the posterior aspect of the left ear. Excision and histopathologic evaluation revealed a pleomorphic adenoma (PA) originating from heterotopic salivary gland tissue. Many authors have presented cases of PAs originating from ceruminous glands in the external auditory canal or of so-called chondroid syringoma originating from apocrine and eccrine sweat glands. This is the only case in the recent literature of a PA originating from a heterotopic rest of salivary gland tissue in the retroauricular region. The 3 main sources of PAs, their embryologic derivation, and treatment are described.

  1. Doxorubicin-induced alopecia is associated with sebaceous gland degeneration. (United States)

    Selleri, Silvia; Seltmann, Holger; Gariboldi, Silvia; Shirai, Yuri F; Balsari, Andrea; Zouboulis, Christos C; Rumio, Cristiano


    Alopecia, accompanied by skin dryness, is one of the distressing side effects often occurring in chemotherapy-treated cancer patients. Little is known of the effects of chemotherapy on sebaceous glands, despite their importance in hair follicle homeostasis. This study investigates sebaceous gland morphology and the response of SZ95 sebaceous gland cell line to doxorubicin (DXR) treatment. The morphology of sebaceous glands during intraperitoneal DXR treatment was investigated by optical and electron microscopy in a 7-day-old rat model and further confirmed in an adult mouse model. Moreover, in vitro studies using the SZ95 sebaceous gland cell line were performed to assess the response of sebocytes to DXR in terms of cell proliferation, apoptosis, and necrosis. DXR treatment induced sebaceous gland regression and occasionally caused their complete disappearance. This observed damage and disappearance preceded DXR-induced hair loss. In vitro experiments using the SZ95 sebaceous gland cell line indicated that DXR treatment induced a differentiation process leading to premature sebocytes apoptosis. Owing to the importance of the sebaceous gland in hair follicle homeostasis, DXR-induced involution of this gland might be related to subsequent hair loss.

  2. Note on glands present in meliponinae (Hymenoptera, Apidae bees legs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carminda da Cruz-Landim


    Full Text Available The present paper reports the presence of glandular structures in legs of some stingless bee species. The glands appear as: the epidermis transformation in a glandular epithelium as in basitarsus, an epithelial sac inside the segment as in the femur of queens or in the last tarsomere, as round glandular cells, scattered or forming groupments. The saculiform gland of femur is present only in queens, the other glands are present in males, queens and workers of the studied species, apparently without any type of polymorphism. This occurrence seems indicate that the function of these glands have not to do with the sociality or specific behavior of castes.

  3. Rescue of Salivary Gland Function after Stem Cell Transplantation in Irradiated Glands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lombaert, Isabelle M. A.; Brunsting, Jeanette F.; Wierenga, Pieter K.; Faber, Hette; Stokman, Monique A.; Kok, Tineke; Visser, Willy H.; Kampinga, Harm H.; de Haan, Gerald; Coppes, Robert P.


    Head and neck cancer is the fifth most common malignancy and accounts for 3% of all new cancer cases each year. Despite relatively high survival rates, the quality of life of these patients is severely compromised because of radiation-induced impairment of salivary gland function and consequential x

  4. Circadian regulation of pineal gland rhythmicity. (United States)

    Borjigin, Jimo; Zhang, L Samantha; Calinescu, Anda-Alexandra


    The pineal gland is a neuroendocrine organ of the brain. Its main task is to synthesize and secrete melatonin, a nocturnal hormone with diverse physiological functions. This review will focus on the central and pineal mechanisms in generation of mammalian pineal rhythmicity including melatonin production. In particular, this review covers the following topics: (1) local control of serotonin and melatonin rhythms; (2) neurotransmitters involved in central control of melatonin; (3) plasticity of the neural circuit controlling melatonin production; (4) role of clock genes in melatonin formation; (5) phase control of pineal rhythmicity; (6) impact of light at night on pineal rhythms; and (7) physiological function of the pineal rhythmicity.

  5. Orbital sebaceous gland carcinoma: A brief communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Tiwari


    Full Text Available Sebaceous gland carcinoma commonly arises in the periocular area and is an uncommon condition. Its orbital origin is even rare with isolated reports in literature search. Its early diagnosis is frequently missed owing to the subtle presentation that mimics various benign conditions. Surgery with wide resection margin is considered the standard of care. Irradiation is frequently indicated and administered as an adjuvant regimen following surgical resection. The role of chemotherapy in this disease remains investigational and is usually employed in recurrent settings.

  6. The endolymphatic sac, a potential endocrine gland?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvortrup, K; Rostgaard, J; Holstein-Rathlou, N H;


    is described, demonstrating that this organ fulfils the morphological criteria of a potential endocrine gland. Accordingly, the chief cells are shown to exhibit all the organelles and characteristics of cells that simultaneously synthesize, secrete, absorb and digest proteins.......A previous investigation indicated that the chief cells of the endolymphatic sac produce an endogenous inhibitor of sodium re-absorption in the kidneys, which has tentatively been named "saccin". In this study, the ultrastructure of the endolymphatic sac and in particular the chief cells...

  7. Mammary gland pathologies in the parturient buffalo

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    G N Purohit


    Full Text Available Parturition related mammary gland pathologies in the buffalo appear to be low on accord of anatomic (longer teat length, thicker streak canal and physiologic (lower cisternal storage of secreted milk, lower milk production differences with cattle. Hemolactia, udder edema and hypogalactia usually occur in the buffalo due to physiologic changes around parturition however mastitis involves pathologic changes in the udder and teats; the incidence of mastitis is however lower compared to cattle. The incidence and therapy of hemolactia, udder edema and hypogalactia are mentioned and the risk factors, incidence, diagnosis, therapy and prevention for mastitis in buffalo are also described.

  8. [Lymph node and distant metastases of thyroid gland cancer. Metastases in the thyroid glands]. (United States)

    Schmid, K W


    The different biological features of the various major entities of thyroid cancer, e.g. papillary, follicular, poorly differentiated, anaplastic and medullary, depend to a large extent on their different metastatic spread. Papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) has a propensity for cervical lymphatic spread that occurs in 20-50 % of patients whereas distant metastasis occurs in thyroid cancer (FTC) has a marked propensity for vascular but not lymphatic invasion and 10-20 % of FTC develop distant metastases. At the time of diagnosis approximately one third of medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) cases show lymph node metastases, in 10-15 % distant metastases and 25 % develop metastases during the course of the disease. Poorly differentiated (PDTC) and anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) spread via both lymphatic and vascular invasion. Thus distant metastases are relatively uncommon in DTC and when they occur, long-term stable disease is the typical clinical course. The major sites of distant metastases are the lungs and bone. Metastases to the brain, breasts, liver, kidneys, muscle and skin are relatively rare or even rare. The thyroid gland itself can be a site of metastases from a variety of other tumors. In autopsy series of patients with disseminated cancer disease, metastases to the thyroid gland were found in up to 10 % of cases. Metastases from other primary tumors to the thyroid gland have been reported in 1.4-3 % of patients who have surgery for suspected cancer of the thyroid gland. The most common primary cancers that metastasize to the thyroid gland are renal cell (48.1 %), colorectal (10.4 %), lung (8.3 %) and breast cancer (7.8 %) and surprisingly often sarcomas (4.0 %).

  9. [Occurrence and structure of accessory adrenal glands in Wistar rats]. (United States)

    Schwabedal, P E; Partenheimer, U


    In complete series of histological sections through the entire abdomen of one normal Wistar-rat, one untreated and two bilaterally adrenalectomized, spontaneously hypertensive Wistar-rats accessory suprarenal glands were found in each case. The detailed findings in the various groups of animals investigated were as follows: (1) In the normal animal 10 accessory suprarenal glands were present. They consisted of tiny aggregates of cortical cells and were surrounded by a thin layer of collageneous fibers. The diameters of the accessory suprarenal complexes were in the order of 0.3 mm. (2) In the untreated, spontaneously hypertensive rat three accessory suprarenal glands were found. However, in contrast to what was seen in the normal rat, these complexes were larger and had diameters of up to 1 mm. Some of these accessory suprarenal glands consisted almost exclusively of small, chromophobe cells, whereas in others a rim of such cells was seen to surround a central core of larger and more acidophile cortical cells. There were few and collapsed capillaries. (3) In the bilaterally adrenalectomized, spontaneously hypertensive rats three, respectively four, accessory suprarenal glands were found. They were situated in the retroperitoneum and partly within the adipose capsule of the kidney but never in the place of the exstirpated main suprarenal glands. In one case an accessory gland was found within the fibrous capsule of the kidney and seen to compress the renal parenchyma. In the bilaterally adrenalectomized animals the average diameters of the accessory glands were larger than in the other groups reaching values of up to 5 mm. At least in both animals one of the accessory glands had a diameter comparable to that of the normal suprarenal gland of an untreated animal. The capillaries were dilated and their number was increased in comparison to what was seen in the other groups. In certain regions the cortical tissue of the accessory glands had an appearance resembling

  10. File list: Unc.Lar.20.AllAg.Salivary_glands [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Lar.20.AllAg.Salivary_glands dm3 Unclassified Larvae Salivary glands SRX450799 ... ...

  11. File list: Unc.Lar.50.AllAg.Salivary_glands [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Lar.50.AllAg.Salivary_glands dm3 Unclassified Larvae Salivary glands SRX450799 ... ...

  12. File list: Unc.Lar.10.AllAg.Salivary_glands [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Lar.10.AllAg.Salivary_glands dm3 Unclassified Larvae Salivary glands SRX450799 ... ...

  13. File list: Unc.Lar.05.AllAg.Salivary_glands [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Lar.05.AllAg.Salivary_glands dm3 Unclassified Larvae Salivary glands SRX450799 ... ...

  14. Glandes inscriptae procedentes de la Hispania Ulterior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pina Polo, Francisco


    Full Text Available The paper deals with a collection of 49 glandes which belong to a private collector. These slingshots are supposed to have been found around the so-called “Cerro de las Balas” (province Seville, where the battle of Munda took presumably place in 45 BC. Forty-six of them have inscriptions, CNMAG; LXIII; A; DD, which are respectively interpreted as Cn(aeus Mag(nus, L(egio XIII, A (? and, tentatively, d(ecreto d(ecurionum.Se presenta el catálogo de 49 glandes pertenecientes a un coleccionista privado. Los proyectiles proceden supuestamente del entorno del “Cerro de las Balas” (provincia de Sevilla, junto al cual se supone que tuvo lugar la batalla de Munda en el año 45 a.C. Del total de las piezas, 46 presentan inscripciones, CNMAG; LXIII; A; DD, que son interpretadas respectivamente como Cn(aeus Mag(nus, L(egio XIII, A (? e, hipotéticamente, d(ecreto d(ecurionum.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Pituitary gland is known as the “Master Gland” of the body as it controls majority of the endocrine glands of the body. Embryologically, they are formed by two parts. There are two types of malignancies encountered namely adenomas and carcinomas. Vast majority of the neoplasms located in the sella turcica are benign pituitary adenomas derived from adenohypophyseal cells. The aim is to study the pituitary malignancies. METHODS The sample size included 100 cases of intra-cranial neoplasms that turned in the Department of Medicine in KVG Medical College, Sullia and different local private hospitals of Sullia and Mangalore. RESULTS Pituitary tumours comprised 6(6% of all the tumour studies. They occurred maximally in the age above 14 years. Tumours showed a male predominance. All the tumours were located in pituitary fossa. Principal presenting complaint was visual disturbance. Microscopically, the tumour was composed of small polyhedral to round cells with a uniform darkly staining round nucleus and scant eosinophilic cytoplasm. The cells formed papillary structures or were arranged in a trabecular pattern. CONCLUSION There is a male predominance in this study and the percentage of cases was found to be less in this region of Karnataka

  16. Genetic Analysis of Prostate Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.C.J.G. van Alewijk (Dirk)


    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The human prostate has the size of a chestnut and envelops the urethra as it exits the bladder, below the bladder neck. It is the largest of the male accessory sex glands, which also include the seminal vesicles, and bulbourethral gland. The prostate is composed of glan

  17. Morphological and distribution characteristics of sweat glands in hypertrophic scar and their possible effects on sweat gland regeneration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Xiao-bing; SUN Tong-zhu; LI Xiao-kun; SHENG Zhi-yong


    Background In hypertrophic scar tissue, no sweet gland and hair follicle exist usually because of the dermal and epidermal damage in extensive thermal skin injury, thus imparing regulation of body temperature. This study was designed to reveal the morphological and distributional characteristics of the sweat glands in normal skin and hypertrophic scar obtained from children and adults, and to study the possible interfering effects of the scar on regeneration of the sweat gland after burn injury. Methods Biopsies of hypertrophic scar were taken from four children (4-10 years) and four adults (35-51 years). Normal, uninjured full-thickness skin adjacent to the scar of each patient was used as control. Keratin 19 (K19) was used as the marker for epidermal stem cells and secretory portion of the sweat glands, and keratin 14 (K14) for the tube portion, respectively. Immunohistochemical and histological evaluations were performed. Results Histological and immunohistochemical staining of skin tissue sections from both the children and adults showed K19 positive cells in the basement membrane of epidermis of normal skin. These cells were seen only single layer and arranged regularly. The secretory or duct portion of the eccrine sweat glands was situated in the dermis and epidermal layer. However, in the scar tissue, K19 positive cells were scant in the basal layer, and the anatomic location of the secretory portion of sweat glands changed. They were located between the border of the scar and reticular layer of the dermis. These secretory portions of sweat glands were expanded and were organized irregularly. But a few K14 positive cells were scattered in the scar tissues in cyclic form.Conclusions There are some residual sweat glands in scar tissues, in which the regeneration process of active sweat glands is present. Possibly the sweat glands could regenerate from adult epidermal stem cells or residual sweat glands in the wound bed after burn injury.

  18. 9 CFR 310.17 - Inspection of mammary glands. (United States)


    ... mammary glands and diseased mammary glands of cattle, sheep, swine, and goats shall be removed without..., swine, and goats shall not be saved for edible purposes. (d) The udders from cows officially designated as “Brucellosis reactors” or as “Mastitis elimination cows” shall be condemned....

  19. Hyperforin accumulates in the translucent glands of Hypericum perforatum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soelberg, Jens; Jørgensen, Lise Bolt; Jäger, Anna K


    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Hypericum perforatum contains the therapeutically important compounds hypericin and hyperforin. Hypericin is known to accumulate in the dark glands. This investigation aimed to determine the accumulation site of hyperforin. METHODS: Dark and translucent glands as well as non...

  20. Cutaneous metastasis from a myoepithelial carcinoma of submandibular salivary gland. (United States)

    Chougule, Abhijit; Barwad, Adarsh; Bal, Amanjit; Dey, Pranab


    Myoepithelial carcinoma is a rare malignant tumor of salivary gland with locally aggressive nature and potential for distant metastasis. It is composed of tumor cells with myoepithelial differentiation showing varied cytomorphology. Lungs and kidneys are the commonest sites for distant metastasis. Cutaneous metastasis of myoepithelial carcinoma is very rare. In this report, we described cutaneous metastasis of myoepithelial carcinoma arising from submandibular gland.

  1. Case-report: metastasizing pleomorphic adenoma of the parotid gland.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schroeff, M.P. van der; Ru, J.A. de; Slootweg, P.J.


    CASE-REPORT: Metastasizing pleomorphic adenoma of the parotid gland. We present a case of metastasizing pleomorphic adenoma (MPA). The patient died in 2002 at the age of 64 years, following on an initial diagnosis of a pleomorphic adenoma of the right parotid gland at the age of nineteen, multiple l

  2. Regeneration of irradiated salivary glands by stem cell therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lombaert, Isabelle Madeleine Armand


    Yearly, worldwide more than 500.000 new head and neck cancer patients are treated with radiotherapy. Co-irradiation of salivary glands may lead to xerostomia (=dry mouth syndrome), resulting in permanent loss of saliva production. This loss of gland function after radiation is thought to be due to a

  3. Progression of salivary gland dysfunction in patients with Sjogren's syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijpe, J.; Kalk, W. W. I.; Bootsma, H.; Spijkervet, F. K. L.; Kallenberg, C. G. M.; Vissink, A.


    Background: Salivary gland dysfunction is one of the key manifestations of Sjogren's syndrome. Objectives: (1) To assess prospectively loss of function of individual salivary glands in patients with primary and secondary Sjogren's syndrome in relation to disease duration and use of immunomodulatory

  4. Volume of the adrenal and pituitary glands in depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Willer, Inge Stoel; Knorr, Ulla


    Numerous studies have shown that the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is hyperactive in some depressed patients. It is unclear whether such hyperactivity results in changed volumes of the adrenal glands, pituitary gland and hypothalamus. We systematically reviewed all controlled studies ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Knowledge of relationship between the facial artery and submandibular salivary gland is essential for the surgeon operating in the submandibular region. This study has been under taken to have the knowledge of this relationship. Submandibular region has been dissected on 20 male cadavers in the Department of Anatomy, Sree Narayana Institute of Medical Sciences, Kerala. The course of the facial artery and its relationship to submandibular salivary gland has been followed carefully. The standard description of ascent of the facial artery along the entire length of posterior border of the submandibular salivary gland was seen in 15 out of the 20 sides studied. In 4 out of 20 sides dissected the facial artery reached only the upper part of the posterior border of the gland. The facial artery arose high on the external carotid artery near the angle of the mandible in one specimen. It reached the gland only at its postero-superior angle, pierced through the gland and emerged on the upper part of the lateral surface of the gland. Our study shows that only 1/5 of instances facial artery courses along the posterior border of the gland. In 4/5 of instances it reaches only the upper part of the posterior border.

  6. Diagnosis and management of endocrine gland neoplasmas. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weller, R.E.


    Functional and nonfunctional neoplasms of the endocrine glands constitute some of the more challenging diagnostic and therapeutic problems in veterinary cancer medicine. This discussion will focus on the clinical signs and syndromes associated with neoplasms of the thyroid, adrenal, and parathyroid glands, and pancreas in companion animals and will concentrate on the mechanisms producing the clinical signs, diagnosis, staging, therapy and prognosis.

  7. Salivary Gland Dysfunction and Xerostomia in Sjogren's Syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jensen, Siri Beier; Vissink, Arjan


    In this article, salivary gland dysfunction and xerostomia in Sjogren's syndrome (SS) are discussed, with a focus on the pathophysiology of salivary dysfunction in SS, the clinical presentation of dry mouth in SS, how to assess salivary gland hypofunction and xerostomia in SS, and the impact of sali

  8. A rare case of primary tuberculosis of the submandibular gland!!!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasim S. Kasim


    Full Text Available A rare case of primary tuberculosis of the submandibular gland is reported here which required surgical gland excision for definitive diagnosis. It is presented in view of its rarity, the extreme difficulty in the diagnosis of this kind of disease and highlighting the importance of histopathological examination.

  9. Large Brunner's gland adenoma: Case report and literature review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alba Rocco; Pasquale Borriello; Debora Compare; Patrizia De Colibus; Loredana Pica; Alessandro Iacono; Gerardo Nardone


    Brunner's gland adenoma (BGA) is a very rare benign tumour of the duodenum, which is usually asymptomatic and discovered incidentally at endoscopy. Occasionally,this lesion may be large, causing upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage or intestinal obstruction. The case had a large Brunner's gland adenoma, presenting melena that was managed by endoscopic excision.

  10. Degeneration of host prothoracic glands caused by Campoletis chlorideae polydnavirus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Cong; YAN Yunhua; WANG Chenzhu


    The development of last instar Helicoverpa armigera prothoracic glands was investigated first; then the effects on the prothoracic glands of Helicoverpa armigera was studied by injection with calyx fluid and polydnavirus (PDV) from the endoparasitoid Campoletis chlorideae. Results showed that 3 female equivalents of calyx fluid or 4 female equivalents of PDV induced degeneration of host prothoracic glands. 24 h after calyx fluid or PDV injection the ultrastructure of the gland cells showed a significant decrease in intercellular channel system, while an increase in the number of round mitochondria, lysosomes and whorled figures, the organelle of some cells has degenerated and only organelle debris remained in the cells. These results suggest that calyx fluid or PDV cause the inactivation and degeneration of host prothoracic glands.

  11. Distinct stem cells contribute to mammary gland development and maintenance. (United States)

    Van Keymeulen, Alexandra; Rocha, Ana Sofia; Ousset, Marielle; Beck, Benjamin; Bouvencourt, Gaëlle; Rock, Jason; Sharma, Neha; Dekoninck, Sophie; Blanpain, Cédric


    The mammary epithelium is composed of several cell lineages including luminal, alveolar and myoepithelial cells. Transplantation studies have suggested that the mammary epithelium is maintained by the presence of multipotent mammary stem cells. To define the cellular hierarchy of the mammary gland during physiological conditions, we performed genetic lineage-tracing experiments and clonal analysis of the mouse mammary gland during development, adulthood and pregnancy. We found that in postnatal unperturbed mammary gland, both luminal and myoepithelial lineages contain long-lived unipotent stem cells that display extensive renewing capacities, as demonstrated by their ability to clonally expand during morphogenesis and adult life as well as undergo massive expansion during several cycles of pregnancy. The demonstration that the mammary gland contains different types of long-lived stem cells has profound implications for our understanding of mammary gland physiology and will be instrumental in unravelling the cells at the origin of breast cancers.

  12. Two independent anion transport systems in rabbit mandibular salivary glands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novak, I; Young, J A


    Cholinergically stimulated Cl and HCO3 transport in perfused rabbit mandibular glands has been studied with extracellular anion substitution and administration of transport inhibitors. In glands perfused with HCO3-free solutions, replacement of Cl with other anions supported secretion in the foll......Cholinergically stimulated Cl and HCO3 transport in perfused rabbit mandibular glands has been studied with extracellular anion substitution and administration of transport inhibitors. In glands perfused with HCO3-free solutions, replacement of Cl with other anions supported secretion...... stimulated secretion by about 30%, but when infused in addition to furosemide (0.1 mmol/l), it inhibited by about 20%. Amiloride (1.0 mmol/l) caused no inhibition. The results suggest that there are at least three distinct carriers in the rabbit mandibular gland. One is a furosemide-sensitive Na-coupled Cl...

  13. Vaginal myofibroblastoma with glands expressing mammary and prostatic antigens. (United States)

    Wallenfels, I; Chlumská, A


    A case of unusual vaginal myofibroblastoma containing glands which expressed mammary and prostatic markers is described. The tumor occurred in 70-year-old woman in the proximal third of the vagina. It showed morphology and immunophenotype typical of so-called cervicovaginal myofibroblastoma. The peripheral zone of the lesion contained a few groups of glands suggesting vaginal adenosis or prostatic-type glands on initial examination. The glands showed a surprising simultaneous expression of mammary markers mammaglobin and GCDFP-15 and prostatic markers prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and prostate-specific acid phosphatase (PSAP). Immunostains for alpha-smooth muscle actin, p63 and CD10 highlighted the myoepithelial cell layer of the glands. The finding indicates that simultaneous use of both mammary and prostatic markers for examination of unusual glandular lesions in the vulvovaginal location can be helpful for an exact diagnosis, and can contribute to better understanding of prostatic and mammary differentiations in the female lower genital tract.

  14. Lymphoepithelial Carcinoma of Parotid Gland- A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin A. Badge


    Full Text Available Lymphoepithelial carcinoma (LEC is most commonly seen in the nasopharynx. Very rarely it is found in the salivary gland, preferably in parotid gland followed by submandibular gland where it accounts for 0.4% of all malignant salivary gland tumours. Most commonly it is seen in fifth decade with female predominance. Significant correlation has been reported between this tumour and the Epstein Barr virus (EBV.It has a racial predilection for Inuits,Chinese and Japanese. Very rarely it is found In Indians. So we present a case of LEC of parotid gland in a 23 year old male Indian patient. As this is a very radiosensitive tumour, surgery followed by radiotherapy remains the treatment of choice.

  15. HSP25 Protects Radiation-Induced Salivary Gland Damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hae June; Lee, Yoon Jin; Kwon, Hee Choong; Lee, Su Jae; Bae, Sang Woo; Lee, Yun Sil [Korea Institute of Radiological Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sung Ho [Chonnam National Univ., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)


    Irradiation (IR) is a central treatment modality administered for head and neck malignancies. A significant consequence of this IR treatment is irreversible damage to salivary gland in the IR field. While the exact mechanism of salivary gland damage remains enigmatic, fluid secreting acinar cells are lost, and saliva output is dramatically reduced. Previously we have reported that heat shock protein 25 (HSP25) induced radioresistance in vitro. HSP25 interferes negatively with apoptosis through several pathways which involve its direct interaction with cytochrome c, protein kinase c delta or Akt. And localized gene transfer to salivary glands has great potential for the treatment of salivary gland. Herein, we investigated whether HSP25 can use as radio protective molecules for radiation-induced salivary gland damage in vivo.

  16. Accelerated evolution of crotalinae snake venom gland serine proteases. (United States)

    Deshimaru, M; Ogawa, T; Nakashima, K; Nobuhisa, I; Chijiwa, T; Shimohigashi, Y; Fukumaki, Y; Niwa, M; Yamashina, I; Hattori, S; Ohno, M


    Eight cDNAs encoding serine proteases isolated from Trimeresurus flavoviridis (habu snake) and T. gramineus (green habu snake) venom gland cDNA libraries showed that nonsynonymous nucleotide substitutions have accumulated in the mature protein-coding regions to cause amino acid changes. Southern blot analysis of T. flavoviridis genomic DNAs using two proper probes indicated that venom gland serine protease genes form a multigene family in the genome. These observations suggest that venom gland serine proteases have diversified their amino acid sequences in an accelerating manner. Since a similar feature has been previously discovered in crotalinae snake venom gland phospholipase A2 (PLA2) isozyme genes, accelerated evolution appears to be universal in plural isozyme families of crotalinae snake venom gland.

  17. Papillary Cystadenocarcinoma of the Parotid Gland: A Rare Case Report. (United States)

    Telugu, Ramesh Babu; Job, Anjana Juanita; Manipadam, Marie Therese


    Papillary cystadenocarcinoma is a rare malignant neoplasm of the salivary gland, characterized by noticeable cystic and solid areas with papillary endophytic projections. These tumours lack features that characterize cystic variants of several more common salivary gland carcinomas. It was first described in 1991 by World Health Organization as a separate entity and cystadenocarcinoma with or without papillary component in the AFIP classification. Most of these tumours occurred in the major salivary glands followed by minor salivary glands. Cystadenocarcinoma is the malignant counterpart of cystadenoma. We report a case of papillary cystadenocarcinoma of parotid. A 40-year-old lady presented with gradually progressive swelling below the right ear associated with occasional pain. Clinical and radiological features suggested benign neoplasm. Right lobe superficial parotidectomy was performed. The histopathologic diagnosis showed papillary cystadenocarinoma of the parotid gland. Histologic confirmation of stromal invasion is required to differentiate it from the benign lesion. Conservative wide local surgical excision is the treatment of choice.

  18. Brunner's gland hyperplasia in the sand rat (Psammomys obesus). (United States)

    Steinbach, T J; Kane, J D


    Brunner's glands are submucosal glands located in the proximal duodenum. Hyperplasia of the Brunner's gland has been reported rarely in humans and animals. We examined sections of the Brunner's gland from 63 sand rats submitted for necropsy over 2 years. Of the 63 animals necropsied, 45 (71%) had evidence of hyperplasia defined as nodular expansion, dilated ducts, or intraductal papillary proliferation. The hyperplasia was graded as mild in 22 (49%) of the cases, moderate in 15 (33%), and marked in 8 (18%). We found an association with both increased age and evidence of gastric ulceration and hyperplasia of the Brunner's gland. In sand rats with marked hyperplasia, 8 of 8 (100%) had evidence of gastric ulceration, compared to 13 of 18 (72%) in animals with no hyperplasia. Animals with marked hyperplasia were, on average, 8.4 months older than animals with no hyperplasia. There was no association with gender. The lesion in sand rats is histologically similar to that in humans.

  19. Postoperative Submandibular Gland Swelling following Craniotomy under General Anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haruka Nakanishi


    Full Text Available Objective. Reporting of a rare case of postoperative submandibular gland swelling following craniotomy. Case Report. A 33-year-old male underwent resection for a brain tumor under general anesthesia. The tumor was resected via a retrosigmoid suboccipital approach and the patient was placed in a lateral position with his face down and turned to the right. Slight swelling of the right submandibular gland was observed just after the surgery. Seven hours after surgery, edematous change around the submandibular gland worsened and he required emergent reintubation due to airway compromise. The cause of submandibular gland swelling seemed to be an obstruction of the salivary duct due to surgical positioning. Conclusion. Once submandibular swelling and edematous change around the submandibular gland occur, they can worsen and compromise the air way within several hours after operation. Adequate precaution must be taken for any predisposing skull-base surgery that requires strong cervical rotation and flexion.

  20. Volume of the adrenal and pituitary glands in depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Willer, Inge Stoel; Knorr, Ulla


    Numerous studies have shown that the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is hyperactive in some depressed patients. It is unclear whether such hyperactivity results in changed volumes of the adrenal glands, pituitary gland and hypothalamus. We systematically reviewed all controlled studies...... on the adrenal or pituitary glands or hypothalamus volume in unipolar depressive disorder published in PubMed 1966 to December 2009. We identified three studies that investigated the volume of the adrenal glands and eight studies that examined the volume of the pituitary gland, but no studies on hypothalamus...... identified such as small population samples, different subtypes of depression and insufficient matching of patients and controls. Due to large heterogeneity of study designs and data, it was futile to make a meta-analysis. It is concluded that it remains unclear whether hyperactivity of the HPA axis results...

  1. The importance of background correction during calculation of the major salivary gland function in salivary gland scintigraphy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bekir Taşdemir


    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the parotid (P and submandibular (SM glands uptake and excretion ratios of 99mTc-pertechnetate, which were calculated by using the backgrounds drawn on five different areas. Methods: Ninety-eight P and 98 SM glands of totally 48 patients were included in the study. 99mTc-pertechnetate salivary gland scintigraphy was performed in all patients. Oral stimulation with lemon juice was made at 15th minute of the imaging. The 99mTc-pertechnetate uptake and excretion ratios of the P and SM glands were calculated separately without using any background, and by using the backgrounds drawn on wide frontal, narrow frontal, temporal, cervical and shoulder regions. These values were statistically compared with each other in pairwise manner. Results: The radioactivity uptake and excretion ratios of the P and SM glands calculated without using any background correction were statistically different from that calculated by using any background correction. In addition, the radioactivity uptake and excretion ratios of the P and SM glands calculated by using the backgrounds drawn on five different areas were mostly found statistically different from each other (p<0.05. Conclusion: Background correction is important during the calculation of the uptake and excretion ratios of P and SM glands. This study demonstrates that calculated uptake and excretion ratios of P and SM glands may differ according to the used background area.

  2. Inflammatory pseudotumor of the parotid gland. (United States)

    Barrios-Sánchez, Gracia M; Dean-Ferrer, Alicia; Alamillos-Granados, Francisco J; Ruiz-Masera, Juan José; Zafra-Camacho, Francisco M; García de Marcos, José A; Calderón-Bohórquez, José M


    Inflammatory pseudotumor is a term that refers to a reactive pseudoneoplastic disorder that can appear in different locations of the human body. The lung is the most frequently affected organ. The etiology is still unknown. It affects individuals of both sexes and of a wide range of ages. The diagnosis is still difficult and it is based on the histological examination of the lesions composed of four cell-types: histiocytes, myofibroblasts, plasma cells and lymphocytes. With regard to the treatment regimes there is no agreement. Treatment ranges from surgical excision to radiotherapy, chemotherapy or steroids. The purpose of this article is to report one case of inflammatory pseudotumor located in the parotid gland and to make a special point of the difficulty in arriving at a correct diagnosis in order to achieve the most adequate treatment.

  3. CT diagnosis of parotid gland tumor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamashita, T.; Tomoda, K.; Amano, H. (Kansai Medical School, Moriguchi, Osaka (Japan))


    Computed Tomography (CT) was supplementary and effectively employed for diagnosis of parotid gland tumors in 33 patients. The usefulness of this technique for determining of location of tumor and for differential diagnosis was investigated. The results were as follows: 1. The depth of tumor expansion into the parapharyngeal space was clearly evaluated by CT, 2. It may be assumed that a tumor locates in the superficial lobe, if it appears outside a line drawn between the mastoid process and the mandibule. 3. If the margin of tumor appears irregular, and its content is heterogenous, diagnosis of a high-grade maligancy will be made. CT is of limited usefulness in diagnosing low-grade malignancy. 4. Clear and low density of a tumor shown in CT can be suggestive of a cyst.

  4. Human salivary gland stem cells ameliorate hyposalivation of radiation-damaged rat salivary glands. (United States)

    Jeong, Jaemin; Baek, Hyunjung; Kim, Yoon-Ju; Choi, Youngwook; Lee, Heekyung; Lee, Eunju; Kim, Eun Sook; Hah, Jeong Hun; Kwon, Tack-Kyun; Choi, Ik Joon; Kwon, Heechung


    Salivary function in mammals may be defective for various reasons, such as aging, Sjogren's syndrome or radiation therapy in head and neck cancer patients. Recently, tissue-specific stem cell therapy has attracted public attention as a next-generation therapeutic reagent. In the present study, we isolated tissue-specific stem cells from the human submandibular salivary gland (hSGSCs). To efficiently isolate and amplify hSGSCs in large amounts, we developed a culture system (lasting 4-5 weeks) without any selection. After five passages, we obtained adherent cells that expressed mesenchymal stem cell surface antigen markers, such as CD44, CD49f, CD90 and CD105, but not the hematopoietic stem cell markers, CD34 and CD45, and that were able to undergo adipogenic, osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation. In addition, hSGSCs were differentiated into amylase-expressing cells by using a two-step differentiation method. Transplantation of hSGSCs to radiation-damaged rat salivary glands rescued hyposalivation and body weight loss, restored acinar and duct cell structure, and decreased the amount of apoptotic cells. These data suggest that the isolated hSGSCs, which may have characteristics of mesenchymal-like stem cells, could be used as a cell therapy agent for the damaged salivary gland.

  5. Abnormal sebaceous gland differentiation in 10 kittens ('sebaceous gland dysplasia') associated with generalized hypotrichosis and scaling. (United States)

    Yager, Julie A; Gross, Thelma Lee; Shearer, David; Rothstein, Emily; Power, Helen; Sinke, Jacqueline D; Kraus, Hans; Gram, Dunbar; Cowper, Ellie; Foster, Aiden; Welle, Monika


    A rare congenital dermatosis, characterized by progressive hypotrichosis with variable scaling and crusting, occurred in 10 short-haired kittens in North America and Europe. Lesions appeared at between 4 and 12 weeks of age, commencing on the head and becoming generalized. The tail was spared in two kittens. Generalized scaling was mild to moderate, often with prominent follicular casts. Periocular, perioral, pinnal and ear canal crusting was occasionally severe. The skin was thick and wrinkled in two kittens. Histologically, the main lesion was abnormal sebaceous gland morphology. Instead of regular differentiation from basal cells to mature sebocytes, the glands were composed of a haphazard collection of undifferentiated basaloid cells, some partly vacuolated and a few containing eosinophilic globules. Mitotic figures and apoptotic cells were present in an irregularly thickened follicular isthmus. Lymphocytic mural folliculitis and mild sebaceous adenitis were rare. Orthokeratotic hyperkeratosis and follicular casts were present. Hair follicles were of normal density and were mostly in anagen, but some contained malacic hair shafts. Perforating folliculitis, leading to dermal trichogranuloma formation, occurred occasionally. Further biopsy samples taken at 2 years and at 3 and 4 years, respectively, from two kittens revealed similar but often more severe sebaceous gland lesions. Hair follicles were smaller, with many in telogen. The young age of onset suggests a genetic defect interfering with sebaceous and, possibly, follicular development. These lesions are discussed with reference to studies of mouse mutants in which genetic defects in sebaceous differentiation cause a similar phenotype of hyperkeratosis and progressive alopecia.

  6. Mammary gland stem cells: More puzzles than explanations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Suneesh Kaimala; Suneesh Kaimala; Satish Kumar


    Mammary gland stem cells (MaSC) have not been identified in spite of extensive research spanning over several decades. This has been primarily due to the complexity of mammary gland structure and its development, cell heterogeneity in the mammary gland and the insufficient knowledge about MaSC markers. At present, Lin–CD29hiCD49fhiCD24+/modSca-1– cells of the mammary gland have been reported to be enriched with MaSCs. We suggest that the inclusion of stem cell markers like Oct4, Sox2, Nanog and the mammary gland differentiation marker BRCA-1 may further narrow down the search for MaSCs. In addition, we have discussed some of the other unresolved puzzles on the mammary gland stem cells, such as their similarities and/or differences with mammary cancer stem cells, use of milk as source of mammary stem cells and the possibility of in vitro differentiation of embryonic stem (ES) cells into functional mammary gland structures in this review. Nevertheless, it is the lack of identity for a MaSC that is curtailing the advances in some of the above and other related areas.

  7. Adrenal gland infection by serotype 5 adenovirus requires coagulation factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucile Tran

    Full Text Available Recombinant, replication-deficient serotype 5 adenovirus infects the liver upon in vivo, systemic injection in rodents. This infection requires the binding of factor X to the capsid of this adenovirus. Another organ, the adrenal gland is also infected upon systemic administration of Ad, however, whether this infection is dependent on the cocksackie adenovirus receptor (CAR or depends on the binding of factor X to the viral capsid remained to be determined. In the present work, we have used a pharmacological agent (warfarin as well as recombinant adenoviruses lacking the binding site of Factor X to elucidate this mechanism in mice. We demonstrate that, as observed in the liver, adenovirus infection of the adrenal glands in vivo requires Factor X. Considering that the level of transduction of the adrenal glands is well-below that of the liver and that capsid-modified adenoviruses are unlikely to selectively infect the adrenal glands, we have used single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT imaging of gene expression to determine whether local virus administration (direct injection in the kidney could increase gene transfer to the adrenal glands. We demonstrate that direct injection of the virus in the kidney increases gene transfer in the adrenal gland but liver transduction remains important. These observations strongly suggest that serotype 5 adenovirus uses a similar mechanism to infect liver and adrenal gland and that selective transgene expression in the latter is more likely to be achieved through transcriptional targeting.

  8. The cylindrical or tubiliform glands of Nephila clavipes. (United States)

    Candelas, G C; Ortiz, A; Molina, C


    The cylindrical or tubiliform glands of the spider Nephila clavipes have been studied and compared to the large ampullates on which we have previously reported. The three pairs of cylindrical or tubiliform glands secrete the fibroin for the organism's egg case. Their solubilized luminar contents migrate as a homogeneous band in Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and turn out to be a larger protein than that produced by the large ampullates. The excised cylindrical glands remain metabolically active for several hours in a simple culture medium, where fibroin synthesis can be monitored through the incorporation of 14C alanine. The glands' response to a fibroin production stimulus does not reach the magnitude displayed by the large ampullates, but this is to be expected since their products supply different functions in this organism. This fibroin also seems to be elongated discontinuously. Translational pauses have been detected in the secretory epithelium of cylindrical and large ampullate glands of Nephila as well as in the silk glands of Bombyx mori. Since these glands produce the fibroin for the females egg case, they should prove to be an interesting model system.

  9. Cytologic features of the normal pineal gland of adults. (United States)

    Jiménez-Heffernan, José A; Bárcena, Carmen; Agra, Carolina; Asunción, Alfonso


    It is well known that the histology of normal pineal gland may resemble not only pineal tumors but also gliomas, owing to its cellularity which is much greater than that of normal white or gray matter. Our recent experience with a case in which part of a normal gland was submitted for intraoperative consultation, together with the scarcity of cytologic descriptions, led us to perform a cyto-histologic correlation study. In addition to the intraoperative case, we collected five pineal glands from consecutive adult autopsies. During the squash procedure, we often noted the presence of calcified grains. Smears were hypercellular, distributed in tissue fibrillary fragments and as numerous single cells, with crystalline structures. Pineal gland cells (pineocytes) were large, round, epithelioid with ill-defined cytoplasms and moderate nuclear pleomorphism. Spindle cells with greater fibrillary quality were less common. One of the most remarkable findings seen in all cases was the presence of cytoplasmic pigment. Histological evaluation and immunohistochemical staining confirmed that the tissue was normal pineal gland. The histology showed a characteristic lobular aspect and frequent corpora arenacea. The pigment seen cytologically was also encountered in histology and corresponded to lipofuscin. Cytologic features of the pineal gland are peculiar when compared to other normal structures of the central nervous system. These features correlate closely with what is seen on histology. In an adequate clinical context, and in combination with frozen sections, cytology allows a specific recognition of the pineal gland during intraoperative pathologic consultations.

  10. Salivary gland NK cells are phenotypically and functionally unique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlowe S Tessmer

    Full Text Available Natural killer (NK cells and CD8(+ T cells play vital roles in containing and eliminating systemic cytomegalovirus (CMV. However, CMV has a tropism for the salivary gland acinar epithelial cells and persists in this organ for several weeks after primary infection. Here we characterize a distinct NK cell population that resides in the salivary gland, uncommon to any described to date, expressing both mature and immature NK cell markers. Using RORγt reporter mice and nude mice, we also show that the salivary gland NK cells are not lymphoid tissue inducer NK-like cells and are not thymic derived. During the course of murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV infection, we found that salivary gland NK cells detect the infection and acquire activation markers, but have limited capacity to produce IFN-γ and degranulate. Salivary gland NK cell effector functions are not regulated by iNKT or T(reg cells, which are mostly absent in the salivary gland. Additionally, we demonstrate that peripheral NK cells are not recruited to this organ even after the systemic infection has been controlled. Altogether, these results indicate that viral persistence and latency in the salivary glands may be due in part to the presence of unfit NK cells and the lack of recruitment of peripheral NK cells.

  11. Salivary gland NK cells are phenotypically and functionally unique. (United States)

    Tessmer, Marlowe S; Reilly, Emma C; Brossay, Laurent


    Natural killer (NK) cells and CD8(+) T cells play vital roles in containing and eliminating systemic cytomegalovirus (CMV). However, CMV has a tropism for the salivary gland acinar epithelial cells and persists in this organ for several weeks after primary infection. Here we characterize a distinct NK cell population that resides in the salivary gland, uncommon to any described to date, expressing both mature and immature NK cell markers. Using RORγt reporter mice and nude mice, we also show that the salivary gland NK cells are not lymphoid tissue inducer NK-like cells and are not thymic derived. During the course of murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) infection, we found that salivary gland NK cells detect the infection and acquire activation markers, but have limited capacity to produce IFN-γ and degranulate. Salivary gland NK cell effector functions are not regulated by iNKT or T(reg) cells, which are mostly absent in the salivary gland. Additionally, we demonstrate that peripheral NK cells are not recruited to this organ even after the systemic infection has been controlled. Altogether, these results indicate that viral persistence and latency in the salivary glands may be due in part to the presence of unfit NK cells and the lack of recruitment of peripheral NK cells.

  12. Regulation of leptin in involution of mammary gland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Meng; LI Qingzhang


    Leptin, a protein hormone produced and secreted predominantly by white adipose tissue, has a critical role in the regulation and coordination of energy metabolism. Leptin is produced in the mammary gland by the fat tissue or by the mammary epithelium. In vitro study has shown that leptin triggers apoptosis in mammary epithelial cells. Mammary gland involution is characterized by extensive apoptosis of the epithelial cells. At the onset of involution, STAT3 is specifically activated. Various studies show that leptin act as a paracrine and autocrin factor to influence mammary epithelial cell proliferation and differentiation. This paper reviewed the function of leptin to the involution of mammary gland.

  13. [Characteristics of the pineal gland and thymus relationship in aging]. (United States)

    Lin'kova, N S; Poliakova, V O; Kvetnoĭ, I M; Trofimov, A V; Sevost'ianova, N N


    The review presents the interference between thymus and pineal gland during their involution. The research data of thymus peptides influence on pineal gland and pineal peptides on thymus are summarized. Analysis of these data showed that pineal peptides (Epithalamin, Epitalon) had more effective geroprotective effect on thymus involution in comparison with geroprotective effect of thymic peptides (Thymalin, Thymogen) on involution of pineal gland. The key mechanisms of pineal peptides effect on thymus dystrophy is immunoendocrine cooperation, which is realized as transcription's activation of various proteins.

  14. Simple mucin-type carbohydrate antigens in major salivary glands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Therkildsen, M H; Mandel, U; Thorn, J


    -defined monoclonal antibodies (MAb) on frozen and paraffin-embedded normal salivary gland tissue from 22 parotid, 14 submandibular, six sublingual, and 13 labial glands to elucidate the simple mucin-type glycosylation pattern in relation to cyto- and histodifferentiation. The investigated carbohydrate structures......Simple mucin-type carbohydrate antigens Tn, sialosyl-Tn and T are often markers of neoplastic transformation and have very limited expression in normal tissues. We performed an immunohistological study of simple mucin-type carbohydrate antigens, including H and A variants, with well...... antigens indicates that these structures may be of value as markers of salivary gland tumors....

  15. Prognostic significance of Ki-67 in salivary gland carcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Stine Rosenkilde; Bjørndal, Kristine; Godballe, Christian;


    J Oral Pathol Med (2012) Background:  Salivary gland carcinomas are a heterogeneous group of tumors with varying malignant potential. In this study, we evaluated the proliferative marker Ki-67 in salivary gland carcinomas and related the Ki-67 index to clinical data. Methods:  A total of 176...... salivary gland carcinomas of 13 different subtypes were stained immunohistochemically for Ki-67. The number of Ki-67 positive cells was counted and the Ki-67 index was calculated as the percentage of positive tumor cells. Results:  The Ki-67 median value was 26 (range 1-99). The median follow-up time was 6...

  16. Pituitary gland height evaluated by MR in patients with {beta}-thalassemia major: a marker of pituitary gland function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Argyropoulou, M.I.; Metafratzi, Z.; Efremidis, S.C. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of Ioannina (Greece); Kiortsis, D.N. [Dept. of Physiology, Univ. of Ioannina (Greece); Bitsis, S.; Tsatoulis, A. [Dept. of Internal Medicine, Univ. of Ioannina (Greece)


    In transfusion-dependent {beta}-thalassemia major, increased iron deposition in the pituitary gland has a cytotoxic effect leading mainly to hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Our purpose was to assess in these patients the height of the pituitary gland and to evaluate whether it represents a marker of pituitary gland function. In 29 patients with {beta}-thalassemia major and 35 age- and gender-matched controls the pituitary gland height was evaluated in a midline sagittal scan using a spin echo T1-weighted (500/20 TR/TE) sequence. In all patients, an extensive endocrine evaluation was performed, including measurements of spontaneous and stimulated levels of gonadotropins, thyroid hormones, growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor, and adrenal hormones. The pituitary gland height was lower in thalassemic patients with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (n=15) (mean 3.48; SD 0.46) than in the age- and gender-matched controls (mean 6.29; SD 0.77), (P<0.001). No statistically significant difference was found between thalassemic patients without hormone dysfunction (n=14) (mean 5.34; SD 1.52) and age- and gender-matched controls (mean 5.91; SD 1.06). We conclude that in thalassemic patients the pituitary gland height is an additional marker of pituitary gland function and might be useful in clinical management. (orig.)

  17. Gland-preserving robotic surgery for benign submandibular gland tumours: a comparison between robotic and open techniques. (United States)

    Yang, Tsung-Lin; Ko, Jenq-Yuh; Lou, Pei-Jen; Wang, Cheng-Ping; Hsiao, Tzu-Yu


    Benign tumours of the submandibular gland are usually treated surgically. Gland-preserving techniques, which can be used to completely remove the tumour, preserve the function of the gland and reduce complications, but conventional open operations result in obvious scars on the neck. We aimed to investigate the feasibility and efficacy of gland-preserving robotic surgery using a hairline approach. We compared robotic with open techniques for gland-preserving operations to remove benign tumours of the submandibular gland. Patients were matched for age and sex (4 in each group). All patients in the robotic surgery group had their tumours removed successfully through hairline approaches. No patient had operative complications or postoperative functional nerve deficit, and an aesthetically pleasing outcome was achieved by concealing the scars within the hairline. Robotic operations took longer than open operations. No recurrence was noted during follow-up. Gland-preserving robotic surgery is a feasible alternative to conventional techniques and has potential advantages for safety and aesthetic outcome.

  18. Development of mammary glands of fat sheep submitted to restricted feeding during late pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, J V; Nielsen, M O; Theil, P K;


    Mammary gland development in sheep occurs mainly during puberty and pregnancy. We have investigated the effects of a late gestation feed restriction on mammary gland development in sheep.......Mammary gland development in sheep occurs mainly during puberty and pregnancy. We have investigated the effects of a late gestation feed restriction on mammary gland development in sheep....

  19. 9 CFR 310.15 - Disposition of thyroid glands and laryngeal muscle tissue. (United States)


    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disposition of thyroid glands and... of thyroid glands and laryngeal muscle tissue. (a) Livestock thyroid glands and laryngeal muscle tissue shall not be used for human food. (b) Livestock thyroid glands and laryngeal muscle tissue may...

  20. Histology, histochemistry and fine structure of the Harderian gland, lacrimal gland and superficial gland of the third eyelid of the European bison, Bison bonasus bonasus (Artiodactyla: Bovidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Klećkowska-Nawrot


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The macroscopic anatomy and the microscopic and ultrastructural features of the Harderian gland (HG, lacrimal gland (LG and superficial gland of the third eyelid (SGTE of the adult European bison are described. In addition, morphometric studies were conducted and were followed by statistical analysis of the results. Tissue sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, methyl green-pyronin Y, periodic acid-Schiff, Alcian blue pH 2.5, aldehyde fuchsin and Hale's dialysed iron. Analysis of the staining showed that the HG has a multilobular tubuloalveolar structure with mixed secretion. The LG and the SGTE have a multilobar tubuloacinar structure with serous secretion in the LG and mucoserous in the SGTE. The TEM study demonstrates that the secretory cells of the HG, LG and SGTE have similar ultrastructural appearance, with two types of secretory vesicles in the cytoplasm of all studied glands. The histochemical staining methods and the TEM study revealed the secretory activity in the HG, LG and SGTE ducts. The structural studies can be important for establishing relations between morphological structure and functions of these glands. It can have clinical implications especially when taking into consideration the protective mechanisms of the eye.

  1. Parathyroid gland of the freshwater snake Natrix piscator Schneider. (United States)

    Singh, R; Kar, I


    The structure and function of the parathyroid glands of freshwater snake, Natrix piscator, were studied. N. piscator has two pairs of parathyroid glands which are composed of cell cords of typical endocrine appearance, and follicles are absent. Parathyroidectomy was followed by significant (P less than 0.001) hypocalcemia and hyperphosphatemia throughout the 5th week of experimental period. Following parathyroidectomy, calcium and phosphate concentrations in bone were significantly (P less than 0.05) increased after 5 weeks; however, these values in muscle were not significantly changed. Tetany was also observed in parathyroidectomized snakes. Histological structure and function of the glands do not appear to vary seasonally. Administration of parathyroid gland extract of this ophidian reptile into rats caused significant (P less than 0.05) elevation of serum calcium.

  2. Histoplasmosis of the adrenal glands studied by CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, D.A.; Muchmore, H.G.; Tisdal, R.G.; Fahmy, A.; Pitha, J.V.


    Computed tomography (CT) of the adrenal glands was performed on seven patients who had histologically proved disseminated histoplasmosis. All seven patients showed some degree of adrenal gland abnormality. The range of CT findings included minimal enlargement with faint flecks of calcium, moderate enlargement with focal low attenuation nodules, and massive enlargement with large areas of necrosis or dense calcification. The changes in each patient were bilateral and symmetrical. Adrenal gland shape was usually preserved. Finding of percutaneous adrenal biopsy, which was performed under CT guidance, made the diagnosis in one patient. Five of seven patients had adrenal insufficiency. It is concluded that the diagnosis of disseminated histoplasmosis should be considered in any patient who has bilateral adrenal gland enlargement and who resides in an endemic area, especially if there is evidence of adrenal insufficiency.

  3. Unique Case Report of Pineal Gland Metastasis From Bladder Carcinoma. (United States)

    Li, Jun; Wang, Ping; Wang, Bin


    Pineal metastasis is uncommon and most metastatic pineal lesions are asymptomatic. To our knowledge the herein reported case is the first in which the pineal gland was confirmed as the metastatic site of a bladder carcinoma.The patient reported in this case is a 59-year-old man who suffered from headache and delirium for 4 days after surgical treatment for removal of a bladder carcinoma 1 year ago. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a solid tumor involving the pineal gland with significant enhancement.The patient underwent surgical treatment for removal of the neoplastic lesion in the pineal gland. Histopathological examination confirmed invasion of the pineal gland by metastatic urothelial carcinoma.This case highlighted that the presence of pineal lesions in patient with known malignancy should raise suspicion of metastatic involvement.

  4. Parotid Gland Biopsy, the Alternative Way to Diagnose Sjogren Syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spijkervet, Fred K. L.; Haacke, Erlin; Kroese, Frans G. M.; Bootsma, Hendrika; Vissink, Arjan


    Salivary gland biopsy is a technique broadly applied for the diagnosis of Sjogren syndrome (SS), lymphoma in SS, and connective tissue disorders (sarcoidosis, amyloidosis). In SS characteristic histology findings are found, including lymphocytic infiltration surrounding the excretory ducts in combin

  5. Comparative study of the labial gland secretion in termites (Isoptera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Sillam-Dussès

    Full Text Available Labial glands are present in all castes and developmental stages of all termite species. In workers, their secretion contains a food-marking pheromone and digestive enzymes, while soldier secretion plays a defensive role. However, these functions were studied only in a limited set of species, and do not allow drawing general conclusions. Hence, we have investigated the chemical composition of the labial gland extracts from soldiers and workers in 15 termite species belonging to 6 families using an integrative approach based on proteomic and small-molecule profiling. We confirmed the presence of hydroquinone and cellulase in the labial glands of workers, and we identified new toxic compounds in soldiers and workers of several species. Our results highlight the dual role of labial gland secretion, i.e. the defensive role in soldiers and workers of several termite species, and the digestive function in workers.

  6. Myoepithelial carcinoma of the salivary glands: behavior and management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞光岩; 马大权; 孙开华; 李铁军; 张晔


    Objective To investigate the biological behavior and proper management of myoepithelial carcinomas of salivary glands. Methods Twenty-seven cases of myoepithelial carcinoma of salivary glands were retrospec tively studied and their detailed clinical and follow-up data were presented. Results The subjects consisted of 17 men and 10 women aged 16 to 73 years (mean age: 51 years). The parotid gland was the most common site (n=14) of cancer. Clinical features included extensive local growth, invasion of the surrounding tissues, infrequent cervical lymph node metastasis but high rates of distant metastasis, f requent/multiple recurrences and poor prognosis. Conclusions Myoepithelial carcinomas of the salivary gland should be classified as high-grade malignancies. Early and radical surgery with close follow-up are essential for achieving favorable outcomes. Radiotherapy appears to be non-sensitive and elective neck dissection is generally unnecessary.

  7. Salivary Glands: Stem Cells, Self-duplication, or Both? (United States)

    Aure, M H; Arany, S; Ovitt, C E


    Understanding the intrinsic potential for renewal and regeneration within a tissue is critical for the rational design of reparative strategies. Maintenance of the salivary glands is widely thought to depend on the differentiation of stem cells. However, there is also new evidence that homeostasis of the salivary glands, like that of the liver and pancreas, relies on self-renewal of differentiated cells rather than a stem cell pool. Here, we review the evidence for both modes of turnover and consider the implications for the process of regeneration. We propose that the view of salivary glands as postmitotic and dependent on stem cells for renewal be revised to reflect the proliferative activity of acinar cells and their role in salivary gland homeostasis.

  8. Tachykinins and tachykinin-receptors in the rat pineal gland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mukda, S; Chetsawang, B; Govitrapong, P;


    High-pressure liquid chromatography of extracts of rat pineal glands, followed by radio immunological analysis with antibodies against tachykinins, demonstrated the presence of substance P, neurokinin A and neurokinin B in the superficial rat pineal gland. Immunohistochemistry on perfusion...... specific for NK1-, NK2- and NK3-receptors, agarose gel analysis of the reaction products showed the presence of mRNA encoding all three neurokinin receptors. Immunohistochemical analysis showed NK1 receptor to be located in the interstitial cells of the gland. This location was confirmed by use of in situ...... hybridization using radioactively labeled antisense oligonucleotide probes. Double immunohistochemical stainings showed that the NK1-immunoreactive cells were not a part of the macrophages or antigen-presenting cells of the gland. Our study suggests that tachykinins, after release from intrapineal nerve fibers...

  9. Stem cells in normal mammary gland and breast cancer. (United States)

    Luo, Jie; Yin, Xin; Ma, Tao; Lu, Jun


    The mammary gland is a structurally dynamic organ that undergoes dramatic alterations with age, menstrual cycle, and reproductive status. Mammary gland stem cells, the minor cell population within the mature organ, are thought to have multiple functions in regulating mammary gland development, tissue maintenance, major growth, and structural remodeling. In addition, accumulative evidence suggests that breast cancers are initiated and maintained by a subpopulation of tumor cells with stem cell features (called cancer stem cells). A variety of methods have been developed to identify and characterize mammary stem cells, and several signal transduction pathways have been identified to be essential for the self-renewal and differentiation of mammary gland stem cells. Understanding the origin of breast cancer stem cells, their relationship to breast cancer development, and the differences between normal and cancer stem cells may lead to novel approaches to breast cancer diagnosis, prevention, and treatment.

  10. Brunner's glands of the rat during cysteamine ulceration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Steen Seier


    in the histologic appearance of the duodenal glands of Brunner during ulcer formation. The secretory cells became extremely flattened without mucus content and the lumina of the acini dilated. Changes became most pronounced between 4 and 8 h after administration of cysteamine. Repeated injections of pentagastrin...... in a dosage inducing an acid response equivalent to the one induced by cysteamine did not produce any histologic changes in Brunner's glands or any ulcerations. When cysteamine was administered to rats with chronic gastric fistulas draining the gastric secretions, no duodenal ulcerations were produced......, but Brunner's glands still became depleted of mucus. These findings suggest that the histologic changes in Brunner's glands are not secondary either to the increased acid secretion induced by cysteamine or to ulcer formation. Together with our previous demonstration of a marked reduction duodenal secretion...

  11. Inverted cystic tubulovillous adenoma involving Brunner's glands of duodenum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji Hoon Kim; Jong-Jae Park; Jung Woo Choi; Yeon Seok Seo; Beom Jae Lee; Jong Fun Yeon; Jae Seon Kim; Kwan Soo Byun; Young-Tae Bak; Insun Kim


    Benign neoplasia of the duodenum are very rare.Moreover, duodenal tubulovillous adenomas are more uncommon lesions. The microscopic structure of tubulovillous adenoma has frond-like projection of mucosa with branching papillary structure and generally upward growth into the lumen. We describe a 72-year-old man who showed aduodenal tubulovillous adenoma with unusual inverted cystic growth pattern.Interestingly, this tubulovillous adenomatous lesion was interrupted by gastric metaplasia in the deep portion of the cyst and was closely surrounded by Brunner's glands. Although histogenesis of gastric metaplasia of duodenum is not fully understood, Brunner's glands has been suggested as a precursor for gastric metaplasia.Therefore, these findings argued that this adenoma arises from Brunner's glands through gastric metaplasia.This is the first case of inverted cystic tubulovillous adenoma involving Brunner's glands of duodenum with gastric metaplasia.

  12. Single and multiple gland disease in primary hyperparathyroidism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.J. Bonjer (Jaap)


    textabstractThe scope of this thesis is: To review diagnostic procedures in primary hyperparathyroidism To review localization studies of parathyroid glands in hyperparathyroidism primary To assess the optima! surgical hyperparathyroidism by studying the recurrent hyperparathyroidism treatment of pr

  13. Flattened sella turcica and CT appearence of normal pituitary gland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsui, T.; Ueno, I.; Miki, Y.; Fuchinoue, T.; Kobayashi, N.


    A flattened sella turcica, not previously reported, was found incidentally in a 21-year-old male. Various neuroradiological and hormonal examinations have proved it to be a normal varient. Subsequently a normal pituitary gland was shown by CT.

  14. Radiotherapy Dose-Volume Effects on Salivary Gland Function (United States)

    Deasy, Joseph O.; Moiseenko, Vitali; Marks, Lawrence; Chao, K. S. Clifford; Nam, Jiho; Eilsbruch, Avraham


    Publications relating parotid dose-volume characteristics to radiotherapy-induced salivary toxicity were reviewed. Late salivary dysfunction has been correlated to the mean parotid gland dose, with recovery occurring with time. Severe xerostomia (defined as long-term salivary function of <25% of baseline) is usually avoided if at least one parotid gland is spared to a mean dose of less than ≈20 Gy or if both glands are spared to less than ≈25 Gy (mean dose). For complex, partial-volume RT patterns (e.g., intensity-modulated radiotherapy), each parotid mean dose should be kept as low as possible, consistent with the desired clinical target volume coverage. A lower parotid mean dose usually results in better function. Submandibular gland sparing also significantly decreases the risk of xerostomia. The currently available predictive models are imprecise, and additional study is required to identify more accurate models of xerostomia risk. PMID:20171519

  15. The originality of Descartes' theory about the pineal gland. (United States)

    Lokhorst, G J; Kaitaro, T T


    René Descartes thought that the pineal gland is the part of the body with which the soul is most immediately associated. Several prominent historians (such as Soury, Thorndike and Sherrington) have claimed that this idea was not very original. We re-examine the evidence and conclude that their assessment was wrong. We pay special attention to the thesis about the pineal gland which Jean Cousin defended in January, 1641.

  16. Radioprotection of the rat parotid gland by cAMP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sodicoff, M.; Conger, A.D.


    Most earlier studies showing a radioprotective effect by cAMP show only slight degrees of protection. The present study demonstrates a substantial protective effect (DMF, 1.63) of exogenously administered cAMP on the rat parotid gland and supports the mechanism suggested previously for protection afforded the parotid glands by the ..beta..-adrenergic agonist isoproterenol, which is known to elevate endogenous intracellular cAMP.

  17. [The wound drainage after operation on thyroid gland]. (United States)

    Nechay, A P; Smolyar, V A; Voytenko, V V; Sichinava, R M; Larin, A S; Cherenko, S M


    Efficacy of active draining, promoting the most rapid reconvalescence and rehabilitation of the patients, in comparison to passive wound draining was studied up in various diseases of thyroid gland and operative intervention volume. The autors have had concluded, that suturing of operative wound without draining after hemithyroidectomy conduction is possible, as well as a thyroidectomy for nodular and multinodular goiter, if the excised volume of the lobe/gland do not exceed 15 cm3 and in nonapplication of anticoagulants.

  18. [Ectopic parathyroid glands. Imaging methods and surgical access]. (United States)

    Fialová, M; Adámková, J; Adámek, S; Libánský, P; Kubinyi, J


    We discuss the benefits of imaging methods in localizing ectopic parathyroid glands in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism. The ectopic localizations are discussed within the context of the orthotopic norm. In the sample of 123 patients, a 23% rate of ectopic parathyroid glands was detected. Three selected case studies are presented, supporting the benefit of SPECT/CT imaging in terms of surgical access strategy selection.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie Doley


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Goitre or swelling of thyroid gland is very common in North-East region and is encountered frequently in clinical practice. Goitre is a compensatory hypertrophy of thyroid gland and it has been recognised for centuries even back to the times of Ebers Papyrus (1500 BC (LE McDonald. The thyroid is the largest endocrine gland present in all mammals. In some disease conditions, an individual has to undergo a complete thyroidectomy and live on thyroid supplements for life. Is there a possibility of xenograft and xenotransplant? With this view a comparative study of the thyroid gland was under taken in the Dept. of Anatomy, Gauhati Medical College, Guwahati. The main purpose of the study was to see if thyroid gland of human was in any way similar to thyroid gland of other mammals. Xenograft and Xenotransplantation are the latest research studies going on these days. By these techniques, tissues and organs of one species can be transplanted or grafted into another species. MATERIALS AND METHODS The study of thyroid gland was conducted in Dept. of Anatomy, Gauhati Medical College. The various species included for studies were of human, pig and goat. They were divided into three groups I, II, and III. The specimen of human was collected from morgue of Gauhati Medical College. The specimen of pig and goat were collected from College of Veterinary Sciences, Gauhati. In all animals, the size, shape, length, breadth, thickness was recorded. RESULT The length, breadth, thickness of thyroid gland in group I, II and III were taken with the help of Vernier callipers. Weight was measured with the help of electronic weighing machine. The results were statistically analysed. DISCUSSION The findings of this study were compared with the findings of work done by other authors previously. CONCLUSION In this study, it was observed that biometrical values were different in all the mammals but morphological characters were almost similar

  20. The structure of thyroid gland in its pathology


    Khayrullin R.M.; Kalmin O.V.; Kalmin O.O.


    Objective: to identify the microscopic features of the structure of the thyroid gland in different forms of its pathology. Materials and Methods. The study is based on the thyroid glands of 199 patients of both sexes aged 21 to 74 years. Results. At the micro-macrofollicular nontoxic goiter was found flattened thyroid epithelium with flattened normochromic nucleus, the small size of cells and nuclei, low nuclear-cytoplasmic index, intrafollicular moderate epithelial proliferation, homogeneous...

  1. Postnatal development of the dog pineal gland. Light microscopy


    Calvo, J.L.; Boya, J; García-Mauriño, A.; López Carbonell, A.


    The light microscopical morphology of the dog pineal gland from the first postnatal day to maturity is described. In the first postnatal week, the pineal parenchyma shows immature cells and many mitotic figures. In this week, pigmented cells are obsemed for the first time, both in the pineal gland and in extrapineal nodules. Throughout the second week, the pineal parenchyma shows a cordonal pattern that disappears progressively in the following stages. From the...

  2. Hippo pathway in mammary gland development and breast cancer. (United States)

    Shi, Peiguo; Feng, Jing; Chen, Ceshi


    Accumulated evidence suggests that the Hippo signaling pathway plays crucial roles in mammary gland development and breast cancer. Key components of the Hippo pathway regulate breast epithelial cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and stemness. Additionally, the Hippo pathway regulates breast tumor growth, metastasis, and drug resistance. It is expected that the Hippo pathway will provide novel therapeutic targets for breast cancer. This review will discuss and summarize the roles of several core components of the Hippo pathway in mammary gland development and breast cancer.

  3. Differential Acupuncture Treatment of Hyperplasia of Mammary Glands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    @@ Hyperplasia of mammary glands is a common disease in the middle-aged women, and it is a precancerous lesion of mammary glands. For many years, the author has used Rugen (ST 18) of the Stomach Meridian of Foot-Yangming as the main point withcertain auxiliary points chosen on basis of the differentiation types to treat the disease and obtained satisfactory therapeutic effects. A report follows.

  4. Endoscopic resection of a huge Brunner's gland adenoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Binbin ZHANG; Xu REN; Xiufen TANG; Yuxin CHI; Xuesong SHI


    Brunner's gland adenoma is a rare tumour of the duodenum, which is usually benign. A 71-year-old woman presenting with epigastric pain, upper gastro-intestinal haemorrhage and melaena was reported in this paper. Upper gastro-intestinal (GI) endoscopy revealed a large pedunculated tumour on the superior part of the duodenal bulb. Endoscopic polypectomy was successfully performed by clipping and nylon thread without any com-plications. Histological examination revealed a Brunner's gland adenoma.

  5. Genetic aspects of etiology and development of thyroid gland cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovalenko Yu.V.


    Full Text Available Recent studies on thyroid gland cancer development and progression have identified new classes of tumor markers, proto-oncogenes, tumor-suppressing genes, cell receptor genes, identified genetic tumor-predisposing polymorphism and some other significantly important segments of genome. The identification has been based mainly on revealing of DNA abnormal consequences, specific for occurrence of thyroid gland cancer and its progression.

  6. Ultrasound diagnosis of adrenal gland hemorrhage in newborn; Diagnostyka ultrasonograficzna krwawien do nadnerczy u noworodkow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bieganowska-Klamut, Z.; Dybiec, E.; Wieczorek, P.; Charanicz-Bartler, H. [Zaklad Radiologii Pediatrycznej, Akademia Medyczna, Lublin (Poland)


    4 cases of adrenal gland hemorrhage in the newborns diagnosed by ultrasound examination were described. In 3 cases the hemorrhage was in one adrenal gland and in one the hemorrhage was in both. In 1 newborn control ultrasound and CT examination performed after 7 weeks demonstrated pseudocyst of right adrenal gland. In 2 other cases control ultrasound examination showed normalization of adrenal glands. The authors suggest differential diagnosis between the adrenal hemorrhage and neuroblastoma of adrenal gland. (author) 7 refs, 2 figs

  7. Botulinum toxin A inhibits salivary secretion of rabbit submandibular gland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Feng Shan; Hui Xu; Zhi-Gang Cai; Li-Ling Wu; Guang-Yan Yu


    Botulinum toxin A (BTXA) has been used in several clinical trials to treat excessive glandular secretion;however, the precise mechanism of its action on the secretory function of salivary gland has not been fully elucidated. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of BTXA on secretion of submandibular gland in rabbits and to identify its mechanism of action on the secretory function of salivary gland. At 12 weeks after injection with 5 units of BTXA, we found a significant decrease in the saliva flow from submandibular glands, while the salivary amylase concentration increased. Morphological analysis revealed reduction in the size of acinar cells with intracellular accumulation of secretory granules that coalesced to form a large ovoid structure. Expression of M3-muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (M3 receptor) and aquaporin-5 (AQP5) mRNA decreased after BTXA treatment, and distribution of AQP5 in the apical membrane was reduced at 1, 2 and 4 weeks after BTXA injection. Furthermore, BTXA injection was found to induce apoptosis of acini. These results indicate that BTXA decreases the fluid secretion of submandibular glands and increases the concentration of amylase in saliva. Decreased expression of M3 receptor and AQP5, inhibition of AQP5 translocation, and cell apoptosis might involve in BTXA-reduced fluid secretion of submandibular glands.

  8. Cytologic features of the normal pineal gland on squash preparations. (United States)

    Murro, Diana; Alsadi, Alaa; Nag, Sukriti; Arvanitis, Leonidas; Gattuso, Paolo


    As primary pineal lesions are extremely rare, many surgical pathologists are unfamiliar with normal pineal cytologic features. We describe cytologic features of the normal pineal gland in patients of varying ages and identify common diagnostic pitfalls. We performed a retrospective review of pineal gland biopsies performed at our institution, where approximately 30,000 surgical specimens are accessioned yearly, for the last 23 years. Only two pineal gland biopsies were found. Although both cases were initially diagnosed as low-grade gliomas on frozen section, the final diagnosis was benign pineal tissue based on light microscopy and immunohistochemistry results. Additionally, we performed squash preparations of five normal pineal gland autopsy specimens with Papanicolaou and Diff-Quik® (Dade Behring, Newark, DE) stains. Infant preparations were highly cellular smears composed of numerous, uniform, single cells with indistinct cytoplasm, small round-to-oval nuclei, fine chromatin, and absent nucleoli and calcifications. The vague microfollicular pattern mimicked a pineocytoma and the fine fibrillary background mimicked a glial neoplasm. Young adult smears were similar; however, microcalcifications were present with fewer background single cells. Older patients had much less cellular smears composed of small clusters of cells with fusiform-to-spindle nuclei, a fine chromatin pattern, and indistinct cytoplasmic borders. There were fewer background single cells and more microcalcifications. The cytologic features of the native pineal gland vary with age. Normal pineal tissue can be confused with a pineocytoma or low-grade glioma. Familiarity with normal pineal gland cytological features will help to avoid a potential misdiagnosis.

  9. Uropygial gland and bib colouration in the house sparrow

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    Gregorio Moreno-Rueda


    Full Text Available Birds frequently signal different qualities by plumage colouration, mainly during mating. However, plumage colouration is determined during the moult, and therefore it would indicate the quality of individual birds during the moult, not its current quality. Recent studies, however, suggest that birds could modify plumage colouration by using cosmetic preen oil produced by the uropygial gland. In this study, I show that bib colouration is related to uropygial gland size and body condition in male house sparrows (Passer domesticus. Moreover, I conducted an experiment in which a group of sparrows were inoculated with an antigen, mimicking an illness. In control birds, short-term changes in bib colouration were related to both body condition and change in uropygial gland size. Therefore, birds that reduced uropygial gland size showed a greater colouration change. However, bib colouration did not change with the change in uropygial gland size in experimental birds inoculated with the antigen. Given that the experiment did not affect preen oil production or consumption, this finding tentatively suggests that the immune challenge provoked a change in the composition of preen oil, affecting its cosmetic properties. In short, the results of this study suggest that (1 male house sparrows produce cosmetic preen oil that alters the colouration of their bibs; (2 the more change in uropygial gland size, the more change in bib colouration; and (3 in this way, bib colouration has the potential to signal current health status, since less healthy birds showed less capacity to change bib colouration.

  10. Uropygial gland and bib colouration in the house sparrow. (United States)

    Moreno-Rueda, Gregorio


    Birds frequently signal different qualities by plumage colouration, mainly during mating. However, plumage colouration is determined during the moult, and therefore it would indicate the quality of individual birds during the moult, not its current quality. Recent studies, however, suggest that birds could modify plumage colouration by using cosmetic preen oil produced by the uropygial gland. In this study, I show that bib colouration is related to uropygial gland size and body condition in male house sparrows (Passer domesticus). Moreover, I conducted an experiment in which a group of sparrows were inoculated with an antigen, mimicking an illness. In control birds, short-term changes in bib colouration were related to both body condition and change in uropygial gland size. Therefore, birds that reduced uropygial gland size showed a greater colouration change. However, bib colouration did not change with the change in uropygial gland size in experimental birds inoculated with the antigen. Given that the experiment did not affect preen oil production or consumption, this finding tentatively suggests that the immune challenge provoked a change in the composition of preen oil, affecting its cosmetic properties. In short, the results of this study suggest that (1) male house sparrows produce cosmetic preen oil that alters the colouration of their bibs; (2) the more change in uropygial gland size, the more change in bib colouration; and (3) in this way, bib colouration has the potential to signal current health status, since less healthy birds showed less capacity to change bib colouration.

  11. Persistent renal hyperparathyroidism caused by intrathyroidal parathyroid glands. (United States)

    Chen, Chin-Li; Lin, Shih-Hua; Yu, Jyh-Cherng; Shih, Ming-Lang


    Renal hyperparathyroidism usually occurs in chronic renal failure patients on regular dialysis. However, renal hyperparathyroidism resulting from intrathyroidal parathyroid glands is an uncommon condition. We herein present the case of a 35-year-old woman who has been on hemodialysis for 20 years. She had renal hyperparathyroidism with generalized weakness and bone pain for 2 years. The patient initially underwent parathyroidectomy at a local institution, during which two large parathyroid glands were resected from the right side (no parathyroid glands were found on the left side); however, the surgical procedure was unsuccessful, and the patient had persistent renal hyperparathyroidism after the operation. She was then transferred to our hospital and ectopic intrathyroidal parathyroid glands were localized by neck ultrasonography and technetium-99m sestamibi scans with single-photon emission computed tomography imaging preoperatively. A left thyroid lobectomy was performed and two intrathyroidal parathyroid glands were found. The patient recovered uneventfully and her symptoms resolved. Therefore, clinicians should be aware of the possibility of renal hyperparathyroidism resulting from intrathyroidal parathyroid glands in cases where the renal hyperparathyroidism persists after parathyroidectomy.

  12. Metastatic apocrine sweat gland adenocarcinoma in a terrier dog

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Akhtardanesh Baharak; Kheirandish Reza; Dabiri Shahriar; Azari Omid; Vosoogh Daruoosh; Askari Nasrin


    This report describes the clinical and pathological aspects of an apocrine sweat gland carcinoma with distant metastasis in an aged dog. A 7-year-old male terrier dog was referred to small animal hospital of Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman with a 5.5×3.5 centimeter pedunculated mass on its head near left auricular region which had been progressively growing since three months ago. The radiography showed no local and distant metastasis. Surgical excision and histological evaluation was done. Histologically, the mass was composed of epithelial cells arranged in glandular and solid patterns. The morphologic findings suggested either a primary or metastatic apocrine-gland carcinoma. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells were intensely positive for cytokeratin 7 and 20 and negative for S100 protein. On the basis of histopathological and clinical findings, the tumor was diagnosed as a malignant apocrine gland tumor, arising from apocrine sweat glands of the skin. Local tumor recurrence with anorexia and weight loss was reported by the owner nine month later. Severe submandibular and prescapular lymphadenomegaly was noted in clinical examination. Several large pulmonary nodules were noted in chest radiographs resembling mediastinal lymph node metastasis. Second surgery and chemotherapy was rejected by the owner due to grave prognosis of the patient. The animal was died 45 days later due to respiratory complications. Tumors of apocrine sweat glands are relatively uncommon in dogs whereas apocrine gland adenocarcinoma with distant metastasis is extremely rare.

  13. Submandibular gland biopsy for the diagnosis of Parkinson disease. (United States)

    Beach, Thomas G; Adler, Charles H; Dugger, Brittany N; Serrano, Geidy; Hidalgo, Jose; Henry-Watson, Jonette; Shill, Holly A; Sue, Lucia I; Sabbagh, Marwan N; Akiyama, Haruhiko


    The clinical diagnosis of Parkinson disease (PD) is incorrect in 30% or more of subjects particularly at the time of symptom onset. Because Lewy-type α-synucleinopathy is present in the submandibular glands of PD patients, we assessed the feasibility of submandibular gland biopsy for diagnosing PD. We performed immunohistochemical staining for Lewy-type α-synucleinopathy in sections of large segments (simulating open biopsy) and needle cores of submandibular glands from 128 autopsied and neuropathologically classified subjects, including 28 PD, 5 incidental Lewy body disease, 5 progressive supranuclear palsy (3 with concurrent PD), 3 corticobasal degeneration, 2 multiple system atrophy, 22 Alzheimer disease with Lewy bodies, 16 Alzheimer disease without Lewy bodies, and 50 normal elderly. Immunoreactive nerve fibers were present in large submandibular gland sections of all 28 PD subjects (including 3 that also had progressive supranuclear palsy); 3 Alzheimer disease with Lewy bodies subjects were also positive, but none of the other subjects were positive. Cores from frozen submandibular glands taken with 18-gauge needles (total length, 15-38 mm; between 10 and 118 sections per subject examined) were positive for Lewy-type α-synucleinopathy in 17 of 19 PD patients. These results suggest that biopsy of the submandibular gland may be a feasible means of improving PD clinical diagnostic accuracy. This would be particularly advantageous for subject selection in early-stage clinical trials for invasive therapies or for verifying other biomarker studies.

  14. Salivary gland tumours in a Mexican sample. A retrospective study. (United States)

    Ledesma-Montes, C; Garces-Ortiz, M


    Salivary gland tumours are an important part of the Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, unfortunately, only few studies on these tumours have been done in Latin-American population. The aim of this study was to compare demographic data on salivary gland tumours in a Mexican sample with those previously published from Latin American and non-Latin American countries. All cases of salivary gland tumours or lesions diagnosed in our service were reviewed. Of the reviewed cases,67 were confirmed as salivary gland tumours. Out of these 64.2% were benign neoplasms, 35.8% were malignant and a slight female predominance (56.7%) was found. The most common location was palate followed by lips and floor of the mouth. Mean age for benign tumours was 40.6 years with female predominance (60.5%). Mean age for malignant tumours was 41 years and female predominance was found again. Palate followed by retromolar area were the usual locations. Pleomorphic adenoma (58.2%), mucoepidermoid carcinoma (17.9%) and adenoid cystic carcinoma (11.9%) were the more frequent neoplasms. All retromolar cases were malignant and all submandibular gland tumours were benign. We found a high proportion of salivary gland neoplasms in children. Our results showed that differences of the studied tumours among our sample and previously reported series exist. These differences can be related to race and geographical location.

  15. The Effect of Capsaicin on Salivary Gland Dysfunction

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    Yong-Hwan Shin


    Full Text Available Capsaicin (trans-8-methyl-N-vanilyl-6-nonenamide is a unique alkaloid isolated from hot chili peppers of the capsicum family. Capsaicin is an agonist of transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 (TRPV1, which is expressed in nociceptive sensory neurons and a range of secretory epithelia, including salivary glands. Capsaicin has analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties in sensory neurons. Recently, increasing evidence has indicated that capsaicin also affects saliva secretion and inflammation in salivary glands. Applying capsaicin increases salivary secretion in human and animal models. Capsaicin appears to increase salivation mainly by modulating the paracellular pathway in salivary glands. Capsaicin activates TRPV1, which modulates the permeability of tight junctions (TJ by regulating the expression and function of putative intercellular adhesion molecules in an ERK (extracelluar signal-regulated kinase -dependent manner. Capsaicin also improved dysfunction in transplanted salivary glands. Aside from the secretory effects of capsaicin, it has anti-inflammatory effects in salivary glands. The anti-inflammatory effect of capsaicin is, however, not mediated by TRPV1, but by inhibition of the NF-κB pathway. In conclusion, capsaicin might be a potential drug for alleviating dry mouth symptoms and inflammation of salivary glands.

  16. Thin-section CT scan of the pituitary gland

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    Fukuda, T.; Inoue, Y.; Taniguchi, S. (Osaka City Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)


    Topographic anatomy of the pituitary fossa was studied by 2 mm thin-section CT scan (Somatom II). Nineteen with normal pituitary (control group) and 20 with suspected pituitary abnormality were selected. Plain and contrast CT were performed in all cases. Contrast CT was carried out immediately after the rapid infusion of 220 ml of 30% iodinated contrast medium. In all of control group but two, pituitary gland was detected as homogeneous density and its density was the same as the density of normal brain tissues, and was enhanced in degree of about 25 CT number. In 2 cases, small low density was visualized in the pituitary gland. Pituitary gland was differentiated from cavernous sinus was usually higher than the pituitary gland. In the abnormal group, microadenoma of the pituitary gland was diagnosed in 5 cases and 3 out of 5 cases was proved by surgery. All 3 microadenomas proved slightly dense by plain CT and enhanced higher than normal pituitary gland by contrast CT. Polytomograms showed no abnormality of the sella turcica in one of these 3 cases. Although 3 microadenomas were detected by the abnormal enhancement, we are not sure whether all microadenoma can be detected by CT alone. Arachnoid herniation into the pituitary fossa was diagnosed in 7 of the control group and 2 of the abnormal group. Four out of these 9 cases were verified by using Metrizamide CT. By plain thin-section CT, the diagnosis of arachnoid herniation seems to be possible without Metrizamide CT.

  17. Metastatic Breast Carcinoma to the Prostate Gland. (United States)

    Kapp, Meghan E; Giannico, Giovanna A; Desouki, Mohamed Mokhtar


    Cancer of the male breast is an uncommon event with metastases to the breast occurring even less frequently. Prostate carcinoma has been reported as the most frequent primary to metastasize to the breast; however, the reverse has not been previously reported. Herein, we present, for the first time, a case of breast carcinoma metastasizing to the prostate gland. Prostate needle core biopsy revealed infiltrative nests of neoplastic epithelioid cells, demonstrated by immunohistochemistry (IHC) to be positive for GATA3 and ER and negative for PSA and P501S. A prostate cocktail by IHC study demonstrated lack of basal cells (p63 and CK903) and no expression of P501S. The patient's previous breast needle core biopsy showed strong ER positivity and negative staining for PR and HER2. Similar to the prostate, the breast was negative for CK5/6, p63, and p40. This case demonstrates the importance of considering a broad differential diagnosis and comparing histology and IHC to prior known malignancies in the setting of atypical presentation or rare tumors.

  18. Metastatic Breast Carcinoma to the Prostate Gland

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    Meghan E. Kapp


    Full Text Available Cancer of the male breast is an uncommon event with metastases to the breast occurring even less frequently. Prostate carcinoma has been reported as the most frequent primary to metastasize to the breast; however, the reverse has not been previously reported. Herein, we present, for the first time, a case of breast carcinoma metastasizing to the prostate gland. Prostate needle core biopsy revealed infiltrative nests of neoplastic epithelioid cells, demonstrated by immunohistochemistry (IHC to be positive for GATA3 and ER and negative for PSA and P501S. A prostate cocktail by IHC study demonstrated lack of basal cells (p63 and CK903 and no expression of P501S. The patient’s previous breast needle core biopsy showed strong ER positivity and negative staining for PR and HER2. Similar to the prostate, the breast was negative for CK5/6, p63, and p40. This case demonstrates the importance of considering a broad differential diagnosis and comparing histology and IHC to prior known malignancies in the setting of atypical presentation or rare tumors.

  19. Cinacalcet Effectively Reduces Parathyroid Hormone Secretion and Gland Volume Regardless of Pretreatment Gland Size in Patients with Secondary Hyperparathyroidism (United States)

    Komaba, Hirotaka; Nakanishi, Shohei; Fujimori, Akira; Tanaka, Motoko; Shin, Jeongsoo; Shibuya, Koji; Nishioka, Masato; Hasegawa, Hirohito; Kurosawa, Takeshi


    Background and objectives: Cinacalcet is effective in reducing serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) in patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism. However, it has not been proven whether parathyroid gland size predicts response to therapy and whether cinacalcet is capable of inducing a reduction in parathyroid volume. Design, setting, participants, & measurements: This 52-week, multicenter, open-label study enrolled hemodialysis patients with moderate to severe secondary hyperparathyroidism (intact PTH >300 pg/ml). Doses of cinacalcet were adjusted between 25 and 100 mg to achieve intact PTH 30% reduction from baseline (88 versus 78%), but this was not statistically significant. Cinacalcet therapy also resulted in a significant reduction in parathyroid gland volume regardless of pretreatment size, which was in sharp contrast to historical controls (n = 87) where parathyroid gland volume progressively increased with traditional therapy alone. Conclusions: Cinacalcet effectively decreases serum PTH levels and concomitantly reduces parathyroid gland volume, even in patients with marked parathyroid hyperplasia. PMID:20798251

  20. Irradiation of salivary glands in the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; Irradiation des glandes salivaires dans la sclerose laterale amyotrophique

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    Bourry, N.; Lapeyre, M.; Tortochaux, J.; Gilliot, O.; Achard, J.L.; Verrelle, P. [Centre Jean-Perrin, Dept. de Radiotherapie 63 - Clermont-Ferrand (France); Clavelou, P.; Rouvet, S. [CHU Gabriel-Montpied, Service de Neurologie, 63 - Clermont-Ferrand (France)


    The irradiation of salivary glands in the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is efficient. A dose about 20 Gy in five seances delivered by electrons seems a correct compromise between efficiency and toxicity. (N.C.)

  1. Confocal laser scanning microscopic analysis of ectopic sublingual gland-like tissue inside the hamster submandibular gland. (United States)

    Moriguchi, Keiichi; Utsumi, Michiya; Ohno, Norikazu


    Based on its histochemical properties, the secretory portion of the hamster submandibular gland has been classified as seromucous cells. The presence of endogenous peroxidase (PO) reaction was shown in the nuclear envelope, cisternae of endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus. The 3,3'-diaminobenzidene, tetrahydrochloride (DAB) method revealed bipartite secretory granules containing a PO-positive dense core surrounded by a less dense halo in these cells. In the present investigation, serous and mucous-like cells were found in resin-embedded semi-thin sections of the DAB-reacted hamster submandibular gland. These sections were already on glass slides for routine light microscopic observations, therefore electron microscopic analysis could be unrealizable. We then used reflectance-mode confocal laser scanning microscopy to visualize additional sites of PO activity as detected in these sections. Using this approach, we found mucous cells with PO activity-negative secretory granules and seromucous cells with PO activity-positive spot-like secretory granules of the regular sublingual gland most frequently adjacent to the serous cells with typical electron-dense secretory granules. These cells clearly differ from the seromucous cells with bipartite secretory granules and the granular duct cells with typical electron-dense secretory granules of the hamster submandibular gland. Additionally, secretory endpieces of the ectopic sublingual gland-like tissue empty into the duct of the hamster submandibular gland lobule. Thus, our findings suggest that a mass of sublingual gland tissue extends into the hamster submandibular gland during its development, and PO may be synthesized and secreted into the same duct.

  2. The Rapalogue, CCI-779, improves salivary gland function following radiation.

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    Maria Morgan-Bathke

    Full Text Available The standard of care for head and neck cancer typically includes surgical resection of the tumor followed by targeted head and neck radiation. However depending on tumor location and stage, some cases may not require surgical resection while others may be treated with chemoradiation. Unfortunately, these radiation treatments cause chronic negative side effects for patients. These side effects are associated with damage to surrounding normal salivary gland tissue and include xerostomia, changes in taste and malnutrition. The underlying mechanisms of chronic radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction are unknown, however, in rodent models persistently elevated proliferation is correlated with reduced stimulated salivary flow. The rapalogue, CCI-779, has been used in other cell systems to induce autophagy and reduce proliferation, therefore the aim of this study was to determine if CCI-779 could be utilized to ameliorate chronic radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction. Four to six week old Atg5f/f; Aqp5-Cre, Atg5+/+; Aqp5-Cre and FVB mice were treated with targeted head and neck radiation. FVB mice were treated with CCI-779, chloroquine, or DMSO post-radiation. Stimulated salivary flow rates were determined and parotid and submandibular salivary gland tissues were collected for analyses. Mice with a defect in autophagy, via a conditional knockout of Atg5 in the salivary glands, display increased compensatory proliferation in the acinar cell compartment and hypertrophy at 24-72 hours following radiation. FVB mice treated with post-therapy CCI-779 have significant improvements in salivary gland physiology as determined by stimulated salivary flow rates, proliferation indices and amylase production and secretion. Consequently, post-radiation use of CCI-779 allows for improvement of salivary gland function and reestablishment of glandular homeostasis. As CCI-779 is already FDA approved for other uses, it could have a secondary use to alleviate

  3. Skin glands, poison and mimicry in dendrobatid and leptodactylid amphibians. (United States)

    Prates, Ivan; Antoniazzi, Marta M; Sciani, Juliana M; Pimenta, Daniel C; Toledo, Luís Felipe; Haddad, Célio F B; Jared, Carlos


    In amphibians, secretions of toxins from specialized skin poison glands play a central role in defense against predators. The production of toxic secretions is often associated with conspicuous color patterns that warn potential predators, as it is the case of many dendrobatid frogs, including Ameerega picta. This species resembles the presumably nontoxic Leptodactylus lineatus. This study tests for mimicry by studying the morphology and distribution of skin glands, components of skin secretion, and defensive behavior. Dorsal skin was studied histologically and histochemically, and skin secretions were submitted to sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography and assays for proteolytic activity. We found that poison glands in A. picta are filled with nonprotein granules that are rich in carbohydrates, while L. lineatus glands present protein granules. Accordingly, great amounts of proteins, at least some of them enzymes, were found in the poison of L. lineatus but not in that of A. picta. Both species differ greatly on profiles of gland distribution: In L. lineatus, poison glands are organized in clusters whose position coincides with colored elements of the dorsum. These regions are evidenced through a set of displays, suggesting that poison location is announced to predators through skin colors. In contrast, A. picta presents lower densities of glands, distributed homogeneously. This simpler profile suggests a rather qualitative than quantitative investment in chemical defense, in agreement with the high toxicity attributed to dendrobatids in general. Our data suggest that both species are toxic or unpalatable and transmit common warning signals to predators, which represents a case of Müllerian mimicry.


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    S. Havila Hasini


    Full Text Available Introduction: Thymus is one of the central lymphoid organs. It plays an important role in the differentiation, selection and maturation of T-lymphocytes. In the recent years morphology and morphometry of the thymus gland in the newborn is gaining significance as it demonstrates great variability between individual infants and in the same infant at different times. Materials and methods: In the present study 45 thymus specimens from aborted human fetuses of 16 to 40 weeks gestational age and both sexes were studied by autopsy for morphological and morphometric features. The morphometric parameters were measured using pachymeter. Results: The thymus gland was located in the superior mediastinum. 60% (27/45 specimens showed cervical extensions. Brachiocephalic vein anterior to thymus was observed in 3 cases which is an important anomaly to be observed in thymectomy procedure. Thymuses were greyish pink to greyish brown in colour. Variations were also observed in the number of lobes of glands in which one is single lobed, most of the glands are bilobed and few are trilobed. There is progressive increase in all morphometric dimensions of the thymus in relation to gestational age. Most of the specimens were less than 4cm in length. Half of the specimens were below 2cm in width and other half were 2.0 to 5.0 cm in width. For 90% of the specimens thickness of the organ was less than 0.5cm. The thymus gland was 0.2% of fetal body weight. Conclusion: The morphological observations of thymus gland shows great variations which has to be considered in thymectomy. In addition to anthropometric parameters of fetus, morphometric parameters of thymus glands present significant relation to the gestational age of fetuses. It is possible to determine the thymic morphometric parameters in relation to gestational age.

  5. Dynamic relationship of the epithelium and mesenchyme during salivary gland initiation: the role of Fgf10

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    Kirsty L. Wells


    Salivary glands provide an excellent model for the study of epithelial–mesenchymal interactions. We have looked at the interactions involved in the early initiation and development of murine salivary glands using classic recombination experiments and knockout mice. We show that salivary gland epithelium, at thickening and initial bud stages, is able to direct salivary gland development in non-gland pharyngeal arch mesenchyme at early stages. The early salivary gland epithelium is therefore able to induce gland development in non-gland tissue. This ability later shifts to the mesenchyme, with non-gland epithelium, such as from the limb bud, able to form a branching gland when combined with pseudoglandular stage gland mesenchyme. This shift appears to involve Fgf signalling, with signals from the epithelium inducing Fgf10 in the mesenchyme. Fgf10 then signals back to the epithelium to direct gland down-growth and bud development. These experiments highlight the importance of epithelial–mesenchymal signalling in gland initiation, controlling where, when and how many salivary glands form.

  6. Establishing human lacrimal gland cultures with secretory function.

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    Shubha Tiwari

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Dry eye syndrome is a multifactorial chronic disabling disease mainly caused by the functional disruptions in the lacrimal gland. The treatment involves palliation like ocular surface lubrication and rehydration. Cell therapy involving replacement of the gland is a promising alternative for providing long-term relief to patients. This study aimed to establish functionally competent lacrimal gland cultures in-vitro and explore the presence of stem cells in the native gland and the established in-vitro cultures. METHODS: Fresh human lacrimal gland from patients undergoing exenteration was harvested for cultures after IRB approval. The freshly isolated cells were evaluated by flow cytometry for expression of stem cell markers ABCG2, high ALDH1 levels and c-kit. Cultures were established on Matrigel, collagen and HAM and the cultured cells evaluated for the presence of stem cell markers and differentiating markers of epithelial (E-cadherin, EpCAM, mesenchymal (Vimentin, CD90 and myofibroblastic (α-SMA, S-100 origin by flow cytometry and immunocytochemistry. The conditioned media was tested for secretory proteins (scIgA, lactoferrin, lysozyme post carbachol (100 µM stimulation by ELISA. RESULTS: Native human lacrimal gland expressed ABCG2 (mean±SEM: 3.1±0.61%, high ALDH1 (3.8±1.26% and c-kit (6.7±2.0%. Lacrimal gland cultures formed a monolayer, in order of preference on Matrigel, collagen and HAM within 15-20 days, containing a heterogeneous population of stem-like and differentiated cells. The epithelial cells formed 'spherules' with duct like connections, suggestive of ductal origin. The levels of scIgA (47.43 to 61.56 ng/ml, lysozyme (24.36 to 144.74 ng/ml and lactoferrin (32.45 to 40.31 ng/ml in the conditioned media were significantly higher than the negative controls (p<0.05 for all comparisons. CONCLUSION: The study reports the novel finding of establishing functionally competent human lacrimal gland cultures in-vitro. It also

  7. An historical view of the pineal gland and mental disorders. (United States)

    López-Muñoz, F; Molina, J D; Rubio, G; Alamo, C


    Since Classical Antiquity numerous authors have linked the origin of some mental disorders to physical and functional changes in the pineal gland because of its attributed role in humans as the connection between the material and the spiritual world. The pineal organ was seen as a valve-like structure that regulated the flow of animal spirits through the ventricular system, a hypothesis that took on more vigour during the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. The framework for this theory was "the three cells of the brain", in which the pineal gland was even called the "appendix of thought". The pineal gland could also be associated with the boom, during this period, of certain legends about the "stone of folly". But the most relevant psychopathological role of this organ arrived with Descartes, who proposed that it was the seat of the human soul and controlled communications between the physical body and its surroundings, including emotions. After a period of decline during which it was considered as a mere vestigial remnant of evolution, the link between the pineal gland and psychiatric disorders was definitively highlighted in the 20th century, first with the use of glandular extracts in patients with mental deficiency, and finally with the discovery of melatonin in 1958. The physiological properties of melatonin reawakened interest in the relationship between the pineal gland and mental disorders, fundamentally the affective and sleep disorders, which culminated in the development of new pharmacological agents acting through melatonergic receptors (ramelteon and agomelatine).

  8. Localization of the cystogenous glands of Opisthorchis viverrini cercariae. (United States)

    Arunsan, Patpicha; Donthaisong, Chalermlap; Suwannatrai, Kulwadee; Prasopdee, Sattrachai; Kulsantiwong, Jutharat; Suwannatrai, Apiporn; Boonmars, Thidarut; Welbat, Jariya Umka; Oopachitakul, Songpol; Tesana, Smarn


    Opisthorchiasis in northeastern Thailand is an important etiology of cholangiocarcinoma. To form the infectious stage, free swimming cercariae penetrate cyprinid fish, shed their tails, and then secret a cystic substance to cover their larval stage to form metacercariae in the fish body. We determined the location of the cystogenous glands in Opisthorchis viverrini cercariae. The cercariae and metacercariae were obtained from the naturally infected snail host, Bithynia siamensis goniomphalos and from cyprinid fish, respectively. The cyst walls of the metacercariae were separated and used to immunize inbred male BALB/c mice to obtain cyst wall antibodies. The general characteristics of the O. viverrini cercariae and metacercariae were studied by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining of sections. The location and ultrastructure of the cystogenous glands of cercariae were studied by immunoperoxidase, immunofluorescence and transmission electron microscopy. The structures and organelles of cercariae and metacercariae could be identified, but the cystogenous glands could not be detected in H&E sections. The immunoperoxidase and immunofluorescence sections revealed positive reactions for cystogenous glands predominanted in the lateral part of the cercariae and were clearly seen in the cyst wall of the metacercariae. The ultrastructure of the cystogenous glands contained semitranslucent electron dense oval shaped granules. If interference occurs during the formation of the cysts by fish immune response, the metacercariae may not develop to maturity. It may be easily digested or degraded by human stomach acid and pepsin. This may be an efficient method for control of O. viverrini infection which requires further detailed study.

  9. [A bilateral epithelial myoepithelial carcinoma of the parotid gland]. (United States)

    Tauziède-Espariat, Arnault; Raffoul, Johnny; Sun, Shan Rong; Monnin, Christine; Lassabe, Catherine; Costes, Valérie


    We report the case of a 52-year-old man, who was admitted in the department of otorhinolaryngology for a mass of the right parotid gland. The radiological and clinical hypothesis was a squamous cell carcinoma. Histopathological examination revealed a biphasic proliferation composed of epithelial cells arranged in a tubular pattern stained with cytokeratins 5-6 and 7 and EMA surrounded by clear myoepithelial cells stained with smooth muscle actin and p63. Ki-67 labeling index was low. The diagnosis of epithelial myoepithelial carcinoma was proposed. One year after, the patient noticed a centimetric mass of the left parotid gland. The radiological hypothesis was the presence of an intraparotidian lymph node. Histopathological examination showed a second epithelial myoepithelial carcinoma. This is an uncommon neoplasm comprising approximately 1% of all salivary gland tumours, affecting mainly the parotid gland. It is occurring preferably in patients older than 60years old. This is a low-grade malignant tumour with tendency to local recurrence and lymph node metastatic potential. We describe an exceptional bilateral epithelial myoepithelial carcinoma of the parotid gland.

  10. Automatic segmentation of colon glands using object-graphs. (United States)

    Gunduz-Demir, Cigdem; Kandemir, Melih; Tosun, Akif Burak; Sokmensuer, Cenk


    Gland segmentation is an important step to automate the analysis of biopsies that contain glandular structures. However, this remains a challenging problem as the variation in staining, fixation, and sectioning procedures lead to a considerable amount of artifacts and variances in tissue sections, which may result in huge variances in gland appearances. In this work, we report a new approach for gland segmentation. This approach decomposes the tissue image into a set of primitive objects and segments glands making use of the organizational properties of these objects, which are quantified with the definition of object-graphs. As opposed to the previous literature, the proposed approach employs the object-based information for the gland segmentation problem, instead of using the pixel-based information alone. Working with the images of colon tissues, our experiments demonstrate that the proposed object-graph approach yields high segmentation accuracies for the training and test sets and significantly improves the segmentation performance of its pixel-based counterparts. The experiments also show that the object-based structure of the proposed approach provides more tolerance to artifacts and variances in tissues.

  11. FGF23 fails to inhibit uremic parathyroid glands. (United States)

    Canalejo, Rocío; Canalejo, Antonio; Martinez-Moreno, Julio Manuel; Rodriguez-Ortiz, M Encarnacion; Estepa, Jose C; Mendoza, Francisco Javier; Munoz-Castaneda, Juan Rafael; Shalhoub, Victoria; Almaden, Yolanda; Rodriguez, Mariano


    Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) modulates mineral metabolism by promoting phosphaturia and decreasing the production of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3). FGF23 decreases parathyroid hormone (PTH) mRNA and secretion, but despite a marked elevation in FGF23 in uremia, PTH production increases. Here, we investigated the effect of FGF23 on parathyroid function in normal and uremic hyperplastic parathyroid glands in rats. In normal parathyroid glands, FGF23 decreased PTH production, increased expression of both the parathyroid calcium-sensing receptor and the vitamin D receptor, and reduced cell proliferation. Furthermore, FGF23 induced phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, which mediates the action of FGF23. In contrast, in hyperplastic parathyroid glands, FGF23 did not reduce PTH production, did not affect expression of the calcium-sensing receptor or vitamin D receptor, and did not affect cell proliferation. In addition, FGF23 failed to activate the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2-mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway in hyperplastic parathyroid glands. We observed very low expression of the FGF23 receptor 1 and the co-receptor Klotho in uremic hyperplastic parathyroid glands, which may explain the lack of response to FGF23 in this tissue. In conclusion, in hyperparathyroidism secondary to renal failure, the parathyroid cells resist the inhibitory effects of FGF23, perhaps as a result of the low expression of FGF23 receptor 1 and Klotho in this condition.

  12. Endorectal MRI of the prostate gland. Report of representative images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugimura, Yoshiki; Arima, Kiminobu; Hayashi, Norio; Hioki, Takuichi; Ogawa, Kazuhiko; Kinbara, Hiroyuki; Yanagawa, Makoto; Tochigi, Hiromi; Kawamura, Juichi [Mie Univ., Tsu (Japan). School of Medicine


    Endorectal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) by endorectal surface coil has been recently introduced for visualizing the prostate gland. Thirty patients with benign or malignant prostate disease were examined by this new modality. The intra-glandular zonal anatomy (Transition zone, TZ; Peripheral Zone, PZ) can be clearly visualized on T2-weighted images in normal prostate glands. Benign prostatic hypertrophy is shown as a low heterogeneous signal area in the TZ on T2-weighted imaging. Prostate cancer is shown as a low-signal area within the PZ on T2-weighted imaging. Clear images of the prostatic capsule and the neurovascular bundle seen on the surface coil may contribute to the local staging of prostate cancer. Invasion of the seminal vesicle by prostate cancer is displayed as an enhanced septal pattern with enriched gadolinium. However, localization of the cancer lesion within the prostate gland could not be clearly detected by gadolinium enhancement. Prospective tumor staging by the endorectal surface coil MRI was 75% accurate, this being confirmed by histopathological examinations of 8 prostate glands obtained during radical prostatectomies. We concluded that endorectal MRI can greatly contribute to diagnosing the pathological condition of the prostate gland. (author)

  13. Sebaceous Carcinoma in the Parotid Gland, Report of a Case

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alsharif Moh'd Jamal; Sun Zhi-Jun; Zhao Yi-Fang


    Sebaceous gland carcinoma is a rare, aggressive, skin tumour. It arises from sebaceous glands in the skin anywhere on the body where these glands exist. This tumour has an aggressive clinical course, with a high tendency for both local recurrence and distant metastasis. A case in a Chinese woman of sebaceous gland carcinoma in the parotid gland with ulceration was reported. Surgical excision of the tumour was performed accompanied with suprahyoid neck dissection; the defect was reconstructed with radial forearm free flap.%皮脂腺癌是一种罕见的侵袭性皮肤肿瘤.它可以发生在任何存在皮脂腺的部位.这种肿瘤具有侵袭性的临床病程, 常出现局部复发和远处转移.本文报告了一例伴有溃疡表现的腮腺皮脂腺癌.对肿瘤进行手术切除及舌骨上颈淋巴清扫术,并采用前臂游离皮瓣整复缺损.

  14. Antigenic homogeneity of male Müllerian gland (MG) secretory proteins of a caecilian amphibian with secretory proteins of the mammalian prostate gland and seminal vesicles: evidence for role of the caecilian MG as a male accessory reproductive gland. (United States)

    Radha, Arumugam; Sree, Sreesha; Faisal, Kunnathodi; Kumar, G Pradeep; Oommen, Oommen V; Akbarsha, Mohammad A


    Whereas in all other vertebrates the Müllerian ducts of genetic males are aborted during development, under the influence of Müllerian-inhibiting substance, in the caecilian amphibians they are retained as a pair of functional glands. It has long been speculated that the Müllerian gland might be the male accessory reproductive gland but there has been no direct evidence to this effect. The present study was undertaken to determine whether the caecilian Müllerian gland secretory proteins would bear antigenic similarity to secretory proteins of the prostate gland and/or the seminal vesicles of a mammal. The secretory proteins of the Müllerian gland of Ichthyophis tricolor were evaluated for cross-reactivity with antisera raised against rat ventral prostate and seminal vesicle secretory proteins, adopting SDS-PAGE, two-dimensional electrophoresis and immunoblot techniques. Indeed there was a cross-reaction of five Müllerian gland secretory protein fractions with prostatic protein antiserum and of three with seminal vesicle protein antiserum. A potential homology exists because in mammals the middle group of the prostate primordia is derived from a diverticulum of the Müllerian duct. Thus this study, by providing evidence for expression of prostatic and seminal vesicle proteins in the Müllerian gland, substantiates the point that in caecilians the Müllerian glands are the male accessory reproductive glands.

  15. Radiological features of endocrine orbitopathy involving lacrimal gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Likhvantseva


    Full Text Available According to orbit computer tomography, lacrimal gland is involved in autoimmune process in 26.8% of patients with Graves’ orbitopathy. A short orbit is a predisposing factor of the lacrimal gland (LG involvement in the autoimmune process. In addition to increasing of the size of the lacrimal gland, formed thickening of the optic nerve in 1 cm from the eye posterior pole (in 60% of cases, the increase in x-ray density of orbital portions of optic nerve, proved «shortening» of length in axial projection with reliable reduc- tion of length to width ratio (with increase in width at the same time up to 5.8±0.2 are roentgenological features of this сlinical form. Change of spatial topography in orbit with reduction of the conversion rate was associated with increased rate of optic neuropathydevelopment.

  16. Anatomy of thyroid and parathyroid glands and neurovascular relations. (United States)

    Mohebati, A; Shaha, A R


    Historically, thyroid surgery has been fraught with complications. Injury to the recurrent laryngeal nerve, superior laryngeal nerve, or the parathyroid glands may result in profound life-long consequences for the patient. To minimize the morbidity of the operation, a surgeon must have an in-depth understanding of the anatomy of the thyroid and parathyroid glands and be able to apply this information to perform a safe and effective operation. This article will review the pertinent anatomy and embryology of the thyroid and parathyroid glands and the critical structures that lie in their proximity. This information should aid the surgeon in appropriate identification and preservation of the function of these structures and to avoid the pitfalls of the operation.

  17. My journey into the world of salivary gland sebaceous neoplasms. (United States)

    Gnepp, Douglas R


    As part of this symposium honoring Leon Barnes, the authors were asked to present the case from which they learned the most. I chose a cystic sebaceous lymphadenoma (SL) as my case presentation. This paper presents this unusual case, as well as several additional sebaceous tumors that came across my desk the first few years I was in practice. These interesting cases led me to thoroughly review the literature on sebaceous tumors of the salivary glands, resulting in several publications, the largest series of sebaceous tumors published at this time as well as a careful review of all cases in the literature. The author will also review the current and previous literature on the five types of salivary gland sebaceous tumors: sebaceous adenoma, SL (and non-sebaceous lymphadenoma), sebaceous carcinoma, sebaceous lymphadenocarcinoma, and sebaceous differentiation in other types of salivary gland lesions.

  18. Thymus in experimental carcinogenesis of the prostate gland. (United States)

    Borodin, Yu I; Lomshakov, A A; Astashov, V V; Kazakov, O V; Mayorov, A P; Larionov, P M


    We studied structural changes in the prostate gland, thymus, and lymph nodes in CBA mice after transplantation of Ehrlich ascites tumor cells into the prostate gland. On experimental day 5, the number of blood and lymph vessels decreased in the gland; the percentage of connective tissue elements and glandular tissue and the number of immunoblasts in the thymus increased. On day 18, the number of blood vessels in the tumor decreased; the width of the cortex and glandular tissue increased in the thymus, while the number of immunoblasts was reduced. On day 28, tumor infiltration and increased number of lymphatic vessels in its stroma were observed; parenchyma was reduced, and the area of the connective tissue increased in the thymus. These structural changes indicated the development of accidental involution of the thymus during carcinogenesis of the prostate.

  19. Patterns of salivary gland uptake in I-131 MIBG scintigraphy. (United States)

    Salanci, B Volkan; Ergün, E Lay


    I-131 MIBG scintigraphy is routinely used in the diagnosis of neuroendocrine tumours with high specificity. The radiopharmaceutical is taken up via uptake mechanism and actively transported into storage vesicules. The organs with dense sympathetic innervation such as salivary glands, heart, lachrymal glands, spleen and rarely adrenal medulla are normally visualized with I-131 MIBG. Asymetrical salivary gland uptake is important in a patient with suspected neuroendocrine tumours. Absence of radioactivity may be a result of sympathic denervation or tumor. Bilateral radioactivity absence is observed usually due to drugs or radiopharmaceutical storage conditions. Detailed examination of cervical region is crucial for localisation of neuroendocrine tumours. Therefore, possible false positives should be kept in mind.

  20. Trastuzumab for HER-2-Positive Advanced Salivary Gland Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Tsung Yang


    Full Text Available Salivary gland adenocarcinoma is a rare type of head and neck cancer and often has aggressive behavior with propensity to recur and metastasize. Currently, there are no standard treatment guidelines. Surgery is however, the mainstay of treatment in resectable disease and radiation is also considered for most patients after surgery. Systemic chemotherapy is reserved for metastatic cases, but its results are often disappointing. Recent development of molecular biology has shown that salivary gland caner has several molecular changes which may guide potential therapeutic targets. Here, we report a 67 year-old man diagnosed to have metastasized minor salivary gland adenocarcinoma with diffuse human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER-2-positive, by the immunohistochemical (IHC stain. He was treated with a trastuzumab-containing chemotherapeutic regimen with encouraging results.

  1. Brunner gland hamartoma masquerading as malignancy; a rare case report. (United States)

    Sen, Rajeev; Gupta, Veena; Sharma, Nisha; Chawla, Nitika; Kumar, Sanjay; Malik, Shivani


    Brunner's gland hamartoma is a rare benign tumour of the duodenum. It was first described by Cruveilhier in 1835. Presently around 200 cases have been reported in literature. No sex predilection is seen. Patients usually present in the fifth to sixth decades of life. They may be clinically silent or may present with variable symptoms and occasionally obstructive symptoms and chronic pancreatitis. Endoscopic presentation can be nodular, polypoid or diffuse glandular proliferation with thickening of duodenal wall and hence can be misdiagnosed as malignancy. We describe a case of duodenal tumor reported outside (on biopsy) as well differentiated adenocarcinoma which out as Brunner gland hamartoma upon complete resection. Brunner gland hamartoma may sometimes have a very unusual presentation. Extensive pre-operative evaluation is necessity to avoid radical surgical procedure.

  2. Analysis of the salivary gland transcriptome of Frankliniella occidentalis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candice A Stafford-Banks

    Full Text Available Saliva is known to play a crucial role in insect feeding behavior and virus transmission. Currently, little is known about the salivary glands and saliva of thrips, despite the fact that Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande (the western flower thrips is a serious pest due to its destructive feeding, wide host range, and transmission of tospoviruses. As a first step towards characterizing thrips salivary gland functions, we sequenced the transcriptome of the primary salivary glands of F. occidentalis using short read sequencing (Illumina technology. A de novo-assembled transcriptome revealed 31,392 high quality contigs with an average size of 605 bp. A total of 12,166 contigs had significant BLASTx or tBLASTx hits (E≤1.0E-6 to known proteins, whereas a high percentage (61.24% of contigs had no apparent protein or nucleotide hits. Comparison of the F. occidentalis salivary gland transcriptome (sialotranscriptome against a published F. occidentalis full body transcriptome assembled from Roche-454 reads revealed several contigs with putative annotations associated with salivary gland functions. KEGG pathway analysis of the sialotranscriptome revealed that the majority (18 out of the top 20 predicted KEGG pathways of the salivary gland contig sequences match proteins involved in metabolism. We identified several genes likely to be involved in detoxification and inhibition of plant defense responses including aldehyde dehydrogenase, metalloprotease, glucose oxidase, glucose dehydrogenase, and regucalcin. We also identified several genes that may play a role in the extra-oral digestion of plant structural tissues including β-glucosidase and pectin lyase; and the extra-oral digestion of sugars, including α-amylase, maltase, sucrase, and α-glucosidase. This is the first analysis of a sialotranscriptome for any Thysanopteran species and it provides a foundational tool to further our understanding of how thrips interact with their plant hosts and the

  3. Segmenting the Parotid Gland using Registration and Level Set Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hollensen, Christian; Hansen, Mads Fogtmann; Højgaard, Liselotte;

    The bilateral parotid glands were segmented using a registration scheme followed by level set segmentation. A training set consisting of computerized tomography from 10 patients with segmentation of the bilateral glands were used to optimize the parameters of registration and level set segmentation....... The method was evaluated on a test set consisting of 8 corresponding data sets. The attained total volume Dice coefficient and mean Haussdorff distance were 0.61 ± 0.20 and 15.6 ± 7.4 mm respectively. The method has improvement potential which could be exploited in order for clinical introduction....

  4. Shear-induced rigidity in spider silk glands (United States)

    Koski, Kristie J.; McKiernan, Keri; Akhenblit, Paul; Yarger, Jeffery L.


    We measure the elastic stiffnesses of the concentrated viscous protein solution of the dehydrated Nephila clavipes major ampullate gland with Brillouin light scattering. The glandular material shows no rigidity but possesses a tensile stiffness similar to that of spider silk. We show, however, that with application of a simple static shear, the mechanical properties of the spider gland protein mixture can be altered irreversibly, lowering symmetry and enabling shear waves to be supported, thus, giving rise to rigidity and yielding elastic properties similar to those of the naturally spun (i.e., dynamically sheared) silk.

  5. [Participation of pineal gland in antistressor activity of adaptogenic drugs]. (United States)

    Arushanian, É B; Beĭer, É V


    Chronic stress produces some morphological changes in rats, including thymus weight reduction, adrenal hypertrophy, and peptic ulcers in stomach. Repeated administration of phytoadaptogenic drugs (ginseng and bilobil) decreased these stress-induced disorders. The antistressor activity of drugs was attenuated upon by removal of the pineal gland. Histochemical and morphometric investigation of pineal tissues in stressed animals showed that that the pharmacological effect was accompanied by increasing functional activity of the pineal gland. It is suggested that pineal mobilization may participate in antistressor activity of phytoadaptogenic drugs.

  6. Lacrimal gland involvement in Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease. (United States)

    Chavis, Pamela S.; Fallata, Amna; Al-Hussein, Hailah; Clunie, David; Huaman, Antonio


    PURPOSE. A 32-year-old Saudi female presented with typical Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease, i.e., fever, cervical lymphadenitis and leukopenia, but there was also painful upper eyelid swelling with pain on upgaze. METHODS. A connective tissue disease and lymphoma workup were unremarkable, as were antibody titers to Apifia felis and Bartonella henselae. RESULTS. Orbital computed tomography showed significant lacrimal gland enlargement. Cervical node biopsy revealed necrotizing lymphadenitis. CONCLUSION. Concomitant lacrimal gland inflammation and cervical lymphadenopathy may be a benign self-limited disease.

  7. Congenital salivary gland anlage tumor - in utero and postnatal imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radhakrishnan, Rupa; Calvo-Garcia, Maria A.; Koch, Bernadette L. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Lim, Foong-Yen [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Division of Pediatric Surgery, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Elluru, Ravindhra G. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Division of Pediatric Otolaryngology, Cincinnati, OH (United States)


    We present a case of an infant with congenital salivary gland anlage tumor, with fetal and postnatal imaging. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case describing the in utero imaging findings of salivary gland anlage tumor. A fetal MRI was performed secondary to the clinical finding of polyhydramnios, which identified a nasopharyngeal mass. Because findings were concerning for airway obstruction, the fetus was delivered by ex utero intrapartum treatment (EXIT) to airway procedure. A postnatal CT confirmed the findings of the fetal MRI. The lesion was resected when the baby was 4 days old and recovery was uneventful. (orig.)

  8. Carcinoma ex mixed tumor arising in the parotid gland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Y. S.; Hwang, E. H.; Lee, S. R. [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, College of Dentistry, Kyunghee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    Carcinoma ex mixed tumor is a mixed tumor in which a second neoplasm develops from the epithelial component that fulfills the criteria for malignancy. This tumor occurs frequently in the parotid glands. Individuals in whom carcinoma ex mixed tumor have a past history of benign mixed tumor. These lesions contain both a benign mixed tumor as well as a malignant neoplasm. We report a case of carcinoma ex mixed tumor which occurred in the parotid gland. A 67-year-old woman presented with movable right mass. She complained pain and facial paralysis. The clinical presentation, several diagnostic images, and histopathologic findings are presented.

  9. Mucocele of the submandibular gland; Mucocele de glandula submandibular

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrero, M. A.; Wiechoff, A.; Avila, R.; Candela, V. P. [Hospital Universitario Materno-Infantil de Canarias. Las Palmas (Spain)


    We present a case of mucocele of the submandibular gland with mucin extravasation in a 65-year-old man. The patient sought treatment for a right submaxillary tumor and was found to have a cystic mass in the submandibular space on computed tomography (CT) scan. The CT findings are characteristics of this lesion, despite the fact that the radiological differential diagnosis of cysts of the submandibular region can be difficult since the their possible origin in the submandibular gland is not always evident. (Author) 4 refs.

  10. Subnuclear globules in simple mucinous glands of the gastrointestinal tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holck, Susanne; Ingeholm, P.


    Pyloric and duodenal Brunner glands may be the site of a peculiar cytoplasmic change characterized by clear vacuoles or glassy eosinophilic globules, occupying a subnuclear position with displacement of the nuclei towards the lumenal surface. To our knowledge this previously documented,5,6 althou...... rarely described cellular phenomenon has not previously been recorded in extrapyloric/duodenal sites. During a 5-year period, we have noticed 3 such cases involving the simple gastrointestinal mucinous glands, 2 of which occurring in sites outsides the pylorus and duodenum....

  11. Unique Case Report of Pineal Gland Metastasis From Bladder Carcinoma


    Li, Jun; Wang, Ping; Wang, Bin


    Abstract Pineal metastasis is uncommon and most metastatic pineal lesions are asymptomatic. To our knowledge the herein reported case is the first in which the pineal gland was confirmed as the metastatic site of a bladder carcinoma. The patient reported in this case is a 59-year-old man who suffered from headache and delirium for 4 days after surgical treatment for removal of a bladder carcinoma 1 year ago. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a solid tumor involving the pineal gland wi...

  12. [A solitary neurofibroma in the parotid gland from nervus vagus]. (United States)

    Fagö-Olsen, Helena Anna; Hahn, Christoffer Holst


    A 37-year-old male, without stigmata of neurofibromatosis type 1, developed a firm mass below the right ear over several months without facial palsy. Clinical examination and ultra-sonography revealed a tumour in the parotid gland. Fine needle aspirationbiopsy was inconclusive. During complete resection, the tumour revealed an unusual anatomic location from the superficial lobe of the parotid to the deep and further into the parapharyngeal space. The pathological examination showed a solitary neurofibroma. In this case report, preoperative diagnosis, therapy and follow-up of this rare tumour in the parotid gland from n. vagus are discussed.

  13. Ectopic salivary gland tissue in a Rathke's cleft cyst. (United States)

    Ranucci, Valentina; Coli, Antonella; Marrucci, Eleonora; Paolo, Mattogno Pier; Della Pepa, Giuseppe; Anile, Carmelo; Mangiola, Annunziato


    The presence of salivary gland tissue in the sella turcica has rarely been reported, mainly after pituitary examination at autopsy. Only five symptomatic cases have previously been described, mainly associated with Rathke's cleft cyst. We report a 17-year-old boy presenting with headaches and hyperprolactinemia. The MRI showed a 19 mm sellar mass that at surgery revealed as a cystic lesion filled with mucinous fluid. The histological examination documented the presence of ectopic salivary gland tissue in the wall of a Rathke's cleft cyst. The present report focuses on the possible pitfalls when dealing with unusual sellar lesions, and the need of increased awareness of this rare condition.

  14. Congenital salivary gland anlage tumor - in utero and postnatal imaging. (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, Rupa; Calvo-Garcia, Maria A; Lim, Foong-Yen; Elluru, Ravindhra G; Koch, Bernadette L


    We present a case of an infant with congenital salivary gland anlage tumor, with fetal and postnatal imaging. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case describing the in utero imaging findings of salivary gland anlage tumor. A fetal MRI was performed secondary to the clinical finding of polyhydramnios, which identified a nasopharyngeal mass. Because findings were concerning for airway obstruction, the fetus was delivered by ex utero intrapartum treatment (EXIT) to airway procedure. A postnatal CT confirmed the findings of the fetal MRI. The lesion was resected when the baby was 4 days old and recovery was uneventful.

  15. Congenital salivary gland anlage tumor of the nasopharynx. (United States)

    Tinsa, Faten; Boussetta, Khadija; Bousnina, Souad; Menif, Khaled; Nouira, Faouzi; Haouet, Slim; Sahtout, Samia


    Nasal and upper respiratory tract obstruction in the neonatal period can result from a variety of conditions, and may be present with variable symptoms. Salivary gland anlage tumor, also referred as congenital pleomorphic adenoma, is a very rare benign congenital tumor of the nasopharynx, which may produce nasal obstruction and other associated, nonspecific symptoms. We report a case of congenital salivary gland anlage tumor causing a severe neonatal respiratory distress with pulmonary hypertension. The tumor was removed and the outcome was favourable without recurrence at five years of the follow up.

  16. The colleteric glands in Sacculinidae (Crustacea, Cirripedia, Rhizocephala): an ultrastructural study of ovisac secretion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lange, Sven


    Ovisac secretion by the paired colleteric glands of Sacculina carcini and Heterosaccus dollfusi (Rhizocephala, Sacculinida) was documented and studied at the ultrastructural level. Preparatory to oviposition, the epithelium of each colleteric gland secretes one branched, elastic, transparent ovisac.

  17. Comparison of radiosensitivity of rat parotid and submandibular glands after different radiation schedules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coppes, RP; Vissink, A; Konings, AWT


    Background and purpose: To investigate the radiosensitivity of rat parotid and submandibular gland functioning after local single dose, conventional fractionated and accelerated fractionated irradiation. Methods: The salivary glands of male albino Wistar rats were locally irradiated with a single do

  18. Age-related changes in the innervation of the prostate gland



    The adult prostate gland grows and develops under hormonal control while its physiological functions are controlled by the autonomic nervous system. The prostate gland receives sympathetic input via the hypogastric nerve and parasympathetic input via the pelvic nerve. In addition, the hypogastric and pelvic nerves also provide sensory inputs to the gland. This review provides a summary of the innervation of the adult prostate gland and describes the changes which occur with age and disease. G...

  19. An anatomical and histochemical examination of the pituitary gland of carp (Cyprinus carpio)


    EKİCİ, Aygül; TİMUR, Metin


    The present study was carried out for the purpose of studying the anatomical and the histochemical structure of the pituitary gland of the common carp, Cyprinus carpio. Anatomically, the shape of the gland has been observed to be round-oval, looking like an acorn. The pituitary gland consists of the adenohypophysis and neurohypophysis parts. Microscopically, the adenohypophysis consists of anterior (pars distalis) and posterior (pars intermedia) parts. The second lobe of the gland, called the...

  20. The urethral glands of male mice in relation to depletion of secretory granules upon mating. (United States)

    Parr, M B; de França, L R; Kepple, L; Ying, L; Parr, E L; Russell, L D


    The present study describes the effects of mating on urethral gland acinar cells in male mice. Histological and morphometric analysis demonstrated that there was a depletion of secretory granules in the urethral glands during mating. However, no change occurred in the rough endoplasmic reticulum containing tubular elements. The results indicate that the urethral glands are functional during mating. The timing of their granule depletion suggests that urethral gland secretions may contribute to the formation of semen or the copulation plug.

  1. Localization and expression of spermadhesin PSP-I/PSP-II subunits in the reproductive organs of the boar. (United States)

    García, E M; Vázquez, J M; Parrilla, I; Ortega, M D; Calvete, J J; Sanz, L; Martínez, E A; Roca, J; Rodríguez-Martínez, H


    The epithelial localization and expression of the spermadhesin PSP-I and PSP-II subunits were determined in the testis, ductus epididymes (caput, corpus and cauda), seminal vesicles and bulbourethral glands of mature boars, using immunohistochemical, western blotting and RT-PCR methods. Immunohistochemistry showed positive labelling for PSP-I and PSP-II antibodies in the epithelium of seminal vesicles in all males tested. Positive immunolabelling, but with variable intensity, was also present in the epididymal epithelium (caput, corpus and cauda), although varying largely among segments and boars. Immunoreactivity was nearly or completely absent in the seminiferous epithelium and the bulbourethral gland, although SDS-PAGE and western blotting revealed the presence of PSP-I and PSP-II immunoreactive bands in all the tissue extracts, including the testis and the bulbourethral gland. mRNA amplification by RT-PCR using primers specific for PSP-I and PSP-II showed a trend similar to that observed for western blotting, i.e. intensity variation between tissues (even between segments of the same epididymis) and among boars. Our results indicate that the seminal vesicles are the main source of PSP-I and PSP-II spermadhesins, although epididymal segments, testis and the bulbourethral gland also participate in the expression of both proteins.

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    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    To investigate the possible role of secretory granules in radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction, rats were pretreated with isoproterenol (5 mg/kg intraperitoneally) to degranulate salivary gland acini, At maximal depletion, salivary glands were locally irradiated with a single dose of 15 Gy o

  12. A new identified complication of intracystic hemorrhage in a large pineal gland cyst. (United States)

    Mehrzad, Raman; Mishra, Suprav; Feinstein, Alexander; Ho, Michael G


    Pineal gland cysts are typically asymptomatic, benign cysts most commonly found incidentally in adults. In rare cases, a large pineal gland cyst can be complicated by intracystic hemorrhage, which could then manifest with neurological symptoms. We report a new complication of intracystic hemorrhage in a large pineal gland cyst in a 40-year-old man with new onset seizures.

  13. Salivary gland hypertrophy viruses (SGHVs): a novel group of insect pathogenic viruses (United States)

    Salivary gland hypertrophy viruses (SGHVs) are a unique, unclassified group of entomopathogenic, double-stranded DNA viruses that have been reported from three genera of Diptera. These viruses replicate in nuclei of salivary gland cells in adult flies, inducing gland enlargement with little obvious ...

  14. A peptide from the male accessory glands of the Colorado potato beetle.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smid, H.M.


    This thesis describes a study of the male accessory glands of the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say). These glands add various substances to the ejaculate. On mating, the ejaculate is transferred to the female, together with the substances from the male accessory glands. The fun

  15. Associations between Oral Infections and Salivary Gland Hypofunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Siri Beier; Pedersen, Anne Marie Lynge


    and neck region, cancer chemotherapy and intake of medications. Despite the different causes of salivary gland hypofunction, these patient groups show some similarities regarding the composition of the oral microbiota with increased colonisation of oral pathogens associated with dental caries...... (Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus species) and oral mucosal infections, especially Candida albicans....

  16. Mechanisms of submucosal gland morphogenesis in the airway. (United States)

    Filali, Mohammed; Liu, Xiaoming; Cheng, Ningli; Abbott, Duane; Leontiev, Vladimir; Engelhardt, John F


    Submucosal glands (SMGs) are thought to play an important role in the pathogenesis of a number of hypersecretory lung diseases including cystic fibrosis, asthma, and chronic bronchitis. In such diseases, severe SMG hypertrophy and hyperplasia is characteristic of disease progression. Our laboratory has focused efforts on defining both the mechanism of SMG morphogenesis and the identification of SMG stem cells. To this end, we have identified a transcription factor (LEF1) that is temporally and spatially uniquely regulated in SMG progenitors during the initial stages of gland development. LEF1 expression is absolutely required for SMG development in mouse and ferret tracheas, but is insufficient to induce de novo gland development in the absence of other unknown co-factors. In an effort to delineate the transcriptional cascades responsible for inducing LEF1 expression and subsequent SMG development in the airway, we have begun to dissect the regulation of the LEF1 promoter using cell line and transgenic mouse models. Current efforts are focused on defining the cis-acting elements and transcriptional binding factors responsible for Wnt induction of the LEF1 promoter and determining whether the Wnt/beta catenin cascade plays a role in submucosal gland development in vivo.

  17. BPH gene expression profile associated to prostate gland volume. (United States)

    Descazeaud, Aurelien; Rubin, Mark A; Hofer, Matthias; Setlur, Sunita; Nikolaief, Nathalie; Vacherot, Francis; Soyeux, Pascale; Kheuang, Laurence; Abbou, Claude C; Allory, Yves; de la Taille, Alexandre


    The aim of the current study was to analyze gene expression profiles in benign prostatic hyperplasia and to compare them with phenotypic properties. Thirty-seven specimens of benign prostatic hyperplasia were obtained from symptomatic patients undergoing surgery. RNA was extracted and hybridized to Affymetrix Chips containing 54,000 gene expression probes. Gene expression profiles were analyzed using cluster, TreeView, and significance analysis of microarrays softwares. In an initial unsupervised analysis, our 37 samples clustered hierarchically in 2 groups of 18 and 19 samples, respectively. Five clinical parameters were statistically different between the 2 groups: in group 1 compared with group 2, patients had larger prostate glands, had higher prostate specific antigen levels, were more likely to be treated by alpha blockers, to be operated by prostatectomy, and to have major irritative symptoms. The sole independent parameter associated with this dichotome clustering, however, was the prostate gland volume. Therefore, the role of prostate volume was explored in a supervised analysis. Gene expression of prostate glands 60 mL were compared using significance analysis of microarrays and 227 genes were found differentially expressed between the 2 groups (>2 change and false discovery rate of <5%). Several specific pathways including growth factors genes, cell cycle genes, apoptose genes, inflammation genes, and androgen regulated genes, displayed major differences between small and large prostate glands.

  18. Neuropeptide Y in the adult and fetal human pineal gland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Morten; Phansuwan-Pujito, Pansiri; Badiu, Corin


    Neuropeptide Y was isolated from the porcine brain in 1982 and shown to be colocalized with noradrenaline in sympathetic nerve terminals. The peptide has been demonstrated to be present in sympathetic nerve fibers innervating the pineal gland in many mammalian species. In this investigation, we s...

  19. Acetate stimulates secretion in the rabbit mandibular gland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novak, I; Young, J A


    In isolated perfused rabbit mandibular glands undergoing stimulation with 0.8 microM acetylcholine, replacement of HCO3- with acetate (25 mM) increased fluid secretion by more than 100%. Other short-chain fatty acids, except for propionate, had a similar effect. We focused our further studies...

  20. Carcinoma of the anal sac glands in ranch mink. (United States)

    Hadlow, W J


    During a 14-year period, carcinoma of the anal sac apocrine glands was found in 52 pastel and 8 sapphire mink (Mustela vison) kept for studies on slow viral diseases. The pastel mink varied in age from 72 to 135 months (mean age 108 months), the sapphire mink from 63 to 100 months (mean age 81 months). All but one pastel mink were females. The primary tumor varied in size from masses that caused bulges in the perineum to those that were found only after microscopic examination of the anal sac glands. Although the primary tumor grew mainly by expansion with little local infiltration, 41 of the 60 tumors had metastasized to the regional lymph nodes and sometimes also to more distant sites. The striking propensity of the carcinoma to metastasize while still small, even microscopic, often resulted in massive secondary growths, notably in the iliac lymph nodes. Hypercalcemia did not accompany the carcinoma. Its varied microscopic appearance included solid, glandular, squamous cell, and spindle or round cell components. Combinations of them formed mixed or complex histologic patterns, no doubt largely attributable to neoplastic proliferation of myoepithelial cells and squamous metaplasia of the apocrine gland epithelium. Although its cause remains obscure, the carcinoma appeared to arise from small foci of hyperplastic apocrine glands, sometimes in relation to both anal sacs. The tumor is a common and distinctive expression of neoplasia in older ranch mink.

  1. Maspin and MCM2 immunoprofiling in salivary gland carcinomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmy Iman M


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The pathogenesis of salivary gland carcinomas is very complex and prognostic markers are difficult to find in these carcinomas of which the different subtypes have varying malignant potential. The study was conducted to examine the cellular distribution of maspin and MCM2 in salivary gland carcinomas and their value to predict lymph node metastasis. Materials and methods Fifty three paraffin blocks of different lesions (15 muco-epidermoid carcinoma, 14 adenoid cystic carcinoma, 3 epi-myoepithelial carcinoma, 5 salivary duct carcinoma, 5 malignant pleomorphic adenoma, 6 polymorphous low grade adenocarcinoma and 5 acinic cell carcinoma were prepared for immunohistochemical staining with maspin and MCM2 antibodies. ANOVA and Pearson correlation tests were used for the statistical analysis of the results. Results All salivary gland carcinomas express maspin and MCM2 with variable cellular localization. There was a significant difference in the expression of each antibody between mucoepidermoid carcinoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma and polymorphous low grade adenocarcinoma. No association was found between examined markers and lymph node metastasis. Conclusions Salivary gland carcinomas express maspin and MCM2 with variable levels and cellular localization, consisting important markers of biological behavior in these tumors. The level of MCM2 expression can be used in the differential diagnosis of adenoid cystic carcinoma and polymorphous low grade adenocarcinoma. Further study with large sample size is recommended to assess their value in prediction of lymph node metastasis.

  2. Sjoegren`s syndrome: MR imaging of the parotid gland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogl, T.J. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. Berlin (Germany); Dresel, S.H.J. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. Muenchen (Germany); Grevers, G. [Dept. of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology, Univ. Muenchen (Germany); Spaeth, M. [Dept. of Rheumatology, Univ. Muenchen (Germany); Bergman, C. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. Muenchen (Germany); Balzer, J. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. Berlin (Germany); Lissner, J. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. Berlin (Germany)


    To date, myoepithelial sialoadenitis (Sjoegren`s syndrome) has been diagnosed with sialography and other techniques. First results of MR imaging offer new possibilities in the diagnostic imaging of this disease. Thirty-six patients with immunohistologically and serologically confirmed Sjoegren`s syndrome and 25 patients suffering from other diseases, included as a control group, were examined by MR in transverse and coronal orientation. T-2-weighted sequences (TR/TE 1600/25/90) and T1-weighted sequences (TR/TE 500/25 ms) plain and after Gd-DTPA administration were obtained. In all patients the parotid gland showed characteristic internal patterns and abnormalities in gland size. There was a nonhomogeneous internal pattern with a characteristic speckled, honeycomb-like appearance visible especially on T2-weighted sequences. Enhancement with Gd-DTPA yielded no additional information. A staging system with four stages of Sjoegren`s syndrome (no characteristic changes to a nodular and swollen gland) was developed. Magnetic resonance has become an important new tool in assessing parotid gland changes in patients suffering from Sjoegren`s syndrome, and could well replace the ore invasive and unpleasant diagnostic methods in the near future. (orig.)

  3. Facial nerve function in carcinoma of the parotid gland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terhaard, Chris; Lubsen, Herman; Tan, Bing; Merkx, Thijs; van der Laan, Bernard; Jong, Rob Baatenburg-de; Manni, Hans; Kneght, Paul


    Aim: To analyse, for patients with carcinoma of the parotid gland, the prognostic value for treatment outcome of the function of the facial nerve (NVII), and determining facial nerve dysfunction after treatment. Methods and materials: In a retrospective study of the Dutch head and Neck cooperative g

  4. Standards for the assessment of salivary glands – an update (United States)

    Ochal-Choińska, Aleksandra


    The paper is an update of 2011 Standards for Ultrasound Assessment of Salivary Glands, which were developed by the Polish Ultrasound Society. We have described current ultrasound technical requirements, assessment and measurement techniques as well as guidelines for ultrasound description. We have also discussed an ultrasound image of normal salivary glands as well as the most important pathologies, such as inflammation, sialosis, collagenosis, injuries and proliferative processes, with particular emphasis on lesions indicating high risk of malignancy. In acute bacterial inflammation, the salivary glands appear as hypoechoic, enlarged or normal-sized, with increased parenchymal flow. The echogenicity is significantly increased in viral infections. Degenerative lesions may be seen in chronic inflammations. Hyperechoic deposits with acoustic shadowing can be visualized in lithiasis. Parenchymal fibrosis is a dominant feature of sialosis. Sjögren syndrome produces different pictures of salivary gland parenchymal lesions at different stages of the disease. Pleomorphic adenomas are usually hypoechoic, well-defined and polycyclic in most cases. Warthin tumor usually presents as a hypoechoic, oval-shaped lesion with anechoic cystic spaces. Malignancies are characterized by blurred outlines, irregular shape, usually heterogeneous echogenicity and pathological neovascularization. The accompanying metastatic lesions are another indicator of malignancy, however, final diagnosis should be based on biopsy findings. PMID:27446602

  5. Near-infrared autofluorescence for the detection of parathyroid glands (United States)

    Paras, Constantine; Keller, Matthew; White, Lisa; Phay, John; Mahadevan-Jansen, Anita


    A major challenge in endocrine surgery is the intraoperative detection of parathyroid glands during both thyroidectomies and parathyroidectomies. Current localization techniques such as ultrasound and sestamibi scan are mostly preoperative and rely on an abnormal parathyroid for its detection. In this paper, we present near-infrared (NIR) autofluorescence as a nonintrusive, real-time, automated in vivo method for the detection of the parathyroid gland. A pilot in vivo study was conducted to assess the ability of NIR fluorescence to identify parathyroid glands during thyroid and parathyroidectomies. Fluorescence measurements at 785 nm excitation were obtained intra-operatively from the different tissues exposed in the neck region in 21 patients undergoing endocrine surgery. The fluorescence intensity of the parathyroid gland was found to be consistently greater than that of the thyroid and all other tissues in the neck of all patients. In particular, parathyroid fluorescence was two to eleven times higher than that of the thyroid tissues with peak fluorescence occurring at 820 to 830 nm. These results indicate that NIR fluorescence has the potential to be an excellent optical tool to locate parathyroid tissue during surgery.

  6. Imaging of huge lingual thyroid gland with goitre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, C.C.; Chen, C.Y.; Chen, F.H.; Lee, G.W.; Hsiao, H.S. [Nat. Defense Medical Centre, Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiol.; Zimmermann, R.A. [Department of Radiology, The Children`s Hospital of Philadelphia, 34th St. and Civic Blvd., Philadelphia, PA 19014 (United States)


    We present the CT and MRI findings in a 75-year-old woman with a huge pathologically proven lingual thyroid which underwent goitrous degeneration. CT and MRI showed a midline, tongue-based, exophytic mass with areas of necrosis and heterogeneous contrast enhancement, as seen in large goitres in the normal thyroid gland. (orig.) With 1 fig., 7 refs.

  7. Iodine and thyroid gland with or without nuclear catastrophe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovačev-Zavišić Branka


    Full Text Available Introduction. Iodine, as a trace element, is a necessary and limiting substrate for thyroid gland hormone synthesis. It is an essential element that enables the thyroid gland to produce thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4 and triiodothyronine (T3. Synthesis of Thyroid Hormones and Iodine Metabolism. Three iodine molecules are added to make triiodothyronine, and four for thyroxine - the two key hormones produced by the thyroid gland. Iodine deficiency. The proper daily amount of iodine is required for optimal thyroid function. Iodine deficiency can cause hypothyroidism, developmental brain disorders and goiter. Iodine deficiency is the single most common cause of preventable mental retardation and brain damage in the world. It also decreases child survival, causes goiters, and impairs growth and development. Iodine deficiency disorders in pregnant women cause miscarriages, stillbirths, and other complications. Children with iodine deficiency disorders can grow up stunted, apathetic, mentally retarded, and incapable of normal movements, speech or hearing. Excessive Iodine Intake. Excessive iodine intake, which can trigger autoimmune thyroid disease and dysfunction, is on the other side. Iodine use in Case of Nuclear Catastrophe. In addition to other severe consequences of radioactivity, high amount of radioactive iodine causes significant increase in incidence of thyroid gland carcinoma after some of the nuclear catastrophes (Hiroshima, Nagasaki, Chernobyl, Fukushima. The incidence of thyroid carcinoma was increased mostly in children. This paper was aimed at clarifying some of the possibilities of prevention according to the recommendations given by the World Health Organization.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Yu. Alyabyeva


    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the study of morphological changes of the adrenal glands in arterial hyperten-sion. Adrenals investigated persons who do not suffer in life and suffering from hypertension during the life of hypertension and died from various causes – is incompatible with the life of a mechanical trauma, cerebral hemorrhage, and acute left ventricular failure. In each case, each of the adrenal glands were assessed: the presence and severity of focal and diffuse mononuclear infiltration, the number of lympho-cytes, monocytes, plasma cells and fibroblasts arranged in the respective zones of the cortex and medulla, the severity of hyperemia and edema of various structural parts, the number of zones cortex and medulla endocrinocytes with pycnotic nuclei in the reticular zone evaluated the distribution of secretory cells with lipofuscin and the degree of saturation of the cytoplasm of the secretory cells, in secretory cells of medul-la evaluated nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio, the severity of vacuolization and basophils cytoplasm revealed a number of regularities of morphological changes depending from the various clinical manifestations of hypertension, defining the ultimate option of dying. At the heart tanatogenesis version are more pro-nounced morphological features hyperfunctions glomerular zone – namely delipidization left and right glands. The beam and netted areas contralateral glands embodiment of dying of a heart compared to the brain, is more pronounced hyperemia. When cardiac variant tanatogenesis more pronounced focal lym-phoid infiltration and vacuolization in secretory cells of left adrenal medulla.

  9. Circadian changes in long noncoding RNAs in the pineal gland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coon, Steven L; Munson, Peter J; Cherukuri, Praveen F;


    pineal gland, which is the source of melatonin, the hormone of the night. Approximately one-half of these changes reflect nocturnal increases. Studies of eight lncRNAs with 2- to >100-fold daily rhythms indicate that, in most cases, the change results from neural stimulation from the central circadian...

  10. Lacrimal Gland Pleomorphic Adenoma and Carcinoma ex Pleomorphic Adenoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Holstein, Sarah L; Fehr, André; Persson, Marta;


    To study genetic alterations in lacrimal gland pleomorphic adenoma (PA) and carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma (Ca-ex-PA) with focus on copy number changes and expression patterns of the translocation target genes PLAG1, HMGA2, and CRTC1-MAML2 in relation to clinical data....

  11. Resident macrophages influence stem cell activity in the mammary gland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gyorki, D.E.; Asselin-Labat, M.L.; Rooijen, van N.; Lindeman, G.J.; Visvader, J.E.


    Introduction Macrophages in the mammary gland are essential for morphogenesis of the ductal epithelial tree and have been implicated in promoting breast tumor metastasis. Although it is well established that macrophages influence normal mammopoiesis, the mammary cell types that these accessory cells

  12. Diagnostic imaging of the pituitary gland in dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlugt-Meijer, R.H. van der


    Pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism (PDH) is a frequently encountered endocrinopathy in dogs. Transsphenoidal hypophysectomy is an effective treatment of PDH in dogs. However, for pituitary surgery to be successful information about the size of the pituitary gland and the exact location of the

  13. Ultrasound features of lacrimal gland in Sjogren's syndrome: case report. (United States)

    Seceleanu, Andreea; Pop, Sorin; Preda, Dan; Szabo, Ioan; Rogojan, Liliana; Seceleanu, Radu


    A case is presented of bilateral lacrimal gland hypertrophy with secondary glaucoma due to the increased episcleralvenous pressure. Diagnostic work-up included clinical methods associated with ultrasound (A- and B-scan, Doppler ultrasound) and magnetic resonance imaging techniques. Clinical data revealed proptosis, episcleral congestion, and elevated intraocular pressure. Abnormal Schirmer's test and xerophthalmia were also present. Ultrasound examination identified enlarged masses of a cystic structure in lacrimal fossae bilaterally, superotemporally to the globe, more pronounced on the left side. Doppler ultrasound revealed vascularization and magnetic resonance imaging completed the findings offered by ultrasound methods. Based on the clinical aspect and the possible visual impairment due to secondary glaucoma, the mass lesion on the left side was removed by neurosurgical approach. Histopathology confirmed destruction of the lacrimal gland and immunohistochemistry indicated Sjogren's syndrome lesions. Sonography is able to provide noninvasively much of the information needed by the clinician. The A-scan and B-scan ultrasound techniques and color Doppler allow tracking and discrimination of orbital diseases, such as lacrimal gland lesions. Associated with clinical features, these methods provide the basis of correct diagnosis and appropriate therapy for lacrimal gland pathology.

  14. A Bartholin's gland with nodules and cysts bathed in mucus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthé P.M. Burger


    We describe three cases to provide insight into the various clinical presentations and management problems. Nodular hyperplasia of Bartholin's gland is easily misdiagnosed because of its rare occurrence and diversity of signs and symptoms. An unusual presentation or clinical course of disease may indicate nodular hyperplasia.

  15. Xanthomatosis, pituitary gland, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Sella turcica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Seok Jin; Kim, Eui Jong; Choi, Woo Seok [Dept. of Radiology, Kyunghee Medical Center, Kyunghee University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Bong Jin [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Kyunghee Medical Center, Kyunghee University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    Xanthomatous hypophysitis is a rare inflammatory disorder of the pituitary gland of unknown prevalence that causes pituitary dysfunction and a mass-like lesion. The authors report a case of 40-year-old man with a visual disturbance and a confirmed diagnosis of xanthomatous hypophysitis.

  16. Histological and histochemical observations on the foot glands in some byssus-bearing bivalves of the Waltair coast. (United States)

    Banu, A; Shyamasundari, K; Rao, K H


    The glands responsible for the formation of the byssus threads in Arca symmetrica, Barbatia obliquata and Septifer bilocularis are the white gland, phenol gland and enzyme gland. Besides these, mucous glands are also present in the sub-epithelia. The size and shape of the cells of these glands vary in one and the same species. From histochemical investigations it has been revealed that these glands contain 1,2-glycol groups in addition to disulphides and sulphhydryls. The white gland secretes a protein material and the phenol gland is rich in phenols. These two combine to form a phenolic protein which is acted upon by a polyphenol oxidase secreted by the enzyme gland and leads to the formation of a byssus thread. The mucous gland cells secrete acid mucopolysaccharides, neutral mucins and glycoproteins.

  17. The rat pineal gland comprises an endocannabinoid system. (United States)

    Koch, Marco; Habazettl, Iris; Dehghani, Faramarz; Korf, Horst-Werner


    In the mammalian pineal gland, the rhythm in melatonin biosynthesis depends on the norepinephrine (NE)-driven regulation of arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT), the penultimate enzyme of melatonin biosynthesis. A recent study showed that phytocannabinoids like tetrahydrocannabinol reduce AANAT activity and attenuate NE-induced melatonin biosynthesis in rat pineal glands, raising the possibility that an endocannabinoid system is present in the pineal gland. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed cannabinoid (CB) receptors and specific enzymes for endocannabinoid biosynthesis or catabolism in rat pineal glands and cultured pinealocytes. Immunohistochemical and immunoblot analyses revealed the presence of CB1 and CB2 receptor proteins, of N-acyl phosphatidyl ethanolamine hydrolyzing phospholipase D (NAPE-PLD), an enzyme catalyzing endocannabinoid biosynthesis and of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), an endocannabinoid catabolizing enzyme, in pinealocytes, and in pineal sympathetic nerve fibers identified by double immunofluorescence with an antibody against tyrosine hydroxylase. The immunosignals for the CB2 receptor, NAPE-PLD, and FAAH found in pinealocytes did not vary under a 12 hr light:12 hr dark cycle. The CB1 receptor immunoreaction in pinealocytes was significantly reduced at the end of the light phase [zeitgeber time (ZT) 12]. The immunosignal for NAPE-PLD found in pineal sympathetic nerve fibers was reduced in the middle of the dark phase (ZT 18). Stimulation of cultured pinealocytes with NE affected neither the subcellular distribution nor the intensity of the immunosignals for the investigated CB receptors and enzymes. In summary, the pineal gland comprises indispensable compounds of the endocannabinoid system indicating that endocannabinoids may be involved in the control of pineal physiology.

  18. Biocompatible tissue scaffold compliance promotes salivary gland morphogenesis and differentiation. (United States)

    Peters, Sarah B; Naim, Nyla; Nelson, Deirdre A; Mosier, Aaron P; Cady, Nathaniel C; Larsen, Melinda


    Substrate compliance is reported to alter cell phenotype, but little is known about the effects of compliance on cell development within the context of a complex tissue. In this study, we used 0.48 and 19.66 kPa polyacrylamide gels to test the effects of the substrate modulus on submandibular salivary gland development in culture and found a significant decrease in branching morphogenesis in explants grown on the stiff 19.66 kPa gels relative to those grown on the more physiologically compliant 0.48 kPa gels. While proliferation and apoptosis were not affected by the substrate modulus, tissue architecture and epithelial acinar cell differentiation were profoundly perturbed by aberrant, high stiffness. The glands cultured on 0.48 kPa gels were similar to developing glands in morphology and expression of the differentiation markers smooth muscle alpha-actin (SM α-actin) in developing myoepithelial cells and aquaporin 5 (AQP5) in proacinar cells. At 19.66 kPa, however, tissue morphology and the expression and distribution of SM α-actin and AQP5 were disrupted. Significantly, aberrant gland development at 19.66 kPa could be rescued by both mechanical and chemical stimuli. Transfer of glands from 19.66 to 0.48 kPa gels resulted in substantial recovery of acinar structure and differentiation, and addition of exogenous transforming growth factor beta 1 at 19.66 kPa resulted in a partial rescue of morphology and differentiation within the proacinar buds. These results indicate that environmental compliance is critical for organogenesis, and suggest that both mechanical and chemical stimuli can be exploited to promote organ development in the contexts of tissue engineering and organ regeneration.

  19. Salt-gland secretion and blood flow in the goose. (United States)

    Hanwell, A; Linzell, J L; Peaker, M


    1. Salt-gland blood flow in the domestic goose has been measured using a combination of Sapirstein's indicator fractionation technique for organ blood flow and Fegler's thermodilution method for cardiac output.2. Nasal salt secretion was induced by giving 0.5 M-NaCl or 0.154 M-NaCl I.V. or by giving artificial sea water by stomach tube into the proventriculus.3. During secretion, salt-gland blood flow increased from 82.7 +/- 21.9 ml./100 g tissue. min to as high as 2179 ml./100 g. min (mean 1209 +/- 140).4. The rate of secretion in response to salt loading was very variable and was not correlated with the rate of blood flow.5. From the data obtained, it could be calculated that the median values for the percentage extraction of ions from the arterial plasma were Na 15%, K 35%, Cl 21% and water 5.8%.6. Atropine abolished secretion but not the increase in blood flow produced by salt loading.7. Unilateral complete denervation abolished secretion from and the increase in blood flow through the operated but not the control gland.8. Anaesthesia, induced by pentobarbitone sodium, almost completely blocked secretion and the increase in blood flow in the salt-gland in response to salt loading.9. In geese given 0.5 or 0.154 M-NaCl I.V. a positive, significant correlation was found between the total amount of nasal secretion collected over 30 min and the concentrations of Na and Cl in the nasal fluid. However, when the time course of secretion was followed in any one bird, the rate of secretion was inversely related to the concentrations of Na and Cl.10. Harderian gland blood flow was not affected by salt loading.

  20. Mammary gland development: cell fate specification, stem cells and the microenvironment. (United States)

    Inman, Jamie L; Robertson, Claire; Mott, Joni D; Bissell, Mina J


    The development of the mammary gland is unique: the final stages of development occur postnatally at puberty under the influence of hormonal cues. Furthermore, during the life of the female, the mammary gland can undergo many rounds of expansion and proliferation. The mammary gland thus provides an excellent model for studying the 'stem/progenitor' cells that allow this repeated expansion and renewal. In this Review, we provide an overview of the different cell types that constitute the mammary gland, and discuss how these cell types arise and differentiate. As cellular differentiation cannot occur without proper signals, we also describe how the tissue microenvironment influences mammary gland development.

  1. Ultrasonographic visualization of the adrenal glands of healthy ferrets and ferrets with hyperadrenocorticism. (United States)

    Kuijten, Andrea Maria; Schoemaker, Nico J; Voorhout, George


    A protocol was developed to compare the ultrasonographic characteristics of the adrenal glands of 21 healthy ferrets and 37 ferrets with hyperadrenocorticism. By using specific landmarks, the adrenal glands were imaged in 97% of the cases. The adrenal glands of ferrets with hyperadrenocorticism had a significantly increased thickness, with changes in shape, structure, and echogenicity compared to the adrenal glands of healthy ferrets. Based on the findings of the study, adrenal glands may be classified as abnormal when they have a rounded appearance, increased size of the cranial/caudal pole (thickness >3.9 mm), a heterogeneous structure, increased echogenicity, and/or signs of mineralization.

  2. Perinatal ethinyl oestradiol alters mammary gland development in male and female Wistar rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, Karen; Hass, Ulla; Christiansen, Sofie;


    Increased attention is being paid to human mammary gland development because of concerns for environmental influences on puberty onset and breast cancer development. Studies in rodents have showed a variety of changes in the mammary glands after perinatal exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals...... exposures may alter mammary gland development, disrupt lactation and alter susceptibility to breast cancer......., indicating progressed development of mammary glands when exposed to oestrogens early in life. However, laboratories use different parameters to evaluate the development of mammary glands, making studies difficult to compare. Moreover, studies of whole mounts in Wistar rats are lacking. In the present study...

  3. Symbiotic bacteria in the accessory submandibular gland of the club-footed bat, Tylonycteris pachypus. (United States)

    Tandler, B; Toyoshima, K; Phillips, C J


    The lumina of the secretory endpieces and, to a lesser extent, of the duct system of the accessory submandibular gland of the club-footed bat, Tylonycteris pachypus, contain numerous rod shaped bacteria. Despite their abundance, these microbes do not evoke an inflammatory response by the glands. The major submandibular gland, as well as the other major salivary glands in these exotic animals contain no bacteria whatsoever. It is concluded that the bacteria in the accessory submandibular gland are symbionts, and that they may play a role in digestion or in the social behavior of their host organisms.

  4. Making Plants Break a Sweat: the Structure, Function, and Evolution of Plant Salt Glands (United States)

    Dassanayake, Maheshi; Larkin, John C.


    Salt stress is a complex trait that poses a grand challenge in developing new crops better adapted to saline environments. Some plants, called recretohalophytes, that have naturally evolved to secrete excess salts through salt glands, offer an underexplored genetic resource for examining how plant development, anatomy, and physiology integrate to prevent excess salt from building up to toxic levels in plant tissue. In this review we examine the structure and evolution of salt glands, salt gland-specific gene expression, and the possibility that all salt glands have originated via evolutionary modifications of trichomes. Salt secretion via salt glands is found in more than 50 species in 14 angiosperm families distributed in caryophyllales, asterids, rosids, and grasses. The salt glands of these distantly related clades can be grouped into four structural classes. Although salt glands appear to have originated independently at least 12 times, they share convergently evolved features that facilitate salt compartmentalization and excretion. We review the structural diversity and evolution of salt glands, major transporters and proteins associated with salt transport and secretion in halophytes, salt gland relevant gene expression regulation, and the prospect for using new genomic and transcriptomic tools in combination with information from model organisms to better understand how salt glands contribute to salt tolerance. Finally, we consider the prospects for using this knowledge to engineer salt glands to increase salt tolerance in model species, and ultimately in crops.

  5. Isolation and characterization of sweat gland myoepithelial cells from human skin. (United States)

    Kurata, Ryuichiro; Futaki, Sugiko; Nakano, Itsuko; Tanemura, Atsushi; Murota, Hiroyuki; Katayama, Ichiro; Sekiguchi, Kiyotoshi


    Stem cells routinely maintain the main epidermal components, i.e. the interfollicular epidermis, hair follicles, and sweat glands. Human sweat glands present throughout the body are glandular exocrine organs that mainly play a role in thermoregulation by sweating. Emerging evidence points to the presence of stem cells in sweat glands, but it remains unclear whether such stem cells exist in human sweat glands. Here, we attempted to gather evidence for stem cells in human sweat glands, which would be characterized by self-renewal ability and multipotency. First, we explored human sweat gland cells for expression of stem cell markers. CD29 and Notch, epidermal stem cell markers, were found to reside among α-smooth muscle actin-positive myoepithelial cells in human sweat glands. Next, sweat gland myoepithelial cells were isolated from human skin as a CD29(hi)CD49f (hi) subpopulation. The myoepithelial cell-enriched CD29(hi)CD49f (hi) subpopulation possessed the ability to differentiate into sweat gland luminal cells in sphere-forming assays. Furthermore, CD29(hi)CD49f (hi) subpopulation-derived sphere-forming cells exhibited long-term proliferative potential upon multiple passaging, indicating that the CD29(hi)CD49f (hi) myoepithelial subpopulation includes stem cells with self-renewal ability. These findings provide evidence that human sweat gland myoepithelial cells contain stem cells that possess both self-renewal ability and multipotency to differentiate into sweat glands.

  6. Differential activation of nitric oxide synthase through muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in rat salivary glands. (United States)

    Leirós, C P; Rosignoli, F; Genaro, A M; Sales, M E; Sterin-Borda, L; Santiago BordaE


    Muscarinic receptors play an important role in secretory and vasodilator responses in rat salivary glands. Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) appears to be one of the multiple effectors coupled to muscarinic receptors in both submandibular and sublingual glands although some differences have been found depending on the gland studied. First, submandibular glands had a lower basal activity of nitric oxide synthase than sublingual glands and the concentration-response curve for carbachol was bell-shaped in the former but not in sublingual glands. Second, cGMP levels displayed a similar profile to that observed for NOS activity in both glands. Third, protein kinase C also coupled to muscarinic receptor activation in the glands might have a regulatory effect on nitric oxide production since its activity was higher in basal conditions in submandibular than sublingual glands and it also increased in the presence of the agonist at a concentration that inhibited NOS activity in submandibular glands. The effects appear to be partly related to the expression of a minor population of M(1) receptors in submandibular glands absent in sublingual as determined in binding and signaling experiments with the muscarinic receptor antagonist pirenzepine.

  7. A structure-based approach for colon gland segmentation in digital pathology (United States)

    Ben Cheikh, Bassem; Bertheau, Philippe; Racoceanu, Daniel


    The morphology of intestinal glands is an important and significant indicator of the level of the severity of an inflammatory bowel disease, and has also been used routinely by pathologists to evaluate the malignancy and the prognosis of colorectal cancers such as adenocarcinomas. The extraction of meaningful information describing the morphology of glands relies on an accurate segmentation method. In this work, we propose a novel technique based on mathematical morphology that characterizes the spatial positioning of nuclei for intestinal gland segmentation in histopathological images. According to their appearance, glands can be divided into two types: hallow glands and solid glands. Hallow glands are composed of lumen and/or goblet cells cytoplasm, or filled with abscess in some advanced stages of the disease, while solid glands are composed of bunches of cells clustered together and can also be filled with necrotic debris. Given this scheme, an efficient characterization of the spatial distribution of cells is sufficient to carry out the segmentation. In this approach, hallow glands are first identified as regions empty of nuclei and surrounded by thick layers of epithelial cells, then solid glands are identified by detecting regions crowded of nuclei. First, cell nuclei are identified by color classification. Then, morphological maps are generated by the mean of advanced morphological operators applied to nuclei objects in order to interpret their spatial distribution and properties to identify candidates for glands central-regions and epithelial layers that are combined to extract the glandular structures.

  8. Clarification of the terminology of the major human salivary glands: acinus and alveolus are not synonymous. (United States)

    Gilloteaux, Jacques; Afolayan, Adebowale


    Discrepancies in the terminology of the major human salivary glands often appear in anatomical textbooks and tend to adversely affect student's learning experience in Microscopic Anatomy. The main culprit is the inconsistent description of the morphology of these glands secretory end pieces where "acinus" and "alveolus" are used interchangeably. The correct terminology originated from Malpighi (1687), repeated by Kölliker (1854), but over the years has been misinterpreted by prominent authors as a result of the nature of specimen preparation. This commentary is based on etymology, current standard light microscopy, research studies and consultation with experts. The overall objective of this publication is to recommend that textbooks should endeavour to modify the relevant descriptions about this terminology in their future editions. The most appropriate terminology for the major human salivary glands would be: (1) the parotid gland, entirely serous, should be called compound acinar glands; (2) the submandibular glands are mixed glands; their serous components are compound acinar while some of the mucinous areas are tubular with serous, crescents or demilunes, as acinar end pieces hence they should be named compound tubuloacinar glands; (3) the sublingual glands, mainly mucous glands with tubular shape, with small acinar end pieces that are serous crescents thence they should be called compound tubuloacinar glands.

  9. Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma originating from ectopic salivary gland in the neck region: case report (United States)

    Vayısoğlu, Yusuf; Arpaci, Rabia Bozdogan; Eti, Can; Pütürgeli, Tuğçe; Gorur, Kemal; Ozcan, Cengiz


    Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma (CEPA) is the malignant salivary gland tumor originating from primary (de novo) or recurrent pleomorphic adenoma. Although parotid gland is the most common site, it can also be seen in submandibular gland or minor salivary glands. It can be seen rarely in head and neck region, such as oral cavity, trachea, nasal cavity and lacrimal gland. Although pleomorphic adenoma cases originating from ectopic salivary gland tissue in the neck region are present in the English literature, there is no published pleomorphic adenoma ex carcinoma case. In this case report we presented a CEPA as a 7.5 cm long neck mass in a 72-year-old woman originating from the submandibular region apart from submandibular gland. Difficulties in diagnosis and way to appropriate treatment are discussed with current literature. PMID:26645012

  10. Immunohistochemical detection of growth hormone (GH) in canine hepatoid gland tumors. (United States)

    Petterino, Claudio; Martini, Marco; Castagnaro, Massimo


    The aim of this study was to detect immunohistochemically means growth hormone (GH) in 24 hepatoid gland adenomas and 5 hepatoid gland carcinomas and to compare the difference of immunoreactivity between types of tumors. The tumors were classified according to the WHO standards. Tissue sections which were prepared from formalin-fixed, paraffin wax-embedded tissues from 25 male and 4 female dogs were carried out immunostaining using polyclonal primary anti-hGH and EnVision method. Of 24 hepatoid gland adenomas (perianal gland adenomas) 23 (95.8%) were positive. All 5 hepatoid gland carcinomas (perianal gland carcinomas) were positive. No statistically significant differences in percentage of labelled cells between malignant and benign tumors were seen. The present demonstration of GH in hepatoid gland tumors adds new data on GH in extra-pituitary tissues and hormon-dependent tumors.

  11. Simple tool for prediction of parotid gland sparing in intensity-modulated radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gensheimer, Michael F. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Washington Medical Center, Seattle, WA (United States); Hummel-Kramer, Sharon M., E-mail: [Department of Radiation Oncology, VA Puget Sound Health Care System, Seattle, WA (United States); Cain, David; Quang, Tony S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, VA Puget Sound Health Care System, Seattle, WA (United States)


    Sparing one or both parotid glands is a key goal when planning head and neck cancer radiation treatment. If the planning target volume (PTV) overlaps one or both parotid glands substantially, it may not be possible to achieve adequate gland sparing. This finding results in physicians revising their PTV contours after an intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plan has been run and reduces workflow efficiency. We devised a simple formula for predicting mean parotid gland dose from the overlap of the parotid gland and isotropically expanded PTV contours. We tested the tool using 44 patients from 2 institutions and found agreement between predicted and actual parotid gland doses (mean absolute error = 5.3 Gy). This simple method could increase treatment planning efficiency by improving the chance that the first plan presented to the physician will have optimal parotid gland sparing.

  12. Experimental studies on radiation injury of the salivary gland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Kazuko


    Parotid glands of male Wistar rats were irradiated. In the first group, the animals were irradiated by 4 fractions of 4 different daily doses ; 4.7 Gy, 5.7 Gy, 6.6 Gy and 7.4 Gy. Each dose corresponds to 30 Gy, 40 Gy, 50 Gy and 60 Gy by ordinary 2 Gy-a-day irradiation respectively in the estimation of TDF value. Degree of radiation injury and recovery of the parotid glands was examined histologically, and the area ratio (acini/total gland) was calculated at 1, 3 and 6 months after the completion of irradiation. In the second group, the animals were irradiated by the following schedule ; 10 fractions of 3.6 Gy daily (I-group) and 20 fractions of 1.8 Gy (II a-group), 2.2 Gy (II b-group) and 2.9 Gy (II c-group) twice-a-day, for 2 weeks, 5 days per week. Histological changes of parotid glands the irradiation, such as collapse of acini, degeneration of acinar cells, dilatation of ducts, fibrosis and fatty replacement were found. These changes increased corresponding to the absorbed dose. In 60 Gy-group the area ratio (acini/total gland) decreased with time, 1, 3 and 6 months after the irradiation (40 %, 20 % and 10 % of the control group, respectively), while, there was no remarkable change in 50 Gy-group (60 %) and 40 Gy-group (70 - 80 %). Whereas the area ratio in 30 Gy-group decreased at 1 and 3 months (80 - 85 %), it increased up to the nearly equal level of the control group at 6 months after the irradiation. It was suggested that the borderline dose which allowed the salivary gland to recover from radiation injury existed between 30 Gy and 40 Gy. The area ratio of II b-group at 1 and 3 months after the irradiation (50 %, 48 %) was nearly equal to that of I-group (53 %, 57 %). While the area ratio of II a-group (71 %, 73 %) was larger than that of I-group with a statistical significance. (J.P.N.).

  13. Arecoline inhibits catecholamine release from perfused rat adrenal gland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong-yoon LIM; Il-sik KIM


    Aim: To study the effect of arecoline, an alkaloid isolated from Areca catechu, on the secretion of catecholamines (CA) evoked by cholinergic agonists and the membrane depolarizer from isolated perfused rat adrenal gland. Methods: Adrenal glands were isolated from male Sprague-Dawley rats. The adrenal glands were perfused with Krebs bicarbonate solution by means of a peristaltic pump. The CA content of the perfusate was measured directly using the fluorometric method.Results: Arecoline (0.1-1.0 mmol/L) perfused into an adrenal vein for 60 min produced dose- and time-dependent inhibition in CA secretory responses evoked by acetylcholine (ACh) (5.32 mmol/L), 1.1-dimethyl-4-phenyl piperazinium iodide (DMPP) (100 μmol/L for 2 min) and 3-(m-choloro-phenyl-carbamoyl-oxy)-2-butynyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (McN-A-343) (100 μmol/L for 2 min). However, lower doses of arecoline did not affect CA secretion of high K+ (56 mmol/L); higher doses greatly reduced CA secretion of high K+. Arecoline also failed to affect basal catecholamine output. Furthermore, in adrenal glands loaded with arecoline (0.3 mmol/L), CA secretory response evoked by Bay-K-8644 (10 μmol/L), an activator of L-type Ca2+ channels, was markedly inhibited, whereas CA secretion by cyclopiazonic acid (10 μmol/L), an inhibitor of cytoplasmic Ca2+-ATPase, was not affected. Nicotine (30 μmol/L), which was peffused into the adrenal gland for 60min, however, initially enhanced ACh-evoked CA secretory responses. As time elapsed, these responses became more inhibited, whereas the initially enhanced high K+-evoked CA release diminished. CA secretion evoked by DMPP and McNA-343 was significantly depressed in the presence of nicotine. Conclusion:Arecoline dose-dependently inhibits CA secretion from isolated perfused rat adrenal gland evoked by activation of cholinergic receptors. At lower doses arecoline does not inhibit CA secretion through membrane depolarization, but at larger doses it does. This inhibitory

  14. Rhythmic control of endocannabinoids in the rat pineal gland. (United States)

    Koch, Marco; Ferreirós, Nerea; Geisslinger, Gerd; Dehghani, Faramarz; Korf, Horst-Werner


    Endocannabinoids modulate neuroendocrine networks by directly targeting cannabinoid receptors. The time-hormone melatonin synchronizes these networks with external light condition and guarantees time-sensitive and ecologically well-adapted behaviors. Here, the endocannabinoid arachidonoyl ethanolamide (AEA) showed rhythmic changes in rat pineal glands with higher levels during the light-period and reduced amounts at the onset of darkness. Norepinephrine, the essential stimulus for nocturnal melatonin biosynthesis, acutely down-regulated AEA and other endocannabinoids in cultured pineal glands. These temporal dynamics suggest that AEA exerts time-dependent autocrine and/or paracrine functions within the pineal. Moreover, endocananbinoids may be released from the pineal into the CSF or blood stream.

  15. Mammary gland tumor formation in transgenic mice overexpressing stromelysin-1

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    Sympson, Carolyn J; Bissell, Mina J; Werb, Zena


    An intact basement membrane (BM) is essential for the proper function, differentiation and morphology of many epithelial cells. The disruption or loss of this BM occurs during normal development as well as in the disease state. To examine the importance of BM during mammary gland development in vivo, we generated transgenic mice that inappropriately express autoactivating isoforms of the matrix metalloproteinase stromelysin-1. The mammary glands from these mice are both functionally and morphologically altered throughout development. We have now documented a dramatic incidence of breast tumors in several independent lines of these mice. These data suggest that overexpression of stromelysin-1 and disruption of the BM may be a key step in the multi-step process of breast cancer.

  16. Luminal progenitors restrict their lineage potential during mammary gland development.

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    Veronica Rodilla


    Full Text Available The hierarchical relationships between stem cells and progenitors that guide mammary gland morphogenesis are still poorly defined. While multipotent basal stem cells have been found within the myoepithelial compartment, the in vivo lineage potential of luminal progenitors is unclear. Here we used the expression of the Notch1 receptor, previously implicated in mammary gland development and tumorigenesis, to elucidate the hierarchical organization of mammary stem/progenitor cells by lineage tracing. We found that Notch1 expression identifies multipotent stem cells in the embryonic mammary bud, which progressively restrict their lineage potential during mammary ductal morphogenesis to exclusively generate an ERαneg luminal lineage postnatally. Importantly, our results show that Notch1-labelled cells represent the alveolar progenitors that expand during pregnancy and survive multiple successive involutions. This study reveals that postnatal luminal epithelial cells derive from distinct self-sustained lineages that may represent the cells of origin of different breast cancer subtypes.

  17. Bilateral Lacrimal Gland Lymphoma in Sjögren Syndrome (United States)

    Ozsan, Nazan; Sahin, Fahri


    A 31-year-old female with Primary Sjögren Syndrome (pSS) presented with bilateral puffiness around the eye for 3 years. The lacrimal glands were hypertrophic and edematous bilaterally. Schirmer 1 score was 2 and 1 mm and tear-film break-up time was 3 and 4 seconds, in the right and the left eyes, respectively. An incisional biopsy from the left lacrimal gland revealed diffuse and intense CD20, CD5, and bcl-2 positivity with negative cyclin D1 and CD23 which supported lymphoma. Upon haematology consultation extranodal marginal zone lymphoma diagnosis was made. CHOP (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and methyl prednisolone) treatment was initiated. In conclusion, pSS is a well known autoimmune disease in which increased rate of lymphoma is present. Early detection with histopathologic confirmation and multidisciplinary approach with ophthalmology, rheumatology, and haematology are mandatory in these patients.

  18. Diffuse lipomatosis of the thyroid gland: A pathologic curiosity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Ruchika


    Full Text Available We report the case of a 45-year-old man who presented with a 4-year history of midline neck swelling associated with recent onset respiratory distress. Local examination showed a lobulated diffuse thyroid enlargement. A subtotal thyroidectomy was performed. The right lobe weighed 225 g and the left lobe weighed 130 g. Multiple sections from both the lobes revealed diffuse infiltration of the stroma by mature adipose tissue. There was no evidence of amyloid deposits or papillary carcinoma. A final diagnosis of diffuse lipomatosis of the thyroid gland was rendered. Lipomatosis or adenolipomatosis of the thyroid gland is an extremely rare entity. The various differential diagnoses of fat in the thyroid include benign entities like amyloid goiter, adenolipoma, lymphocytic thyroiditis, intrathyroid thymic or parathyroid lipoma and malignant tumors like liposarcoma and encapsulated papillary carcinoma. Adequate clinical details and a thorough histopathological examination are mandatory for diagnosis.

  19. Survey of the leg exocrine glands in termites(Isoptera

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    Helena Xavier Soares


    Full Text Available A survey of the leg exocrine glands in the termite workers of 16 species of the families Kalotermitidae and Termitidae was carried out through scanning electron microscope. Glandular openings were not found in the legs of Anoplotermes sp., Ruptitermes sp. (Apicotermitinae, Termitidae or Glyptotermes planus (Kalotermitidae, but they are present, spread over the ventral surface of the first, second and third tarsomeres of other Termitidae such as Armitermes euamignathus, Cornitermes cumulans, Nasutitermes coxipoensis, Rhynchotermes nasutissimus, Syntermes nanus, Embiratermes festivellus (Nasutitermitinae, Amitermes beaumonti, Hoplotermes amplus, Microcerotermes sp., Neocapritermes opacus, Orthognathotermes sp., Spinitermes brevicornutus and Termes sp. (Termitinae. The pores are usually isolated but they can also be grouped inside a round depression. The occurrence of leg exocrine glands in the family Termitidae is reported for the first time.

  20. Luminal progenitors restrict their lineage potential during mammary gland development. (United States)

    Rodilla, Veronica; Dasti, Alessandro; Huyghe, Mathilde; Lafkas, Daniel; Laurent, Cécile; Reyal, Fabien; Fre, Silvia


    The hierarchical relationships between stem cells and progenitors that guide mammary gland morphogenesis are still poorly defined. While multipotent basal stem cells have been found within the myoepithelial compartment, the in vivo lineage potential of luminal progenitors is unclear. Here we used the expression of the Notch1 receptor, previously implicated in mammary gland development and tumorigenesis, to elucidate the hierarchical organization of mammary stem/progenitor cells by lineage tracing. We found that Notch1 expression identifies multipotent stem cells in the embryonic mammary bud, which progressively restrict their lineage potential during mammary ductal morphogenesis to exclusively generate an ERαneg luminal lineage postnatally. Importantly, our results show that Notch1-labelled cells represent the alveolar progenitors that expand during pregnancy and survive multiple successive involutions. This study reveals that postnatal luminal epithelial cells derive from distinct self-sustained lineages that may represent the cells of origin of different breast cancer subtypes.

  1. Bilateral Lacrimal Gland Lymphoma in Sjögren Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melis Palamar


    Full Text Available A 31-year-old female with Primary Sjögren Syndrome (pSS presented with bilateral puffiness around the eye for 3 years. The lacrimal glands were hypertrophic and edematous bilaterally. Schirmer 1 score was 2 and 1 mm and tear-film break-up time was 3 and 4 seconds, in the right and the left eyes, respectively. An incisional biopsy from the left lacrimal gland revealed diffuse and intense CD20, CD5, and bcl-2 positivity with negative cyclin D1 and CD23 which supported lymphoma. Upon haematology consultation extranodal marginal zone lymphoma diagnosis was made. CHOP (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and methyl prednisolone treatment was initiated. In conclusion, pSS is a well known autoimmune disease in which increased rate of lymphoma is present. Early detection with histopathologic confirmation and multidisciplinary approach with ophthalmology, rheumatology, and haematology are mandatory in these patients.

  2. Intracellular behaviour of samarium and europium in lactating mammary gland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ayadi Ahlem; Maghraoui Samira; El Hili Ali; Galle Pierre; Tekaya Leila


    The subcellular localization of samarium and europium,two rare-earths,increasingly used in both medical and industrial fields,has been studied in several organs such as liver and kidney but never in the mammary gland despite of its importance in the biology of lactation and nutrition domains.The intracellular behaviour of samarium and europium after their intra-peritoneal administration in the lactating mammary gland cells was investigated.The results showed the presence of very electron dense deposits in the glandular epithelial cell lysosomes.These particular lysosomes were never observed in the marnrnary cell lysosomes of control rats.These intralysosomal deposits were probably composed of insoluble samarium or europium phosphates by analogy with previous studies,the transmission electron microscopy,the ion mass microscopy and the electron probe microanalysis,and other techniques allowing the identification of the chemical structure of the intralysosomal deposits.

  3. Adenocarcinoma of the paraurethral glands: a case report. (United States)

    Massari, Francesco; Ciccarese, Chiara; Modena, Alessandra; Maines, Francesca; Segala, Diego; Luchini, Claudio; Marcolini, Lisa; Cavicchioli, Francesca; Cavalleri, Stefano; Bria, Emilio; Brunelli, Matteo; Martignoni, Guido; Artibani, Walter; Tortora, Giampaolo


    Adenocarcinoma of the paraurethral glands represents a very rare neoplasm of the urinary tract. Due to the rarity of this disease, there is no standard therapeutic approach. We report a case of adenocarcinoma of the paraurethral glands in a 56-year-old woman, presenting with abnormal serous vaginal discharges. The radiologic examination revealed a 5-cm mass around the urethra, which underwent surgical resection. After surgical resection, the histology revealed a moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma, probably arising from the paraurethral glands. One month later, a pelvic recurrent mass was radiologically diagnosed; consequently, an anterior pelvic exenteration with lymph node dissection was performed. Histological examination revealed a moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma, with glandular and micropapillary architecture, with multiple lymph node metastases. The absence of modifications such as urethritis cystic glandularis on the urethral mucosa, as well as the lack of a lesion in situ, associated with the immunohistochemical expression of PAX8 and negativity for GATA3 and S100p, suggested that the adenocarcinoma originated from the paraurethral glands rather than from the urethral mucosa. Post-surgery CT scans revealed no evidence of metastatic disease. The patient received 6 courses of adjuvant chemotherapy with carboplatin and paclitaxel. One year after the pelvic exenteration, because of inguinal lymph node progression, an inguinal lymphadenectomy was performed. Four months later, a TC-PET revealed a multidistrectual lymph node and a lung micronodule disease progression. Invasive micropapillary carcinomas have been characterized as a rare distinctive variant of carcinomas in several anatomic sites and are distinguished by a marked tendency to lymphovascular invasion, justifying the association with high-stage disease and poor prognosis. In the present case, both the poor prognosis connected with micropapillary structure and the lymph node involvement

  4. Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Mammary Gland in Domestic Cat


    Filgueira, Kilder Dantas; Reche Junior,Archivaldo


    Background: In the feline species, 80% to 93% of neoplasias in the mammary gland are malignant, being the majority carcinomas. Among them, there is the mammary squamous cell carcinoma, which amounts to a very rare neoplasm in the domestic cat, with considerable potential for malignancy. This study aimed to report a case of squamous cell mammary carcinoma in the feline species. Case: A female cat, mixed breed, ten years old, presented history of skin lesion. The cat had been spayed two years b...

  5. Pleomorphic adenoma of the lacrimal gland. Case report. (United States)

    Ostrosky, Alejandro; Klurfan, Federico Juan; Gonzalez, Maximiliano Jorge; Camaly, Diego; Villa, Diego


    Lacrimal gland tumors are rare. We present a case of a 69 year old male patient with a one year history of an orbital tumor (Pleomorphic Adenoma). The tumor was surgically enucleated and patient recovery was very satisfactory, with no signs of recurrence after one year of follow-up. A review of the clinical symptoms, radiologic features, treatment and histopathology of this kind of tumors is also made.

  6. Possible Existence of Melanocytes or Melanoblasts in Human Sebaceous Glands


    Jang, Yong Hyun; Kim, Sang Lim; Lee, Jin Sub; Kwon, Kun-Young; Lee, Seok-Jong; Kim, Do Won; Lee, Weon Ju


    Background Melanocytes are present in both basal epidermis and hair follicles. Melanocyte stem cells have been found in hair follicle bulge. During embryogenesis, the outer cells of the bulge differentiate into the sebaceous gland (SG) and proliferate. Objective To identify and determine the distribution and morphological characteristics of melanocytes in human SGs. Methods A total of 171 biopsy specimens of face and scalp were studied. Of these specimens, 103 samples contained SGs. We conduc...

  7. Why do we have apocrine and sebaceous glands?


    Williams, Edward S


    The secretions of sebaceous and apocrine glands fulfil an important thermoregulatory role in cold-stressed and heat-stressed hunter—gatherers. In hot conditions the secretions emulsify eccrine sweat and thus encourage the formation of a sweat sheet and discourage the formation and loss of sweat drops from the skin. In colder conditions sebum changes its nature and repels rain from skin and hair.

  8. Postmortem acinar autolysis in rat sublingual gland: a morphometric study

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    Leticia Rodrigues Nery


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To analyze and to quantify morphological acinar postmortem changes in rat sublingual glands (SLG. MATERIAL AND METHODSs: Fifty rats were divided into two groups of 25 animals each. Group I was used for morphological and morphometric evaluations and group II for the determination of gland density and processed gland volume. Acinar autolytic changes were studied at 0 (control group, 3, 6, 12 and 24 h postmortem periods. The morphometric analysis of the volume density (Vv and total volume (Vt of intact (ia and autolyzed (aa acini was performed under light microscopy using a Zeiss II integration grid with 100 symmetrically distributed points. RESULTS: Morphologically, temporal progressive nuclear alterations and gradual loss of the structural architecture of acinar cells were found. Regarding quantitative results, both the Vvaa and the Vvia showed statistically significant differences among all postmortem periods (p0.05, respectively. Vtaa increased from 0.18 mm³ at 0 h to 38.17 mm³ at 12 h, while Vtia showed a decrease from 33.47 mm³ to 0 mm³ between 3-24 h postmortem. Data concerning Vtaa were adjusted by two-variable linear regression, obtaining the equation: y=-3.54 + 3.38x (r²=0.90. The Vtaa growth rate calculated by this equation was 3.38 mm³/h between 0-12 h. CONCLUSION: Acinar autolysis on rat SLG demonstrated the most significant signs during the first 6 h postmortem and was widely spread through the gland at 12 h.

  9. Targeting the Prometastatic Microenvironment of the Involuting Mammary Gland (United States)


    differentiated glandular epithelium and re- modeling events during mammary involution [37,38]. TGFβ1 has also been the object of intense investigation due...sphincter. Within the mammary gland, Ltbp1L is induced exclusively in the ductal lu- minal epithelium but is silent in alveoli and therefore provides a ductal morphogenesis, differentiation of nipple epithelium and suppression of hair follicles

  10. Screen of Bovine Mammary Gland Epithelial Cell Specifcity Promotor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Xiao-fei; Li Qing-zhang; Qiu You-wen; Gao Xue-jun


    Three lactoproteins (α-Sl-casein, β-lactoglobulin, and β-casein) promotors were cloned, sequenced and compared relative luciferase expression. The results showed that the promotor activity of bovine α-S1-casein gene was the best, and would be used to produce pharmaceutically and medically important proteins in the mammary gland of transgenic animals and also for the construction of an inducible eukaryotic expression vector.

  11. The Role Of Salivary Glands In Phosphate Homeostasis

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    Tomo Mukai


    In Npt2b+/- mice, the salivary Pi concentrations were significantly increased compared with those in Npt2b+/+ mice. Npt2b+/- mice with adenine-induced renal failure had low plasma and salivary Pi levels, and plasma creatinine and BUN levels compared with Npt2b+/+ mice treated with adenine. In conclusion, Npt2b is involved in Pi secretion by salivary glands.

  12. The pineal gland - Its possible roles in human reproduction (United States)

    Brzezinski, Amnon; Wurtman, Richard J.


    The paper discusses the role of the pineal gland in controlling mammalian reproduction, with particular attention given to the role of melatonin in polyestrus mammals, like humans and laboratory rodents. Evidence is cited indicating the influence of melatonin production and blood content on the age of puberty, the timing of the ovulatory cycle, gonadal steriodogenesis, and patterns of reproductive behavior. It is suggested that abnormal patterns of melatonin might be associated with amenorrhea, anovulation, unexplained infertility, premature menopause, and habitual abortions.

  13. The Schistosome Oesophageal Gland: Initiator of Blood Processing (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Hong; de Castro-Borges, William; Parker-Manuel, Sophie; Vance, Gillian M.; DeMarco, Ricardo; Neves, Leandro X.; Evans, Gareth J. O.; Wilson, R. Alan


    Background Although the ultrastructure of the schistosome esophageal gland was described >35 years ago, its role in the processing of ingested blood has never been established. The current study was prompted by our identification of MEG-4.1 expression in the gland and the observation of erythrocyte uncoating in the posterior esophagus. Methodology/Principal Findings The salient feature of the posterior esophagus, characterized by confocal and electron microscopy, is the enormous increase in membrane surface area provided by the plate-like extensions and basal invaginations of the lining syncytium, with unique crystalloid vesicles releasing their contents between the plates. The feeding process was shown by video microscopy to be divided into two phases, blood first accumulating in the anterior lumen before passing as a bolus to the posterior. There it streamed around a plug of material revealed by confocal microscopy as tethered leucocytes. These were present in far larger numbers than predicted from the volume of the lumen, and in varying states of damage and destruction. Intact erythrocytes were detected in the anterior esophagus but not observed thereafter, implying that their lysis occurred rapidly as they enter the posterior. Two further genes, MEGs 4.2 and 14, were shown to be expressed exclusively in the esophageal gland. Bioinformatics predicted that MEGs 4.1 and 4.2 possessed a common hydrophobic region with a shared motif, while antibodies to SjMEG-4.1 showed it was bound to leucocytes in the esophageal lumen. It was also predicted that MEGs 4.1 and 14 were heavily O-glycosylated and this was confirmed for the former by 2D-electrophoresis and Western blotting. Conclusions/Significance The esophageal gland and its products play a central role in the processing of ingested blood. The binding of host antibodies in the esophageal lumen shows that some constituents are antibody targets and could provide a new source of vaccine candidates. PMID:23936568

  14. Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis Presenting as a Parotid Gland Abscess

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    Blenda Dias


    Full Text Available Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA is a small-vessel vasculitis consisting of necrotizing granulomatous lesions in airways and focal necrotizing glomerulonephritis. However, it may affect other sites such as the skin, central nervous system, eyes, heart, gastrointestinal tract, and liver. We describe a rare case of GPA in which the initial manifestation was the involvement of the parotid gland mimicking a pyogenic abscess.


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    Fating Anita


    Full Text Available CONTEXT (BACKGROUND: Increasing problems of calcium deficiency with physiological conditions like pregnancy, lactation etc. it becomes the need of time to focus attention towards these glands as one of the essential entity. Hence we have undertaken this study to have an idea about normal variation in the gland as per sex. AIMS: To reveal sexual differences in adult human parathyroid glands. METHODS AND MATERIAL: Parathyroid glands from 25 autopsied cases of 20 to 59 years were studied after staining with Hematoxylin & Eosin, Masson’s Trichrome & Reticulin stains. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Data is analyzed on statistical software intercooled STATA version 8.0. Data was presented in mean± standard deviation & categorical variables were expressed in percentages. Comparison of oxyphil scores in male & female was done by unpaired‘t’ test. P < 0.05 was taken as statistical significance. RESULTS: Stroma composed of short often branching reticular fibres along with blood vessels and fat cells. By statistical examination the amount of fat was more in case of females than in males of same age groups. Oxyphil cells being less numerous than chief cells were distinguished by their dark eosinophilic, granular cytoplasm and were arranged mostly in closely packed groups without interstitial fat in between the cells. Oxyphil cells also found as placed singly among chief cells. It was also observed as continuous masses or anastomosing columns. As compared with males oxyphil cells are more in females. CONCLUSIONS: By statistical analysis 1 Percentage of stromal fat in case of females was slightly greater than in males of same age group. 2 The score of oxyphil cells in females was double to more than triple as compared to male score of same age group. 3 This study is clinically important as hormonal changes occurs early in females than in males and it is in favor of providing supplementary calcium with D3 along with minimal dose of estrogen as age advances in

  16. Analysis of sex pheromone gland content of individual Symmetrischema tangolias by means of direct gland introduction into a two-dimensional gas chromatograph

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Griepink, F.C.; Drijfhout, F.P.; Beek, van T.A.; Visser, H.J.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.


    The amounts and ratios of the four constituents of the sex pheromone gland of the moth Symmetrischema tangolias were measured during a 24-hr dark–light cycle. A new approach was followed that involved the direct introduction of sex pheromone glands into the liner of a two-dimensional gas chromatogra

  17. Arteries of the adrenal glands in ostriches (Struthio camelus

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    Angelita das Graças de Oliveira Honorato


    Full Text Available The growth of rational ostrich breeding and their byproducts has attracted interest from researchers to increase the studies in this animal. Thus, basic research areas, such as morphology, become necessary to provide the applied areas with knowledge. Aiming to contribute to the knowledge on the vascular arrangements of the adrenal glands, 30 ostriches (Struthio camelus were used, four days old, who had their arterial components marked with a 50% stained aqueous solution of Neoprene Latex ¨ 450 ¨ and fixed in a 10% diluted solution of formaldehyde. The coelomic cavity was exposed for identifying these glands, which are paired organs that are covered by loose connective tissue, symmetrically arranged in the two antimeres, laterally to the descending aorta, caudally to the lungs, and cranio-medially to the cranial lobes of the kidneys. The arterial blood supply, in both antimeres, is derived from the right and left adrenal arteries, the right and left cranial renal artery branches, and the right branches of the descending aorta. Regardless of the origin, the number of branches going to the adrenal glands ranged from one to two and one to three respectively, in the left and right antimeres.

  18. Thyroid gland metastasis arising from breast cancer: A case report. (United States)

    Yang, Mei; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Chenfang


    The thyroid gland is an uncommon site for metastasis to develop and thus metastases arising from breast cancer are rarely observed. In the present study, we describe a case of a 45-year-old female with a three-year history of breast cancer who presented with a thyroid mass that was diagnosed as metastatic breast carcinoma by histopathological analysis of the subtotal thyroidectomy specimen. To ascertain the diagnosis of metastatic breast cancer, we evaluated two types of markers; those that possessed a similar expression status in the original and metastatic lesions [ER, PR and CerbB-2 (HER2/neu)], and those that are capable of differentiating between metastatic lesions and the surrounding thyroid components (TG and TTF-1). The results showed that ER, PR and CerbB-2 demonstrated a similar expression pattern in primary breast carcinoma and thyroid lesions. Meanwhile, in the thyroid lesions, the malignant cells showed negative staining for TG and TTF-1, which confirmed that lesions were not thyroid in origin. This case may prompt clinicians that although thyroid gland are uncommon metastatic site, a diagnosis of metastatic disease should be considered when new aggregates are identified in the thyroid glands and histopathological analysis may aid the diagnosis.

  19. Autoreactivity to sweat glands and nerves in clinical scabies infection

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    Michael S. Howard


    Full Text Available Context: Skin changes in pregnancy can be categorized as 1 physiological/hormonal, 2 alterations in pre-existing skin diseases, or 3 represent development of new dermatoses, some of which may be pregnancy specific. Case Report: We describe a 19 years old female at 27 weeks gestation who presented with a rash on the face and breast, with intense pruritis. Hematoxylin and eosin demonstrated Scabies mites within the epidermis, with an intense perivascular infiltrate of lymphohistiocytic cells around the superficial dermal blood vessels. By direct immunofluorescence (DIF, human fibrinogen was also detected in the perivascular areas. DIF also revealed deposits of human IgG and complement C5-9/MAC deposits in the sweat glands, as well as in nerves surrounding the sweat glands subjacent to the mites. Overexpression of ezrin and junctional adhesion molecule antibodies close to the scabies infection sites were also seen. Conclusion: Given that the hallmark of clinical scabies is intense pruritus and that very limited information is available regarding the pathophysiology of this symptom, we suggest that the itching sensation may be exacerbated by nerves and eccrine sweat glands in close proximity to the sites of infection.

  20. Vasoactive intestinal peptide stimulates tracheal submucosal gland secretion in ferret

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peatfield, A.C.; Barnes, P.J.; Bratcher, C.; Nadel, J.A.; Davis, B.


    We studied the effect of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) on the output of 35S-labeled macromolecules from ferret tracheal explants either placed in beakers or suspended in modified Ussing chambers. In Ussing chamber experiments, the radiolabel precursor, sodium (35S)sulfate, and all drugs were placed on the submucosal side of the tissue. Washings were collected at 30-min intervals from the luminal side and were dialyzed to remove unbound 35S, leaving radiolabeled macromolecules. Vasoactive intestinal peptide at 3 X 10(-7) M stimulated bound 35S output by a mean of + 252.6% (n . 14). The VIP response was dose-dependent with a near maximal response and a half maximal response at approximately 10(-6) M and 10(-8), M, respectively. The VIP effect was not inhibited by a mixture of tetrodotoxin, atropine, I-propranolol, and phentolamine. Vasoactive intestinal peptide had no effect on the electrical properties of the of the tissues. We conclude that VIP stimulates output of sulfated-macromolecules from ferret tracheal submucosal glands without stimulating ion transport. Our studies also suggest that VIP acts on submucosal glands via specific VIP receptors. Vasoactive intestinal peptide has been shown to increase intracellular levels of cyclic AMP, and we suggest that this may be the mechanism for its effect on the output of macromolecules. This mechanism may be important in the neural regulation of submucosal gland secretion.

  1. Neuropeptide Y in the Adult and Fetal Human Pineal Gland

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    Morten Møller


    Full Text Available Neuropeptide Y was isolated from the porcine brain in 1982 and shown to be colocalized with noradrenaline in sympathetic nerve terminals. The peptide has been demonstrated to be present in sympathetic nerve fibers innervating the pineal gland in many mammalian species. In this investigation, we show by use of immunohistochemistry that neuropeptide Y is present in nerve fibers of the adult human pineal gland. The fibers are classical neuropeptidergic fibers endowed with large boutons en passage and primarily located in a perifollicular position with some fibers entering the pineal parenchyma inside the follicle. The distance from the immunoreactive terminals to the pinealocytes indicates a modulatory function of neuropeptide Y for pineal physiology. Some of the immunoreactive fibers might originate from neurons located in the brain and be a part of the central innervation of the pineal gland. In a series of human fetuses, neuropeptide Y-containing nerve fibers was present and could be detected as early as in the pineal of four- to five-month-old fetuses. This early innervation of the human pineal is different from most rodents, where the innervation starts postnatally.

  2. Neuropeptide Y in the adult and fetal human pineal gland. (United States)

    Møller, Morten; Phansuwan-Pujito, Pansiri; Badiu, Corin


    Neuropeptide Y was isolated from the porcine brain in 1982 and shown to be colocalized with noradrenaline in sympathetic nerve terminals. The peptide has been demonstrated to be present in sympathetic nerve fibers innervating the pineal gland in many mammalian species. In this investigation, we show by use of immunohistochemistry that neuropeptide Y is present in nerve fibers of the adult human pineal gland. The fibers are classical neuropeptidergic fibers endowed with large boutons en passage and primarily located in a perifollicular position with some fibers entering the pineal parenchyma inside the follicle. The distance from the immunoreactive terminals to the pinealocytes indicates a modulatory function of neuropeptide Y for pineal physiology. Some of the immunoreactive fibers might originate from neurons located in the brain and be a part of the central innervation of the pineal gland. In a series of human fetuses, neuropeptide Y-containing nerve fibers was present and could be detected as early as in the pineal of four- to five-month-old fetuses. This early innervation of the human pineal is different from most rodents, where the innervation starts postnatally.

  3. Treatment of Congenital Absence of the Mammary Gland

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    Masaki Yazawa


    Full Text Available Breast reconstruction for breast deformity is significant not only for esthetic purposes but also from a psychological perspective. There have been a few reports on treatment of congenital simple absence of the mammary gland. For patients in puberty, even if they are in the middle of the growth phase, breast reconstruction is very important for the mental quality of life. In our two cases of congenital absence of unilateral mammary gland, breast reconstruction with a tissue expander worked well in terms of esthetic results and the psychological condition of the young patients. In our institute, operative indications are as follows: (1 a girl over 15 years old (this age is selected as breast growth can be determined at this time, (2 no endocrine-related disorders, (3 preoperative examination of breast MRI or US showing the absence or significant hypoplasia of mammary gland, and (4 a wish for breast reconstruction by the patient herself. For patients in the middle of the growth phase, silicone breast implant does not require a donor site and is easily adjustable in terms of volume to match the growth of the breast on the unaffected side by exchanging the silicone breast implant. Therefore, silicone breast implant is a better procedure than skin flaps with their accompanying large donor sites.

  4. Epidermal growth factor in mammary glands and milk from rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thulesen, J; Raaberg, Lasse; Nexø, Ebba;


    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is one of the major growth-promoting agents in milk. Using immunohistochemistry we localized EGF in the mammary glands of lactating rats to the luminal border of the secretory cells. Following proteolytic pretreatment of the histological sections, the EGF-immunoreact......Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is one of the major growth-promoting agents in milk. Using immunohistochemistry we localized EGF in the mammary glands of lactating rats to the luminal border of the secretory cells. Following proteolytic pretreatment of the histological sections, the EGF......-immunoreactivity was revealed homogeneously in the cytoplasm of the secretory cells, which might suggest that EGF is present as a precursor molecule in the mammary glands. Altered glucose metabolism during lactation results in secondary hypoinsulinaemia in the lactating rat. As insulin is also known to affect lactation...... in several species, we treated normal lactating rats daily with insulin and studied the effect on the composition of milk. A significant increase in the content of total protein and milk fat was observed after a few days of insulin-treatment, as compared to a control group [total protein: 50 (36-97) g/l vs...

  5. Errors and mistakes in ultrasound diagnostics of the thyroid gland. (United States)

    Dobruch-Sobczak, Katarzyna; Jędrzejowski, Maciej; Jakubowski, Wiesław; Trzebińska, Anna


    Ultrasound examination of the thyroid gland permits to evaluate its size, echogenicity, margins, and stroma. An abnormal ultrasound image of the thyroid, accompanied by other diagnostic investigations, facilitates therapeutic decision-making. The ultrasound image of a normal thyroid gland does not change substantially with patient's age. Nevertheless, erroneous impressions in thyroid imaging reports are sometimes encountered. These are due to diagnostic pitfalls which cannot be prevented by either the continuing development of the imaging equipment, or the growing experience and skill of the practitioners. Our article discusses the most common mistakes encountered in US diagnostics of the thyroid, the elimination of which should improve the quality of both the ultrasound examination itself and its interpretation. We have outlined errors resulting from a faulty examination technique, the similarity of the neighboring anatomical structures, and anomalies present in the proximity of the thyroid gland. We have also pointed out the reasons for inaccurate assessment of a thyroid lesion image, such as having no access to clinical data or not taking them into account, as well as faulty qualification for a fine needle aspiration biopsy. We have presented guidelines aimed at limiting the number of misdiagnoses in thyroid diseases, and provided sonograms exemplifying diagnostic mistakes.

  6. Effect of ionizing radiation on rat parotid gland

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    Boraks, George; Tampelini, Flavio Silva; Pereira, Kleber Fernando; Chopard, Renato Paulo [University of Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. of Biomedical Sciences. Dept. of Anatomy]. E-mail:


    A common side effect of radiotherapy used in the treatment of oral cancer is the occurrence of structural and physiological alterations of the salivary glands due to exposure to ionizing radiation, as demonstrated by conditions such as decreased salivary flow. The present study evaluated ultrastructural alterations in the parotid glands of rats receiving a fractionated dose (1,500-cGy) of radiation emitted by a Cesium-137 source and rats that were not subjected to ionizing radiation. After sacrifice, the parotid glands were removed and examined by transmission electron microscopy. Damage such as cytoplasmic vacuolisation, dilatation of the endoplasmic reticulum and destruction of mitochondria, as well as damage to the cellular membrane of acinar cells, were observed. These findings lead to the conclusion that ionizing radiation promotes alterations in the glandular parenchyma, and that these alterations are directly related to the dose level of absorbed radiation. Certain phenomena that appear in the cytoplasm and nuclear material indicate that ionizing radiation causes acinar cell death (apoptosis). (author)

  7. Transcriptome analysis of the salivary glands of Nephotettix cincticeps (Uhler). (United States)

    Matsumoto, Yukiko; Suetsugu, Yoshitaka; Nakamura, Masatoshi; Hattori, Makoto


    The green rice leafhopper (GRH), Nephotettix cincticeps, is one of the most important pests of rice in temperate Asian countries. GRH, a vascular feeder, secretes watery and gelling saliva in the process of feeding on phloem and xylem sap. It is known that GRH saliva contains several bioactive proteins, including enzymes such as laccase and beta-glucosidase. In this study, we performed transcriptome analysis of salivary glands of GRH using Illumina paired-end sequencing. Of 51,788 assembled contigs, 16,017 (30.9%) showed significant similarity to known proteins in the NCBI nr database, while 34,978 (67.5%) could not be annotated by similarity search, Pfam, or gene ontology (GO). Contigs (905) with predicted signal peptides and no putative transmembrane domains are suggested to represent secreted protein coding genes. Among the 76 most highly expressed putative secretory protein contigs, 68 transcripts were found to be salivary gland-specific or at least -dominant, but not expressed in stomach or Malpighian tubules. However, 45 of the 68 transcripts were unknown proteins. These findings suggest that most of the GRH transcripts encoding secreted proteins expressed in salivary glands are species and/or tissue specific. Our results provide a fundamental list of genes involved in GRH-Poaceae host plant interactions including successful feeding and plant pathogen transmission.

  8. Cystic parathyroid glands in MEN1: A rare entity? (United States)

    Cavalli, Tiziana; Giudici, Francesco; Nesi, Gabriella; Amorosi, Andrea; Santi, Raffaella; Brandi, Maria Luisa; Tonelli, Francesco


    Approximately 300 cases of sporadic parathyroid cyst (PCs) have been reported to date. Only two cases have been described in MEN1 so far. Detection by imaging could be challenging, especially in multiglandular primary hyperparathyroidism (HPT) and clinical outcome could be different. During the period 1990-2014, 71 MEN1 patients were operated for primary hyperparathyroidism in our centre. We report three cases of PCs in MEN1 patients affected by HPT, who underwent a total or subtotal parathyroidectomy with transcervical thymectomy. In our series, all three patients had an unsatisfactory postoperative course, at variance with the high percentage (over 90 %) of long-term success in MEN1 patients operated at our centre. One patient affected by cystic degeneration of all the four parathyroid glands reported persistent hypoparathyroidism, despite autografts of parathyroid tissue. For the other two cases, surgery failed to cure hyperparathyroidism, perhaps because of the presence of undetected ectopic parathyroid tissue. In the context of a multiglandular disease such as MEN1 syndrome, PCs seem rare but our experience shows about a 4 % incidence. Furthermore their presence, even in expert hands, could affect the preoperative identification of the parathyroid glands due to the difficult differential diagnosis between PC and other cystic lesions of the neck, and intraoperative detection of the glands as well as the postoperative outcome.

  9. Ectopic parathyroid glands and their anatomical, clinical and surgical implications. (United States)

    Noussios, G; Anagnostis, P; Natsis, K


    Ectopic parathyroid glands result from aberrant migration during early stages of development and lack of successful identification may lead to lack of success in parathyroid surgery. They constitute a common etiology of persistent or recurrent hyperparathyroidism, when they are missed at initial diagnosis. Their prevalence is about 2-43% in anatomical series and up to 16% and 14% in patients with primary and secondary hyperparathyroidism, respectively. Ectopic inferior parathyroids are most frequently found in the anterior mediastinum, in association with the thymus or the thyroid gland, while the most common position for ectopic superior parathyroids is the tracheoesophageal groove and retroesophageal region. Neck ultrasound and 99mTc Sestamibi scan are first-line imaging modalities, although with low sensitivity and specificity. However, their combination with modern techniques, such as single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) alone or in combination with CT (SPECT/CT) increases their diagnostic accuracy. Fine needle-aspiration cytology of a lesion suspicious for parathyroid tissue and measurement of parathyroid hormone (PTH) in the aspired material further assist to the successful preoperative localization of ectopic glands. Common sites for surgical investigation are the upper thyroid pole and the upper vascular thyroid stalk behind the hypopharynx and cervical esophagus for the superior parathyroids, and the carotid artery bifurcation and the thymic tongue, for the inferior parathyroids. Radioguided minimally invasive parathyroidectomy after successful localization, assisted by rapid PTH measurement postoperatively, significantly improves surgical outcomes in patients with ectopic parathyroid adenomas.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: 44 fetuses of varying gestational ages, ranging fr om 33m.m C.R.L. to 270m.m.C.R.L. (i.e. from 8weeks to 32weeks of intrauterine life were studied to note the developmental sequence of mammary gland. Tissues were prepared for microtomy by Paraffin wax embedding method. Serial sections were stained by Haematoxyli n & Eosin (H & E and Masson’s Trichome method(1. It was observed that the organ is subjec t to fluctuations in its development. In the present study the primary bud, secondary bud, & terti ary bud formation is seen at11th week ,14th week & 18 th week of gestation respectively .The canalization appeared at 20 th week of gestation. Variation is seen in the mode of canal ization as well as in the time of start of canalization. In the present study an endeavour has been made to establish the time of appearance of mammary buds and their time of canaliza tion .The observations are compared with the findings of other workers and discussed in the light of literature. Mammogenesis or development of mammary gland is of great importance for anatomists, surgeons, pathologists, physicians, obstetricians etc. A large number of dev elopmental anomalies like amastia, athelia, polymastia, polythelia, etc are of interest to them w hich can be understood more if thorough understanding of development of mammary gland is th ere.

  11. Automatic segmentation of histological structures in mammary gland tissue sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez-Gonzalez, Rodrigo; Deschamps, Thomas; Idica, Adam K.; Malladi, Ravikanth; Ortiz de Solorzano, Carlos


    Real-time three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of epithelial structures in human mammary gland tissue blocks mapped with selected markers would be an extremely helpful tool for breast cancer diagnosis and treatment planning. Besides its clear clinical application, this tool could also shed a great deal of light on the molecular basis of breast cancer initiation and progression. In this paper we present a framework for real-time segmentation of epithelial structures in two-dimensional (2D) images of sections of normal and neoplastic mammary gland tissue blocks. Complete 3D rendering of the tissue can then be done by surface rendering of the structures detected in consecutive sections of the blocks. Paraffin embedded or frozen tissue blocks are first sliced, and sections are stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin. The sections are then imaged using conventional bright field microscopy and their background is corrected using a phantom image. We then use the Fast-Marching algorithm to roughly extract the contours of the different morphological structures in the images. The result is then refined with the Level-Set method which converges to an accurate (sub-pixel) solution for the segmentation problem. Finally, our system stacks together the 2D results obtained in order to reconstruct a 3D representation of the entire tissue block under study. Our method is illustrated with results from the segmentation of human and mouse mammary gland tissue samples.

  12. Monosodium glutamate induced histomorphometric changes in thyroid gland of adult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooja Rani1, Kamlesh Khatri2, Renu Chauhan1


    Full Text Available Monosodium Glutamate (MSG is widely used as a flavor enhanc-er throughout the world. MSG contains glutamic acid, sodium and water. Glutamic acid serves as a neurotransmitter vital to the transmission of nerve impulses in many parts of the central nerv-ous system, and in excess it may cause neurotoxicity leading to endocrinal disorders. The present study was conducted to eva-luate histomorphometrically the effects of monosodium glutamate on the thyroid gland of adult albino rats. The experimental group was given 4mg/g body weight of monosodium glutamate intra-peritoneally for seven days. Controls were maintained. After thirty days of the last dose, all the animals were sacrificed, their thyroid glands were dissected out, processed and sections stained with haematoxylin and eosin (H&E and Periodic Acid Schiff (PAS and examined for histomorphometry under Zeiss light microscope and Image Pro-Express Analyzer. The results of the present study showed a significant increase in the body weight of the MSG treated animals, although these animals consumed less food than the controls. A significant increase in the size of the follicles ac-companied by an increase in the mean height and area of the folli-cular cells and decreased colloid in some of the follicles was ob-served, pointing towards an increase in thyroid gland activity.

  13. Consistent absence of BRAF mutations in salivary gland carcinomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nooshin Mohtasham


    Full Text Available Introduction: Malignant salivary gland tumors are rare entities. Despite advances in surgery, radiation therapy and chemotherapy, the rate of the mortality and five-year survival has not been improved markedly over the last few decades. The activation of EGFR- RAS-RAF signaling pathway contributes to the initiation and progression of many human cancers, promising a key pathway for therapeutic molecules. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate BRAF mutations in salivary gland carcinomas. Methods: We designed PCR- RFLP (Polymerase Chain Reaction -Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism and screened 50 salivary gland carcinomas (SGCs including mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC, adenoid cystic carcinoma (AdCC and polymorphous low grade adenocarcinoma (PLGA for the BRAF V600E mutation. Results: PCR-RFLP analyses demonstrated no mutation in BRAF exon 15 for SGC samples at position V600, which is the most commonly mutated site for BRAF in human cancer. Conclusions: According to our results SGCs didn’t acquire BRAF mutations that result in a constitutive activation of the signaling cascade downstream of EGFR, hence SGCs can be a good candidate for anti EGFR therapies.

  14. Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the minor salivary glands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Kyung Yun; Lee, Kyung Ho; Kim, Dong Youn; Choi, Karp Shik [Dept. of Dental Radiology, College of Dentistry, Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)


    Adenoid cystic carcinoma is a malignant salivary gland tumor with typical histologic patterns. The majority of the se tumors occurs in the minor salivary glands, especially mucosa of the hard palate. The authors experienced the patients, who complained the tumor-like soft tissue masses on the palatal and mouth floor area. After careful analysis of clinical, radiological and histopathological findings, we diagnosed them as adenoid cystic carcinomas in the minor salivary glands, obtained results were as follows : 1. Main clinical symptoms were a slow growing soft tissue mass with normal intact mucosa on the palatal area, and soft tissue mass with mild pain on the mouth floor area. 2. In the radiographic examinations, soft tissue masses were observed with invasion to adjacent structures, and moderate defined, heterogeneous soft tissue mass with enhanced margin, respectively. 3. In the histopathologic examinations, dark-stained, small uniform ballad's cells in the hyaline or fibrous stroma were observed as solid and cribriform patterns, respectively.

  15. Oral mucosal status and major salivary gland function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolff, A.; Fox, P.C.; Ship, J.A.; Atkinson, J.C.; Macynski, A.A.; Baum, B.J. (National Institute of Dental Research, Bethesda, MD (USA))


    Normal salivary function is considered to be critical for the maintenance of healthy oral mucosa. However, few studies have examined mucosal changes in patients with objectively documented salivary gland performance. In the present report, the mucosal status of 298 subjects being evaluated in a dry mouth clinic was assessed. A complete oral examination was performed and unstimulated and stimulated salivary samples were collected separately from the parotid and submandibular/sublingual glands. Data were analyzed according to diagnosis and salivary output after the assignment of an oral mucosal rating to each subject. In general, the mucosal surfaces were well preserved and infections were not seen. Patients evaluated for Sjoegren's syndrome and radiation-induced xerostomia had the lowest salivary gland performance but displayed a mucosal status similar to denture-wearing healthy subjects or patients with normal salivary flow who had idiopathic xerostomia. However, those patients with a total lack of salivary flow rarely had normal-appearing oral mucosa. These results confirm a role for saliva in oral mucosal preservation and also suggest that other factors may act to maintain oral mucosal integrity.

  16. The embryonic origin of the ampullate silk glands of the spider Cupiennius salei. (United States)

    Hilbrant, Maarten; Damen, Wim G M


    Silk production in spiders is considered a key innovation, and to have been vital for the diversification of the clade. The evolutionary origin of the organs involved in spider silk production, however, and in particular of the silk glands, is poorly understood. Homologies have been proposed between these and other glands found in arachnids, but lacking knowledge of the embryonic development of spider silk glands hampers an evaluation of hypotheses. This study focuses on the embryonic origin of the largest silk glands of the spider Cupiennius salei, the major and minor ampullate glands. We show how the ampullate glands originate from ectodermal invaginations on the embryonic spinneret limb buds, in relation to morphogenesis of these buds. Moreover, we visualize the subsequent growth of the ampullate glands in sections of the early postembryonic stages. The invaginations are shown to correlate with expression of the proneural gene CsASH2, which is remarkable since it has been proposed that spider silk glands and their nozzles originate from sensory bristles. Hence, by confirming the ectodermal origin of spider silk glands, and by describing the (post-)embryonic morphogenesis of the ampullate glands, this work provides a starting point for further investigating into the genetic program that underlies their development.

  17. Function of the Dufour’s gland in solitary and social Hymenoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aniruddha Mitra


    Full Text Available The poison gland and Dufour’s gland are the two glands associated with the sting apparatus in female Apocrita (Hymenoptera. While the poison gland usually functions as an integral part of the venom delivery system, the Dufour’s gland has been found to differ in its function in various hymenopteran groups. Like all exocrine glands, the function of the Dufour’s gland is to secrete chemicals, but the nature and function of the secretions varies in different taxa. Functions of the Dufour’s gland secretions range from serving as a component of material used in nest building, larval food, and pheromones involved in communicative functions that are important for both solitary and social species. This review summarizes the different functions reported for the Dufour’s gland in hymenopterans, illustrating how the Dufour’s gland secretions can be adapted to give rise to various functions in response to different challenges posed by the ways of life followed by different taxa. Aspects of development, structure, chemistry and the evolution of different functions are also touched upon briefly.

  18. Vasculature of the parotoid glands of four species of toads (bufonidae: bufo). (United States)

    Hutchinson, Deborah A; Savitzky, Alan H


    The parotoid glands of toads (Bufonidae) consist of large aggregations of granular glands located between the otic region of the skull and the scapular region. To determine the circulatory pattern of these glands, we perfused the vascular systems of Bufo alvarius, B. marinus, B. terrestris, and B. valliceps with either India ink or Microfil, a fine latex. The perfused glands were studied by gross dissection, microscopic examination, and histology. The vascular patterns of the parotoid glands were compared to the arrangement of vessels in the dorsal skin of Rana sphenocephala (Ranidae), a frog that lacks parotoid glands. The parotoid glands of the four species of toads are supplied with blood by the lateral and dorsal cutaneous arteries and are drained by one or more branches of the internal jugular vein. The dorsal cutaneous artery supplies most of the blood to the parotoid glands in B. terrestris and B. valliceps. In B. alvarius and B. marinus, both the lateral and dorsal cutaneous arteries serve major roles in the blood supply of the glands. These patterns of blood flow have not been described previously for parotoid glands and conflict with earlier accounts for B. alvarius and B. marinus. The arteries and veins associated with the parotoid glands of toads are present in R. sphenocephala, but are arranged differently. In R. sphenocephala, the lateral cutaneous artery supplies the dorsal and lateral skin posterior to the shoulder region, whereas the dorsal cutaneous artery supplies the skin of the shoulder region. In toads, both the lateral and dorsal cutaneous arteries supply the skin of the shoulder region and ramify into subcutaneous capillaries that surround the secretory units of the parotoid glands. Extensive vasculature presumably is important for delivering cholesterol and other precursor molecules to the parotoid glands, where those compounds are converted into toxins.

  19. [Effect of veralipride on the estral cycle, genital tract, mammary gland and pituitary gland in female rats (author's transl)]. (United States)

    Tuchmann-Duplessis, H


    A study of the potential biological effects of veralipride was conducted in female rats. A definite stimulating action on the mammary gland was noted, but doses of 5 to 20 mg/kg/day are required to produce secretion, which is varying from one animal to another. Follicular maturation is preserved, though there is an increase in the number of corpora lutea with more marked development in some of them. Progesterone impregnation of the uterus occurs in a variable way and then only at doses of 5 + 0 20 mg/kg/day. Vaginal mucification, from a reduction in estrogen in relation to progesterone impregnation, is noted after 1 mg/kg/day (though 25 p. cent of the animals still demonstrate vaginal keratinization after 20 mg/kg/day). Finally, degranulation of the carminophile cells of the anterior pituitary gland, occurs after 5 mg/kg/day.

  20. Gross morphology and ultrastructure of salivary glands of the mute cicada Karenia caelatata Distant (Hemiptera: Cicadoidea). (United States)

    Zhong, Hai-ying; Wei, Cong; Zhang, Ya-lin


    Salivary glands of the cicada Karenia caelatata Distant were investigated using light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The salivary glands are paired structures and consist of principal glands and accessory glands. The principal gland is subdivided into anterior lobe and posterior lobe; the former contains about 34-39 long digitate lobules, while the latter contains approximately 30-33 long digitate lobules and 13-22 short digitate lobules. These short digitate lobules, about one fifth or sixth as long as the long digitate lobules, locate at the base of the long digitate lobules of posterior lobe. All of these digitate lobules vary in size, disposition, length and shape. The anterior lobe and the posterior lobe are connected by an anterior-posterior duct. Two efferent salivary ducts, which connect with the posterior lobe, fuse to form a common duct. The accessory gland is composed of three parts: a greatly tortuous and folded accessory salivary tube, a circlet of gular gland constituting of several acini of the same size, and a non-collapsible accessory salivary duct. The digitate lobules and gular glands possess secretory cells containing abundant secretory granules vary in size, shape, and electron density, as might indicate different materials are synthesized in different secretory regions. The anterior-posterior duct lines with a player of cuticular lining, and cells beneath the cuticular lining lack of basal infoldings, as suggests the duct serves just to transport secretions. The accessory salivary duct is lined with cuticular lining; cells of the duct have well developed basal infoldings associated with abundant mitochondria, as probably suggests the duct is a reabsorptive region of ions. The cells of the accessory salivary tube possess deep basal infoldings and well developed apical dense microvilli, indicating the cells of the tube are secretory in function. Concentric lamellar structures and a peculiar structure with abundant membrane

  1. Salivary Duct Carcinoma of the Minor Salivary Gland: A Rare Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalini Gupta


    Full Text Available Salivary duct carcinoma is a rare invasive malignancy arising in the ductal epithelium of the salivary glands. Nearly 85% of the cases occur in the parotid gland followed by submandibular gland. Rarely is it described in the hard palate. Salivary duct carcinomas affecting the minor salivary glands have been reported in only 4% of the SDC cases and constitute 2% of all the salivary gland malignant neoplasms. It is characterized by aggressive behavior with early metastasis, local recurrence and significant mortality. The tumor has predilection for older men in the 6th to 7th decades of life. In this article; we report a case of a salivary gland carcinoma which was present in the right posterior region of the maxilla of a 50 year old female patient. [J Interdiscipl Histopathol 2013; 1(4.000: 222-226

  2. Dynamic uptake of radioactive substance in rat salivary gland following /sup 3/H-melatonin administration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Withyachumnarnkul, B.; Wongprapairot, P.; Trakulrungsi, W.


    Dynamics of radioactive accumulation in rat greater salivary gland following systemic administration of /sup 3/H-melatonin was studied to determine a possible action of the hormone in the gland. Progressive decline of /sup 3/H-melatonin concentrations was found in the serum, lung, skeletal muscle, liver, kidney, and salivary gland during 60 min following the administration. On the contrary, there was a progressive accumulation of radioactive substance other than /sup 3/H-melatonin in the salivary gland but not in other tissues mentioned. The radioactivity was also progressively and preferentially localized in the nuclear fraction of the gland cells. These results suggest a possible direct action of melatonin derivative in rat salivary gland.

  3. Ascl3 marks adult progenitor cells of the mouse salivary gland. (United States)

    Rugel-Stahl, Anastasia; Elliott, Marilyn E; Ovitt, Catherine E


    The Ascl3 transcription factor marks a subset of salivary gland duct cells present in the three major salivary glands of the mouse. In vivo, these cells generate both duct and secretory acinar cell descendants. Here, we have analyzed whether Ascl3-expressing cells retain this multipotent lineage potential in adult glands. Cells isolated from mouse salivary glands were cultured in vitro as non-adherent spheres. Lineage tracing of the Ascl3-expressing cells within the spheres demonstrates that Ascl3+ cells isolated from adult glands remain multipotent, generating both duct and acinar cell types in vitro. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the progenitor cells characterized by Keratin 5 expression are an independent population from Ascl3+ progenitor cells. We conclude that the Ascl3+ cells are intermediate lineage-restricted progenitor cells of the adult salivary glands.

  4. Milk metabolites as indicators of mammary gland functions and milk quality. (United States)

    Silanikove, Nissim; Merin, Uzi; Shapiro, Fira; Leitner, Gabriel


    The assumption, that metabolites derived from the activity of the mammary gland epithelial cells reflect changes in milk secretion and its coagulation properties, was tested in dairy cows. The experiment included cows with uninfected udders and cows with one of the glands infected by different bacteria specie. Analysis were carried at the cow level (including all four glands), or at the gland level. High and significant correlations among the concentrations of lactose, glucose, glucose-6-posphate, milk related respiratory index (the ratio between the concentrations of citrate/lactate+malate in milk) and milk-derived glycolytic index (the ratio between glucose-6-phosphate and glucose in milk) and milk clotting parameters were found. The physiological basis for these relations and their ability to predict the deterioration in milk quality in subclinically infected glands and in glands previously clinically infected with Escherichia coli are discussed.

  5. Characterization of the LPS-induced inflammation of the adrenal gland in mice. (United States)

    Kanczkowski, Waldemar; Chatzigeorgiou, Antonios; Samus, Maryna; Tran, Nguyen; Zacharowski, Kai; Chavakis, Triantafyllos; Bornstein, Stefan R


    Systemic administration of endotoxin, which closely mimics the bacteria-induced systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) can ultimately lead to organ failure. Adrenal gland insufficiency is frequently diagnosed in critically ill patients; however, the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. In the present study, we studied comprehensively the characteristics of adrenal gland dysregulation, including inflammation, leukocyte infiltration and cell death in the adrenal glands in the course of LPS-induced systemic inflammation in mice. LPS enhanced expression of many proinflammatory cytokines, chemokines and adhesion molecules, which resulted in rapid recruitment of leukocytes into the adrenal gland. Furthermore, LPS-mediated inflammation was associated with increased apoptosis of adrenocortical and chromaffin cells. Our results performed in mice, suggest that LPS-induced adrenal gland inflammation and cell death might be mechanisms potentially involved in the adrenal gland dysfunction in patients with sepsis.

  6. Melatonin changes in the pineal gland of sleep-deprived rats following habenular nucleus lesion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huijuan Jin; Meiying Song; Min Huang; Manli Wang; Hua Zhao


    The habenular nucleus (Hb) is an important structure that regulates the function of the pineal gland,which may affect melatonin content in the pineal gland after sleep deprivation (SD). In the present study, high performance liquid chromatography showed that the melatonin content in the pineal gland was significantly reduced, and Y-aminobutyric acid content in the Hb was significantly increased after SD. Furthermore, the melatonin content in the pineal gland was markedly reduced after Hb lesion under normal sleep and SD conditions. Immunohistochemistry showed that the number of Fos-positive neurons was significantly decreased in the lateral and medial Hb after SD.The findings demonstrate that the reduction of melatonin in the pineal gland after SD is related to decreased activity of Hb neurons, and that the Hb can regulate sleep-wake rhythm by influencing melatonin secretion in the pineal gland.

  7. Adrenergic effects on secretion of epidermal growth factor from Brunner's glands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Steen Seier


    The influence of the sympathetic nervous system and adrenergic agonists on flow rate and secretion of epidermal growth factor (EGF) from Brunner's glands has been investigated in the rat. Chemical sympathectomy by administration of 6-hydroxydopamine increased volume secretion and output of EGF from...... Brunner's glands but depleted the glands of EGF. Infusion of noradrenaline, an alpha-adrenergic agonist, inhibited basal and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) stimulated flow rate and output of EGF from Brunner's glands and increased the amount of EGF in the tissue. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide...... also increased the amount of EGF in Brunner's gland tissue and this was unchanged after simultaneous infusion of VIP and noradrenaline as well as VIP and isoproterenol, a beta-adrenergic agonist. Isoproterenol had no effect on basal and VIP stimulated secretion of EGF from Brunner's glands...

  8. Salivary gland and associated complications in head and neck cancer therapy. (United States)

    Kumar, Satish; Ram, Saravanan; Navazesh, Mahvash


    Xerostomia and salivary gland hypofunction are two of the most common and significant complications of head and neck cancer therapy in the head and neck region. This article will provide a brief overview of salivary gland hypofunction and associated complications in head and neck cancer therapy, mainly in radiation therapy. The discussion will include quality of life issues as well as current advances in cancer therapy to reduce xerostomia and salivary gland hypofunction.

  9. Chikungunya Virus Replication in Salivary Glands of the Mosquito Aedes albopictus

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    Anubis Vega-Rúa


    Full Text Available Chikungunya virus (CHIKV is an emerging arbovirus transmitted to humans by mosquitoes such as Aedes albopictus. To be transmitted, CHIKV must replicate in the mosquito midgut, then disseminate in the hemocele and infect the salivary glands before being released in saliva. We have developed a standardized protocol to visualize viral particles in the mosquito salivary glands using transmission electron microscopy. Here we provide direct evidence for CHIKV replication and storage in Ae. albopictus salivary glands.

  10. Chikungunya Virus Replication in Salivary Glands of the Mosquito Aedes albopictus. (United States)

    Vega-Rúa, Anubis; Schmitt, Christine; Bonne, Isabelle; Krijnse Locker, Jacomine; Failloux, Anna-Bella


    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an emerging arbovirus transmitted to humans by mosquitoes such as Aedes albopictus. To be transmitted, CHIKV must replicate in the mosquito midgut, then disseminate in the hemocele and infect the salivary glands before being released in saliva. We have developed a standardized protocol to visualize viral particles in the mosquito salivary glands using transmission electron microscopy. Here we provide direct evidence for CHIKV replication and storage in Ae. albopictus salivary glands.

  11. Ni2+ treatment causes cement gland formation in ectoderm explants of Xenopus laevis embryo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    We found T-type calcium channel blocker Ni2+ can efficiently induce the formation of cement gland in Xenopus laevis animal cap explants.Nother T-typer specific calcium channel blocker Amiloride can also induce the formation of cement gland,while L-type specific calcium channel blocker Nifedipine as no inductive effect.These results may offer us an new approach to study the differentiation of cement gland through the change of intracelluar calcium concentration.

  12. Breeding, introgression and inheritance of delayed gland morphogenesis trait from Gosspium bickii into upland cotton germplasm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Shuijin; JIANG Yurong; Reddy Naganagouda; JI Daofan


    A tri-specific hybrid with delayed pigment gland morphogenesis was obtained by crossing the amphidiploid of (G. arboreum×G. bickii) F1 and an upland cotton germplasm with pigment gland genotype of Gl2Gl2gl3gl3. The tri-specific hybrid was a typical interspecific hybrid with high sterile, and the chromosome configuration at meiosis MI of PMC was 2n = 52 = 41.04Ⅰ+ 4.54Ⅱ + 0.57Ⅲ + 0.04. The crossover value of bivalent was 1.19. Two fertile plants with objective character were obtained in BC8 population by continuously backcrossing with Gl2Gl2gl3gl3 as recurrent parent to the tri-specific hybrid, and a new upland cotton germplasm, named ABH-0318, with delayed pigment gland morphogenesis trait was developed through selfing and screening. The pigment gland trait of ABH-0318 was stable, and there were almost no pigment glands observed in the dormant seeds, although there were a few pigment glands confined to cotyledon edges, and the gossypol content in the dormant seeds was 0.017% only, being a typical low gossypol cotton type. However, a large quantity of pigment glands emerged in cotyledons and other main organs of plant after seed germination, and the gossypol contents in the upper parts of the plant were similar to that of ordinary glanded cotton types. Genetic analysis demonstrated that the delayed pigment gland morphogenesis trait of this germplasm was controlled by the interaction of the genes located in two pigment gland loci, Gl2 and Gl3. Among them, the gene located in locus of Gl2, derived from G.bickii, was dominance to upland cotton pigment gland alleles, Gl2 and gl2 , but was recessive epistatic to another glanded gene Gl3, which was named Gl2b temporarily. While the gene located in the locus of Gl3 was a recessive gene come from upland cotton.

  13. Rhythmic Melatonin Response of the Syrian Hamster Pineal Gland to Norepinephrine In Vitro and In Vivo (United States)


    pineal and body size. However, it appears that even after correction for estimated pineal weight or for body weight, rat glands made several-fold more...R.J. Reiter (1985) Hamster and rat pineal gland i- adrenoceptor characterization with iodocyanopindolol and the effect of decreased catecholamine...serotonin N-acetyl- transferase activity to synthesis of 3H-N-acetylserotonin and 3H-melatonin in the cultured rat pineal gland . J. Pharmacol. Exp

  14. Cutaneous eccrine glands of the foot pads of the rock hyrax (Procavia capensis, Hyracoidea, mammalia)


    Stumpf, P; Welsch, U


    In order to find correlations between skin gland morphology and specific ethological features, the cutaneous glands of the foot pads of Procavia capensis were studied by histological and various histochemical methods and by electron microscopy. In the foot pads, abundant specific eccrine skin glands occur, which consist of coiled tubular secretory portions and coiled ducts. The wall of the secretory part is composed of cuboidal glandular cells and myoepithelial cells. Among the glandular cell...

  15. Comparison of Three Methods for the Estimation of Pineal Gland Volume Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging


    Niyazi Acer; Ahmet Turan Ilıca; Ahmet Tuncay Turgut; Özlem Özçelik; Birdal Yıldırım; Mehmet Turgut


    Pineal gland is a very important neuroendocrine organ with many physiological functions such as regulating circadian rhythm. Radiologically, the pineal gland volume is clinically important because it is usually difficult to distinguish small pineal tumors via magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Although many studies have estimated the pineal gland volume using different techniques, to the best of our knowledge, there has so far been no stereological work done on this subject. The objective of t...

  16. Catecholamine release evoked by lithium from the perfused adrenal gland of the cat.


    de Abajo, F. J.; Castro, M. A.; Garijo, B; Sánchez-García, P.


    The effect of Li on catecholamine release by cat isolated retrogradely perfused adrenal gland was investigated. Replacement of Na (119 mM) by Li in the Krebs solution evoked a progressive increase in the spontaneous release of catecholamines that reached a maximum within 45 min and was Ca-dependent. This response was specific for Li, since sucrose or choline used as osmotic substitutes for Na, failed to increase the spontaneous release of catecholamines by the adrenal gland. In glands perfuse...

  17. Clinical Application of {sup 18}F-FDG PET in Salivary Gland Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, You Jung [East-West Neo Medical Center, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    Salivary gland tumors are relatively rare, constituting 3% of all head and neck neoplasms. In patients with salivary gland malignancies, {sup 18}F-FDG PET is clinically useful in initial staging, histologic grading, and monitoring after treatment. According to clinical research data hitherto, {sup 18}F-FDG PET is expected to be an effective diagnostic tool in the management of salivary gland tumors.

  18. Ultrasonographic evaluation of adrenal gland size compared to body weight in normal dogs. (United States)

    Soulsby, Stacy N; Holland, Merrilee; Hudson, Judith A; Behrend, Ellen N


    The accepted cut-off value for adrenal gland maximum diameter of 0.74 cm to distinguish adrenal gland enlargement in dogs regardless of body weight may not be appropriate for small to medium breed dogs. The purpose of the current retrospective study was to examine adrenal gland dimensions as a function of body weight in healthy dogs in three weight categories ( 30 kg) representing small, medium, and large breeds, respectively, to establish greater confidence in determining if adrenal gland size is abnormal. The measurements of length (sagittal plane), cranial and caudal pole thickness (sagittal and transverse planes), and caudal pole width (transverse plane) of both adrenal glands were obtained ultrasonographically in clinically healthy dogs (n = 45) with 15 dogs in each weight group. Findings support our hypothesis that adrenal gland size correlates with body weight in normal dogs, and more precise reference intervals should be created for adrenal gland size by categorizing dogs as small, medium, or large breed. The caudal pole thickness of either adrenal gland in a sagittal plane was the best dimension for evaluating adrenal gland size based on low variability, ease, and reliability in measurement.

  19. A cavernous hemangioma of the thyroid gland: First documentation by ultrasound of a rare pathology. (United States)

    Gutzeit, Andreas; Stuckmann, Gerd; Tosoni, Ivo; Erdin, Dieter; Binkert, Christoph A


    Hemangioma of the thyroid gland is an extremely rare condition. We report a case of a primary cavernous hemangioma in the left lobe of the thyroid gland in an 84-year-old woman. Ultrasound examination of the lesion showed an inhomogeneous and hypoechoic nodule that was well demarcated from the rest of the left lobe and hypovascular on color Doppler ultrasound. Ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration was performed. The cytologic differential diagnosis included an anaplastic carcinoma of the thyroid gland. After hemithyroidectomy, the final diagnosis was a benign hemangioma of the thyroid gland.

  20. Effect of duct obstruction on structure, elemental composition, and function of rat submandibular glands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sagstroem, S.S.; Sagulin, G.B.; Roomans, G.M. (Univ. of Uppsala (Sweden))


    Obstruction of salivary glands occurs in association with a number of pathological conditions. It has been suggested that the major changes found in the salivary glands of patients with cystic fibrosis are due to obstruction of the excretory duct by viscous mucus. In the present study, the effect of excretory duct obstruction on structure, elemental composition and function of rat submandibular gland was investigated. Obstruction was effected by infusion of a fast-hardening protein emulsion in the main excretory duct. After 1 week, and more pronounced after 2 weeks of obstruction the number of granular duct cells had decreased in the obstructed gland. X-ray microanalysis showed an increase in Mg, Ca and K, and a decrease in Na levels in the acinar cells, compared to normal glands. The contralateral glands apparently underwent compensatory hypertrophy and showed a similar pattern of changes in elemental composition. The composition of pilocarpine-induced submandibular saliva was neither in the obstructed nor in the contralateral gland significantly different from that in control glands. However, the flow rate was somewhat lower. Hence, increase in cellular Ca levels in submandibular gland acinar cells in cystic fibrosis could be secondary to duct obstruction, but the present study does not support the hypothesis that duct obstruction would result in changes in the composition of saliva.

  1. Proteomic Characterisation of the Salt Gland-Enriched Tissues of the Mangrove Tree Species Avicennia officinalis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wee-Kee Tan

    Full Text Available Plant salt glands are nature's desalination devices that harbour potentially useful information pertaining to salt and water transport during secretion. As part of the program toward deciphering secretion mechanisms in salt glands, we used shotgun proteomics to compare the protein profiles of salt gland-enriched (isolated epidermal peels and salt gland-deprived (mesophyll tissues of the mangrove species Avicennia officinalis. The purpose of the work is to identify proteins that are present in the salt gland-enriched tissues. An average of 2189 and 977 proteins were identified from the epidermal peel and mesophyll tissues, respectively. Among these, 2188 proteins were identified in salt gland-enriched tissues and a total of 1032 selected proteins were categorized by Gene Ontology (GO analysis. This paper reports for the first time the proteomic analysis of salt gland-enriched tissues of a mangrove tree species. Candidate proteins that may play a role in the desalination process of the mangrove salt glands and their potential localization were identified. Information obtained from this study paves the way for future proteomic research aiming at elucidating the molecular mechanism underlying secretion in plant salt glands. The data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD000771.

  2. Ultrasonography of histologically normal parathyroid glands and thyroid lobules in normocalcemic dogs. (United States)

    Liles, Sofija R; Linder, Keith E; Cain, Brandon; Pease, Anthony P


    The purpose of this study is to characterize the sonographic appearance of canine parathyroid glands using high-resolution ultrasonography. Ten cadaver dogs were studied after euthanasia for reasons not relating to the parathyroid. The cervical region was examined using a 13-5 MHz linear transducer in right and left recumbency. Ultrasonographic features of the parathyroid and thyroid glands were compared with the gross and histopathologic findings. Thirty-five structures were identified sonographically as parathyroid glands but only 26 of 35 glands (74% positive predictive value) were proven to be normal parathyroid glands histopathologically. Of the nine false positives, five (14%) were proven to be lobular thyroid tissue. The remaining four (11%) structures were visible grossly or found histopathologically. There were no statistical differences between ultrasonographic and gross measurements of the parathyroid glands. The average size as seen sonographically was 3.3 x 2.2 x 1.7 mm and the average gross size was 3.7 x 2.6 x 1.6 mm (length, width, height). The average size of the thyroid lobules assessed sonographically was 2.3 x1.6 x 0.8 mm (length, width, height). Normal parathyroid glands can be identified using high-resolution ultrasonography. But some thyroid lobules will be misinterpreted as parathyroid glands; this will result in false positives when identifying parathyroid glands with ultrasonography.

  3. A systematic review of salivary gland hypofunction and xerostomia induced by cancer therapies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, S.B.; Pedersen, A.M.L.; Vissink, A.


    submandibular and minor salivary glands, as these glands are major contributors to moistening of oral tissues. Other cancer treatments also induce salivary gland hypofunction, although to a lesser severity, and in the case of chemotherapy and immunotherapy, the adverse effect is temporary. Fields of sparse...... literature included pediatric cancer populations, cancer chemotherapy, radioactive iodine treatment, total body irradiation/hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, and immunotherapy......This systematic review aimed to assess the literature for prevalence, severity, and impact on quality of life of salivary gland hypofunction and xerostomia induced by cancer therapies. The electronic databases of MEDLINE/PubMed and EMBASE were searched for articles published in English since...

  4. Morphological, histochemical and immunohistochemical characterization of secretory production of the ciliary glands in the porcine eyelid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Yasui


    Full Text Available In addition to performing general histology and cytology of the ciliary glands of the miniature pig, we studied the localization of glycoconjugates and b-defensins in these glands with the use of carbohydrate histochemical and immunohistochemical methods. The secretory cells of the glands were equipped with non-homogeneous secretory granules, a welldeveloped Golgi apparatus and rough endoplasmic reticulum. The secretory epithelium and luminal secretion of the glands contained large amounts of neutral and acidic glycoconjugates with various saccharide residues (a-L-Fuc, b-DGal, a-D-GalNAc and sialic acid. The sebaceous glands and tarsal glands also exhibited positive reactions to most of the histochemical methods. Additionally, the antimicrobial peptide group of b-defensins was demonstrated to be products of the ciliary glands, as well as the sebaceous glands and tarsal glands. The results obtained are discussed with regard to the specific function of the ciliary glandular secretions. These secretory products may be related to the moistening and general protection of the skin surface of the eyelid and ocular surface.

  5. Diagnostic value of minor salivary glands biopsy for the detection of Lewy pathology. (United States)

    Folgoas, Emmanuelle; Lebouvier, Thibaud; Leclair-Visonneau, Laurène; Cersosimo, Maria-Graciela; Barthelaix, Annick; Derkinderen, Pascal; Letournel, Franck


    The recent demonstration of the presence of Lewy pathology in the submandibular glands of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients prompted us to evaluate the diagnostic performance of minor salivary gland biopsy for PD. Minor salivary glands were examined for Lewy pathology using phosphorylated alpha-synuclein antibody in 16 patients with clinically diagnosed PD and 11 control subjects with other neurological disorders. Abnormal accumulation of alpha-synuclein was found in 3 out of 16 PD patients. Two control subjects exhibited weak phosphorylated alpha-synuclein immunoreactivity. Our results do not support the use of minor salivary glands biopsy for the detection of Lewy pathology in living subjects.

  6. Ontogenetic changes in the chemistry and morphology of oil glands in Hermannia convexa (Acari: Oribatida). (United States)

    Raspotnig, Günther; Krisper, Günther; Schuster, Reinhart


    As a first example for the chemistry of oil gland secretions in the Hermannioidea (one of the three superfamilies of desmonomatan Oribatida), the oil gland secretion of Hermannia convexa was investigated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Hexane extracts of all juvenile stages showed a multicomponent chromatographic pattern, mainly consisting of well-known oil gland secretion components such as neral, geranial, gamma-acaridial and the unsaturated C17-hydrocarbons, 6,9-heptadecadiene and 8-heptadecene. The secretion profiles of juveniles varied slightly between samples of two different collections, namely in the presence of gamma-acaridial and 8-heptadecene. Furthermore, a minor component, identified as 1,8-cineole (= eucalyptol) and hitherto not known from oil gland secretions of other species, was recorded in both juvenile and adult extracts. In adult profiles, 1,8-cineole, in low amounts, represented the only detectable component; thus, their profiles fundamentally differed from those of juveniles. A subsequent histological investigation revealed well developed oil glands in all juvenile stages, but degenerated oil glands in adults, consistent with the chemical data. So far, apart from H. convexa, degeneration of oil glands in the course of ontogenetic development is only known from a brachypylid species; on the other hand, chemical oil gland-polymorphism between juveniles and adults may occur in closely related Nothridae while it does not occur in oil glands of early- and middle-derivative Oribatida (Parhyposomata, Mixonomata, trhypochthoniid Desmonomata), nor in astigmatid mites.

  7. An analysis of salivary gland neoplasms: a 12-year, single-institution experience in Turkey. (United States)

    Etit, Demet; Ekinci, Nese; Tan, Ayca; Altinel, Deniz; Dag, Filiz


    The epidemiology of salivary gland tumors worldwide is not very well defined. Although many studies on this subject have been undertaken, the data are generally focused on specific topics such as parotid gland neoplasms or tumors of the major salivary glands. We conducted a study to establish the prevalence and distribution of benign and malignant neoplasms of both the major and minor salivary glands at a single institution. We reviewed 244,204 cases that had come through our pathology department from January 1994 through December 2005 and found 235 cases of a salivary gland neoplasm (0.09%). The female-to-male ratio was 1.04:1, and the mean age of the patients was 47 years. Of the 235 neoplasms, 159 (67.66%) were located in the parotid gland, 34 (14.47%) in the submandibular gland, and 42 (17.87%) in the minor salivary glands. A total of 146 tumors (62.13%) were benign and 89 (37.87%) were malignant. Pleomorphic adenoma was the most common neoplasm, occurring in 98 cases (41.70%). The most common malignancy was mucoepidermoid carcinoma, with 27 cases (11.49%). Our data demonstrate that the characteristics of salivary gland tumors in a Turkish population at a single institution are similar to those reported in the literature worldwide.

  8. Mature salivary gland rests within sonic hedgehog-positive medulloblastoma: case report and insights into the molecular genetics and embryopathology of ectopic intracranial salivary gland analogs. (United States)

    Shammassian, Berje; Manjila, Sunil; Cox, Efrem; Onwuzulike, Kaine; Wang, Dehua; Rodgers, Mark; Stearns, Duncan; Selman, Warren R


    Intracranial ectopic salivary gland rests within dural-based lesions are reported very infrequently in the literature. The authors report the unique case of a 12-year-old boy with a cerebellar medulloblastoma positive for sonic hedgehog (Shh) that contained intraaxial mature ectopic salivary gland rests. The patient underwent clinical and radiological monitoring postoperatively, until he died of disseminated disease. An autopsy showed no evidence of salivary glands within disseminated lesions. The intraaxial presence of salivary gland rests and concomitant Shh positivity of the described tumor point to a disorder in differentiation as opposed to ectopic developmental foci, which are uniformly dural based in the described literature. The authors demonstrate the characteristic "papilionaceous" appearance of the salivary glands with mucicarmine stain and highlight the role of Shh signaling in explaining the intraaxial presence of seromucous gland analogs. This article reports the first intraaxial posterior fossa tumor with heterotopic salivary gland rests, and it provides molecular and embryopathological insights into the development of these lesions.

  9. TH与乳腺疼痛的相关临床研究%Clinical study on relationship between thyroid gland related hormone and hyperplasia of mammary gland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐虓; 刘志英; 孙祝生; 刘会岭


    Objective: To study the correlation between thyroid hormone levels and breast pain rating, mammary gland thickness, and gland hyperplasia degree. Methods: From January 2010 to June 2013, 130 patients with breast pain as the chief complaint to the hospital were randomly selected. Correlation between breast pain rating, mammary gland thickness, gland hyperplasia degree and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), triiodothyronine (T3), tetraiodothyronine (T4), thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPO), thyroglobulin antibody (TG), TSH receptor antibody (Anti-TSHR), mammary gland disorder, and thyroid disease were analyzed. Results: Degree of breast hyperplasia is unrelated with serum T3, T4, TPO, TG, Anti-TSHR level (P>0.05), and it is related with serum TSH levels (P=0.002, P0.05). There is no significant relationship between mammary gland hyperplasia degree and the gland structural disorder (P>0.05), while the correlation of mammary gland hyperplasia degree with presence of thyroid disease is significant. Patients with thyroid disease are apt to have severer mammary gland hyperplasia (P0.05),与血清TSH水平相关(P=0.002,P0.05).乳腺增生程度与乳腺腺体结构紊乱之间无明显关系(P>0.05),与是否有甲状腺疾患有关,有甲状腺疾患者乳腺增生程度较重(P<0.05).结论:血清TSH升高可引起乳腺增生,乳腺疼痛程度与甲状腺相关激素水平无关.中重度乳腺增生患者往往合并甲状腺疾患.

  10. Postnatal neurogenesis in the cow pineal gland: an immunohistochemical study. (United States)

    Gómez Esteban, M B; Muñoz Mosqueira, M I; Arroyo, A A; Muñoz Barragán, L


    In the pineal gland of cows and rats structures designated rosettes have been described both during embryonic development and in adult animals. In order to investigate the possible nature of the cells comprising such structures, in the present work we studied the pineal glands from 10 cows of one- or four-years-old using conventional immunocytochemical and confocal microscopy techniques. As markers of glial cells, we used anti-vimentin (Vim) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and anti-S-100 sera, and the pinealocytes were labelled with β-III tubulin. As a marker of stem cells, we used an antinestin serum, while an anti-PCNA serum was employed to label proliferating cells. To explore the neuronal nature of some cells of the rosettes, we used an anti-SRIF serum. The rosettes were seen to be present throughout the glandular parenchyma and displayed a central cavity surrounded by cells, most of which expressed all or just some of the above glial labels and nestin, although there were also some rosettes with cells that expressed β-III tubulin and other cells that expressed SRIF. Likewise, in the cells of the rosettes the cell nucleus showed strong expression of PCNA. Confocal microscopy revealed that the walls of the rosettes contained cells that coexpressed Vim/S-100, Vim/GFAP and Vim/nestin. The number of rosettes was significantly greater in the animals of one year of age with respect to the four-year-old cows. The present findings allow us to suggest that rosettes are evolving structures and that most of the cells present in their walls should be considered stem cells, and hence responsible for the postnatal neurogenesis occurring in the pineal gland of cows.

  11. Matrigel improves functional properties of primary human salivary gland cells. (United States)

    Maria, Ola M; Zeitouni, Anthony; Gologan, Olga; Tran, Simon D


    Currently, there is no effective treatment available to patients with irreversible loss of functional salivary acini caused by Sjogren's syndrome or after radiotherapy for head and neck cancer. A tissue-engineered artificial salivary gland would help these patients. The graft cells for this device must establish tight junctions in addition to being of fluid-secretory nature. This study analyzed a graft source from human salivary glands (huSG) cultured on Matrigel. Cells were obtained from parotid and submandibular glands, expanded in vitro, and then plated on either Matrigel-coated (2 mg/mL) or uncoated culture dish. Immunohistochemistry, transmission electron microscopy, quantitative real-time-polymerase chain reaction, Western blot, and transepithelial electrical resistance were employed. On Matrigel, huSG cells adopted an acinar phenotype by forming three-dimensional acinar-like units (within 24 h of plating) as well as a monolayer of cells. On uncoated surfaces (plastic), huSG cells only formed monolayers of ductal cells. Both types of culture conditions allowed huSG cells to express tight junction proteins (claudin-1, -2, -3, -4; occludin; JAM-A; and ZO-1) and adequate transepithelial electrical resistance. Importantly, 99% of huSG cells on Matrigel expressed α-amylase and the water channel protein Aquaporin-5, as compared to cells on plastic. Transmission electron microscopy confirmed an acinar phenotype with many secretory granules. Matrigel increased the secretion of α-amylase two to five folds into the media, downregulated certain salivary genes, and regulated the translation of acinar proteins. This three-dimensional in vitro serum-free cell culture method allows the organization and differentiation of huSG cells into salivary cells with an acinar phenotype.

  12. Multiscale feature analysis of salivary gland branching morphogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cemal Cagatay Bilgin

    Full Text Available Pattern formation in developing tissues involves dynamic spatio-temporal changes in cellular organization and subsequent evolution of functional adult structures. Branching morphogenesis is a developmental mechanism by which patterns are generated in many developing organs, which is controlled by underlying molecular pathways. Understanding the relationship between molecular signaling, cellular behavior and resulting morphological change requires quantification and categorization of the cellular behavior. In this study, tissue-level and cellular changes in developing salivary gland in response to disruption of ROCK-mediated signaling by are modeled by building cell-graphs to compute mathematical features capturing structural properties at multiple scales. These features were used to generate multiscale cell-graph signatures of untreated and ROCK signaling disrupted salivary gland organ explants. From confocal images of mouse submandibular salivary gland organ explants in which epithelial and mesenchymal nuclei were marked, a multiscale feature set capturing global structural properties, local structural properties, spectral, and morphological properties of the tissues was derived. Six feature selection algorithms and multiway modeling of the data was performed to identify distinct subsets of cell graph features that can uniquely classify and differentiate between different cell populations. Multiscale cell-graph analysis was most effective in classification of the tissue state. Cellular and tissue organization, as defined by a multiscale subset of cell-graph features, are both quantitatively distinct in epithelial and mesenchymal cell types both in the presence and absence of ROCK inhibitors. Whereas tensor analysis demonstrate that epithelial tissue was affected the most by inhibition of ROCK signaling, significant multiscale changes in mesenchymal tissue organization were identified with this analysis that were not identified in previous

  13. The structure of thyroid gland in its pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khayrullin R.M.


    Full Text Available Objective: to identify the microscopic features of the structure of the thyroid gland in different forms of its pathology. Materials and Methods. The study is based on the thyroid glands of 199 patients of both sexes aged 21 to 74 years. Results. At the micro-macrofollicular nontoxic goiter was found flattened thyroid epithelium with flattened normochromic nucleus, the small size of cells and nuclei, low nuclear-cytoplasmic index, intrafollicular moderate epithelial proliferation, homogeneous colloid and moderate diffuse lymphoid infiltration. At the micro-macrofollicular toxic goiter detected cubic epithelium with rounded normochromic kernel, smallest size of cells and nuclei, nuclear-cytoplasmic minimum index intrafollicular focal proliferation of the epithelium, colloid mesh boundary with severe vacuolization, focal lymphoid infiltration and hemorrhage. When diffuse toxic goiter detected cubic form cells of medium size with a fairly high nuclear-cytoplasmic index, rounded normochromic kernel, rare intrafollicular epithelial proliferation, homogeneous colloid with an edge vacuolization. With the prevalence of autoimmune thyroiditis was observed flattened epithelium with rounded normochromic nucleus, the small size of cells and nuclei, found the average nuclear-cytoplasmic index, homogeneous colloid and extensive lymphoid infiltration with light propagation centers. Adenoma of the thyroid gland epithelium was found with a cubic cell shape, round hyperchromatic nucleus, the large size of cells and nuclei, high nuclear-cytoplasmic index intrafollicular diffuse proliferation of epithelial and dense colloid. When thyroid cancer found the prevalence of papillary structures with short broad papillae formed polymorphic cells with round hyperchromatic nucleus, there is the largest size of cells and nuclei, nuclear-cytoplasmic maximum index expressed intrafollicular diffuse proliferation of the epithelium. Conclusions. Each form of thyroid disease

  14. Larval salivary glands are a source of primer and releaser pheromone in honey bee ( Apis mellifera L.) (United States)

    Conte, Yves Le; Bécard, Jean-Marc; Costagliola, Guy; de Vaublanc, Gérard; Maâtaoui, Mohamed El; Crauser, Didier; Plettner, Erika; Slessor, Keith N.


    A brood pheromone identified in honeybee larvae has primer and releaser pheromone effects on adult bees. Using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to evaluate fatty acid esters—the pheromonal compounds—in different parts of the larvae, we have localized the source of the esters as the larval salivary glands. A histochemical study describes the glands and confirms the presence of lipids in the glands. Epithelial cells of the gland likely secrete the fatty acids into the lumen of the gland. These results demonstrate the salivary glands to be a reservoir of esters, components of brood pheromone, in honeybee larvae.

  15. Tuberculous Infection of Thyroid Gland: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prince Cheriyan Modayil


    Full Text Available Introduction. Tuberculosis is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality and almost one-third of the world is infected with this disease. Tuberculosis has been reported in many parts of the human body. But thyroid gland involvement is extremely rare and its true incidence is unknown. Case Presentation. We present the case of a 26-year-old woman who presented with a thyroid cyst which turned out to be a primary mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Conclusion. The correct diagnosis of thyroid tuberculosis is important because of the availability of medical treatment and the limited role of surgery.

  16. High Resolution Real Time Sonography of the Thyroid Gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Honarbakhsh


    Full Text Available Background/Objective: High-resolution sonography equipment permits for visualization of normal and abnormal thyroid gland with or without gel pad or water bath. This study prospectively presents surgically and pathologically proved patients with thyroid disease by direct ultrasound with or without Doppler (pulse, color, power Doppler."nPatients and Methods: This study was performed by 7.5-10 MHz frequency linear probe transducer with axial resolution of 0.7mm and lateral resolution of 1-2 mm (Aloka 650 and super SG 140 Toshiba unit assembly with color, power Doppler. Patient's neck was extended as a supine position."nResults: Pathologic proof was obtained in 45 patients with benign and five patients with malignant thyroid disease. Benign lesions were follicular adenoma in 30 patients, goiter in 10 patients, as hashimoto thyroiditis in two patients, hemorrhagic cyst in two patients and simple cyst in one patient. Malignant lesions were follicular, papillary, and medulary carcinoma which seen in two, two, and one patients respectively. Echopatterns were as follow: Most of them showed decreades echo when we compare to normal thyroid tissue, some malignant lesions showed increased echo and some isoecho, in the last group we need other work up for example Doppler (pulse, color, power for evaluation vascularity. We did not have metastasis to thyroid gland."nConclusion: With advace in technology in crystal and design overall probe as a result creat broadband width probe and also full digital sonography unit inclding (beam forming - CPU in images resolution is with high grade than semi digital unit that before used for thytoid gland. When With any reason resolution is increased we sould be able to diagnosed very small and smallest lesion (for example mest to thyroid or reccurency after total Lobectomy: there is three primay uses of sonography, 1 detection of mutionodular gland when only one nodule is suspected clinically and by isotop scan.2 High

  17. The use of laser CO2 in salivary gland diseases (United States)

    Ciolfi, C.; Rocchetti, F.; Fioravanti, M.; Tenore, G.; Palaia, G.; Romeo, U.


    Salivary gland diseases can include reactive lesions, obstructive lesions, and benign tumors. All these clinical entities are slow growing. Salivary glands reactive lesions, such as mucoceles, can result from extravasation of saliva into the surrounding soft tissue or from retention of saliva within the duct. Sialolithiasis, one of the most common obstructive lesions, is generally due to calculi, which are attributed to retention of saliva. Monomorphic adenoma is a salivary gland benign tumor, which is exclusively resulted from proliferation of epithelial cells, with no alterations interesting the connective tissue. The elective therapy of these lesions is surgical excision because sometimes they can be accompained by difficulties during chewing and phonation and can interfere with prosthesis's stability. The aim of the study is to evaluate the efficacy of CO2 laser in the treatment of patients with salivary gland diseases. Three different cases - a mucocele, a scialolithiasis and a monomorphic adenoma - were treated with CO2 laser excision (CW and 4W), under local anesthesia. Two different techniques were used: circumferential incision for the adenoma, and mucosa preservation technique for mucocele and sialolithiasis. In each case final haemostasis was obtained by thermocoagulation, but suture was applied to guarantee good healing by sewing up the flaps. The patients were checked after twenty days and the healing was good. The carbon dioxide laser (CO2 laser) was one of the earliest gas laser to be developed, and is still the highest-power continuous wave laser that is currently available. In dentistry the CO2 laser produces a beam of infrared light with the principal wavelength bands centering around 9.4 and 10.6 micrometers. Laser excision can be very useful in oral surgery. In the cases presented CO2 laser offered, differently from traditional surgery, simplified surgical technique, shorter duration of operation, minimal postoperative pain, minimal scarring

  18. Histologic and Immunohistochemical classification of 41 bovine adrenal gland neoplasms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grossi, Anette Blak; Leifsson, Páll S.; Jensen, Henrik Elvang;


    Tumors of the adrenal glands are among the most frequent tumors in cattle; however, few studies have been conducted to describe their characteristics. The aim of this study was to classify 41 bovine adrenal neoplasms from 40 animals based on macroscopic and histologic examination, including....... An immunohistochemistry panel consisting of antibodies against melan A, synaptophysin, and CNPase was considered most useful to classify bovine adrenal tumors. However, the distinction between benign and malignant adrenocortical tumors was based on histologic features as in human medicine....

  19. Primary tuberculosis of the thyroid gland:a case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sant; Parkash; Kataria; Parul; Tanwar; Sneh; Singh; Sanjay; Kumar


    Tuberculosis of the thyroid gland is an uncommon disease and primary involvement of Uiyroid is even more rare.It is a rare disease even in countries in which tuberculosis is endemic.The diagnosis is often difficult as the clinical presentation has no distinct characteristics.Clinical course of the disease may resemble toxic goiter or acute thyroiditis or may follow a subacute or chronic growth pattern without specific symptomatology.Histologically presence of necrotizing epithelioid cell granulomas along with langhans type giant cells are the hallmark of thyroid tuberculosis.Demonstration of acid fast bacilli by ZN staining confirms the diagnosis,but this stain is frequently negative in tissue sections.

  20. Fine structure of bat deep posterior lingual glands (von Ebner's) (United States)

    Azzali, G; Gatti, R; Bucci, G; Orlandini, G


    We studied the morphology and ultrastructure of the bat (Pipistrellus k.k. and Rhinolophus f.e.) deep posterior lingual glands (Ebner's glands) during hibernation, summer and after stimulation with pilocarpine. Ebner's glands are formed by serous tubulo-alveolar adenomeres and by an excretory system organized in intercalated ducts, long excretory ducts and a main excretory duct. The latter opens in the vallum which surrounds the circumvallate papillae and in the groove of the foliate papillae. The secretory cells, which lack basal folds, show abundant and dense granules (PAS+, Alcian blue -), microvilli (scarce during hibernation), a Golgi apparatus (well developed during summer and after stimulation with pilocarpine), a large nucleus and RER cisternae stacked at the basal pole. Centrioles, lipid droplets, heterogeneous bodies (in content and density, probably lipofuscin bodies), lysosomal multivesicular bodies and large, dense granules with a microcrystalline structure were also encountered. The lateral membranes of adjacent cells are joined by desmosomes; their interdigitations are neither numerous nor prominent during summer. Microfilaments, often gathered in small bundles, lie in the lateral, peripheral cytoplasm without any relation with desmosomes. In summer and particularly after stimulation with pilocarpine, the apical pole of the secretory cells is characterized by many long microvilli, pedunculated hyaloplasmic protrusions and secretory granules. During hibernation the lumen is filled with secretory material. Myoepithelial cells are arranged among secretory cells or between them and the basal lamina. The short intercalated ducts show similarities with the analogous ducts of the parotid gland. Striated ducts are absent. Excretory ducts are endowed with: a) an inner layer of cuboidal cells characterized by poorly developed cytoplasmic organelles, rare dense granules and a few small microvilli; b) an outer layer of basal cells lying on the basal lamina

  1. Computed tomography of the thymus gland in myasthenia gravis

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    Thorvinger, B.; Lyttkens, K.; Samuelsson, L.

    Sixteen consecutive patients with myasthenia gravis were examined by computed tomography (CT) before thymectomy. Surgical and histologic findings were compared with those obtained at CT. The results, like those of most other recent studies, indicate that CT is a reliable method for identifying thymoma. In all three patients with thymoma, and in five out of eight patients with hyperplasia, the lesion was observed at CT, giving an overall accuracy of 80%. Although tymic hyperplasia is a basically histological diagnosis an enlarged gland may give a correct diagnosis of this abnormality.

  2. Poorly differentiated carcinoma arising from adenolymphoma of the parotid gland

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    Ciulla Michele M


    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is only one previous case report of a poorly differentiated carcinoma arising from an adenolymphoma of the parotid gland (Warthin's tumour. The absence of clinical symptoms, and the aspecificity of the radiological pattern make the diagnosis very difficult. Case presentation We here report the case of a 73-year-old man with Warthin's tumour who was brought to our attention because of a swelling in the parotid region. Conclusions In this case with an atypical clinical presentation, the intra-operative examination of a frozen section of the parotid mass allowed us to diagnose the malignant tumour correctly and consequently undertake its radical excision.

  3. Mucocele of the glands of blandin nuhn: a case report

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    Garcia Leon, Nathalia


    Full Text Available Mucoceles arising from the Blandin Nuhn glands are uncommon benign lesions of the oral cavity, which by their clinical presentation may be confused with more serious diseases such as vascular lesions, pyogenic granulomas, polyps, or squamous papillomas; thereby, it is convenient to be aware of the characteristics of this entity to guide the accurate and timely diagnosis and treatment. Herein, we present a case of a 10-year-old patient with a recurrent lesion of this type, which required surgical excision and marsupialization of the same, with no evidence of recurrence during follow-up.

  4. Apophysomyces elegans causing acute otogenic cervicofacial zygomycosis involving salivary glands. (United States)

    Goyal, Amit; Tyagi, Isha; Syal, Rajan; Marak, R S K; Singh, Jagdeep


    Zygomycosis is an invasive, life threatening fungal infection that usually affects immunocompromised hosts. In the head and neck region, rhino-orbito-cerebral zygomycosis is more common than the cervicofacial variety. We report the first case of otogenic cervicofacial zygomycosis caused by Apophysomyces elegans involving the salivary glands, an uncommon site of infection. The case began after a trivial trauma in a diabetic patient and despite surgical debridement and liposomal amphotericin B therapy, the patient died due to extensive involvement and metabolic/hemodynamic complications.

  5. Salivary gland anlage tumor: a clinicopathological study of two cases. (United States)

    Gauchotte, Guillaume; Coffinet, Laurent; Schmitt, Emmanuelle; Bressenot, Aude; Hennequin, Virginie; Champigneulle, Jacqueline; Vignaud, Jean-Michel


    We report two cases of salivary gland anlage tumor (SGAT), a nasopharyngeal lesion that affects newborns. The first case concerned a male newborn, presenting respiratory distress secondary to a nasopharyngeal mass. The second case was diagnosed in a 6-week-old girl, suffering from respiratory difficulties due to a nasal cavity mass. A magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the second case revealed the presence of several small round and linear fluid-like areas. Histologically, both lesions were suggestive of SGAT, characterized by epithelial structures that blended with spindle-cells, drawing highly cellular nodules. Connective tissue between nodules contained squamous cystic nests and ducts.

  6. Inheritance of the delayed gland morphogenesis trait in Australian wild species of Gossypium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Five Australian wild cotton species with the delayed gland morphogenesis trait, as well as G. arboreum, G. davidsonii and four different gland genotypes of G. hirsutum, Gl2Gl2Gl3Gl3, Gl2Gl2gl3gl3, gl2gl2Gl3Gl3, and gl2gl2gl3gl3, were used in this experiment and 10 interspecific hybrids were obtained by the crossing among them. According to the gland expression on the seeds and plants of the interspecific hybrids, the inheritance of the delayed gland morphogenesis trait of Australian wild cotton species was opened out as follows: (ⅰ) the inheritance of the delayed gland morpho-genesis trait was almost the same among the 5 Australian wild cotton species, and the gene or genes which controlled this trait may be located in the same loci. (ⅱ) The glandless seed trait of the Australian wild cotton species was dominant over the glanded seed trait of G. arboreum, a genome A spe-cies, and the seeds of interspecific hybrid F1 between them were glandless. However, it was recessive over the glanded character of genome D species, G.davidsonii, and their F1 was a typical glanded one. (ⅲ) The glandless seed trait of the Australian wild cotton species was recessive or incomplete dominant over the glanded cotton but dominant over the glandless cotton of G. hirsutum, and the glandless genes (gl2gl2gl3gl3) of upland cotton had great weakening effect on the glanded plant trait of the Australian wild cotton species on the other hand. For the two main glanded genes of upland cotton, the delayed gland morphogenesis trait of the Austra-lian wild cotton species was dominant epistatic over glandless genes, gl2gl2gl3gl3, and one of the glanded genes, Gl2Gl2, but was recessive epistatic over the other glanded gene, Gl3Gl3. Therefore, it is much convenient to use Gl2Gl2gl3gl3 as the upland cotton parent in the interspecific hybridization and backcrossing afterward, in order to produce the upland cotton germplasm with glandless seeds and glanded plant trait.

  7. Salivary gland hypofunction in tyrosylprotein sulfotransferase-2 knockout mice is due to primary hypothyroidism.

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    Andrew D Westmuckett

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Protein-tyrosine sulfation is a post-translational modification of an unknown number of secreted and membrane proteins mediated by two known Golgi tyrosylprotein sulfotransferases (TPST-1 and TPST-2. We reported that Tpst2-/- mice have mild-moderate primary hypothyroidism, whereas Tpst1-/- mice are euthyroid. While using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI to look at the thyroid gland we noticed that the salivary glands in Tpst2-/- mice appeared smaller than in wild type mice. This prompted a detailed analysis to compare salivary gland structure and function in wild type, Tpst1-/-, and Tpst2 -/- mice. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Quantitative MRI imaging documented that salivary glands in Tpst2-/- females were (≈ 30% smaller than wild type or Tpst1-/- mice and that the granular convoluted tubules in Tpst2-/- submandibular glands were less prominent and were almost completely devoid of exocrine secretory granules compared to glands from wild type or Tpst1-/- mice. In addition, pilocarpine-induced salivary flow and salivary α-amylase activity in Tpst2-/- mice of both sexes was substantially lower than in wild type and Tpst1-/- mice. Anti-sulfotyrosine Western blots of salivary gland extracts and saliva showed no differences between wild type, Tpst1-/-, and Tpst2-/- mice, suggesting that the salivary gland hypofunction is due to factor(s extrinsic to the salivary glands. Finally, we found that all indicators of hypothyroidism (serum T4, body weight and salivary gland hypofunction (salivary flow, salivary α-amylase activity, histological changes were restored to normal or near normal by thyroid hormone supplementation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings conclusively demonstrate that low body weight and salivary gland hypofunction in Tpst2-/- mice is due solely to primary hypothyroidism.

  8. Effects of cobalt 60 irradiation on rat salivary glands; Correlation of early changes with irradiation dose

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    Shigematsu, Yoshiaki (Meikai Univ., Sakado, Saitama (Japan). School of Dentistry)


    A single irradiation of Co-60 was given to the head and neck region in male Sprague-Dawley rats. According to the time, dose and fractionation factor (TDF), the experimental animals were equally divided into the group of 11.36 Gy (TDF 50), the group of 17.82 Gy (TDF 100), and the group of 27.97 Gy (TDF 200). Parotid, submandibular, and sublingual salivary glands were examined by light microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and biochemically one, 3, and 7 days after irradiation. Parotid saliva samples were also collected after stimulation with pilocarpine, and the flow rate, concentration of total salivary protein, and {alpha}-amylase activity were assessed. The parotid gland showed the most significant decrease in {alpha}-amylase activity at 3 days in all groups. {alpha}-amylase activity in the submandibular and sublingual glands was much lower than in the parotid gland. Non-lysosome enzyme, acid p-nitrophenyl phosphatase activity in the salivary glands was increased. Similarly, a lysosomal enzyme, {beta}-D-glucuronidase in the salivary glands was increased. Alkaline phosphatase activity was increased in the parotid gland and decreased in the submandibular and sublingual glands. Salivary flow rate in the parotid gland was decreased one, 3, and 7 days after irradiation, markedly depending on irradiation doses. Light microscopy of the salivary glands revealed atrophy, vacuolization, and degranulation in acinar cells, especially in granular tubule cells. Electron microscopy revealed vacuolization and degeneration of mitochondria, secretory granules, and other organelles in the cytoplasm of acinar cells. Morphological changes of secretory granules were dose-dependent. Not only morphological but also biochemical changes in the parotid gland occurred synchronously. (N.K.) 56 refs.

  9. Preoperative parathyroid gland localization with technetium-99m sestamibi in secondary hyperparathyroidism

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    Pons, F.; Vidal-Sicart, S.; Fuster, D.; Herranz, R. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hospital Clinic, University of Barcelona (Spain); Torregrosa, J.V. [Unit of Renal Transplant, Hospital Clinic, Barcelona (Spain); Sabater, L.; Fernandez-Cruz, L. [Department of Surgery, Hospital Clinic, Barcelona (Spain)


    Technetium-99m sestamibi scintigraphy has become a valuable tool in locating parathyroid glands in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism. The aim of this study was to evaluate its usefulness in secondary hyperparathyroidism. Twenty patients were injected intravenously with 740 MBq of {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi and images were obtained at 15 min and 2 h post injection. All patients underwent parathyroid ultrasonography (US) as well as bilateral surgical neck exploration and 64 parathyroid glands were removed. US revealed at least one enlarged gland in 15/20 patients (75%), while {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi scintigraphy showed focal areas of increased uptake in at least one gland in 17/20 patients (85%). When imaging results for all glands were evaluated according to surgical results, sensitivity was 54% for parathyroid scintigraphy and 41% for US, and specificity was 89% for both imaging techniques. There was a discrepancy between the two imaging modalities in 28 glands (35%). The mean surgical weight of US-positive glands (1492{+-}1436 mg) was significantly higher than that of US-negative glands (775{+-}703 mg) (P<0.05). However, there were no significant differences in weight between sestamibi-positive and sestamibi-negative glands. When only sestamibi-positive glands were considered, a positive correlation between uptake and weight was found (r=0.4, P<0.05). In conclusion, parathyroid US and {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi scintigraphy are complementary imaging techniques in the preoperative localization of abnormal parathyroid glands in patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism. The limited sensitivity of the techniques means that patients will still require bilateral neck exploration; therefore routine preoperative parathyroid scanning in renal patients is not justified. (orig.) With 3 figs., 2 tabs., 22 refs.

  10. Long-term dexamethasone treatment alters the histomorphology of acinar cells in rat parotid and submandibular glands. (United States)

    Bighetti, Bruna B; d Assis, Gerson F; Vieira, Danilo C; Violato, Natalia M; Cestari, Tania M; Taga, Rumio; Bosqueiro, José R; Rafacho, Alex


    Glucocorticoids (GCs) induce insulin resistance (IR), a condition known to alter oral homeostasis. This study investigated the effects of long-term dexamethasone administration on morphofunctional aspects of salivary glands. Male Wistar rats received daily injections of dexamethasone [0.1 mg/kg body weight (b.w.), intraperitoneally] for 10 days (DEX), whereas control rats received saline. Subsequently, glycaemia, insulinaemia, insulin secretion and salivary flow were analysed. The parotid and submandibular glands were collected for histomorphometric evaluation and Western blot experiments. The DEX rats were found to be normoglycaemic, hyperinsulinaemic, insulin resistant and glucose intolerant (P glands (P salivary flux rate. The hypotrophy in both glands observed in the DEX group was associated with marked reduction in the volume of the acinar cells in these glands of 50% and 26% respectively (P acinar cells was increased in the submandibular glands of the DEX rats (P glands. The levels of proteins related to insulin and survival signalling in both glands did not differ between the groups. In conclusion, the long-term administration of dexamethasone caused IR, which was associated with significant reductions in both mass and flux rate of the salivary glands. The parotid and submandibular glands exhibited reduced acinar cell volume; however, the submandibular glands displayed acinar hyperplasia, indicating a gland-specific response to GCs. Our data emphasize that GC-based therapies and insulin-resistant states have a negative impact on salivary gland homeostasis.

  11. The Effect of Amifostine on Submandibular Gland Histology after Radiation (United States)

    Junn, Jacqueline C.; Sciubba, James J.; Bishop, Justin A.; Zinreich, Eva; Tang, Mei; Levine, Marshall A.; Palermo, Robert A.; Fakhry, Carole; Blanco, Ray G.; Saunders, John R.; Califano, Joseph A.; Ha, Patrick K.


    Background. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of amifostine on submandibular gland histology in patients receiving chemoradiation therapy. Methods. We conducted a retrospective submandibular gland histologic slide review of HNSCC patients receiving chemoradiation for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma with three different levels of amifostine exposure. We used six scoring parameters: fatty replacement, lobular architecture degeneration, interstitial fibrosis, ductal degeneration, acinar degeneration, and inflammatory component presence. Results. Differences in gender, tumor stage, amifostine dose, age, number of days after neck dissection, and smoking history (pack years) exposure were not significant between the three groups, although there was a difference between groups in the primary subsite (P = 0.006). The nonparametric Cuzick's test for histologic parameters with varied amifostine treatment showed no significance among the three groups. Conclusions. Although patients did not receive a full dose of amifostine due to side effects, varying doses of amifostine had no apparent evident cytoprotective effects in three groups of cancer patients treated with primary chemoradiation. PMID:22844290

  12. The Effect of Amifostine on Submandibular Gland Histology after Radiation

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    Jacqueline C. Junn


    Full Text Available Background. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of amifostine on submandibular gland histology in patients receiving chemoradiation therapy. Methods. We conducted a retrospective submandibular gland histologic slide review of HNSCC patients receiving chemoradiation for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma with three different levels of amifostine exposure. We used six scoring parameters: fatty replacement, lobular architecture degeneration, interstitial fibrosis, ductal degeneration, acinar degeneration, and inflammatory component presence. Results. Differences in gender, tumor stage, amifostine dose, age, number of days after neck dissection, and smoking history (pack years exposure were not significant between the three groups, although there was a difference between groups in the primary subsite (P=0.006. The nonparametric Cuzick's test for histologic parameters with varied amifostine treatment showed no significance among the three groups. Conclusions. Although patients did not receive a full dose of amifostine due to side effects, varying doses of amifostine had no apparent evident cytoprotective effects in three groups of cancer patients treated with primary chemoradiation.

  13. Evaluation of ultrasound in the diagnosis of parotid gland masses

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    Parotid gland


    Full Text Available In order to evaluate accuracy and usefulness of sonography and choose it as preliminary investigation method in pathologic processes of parotid gland, 50 patients were studied in duration of 16 months. The lesions were evaluated with ultrasound and sonographic images were obtained before surgery and then were compared with pathologic results after surgery. All lesions were detected with sonography. This method could differentiate intraglandular from extraglandular lesions with accuracy of 100%. Except one case of lipomatosis which was hyperechoic, all other lesions of parotid gland were hypoechoic. All lesions with sharp and well-defined borders were benign whereas malignant processes had ill-defined borders. The results obtained show that sonography is a reliable diagnostic method to differentiate benign from malignant lesions and it has a high diagnostic value to detect warthin's tumor, plemorphic adenoma, Sjogren's syndrome and lipomatosis. Presence of calcification in a parotid mass of young patient with high probabye is related to cavernous hemangioma.

  14. Influence of cigarette smoking on thyroid gland--an update. (United States)

    Sawicka-Gutaj, Nadia; Gutaj, Paweł; Sowiński, Jerzy; Wender-Ożegowska, Ewa; Czarnywojtek, Agata; Brązert, Jacek; Ruchała, Marek


    Many studies have shown that cigarette smoking exerts multiple effects on the thyroid gland. Smoking seems to induce changes in thyroid function tests, like decrease in TSH and increase in thyroid hormones. However, these alterations are usually mild. In addition, tobacco smoking may also play a role in thyroid autoimmunity. Many studies have confirmed a significant influence of smoking on Graves' hyperthyroidism and particularly on Graves' orbitopathy. Here, smoking may increase the risk of disease development, may reduce the effectiveness of treatment, and eventually induce relapse. The role of smoking in Hashimoto's thyroiditis is not as well established as in Graves' disease. Nonetheless, lower prevalence of thyroglobulin antibodies, thyroperoxidase antibodies and hypothyroidism were found in smokers. These findings contrast with a study that reported increased risk of hypothyroidism in smokers with Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Moreover, cigarette smoking increases the incidence of multinodular goitre, especially in iodine-deficient areas. Some studies have examined cigarette smoking in relation to the risk of thyroid cancer. Interestingly, many of them have shown that smoking may reduce the risk of differentiated thyroid cancer. Furthermore, both active and passive smoking during pregnancy might modify maternal and foetal thyroid function. This review evaluates the current data concerning the influence of cigarette smoking on thyroid gland, including hormonal changes, autoimmunity and selected diseases. These findings, however, in our opinion, should be carefully evaluated and some of them are not totally evidence-based. Further studies are required to explain the effects of smoking upon thyroid pathophysiology.

  15. Lacrimal gland primary acinar cell culture: the role of insulin

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    Leonardo Tannus Malki


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose: The goal of the present study was to establish a protocol for primary culture of lacrimal gland acinar cells (LGACs and to assess the effect of adding insulin to the culture media. Methods: LGACs were isolated and cultured from lacrimal glands of Wistar male rats. The study outcomes included cell number, viability, and peroxidase release over time and in response to three concentrations of insulin (0.5, 5.0, and 50.0 μg/mL. Results: In LGAC primary culture, cells started to form clusters by day 3. There was a time-response pattern of peroxidase release, which rose by day 6, in response to carbachol. Culture viability lasted for 12 days. An insulin concentration of 5.0 μg/mL in the culture medium resulted in higher viability and secretory capacity. Conclusions: The present method simplifies the isolation and culture of LGACs. The data confirmed the relevance of adding insulin to maintain LGACs in culture.

  16. Modulation of Aanat gene transcription in the rat pineal gland. (United States)

    Ho, Anthony K; Chik, Constance L


    The main function of the rat pineal gland is to transform the circadian rhythm generated in the suprachiasmatic nucleus into a rhythmic signal of circulating melatonin characterized by a large nocturnal increase that closely reflects the duration of night period. This is achieved through the tight coupling between environmental lighting and the expression of arylalkylamine-N-acetyltransferase, the rhythm-controlling enzyme in melatonin synthesis. The initiation of Aanat transcription at night is controlled largely by the norepinephrine-stimulated phosphorylation of cAMP response element-binding protein by protein kinase A. However, to accurately reflect the duration of darkness, additional signaling mechanisms also participate to fine-tune the temporal profile of adrenergic-induced Aanat transcription. Here, we reviewed some of these signaling mechanisms, with emphasis on the more recent findings. These signaling mechanisms can be divided into two groups: those involving modification of constitutively expressed proteins and those requiring synthesis of new proteins. This review highlights the pineal gland as an excellent model system for studying neurotransmitter-regulated rhythmic gene expression.

  17. Sympathetic neuroaxonal dystrophy in the aged rat pineal gland. (United States)

    Schmidt, Robert E; Dorsey, Denise A; Parvin, Curtis A; Beaudet, Lucie N


    Dysfunction of circadian melatonin production by the pineal gland in aged humans and rats is thought to reflect the functional loss of its sympathetic innervation. Our ultrastructural neuropathologic studies of the sympathetic innervation of the pineal gland of aged (24 months old) Fischer-344 and Sprague-Dawley rats showed loss of nerve terminals as well as the development of neuroaxonal dystrophy (NAD), an ultrastructurally distinctive distal axonopathy, far in excess of that in young control rats. Immunolocalization of tyrosine hydroxylase confirmed the age-related loss of normal noradrenergic innervation and development of NAD. NAD was more frequent in aged female rats compared to males and was particularly severe in aged female Sprague-Dawley rats compared to Fischer-344 rats. Pineal NGF content was significantly increased or unchanged in female and male aged Fischer-344 rats, respectively, compared to young controls. The rat pineal is a sensitive experimental model for the quantitative ultrastructural examination of age-related neuropathological changes in nerve terminals of postganglionic noradrenergic sympathetic axons, changes which may reflect similar changes in the diffusely distributed sympathetic innervation of other targeted endorgans.

  18. Morphogenesis of Mammary Glands in Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis

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    Amit Challana


    Full Text Available The present research was elucidated on the morphogenesis of mammary gland of buffalo during prenatal development. Total of 16 foetuses ranging from 1.2 cm (34 days to 108 cm CVRL (curved crown rump length (317 days were used for study. The study revealed that mammary line was first observed at 1.2 cm CVRL (34 days, mammary hillock at 1.7 cm (37 days, and mammary bud at 2.6 cm CVRL (41 days foetuses. Epidermal cone was found at 6.7 cm CVRL (58 days whereas primary and secondary ducts were observed at 7.4 cm CVRL (62 days and 15 cm CVRL (96 days, respectively. Connective tissue whorls were reported at 18.2 cm CVRL (110 days and internal elastic lamina and muscle layers at 24.1 cm CVRL (129 days. Lobules were observed at 29.3 cm CVRL (140 days, rosette of furstenberg at 39.5 cm CVRL (163 days, and keratin plug at 45.5 cm CVRL (176 days foetus. Primordia of sweat and sebaceous glands around hair follicle were seen at 21.2 cm CVRL (122 days of foetal life. Differentiation of all the skin layers along with cornification was observed at 69 cm (229 days in group III foetuses.

  19. Effects of thyroxine and dexamethasone on rat submandibular glands

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    Sagulin, G.B.; Roomans, G.M. (Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge (Sweden))


    Glucocorticoids and thyroxine are known to have a marked effect on the flow rate and protein composition of rat parotid saliva in hormonally intact animals. In the present study, the effects of a one-week treatment of male rats with dexamethasone and thyroxine were studied by electron microscopy and x-ray micro-analysis, and by measurement of the flow rate and determination of the chemical composition of pilocarpine-induced submandibular saliva. Thyroxine had the most extensive effects on the submandibular gland. The acinar cells were enlarged and filled with mucus; the cellular calcium concentration was significantly increased. The flow rate of the submandibular saliva was significantly reduced compared with that in saline-injected control animals. Thyroxine caused an increase in the concentrations of protein, total calcium, and potassium in the saliva. Dexamethasone had no significant effects on gland ultrastructure or on the elemental composition of the acinar cells; flow rate was not affected, but the concentrations of protein, calcium, and potassium were significantly increased. The effects of dexamethasone and thyroxine on the flow rate and protein composition of pilocarpine-induced rat submandibular saliva differ from those reported earlier for rat parotid saliva after simultaneous stimulation with pilocarpine and isoproterenol.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Wei-guo


    Objective: To observe the therapeutic effect of acupuncture therapy for 120 cases of hyperplasia of mammary glands. Methods: These patients were classified into liver-qi-stagnation type (n=53), phlegm-coagulation type (n=30) and Thoroughfare-Conception vessel maladjustment type (n=37). Acupoints used were Qimen (期门 LR 14), Wuyi (屋翳 ST 15), Weishu (胃俞 BL 21), etc.. Acupuncture treatment was conducted once daily and 30 treatments constituted one therapeutic course. Results: After 3 courses of treatment, of the 53, 30 and 37 cases of the liver-qi-stagnation, phlegm-coagulation and Thoroughfare-Conception vessel maladjustment types, 43 (81.1%), 24 (80.0%) and 29 (78.4%) were cured, 7 (13.2%), 5 (16.7%) and 5 (13.5%) markedly improved, 3 (5.7%), 1 (3.3%) and 2 (5.4%) improved respectively, and 1 (2.7%) of Thoroughfare-Conception vessel maladjustment type failed. A two-years' follow-up showed that 3 of the cured 92 cases had a relapse, and after 2 more courses of treatment, they were cured again. Conclusion: Acupuncture therapy is effective for the treatment of hyperplasia of mammary glands.