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Sample records for bulbine natalensis baker

  1. natalensis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    until implantation or attachment of the blastocyst. ..... with increased maternal age (Soderwall, Kent, Turbyfill .... vicw of a J73-days-old M.s. natalensis fetus showing pigmentcd perimeter of the eye. .... females only coming inlO contact with them when suck- ... infant relationships in the Natal clinging bat Miniopterus schrei-.

  2. (MASTOMYS) NATALENSIS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MASTOMYS) NATALENSIS (A. SMITH) IN THE. TRANSVAAL HIGHVELD. C. G. COETZEE. Medical Ecology Centre, State Dept. of Health, Johannesburg·. INTRODUCTION. The multimammate mouse is one of the commonest and most widespread ...

  3. natalensis (Muridae: Rodentia)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-04-07

    Apr 7, 2011 ... Mastomys natalensis, the multimammate mouse, was live-trapped on six grids varying in vegetative cover and ... induced cotton rats to occupy open patches which. without ... The presenL study was designed to test experimentally the ..... Swanepoel 1980; Monadjem 1997b) and insects (Field 1975).

  4. Dispersal in Mastomys natalensis mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Hooft, Pim; Cosson, J F; Vibe-Petersen, Solveig

    2008-01-01

    Mastomys natalensis is the major pest rodent in sub-Saharan Africa. In this study, population genetic techniques were used to gain new insights into its dispersal behaviour, a critical parameter in pest management. Using 11 microsatellites, 272 individuals from a 300 ha area in Tanzania were geno...

  5. natalensis) and diurn'al (Rhabdomys pumilio)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The thermo neutral zone for both speCies was found to be at T. = 32 ± 1 °e. Below the lower critical point. Vo. for the diurnal species (R. pumilio) was significantly higher. (pnatalensis). Non-shivering thermogenesis (NST) was measured as a response to an injection of ...

  6. Entropy of Baker's Transformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    栾长福

    2003-01-01

    Four theorems about four different kinds of entropies for Baker's transformation are presented. The Kolmogorov entropy of Baker's transformation is sensitive to the initial flips by the time. The topological entropy of Baker's transformation is found to be log k. The conditions for the state of Baker's transformation to be forbidden are also derived. The relations among the Shanonn, Kolmogorov, topological and Boltzmann entropies are discussed in details.

  7. Fetal development of the bat Miniopterus schreibersi natalensis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prenatal development in the fetus of Miniopterus schreibersi natalensis is discussed. Due to the long period of delayed implantation in this subspecies, the age of even the smallest fetuses, where the fore-limb buds just become visible will be around 150 days. The most reliable criterion for age determination proved to be ...

  8. Diplodia natalensis Pole Evans, the causal agent of citrus gummosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The isolation media used were 1.5 per cent water agar, 1.5 per cent water agar + nystatin, and 1.5 per cent water agar + benomyl. ... When the isolates were tested for pathogenicity, only D. natalensis induced the disease symptoms in the inoculated 18-month-old rough lemon seedlings which were incubated after ...

  9. Diplodia natalensis , Pole Evans: a causal agent of citrus gummosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Isolations were made from the barks of gummosis-infected citrus trees from orchards of the University of Ghana Agricultural Research Station at Kade. The isolation media used were 1.5% water agar, 1.5% water agar + nystatin and 1.5% water agar + benomyl. Four isolates including Diplodia natalensis Pole Evans, ...

  10. Presumptive horizontal symbiont transmission in the fungus-growing termite Macrotermes natalensis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fine Licht, de H.H.; Boomsma, J.J.; Aanen, D.K.

    2006-01-01

    All colonies of the fungus-growing termite Macrotermes natalensis studied so far are associated with a single genetically variable lineage of Termitomyces symbionts. Such limited genetic variation of symbionts and the absence of sexual fruiting bodies (mushrooms) on M. natalensis mounds would be

  11. Interview to Bobby Baker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aisling Foster

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Bobby Baker es una mujer, y una artista londinense con una carrera que abarca casi cuatro décadas. Ha trabajado fundamentalmente en el ámbito de la performance haciendo frecuente uso de material personal. Entre sus obras encontramos una versión comestible de su familia a tamaño natural, una protesta callejera de guisantes humanos que reclaman los derechos de los pacientes en el ámbito de la salud mental o una serie de performances que de modo irónico representan su vida doméstica. Su exposición itinerante «Diary Drawings: Mental Illness and Me 1997 - 2008» se estrenó en la Wellcome Collection en 2009, y el libro que la acompaña fue galardonado con el Mind Book of the Year 2011. Sus obras más recientes Mad Gyms & Kitchens y Drawing On A (Grand Mother’s Experience han sido encargadas como parte de la Cultural Olympiad de Londres en 2012 y del Women of the World Festival en 2015 respectivamente. Bobby Baker recibió el Doctorado Honorífico en 2011 tras su participación en la AHRC Creative Fellowship de Queen Mary University de Londres y es la directora artística de la asociación Daily Life Ltd.http://dailylifeltd.co.uk Grabación y edición sonora: Andrea ZarzaTraducción y transcripción: Celia Terradillos, Zara Rodríguez 

  12. Survival and maturation rates of the African rodent Mastomys natalensis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sluydts, Vincent; Crespin, Laurent; Davis, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    the model fit. On the other hand we showed that maturation rates were correlated negatively with density the previous month and positively to cumulative rainfall over the past three months. Survival estimates of both adults and subadults varied seasonally, with higher estimates during the increase phase......Survival and maturation rates of female Mastomys natalensis were analysed based on a ten-year onthly capture-recapture data set. We investigated whether direct and delayed density dependent and independent (rainfall) variables accounted for the considerable variation in demographic traits....... It was estimated that seasonal and annual covariates accounted for respectively 29 and 26% of the total variation in maturation rates and respectively 17 and 11% of the variation in survival rates. Explaining the between-year differences in maturation rates with annual past rainfall or density did not improve...

  13. Phytochemical Screening, Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of Ficus natalensis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajaib, M.

    2016-01-01

    Phytochemical screening, antimicrobial and antioxidant potential of the bark and leaves extracts of Ficus natalensis were carried out by using various techniques. Phytochemical analysis showed the presence of terpenoids, alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, saponins, cardiac glycosides and reducing sugars in different extracts of Ficus natalensis. The antibacterial potential against S. aureus was reported as most promising amongst all. The petroleum ether extract of leaves with a zone of inhibition 50 ± 0.51 mm and bark extracts with a zone of inhibition 55.7 ± 1.15 mm inhibited S. aureus. The chloroform leaves extract also showed an inhibition zone of 50 ± 2 mm against S. aureus. The antifungal potential of methanol bark extract at 43.7 ±1.527 mm and petroleum ether extracts of bark with zones of inhibition 37 ± 0.577 mm against A. niger showed most prominent activity. By using different assays, the extracts were screened for the antioxidant potential. The estimation of antioxidant activity by metal chelating activity revealed that water extract of leaves was most active with a value of 74.673 ± 0.302 percentage bound iron. The chloroform extract of bark showed highest flavonoid content (1005.53 ± 0.503 mg/mL of quercetin), whereas chloroform extract of leaves exhibited maximum phenolic content (21.626 ± 0.545 mg/g of GAE). In ABTS assay, water extract of leaves showed maximum TEAC value (7.713 ± 0.7 mM of trolox equivalent). The highest free radical scavenging DPPH percentage was observed with distilled water extract of bark (91.92 ± 0.08 percent). (author)

  14. Review of Ethnomedicinal Uses, Phytochemistry and Pharmacological Properties of Euclea natalensis A.DC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred Maroyi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Euclea natalensis is traditionally used as herbal medicine for several human diseases and ailments in tropical Africa. This study reviews information on ethnomedicinal uses, botany, phytochemical constituents, pharmacology and toxicity of E. natalensis. Results of this study are based on literature search from several sources including electronic databases, books, book chapters, websites, theses and conference proceedings. This study showed that E. natalensis is used as traditional medicine in 57.1% of the countries where it is indigenous. Euclea natalensis has a high degree of consensus on abdominal pains, antidote for snake bites, diabetes, diarrhoea, malaria, roundworms, stomach problems, toothache, venereal diseases and wounds. Several ethnopharmacological studies have shown that crude extracts and chemical compounds from E. natalensis demonstrated many biological activities both in vitro and in vivo, which included antibacterial, antidiabetic, antifungal, antimycobacterial, antiviral, antioxidant, antiplasmodial, larvicidal, antischistosomal, molluscicidal, dentin permeability and hepatoprotective activities. Future studies should focus on the mechanism of biological activities of both crude extracts and chemical compounds from the species, as well as structure–function relationships of bioactive constituents of the species.

  15. The Baker's cyst - a diagnostic problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meydam, K.

    1981-01-01

    Precise definition of Baker's cyst has been prevented by variety of synonyms. Following anatomical description, Baker's determination, and investigations of myself one should differentiate between the rupture of capsule, bursa semimembranos-gastrocnemia, and Baker's cyst because thea are clearly independent from the pathologic-anatomical point of view. Clinical importance of Baker's cyst in connection with further diseases of the knee joint and therapeutical possibilities are discussed. (orig.) [de

  16. Obituary: Dr. Richard Roland Baker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thornton R

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Richard Baker died at Easter 2007 after a very short illness. It is sad that he died so soon after his retirement from the British American Tobacco Company at the end of 2005, and just as he was beginning to enjoy his new life, even though tobacco science still had a part to play.

  17. Preliminary Phytochemical Screening and Biological Activities of Bulbine abyssinica Used in the Folk Medicine in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibiti, Cromwell Mwiti; Afolayan, Anthony Jide

    2015-01-01

    Bulbine abyssinica A. Rich. is used in traditional medicine to treat rheumatism, dysentery, bilharzia, cracked lips, back pain, infertility, diabetes mellitus, and gastrointestinal, vaginal, and bladder infections. Therefore, preliminary phytochemical screening, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antibacterial properties of the whole plant (acetone and aqueous extracts) were determined using standard procedures. The in vitro antioxidant model assays revealed that the plant possesses free radical scavenging potential varying with free radical species. The species showed significant protein denaturation inhibitory activity with good protection against erythrocyte membrane lysis indicating anti-inflammatory potential. The results also showed that the species was active against the growth of all the selected eight diabetic status opportunistic bacteria except one. Moreover, the species is characterized by appreciable amounts of total phenols, flavonoids, flavanols, proanthocyanidins, and alkaloids. Traces amounts of saponins and tannins were also observed. Amongst the identified phytochemicals present, empirical searches identified them being antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial agents. The identification of these phytochemical constituents with their known pharmacological properties indicates that this plant is a good source of the free radical scavenging, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial agents. These findings also account for the multipharmacological use of B. abyssinica in fork medicine.

  18. Baker's asthma in a child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, E; Ausín, A; Elices, A; Moreno-Escobosa, M; Ibáñez, M; Laso, M

    2001-01-01

    baker's asthma is a well-known occupational lung disease which usually develops in adults. We report the case of a two years old boy who suffered from asthma, urticaria and atopic dermatitis for twelve months, whose symptoms were associated to visits to his grandfather's bakery. skin prick tests (SPT) were made to dust mites, moulds, flours, alfa-amylase and egg. It was also determined total IgE and specific IgE antibodies to alfa-amylase and flours. Subsequently, a challenge test was carried out with wheat flour. The SPTs were positive to flours, alfa-amylase and egg. The determination of specific IgE antibodies showed 2.64 kU/L to wheat, 0.79 kU/L to glyadin and 2.98 kU/L to alfa-amylase. The patient developed asthma and rhinitis after manipulating wheat flour for 10 min. we demonstrated a type I hypersensitivity to wheat flour and alfa-amylase in a two years old child by SPT, specific IgE antibodies and challenge test. This case in the childhood equivalent of occupational baker's asthma.

  19. Evaluation of an Experimental Gel Containing Euclea natalensis: An In Vitro Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvia Helena de Carvalho Sales-Peres

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the effect of an experimental gel containing Euclea natalensis extract on dentin permeability. Methods. Thirty-six dentin discs, 1-mm-thick. The discs were prepared from the coronal dentin of extracted human third molars that were divided into 3 groups (. The dentin discs in each group were treated with the groups following experimental materials: (FG: 1.23% fluoride gel, pH 4.1; (EG: Euclea natalensis extract gel, pH 4.1; (CG: control gel, pH 4.1. The gels were applied to the occlusal slide of the dentin under the following conditions: after 37% phosphoric acid and before 6% citric acid. The hydraulic conductance (HC of each condition was determined four times using a fluid flow apparatus (Flodec. The data were analyzed using Two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (. Results. The greatest mean reduction in HC was produced in group EG dentin discs (61.2%; . Even after acid challenge with 6% citric acid the great reduction occurred in group EG (66.0%; than other groups (CG-77.1%, FG-90.8%. Conclusion. E. natalensis gel not only reduced dentin permeability, but also resisted posttreatment citric acid challenge without changing its permeability. Further research has to confirm this promising result in the clinical situation.

  20. Circulating oxidative stress caused by Psoroptes natalensis infestation in Indian water buffaloes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Sumit; Panigrahi, Padma Nibash; Dey, Sahadeb; Dan, Ananya; Kumar, Akhilesh; Mahendran, K; Maurya, P S

    2017-09-01

    The present study reports the circulating oxidative stress associated with Psoroptes natalensis infestation in Indian water buffaloes. Three non-descriptive water buffaloes, age ranging between 4 and 9 years, presented to Referral Veterinary Polyclinic, IVRI, for treatment served as clinical subject. The infested animals were treated with Ivermectin subcutaneously and Amitraz topically along with antioxidant like ascorbic acid, Vitamin E and selenium. The level of lipid peroxidase was significantly higher (3.94 ± 0.34) in Psoroptes infested buffalo and was reduced significantly ( P  ≤ 0.05) after treatment (1.56 ± 0.40). The significantly higher levels of MDA before treatment signify the role of lipid peroxide mediated skin lesions in P. natalensis infested buffaloes. Similarly the activities of the body antioxidant like GSH and CAT were significantly higher ( P  ≤ 0.05) after treatment. The less level of the body antioxidant (GSH) and reduced activities of the antioxidant enzymes like CAT and SOD before treatment imply that Psoroptes mite-infested buffaloes were in a state of significant oxidative stress. The study provides information on oxidative stress indices in P. natalensis infested buffaloes and gives additional insight regarding the pathogenesis of the disease and its management.

  1. 21 CFR 172.898 - Bakers yeast glycan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Bakers yeast glycan. 172.898 Section 172.898 Food... Multipurpose Additives § 172.898 Bakers yeast glycan. Bakers yeast glycan may be safely used in food in accordance with the following conditions: (a) Bakers yeast glycan is the comminuted, washed, pasteurized, and...

  2. Short-term effects of avian predation variation on population size and local survival of the multimammate rat, Mastomys natalensis (Rodentia, Muridae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulck, T. van; Stocks, R.; Verhagen, Ron

    1998-01-01

    was not true but this might be due to the small size of the experimental fields. Analysis of weekly collected raptor pellets, over a 15 month period, showed an overrepresentation of M. natalensis as prey and a strong positive correlation between the density of M. natalensis and the avian predation intensity....

  3. Pühendusega isadele - Baker Street

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2009-01-01

    Üritusest 7. novembril Kuressaares Arensburg lounge-restoranis Muusa toimuvast isadepäevahõngulisest üritusest, esinevad Virgo Veldi & Band kavaga "Baker Street", erikülalisena Villu Veski. Saksofonistist Virgo Veldist

  4. CRED REA Algal Assessments, Baker Island 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Twelve quadrats were sampled along 2 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 8 sites at Baker Island in the US...

  5. Reproduction and population dynamics of Mastomys natalensis Smith, 1834 in an agricultural landscape in the Western Usambara Mountains, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makundi, Rhodes H; Massawe, Apia W; Mulungu, Loth S

    2007-12-01

    The multimammate rat, Mastomys natalensis Smith 1834, is a dominant species in agro-ecosystems in Sub-Saharan Africa, but adapts quickly to changes in non-agricultural landscape, particularly woodlands and forests. In this study we report on reproduction and population dynamics of M. natalensis in deforested high elevation localities in the Usambara Mountains, north-east Tanzania. We conducted Capture-Mark-Recapture studies in 2002-2004, and established that reproduction of M. natalensis takes place in the extended wet season between February and June, and the population density peaks in June-August. Reproduction cease in July to January and population density drops from July onwards. Reproduction and population density fluctuations are linked to the duration and amount of rainfall. In years when rainfall was below average and the wet season was short, the population density was significantly lower (below 10 animals/ha and 60 animals/ha in 2003 and 2004 respectively, compared to >100 animals/ha in 2002 when rainfall was above the seasonal average) (F(df 2,13)= 9.092, p forestry areas showed higher population densities in the former, which have similarities to the preferred habitats in the lowland savannahs. The increasing abundance of M. natalensis in the Usambara could have some consequences: M. natalensis is major pest and is involved in the plague cycle in the western Usambara Mountains. Mastomys natalensis is also a strong competitor and the impact on endemic rodent species, e.g. Lophuromys flavopunctatus and Praomys delectorum is unknown.

  6. The Distribution, Abundance and Utilization of the Lala Palm, Hyphaene natalensis, in Tongaland, Natal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. J. Moll

    1972-11-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of the Lala Palm, Hyphaene natalensis, in Tongaland and Northern Zululand, is mapped; the Palm occupies an area of about 156 000 ha. The total number of individuals is estimated at approximately 10 500 000 and the total yield in leaves per year is estimated at about 33 000 000. The exploitation of the leaves for fibre could be an economic proposition, but communications in the region are poor and the area is extremely large. Present utilization of the Lala Palm, by the Bantu is considered.

  7. Verspreiding en habitats van Lymnaea natalensis, tussengasheerslak van die lewerbot Fasciola gigantica, in Suid-Afrika

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. N. de Kock

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Hierdie artikel fokus op die geografiese verspreiding en die habitats van Lymnaea natalensis, die slaktussengasheer van die lewerbot, Fasciola gigantica, soos gereflekteer deur die vindplekke van sy 4 552 monsters wat tans in die Nasionale Varswaterslakversameling (NVV van Suid-Afrika op rekord is. Alhoewel hierdie spesie in’n verskeidenheid van waterliggame aangetref is, was die meerderheid van die monsters (±70% afkomstig vanuit riviere, spruite en damme en is die water in 70.8% van die gevalle as standhoudend en in 71.8% van die gevalle as stadigvloeiend, of staande beskryf.  Die resultate van lewenstabeleksperimente deur verskeie outeurs het daarop gedui dat temperatuur ’n minder belangrike bepalende faktor in sy geografiese verspreiding blyk te wees, maar dat die beskikbaarheid van standhoudende water deurslaggewend vir sy voorkoms in ’n gegewe habitat mag wees. Hierdie resultate strook met die bevinding dat slegs 7.5% van die monsters van hierdie spesie in die NVV in habitats wat as seisoenaal beskryf is, versamel is. Verder bied dit’n logiese verklaring vir die sporadiese voorkoms, of totale afwesigheid van hierdie spesie in die droër streke van Suid-Afrika.  Opgaardamme en besproeiingsnetwerke dra grootliks by tot die skepping van permanente habitats wat geskik sou wees vir L. natalensis.  As tussengasheer vir een van die lewerbotspesies wat reeds ’n ekonomiese faktor in Suid-Afrika is, is dit ’n aspek waarmee beslis rekening gehou behoort te word in die beplanning en konstruksie van nuwe besproeiingsprojekte.AbstractDistribution and habitats of Lymnaea natalensis, snail intermediate host of the liver fluke Fasciola gigantica, in South Africa This paper focuses on the geographical distribution and the habitats of Lymnaea natalensis, the snail intermediate host of the liver fluke, Fasciola gigantica, as reflected by the collection sites of its 4 552 samples currently on record in the National Freshwater Snail Collection

  8. Cuparane sesquiterpenes from Laurencia natalensis Kylin as inhibitors of alpha-glucosidase, dipeptidyl peptidase IV and xanthine oxidase

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rengasamy, K.R.R.; Poštová Slavětínská, Lenka; Kulkarni, M. G.; Stirk, W. A.; Van Staden, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 25, Jul (2017), s. 178-183 ISSN 2211-9264 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : 1-deoxyalgoane * dipeptidyl peptidase IV * diabetes * gout * Laurencia natalensis Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry OBOR OECD: Organic chemistry Impact factor: 3.994, year: 2016

  9. Performance of baker's yeast produced using date syrup substrate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Baker's yeast was produced from three selected baker's yeast strains using date syrup as a substrate at low and high flow rate compared to those produced using molasses substrates. Performance of the produced baker's yeasts on Arabic bread quality was investigated. Baking tests showed a positive relationship between ...

  10. 21 CFR 184.1983 - Bakers yeast extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Bakers yeast extract. 184.1983 Section 184.1983... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1983 Bakers yeast extract. (a) Bakers yeast extract... a selected strain of yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. It may be concentrated or dried. (b) The...

  11. Steroids isolated from Millettia versicolor Baker (Fabaceae)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-06-03

    Jun 3, 2008 ... African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 7 (11), pp. ... Full Length Research Paper ... of Millettia versicolor Baker, a medicinal plant used in the traditional ... The spectral analysis enabled us to identify 4 known .... evidence for participation of protein kinase C and protein kinase A ... Neoplasma 51(6): 407-414.

  12. Polyandry and polygyny in an African rodent pest species, Mastomys natalensis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kennis, Jan; Sluydts, Vincent; Leirs, Herwig

    2008-01-01

    removal and capture-mark-recapture techniques combined with microsatellite analyses. In total, 36 litters (359 young) and 94 candidate fathers were genotyped. Multiple paternity (more than one male per litter) occurs frequently in all sampled grids (>47% of all litters). Paternity assignment success rates...... are relatively high (mean 69%). Males are polygynous, but this is less frequent than female polyandry. Large differences in male reproductive success exist with a large part of the male population without offspring in our sample. Larger males father significantly more offspring. Spatial analyses do not show...... a strict spatial organisation. Our data suggest male M. natalensis roam around to mate with as many females as possible, while females also mate with several males to produce litters fathered by several males. This species could be an interesting candidate for testing virally vectored immunocontraception...

  13. Comparison of multimammate mouse (Mastomys natalensis) demography in monoculture and mosaic agricultural habitat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sluydts, Vincent; Davis, Stephen; Mercelis, Saskia

    2009-01-01

    . The multimammate mouse (Mastomys natalensis) is a major pest in rural areas throughout sub-Saharan Africa. It appears difficult to control since it has an opportunistic diet and the capacity for explosive population growth. We compared demographic rates between a population in an extensive maize monoculture...... in the mosaic compared to the monoculture. The probability of capture was higher in the mosaic structured grid for both the subadult and adult part of the population. The model selection procedure demonstrated that a model without an effect of habitat in both survival and seniority received most support from...... the data. No differences in the multimammate mouse demography between the monoculture and mosaic structured habitat were observed which had a substantial impact on population dynamics. This means that rodent management options in both agricultural systems could focus on the same aspects of rodent ecology....

  14. schreibersii natalensis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Miniopterus schreibersii nataiensis, widely distributed in South. Africa (Hayman & Hill 1971), are among the most abundant cavern-dwelling bats in the Transvaal. Seasonal migrations take place annually between the Transvaal Highveld where the bats overwinter and the bush veld where maternity colonies are formed ...

  15. (MASTOMYS) NATALENSIS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-10-25

    Oct 25, 2017 ... of its semi-domestic habits, it also plays an important role in the spread of plague in Africa. ... short break in breeding during the dry season. MATERIAL. The multimammate mice that form the subject of the present study were ...

  16. Water-quality effects on Baker Lake of recent volcanic activity at Mount Baker, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortleson, Gilbert Carl; Wilson, Reed T.; Foxworthy, B.L.

    1976-01-01

    Increased volcanic activity on Mount Baker, which began in March 1975, represents the greatest known activity of a Cascade Range volcano since eruptions at Lassen Peak, Calif. during 1914-17. Emissions of dust and increased emanations of steam, other gases, and heat from the Sherman Crater area of the mountain focused attention on the possibility of hazardous events, including lava flows, pyroclastic eruptions, avalanches, and mudflows. However, the greatest undesirable natural results that have been observed after one year of the increased activity are an increase in local atmospheric pollution and a decrease in the quality of some local water resources, including Baker Lake. Baker Lake, a hydropower reservoir behind Upper Baker Dam, supports a valuable fishery resource and also is used for recreation. The lake's feedwater is from Baker River and many smaller streams, some of which, like Boulder Creek, drain parts of Mount Baker. Boulder Creek receives water from Sherman Crater, and its channel is a likely route for avalanches or mudflows that might originate in the crater area. Boulder Creek drains only about 5 percent of the total drainage area of Baker Lake, but during 1975 carried sizeable but variable loads of acid and dissolved minerals into the lake. Sulfurous gases and the fumarole dust from Sherman Crater are the main sources for these materials, which are brought into upper Boulder Creek by meltwater from the crater. In September 1973, before the increased volcanic activity, Boulder Creek near the lake had a pH of 6.0-6.6; after the increase the pH ranged as low as about 3.5. Most nearby streams had pH values near 7. On April 29, in Boulder Creek the dissolved sulfate concentration was 6 to 29 times greater than in nearby creeks or in Baker River; total iron was 18-53 times greater than in nearby creeks; and other major dissolved constituents generally 2 to 7 times greater than in the other streams. The short-term effects on Baker Lake of the acidic

  17. The fungus-growing termite Macrotermes natalensis harbors bacillaene-producing Bacillus sp. that inhibit potentially antagonistic fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Um, Soohyun; Fraimout, Antoine; Sapountzis, Panagiotis

    2013-01-01

    colonies produce a single major antibiotic, bacillaene A (1), which selectively inhibits known and putatively antagonistic fungi of Termitomyces. Comparative analyses of the genomes of symbiotic Bacillus strains revealed that they are phylogenetically closely related to Bacillus subtilis, their genomes...... have high homology with more than 90% of ORFs being 100% identical, and the sequence identities across the biosynthetic gene cluster for bacillaene are higher between termite-associated strains than to the cluster previously reported in B. subtilis. Our findings suggest that this lineage of antibiotic......The ancient fungus-growing termite (Mactrotermitinae) symbiosis involves the obligate association between a lineage of higher termites and basidiomycete Termitomyces cultivar fungi. Our investigation of the fungus-growing termite Macrotermes natalensis shows that Bacillus strains from M. natalensis...

  18. Differences in Diet between Two Rodent Species, Mastomys natalensis and Gerbilliscus vicinus, in Fallow Land Habitats in Central Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mulungu, Loth S.; Massawe, Apia W.; Kennis, Jan

    2011-01-01

    simply reflect availability of food, and when food is limited, different animal species compete. In this study, the diet of two rodent pest species, Mastomys natalensis and Gerbilliscus vicinus, coexisting in fallow land in central Tanzania were studied to assess the degree of diet differentiation among......Differences in the ecological niche requirements among rodent species competing in the same habitat may result from differences in the use of one to three resources: space, time and food or some combination of these. Alternatively, differences in resource use utilization among animal species may...... them. Dietary niche breadth of G. vicinus was greater than that of M. natalensis in all stages of the maize cropping seasons. The rodent species studied overlapped considerably in the food items consumed ranging from niche overlap (Ojk) of 0.77–0.89. Grains/seeds featured high in the diet of M...

  19. Gairo virus, a novel arenavirus of the widespread Mastomys natalensis: Genetically divergent, but ecologically similar to Lassa and Morogoro viruses

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gryseels, S.; Rieger, T.; Oestereich, L.; Cuypers, B.; Borremans, B.; Makundi, R.; Leirs, H.; Günther, S.; Goüy de Bellocq, Joëlle

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 476, February (2015), s. 249-256 ISSN 0042-6822 R&D Projects: GA ČR GCP502/11/J070; GA MŠk EE2.3.20.0303 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Arenavirus * Mastomys natalensis * Tanzania * Virology * Phylogeny * Ecology * Zoonotic infections * Hemorrhagic fevers Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.200, year: 2015

  20. Population dynamics and breeding patterns of multimammate mouse, Mastomys natalensis (Smith 1834), in irrigated rice fields in eastern Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulungu, Loth S; Ngowo, Victoria; Mdangi, Mashaka; Katakweba, Abdul S; Tesha, Protas; Mrosso, Furaha P; Mchomvu, Mary; Sheyo, Paul M; Kilonzo, Bukhet S

    2013-03-01

    Multimammate mice are the most important vertebrate pests in Sub-Saharan Africa and are also reservoirs of many zoonotic diseases, including sylvan plague. This study investigated the population dynamics and breeding patterns of this mouse in irrigated rice cropping systems in eastern Tanzania. The multimammate mouse, Mastomys natalensis, population varied with habitat and months. Fallow land had a more abundant population than rice fields. The highest population peak was observed during the dry season from July to October. Mastomys natalensis is sexually active throughout the year in the study area, although it reaches the highest level in June and December when rice is at the maturity stage. This suggests that breeding is highly influenced by the presence of a rice crop in both seasons. More juvenile individuals were recorded in August and September, indicating that they were produced in the previous breeding months. The sex ratio of M. natalensis was not skewed to either males or females, indicating that it was at parity. Rodent population dynamics during the study periods in all habitats indicated that high birth rates accounted for the rapid population growth and turnover. Regular control and sustainable operations are thus essential if rodent pest populations are to be kept within tolerable limits. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Obituary: James Gilbert Baker, 1914-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Neal Kenton

    2005-12-01

    Dr. James Gilbert Baker, renowned astronomer and optical physicist, died 29 June 2005 at his home in Bedford, New Hampshire at the age of 90. Although his scientific interest was astronomy, his extraordinary ability in optical design led to the creation of hundreds of optical systems that supported astronomy, aerial reconnaissance, instant photography (Polaroid SX70 camera), and the US space programs. He was the recipient of numerous awards for his creative work. He was born in Louisville, Kentucky, on 11 November 1914, the fourth child of Jesse B. Baker and Hattie M. Stallard. After graduating from Louisville DuPont Manual High, he went on to attend the University of Louisville majoring in Mathematics. He became very close to an Astronomy Professor, Dr. Moore, and many times used his telescopes to do nightly observations. While at the university, he built mirrors for his own telescopes and helped form the Louisville Astronomical Society in 1933. At the University of Louisville, he also met his future wife, Elizabeth Katherine Breitenstein of Jefferson County, Kentucky. He received his BA in 1935 at the height of the Depression. He began his graduate work in astronomy at the Harvard College Observatory. After his MA (1936), he was appointed a Junior Fellow (1937-1943) in the Prestigious Harvard Society of Fellows. He received his PhD in 1942 from Harvard in rather an unusual fashion, which is worth retelling. During an Astronomy Department dinner, Dr. Harlow Shapley (the director) asked him to give a talk. According to the "Courier-Journal Magazine", "Dr. Shapley stood up and proclaimed an on-the-spot departmental meeting and asked for a vote on recommending Baker for a Ph.D. on the basis of the 'oral exam' he had just finished. The vote was unanimous." It was at Harvard College Observatory during this first stage of his career that he collaborated with Donald H. Menzel, Lawrence H. Aller, and George H. Shortley on a landmark set of papers on the physical processes

  2. Performance of baker's yeast produced using date syrup substrate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-05-24

    May 24, 2010 ... evaluate the effect of using Baker's yeast produced using date syrup as .... Gas production power (ml/20g dough) for baker's yeasts (LSD Test*). Incubation ... Brain (2005) indicated that a falling number value of 350 s or longer ...

  3. 21 CFR 172.325 - Bakers yeast protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.325 Bakers yeast protein. Bakers yeast protein may be...

  4. Density threshold for Mopeia virus invasion and persistence in its host Mastomys natalensis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goyens, J.; Reijniers, J.; Borremans, B.

    2013-01-01

    . We developed a spatially explicit and individual-based SEIR model of Mopeia virus in multimammate mice Mastomys natalensis. This is an interesting model system for studying abundance thresholds because the host is the most common African rodent, populations fluctuate considerably and the virus...... is closely related to Lassa virus but non-pathogenic to humans so can be studied safely in the field. The simulations show that, while host density clearly is important, sharp thresholds are only to be expected for persistence (and not for invasion), since at short time-spans (as during invasion...

  5. Prevalence of sensitization to 'improver' enzymes in UK supermarket bakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, M; Welch, J; Turvey, J; Cannon, J; Clark, P; Szram, J; Cullinan, P

    2016-07-01

    Supermarket bakers are exposed not only to flour and alpha-amylase but also to other 'improver' enzymes, the nature of which is usually shrouded by commercial sensitivity. We aimed to determine the prevalence of sensitization to 'improver' enzymes in UK supermarket bakers. We examined the prevalence of sensitization to enzymes in 300 bakers, employed by one of two large supermarket bakeries, who had declared work-related respiratory symptoms during routine health surveillance. Sensitization was determined using radioallergosorbent assay to eight individual enzymes contained in the specific 'improver' mix used by each supermarket. The prevalence of sensitization to 'improver' enzymes ranged from 5% to 15%. Sensitization was far more likely if the baker was sensitized also to either flour or alpha-amylase. The prevalence of sensitization to an 'improver' enzyme did not appear to be related to the concentration of that enzyme in the mix. We report substantial rates of sensitization to enzymes other than alpha-amylase in UK supermarket bakers; in only a small proportion of bakers was there evidence of sensitization to 'improver mix' enzymes without sensitization to either alpha-amylase or flour. The clinical significance of these findings needs further investigation, but our findings indicate that specific sensitization in symptomatic bakers may not be identified without consideration of a wide range of workplace antigens. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Phenolics from Kalanchoe marmorata Baker, Family Crassulaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel Nasser Badawy Singab

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In search of plants rich in phenolics in Egypt, Kalanchoe marmorata Baker was subjected to phytochemical study. The preliminary phytochemical screening revealed its richness in phenolics. Fractionation of the lyophilized aqueous extract of the leaves of K. marmorata by different organic solvents successively resulted in the isolation and purification of five compounds from the ethyl acetate soluble fraction. These compounds namely; E1 isorhamnetin-3-O-α-l-1C4-rhamnopyranoside; E2 quercitin; E3 4′-methoxy-myricetin-3-O-α-l-1C4-rhamnopyranoside; E4 Quercitin-3-O-β-d-4C1-glucopyranoside and E5 protocatechuic-4′-O-β-d-4C1-glucopyranoside, were identified by analysis of their spectral data including 1H NMR and 13C NMR.

  7. S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase from baker's yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pösö, H; Sinervirta, R; Jänne, J

    1975-01-01

    1. S-Adenosyl-L-methionine decarboxylase (S-adenosyl-L-methionine carboxy-lyase, EC 4.1.1.50) was purified more than 1100-fold from extracts of Saccharomyces cerevisiae by affinity chromatography on columns of Sepharose containing covalently bound methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) (1,1'[(methylethanediylidene)dinitrilo]diguanidine) [Pegg, (1974) Biochem J. 141, 581-583]. The final preparation appeared to be homogeneous on polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis at pH 8.4. 2. S-Adenosylmethionine decarboxylase activity was completely separated from spermidine synthase activity [5'-deoxyadenosyl-(5'),3-aminopropyl-(1),methylsulphonium-salt-putrescine 3-aminopropyltransferase, EC 2.5.1.16] during the purification procedure. 3. Adenosylmethionine decarboxylase activity from crude extracts of baker's yeast was stimulated by putrescine, 1,3-diamino-propane, cadaverine (1,5-diaminopentane) and spermidine; however, the purified enzyme, although still stimulated by the diamines, was completely insensitive to spermidine. 4. Adenosylmethionine decarboxylase has an apparent Km value of 0.09 mM for adenosylmethionine in the presence of saturating concentrations of putrescine. The omission of putrescine resulted in a five-fold increase in the apparent Km value for adenosylmethionine. 5. The apparent Ka value for putrescine, as the activator of the reaction, was 0.012 mM. 6. Methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) and S-methyladenosylhomocysteamine (decarboxylated adenosylmethionine) were powerful inhibitors of the enzyme. 7. Adenosylmethionine decarboxylase from baker's yeast was inhibited by a number of conventional carbonyl reagents, but in no case could the inhibition be reversed with exogenous pyridoxal 5'-phosphate. PMID:1108876

  8. 78 FR 27215 - Baker County Oregon; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the Commission and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-09

    ...: Baker County, Oregon (Baker County). e. Name of Project: Mason Dam Hydroelectric Project. f. Location...'s (Reclamation) Mason Dam, near Baker City, in Baker County, Oregon. The project would occupy 6.4... facilities. The proposed project's generation would not change the current day- to-day operation of Mason dam...

  9. Distribution and habitats of Lymnaea natalensis, snail intermediate host of the liver fluke Fasciola gigantica, in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial Office

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the geographical distribution and the habitats of Lymnaea natalensis, the snail intermediate host of the liver fluke, Fasciola gigantica, as reflected by the collection sites of its 4 552 samples currently on record in the National Freshwater Snail Collection (NFSC of South Africa. Although this species was represented in a variety of waterbodies, the majority of samples(±70%came from rivers, brooks and dams and in 70.8% of the cases the water was described as permanent and in 71.8% as slow flowing or standing. The results of life-table studies conducted by various authors indicated that temperature should be a relatively unimportant factor in determining its geographical distribution, but that the availability of permanent water should be decisive for its presence in a given habitat. These results are in agreement with the finding that only 7.5% of the samples of this species in the NFSC were collected in habitats which were described as seasonal. Furthermore, it gives a logical explanation for the sporadic occurrence, or total absence of this species in the more arid regions of South Africa. Water impoundments and irrigation networks contribute to a large extent towards creating perennial habitats which would be suitable for L. natalensis. As intermediate host for one of the liver fluke species which already is an economic factor in South Africa, this certainly is an aspect which ought to be reckoned within the planning and construction of new irrigation schemes.

  10. Posterior tibial neuropathy by a Baker's cyst: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J H; Jun, J B; Lee, H S; Yun, H R; Choi, C H; Park, S B; Hong, E K; Yoo, D H; Kim, S Y

    2000-01-01

    Baker's cysts are rare cause of peripheral nerve entrapment and only a few cases of tibial nerve entrapment resulting from the popliteal cyst in the calf muscle have been reported in the literature. We present a case of rheumatoid arthritis complicated by a Baker's cyst with a tibial nerve entrapment. It is important to diagnose a Baker's cyst early and to differentiate it from thrombophlebitis, a popliteal aneurysm, tumor or muscle tear to effect optimal therapy and to obviate a potential neuropathy. Prompt recognition of these cases may save the patients unnecessary procedures and delay in treatment.

  11. Disturbance and Celebration of Josephine Baker in Copenhagen 1928

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spanger, Marlene

    2015-01-01

    Marlene Spanger analyses reactions to the internationally recognised dancer and singer Josephine Baker (1906–1975), whose performances in Copenhagen gave rise to a heated emotional debate in Danish newspapers; these reactions mirror contemporary dominant religious, biological and colonial discour...

  12. CRED REA Coral Population Parameters at Baker, Phoenix Islands, 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 2 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 3 sites at Baker in the Phoenix...

  13. CRED REA Algal Assessments, Baker Island 2004 (NODC Accession 0010352)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Twelve quadrats were sampled along 2 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 6 sites at Baker Island in the US...

  14. Baker's yeast: production of D- and L-3-hydroxy esters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Allan Carsten; Madsen, Jørgen Øgaard

    1998-01-01

    harvested while growing. In contrast, the stereoselectivity was shifted towards L-hydroxy esters when the oxo esters were added slowly to ordinary baker's yeast supplied with gluconolactone as co-substrate. The reduction rate with gluconolactone was increased by active aeration. Ethyl L-(S)-3......Baker's yeast grown under oxygen limited conditions and used in the reduction of 3-oxo esters results in a shift of the stereoselectivity of the yeast towards D-hydroxy esters as compared with ordinary baker's yeast. The highest degree of stereoselectivity was obtained with growing yeast or yeast......-hydroxybutanoate was afforded in >99% ee. Both enantiomers of ethyl 3-hydroxypentanoate, D-(R) in 96% ee and L-(S) in 93% ee, and of ethyl 4-chloro-3-hydroxybutanoate, D-(S) in 98% ee and L-(R) in 94% ee, were obtained. The results demonstrate that the stereoselectivity of baker's yeast can be controlled...

  15. Intramuscular dissection of Baker's cysts: report on three cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Christopher S.J.; McCarthy, Catherine L.; McNally, Eugene G.

    2004-01-01

    Baker's cysts are fluid distensions of the gastrocnemius-semimembranosus bursa and are the most common cystic lesion around the knee. Typically cysts enlarge along intermuscular planes around the knee. We report three cases in which the expanding cyst did not respect these planes and dissected along an intramuscular route as confirmed by MR imaging. Such behaviour by Baker's cysts is hitherto unreported in the literature. Possible mechanisms to account for this phenomenon are discussed. (orig.)

  16. Heuristic Sensitivity Analysis for Baker's Yeast Model Parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Leão, Celina P.; Soares, Filomena O.

    2004-01-01

    The baker's yeast, essentially composed by living cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, used in the bread making and beer industries as a microorganism, has an important industrial role. The simulation procedure represents then a necessary tool to understand clearly the baker's yeast fermentation process. The use of mathematical models based on mass balance equations requires the knowledge of the reaction kinetics, thermodynamics, and transport and physical properties. Models may be more or less...

  17. Production of baker's yeast using date juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beiroti, A; Hosseini, S N

    2007-07-01

    Baker's yeast is an important additive among the products which improves bread quality and for present time is being produced in different countries by batch, fed batch or continuous cultures. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is used in fermentation of starch in dough, giving a favourable taste and produces a variety of vitamins and proteins. The main ingredient in yeast production is carbon source such as beet molasses, cane molasses, and so on. Since beet molasses has other major function as in high yield alcohol production and also due to the bioenvironmental issues and related wastewater treatment, the use of other carbohydrate sources may be considered. One of these carbohydrate sources is date which is wasted a great deal annually in this country (Iran) . In this study, the capability of date to act as a suitable carbon sources was investigated. The waste date turned into juice and consequently production and growth rate of Sacchromyces cervisiae were studied with this juice. A maximum possible yield of 50% was obtained by the optimum medium (P3), at pH 3.4, 30 degrees C, 1.4 vvm aeration rate and agitation of 500 r/min.

  18. The role of growth stop as a morphogenetic factor in Mastomys natalensis (Rodentia: Muridae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fadda, Carlo; Leirs, Herwig

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated growth patterns under three different environmental conditions in a single population of the rodent Mastomys natalensis (Rodentia, Muridae) in Morogoro, Tanzania. The study aimed to test whether and how post-weaning ontogenetic processes are affected by different...... environmental conditions. Morogoro is characterized by a bimodal rainfall pattern, with unreliable peaks occurring in November/December of some years and reliable ones in February to May. We recognized three different generation types. In the first one, the alpha generation, growth occurred during the dry...... there was a continuity between both rainfall peaks. Analyses of size and shape following both Huxley-Jolicoeur and Gould-Mosimann approaches revealed that the three groups differ significantly both in size and shape. In both cases, the importance of the environment in assessing growth trajectories during post...

  19. Short-term effects of avian predation variation on population size and local survival of the multimammate rat, Mastomys natalensis (Rodentia, Muridae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulck, T. van; Stocks, R.; Verhagen, Ron

    1998-01-01

    The influence of avian predation on population size and local survival of Mastomys natalensis rats in Tanzania was studied in a capture-recapture study over a six month period on experimental fields with decreased, controlled and increased predation pressure. Bird observations indicated that the ......The influence of avian predation on population size and local survival of Mastomys natalensis rats in Tanzania was studied in a capture-recapture study over a six month period on experimental fields with decreased, controlled and increased predation pressure. Bird observations indicated...... that the placement of perches increased local hunting activity of at least the Black Shouldered Kite but there were no obvious effects on rodent population size or survival. In a single field where avian predation was prevented by covering the field with a net, an increase in survival was observed. The opposite...

  20. Optimization of the flux values in multichannel ceramic membrane microfiltration of Baker`s yeast suspension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milović Nemanja R.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to estimate the effects of the operating parameters on the baker's yeast microfiltration through multichannel ceramic membrane. The selected parameters were transmembrane pressure, suspension feed flow, and initial suspension concentration. In order to investigate the influence and interaction effects of these parameters on the microfiltration operation, two responses have been chosen: average permeate flux and flux decline. The Box-Behnken experimental design and response surface methodology was used for result processing and process optimization. According to the obtained results, the most important parameter influencing permeate flux during microfiltration is the initial suspension concentration. The maximum average flux value was achieved at an initial concentration of 0.1 g/L, pressure around 1.25 bars and a flow rate at 16 L/h. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31002

  1. Shuffling cards, factoring numbers and the quantum baker's map

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakshminarayan, Arul

    2005-01-01

    It is pointed out that an exactly solvable permutation operator, viewed as the quantization of cyclic shifts, is useful in constructing a basis in which to study the quantum baker's map, a paradigm system of quantum chaos. In the basis of this operator the eigenfunctions of the quantum baker's map are compressed by factors of around five or more. We show explicitly its connection to an operator that is closely related to the usual quantum baker's map. This permutation operator has interesting connections to the art of shuffling cards as well as to the quantum factoring algorithm of Shor via the quantum order finding one. Hence we point out that this well-known quantum algorithm makes crucial use of a quantum chaotic operator, or at least one that is close to the quantization of the left-shift, a closeness that we also explore quantitatively. (letter to the editor)

  2. Malignant pleural mesothelioma in bakers and pastry cooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascoli, V; Calisti, R; Carnovale-Scalzo, C; Nardi, F

    2001-10-01

    The occurrence of malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) among bakers and pastry cooks has never been documented. We detected eight cases of MPM in bakers, pastry cooks, and biscuit cooks engaged in making, baking/cooking, and selling pastry/bread in two hospital-based series (Rome and Orbassano/Turin, Italy; period 1990-1997; 222 cases). Field-investigations revealed asbestos-containing material (ACM) in ovens for baking bread, that were manufactured prior to the 1980s. It is suggested that there is a possible new association of the risk of having worked as a baker or pastry cook and MPM. Presumptive source of exposure to asbestos was the use of asbestos-insulated ovens. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Quantum baker maps with controlled-not coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallejos, Raul O; Santoro, Pedro R del; Almeida, Alfredo M Ozorio de

    2006-01-01

    The characteristic stretching and squeezing of chaotic motion is linearized within the finite number of phase space domains which subdivide a classical baker map. Tensor products of such maps are also chaotic, but a more interesting generalized baker map arises if the stacking orders for the factor maps are allowed to interact. These maps are readily quantized, in such a way that the stacking interaction is entirely attributed to primary qubits in each map, if each jth subsystem has Hilbert space dimension D j 2 n j . We here study the particular example of two baker maps that interact via a controlled-not interaction, which is a universal gate for quantum computation. Numerical evidence indicates that the control subspace becomes an ideal Markovian environment for the target map in the limit of large Hilbert space dimension

  4. Temporada e turno de vocalização de Leptodactylus natalensis Lutz, 1930 (Amphibia, Anura na mata atlântica de Pernambuco, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Oliveira de Amorim

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A atividade de vocalização de uma população de Leptodactylus natalensis foi monitorada em uma poça temporária entre novembro/2002 e outubro/2004. A poça está situada em um fragmento de Mata Atlântica conhecido como Refúgio Ecológico Charles Darwin, município de Igarassu, Estado de Pernambuco. Os animais apresentaram-se ativos na maioria dos meses, apresentando picos na estação seca. A atividade de vocalização foi registrada durante o dia e a noite. Houve influência negativa e significativa entre a atividade vocal e a temperatura. O número de indivíduos vocalizando não foi significantemente afetado pela precipitação pluviométrica, mas o foi pelo número de fêmeas no ambiente. Verificou-se uma grande plasticidade na atividade de vocalização de L. natalensis durante a temporada e turno.Vocalizations of a population of Leptodactylus natalensis were monitored in a temporary pond from November 2002 to October 2004. This pond is located in a fragment of Atlantic rainforest belonging to the private Ecologic Refuge Charles Darwin, in the city of Igarassu, state of Pernambuco, Brazil. Individuals were active during most of the studied months, with peaks of activity during dry season. Vocal activity was recorded both in day and nighttime. There was a significant negative effect of temperature on vocal activity. The number of individuals vocalizing was not affected significantly by rainfall, but it was by the number of females on the environment. A great plasticity of vocal activities of L. natalensis was verified, both in season and turn.

  5. USA sender Able og Baker en tur i rummet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrup, Aage Kristian Olsen

    2014-01-01

    DETTE ER DEN TREDJE ARTIKEL I SERIEN OM DYRENES ROLLE I RUMFORSKNINGEN. VI SKAL MØDE DE TO PRIMATER ABLE OG BAKER, SOM NASA SUCCESFULDT SENDTE EN TUR I RUMMET I MAJ 1959 – HALVANDET ÅR EFTER, AT SOVJETUNIONEN HAVDE SENDT HUNDEN LAIKA DERUD.......DETTE ER DEN TREDJE ARTIKEL I SERIEN OM DYRENES ROLLE I RUMFORSKNINGEN. VI SKAL MØDE DE TO PRIMATER ABLE OG BAKER, SOM NASA SUCCESFULDT SENDTE EN TUR I RUMMET I MAJ 1959 – HALVANDET ÅR EFTER, AT SOVJETUNIONEN HAVDE SENDT HUNDEN LAIKA DERUD....

  6. Floral volatiles, pollinator sharing and diversification in the fig–wasp mutualism: insights from Ficus natalensis, and its two wasp pollinators (South Africa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornille, A.; Underhill, J. G.; Cruaud, A.; Hossaert-McKey, M.; Johnson, S. D.; Tolley, K. A.; Kjellberg, F.; van Noort, S.; Proffit, M.

    2012-01-01

    Combining biogeographic, ecological, morphological, molecular and chemical data, we document departure from strict specialization in the fig-pollinating wasp mutualism. We show that the pollinating wasps Elisabethiella stuckenbergi and Elisabethiella socotrensis form a species complex of five lineages in East and Southern Africa. Up to two morphologically distinct lineages were found to co-occur locally in the southern African region. Wasps belonging to a single lineage were frequently the main regional pollinators of several Ficus species. In South Africa, two sister lineages, E. stuckenbergi and E. socotrensis, pollinate Ficus natalensis but only E. stuckenbergi also regularly pollinates Ficus burkei. The two wasp species co-occur in individual trees of F. natalensis throughout KwaZulu-Natal. Floral volatile blends emitted by F. natalensis in KwaZulu-Natal were similar to those emitted by F. burkei and different from those produced by other African Ficus species. The fig odour similarity suggests evolutionary convergence to attract particular wasp species. The observed pattern may result from selection for pollinator sharing among Ficus species. Such a process, with one wasp species regionally pollinating several hosts, but several wasp species pollinating a given Ficus species across its geographical range could play an important role in the evolutionary dynamics of the Ficus-pollinating wasp association. PMID:22130605

  7. 76 FR 72718 - Notice of Availability of the Draft Baker Resource Management Plan and Environmental Impact...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-25

    ... following methods: Web site: http://www.blm.gov/or/districts/vale/plans/bakerrmp/contact.php . Email: Baker... above address or may be viewed at: http://www.blm.gov/or/districts/vale/plans/bakerrmp/index.php . FOR... will revise the existing Baker RMP of 1989 and provide the Baker Field Office with an updated framework...

  8. Bakers yeast-mediated transformations of alpha-keto epoxides

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Meth-Cohn, O

    1994-06-07

    Full Text Available Alpha beta-Epoxy ketones on treatment with baker's yeast yield different types of products depending on their substitution. Small groups such as H or Me attached at the epoxy end protect that end from attack. Thus, 1-acyl epoxides with H, methyl...

  9. Quality evaluation of some commercial baker's yeasts in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    55.8 to161.6mlh g , respectively. Bread baked from different baker's yeasts were not significantly different (p>0.05) in their crumb structure and texture. However, significant differences were found in terms of crust color, loaf symmetry and overall acceptability. The staling rate of bread samples correlated positively with yeast's ...

  10. Framework for Sustaining Innovation at Baker Library, Harvard Business School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, Meghan; Hemment, Michael; Oliver, Stephanie

    2017-01-01

    Baker Library at Harvard Business School is increasingly asked by the school's faculty to create custom digital information products to enhance course assignments and to find novel ways of electronically disseminating faculty research. In order to prioritize these requests, as well as facilitate, manage, and track the resulting projects, the…

  11. Isolation of a tyrosine-activating enzyme from baker's yeast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ven, A.M. van de; Koningsberger, V.V.; Overbeek, J.Th.G.

    1958-01-01

    The extracts of ether-CO2-frozen baker's yeast contain enzymes that catalyze the ATP-linked amino acid activation by way of pyrophosphate elimination. From the extract a tyrosine-activating enzyme could be isolated, which, judging from ultracentrifugation and electrophoretic data, was about 70% pure

  12. Senecio grisebachii Baker: Pyrrolizidine alkaloids and experimental poisoning in calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    The main objectives of this study were to determine the 1,2-dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloid (DHPA) content in Senecio grisebachii Baker (Compositae), to experimentally demonstrate its toxicity in calves and to describe the main clinical and pathological findings of this toxicity. S. grisebachii plants...

  13. A “pessoa” de Rudder Baker é realmente incorporada?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Gonçalves Coelho

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Some philosophers materialists think, against the dualism of substance, that an embodied mind is only a mind that depends on a body to exist, that is, that the mind doesn’t exist independently of a body. I will take as representative of this very limited point of view about embodiment the ideas of Lynne Baker and her Constitution View. Baker says that she prefers to face the problem of the relationship between persons and bodies than the problem of the relationship between mind and body because this last formulation of the problem implies the idea of a mind distinct and separated of the body while the first is more according of her view of an embodied and situated mind. But the problem is that Baker forgets it when she defines persons in terms of first-person perspective or self-consciousness. Although, Baker says that the self-consciousness depends on structural – a body – and environmental – the situation – conditions, what becomes a self-conscious human person an entity ontologically distinct of the body that constitutes it and of other animals are their realizations like arts, philosophy, science, moral, etc. It looks like that for Baker the self-consciousness is not only a necessary condition but also a sufficient one for that human realizations, while the body fulfill only an indirect role. Against these ideas we can ask: the great realizations that distinguish the human persons of other animals would be possible independently of the biological constitution of our body and its needs?

  14. The impact of human conflict on the genetics of Mastomys natalensis and Lassa virus in West Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aude Lalis

    Full Text Available Environmental changes have been shown to play an important role in the emergence of new human diseases of zoonotic origin. The contribution of social factors to their spread, especially conflicts followed by mass movement of populations, has not been extensively investigated. Here we reveal the effects of civil war on the phylogeography of a zoonotic emerging infectious disease by concomitantly studying the population structure, evolution and demography of Lassa virus and its natural reservoir, the rodent Mastomys natalensis, in Guinea, West Africa. Analysis of nucleoprotein gene sequences enabled us to reconstruct the evolutionary history of Lassa virus, which appeared 750 to 900 years ago in Nigeria and only recently spread across western Africa (170 years ago. Bayesian demographic inferences revealed that both the host and the virus populations have gone recently through severe genetic bottlenecks. The timing of these events matches civil war-related mass movements of refugees and accompanying environmental degradation. Forest and habitat destruction and human predation of the natural reservoir are likely explanations for the sharp decline observed in the rodent populations, the consequent virus population decline, and the coincident increased incidence of Lassa fever in these regions. Interestingly, we were also able to detect a similar pattern in Nigeria coinciding with the Biafra war. Our findings show that anthropogenic factors may profoundly impact the population genetics of a virus and its reservoir within the context of an emerging infectious disease.

  15. National Uranium Resource Evaluation: Baker Quadrangle, Oregon and Idaho

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardi, M.L.; Robins, J.W.

    1982-05-01

    The Baker Quadrangle, Oregon, and Idaho, was evaluated to identify areas containing geologic environments favorable for uranium deposits. The criteria used was developed for the National Uranium Resource Evaluation program. Stream-sediment reconnaissance and detailed surface studies were augmented by subsurface-data interpretion and an aerial radiometric survey. Results indicate that lower Pliocene sedimentary rocks in the Lower Powder River Valley-Virtue Flat basin are favorable characteristics, they remain unevaluated because of lack of subsurface data. Tertiary sandstones, possibly present at depth in the Long and Cascade Valleys, also remain unevaluated due to lack of subsurface data. All remaining environments in the Baker Quadrangle are unfavorable for all classes of uranium deposits

  16. Ross E. Baker, DC: A Canadian chiropractic survivor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Douglas M

    2014-03-01

    This paper is an historical biography of a fortunate man. It begins with a glimpse of Ross E. Baker's origins in south-western Ontario, watches him going to school and working in Hamilton before joining the Canadian Army and shipping off to Europe to fight in the Second World War. At War's end, the article picks up Dr. Baker as he comes home, starts a family, becomes a chiropractor and sustains a viable practice. Now in the twilight of life, the good doctor is last seen content with his retirement, spending days at his cottage property, reviewing his memoirs and reflecting on the tumult, terror and eventual triumph of the D-Day landing at Normandy.

  17. Allergic airway disease in Italian bakers and pastry makers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Zotti, R; Larese, F; Bovenzi, M; Negro, C; Molinari, S

    1994-08-01

    A survey was carried out on respiratory symptoms and skin prick test response to common allergens (atopy), storage mites, and occupational allergens among 226 bakers and pastry makers from 105 small businesses in northern Italy. Atopy was present in 54 workers (23.4%); 40 workers (17.7%) were skin positive to at least one storage mite, 27 (11.9%) to wheat flour and 17 (7.5%) to alpha-amylase. Work related asthma was reported by 11 (4.9%) workers and rhinoconjunctivitis by 31 (17.7%); 22 workers (10.2%) complained of chronic bronchitis. The distribution of skin prick test results among bakers and among 119 white collar workers did not indicate (by logistic analysis) an increased risk for bakers to skin sensitisation to common allergens, storage mite, or to a group of five flours. Sensitisation to wheat flour, on the other hand, was present only among exposed workers. Skin sensitisation to occupational allergens was significantly associated with atopy (p < 0.001), smoking habit (p = 0.015), and work seniority (p = 0.027). The risk of work related symptoms was associated with sensitisation to wheat or alpha-amylase, and with atopy, but not with sensitisation to storage mites, work seniority, or smoking habit. The results of the study indicate that there is still a significant risk of allergic respiratory disease among Italian bakers. Not only wheat allergens, but also alpha-amylase must be considered as causative agents, although sensitisation to storage mites is not important in the occupational allergic response. Atopy must be regarded as an important predisposing factor for skin sensitisation to occupational allergens and for the onset of symptoms at work. The data confirm that for effective prevention, greater care should be taken not only in limiting environmental exposure, but also in identifying susceptible people.

  18. Maximal reductions in the Baker-Hausdorff formula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolsrud, M.

    1992-05-01

    A preliminary expression for the Baker-Hausdorff formula is found up to ninth order, i.e. a series expansion of z in terms of multiple commutators, where e x =e x e y with x and y non-commuting, up to ninth degree in x,y. By means of complete sets of linear relations between multiple commutators, maximal reduction of the number of different multiple commutators in the series is obtained. 4 refs

  19. Improved vanillin production in baker's yeast through in silico design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brochado, Ana Rita; Matos, Cláudia; Møller, Birger L.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Vanillin is one of the most widely used flavouring agents, originally obtained from cured seed pods of the vanilla orchid Vanilla planifolia. Currently vanillin is mostly produced via chemical synthesis. A de novo synthetic pathway for heterologous vanillin production from glucose has...... recently been implemented in baker's yeast, Saccharamyces cerevisiae. In this study we aimed at engineering this vanillin cell factory towards improved productivity and thereby at developing an attractive alternative to chemical synthesis. Results: Expression of a glycosyltransferase from Arabidopsis...

  20. X-ray sensititvity of embryonated Capillaria hepatica eggs and serum-GLDH activities and antibody titres in Mastomys natalensis infected with untreated or irradiated eggs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zahner, H.; Schmidt, H.; Laemmler, G.; Geyer, E.

    1981-01-01

    X-ray irradiation of embryonated Capillaria hepatica eggs using 0.5, 1, or 2 Krd resulted in a progressive decrease of egg production of the female nematodes which had developed from irradiated first stage larvae in Mastomys natalensis. Egg production did not occur after irradiation with 3, 4, 5, 10, 30, 50, or 70 Krd. The capacity of the parasites to invade the liver was not influenced. Infection of M. natalensis using unirradiated eggs was followed by an increase of serum-GLDH-activities between days 6 and 8 post infection reaching maximum values in this period of infection. Furthermore high values have been determined after the beginning of patency. Increased activity persisted up to the end of the experiment on day 36 post infection. After infection with eggs which had received 2.2 or 5 Krd the increase of serum-GLDH-activities was decreased and occurred later in the course of infection using 5 Krd irradiated eggs. Antibodies could be demonstrated as early as one week after infection with unirradiated eggs. Employing the indirect haemagglutination test, using an aqueous extract from non-embryonated eggs as antigen, maximum titres occurred at the beginning of patency. After a nearly plateau-like course titres began to drop about 7 weeks p.i., i.e. about the end of egg production by the female worms, but antibodies were still detectable 17 weeks p.i. (end of the observation period). After infection with eggs which had received 2.2 or 5 Krd antibody development was delayed. Maximum titres were somewhat (2.2 Krd) or markedly (5 Krd) lower. Thereafter titres dropped to values comparable to those of uninfected M. natalensis. The results are compared with published reports on the pathohistology of capillariasis.

  1. X-ray sensititvity of embryonated Capillaria hepatica eggs and serum-GLDH activities and antibody titres in Mastomys natalensis infected with untreated or irradiated eggs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahner, H.; Schmidt, H.; Laemmler, G.; Geyer, E.

    1981-01-01

    X-ray irradiation of embryonated Capillaria hepatica eggs using 0.5, 1, or 2 Krd resulted in a progressive decrease of egg production of the female nematodes which had developed from irradiated first stage larvae in Mastomys natalensis. Egg production did not occur after irradiation with 3, 4, 5, 10, 30, 50, or 70 Krd. The capacity of the parasites to invade the liver was not influenced. Infection of M. natalensis using unirradiated eggs was followed by an increase of serum-GLDH-activities between days 6 and 8 post infection reaching maximum values in this period of infection. Furthermore high values have been determined after the beginning of patency. Increased activity persisted up to the end of the experiment on day 36 post infection. After infection with eggs which had received 2.2 or 5 Krd the increase of serum-GLDH-activities was decreased and occurred later in the course of infection using 5 Krd irradiated eggs. Antibodies could be demonstrated as early as one week after infection with unirradiated eggs. Employing the indirect haemagglutination test, using an aqueous extract from non-embryonated eggs as antigen, maximum titres occurred at the beginning of patency. After a nearly plateau-like course titres began to drop about 7 weeks p.i., i.e. about the end of egg production by the female worms, but antibodies were still detectable 17 weeks p.i. (end of the observation period). After infection with eggs which had received 2.2 or 5 Krd antibody development was delayed. Maximum titres were somewhat (2.2 Krd) or markedly (5 Krd) lower. Thereafter titres dropped to values comparable to those of uninfected M. natalensis. The results are compared with published reports on the pathohistology of capillariasis. (orig.) [de

  2. Respiratory symptoms and sensitization in bread and cake bakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, T A; Smith, P W

    1998-07-01

    This purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between exposure to wheat flour, soya flour and fungal amylase and the development of work-related symptoms and sensitization in bread and cake bakery employees who have regular exposure to these substances. The study populations consisted of 394 bread bakery workers and 77 cake bakery workers whose normal jobs involved the sieving, weighing and mixing of ingredients. The groups were interviewed with the aim of identifying the prevalence, nature and pattern of any work-related respiratory symptoms. They were also skin-prick tested against the common bakery sensitizing agents, i.e., wheat flour, soya flour, rice flour and fungal amylase. The results of personal sampling for sieving, weighing and mixing operations at the bakeries from which the study groups were taken were collated in order to determine typical exposures to total inhalable dust from the ingredients, expressed as 8 hour time-weighted average exposures. Data from the health surveillance and collated dust measurements were compared with the aim of establishing an exposure-response relationship for sensitization. The prevalence of work-related symptoms in bread bakery and cake bakery ingredient handlers was 20.4% and 10.4% respectively. However, in a large proportion of those reporting symptoms in connection with work, the symptoms were intermittent and of short duration. It is considered that the aetiology of such symptoms is likely to be due to a non-specific irritant effect of high total dust levels, rather than allergy. None of the cake bakers and only 3.1% of the bread bakers had symptoms which were thought to be due to allergy to baking ingredients. Using skin-prick testing as a marker of sensitization, the prevalence of positive tests to wheat flour was 6% for the bread bakers and 3% for the cake bakers. Comparable prevalences for soya flour were 7% and 1% respectively. However, the prevalence of positive skin-prick tests to fungal amylase

  3. Removal of heavy metal from industrial effluents using Baker's yeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferdous, Anika; Maisha, Nuzhat; Sultana, Nayer; Ahmed, Shoeb

    2016-07-01

    Bioremediation of wastewater containing heavy metals is one of the major challenges in environmental biotechnology. Heavy metals are not degraded and as a result they remain in the ecosystem, and pose serious health hazards as it comes in contact with human due to anthropogenic activities. Biological treatment with various microorganisms has been practiced widely in recent past, however, accessing and maintaining the microorganisms have always been a challenge. Microorganisms like Baker's yeast can be very promising biosorbents as they offer high surface to volume ratio, large availability, rapid kinetics of adsorption and desorption and low cost. The main aim of this study is to evaluate the applicability of the biosorption process using baker's yeast. Here we present an experimental investigation of biosorption of Chromium (Cr) from water using commercial Baker's Yeast. It was envisaged that yeast, dead or alive, would adsorb heavy metals, however, operating parameters could play vital roles in determining the removal efficiency. Parameters, such as incubation time, pH, amount of biosorbent and heavy metal concentration were varied to investigate the impacts of those parameters on removal efficiency. Rate of removal was found to be inversely proportional to the initial Cr (+6) concentrations but the removal rate per unit biomass was a weakly dependent on initial Cr(+6) concentrations. Biosorption process was found to be more efficient at lower pH and it exhibited lower removal with the increase in solution pH. The optimum incubation time was found to be between 6-8 hours and optimum pH for the metal ion solution was 2. The effluents produced in leather industries are the major source of chromium pollution in Bangladesh and this study has presented a very cost effective yet efficient heavy metal removal approach that can be adopted for such kind of wastewater.

  4. Novel baker's yeast catalysed hydride reduction of an epoxide moiety

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Horak, RM

    1995-02-27

    Full Text Available 8. This was successfully prepared by the coupling 4 of valeric acid chloride to Meldrum' s acid to yield the C-acyl derivative 6. Compound 6 was treated with SO2Ci 2 yielding the chloro acyl derivative of Meldrum...) O D (8) (v) + O2 N/~/CHO Reagents: (i) SOCI2, 70%, (ii) Meldrum's acid, pyridine, 80%, (iii) SO2C12, 65%, (iv) D20, Ac20, 20%, (v) K-t-butoxide, 20%, (vi) Baker's yeast, 12%. Scheme 3 The deuterium labelled...

  5. Mount Baker lahars and debris flows, ancient, modern, and future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, David S; Scott, Kevin M.; Grossman, Eric E.; Linneman, Scott

    2014-01-01

    The Middle Fork Nooksack River drains the southwestern slopes of the active Mount Baker stratovolcano in northwest Washington State. The river enters Bellingham Bay at a growing delta 98 km to the west. Various types of debris flows have descended the river, generated by volcano collapse or eruption (lahars), glacial outburst floods, and moraine landslides. Initial deposition of sediment during debris flows occurs on the order of minutes to a few hours. Long-lasting, down-valley transport of sediment, all the way to the delta, occurs over a period of decades, and affects fish habitat, flood risk, gravel mining, and drinking water.

  6. Breaking an encryption scheme based on chaotic baker map

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, Gonzalo; Li, Shujun

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, a growing number of cryptosystems based on chaos have been proposed, many of them fundamentally flawed by a lack of robustness and security. This Letter describes the security weaknesses of a recently proposed cryptographic algorithm with chaos at the physical level based on the baker map. It is shown that the security is trivially compromised for practical implementations of the cryptosystem with finite computing precision and for the use of the iteration number n as the secret key. Some possible countermeasures to enhance the security of the chaos-based cryptographic algorithm are also discussed

  7. Accumulation of gold using Baker's yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, Kamalika; Lahiri, Susanta; Sinha, P.

    2006-01-01

    Authors have reported preconcentration of 152 Eu, a long-lived fission product, by yeast cells, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Gold being a precious metal is used in electroplating, hydrogenation catalyst, etc. Heterogeneous composition of samples and low concentration offers renewed interest in its selective extraction of gold using various extractants. Gold can be recovered from different solutions using various chemical reagents like amines, organophosphorus compounds, and extractants containing sulphur as donor atom, etc. In the present work, two different strains of baker's yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been used to study the preconcentration of gold at various experimental conditions

  8. Building Abelian Functions with Generalised Baker-Hirota Operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew England

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We present a new systematic method to construct Abelian functions on Jacobian varieties of plane, algebraic curves. The main tool used is a symmetric generalisation of the bilinear operator defined in the work of Baker and Hirota. We give explicit formulae for the multiple applications of the operators, use them to define infinite sequences of Abelian functions of a prescribed pole structure and deduce the key properties of these functions. We apply the theory on the two canonical curves of genus three, presenting new explicit examples of vector space bases of Abelian functions. These reveal previously unseen similarities between the theories of functions associated to curves of the same genus.

  9. The Archives of the History of American Psychology: An Interview with David B. Baker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, Loreto R.

    2001-01-01

    Presents an interview with David B. Baker, Director of the Archives of the History of American Psychology. Covers topics such as: Baker's interest in the history of psychology, his work at the Archives of the History of American Psychology, and recommendations for teachers when addressing history in non-history courses. (CMK)

  10. Ultrasound guided percutaneous treatment and follow-up of Baker's cyst in knee osteoarthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Köroğlu, Mert; Çallıoğlu, Mehmet; Eriş, Hüseyin Naim; Kayan, Mustafa; Çetin, Meltem; Yener, Mahmut; Gürses, Cemil; Erol, Bekir; Türkbey, Barış; Parlak, Ayşe Eda; Akhan, Okan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Purpose of this study is to assess sonographic changes and clinical response in different subgroups of Baker's cyst patients with knee osteoarthritis after a single session of ultrasound-guided percutaneous aspiration and corticosteroid injection. Materials and methods: Thirty-two knee osteoarthritis patients (46–85 years, mean 58.97 ± 9.88) with symptomatic Baker's cyst diagnosed at ultrasonography were included in the study. To determine the grade of the symptoms, Visual Analogue Scale was applied. The patients were grouped in two, as simple (n = 24) and complex (n = 8) Baker's cyst. Thirty-two ultrasound-guided cyst aspirations concomitant 1 ml betamethasone injection (24 simple, 8 complex subgroups) were performed. Patients were followed clinically as well as via ultrasonography for 6 months after procedures. Results: A significant decrease in volume of the Baker's cysts after percutaneous treatment was accompanied by a significant clinical improvement. Moreover, the volume reduction of Baker's cyst after the treatment was significantly correlated with the clinical improvement (Pearson correlation coefficient = 0.542, p = 0.001). All 6 Baker's cysts relapsed at ultrasonography were complex type. Furthermore, a comparison of patients with simple Baker's cysts and those with complex Baker's cysts demonstrated no significant change in Visual Analogue Scale scores between two groups (p = 0.061, Mann–Whitney U). No complications (minor or major) occurred secondary to percutaneous treatment. Conclusion: Baker's cysts can be grouped as simple and complex groups via ultrasonography prior to the treatment. Cyst aspiration with ultrasound-guided corticosteroid injection yields clinical improvement and cyst volume reduction in all subgroups of patients with Baker's cyst secondary to knee osteoarthritis.

  11. Neoglacial fluctuations of Deming Glacier, Mt. Baker, Washington USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, G.; Menounos, B.; Scott, K.; Clague, J. J.; Tucker, D.; Riedel, J.; Davis, P.

    2007-12-01

    Deming Glacier flows from the upper west slopes of Mt. Baker, a stratovolcano in the Cascade Range of Washington, USA. The north and south lateral moraines of Deming Glacier are composed of at least four tills separated by layers of detrital wood and sheared stumps in growth position. The stratigraphy records fluctuations of the glacier during the Holocene. The outer ten rings of an in situ stump from the middle wood layer, which is about 40 m below the north lateral moraine crest and 1.2 km downvalley from the present glacier terminus, yielded an age of 1750 ± 50~~ 14C yr BP [1810-1550 cal yr BP]. The stump revealed at least 300 rings and thus records a period of landscape stability and relatively restricted glaciation for several hundred years prior to ca. 1750 14C yr BP . Samples from the lowest wood layer also have been submitted for radiocarbon dating. Outer rings of detrital wood samples collected from two wood mats exposed in the south lateral moraine, 2.3 km downvalley of the glacier terminus, returned radiocarbon ages of 1600 ± 30~~ 14C yr BP [1550- 1410 cal yr BP] and 430 ± 30~~ 14C yr BP [AD 1420-1620]. These data indicate that Deming Glacier advanced over a vegetated moraine sometime after 1810 cal yr BP to a position less extensive that it achieved at the peak of the Little Ice Age. The glacier then receded before it began its final and most extensive Holocene advance after AD 1420. The older advance is correlative with the 'First Millennium AD' advance, recently recognized throughout western North America. The younger advance coincides with an advance of Mt. Baker's Easton Glacier [AD 1430-1630], and advances of many alpine glaciers elsewhere in western North America. Our data suggest that glaciers on Mt. Baker fluctuated in a similar manner to alpine glaciers in the Coast Mountains of British Columbia and in other mountain ranges of northwest North America during Neoglaciation.

  12. Mammalian pheromone studies, VII. Identification of thiazole derivatives in the preorbital gland secretions of the grey duiker, Sylvicapra grimmia, and the red duiker, Cephalophus natalensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, B V; Pretorius, P J; Stander, J; Grierson, G R

    1988-01-01

    2-Isobutyl-1,3-thiazole and its 4,5-dihydro derivative were identified in the preorbital gland secretions of the grey duiker, Sylvicapra grimmia, and the red duiker, Cephalophus natalensis, but are absent from the preorbital secretion of the blue duiker, C. monticola. These two compounds which are present in high, but varying concentrations in the secretions of male grey duikers, are present in low concentrations in the secretions of females. This seems to be the only consistent significant difference between the secretions of male and female grey duikers and together with the fact that only males mark out their territories, was construed as evidence in favour of these two compounds playing a significant role in the territorial behaviour of male grey duikers.

  13. Genetic and phenotypic characteristics of baker's yeast: relevance to baking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randez-Gil, Francisca; Córcoles-Sáez, Isaac; Prieto, José A

    2013-01-01

    Yeasts rarely encounter ideal physiological conditions during their industrial life span; therefore, their ability to adapt to changing conditions determines their usefulness and applicability. This is especially true for baking strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The success of this yeast in the ancient art of bread making is based on its capacity to rapidly transform carbohydrates into CO2 rather than its unusual resistance to environmental stresses. Moreover, baker's yeast must exhibit efficient respiratory metabolism during yeast manufacturing, which determines biomass yield. However, optimal growth conditions often have negative consequences in other commercially important aspects, such as fermentative power or stress tolerance. This article reviews the genetic and physiological characteristics of baking yeast strains, emphasizing the activation of regulatory mechanisms in response to carbon source and stress signaling and their importance in defining targets for strain selection and improvement.

  14. The vertebrate fauna of Ichauway, Baker County, GA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, L.L.; Steen, D.A.; Stober, J.M.; Freeman, Mary C.; Golladay, S.W.; Conner, L.M.; Cochrane, J.

    2006-01-01

    Less than 4% of the once extensive Pinus palustris (longleaf pine) ecosystem remains today. Although longleaf pine habitats are recognized for their high species diversity, few published accounts document the vertebrate faunas of remaining tracts. Here we report on the vertebrate species richness of lchauway, an 11,300-ha property in Baker County, GA. The property includes ca. 7300 ha of longleaf pine with native ground cover, along with more than 30 seasonal wetlands and ca. 45 km of riparian habitat associated with Ichawaynochaway Creek, Big Cypress Creek, and the Flint River. The fauna includes 61 species of fish, 31 amphibians, 53 reptiles, 191 birds, and 41 mammals. Despite the relative isolation of the property from other natural ecosystems, the vertebrate fauna of lchauway is remarkably diverse and may offer an example of reference conditions to guide restoration of longleaf pine forests, associated seasonal wetlands, and riparian areas elsewhere in the southeastern U S.

  15. The scholarly rebellion of the early Baker Street Irregulars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Mills

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This work provides and analyzes an early institutional history of the pioneering Sherlock Holmes American fan club, the Baker Street Irregulars (BSI. Using the publications and records of these devoted Sherlockians, I track the BSI's development from a speakeasy gathering in 1934 to a national organization by the mid-1940s. This growth was built on a foundation of Victorian nostalgia and playful humor. Yet at the same time the members of the Irregulars took their fandom seriously, producing Sherlockian scholarship and creating an infrastructure of journals, conferences, and credentialing that directly mimicked the academy. They positioned themselves in contrast to prevailing scholarly practices of the period, such as New Criticism. I trace both how their fan practices developed over time and how this conflict with the academy led to many of the BSI's defining characteristics.

  16. Leaf Epidermis of the Rheophyte Dyckia brevifolia Baker (Bromeliaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghislaine Maria Lobo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Some species of Dyckia Schult. f., including Dyckia brevifolia Baker, are rheophytes that live in the fast-moving water currents of streams and rivers which are subject to frequent flooding, but also period of low water. This study aimed to analyze the leaf epidermis of D. brevifolia in the context of epidermal adaptation to this aquatic plant’s rheophytic habitat. The epidermis is uniseriate, and the cuticle is thickened. The inner periclinal and anticlinal walls of the epidermal cells are thickened and lignified. Stomata are tetracytic, located in the depressions in relation to the surrounding epidermal cells, and covered by peltate trichomes. While the epidermal characteristics of D. brevifolia are similar to those of Bromeliaceae species, this species has made particular adaptations of leaf epidermis in response to its rheophytic environment.

  17. Improved vanillin production in baker's yeast through in silico design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brochado, Ana Rita; Matos, Claudia; Møller, Birger L; Hansen, Jørgen; Mortensen, Uffe H; Patil, Kiran Raosaheb

    2010-11-08

    Vanillin is one of the most widely used flavouring agents, originally obtained from cured seed pods of the vanilla orchid Vanilla planifolia. Currently vanillin is mostly produced via chemical synthesis. A de novo synthetic pathway for heterologous vanillin production from glucose has recently been implemented in baker's yeast, Saccharamyces cerevisiae. In this study we aimed at engineering this vanillin cell factory towards improved productivity and thereby at developing an attractive alternative to chemical synthesis. Expression of a glycosyltransferase from Arabidopsis thaliana in the vanillin producing S. cerevisiae strain served to decrease product toxicity. An in silico metabolic engineering strategy of this vanillin glucoside producing strain was designed using a set of stoichiometric modelling tools applied to the yeast genome-scale metabolic network. Two targets (PDC1 and GDH1) were selected for experimental verification resulting in four engineered strains. Three of the mutants showed up to 1.5 fold higher vanillin β-D-glucoside yield in batch mode, while continuous culture of the Δpdc1 mutant showed a 2-fold productivity improvement. This mutant presented a 5-fold improvement in free vanillin production compared to the previous work on de novo vanillin biosynthesis in baker's yeast. Use of constraints corresponding to different physiological states was found to greatly influence the target predictions given minimization of metabolic adjustment (MOMA) as biological objective function. In vivo verification of the targets, selected based on their predicted metabolic adjustment, successfully led to overproducing strains. Overall, we propose and demonstrate a framework for in silico design and target selection for improving microbial cell factories.

  18. Improved vanillin production in baker's yeast through in silico design

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Vanillin is one of the most widely used flavouring agents, originally obtained from cured seed pods of the vanilla orchid Vanilla planifolia. Currently vanillin is mostly produced via chemical synthesis. A de novo synthetic pathway for heterologous vanillin production from glucose has recently been implemented in baker's yeast, Saccharamyces cerevisiae. In this study we aimed at engineering this vanillin cell factory towards improved productivity and thereby at developing an attractive alternative to chemical synthesis. Results Expression of a glycosyltransferase from Arabidopsis thaliana in the vanillin producing S. cerevisiae strain served to decrease product toxicity. An in silico metabolic engineering strategy of this vanillin glucoside producing strain was designed using a set of stoichiometric modelling tools applied to the yeast genome-scale metabolic network. Two targets (PDC1 and GDH1) were selected for experimental verification resulting in four engineered strains. Three of the mutants showed up to 1.5 fold higher vanillin β-D-glucoside yield in batch mode, while continuous culture of the Δpdc1 mutant showed a 2-fold productivity improvement. This mutant presented a 5-fold improvement in free vanillin production compared to the previous work on de novo vanillin biosynthesis in baker's yeast. Conclusion Use of constraints corresponding to different physiological states was found to greatly influence the target predictions given minimization of metabolic adjustment (MOMA) as biological objective function. In vivo verification of the targets, selected based on their predicted metabolic adjustment, successfully led to overproducing strains. Overall, we propose and demonstrate a framework for in silico design and target selection for improving microbial cell factories. PMID:21059201

  19. Improved vanillin production in baker's yeast through in silico design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansen Jørgen

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vanillin is one of the most widely used flavouring agents, originally obtained from cured seed pods of the vanilla orchid Vanilla planifolia. Currently vanillin is mostly produced via chemical synthesis. A de novo synthetic pathway for heterologous vanillin production from glucose has recently been implemented in baker's yeast, Saccharamyces cerevisiae. In this study we aimed at engineering this vanillin cell factory towards improved productivity and thereby at developing an attractive alternative to chemical synthesis. Results Expression of a glycosyltransferase from Arabidopsis thaliana in the vanillin producing S. cerevisiae strain served to decrease product toxicity. An in silico metabolic engineering strategy of this vanillin glucoside producing strain was designed using a set of stoichiometric modelling tools applied to the yeast genome-scale metabolic network. Two targets (PDC1 and GDH1 were selected for experimental verification resulting in four engineered strains. Three of the mutants showed up to 1.5 fold higher vanillin β-D-glucoside yield in batch mode, while continuous culture of the Δpdc1 mutant showed a 2-fold productivity improvement. This mutant presented a 5-fold improvement in free vanillin production compared to the previous work on de novo vanillin biosynthesis in baker's yeast. Conclusion Use of constraints corresponding to different physiological states was found to greatly influence the target predictions given minimization of metabolic adjustment (MOMA as biological objective function. In vivo verification of the targets, selected based on their predicted metabolic adjustment, successfully led to overproducing strains. Overall, we propose and demonstrate a framework for in silico design and target selection for improving microbial cell factories.

  20. Marketing research among small and medium-sized business enterprises - a VDEW field investigation with baker`s shops; Marktforschung bei Gewerbebetrieben - VDEW-Baeckereibefragung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, A. [Isar-Amperwerke AG, Muenchen (Germany); Nickel, M. [VDEW-Hauptgeschaeftsstelle, Frankfurt am Main (Germany). Gruppe ``Energiewirtschaft und Statistik``

    1998-12-14

    The baker`s trade is a business of interest to electric utilities, as bakers have a high demand for process heat and their supply requirements are characterized by simple load histories. Hence competing electric utilities in the competitive market target this customer group with increasing efforts. The authors summarize the information obtained from the field investigation and the conclusions drawn. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Die Baeckereien sind wegen ihres hohen Prozesswaermebedarfs und des guenstigen Lastverlaufs eine interessante Kundengruppe fuer die Stromversorger. Der Beratung und Betreuung dieser Kunden muss deshalb hohe Aufmerksamkeit gewidmet werden. Nicht zuletzt wegen des Wettbewerbs auf dem Energiemarkt muessen die Stromversorger die Kundenorientierung noch intensivieren. Auch dadurch entstehen neue Anforderungen an die Kundenberatung und -betreuung. Die Verfasser erlaeutern die wichtigsten Ergebnisse und Schlussfolgerungen aus einer Befragung von Baeckereibetrieben. (orig.)

  1. Gridded multibeam bathymetry of Baker Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded bathymetry at 40m resolution surrounding Baker Island, within the Pacific Remote Island Areas - Central Pacific Ocean. Bottom coverage was achieved in depths...

  2. A Survey of Hygiene Practices of Bakers in Amuwo Odofin Local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Survey of Hygiene Practices of Bakers in Amuwo Odofin Local Government ... pest control, hygiene of personnel, storage and waste management. Important as this strategy is in the food industry, little has been reported on the practice of ...

  3. CRED REA Algal Assessments at Baker Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Twelve quadrats were sampled along 2 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments, conducted at 1 site at Baker in the Pacific...

  4. CRED REA Fish Team Belt Transect Survey at Baker, Pacific Remote Island Areas, 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 3 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 9 sites at Baker in the Pacific...

  5. Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected - 2011 Digital Orthophotos - Baker County

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — This dataset is a collection of GeoTIFF natural color orthophotos covering Baker, Bradford, and Union counties within Florida. An orthophoto is remotely sensed image...

  6. Coupled skinny baker's maps and the Kaplan-Yorke conjecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gröger, Maik; Hunt, Brian R.

    2013-09-01

    The Kaplan-Yorke conjecture states that for ‘typical’ dynamical systems with a physical measure, the information dimension and the Lyapunov dimension coincide. We explore this conjecture in a neighborhood of a system for which the two dimensions do not coincide because the system consists of two uncoupled subsystems. We are interested in whether coupling ‘typically’ restores the equality of the dimensions. The particular subsystems we consider are skinny baker's maps, and we consider uni-directional coupling. For coupling in one of the possible directions, we prove that the dimensions coincide for a prevalent set of coupling functions, but for coupling in the other direction we show that the dimensions remain unequal for all coupling functions. We conjecture that the dimensions prevalently coincide for bi-directional coupling. On the other hand, we conjecture that the phenomenon we observe for a particular class of systems with uni-directional coupling, where the information and Lyapunov dimensions differ robustly, occurs more generally for many classes of uni-directionally coupled systems (also called skew-product systems) in higher dimensions.

  7. Coupled skinny baker's maps and the Kaplan–Yorke conjecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gröger, Maik; Hunt, Brian R

    2013-01-01

    The Kaplan–Yorke conjecture states that for ‘typical’ dynamical systems with a physical measure, the information dimension and the Lyapunov dimension coincide. We explore this conjecture in a neighborhood of a system for which the two dimensions do not coincide because the system consists of two uncoupled subsystems. We are interested in whether coupling ‘typically’ restores the equality of the dimensions. The particular subsystems we consider are skinny baker's maps, and we consider uni-directional coupling. For coupling in one of the possible directions, we prove that the dimensions coincide for a prevalent set of coupling functions, but for coupling in the other direction we show that the dimensions remain unequal for all coupling functions. We conjecture that the dimensions prevalently coincide for bi-directional coupling. On the other hand, we conjecture that the phenomenon we observe for a particular class of systems with uni-directional coupling, where the information and Lyapunov dimensions differ robustly, occurs more generally for many classes of uni-directionally coupled systems (also called skew-product systems) in higher dimensions. (paper)

  8. Effect of inhibitors on acid production by baker's yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigler, K; Knotková, A; Kotyk, A

    1978-01-01

    Glucose-induced acid extrusion, respiration and anaerobic fermentation in baker's yeast was studied with the aid of sixteen inhibitors. Uranyl(2+) nitrate affected the acid extrusion more anaerobically than aerobically; the complexing of Mg2+ and Ca2+ by EDTA at the membrane had no effect. Inhibitors of glycolysis (iodoacetamide, N-ethylmaleimide, fluoride) suppressed acid production markedly, and so did the phosphorylation-blocking arsenate. Fluoroacetate, inhibiting the citric-acid cycle, had no effect. Inhibition by uncouplers depended on their pKa values: 2,4,6-trinitrophenol (pKa 0.4) less than 2,4-dinitrophenol (4.1) less than azide (4.7) less than 3-chlorophenylhydrazonomalononitrile (6.0). Inhibition by trinitrophenol was only slightly increased by its acetylation. Cyanide and nonpermeant oligomycin showed practically no effect; inhibition by dicyclohexylcarbodiimide was delayed but potent. The concentration profiles of inhibition of acid production differed from those of respiration and fermentation. Thus, though the acid production is a metabolically dependent process, it does not reflect the intensity of metabolism, except partly in the first half of glycolysis.

  9. Obituary: Norman Hodgson Baker, Jr., 1931-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helfand, David J.

    2005-12-01

    Norman H. Baker, a key contributor to the foundation of modern stellar pulsation theory and former editor of the "Astronomical Journal", died on 11 October 2005 in Watertown, New York near his beloved summer home in Natural Bridge. He succumbed to complications of Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia, a bone marrow lymphoma that he had successfully surmounted for twenty-two years. Norm, as he was known to all, was born 23 October 1931 in Fergus Falls, Minnesota to Norman Hodgson and Jeannette (née Lieber) Baker. He attended the University of Minnesota where he met the first of many lifelong astronomical friends, Bill Erickson. He received his BA in 1952. He went on to do his PhD, "Radiation from Particle Interactions which Create Current," at Cornell University under Phil Morrison. He then moved to a postdoctoral position at the Max Planck Institut für Physik und Astrophysik in München with the intent of pursuing his work in plasma physics with Ludwig Biermann and Arnulf Schlüter. However, Rudolf (Rudi) Kippenhan snatched him away to pursue what became his lifelong interest, stellar physics. This was the dawn of the era in which electronic computers were becoming practical for scientific calculations, and Norm immediately adopted this new tool. Indeed, he remained at the forefront of computing technology throughout his life: He was certainly the first member of the Astronomy Department at Columbia to buy a Mac, and was undoubtedly one of the few emeritus professors in the world known by all the administrative staff as the first person to turn to when stumped by a computer problem. Following his first paper with Kippenhan on stellar rotation, Norm turned his attention to stellar pulsations, a topic he would pursue throughout his career. His 1962 paper in "Zeitschrift für Astrophysik" on pulsational models of Cepheids (Baker and Kippenhan 1962, 54, 155) is a classic in the field. The first figure displays the three dimensional model of the atmospheric absorption

  10. Treatment of the baker's yeast wastewater by electrocoagulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobya, M.; Delipinar, S.

    2008-01-01

    In the laboratory-scale experiments, treatment of baker's yeast production wastewater has been investigated by electrocoagulation (EC) using a batch reactor. Effects of the process variables such as pH, electrode material (Fe and Al), current density, and operating time are investigated in terms of removal efficiencies of chemical oxygen demand (COD), total organic carbon (TOC), turbidity, and operating cost, respectively. The maximum removal efficiencies of COD, TOC and turbidity under optimal operating conditions, i.e., pH 6.5 for Al electrode and pH 7 for Fe electrode, current density of 70 A/m 2 and operating time of 50 min were 71, 53 and 90% for Al electrode and 69, 52 and 56% for Fe electrode, respectively. Al electrode gave 4.4 times higher removal efficiency of turbidity than Fe electrode due to interference from color of dissolved iron. The operating costs for Al and Fe electrodes in terms of $/m 3 or $/kg COD were 1.54 and 0.82, 0.51 and 0.27, respectively

  11. Kenneth Frank Baker--pioneer leader in plant pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, R James

    2005-01-01

    Kenneth F. Baker (1908-1996) made major contributions to understanding diseases of ornamental plants, seed pathology, soil-borne plant pathogens, biological control, and history of plant pathology. His work set the stage for the success of today's ornamentals and nursery industries. His leadership and writings created the scientific framework for research and teaching on soil-borne plant pathogens and biological control. After B.Sc. and Ph.D. degrees from Washington State University in 1930 and 1934, respectively, and one year as a National Research Council Fellow with B.M. Dugger at Wisconsin, he took jobs in 1935 with the U.S. Department of Agriculture in Nebraska on establishment of shelter belts and 1936-39 with the Pineapple Producers Cooperative Association in Hawaii. He worked on diseases of ornamental plants at the University of California, Los Angeles, starting in 1939, moving to Berkeley in 1961 when the UCLA program closed. He retired in 1975 and moved to Corvallis, OR, as Emeritus Professor, Oregon State University, and Collaborator, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service. He spent four sabbatical leaves in Australia, and was elected fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in 1950, fellow of the American Phytopathological Society in 1969, and the Horticultural Hall of Fame in 1976.

  12. Vernonia condensata Baker (Asteraceae): A Promising Source of Antioxidants

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Jucélia Barbosa; Temponi, Vanessa dos Santos; Gasparetto, Carolina Miranda; Fabri, Rodrigo Luiz; Aragão, Danielle Maria de Oliveira; Pinto, Nícolas de Castro Campos; Ribeiro, Antônia; Scio, Elita; Del-Vechio-Vieira, Glauciemar; de Sousa, Orlando Vieira

    2013-01-01

    The present study evaluated the antioxidant potential of Vernonia condensata Baker (Asteraceae). Dried and powdered leaves were exhaustively extracted with ethanol by static maceration followed by partition to obtain the hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, and butanol fractions. Total phenols and flavonoids contents were determined through spectrophotometry and flavonoids were identified by HPLC-DAD system. The antioxidant activity was assessed by DPPH radical scavenging activity, TLC-bioautography, reducing power of Fe+3, phosphomolybdenum, and TBA assays. The total phenolic content and total flavonoids ranged from 0.19 to 23.11 g/100 g and from 0.13 to 4.10 g/100 g, respectively. The flavonoids apigenin and luteolin were identified in the ethyl acetate fraction. The IC50 of DPPH assay varied from 4.28 to 75.10 µg/mL and TLC-bioautography detected the antioxidant compounds. The reducing power of Fe+3 was 19.98 to 336.48 μg/mL, while the reaction with phosphomolybdenum ranged from 13.54% to 32.63% and 56.02% to 135.00% considering ascorbic acid and rutin as reference, respectively. At 30 mg/mL, the ethanolic extract and fractions revealed significant effect against lipid peroxidation. All these data sustain that V. condensata is an important and promising source of bioactive substances with antioxidant activity. PMID:24489987

  13. PimT, an amino acid exporter controls polyene production via secretion of the quorum sensing pimaricin-inducer PI-factor in Streptomyces natalensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guerra Susana M

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polyenes represent a major class of antifungal agents characterised by the presence of a series of conjugated double bonds in their planar hydroxylated macrolide ring structure. Despite their general interest, very little is known about the factors that modulate their biosynthesis. Among these factors, we have recently discovered a new inducing compound (PI-factor in the pimaricin producer Streptomyces natalensis, which elicits polyene production in a manner characteristic of quorum sensing. Here, we describe the involvement of an amino-acid exporter from S. natalensis in modulating the expression of pimaricin biosynthetic genes via secretion of the quorum-sensing pimaricin-inducer PI-factor. Results Adjacent to the pimaricin gene cluster lies a member of the RhtB family of amino-acid exporters. Gene deletion and complementation experiments provided evidence for a role for PimT in the export of L-homoserine, L-serine, and L-homoserine lactone. Expression of the gene was shown to be induced by homoserine and by the quorum-sensing pimaricin-inducer PI-factor. Interestingly, the mutant displayed 65% loss of pimaricin production, and also 50% decrease in the production of PI, indicating that PimT is used as PI-factor exporter, and suggesting that the effect in antifungal production might be due to limited secretion of the inducer. Conclusion This report describes the involvement of an amino acid exporter (encoded by pimT in the vicinity of the pimaricin cluster in modulating the expression of antibiotic biosynthetic genes via secretion of the quorum-sensing pimaricin-inducer PI-factor. The discovery of the participation of amino acid exporters in a signal transduction cascade for the production of polyene macrolides is unexpected, and represents an important step forward towards understanding the regulatory network for polyene regulation. Additionally, this finding constitutes the first detailed characterization of an amino

  14. Elimination of Biomphalaria pfeifferi, Bulinus tropicus and Lymnaea natalensis by the ampullarid snail, Marisa cornuarietis, in a man-made dam in northern Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguma, J F; McCullough, F S; Masha, E

    1982-03-01

    Marisa cornuarietis is a well known ampullarid competitor/predator of Biomphalaria glabrata in Puerto Rico. For the first time in Africa a flourishing population of Marisa has been established in a small, permanent, man-made dam at Kisangara, near Moshi, Tanzania. Prior to the release of M. cornuarietis in June 1977, this dam supported thriving populations of the pulmonate snail hosts Biomphalaria pfeifferi and Lymnaea natalensis; Bulinus tropicus and the melaniid Melanoides tuberculata were also common. Some 24 months after the establishment of Marisa the three pulmonate species had been eliminated; only M. tuberculata remained at about the same population density as originally recorded. Marisa has not caused any obvious adverse environmental impact in the dam. There is at present no valid evidence that this ampullarid would be a threat to local rice production, which is the only crop at risk, but carefully designed field trials should be undertaken to confirm or refute this view. In view of the vast number of permanent, lentic habitats throughout the Afrotropical region, which act as important transmission sites of schistosomiasis and fascioliasis, the role of Marisa cornuarietis as a cost-effective biological control agent in integrated control operations deserves henceforth to be energetically explored.

  15. An algorithm for the Baker-Campbell-Hausdorff formula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matone, Marco [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia “G. Galilei”, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Università di Padova, Via Marzolo, 8-35131 Padova (Italy)

    2015-05-21

    A simple algorithm, which exploits the associativity of the BCH formula, and that can be generalized by iteration, extends the remarkable simplification of the Baker-Campbell-Hausdorff (BCH) formula, recently derived by Van-Brunt and Visser. We show that if [X,Y]=uX+vY+cI, [Y,Z]=wY+zZ+dI, and, consistently with the Jacobi identity, [X,Z]=mX+nY+pZ+eI, then exp (X)exp (Y)exp (Z)=exp (aX+bY+cZ+dI) where a, b, c and d are solutions of four equations. In particular, the Van-Brunt and Visser formula exp (X)exp (Z)=exp (aX+bZ+c[X,Z]+dI) extends to cases when [X,Z] contains also elements different from X and Z. Such a closed form of the BCH formula may have interesting applications both in mathematics and physics. As an application, we provide the closed form of the BCH formula in the case of the exponentiation of the Virasoro algebra, with SL{sub 2}(ℂ) following as a subcase. We also determine three-dimensional subalgebras of the Virasoro algebra satisfying the Van-Brunt and Visser condition. It turns out that the exponential form of SL{sub 2}(ℂ) has a nice representation in terms of its eigenvalues and of the fixed points of the corresponding Möbius transformation. This may have applications in Uniformization theory and Conformal Field Theories.

  16. A novel bread making process using salt-stressed Baker's yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Lien-Te; Charles, Albert Linton; Ho, Chi-Tang; Huang, Tzou-Chi

    2009-01-01

    By adjusting the mixing order of ingredients in traditional formula, an innovative bread making process was developed. The effect of salt-stressed Baker's yeast on bread dough of different sugar levels was investigated. Baker's yeast was stressed in 7% salt solution then mixed into dough, which was then evaluated for fermentation time, dough fermentation producing gas, dough expansion, bread specific volumes, and sensory and physical properties. The results of this study indicated that salt-stressed Baker's yeast shortened fermentation time in 16% and 24% sugar dough. Forty minutes of salt stress produced significant amount of gas and increased bread specific volumes. The bread was softer and significantly improved sensory properties for aroma, taste, and overall acceptability were obtained.

  17. A Double Perturbation Method for Reducing Dynamical Degradation of the Digital Baker Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lingfeng; Lin, Jun; Miao, Suoxia; Liu, Bocheng

    2017-06-01

    The digital Baker map is widely used in different kinds of cryptosystems, especially for image encryption. However, any chaotic map which is realized on the finite precision device (e.g. computer) will suffer from dynamical degradation, which refers to short cycle lengths, low complexity and strong correlations. In this paper, a novel double perturbation method is proposed for reducing the dynamical degradation of the digital Baker map. Both state variables and system parameters are perturbed by the digital logistic map. Numerical experiments show that the perturbed Baker map can achieve good statistical and cryptographic properties. Furthermore, a new image encryption algorithm is provided as a simple application. With a rather simple algorithm, the encrypted image can achieve high security, which is competitive to the recently proposed image encryption algorithms.

  18. A generalization of Baker's quadratic formulae for hyperelliptic p-functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Athorne, Chris

    2011-01-01

    We present a generalization of a compact form, due to Baker, for quadratic identities satisfied by the three-index p-functions on curves of genus g=2, and a further generalization of a new result in genus g=3. The compact forms involve a bordered determinant containing 2(g-1)(g+1) free parameters. -- Highlights: → Properties of Weierstrass P-functions for hyperelliptic curves. → Generalization of result of H.F. Baker for genus two case. → Compact formulae with maximal number of parameters in genus two and three cases.

  19. Traditional herbal medicines: potential degradation of sterols and sterolins by microbial contaminants

    OpenAIRE

    S. Govender; M. van de Venter; D. du Plessis-Stoman; T. G. Downing

    2010-01-01

    Medicinal plants with a high content of sterols and sterolins, such as Bulbine natalensis (rooiwortel) and Hypoxis hemerocallidea (African potato), are commonly and inappropriately used in South Africa for the treatment of HIV/AIDS due to the inaccessibility of antiretroviral drugs. This study investigated the presence of active compounds, such as sterols and sterolins, in the herbal medicines. The research was carried out in the Nelson Mandela Metrop...

  20. Ultrasound guided percutaneous treatment and follow-up of Baker's cyst in knee osteoarthritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koeroglu, Mert, E-mail: mertkoroglu@hotmail.com [Antalya Education and Research Hospital, Department of Radiology, Antalya (Turkey); Call Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I oglu, Mehmet, E-mail: mehmetcallioglu@hotmail.com [Sueleyman Demirel University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Isparta (Turkey); Eris, Hueseyin Naim, E-mail: drhneris@hotmail.com [Sueleyman Demirel University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Isparta (Turkey); Kayan, Mustafa, E-mail: drkayan32@hotmail.com [Sueleyman Demirel University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Isparta (Turkey); Cetin, Meltem, E-mail: meltemcetin2011@yahoo.com [Sueleyman Demirel University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Isparta (Turkey); Yener, Mahmut, E-mail: bahtiyaryener@yahoo.com [Sueleyman Demirel University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Isparta (Turkey); Guerses, Cemil, E-mail: cemilgurses@gmail.com [Antalya Education and Research Hospital, Department of Radiology, Antalya (Turkey); Erol, Bekir, E-mail: mertkoroglu@hotmail.com [Antalya Education and Research Hospital, Department of Radiology, Antalya (Turkey); Tuerkbey, Bar Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I s, E-mail: bturkbey@yahoo.com [Hacettepe University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Ankara (Turkey); Parlak, Ayse Eda, E-mail: drteda@yahoo.com [Antalya Education and Research Hospital, Department of Radiology, Antalya (Turkey); Akhan, Okan, E-mail: akhano@tr.net [Hacettepe University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Ankara (Turkey)

    2012-11-15

    Objective: Purpose of this study is to assess sonographic changes and clinical response in different subgroups of Baker's cyst patients with knee osteoarthritis after a single session of ultrasound-guided percutaneous aspiration and corticosteroid injection. Materials and methods: Thirty-two knee osteoarthritis patients (46-85 years, mean 58.97 {+-} 9.88) with symptomatic Baker's cyst diagnosed at ultrasonography were included in the study. To determine the grade of the symptoms, Visual Analogue Scale was applied. The patients were grouped in two, as simple (n = 24) and complex (n = 8) Baker's cyst. Thirty-two ultrasound-guided cyst aspirations concomitant 1 ml betamethasone injection (24 simple, 8 complex subgroups) were performed. Patients were followed clinically as well as via ultrasonography for 6 months after procedures. Results: A significant decrease in volume of the Baker's cysts after percutaneous treatment was accompanied by a significant clinical improvement. Moreover, the volume reduction of Baker's cyst after the treatment was significantly correlated with the clinical improvement (Pearson correlation coefficient = 0.542, p = 0.001). All 6 Baker's cysts relapsed at ultrasonography were complex type. Furthermore, a comparison of patients with simple Baker's cysts and those with complex Baker's cysts demonstrated no significant change in Visual Analogue Scale scores between two groups (p = 0.061, Mann-Whitney U). No complications (minor or major) occurred secondary to percutaneous treatment. Conclusion: Baker's cysts can be grouped as simple and complex groups via ultrasonography prior to the treatment. Cyst aspiration with ultrasound-guided corticosteroid injection yields clinical improvement and cyst volume reduction in all subgroups of patients with Baker's cyst secondary to knee osteoarthritis.

  1. Erisipelóide de Baker-Rosenbach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aureo Guimarães de Macedo

    1970-10-01

    Full Text Available O erisipelóide de Baker-Rosenbach, embora assinalado no Brasil há 23, anos, por Sebastião Sampaio, seguido de nove casos estudados em 1951 por Lacaz e Ancona Lopes, não tem sido motivo de publicações posteriores. O A. teve ocasião de estudar seis casos, senão que três foram motivo de trabalho anterior e foram observados em 1953. Os três restantes, um de 1965 e dois de 1967, são aqui relatados. Assinala o A. a ubiquidade do germe, o Erysipelotrix rhusiopathiae e a variedade de condições em que o homem pode infectar-se, especialmente no exercício de determinadas profissões, o que dá à doença, caráter típico de doença profissional. São os operários de fábricas de botões ou em geral os que lidam com ossos, especialmente de porco ou carneiro, os açougueiros, magarefes, salsicheiros etc. São particularmente vulneráveis os que tratam com produtos do mar, pescadores, mercadores de siris, camarões, crustáceos, peixes em geral, pela facilidade com que se podem ferir e adquirir a infecção por picada ocasional. A doença atinge numerosos animais domésticos ou não, com formas clínicas bem definidas no porco (erisipela dos porcos, no carneiro (poliartrite dos carneiros, em animais de corte e de tração, em aves domésticas ou de rapina, ratos e camundongos, além de outros numerosos roedores. Moscas hematófagas e outros insetos têm sido encontrados infectados. Nunca é demais frisar que os produtos do mar são grande fonte de infecção humana. No homem, tem a dcença em geral, caráter benigno e localizado (erisipelóide, podendo em certas circunstâncias assumir característica septicêmica como no porco, produzir endocardite, como no carneiro além de outras formas clínicas e complicações. São resumidos no texto os três casos anteriormente apresentados e bem descritos os três inéditos, que têm história clínica e evolução típicas de erisipelóide. Tratando-se de doença com características tipicamente

  2. Yang--Mills gauge theories and Baker--Johnson quantum electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemmon, J.; Mahanthappa, K.T.

    1976-01-01

    We show that the physical mass of a fermion in a symmetric asymptotically free non-Abelian vector gauge theory is dynamical in origin. We comment on the close analogy that exists between such a theory and the Baker--Johnson finite quantum electrodynamics. Comments are also made when there is spontaneous symmetry breaking

  3. Kazachstania gamospora and Wickerhamomyces subpelliculosus: Two alternative baker's yeasts in the modern bakery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Nerve; Schifferdecker, Anna Judith; Gamero, Amparo; Compagno, Concetta; Boekhout, Teun; Piškur, Jure; Knecht, Wolfgang

    2017-06-05

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the conventional baker's yeast, remains the most domesticated yeast monopolizing the baking industry. Its rapid consumption of sugars and production of CO 2 are the most important attributes required to leaven the dough. New research attempts highlight that these attributes are not unique to S. cerevisiae, but also found in several non-conventional yeast species. A small number of these yeast species with similar properties have been described, but remain poorly studied. They present a vast untapped potential for the use as leavening agents and flavor producers due to their genetic and phylogenetic diversity. We assessed the potential of several non-conventional yeasts as leavening agents and flavor producers in dough-like conditions in the presence of high sugar concentrations and stressful environments mimicking conditions found in flour dough. We tested the capabilities of bread leavening and aroma formation in a microbread platform as well as in a bakery setup. Bread leavened with Kazachstania gamospora and Wickerhamomyces subpelliculosus had better overall results compared to control baker's yeast. In addition, both displayed higher stress tolerance and broader aroma profiles than the control baker's yeast. These attributes are important in bread and other farinaceous products, making K. gamospora and W. subpelliculosus highly applicable as alternative baker's yeasts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Kazachstania gamospora and Wickerhamomyces subpelliculosus : Two alternative baker's yeasts in the modern bakery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Nerve; Judith Schifferdecker, Anna; Gamero Lluna, Amparo; Compagno, Concetta; Boekhout, Teun; Piškur, Jure; Knecht, Wolfgang

    2017-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the conventional baker's yeast, remains the most domesticated yeast monopolizing the baking industry. Its rapid consumption of sugars and production of CO2 are the most important attributes required to leaven the dough. New research attempts highlight that these attributes

  5. Astragalus kongrensis Benth. Ex Baker (Fabaceae, a New Record for Central and North-West Himalayas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lal Babu Chaudhary

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Astragalus kongrensis Benth. Ex Baker is reported for the first time from Central (Nepal and North-West Himalayas (India. Earlier the species was known from East Himalaya (Sikkim-India, Bhutan and China. The description and illustrations of the species are provided.

  6. On a parametrization of Baker-Campbell-Hausdorf formula for bosonic superfields in Lie algebra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabeskiria, M.A.

    1984-01-01

    A compact form for the Baker-Cambell-Hausdorf formula has been obtained. Here the dependence of bosonic superfields, with their values on the Crassmann hull G(LAMBDA 2 ) of Lie algebra G, on the generators LAMBDA 2 has been factorized as a single exponent

  7. Electronically Transmitted Threats and Higher Education: Oppression, Free Speech, and Jake Baker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Jared C.

    2013-01-01

    When Jake Baker wrote a violent, sexually themed story about one of his classmates and emailed it to a friend, the case that ensued highlighted how new technologies have created fresh ways for students to harass, oppress, or be oppressed by others. This article examines concepts of violence and cultural imperialism oppression, primarily as defined…

  8. 77 FR 39675 - Wallowa-Whitman National Forest, Baker County, OR; North Fork Burnt River Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-05

    ...-Whitman National Forest, Baker County, OR; North Fork Burnt River Mining AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA... North Fork Burnt River Mining Record of Decision will replace and supercede the 2004 North Fork Burnt River Mining Record of Decision only where necessary to address the inadequacies identified by the court...

  9. Reconstructing streamflow variation of the Baker River from tree-rings in Northern Patagonia since 1765

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, Antonio; Bahamondez, Alejandra; González-Reyes, Alvaro; Muñoz, Ariel A.; Cuq, Emilio; Ruiz-Gómez, Carolina

    2015-10-01

    The understanding of the long-term variation of large rivers streamflow with a high economic and social relevance is necessary in order to improve the planning and management of water resources in different regions of the world. The Baker River has the highest mean discharge of those draining both slopes of the Andes South of 20°S and it is among the six rivers with the highest mean streamflow in the Pacific domain of South America (1100 m3 s-1 at its outlet). It drains an international basin of 29,000 km2 shared by Chile and Argentina and has a high ecologic and economic value including conservation, tourism, recreational fishing, and projected hydropower. This study reconstructs the austral summer - early fall (January-April) streamflow for the Baker River from Nothofagus pumilio tree-rings for the period 1765-2004. Summer streamflow represents 45.2% of the annual discharge. The regression model for the period (1961-2004) explains 54% of the variance of the Baker River streamflow (R2adj = 0.54). The most significant temporal pattern in the record is the sustained decline since the 1980s (τ = -0.633, p = 1.0144 ∗ 10-5 for the 1985-2004 period), which is unprecedented since 1765. The Correlation of the Baker streamflow with the November-April observed Southern Annular Mode (SAM) is significant (1961-2004, r = -0.55, p < 0.001). The Baker record is also correlated with the available SAM tree-ring reconstruction based on other species when both series are filtered with a 25-year spline and detrended (1765-2004, r = -0.41, p < 0.01), emphasizing SAM as the main climatic forcing of the Baker streamflow. Three of the five summers with the highest streamflow in the entire reconstructed record occurred after the 1950s (1977, 1958 and 1959). The causes of this high streamflow events are not yet clear and cannot be associated with the reported recent increase in the frequency of glacial-lake outburst floods (GLOFs). The decreasing trend in the observed and reconstructed

  10. Some contrasting biostratigraphic links between the Baker and Olds Ferry Terranes, eastern Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestell, Merlynd K.; Blome, Charles D.

    2016-01-01

    New stratigraphic and paleontologic data indicate that ophiolitic melange windows in the Olds Ferry terrane of eastern Oregon contain limestone blocks and chert that are somewhat different in age than those present in the adjacent Baker terrane melange. The melange windows in the Olds Ferry terrane occur as inliers in the flyschoid Early and Middle Jurassic age Weatherby Formation, which depositionally overlies the contact between the melange-rich Devonian to Upper Triassic rocks of the Baker terrane on the north, and Upper Triassic and Early Jurassic volcanic arc rocks of the Huntington Formation on the south. The Baker terrane and Huntington Formation represent fragments of a subduction complex and related volcanic island arc, whereas the Weatherby Formation consists of forearc basin sedimentary deposits. The tectonic blocks in the melange windows of the Weatherby Formation (in the Olds Ferry terrane) are dated by scarce biostratigraphic evidence as Upper Pennsylvanian to Lower Permian and Upper Triassic. In contrast, tectonic blocks of limestone in theBaker terrane yield mostly fusulinids and small foraminifers of Middle Pennsylvanian Moscovian age at one locality.Middle Permian (Guadalupian) Tethyan fusulinids and smaller foraminifers (neoschwagerinids and other Middle Permian genera) are present at a few other localities. Late Triassic conodonts and bryozoans are also present in a few of the Baker terrane tectonic blocks. These limestone blocks are generally embedded in Permian and Triassic radiolarian bearing chert or argillite. Based on conodont, radiolarian and fusulinid data, the age limits of the meange blocks in the Weatherby Formation range from Pennsylvanian to Late Triassic.

  11. Allergy in bakers' apprentices and factors associated to non-participation in a cohort study of allergic sensitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjold, Tina; Nielsen, Sven C; Adolf, Katja

    2006-01-01

    Objective  To describe the prevalence of atopy and respiratory symptoms among baker apprentices at the start of the education and factors associated with non-participation in the study. Methods  A total of 346 students, 22.1(0.6) years of age, mean (SD), from the food production programme...... of atopy in bakers' apprentices was of the same magnitude in the general Danish population. Significantly, more male bakers' apprentices had atopy. This finding has major impact on the diagnostic procedures of occupational allergy in bakery workers emphasizing the need for standardization of the clinical...

  12. An enquiry into the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders and ergonomic risk factors among Hamadan-based bakers in 2017

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Motamedzade Torghabeh

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion: Musculoskeletal disorders of the knees, the middle and lower back, shoulders and wrists are of a high prevalence among bakers of traditional bread. Therefore, both engineering and management interventions are recommended to eliminate musculoskeletal disorders.

  13. CRED 5 m Gridded bathymetry of Baker Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific (Arc ASCII Format)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded (5 m cell size) bathymetry of the shelf and slope environments of Baker Island, Pacific Remote Isand Areas, Central Pacific. Almost complete bottom coverage...

  14. Racial science in social context: John R. Baker on eugenics, race, and the public role of the scientist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Michael G

    2004-09-01

    In 1974 a British biologist, John Randal Baker (1900-1984), published a large and controversial book simply entitled Race that reiterated persistent eugenicist themes concerning the relation between race, intelligence, and progress. The history of Baker's book is a case study in the politics of scientific publishing, and his ideas influenced scholars associated with later works such as The Bell Curve. Baker, a student of Julian Huxley, was a longtime participant in the British eugenics movement and opponent of what he took to be a facile belief in human equality. In 1942, together with Michael Polanyi, he founded the Society for Freedom in Science to oppose those who advocated the central planning of scientific research. Baker's eugenics, political activities, and views on race express an elitist individualism, associated with the conservative wing of the eugenics movement, that this paper explores in the context of his career as a whole.

  15. CRED 40 m Gridded bathymetry of Baker Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific (Arc ASCII Format)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded (40 m cell size) bathymetry of the shelf and slope environments of Baker Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific. Almost complete bottom...

  16. Overproduction of 2-phenylethanol by industrial yeasts to improve organoleptic properties of bakers' products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dueñas-Sánchez, Rafael; Pérez, Ana G; Codón, Antonio C; Benítez, Tahía; Rincón, Ana María

    2014-06-16

    2-Phenylethanol (PEA), an important alcohol derived from phenylalanine, is involved in aroma and flavour of bakers' products. Four spontaneous mutants of an industrial bakers' yeast, V1 strain, were isolated for their resistance to p-fluoro-DL-phenylalanine (PFP), a toxic analogue of L-phenylalanine. Mutants overproduced this amino acid and showed variations in their internal pool for several other amino acids. Moreover, a rise in PEA production after growth in industrial medium (MAB) was observed in three of the mutants, although their growth and fermentative capacities were slightly impaired. However, concentration of PEA remained higher during dough fermentation and also after baking, thus improving taste and aroma in bread. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Topics in noncommutative algebra the theorem of Campbell, Baker, Hausdorff and Dynkin

    CERN Document Server

    Bonfiglioli, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    Motivated by the importance of the Campbell, Baker, Hausdorff, Dynkin Theorem in many different branches of Mathematics and Physics (Lie group-Lie algebra theory, linear PDEs, Quantum and Statistical Mechanics, Numerical Analysis, Theoretical Physics, Control Theory, sub-Riemannian Geometry), this monograph is intended to: 1) fully enable readers (graduates or specialists, mathematicians, physicists or applied scientists, acquainted with Algebra or not) to understand and apply the statements and numerous corollaries of the main result; 2) provide a wide spectrum of proofs from the modern literature, comparing different techniques and furnishing a unifying point of view and notation; 3) provide a thorough historical background of the results, together with unknown facts about the effective early contributions by Schur, Poincaré, Pascal, Campbell, Baker, Hausdorff and Dynkin; 4) give an outlook on the applications, especially in Differential Geometry (Lie group theory) and Analysis (PDEs of subelliptic type); ...

  18. Assessment of increased thermal activity at Mount Baker, Washington, March 1975-March 1976

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, David; Meier, Mark Frederick; Swanson, Donald A.; with contributions by Babcock, James W.; Fretwell, Marvin O.; Malone, Stephen D.; Rosenfeld, Charles L.; Shreve, Ronald L.; Wilcox, Ray E.

    1977-01-01

    In March 1975 Mount Baker showed a large increase in thermal emission, which has persisted for more than 1 year. Fumarole ejecta accompanied the thermal activity from March to September, but the ejecta had no constituents that suggest a magmatic source. Estimates of that part of the total heat flux that would account for the observed snow and ice loss show that the heat-flow increase was roughly one order of magnitude, from about 2 megawatts at 10 watts per square meter, averaged over Sherman Crater before 1975, to about 30 megawatts at 180 watts per square meter, during 1975. Almost half of the glacier that occupied the basin of Sherman Crater was melted in 1975. The new activity generated great concern among the public and the government agencies responsible for geological evaluation of potential hazards and for protection of life and property. The past geologic history, current topography, rock alteration, and location of major fumarolic activity indicate that large rock avalanches and mudflows on the east slope in Boulder Creek valley are the potential hazards of most significance related to present conditions. The most probable types of large mass movements would be mudflows, having speeds of as much as 50 kilometers per hour, that would originate from mixtures of snow, ice, and melt water and avalanches of structurally weak clay-rich rocks that make up the rim of Sherman Crater. Similar mudflows from the volcano have traveled at least 12 kilometers 8 times during the past 10,000 years. A possible worst case event, however, might be a larger, air-cushioned avalanche of as much as 20 to 30 million cubic meters that could hit Baker Lake at speeds of more than 300 kilometers per hour and generate a wave of water large enough to overtop Upper Baker Dam. At least 30 million cubic meters of potentially unstable material occurs as hydrothermally altered remnants of the rim of Sherman Crater and could provide the required volume for the estimated worst case event or

  19. Traditional information and antibacterial activity of four Bulbine species

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-01-10

    Jan 10, 2011 ... bases and leaf sap are the commonest parts of the plants used. Preparations were in ..... cause human diseases, prominent in patients who have diarrhea, wounds ... of Natural Resources, University of Natal. p. 29. Farnsworth ...

  20. Uranium uptake by baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) - development of a biological ion exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oost, T.; Schoening, K.U.

    1991-01-01

    The use of micro-organisms for decontamination of, and heavy metal recovery from industrial waste water is a modern, low-cost, and environmentally friendly alternative to the conventional chemical and physical methods. The uptake of uranium by baker's yeast is investigated under the aspect of application in biotechnology. A novel, regenerable biological ion exchanger was produced by immobilisation of the yeast in agar gel. (orig.) [de

  1. Furoquinoline Alkaloids and Methoxyflavones from the Stem Bark of Melicope madagascariensis (Baker T.G. Hartley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent E. Rasamison

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Melicope madagascariensis (Rutaceae is an endemic plant species of Madagascar that was first classified as a member of the genus Euodia J. R. & G. Forst (Rutaceae under the scientific name Euodia madagascariensis Baker. Based on morphological characteristics, Thomas Gordon Hartley taxonomically revised E. madagascariensis Baker to be M. madagascariensis (Baker T.G. Hartley. Chemotaxonomical studies have long been used to help the identification and confirmation of taxonomical classification of plant species and botanicals. Aiming to find more evidences to support the taxonomical revision performed on E. madagascariensis, we carried out phytochemical investigation of two samples of the plant. Fractionation of the ethanol extracts prepared from two stem bark samples of M. madagascariensis (Baker T.G. Hartley led to the isolation of seven known furoquinoline alkaloids 1–7 and two known methoxyflavones 8 and 9. The presence of furoquinoline alkaloids and methoxyflavones in the title species is in agreement with its taxonomic transfer from Euodia to Melicope. Antiprotozoal evaluation of the isolated compounds showed that 6-methoxy-7-hydroxydictamnine (heliparvifoline, 3 showed weak antimalarial activity (IC50 = 35 µM against the chloroquine-resistant strain Dd2 of Plasmodium falciparum. Skimmianine (4 displayed moderate cytotoxicity with IC50 value of 1.5 µM against HT-29 colon cancer cell line whereas 3,5-dihydroxy-3′,4′,7-trimethoxyflavone (9 was weakly active in the same assay (IC50 = 13.9 µM. Graphical Abstract

  2. A new term in the recursive expansion of the inverse Baker-Campbell-Hausdorff formula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riccardi, A.

    1984-01-01

    A recursive algorithm is derived, allowing the expansion in lambda of z=exp(x+lambda y) for noncommuting x and y, written as ordered product of exponentials. Such an expansion is the inverse of the usual Baker-Campbell-Hausdorff formula. The explicit form of the terms, up to third order in lambda is also given. The same method provides the explicit expansion to any order for the matrix elements of z

  3. Lung cancer risk among bakers, pastry cooks and confectionary makers: the SYNERGY study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, Thomas; Kendzia, Benjamin; Treppmann, Tabea; Olsson, Ann; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Gustavsson, Per; Pohlabeln, Hermann; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Brüske, Irene; Wichmann, Hans-Erich; Merletti, Franco; Mirabelli, Dario; Richiardi, Lorenzo; Simonato, Lorenzo; Zaridze, David; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Rudnai, Peter; Lissowska, Jolanta; Fabianova, Eleonora; Tardón, Adonina; Field, John; Stanescu Dumitru, Rodica; Bencko, Vladimir; Foretova, Lenka; Janout, Vladimir; Siemiatycki, Jack; Parent, Marie-Elise; McLaughlin, John; Demers, Paul; Landi, Maria Teresa; Caporaso, Neil; Kromhout, Hans; Vermeulen, Roel; Peters, Susan; Benhamou, Simone; Stücker, Isabelle; Guida, Florence; Consonni, Dario; Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas; 't Mannetje, Andrea; Pearce, Neil; Tse, Lap Ah; Yu, Ignatius Tak-sun; Plato, Nils; Boffetta, Paolo; Straif, Kurt; Schüz, Joachim; Pesch, Beate; Brüning, Thomas

    2013-11-01

    Some studies have suggested increased lung cancer risks among bakers, however the results overall were inconsistent. The authors studied lung cancer risks among bakers and baking-related occupations in the SYNERGY pooled case-control database from 16 countries. Occupation in a baking-related job was identified from the subjects' job histories. ORs adjusted for log(age), study centre, smoking behaviour and ever employment in a job with known exposure to occupational lung carcinogens were calculated by unconditional logistic regression. Findings were stratified by sex, histological subtype of lung cancer and smoking status. 19 366 cases (15 606 men) and 23 670 control subjects (18 528 men) were included. 473 cases (415 men, 58 women) and 501 controls (437 men, 64 women) had ever worked in baking or a related job. We did not observe an increased risk for men in baking (OR 1.01; 95% CI 0.86 to 1.18). No linear trends were observed for duration of employment. Some results suggested increased lung cancer risks for women, for example, for working as a baker for >30 years and in never-smokers, but after exclusion of one study these increased risks disappeared. The findings from this study do not suggest increased lung cancer risks in baking-related professions.

  4. Looking for immunotolerance: a case of allergy to baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajno, G B; Passalacqua, G; Salpietro, C; Vita, D; Caminiti, L; Barberio, G

    2005-09-01

    We describe one case of baker's yeast true allergy in a boy with previously diagnosed mite-allergy and atopic dermatitis. At the age of 6, being atopic dermatitis and rhinitis well controlled by drugs, he began to experience generalized urticaria and asthma after eating pizza and bread, but only fresh from the oven. The diagnostic workup revealed single sensitization to baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), and a severe systemic reaction also occurred during the prick-by-prick procedure. After discussing with parents, no special dietary restriction was suggested but the use of autoinjectable adrenaline and on demand salbutamol. A diary of symptoms was recorded by means of a visual-analog scale. During the subsequent 2 years, the severity of symptoms was progressively reduced, and presently urticaria has disappeared. Only cough persists, invariantly after eating just-baked and yeast-containing foods. If bread, pizza and cakes are ate more than one hour after preparation, no symptom occur at all. Baker's yeast is a common component of everyday diet and it usually acts as an allergen only by the inhalatory route. We speculate that the continuous exposure to saccharomyces in foods may have lead to an immunotolerance with a progressive reduction of symptoms, whereas why the allergens is active only in ready-baked foods remains unexplained.

  5. Selection and Characterization of Potential Baker's Yeast from Indigenous Resources of Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karki, Tika B; Timilsina, Parash Mani; Yadav, Archana; Pandey, Gyanu Raj; Joshi, Yogesh; Bhujel, Sahansila; Adhikari, Rojina; Neupane, Katyayanee

    2017-01-01

    The study aims to isolate the yeast strains that could be used effectively as baker's yeast and compare them with the commercial baker's yeast available in the market of Nepal. A total of 10 samples including locally available sources like fruits, Murcha, and a local tree "Dar" were collected from different localities of Bhaktapur, Kavre, and Syangja districts of Nepal, respectively. Following enrichment and fermentation of the samples, 26 yeast strains were isolated using selective medium Wallerstein Laboratory Nutrient Agar. From the differential tests which included morphological and microscopic observation and physiological and biochemical characterization such as nitrate reduction and lactose utilization tests, 8 strains were selected as possible Saccharomyces strain. The selected strains were further assessed for their efficient leavening ability by tests such as ethanol tolerance, osmotolerance, invertase test, and stress exclusion test. The three most potent strains ENG, MUR3B, and SUG1 isolated from grape, Murcha, and sugarcane, respectively, were used in the fermentation and baking of dough. These strains also carried a possibility of being used as industrial baker's yeast.

  6. Development of intra-strain self-cloning procedure for breeding baker's yeast strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Youji; Ogihara, Hiroyuki; Mochizuki, Chisato; Yamamura, Hideki; Iimura, Yuzuru; Hayakawa, Masayuki

    2017-03-01

    Previously reported self-cloning procedures for breeding of industrial yeast strains require DNA from other strains, plasmid DNA, or mutagenesis. Therefore, we aimed to construct a self-cloning baker's yeast strain that exhibits freeze tolerance via an improved self-cloning procedure. We first disrupted the URA3 gene of a prototrophic baker's yeast strain without the use of any marker gene, resulting in a Δura3 homozygous disruptant. Then, the URA3 gene of the parental baker's yeast strain was used as a selection marker to introduce the constitutive TDH3 promoter upstream of the PDE2 gene encoding high-affinity cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase. This self-cloning procedure was performed without using DNA from other Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains, plasmid DNA, or mutagenesis and was therefore designated an intra-strain self-cloning procedure. Using this self-cloning procedure, we succeeded in producing self-cloning baker's yeast strains that harbor the TDH3p-PDE2 gene heterozygously and homozygously, designated TDH3p-PDE2 hetero and TDH3p-PDE2 homo strains, respectively. These self-cloning strains expressed much higher levels of PDE2 mRNA than the parental strain and exhibited higher viability after freeze stress, as well as higher fermentation ability in frozen dough, when compared with the parental strain. The TDH3p-PDE2 homo strain was genetically more stable than the TDH3p-PDE2 hetero strain. These results indicate that both heterozygous and homozygous strains of self-cloning PDE2-overexpressing freeze-tolerant strains of industrial baker's yeast can be prepared using the intra-strain self-cloning procedure, and, from a practical viewpoint, the TDH3p-PDE2 homo strain constructed in this study is preferable to the TDH3p-PDE2 hetero strain for frozen dough baking. Copyright © 2016 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. (mastomys) natalensis and rhabdomys pumilio

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dim.ensionsof61 x 31 x 31 em. The aquarium was ... All nest-building experiments were conducted within a 13:11-hour light-dark cycle. Relative ... 3. Rhabdomys. Female. 4. 12. 12. 4. 16. 16. 3. 12. 11. R ep rod u ced b y Sa b in et G a tew a.

  8. Helicopter magnetic and electromagnetic surveys at Mounts Adams, Baker and Rainier, Washington: implications for debris flow hazards and volcano hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Carol A.; Deszcz-Pan, Maria

    2011-01-01

    High‐resolution helicopter magnetic and electromagnetic (HEM) data flown over the rugged, ice‐covered Mt. Adams, Mt. Baker and Mt. Rainier volcanoes (Washington), reveal the distribution of alteration, water and ice thickness essential to evaluating volcanic landslide hazards. These data, combined with geological mapping and rock property measurements, indicate the presence of appreciable thicknesses (>500 m) of water‐saturated hydrothermally altered rock west of the modern summit of Mount Rainier in the Sunset Amphitheater region and in the central core of Mount Adams north of the summit. Alteration at Mount Baker is restricted to thinner (<300 m) zones beneath Sherman Crater and the Dorr Fumarole Fields. The EM data identified water‐saturated rocks from the surface to the detection limit (100–200 m) in discreet zones at Mt. Rainier and Mt Adams and over the entire summit region at Mt. Baker. The best estimates for ice thickness are obtained over relatively low resistivity (<800 ohm‐m) ground for the main ice cap on Mt. Adams and over most of the summit of Mt. Baker. The modeled distribution of alteration, pore fluids and partial ice volumes on the volcanoes helps identify likely sources for future alteration‐related debris flows, including the Sunset Amphitheater region at Mt. Rainier, steep cliffs at the western edge of the central altered zone at Mount Adams and eastern flanks of Mt. Baker.

  9. Active site - a site of binding of affinity inhibitors in baker's yeast inorganic pyrophosphatase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svyato, I.E.; Sklyankina, V.A.; Avaeva, S.M.

    1986-01-01

    The interaction of the enzyme-substrate complex with methyl phosphate, O-phosphoethanolamine, O-phosphopropanolamine, N-acetylphosphoserine, and phosphoglyolic acid, as well as pyrophosphatase, modified by monoesters of phosphoric acid, with pyrophosphate and tripolyphosphate, was investigated. It was shown that the enzyme containing the substrate in the active site does not react with monophosphates, but modified pyrophosphatase entirely retains the ability to bind polyanions to the regulatory site. It is concluded that the inactivation of baker's yeast inorganic pyrophosphatase by monoesters of phosphoric acid, which are affinity inhibitors of it, is the result of modification of the active site of the enzyme

  10. W. Ritchie Russell, A.B. Baker, and Fred Plum: Pioneers of ventilatory management in poliomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijdicks, Eelco F M

    2016-09-13

    Historically, neurologists were not involved in the day-to-day management of critically ill patients with bulbar poliomyelitis, but some were. The major contributions of 3 neurologists-W. Ritchie Russell, A.B. Baker, and Fred Plum-in the respiratory management of poliomyelitis have not been recognized. Russell's work was instrumental in identifying multiple types of poliomyelitis defined by their respiratory needs, and he advised treatment that varied from simple postural drainage to use of respirators. He participated in the development of the Radcliffe respiratory pump. Baker recognized the essential involvement of the vagal nerve in respiratory distress, but also observed that involvement of vital centers without cranial nerve involvement would lead to irregular and shallow respiration in some patients and in others with marked dysautonomic features. A similar finding of central involvement of respiration was noted by Plum, who also stressed the importance of hypercapnia. Plum emphasized measurements of vital capacity and techniques to minimize trauma with suctioning after tracheostomy. These 3 neurologists understood the importance of airway and ventilator management, which is currently one of the many pillars of neurocritical care. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.

  11. [Respiratory allergies among symptomatic bakers and pastry cooks: initial results of a prevalence study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bataille, A; Anton, M; Mollat, F; Bobe, M; Bonneau, C; Caramaniam, M N; Géraut, C; Dupas, D

    1995-01-01

    A survey was carried out on respiratory symptoms and skin prick response to common allergens, storage mite and occupational allergens. Among 178 symptomatics bakers and pastry workers from small businesses in western France, only 65 people underwent skin prick and specific-IgE. 12 (18%) workers were skin positive to at least one common or occupational allergens. The more often skin positive were D. Ptero. mite 36 (57%); Alpha amylase 23 (35%); wheat flour 17 (26%); saccharomyces cerevisiae 16 (25%); Ephestia 15 (24%). The sensitivity of skin test was better than specific IgE for D. Ptero. Mite 36 (57%); and Alpha amylase 23 (35%). The sensitivity of specific IgE was better than skin test for wheat flour 26 (45%) and rye flour 23 (40%). Occurrence of skin positive to occupational allergen among symptomatics with rhinitis and asthma is much more frequent in workers with skin positive to common allergens (40/36) than in workers with skin negative (8/20). Atopy must be regarded as an important predisposing factor for skin sensitisation to occupational allergens. We conclude in the necessity of a standardised allergologic exploration to be done in symptomatics bakers.

  12. Quality parameters and RAPD-PCR differentiation of commercial baker's yeast and hybrid strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Fiky, Zaki A; Hassan, Gamal M; Emam, Ahmed M

    2012-06-01

    Baker's yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is a key component in bread baking. Total of 12 commercial baker's yeast and 2 hybrid strains were compared using traditional quality parameters. Total of 5 strains with high leavening power and the 2 hybrid strains were selected and evaluated for their alpha-amylase, maltase, glucoamylase enzymes, and compared using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). The results revealed that all selected yeast strains have a low level of alpha-amylase and a high level of maltase and glucoamylase enzymes. Meanwhile, the Egyptian yeast strain (EY) had the highest content of alpha-amylase and maltase enzymes followed by the hybrid YH strain. The EY and YH strains have the highest content of glucoamylase enzyme almost with the same level. The RAPD banding patterns showed a wide variation among commercial yeast and hybrid strains. The closely related Egyptian yeast strains (EY and AL) demonstrated close similarity of their genotypes. The 2 hybrid strains were clustered to Turkish and European strains in 1 group. The authors conclude that the identification of strains and hybrids using RAPD technique was useful in determining their genetic relationship. These results can be useful not only for the basic research, but also for the quality control in baking factories. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  13. A novel image encryption scheme based on the ergodicity of baker map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Ruisong; Chen, Yonghong

    2012-01-01

    Thanks to the exceptionally good properties in chaotic systems, such as sensitivity to initial conditions and control parameters, pseudo-randomness and ergodicity, chaos-based image encryption algorithms have been widely studied and developed in recent years. A novel digital image encryption scheme based on the chaotic ergodicity of Baker map is proposed in this paper. Different from traditional encryption schemes based on Baker map, we permute the pixel positions by their corresponding order numbers deriving from the approximating points in one chaotic orbit. To enhance the resistance to statistical and differential attacks, a diffusion process is suggested as well in the proposed scheme. The proposed scheme enlarges the key space significantly to resist brute-force attack. Additionally, the distribution of gray values in the cipher-image has a random-like behavior to resist statistical analysis. The proposed scheme is robust against cropping, tampering and noising attacks as well. It therefore suggests a high secure and efficient way for real-time image encryption and transmission in practice.

  14. Magma at depth: A retrospective analysis of the 1975 unrest at Mount Baker, Washington, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crider, Juliet G.; Frank, David; Malone, Stephen D.; Poland, Michael P.; Werner, Cynthia; Caplan-Auerbach, Jacqueline

    2011-01-01

    Mount Baker volcano displayed a short interval of seismically-quiescent thermal unrest in 1975, with high emissions of magmatic gas that slowly waned during the following three decades. The area of snow-free ground in the active crater has not returned to pre-unrest levels, and fumarole gas geochemistry shows a decreasing magmatic signature over that same interval. A relative microgravity survey revealed a substantial gravity increase in the ~30 years since the unrest, while deformation measurements suggest slight deflation of the edifice between 1981-83 and 2006-07. The volcano remains seismically quiet with regard to impulsive volcano-tectonic events, but experiences shallow (10 km) long-period earthquakes. Reviewing the observations from the 1975 unrest in combination with geophysical and geochemical data collected in the decades that followed, we infer that elevated gas and thermal emissions at Mount Baker in 1975 resulted from magmatic activity beneath the volcano: either the emplacement of magma at mid-crustal levels, or opening of a conduit to a deep existing source of magmatic volatiles. Decadal-timescale, multi-parameter observations were essential to this assessment of magmatic activity.

  15. Apoptosis and pro-death autophagy induced by a spirostanol saponin isolated from Rohdea chinensis (Baker) N. Tanaka (synonym Tupistra chinensis Baker) on HL-60 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Xiaomin; Xiang, Limin; Huang, Yuying; Wang, Yihai; He, Xiangjiu

    2018-03-15

    Our previous study has revealed that the spirostanol saponins isolated from the rhizomes of Rohdea chinensis (Baker) N. Tanaka (synonym Tupistra chinensis Baker) (Convallariaceae) (a reputed folk medicine) exhibited potent antiproliferative activity. However, the underlying mechanism of purified saponins remains unclear. More studies are necessary to assess the apoptosis and autophagy activities of the saponins from R. chinensis and clarify their antiproliferative mechanisms. The present study certificated the potential antiproliferative activity and mechanism of 5β-spirost-25(27)-en-1β,3β-diol-1-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)- β-D-xylopyranosyl-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside (SPD), a spirostanol saponin from R. chinensis, against human acute promyelocytic leukemia cells (HL-60). The antiproliferative activity of SPD in vitro was evaluated by MTT assay compared with cis-dichlorodiammineplatinum (II). The autophagic activity was assessed using MDC staining and western blot, cell apoptosis inspection was detected by Annexin V-FITC/PI double staining and the mitochondrial membrane potential was detected by JC-1 fluorescence dye combined with flow cytometry. The potential mechanisms for protein levels of apoptosis and autophagy were evaluated by western blot. Treatment of HL-60 cells with SPD resulted in growth inhibition (IC 50 value of 2.0 ± 0.2 µM, after 48 h treatment) and induction of apoptosis and autophagy. Results from Annexin V-FITC/PI double-staining assay and mitochondrial membrane potential detection showed that apoptosis was happened after SPD treatment. The regulation of caspase-3, Bax, Bcl-2, PARP following SPD treatment contributed to the induction of mitochondria-dependent apoptosis. Meanwhile, SPD induced autophagy related with Akt/mTOR/p70S6K signaling and activated of AMPK signaling pathway. Furthermore, blocking autophagy with bafilomycin A1 reduced the cytotoxicity of SPD in HL-60 cells. The antiproliferative, apoptosis and pro

  16. Promoter Engineering Reveals the Importance of Heptameric Direct Repeats for DNA Binding by Streptomyces Antibiotic Regulatory Protein-Large ATP-Binding Regulator of the LuxR Family (SARP-LAL) Regulators in Streptomyces natalensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreales, Eva G; Vicente, Cláudia M; de Pedro, Antonio; Santos-Aberturas, Javier; Aparicio, Jesús F

    2018-05-15

    The biosynthesis of small-size polyene macrolides is ultimately controlled by a couple of transcriptional regulators that act in a hierarchical way. A Streptomyces antibiotic regulatory protein-large ATP-binding regulator of the LuxR family (SARP-LAL) regulator binds the promoter of a PAS-LuxR regulator-encoding gene and activates its transcription, and in turn, the gene product of the latter activates transcription from various promoters of the polyene gene cluster directly. The primary operator of PimR, the archetype of SARP-LAL regulators, contains three heptameric direct repeats separated by four-nucleotide spacers, but the regulator can also bind a secondary operator with only two direct repeats separated by a 3-nucleotide spacer, both located in the promoter region of its unique target gene, pimM A similar arrangement of operators has been identified for PimR counterparts encoded by gene clusters for different antifungal secondary metabolites, including not only polyene macrolides but peptidyl nucleosides, phoslactomycins, or cycloheximide. Here, we used promoter engineering and quantitative transcriptional analyses to determine the contributions of the different heptameric repeats to transcriptional activation and final polyene production. Optimized promoters have thus been developed. Deletion studies and electrophoretic mobility assays were used for the definition of DNA-binding boxes formed by 22-nucleotide sequences comprising two conserved heptameric direct repeats separated by four-nucleotide less conserved spacers. The cooperative binding of PimR SARP appears to be the mechanism involved in the binding of regulator monomers to operators, and at least two protein monomers are required for efficient binding. IMPORTANCE Here, we have shown that a modulation of the production of the antifungal pimaricin in Streptomyces natalensis can be accomplished via promoter engineering of the PAS-LuxR transcriptional activator pimM The expression of this gene is

  17. 75 FR 65263 - Virginia Graeme Baker Pool and Spa Safety Act; Public Accommodation; Withdrawal of Proposed Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-22

    ...'' or ``Act'') as ``an inn, hotel, motel, or other place of lodging, except for an establishment located... interpretive rule to interpret ``public accommodations facility'' in the VGB Act as ``an inn, hotel, motel, or... CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION 16 CFR Part 1450 Virginia Graeme Baker Pool and Spa Safety Act...

  18. ERGONOMIC CONSIDERATION OF THE EFFECT OF FLOUR DUST ON PEAK EXPIRATORY FLOW RATE OF BAKERS IN ABEOKUTA, OGUN STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adekunle Ibrahim MUSA

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Flour dusts are one of the most harmful chemicals in the bakery industries which could lead to serious heart and lung diseases. This study investigated the effect of flour dust on Peak Expiratory Flow Rate of male bakers in Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria with the relationship to the anthropometrical parameters. A total of One hundred Eighty (180 male participants were investigated, where ninety (90 participants were bakers and ninety (90 individuals as control group. The Peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR and anthropometrical parameters of the participant were measured using mini-Wright peak flow meter (PFM 20, OMRON and Detecto PD300MDHR (Cardinal Scale manufacturing company, USA column scale with digital height rod was used to measure body mass [kg] and height (cm respectively. The PEFR and anthropometrical parameters of the bakers and control groups were analysed using descriptive statistics and T-test with SPSS. The results showed that lower PEFR, 182.67 ± 16.34 L/min existed in bakers compared to 287.67 ± 17.02 L/min in the control study. The result also showed that a significant correlation exist between body mass, height and age (P < 0.01, PEFR, height (P < 0.05 and years of exposure (P < 0.01 of the bakers respectively. Furthermore, the results also showed that workers in the dusting and mixing of flour are at a risk of developing related pulmonary function impairment such as asthma. The study concluded that there is need to develop an effective intervention strategy, treatment seeking behaviour through awareness programs to prevent lung impairment diseases among the bakery workers.

  19. Isolation of baker's yeast mutants with proline accumulation that showed enhanced tolerance to baking-associated stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsolmonbaatar, Ariunzaya; Hashida, Keisuke; Sugimoto, Yukiko; Watanabe, Daisuke; Furukawa, Shuhei; Takagi, Hiroshi

    2016-12-05

    During bread-making processes, yeast cells are exposed to baking-associated stresses such as freeze-thaw, air-drying, and high-sucrose concentrations. Previously, we reported that self-cloning diploid baker's yeast strains that accumulate proline retained higher-level fermentation abilities in both frozen and sweet doughs than the wild-type strain. Although self-cloning yeasts do not have to be treated as genetically modified yeasts, the conventional methods for breeding baker's yeasts are more acceptable to consumers than the use of self-cloning yeasts. In this study, we isolated mutants resistant to the proline analogue azetidine-2-carboxylate (AZC) derived from diploid baker's yeast of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Some of the mutants accumulated a greater amount of intracellular proline, and among them, 5 mutants showed higher cell viability than that observed in the parent wild-type strain under freezing or high-sucrose stress conditions. Two of them carried novel mutations in the PRO1 gene encoding the Pro247Ser or Glu415Lys variant of γ-glutamyl kinase (GK), which is a key enzyme in proline biosynthesis in S. cerevisiae. Interestingly, we found that these mutations resulted in AZC resistance of yeast cells and desensitization to proline feedback inhibition of GK, leading to intracellular proline accumulation. Moreover, baker's yeast cells expressing the PRO1 P247S and PRO1 E415K gene were more tolerant to freezing stress than cells expressing the wild-type PRO1 gene. The approach described here could be a practical method for the breeding of proline-accumulating baker's yeasts with higher tolerance to baking-associated stresses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. High-performance mesoporous LiFePO₄ from Baker's yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xudong; Zhang, Xueguang; He, Wen; Sun, Caiyun; Ma, Jingyun; Yuan, Junling; Du, Xiaoyong

    2013-03-01

    Based on the biomineralization assembly concept, a simple and inexpensive biomimetic sol-gel method is found to synthesize high-performance mesoporous LiFePO(4) (HPM-LFP). The key step of this approach is to apply Baker's yeast cells as both a structural template and a biocarbon source. The formation mechanism of ordered hierarchical mesoporous network structure is revealed by characterizing its morphology and microstructure. The HPM-LFP exhibits outstanding electrochemical performances. The HPM-LFP has a high discharge capacity (about 153 mAh g(-1) at a 0.1 C rate), only 2% capacity loss from the initial value after 100 cycles at a current density of 0.1 C. This simple and potentially universal design strategy is currently being pursued in the synthesis of an ideal cathode-active material for high power applications. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The interaction of uranyl ions with inorganic pyrophosphatase from baker's yeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bienwald, B.; Heitmann, P.

    1978-01-01

    The interaction of uranyl ions with inorganic pyrophosphatase from baker's yeast was investigated by measurement of their effect on the protein fluorescence. Fluorescence titrations of the native enzyme with uranyl nitrate show that there is a specific binding of uranyl ions to the enzyme. It was deduced that each subunit of the enzyme binds one uranyl ion. The binding constant was estimated to be in the order of 10 7 M -1 . The enzyme which contains a small number of chemically modified carboxyl groups was not able to bind uranyl ions specifically. The modification of carboxyl groups was carried out by use of a water soluble carbodiimide and the nucleophilic reagent N-(2,4-dinitro-phenyl)-hexamethylenediamine. The substrate analogue calcium pyrophosphate displaced the uranyl ions from their binding sites at the enzyme From the results it is concluded that carboxyl groups of the active site are the ligands for the binding of uranyl ions. (author)

  2. I Teoremi di Campbell, Baker, Hausdorff e Dynkin. Storia, Prove, Problemi Aperti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Bonfiglioli

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this lecture is to provide an overview of facts and references about past and recent results on the Theorem of Campbell, Baker, Hausdorff and Dynkin (shortcut as the CBHD Theorem, following the recent preprint monograph [13]. In particular, we shall give sketches of the following facts: A historical précis of the early proofs (see also [1]; the statement of the CBHD Theorem as usually given in Algebra and that employed in the Analysis of linear PDE's; a review of proofs of the CBHD Theorem (as given by: Bourbaki; Hausdorff; Dynkin; Varadarajan together with a unifying demonstrational approach; an application to the Third Theorem of Lie (in local form. Some new results will be also commented: The intertwinement of the CBHD Theorem with the Theorem of Poincaré-Birkhoff-Witt and with the free Lie algebras (see [12]; recent results on optimal domains of convergence.

  3. Gordon Baker, Wittgensteinian Philosophical Conceptions and Perspicuous Representation: the Possibility of Multidimensional Logical Descriptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oskari Kuusela

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses Gordon Baker’s interpretation of the later Wittgenstein, in particular his interpretation of the notion of Wittgensteinian philosophical conceptions (Auffassungen and the notions of non-exclusivity, local incompatibility, non-additivity and global pluralism which Baker uses to characterize Wittgensteinian conceptions. On the basis of this discussion, and a critique of certain features of Baker’s interpretation of Wittgensteinian conceptions, I introduce the notion of a multidimensional logical description of language use, explaining how this notion, which Baker’s interpretation excludes, constitutes and important element of the later Wittgenstein’s philosophical method of clarification and perspicuous representation. I conclude by explaining how Baker’s problematic notions of local incompatibility and non-additivity, if they are seen in the light of Wittgenstein’s criticisms of certain views of the completeness of philosophical or logical accounts, nevertheless point in the right direction.

  4. Painful swollen leg – think beyond deep vein thrombosis or Baker's cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babu Vinayagam

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The diagnosis of deep vein thrombosis of leg is very common in clinical practice. Not infrequently a range of pathologies are diagnosed after excluding a thrombosis, often after a period of anticoagulation. Case presentation This is a report of three patients who presented with a painful swollen leg and were initially treated as a deep vein thrombosis or a baker's cyst, but later diagnosed as a pleomorphic sarcoma, a malignant giant cell tumor of the muscle and a myxoid liposarcoma. A brief review of such similar reports and the relevant literature is presented. Conclusion A painful swollen leg is a common clinical scenario and though rare, tumors must be thought of without any delay, in a duplex negative, low risk deep vein thrombosis situation.

  5. Post-fermentative production of glutathione by baker's yeast (S. cerevisiae) in compressed and dried forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musatti, Alida; Manzoni, Matilde; Rollini, Manuela

    2013-01-25

    The study was aimed at investigating the best biotransformation conditions to increase intracellular glutathione (GSH) levels in samples of baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) employing either the commercially available compressed and dried forms. Glucose, GSH precursors amino acids, as well as other cofactors, were dissolved in a biotransformation solution and yeast cells were added (5%dcw). Two response surface central composite designs (RSCCDs) were performed in sequence: in the first step the influence of amino acid composition (cysteine, glycine, glutamic acid and serine) on GSH accumulation was investigated; once their formulation was set up, the influence of other components was studied. Initial GSH content was found 0.53 and 0.47%dcw for compressed and dried forms. GSH accumulation ability of baker's yeast in compressed form was higher at the beginning of shelf life, that is, in the first week, and a maximum of 2.04%dcw was obtained. Performance of yeast in dried form was not found satisfactory, as the maximum GSH level was 1.18%dcw. When cysteine lacks from the reaction solution, yeast cells do not accumulate GSH. With dried yeast, the highest GSH yields occurred when cysteine was set at 3 g/L, glycine and glutamic acid at least at 4 g/L, without serine. Employing compressed yeast, the highest GSH yields occurred when cysteine and glutamic acid were set at 2-3 g/L, while glycine and serine higher than 2 g/L. Results allowed to set up an optimal and feasible procedure to obtain GSH-enriched yeast biomass, with up to threefold increase with respect to initial content. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Uranium geology of the eastern Baker Lake basin, District of Keewatin, Northwest Territories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, A.R.

    1980-01-01

    Proterozoic sequences associated with major unconformities are potential uranium metallogenic provinces. Late Aphebian to Paleohelikian Dubawnt Group contintental clastic sedimentary and subaerial alkaline volcanic rocks and underlying Archean gneisses, District of Keewatin, Northwest Territories, represent one such uraniferous metallogenic province. Three types of uranium mineralization are present in the eastern Baker Lake basin, which extends from Christopher Island at the eastern end of Baker Lake southwestwards to the western limit of Thirty Mile Lake. The three uranium associations are: 1) fracture controlled mineralization in the Dubawnt Group and basement gneisses (U-Cu-Ag-Au-Se or U-Cu-Pb-Mo-Zn), 2)diatreme breccia mineralization in basement gneisses (U-Cu-Zn), and 3) impregnation and microfracture mineralization in altered arkose peripheral to lamprophyre dykes(U-Cu-Ag). Hydrothermal fracture related mineralization is controlled by northwest- and east-northeast-trending fault-fracture zones. Diatreme breccia mineralization results from the channelling of groundwaters through highly permeable brecciated gneiss. Mineralization within the altered Kazan arkose peripheral to alkaline dyke complexes formed by a two stage process. Iron and copper sulphides and silver were deposited within the outer portions of the thermal aureole in response to a temperature and Eh gradient across a convective cell created by the thermal anomaly of the dyke complex. The epigenetic sulphide mineralization subsequently provided the reducing environment for precipitation of uranium from groundwater. All three uranium associations show a close spatial distribution to the basal Dubawnt unconformity. The lithological and structural relationships of the Dubawnt Group rocks, types of mineralization and associated alteration assemblages are strikingly similar to the Beaverlodge district, Saskatchewan. (author)

  7. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    purposes one of which is as a feed supplement to livestock (Martin .... Wright's stain and examined for red blood cell (RBC), .... natalensis Baker stem extract on the functional indices and histology of ... Producing Food without Pesticides: Local.

  8. Understanding the Effects of Genotype, Growing Year, and Breeding on Tunisian Durum Wheat Allergenicity. 1. The Baker's Asthma Case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukid, Fatma; Prandi, Barbara; Sforza, Stefano; Sayar, Rhouma; Seo, Yong Weon; Mejri, Mondher; Yacoubi, Ines

    2017-07-19

    Baker's asthma is a serious airway disease triggered by wheat protein CM3 α-amylase/trypsin inhibitor. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the impact of genotype and crop year on allergen CM3 α-amylase/trypsin inhibitor associated with baker's asthma. A historical series of Tunisian durum wheat (100 accessions), derived from three crop years, was used to compare the amount of CM3 from landraces to advanced cultivars. CM3 protein quantification was assessed after an enzymatic cleavage of the soluble protein extracts on a UPLC/ESI-MS system, using a marker peptide for its quantification. Combined data analysis of variance revealed an important effect of genotype, crop year, and their interaction. The CM3 allergenic proteins were found to significantly vary among studied genotypes, as confirmed by genetic variability, coefficient of variance, heritability, and genetic advance.

  9. Prevalence of IgE against neuromuscular blocking agents in hairdressers and bakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, S; Acouetey, D S; Guéant-Rodriguez, R-M; Zmirou-Navier, D; Rémen, T; Blanca, M; Mertes, P M; Guéant, J-L

    2013-11-01

    Allergic IgE-mediated reactions to neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBAs) are the main cause of immediate hypersensitivity reactions in anaesthesia; their predominant occurrence in the absence of previous exposure to NMBAs suggests a risk related to environmental exposure. To investigate the prevalence of specific IgE to quaternary ammonium ions in two populations professionally exposed to quaternary ammonium compounds, in the north-eastern France. The study had a retrospective follow-up design whereby apprentices were assessed after their 2-year training period as apprentices. The professionally exposed hairdresser populations (n = 128) were compared with baker/pastry makers (n = 108) and 'non-exposed' matched control subjects (n = 379). We observed a 4.6-fold higher frequency of positive IgE against quaternary ammonium ions in hairdressers (HD), compared with baker/pastry makers (BP) and control (C) groups. The competitive inhibition of quaternary ammonium Sepharose radioimmunoassay (QAS-IgE RIA) with succinylcholine was significantly higher in HD, compared with BP and C groups, with inhibition percentage of 66.2 ± 7.4, 39.7 ± 6.0 and 43.8 ± 9.9, respectively (P  100 kU/L were the two significant predictors of IgE-sensitization against quaternary ammonium ions in the multivariate analysis of a model that included age, sex, professional exposure, increased concentration of total IgE (IgE > 100 kU/L) and positive IgE against prevalent allergens (Phadiatop(®) ; P = 0.019 and P = 0.001, respectively). The exposure to hairdressing professional occupational factors increases IgE-sensitization to NMBAs and quaternary ammonium ion compounds used in hairdressing. Besides the pholcodine hypothesis, our study suggests that repetitive exposure to quaternary ammonium compounds used in hairdressing is a risk factor for NMBAs sensitization. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Geochemical results of a hydrothermally altered area at Baker Creek, Blaine County, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdman, James A.; Moye, Falma J.; Theobald, Paul K.; McCafferty, Anne E.; Larsen, Richard K.

    2001-01-01

    The area immediately east of Baker Creek, Blaine County, Idaho, is underlain by a thick section of mafic to intermediate lava flows of the Eocene Challis Volcanic Group. Widespread propylitic alteration surrounds a zone of argillic alteration and an inner core of phyllic alteration. Silicified breccia is present along an east-trending fault within the zone of phyllic alteration. As part of a reconnaissance geochemical survey, soils and plants were sampled. Several species of plants (Douglas-fir [ Pseudotsuga menziesii ], mountain big sagebrush [ Artemisia tridentata ssp. vaseyana ], and elk sedge [ Carex geyerii ]) were collected from 10 upland localities and stream sediments, panned concentrates, and aquatic mosses were collected from 16 drainage basin localities all of which were generally within the area of alteration. Geochemical results yielded anomalous concentrations of molybenum, zinc, silver, and lead in at least half of the seven different sample media and of gold, thallium, arsenic, antimony, manganese, boron, cadmium, bismuth, copper, and beryllium in from one to four of the various media. Part of this suite of elements? silver, gold, arsenic, antimony, thallium, and manganese? suggests that the mineralization in the area is epithermal. Barite and pyrite (commonly botryoidal-framboidal) are widespread throughout the area sampled. Visible gold and pyromorphite (a secondary lead mineral) were identified in only one small drainage basin, but high levels of gold were detected in aquatic mosses over a larger area. Data from the upland and stream sampling indicate two possible mineralized areas. The first mineralized area was identified by a grab sample from an outcrop of quartz stockwork that contained 50 ppb Au, 1.5 ppm Ag, and 50 ppm Mo. Although the soil and plant species that were sampled in the area indicated mineralized bedrock, the Douglas-fir samples were the best indicators of the silver anomaly. The second possible mineralized area centers on the

  11. Simplifying the Reinsch algorithm for the Baker-Campbell-Hausdorff series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van-Brunt, Alexander; Visser, Matt

    2016-02-01

    The Goldberg version of the Baker-Campbell-Hausdorff series computes the quantity Z ( X , Y ) = ln (" separators=" e X e Y ) = ∑ w g ( w ) w ( X , Y ) , where X and Y are not necessarily commuting in terms of "words" constructed from the {X, Y} "alphabet." The so-called Goldberg coefficients g(w) are the central topic of this article. This Baker-Campbell-Hausdorff series is a general purpose tool of very wide applicability in mathematical physics, quantum physics, and many other fields. The Reinsch algorithm for the truncated series permits one to calculate the Goldberg coefficients up to some fixed word length |w| by using nilpotent (|w| + 1) × (|w| + 1) matrices. We shall show how to further simplify the Reinsch algorithm, making its implementation (in principle) utterly straightforward using "off the shelf" symbolic manipulation software. Specific computations provide examples which help to provide a deeper understanding of the Goldberg coefficients and their properties. For instance, we shall establish some strict bounds (and some equalities) on the number of non-zero Goldberg coefficients. Unfortunately, we shall see that the number of nonzero Goldberg coefficients often grows very rapidly (in fact exponentially) with the word length |w|. Furthermore, the simplified Reinsch algorithm readily generalizes to many closely related but still quite distinct problems—we shall also present closely related results for the symmetric product S ( X , Y ) = ln (" separators=" e X / 2 e Y e X / 2 ) = ∑ w g S ( w ) w ( X , Y ) . Variations on such themes are straightforward. For instance, one can just as easily consider the "loop" product L ( X , Y ) = ln (" separators=" e X e Y e - X e - Y ) = ∑ w g L ( w ) w ( X , Y ) . This "loop" type of series is of interest, for instance, when considering either differential geometric parallel transport around a closed curve, non-Abelian versions of Stokes' theorem, or even Wigner rotation/Thomas precession in special

  12. Improvement of stress tolerance and leavening ability under multiple baking-associated stress conditions by overexpression of the SNR84 gene in baker's yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xue; Zhang, Cui-Ying; Bai, Xiao-Wen; Feng, Bing; Xiao, Dong-Guang

    2015-03-16

    During the bread-making process, industrial baker's yeast cells are exposed to multiple baking-associated stresses, such as elevated high-temperature, high-sucrose and freeze-thaw stresses. There is a high demand for baker's yeast strains that could withstand these stresses with high leavening ability. The SNR84 gene encodes H/ACA snoRNA (small nucleolar RNA), which is known to be involved in pseudouridylation of the large subunit rRNA. However, the function of the SNR84 gene in baker's yeast coping with baking-associated stresses remains unclear. In this study, we explored the effect of SNR84 overexpression on baker's yeast which was exposed to high-temperature, high-sucrose and freeze-thaw stresses. These results suggest that overexpression of the SNR84 gene conferred tolerance of baker's yeast cells to high-temperature, high-sucrose and freeze-thaw stresses and enhanced their leavening ability in high-sucrose and freeze-thaw dough. These findings could provide a valuable insight for breeding of novel stress-resistant baker's yeast strains that are useful for baking. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. De novo biosynthesis of vanillin in fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe) and baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Esben H; Møller, Birger Lindberg; Kock, Gertrud R; Bünner, Camilla M; Kristensen, Charlotte; Jensen, Ole R; Okkels, Finn T; Olsen, Carl E; Motawia, Mohammed S; Hansen, Jørgen

    2009-05-01

    Vanillin is one of the world's most important flavor compounds, with a global market of 180 million dollars. Natural vanillin is derived from the cured seed pods of the vanilla orchid (Vanilla planifolia), but most of the world's vanillin is synthesized from petrochemicals or wood pulp lignins. We have established a true de novo biosynthetic pathway for vanillin production from glucose in Schizosaccharomyces pombe, also known as fission yeast or African beer yeast, as well as in baker's yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Productivities were 65 and 45 mg/liter, after introduction of three and four heterologous genes, respectively. The engineered pathways involve incorporation of 3-dehydroshikimate dehydratase from the dung mold Podospora pauciseta, an aromatic carboxylic acid reductase (ACAR) from a bacterium of the Nocardia genus, and an O-methyltransferase from Homo sapiens. In S. cerevisiae, the ACAR enzyme required activation by phosphopantetheinylation, and this was achieved by coexpression of a Corynebacterium glutamicum phosphopantetheinyl transferase. Prevention of reduction of vanillin to vanillyl alcohol was achieved by knockout of the host alcohol dehydrogenase ADH6. In S. pombe, the biosynthesis was further improved by introduction of an Arabidopsis thaliana family 1 UDP-glycosyltransferase, converting vanillin into vanillin beta-D-glucoside, which is not toxic to the yeast cells and thus may be accumulated in larger amounts. These de novo pathways represent the first examples of one-cell microbial generation of these valuable compounds from glucose. S. pombe yeast has not previously been metabolically engineered to produce any valuable, industrially scalable, white biotech commodity.

  14. Prevention of GABA reduction during dough fermentation using a baker's yeast dal81 mutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Akira; Nakamura, Toshihide

    2016-10-01

    γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is consumed by yeasts during fermentation. To prevent GABA reduction in bread dough, a baker's yeast mutant AY77 deficient in GABA assimilation was characterized and utilized for wheat dough fermentation. An amber mutation in the DAL81 gene, which codes for a positive regulator of multiple nitrogen degradation pathways, was found in the AY77 strain. The qPCR analyses of genes involved in nitrogen utilization showed that transcriptional levels of the UGA1 and DUR3 genes encoding GABA transaminase and urea transporter, respectively, are severely decreased in the AY77 cells. The AY77 strain cultivated by fed-batch culture using cane molasses exhibited inferior gas production during dough fermentation compared to that of wild-type strain AY13. However, when fed with molasses containing 0.5% ammonium sulfate, the mutant strain exhibited gas production comparable to that of the AY13 strain. In contrast to the AY13 strain, which completely consumed GABA in dough within 5 h, the AY77 strain consumed no GABA under either culture condition. Dough fermentation with the dal81 mutant strain should be useful for suppression of GABA reduction in breads. Copyright © 2016 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Chemical constituents of the essential oil, antioxidant and antibacterial activities from Elettariopsis curtisii Baker.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanida Chairgulprasert

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Elettariopsis curtisii Baker, the culinary and medicinal herb, was investigated to elucidate its chemical constituents and determine antioxidant and antibacterial activities. The essential oil of E. curtisii was obtained by steam distillation of fresh rhizomes in a maximum yield of 0.63%. GC-MS data indicated the presence of six compounds, of which trans-2-decenal (78.03% was the principal constituent. The essential oils and also the hexane, dichloromethane and methanol extracts from the rhizomes and leaves were assessed for antioxidant and antibacterial activities. In an evaluation of antioxidant activity, the crude dichloromethane extract of the leaves exhibited the highest scavenging effect on the DPPH radicalwith an EC50 of 0.28+0.01 mg/mL. The leaf dichloromethane extract also had the highest total phenol concentration, (73.4+2.80 mg GA/g of extract whereas the crude methanol extract from the rhizomes had the highest reducing power with an EC50 of 2.07+0.06 mg/mL. In terms of antibacterial activity, the essential oil (distilled from either the leaves or the rhizomesdisplayed the highest inhibitory activity, with the same MID value of 1 mg/disc against 5 strains of bacteria, Bacillus subtilis,Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Sarcina sp. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

  16. Treatment of the baker's yeast wastewater by electrocoagulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobya, M. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Gebze Institute of Technology, 41400 Gebze (Turkey)], E-mail: kobya@gyte.edu.tr; Delipinar, S. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Gebze Institute of Technology, 41400 Gebze (Turkey)

    2008-06-15

    In the laboratory-scale experiments, treatment of baker's yeast production wastewater has been investigated by electrocoagulation (EC) using a batch reactor. Effects of the process variables such as pH, electrode material (Fe and Al), current density, and operating time are investigated in terms of removal efficiencies of chemical oxygen demand (COD), total organic carbon (TOC), turbidity, and operating cost, respectively. The maximum removal efficiencies of COD, TOC and turbidity under optimal operating conditions, i.e., pH 6.5 for Al electrode and pH 7 for Fe electrode, current density of 70 A/m{sup 2} and operating time of 50 min were 71, 53 and 90% for Al electrode and 69, 52 and 56% for Fe electrode, respectively. Al electrode gave 4.4 times higher removal efficiency of turbidity than Fe electrode due to interference from color of dissolved iron. The operating costs for Al and Fe electrodes in terms of $/m{sup 3} or $/kg COD were 1.54 and 0.82, 0.51 and 0.27, respectively.

  17. An improved, bias-reduced probabilistic functional gene network of baker's yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Insuk Lee

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Probabilistic functional gene networks are powerful theoretical frameworks for integrating heterogeneous functional genomics and proteomics data into objective models of cellular systems. Such networks provide syntheses of millions of discrete experimental observations, spanning DNA microarray experiments, physical protein interactions, genetic interactions, and comparative genomics; the resulting networks can then be easily applied to generate testable hypotheses regarding specific gene functions and associations.We report a significantly improved version (v. 2 of a probabilistic functional gene network of the baker's yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We describe our optimization methods and illustrate their effects in three major areas: the reduction of functional bias in network training reference sets, the application of a probabilistic model for calculating confidences in pair-wise protein physical or genetic interactions, and the introduction of simple thresholds that eliminate many false positive mRNA co-expression relationships. Using the network, we predict and experimentally verify the function of the yeast RNA binding protein Puf6 in 60S ribosomal subunit biogenesis.YeastNet v. 2, constructed using these optimizations together with additional data, shows significant reduction in bias and improvements in precision and recall, in total covering 102,803 linkages among 5,483 yeast proteins (95% of the validated proteome. YeastNet is available from http://www.yeastnet.org.

  18. Thermodynamic analysis of fermentation and anaerobic growth of baker's yeast for ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teh, Kwee-Yan; Lutz, Andrew E

    2010-05-17

    Thermodynamic concepts have been used in the past to predict microbial growth yield. This may be the key consideration in many industrial biotechnology applications. It is not the case, however, in the context of ethanol fuel production. In this paper, we examine the thermodynamics of fermentation and concomitant growth of baker's yeast in continuous culture experiments under anaerobic, glucose-limited conditions, with emphasis on the yield and efficiency of bio-ethanol production. We find that anaerobic metabolism of yeast is very efficient; the process retains more than 90% of the maximum work that could be extracted from the growth medium supplied to the chemostat reactor. Yeast cells and other metabolic by-products are also formed, which reduces the glucose-to-ethanol conversion efficiency to less than 75%. Varying the specific ATP consumption rate, which is the fundamental parameter in this paper for modeling the energy demands of cell growth, shows the usual trade-off between ethanol production and biomass yield. The minimum ATP consumption rate required for synthesizing cell materials leads to biomass yield and Gibbs energy dissipation limits that are much more severe than those imposed by mass balance and thermodynamic equilibrium constraints. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Sugar utilization patterns and respiro-fermentative metabolism in the baker's yeast Torulaspora delbrueckii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves-Araújo, C; Pacheco, A; Almeida, M J; Spencer-Martins, I; Leão, C; Sousa, M J

    2007-03-01

    The highly osmo- and cryotolerant yeast species Torulaspora delbrueckii is an important case study among the non-Saccharomyces yeast species. The strain T. delbrueckii PYCC 5321, isolated from traditional corn and rye bread dough in northern Portugal, is considered particularly interesting for the baking industry. This paper reports the sugar utilization patterns of this strain, using media with glucose, maltose and sucrose, alone or in mixtures. Kinetics of growth, biomass and ethanol yields, fermentation and respiration rates, hydrolase activities and sugar uptake rates were used to infer the potential applied relevance of this yeast in comparison to a conventional baker's strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The results showed that both maltase and maltose transport in T. delbrueckii were subject to glucose repression and maltose induction, whereas invertase was subject to glucose control but not dependent on sucrose induction. A comparative analysis of specific sugar consumption rates and transport capacities suggests that the transport step limits both glucose and maltose metabolism. Specific rates of CO(2) production and O(2) consumption showed a significantly higher contribution of respiration to the overall metabolism in T. delbrueckii than in S. cerevisiae. This was reflected in the biomass yields from batch cultures and could represent an asset for the large-scale production of the former species. This work contributes to a better understanding of the physiology of a non-conventional yeast species, with a view to the full exploitation of T. delbrueckii by the baking industry.

  20. Diet, occupational exposure and early asthma incidence among bakers, pastry makers and hairdressers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rémen Thomas

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The natural history of occupational asthma (OA is influenced by many determinants. This study aims to assess the combined roles of personal characteristics, including occupational exposure and nutritional habits, on the incidence of OA during the first years at work. Methods A nested case–control study was conducted within a retrospective cohort of young workers in the bakery, pastry-making and hairdressing sectors. Cases were subjects diagnosed as ‘confirmed’ or ‘probable’ OA consecutively to a medical visit (N = 31. Controls were subjects without OA (N = 196. Atopy was defined after blood specific IgE analysis, based on the PhadiatopTM test. Occupational exposure was characterized by standardized questionnaires and diet patterns by a food frequency questionnaire. Results Among bakers and pastry-makers, only atopy is an independent risk factor of OA (OR = 10.07 95%CI [2.76 – 36.65]. Among hairdressers, several variables are associated with OA. Body mass index (unit OR = 1.24 [1.03 – 1.48] and the score of exposure intensity (unit OR = 1.79 [1.05 – 3.05] are independent predictors of OA, but the role of atopy is weak (OR = 4.94 [0.66 – 36.75]. Intake of vitamin A is higher among hairdressers cases (crude p = 0.002, adjusted p = 0.01 after control for body mass index and atopy; the same observation is made for vitamin D (crude p = 0.004, adjusted p = 0.01. Conclusion This study suggests that the influence of several factors on the incidence of OA, including dietary vitamins, might vary across exposure settings.

  1. Diet, occupational exposure and early asthma incidence among bakers, pastry makers and hairdressers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rémen, Thomas; Acouetey, Dovi-Stéphanie; Paris, Christophe; Zmirou-Navier, Denis

    2012-05-29

    The natural history of occupational asthma (OA) is influenced by many determinants. This study aims to assess the combined roles of personal characteristics, including occupational exposure and nutritional habits, on the incidence of OA during the first years at work. A nested case-control study was conducted within a retrospective cohort of young workers in the bakery, pastry-making and hairdressing sectors. Cases were subjects diagnosed as 'confirmed' or 'probable' OA consecutively to a medical visit (N = 31). Controls were subjects without OA (N = 196). Atopy was defined after blood specific IgE analysis, based on the PhadiatopTM test. Occupational exposure was characterized by standardized questionnaires and diet patterns by a food frequency questionnaire. Among bakers and pastry-makers, only atopy is an independent risk factor of OA (OR = 10.07 95%CI [2.76 - 36.65]). Among hairdressers, several variables are associated with OA. Body mass index (unit OR = 1.24 [1.03 - 1.48]) and the score of exposure intensity (unit OR = 1.79 [1.05 - 3.05]) are independent predictors of OA, but the role of atopy is weak (OR = 4.94 [0.66 - 36.75]). Intake of vitamin A is higher among hairdressers cases (crude p = 0.002, adjusted p = 0.01 after control for body mass index and atopy); the same observation is made for vitamin D (crude p = 0.004, adjusted p = 0.01). This study suggests that the influence of several factors on the incidence of OA, including dietary vitamins, might vary across exposure settings.

  2. Intermolecular hydrogen transfer catalyzed by a flavodehydrogenase, bakers' yeast flavocytochrome b2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urban, P.; Lederer, F.

    1985-01-01

    Bakers yeast flavocytochrome b2 is a flavin-dependent L-2-hydroxy acid dehydrogenase which also exhibits transhydrogenase activity. When a reaction takes place between [2- 3 H]lactate and a halogenopyruvate, tritium is found in water and at the halogenolactate C2 position. When the halogenopyruvate undergoes halide ion elimination, tritium is also found at the C3 position of the resulting pyruvate. The amount tau of this intermolecular tritium transfer depends on the initial keto acid-acceptor concentration. At infinite acceptor concentration, extrapolation yields a maximal transfer of 97 +/- 11%. This indicates that the hydroxy acid-derived hydrogen resides transiently on enzyme monoprotic heteroatoms and that exchange with bulk solvent occurs only at the level of free reduced enzyme. Using a minimal kinetic scheme, the rate constant for hydrogen exchange between Ered and solvent is calculated to be on the order of 10(2) M-1 S-1, which leads to an estimated pK approximately equal to 15 for the ionization of the substrate-derived proton while on the enzyme. It is suggested that this hydrogen could be shared between the active site base and Flred N5 anion. It is furthermore shown that some tritium is incorporated into the products when the transhydrogenation is carried out in tritiated water. Finally, with [2-2H]lactate-reduced enzyme, a deuterium isotope effect is observed on the rate of bromopyruvate disappearance. Extrapolation to infinite bromopyruvate concentration yields DV = 4.4. An apparent inverse isotope effect is determined for bromide ion elimination. These results strengthen the idea that oxidoreduction and elimination pathways involve a common carbanionic intermediate

  3. Climate change impacts on the Lehman-Baker Creek drainage in the Great Basin National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volk, J. M.

    2013-12-01

    Global climate models (GCMs) forced by increased CO2 emissions forecast anomalously dry and warm trends over the southwestern U.S. for the 21st century. The effect of warmer conditions may result in decreased surface water resources within the Great Basin physiographic region critical for ecology, irrigation and municipal water supply. Here we use downscaled GCM output from the A2 and B1 greenhouse gas emission scenarios to force a Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS) watershed model developed for the Lehman and Baker Creeks Drainage (LBCD) in the Great Basin National Park, NV for a century long time period. The goal is to quantify the effects of rising temperature to the water budget in the LBCD at monthly and annual timescales. Dynamically downscaled GCM projections are attained from the NSF EPSCoR Nevada Infrastructure for Climate Change Science, Education, and Outreach project and statistically downscaled output is retrieved from the "U.S. Bias Corrected and Downscaled WCRP CMIP3 Climate Projections". Historical daily climate and streamflow data have been collected simultaneously for periods extending 20 years or longer. Mann-Kendal trend test results showed a statistically significant (α= 0.05) long-term rising trend from 1895 to 2012 in annual and monthly average temperatures for the study area. A grid-based, PRMS watershed model of the LBCD has been created within ArcGIS 10, and physical parameters have been estimated at a spatial resolution of 100m. Simulation results will be available soon. Snow cover is expected to decrease and peak runoff to occur earlier in the spring, resulting in increased runoff, decreased infiltration/recharge, decreased baseflows, and decreased evapo-transpiration.

  4. De Novo Biosynthesis of Vanillin in Fission Yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe) and Baker's Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Esben H.; Møller, Birger Lindberg; Kock, Gertrud R.; Bünner, Camilla M.; Kristensen, Charlotte; Jensen, Ole R.; Okkels, Finn T.; Olsen, Carl E.; Motawia, Mohammed S.; Hansen, Jørgen

    2009-01-01

    Vanillin is one of the world's most important flavor compounds, with a global market of 180 million dollars. Natural vanillin is derived from the cured seed pods of the vanilla orchid (Vanilla planifolia), but most of the world's vanillin is synthesized from petrochemicals or wood pulp lignins. We have established a true de novo biosynthetic pathway for vanillin production from glucose in Schizosaccharomyces pombe, also known as fission yeast or African beer yeast, as well as in baker's yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Productivities were 65 and 45 mg/liter, after introduction of three and four heterologous genes, respectively. The engineered pathways involve incorporation of 3-dehydroshikimate dehydratase from the dung mold Podospora pauciseta, an aromatic carboxylic acid reductase (ACAR) from a bacterium of the Nocardia genus, and an O-methyltransferase from Homo sapiens. In S. cerevisiae, the ACAR enzyme required activation by phosphopantetheinylation, and this was achieved by coexpression of a Corynebacterium glutamicum phosphopantetheinyl transferase. Prevention of reduction of vanillin to vanillyl alcohol was achieved by knockout of the host alcohol dehydrogenase ADH6. In S. pombe, the biosynthesis was further improved by introduction of an Arabidopsis thaliana family 1 UDP-glycosyltransferase, converting vanillin into vanillin β-d-glucoside, which is not toxic to the yeast cells and thus may be accumulated in larger amounts. These de novo pathways represent the first examples of one-cell microbial generation of these valuable compounds from glucose. S. pombe yeast has not previously been metabolically engineered to produce any valuable, industrially scalable, white biotech commodity. PMID:19286778

  5. Effect of yeast storage temperature and flour composition on fermentative activities of baker's yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pejin Dušanka J.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Baker's yeast is a set of living cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. It contains around 70-72% of water, 42-45% of proteins, around 40% of carbohydrates, around 7.5% of lipids (based on dry matter, and vitamin B-complex. On the basis of yeast cell analysis it can be concluded that yeast is a complex biological system which changes in time. The intensity of the changes depends on temperature. Yeast sample was stored at 4°C i 24°C for 12 days. During storage at 4°C, the content of total carbohydrates decreased from 48.81% to 37.50% (dry matter, whereas carbohydrate loss ranged from 40.81% to 29.28% at 24°C. The content of trehalose was 12.33% in the yeast sample stored at 4°C and 0.24% at 24°C. Loss of fermentative activity was 81.76% in the sample stored at 24°C for 12 days. The composition of five samples of 1st category flour was investigated. It was found that flours containing more reducing sugars and maltose enable higher fermentation activities. The flours with higher ash content (in the range 0.5-0.94% had higher contents of phytic acid. Higher ash and phytic contents in flour increased the yeast fermentative efficiency. In bakery industry, a range of ingredients has been applied to improve the product's quality such as surface active substances (emulsifiers, enzymes, sugars and fats. In the paper, the effect of some ingredients added to dough (margarine, saccharose, sodium chloride and malted barley on the yeast fermentative activity was studied. The mentioned ingredients were added to dough at different doses: 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0%, flour basis. It was found that the investigated ingredients affected the fermentative activity of yeast and improved the bread quality.

  6. Exploration of potential baker's yeast from sugarcane juice: optimization and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamun-Or-rashid, A N M; Dash, Biplab Kumar; Chowdhury, Md Nurul Abadin; Waheed, Momtaz Fatima; Pramanik, Md Kamruzzaman

    2013-07-01

    The present study was carried out to explore baker's yeasts strains from sugarcane juice to assess its potential in laboratory scale production of breads. Collected juice samples were processed for isolation and identification of yeast strains based on standard cultural, morphological and biochemical characteristics. Among the six isolated strains, four (designated as S1, S2, S5 and S6) were identified as Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the rests (designated S3 and S4) were as S. rouxii. When assessing their CO2 production rates as a measure of their baking potential, S6 was found to produce maximum amount of gas (226.67 mm3 mL(-1)) in sucrose broth, whereas gas produced by S2, S1 and S5 were relatively insignificant (170, 136.67 and 86.67 mm3 mL(-1), respectively). No strain was found to produce undesirable H2S gas responsible for off-flavor. Besides, effects of different physicochemical parameters (e.g., pH, temperature, substrate concentration, incubation period, agitation etc.) on the production of yeast cell-mass were studied. Yield of cell mass was indirectly measured by spectrophotometric method at 550 nm. All the test isolates were found to produce maximum cell mass at a pH range of 4.0 to 5.0 in 2 to 4% molasses broth at 30 degrees C after 4 days of incubation. In the laboratory scale production of bread using composite flour, Isolate-S6 formed significant characteristic texture. Considering overall characteristics, Isolate- S6 was found to be satisfactorily potent for baking purpose.

  7. Baker 10 x 20 NTMS area, Oregon and Idaho: data report (abbreviated)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.R.

    1981-05-01

    Surface sediment samples were collected at 1426 sites, at a target sampling density of one site per 13 square kilometers. Ground water samples were collected at 460 sites. Neutron activation analysis results are given for uranium and 16 other elements in sediments, and for uranium and 9 other elements in ground water and surface water. Mass spectrometry results are given for helium in ground water. Field measurements and observations are reported for each site. Analytical data and field measurements are presented in tables and maps. Data from ground water and surface water sites include: (1) water chemistry measurements (pH, conductivity, and alkalinity), (2) physical measurements, where applicable (water temperature, well description, and scintillometer reading), and (3) elemental analyses (U, Al, Br, Cl, Dy, F, Mg, Mn, Na, and V). Helium analyses are given for ground water. Data from sediment sites include: (1) stream water chemistry measurements from sites where water was available, and (2) elemental analyses for sediment samples (U, Th, Hf, Al, Ce, Dy, Eu, Fe, La, Lu, Mn, Sc, Sm, Na, Ti, V, and Yb). Sample site descriptors (stream characteristics, vegetation, etc.) are also tabulated. Areal distribution maps, histograms, and cumulative frequency plots for these elements; U/Th, U/Hf, U/(Th + Hf), and U/La ratios; and scintillometer readings at sediment sample sites are included on the microfiche. The maximum uranium concentration found in sediments in the Baker quadrangle was 21.1 ppM. The mean of the logarithms of the uranium concentrations was 0.77. Concentrations of uranium and the rare-earth elements were high along the eastern edge of the quadrangle

  8. When is Deceptive Message Production More Effortful than Truth-Telling? A Baker's Dozen of Moderators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgoon, Judee K

    2015-01-01

    Deception is thought to be more effortful than telling the truth. Empirical evidence from many quarters supports this general proposition. However, there are many factors that qualify and even reverse this pattern. Guided by a communication perspective, I present a baker's dozen of moderators that may alter the degree of cognitive difficulty associated with producing deceptive messages. Among sender-related factors are memory processes, motivation, incentives, and consequences. Lying increases activation of a network of brain regions related to executive memory, suppression of unwanted behaviors, and task switching that is not observed with truth-telling. High motivation coupled with strong incentives or the risk of adverse consequences also prompts more cognitive exertion-for truth-tellers and deceivers alike-to appear credible, with associated effects on performance and message production effort, depending on the magnitude of effort, communicator skill, and experience. Factors related to message and communication context include discourse genre, type of prevarication, expected response length, communication medium, preparation, and recency of target event/issue. These factors can attenuate the degree of cognitive taxation on senders so that truth-telling and deceiving are similarly effortful. Factors related to the interpersonal relationship among interlocutors include whether sender and receiver are cooperative or adversarial and how well-acquainted they are with one another. A final consideration is whether the unit of analysis is the utterance, turn at talk, episode, entire interaction, or series of interactions. Taking these factors into account should produce a more nuanced answer to the question of when deception is more difficult than truth-telling.

  9. Enhancement of the proline and nitric oxide synthetic pathway improves fermentation ability under multiple baking-associated stress conditions in industrial baker's yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasano Yu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During the bread-making process, industrial baker's yeast, mostly Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is exposed to baking-associated stresses, such as air-drying and freeze-thaw stress. These baking-associated stresses exert severe injury to yeast cells, mainly due to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS, leading to cell death and reduced fermentation ability. Thus, there is a great need for a baker's yeast strain with higher tolerance to baking-associated stresses. Recently, we revealed a novel antioxidative mechanism in a laboratory yeast strain that is involved in stress-induced nitric oxide (NO synthesis from proline via proline oxidase Put1 and N-acetyltransferase Mpr1. We also found that expression of the proline-feedback inhibition-less sensitive mutant γ-glutamyl kinase (Pro1-I150T and the thermostable mutant Mpr1-F65L resulted in an enhanced fermentation ability of baker's yeast in bread dough after freeze-thaw stress and air-drying stress, respectively. However, baker's yeast strains with high fermentation ability under multiple baking-associated stresses have not yet been developed. Results We constructed a self-cloned diploid baker's yeast strain with enhanced proline and NO synthesis by expressing Pro1-I150T and Mpr1-F65L in the presence of functional Put1. The engineered strain increased the intracellular NO level in response to air-drying stress, and the strain was tolerant not only to oxidative stress but also to both air-drying and freeze-thaw stresses probably due to the reduced intracellular ROS level. We also showed that the resultant strain retained higher leavening activity in bread dough after air-drying and freeze-thaw stress than that of the wild-type strain. On the other hand, enhanced stress tolerance and fermentation ability did not occur in the put1-deficient strain. This result suggests that NO is synthesized in baker's yeast from proline in response to oxidative stresses that induce ROS

  10. Enhancement of the proline and nitric oxide synthetic pathway improves fermentation ability under multiple baking-associated stress conditions in industrial baker's yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasano, Yu; Haitani, Yutaka; Hashida, Keisuke; Ohtsu, Iwao; Shima, Jun; Takagi, Hiroshi

    2012-04-01

    During the bread-making process, industrial baker's yeast, mostly Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is exposed to baking-associated stresses, such as air-drying and freeze-thaw stress. These baking-associated stresses exert severe injury to yeast cells, mainly due to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), leading to cell death and reduced fermentation ability. Thus, there is a great need for a baker's yeast strain with higher tolerance to baking-associated stresses. Recently, we revealed a novel antioxidative mechanism in a laboratory yeast strain that is involved in stress-induced nitric oxide (NO) synthesis from proline via proline oxidase Put1 and N-acetyltransferase Mpr1. We also found that expression of the proline-feedback inhibition-less sensitive mutant γ-glutamyl kinase (Pro1-I150T) and the thermostable mutant Mpr1-F65L resulted in an enhanced fermentation ability of baker's yeast in bread dough after freeze-thaw stress and air-drying stress, respectively. However, baker's yeast strains with high fermentation ability under multiple baking-associated stresses have not yet been developed. We constructed a self-cloned diploid baker's yeast strain with enhanced proline and NO synthesis by expressing Pro1-I150T and Mpr1-F65L in the presence of functional Put1. The engineered strain increased the intracellular NO level in response to air-drying stress, and the strain was tolerant not only to oxidative stress but also to both air-drying and freeze-thaw stresses probably due to the reduced intracellular ROS level. We also showed that the resultant strain retained higher leavening activity in bread dough after air-drying and freeze-thaw stress than that of the wild-type strain. On the other hand, enhanced stress tolerance and fermentation ability did not occur in the put1-deficient strain. This result suggests that NO is synthesized in baker's yeast from proline in response to oxidative stresses that induce ROS generation and that increased NO plays an important

  11. Enhancement of the proline and nitric oxide synthetic pathway improves fermentation ability under multiple baking-associated stress conditions in industrial baker's yeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background During the bread-making process, industrial baker's yeast, mostly Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is exposed to baking-associated stresses, such as air-drying and freeze-thaw stress. These baking-associated stresses exert severe injury to yeast cells, mainly due to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), leading to cell death and reduced fermentation ability. Thus, there is a great need for a baker's yeast strain with higher tolerance to baking-associated stresses. Recently, we revealed a novel antioxidative mechanism in a laboratory yeast strain that is involved in stress-induced nitric oxide (NO) synthesis from proline via proline oxidase Put1 and N-acetyltransferase Mpr1. We also found that expression of the proline-feedback inhibition-less sensitive mutant γ-glutamyl kinase (Pro1-I150T) and the thermostable mutant Mpr1-F65L resulted in an enhanced fermentation ability of baker's yeast in bread dough after freeze-thaw stress and air-drying stress, respectively. However, baker's yeast strains with high fermentation ability under multiple baking-associated stresses have not yet been developed. Results We constructed a self-cloned diploid baker's yeast strain with enhanced proline and NO synthesis by expressing Pro1-I150T and Mpr1-F65L in the presence of functional Put1. The engineered strain increased the intracellular NO level in response to air-drying stress, and the strain was tolerant not only to oxidative stress but also to both air-drying and freeze-thaw stresses probably due to the reduced intracellular ROS level. We also showed that the resultant strain retained higher leavening activity in bread dough after air-drying and freeze-thaw stress than that of the wild-type strain. On the other hand, enhanced stress tolerance and fermentation ability did not occur in the put1-deficient strain. This result suggests that NO is synthesized in baker's yeast from proline in response to oxidative stresses that induce ROS generation and that increased NO

  12. Antioxidant N-acetyltransferase Mpr1/2 of industrial baker's yeast enhances fermentation ability after air-drying stress in bread dough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasano, Yu; Takahashi, Shunsuke; Shima, Jun; Takagi, Hiroshi

    2010-03-31

    During bread-making processes, yeast cells are exposed to multiple stresses. Air-drying stress is one of the most harmful stresses by generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Previously, we discovered that the novel N-acetyltransferase Mpr1/2 confers oxidative stress tolerance by reducing intracellular ROS level in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Sigma1278b strain. In this study, we revealed that Japanese industrial baker's yeast possesses one MPR gene. The nucleotide sequence of the MPR gene in industrial baker's yeast was identical to the MPR2 gene in Sigma1278b strain. Gene disruption analysis showed that the MPR2 gene in industrial baker's yeast is involved in air-drying stress tolerance by reducing the intracellular oxidation levels. We also found that expression of the Lys63Arg and Phe65Leu variants with enhanced enzymatic activity and stability, respectively, increased the fermentation ability of bread dough after exposure to air-drying stress compared with the wild-type Mpr1. In addition, our recent study showed that industrial baker's yeast cells accumulating proline exhibited enhanced freeze tolerance in bread dough. Proline accumulation also enhanced the fermentation ability after air-drying stress treatment in industrial baker's yeast. Hence, the antioxidant enzyme Mpr1/2 could be promising for breeding novel yeast strains that are tolerant to air-drying stress. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of the gamma radiation on the chemical, rheological, baker and microbiological properties in wheat flour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agundez A, Z.; Fernandez R, M.V.; Arce C, M.E.; Cruz Z, E.; Chernov, V.; Barboza F, M.

    2002-01-01

    The gamma radiation has been used in several places of the World as a sterilization method, preservation and pasteurization of foodstuffs, effect which is achieved due to diminishing or elimination of the microorganisms, reaching every time more acceptance, moreover eliminates the uses of toxic and carcinogenic substances, of general use, but at the present, being in the process of being totally prohibited, due to the higher risk in the human health. In this work the related results with the effects of the gamma radiation are presented, coming from a 60 Co source, in commercial wheat flour exposed to a dose of 1.0 KGy. The used dose is that allowed according to the NOM-033-SSA1-1993 standard. It was determined that the chemical characteristics of humidity, protein and ashes were not affected by radiation. The rheological properties neither suffer severe effects as consequence of radiation; the pharynographic and alveographic parameters were lightly affected by the treatment. Significant changes were detected in the percentage of water absorption and in the tolerance index to mixing. However a diminish of 10% in the development time and an increase of 13% in the stability was observed, for the irradiated samples respect to the those samples not irradiated. In relation to the alveograph parameters it was only detected a diminish of 7% in the force parameter (w) without changes in the tenacity/blowing up index ratio (P/L). The fall number diminish 11% indicating a small diminution in viscosity. The bakering properties do not turn out modified by the irradiation treatment finding a specific weight of 4.6 and 4.5 (cm 3 /g) for the control and irradiated samples, respectively. In the mesophyll analysis it was found a diminish of 96% from the original charge in control samples, observing a diminution of 74 and 25% in yeasts and mushrooms respectively. Microbiologically it was determined absence of total coliforms bacteria and faecal coliforms in the control samples and of

  14. Reduções enantiosseletivas de cetonas utilizando-se fermento de pão Enantioselective reductions of ketones using baker's yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Augusto R. Rodrigues

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Baker's yeast has been successful employed to reduce carbonyl compounds carrying appropriated substituents at distances under the electronic influence of the keto group. High yields and enantiomeric excess (ee were obtained with 1,2-alkanedione, 1,2-alkanedione (2-O-methyloxime and 1,3-alkanedione. Potential chiral building blocks were obtained and applied for stereoselective synthesis of valuable compounds. Evidence for a free radical chain process was obtained with baker's yeast reduction of a-iodoacetophenone using radical inhibitors.

  15. Morfoanatomia, tricomas glandulares e fitoquímica de Lomatozona artemisiifolia Baker (ASTERACEAE - EUPATORIEAE) - uma planta endêmica do Cerrado de Goiás

    OpenAIRE

    Trindade, Luma Mota Palmeira

    2013-01-01

    Morfoanatomia, tricomas glandulares e fitoquímica de Lomatozona artemisiifolia Baker (Asteraceae - Eupatorieae) – Uma planta endêmica do cerrado de Goiás - A família Asteraceae é amplamente distribuída, possuindo 24.000 espécies e 1.600 a 1700 gêneros, constituindo uma das maiores famílias de fanerógamas. No Cerrado, dentre as fanerógamas, é a segunda maior família em quantidade de espécies. Dentre as inúmeras espécies de Asteraceae está presente Lomatozona artemisiifolia Baker, pertence à tr...

  16. Improvement of fermentation ability under baking-associated stress conditions by altering the POG1 gene expression in baker's yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasano, Yu; Haitani, Yutaka; Hashida, Keisuke; Oshiro, Satoshi; Shima, Jun; Takagi, Hiroshi

    2013-08-01

    During the bread-making process, yeast cells are exposed to many types of baking-associated stress. There is thus a demand within the baking industry for yeast strains with high fermentation abilities under these stress conditions. The POG1 gene, encoding a putative transcription factor involved in cell cycle regulation, is a multicopy suppressor of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae E3 ubiquitin ligase Rsp5 mutant. The pog1 mutant is sensitive to various stresses. Our results suggested that the POG1 gene is involved in stress tolerance in yeast cells. In this study, we showed that overexpression of the POG1 gene in baker's yeast conferred increased fermentation ability in high-sucrose-containing dough, which is used for sweet dough baking. Furthermore, deletion of the POG1 gene drastically increased the fermentation ability in bread dough after freeze-thaw stress, which would be a useful characteristic for frozen dough baking. Thus, the engineering of yeast strains to control the POG1 gene expression level would be a novel method for molecular breeding of baker's yeast. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Three-dimensional geophysical mapping of shallow water saturated altered rocks at Mount Baker, Washington: Implications for slope stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Carol A.; Deszcz-Pan, Maryla; Ball, Jessica L.; Bloss, Benjamin J.; Minsley, Burke J.

    2018-05-01

    Water-saturated hydrothermal alteration reduces the strength of volcanic edifices, increasing the potential for catastrophic sector collapses that can lead to far traveled and destructive debris flows. Intense hydrothermal alteration significantly lowers the resistivity and magnetization of volcanic rock and therefore hydrothermally altered rocks can be identified with helicopter electromagnetic and magnetic measurements. Geophysical models constrained by rock properties and geologic mapping show that intensely altered rock is restricted to two small (500 m diameter), >150 m thick regions around Sherman Crater and Dorr Fumarole Field at Mount Baker, Washington. This distribution of alteration contrasts with much thicker and widespread alteration encompassing the summits of Mounts Adams and Rainier prior to the 5600 year old Osceola collapse, which is most likely due to extreme erosion and the limited duration of summit magmatism at Mount Baker. In addition, the models suggest that the upper 300 m of rock contains water which could help to lubricate potential debris flows. Slope stability modeling incorporating the geophysically modeled distribution of alteration and water indicates that the most likely and largest ( 0.1 km3) collapses are from the east side of Sherman Crater. Alteration at Dorr Fumarole Field raises the collapse hazard there, but not significantly because of its lower slope angles. Geochemistry and analogs from other volcanoes suggest a model for the edifice hydrothermal system.

  18. Three-dimensional geophysical mapping of shallow water saturated altered rocks at Mount Baker, Washington: Implications for slope stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Carol A.; Deszcz-Pan, Maria; Ball, Jessica L.; Bloss, Benjamin J.; Minsley, Burke J.

    2018-01-01

    Water-saturated hydrothermal alteration reduces the strength of volcanic edifices, increasing the potential for catastrophic sector collapses that can lead to far traveled and destructive debris flows. Intense hydrothermal alteration significantly lowers the resistivity and magnetization of volcanic rock and therefore hydrothermally altered rocks can be identified with helicopter electromagnetic and magnetic measurements. Geophysical models constrained by rock properties and geologic mapping show that intensely altered rock is restricted to two small (500 m diameter), >150 m thick regions around Sherman Crater and Dorr Fumarole Field at Mount Baker, Washington. This distribution of alteration contrasts with much thicker and widespread alteration encompassing the summits of Mounts Adams and Rainier prior to the 5600 year old Osceola collapse, which is most likely due to extreme erosion and the limited duration of summit magmatism at Mount Baker. In addition, the models suggest that the upper ~300 m of rock contains water which could help to lubricate potential debris flows. Slope stability modeling incorporating the geophysically modeled distribution of alteration and water indicates that the most likely and largest (~0.1 km3) collapses are from the east side of Sherman Crater. Alteration at Dorr Fumarole Field raises the collapse hazard there, but not significantly because of its lower slope angles. Geochemistry and analogs from other volcanoes suggest a model for the edifice hydrothermal system.

  19. [Respiratory allergies among bakers and pastry cooks: epidemiologic survey done in 1991 by the occupational physicians of the Loire-Atlantique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, M; Bataille, A; Mollat, F; Bobe, M; Bonneau, C; Caramaniam, M N; Géraut, C; Dupas, D

    1995-01-01

    The aim was to study the prevalence of respiratory allergy (rhinitis and asthma) in a population of bakers and pastrycooks. In 1991, 485 bakers and pastry cooks were examined by 27 work-physicians of Loire-Atlantic. The investigation was composed of a standardised questionnaire (signs of respiratory function, atopic history, smoking of tobacco ...), a clinical examination, and tests of respiratory function. An allergy assessment was made of all subjects with symptoms. 14.4% of subjects had rhinitis and 6.4% asthma. Development of these pathologies was clearly job-related for 2/3 of those with rhinitis and more than half of the asthmatics (55%). Occupational rhinitis and asthma were significantly more frequent in bakers than in pastrycooks and were linked to atopic history. Occupational asthma was associated with length of exposure to flour and with occupational rhinitis. In conclusion, these findings are comparable with or a little less than those that have been reported in occupational literature. They under-estimate the importance of the problem because of the occupational selection effect that is associated with these pathologies. Rhinitis and asthma are 1.5 to 3 time more common in bakers than in pastrycooks.

  20. In vivo evaluation of antipyretic effects of homoeopathic ultrahigh dilutions of Typhoidinum on baker's yeast-induced fever in comparison with Paracetamol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Ahmad

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Homoeopathy is a widely used, controversial alternative system of medicine. It is assumed that homoeopathic medicines are slower in action and does not work in acute conditions such as ‘fever’. The study aims to estimate the effectiveness of some homoeopathic remedies in fever and to compare their effects with Paracetamol. Materials and Methods: Baker's yeast fever model of rabbits was used in the study. Rabbits were divided into four different groups (n = 6. Rectal temperature was measured before and after fever induction hourly. After fever induction, medicines were administered orally. Paracetamol and Typhoidinum in 200C and 1M potencies were given orally. ANOVA followed by post hoc test was used for statistical analysis of results. The results were considered statistically significant at P ≤ 0.05. Results: Fever was induced in all the rabbits after 4 h of baker's yeast administration. The results of the study revealed the significant effectiveness of Typhoidinum in 200C and 1M potencies in baker's yeast-induced fever (P = 0.05. Typhoidinum in both potencies showed less significant results as compared to Paracetamol. However, all the medicines’ effects were significant compared to the negative control. Conclusion: Typhoidinum 200C and 1M worked against baker's yeast-induced fever. However, the results were slower and less significant than Paracetamol that might be due to lack of similarity of remedy picture and disease picture.

  1. A Reassessment of George Pierce Baker's "The Principles of Argumentation": Minimizing the Use of Formal Logic in Favor of Practical Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordelon, Suzanne

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author demonstrated how recent histories relied primarily on previous accounts and one textbook to characterize George Pierce Baker's work. This narrow assessment of "The Principles of Argumentation" limits one's understanding of his contribution to argumentation theory and pedagogy. Similarly, one has seen the need for care…

  2. Cryptanalysis and improvement of an optical image encryption scheme using a chaotic Baker map and double random phase encoding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Jun-Xin; Fu, Chong; Zhu, Zhi-Liang; Zhang, Li-Bo; Zhang, Yushu

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we evaluate the security of an enhanced double random phase encoding (DRPE) image encryption scheme (2013 J. Lightwave Technol. 31 2533). The original system employs a chaotic Baker map prior to DRPE to provide more protection to the plain image and hence promote the security level of DRPE, as claimed. However, cryptanalysis shows that this scheme is vulnerable to a chosen-plaintext attack, and the ciphertext can be precisely recovered. The corresponding improvement is subsequently reported upon the basic premise that no extra equipment or computational complexity is required. The simulation results and security analyses prove its effectiveness and security. The proposed achievements are suitable for all cryptosystems under permutation and, following that, the DRPE architecture, and we hope that our work can motivate the further research on optical image encryption. (paper)

  3. Cryptanalysis and improvement of an optical image encryption scheme using a chaotic Baker map and double random phase encoding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jun-Xin; Zhu, Zhi-Liang; Fu, Chong; Zhang, Li-Bo; Zhang, Yushu

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, we evaluate the security of an enhanced double random phase encoding (DRPE) image encryption scheme (2013 J. Lightwave Technol. 31 2533). The original system employs a chaotic Baker map prior to DRPE to provide more protection to the plain image and hence promote the security level of DRPE, as claimed. However, cryptanalysis shows that this scheme is vulnerable to a chosen-plaintext attack, and the ciphertext can be precisely recovered. The corresponding improvement is subsequently reported upon the basic premise that no extra equipment or computational complexity is required. The simulation results and security analyses prove its effectiveness and security. The proposed achievements are suitable for all cryptosystems under permutation and, following that, the DRPE architecture, and we hope that our work can motivate the further research on optical image encryption.

  4. Heat recovery and energy saving using a Baker Perkins Simplex 2000 bread baking oven. A demonstration at Mothers Pride Bakery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-02-01

    A report is given of a new bread oven, a Baker Perkins Simplex 2000, installed at British Bakeries' Watnall plant under the Energy Efficiency Demonstration Scheme. The energy saving features include 1) a new design of heating system, 2) combustion air pre-heated with burner flue gases, 3) heat recovery from oven chamber to heat hot water and 4) an in-line lidding system. Results are presented for an independent monitoring of both the new oven and one of a conventional design to compare energy consumption and performance. It is shown that the simplex 2000 reduced energy costs at the Watnall plant by Pound 45,900/year. Additional benefits of the new oven include reduced production labour requirements and an increase in productivity of 100% compared with previous models. (UK).

  5. Determinação de metais em água e folha de AECHMEA BLANCHETIANA (BAKER L.B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaline R. Ribeiro

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to determine the concentrations of calcium, iron, manganese, zinc, potassium and sodium in the water and leaves of Aechmea blanchetiana (Baker L.B species collected between the cities of Ilhéus and Itacaré, Bahia, Brazil and verify if the metals found in the water can be absorbed by the leaves. Flame atomic absorption spectrometry (F AAS and flame photometry were used for the determination of metals. pH measurements, dissolved oxygen and water temperature were also made. The results obtained were used in an exploratory analysis. Principal component analysis (PCA showed clearly the distinct formation of two clusters and the correlation analysis indicated that the leaves of A. blanchetiana seem to absorb iron, calcium, manganese and zinc from the water tank.

  6. “Show Us Your God”: Marilla Baker Ingalls and the Power of Religious Objects in Nineteenth-Century Burma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Kaloyanides

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This essay examines the unusual evangelical work of Marilla Baker Ingalls, an American Baptist missionary to Burma from 1851–1902. By the time of her death in Burma at the age of 75, Ingalls was known as one of the most successful Baptist evangelists among Burmese Buddhists. To understand the extraordinary dynamic of Ingalls’ expanding Christian community, this essay focuses on two prominent objects at the Baptist mission: A life-sized dog statue that Ingalls kept chained at the edge of her property and a massive banyan tree covered with biblical illustrations and revered by locals as an abode of divine beings. This essay argues that these objects transformed Ingalls’ American Baptist Christianity into a kind of Burmese religion that revolved around revered objects. Through an examination of the particular shrine practices that pulled people into the Baptist mission, this essay reflects on the larger context of religious encounter, conflict, and representation in modernizing Burma.

  7. Biological cycle of Tenuipalpus heveae Baker (Acari, Tenuipalpidae on leaflets of three rubber tree clones Ciclo de vida de Tenuipalpus heveae Baker (Acari, Tenuipalpidae em folíolos de três clones de seringueira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinaldo José Fazzio Feres

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Life cycle of Tenuipalpus heveae Baker (Acari, Tenuipalpidae on leaflets from three rubber tree clones. The biological cycle of Tenuipalpus heveae Baker, 1945 (Tenuipalpidae, a potential rubber tree pest mite, was studied by the observation of individuals reared on leaflets of the clones GT 1, PB 235 and RRIM 600, in controlled environmental conditions. Three daily observations were done of 60 eggs on leaflets from each clone in order to verify the development of immature stages and the female oviposition. The fertility life table was constructed based in the collected data. Mites reared on PB 235 had faster rate of development, requiring less time in days, to double its population in number (TD, and had the highest values for egg production, female longevity, net reproductive rate (Ro, intrinsic rate of natural increase (r m and finite rate of increase (λ. Lower reproductive values and the longest time necessary to reach adult stage were recorded for the mites on GT 1. In all studied clones, the deutonymphal phase had the highest viability, while the larval phase had the lowest, highlighted by the survivorship curve that indicated high mortality during this life stage. The clone PB 235 allowed the most suitable conditions for the development of T. heveae, followed by RRIM 600, while GT 1 was the less suitable substratum to rear this mite species.O ciclo de vida de Tenuipalpus heveae Baker, 1945 (Tenuipalpidae, um potencial ácaro-praga da seringueira, foi estudado a partir de indivíduos criados sobre folíolos destacados dos clones GT 1, PB 235 e RRIM 600, em condições controladas. Três observações diárias foram realizadas, acompanhando-se o desenvolvimento de 60 ovos e de sua prole em folíolos de cada um dos clones, para verificação da oviposição das fêmeas e dos estágios de desenvolvimento. A partir dos dados obtidos, foi elaborada uma tabela de vida de fertilidade. Os ácaros criados sobre folíolos de PB 235 apresentaram r

  8. 28 June 2012 - Members of the European Brain Council led by President Mary Baker visiting the LHC tunnel at Point 5 with Technology Department Group Leader L. Bottura and CMS experimental area with Run Coordinator M. Chamizo-Llatas.

    CERN Multimedia

    Jean-Claude Gadmer

    2012-01-01

    28 June 2012 - Members of the European Brain Council led by President Mary Baker visiting the LHC tunnel at Point 5 with Technology Department Group Leader L. Bottura and CMS experimental area with Run Coordinator M. Chamizo-Llatas.

  9. Baker's yeast beta glucan supplementation increases salivary IgA and decreases cold/flu symptomatic days after intense exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarlin, Brian K; Carpenter, Katie C; Davidson, Tiffany; McFarlin, Meredith A

    2013-09-01

    Strenuous exercise, such as running a marathon, is known to suppress mucosal immunity for up to 24 hr, which can increase the risk of developing an upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) and reduced performance capacity (Allgrove JE, Geneen L, Latif S, Gleeson M. Influence of a fed or fasted state on the s-IgA response to prolonged cycling in active men and women. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2009;19(3):209-221; Barrett B, Locken K, Maberry R, Schwamman J, Brown R, Bobula J, Stauffacher EA. The Wisconsin Upper Respiratory Symptom Survey (WURSS): a new research instrument for assessing the common cold. J Fam Pract. 2002;51(3):265; Carpenter KC, Breslin WL, Davidson T, Adams A, McFarlin BK. Baker's yeast beta glucan supplementation increases monocytes and cytokines post-exercise: implications for infection risk? Br J Nutr. 2012;1-9). While many dietary interventions have been used to combat postexercise immune suppression, most have been ineffective. The key purpose of this study was to determine if baker's yeast β-glucan (BG) could positively affect the immune system of individuals undergoing intense exercise stress using two experiments. In the first (E1; N = 182 men and women), BG was compared to placebo supplementation for the incidence of URTI symptoms for 28 days postmarathon. In the second (E2; N = 60 men and women) changes in salivary immunoglobulin A (IgA) were evaluated after 50-min of strenuous cycling when participants had been supplemented for 10 days with either BG (250 mg/day) or placebo (rice flour). For E1, subjects reported URTI symptoms using a daily health log. For E2, saliva was collected prior to, immediately, and 2-hr postexercise using a salivette. Data for E1 and E2 were analyzed using separate analyses of variance (ANOVAs) with repeated measures (p flu symptom days postmarathon compared to placebo (p = .026). In E2, BG was associated with a 32% increase in salivary IgA (p = .048) at 2 hr after exercise compared to placebo. In summary

  10. Estudios sobre semilla de Hypochaeris variegata L. (Baker: aceite seminal y harina residual de extracción

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nolasco, S. M.

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Seeds from Hypochaeris variegata L. (Baker harvested at Olavarría (Buenos Aires, Argentine were defatted with hexane and the raw oil obtained with a yield of 24,7% dry basis. The crude oil was examined in their physicochemical characteristics had refractive index of 1,4637 (at 25ºC, iodine value of 125,2, saponification index of 188,4, unsaponifiable matter of 8,5 % and free fatty acid content of 9,7 (mg KOH/g. Gas chromatographic analysis of the oil revealed high levels of linoleic acid (66,2%, appreciable amount of linolenic and erucic acids. The residual seed meal contained 35,49% of crude protein and 35,1% of crude fiber. Total and phytic acid phosphorous, calcium, ash, sugar and polisaccharides (non presence of starch contents are reported.Semillas de Hypochaeris variegata L. (Baker cosechadas en Olavarría (prov. de Buenos Aires, Argentina se extrajeron con hexano (soxhlet obteniéndose el aceite crudo con un rendimiento del 24,7 % (b.s. y la harina residual de extracción. El aceite crudo se examinó en sus características fisicoquímicas (Indice de refracción: 1.4637 (a 25ºC, Indice de iodo: 125,2, Indice de saponificación: 188,4, insaponificable: 8,5%, Indice de acidez: 9,7 (mgKOH/g y composición acídica. El análisis por cromatografía gaseosa de los ésteres metílicos revela un alto porcentaje de ácido linoleico (66,2%, cantidades apreciables de ácido linolénico y erúcico. La harina residual de extracción presentó un 35,49% b.s. de proteína cruda y 35,1% b.s. de fibra cruda. Se informan valores de fósforo total y de ácido fítico, cenizas, calcio e hidratos de carbono.

  11. Utilization of baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae for the production of yeast extract: effects of different enzymatic treatments on solid, protein and carbohydrate recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TATJANA VUKASINOVIC MILIC

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Yeast extract (YE was produced from commercial pressed baker's yeast (active and inactivated using two enzymes: papain and lyticase. The effects of enzyme concentration and hydrolysis time on the recovery of solid, protein and carbohydrate were investigated. Autolysis, as a basic method for cell lysis was also used and the results compared. The optimal extraction conditions were investigated. The optimal concentrations of papain and lyticase were found to be 2.5 % and 0.025 %, respectively.

  12. The Baker system for nuclear access authorization screening: a psychologically developed system for access screening of vendor and owner applicants at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, E.G.; Crouter, F.L.

    1985-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive screening program for unescorted access which has proven to be highly effective in determining the intergrity, trustworthiness, socialibility, behaviors and tendencies of an employee applicant--past, present and future. This procedure, designed specifically for the nuclear industry, can be used with owner or vendor applicants, and meets or exceeds all of the NRC's requirements. The Baker system has been used for nuclear selection since 1979

  13. Closed form of the Baker-Campbell-Hausdorff formula for the generators of semisimple complex Lie algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matone, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Recently it has been introduced an algorithm for the Baker-Campbell-Hausdorff (BCH) formula, which extends the Van-Brunt and Visser recent results, leading to new closed forms of BCH formula. More recently, it has been shown that there are 13 types of such commutator algebras. We show, by providing the explicit solutions, that these include the generators of the semisimple complex Lie algebras. More precisely, for any pair, X, Y of the Cartan-Weyl basis, we find W, linear combination of X, Y, such that exp(X) exp(Y) = exp(W). The derivation of such closed forms follows, in part, by using the above mentioned recent results. The complete derivation is provided by considering the structure of the root system. Furthermore, if X, Y, and Z are three generators of the Cartan-Weyl basis, we find, for a wide class of cases, W, a linear combination of X, Y and Z, such that exp(X) exp(Y) exp(Z) = exp(W). It turns out that the relevant commutator algebras are type 1c-i, type 4 and type 5. A key result concerns an iterative application of the algorithm leading to relevant extensions of the cases admitting closed forms of the BCH formula. Here we provide the main steps of such an iteration that will be developed in a forthcoming paper. (orig.)

  14. Identificación de fructooligosacáridos e inulinas en residuos de hojas de fique - Furcraea macrophylla Baker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Sofia Guevara Apraez

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Colombia es un importante productor de cabuya, fibra natural extraída de fique (Furcraea macrophylla Baker. La explotación de esta planta se caracteriza por productos y procesos tradicionales, poco tecnificados, de bajo valor agregado y con un aprovechamiento limitado de la planta de fique, lo que se traduce en baja rentabilidad. No obstante, en los residuos de este proceso agroindustrial se encuentran muchas sustancias de interés, aun sin explorar, entre ellas los carbohidratos, específicamente los fructanos, como la inulina y los fructooligosacaridos (FOS que son polímeros de fructosa considerados fibra dietaría y que por sus características se clasifican como prebióticos. En esta investigación se evidenció la presencia de FOS e inulinas en los residuos obtenidos durante el proceso de desfibrado de las hojas de fique a través de técnicas enzimáticas y espectro-fotométricas. Debido a las amplias aplicaciones en el sector alimentario se recomienda su cuantificación, extracción y caracterización con el fin de proporcionar valor agregado a través de la explotación de estos compuestos.

  15. Closed form of the Baker-Campbell-Hausdorff formula for the generators of semisimple complex Lie algebras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matone, Marco [Universita di Padova, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia ' ' G. Galilei' ' , Padua (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Padova, Padua (Italy)

    2016-11-15

    Recently it has been introduced an algorithm for the Baker-Campbell-Hausdorff (BCH) formula, which extends the Van-Brunt and Visser recent results, leading to new closed forms of BCH formula. More recently, it has been shown that there are 13 types of such commutator algebras. We show, by providing the explicit solutions, that these include the generators of the semisimple complex Lie algebras. More precisely, for any pair, X, Y of the Cartan-Weyl basis, we find W, linear combination of X, Y, such that exp(X) exp(Y) = exp(W). The derivation of such closed forms follows, in part, by using the above mentioned recent results. The complete derivation is provided by considering the structure of the root system. Furthermore, if X, Y, and Z are three generators of the Cartan-Weyl basis, we find, for a wide class of cases, W, a linear combination of X, Y and Z, such that exp(X) exp(Y) exp(Z) = exp(W). It turns out that the relevant commutator algebras are type 1c-i, type 4 and type 5. A key result concerns an iterative application of the algorithm leading to relevant extensions of the cases admitting closed forms of the BCH formula. Here we provide the main steps of such an iteration that will be developed in a forthcoming paper. (orig.)

  16. Preliminary geochemical assessment of water in selected streams, springs, and caves in the Upper Baker and Snake Creek drainages in Great Basin National Park, Nevada, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Angela P.; Thodal, Carl E.; Baker, Gretchen M.; Lico, Michael S.; Prudic, David E.

    2014-01-01

    Water in caves, discharging from springs, and flowing in streams in the upper Baker and Snake Creek drainages are important natural resources in Great Basin National Park, Nevada. Water and rock samples were collected from 15 sites during February 2009 as part of a series of investigations evaluating the potential for water resource depletion in the park resulting from the current and proposed groundwater withdrawals. This report summarizes general geochemical characteristics of water samples collected from the upper Baker and Snake Creek drainages for eventual use in evaluating possible hydrologic connections between the streams and selected caves and springs discharging in limestone terrain within each watershed.Generally, water discharging from selected springs in the upper Baker and Snake Creek watersheds is relatively young and, in some cases, has similar chemical characteristics to water collected from associated streams. In the upper Baker Creek drainage, geochemical data suggest possible hydrologic connections between Baker Creek and selected springs and caves along it. The analytical results for water samples collected from Wheelers Deep and Model Caves show characteristics similar to those from Baker Creek, suggesting a hydrologic connection between the creek and caves, a finding previously documented by other researchers. Generally, geochemical evidence does not support a connection between water flowing in Pole Canyon Creek to that in Model Cave, at least not to any appreciable extent. The water sample collected from Rosethorn Spring had relatively high concentrations of many of the constituents sampled as part of this study. This finding was expected as the water from the spring travelled through alluvium prior to being discharged at the surface and, as a result, was provided the opportunity to interact with soil minerals with which it came into contact. Isotopic evidence does not preclude a connection between Baker Creek and the water discharging from

  17. Variações na morfoanatomia foliar de Aechmea lindenii (E. Morren Baker var. lindenii (Bromeliaceae sob distintas condições ambientais Leaf morphoanatomy variation in Aechmea lindenii (E. Morren Baker var. lindenii (Bromeliaceae under distinct environmental conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Heinig Voltolini

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Aechmea lindenii (E. Morren Baker var. lindenii (Bromeliaceae-Bromelioideae ocorre em restingas e Floresta Pluvial de Encosta Atlântica em Santa Catarina e Nordeste do Rio Grande do Sul, BR. Pode ser encontrada total ou parcialmente exposta à irradiação solar e em distintas formas de vida - terrícola, rupícola e epifítica. O objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar morfoanatomicamente às características de folhas de A. lindenii var. lindenii em distintas condições ambientais. Foram coletadas, na Ilha de Santa Catarina (Florianópolis, SC, folhas de plantas terrícolas em restinga herbácea (alta irradiação solar, rupícolas de costões rochosos (alta irradiação solar, terrícolas e epifíticas de sub-bosques (baixa irradiação solar de restinga arbórea e rupícolas de sub-bosque (baixa irradiação solar de Floresta Pluvial de Encosta Atlântica. Foram mensurados comprimento, largura, área da lâmina e bainha foliar, densidade estomática, comprimento e largura das células-guarda, espessura total e das estruturas constituintes na lâmina foliar. As características anatômicas qualitativas são semelhantes nas distintas condições analisadas. A baixa irradiação solar determina maior expansão da área foliar, decorrente do alongamento da lâmina. Lâmina e bainha foliares têm maior largura sob alta irradiação. A densidade estomática foi maior em folhas de plantas sob alta irradiação solar. A espessura total da lâmina foliar foi menor em plantas terrícolas sob alta irradiação, porém não mostrou diferenças estatísticas significativas entre as outras condições.Aechmea lindenii (E. Morren Baker var. lindenii (Bromeliaceae-Bromelioideae occurs in restingas and hillside Atlantic rain forest in Santa Catarina and northeastern Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. It is found totally or partially exposed to solar radiation and in different life forms - terricolous, rupicolous and epiphytes. The aim of this work was to compare

  18. Produção de frutanos em calos e plântulas clonadas in vitro de Viguiera discolor Baker (Asteraceae Fructan production in callus and in vitro cloned seedlings of Viguiera discolor Baker (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nair Massumi Itaya

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Viguiera discolor Baker é uma espécie nativa do cerrado, cuja sobrevivência está ameaçada pela invasão de espécies exóticas. Considerando sua elevada produção e a vasta aplicação de frutanos, o presente trabalho foi conduzido visando à obtenção in vitro dessa espécie e à prospecção desses carboidratos nessas condições. Sementes foram germinadas in vitro, em meio MS modificado, e após cinco semanas de incubação, nós caulinares foram isolados e incubados no mesmo meio adicionado de 0,5 mg L-1 de ANA, regenerando plantas uniformes, raízesnão espessadas, raízes tuberosas e estruturas semelhantes a calo (calo tipo1, formadas na região caulinar basal. Análise desse material evidenciou a presença de frutanos do tipo inulina nas raízes tuberosas e nos calos tipo 1. Na presença de 2,4-D obteve-se a formação de calos friáveis (calo tipo 2, nos quais também foram detectados frutanos e suas enzimas de síntese sacarose: sacarose 1-frutosiltransferase (SST e frutano: frutano 1-frutosiltransferase (FFT. Embora em concentrações menores às observadas nas plantas cultivadas sob condições naturais, o material produzido in vitro apresentou frutanos do mesmo tipo e razão SST/FFT menor do que um. Em meio de cultura sem hormônios, foi verificada a regeneração de 50% de plantas a partir dos nós caulinares. A propagação de V. discolor in vitro pode viabilizar a multiplicação e a preservação da espécie, bem como a produção de frutanos nessas condições.Viguiera discolor Baker is a herbaceous species, native to cerrado and its survival has been threatened by the invasion of exotic species. Considering its high production and the wide application of fructans, the present work has aimed to establish in vitro culture of this species and to investigate the presence of fructans under these conditions. Seeds were germinated in vitro on modified MS medium and after plant growth, stem nodes were isolated and incubated on

  19. Volcanic Risk Perception and Preparedness in Communities within the Mount Baker and Glacier Peak Lahar Hazard Zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corwin, K.; Brand, B. D.

    2014-12-01

    A community's ability to effectively respond to and recover from natural hazards depends on both the physical characteristics of the hazard and the community's inherent resilience. Resilience is shaped by a number of factors including the residents' perception of and preparedness for a natural hazard as well as the level of institutional preparedness. This study examines perception of and preparedness for lahar hazards from Mount Baker and Glacier Peak in Washington's Skagit Valley. Through an online survey, this study isolates the influence of specific variables (e.g., knowledge, past experience, scientific background, trust in various information sources, occupation, self-efficacy, sense of community) on risk perception and explores reasons behind the frequent disconnect between perception and preparedness. We anticipate that individuals with more extensive education in the sciences, especially geology or earth science, foster greater trust in scientists and a more accurate knowledge, understanding, and perception of the volcanic hazards in their community. Additionally, little research exists examining the extent to which first responders and leaders in response-related institutions prepare on a personal level. Since these individuals work toward community preparedness professionally, we hypothesize that they will be more prepared at home than members of the general public. Finally, the Skagit Valley has a significant history of flooding. We expect that the need to respond to and recover from frequent flooding creates a community with an inherently higher level of preparedness for other hazards such as lahars. The results of this study will contribute to the understanding of what controls risk perception and the interplay between perception and preparedness. At a broader level, this study provides local and state-level emergency managers information to evaluate and improve response capabilities and communication with the public and key institutions in order to

  20. mlh3 mutations in baker's yeast alter meiotic recombination outcomes by increasing noncrossover events genome-wide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najla Al-Sweel

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Mlh1-Mlh3 is an endonuclease hypothesized to act in meiosis to resolve double Holliday junctions into crossovers. It also plays a minor role in eukaryotic DNA mismatch repair (MMR. To understand how Mlh1-Mlh3 functions in both meiosis and MMR, we analyzed in baker's yeast 60 new mlh3 alleles. Five alleles specifically disrupted MMR, whereas one (mlh3-32 specifically disrupted meiotic crossing over. Mlh1-mlh3 representatives for each class were purified and characterized. Both Mlh1-mlh3-32 (MMR+, crossover- and Mlh1-mlh3-45 (MMR-, crossover+ displayed wild-type endonuclease activities in vitro. Msh2-Msh3, an MSH complex that acts with Mlh1-Mlh3 in MMR, stimulated the endonuclease activity of Mlh1-mlh3-32 but not Mlh1-mlh3-45, suggesting that Mlh1-mlh3-45 is defective in MSH interactions. Whole genome recombination maps were constructed for wild-type and MMR+ crossover-, MMR- crossover+, endonuclease defective and null mlh3 mutants in an S288c/YJM789 hybrid background. Compared to wild-type, all of the mlh3 mutants showed increases in the number of noncrossover events, consistent with recombination intermediates being resolved through alternative recombination pathways. Our observations provide a structure-function map for Mlh3 that reveals the importance of protein-protein interactions in regulating Mlh1-Mlh3's enzymatic activity. They also illustrate how defective meiotic components can alter the fate of meiotic recombination intermediates, providing new insights for how meiotic recombination pathways are regulated.

  1. Preparing for Volcanic Hazards: An Examination of Lahar Knowledge, Risk Perception, and Preparedness around Mount Baker and Glacier Peak, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corwin, K.; Brand, B. D.

    2015-12-01

    As the number of people living at risk from volcanic hazards in the U.S. Pacific Northwest continues to rise, so does the need for improved hazard science, mitigation, and response planning. The effectiveness of these efforts relies not only on scientists and policymakers, but on individuals and their risk perception and preparedness levels. This study examines the individual knowledge, perception, and preparedness of over 500 survey respondents living or working within the lahar zones of Mount Baker and Glacier Peak volcanoes. We (1) explore the common disconnect between accurate risk perception and adequate preparedness; (2) determine how participation in hazard response planning influences knowledge, risk perception, and preparedness; and (3) assess the effectiveness of current lahar hazard maps for public risk communication. Results indicate that a disconnect exists between perception and preparedness for the majority of respondents. While 82% of respondents accurately anticipate that future volcanic hazards will impact the Skagit Valley, this knowledge fails to motivate increased preparedness. A majority of respondents also feel "very responsible" for their own protection and provision of resources during a hazardous event (83%) and believe they have the knowledge and skills necessary to respond effectively to such an event (56%); however, many of these individuals still do not adequately prepare. When asked what barriers prevent them from preparing, respondents primarily cite a lack of knowledge about relevant local hazards. Results show that participation in response-related activities—a commonly recommended solution to this disconnect—minimally influences preparedness. Additionally, although local hazard maps successfully communicate the primary hazard—97% of respondents recognize the lahar hazard—many individuals incorrectly interpret other important facets of the maps. Those who participate in response-related activities fail to understand these

  2. Diversity and genetic structure of the Mexican endemic epiphyte Tillandsia achyrostachys E. Morr. ex Baker var. achyrostachys (Bromeliaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Astorga, Jorge; Cruz-Angón, Andrea; Flores-Palacios, Alejandro; Vovides, Andrew P

    2004-10-01

    The monoecious, bird-pollinated epiphytic Tillandsia achyrostachys E. Morr. ex Baker var. achyrostachys is an endemic bromeliad of the tropical dry forests of Mexico with clonal growth. In the Sierra de Huautla Natural Reserve this species shows a host preference for Bursera copallifera (Sessé & Moc ex. DC) Bullock. As a result of deforestation in the study area, B. copallifera has become a rare tree species in the remaining forest patches. This human-induced disturbance has directly affected the population densities of T. achyrostachys. In this study the genetic consequences of habitat fragmentation were assessed by comparing the genetic diversity, gene flow and genetic differentiation in six populations of T. achyrostachys in the Sierra de Huautla Natural Reserve, Mexico. Allozyme electrophoresis of sixteen loci (eleven polymorphic and five monomorphic) were used. The data were analysed with standard statistical approximations for obtaining diversity, genetic structure and gene flow. Genetic diversity and allelic richness were: HE = 0.21 +/- 0.02, A = 1.86 +/- 0.08, respectively. F-statistics revealed a deficiency of heterozygous plants in all populations (Fit = 0.65 +/- 0.02 and Fis = 0.43 +/- 0.06). Significant genetic differentiation between populations was detected (Fst = 0.39 +/- 0.07). Average gene flow between pairs of populations was relatively low and had high variation (Nm = 0.46 +/- 0.21), which denotes a pattern of isolation by distance. The genetic structure of populations of T. achyrostachys suggests that habitat fragmentation has reduced allelic richness and genetic diversity, and increased significant genetic differentiation (by approx. 40 %) between populations. The F-statistic values (>0) and the level of gene flow found suggest that habitat fragmentation has broken up the former population structure. In this context, it is proposed that the host trees of T. achyrostachys should be considered as a conservation priority, since they represent the

  3. Ethanol yield and volatile compound content in fermentation of agave must by Kluyveromyces marxianus UMPe-1 comparing with Saccharomyces cerevisiae baker's yeast used in tequila production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Alvarez, Arnoldo; Díaz-Pérez, Alma Laura; Sosa-Aguirre, Carlos; Macías-Rodríguez, Lourdes; Campos-García, Jesús

    2012-05-01

    In tequila production, fermentation is an important step. Fermentation determines the ethanol productivity and organoleptic properties of the beverage. In this study, a yeast isolated from native residual agave must was identified as Kluyveromyces marxianus UMPe-1 by 26S rRNA sequencing. This yeast was compared with the baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae Pan1. Our findings demonstrate that the UMPe-1 yeast was able to support the sugar content of agave must and glucose up to 22% (w/v) and tolerated 10% (v/v) ethanol concentration in the medium with 50% cells survival. Pilot and industrial fermentation of agave must tests showed that the K. marxianus UMPe-1 yeast produced ethanol with yields of 94% and 96% with respect to fermentable sugar content (glucose and fructose, constituting 98%). The S. cerevisiae Pan1 baker's yeast, however, which is commonly used in some tequila factories, showed 76% and 70% yield. At the industrial level, UMPe-1 yeast shows a maximum velocity of fermentable sugar consumption of 2.27g·L(-1)·h(-1) and ethanol production of 1.38g·L(-1)·h(-1), providing 58.78g ethanol·L(-1) at 72h fermentation, which corresponds to 96% yield. In addition, the major and minor volatile compounds in the tequila beverage obtained from UMPe-1 yeast were increased. Importantly, 29 volatile compounds were identified, while the beverage obtained from Pan1-yeast contained fewer compounds and in lower concentrations. The results suggest that the K. marxianus UMPe-1 is a suitable yeast for agave must fermentation, showing high ethanol productivity and increased volatile compound content comparing with a S. cerevisiae baker's yeast used in tequila production. Copyright © 2012 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. In vivo antihypertensive and antidyslipidemic effects of the crude extracts and fractions of Moringa stenopetala (Baker f. Cufod. leaves in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bekesho eGeleta

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Moringa stenopetala (Baker f. Cufod. is a medicinal plant that has been used in Ethiopian traditional medicine as a remedy for treatment of hypertension and diabetes. The aim of this study was to evaluate antihypertensive and antihyperlipidemic effect in fructose induced hypertensive rats.Rats were randomly divided into control and treatment groups (n=6. Treatment groups were given daily extracts (250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg orally with fructose. Whereas, positive, negative and normal control groups were received captopril (20 mg/kg/day with fructose, only fructose (66% w/v ad libitum and distilled water ad libitum for 15 days, respectively. The blood pressure was measured every 5th day using tail cuff blood pressure analyzer, and on the 16th day the blood was sampled to evaluate antihyperlipidemic effect using clinical chemistry analyzer. The study showed that aqueous and 70% ethanol extracts significantly prevented blood pressure increment in a dose dependent manner comparable to that of the standard drug. Similarly, the extracts suppressed increment in lipid profile (cholesterol, glucose and triglycerides compared with negative control. The biochemical test revealed that extracts produced a rise in liver but no effect on kidney function indicators compared with normal control.These findings revealed that both crude extracts of Moringa stenopetala (Baker f. Cufod. possess antihypertensive and antihyperlipidemic effect.

  5. Matemaatiline juhtimine / Stephen Baker

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Baker, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    Autori raamat "Numeraadid" tutvustab matemaatikavõlureid, kes tuhnivad meie andmetes. Numeraatide üks paljutõotavamaid laboreid on töökohad, kus saab uurida iga klahvivajutust, hiireklõpsu ja meilisõnumit. Peatükis "Töötajad" vaatleb autor IBMi, kus matemaatikud loovad omaenda kolleegide käitumist prognoosivaid mudeleid. Lisa: Juhtimise teadus. Stopperist matemaatiliste mudeliteni; Viited

  6. Presencia de Circulifer tenellus Baker y Beet mild curly top virus en maleza durante el invierno en el centro norte de México Circulifer tenellus Baker and Beet mild curly top virus presence in weeds during the winter in north-central Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Rodolfo Velásquez-Valle; Luis Roberto Reveles-Torres; Mario Domingo Amador-Ramírez; María Mercedes Medina-Aguilar; Guillermo Medina-García

    2012-01-01

    Una de las enfermedades más importantes del chile para secado en el norte centro de México es la denominada amarillamientos del chile. Existe poca información acerca de la interacción entre el vector (Circulifer tenellus Baker), el Beet mild curly top virus y la maleza durante el invierno en esta región, consecuentemente el objetivo del trabajo fue identificar maleza de invierno que sirve como refugio para el vector y hospedero del virus en esta región. Entre enero y marzo de 2011 se muestrea...

  7. Intraperitoneal chemotherapy for advanced ovarian and peritoneal cancers in patients following interval debulking surgery or primary cytoreductive surgery: Tom Baker Cancer Centre experience from 2006 to 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Gregory; Lucero, Carlos Aspe; Chu, Pamela; Nation, Jill; Ghatage, Prafull

    2010-03-01

    To describe our experience with cisplatin- and paclitaxel-based IP chemotherapy in patients treated initially with either neoadjuvant chemotherapy and interval debulking surgery (IDS) or primary cytoreductive surgery (PCRS). We performed a retrospective review of the records of 67 patients (38 IDS, 29 PCRS) enrolled in the intraperitoneal (IP) chemotherapy program at the Tom Baker Cancer Centre between 2006 and 2009. Information pertaining to patient demographics, IP chemotherapy toxicity, and catheter complications was extracted, and the median time to recurrence was calculated. Most patients in the study were aged 50 to 70 years and had a diagnosis of stage III serous ovarian cancer. Overall, 295/393 IP cycles (75%) were successfully administered. The proportion of patients completing six cycles of chemotherapy in the IDS and PCRS groups was 53% and 59%, respectively. Frequent (> 25%) Grade 1 to 2 chemotherapy toxicities included fatigue, peripheral neuropathy, and nausea. Catheter complications were observed in 34% of patients (23/67). The recurrence rates for patients completing four or more cycles of IP chemotherapy in the IDS and PCRS groups were 58% and 35%, respectively, with the median time to recurrence approximately one year. Although IP chemotherapy is well tolerated in both IDS and PCRS patients, the median time to recurrence is shorter than expected.

  8. Heat recovery and energy saving using a Baker Perkins Simplex 2000 bread baking oven. A demonstration at Mothers Pride Bakery. (Nottingham)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-02-01

    The first installation of a new type of British bread oven capable of producing 6,800 loaves/hour has reduced energy costs at British Bakeries' Watnall plant by Pound 45,900/year, including Pound 23,500/year due to the inclusion of heat recovery equipment on the oven. Additional benefits of this new oven include reduced production labour requirements - a reduction of one man per shift due to automatic handling of the bread-tin lids - and an increase in productivity of 100% compared with previous models. The new oven - a Baker Perkins Simplex 2000 - is indirect-fired which means that the burners can use either gas or oil without fear of contamination of the product. A new layout of the burners gives a better heat distribution than in previous models, thus requiring less fuel to achieve a given temperature in each zone. In addition there is heat recovery from both the combustion flue products and the oven chamber exhaust. The prover is heated by means of hot water coils using recovered heat from the oven exhaust. The combustion flue products are used to provide some pre-heating of the combustion air. (author).

  9. Chemoselective biohydrogenation of chalcone (2Ε)-3-(1,3-benzodioxole-5-yl)-1-phenyl-2-propen-1-one mediated by baker yeasts immobilized in polymeric supports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mundstock, Flavia L.S.; Silva, Vanessa D.; Nascimento, Maria da G.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, baker's yeast (BY) was immobilized in poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO), poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA), sodium caseinate (SC), gelatin (G) films and in agar (A) and gelatin (G) gels, and used as a biocatalyst in the biohydrogenation reaction of (2Ε)-3-(1,3-benzodioxyl-5-yl)-1-phenyl-2-propen-1-one (1). The transformation of (1) into the corresponding dehydro chalcone (2) through biohydrogenation reactions was carried out in n-hexane at 25 or 35 deg C, for 4-48 h reaction. The product conversion, under different experimental conditions, was evaluated by hydrogen nuclear magnetic resonance, 1 H NMR.The highest conversion degrees were achieved using BY immobilized in agar gel, (29-47%), depending also on the temperature. Using BY immobilized in PEO, PVA, SC and G films, the conversion into (2) was lower (0-21%). The results show the feasibility of the use of BY immobilized in polymeric materials to reduce a,b-unsaturated carbonyl compounds. (author)

  10. Inhibitory Effects of Urginea maritima (L. Baker, Zhumeria majdae Rech. F. and Wendelbo and Physalis divaricata D. Don Ethanolic Extracts on Mushroom Tyrosinase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foroogh Namjoyan, Alireza Jahangiri, Mohammad Ebrahim Azemi, Hamideh Mousavi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tyrosinase is a key enzyme in melanin synthesis from tyrosine. To prevent or treat pigmentation disorders, tyrosinase inhibitors have been used increasingly for medicinal and cosmetic products. The aim of this study is to evaluate inhibitory effects of Urginea maritima (L. Baker, Zhumeria majdae Rech.f. & Wendelbo and Physalis divaricata D.Don on mushroom tyrosinase. Methods: The inhibitory activities of the hydroalcoholic extracts of plants against oxidation of L-DOPA (as a substrate by mushroom tyrosinase were investigated. The amount of formed DOPAchrome was determined at 475 nm as optical density. Results: The extracts showed anti-tyrosinase activity weaker than positive control (Kojic acid. The inhibitory activity of tested plants: U.maritima, Z.majdae and P.divaricata against mushroom tyrosinase were 38.61, 29.70 and 25.74 % at 1.67 mg/mL, respectively. Conclusion: The most tyrosinase inhibitory activity was seen for U.maritima. However more investigations on human tyrosinase, toxicological and clinical studies are needed to confirm its activity.

  11. Unsupported inferences of high-severity fire in historical dry forests of the western United States: Response to Williams and Baker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulé, Peter Z.; Swetnam, Thomas W.; Brown, Peter M.; Falk, Donald A.; Peterson, David L.; Allen, Craig D.; Aplet, Gregory H.; Battaglia, Mike A.; Binkley, Dan; Farris, Calvin; Keane, Robert E.; Margolis, Ellis Q.; Grissino-Mayer, Henri; Miller, Carol; Sieg, Carolyn Hull; Skinner, Carl; Stephens, Scott L.; Taylor, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Reconstructions of dry western US forests in the late 19th century in Arizona, Colorado and Oregon based on General Land Office records were used by Williams & Baker (2012; Global Ecology and Biogeography, 21, 1042–1052; hereafter W&B) to infer past fire regimes with substantial moderate and high-severity burning. The authors concluded that present-day large, high-severity fires are not distinguishable from historical patterns. We present evidence of important errors in their study. First, the use of tree size distributions to reconstruct past fire severity and extent is not supported by empirical age–size relationships nor by studies that directly quantified disturbance history in these forests. Second, the fire severity classification of W&B is qualitatively different from most modern classification schemes, and is based on different types of data, leading to an inappropriate comparison. Third, we note that while W&B asserted ‘surprising’ heterogeneity in their reconstructions of stand density and species composition, their data are not substantially different from many previous studies which reached very different conclusions about subsequent forest and fire behaviour changes. Contrary to the conclusions of W&B, the preponderance of scientific evidence indicates that conservation of dry forest ecosystems in the western United States and their ecological, social and economic value is not consistent with a present-day disturbance regime of large, high-severity fires, especially under changing climate

  12. Using nuclear magnetic resonance and transient electromagnetics to characterise water distribution beneath an ice covered volcanic crater: the case of Sherman Crater Mt. Baker Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irons, Trevor P.; Martin, Kathryn; Finn, Carol A.; Bloss, Benjamin; Horton, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Surface and laboratory Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) measurements combined with transient electromagnetic (TEM) data are powerful tools for subsurface water detection. Surface NMR (sNMR) and TEM soundings, laboratory NMR, complex resistivity, and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis were all conducted to characterise the distribution of water within Sherman Crater on Mt. Baker, WA. Clay rich rocks, particularly if water saturated, can weaken volcanoes, thereby increasing the potential for catastrophic sector collapses that can lead to far-travelled, destructive debris flows. Detecting the presence and volume of shallow groundwater is critical for evaluating these landslide hazards. The TEM data identified a low resistivity layer (conditions which would allow for sNMR detection of the clay layer are investigated. Using current instrumentation the combined analysis of the TEM and sNMR data allow for valuable characterisation of the groundwater system in the crater. The sNMR is able to reduce the uncertainty of the TEM in regards to the presence of a bulk water layer, a valuable piece of information in hazard assessment.

  13. An automatic driving system for a Baker's garlic [Allium chinense] planter: Development of the infrared beam guidance system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, H.; Iwasaki, M.; Takeda, H.

    2002-01-01

    We have developed a tractor attachment type semi-automatic Baker's garlic (shallot) planter to save hard labor requirement during planting. The velocity of the tractor in operation is so slow (2 to 3m/min) that the tractor driver is forced to tie his hands for a long time. This is an obstacle to its diffusion, because farm managers have to drive their own tractors by themselves in most Japanese farmhouses, yet they have to do other jobs during the planting season. We designed a new automatic driving system that consists of one infrared beam radiator and two infrared beam receivers to solve this problem. The infrared radiator is located in front of the tractor and shows the infrared guideline of tractor path. The infrared receivers are equipped on the front of the tractor and detect the infrared from the radiator. The receivers are arranged symmetrically at 4.5 degree from the center of the tractor. So the misalignment of the tractor creates a difference in sensitivity and it is possible to distinguish the tractor direction against the infrared beam. This system was tested under the sand dune field conditions with the tractor that was converted to automatic driving. The results show the system can effectively steer about 80 m automatically with an almost straight path, and the error from the starting point is within 0.1 m

  14. Some factors itilluencing the breeding season of Praomys natalensis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As part of a demographic study of Praomys nata/ensis in an agricultural area on the Rhodesian highveld, a preliminary investigation was carried out into some of the factors which might be of importance in determining the timing of its breeding season. Information on breeding and nutrition was obtained by both live and ...

  15. Consumption of agro-industrial supplies by the baker subsector of Palmira, Valle, Colombia. Consumo de insumos agroindustriales por el subsector panificador de Palmira, Valle del Cauca.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adarme J Wilson

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The indicators of agroindustrial consumption in the bakers subsector Pymes play a primary role for designing sustainable strategies for the small craftsman of bread. The administrative, operative and human talent subsystems were evaluated, in 30 of 178 organizations that conformed the bakers subsystems of Palmira on 2005. The estimated annual consumption of wheat flour on 2004 was 2016 t; 348 t of sugar; 240 t of cheese; 54 t of salt; 492 t of margarine; 99 t of yeast; 151200 panels of eggs. With regarding to raw materials it consumes 384000 m3 of natural gas; 1.2 million kw of electric power and 156000 m3 of water. The sector generates 681 direct employments. Map is presented with the location of 86% of the bakeries registered in the Trade Chamber. There is not a unique bakery that had implemented a program of Good Manufacture Practices BPM in an integral way, that meets the National Institute of Medications and Foods Surveillance INVIMA Standars, that has of a system of Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP or have been is to be certified with Quality Assuring Standars (ISO 9000, and/or Environmental Administration (ISO 14000, with occupational health programs (OHSAS 18000 and permanent improvement programs relative to administrative and commercial aspects.Los indicadores de consumo agroindustrial en las Pymes del subsector panificador resultan apremiantes para el diseño de estrategias de sostenibilidad para los pequeños artesanos del pan. Se evaluaron los subsistemas administrativos, talento humano y operativo en 30 de las 178 organizaciones que conformaron el subsistema panificador de Palmira en el 2005. El consumo estimado anual para el 2004 de harina de trigo fue 2.016 t; 348 t de azúcar; 240 t de queso; 54 t de sal; 492 t de margarina; 99 t de levadura; 151.200 paneles de huevos. En materias primas auxiliares consume 384.000 m3 de gas natural; 1.2 millones de kw de energía eléctrica y 156.000 m3 de agua. El sector genera

  16. Dowex anion exchanger-loaded-baker's yeast as bi-functionalized biosorbents for selective extraction of anionic and cationic mercury(II) species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmoud, Mohamed E.; Yakout, Amr A.; Osman, Maher M.

    2009-01-01

    Dowex anion exchanger-immobilized-baker's yeast [Dae-yeast] were synthesized and potentially applied as environmental friendly biosorbents to evaluate the up-take process of anionic and cationic mercury(II) species as well as other metal ions. Optimization of mass ratio of Dowex anion exchanger versus yeast (1:1-1:10) in presence of various interacting buffer solutions (pH 4.0-9.0) was performed and evaluated. Surface modification of [Dae-yeast] was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and infrared spectroscopy. The maximum metal biosorption capacity values of [Dae-yeast] towards mercury(II) were found in the range of 0.800-0.960, 0.840-0.950 and 0.730-0.900 mmol g -1 in presence of buffer solutions pH 2.0, 4.0 and 7.0, respectively. Three possible and different mechanisms are proposed to account for the biosorption of mercury and mercuric species under these three buffering conditions based on ion exchange, ion pair and chelation interaction processes. Factors affecting biosorption of mercury from aqueous medium including the pH effect of aqueous solutions (1.0-7.0), shaking time (1-30 min) and interfering ions were searched. The potential applications of modified biosorbents for selective biosorption and extraction of mercury from different real matrices including dental filling waste materials, industrial waste water samples and mercury lamp waste materials were also explored. The results denote to excellent percentage extraction values, from nitric acid as the dissolution solvent with a pH 2.0, as determined in the range of 90.77-97.91 ± 3.00-5.00%, 90.00-93.40 ± 4.00-5.00% and 92.31-100.00 ± 3.00-4.00% for the three tested samples, respectively.

  17. Sci-Thur PM – Brachytherapy 02: Positional accuracy in Pd-103 permanent breast seed implant (PBSI) brachytherapy at the Tom Baker Cancer Centre (TBCC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frederick, Amy; Watt, Elizabeth; Peacock, Michael; Husain, Siraj; Meyer, Tyler; Roumeliotis, Michael [University of Calgary, Tom Baker Cancer Centre (Canada)

    2016-08-15

    Purpose: This retrospective study aims to quantify the positional accuracy of seed delivery in permanent breast seed implant (PBSI) brachytherapy at the Tom Baker Cancer Centre (TBCC). Methods: Treatment planning and post-implant CT scans for 5 patients were rigidly registered using the MIM Symphony™ software (MIM Software, Cleveland, OH) and used to evaluate differences between planned and implanted seed positions. Total and directional seed displacements were calculated for each patient in a clinically relevant ‘needle coordinate system’, defined relative to the angle of fiducial needle insertion. Results: The overall average total seed displacement was 10±8 mm. Systematic seed displacements were observed in individual patients and the magnitude and direction of these offsets varied among patients. One patient showed a significant directional seed displacement in the shallow-deep direction compared with the other four patients. With the exception of this one patient outlier, no significant systematic directional displacements in the needle coordinate system were observed for this cohort; the average directional displacements were −1±5 mm, 2±3 mm, and −2±4 mm in the shallow-deep, up-down, and right-left directions respectively. Conclusion: With the exception of one patient outlier, the magnitude of seed displacements were relatively consistent among patients. The results indicate that the shallow-deep direction possesses the largest uncertainty for the seed delivery method used at the TBCC. The relatively large uncertainty in seed placement in this direction is expected, as this is the direction of needle insertion. Further work will involve evaluating deflections of delivered needle tracks from their planned positions.

  18. Identification of up-regulated genes from the metal-hyperaccumulator aquatic fern Salvinia minima Baker, in response to lead exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal-Alvarado, Daniel A; Martínez-Hernández, A; Calderón-Vázquez, C L; Uh-Ramos, D; Fuentes, G; Ramírez-Prado, J H; Sáenz-Carbonell, L; Santamaría, J M

    2017-12-01

    Lead (Pb) is one of the most serious environmental pollutants. The aquatic fern Salvinia minima Baker is capable to hyper-accumulate Pb in their tissues. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in its Pb accumulation and tolerance capacity are not fully understood. In order to investigate the molecular mechanisms that are activated by S. minima in response to Pb, we constructed a suppression subtractive hybridization library (SSH) in response to an exposure to 40μM of Pb(NO 3 ) 2 for 12h. 365 lead-related differentially expressed sequences tags (ESTs) were isolated and sequenced. Among these ESTs, 143 unique cDNA (97 were registered at the GenBank and 46 ESTs were not registered, because they did not meet the GenBank conditions). Those ESTs were identified and classified into 3 groups according to Blast2GO. In terms of metabolic pathways, they were grouped into 29 KEGG pathways. Among the ESTs, we identified some that might be part of the mechanism that this fern may have to deal with this metal, including abiotic-stress-related transcription factors, some that might be involved in tolerance mechanisms such as ROS scavenging, membrane protection, and those of cell homeostasis recovery. To validate the SSH library, 4 genes were randomly selected from the library and analyzed by qRT-PCR. These 4 genes were transcriptionally up-regulated in response to lead in at least one of the two tested tissues (roots and leaves). The present library is one of the few genomics approaches to study the response to metal stress in an aquatic fern, representing novel molecular information and tools to understand the molecular physiology of its Pb tolerance and hyperaccumulation capacity. Further research is required to elucidate the functions of the lead-induced genes that remain classified as unknown, to perhaps reveal novel molecular mechanisms of Pb tolerance and accumulation capacity in aquatic plants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Capacity of the aquatic fern (Salvinia minima Baker) to accumulate high concentrations of nickel in its tissues, and its effect on plant physiological processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuentes, Ignacio I.; Espadas-Gil, Francisco; Talavera-May, Carlos; Fuentes, Gabriela; Santamaría, Jorge M., E-mail: jorgesm@cicy.mx

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • We document the capacity of an aquatic fern to hyper-accumulate Ni. • Effects of high Ni concentrations uptake on plant performance is documented. • High concentration of Ni in tissues damage photosynthesis. • Damage is related to carboxylation mechanisms than to electron transfer efficiency. • S. minima is a good candidate for remediation of water bodies contaminated with Ni. - Abstract: An experiment was designed to assess the capacity of Salvinia minima Baker to uptake and accumulate nickel in its tissues and to evaluate whether or not this uptake can affect its physiology. Our results suggest that S. minima plants are able to take up high amounts of nickel in its tissues, particularly in roots. In fact, our results support the idea that S. minima might be considered a hyper-accumulator of nickel, as it is able to accumulate 16.3 mg g{sup −1} (whole plant DW basis). Our results also showed a two-steps uptake pattern of nickel, with a fast uptake of nickel at the first 6 to 12 h of being expose to the metal, followed by a slow take up phase until the end of the experiment at 144 h. S. minima thus, may be considered as a fern useful in the phytoremediation of residual water bodies contaminated with this metal. Also from our results, S. minima can tolerate fair concentrations of the metal; however, at concentrations higher than 80 μM Ni (1.5 mg g{sup −1} internal nickel concentration), its physiological performance can be affected. For instance, the integrity of cell membranes was affected as the metal concentration and exposure time increased. The accumulation of high concentrations of internal nickel did also affect photosynthesis, the efficiency of PSII, and the concentration of photosynthetic pigments, although at a lower extent.

  20. Análise da atividade antimicrobiana dos extratos de Cordia verbenacea DC, Mikania laevigata Sch. Bip. ex Baker e Psidium Cattleianum frente a microrganismos endodônticos

    OpenAIRE

    Massunari, Loiane [UNESP

    2014-01-01

    Na busca por fontes alternativas de antimicrobianos, diversos autores tem explorado o uso de plantas medicinais para o tratamento de várias doenças. A atividade antimicrobiana de várias espécies de plantas como, Cordia verbenacea DC, Mikania laevigata Schultz Bip. Ex Baker e Psidium cattleianum, popularmente chamadas de erva-baleeira, guaco e de araçá, respectivamente, tem sido relatada contra diversos microrganismos orais. O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar o efeito antimicrobiano dos...

  1. Changes in trehalose content of baker's yeast as affected by octanoic acid Alterações no teor de trealose de levedura de panificação provocadas por ácido octanóico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.E. Gutierrez

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available Octanoic acid inhibited ethanolic fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae (bakers yeast and the trehalose accumulation, however did not affect the endogenous degradation of trehalose. This inhibition may be explained by the binding of octanoic acid to hexokinase or other proteins of plasma membrane because they are not necessary for endogenous fermentation. The degradation of trehalose may be due to an activation of trehalase.A adição de ácido octanóico inibiu a fermentação alcoólica realizada por Saccharomyces cerevisiae (levedura de panificação e o acúmulo de trealose, contudo não afetou a degradação endógena de trealose. Esta inibição poderia ser explicada pela ligação do ácido octanóico a hexoquinase ou outra proteína da membrana plasmática porque não são necessárias para a fermentação endógena. A degradação da trealose poderia ser devida a uma ativação da trealase.

  2. Traditional herbal medicines: potential degradation of sterols and sterolins by microbial contaminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Govender

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants with a high content of sterols and sterolins, such as Bulbine natalensis (rooiwortel and Hypoxis hemerocallidea (African potato, are commonly and inappropriately used in South Africa for the treatment of HIV/AIDS due to the inaccessibility of antiretroviral drugs. This study investigated the presence of active compounds, such as sterols and sterolins, in the herbal medicines. The research was carried out in the Nelson Mandela Metropole area. The effect of microbial contaminants isolated from the medicines on sterols and sterolins of rooiwortel extracts was assessed. Sterols and sterolins were detected in rooiwortel, raw African potatoes and one ready-made mixture. Co-incubation of rooiwortel with bacteria (Bacillus spp. and Pseudomonas putida and fungi (Aspergillus spp., Penicillium spp. and Mucor spp. that were isolated from these samples increased the rate of degradation of sterols and sterolins over time, with slower degradation at 4°C than at 28°C.

  3. Investigação da presença de óleo essencial em Eucalyptus smithii R.T. Baker por meio da anatomia de seu lenho e casca.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando José Fabrowski

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available O material utilizado no presente estudo foi proveniente de 15 árvores de Eucalyptus smithii R.T. Baker cultivadas no município de Colombo - PR, em campo experimental da Embrapa Florestas, plantadas em 1988. Caracterizou-se anatomicamente o lenho e a casca por meio de lâminas preparadas no Laboratório de Anatomia e Identificação de Madeiras do IPT e Laboratório de Anatomia da Madeira, do Centro de Ciências Florestais e da Madeira, da Universidade Federal do Paraná. Para a extração do óleo essencial, a madeira foi transformada em serragem e a casca desfibrada manualmente. Para a determinação do rendimento e análise do óleo essencial, foram efetuadas destilações conforme ABNT no Laboratório de Fitoquímica do Departamento de Farmácia da Universidade Federal do Paraná. Os rendimentos do óleo essencial foram dados em volume (ml de óleo essencial por massa (g de material. O Eucalyptus smithii apresenta estrutura anatômica homogênea do lenho e da casca. Na casca, observou-se a presença de cavidades secretoras; no entanto, no lenho, não foi encontrada nenhuma estrutura semelhante, apenas bolsas de quino, sendo desprezível a quantidade de óleo essencial presente na madeira. O óleo essencial da casca apresentou características físico-químicas fora das especificações para óleos essenciais de eucaliptos ricos em 1,8-cineol, não sendo economicamente viável para a exploração desse componente.

  4. Doble difusión a partir de mediciones de microestructura en los canales Martínez y Baker, Patagonia chilena central (47,85°S

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Pérez-Santos

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Con un microperfilador SCAMP (Self Contained Autonomous MicroProfile se detectó un proceso de Doble Difusión Convectiva (DDC, en los canales Martínez y Baker de la Patagonia central, Chile. Este perfilador midió temperatura y salinidad en la columna de agua con una resolución del orden de milímetros. El muestreo se efectuó en diciembre 2011, en 19 estaciones oceanográficas de ~55 m de profundidad. Los registros del microperfilador permitieron detectar la formación de escaleras termohalinas que caracterizan la formación de la DDC. Por medio del ángulo de Turner se confirmó que debajo de una capa superficial fuertemente estratificada (7-10 m se registraron eventos de DDC a profundidades entre 15 y 45 m. La DDC fue débil en la mayoría de los registros pero se evidenciaron eventos fuertes entre 15 y 40 m. En la capa subsuperficial, su origen se debió al intercalamiento de las masas aguas estuarinas (aguas frías y menos saladas encima de las oceánicas (aguas más cálidas y saladas, mientras que en la superficie la interacción océano-atmósfera favoreció su ocurrencia. La DDC en conjunto con el viento, las mareas y las ondas internas, puede constituir un mecanismo importante para la mezcla vertical, influenciando los flujos de calor, el hábitat de las especies marinas en estas profundidades y la exportación de carbono hacia los sedimentos.

  5. Effect of the gamma radiation on the chemical, rheological, baker and microbiological properties in wheat flour; Efecto de la radiacion gama sobre las propiedades quimicas, reologicas, panaderas y microbiologicas en harina de trigo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agundez A, Z; Fernandez R, M V [Departamento de Ciencias Quimico Biologicas, Universidad de Sonora, Hermosillo (Mexico); Arce C, M E; Cruz Z, E [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, UNAM, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Chernov, V; Barboza F, M [Departamento de Investigacion en Fisica, Universidad de Sonora, Hermosillo (Mexico)

    2002-07-01

    The gamma radiation has been used in several places of the World as a sterilization method, preservation and pasteurization of foodstuffs, effect which is achieved due to diminishing or elimination of the microorganisms, reaching every time more acceptance, moreover eliminates the uses of toxic and carcinogenic substances, of general use, but at the present, being in the process of being totally prohibited, due to the higher risk in the human health. In this work the related results with the effects of the gamma radiation are presented, coming from a {sup 60} Co source, in commercial wheat flour exposed to a dose of 1.0 KGy. The used dose is that allowed according to the NOM-033-SSA1-1993 standard. It was determined that the chemical characteristics of humidity, protein and ashes were not affected by radiation. The rheological properties neither suffer severe effects as consequence of radiation; the pharynographic and alveographic parameters were lightly affected by the treatment. Significant changes were detected in the percentage of water absorption and in the tolerance index to mixing. However a diminish of 10% in the development time and an increase of 13% in the stability was observed, for the irradiated samples respect to the those samples not irradiated. In relation to the alveograph parameters it was only detected a diminish of 7% in the force parameter (w) without changes in the tenacity/blowing up index ratio (P/L). The fall number diminish 11% indicating a small diminution in viscosity. The bakering properties do not turn out modified by the irradiation treatment finding a specific weight of 4.6 and 4.5 (cm{sup 3}/g) for the control and irradiated samples, respectively. In the mesophyll analysis it was found a diminish of 96% from the original charge in control samples, observing a diminution of 74 and 25% in yeasts and mushrooms respectively. Microbiologically it was determined absence of total coliforms bacteria and faecal coliforms in the control

  6. Karyomorphotypic variation in Eriospermum abyssinicum Baker ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    family Eriospermaceae) was investigated through mitotic and meiotic studies. The chromosome complement was karyotypically analysed based on chromosome arm ratio and centromeric indices. The somatic chromosome complement of 2n ...

  7. Ideal of millers and bakers: 'Sofija'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denčić Srbislav

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The winter wheat cultivar Sofija was developed by crossing varieties ZG 965/76 and Panonija. The semi-dwarf stature, good yield ability, very good resistance to low temperatures, lodging and prevalent disease are the main agronomic characteristics of the cultivar. The most importance and valuable character of cv Sofija is it's bread-making quality. According to preliminary long term data the cultivar possess high protein content (> 14%, sedimentation value (> 50, wet gluten (> 35, crumb number (> 6, etc. Regarding to bread-making parameters cv. Sofija is on the level or even better than cv. Partizanka, while yield capacity is on the level of high yielded domestic wheat cultivars Evropa 90 and Pobeda. .

  8. FLOODPLAIN, BAKER COUNTY, GA AND INCORPORATED AREAS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — he Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  9. Termitomyces sp. associated with the termite Macrotermes natalensis has a heterothallic mating system and multinucleate cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Fine Licht, Henrik H; Andersen, Anders; Aanen, Duur Kornelis

    2005-01-01

    Fungi of the genus Termitomyces live in an obligate symbiosis with termites of the subfamily Macrotermitinae. Many species of Termitomyces frequently form fruit bodies, which develop from the fungus comb within the nest. In this study, we determined the mating system of a species of Termitomyces ...

  10. A mitochondrial phylogeographic scenario for the most widespread African rodent, Mastomys natalensis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colangelo, Paolo; Verheyen, Eric; Leirs, Herwig

    2013-01-01

    demography. Six well-supported phylogroups, differentiated during the Pleistocene, were evidenced. No significant correlation between genetic and geographic distances was found at the continental scale, and the geographic distributions of the observed phylogroups have resulted from extensive periods...... of isolation caused by the presence of putative geographic and ecological barriers. The diversification events were probably influenced by habitat contraction/expansion cycles that may have complemented topographic barriers to induce genetic drift and lineage sorting. According to our results, we propose...

  11. Polymorphism in vkorc1 Gene of Natal Multimammate Mice, Mastomys natalensis in Tanzania

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gryseels, S.; Leirs, H.; Makundi, R.; Goüy de Bellocq, Joëlle

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 106, č. 5 (2015), s. 637-643 ISSN 0022-1503 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Anticoagulants * Bromadiolone * Polymorphism * Poison resistance * Rodent Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.075, year: 2015

  12. Presumptive horizontal symbiont transmission in the fungus-growing termite Macrotermes natalensis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Fine Licht, Henrik Hjarvard; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan; Aanen, Duur Kornelis

    2006-01-01

    recombination was found, indicative of frequent sexual horizontal transmission. First, all 31 strains had unique multilocus genotypes. Second, SNP markers (n = 55) were largely in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (90.9%) and almost all possible pairs of SNPs between genetically unlinked loci were in linkage...

  13. O Xangô de Baker Street O Xangô de Baker Street

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salma Ferraz

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Você sabia que Sherlock Holmes namorou uma fogosa mulata brasileira? Que foi preso por atentado ao pudor por ter tentado fazer sexo sob os ramos de um jequitibá em pleno Passeio Público? Que Sherlock estava “elementarmente” errado na maioria de suas brilhantes deduções e era um acidentado por natureza? Que o único criminoso que Sherlock não conseguiuprender foi um brasileiro? Que o criminoso brasileiro ria e zombava da insuficiência dedutiva de Holmes? E que, pasmem, Jack, o estripador, não era inglês e sim brasileiro e cometeu seus primeiros crimes não nas ruas neblinentas de Londres, mas sim nas calorentas vielas do tropical Rio de Janeiro?

  14. Chemoselective biohydrogenation of chalcone (2{Epsilon})-3-(1,3-benzodioxole-5-yl)-1-phenyl-2-propen-1-one mediated by baker yeasts immobilized in polymeric supports; Bioidrogenacao quimioseletiva da chalcona (2{Epsilon})-3-(1,3-benzodioxol-5-il)-1-fenil-2-propen-1-ona mediada por fermentos de pao imobilizado em suportes polimericos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mundstock, Flavia L.S.; Silva, Vanessa D.; Nascimento, Maria da G., E-mail: mundstock@qmc.ufsc.b [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (DQ/UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2009-07-01

    In this study, the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, baker's yeast (BY) was immobilized in poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO), poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA), sodium caseinate (SC), gelatin (G) films and in agar (A) and gelatin (G) gels, and used as a biocatalyst in the biohydrogenation reaction of (2{Epsilon})-3-(1,3-benzodioxyl-5-yl)-1-phenyl-2-propen-1-one (1). The transformation of (1) into the corresponding dehydro chalcone (2) through biohydrogenation reactions was carried out in n-hexane at 25 or 35 deg C, for 4-48 h reaction. The product conversion, under different experimental conditions, was evaluated by hydrogen nuclear magnetic resonance, {sup 1}H NMR.The highest conversion degrees were achieved using BY immobilized in agar gel, (29-47%), depending also on the temperature. Using BY immobilized in PEO, PVA, SC and G films, the conversion into (2) was lower (0-21%). The results show the feasibility of the use of BY immobilized in polymeric materials to reduce a,b-unsaturated carbonyl compounds. (author)

  15. Consumo de insumos agroindustriales por el subsector panificador de Palmira, Valle del Cauca. Indicadores de subsistemas Administrativo, Talento Humano y Operativo Consumption of agro-industrial supplies by the baker subsector of Palmira, Valle, Colombia . Indicators of administrative, operative and human talent subsystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Adarme J

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Los indicadores de consumo agroindustrial en las Pymes del subsector panificador resultan apremiantes para el diseño de estrategias de sostenibilidad para los pequeños artesanos del pan. Se evaluaron los subsistemas administrativos, talento humano y operativo en 30 de las 178 organizaciones que conformaron el subsistema panificador de Palmira en el 2005. El consumo estimado anual para el 2004 de harina de trigo fue 2.016 t; 348 t de azúcar; 240 t de queso; 54 t de sal; 492 t de margarina; 99 t de levadura; 151.200 paneles de huevos. En materias primas auxiliares consume 384.000 m3 de gas natural; 1.2 millones de kw de energía eléctrica y 156.000 m3 de agua. El sector genera 681 empleos directos. Se presenta mapa con la ubicación del 86% de las panaderías registradas en la Cámara de Comercio. No existe una sola panadería que en forma integral haya implementado un programa de Buenas Prácticas de Manufactura-BPM, que cumpla con las normas del (INVIMA, que disponga de un sistema de Análisis de Peligros y Puntos Críticos de Control (HACCP, que esté certificada con normas sobre aseguramiento de calidad (ISO 9000, y/o Gestión Ambiental (ISO 14000, con programas de salud ocupacional (OHSAS 18000 y programas de mejora permanente en aspectos administrativos y comerciales.The indicators of agroindustrial consumption in the bakers subsector Pymes play a primary role for designing sustainable strategies for the small craftsman of bread. The administrative, operative and human talent subsystems were evaluated, in 30 of 178 organizations that conformed the bakers subsystems of Palmira on 2005. The estimated annual consumption of wheat flour on 2004 was 2016 t; 348 t of sugar; 240 t of cheese; 54 t of salt; 492 t of margarine; 99 t of yeast; 151200 panels of eggs. With regarding to raw materials it consumes 384000 m3 of natural gas; 1.2 million kw of electric power and 156000 m3 of water. The sector generates 681 direct employments. Map is

  16. Effects of predation and dispersal on Mastomys natalensis population dynamics in Tanzanian maize fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vibe-Petersen, Solveig; Leirs, Herwig; de Bruyn, L

    2006-01-01

    ), excluding predators by nets and attracting avian predators by nest boxes and perch poles. Because dispersal of the rodents could mask the predation pressure treatment effects, control and predator exclusion treatments were repeated with enclosed rodent populations. 3.  Population growth during the annual...... risk. Reducing dispersal of rodents removed the effect of predation on population growth and peak size, suggesting that local predators may play a role in driving rodent dispersal, but have otherwise little direct effect on population dynamics....

  17. The role of growth stop as a morphogenetic factor in Mastomys natalensis (Rodentia: Muridae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fadda, Carlo; Leirs, Herwig

    2009-01-01

    environmental conditions. Morogoro is characterized by a bimodal rainfall pattern, with unreliable peaks occurring in November/December of some years and reliable ones in February to May. We recognized three different generation types. In the first one, the alpha generation, growth occurred during the dry...

  18. Multimammate rat (Mastomys natalensis), Tristram's jird (Meriones tristrami) and Wagner's gerbil (Gerbillus dasyurus) as laboratory models of acute neosporosis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hůrková-Hofmannová, L.; Václavek, P.; Škorič, M.; Fictum, P.; Modrý, David

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 82, č. 3 (2007), s. 377-381 ISSN 0034-5288 R&D Projects: GA ČR GD524/03/H133 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Neosporosis * Apicomplexa * rodents * multimammate rat * jird * gerbil Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.274, year: 2007

  19. The information divide: publishing and access issues | Baker ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some global and local developments in information access and the Open Access movement are highlighted, and the National Library of South Africa\\'s interim strategies to bridge the information and digital divide are identified. However, it becomes evident that unless librarians, information consumers, publishers, ...

  20. Poetry in South African Sign Language: What is different? | Baker ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... Poetry in a sign language can make use of literary devices just as poetry in a ... This poem illustrates well the multi-layered meaning that can be created in sign language poetry through ...

  1. And the winner is ... An interview with Brendan Baker | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-02-02

    Feb 2, 2011 ... Within the tube is a rope that passes through pistons, which act like buckets to carry water to the surface. We wanted to make these pistons locally (to reduce maintenance costs). First ... What do you think it would take to change Canadians' attitudes ... Putting Canadian entrepreneurship in the global picture.

  2. Electrospun chitosan/baker's yeast nanofibre adsorbent: preparation ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    poration, complexation, reverse osmosis and membrane pro- cesses [2–4]. ... activities and some human activities such as exploitation of uranium and ... bre adsorbent for U(VI) and Th(IV) removal from aqueous solutions. 2. Experimental ..... Adsorption capacity of uranium(VI) and thorium(IV) in binary systems. where. H.

  3. The information divide: publishing and access issues | Baker ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Changes in information access are explored at a macro-environment (global), and then a micro-environment (local) level. It is argued that changes in the publishing industry have occurred not only because of the advent of electronic publishing, but also because of a fundamental paradigm shift from \\"information as societal ...

  4. Fatty acids isolated from Milletia versicolor Baker (Fabaceae)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJB SERVER

    2006-08-17

    Aug 17, 2006 ... anthelminthiques du Congo Brazzaville. Rev. Méd. Pharm. Afr. 18: 161-167. Ongoka PR (2005). Etude Ethnobotanique, Pharmacologique et chimique des plantes. Anthelminthiques du Congo Brazzaville. Thèse de Doctorat d'Etat, Faculté lira des Sciences. Université Marien. Ngouabi, Brazzaville – Congo.

  5. Some Aspects of Catalase Induction in Baker's Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeland, P. W.

    1974-01-01

    Described are experiments for demonstrating essential features of substrate-induced enzyme synthesis based on the Jacob-Monod model, and for showing that the activity of certain genes can be modified by environmental temperature. (RH)

  6. The Treasure of the Humble: Lessons from Baker's Yeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitaraman, Ramakrishnan

    2011-01-01

    The study of model organisms is a powerful and proven experimental strategy for understanding biological processes. This paper describes an attempt to utilize advances in yeast molecular biology to enhance student understanding by presenting a more comprehensive view of several interconnected molecular processes in the overall functioning of an…

  7. The Chemical Adventures of Sherlock Holmes: The Baker Street Burning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddell, Thomas G.; Rybolt, Thomas R.

    1998-01-01

    Presents the ninth story in a series of chemical mysteries with emphasis on forensic chemistry, physical properties, and qualitative organic analysis. The mystery centers around the adventures of Sherlock Holmes. (DDR)

  8. Dictionnaire biographique des musiciens / Baker, Theodore, Slonimsky, Nicolas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Baker, Theodore

    1995-01-01

    Eesti muusikutest: Aarne, Els (lk. 1). Aav, Evald (1). Aavik, Juhan (2). Eller, Heino (1149). Ernesaks, Gustav (1180). Järvi, Neeme (1951). Kapp. Artur (2036). Kapp, Eugen (2036). Kapp, Villem (2037). Kasemets, Udo (2050-2051). Mägi [Myagi], Ester (2923). Pärt, Arvo (3114-3115). Rääts, Jaan (3321). Saar, Mart (3558). Sumera, Lepo (4099). Tamberg, Eino (4151). Tobias, Rudolf (4240). Tubin, Eduard (4288)

  9. Comparison of standard fast reactor calculations (Baker model)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voropaev, A I; Van' kov, A A; Tsybulya, A M

    1978-12-01

    Compared are standard fast reactor calculations performed at different laboratories using several nuclear data files: BNAB-70 and OSKAR-75 (the USSR), CARNAVAL-4 (France), FD-5 (Great Britain), KFK-INR (West Germany), ENDF/B4 (the USA). Three fuel compositions were chosen: (1) /sup 239/Pu and /sup 238/U; (2) /sup 239/Pu, /sup 238/U and fission products; (3) /sup 239/Pu, /sup 240/Pu, /sup 238/U and fission products. Medium temperature was 300K. The calculations have been conducted in the diffusion approximation. Data on critical masses and breeding ratios are tabulated. Discrepancies in the calculations of all the characteristics are small since all the countries possess practically the same nuclear data files.

  10. Kinetics of alcoholic fermentation during the culturing of bakers' yeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franz, B

    1961-01-01

    A synthesis was made of the effects of various factors on the rate of fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The rate obeyed the Michaelis-Menten equation, was independent of the concentration of yeast, was maximal at 20/sup 0/ (0.61 ml ethanol/g dry yeast/h), was not significantly affected between pH 6.5 and 3.0 but declined at 3.0, was inhibited by ethanol at a rate proportional to the concentration squared (at ethanol = 12 volume %, the fermentation rate was practically zero), and was enhanced by the addition of phosphorus when a P-poor yeast was employed.

  11. Metabolism of 2-deoxyglyconic acid in plants and bakers yeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gakhokidze, R.A.; Beriashvili, L.T.; Chigvinadze, T.D.

    1996-01-01

    During photosynthesis in Phaseolus vulgaris haricot bean and Zea mays leaves, assimilated carbon 14 CO 2 is rapidly incorporated into aldonic acids including 2-deoxygluconic acid whose radioactivity was relatively high. In these plants, radioactive carbon of 2-deoxy-D-gluconic acid prepared from 1-6 14 C-D-glucose is actively involved in the formation of sugars, organic acids, and amino acids. In baking yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the rate of respiration-dependent oxidation of 2-deoxy-D-gluconic acid differs versus the rate of D-glucose oxidation [ru

  12. Plant regeneration of Lotononis bainesii Baker (Fabaceae) through ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    María Laura Vidoz

    2012-05-22

    May 22, 2012 ... than are synthetic fertilizers due to their ability to fix .... have observed that these compounds have also failed to ... 4-amino-3,5,6-trichloropicolinic acid; TDZ, thidiazuron, 1-phenyl-3-(1,2,3- thiadiazol-5- ..... Characterization of.

  13. Malaria prophylaxis - the South African viewpoint | Baker | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A consensus meeting was held under the auspices of the Department of National Health and Population Development in September 1991 in order to establish local, current consensus on malaria prophylaxis for the South African traveller within South Africa and neighbouring African countries. The meeting was attended by ...

  14. Magnetic resonance investigation of magnetic-labeled baker's yeast cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godoy Morais, J.P.M.; Azevedo, R.B.; Silva, L.P.; Lacava, Z.G.M.; Bao, S.N.; Silva, O.; Pelegrini, F.; Gansau, C.; Buske, N.; Safarik, I.; Safarikova, M.; Morais, P.C.

    2004-01-01

    In this study, the interaction of DMSA-coated magnetite nanoparticles (5 and 10 nm core-size) with Saccharomyces cerevisae was investigated using magnetic resonance (MR) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The TEM micrographs revealed magnetite nanoparticles attached externally to the cell wall. The MR data support the strong interaction among the nanoparticles supported by the cells. A remarkable shift in the resonance field was used as signature of particle attachment to the cell wall

  15. Trade-Offs at Ella Baker Public Charter School

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Kate; Swanson, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    This case was written for educational leadership courses, especially ones focused on organizational change. The case explores a principal's first year at school where the student achievement and school climate were not meeting the school's lofty mission. Readers of the case should consider the steps and perspectives taken by the principal during…

  16. Reduction of toxic effects of aflatoxin B1 by using baker yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae in growing broiler chicks diets Redução dos efeitos tóxicos da aflatoxina B1, utilizando-se levedura de panificação (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, na dieta de pintos de corte em crescimento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemal Çelýk

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to investigate the effects of adding baker yeast (BY, chlortetracycline (CTC and both BY + CTC to a control diet containing 200 ng/g of aflatoxin B1 (C + AFB1 on performance, serum parameters and pathologyc alterations of broilers. A total 100 chicks (Ross PM 3 were divided into five groups in individual cages and each containing 20 animals. BY, a rich source of protein and vitamin B complex, was mixed into the diets at 2.0 %, CTC was mixed into the diet at 2.5 ng/g. Feed consumption, body weight and feed efficiency were recorded weekly. Serum parameters and pathologyc alterations were determined at the end of the study. Dead animals were recorded daily. Liver changes were clearly apparent in the C+AFB1and C+ AFB1+CTC most of the livers were enlarged, yellow and had pethecial hemorrhages. Canalicula cholestosis was absent in group C+AFB1 and C+ AFB1+CTC, but not others. When compared to the control (C group, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, appear to be significantly increased in the C+AFB1 and C+CTC+ AFB1 groups. Serum glutamic oxalacetic transaminase (GOTwas increased in C+AFB1 birds. Serum alphaphetoprotein was not affected by the treatments. Feed consumption and body weight were significantly reduced in group AFB1. Birds receiving BY + AFB1, CTC + AFB1 and BY + CTC + AFB1 had a significantly higher body weight than group C+AFB1. Feed efficiency was better in group CTC + AFB1 than the others. The findings of this research suggest tha BY (2% can partly counteract some of the toxic effects of AFB1.Este estudo foi desenvolvido para avaliar os efeitos da adição de Levedura de panificação (BY e cortetraciclina (CTC e ambos BY+CTC a uma dieta controle © contendo 200 ng/g de aflatoxina B1 (C+AFB1 sobre desempenho, parâmetros séricos e alterações patológicas de frangos de corte. Um total de 100 pintinhos (Ross PM3 foi dividido em cinco grupos, em gaiolas individuais, contendo 20 animais para cada grupo. A levedura de

  17. Dietary selection in Mastomys natalensis (Rodentia: Muridae) in the maize agro-ecosystems of central and southwestern Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odhiambo, Richard O; Makundi, Rhodes H; Leirs, Herwig

    2008-01-01

    in their diet; however, there was a clear seasonal effect on the consumption of the different food categories. They fed more on seeds, arthropods and grasses during the wet season and on the other plant materials during the dry season. Maize seed was the most preferred diet category, when available. The shifts...

  18. High incidence of preharvest colonization of huanglongbing-symptomatic Citrus sinensis fruit by Lasiodiplodia theobromae (Diplodia natalensis) and exacerbation of postharvest fruit decay by that fungus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huanglongbing (HLB), presumably caused by bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas), is a devastating citrus disease associated with excessive pre-harvest fruit drop. Lasiodiplodia theobromae (Diplodia) is the causal organism of citrus stem end rot (SER). The pathogen infects citrus fruit ...

  19. Applications of inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) rDNA in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    bika

    2015-04-22

    Apr 22, 2015 ... for studying genetic variations of L. natalensis snails in Egypt. L. natalensis snails ... Molecular techniques such as random amplified polymorphic ... during collection, water temperature, conductivity and pH were recorded and ...

  20. Características germinativas de sementes de Ananas ananassoides (Baker L. B. Sm. (Bromeliaceae = Germination characteristics of seeds of Ananas ananassoides (Baker L. B. Sm. (Bromeliaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maristela Rosália Anastácio

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Ananas ananassoides é uma planta perene com hábito de crescimento herbáceo e que tem enorme potencial paisagístico porque apresenta flores e brácteas com coloração exuberante e folhas com margens espinescentes que estão distribuídas em roseta. O objetivo deste experimento foi o de avaliar as características germinativas e o efeito de tratamentos pré-germinativos nas sementes da espécie. Primeiro, em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, foram investigados seis tratamentos em quatro repetições de 25 sementes. Ostratamentos constaram da imersão em água destilada à temperatura ambiente (25 ± 1,5°C durante 24, 48 e 72h, imersão em água quente a 90°C durante 2 min. e imersão em ácido sulfúrico p.a. durante 2 min. e com posterior lavagem em água corrente por 24h que foram comparados com um controle. Depois de quatro meses de armazenamento, sementesintactas (controle foram comparadas com sementes imersas em água a 90°C por 2 min. Assim, a maior porcentagem de germinação (92% foi obtida com sementes recém-colhidas e imersas em água a 90oC durante 2 min., mas o armazenamento por quatro meses melhorou a porcentagem de germinação (G ≥ 96,0%. Os tempos médios de germinação não diferiram entre as sementes recém-colhidas (de 21,0 a 26,8 dias e as armazenadas (entre 18,4 e 19,5 dias. A germinação das sementes recém-colhidas e armazenadas foi lenta e distribuída ao longo do tempo experimental.Ananas ananassoides is a perennial plant with ornamental potential because of flowers and bracts with exuberant colors and herbaceous development where the leaves have spiny margins that are distributed in rosettes. The objective of this experiment with six completely randomized treatments and four replicates of 25 seeds was to evaluate the effects of seed soaking into distilled water at environmental temperature (25 ± 1.5°C for 24, 48, and 72h; seed soaking into water at 90°C for 2 minutes; seed soaking into sulfuric acid p.a. for 2 minutes followed by tap water washing for 24h, and the control. Thereafter, 4-month-old seeds were immersed into water at 90°C for 2 minutes and compared to the intact seeds (control. Initially, the highest percentage of germination (G=92% was evaluated in newly collected seeds that were immersed in water at 90°C for 2 minutes. No increases in the percentage of seed germination were detected by seed soaking into water or sulfuric acid in comparison to the seeds that were immersed in water at 90°C for 2 minutes. However, the percentage of germination was higher than 96% when the seeds were stored for four months. No difference in the mean time to germination was detected between newly collected (between 21.0 and 26.8 days and stored seeds (between 18.4 and 19.5 days. The germination of newly collected and stored seeds was slow and distributed throughout the experimental time.

  1. Multiplicação in vitro e aclimatação de Vernonia condensata Baker In vitro multiplication and acclimation of Vernonia condensata Baker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A.A. Vicente

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A espécie medicinal Vernonia condensata, vulgarmente conhecida por alumã, pertencente à família Asteraceae, possui propriedades analgésicas e de proteção gástrica. A crescente utilização dessa planta no Nordeste, pelas propriedades terapêuticas, justifica a necessidade de medidas que minimizem o impacto de sua exploração nas reservas naturais. O objetivo desse trabalho foi multiplicar in vitro plantas de alumã sob diferentes concentrações de BAP e aclimatá-las. Gemas axilares foram desinfestadas em solução de álcool etílico 70%, durante 2 minutos e em solução de hipoclorito de sódio (2% de cloro ativo na concentração de 3:1, durante 15 minutos, seguido de três lavagens em água destilada estéril. Os tratamentos para multiplicação consistiram em doses de BAP (0,0; 1,0; 2,0; 3,0; 4,0 e 5,0 mg L-1 em meio MS semi-sólido. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, com 5 repetições, contendo 10 gemas por repetição. Após 30 dias de cultivo observou-se maior taxa de explantes responsivos, 84% na concentração de 1,0 mg L-1 de BAP, com produção de 4,0 brotos/explante. Nos tratamentos 3,0; 4,0 e 5,0 mg L-1 ocorreu hiperhidricidade nas folhas. As microplantas de alumã provenientes da metodologia utilizada neste trabalho alcançaram 100% de sobrevivência na aclimatação.The medicinal species Vernonia condensata, commonly known as "alumã", belongs to the family Asteraceae and has analgesic and gastric protective properties. The increasing use of this plant in the Northeast of Brazil due to its therapeutic properties justifies the need of measures to minimize the impact of its exploitation in natural reserves. The aim of this study was to multiply, in vitro, "alumã" plants under different BAP levels, acclimating them. Axillary buds were sterilized in 70% (v/v alcohol solution for 2 minutes and in 75% sodium hypochlorite solution (2% active chlorine at 3:1 concentration for 15 minutes, followed by three washings in sterile distilled water. Multiplication treatments consisted of different BAP levels (0.0; 1.0; 2.0; 3.0; 4.0 and 5.0 mg L-1 in semi-solid MS medium. The experimental design was completely randomized, with 5 replicates and 10 buds per replicate. After 30 days of cultivation, the highest rate of responsive explants was obtained: 84% at 1.0 mg L-1 BAP, producing 4.0 sprouts/explant. In the treatments 3.0, 4.0 and 5.0 mg L-1, there were vitrified leaves. The "alumã" microplants used in this study had 100% survival in acclimation.

  2. A study on physics parameters and flux behaviour for a fast critical facility using ''Baker'' model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu-Leilah, M.M.; Hussein, A.Z.; Gaafar, M.A.; Hamouda, I.F.

    1983-01-01

    Comparative study was performed to emphasize the effects of using different nuclear data systems and methods on the various parameters of the fast reactor. Multigroup libraries as 11 (ANL-5800) and 26 (BNAB-64) energy group systems of nuclear data constants were used in the present work. The calculations were carried out for both infinite dilution (self-shielding factor F= 1) and self-shielded cross sections. Various computer codes were elaborated and derived to meet the conditional requirements for such calculations. The important output of these calculations are the neutron spectra, neutron balance, fission and capture rate distributions, critical mass, breeding ratio in each region and total breeding ratio of the reactor. Five different cases of study were considered employing two systems of constants, infinite dilution and self-shielded cross-sections and treating stainless steel of the reactor as to be substituted by iron. Moreover, calculations have been concerned for averaged one group nuclear data constants which were condensed from the 11 and 26 group systems. Comparisons of the multigroup results with those of the group were made. The condensation process for averaging to one group was done to estimate the effect of such physical simplification on the calculated parameters. The present work results have been compared with many published works. Fair agreements are obtained, which varified the consistance and completeness of the methods implemented and used

  3. Ray Stannard Baker and the Spirit of Democracy, 1900-1910.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Tom; List, Karen K.

    The early years of the twentieth century, years when the forces of capitalism tested the nation's will to keep the promises of democracy for all citizens, represent a time of national moral and intellectual lethargy. The muckraking movement sought to instill in the American mind a sense of outrage by exposing the evils of the new social order. If…

  4. p-Toluenethiol as an Initiator of Autolysis in Bakers' Yeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Wilfred N.

    1972-01-01

    Cysteine or dithiothreitol enhances the rate of autolysis in toluene-treated yeast. p-Toluenethiol alone is even more effective and is recommended for the isolation of β-fructofuranosidase. This suggests a more general application of p-toluenethiol in the isolation of enzymes from yeast. PMID:5058457

  5. Colastomion Baker (Braconidae, Rogadinae): nine new species from Papua New Guinea reared from Crambidae

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Quicke, D. L. J.; Smith, M. A.; Miller, S. E.; Hrček, Jan; Butcher, B.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 28, 28 AUG (2012), s. 85-121 ISSN 1070-9428 R&D Projects: GA ČR GD206/08/H044; GA ČR GAP505/10/0673; GA MŠk LC06073; GA MŠk ME09082 Grant - others:European Social Fund(CZ) CZ.1.07/2.3.00/20.0064; US National Science Foundation(US) DEB 0841885; US National Science Foundation(US) DEB 0816749; US National Science Foundation(US) DEB 0515678 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : cytochrome oxidase I * DNA barcoding * Lepidoptera Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.524, year: 2012 http://www.pensoft.net/J_FILES/10/articles/3484/3484-G-3- layout .pdf

  6. Tenth Daniel C. Baker, Jr., memorial lecture. The physician's contribution to national security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiatt, H.H.

    1984-01-01

    Nuclear weapons make possible the ultimate epidemic. Since their use would lead to human and material damage orders of magnitude more extensive than anything ever known, and since the medical community would be impotent to respond in any meaningful way, all efforts must be directed to the prevention of nuclear war. By ensuring that the medical realities are known to decision-makers and the people of the world, the medical community can help focus attention on the critical need for an effective prescription for prevention and thereby can contribute in an important fashion to national security

  7. Teaching microbial physiology using glucose repression phenomenon in baker's yeast as an examplele

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vijayendran, Raghavendran; Nielsen, Jens; Olsson, Lisbeth

    2005-01-01

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been used by human beings since ancient times for its ability to convert sugar to alcohol. Continual exposure to glucose in the natural environment for innumerable generations has probably enabled S. cerevisiae to grow in fermentative mode on sugars by switc......The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been used by human beings since ancient times for its ability to convert sugar to alcohol. Continual exposure to glucose in the natural environment for innumerable generations has probably enabled S. cerevisiae to grow in fermentative mode on sugars...... by switching off the genes responsible for respiration even under aerobic conditions. This phenomenon is referred to as the Crabtree effect. The present review focuses on glucose repression in S. cerevisiae from a physiological perspective. Physiological studies presented involve batch and chemostat...

  8. CRED Towed-Diver Benthic Characterization Surveys at Baker Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) long-term goals for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, towed-diver surveys...

  9. CRED Towed-Diver Benthic Characterization Survey at Baker, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) long-term goals for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, towed-diver surveys...

  10. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Survey at Baker, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) long-term goals for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, towed-diver surveys (AKA...

  11. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Survey at Baker, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) long-term goals for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, towed-diver surveys (AKA...

  12. Military Curricula for Vocational & Technical Education. Basic Baker, 9-4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

    Both teacher and student materials are included for a bakery technology course designed to facilitate learning the fundamental duties required in a dining facility or centralized pastry shop. One of a number of military-developed curriculum packages selected for adaptation to vocational curriculum and instruction, the course consists of seventeen…

  13. Perceived constraints by non-traditional users on the Mt. Baker-Snoqualmie National Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizabeth A. Covelli; Robert C. Burns; Alan Graefe

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the constraints that non-traditional users face, along with the negotiation strategies that are employed in order to start, continue, or increase participation in recreation on a national forest. Non-traditional users were defined as respondents who were not Caucasian. Additionally, both constraints and negotiation...

  14. 75 FR 12167 - Virginia Graeme Baker Pool and Spa Safety Act; Public Accommodation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-15

    ... pool or spa that is ``open exclusively to patrons of a hotel or other public accommodations facility... Web site at http://www.cpsc.gov . B. Legal Analysis In adopting a reasonable interpretation of... ``an inn, hotel, motel, or other place of lodging, except for an establishment located within a...

  15. CRED REA Invertebrate Quantitative Assessments at Baker Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, in 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support a long-term NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, from 8 - 29 January 2004,...

  16. CRED REA Invertebrate Quantitative Assessments at Baker Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, in 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support a long-term NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, from 15 January - 6 February...

  17. CRED REA Invertebrate Quantitative Assessments at Baker Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, in 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support a long-term NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, from 30 January - 28...

  18. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Reef Fish Survey at Baker, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support a long-term NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, from 2010-01-21 to...

  19. Whey - raw material for the production of baker starter-cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasna Mrvčić

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of production Lactic acid bacteria (LAB, which are suitable for breadmaking on whey was researched and compared to the results achieved in modified MRS medium. The growth and fermentation activities of Leuconostoc meseteroides L-3, Lactobacillus brevis L-62 and Lactobacillus plantarum L-73 were examined by monitoring lactic and acetic acid production in fermentation broth and in sourdough. Presented results show that deproteinized whey is suitable for LAB production. The best biomass yield (1,7 g/L and lactic acid production (9,15 mg/mL was achieved with L. plantarum L-73. Better flavour, elasticity and shelf life of bread made with whey-based starters compared to the classical yeast-monoculture based bread were determined by sensory analysis (DLG method.

  20. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at Baker Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) as...

  1. 78 FR 25693 - Mt. Baker-Snoqualmie National Forest; Snohomish County, WA; Green Mountain Lookout Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-02

    ... the concrete foundation and removal of all materials to the extent possible. Disturbed areas would be... concrete foundation for the placement of Green Mountain Lookout. Minor soil excavation and clearing of... statement. It is important that reviewers provide their comments at such times and in such manner that they...

  2. Categorizing behavior in online communities: a look into the world of cake bakers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ganley, D.; Moser, C.; Groenewegen, P.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we examine the patterns of behavior of online community members. We develop a list of measurable markers of behavior, drawing on online behavior and social network literature, and show how to construct the markers from the hidden relationship data in online communities. We then

  3. 76 FR 62605 - Virginia Graeme Baker Pool and Spa Safety Act; Interpretation of Unblockable Drain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-11

    ... the VGB Act defines an ``unblockable drain'' as ``a drain of any size and shape that a human body... intentions. They claim that for this reason, backup systems are necessary, and a swimming pool or spa with a... of an ``unblockable drain,'' at 16 CFR 1450.2(b) and believe it was in error. Regardless of the size...

  4. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at Baker Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) as...

  5. Et le gagnant est... Brendan Baker en entrevue | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2 févr. 2011 ... lancé par le CRDI dans la période menant au troisième Forum urbain mondial. ... Après avoir obtenu mon diplôme universitaire, je me suis engagé pour une affectation de longue durée avec Ingénieurs sans frontières, qui m'a envoyé au Sénégal afin de participer à un projet de transformation des noix de ...

  6. Radiation stimulation of yeast crops for increasing output of alcohol and baker yeasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlad, E.; Marsheu, P.

    1974-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to stimulate by gamma radiation the existing commercial types of yeast so as to obtain yeasts that would better reflect the substrate and have improved reproductive capacity. The experiments were conducted under ordinary conditions using commercial yeasts received from one factory producing alcohol and bakery yeasts and isolated as pure cultures. Irradiating yeast cultures with small doses (up to 10 krad) was found to stimulate the reproduction and fermenting activity of yeast cells as manifested in increased accumulation of yeast biomass and greater yield of ethyl alcohol. (E.T.)

  7. 75 FR 65261 - Virginia Graeme Baker Pool and Spa Safety Act; Public Accommodation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-22

    ... Condominium Ass'n, 2005 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 41601 (November 22, 2005) (condominium buildings may be covered as... characteristics normally associated with a hotel, motel, or inn); Thompson v. Sand Cliffs Owners Ass'n, Inc., 1998...

  8. The Chemical Adventures of Sherlock Holmes: The Death Puzzle at 221B Baker Street

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybolt, Thomas R.; Waddell, Thomas G.

    1999-04-01

    This story describes a chemical mystery with an emphasis on medicinal chemistry and qualitative analysis. It is the tenth article in a series presenting a scientific problem in mystery format in the context of the popular and beloved characters Sherlock Holmes and Dr. Watson. There is a break in the story where the reader (students and teachers) can ponder and solve the mystery. Sherlock Holmes then provides his solution.

  9. Okeanos Explorer (EX1703): Howland/Baker PRIMNM and PIPA (ROV/Mapping)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Operations will include the use of the ship's deep water mapping systems (Kongsberg EM302 multibeam sonar, EK60 split-beam fisheries sonars, Knudsen 3260 chirp...

  10. Invertebrados acuáticos asociados a la Bromelia Tillandsia turneri Baker. en un bosque altoandino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Fabiola Ospina

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Las bromelias como plantas fitotelmas mantienen una compleja cadena trófica que incluye invertebrados asociados a depósitos de agua. Se determinó la comunidad de invertebrados acuáticos de la bromelia Tillandsia turneri en un bosque altoandino en el Municipio de Chocontá, Cundinamarca, Colombia. Se estudiaron 37 individuos de la bromelia ubicadas desde 0 hasta 6 m de altura, a las cuales se realizaron mediciones morfológicas, de contenido de agua y análisis fisicoquímico de esta y se colectaron los invertebrados asociados. Los órdenes mas abundantes fueron Coleóptera, Díptera y Cladócera; por medio de un análisis de similaridad de Morisita Horn se encontró que las bromelias son similares en cuanto a composición de invertebrados, por lo que se sugiere que pertenecen a un solo estrato dentro del bosque y que los procesos de ovoposición y dispersión para los grupos estudiados tienen igual probabilidad de ocurrir en las bromelias ubicadas de 0 a 6 m de altura.

  11. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at Baker Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) as...

  12. Taxonomic, pharmacognostic and physicochemical authentication of colchicum luteum baker (suranjantalkh) from its commercial adulterant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, S.N.; Ahmad, M.; Shinwari, S.; Shinwari, Z.K.

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of current study is to elucidate taxonomic, pharmacognostic and physicochemical behavior of Colchicum luteum (Suranjantalkh) for its proper identification and authentication from its cheap and tasteless adulterant. Colchicum luteum is one of the most rare and hence expensive medicinal plants. It is an active part of many unani formulations due to presence of an alkaloid colchicine which is claimed to be effective in arthritis, gout, rheumatism and internal injuries. In order to overcome demand of its corm, suppliers and herb sellers adultered bulbs of a monocotyledon plant Narcissus tazetta. This type of study reveals to be helpful in differentiating plants on basis of leaf epidermal anatomy, palynology, phamacognosy and physicochemical values. It is an important step in field of herbal medicine to provide pure and original medicinal plants to yield their maximum effectiveness. (author)

  13. Some Practical Aspects of Sugar Fermentation by Baker's Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeland, P. W.

    1973-01-01

    Describes simple quantitative determinations for ethanol and carbon dioxide, together with techniques for examining the effects of a number of environmental factors on their production. The experimental work centers around the growth of a cell population of yeast, and is suitable for senior high school students. (JR)

  14. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at Baker Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) as...

  15. CRED Cumulative Map of Percent Scleractinian Coral Cover at Baker Island, 2002-2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This map displays optical validation observation locations and percent coverage of scleractinian coral overlaid on bathymetry.

  16. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Reef Fish Survey at Baker, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support a long-term NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, from 20120227 to 20120325,...

  17. Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected - 2010 NAIP Imagery - Baker County

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — This data set contains polygons delineating the seams boundary between acquired imagery used in the creation of DOQQs and compressed county mosaic (CCM). The DOQQ...

  18. 75 FR 24973 - United States v. Baker Hughes Inc., et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-06

    ... and explained in Appendix A), the transaction will increase the HHI by over 500 points, resulting in a...-how, including recipes, formulas, machine settings, drawings, blueprints, designs, design protocols...

  19. William L. Baker: Fire ecology in Rocky Mountain landscapes [book review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel. Yaussy

    2010-01-01

    Every so often, we need something to make us question our beliefs and views of the natural order of things, to open our minds to different versions of reality so that we become better informed and open to new avenues of thought. The author comes across as slightly antagonistic in his attempt to set the record straight concerning fires in the Rocky Mountains.

  20. Rugosity grid derived from gridded bathymetry of of Baker Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Rugosity is derived from gridded (20 m cell size) multibeam bathymetry, collected aboard R/V AHI and NOAA ship Hi'ialakai. Cell values reflect the (surface area) /...

  1. Slope grid derived from gridded bathymetry of Baker Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Slope is derived from gridded (20 m cell size) multibeam bathymetry, collected aboard R/V AHI, and NOAA ship Hi'ialakai. Cell values reflect the maximum rate of...

  2. Zinc oxide and silver nanoparticles toxicity in the baker's yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galván Márquez, Imelda; Ghiyasvand, Mergan; Massarsky, Andrey; Babu, Mohan; Samanfar, Bahram; Omidi, Katayoun; Moon, Thomas W; Smith, Myron L; Golshani, Ashkan

    2018-01-01

    Engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) are increasingly incorporated into a variety of commercial applications and consumer products; however, ENMs may possess cytotoxic properties due to their small size. This study assessed the effects of two commonly used ENMs, zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs) and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), in the model eukaryote Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A collection of ≈4600 S. cerevisiae deletion mutant strains was used to deduce the genes, whose absence makes S. cerevisiae more prone to the cytotoxic effects of ZnONPs or AgNPs. We demonstrate that S. cerevisiae strains that lack genes involved in transmembrane and membrane transport, cellular ion homeostasis, and cell wall organization or biogenesis exhibited the highest sensitivity to ZnONPs. In contrast, strains that lack genes involved in transcription and RNA processing, cellular respiration, and endocytosis and vesicular transport exhibited the highest sensitivity to AgNPs. Secondary assays confirmed that ZnONPs affected cell wall function and integrity, whereas AgNPs exposure decreased transcription, reduced endocytosis, and led to a dysfunctional electron transport system. This study supports the use of S. cerevisiae Gene Deletion Array as an effective high-throughput technique to determine cellular targets of ENM toxicity.

  3. Teaching Microbial Physiology Using Glucose Repression Phenomenon in Baker's Yeast as an Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghevendran, Vijayendran; Nielsen, Jens; Olsson, Lisbeth

    2005-01-01

    The yeast "Saccharomyces cerevisiae" has been used by human beings since ancient times for its ability to convert sugar to alcohol. Continual exposure to glucose in the natural environment for innumerable generations has probably enabled "S. cerevisiae" to grow in fermentative mode on sugars by switching off the genes responsible for respiration…

  4. Some parameters of phenotypic stability in the evaluation for quality in wheat baker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brito Molina, R.

    1993-01-01

    4 genotypes of wheat of the 25 included in the regional tests of the highland Cundiboyacense area; were used to determine the phenotypic stability through 21 environments (town for semester), of 5 characteristics of quality by means of 5 methodologies, to specify which or which kept bigger relationship with the procedure used by the program of wheat of the ICA of them, and to compare the average through all the environment with the average of witness, to decide the commercialization of a given genotype. For all the characteristics, 2 or more than the 5 studied methods they were coincident in identifying the genotype of better stability. The 5 methods for the factors, hecto liter weighs and extraction of flour, and the methods of the covalence of Finlay and Wilkinson and of Eberhart and Russell for the characteristic of volume of the bread, they always included Samaca 68 like one of the genotypes wanted by their stability. The last 3 mentioned factors of quality are the important, from the industrial point of view. The methods of Finlay and Wilkinson and of Eberhart and Rusell they also classified to the variety Samaca68 as of general adaptability for the variable extraction of flour and volume of the bread. The selection of Samaca68 for their stability and adaptability was, then, quite concordant with that carried out by the Program of Wheat of the ICA, since this variety was for a lot of time the national witness of quality

  5. Thermoluminescent response of dosemeters TLD-100 exposed to distinct baker protocols, irradiation and reading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estrada E, D.

    2002-01-01

    The interest that motivated the realization of this work is the opposing discrepancy among the values of the efficiency thermoluminescent of heavy charged particles (PCP) regarding gamma radiation (η PCP , γ) reported in different works and gathered recently for Horowitz (Ho 01). The measures of relative thermoluminescent efficiency have importance in relation to the dosimetry associated to medical therapy with heavy charged particle. The measurement of η PCP , γ depends of multiple experimental factors. To understand this dependence it was quantified the effect of using different procedures experimental in the estimate of the relative thermoluminescent efficiency of dosemeters TLD-100 (LiF: Ti; Mg) for protons of 3 MeV regarding gamma rays of 60 Co (η PCP , γ), varying the lot, the presentation, the one baked and the team reader. When was used the same global procedure values they were obtained for (η PCP , γ) inside the interval [0.30, 0.58] for the peak 5 and [0.35, 0.76] for the total thermoluminescent signal (Tl). At the use different equipment, baked and lot are obtained maximum differences of 30%, 12% and 6% respectively in the values of (η PCP , γ) for the peak 5, and 25%, 28% and 7% for the total Tl signal. The changes more significant of 36% and 44% for peak 5 and total signal respectively are obtained when changing the presentation of the dosemeter. As a complementary investigation it was studied the distribution of the Tl signal of each peak in the deconvolution of the curve of brightness with regard to the total signal in exposed dosemeters to high fluence of protons (1x10 10 p/cm 2 ) varying the experimental protocol. It was found that the distribution of the Tl signal has a difference of the order of 5% when changing the used reading team. It was observed that the contribution of the peak 5 regarding the total signal are preserved when changing baked and that it results to be 8% greater for the presentation in dosemeters of 1 x 1 x 1 mm 3 that for dosemeters of 0.89 x 3.17 x 3.17 mm 3 of TLD-100. Given the importance of having values of relative thermoluminescent efficiency reliable in applications associated to medical dosimetry, the main conclusion of this work is the recommendation of measuring relative efficiencies following a protocol of careful work and previously defined so much for the charged particle radiation as for the gamma radiation and controlling all the experimental factors involved. (Author)

  6. Optimization of Baker's Yeast Production on Date Extract Using Response Surface Methodology (RSM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara Ali, Mounira; Outili, Nawel; Ait Kaki, Asma; Cherfia, Radia; Benhassine, Sara; Benaissa, Akila; Kacem Chaouche, Noreddine

    2017-08-07

    This work aims to study the production of the biomass of S. cerevisiae on an optimized medium using date extract as the only carbon source in order to obtain a good yield of the biomass. The biomass production was carried out according to the central composite experimental design (CCD) as a response surface methodology using Minitab 16 software. Indeed, under optimal biomass production conditions, temperature (32.9 °C), pH (5.35) and the total reducing sugar extracted from dates (70.93 g/L), S. cerevisiae produced 40 g/L of their biomass in an Erlenmeyer after only 16 h of fermentation. The kinetic performance of the S. cerevisiae strain was investigated with three unstructured models i.e., Monod, Verhulst, and Tessier. The conformity of the experimental data fitted showed a good consistency with Monod and Tessier models with R² = 0.945 and 0.979, respectively. An excellent adequacy was noted in the case of the Verhulst model ( R² = 0.981). The values of kinetic parameters ( Ks , X m , μ m , p and q ) calculated by the Excel software, confirmed that Monod and Verhulst were suitable models, in contrast, the Tessier model was inappropriately fitted with the experimental data due to the illogical value of Ks (-9.434). The profiles prediction of the biomass production with the Verhulst model, and that of the substrate consumption using Leudeking Piret model over time, demonstrated a good agreement between the simulation models and the experimental data.

  7. 77 FR 30886 - Virginia Graeme Baker Pool and Spa Safety Act; Interpretation of Unblockable Drain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-24

    ... interpretation and installed unblockable drain covers and now would have to go back and ``re-do'' their work... compliance and whether the pool operator is seeking a plan review and not just limited advice about how to... secondary anti-entrapment system to come into compliance, unless the pool uses a gravity drain system or the...

  8. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at Baker Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) as...

  9. CRED Towed-Diver Benthic Characterization Surveys at Baker Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) long-term goals for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, towed-diver surveys...

  10. Protocolo para la micropropagación de Furcraea macrophylla Baker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez María A.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Del género Furcraea hacen parte especies textiles de gran importancia en los mercados nacionales e internacionales, tanto por las características de la fibra como por el contenido de precursores de hormonas, corticoides, azúcares, ácidos grasos y biopesticidas que se encuentran en sus jugos. En esta investigación se desarrolló un protocolo para la micropropagación de Furcraea macrophylla B. a partir de ápices caulinares procedentes de bulbillos. Los cultivos in vitro se realizaron en medio MS modificado y suplementado con BA, TDZ, KIN y 2-IP en forma individual o en combinación con 2,69 μM de ANA. Después de 12 semanas de iniciados los cultivos, en la mayoría de los tratamientos ensayados los explantes desarrollaron brotes axilares. 100% de los brotes producidos enraizaron después de 30 d en medio MS modificado suplementado con  11,42 μM de AIA, con 2,46 μM de AIB o en ausencia de reguladores de crecimiento. Después de la etapa de endurecimiento, 94% de las plántulas sobrevivieron en condiciones ex vitro. El protocolo establecido para la  micropropagación de F. macrophylla es un procedimiento efectivo con el que se podría suplir la demanda comercial de material vegetal seleccionado, en óptimo estado fitosanitario, en periodos relativamente  cortos y a bajos costos.

  11. 75 FR 21985 - Virginia Graeme Baker Pool and Spa Safety Act; Interpretation of Unblockable Drain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-27

    ... standard includes addenda which ASME codes and standards identify as A112.19.8a [for corrections to the UV light testing procedure] and 8b [for outlet covers used on self-contained spas]. The addenda are part of... the blocking element was not representative of ``human skin'' and therefore did not fully represent a...

  12. CRED REA Invertebrate Quantitative Assessments at Baker Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, in 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support a long-term NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, from 21 January - 25 March...

  13. CRED REA Invertebrate Quantitative Assessments at Baker Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, in 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support a long-term NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, from 11 March - 6 April...

  14. CRED REA Invertebrate Quantitative Assessments at Baker Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, in 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support a long-term NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, from 26 January - 14...

  15. Testing of Baker Flo-XS Pipeline Drag-Reducing Additive. Compilation of Tests and Results

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Guiliano, John

    2000-01-01

    ... 0.8 ppm for errors in injection). Through a CRADA with Buckeye Pipeline Inc, thermal stability testing of the additive was completed. Additionally, low temperature testing, additive/additive compatibility testing and specification testing of additized fuel was also completed. Material compatibility testing was also taken into consideration.

  16. Desarrollo morfológico e histológico del sistema reproductor de Pomacea patula catemacensis (Baker 1922 (Mollusca, Caenogastropoda: Ampullariidae Morphological and histological development of the reproductive system of Pomacea patula catemacensis (Baker 1922 (Mollusca, Caenogastropoda: Ampullariidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AURA CARREÓN-PALAU

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available El "tegogolo" Pomacea patula catemacensis es un gasterópodo dulceacuícola comestible, endémico del Lago de Catemaco en Veracruz, México. En los últimos años las poblaciones naturales se han visto diezmadas debido a que su captura se realiza sin control, a lo que se suma el alto grado de deterioro ambiental que presenta el lago, producto del "azolvamiento", así como por la contaminación por plaguicidas y detergentes. El objetivo del presente estudio fue caracterizar histológica y morfológicamente el sistema reproductor de P. patula catemacensis y determinar las etapas de madurez gonádica en condiciones de laboratorio. Se determinó que la maduración depende de la talla y no de la edad de los organismos, y se identificaron cuatro etapas principales en el desarrollo de machos y hembras: Los estadios y sus longitudes promedio ± intervalo de confianza del 95 % son (1 inmadura o indiferenciada (talla de 0,72 a 7 mm, (2 maduración temprana (18,95 ± 1,96 mm, (3 maduración intermedia (29,29 ± 4,9 mm y (4 madurez total (35,89 ± 3,92 mm. En este molusco los sexos están separados, la fertilización es interna y el desarrollo es ovovivíparo. En las hembras la secreción de albúmina y de carbonato de calcio se realiza en la glándula de la albúmina, característica en la que difiere de otras especies como P. paludosa y P. canaliculata, las cuales poseen además glándula de la cápsula. Es posible identificar el grado de madurez de los caracoles utilizando criterios anatómicos visuales, como la glándula de la albúmina, en el caso de la hembra, y el órgano copulador en el machoThe "apple snail" Pomacea patula catemacensis is an edible freshwater mollusc, endemic to the Catemaco Lake in Veracruz, Mexico. During the past few years, the natural populations of this species have been depleted mainly by uncontrolled fishery, and because of environmental degradation and pollution by pesticides and detergents. In the present study, we carried out the histological and morphological characterization of the reproductive system of P. patula catemacensis under laboratory conditions. We found that the reproductive development of this snail depended more on the size than on the age the animals, and identified four development main stages, both for males and females. The main stages and their mean lengths ± confidence interval at P < 0.05 were (1 immature or not differenced (from 0.72 to 7 mm, (2 early maturation (from 18.95 ± 1.96 mm, (3 intermediate maturation (from 29.29 ± 4.9 mm, and (4 full maturity (from 35.89 ± 3.92 mm. This species is ovoviviparous, both sexes are separated, and fertilization is internal. Albumin and calcium carbonate secretion in females are performed through the albumin gland, a trait that distinguishes this species from others, such as P. paludosa and P. canaliculata. The stage of development can be identified by means of using anatomical traits, such as the albumin gland (in the case of females, or the intromittent organ (in males

  17. Morfoanatomia da raiz tuberosa de Vernonia oxylepis Sch. Bip. in Mart. ex Baker - Asteraceae Morpho-anatomy of the tuberous root of Vernonia oxylepis Sch. Bip. in Mart. ex Baker - Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divina Aparecida Anunciação Vilhalva

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Várias espécies herbáceas e subarbustivas, nativas do Cerrado no Brasil, são geofitas, ou seja, sobrevivem ao período desfavorável de déficit hídrico e de baixas temperaturas, que muitas vezes coincide com incêndios, mantendo apenas a porção subterrânea. Vernonia oxylepis é uma dessas espécies e o objetivo desse estudo foi descrever a morfoanatomia da raiz tuberosa e a formação das gemas nessa raiz. Tal raiz é constituída de um eixo orientado perpendicularmente no solo, a partir do qual ramos aéreos são formados na porção proximal, situada ao nível do solo, ao longo do ciclo de vida da planta. Na porção proximal da raiz ocorre auto-enxertia da base dos ramos por ela emitidos. A raiz acumula lipídios e frutanos, apresenta ligeira contração e forma gemas reparativas; a formação das gemas adventícias se dá a partir do periciclo proliferado. Tais características poderiam ser associadas ao processo de adaptação da espécie às condições do Cerrado.Several native herbaceous and subshrub species native to the Cerrado in Brazil are geophytes, that is, they survive the unfavorable dry season and low temperatures, that sometimes coincide with fire, with only the underground system intact. Vernonia oxylepis is one of these species and the aim of this study was to describe the morpho-anatomy of the tuberous root and bud formation on this structure. The main axis of this root is perpendicular to the soil surface, and from which aerial shoots arise periodically throughout the life cycle. On the upper portion of the root, self-grafting of the shoots occurs. The root stores lipids and fructans, exhibits contraction and produces reparatory buds; adventitious buds arise from proliferated pericycle. These characteristics may be related to adaptation of this species to conditions in the Cerrado.

  18. Variação morfológica e reprodutiva de Aechmea lindenii (E. Morren Baker var. lindenii (Bromeliaceae Morphological and reproductive variation of Aechmea lindenii (E. Morren Baker var. lindenii (Bromeliaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Lenzi

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Buscou-se determinar o efeito da intensidade luminosa sobre as características morfológicas e reprodutivas de A.lindenii, em ambientes de restinga herbácea (alta luminosidade e sub-bosque de restinga arbórea (baixa luminosidade, em Florianópolis, SC, onde os resultados indicam que a luminosidade pode influenciar no seu fenótipo, produção de néctar, fenologia e sucesso reprodutivo. As plantas esciófitas são maiores e apresentam um período de floração em torno de 120 dias, enquanto que as heliófitas são menores e florescem ao longo de todo o ano. A espécie apresenta atributos florais à ornitofilia, estando o volume (16,7 µL ± 4 e concentração (27,25% do néctar produzido pelas flores dentro do esperado para espécies polinizadas por beija-flores. A freqüente visitação de Amazilia fimbriata, Thalurania glaucopis e Thalurania sp. (Trochilidae confirma esta observação, porém abelhas e borboletas também foram consideradas potenciais polinizadores, sugerindo co-evolução de síndromes florais secundárias. Baseando-se nos resultados dos testes de polinizações manuais e no desenvolvimento dos tubos polínicos, pode-se concluir que a espécie não apresenta auto-incompatibilidade, formando frutos com sementes férteis, com germinação superior a 80%, oriundas tanto de fecundação cruzada quanto da autopolinização. A população heliófita apresentou elevadas taxas de partenocarpia (52, 95% e mostrou ser um método seguro e eficaz de se avaliar a fertilização das flores, podendo-se assim, relacionar a sua freqüência e abundância à ausência ou ineficiência dos visitantes florais. Os frutos e sementes foram dispersos por pássaros das famílias Thraupidae e Pipridae e predados por lagartas da borboleta Tecla sp. (Lycaenidae.The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of the luminosity on morphological and reproductive characteristics of A. lindenii, in environments of "restinga herbácea" (high luminosity and on an understory of a "restinga arbórea" (low luminosity, in Florianópolis, SC, where the results indicate that the luminosity can influence the bromeliad's phenotype, nectar production, phenology and reproductive success. The shade tolerant plants are bigger and present a flowering period of around 120 days, while the heliophytic plants are smaller and blossom throughout all year. The species presents ornithophilous floral attributes, being the volume (16,7 µL ± 4 and concentration (27,25% of the nectar produced by the flowers characteristic of a hummingbird pollinated flower. The frequent visitation of Amazilia fimbriata, Thalurania glaucopis and Thalurania sp. (Trochilidae confirms this suggestion; however bees and butterflies can also be considered potential pollinators, suggesting co-evolution of secondary floral syndromes. Based on the results of manual pollination tests and on the development of the polinic tubes, can be concluded that the species does not present self-incompatibility, forming fruits with fertile seeds, with a germination rate higher than 80%, both in cross-pollination as well as in selfing tests. The heliophytic population presented a high rate of parthenocarpy (52, 95% and showed to be a safe and efficient method to evaluate the fertilization of the flowers, being possible to relate the frequency and abundance of parthenocarpy to the absence or inefficiency of the pollinators. The fruits and seeds were dispersed by birds of the families Thraupidae and Pipridae and predated by larva of the butterfly Tecla sp. (Lycaenidae.

  19. Palinotaxonomia de Albertinia brasiliensis Spreng., Eremanthus bicolor (DC. Baker e Vanillosmopsis erythropappa (DC. Sch. Bip. (Compositae-Vernonieae Palynotaxonomy of Albertinia brasiliensis Spreng., Eremanthus bicolor (DC. Baker and Vanillosmopsis erythropappa (DC. Sch. Bip. (Compositae-Vernonieae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliny Férras Peçanha

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Vanillosmopsis Sch. Bip. tem sido, tradicionalmente, aceito como sinônimo de Eremanthus Less. e o gênero Albertinia Spreng. foi estabelecido para abrigar Albertinia brasiliensis Spreng. O presente trabalho propõe a caracterização polínica de Albertinia brasiliensis, Vanillosmopsis erythropappa e Eremanthus bicolor e fornece subsídios para futuros estudos taxonômicos. Foram utilizados grãos de pólen de espécimens coletados em diferentes herbários. As duas primeiras espécies são encontradas no Rio de Janeiro enquanto Eremanthus Less. não. Assim, optou-se por utilizar a espécie-tipo do gênero na análise polínica. Os grãos de pólen foram acetolisados, medidos, descritos e ilustrados usando microscopia de luz. Grãos de pólen não acetolisados foram usados para análise em microscopia eletrônica de varredura. O resultado do estudo polínico mostrou que as espécies podem ser separadas utilizandose, principalmente, as características das aberturas e da ornamentação da exina e revelou uma gradação evolutiva interespecífica dos caracteres polínicos. Com relação à taxonomia das espécies estudadas, os dados palinológicos comprovam a posição taxonômica de Albertinia brasiliensis, porém não reforça a sinonimização de Vanillosmopsis em Eremanthus.Vanillosmopsis Sch. Bip. has been traditionally accepted as a synonym of Eremanthus Less., and Albertinia Spreng. was established to include Albertinia brasiliensis Spreng. This paper characterizes the pollen of Albertinia brasiliensis, Vanillosmopsis erythropappa and Eremanthus bicolor and provides information for future taxonomic studies. Pollen grains of specimens collected in different herbaria were used in this study. The two first species are found in Rio de Janeiro, but Eremanthus is not found in this state. For this reason, the type species of this genus was used for pollen analysis. Pollen grains were acetolysed, measured, described and illustrated using optical microscopy. Non-acetolysed pollen grains were used for analysis in scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that these species can be distinguished using mainly exine ornamentation and aperture features, revealing an interspecific evolutionary gradation of pollen characteristics. As regards the taxonomy of the species studied, the palynological data confirm the taxonomic position of Albertinia brasiliensis, but they do not support the subordination of Vanillosmopsis to Eremanthus.

  20. Desarrollo morfológico e histológico del sistema reproductor de Pomacea patula catemacensis (Baker 1922) (Mollusca, Caenogastropoda: Ampullariidae) Morphological and histological development of the reproductive system of Pomacea patula catemacensis (Baker 1922) (Mollusca, Caenogastropoda: Ampullariidae)

    OpenAIRE

    AURA CARREÓN-PALAU; ESTHER URIA-GALICIA; FÉLIX ESPINOSA-CHÁVEZ; FERNANDO MARTÍNEZ-JERÓNIMO

    2003-01-01

    El "tegogolo" Pomacea patula catemacensis es un gasterópodo dulceacuícola comestible, endémico del Lago de Catemaco en Veracruz, México. En los últimos años las poblaciones naturales se han visto diezmadas debido a que su captura se realiza sin control, a lo que se suma el alto grado de deterioro ambiental que presenta el lago, producto del "azolvamiento", así como por la contaminación por plaguicidas y detergentes. El objetivo del presente estudio fue caracterizar histológica y morfológicame...

  1. Early incidence of occupational asthma among young bakers, pastry-makers and hairdressers: design of a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rémen, Thomas; Coevoet, Vincent; Acouetey, Dovi-Stéphanie; Guéant, Jean-Louis; Guéant-Rodriguez, Rosa-Maria; Paris, Christophe; Zmirou-Navier, Denis

    2010-04-26

    Occupational exposures are thought to be responsible for 10-15% of new-onset asthma cases in adults, with disparities across sectors. Because most of the data are derived from registries and cross-sectional studies, little is known about incidence of occupational asthma (OA) during the first years after inception of exposure. This paper describes the design of a study that focuses on this early asthma onset period among young workers in the bakery, pastry making and hairdressing sectors in order to assess early incidence of OA in these "at risk" occupations according to exposure duration, and to identify risk factors of OA incidence. The study population is composed of subjects who graduated between 2001 and 2006 in these sectors where they experience exposure to organic or inorganic allergenic or irritant compounds (with an objective of 150 subjects by year) and 250 young workers with no specific occupational exposure. A phone interview focusing on respiratory and 'Ear-Nose-Throat' (ENT) work-related symptoms screen subjects considered as "possibly OA cases". Subjects are invited to participate in a medical visit to complete clinical and lung function investigations, including fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) and carbon monoxide (CO) measurements, and to collect blood samples for IgE (Immunoglobulin E) measurements (total IgE and IgE for work-related and common allergens). Markers of oxidative stress and genetic polymorphisms exploration are also assessed. A random sample of 200 "non-cases" (controls) is also visited, following a nested case-control design. This study may allow to describ a latent period between inception of exposure and the rise of the prevalence of asthma symptoms, an information that would be useful for the prevention of OA. Such a time frame would be suited for conducting screening campaigns of this emergent asthma at a stage when occupational hygiene measures and adapted therapeutic interventions might be effective. Clinical trial registration number is NCT01096537.

  2. Mosaic of bathymetry derived from multispectral WV-2 satellite imagery of Baker Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathymetric data derived from a multipectral World View-2 satellite image mosaiced to provide near complete coverage of nearshore terrain around the islands....

  3. Analysis of the Involvement of Different Ceramide Variants in the Response to Hydroxyurea Stress in Baker's Yeast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-Wei Chen

    Full Text Available Sphingolipids have been identified as important signaling compounds in stress responses. However, it is not always clear how different sphingolipid profiles are achieved in a particular stress situation. Here we propose a detailed mass action model, containing 42 dependent variables and 137 reactions, that offers explanations of the roles of variant ceramides species, which differ in the lengths of their fatty acyl chains and their saturation state, in the response to hydroxyurea stress. The simulations demonstrate that the cells manage to achieve hydroxyurea tolerance through a well-coordinated, differential usage of the variant ceramide species. Moreover, the results suggest that key enzymes have different affinities toward saturated and unsaturated fatty acyl chains, which implies that the saturation state affords the cells with an additional mode of regulation that had not been recognized so far. These conclusions from our computational analysis are yet to be validated experimentally.

  4. 76 FR 47436 - Virginia Graeme Baker Pool and Spa Safety Act; Incorporation by Reference of Successor Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-05

    ... pump cannot be isolated to one blocked fitting. The relevance of UL 1563 is that it contains similar... limiting vent or gravity drainage system. Thus, system flows are split between two or more suction fittings that cannot both be blocked by the same body. Similarly, for hair entanglement, the split flow reduces...

  5. The Influence of Baker Bay and Sand Island on Circulations in the Mouth of the Columbia River

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Island is a good example of a dredge spoils area protected by a pile dike system. Without the stabilizing effect of the Sand Island pile dikes, the...Sand Island) and pile dikes, and the effects of these features on adjacent water masses in the lower Columbia River. 4 THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY...each drifter using Velcro and nylon straps with pinch buckles. Each case contained a 1-Hz sampling internally-logging GT-31 handheld GPS unit for

  6. In vitro propagation via organogenesis and synthetic seeds of Urginea altissima (L.f.) Baker: a threatened medicinal plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskaran, Ponnusamy; Kumari, Aloka; Van Staden, Johannes

    2018-01-01

    Efficient in vitro propagation systems via organogenesis and synthetic seeds were developed for the first time for conservation and commercial propagation from leaf or longitudinal thin cell layer (lTCL) leaf or shoot-tip explants of Urginea altissima . Various plant growth regulators and phloroglucinol were used in semi-solid and liquid Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium to establish multiplication of shoots and roots for in vitro regeneration. Of the various treatments, the highest number of shoots (17.4 per lTCL leaf explant) was obtained on liquid MS medium supplemented with 10 µM meta -Topolin ( m T) and 2 µM benzyladenine followed by transferal to semi-solid MS media. The shoot tips were encapsulated with liquid MS medium plus 3% (w/v) sodium alginate and 100 mM calcium chloride. Adventitious shoot regeneration (91.0%; 12.6 shoots per synthetic seed) of synthetic seeds was achieved on semi-solid MS medium supplemented with 10 µM m T and 2 µM naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) after 15 days of storage in darkness at 25 ± 2 °C. Regenerated shoots rooted (9.8 roots per shoot; 6.5 cm long) efficiently when transferred to 5 µM indole-3-butyric acid and 2.5 µM NAA. All the plantlets were successfully acclimatized (100%) in a vermiculite:soil (1:1 v/v) mixture in the greenhouse.

  7. 77 FR 12002 - Mount Baker-Snoqualmie National Forest Site-Specific Invasive Plant Treatment Project and Forest...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-28

    ... Invasive Plant Treatment Project and Forest Plan Amendment Number 28 AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION... Forest. The current Forest-wide treatment approach pre-dates the Pacific Northwest Region Invasive Plant... interdisciplinary analysis: (1) Whether or not to authorize site- specific invasive plant treatments using...

  8. Simultaneous wastewater treatment and biogas production using integrated anaerobic baffled reactor granular activated carbon from baker's yeast wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirsaheb, Meghdad; Mohamadi, Samira; Rahmatabadi, Sama; Hossini, Hooshyar; Motteran, Fabrício

    2017-08-30

    In this study, simultaneous degradation of organic matter and color removal from food processing industries wastewater using an integrated anaerobic baffled reactor granular activated carbon (IABRGAC) was investigated. Theretofore, effective parameters such as hydraulic retention time (HRT) and granular activated carbon (GAC) filling ratio were studied. The bioreactor was operated at 3, 4 and 5 d of HRT and GAC filling ratio of 20%, 35% and 50%. To analyze and optimize the independent operating variables, response surface methodology was applied. Operating condition was optimized for HRT (4 d) and GAC filling ratio (50%). Better COD (94.6%) and BOD (93.7%) removal efficiency occurred with loading COD of 15,000 mg/L, with diminished wastewater color around 54% and turbidity to 54 NTU. In addition, methane production, methane yielding rate (Y m ) and specific methanogenic activity (SMA) test in an integrated system were investigated. The system IABRGAC was able to generate a volumetric rate about 0.31 and 0.44 L/g COD removed d at the experimental condition. The Y m was between 0.31 and 0.44 L/g COD removed .d and SMA was between 0.13 and 0.38 g COD/g volatile suspended solid. Based on results it can be concluded that the IABRGAC to be a successful pretreatment for highstrength wastewater before discharging the final effluent to sewerage and aerobic treating processes.

  9. Performance of Metarhizium anisopliae-treated foam in combination with Phytoseiulus longipes Evans on Tetranychus evansi Baker & Pritchard (Acari: Tetranychidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azandémè Hounmalon, Ginette Y; Maniania, Nguya K; Niassy, Saliou; Fellous, Simon; Kreiter, Serge; Delétré, Emilie; Fiaboe, Komi K; Martin, Thibaud

    2018-05-13

    Tetranychus evansi (Te) is an exotic pest of solanaceous crops in Africa. The predatory mite Phytoseiulus longipes (Pl) and the fungus Metarhizium anisopliae (Ma), are potential biocontrol agents of Te. The present study investigated efficacy of fungus-treated foam placed above or below the third Te-infested tomato leaf. The persistence of fungus-treated foam and the performance of Pl with or without fungus-treated foam were evaluated. The fungus-treated foam was effective when Te infestation was below the third tomato leaf as no damage was recorded on all upper tomato leaves up to 30 days post-treatment. However, in the control treatments, the infestation increased considerably from 9±0.3% to 100±0% at 15 days post-treatment. The reuse of the fungus-treated foam at 15, 30 and 45 days post-treatment resulted in 19±1.4%, 25±1.2% and 54±2.1% respective infestation by Te. The fungus-treated foam and Pl alone are efficient, but there is no benefit to combinting both against Te. The fungus-treated foam is an effective method to optimize the use of Ma in screenhouse conditions. These two control agents could be integrated in an IPM strategy for crops protection. However, these results need to be confirmed in large field trials. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  10. Tillandsia myosura Griseb. ex Baker (Bromeliaceae, una nueva cita para la flora de la Provincia de Buenos Aires, (Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel Cellini

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Se cita por primera vez para la Provincia de Buenos Aires Tillandsia myosura, coleccionada en las inmediaciones del arroyo Pereyra, Parque Provincial y Reserva de la Biosfera Parque Pereyra Iraola (Partido de Berazategui, Buenos Aires, Argentina. Esta especie, conocida hasta el presente sólo para el sur de Uruguay y las provincias de Catamarca, Córdoba, Jujuy, La Rioja, La Pampa, Mendoza, Salta, San Juan, San Luis, Santiago del Estero y Tucumán en Argentina es citada por primera vez para la Provincia de Buenos Aires, ampliándose su límite sur de distribución. En el presente trabajo se describe e ilustra la especie, y se presenta una clave para diferenciarla de especies afines de distribución congruente.

  11. Radiological survey of the former Baker Brothers, Inc. site, 2551--2555 Harleau Place, Toledo, Ohio (BTO001)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foley, R.D.; Floyd, L.M.

    1992-03-01

    At the request of the US Department of Energy (DOE), a team from Oak Ridge National Laboratory conducted investigative radiological surveys at the REMS, Inc., and the Doug Beet Company, 2551-2555 Harleau Place, Toledo, Ohio (BTO001) in 1988. The purpose of the surveys was to determine whether the property was contaminated with radioactive residues, principally 238 U, as a result of work contracted to the Manhattan Engineer District (MED). The survey included gamma scans; directly measured alpha, beta, and gamma radiation levels; transferable contamination levels; and soil, dust, debris, and air sampling for radionuclide analyses. The survey and sampling covered accessible portions of the exterior ground surface, roof, and interiors of buildings. Results of the surveys demonstrated four general areas having radionuclide concentrations in excess of the DOE Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program criteria for 238 U outdoors and as surface contamination on shelves in one building

  12. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Belt Surveys of Coral Population and Disease Assessment at Baker, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support a long-term NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, from 20120227 to 20120325,...

  13. Increased availability of NADH in metabolically engineered baker's yeast improves transaminase-oxidoreductase coupled asymmetric whole-cell bioconversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Jenny Dahl; Hägglöf, Cecilia; Weber, Nora

    2016-01-01

    yeast for transamination-reduction coupled asymmetric one-pot conversion was investigated. RESULTS: A series of active whole-cell biocatalysts were constructed by over-expressing the (S)-selective ω-transaminase (VAMT) from Capsicum chinense together with the NADH-dependent (S)-selective alcohol...

  14. Baker Lake, Northwest Territories, Canada. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-13

    8217.,7 ?5,Z : + . 95.8 , 995,3 9904. 940’ "b,= 9 . u 93,0 96.60* 300 V40 V203 V2i’ !5T V50 !5’ s4f WtD VDi It~ JT 73~T 77~’ *_ 200 94, 6,5 90,0197,3... 2048 / 47 1,.1 7,9 3 .4 4_ 711 59 51,4077 45 Z,3 0 5 51 44/ 43 3.0103 4 , 9 5 511 81 03 65 T31 105L I I 76 40/ 39 ,4 8,1 4ś 47[ 79 76 30/ $7 - , ,ilt s

  15. Early incidence of occupational asthma among young bakers, pastry-makers and hairdressers: design of a retrospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guéant-Rodriguez Rosa-Maria

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Occupational exposures are thought to be responsible for 10-15% of new-onset asthma cases in adults, with disparities across sectors. Because most of the data are derived from registries and cross-sectional studies, little is known about incidence of occupational asthma (OA during the first years after inception of exposure. This paper describes the design of a study that focuses on this early asthma onset period among young workers in the bakery, pastry making and hairdressing sectors in order to assess early incidence of OA in these "at risk" occupations according to exposure duration, and to identify risk factors of OA incidence. Methods/Design The study population is composed of subjects who graduated between 2001 and 2006 in these sectors where they experience exposure to organic or inorganic allergenic or irritant compounds (with an objective of 150 subjects by year and 250 young workers with no specific occupational exposure. A phone interview focusing on respiratory and 'Ear-Nose-Throat' (ENT work-related symptoms screen subjects considered as "possibly OA cases". Subjects are invited to participate in a medical visit to complete clinical and lung function investigations, including fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO and carbon monoxide (CO measurements, and to collect blood samples for IgE (Immunoglobulin E measurements (total IgE and IgE for work-related and common allergens. Markers of oxidative stress and genetic polymorphisms exploration are also assessed. A random sample of 200 "non-cases" (controls is also visited, following a nested case-control design. Discussion This study may allow to describ a latent period between inception of exposure and the rise of the prevalence of asthma symptoms, an information that would be useful for the prevention of OA. Such a time frame would be suited for conducting screening campaigns of this emergent asthma at a stage when occupational hygiene measures and adapted therapeutic interventions might be effective. Trial registration Clinical trial registration number is NCT01096537.

  16. Nematicidal and larvicidal activities of the essential oils from aerial parts of Pectis oligocephala and Pectis apodocephala Baker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Rose Jane R. Albuquerque

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of the essential oils from aerial parts of Pectis apodocephala and Pectis oligocephala were analyzed by GC-MS. The essential oils of these species were predominantly constituted by monoterpenes. Geranial (42.9-44.5%, neral (32.2-34.2% and alpha-pinene (10.7-11.4% were the main constituents in the oil of P. apodocephala, while p-cymene (50.3-70.9% and thymol (24.4-44.7%, were the prevalent compounds in the oil of P. oligocephala. The essential oils were tested against the root knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita and Aedes aegypti larvae survival. The results obtained show that both essential oils exhibited significant activity and could be considered as potent natural namaticidal and larvicidal agents.A composição química dos óleos essenciais das partes aéreas de Pectis apodocephala e Pectis oligocephala foi analisada por CG-EM. Os óleos essenciais destas espécies foram predominantemente constituídos por monoterpenos. Geranial (42, 9-44, 5%, neral (32, 2-34, 2% e alfa-pineno (10, 7-11, 4% foram os constituintes majoritários no óleo de P. apodocephala, enquanto p-cimeno (50, 3-70, 9% e timol (24, 4-44, 7%, foram os compostos prevalentes no óleo de P. oligocephala. Ambos os óleos foram testados contra o nematóide Meloidogyne incognita e larvas do mosquito Aedes aegypti no terceiro estágio. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que os óleos exibem significante atividade e podem, portanto, ser considerados como potenciais agentes nematicida e larvicida naturais.

  17. CRED REA Coral Health and Disease Assessment at Baker Island, Phoenix Islands, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coral health and disease assessments were conducted along 2 consecutively placed 25-m transects, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 4 sites around...

  18. CRED REA Line Point Intercept Surveys of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Baker Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support a long-term NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, from 15 January - 6 February...

  19. Screening for the P-glycoprotein inhibitory pump activity of plant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results revealed that out of the 45 plant extracts tested, 3 extracts i.e. Bauhinia thoningii, Clerodendrum myricoides and Rhus natalensis exhibited pronounced activity at the concentration of 100 µg/ml. In comparison to the negative control, B. thoningii, C. myricoides and R. natalensis extracts inhibited the pump by a ...

  20. Antidiabetic and cytotoxicity screening of five medicinal plants used by traditional African health practitioners in the Nelson Mandela Metropole, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Huyssteen, Mea; Milne, Pieter J; Campbell, Eileen E; van de Venter, Maryna

    2011-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a growing problem in South Africa and of concern to traditional African health practitioners in the Nelson Mandela Metropole, because they experience a high incidence of diabetic cases in their practices. A collaborative research project with these practitioners focused on the screening of Bulbine frutescens, Ornithogalum longibracteatum, Ruta graveolens, Tarchonanthus camphoratus and Tulbaghia violacea for antidiabetic and cytotoxic potential. In vitro glucose utilisation assays with Chang liver cells and C2C12 muscle cells, and growth inhibition assays with Chang liver cells were conducted. The aqueous extracts of Bulbine frutescens (143.5%), Ornithogalum longibracteatum (131.9%) and Tarchonanthus camphoratus (131.5%) showed significant increased glucose utilisation activity in Chang liver cells. The ethanol extracts of Ruta graveolens (136.9%) and Tulbaghia violacea (140.5%) produced the highest increase in glucose utilisation in C2C12 muscle cells. The ethanol extract of Bulbine frutescens produced the most pronounced growth inhibition (33.3%) on Chang liver cells. These findings highlight the potential for the use of traditional remedies in the future for the management of diabetes and it is recommended that combinations of these plants be tested in future.

  1. First record of an intraleucocytic haemogregarine (Adeleorina ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To date, four intraerythrocytic apicomplexans, namely the haemogregarines Haemogregarina fitzsimonsi and Haemogregarina parvula, and the haemoproteids Haemoproteus testudinalis and Haemoproteus natalensis, have been described from South African land tortoises. Recently, an intraleucocytic haemogregarine ...

  2. Dietary overlap between Boer goats and indigenous browsers in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Highly preferred species were Capparis sepiaria, Phyllanthus verrucosus and Scolopia zeyheri, while Rhoicissus tridentata, Calpurnia aurea, Acacia ataxacantha, Euclea natalensis, Clerodendrum glabrum, Zanthoxylum capense and Hippobromus paucifolia were strongly avoided. Goats fed between ground level and 1m, ...

  3. Review of Lassa fever, an emerging old world haemorrhagic viral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Laboratory/diagnostic and care centres), poor socioeconomic environment, lack of ... of the natural host and reservoir mouse (Mastomys natalensis) of Lassa virus . ... The stakeholders need to prioritize intervention and support program and ...

  4. Mosaic of gridded multibeam bathymetry and bathymetry derived from multispectral World View-2 satellite imagery of Baker Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded multibeam bathymetry is integrated with bathymetry derived from multpectral World View-2 satellite data. Gridded (10 m cell size) multibeam bathymetry...

  5. Biosynthesis of acid phosphatase of baker's yeast . Characterization of a protoplast-bound fraction containing precursors of the exo-enzyme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, Pieter; Rijn, Herman J.M. van; Reinking, A.; Steyn-Parvé, Elizabeth P.

    1975-01-01

    1. 1.|Yest protoplasts, secreting acid phosphatase (orthophosphoric-monoester phosphohydrolase (acid optimum) EC 3.1.3.2) contain a small amount of firmly bound enzyme, even after lysis (Van Rijn, H.J.M.; Boer, P. and Steyn-Parvé, E.P. (1972) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 268, 431–441). The major part

  6. Phytochemical Screening, Physicochemical Properties, Acute Toxicity Testing and Screening of Hypoglycaemic Activity of Extracts of Eremurus himalaicus Baker in Normoglycaemic Wistar Strain Albino Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahlam Mushtaq

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study EtOAc, MeOH, and aqueous extracts of Eremurus himalaicus were evaluated for hypoglycaemic effect in normal rats using both oral glucose tolerance test and 14-day oral administration study. Phytochemical and physicochemical screening was also done. In oral glucose tolerance test the aqueous and MeOH extracts of Eremurus himalaicus at a dose level of 500 mg/kg body weight prior to glucose load resulted in a significant fall in blood glucose level within 150 min. of glucose administration. The aqueous extract at a dose level of 250 mg/kg body weight and 500 mg/kg body weight also showed good hypoglycaemic response (P < 0.001; this was followed by MeOH extract at a dose level of 500 mg/kg body weight (P < 0.05, while MeOH extract at dose level of 250 mg/kg body weight and ethyl acetate extract at dose level of 250 mg/kg body weight and 500 mg/kg body weight exhibited insignificant effect. Phytochemical screening of extracts revealed the presence of alkaloids, terpenoids, phenolics, tannins, saponins, cardiac glycosides, and flavonoids. The results indicate that aqueous extract possess significant hypoglycaemic activity in normoglycaemic rats which may be attributed to the above-mentioned chemical constituents.

  7. Phytochemical screening, physicochemical properties, acute toxicity testing and screening of hypoglycaemic activity of extracts of Eremurus himalaicus baker in normoglycaemic Wistar strain albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushtaq, Ahlam; Akbar, Seema; Zargar, Mohammad A; Wali, Adil F; Malik, Akhtar H; Dar, Mohammad Y; Hamid, Rabia; Ganai, Bashir A

    2014-01-01

    In the present study EtOAc, MeOH, and aqueous extracts of Eremurus himalaicus were evaluated for hypoglycaemic effect in normal rats using both oral glucose tolerance test and 14-day oral administration study. Phytochemical and physicochemical screening was also done. In oral glucose tolerance test the aqueous and MeOH extracts of Eremurus himalaicus at a dose level of 500 mg/kg body weight prior to glucose load resulted in a significant fall in blood glucose level within 150 min. of glucose administration. The aqueous extract at a dose level of 250 mg/kg body weight and 500 mg/kg body weight also showed good hypoglycaemic response (P Phytochemical screening of extracts revealed the presence of alkaloids, terpenoids, phenolics, tannins, saponins, cardiac glycosides, and flavonoids. The results indicate that aqueous extract possess significant hypoglycaemic activity in normoglycaemic rats which may be attributed to the above-mentioned chemical constituents.

  8. Fed-batch cultivation of baker's yeast followed by nitrogen or carbon starvation: effects on fermentative capacity and content of trehalose and glycogen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Henning; Olsson, Lisbeth; Rønnow, B.

    2002-01-01

    , trehalose and glycogen. Nitrogen starvation triggered the accumulation of trehalose and glycogen. After 8 h of starvation, the content of trehalose and glycogen was increased 4-fold and 2-fold, respectively. Carbon starvation resulted in a partial conversion of glycogen into trehalose. The trehalose content...... increased from 45 to 64 mg (g dry-weight)(-1), whereas the glycogen content in the same period was reduced from 55 to 5 mg (g dry-weight)(-1). Glycogen was consumed faster than trehalose during storage of the starved yeast for 1 month. Nitrogen starvation resulted in a decrease in the protein content...

  9. Overexpression of O-methyltransferase leads to improved vanillin production in baker's yeast only when complemented with model-guided network engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brochado, Ana Rita; Patil, Kiran R

    2013-02-01

    Overproduction of a desired metabolite is often achieved via manipulation of the pathway directly leading to the product or through engineering of distant nodes within the metabolic network. Empirical examples illustrating the combined effect of these local and global strategies have been so far limited in eukaryotic systems. In this study, we compared the effects of overexpressing a key gene in de novo vanillin biosynthesis (coding for O-methyltransferase, hsOMT) in two yeast strains, with and without model-guided global network modifications. Overexpression of hsOMT resulted in increased vanillin production only in the strain with model-guided modifications, exemplifying advantage of using a global strategy prior to local pathway manipulation. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Osmotolerance and leavening ability in sweet and frozen sweet dough. Comparative analysis between Torulaspora delbrueckii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae baker's yeast strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Lopez, M J; Prieto, J A; Randez-Gil, F

    2003-01-01

    The response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and freeze-tolerant Torulaspora delbrueckii strains to osmotic stress and their CO2 production capacity in sweet and frozen-sweet dough has been examined. T. delbrueckii strains, IGC5321 and IGC5323 showed higher leavening ability than Saccharomyces, specially after exposure to hyperosmotic stress of bread dough containing 20% sucrose and 2% salt added. In addition, Torulaspora and especially T. delbrueckii IGC5321 exhibited no loss of CO2 production capacity during freeze-thaw stress. Overall, these results appeared to indicate that Torulaspora cells are more tolerant than Saccharomyces to osmotic stress of bread dough. This trait correlated with a low invertase activity, a slow rate of trehalose mobilisation and the ability to respond rapidly to osmotic stress. Growth behaviour on high osmotic synthetic media was also examined. Cells of the IGC5321 strain showed intrinsic osmotolerance and ion toxicity resistance. However, T. delbrueckii IGC5323 exhibited a clear phenotype of osmosensitivity. Hence, this characteristic may not be essential or the only determinant for leavening ability in salted high-sugar dough.

  11. Beyond bread and beer: whole cell protein extracts from baker's yeast as a bulk source for 3D cell culture matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodenberger, Nicholas; Kubiczek, Dennis; Paul, Patrick; Preising, Nico; Weber, Lukas; Bosch, Ramona; Hausmann, Rudolf; Gottschalk, Kay-Eberhard; Rosenau, Frank

    2017-03-01

    Here, we present a novel approach to form hydrogels from yeast whole cell protein. Countless hydrogels are available for sophisticated research, but their fabrication is often difficult to reproduce, with the gels being complicated to handle or simply too expensive. The yeast hydrogels presented here are polymerized using a four-armed, amine reactive crosslinker and show a high chemical and thermal resistance. The free water content was determined by measuring swelling ratios for different protein concentrations, and in a freeze-drying approach, pore sizes of up to 100 μm in the gel could be created without destabilizing the 3D network. Elasticity was proofed to be adjustable with the help of atomic force microscopy by merely changing the amount of used protein. Furthermore, the material was tested for possible cell culture applications; diffusion rates in the network are high enough for sufficient supply of human breast cancer cells and adenocarcinomic human alveolar basal epithelial cells with nutrition, and cells showed high viabilities when tested for compatibility with the material. Furthermore, hydrogels could be functionalized with RGD peptide and the optimal concentration for sufficient cell adhesion was determined to be 150 μM. Given that yeast protein is one of the cheapest and easiest available protein sources and that hydrogels are extremely easy to handle, the developed material has highly promising potential for both sophisticated cell culture techniques as well as for larger scale industrial applications.

  12. Effects of an aqueous leaf extract of Sansevieria senegambica Baker on plasma biochemistry and haematological indices of salt-loaded rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jude C. Ikewuchi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The effects of an aqueous extract of the leaves of Sansevieria senegambica on plasma marker enzymes, plasma chemistry and the haematological profile of salt-loaded rats were studied. The control group received only a commercial feed, whilst the four test groups received a diet consisting of the commercial feed and salt, although the reference treatment group was reverted to the normal feed at the end of 6 weeks. The extract was orally administered daily at 150 mg/kg or 200 mg/kg body weight to two test groups, respectively; whilst the test control, reference and control groups received equivalent volumes of water by the same route. The extract had no negative effects on markers of liver and kidney functions, but it did produce leukocytosis, significantly increased (p < 0.05 plasma calcium and potassium levels and significantly decreased (p < 0.05 plasma sodium and chloride levels in the test animals compared to the test control animals. This result supports the traditional use of Sansevieria senegambica in the management of hypertension, whilst suggesting that the extract may be a potassium-sparing diuretic whose mechanism of antihypertensive action may be achieved through alteration of plasma sodium and potassium balances, or through calcium-mediated changes in vascular muscle tone.

  13. Efecto de la depuración en la biomasa del caracol Pomacea patula [Baker, 1922] usando el índice de condición

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. García-Ulloa

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available La depuración de organismos acuáticos en cultivo es una práctica común. El tiempo de exposición de los animales al agua tratada es uno de los factores más importantes para su eficiencia, pudiendo afectar su biomasa. Se evaluó el efecto de la depuración en adultos de Pomacea patula mediante la aplicación del índice de condición (IC, bajo condiciones de laboratorio. Caracoles adultos obtenidos en cultivo se mantuvieron en peceras (Grupo 1 expuestos a un flujo de agua constante, tratada con radiación ultravioleta y limpieza diaria y en condiciones normales de mantenimiento (Grupo 2, con 5 réplicas por grupo. Se obtuvo el peso húmedo y longitud total individualmente, al inicio y después de una depuración de 10 días. El valor promedio del coeficiente de correlación (animales iniciales y de los Grupos 1 y 2 fue mayor a 0.90. El IC entre el valor inicial (771.81 ± 40.41 y los Grupos 1 y 2 (763.527 ± 25.24 y 765.465 ± 38.59, respectivamente, no mostró diferencias significativas (P > 0.05 al final del experimento. Los resultados sugieren que el proceso de depuración usado no afectó la biomasa de adultos de P. patula. El IC se mostró como una herramienta práctica de evaluación sin considerar la diferencia inicial de tallas de caracoles adultos

  14. Susceptibility of geographically isolated populations of the Tomato red spider mite (Tetranychus evansi Baker & Pritchard to commonly used acaricides on tomato crops in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. J. Toroitich

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Farmers in Kenya continue to raise concerns of difficulty in managing Tetranychus evansi, the most widespread pest species of tomato applying the most commonly used acaricides. This invasive pest species is not only found in Kenya, but in Eastern and Southern Africa, as well as parts of Europe and Asia. In the current study, populations of T. evansi were collected from farms in the four major tomato-growing areas of Kenya (Loitoktok, Kibwezi, Athi-River and Subukia and their susceptibility compared to a laboratory culture (ICIPE that had been maintained for three years without exposure to acaricides. Susceptibility of T. evansi eggs and adults (contact and residual to Brigade (bifenthrin, Dimethoate (dimethoate, Karate (lambdacyhalothrin, Kelthane (dicofol, Omite (propargite and Polytrin (profenofos+ cypermethrin was tested in the laboratory using respective manufacturer’s recommended concentrations. Dimethoate resulted in variable ovicidal mortality while Kelthane, Brigade, Karate, Omite and Polytrin had high mortality across all populations. Similarly, adult contact and residual mortality was lower than that of the other chemicals when exposed to Dimethoate regardless of the location. Furthermore, it also had no residual effect on the mites from ICIPE and Kibwezi. On the other hand, Kelthane was most lethal against the mites from all locations followed by Brigade and Polytrin in that order. Omite caused significantly lower mortality on mites from Subukia while Karate produced variable effects on mites from Kibwezi, Loitoktok and Subukia. The implications of these findings are further discussed.

  15. CRED REA Belt Surveys of Coral Population and Disease Assessments at Baker Island, Phoenix Islands, Pacific Remote Islands Areas (PRIAs) in 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support a long-term NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, from 6-8 February 2010, belt...

  16. Phytochemical Composition and Antioxidant Activities of Dianthus Thunbergii Hooper and Hypoxis Argentea Harv Ex Baker: Plants Used for the Management of Diabetes Mellitus in Eastern Cape, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinrinde, Akinleye Stephen; Afolayan, Anthony Jide; Bradley, Graeme

    2018-01-01

    Inhabitants of the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa use the roots of Dianthus thunbergii and corms of Hypoxis argentea to treat diabetes mellitus and other ailments. The objective of this study was to analyze the phytochemical composition and antioxidant activities of the aqueous and ethanol extracts of the roots and corms of two plants. Total phenolics, flavonoids, flavonols, proanthocyanidins, tannins, and alkaloids were determined by standard methods. The scavenging activities of the extracts against 1,1 diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS), nitric oxide (NO), hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ), and their ferric-reducing antioxidant potentials (FRAPs) were measured. The ethanol extract of H. argentea had the highest content of phenolics (66.71 ± 2.71 mg gallic acid equivalent/g) and tannins (1.18 ± 0.07 mg TAE/g), while the ethanol extract of D. thunbergii gave higher contents of flavonoids and proanthocyanidins (62.21 ± 1.75 mg Qe/g and 432.62 ± 2.43 mg Ca/g, respectively). Flavonols were the most predominant in the aqueous extract of H. argentea (25.51 ± 1.92 mg Qe/g). We observed a concentration-dependent response in the ABTS- and H 2 O 2 -scavenging activities and FRAP values of the extracts and standards (Vitamin C, butylated hydroxytoluene, and rutin). The ethanol extracts of both plants generally demonstrated better antioxidant activities against H 2 O 2 , NO, and ABTS while also possessing better reducing power than the aqueous extracts. The aqueous extract of D. thunbergii , however, showed the best DPPH scavenging activity. The higher content of phytochemicals and antioxidant capacity obtained for the ethanol extracts of D. thunbergii and H. argentea may prove to be valuable information in selecting suitable extraction solvents for the medicinal applications of both plants. Ethanol extracts of Hypoxis argentea had the highest levels of phenolics and tanninsEthanol extracts of Dianthus thunbergii had the highest levels of flavonoids and proanthocyanidinsEthanol extracts of both plants possess better antioxidant activityagainst hydrogen peroxide, nitric oxide, and ABTS as well as higher reducingpower than the aqueous extractsAqueous extract of Dianthus thunbergii had the highest free radical scavenging activity as measured with DPPH. Abbreviations used: ABTS: 2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid); BHT: Butylated hydroxytoluene; DPPH: 1,1 diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl; DTA: Dianthus thunbergii aqueous extract (16.6%); DTE: Dianthus thunbergii ethanol extract (2.4%); Fe 3+ -TPTZ: Ferric tripyridyltriazine; FRAP: Ferric-reducing antioxidant potentials; GAE: Gallic acid equivalent; HAA: Hypoxis argentea aqueous extract (3.2%); HAE: Hypoxis argentea ethanol extract (1.8%); Qe: Quercetin equivalence; ROS: Reactive oxygen species; TBA: Thiobarbituric acid;TCA: Trichloroacetic acid.

  17. CRED Shallow CTD Profiles; Baker Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas; Cruise: OES0401, Data Date Range: 20040124-20040125 (NODC Accession 0039382).

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED shallow Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) casts are vertical profiles (max 30 meter depth, downcast only) of temperature, conductivity and pressure. Data are...

  18. CRED Shallow CTD Profiles; Baker Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas; Cruise: HI1001_LEGI, Data Date Range: 20100207-20100208 (NODC Accession 0039382).

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED shallow Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) casts are vertical profiles (max 30 meter depth, downcast only) of temperature, conductivity and pressure. Data are...

  19. A study on copper and zinc effects in the growth of Aechmea blanchetiana (Baker) L.B. Smith seedlings cultivated in vitro. Application of neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zampieri, Maria Cristina Tessari

    2010-01-01

    Metals are components of the biosphere, occurring naturally in soil and plants, but as a result of human actions, their levels have been greatly increased, depending on the region. Copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) are essential for the growth and development of plants, however if in excess become toxic. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of plants to absorb Cu and Zn and what effects they cause in seedlings cultivated in vitro. The results of this study may contribute primarily in agricultural and environmental research. The plant investigated was the Aechmea blanchetiana species of the Bromeliaceae family. It is a terrestrial or epiphytic species used as an ornamental plant. The cultivation of seedlings for this study and their exposure to different concentrations of Cu and Zn were performed at the Institute of Botany (IBt) of Sao Paulo. After seed germination, the seedlings were transferred for growth in a culture media containing different concentrations of Cu or Zn. After this period of in vitro cultivation, the seedlings were analyzed for morphometry, anatomy and by neutron activation analysis. Quality control of the results from neutron activation analysis was carried out by the analysis of certified reference materials. The data obtained showed good precision and accuracy for several elements determined. The highest concentrations of Cu used in the exposure were those that caused major structural changes in morphometric and anatomical parameters, however for the Zn no significant differences were verified for most parameters. The A. blanchetiana proved to be a bioaccumulator species of Zn, absorbing high levels of this element in the aerial parts and roots. (author)

  20. Effect of an intervention aimed at reducing the risk of allergic respiratory disease in bakers: change in flour dust and fungal alpha-amylase levels.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijster, T.; Tielemans, E.; Heederik, D.J.J.

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: We evaluated the effect on exposure of an intervention programme, which focused on risk education and providing information on good work practices. This intervention programme was enrolled as part of a Dutch covenant in the flour processing industry (industrial bakeries, flour mills,

  1. CRED Shallow CTD Profiles; Baker Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas; Cruise: TC0101, Data Date Range: 20010210-20010211 (NODC Accession 0039382).

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED shallow Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) casts are vertical profiles (max 30 meter depth, downcast only) of temperature, conductivity and pressure. Data are...

  2. Effects of Mikania glomerata Spreng. and Mikania laevigata Schultz Bip. ex Baker (Asteraceae) extracts on pulmonary inflammation and oxidative stress caused by acute coal dust exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitas, T.P.; Silveira, P.C.; Rocha, L.G.; Rezin, G.T.; Rocha, J.; Citadini-Zanette, V.; Romao, P.T.; Dal-Pizzol, F.; Pinho, R.A.; Andrade, V.M.; Streck, E.L. [University Extremo Catarinense, Criciuma (Brazil)

    2008-12-15

    Several studies have reported biological effects of Mikania glomerata and Mikania laevigata, used in Brazilian folk medicine for respiratory diseases. Pneumoconiosis is characterized by pulmonary inflammation caused by coal dust exposure. In this work, we evaluated the effect of pretreatment with M. glomerata and M. laevigata extracts (MGE and MLE, respectively) (100 mg/kg, s.c.) on inflammatory and oxidative stress parameters in lung of rats subjected to a single coal dust intratracheal instillation. Rats were pretreated for 2 weeks with saline solution, MGE, or MLE. On day 15, the animals were anesthetized, and gross mineral coal dust or saline solutions were administered directly in the lung by intratracheal instillation. Fifteen days after coal dust instillation, the animals were killed. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was obtained; total cell count and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity were determined. In the lung, myeloperoxidase activity, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) level, and protein carbonyl and sulfhydryl contents were evaluated. In BAL of treated animals, we verified an increased total cell count and LDH activity. MGE and MLE prevented the increase in cell count, but only MLE prevented the increase in LDH. Myeloperoxidase and TBARS levels were not affected, protein carbonylation was increased, and the protein thiol levels were decreased by acute coal dust intratracheal administration. The findings also suggest that both extracts present an important protective effect on the oxidation of thiol groups. Moreover, pretreatment with MGE and MLE also diminished lung inflammatory infiltration induced by coal dust, as assessed by histopathologic analyses.

  3. A Comparative Study of Organizational Climate and Campus Leadership at Bakersfield College, Based on the Roueche-Baker Community College Excellence Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nusz, Phyllis Jane

    A study was conducted at Bakersfield College to identify the strengths and weaknesses of the college's organizational structure and to determine to what extent the institution possessed specific elements of organizational climate and campus leadership that research has identified to be vital to educational quality. The survey instrument used to…

  4. CRED Shallow CTD Profiles; Baker Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas; Cruise: HI0601, Data Date Range: 20060131-20060201 (NODC Accession 0039382).

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED shallow Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) casts are vertical profiles (max 30 meter depth, downcast only) of temperature, conductivity and pressure. Data are...

  5. CRED Shallow CTD Profiles; Baker Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas; Cruise: HI0801, Data Date Range: 20080209-20080209 (NODC Accession 0039382).

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED shallow Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) casts are vertical profiles (max 30 meter depth, downcast only) of temperature, conductivity and pressure. Data are...

  6. Bathymetric Bathymetric Position Index (BPI) Zones 20 m grid derived from gridded bathymetry of Baker Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — BPI Zones are derived from gridded (20 m cell size) multibeam bathymetry, collected aboard R/V AHI and NOAA ship Hi'ialakai. BPI Zones was created using the Benthic...

  7. Acrea wigginsi occidentalis (Bethune-Baker, 1926), a new butterfly for Nigeria, with remarks on its habitat and known distribution (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tropek, Robert; Jansta, P.; Leština, D.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 161 (2013), s. 163-165 ISSN 0300-5267 Grant - others:Grantová agentura Jihočeské univerzity(CZ) GA JU 144/2010/P; National Geographic Society(US) W163-11 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Lepidoptera * Nymphalidae * Acraeini Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.304, year: 2013

  8. Atasözü ve Deyim Çevirilerinin Mona Baker Çeviri Stratejilerine Göre İncelenmesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perihan YALÇIN

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Bu makalede, atasözü ve deyim çevirilerinde kullanılan stratejiler Mona Baker’in çeviri stratejilerine dayanılarak incelenmiştir. Bu stratejilerden bir kısmı, benzer anlam benzer biçimle çeviri (tam eşdeğerlik, benzer anlam farklı biçimle çeviri (kısmî eşdeğerlik, açımlama ve çıkarma yöntemiyle çeviridir. Çalışmanın amacı, deyim ve atasözleri çevirilerinde kullanılan çeviri stratejilerini belirlemek, sözü geçen çevirilerdeki eşdeğerlik ve farklılıkları göstermektir. Araştırma, yapılan çeviri incelemeleri sonucunda kültür faktörünün çevirideki yeri ve kaynak ve hedef dil arasındaki farklılıklara dikkat çekmek açısından önemlidir. Çalışmada, yazarlar tarafından seçilen atasözleri ve deyim çevirileri, benzer anlam benzer biçimle çeviri (tam eşdeğerlik, benzer anlam farklı biçimle çeviri (kısmî eşdeğerlik , açımlama ve çıkarma yöntemiyle çeviri olmak üzere dört yöntemden yola çıkılarak değerlendirilecektir. Yapılan bulgular neticesinde, atasözleri ve deyim çevirilerinde biçimsel ve anlamsal eşdeğerliğin sağlandığı durumlar olduğu gibi biçimsel ve anlamsal farklılıklar da dikkat çekmektedir. Bu farklılıklar farklı iki dilin sahip olduğu kültür çeşitliliğinden gelmektedir. Atasözü ve deyim çevirileri zor bir iştir. Bir dilden başka bir dile, o dile ait bir kültürü, öğüdü, dersi aynı ifadeleri kullanarak aynı sözdizimiyle aktarmak çok nadir bir durumdur. Bu sebeple, incelenen atasözü ve deyimlerde daha çok farklı ifadelere ve açıklamalara yer verilerek çeviriler yapılmıştır. Çevirilerde çoğunlukla ekleme ve çıkarma yöntemine başvurulmuş erek dilde en iyi anlam yakalanmaya çalışılmıştır. Kelime ya da cümlelerde yapılan çıkarmalar, eklemeler ya da süslemeler çevirmenin o dili nasıl kullanabildiğini ve o dilin zenginliğini göstermektedir; fakat zaman zaman kaynak dildeki ifadelere erek dilde hiç yer verilmemesi dilin zenginliklerinden yeterince faydalanılmadığına işaret etmektedir.

  9. Library holdings for EX1703: Howland/Baker PRIMNM and PIPA (ROV/Mapping) on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer between March 7, 2017 and March 29, 2017

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Library Catalog may include: Data Management Plans, Cruise Plans, Cruise Summary Reports, Scientific "Quick Look Reports", Video Annotation Logs, Dive Plans, Dive...

  10. Prime Contract Awards Alphabetically by Contractor, by State or Country, and Place, FY 88. Part 3. (Bakers Constr. Co., Inc.-Burns Lumber Co., Inc.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    4"- -4.4 -ONOOC’J0 NCv ) N 0NOONO(1-4 0 -40 0-4 -4N0.-40 V) I (00M 1 04 0 0 N wt 1- 0 CN1% - ,0 C)-4" Y 04CU NMafl00I1L C WP00 ) o00Ll~u(D 0’ (00 Io C...100f0 f Ř .4 . . . .. . P~- PIN . . .4.. . ... . �t 1 000 �t 1 000 �Oq I I0)00 � 1 000 𔃺I NO ." 4 N04 CN0 C4 NNNN"NNsN"N 0 N C4N NN NCV 4...4440 Nd 41 .. 30000010U 0 U) 0 04 0000 0 0 I 000604I In to 10 10 01A a .441A4 in- r)4 a9 CD a web 4030004 : 4 -4 -8 -I 0404m 41 04049.444 a44 a)& a

  11. What Does Research Say about the Ideal Condition for Students Learning Mathematics?--A "Baker's Dozen" Articles to Inform Secondary Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Karrie A.; Vermette, Paul J.; Jones, Jennifer L.

    2012-01-01

    In seeking to align the everyday decision-making and lesson delivery of secondary teachers to current research in mathematics education, this piece provides an application of theory into classroom practice. By focusing on a sample of 13 quantitative and qualitative research studies of pedagogical best practice published since 2000, a set of…

  12. Systematic Re-evaluation of Iris atrofusca Baker (Sawsan Jela'd) of Shafa Badran in Jordan as Iris nigricans Dinsmore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oran, S.; AL-Da'ja, I.

    2003-01-01

    The identity of one species of Iris (Iridaceae) from Locality at Shafa Badran area in Amman/Jordan has been reassessed and reidentified as I.nigricans Dinsmore, the national flower of Jordan, as it is misidentified as I. atrofusca for plants collected and identified from this area previously and as recorded in the related literature ( Post, 1932; Feinbrun, 1986). This decision has been made on the basis of studying fresh plants collected from Shafa Badran area, northeast of Amman in the period March-April 2001. The confirmation of identity of the species of Iris occur in Shafa Badran was based on studying the morphological characteristics of the leaves ,stems flowers for plants collected from that area, as well as studying the pollen grains and seed characteristics using light and scanning electron microscopy, as compared with plants of Iris nigricans collected from Madaba area for the same characters. Moreover, herbarium specimens deposited st Amman herbarium were checked and reidentified as I. nigricans. The results of studying the vegetative reproductive characters suggesting that the species that is occurring in Shafa Badran area is I.nigricans. However, these findings suggest that an interbreeding might have taken place between the individuals of I. nigricans in Shafa Badran and I.atrofusca from a neighboring geographical area called Jarash in North of Jordan, close enough that they are not geographically isolated for specimens that were probably intermixed with the population of Iris nigricans in Shafa Badran area. ( authors)

  13. Overexpression of O‐methyltransferase leads to improved vanillin production in baker's yeast only when complemented with model‐guided network engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brochado, Ana Rita; Patil, Kiran R.

    2013-01-01

    limited in eukaryotic systems. In this study, we compared the effects of overexpressing a key gene in de novo vanillin biosynthesis (coding for O‐methyltransferase, hsOMT) in two yeast strains, with and without model‐guided global network modifications. Overexpression of hsOMT resulted in increased...... vanillin production only in the strain with model‐guided modifications, exemplifying advantage of using a global strategy prior to local pathway manipulation. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2013; 110: 656–659. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc....

  14. Bathymetric Position Index (BPI) Structures 20 m grid derived from gridded bathymetry of Baker Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — BPI Structures are derived from two scales of a focal mean analysis on bathymetry and slope. The grid is based on gridded (20 m cell size) multibeam bathymetry,...

  15. CRED Shallow CTD Profiles; Baker Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas; Cruise: HA1201_LEGI, Data Date Range: 20120315-20120317 (NODC Accession 0107470)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED shallow Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) casts are vertical profiles (max 30 meter depth, downcast only) of temperature, conductivity and pressure. Data are...

  16. CRED REA Line Point Intercept Surveys of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Baker Island, Phoenix Islands, Pacific Remote Islands Areas (PRIAs) in 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support a long-term NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, from 6-8 February 2010, line...

  17. Natalamycin A, an ansamycin from a termite-associated Streptomyces sp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Ki Hyun; Ramadhar, Timothy R.; Beemelmanns, Christine

    2014-01-01

    We report a preliminary functional and complete structural characterization of a highly unusual geldanamycin analog, natalamycin A, that was isolated from Streptomyces strain M56 recovered from a South African nest of Macrotermes natalensis termites. Bioassay-guided fractionation based on antifun......We report a preliminary functional and complete structural characterization of a highly unusual geldanamycin analog, natalamycin A, that was isolated from Streptomyces strain M56 recovered from a South African nest of Macrotermes natalensis termites. Bioassay-guided fractionation based...

  18. Características germinativas de sementes de Ananas ananassoides (Baker L. B. Sm. (Bromeliaceae - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v32i2.1693 Germination characteristics of seeds of Ananas ananassoides (Baker L. B. Sm. (Bromeliaceae - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v32i2.1693

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maristela Rosália Anastácio

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Ananas ananassoides é uma planta perene com hábito de crescimento herbáceo e que tem enorme potencial paisagístico porque apresenta flores e brácteas com coloração exuberante e folhas com margens espinescentes que estão distribuídas em roseta. O objetivo deste experimento foi o de avaliar as características germinativas e o efeito de tratamentos pré-germinativos nas sementes da espécie. Primeiro, em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, foram investigados seis tratamentos em quatro repetições de 25 sementes. Os tratamentos constaram da imersão em água destilada à temperatura ambiente (25 ± 1,5°C durante 24, 48 e 72h, imersão em água quente a 90°C durante 2 min. e imersão em ácido sulfúrico p.a. durante 2 min. e com posterior lavagem em água corrente por 24h que foram comparados com um controle. Depois de quatro meses de armazenamento, sementes intactas (controle foram comparadas com sementes imersas em água a 90°C por 2 min. Assim, a maior porcentagem de germinação (92% foi obtida com sementes recém-colhidas e imersas em água a 90°C durante 2 min., mas o armazenamento por quatro meses melhorou a porcentagem de germinação (G ≥ 96,0%. Os tempos médios de germinação não diferiram entre as sementes recém-colhidas (de 21,0 a 26,8 dias e as armazenadas (entre 18,4 e 19,5 dias. A germinação das sementes recém-colhidas e armazenadas foi lenta e distribuída ao longo do tempo experimental.Ananas ananassoides is a perennial plant with ornamental potential because of flowers and bracts with exuberant colors and herbaceous development where the leaves have spiny margins that are distributed in rosettes. The objective of this experiment with six completely randomized treatments and four replicates of 25 seeds was to evaluate the effects of seed soaking into distilled water at environmental temperature (25 ± 1.5°C for 24, 48, and 72h; seed soaking into water at 90°C for 2 minutes; seed soaking into sulfuric acid p.a. for 2 minutes followed by tap water washing for 24h, and the control. Thereafter, 4-month-old seeds were immersed into water at 90°C for 2 minutes and compared to the intact seeds (control. Initially, the highest percentage of germination (G=92% was evaluated in newly collected seeds that were immersed in water at 90°C for 2 minutes. No increases in the percentage of seed germination were detected by seed soaking into water or sulfuric acid in comparison to the seeds that were immersed in water at 90°C for 2 minutes. However, the percentage of germination was higher than 96% when the seeds were stored for four months. No difference in the mean time to germination was detected between newly collected (between 21.0 and 26.8 days and stored seeds (between 18.4 and 19.5 days. The germination of newly collected and stored seeds was slow and distributed throughout the experimental time.

  19. A study on copper and zinc effects in the growth of Aechmea blanchetiana (Baker) L.B. Smith seedlings cultivated in vitro. Application of neutron activation analysis; Estudo sobre os efeitos do cobre e zinco no crescimento da plantula de Aechmea blanchetiana (Baker) L.B. Smith cultivada in vitro. Aplicacao da analise por ativacao com neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zampieri, Maria Cristina Tessari

    2010-07-01

    Metals are components of the biosphere, occurring naturally in soil and plants, but as a result of human actions, their levels have been greatly increased, depending on the region. Copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) are essential for the growth and development of plants, however if in excess become toxic. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of plants to absorb Cu and Zn and what effects they cause in seedlings cultivated in vitro. The results of this study may contribute primarily in agricultural and environmental research. The plant investigated was the Aechmea blanchetiana species of the Bromeliaceae family. It is a terrestrial or epiphytic species used as an ornamental plant. The cultivation of seedlings for this study and their exposure to different concentrations of Cu and Zn were performed at the Institute of Botany (IBt) of Sao Paulo. After seed germination, the seedlings were transferred for growth in a culture media containing different concentrations of Cu or Zn. After this period of in vitro cultivation, the seedlings were analyzed for morphometry, anatomy and by neutron activation analysis. Quality control of the results from neutron activation analysis was carried out by the analysis of certified reference materials. The data obtained showed good precision and accuracy for several elements determined. The highest concentrations of Cu used in the exposure were those that caused major structural changes in morphometric and anatomical parameters, however for the Zn no significant differences were verified for most parameters. The A. blanchetiana proved to be a bioaccumulator species of Zn, absorbing high levels of this element in the aerial parts and roots. (author)

  20. Photosynthetic pigments content, photosynthesis rate and chloroplast structure in young plants of Mikania laevigata Schultz Bip. ex Baker grown under colored netsTeores de pigmentos fotossintéticos, taxa de fotossíntese e estrutura de cloroplastos de plantas jovens de Mikania laevigata Schultz Bip. ex Baker cultivadas sob malhas coloridas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anacleto Ranulfo dos Santos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Guaco (Mikania laevigata is a medicinal plant used to treat fever, rheumatism, flu and respiratory tract diseases. Understanding the physiology of this species and its responses to environmental conditions has become necessary to improving the cultivation methods. In this context, this work aimed to access the effects of shading by using colored nets in on photosynthetic pigment concentration, photosynthetic rate and ultrastructure of chloroplasts of Mikania laevigata. The plants were cultivated during four months under nets with 50% shading in blue, red and gray color nets and under full sunlight (0%. The plants grown under full sunlight had decreased contents of a and b chlorophyll, and of carotenoids, while those grown under blue nets shown higher concentrations of a and b chlorophyll. The lowest density of chloroplasts was found in plants cultivated under full sunlight. Elongated chloroplasts were noticed in treatments with 50% shading. Regarding the potential rate of photosynthesis no significant change was observed among the plants grown under red, blue and gray nets, which leads to the conclusion that the spectrum transmitted by different coloured nets did not affect guaco photosynthetic apparatus.O guaco (Mikania laevigata é uma planta medicinal, usada para o tratamento de febre, reumatismo, gripe e doenças do trato respiratório. O entendimento do comportamento fisiológico dessa espécie e as suas respostas às condições do ambiente tornam-se necessários ao aperfeiçoamento dos métodos de cultivo. Nesse contexto, o presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar os efeitos do sombreamento com uso de malhas coloridas na concentração de pigmentos fotossintéticos, na taxa de fotossíntese e na ultra-estrutura de cloroplastos de plantas de Mikania laevigata. As plantas foram cultivadas por quatro meses sob malhas de 50% de sombreamento nas cores azul, vermelha e cinza e a pleno sol (0%. As plantas mantidas a pleno sol tiveram os menores teores de clorofila a e b e o menor teor de carotenóides, enquanto aquelas cultivadas sob malha azul tiveram a maior concentração de clorofilas a e b. A menor densidade de cloroplastos foi encontrada nas plantas cultivadas a pleno sol. Nos tratamentos com 50% de sombreamento, foram verificados cloroplastos mais alongados. Com relação à taxa de fotossíntese potencial, não foi observada nenhuma diferença significativa entre plantas crescidas sob as malhas vermelha, cinza e azul, fato que leva a acreditar que o espectro diferenciado transmitido pelas malhas coloridas não interferiu no aparelho fotossintético do guaco.

  1. Do farming practices influence population dynamics of rodents?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Massawe, A W; Rwamugira, W; Leirs, Herwig

    2007-01-01

    A capture-mark-recapture study was conducted in crop fields in Morogoro, Tanzania, to investigate how the population dynamics of multimammate field rats, Mastomys natalensis, was influenced by the commonly practised land preparation methods and cropping systems. Two land preparation methods (trac...... practices. In maize fields in Tanzania, the crop is most susceptible to damage by M. natalensis in the first 2 weeks after planting, and therefore, lower densities of rodents will result into lower crop damage in tractor ploughed fields....

  2. O GÊNERO TILLANDSIA L. (BROMELIACEAE-TILLANDSIOIDEAE) NO ESTADO DO PARANÁ, BRASIL.

    OpenAIRE

    DÉBORA KREMER

    2011-01-01

    Tillandsia L. é o maior gênero da subfamília Tillandsioideae (Bromeliaceae) com 557 espécies, distribuídas desde o sul dos Estados Unidos até a Argentina e o Chile. Tradicionalmente, está dividido em sete subgêneros: Tillandsia subg. Allardtia (A. Dietrich) Baker, Tillandsia subg. Anoplophytum (Beer) Baker, Tillandsia subg. Phytarrhiza (Vis.) Baker, Tillandsia subg. Diaphoranthema (Beer) Baker, Tillandsia subg. Tillandsia L., Tillandsia subg. Pseudalcantarea Mez e Tillandsia subg. Pseudo- ...

  3. Evaluation of ionizing radiation applied to quarantine control of the false grape mite; Evaluacion de la radiacion ionizante como tratamiento de control cuarentenario de la falsa aranita de la vid (Brevipalpus chilensis Baker)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jadue D, Yael; Vargas O, Claudio Andres

    1994-12-31

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate effect of three dosages of ionizing radiation in combination with cold storage (0-2{sup 0} C), and the effect of cold storage without irradiation, establishing time curves for eclosion of eggs and mortality of juvenile and adult stages, and adult oviposture. An experimental Cs-137 Brookhaven Portable Cesium Development Irradiator (BPCDI N. 3) at the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission, located in the La Reina Commune of Santiago, Chile, was used at dosages of 0.500, 1.000, and 1,500 Gy (with a dosage rate of 28.95 Gy/min), combined with pretreatment cold (0-2{sup 0} C) during 24 h, and 15 days of cold storage postirradiation, to simulate the duration of a grape shipment to the U.S., onto 1-4 and 1-4 and {>=} 4 day-old eggs, juveniles and adult stages. The initial stages of development were more susceptible to radiation when combined with cold storage. The mortality of both egg development stages, juveniles and adults, with dosages from 500-1.500; 1.000-1.500; and 1500 Gy, respectively, satisfied the probity 9 (99.9968%) quarantine security level requirement. The few survivors from treated juveniles and adults were unable to continue their cycle, and did not present quarantine risk. All dosages used produced 100% mortality. Apparently, cold storage has a synergic effect when used in combination with radiation. Cold storage of stages not irradiated somewhat the population dynamics. (author). 58 refs, 24 figs, 12 tabs.

  4. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); Baker Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas; Long: -176.47476, Lat: 00.18783 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 5.50m; Data Date Range: 20100207-20120316.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  5. Thermoluminescent response of dosemeters TLD-100 exposed to distinct baker protocols, irradiation and reading; Respuesta termoluminiscente de dosimetros TLD-100 sujetos a distintos protocolos de horneado, irradiacion y lectura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estrada E, D

    2002-07-01

    The interest that motivated the realization of this work is the opposing discrepancy among the values of the efficiency thermoluminescent of heavy charged particles (PCP) regarding gamma radiation ({eta}{sub PCP}, {gamma}) reported in different works and gathered recently for Horowitz (Ho 01). The measures of relative thermoluminescent efficiency have importance in relation to the dosimetry associated to medical therapy with heavy charged particle. The measurement of {eta}{sub PCP}, {gamma} depends of multiple experimental factors. To understand this dependence it was quantified the effect of using different procedures experimental in the estimate of the relative thermoluminescent efficiency of dosemeters TLD-100 (LiF: Ti; Mg) for protons of 3 MeV regarding gamma rays of {sup 60}Co ({eta}{sub PCP}, {gamma}), varying the lot, the presentation, the one baked and the team reader. When was used the same global procedure values they were obtained for ({eta}{sub PCP}, {gamma}) inside the interval [0.30, 0.58] for the peak 5 and [0.35, 0.76] for the total thermoluminescent signal (Tl). At the use different equipment, baked and lot are obtained maximum differences of 30%, 12% and 6% respectively in the values of ({eta}{sub PCP}, {gamma}) for the peak 5, and 25%, 28% and 7% for the total Tl signal. The changes more significant of 36% and 44% for peak 5 and total signal respectively are obtained when changing the presentation of the dosemeter. As a complementary investigation it was studied the distribution of the Tl signal of each peak in the deconvolution of the curve of brightness with regard to the total signal in exposed dosemeters to high fluence of protons (1x10{sup 10} p/cm{sup 2}) varying the experimental protocol. It was found that the distribution of the Tl signal has a difference of the order of 5% when changing the used reading team. It was observed that the contribution of the peak 5 regarding the total signal are preserved when changing baked and that it results to be 8% greater for the presentation in dosemeters of 1 x 1 x 1 mm{sup 3} that for dosemeters of 0.89 x 3.17 x 3.17 mm{sup 3} of TLD-100. Given the importance of having values of relative thermoluminescent efficiency reliable in applications associated to medical dosimetry, the main conclusion of this work is the recommendation of measuring relative efficiencies following a protocol of careful work and previously defined so much for the charged particle radiation as for the gamma radiation and controlling all the experimental factors involved. (Author)

  6. Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breakstone, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    This column presents an interview with Nick Baker, Reference and Web Services librarian at Williams College. Baker has produced several films for and about the library profession. In 2007, he won an InfoTubey Award for Outstanding Library YouTube Productions for his work. In this interview, Baker shares his ideas and experiences about this…

  7. Field identification of two morphologically similar bats, Miniopterus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Miniopterus schreibersii natalensis and Miniopterus fraterculus are two morphologically similar, but genetically distinct, species of insectivorous bat that, more often than not, share roosts. Identifying these two species in the field is difficult because of an overlap in the ranges of both forearm and mass. We thus attempted to ...

  8. Amniogenesis in Schreiber's long-fingered bat Miniopterus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Schreiber's long-fingered bat, Miniopterus schreibersii natalensis is seasonally monoestrous, carrying a single foetus in the right uterine horn. Implantation is superficial, the amnion being a pleuramnion. Lateral folds, originating from the ends of the caudal and cephalic folds, are the main contributors in the formation of the ...

  9. Studies on the morphology and compatibility between Schistosoma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A description is given of the morphological variation of the shell, the radula features and the copulatory organ of Bulinus sp. (2n=36) from four populations in the western Cameroon crater lakes. To assess the role of diploid snails belonging to the Bulinus natalensis/tropicus complex in the transmission of urinary ...

  10. Mopeia Virus-related Arenavirus in Natal Multimammate Mice, Morogoro, Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Günther, Stephan; Hoofd, Guy; Charrel, Remi

    2009-01-01

    A serosurvey involving 2,520 small mammals from Tanzania identified a hot spot of arenavirus circulation in Morogoro. Molecular screening detected a new arenavirus in Natal multimammate mice (Mastomys natalensis), Morogoro virus, related to Mopeia virus. Only a small percentage of mice carry Moro...

  11. African Zoology - Vol 34, No 4 (1999)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Korsaranthus natalensis (Carlgren, 1938) nov. comb. (Cnidaria: Actiniaria) a mobile sea anemone attacking octocorals · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Karin Riemann-Zürneck, Charles L. Griffiths, 190-196 ...

  12. 78 FR 39307 - National Environmental Policy Act: Implementing Procedures; Addition to Categorical Exclusions...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    .... Every EA prepared for an injurious species listing under the Act since 1982 (the first rule promulgated..., 2007), and four species of large constrictor snakes (Burmese python (Python molurus), Northern African python (Python sebae), Southern African python (Python natalensis), and yellow anaconda (Eunectes notaeus...

  13. Huanglongbing increases Diplodia Stem End Rot in Citrus sinensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huanglongbing (HLB), one of the most devastating diseases of citrus is caused by the a-Proteobacteria Candidatus Liberibacter. Diplodia natalensis Pole-Evans is a fungal pathogen which has been known to cause a postharvest stem-end rot of citrus, the pathogen infects citrus fruit under the calyx, an...

  14. Lassa fever

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABEOLUGBENGAS

    INTRODUCTION. Lassa virus is primarily transmitted by a (multimammate) rat specie Mastomys natalensis. The rat is the reservoir host for the virus. Humans get infected when the rodent's excreta contaminate food or other items within the house, the virus can spread secondarily from person to person (1). Most infections ...

  15. Water temperature affects life-cycle duration of tadpoles of Natal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Direct and indirect effects of climate change on amphibians include range shifts and changes in community structure. The Natal cascade frog Hadromophryne natalensis has an altitudinal range of some 2 400 m in KwaZulu-Natal, and presents an opportunity to assess how increased water temperatures may impact on ...

  16. Trigonalidae (Hymenoptera of Madagascar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Smith

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Seven species of the primarily hyperparasitoid family Trigonalidae are reported from Madagascar: Orthogonalys brevis Smith & Tripotin, sp. n., Orthogonalys gigantea Benoit, 1951; O. hova Bischoff, 1933; O. maculata Bischoff, 1933; Orthogonalys parahova Smith & Tripotin, sp. n., O. seyrigi Bischoff, 1933; and Trigonalys natalensis Kriechbaumer, 1894. Diagnoses and a key to species are given.

  17. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 301 - 350 of 683 ... Correlates of detection from the Fynbos biome, South Africa, with applications for population estimation, Abstract. Alan TK ... Vol 82, No 3 (2011), Inferred hybridisation, sympatry and movements of Chorister Robin-Chat Cossypha dichroa and Red-capped Robin-Chat C. natalensis, Abstract. Gregory ...

  18. Morphological studies on Bulinus sp. (Gastropoda: Planorbidae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Several samples have been tentatively identified as B. natalensis (Küster, 1841) on the basis of observations on the shell and radula. The present study is a preliminary analysis of the characteristics of the shell and the radula of the snails from Nchout Monoun Crater Lake (Monoun Koumogoum) for adequate comparisons ...

  19. Variability in estuarine water temperature gradients and influence on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Structure and variability of water temperature gradients and potential influence on distribution of two tropical zooplankters (the mysid Mesopodopsis africana and the copepod Acartia natalensis) and their temperate congenerics (M. wooldridgei and A. longipatella) was investigated over a 10-year period in the Mgazi Estuary, ...

  20. Modelling spatial distribution of snails transmitting parasitic worms with importance to human and animal health and analysis of distributional changes in relation to climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ulrik Bo; Midzi, Nicholas; Mduluza, Takafira

    2014-01-01

    to naturalists but also of importance to human and animal health. The spatial distribution of freshwater snail intermediate hosts involved in the transmission of schistosomiasis, fascioliasis and paramphistomiasis (i.e. Bulinus globosus, Biomphalaria pfeifferi and Lymnaea natalensis) were modelled by the use...

  1. A multiplex panel of microsatellite markers for widespread subsaharan rodents of the genus Mastomys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galan, M.; Hooft, van W.F.; Legrand, D.; Berthier, K.; Loiseau, A.; Granjon, L.; Cosson, J.F.

    2004-01-01

    We isolated and characterized 12 polymorphic microsatellite loci in the sub-Saharan rodent Mastomys huberti. We tested cross-species amplification of all these loci in three closely related Mastomys species: M. coucha, M. erythroleucus and M. natalensis. Multiplex panels comprising 11 loci were

  2. Comparative morphology of the digestive system of 19 species of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and seeds) to one of complex polysaccharides of plants. (grasses and herbs: ... donty and open-rooted molars allow for constant growth. The total length of the ...... natalensis). It would be premature and incorrect to conclude by stat- ing that gut ...

  3. Influence of waterfalls on patterns of association between trout and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to establish whether waterfalls in the uKhahlamba Drakensberg Park, South Africa, are seasonally important in conserving indigenous Natal cascade frog Hadromophryne natalensis tadpole populations from the threat of predation by alien rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss and brown trout Salmo ...

  4. Journal of East African Natural History - Vol 106, No 2 (2017)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two red-capped robin-chats Cossypha natalensis imitate antiphonal duet of black-faced rufous warblers Bathmocercus rufus · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Thomas T. Struhsaker, 53-56. http://dx.doi.org/10.2982/028.106.0201 ...

  5. No measurable adverse effects of Lassa, Morogoro and Gairo arenaviruses on their rodent reservoir host in natural conditions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mariën, J.; Borremans, B.; Gryseels, S.; Soropogui, B.; De Bruyn, L.; Ngiala Bongo, G.; Becker-Ziaja, B.; Goüy de Bellocq, Joëlle; Günther, S.; Magassouba, N.; Leirs, H.; Fichet-Calvet, E.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 1 (2017), č. článku 210. ISSN 1756-3305 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Arenavirus * Lassa virus * Morogoro virus * Gairo virus * Mastomys natalensis * Rodent-borne disease * Host-pathogen interaction * Reservoir host Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Parasitology Impact factor: 3.080, year: 2016

  6. O gênero Piptocarpha R.Br. (Asteraceae: Vernonieae no estado do Paraná, Brasil The genus Piptocarpha R.Br. (Asteraceae: Vernonieae in the Paraná state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Grokoviski

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo abrange o gênero Piptocarpha R.Br. (Vernonieae: Asteraceae no Estado do Paraná, Brasil. A metodologia consistiu no levantamento bibliográfico, coleta de material e observação de campo, estudos morfológicos e taxonômicos do material vivo e herborizado. Foram confirmadas para o Estado do Paraná nove espécies, sendo quatro escandentes: Piptocarpha leprosa (Less. Baker, P. oblonga (Gardner Baker, P. quadrangularis (Vell. Baker e P. sellowii (Sch.Bip. Baker; e cinco arbóreas: Piptocarpha angustifolia Dusén ex Malme, P. axillaris (Less. Baker, P. densifolia Dusén ex G.L. Smith, P. macropoda (DC. Baker e P. regnellii (Sch.Bip. Cabrera. São apresentadas chave de identificação, descrições morfológicas, época de floração e frutificação, nomes populares, distribuição geográfica, comentários e ilustrações para cada táxon estudado.The present study analysed the genus Piptocarpha R.Br. (Vernonieae: Asteraceae in the State of Paraná, Brazil. The methodology consisted of examining literature, botanical collections and field observations, morphological and taxonomic study of herborized specimens. Nine species were confirmed, four of these are scandent species: Piptocarpha leprosa (Less. Baker, P. oblonga (Gardner Baker, P. quadrangularis (Vell. Baker and P. sellowii (Sch.Bip. Baker; and five are trees species: Piptocarpha angustifolia Dusén ex Malme, P. axillaris (Less. Baker, P. densifolia Dusén ex G.L. Smith, P. macropoda (DC. Baker and P. regnellii (Sch.Bip. Cabrera. Identification key, descriptions, flowering and fruiting time, popular names, geographical distribution, comments and illustrations are provided for each studied taxa.

  7. 75 FR 78932 - Federal Seed Act Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-17

    ... terms ``Artichoke--Cynara cardunculus L. subsp. cardunculus'', ``Asparagus--Asparagus officinalis Baker... (i), adding the terms ``Artichoke--Cynara cardunculus L.'', ``Asparagus--Asparagus officinalis L...

  8. Editors’ Note

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heller WD

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The unexpected death of Richard Baker at Easter of this year was a shock for all who knew him. It was just in the last Issue of the Journal (Volume 22, No. 4, January 2007 that we as Editors were pleased and proud to print the laudation by Thomas A. Perfetti of Richard Baker who received the 2006 Tobacco Science Research Conference Lifetime Achievement Award. In this Issue, we have the sad duty to print an obituary for Richard Baker. We have asked Ray Thornton, a former Scientific and Regulatory Manager at BAT to write the obituary, because Ray was a colleague, neighbour and friend of Richard Baker.

  9. Screening of antagonistic activity of microorganisms against Colletotrichum acutatum and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živković Svetlana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The antagonistic activities of five biocontrol agents: Trichoderma harzianum, Gliocladium roseum, Bacillus subtilis, Streptomyces noursei and Streptomyces natalensis, were tested in vitro against Colletotrichum acutatum and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, the causal agents of anthracnose disease in fruit crops. The microbial antagonists inhibited mycelial growth in the dual culture assay and conidial germination of Colletotrichum isolates. The two Streptomyces species exhibited the strongest antagonism against isolates of C. acutatum and C. gloeosporioides. Microscopic examination showed that the most common mode of action was antibiosis. The results of this study identify T. harzianum, G. roseum, B. subtilis, S. natalensis and S. noursei as promising biological control agents for further testing against anthracnose disease in fruits. .

  10. Genetic distinction between contiguous urban and rural multimammate mice in Tanzania despite gene flow

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gryseels, S.; Goüy de Bellocq, Joëlle; Makundi, R.; Vanmechelen, K.; Broeckhove, J.; Mazoch, V.; Šumbera, R.; Zima Jr., Jan; Leirs, H.; Baird, Stuart J. E.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 10 (2016), s. 1952-1967 ISSN 1010-061X R&D Projects: GA ČR GCP502/11/J070; GA ČR GAP506/10/0983; GA MŠk EE2.3.20.0303 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Mastomys natalensis * urbanisation * synanthropy * population genetics * IMa2 * spatial genetics * Tanzania Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.792, year: 2016

  11. The parasitoids of the African white rice borer, Maliarpha separatella Ragonot (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Polaszek, A.; Fitton, M.G.; Bianchi, G.; Huddleston, T.

    2017-01-01

    A key is provided for the recognition of the hymenopterous parasitoids of the African white rice borer, Maliarpha separatella Ragonot, a pest of rice in Africa and Madagascar. Five species are described as new: Braconidae: Chelonus maudae Huddleston, Rhacanotus carinafus Polaszek; Ichneumonidae: Prisfomerus bullis Fitton, Prisfomerus caris Fitton, Venturia jordanae Fitton. The following synonyms are proposed: Goniozus indicus Muesebeck, G. natalensis Gordh and G. procerae Risbec are synonymiz...

  12. Biodiversity and systematics of apicomplexan parasites infecting South African leopard and hinged tortoises

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    M.Sc. Research into blood protozoans (haematozoans) infecting African tortoises is scanty with only a few records published, many during the early part of the last century. Little research had been done on the blood parasites of tortoises examined in this study namely, Kinixys lobatsiana, K. belliana belliana, K. natalensis, Geochelone pardalis pardalis, G. pardalis babcocki and Chersina angulata. The study therefore aimed to: 1) examine apicomplexan haematozoan parasites infecting several...

  13. Studies on woloszynskioid dinoflagellates IV: the genus Biecheleria gen. nov

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moestrup, Øjvind; Lindberg, Karin; Daugbjerg, Niels

    2009-01-01

    in the dinoflagellates. Biecheleria also comprises the brackish water species Biecheleria baltica sp. nov. (presently identified as Woloszynskia halophila) and the marine species Biecheleria natalensis (syn. Gymnodinium natalense). Gymnodinium halophilum described in 1952 by B. Biecheler but apparently not subsequently...... refound, is transferred to Biecheleria. The Suessiaceae further includes the marine species Protodinium simplex, described by Lohmann in 1908 but shortly afterwards (1921) transferred to Gymnodinium by Kofoid and Swezy and subsequently known as Gymnodinium simplex. It only distantly related to Gymnodinium...

  14. Detection of IgE in the sera of rodents: comparison of the applicability of ELISA and RIA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiner, G; Zahner, H [Institut fuer Parasitologie der Justus-Liebig-Universitaet Giessen, Germany, F.R.; Haque, A [Institut Pasteur, 59 - Lille (France). Centre d' Immunologie et de Biologie Parasitaire

    1984-04-13

    RIA and ELISA were compared for their ability to detect IgE in different rodent species. With a sheep anti-rat IgE antibody good correlation (P < 0.001) between the 2 assay methods for IgE was found in rats. RIA failed to detect the IgE of Mastomys natalensis while ELISA proved to be a suitable test. However, both tests failed to measure IgE in sera of Nile rats.

  15. Arenavirus infection correlates with lower survival of its natural rodent host in a long-term capture-mark-recapture study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mariën, J.; Sluydts, V.; Borremans, B.; Gryseels, S.; Broecke, B. V.; Sabuni, C. A.; Katakweba, A. A. S.; Mulungu, L. S.; Günther, S.; Goüy de Bellocq, Joëlle; Massawe, A. W.; Leirs, H.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 90 (2018), č. článku 90. ISSN 1756-3305 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus * trade-off hypothesis * mastomys-natalensis * cowpox virus * lassa-virus * mopeia virus * bank voles * populations * virulence * wild * Arenavirus * Morogoro virus * Survival analysis * Capture-mark-recapture * Host-parasite interaction Impact factor: 3.080, year: 2016

  16. 1091-1100.pptx

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Gholam

    Preparation of Chitosan/baker's yeast nanofiber. Electrospinning process. Chitosan/baker's yeast. Nanofiber adsorbent. characterization. Uranium (VI) and thorium (IV) adsorption study. FTIR. BET. XRD. Effect of pH. Inhibitory effect of other metal ions. Regeneration process. Initial concentration. And Temperature. Contact ...

  17. (Hqcf) for Bread Production

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OSE

    According to. Australian Export Grains Innovation Centre, ... statistics such as mean, percentage, standard deviation and ... business. The mean income of bakers per week was ₦21,769. 58 percent of the bakers earned below ₦20,000 per ...

  18. A Comparative Study of the Attitudes, Self-Efficacy, and Readiness of American versus Turkish Language Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaloti, Yesim Ozek

    2016-01-01

    Contrasting studies of foreign language teacher education have become a growing interest among educationists and researchers in different countries (Yoder, 1992; McKay & Montgomery, 1995; Baker & Giacchino-Baker, 2000; Stachowski & Sparks, 2007; Firmin, M. W., Firmin, R & MacKay, F. M., 2008; LaFond & Dogancay-Aktuna, 2009;…

  19. Freedom Schools Then and Now: A Transformative Approach to Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Marcia

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a historical and conceptual link between Ella Baker's Freedom School model and Paulo Freire's demand for critical education and emancipatory learning. Ella Baker, situated in the daunting environment of the Civil Rights Movement, saw education as a tool for social mobility for Mississippi residents in 1964.…

  20. Publications | Page 270 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Giving Back — IDRC photo contest winner shares prize with Senegalese colleagues. Brendan Baker can be called many things: an engineer, an international volunteer, an award-winning photographer, and, evidently, a generous man. The winner of IDRC's “Expose Urban Solutions” photo contest, Baker shared his CA$2.

  1. Composite Linear Models | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    By Stuart G. Baker The composite linear models software is a matrix approach to compute maximum likelihood estimates and asymptotic standard errors for models for incomplete multinomial data. It implements the method described in Baker SG. Composite linear models for incomplete multinomial data. Statistics in Medicine 1994;13:609-622. The software includes a library of thirty

  2. 77 FR 52228 - Food Additives Permitted for Direct Addition to Food for Human Consumption; Vitamin D2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-29

    ... D2 Bakers Yeast AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Food and..., 379e. 0 2. Section 172.381 is added to subpart D to read as follows: Sec. 172.381 Vitamin D2 bakers...

  3. Thermotolerance and Human Performance: Role of Heat Shock Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    rats, hamsters, guinea pigs , rabbits, sheep, pigs , and monkeys (Edwards et al 2003). However, the type and severity of the fetal defects were dependent...Baker H 1979. Reproduction and breeding . In The Laboratory Rat. ed Baker H, Lindsey J, Weisbroth S. Academic Press, New York, NY, 154–168. Bae S, Xiao

  4. Rigged Hilbert spaces for chaotic dynamical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suchanecki, Z.; Antoniou, I.; Bandtlow, O.F.

    1996-01-01

    We consider the problem of rigging for the Koopman operators of the Renyi and the baker maps. We show that the rigged Hilbert space for the Renyi maps has some of the properties of a strict inductive limit and give a detailed description of the rigged Hilbert space for the baker maps. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  5. The Effect of Nescafe Brand of Coffee on the Fermentative Activity of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of increasing concentrations of Nescafe brand of coffee on the fermentative activity of baker\\'s yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) on sucrose were investigated. Phytochemical analysis showed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, saponins and flavonoids in samples containing nescafe coffee. Using increasing ...

  6. Oceanographic data and information collected during the EX1703 Howland/Baker PRIMNM and PIPA (ROV/Mapping) expedition on NOAA Ship OKEANOS EXPLORER in the South Pacific Ocean from 2017-03-07 to 2017-03-29 (NCEI Accession 0162616)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains oceanographic data collected in Apia, Samoa. Operations were conducted within several marine protected areas and included the use of the...

  7. Desenvolvimento e qualidade de plantas de Aechmea fasciata (Lindley) Baker com a utilização do cloreto de potássio ou do sulfato de potássio aplicados em três freqüência por via foliar.

    OpenAIRE

    Eloiza Santana Seixas Vitória; Izabel Cristina Leite

    2008-01-01

    A freqüência como a adubação foliar é realizada em bromélias é muita variada não havendo uma regularidade, ocorrendo casos em que é feita de acordo com os aspectos da planta. O potássio está entre os nutrientes que contribuem para melhoria da qualidade de plantas, incluindo ornamentais. As fontes potássicas mais comumente utilizadas na agricultura são o cloreto e o sulfato de potássio, e na forma de sulfato de potássio para algumas ornamentais, produz plantas de melhor qualidade e maiores qua...

  8. Adventures in human population biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, P T

    1996-01-01

    This article is a memoir of anthropologist Paul Baker's professional life. The introduction notes that the field of anthropology was altered by the impact of World War II when physical anthropologists provided vital information to the military. After the war, the GI bill supported the undergraduate and graduate studies of veterans, including Baker. After describing his academic training at the University of New Mexico and Harvard, Baker details his research training and field work in the desert for the US Climatic Research Laboratory and his work identifying the dead in Japan for the Quartermaster unit. Baker then traces his academic career at the Pennsylvania State University during which he directed two multidisciplinary research efforts for the International Biological Programme, one that sought to understand human adaptability at high altitude in Peru and another that studied migration and modernization in Samoa. Baker's last administrative positions were as staff consultant to the Man and the Biosphere (MAB) program and as chair of the US MAB committee. Baker retired from academic life at age 60 in 1987 and has devoted his time to reading and to helping organize professional associations in anthropology, especially those devoted to furthering internationally organized scientific efforts. Baker concludes this memoir by acknowledging the growth and development of the discipline of human population biology.

  9. Transcriptome data - Initial stage of dough fermentation - DGBY | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available List Contact us DGBY Transcriptome data - Initial stage of dough fermentation Data detail Data name Transcri...ptome data - Initial stage of dough fermentation DOI 10.18908/lsdba.nbdc00953-002 Description of data conten...ts Gene expression profiles of baker's yeast during initial dough-fermentation were investigated using liquid fermentation...aptation mechanisms of baker's yeast. Results showed the onset of fermentation caused drastic changes in gen...f baker's yeast during dough-fermentation, and will thus help clarify genomic res

  10. Method for processing radioactive wastes containing sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota, Takeshi.

    1975-01-01

    Object: To bake, solidify and process even radioactive wastes highly containing sodium. Structure: H and or NH 4 zeolites of more than 90g per chemical equivalent of sodium present in the waste is added to and left in radioactive wastes containing sodium, after which they are fed to a baker such as rotary cylindrical baker, spray baker and the like to bake and solidify the wastes at 350 to 800 0 C. Thereby, it is possible to bake and solidify even radioactive wastes highly containing sodium, which has been impossible to do so previously. (Kamimura, M.)

  11. When viruses don’t go viral: the importance of host phylogeographic structure in the spatial spread of arenaviruses

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gryseels, S.; Baird, Stuart J. E.; Borremans, B.; Makundi, R.; Leirs, H.; Goüy de Bellocq, Joëlle

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 1 (2017), č. článku e1006073. ISSN 1553-7366 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-35009S; GA ČR GA15-13265S; GA ČR GA15-20229S; GA ČR GCP502/11/J070 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : habitat * human * Lassa virus * Mastomys natalensis * nonhuman * Tanzania Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Virology Impact factor: 6.608, year: 2016

  12. Forecasting rodent outbreaks in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leirs, Herwig; Verhagen, Ron; Verheyen, Walter

    1996-01-01

    1. Rainfall data were collated for years preceding historical outbreaks of Mastomys rats in East Africa in order to test the hypothesis that such outbreaks occur after long dry periods. 2. Rodent outbreaks were generally not preceded by long dry periods. 3. Population dynamics of Mastomys...... natalensis rats in Tanzania are significantly affected by the distribution of rainfall during the rainy season. 4. All previous rodent outbreaks in Tanzania were preceded by abundant rainfall early in the rainy season, i.e, towards the end of the year. 5. A flow chart is constructed to assess the likelihood...

  13. The genus Ectonura Cassagnau, 1980in South Africa (Collembola, Neanuridae, Neanurinae), with a key to South African Neanurinae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janion, Charlene; Bedos, Anne; Deharveng, Louis

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Two new species of Neanurinae (Collembola) are described from the Western Cape, South Africa: Ectonura monochaeta sp. n. and Ectonura barrai sp. n. Ectonura monochaeta sp. n. differs from other species in the genus by its strongly reduced chaetotaxy, and the lateral shift of dorso-internal chaetae on Abd. V and their integration in the tubercles (De+DL). Ectonura barrai sp. n. is similar to Ectonura natalensis (Womersley, 1934), but differs in chaetotaxic details and chaetal group arrangement. A key to the seven species of Neanurinae recorded from South Africa is given. PMID:22140347

  14. Decay and acceptability of mangos treated with combinations of hot water, imazalil, and gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spalding, D.H.; Reeder, W.F.

    1986-01-01

    Combination treatments with radiation at 200 or 750 Gy and hot water (53 C) or hot 0.1% a.i. imazalil (53 C) for 3 min were more effective than single treatments for control of anthracnose and stem-end rot of Tommy Atkins mangos caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Diplodia natalensis or Phomopsis citri, respectively. Irradiation at 750 Gy inhibited development of ripe skin color and caused some browning and pitting of the skin. Effects of radiation on skin color and injury were partially offset when heat treatment preceded irradiation. Individual wrapping of mangos in shrink film resulted in increased decay and breakdown. (author)

  15. The genus Ectonura Cassagnau, 1980 in South Africa (Collembola, Neanuridae, Neanurinae, with a key to South African Neanurinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlene Janion

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of Neanurinae (Collembola are described from the Western Cape, South Africa: Ectonura monochaeta sp. n. and Ectonura barrai sp. n. E. monochaeta sp. n. differs from other species in the genus by its strongly reduced chaetotaxy, and the lateral shift of dorso-internal chaetae on Abd. V and their integration in the tubercles (De+DL. E. barrai sp. n. is similar to E. natalensis (Womersley, 1934, but differs in chaetotaxic details and chaetal group arrangement. A key to the seven species of Neanurinae recorded from South Africa is given.

  16. Stochastic seasonality and nonlinear density-dependent factors regulate population size in an African rodent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leirs, Herwig; Steneth, Nils Chr.; Nichols, James D.

    1997-01-01

    , but clear examples of both processes acting in the same population are rare(7,8). Key-factor analysis (regression of population changes on possible causal factors) and time-series analysis are often used to investigate the presence of density dependence, but such approaches may be biased and provide...... no information on actual demographic rates(9,10). Here we report on both density-dependent and density-independent effects in a murid rodent pest species, the multimammute rat Mastomys natalensis (Smith, 1834), using statistical capture-recapture models, Both effects occur simultaneously, but we also demonstrate...

  17. High energy beta rays and vectors of Bilharzia and Fasciola

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fletcher, J.J.; Akpa, T.C.; Dim, L.A.; Ogunsusi, R.

    1988-01-01

    Preliminary investigations of the effects of high energy beta rays on Lymnea natalensis, the snail vector of Schistosoma haematobium have been conducted. Results show that in both stream and tap water, about 70% of the snails die when irradiated for up to 18 hours using a 15m Ci Sr-90 beta source. The rest of the snails die without further irradiation in 24 hours. It may then be possible to control the vectors of Bilharzia and Fasciola by using both the direct and indirect effects of high energy betas. (author)

  18. High energy beta rays and vectors of Bilharzia and Fasciola

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fletcher, J.J.; Akpa, T.C.; Dim, L.A.; Ogunsusi, R.

    1988-01-01

    Preliminary investigations of the effects of high energy beta rays on Lymnea natalensis, the snail vector of Schistosoma haematobium have been conducted. Results show that in both stream and tap water, about 70% of the snails die when irradiated for up to 18 hours using a 15m Ci Sr-90 beta source. The rest of the snails die without further irradiation in 24 hours. It may then be possible to control the vectors of Bilharzia and Fasciola by using both the direct and indirect effects of high energy betas.

  19. Decay and acceptability of mangos treated with combinations of hot water, imazalil, and gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spalding, D. H.; Reeder, W. F.

    1986-12-15

    Combination treatments with radiation at 200 or 750 Gy and hot water (53 C) or hot 0.1% a.i. imazalil (53 C) for 3 min were more effective than single treatments for control of anthracnose and stem-end rot of Tommy Atkins mangos caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Diplodia natalensis or Phomopsis citri, respectively. Irradiation at 750 Gy inhibited development of ripe skin color and caused some browning and pitting of the skin. Effects of radiation on skin color and injury were partially offset when heat treatment preceded irradiation. Individual wrapping of mangos in shrink film resulted in increased decay and breakdown. (author)

  20. Shelf-Stable Food Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bulk quantities and are used by food manufacturers (noodle makers, bakers, etc.) or by institutional food service ( ... to preserve such food as dried soup mixes, instant coffee, fruits, and vegetables. To freeze dry, frozen ...

  1. PERFORMANCE OF MAIZE (Zea mays L.) IN CRUDE OIL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DJFLEX

    physically act by absorbing light wavelengths essential for photosynthesis (Baker ... metabolic processes such as photosynthesis, respiration and mineral uptake .... There appeared to be a relationship between the intensity of spill and the.

  2. 75 FR 70294 - Notice of Determinations Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-17

    ...,240 Baker Hughes Oilfield Broussard, LA......... June 8, 2009. Operations, Leased Workers from Kelly... Center. 74,726 Weldco-Beales Manufacturing Tacoma, WA October 12, 2009. 74,740 Bekaert Corporation, Vista...

  3. The indentation of pressurized elastic shells: from polymeric capsules to yeast cells

    KAUST Repository

    Vella, D.; Ajdari, A.; Vaziri, A.; Boudaoud, A.

    2011-01-01

    of capsules. Our results are relevant for determining the internal pressure in bacterial, fungal or plant cells. As an illustration of this, we apply our results to recent measurements of the stiffness of baker's yeast and infer from these experiments

  4. Mars Robotics and Things I Wished I Had Learned in College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, John D.

    2016-01-01

    John D. Baker will explore how Mars robotic missions are designed and operated. He will also discuss a few basic concepts that will help future engineers and scientists develop key skills to use in aerospace projects.

  5. Crewmember exercising on the mid deck ergometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    Mission Specialist Ellen Baker exercising on an excercise bike attached to the Isolated/Stabilized Exercise Platform (ISEP) on the shuttle middeck. The ISEP is intended to insulate sensitive micregravity experiments from vibration caused by crew excercise.

  6. Anti-Cancer Drug Discovery Using Synthetic Lethal Chemogenetic (SLC) Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bellows, David S

    2006-01-01

    I am developing a novel cell-based small-molecule screening approach that can identify inhibitors of any non-essential protein function through a surrogate synthetic lethal phenotype in the baker's...

  7. Basic Principles and Concepts for Achieving Quality

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Baker, Emanuel R; Fisher, Matthew J; Goethert, Wolfhart; Marino, Lisa

    2007-01-01

    ...) developed in the early 1980s for the Department of Defense (DoD) by Baker and colleagues. The original quality concepts of the SQF are extended beyond software to include products, services, and processes...

  8. Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected - 2011 Digital Orthophotos - Union County

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — This dataset is a collection of GeoTIFF natural color orthophotos covering Baker, Bradford, and Union counties within Florida. An orthophoto is remotely sensed image...

  9. Temperature-dependent development and reproductive traits of Tetranychus macfarlanei (Acari: Tetranychidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ullah, Mohammad Shaef; Haque, Md. Ahsanul; Nachman, Gösta

    2012-01-01

    Development and reproductive traits of Tetranychus macfarlanei Baker & Pritchard (Acari: Tetranychidae) were investigated on kidney bean, Phaseolus vulgaris L., at eleven constant temperatures. Tetranychus macfarlanei was able to develop and complete its life cycle at temperatures ranging from 17...

  10. Jewish community indignant over press, legislation

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Ameerika Juudikomitee rahvusvaheliste küsimuste direktor Andrew Baker avaldas pahameelt, et prokuratuur lõpetas uurimise Leedu päevalehe antisemitistlike artiklite suhtes. Leedu juudi kogukond esitas valitsusele nimekirja ehitistest, mille tagastamist nad soovivad

  11. Viru tänava rendihind 15 korda maailma tipust madalam / Andres Kärssin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kärssin, Andres, 1971-

    2003-01-01

    Kinnisvaranõustaja Cushman & Wakefield Healey & Baker novembri alguses valminud iga-aastase maailma kallimate ostupiirkondade rendihindade analüüsi tulemustest. Tabel: Eesti ja Läti kauplusepinnad võrreldes muu maailmaga odavad

  12. Spermasõjas surma ei saa / Kati Murutar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Murutar, Kati, 1967-

    2003-01-01

    Eesti keeles ilmunud perekonnaõpetuse ja seksuaalkäitumise teemalisest raamatust "Spermasõjad", mille autoriks on zooloog Robin Baker. Raamatu teemal arutlesid ämmaemand Siiri Põllumaa, bioloog Georg Aher ja naistearst Andrei Sõritsa

  13. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Stratified Random Surveys (StRS) of Coral Demography (Adult and Juvenile Corals) across the Pacific Remote Island Areas from 2017-04-02 to 2017-04-23 (NCEI Accession 0163743)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data described here result from benthic coral demographic surveys for two life stages (juveniles, adults) across Wake, Baker, Howland and Jarvis in 2017....

  14. South African Medical Journal - Vol 103, No 11 (2013)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of obesity, smoking, and excessive alcohol intake on healthcare ... The prevalence of smoking and the knowledge of smoking hazards and smoking cessation ... N Morris, J Frean, L Baker, IS Ukpe, KI Barnes, P Kruger, A Mabuza, E ...

  15. Anti-Cancer Drug Discovery Using Synthetic Lethal Chemogenetic (SLC) Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bellows, David S

    2004-01-01

    I am developing a novel cell-based small-molecule screening approach that can identify inhibitors of any non-essential protein function through a surrogate synthetic lethal phenotype in the baker's...

  16. The health literacy needs of women living with HIV/AIDS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Judy Thompson

    c Health Systems Trust, South Africa ... modes of HIV transmission and methods of protecting others from being .... and health-related decision-making processes (Baker, 2006, p. .... with water, sanitation and electricity mostly available (Plan.

  17. 77 FR 61753 - Granting of Request for Early Termination of the Waiting Period Under the Premerger Notification...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-11

    .... 20121302 G Arrow Electronics. Inc.; John F. Baker (Micro Electronics, Inc.); Arrow Electronics, Inc. 20121303 G Wind Point Partners L.P.; Mistral Equity Partners, LP; Wind Point Partners VII-A, L.P. 20121307...

  18. Composite materials for aircraft structures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Baker, A. A; Dutton, Stuart; Kelly, Donald

    2004-01-01

    ... materials for aircraft structures / Alan Baker, Stuart Dutton, and Donald Kelly- 2nd ed. p. cm. - (Education series) Rev. ed. of: Composite materials for aircraft structures / edited by B. C. Hos...

  19. 76 FR 54217 - Membership of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Performance Review Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-31

    ... Koch Director, Office of Education. Maureen E. Wylie Chief Financial Officer, Office of the Chief Financial Officer. Charles S. Baker Deputy Assistant Administrator, NESDIS National Environmental Satellite... Financial Officer National Ocean Service. David Robinson Associate Director for Management Resources...

  20. 76 FR 59662 - Membership of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Performance Review Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-27

    ... Koch Director, Office of Education, Office of Education. Maureen E. Wylie Chief Financial Officer, Office of the Chief Financial Officer. Charles S. Baker Deputy Assistant Administrator, NESDIS, National.... Cartwright.... Chief Financial Officer, National Ocean Service. David Robinson Associate Director for...

  1. The idea factory: Bell Labs and the great age of American innovation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gertner, Jon

    2012-01-01

    .... And at its heart this is a story about a small group of brilliant and eccentric men including Mervin Kelly, Bill Shockley, Claude Shannon, John Pierce, and Bill Baker who spent their careers at Bell Labs...

  2. Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected - 2011 Digital Orthophotos - Bradford County

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — This dataset is a collection of GeoTIFF natural color orthophotos covering Baker, Bradford, and Union counties within Florida. An orthophoto is remotely sensed image...

  3. Genetics Home Reference: 15q13.3 microdeletion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... GW, Spence JE, Amato S, Rousseau JA, Moghaddam B, Skinner C, Skinner SA, Bernes S, Armstrong N, Shinawi M, Stankiewicz P, ... Sharp AJ, Mefford HC, Li K, Baker C, Skinner C, Stevenson RE, Schroer RJ, Novara F, De ...

  4. CalNex Observational Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Observations made during the 2010 CalNex measurement campaign. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Woody , M., K. Baker , P. Hayes, J....

  5. Increased Oil Recovery Prize for work on Troll; Fikk pris for Troll-arbeid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steensen, Anders J.

    2007-07-01

    Halliburton and Baker Hughes have developed tools that ensures increased oil recovery from the Troll platform. For this work, the companies were awarded the Increased Oil Recovery (IOR) Prize. Details on the technical principles are provided (ml)

  6. Physiological and molecular insights into drought tolerance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physiological and molecular insights into drought tolerance. Sagadevan G Mundree, Bienyameen Baker, Shaheen Mowla, Shaun Peters, Saberi Marais, Clare Vander Willigen, Kershini Govender, Alice Maredza, Samson Muyanga, Jill M Farrant, Jennifer A Thomson ...

  7. Natural and modified promoters for tailored metabolic engineering of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hubmann, Georg; Thevelein, Johan M; Nevoigt, Elke

    2014-01-01

    The ease of highly sophisticated genetic manipulations in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has initiated numerous initiatives towards development of metabolically engineered strains for novel applications beyond its traditional use in brewing, baking, and wine making. In fact, baker's yeast has

  8. Nanomeditsiin / Kevin Bullis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Bullis, Kevin

    2006-01-01

    Michigani ülikooli arstiteadlane James Baker loob nanoosakesi medikamentide juhtimiseks otse vähirakkudesse, mis võib kaasa tuua palju ohutuma ravi. Artikkel üldpealkirja all: 10 tulevikutehnoloogiat

  9. 78 FR 18418 - Notice of Application for Special Permits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-26

    ... certain packagings for spent lithium ion batteries that have not been tested in accordance with the UN.... (modes 1, 3) 15832-N Baker Petrolite, 49 CFR 172.102(c) To authorize the Sugar Land, TX. Special...

  10. An audit of spirometry at the University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    also be used in the detection of respiratory disease in patients ... obstructive and restrictive ventilatory defects. The test can be ... obstructive ventilatory defect if the ratio of Force ..... Johns DP, Burton D, Walters JA, Wood-Baker R. National.

  11. The Evolution of U.S. Antitrust Agencies’ Approach to Standards and Standard Essential Patents: From Enforcement to Advocacy

    OpenAIRE

    James Rill

    2015-01-01

    Advocacy must be based on sound factual and economic analysis and correct legal principles—there is a serious question whether agency advocacy concerning SSOs and essential patents satisfies these criteria. James F. Rill (Baker Botts)

  12. Analysis of in vivo binding of yeast heat shock factor to promoter DNA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-04-17

    Apr 17, 2008 ... The baker's yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, harbors only a single HSF ... ethanol. The resulting DNA was dissolved in 20 µl TE. PCR. 3% of each .... tolerance oxidant stress, and involve in other biochemical pathways.

  13. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2008-12-11

    Dec 11, 2008 ... Author Affiliations. Sukant Khurana1 Mohammed Bin AbuBaker1 Obaid Siddiqi1. Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, National Centre for Biological Sciences, Bangalore 560 065, India ...

  14. Ayurvedic Amalaki Rasayana promotes improved stress tolerance ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-10-15

    Oct 15, 2016 ... Drosophila reared on AR-supplemented food to crowding, thermal or oxidative ...... Baker KD and Thummel CS 2007 Diabetic larvae and obese flies- ..... Anholt RR 2012 Genome-wide association analysis of oxidative.

  15. Federal Subsidies and the Housing GSEs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    .... Congressman Baker also asked that CBO extend the estimate to include the Federal Home Loan Banks and to update its estimate of the portion of the subsidy that the government-sponsored enterprises (OSEs) retain. Congressman John M...

  16. Summer Appendicitis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hanumantp

    The increasing number of “fast food” restaurants where mainly high‑carbohydrate ... factors, food culture and the effect of migration for touristic purposes during the summer. .... Lal A, Hales S, French N, Baker MG. Seasonality in human.

  17. Antimalarial measures - type, sources of advice and compliance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1994-06-01

    Jun 1, 1994 ... pharmacies as well as actual behaviour in this regard and sources of advice accessed ... pharmacies and 53 'care providers' (members of travel parties). Doctors ... TPS Drug Information Services, Johannesburg. L Baker, DIP.

  18. Economics of the complex utilization of raw materials in the production of alcohol from beet molasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zelikman, G F

    1959-01-01

    Yields of the by-products in the fermentation of beet molasses, such as liquid CO/sub 2/, bakers' and feed yeasts, glycerol and products from the wastes, and the money to be gained from their recovery are discussed.

  19. Fermentation of sugar beet molasses to alcohol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semenets, P A

    1959-01-01

    Continuously operating equipment is described. The mode of operation is presented. It is possible to prepare 8.5 x 10/sup 4/ l. of ethanol and 12 to 14 long tons of high grade bakers' yeast in 24 hours.

  20. Saccharomyces Boulardii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saccharomyces boulardii is a yeast, which is a type of fungus. Saccharomyces boulardii was previously identified as a unique species of ... be a strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (baker's yeast). Saccharomyces boulardii is used as medicine. Saccharomyces boulardii is most ...