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Sample records for bulb processing affects

  1. Radioinhibition process in Argentinian garlic and onion bulbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technological aspects of garlic and onion bulbs subjected to the radioinhibition process and extended storage under warehouse conditions were studied. Garlic and onion of the Colorado and ''Valenciana sintetica 14'' varieties respectively, were irradiated in dormancy period with an average dose of 50.0 Gy to 60Co gamma rays and kept in storage up to ten months post-harvest. Throughout the control period (180-300 days post-harvest) obvious benefits were attained as to reducing the weight loss and increasing the percentage of marketable bulbs. In general, the irradiated bulbs were superior to the non-irradiated ones with regard to the external aspect, firmness and internal aspect, while the odor of the bulbs was not affected by the process. The radioinhibition process does not seem to affect adversely the levels of dry matter, carbohydrates and ascorbic acid as well as the acidity in onion bulbs. In two marketing trials a very favourable reception was perceived in the consumer public regarding the quality of the products. These studies have promoted the construction of a multipurpose irradiation facility in the Universidad Nacional del Sur for the development of the radiation processing technology. (author)

  2. Radioinhibition process in Argentinian garlic and onion bulbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curzio, O. A.; Croci, C. A.

    Technological aspects of garlic and onion bulbs subjected to the radioinhibition process and extended storage under warehouse conditions were studied. Garlic and onion of the "Colorado" and "Valenciana sintética 14" varieties respectively, were irradiated in dormancy period with an average dose of 50.0 Gy of 60Co gamma rays and kept in storage up to ten months post-harvest. Throughout the control period (180-300 days post-harvest) obvious benefits were attained as to reducing the weight loss and increasing the percentage of marketable bulbs. In general, the irradiated bulbs were superior to the non-irradiated ones with regard to the external aspect, firmness and internal aspect, while the odor of the bulbs was not affected by the process. The radioinhibition process does not seem to affect adversely the levels of dry matter, carbohydrates and ascorbic acid as well as the acidity in onion bulbs. In two marketing trials a very favourable reception was perceived in the consumer public regarding the quality of the products. These studies have promoted the construction of a multipurpose irradiation facility in the Universidad Nacional del Sur for the development of the radiation processing technology.

  3. Function of attention in learning process in the olfactory bulb

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马宝生; 王顺鹏; 李岩; 冯春华; 郭爱克

    2003-01-01

    It has been suggested that in the olfactory bulb, odor information is processed through parallel channels and learning depends on the cognitive environment. The synapse's spike effective time is defined as the effective time for a spike from pre-synapse to post-synapse, which varies with the type of synapse. A learning model of the olfactory bulb was constructed for synapses with varying spike effective times. The simulation results showed that such a model can realize the multi-channel processing of information in the bulb. Furthermore, the effect of the cognitive environment on the learning process was also studied. Different feedback frequencies were used to express different attention states. Considering the information's multi-channel processing requirement for learning, a learning rule considering both spike timing and average spike frequency is proposed. Simulation results showed that habituation and anti-habituation of an odor in the olfactory bulb might be the result of learning guided by a common local learning rule but at different attention states.

  4. Whole transcriptome profiling of the vernalization process in Lilium longiflorum (cultivar White Heaven) bulbs

    OpenAIRE

    Villacorta-Martin, Carlos; Núñez de Cáceres González, Francisco F.; de Haan, Jorn; Huijben, Kitty; Passarinho, Paul; Lugassi-Ben Hamo, Maya; Zaccai, Michele

    2015-01-01

    Background Vernalization is an obligatory requirement of extended exposure to low temperatures to induce flowering in certain plants. It is the most important factor affecting flowering time and quality in Easter lily (Lilium longiflorum). Exposing the bulbs to 4 °C gradually decreases flowering time up to 50 % compared to non-vernalized plants. We aim to understand the molecular regulation of vernalization in Easter lily, for which we characterized the global expression in lily bulb meristem...

  5. Disruption of adult neurogenesis in the olfactory bulb affects social interaction but not maternal behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia E Feierstein

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Adult-born neurons arrive to the olfactory bulb and integrate into the existing circuit throughout life. Despite the prevalence of this phenomenon, its functional impact is still poorly understood. Recent studies point to the importance of newly generated neurons to olfactory learning and memory. Adult neurogenesis is regulated by a variety of factors, notably by instances related to reproductive behavior, such as exposure to mating partners, pregnancy and lactation, and exposure to offspring. To study the contribution of olfactory neurogenesis to maternal behavior and social recognition, here we selectively disrupted olfactory bulb neurogenesis using focal irradiation of the subventricular zone in adult female mice. We show that reduction of olfactory neurogenesis results in an abnormal social interaction pattern with male, but not female, conspecifics; we suggest that this effect could result from inability to detect or discriminate male odors and could therefore have implications for the recognition of potential mating partners. Disruption of olfactory bulb neurogenesis, however, neither impaired maternal-related behaviors, nor did it affect the ability of mothers to discriminate their own progeny from others.

  6. Modeling and simulation of residual stresses during glass bulb pressing process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The residual stresses accumulated in the forming process have great effects on the product quality of the glass bulb. Based on the characteristics analysis of glass bulb forming, a mathematical model has been established for calculating residual stresses of glass pressing process. The material is assumed as thermorheologi-cally simple thermoviscoelastic material, and the flow-induced stress is neglected. The consequences of equilibrium and compatibility equations are discussed in detail, and the boundary conditions are specified for various stages of the forming process. The numerical solution is based on the theory of thin layers, combined with finite difference method in the time and layer difference in the thickness di-rection. The presented model and solution method could easily be extended to general pressing process of glass, and applied to problems relative to glass pressing, providing extensive reference values.

  7. Modeling and simulation of residual stresses during glass bulb pressing process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU HuaMin; XI GuoDong; LI DeQun

    2007-01-01

    The residual stresses accumulated in the forming process have great effects on the product quality of the glass bulb. Based on the characteristics analysis of glass bulb forming, a mathematical model has been established for calculating residual stresses of glass pressing process. The material is assumed as thermorheologically simple thermoviscoelastic material, and the flow-induced stress is neglected. The consequences of equilibrium and compatibility equations are discussed in detail, and the boundary conditions are specified for various stages of the forming process. The numerical solution is based on the theory of thin layers, combined with finite difference method in the time and layer difference in the thickness direction. The presented model and solution method could easily be extended to general pressing process of glass, and applied to problems relative to glass pressing, providing extensive reference values.

  8. Insulin modulates network activity in olfactory bulb slices: impact on odour processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuczewski, Nicola; Fourcaud-Trocmé, Nicolas; Savigner, Agnès; Thevenet, Marc; Aimé, Pascaline; Garcia, Samuel; Duchamp-Viret, Patricia; Palouzier-Paulignan, Brigitte

    2014-01-01

    Odour perception depends closely on nutritional status, in animals as in humans. Insulin, the principal anorectic hormone, appears to be one of the major candidates for ensuring the link between olfactory abilities and nutritional status, by modifying processing in the olfactory bulb (OB), one of its main central targets. The present study investigates whether and how insulin can act in OB, by evaluating its action on the main output neurons activities, mitral cells (MCs), in acute rat OB slices. Insulin was found to act at two OB network levels: (1) on MCs, by increasing their excitability, probably by inhibiting two voltage-gated potassium (K+) channels; (2) on interneurons by modifying the GABAergic and on glutamatergic synaptic activity impinging on MCs, mainly reducing them. Insulin also altered the olfactory nerve (ON)-evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents in 60% of MCs. Insulin decreased or increased the ON-evoked responses in equal proportion and the direction of its effect depended on the initial neuron ON-evoked firing rate. Indeed, insulin tended to decrease the high and to increase the low ON-evoked firing rates, thereby reducing inter-MC response firing variability. Therefore, the effects of insulin on the evoked firing rates were not carried out indiscriminately in the MC population. By constructing a mathematical model, the impact of insulin complex effects on OB was assessed at the population activity level. The model shows that the reduction of variability across cells could affect MC detection and discrimination abilities, mainly by decreasing and, less frequently, increasing them, depending on odour quality. Thus, as previously proposed, this differential action of insulin on MCs across odours would allow this hormone to put the olfactory function under feeding signal control, given the discerning valence of an odour as a function of nutritional status. PMID:24710056

  9. Bulb Miser

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    The Bulb-Miser was developed during NASA's Apollo program to protect the Saturn launch vehicle from electrical current surge. It is now being produced for the commercial market by Bulb-Miser, Inc., Houston, Texas. Technically known as a "temperature compensating thermistor," the Bulb-Miser is a simple, inexpensive device which looks like a washer about the size of a quarter. It is slipped between bulb and socket and can be used with any incandescent bulb that screws into a standard socket. In addition to delaying burnout, the Bulb-Miser also offers some reduction of electrical energy. But the economy of the device goes beyond energy use or bulb cost; to big users of bulbs, it makes possible substantially lower maintenance labor costs. One field test involving an apartment complex showed that it took two men 30 man hours monthly to replace light bulbs; after Bulb-Miser installation only nine man hours a month were needed. Bulb-Misers are used not only in private homes but also by hospitals, schools, hotels and motels, restaurants, banks and firms providing contract maintenance for large outdoor electric signs. The broadest use is in industrial facilities; the list of big companies which have purchased the Bulb-Miser reads like a Who's Who of American industry.

  10. A study of some chemical changes in onion bulbs and their inner buds as affected by gamma radiation and storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the aim of detecting the break of dormancy and of investigating the effects of gamma irradiation at the 5 krad dose level, the length of inner buds and the content of vitamin C, reducing and total sugars of Mako onion bulbs and their inner buds were determined periodically during storage at 0 to 40C. A temporary increase in vitamin C content was detected shortly before the inner buds started to grow. The vitamin C content was considerably higher in the growing buds than that in the whole bulbs. Both reducing and non-reducing sugars increased gradually during the dormancy period and levelled off after the break in dormancy. Irradiation of onions before the break in dormancy resulted in much stronger sprout inhibition than radiation treatment during the non-dormant stage. Inner buds of onions irradiated after the break of dormancy tended to darken during post-irradiation storage. Bulbs radiation-treated in the dormant stage resulted in an onion powder of a lighter colour on drying than onions untreated or radiation-treated at the non-dormant stage. The vitamin C, reducing and non-reducing sugar contents and the amino acid composition of the onion flesh and the inner buds were investigated in the final stage of storage, 8 to 10 months after harvest. Compositional differences found between irradiated and untreated onions seem to be of no nutritional significance. Free radicals formed in the outer scales of onions by irradiation diminished within 96 hours at room temperature. (author)

  11. Association between radioinhibition process and membrane phase properties in bulbs of garlic (Allium sativum L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, Monica B.; Curzio, Osvaldo A.; Croci, Clara A. [Universidad Nacional del Sur, Bahia Blanca (Argentina). Dept. de Quimica e Ingenieria Quimica

    1997-12-01

    Garlic bulbs were irradiated 30 days after harvest with a dose of 60.0 Gy of {sup 60} Co gamma rays, Along 270 days of storage phase properties of rough and smooth microsomal membranes isolated from storage leaf of garlic cloves were examined by wide angle X-ray diffraction. The diffractograms features peaks at Bragg spacing of 4.15 A and 3.75 A, revealing the presence of a gel (crystalline) phase, while the characteristics peak of the liquid-crystalline phase (4.6 A) was not observed in the studied membranes. Data from rough microsomal membranes were erratic and unreliable. The intensity of phase gel peaks decreased up to 30 days of the tratment in the smooth microsomal membranes. Radiation-induced inhibition of sprout growth became evident in about 60 days and was synchronous with a marked increase in the intensity of phase gel peaks. The presence of a greater proportion of lipids in crystalline state in irradiated samples 60 days after treatment suggest a decrease in the average fluidity in smooth microsomal menbranes. These results are discussed in relation to the use of wide angle X-ray diffraction of smooth microsomal membranes as a possible indicator of irradiation treatment of garlic bulbs. (author). 16 refs., 3 figs.

  12. Association between radioinhibition process and membrane phase properties in bulbs of garlic (Allium sativum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garlic bulbs were irradiated 30 days after harvest with a dose of 60.0 Gy of 60 Co gamma rays, Along 270 days of storage phase properties of rough and smooth microsomal membranes isolated from storage leaf of garlic cloves were examined by wide angle X-ray diffraction. The diffractograms features peaks at Bragg spacing of 4.15 A and 3.75 A, revealing the presence of a gel (crystalline) phase, while the characteristics peak of the liquid-crystalline phase (4.6 A) was not observed in the studied membranes. Data from rough microsomal membranes were erratic and unreliable. The intensity of phase gel peaks decreased up to 30 days of the tratment in the smooth microsomal membranes. Radiation-induced inhibition of sprout growth became evident in about 60 days and was synchronous with a marked increase in the intensity of phase gel peaks. The presence of a greater proportion of lipids in crystalline state in irradiated samples 60 days after treatment suggest a decrease in the average fluidity in smooth microsomal menbranes. These results are discussed in relation to the use of wide angle X-ray diffraction of smooth microsomal membranes as a possible indicator of irradiation treatment of garlic bulbs. (author). 16 refs., 3 figs

  13. A Study of Some Chemical Changes in Onion Bulbs and Their Inner Buds as Affected by Gamma Radiation and Storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the aim of detecting the break of dormancy and of investigating the effects of gamma irradiation at the 5 krad dose level, the length of inner buds and the content of vitamin C, reducing and total sugars of Makó onion bulbs and their inner buds were determined periodically during storage at 0 to 4°C. A temporary increase in vitamin C content was detected shortly before the inner buds started to grow. The vitamin C content was considerably higher in the growing buds than that in the whole bulbs. Both reducing and non-reducing sugars increased gradually during the dormancy period and levelled off after the break in dormancy. Irradiation of onions before the break in dormancy resulted in much stronger sprout inhibition than radiation treatment during the non-dormant stage. Inner buds of onions irradiated after the break of dormancy tended to darken during post-irradiation storage. Bulbs radiation-treated in the dormant stage resulted in an onion powder of a lighter colour on drying than onions untreated or radiation-treated at the non-dormant stage. The vitamin C, reducing and nonreducing sugar contents and the amino acid composition of the onion flesh and the inner buds were investigated in the final stage of storage, 8 to 10 months after harvest. Compositional differences found between irradiated and untreated onions seem to be of no nutritional significance. Free radicals formed in the outer scales of onions by irradiation diminished within 96 hours at room temperature. (author)

  14. Neuronal organization of olfactory bulb circuits

    OpenAIRE

    Shin eNagayama; Ryota eHomma; Fumiaki eImamura

    2014-01-01

    Olfactory sensory neurons extend their axons solely to the olfactory bulb, which is dedicated to odor information processing. The olfactory bulb is divided into multiple layers, with different types of neurons found in each of the layers. Therefore, neurons in the olfactory bulb have conventionally been categorized based on the layers in which their cell bodies are found; namely, juxtaglomerular cells in the glomerular layer, tufted cells in the external plexiform layer, mitral cells in the...

  15. A Method to Measure Humidity Based on Dry-Bulb and Wet-Bulb Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongping Huang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study tries to analyze the theory of measuring humidity based on dry-bulb and wet-bulb temperatures. And a theoretical formula is deduced for the calculation of relative humidity from dry-bulb and wet-bulb temperatures. Through analysis of the theoretical formula, a two-dimensional conversion table is produced to transform dry-bulb and wet-bulb temperatures into relative humidity. A method is proposed to obtain humidity by combining searching table and linear smoothing algorithm, which is suitable for rapid control. Error analysis and experimental data indicate that the relative error is less than 4%. The proposed method has certain value for humidity control in industrial control process.

  16. Effect of olive mill wastewater on growth and bulb production of tulip plants infected by bulb diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos Lykas

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect of olive mill wastewater (OMW on growth of tulip plants infected by common diseases as well as on their new bulbs production is analyzed in this work. Filtered and sterilized OMW was tested as growth inhibitor of Botrytis tulipae, Fusarium oxysporum, Aspergillus niger and Penicillium spp. mycelium. The effect of filtered OMW on uninfected tulip bulbs was also tested as well as on the growth of bulbs infected with the fungus B. tulipae and A. niger in vivo. The mycelium length, severity of scab-like lesions, plant height (PH, fresh mass (FM and dry mass (DM of plants and production of new bulbs were recorded. Only the filtered OMW inhibited the in vitro mycelium growth of all tested fungi. However filtered OMW caused infections when it sprayed on uninfected bulbs, malformations on 30% of the plants grown from these bulbs and decrease PH, FM and DM as well as new bulbs production at 75%, 72.4%, 79.1% and 50% respectively. The treatment of B. tulipae infected bulbs with filtered OMW reduced further the PH, FM, DM and the production of new bulbs in 92.1%, 81.4%, 78.7% and 97% respectively. In contrast the treatment of infected bulbs by B. tulipae + A. niger with filtered OMW did not affect PH, FM and the number of new bulbs produced and significantly improved plants DM and the mass of new bulbs.

  17. Effect of olive mill wastewater on growth and bulb production of tulip plants infected by bulb diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lykas, C.; Vegalas, I.; Gougaulias, N.

    2014-06-01

    The effect of olive mill wastewater (OMW) on growth of tulip plants infected by common diseases as well as on their new bulbs production is analyzed in this work. Filtered and sterilized OMW was tested as growth inhibitor of Botrytis tulipae, Fusarium oxysporum, Aspergillus niger and Penicillium spp. mycelium. The effect of filtered OMW on uninfected tulip bulbs was also tested as well as on the growth of bulbs infected with the fungus B. tulipae and A. niger in vivo. The mycelium length, severity of scab-like lesions, plant height (PH), fresh mass (FM) and dry mass (DM) of plants and production of new bulbs were recorded. Only the filtered OMW inhibited the in vitro mycelium growth of all tested fungi. However filtered OMW caused infections when it sprayed on uninfected bulbs, malformations on 30% of the plants grown from these bulbs and decrease PH, FM and DM as well as new bulbs production at 75%, 72.4%, 79.1% and 50% respectively. The treatment of B. tulipae infected bulbs with filtered OMW reduced further the PH, FM, DM and the production of new bulbs in 92.1%, 81.4%, 78.7% and 97% respectively. In contrast the treatment of infected bulbs by B. tulipae + A. niger with filtered OMW did not affect PH, FM and the number of new bulbs produced and significantly improved plants DM and the mass of new bulbs. (Author)

  18. Adult Olfactory Bulb Neurogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lledo, Pierre-Marie; Valley, Matt

    2016-01-01

    Most organisms use their olfactory system to detect and analyze chemical cues from the external world to guide essential behaviors. From worms to vertebrates, chemicals are detected by odorant receptors expressed by olfactory sensory neurons, which in vertebrates send an axon to the primary processing center called the olfactory bulb (OB). Within the OB, sensory neurons form excitatory synapses with projection neurons and with inhibitory interneurons. Thus, because of complex synaptic interactions, the output of a given projection neuron is determined not only by the sensory input, but also by the activity of local inhibitory interneurons that are regenerated throughout life in the process of adult neurogenesis. Herein, we discuss how it is optimized and why. PMID:27235474

  19. Wiring Switches to Light Bulbs

    CERN Document Server

    Buckley, Stephen M

    2011-01-01

    Given n buttons and n bulbs so that the ith button toggles the ith bulb and at most two other bulbs, we compute the sharp lower bound on the number of bulbs that can be lit regardless of the action of the buttons.

  20. Fabrication of Closed Hollow Bulb Obturator Using Thermoplastic Resin Material

    OpenAIRE

    Bidhan Shrestha; E. Richard Hughes; Raj Kumar Singh; Pramita Suwal; Prakash Kumar Parajuli; Pragya Shrestha; Arati Sharma; Galav Adhikari

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. Closed hollow bulb obturators are used for the rehabilitation of postmaxillectomy patients. However, the time consuming process, complexity of fabrication, water leakage, and discoloration are notable disadvantages of this technique. This paper describes a clinical report of fabricating closed hollow bulb obturator using a single flask and one time processing method for an acquired maxillary defect. Hard thermoplastic resin sheet has been used for the fabrication of hollow bulb part ...

  1. Illuminating Physics with Light Bulbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leff, Harvey S.

    1990-01-01

    Presents ideas on how common household light bulbs can be used to develop interest in learning physics. Focuses on supermarket data taking and analyses, filament temperatures, detective work with three-way bulbs, and lifetime statistics. (YP)

  2. Cortical feedback control of olfactory bulb circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Alison M; Sturgill, James F; Poo, Cindy; Isaacson, Jeffry S

    2012-12-20

    Olfactory cortex pyramidal cells integrate sensory input from olfactory bulb mitral and tufted (M/T) cells and project axons back to the bulb. However, the impact of cortical feedback projections on olfactory bulb circuits is unclear. Here, we selectively express channelrhodopsin-2 in olfactory cortex pyramidal cells and show that cortical feedback projections excite diverse populations of bulb interneurons. Activation of cortical fibers directly excites GABAergic granule cells, which in turn inhibit M/T cells. However, we show that cortical inputs preferentially target short axon cells that drive feedforward inhibition of granule cells. In vivo, activation of olfactory cortex that only weakly affects spontaneous M/T cell firing strongly gates odor-evoked M/T cell responses: cortical activity suppresses odor-evoked excitation and enhances odor-evoked inhibition. Together, these results indicate that although cortical projections have diverse actions on olfactory bulb microcircuits, the net effect of cortical feedback on M/T cells is an amplification of odor-evoked inhibition. PMID:23259951

  3. Prerequisites for Affective Signal Processing (ASP)

    OpenAIRE

    Broek, van den, Pim; Janssen, Joris H.; Westerink, Joyce H.D.M.; Healey, Jennifer A.; Encarnacao, P.; Veloso, A.

    2009-01-01

    Although emotions are embraced by science, their recognition has not reached a satisfying level. Through a concise overview of affect, its signals, features, and classification methods, we provide understanding for the problems encountered. Next, we identify the prerequisites for successful Affective Signal Processing: validation (e.g., mapping of constructs on signals), triangulation, a physiology-driven approach, and contributions of the signal processing community. Using these directives, ...

  4. Neuronal organization of olfactory bulb circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin eNagayama

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Olfactory sensory neurons extend their axons solely to the olfactory bulb, which is dedicated to odor information processing. The olfactory bulb is divided into multiple layers, with different types of neurons found in each of the layers. Therefore, neurons in the olfactory bulb have conventionally been categorized based on the layers in which their cell bodies are found; namely, juxtaglomerular cells in the glomerular layer, tufted cells in the external plexiform layer, mitral cells in the mitral cell layer, and granule cells in the granule cell layer. More recently, numerous studies have revealed the heterogeneous nature of each of these cell types, allowing them to be further divided into subclasses based on differences in morphological, molecular, and electrophysiological properties. In addition, technical developments and advances have resulted in an increasing number of studies regarding cell types other than the conventionally categorized ones described above, including short-axon cells and adult-generated interneurons. Thus, the expanding diversity of cells in the olfactory bulb is now being acknowledged. However, our current understanding of olfactory bulb neuronal circuits is mostly based on the conventional and simplest classification of cell types. Few studies have taken neuronal diversity into account for understanding the function of the neuronal circuits in this region of the brain. This oversight may contribute to the roadblocks in developing more precise and accurate models of olfactory neuronal networks. The purpose of this review is therefore to discuss the expanse of existing work on neuronal diversity in the olfactory bulb up to this point, so as to provide an overall picture of the olfactory bulb circuit.

  5. Fooling Mother Nature: Forcing Flower Bulbs for Indoor Bloom

    OpenAIRE

    Graine, George; Scoggins, Holly Lynne, 1962-

    2014-01-01

    Think about bulb forcing as an orderly process. This includes choosing the bulb, storing it if necessary, selecting the right size container, determining the potting mix, planting (including fertilizer, water and location), providing a cooling treatment if necessary and after care. Other considerations may be color, fragrance, and timing for seasonal enjoyment of winter or early spring bloom.

  6. Affective processing in bilingual speakers: disembodied cognition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlenko, Aneta

    2012-01-01

    A recent study by Keysar, Hayakawa, and An (2012) suggests that "thinking in a foreign language" may reduce decision biases because a foreign language provides a greater emotional distance than a native tongue. The possibility of such "disembodied" cognition is of great interest for theories of affect and cognition and for many other areas of psychological theory and practice, from clinical and forensic psychology to marketing, but first this claim needs to be properly evaluated. The purpose of this review is to examine the findings of clinical, introspective, cognitive, psychophysiological, and neuroimaging studies of affective processing in bilingual speakers in order to identify converging patterns of results, to evaluate the claim about "disembodied cognition," and to outline directions for future inquiry. The findings to date reveal two interrelated processing effects. First-language (L1) advantage refers to increased automaticity of affective processing in the L1 and heightened electrodermal reactivity to L1 emotion-laden words. Second-language (L2) advantage refers to decreased automaticity of affective processing in the L2, which reduces interference effects and lowers electrodermal reactivity to negative emotional stimuli. The differences in L1 and L2 affective processing suggest that in some bilingual speakers, in particular late bilinguals and foreign language users, respective languages may be differentially embodied, with the later learned language processed semantically but not affectively. This difference accounts for the reduction of framing biases in L2 processing in the study by Keysar et al. (2012). The follow-up discussion identifies the limits of the findings to date in terms of participant populations, levels of processing, and types of stimuli, puts forth alternative explanations of the documented effects, and articulates predictions to be tested in future research. PMID:23163422

  7. Sprout inhibition in roots, tubers and bulbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The treatment with ionizing radiations to low dose impedes that appear sprouts in the tubers (potatoes); bulbs (onion and garlic) and in roots like the ginger and the yucca. The purpose is to inhibit the germination during the process of manipulation and storage, and this way to avoid the lost ones post crop of these products. The radiation dose required to inhibit the germination goes to depend of: the development conditions, the differences of variety, of the storage state of the bulbs and the conditions of cured and storage. (Author)

  8. Neuroimaging of affect processing in schizophrenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Functional imaging of normal and dysfunctional emotional processes is an important tool for a better understanding of the pathophysiology of affective symptoms in schizophrenia patients. These symptoms are still poorly characterized with respect to their neural correlates. Comparisons of cerebral activation during emotional paradigms offered the possibility for a better characterization of cerebral dysfunctions during emotional processing in schizophrenia. Abnormal activation patterns reveal a complex dysfunctional subcortical-cortical network. This is modulated by respective genotypes as well as psycho- and pharmacotherapy. (orig.)

  9. Luminescence of carbon nanotube bulbs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI ChuanGang; WU DeHai; WANG KunLin; WEI JinQuan; WEI BingQing; ZHU HongWei; WANG ZhiCheng; LUO JianBin; LIU WenJin; ZHENG MingXin

    2007-01-01

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) bulbs made of decimeter-scale double-walled carbon nanotube (DWCNT) strands and films were fabricated and their luminescence properties, including the lighting efficiency, voltage-current relation and thermal stability were investigated. The results show that the DWCNT bulb has a comparable spectrum of visible light with tungsten bulb and its average efficiency is 40% higher than that of a tungsten filament at the same temperature (1400-2300 K). The nanotube filaments show both resistance and thermal stability over a large temperature region. No obvious damage was found for a nanotube bulb illuminating at 2300 K for more than 24 hours in vacuum.

  10. Shedding Some Light on Fluorescent Bulbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilbert, Nicholas R.

    1996-01-01

    Explores some of the principles behind the working of fluorescent bulbs using a specially prepared fluorescent bulb with the white inner fluorescent coating applied along only half its length. Discusses the spectrum, the bulb plasma, and light production. (JRH)

  11. Fabrication of Closed Hollow Bulb Obturator Using Thermoplastic Resin Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bidhan Shrestha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Closed hollow bulb obturators are used for the rehabilitation of postmaxillectomy patients. However, the time consuming process, complexity of fabrication, water leakage, and discoloration are notable disadvantages of this technique. This paper describes a clinical report of fabricating closed hollow bulb obturator using a single flask and one time processing method for an acquired maxillary defect. Hard thermoplastic resin sheet has been used for the fabrication of hollow bulb part of the obturator. Method. After fabrication of master cast conventionally, bulb and lid part of the defect were formed separately and joined by autopolymerizing acrylic resin to form one sized smaller hollow body. During packing procedure, the defect area was loaded with heat polymerizing acrylic resin and then previously fabricated smaller hollow body was adapted over it. The whole area was then loaded with heat cure acrylic. Further processes were carried out conventionally. Conclusion. This technique uses single flask which reduces laboratory time and makes the procedure simple. The thickness of hollow bulb can be controlled and light weight closed hollow bulb prosthesis can be fabricated. It also minimizes the disadvantages of closed hollow bulb obturator such as water leakage, bacterial infection, and discoloration.

  12. Newborn Interneurons in the Accessory Olfactory Bulb Promote Mate Recognition in Female Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livio eOboti

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In the olfactory bulb of adult rodents, local interneurons are constantly replaced by immature precursors derived from the subventricular zone. Whether any olfactory sensory process specifically relies on this cell renewal remains largely unclear. By using the well-known model of mating-induced imprinting, we demonstrate that this olfactory memory formation critically depends on the presence of newborn granule neurons in the accessory olfactory bulb. Accordingly, we show that, in adult female mice, exposure to male pheromones increases the number of new granule cells surviving in the accessory olfactory bulb. This neuronal addition depends on the detection of sensory cues by the vomeronasal organ and requires centrifugal feedback activity from the amygdala. The stimuli affecting neuronal survival are contained in the low molecular weight fraction of urine and are implied in pheromonal recognition during mating. By chemical depletion of newly generated bulbar interneurons, we show a direct role of renewed granule cells in the accessory olfactory bulb in preventing pregnancy block by mating male odours. Taken together, our results indicate that adult neurogenesis is essential for specific brain functions such as persistent odour learning and mate recognition.

  13. Sensory quality of irradiated onion and garlic bulbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioinhibition process has shown to prolong shelf-life of ''Valenciana sintetica 14'' onion variety and ''Colorado'' garlic variety. Sensory attributes of the irradiated bulbs were tested monthly by trained judges during extended storage in warehouse conditions (6-32C, R.H. 40-50%). The sensory properties observed were external and internal appearance, firmness and odor. The irradiated bulbs were judged to be superior in quality with respect to internal and external appearance (p 0.01) and firmness (p 0.01), after 180 days postharvest. The irradiated bulbs showed no difference in odor (p 0.05), when compared to unirradiated ones, through the storage period

  14. Quality evaluation of onion bulbs during low temperature drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djaeni, M.; Asiah, N.; Wibowo, Y. P.; Yusron, D. A. A.

    2016-06-01

    A drying technology must be designed carefully by evaluating the foods' final quality properties as a dried material. Thermal processing should be operated with the minimum chance of substantial flavour, taste, color and nutrient loss. The main objective of this research was to evaluate the quality parameters of quercetin content, color, non-enzymatic browning and antioxidant activity. The experiments showed that heating at different temperatures for several drying times resulted in a percentage of quercetin being generally constant. The quercetin content maintained at the value of ±1.2 % (dry basis). The color of onion bulbs was measured by CIE standard illuminant C. The red color (a*) of the outer layer of onion bulbs changed significantly when the drying temperature was increased. However the value of L* and b* changed in a fluctuating way based on the temperature. The change of onion colors was influenced by temperature and moisture content during the drying process. The higher the temperature, the higher it affects the rate of non-enzymatic browning reaction. The correlation between temperature and reaction rate constant was described as Arrhenius equation. The rate of non-enzymatic browning increases along with the increase of drying temperature. The results showed that higher drying temperatures were followed by a lower IC10. This condition indicated the increase of antioxidant activity after the drying process.

  15. Neurogenesis in the adult olfactory bulb

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Angela Pignatelli; Cristina Gambardella; Ottorino Belluzzi

    2011-01-01

    Neurogenesis is the process by which cells divide, migrate, and subsequently differentiate into a neuronal phenotype. Significant rates of neurogenesis persist into adulthood in two brain regions, the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus and the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricles. Cells of the subventricular zone divide and migrate via the rostral migratory stream to the olfactory bulb where they differentiate into granule and periglomerular cells. With the discovery of large-scale neurogenesis in the adult brain, there have been significant efforts to identify the mechanisms that control this process as well as the role of these cells in neuronal functioning. Although many questions remain unanswered, new insights appear daily about adult neurogenesis, regulatory mechanisms, and the fates of the progeny. In this review we highlight the main studies investigating factors that regulate neurogenesis in the subventricular zone, neuronal migration to the olfactory bulb, neuronal integration into the existing bulbar network and shortly discuss the functional meaning of this process.

  16. Mental processes affecting the piano performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buğra Gültek

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine the mental processes that affect the piano performance. An efficient performance and education of the piano instrument depends on a complex systematic structure of a combination of some musical and technical challenges. To succeed in piano playing, one shall overcome the difficulties systematically over several years. Naturally, this process depends on many variables and the correct organization of the central nervous system plays a very important role on it. Having a complete understanding on the subject matter, it might guide the performance of piano playing and its educationBy the analysis of the historical processes, the activity of playing the piano was initially seen as a pure mechanical activity. However, at the beginning of the 20th Century, scholars had started to consider it not without its physiological and mental elements. This trend has reached today by gradually increasing its importance. Today in the contemporary piano performance and education, the mental processes are not being isolated from the whole matter of subject. In this study, the importance of the practicing methods that are based on correct organization of the central nervous system is set forth and to increase the efficiency of the piano performance, some practicing examples are given.

  17. Closed suction drain with bulb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulb drain; Jackson-Pratt drain; JP drain; Blake drain; Wound drain; Surgical drain ... A closed suction drain is used to remove fluids that build up in areas of your body after surgery or when you have ...

  18. Radiosensitivity of garlic air bulbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents data on the radiosensitivity of various sorts of garlic. It is shown that the frequency of chromosomal aberrations in the irradiated aerial bulbs of stemmed varieties of garlic is directly dependent upon the gmma-ray dose. With increasing dose the germination capacity and the viability of the plants diminishes. A dose of 750 r was found to be critical for the bulbs of the garlic varieties studied

  19. Glucocorticoids act on glutamatergic pathways to affect memory processes

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Glucocorticoids can acutely affect memory processes, with both facilitating and impairing effects having been described. Recent work has revealed that glucocorticoids may affect learning and memory processes by interacting with glutamatergic mechanisms. In this opinion article I describe different glutamatergic pathways that glucocorticoids can affect to modulate memory processes. Furthermore, glucocorticoid-glutamatergic interactions during information processing are proposed as a potential ...

  20. Factors affecting multifunctional teams in innovation processes

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Xin

    2002-01-01

    Structuring the innovation process and managing multifunctional teams is a basic prerequisite successful innovation. A well-structured process gives the possibility to implement effective multifunctional teamwork. Meanwhile, multifunctional teamwork helps to optimise and accomplish the innovation process. Organizational support is necessary to achieve effective teamwork. Designing or changing the organizational structures for multifunctional collaboration is an important issue. Changing th...

  1. Factors affecting multifunctional teams in innovation processes

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Xin

    2002-01-01

    Structuring the innovation process and managing multifunctional teams is a basic prerequisite successful innovation. A well-structured process gives the possibility to implement effective multifunctional teamwork. Meanwhile, multifunctional teamwork helps to optimise and accomplish the innovation process. Organizational support is necessary to achieve effective teamwork. Designing or changing the organizational structures for multifunctional collaboration is an important issue. Changing the s...

  2. Effect of Gamma and ultraviolet irradiation on post harvest onion bulb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exposing Giza 6 and Giza 20 onion bulbs to different doses of gamma and UV radiation after inoculation with B. Allii and A. niger greatly affected rot development compared with unirradiated and inoculated with the same fungi. Gamma radiation at 1600 Gy gave good results in suppressing the infection and decreasing sprouting as compared with unirradiated ones. Application of gamma radiation to onion bulbs caused marked decrease in sugar content in inoculated bulbs, un inoculated and irradiated bulbs gave higher levels of phenolic compounds compared with unirradiated ones. Exposing onion bulbs to UV rays at different exposure time, then left to natural infection, showed lower percentage of infection and sprouting. Whatever, UV rays at 365 nm for 9 minutes suppressed the infection and sprouting in both C vs. un inoculated onion bulbs and exposed to UV at 365 nm for 9 min. Contained higher amount of total sugars and phenol contents than inoculated and exposed to the same dose and also, un inoculated and unexposed ones. Un inoculated and inoculated onion bulbs and exposed to UV rays contained lower amounts of TSS and vitamin. C than un inoculated and non irradiated bulbs. In contrast, un inoculated and non irradiated bulbs of both Cvs. Contained less amounts of tetra table acidity compared with inoculated and un inoculated and exposed to UV rays. 8 tabs

  3. Flexible control in processing affective and non-affective material predicts individual differences in trait resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genet, Jessica J; Siemer, Matthias

    2011-02-01

    Trait resilience is a stable personality characteristic that involves the self-reported ability to flexibly adapt to emotional events and situations. The present study examined cognitive processes that may explain individual differences in trait resilience. Participants completed self-report measures of trait resilience, cognitive flexibility and working memory capacity tasks, and a novel affective task-switching paradigm that assesses the ability to flexibly switch between processing the affective versus non-affective qualities of affective stimuli (i.e., flexible affective processing). As hypothesised, cognitive flexibility and flexible affective processing were unique predictors of trait resilience. Working memory capacity was not predictive of trait resilience, indicating that trait resilience is tied to specific cognitive processes rather than overall better cognitive functioning. Cognitive flexibility and flexible affective processing were not associated with other trait measures, suggesting that these flexibility processes are unique to trait resilience. This study was among the first to investigate the cognitive abilities underlying trait resilience. PMID:21432680

  4. No-Light Light Bulbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modern Schools, 1976

    1976-01-01

    A thumbnail sketch of some of the light bulbs manufactured for a purpose other than seeing. These "dark" lamps perform varied tasks including keeping food fresh, detecting and preventing disease, spurring plant growth, heating, and copying printed material. (Author/MLF)

  5. The radiotherapy affects the cognitive processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Researchers from the medical center of the free university of Amsterdam report that the radiotherapy can hinder the cognitive functions of patients affected by cerebral tumors treated after a surgery. Even low dose radiation could contribute in their opinion, to the progressive cognitive decline of patients suffering of low grade gliomas, the most commune cerebral tumor. To get these conclusions, 65 patients, whom half of them received a radiotherapy, had a neurological and psychological evaluation twelve years after their treatment. Results: 53% of patients treated by radiotherapy present disorders of attention, memory, execution and speed of information treatment against 27% of these ones that received an only surgery. The researchers conclude to the necessity to take into account this risk in the choice of treatment, or even to avoid radiotherapy in this precise case. (N.C.)

  6. Sound Affects the Speed of Visual Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keetels, Mirjam; Vroomen, Jean

    2011-01-01

    The authors examined the effects of a task-irrelevant sound on visual processing. Participants were presented with revolving clocks at or around central fixation and reported the hand position of a target clock at the time an exogenous cue (1 clock turning red) or an endogenous cue (a line pointing toward 1 of the clocks) was presented. A…

  7. Conceptualizing catchment processes affecting stream chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Tiwari, Tejshree

    2015-01-01

    Maintaining good surface water quality is recognized as one of the greatest challenges for future generations. In northern-latitudes, it is predicted that aquatic ecosystems may experience a large climatic change. This could have dramatic consequences for the hydrological cycle, which influences many biogeochemical process and ultimately stream water quality. Additionally, increasing demand for forest resources can increase the pressure on water resources in the boreal forest that already exp...

  8. Factors affecting the MTW zeolite cristallization process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katovic, A.; Giordano, G. [Universita della Calabria, Rende (Italy)

    1995-12-01

    The synthesis mechanism of the high silica zeolite types other than MFI is rarely studied in the open literature. This work is devoted to the role of different parameters governing the zeolite MTW crystallization process. The influence of the most important factors: the nature of the silica and alumina source, the type of the organic cation, the alkalinity of the reaction mixture and the crystallization temperature, was studied. The molar composition of the initial hydrogel was varied in other to determine the crystallization field of the zeolite MTW. The observed morphology and particle size of the crystallites are related to the corresponding reaction conditions. The competitive formation of the other zeolite types (prevalently MFI and BEA) is discussed.

  9. Studies of dynamical processes affecting global climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, C.; Cooper, D.; Eichinger, W. [and others

    1998-12-31

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The main objective was, by a combined theoretical and observational approach, to develop improved models of dynamic processes in the oceans and atmosphere and to incorporate them into large climate codes, chiefly in four main areas: numerical physics, chemistry, water vapor, and ocean-atmosphere interactions. Main areas of investigation included studies of: cloud parameterizations for global climate codes, Lidar and the planetary boundary layer, chemistry, climate variability using coupled ocean-atmospheric models, and numerical physical methods. This project employed a unique approach that included participation of a number of University of California faculty, postdoctoral fellows and graduate students who collaborated with Los Alamos research staff on specific tasks, thus greatly enhancing the research output. Overall accomplishments during the sensing of the atmospheric planetary were: (1) first two- and three-dimensional remote sensing of the atmospheric planetary boundary layer using Lidars, (2) modeling of 20-year cycle in both pressure and sea surface temperatures in North Pacific, (3) modeling of low frequency internal variability, (4) addition of aerosols to stratosphere to simulate Pinatubo effect on ozone, (5) development of fast, comprehensive chemistry in the troposphere for urban pollution studies, (6) new prognostic cloud parameterization in global atmospheric code remedied problems with North Pacific atmospheric circulation and excessive equatorial precipitation, (7) development of a unique aerosol analysis technique, the aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ATOFMS), which allows real-time analysis of the size and chemical composition of individual aerosol particles, and (8) numerical physics applying Approximate Inertial Manifolds to ocean circulation. 14 refs., 6 figs.

  10. A Method to Measure Humidity Based on Dry-Bulb and Wet-Bulb Temperatures

    OpenAIRE

    Yongping Huang; Ke Zhang; Shufan Yang; Yushan Jin

    2013-01-01

    This study tries to analyze the theory of measuring humidity based on dry-bulb and wet-bulb temperatures. And a theoretical formula is deduced for the calculation of relative humidity from dry-bulb and wet-bulb temperatures. Through analysis of the theoretical formula, a two-dimensional conversion table is produced to transform dry-bulb and wet-bulb temperatures into relative humidity. A method is proposed to obtain humidity by combining searching table and linear smoothing algorithm, which i...

  11. Affective priming during the processing of news articles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.E. Baumgartner; W. Wirth

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigates the role of affective priming during the processing of news articles. It is assumed that the valence of the affective response to a news article will influence the processing of subsequent news articles. More specifically, it is hypothesized that participants who read

  12. Affect Control Processes: Intelligent Affective Interaction using a Partially Observable Markov Decision Process

    OpenAIRE

    Hoey, Jesse; Schroeder, Tobias; Alhothali, Areej

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a novel method for building affectively intelligent human-interactive agents. The method is based on a key sociological insight that has been developed and extensively verified over the last twenty years, but has yet to make an impact in artificial intelligence. The insight is that resource bounded humans will, by default, act to maintain affective consistency. Humans have culturally shared fundamental affective sentiments about identities, behaviours, and objects, and th...

  13. Inferring Group Processes from Computer-Mediated Affective Text Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schryver, Jack C [ORNL; Begoli, Edmon [ORNL; Jose, Ajith [Missouri University of Science and Technology; Griffin, Christopher [Pennsylvania State University

    2011-02-01

    Political communications in the form of unstructured text convey rich connotative meaning that can reveal underlying group social processes. Previous research has focused on sentiment analysis at the document level, but we extend this analysis to sub-document levels through a detailed analysis of affective relationships between entities extracted from a document. Instead of pure sentiment analysis, which is just positive or negative, we explore nuances of affective meaning in 22 affect categories. Our affect propagation algorithm automatically calculates and displays extracted affective relationships among entities in graphical form in our prototype (TEAMSTER), starting with seed lists of affect terms. Several useful metrics are defined to infer underlying group processes by aggregating affective relationships discovered in a text. Our approach has been validated with annotated documents from the MPQA corpus, achieving a performance gain of 74% over comparable random guessers.

  14. Implicit processing of visual emotions is affected by sound-induced affective states and individual affective traits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziana Quarto

    Full Text Available The ability to recognize emotions contained in facial expressions are affected by both affective traits and states and varies widely between individuals. While affective traits are stable in time, affective states can be regulated more rapidly by environmental stimuli, such as music, that indirectly modulate the brain state. Here, we tested whether a relaxing or irritating sound environment affects implicit processing of facial expressions. Moreover, we investigated whether and how individual traits of anxiety and emotional control interact with this process. 32 healthy subjects performed an implicit emotion processing task (presented to subjects as a gender discrimination task while the sound environment was defined either by a a therapeutic music sequence (MusiCure, b a noise sequence or c silence. Individual changes in mood were sampled before and after the task by a computerized questionnaire. Additionally, emotional control and trait anxiety were assessed in a separate session by paper and pencil questionnaires. Results showed a better mood after the MusiCure condition compared with the other experimental conditions and faster responses to happy faces during MusiCure compared with angry faces during Noise. Moreover, individuals with higher trait anxiety were faster in performing the implicit emotion processing task during MusiCure compared with Silence. These findings suggest that sound-induced affective states are associated with differential responses to angry and happy emotional faces at an implicit stage of processing, and that a relaxing sound environment facilitates the implicit emotional processing in anxious individuals.

  15. How to handle and care for bulbs in ophthalmic equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismael Cordero

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Many devices used in eye care rely on light bulbs or lamps for their operation. All light bulbs have a limited lifespan and when the bulb fails the device becomes unusable. Therefore, knowing how to handle, how to inspect and how to replace bulbs is important. Just as important is keeping spare bulbs to hand!

  16. COMPARISON OF MORPHOLOGICAL TRAITS AND MINERAL CONTENT IN EUCOMIS AUTUMNALIS (MILL. CHITT. PLANTS OBTAINED FROM BULBS TREATED WITH FUNGICIDES AND COATED WITH NATURAL POLYSACCHARIDES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Salachna

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Eucomis autumnalis is an attractive ornamental species from the South Africa, commonly used in natural medicine. Plant protection programs, particularly those concerning plants grown for phytotherapeutics, are focused on prophylactic treatments that facilitate a limited use of pesticides negatively affecting the environment. Polysaccharides, such as chitosan and sodium alginate are exemplary non-toxic and biodegradable substances used for hydrogel coatings. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of treating E. autumnalis bulbs with fungicide or coating with natural polysaccharides on the morphological traits and content of minerals in the leaves and bulbs. Prior to planting, the bulbs were divided into three groups: (I untreated bulbs (control; (II bulbs treated with Kaptan and Topsin fungicides; (III bulbs coated with oligochitosan and sodium alginate. Bulb coating was found to exert a stimulating effect on plant height, number and length of leaf, greenness index (SPAD, number of flowers per inflorescence, fresh weight of the aboveground part and fresh weight of bulbs. The leaves and bulbs of plants grown from coated bulbs contained more nitrogen, potassium and boron. Treating the bulbs with fungicides positively affected the number of leaves, greenness index and fresh weight of the aboveground part.

  17. Effect of gamma radiation on post harvest storage life of onion bulb under ordinary room condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Post harvest storage life of radiated onion bulbs harvested at different stages of maturity and stored at ordinary room temperature (30-39 degree C) was studied at the Department of Horticulture, NWFP Agricultural University, Peshawar, during August 2002. Onion bulbs were harvested at two stages i.e. drooping and complete dried leaf. Four radiation doses of 2, 4, 6 and 8 kilo rad (Kr) were applied with normal (control). The data of experiment was collected from weight loss, rot attack, sprouting, firmness and taste pungency. The results revealed that various radiation doses significantly affected weight loss, rot attack, sprouting, firmness and taste pungency. Onion bulbs radiated with 8 Kr showed minimum percent weight loss (28.59%), decrease in firmness and taste pungency. Minimum percent rot attack (6.3%) was observed in 6 and 8 Kr. Radiation doses of 4, 6 and 8 Kr showed no sprouting at all. Maximum weight loss (43.20%), rot attack (16.2%), sprouting (40.78%), decrease in firmness and taste pungency were recorded for control. The results showed that harvesting stages are statistically non-significant. The interaction between radiation doses and harvesting stages are also non-significant. Harvesting stages significantly affected weight loss, rot attack, sprouting and taste pungency. Onion bulbs of complete dried leaf stage recorded maximum percent weight loss (35.42%), percent sprouting (11.7%) and taste pungency while minimum percent weight loss (31.62%), percent sprouting (5.01%) and taste pungency was observed in onion bulbs of drooping stage. Maximum percent rot attack (10.9%) was noted in onion bulbs of drooping stage while minimum (7.3%) in onion bulbs of complete dried leaf stage. Radiation dose of 8 Kr is recommended to reduce the post-harvest losses in onion bulbs. Drooping stage comparatively prolonged the shelf life of bulb

  18. Processes affecting the remediation of chromium-contaminated sites.

    OpenAIRE

    Palmer, C.D.; Wittbrodt, P R

    1991-01-01

    The remediation of chromium-contaminated sites requires knowledge of the processes that control the migration and transformation of chromium. Advection, dispersion, and diffusion are physical processes affecting the rate at which contaminants can migrate in the subsurface. Heterogeneity is an important factor that affects the contribution of each of these mechanisms to the migration of chromium-laden waters. Redox reactions, chemical speciation, adsorption/desorption phenomena, and precipitat...

  19. Unintentionality of affective attention across visual processing stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andero eUusberg

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Affective attention involves bottom-up perceptual selection that prioritizes motivationally significant stimuli. To clarify the extent to which this process is automatic, we investigated the dependence of affective attention on the intention to process emotional meaning. Affective attention was manipulated by presenting IAPS images with variable arousal and intentionality by requiring participants to make affective and non-affective evaluations. Polytomous rather than binary decisions were required from the participants in order to elicit relatively deep emotional processing. The temporal dynamics of prioritized processing were assessed using Early Posterior Negativity (EPN, 175-300 ms as well as P3-like (P3, 300 – 500 ms and Slow Wave (SW, 500 – 1500 ms portions of the Late Positive Potential. All analysed components were differentially sensitive to stimulus categories suggesting that they indeed reflect distinct stages of motivational significance encoding. The intention to perceive emotional meaning had no effect on EPN, an additive effect on P3, and an interactive effect on SW. We concluded that affective attention went from completely unintentional during the EPN to partially unintentional during P3 and SW where top-down signals, respectively, complemented and modulated bottom-up differences in stimulus prioritization. The findings were interpreted in light of two-stage models of visual perception by associating the EPN with large-capacity initial relevance detection and the P3 as well as SW with capacity-limited consolidation and elaboration of affective stimuli.

  20. Fabricating a hollow bulb obturator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Sari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Obturators are generally used in the rehabilitation of the maxillectomy defects. Ideally, obturators should be light, properly fit and construction should be made easily. By decreasing the weight of the prosthesis, the retention and stability may be optimized to allow the obturator for function comfortably during mastication, phonation, and deglutition. In this case, a 65-year-old male patient underwent surgical removal of left part of the maxilla due to the squamous cell carcinoma. In this technique fabrication of a hollow bulb obturator prosthesis as a single unit in heat-cured acrylic resin using a single-step flasking procedure was described. The patient’s functional and esthetic expectations were satisfied.

  1. A rare case of Burkitt's lymphoma of the duodenal bulb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Joana Rita; Carrilho-Ribeiro, Luís; Zagalo, Alexandra; Medeiros, Fábio Cota; Ferreira, Cristina; Velosa, José

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal tract involvement in immunodeficiency-related Burkitt's lymphoma is not common and the duodenal involvement is very rare. We report the case of a 35-year-old man admitted because of abdominal pain, vomiting and weight loss. Human immunodeficiency virus infection was diagnosed and upper digestive tract endoscopy showed marked edema and hyperemia of the duodenal bulb with some violaceous areas. Immunohistochemical study of the bulbar tissue samples confirmed the diagnosis of Burkitt's lymphoma. To our knowledge, duodenal Burkitt's lymphoma affecting only the bulb has not been previously reported in the medical literature. In patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection who present with upper gastrointestinal symptoms, upper endoscopy may be diagnostic of malignancy and biopsies should be obtained from abnormal areas. PMID:27065741

  2. Are you in the mood? Therapist affect and psychotherapy process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chui, Harold; Hill, Clara E; Kline, Kathryn; Kuo, Patty; Mohr, Jonathan J

    2016-07-01

    Studies on therapist factors have mostly focused on therapist traits rather than states such as affect. Research related to therapist affect has often looked at therapist baseline well-being or therapist reactions, but not both. Fifteen therapists and 51 clients rated pre- and postsession affect, as well as postsession working alliance and session quality, for 1,172 sessions of individual psychotherapy at a community clinic. Therapists' affect became more positive when clients were initially positive and when clients became more positive over the session, and became more negative when clients were initially negative and when clients became more negative over the session. Furthermore, when therapists were initially positive in affect and when therapists became more positive over the session, clients rated the session quality to be high. Conversely, when therapists were initially negative in affect and when therapists became more negative over the session, clients rated the session quality and working alliance low. On open-ended questions, therapists reported mood shifts in 67% of sessions (63% positive, 50% negative). Positive affect change was attributed to collaborating with the client, perceiving the client to be engaged, or being a good therapist. Negative affect change was attributed to having a difficult client, perceiving the client to be in distress, or being a poor therapist. Thus, therapist state affect at presession and change in affect across a session may independently contribute to the process and outcome of therapy sessions. The examination of within-therapist variables over the course of therapy may further our understanding of therapist factors. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27177026

  3. FMRI scanner noise interaction with affective neural processes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavros Skouras

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was the investigation of interaction effects between functional MRI scanner noise and affective neural processes. Stimuli comprised of psychoacoustically balanced musical pieces, expressing three different emotions (fear, neutral, joy. Participants (N=34, 19 female were split into two groups, one subjected to continuous scanning and another subjected to sparse temporal scanning that features decreased scanner noise. Tests for interaction effects between scanning group (sparse/quieter vs continuous/noisier and emotion (fear, neutral, joy were performed. Results revealed interactions between the affective expression of stimuli and scanning group localized in bilateral auditory cortex, insula and visual cortex (calcarine sulcus. Post-hoc comparisons revealed that during sparse scanning, but not during continuous scanning, BOLD signals were significantly stronger for joy than for fear, as well as stronger for fear than for neutral in bilateral auditory cortex. During continuous scanning, but not during sparse scanning, BOLD signals were significantly stronger for joy than for neutral in the left auditory cortex and for joy than for fear in the calcarine sulcus. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first study to show a statistical interaction effect between scanner noise and affective processes and extends evidence suggesting scanner noise to be an important factor in functional MRI research that can affect and distort affective brain processes.

  4. Slow potentials of the turtle olfactory bulb in response to odor stimulation of the nose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuerman, R W

    1975-10-24

    Odor stimulation of the nose in the box turtle and the gopher tortoise produced a characteristic series of slow potentials in the olfactory bulb which were referred to as the odor evoked response. When recorded with direct coupling, the odor evoked response had 3 components: wave I, a short duration monophasic event; wave II, a long duration variation in the DC potential; and wave III, an oscillatory potential superimposed on wave II. Waves I and II were negative at bulbar surfaces receiving olfactory input and positive deep within the bulb. This series of potentials could be evoked by 3 methods of odor stimulation: (1) large puffs delivered from odorant test bottles, (2) small puffs delivered from a syringe and (3) continuous flow with concentration and nasal flow rate parameters controlled by an olfactometer. When the odor evoked response was recorded at a bulbar locus, these potentials were seen in response to each stimulation and the amplitudes of each wave were reproducible with the same stimulus. The amplitudes of the 3 waves were compared in the gopher tortoise and differed with the 3 odorants tested--high purity geraniol, technical grade geraniol and amyl acetate. Odorant concentration also directly affected the response amplitudes of all 3 wave components. The amplitudes of waves I and III markedly decreased with closely spaced stimulations recovering to near the initial values when the interstimulus interval was increased severalfold. This series of sensory evoked potentials is considered to reflect the processing of odor information from the olfactory receptors by the olfactory bulb. PMID:1175040

  5. Problems that Affect Quality of Rice Seeds During Processing

    OpenAIRE

    WAYAN SUENA; I GUSTI NGURAH RAKA; KETUT BUDIAWAN

    2013-01-01

    Temporary storage ofthe rice seed during processing, their quality mostly affected by moisture content.Aimed of the experiment is to know the effect of moisture content to the viability of rice seed during processing (short or temporarystorage). The experiment was conducted at Laboratory Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Udayana University. The experiment results show that the interaction effect between moisture content and storage were highly significant to almost all variables...

  6. Neural correlates of affective picture processing - a depth EEG study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brázdil, M.; Roman, R.; Urbánek, Tomáš; Chládek, Jan; Špok, Dalibor; Jurák, Pavel; Daniel, P.

    Istanbul: Istanbul University, 2008. s. 412. ISBN N. [ICON X - International Conference on Cognitive Neuroscience /10./. 01.09.2008-05.09.2008, Bodrum] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511; CEZ:AV0Z70250504 Keywords : deep brain structures * intracerebral EEG * affective picture processing Subject RIV: FH - Neurology

  7. Effect of gamma radiation on the meristematic activity of garlic (Allium sativum L. ) bulbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of 10 krad of gamma radiation on the sprouting and mieristematic activity of garlic bulbs is studied. Results show that the Irradiation inhibits the meristematic activity of the bulbs independently of the epoch of treatment. When the treatment is applied several months after harvest (five or more), some apparent sprouting could be detected. This is due to a cellular elongation process rather than to cellular divisions. (Author) 47 refs

  8. Continuous Spatial Representations in the Olfactory Bulb may Reflect Perceptual Categories

    OpenAIRE

    Benjamin Auffarth; Agustín Gutierrez-Galvez; Santiago Marco

    2011-01-01

    In sensory processing of odors, the olfactory bulb is an important relay station, where odor representations are noise-filtered, sharpened, and possibly re-organized. An organization by perceptual qualities has been found previously in the piriform cortex, however several recent studies indicate that the olfactory bulb code reflects behaviorally relevant dimensions spatially as well as at the population level. We apply a statistical analysis on 2-deoxyglucose images, taken over the entire bul...

  9. Effect of gamma radiation on the meristematic activity of garlic (allium sativum L.) bulbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of 10 krad of gamma radiation on the sprouting and meristematic activity of garlic bulbs is studied. Results show that the irradiation inhibits the meristematic activity of the bulbs independently of the epoch of treatment. When the treatment is applied several months after harvest (five or more), some apparent sprouting could be detected. This is due to a cellular elongation process rather than to cellular divisions. (author)

  10. Jugular bulb diverticulum combined with high jugular bulb: a case report with CT and MRA findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Seog Wan [College of Medicine, Chonbuk National Univ., Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-12-01

    Jugular bulb diverticulum is a rare condition that is characterized by the outpouching of the jugular bulb, and this can lead to hearing loss, tinnitus and vertigo. A few reports have revealed the radiologic findings about jugular bulb diverticulum, but none of them have described the MRA findings concerning this lesion. We present here the CT and MR venography findings in regards to a large high jugular blub and diverticulum we observed in a 47-year-old woman.

  11. Necker's smile: Immediate affective consequences of early perceptual processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topolinski, Sascha; Erle, Thorsten M; Reber, Rolf

    2015-07-01

    Current theories assume that perception and affect are separate realms of the mind. In contrast, we argue that affect is a genuine online-component of perception instantaneously mirroring the success of different perceptual stages. Consequently, we predicted that the success (failure) of even very early and cognitively encapsulated basic visual processing steps would trigger immediate positive (negative) affective responses. To test this assumption, simple visual stimuli that either allowed or obstructed early visual processing stages without participants being aware of this were presented briefly. Across 5 experiments, we found more positive affective responses to stimuli that allowed rather than obstructed Gestalt completion at certain early visual stages (Experiments 1-3; briefest presentation 100 ms with post-mask), and visual disambiguation in possible vs. impossible Necker cubes (Experiments 4 and 5; briefest presentation 100 ms with post-mask). This effect was observed both on verbal preference ratings (Experiments 1, 2, and 4) and as facial muscle responses occurring within 2-4 s after stimulus onset (zygomaticus activity; Experiments 3 and 7). For instance, in participants unaware of spatial possibility we found affective discrimination between possible and impossible Necker cubes (the famous Freemish Crate) for 100 ms presentation timings, although a conscious discrimination took more than 2000 ms (Experiment 4). PMID:25855534

  12. Humans process dog and human facial affect in similar ways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annett Schirmer

    Full Text Available Humans share aspects of their facial affect with other species such as dogs. Here we asked whether untrained human observers with and without dog experience are sensitive to these aspects and recognize dog affect with better-than-chance accuracy. Additionally, we explored similarities in the way observers process dog and human expressions. The stimulus material comprised naturalistic facial expressions of pet dogs and human infants obtained through positive (i.e., play and negative (i.e., social isolation provocation. Affect recognition was assessed explicitly in a rating task using full face images and images cropped to reveal the eye region only. Additionally, affect recognition was assessed implicitly in a lexical decision task using full faces as primes and emotional words and pseudowords as targets. We found that untrained human observers rated full face dog expressions from the positive and negative condition more accurately than would be expected by chance. Although dog experience was unnecessary for this effect, it significantly facilitated performance. Additionally, we observed a range of similarities between human and dog face processing. First, the facial expressions of both species facilitated lexical decisions to affectively congruous target words suggesting that their processing was equally automatic. Second, both dog and human negative expressions were recognized from both full and cropped faces. Third, female observers were more sensitive to affective information than were male observers and this difference was comparable for dog and human expressions. Together, these results extend existing work on cross-species similarities in facial emotions and provide evidence that these similarities are naturally exploited when humans interact with dogs.

  13. Light On the Behavior of Light Bulbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, H. L.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses a problem (on page 523 of "College Physics," by Sears, Zemansky, and Young, published by Addison-Wesley, 1980) concerning light bulbs and resistance. Shows why the assumption of constant resistance is unrealistic and provides guidelines for revision. (DH)

  14. Modeling the Olfactory Bulb - Coupled Nonlinear Oscillators

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Zhaoping; Hopfield, J J

    1989-01-01

    The olfactory bulb of mammals aids in the discrimination of odors. A mathematical model based on the bulbar anatomy and electrophysiology is described. Simulations produce a 35-60 Hz modulated activity coherent across the bulb, mimicing the observed field potentials. The decision states (for the odor information) here can be thought of as stable cycles, rather than point stable states typical of simpler neuro-computing models. Analysis and simulations show that a group of...

  15. Electrophysiological differences in the processing of affect misattribution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohei Hashimoto

    Full Text Available The affect misattribution procedure (AMP was proposed as a technique to measure an implicit attitude to a prime image [1]. In the AMP, neutral symbols (e.g., a Chinese pictograph, called the target are presented, following an emotional stimulus (known as the prime. Participants often misattribute the positive or negative affect of the priming images to the targets in spite of receiving an instruction to ignore the primes. The AMP effect has been investigated using behavioral measures; however, it is difficult to identify when the AMP effect occurs in emotional processing-whether the effect may occur in the earlier attention allocation stage or in the later evaluation stage. In this study, we examined the neural correlates of affect misattribution, using event-related potential (ERP dividing the participants into two groups based on their tendency toward affect misattribution. The ERP results showed that the amplitude of P2 was larger for the prime at the parietal location in participants showing a low tendency to misattribution than for those showing a high tendency, while the effect of judging neutral targets amiss according to the primes was reflected in the late processing of targets (LPP. In addition, the topographic pattern analysis revealed that EPN-like component to targets was correlated with the difference of AMP tendency as well as P2 to primes and LPP to targets. Taken together, the mechanism of the affective misattribution was closely related to the attention allocation processing. Our findings provide neural evidence that evaluations of neutral targets are misattributed to emotional primes.

  16. Affective picture processing: An integrative review of ERP findings

    OpenAIRE

    Olofsson, Jonas K.; Nordin, Steven; Sequeira, Henrique; Polich, John

    2007-01-01

    The review summarizes and integrates findings from 40 years of event-related potential (ERP) studies using pictures that differ in valence (unpleasant-to-pleasant) and arousal (low-to-high) and that are used to elicit emotional processing. Affective stimulus factors primarily modulate ERP component amplitude, with little change in peak latency observed. Arousal effects are consistently obtained, and generally occur at longer latencies. Valence effects are inconsistently reported at several la...

  17. Development of brain mechanisms for processing affective touch

    OpenAIRE

    Malin eBjornsdotter; Ilanit eGordon; Pelphrey, Kevin A.; Håkan eOlausson; Martha eKaiser

    2014-01-01

    Affective tactile stimulation plays a key role in the maturation of neural circuits, but the development of brain mechanisms processing touch is poorly understood. We therefore used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to study brain responses to soft brush stroking of both glabrous (palm) and hairy (forearm) skin in healthy children (5-13 years), adolescents (14-17 years), and adults (25-35 years). Adult-defined regions-of-interests in the primary somatosensory cortex (SI), secondary...

  18. Application of ultrasound processed images in space: assessing diffuse affectations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Poch, A.; Bru, C.; Nicolau, C.

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate diffuse affectations in the liver using texture image processing techniques. Ultrasound diagnose equipments are the election of choice to be used in space environments as they are free from hazardous effects on health. However, due to the need for highly trained radiologists to assess the images, this imaging method is mainly applied on focal lesions rather than on non-focal ones. We have conducted a clinical study on 72 patients with different degrees of chronic hepatopaties and a group of control of 18 individuals. All subjects' clinical reports and results of biopsies were compared to the degree of affectation calculated by our computer system , thus validating the method. Full statistical results are given in the present paper showing a good correlation (r=0.61) between pathologist's report and analysis of the heterogenicity of the processed images from the liver. This computer system to analyze diffuse affectations may be used in-situ or via telemedicine to the ground.

  19. Agricultural management affects evolutionary processes in a migratory songbird

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlut, N.G.; Freeman-Gallant, C. R.; Strong, A.M.; Donovan, T.M.; Kilpatrick, C.W.; Zalik, N.J.

    2008-01-01

    Hay harvests have detrimental ecological effects on breeding songbirds, as harvesting results in nest failure. Importantly, whether harvesting also affects evolutionary processes is not known. We explored how hay harvest affected social and genetic mating patterns, and thus, the overall opportunity for sexual selection and evolutionary processes for a ground-nesting songbird, the Savannah sparrow (Passerculus sandwichensis). On an unharvested field, 55% of females were in polygynous associations, and social polygyny was associated with greater rates of extra-pair paternity (EPP). In this treatment, synchrony explained variation in EPP rates, as broods by more synchronous females had more EPP than broods by asynchronous females. In contrast, on a harvested field, simultaneous nest failure caused by haying dramatically decreased the overall incidence of EPP by increasing the occurrence of social monogamy and, apparently, the ability of polygynous males to maintain paternity in their own nests. Despite increased social and genetic monogamy, these haying-mediated changes in mating systems resulted in greater than twofold increase in the opportunity for sexual selection. This effect arose, in part, from a 30% increase in the variance associated with within-pair fertilization success, relative to the unharvested field. This effect was caused by a notable increase (+110%) in variance associated with the quality of social mates following simultaneous nest failure. Because up to 40% of regional habitat is harvested by early June, these data may demonstrate a strong population-level effect on mating systems, sexual selection, and consequently, evolutionary processes. ?? 2008 The Authors.

  20. Oil sand process-affected water treatment using coke adsorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gamal El-Din, M.; Pourrezaei, P.; Chelme-Ayala, P.; Zubot, W. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    2010-07-01

    Oil sands operations generate an array of oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) that will eventually be released to the environment. This water must be evaluated within conventional and advanced water treatment technologies. Water management strategies propose options for increased reuse and recycling of water from settling ponds, as well as safe discharge. This presentation outlined the typical composition of OSPW. Constituents of concern in OSPW include suspended solids, hydrocarbons, salts, ammonia, trace metals, and dissolved organics such as naphthenic acids (NAs). Petroleum coke is one of the by-products generated from bitumen extraction in the oil sands industry and can be used as one of the possible treatment processes for the removal of organic compounds found in OSPW. Activated carbon adsorption is an effective process, able to adsorb organic substances such as oils, radioactive compounds, petroleum hydrocarbons, poly aromatic hydrocarbons and various halogenated compounds. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the production of activated carbon from petroleum coke using steam as the activation media; to determine the factors affecting the absorption of NAs; and to evaluate the activated coke adsorption capacity for the reduction of NAs and dissolved organic carbons present in OSPW. It was concluded that petroleum non-activated coke has the ability to decrease COD, alkalinity, and NA concentration. tabs., figs.

  1. Major hydrogeochemical processes in an Acid Mine Drainage affected estuary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Mixing of acid riverine water with alkaline seawater was studied in an estuary. • Combination of data and geochemical tools allowed modeling the water mixing. • The main geochemical processes were identified and for the first time quantified. • Water chemistry is the result of mixing, dissolution-precipitation and sorption. • Main reactions: gypsum and calcite dissolution and Al and Fe solids precipitation. - Abstract: This study provides geochemical data with the aim of identifying and quantifying the main processes occurring in an Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) affected estuary. With that purpose, water samples of the Huelva estuary were collected during a tidal half-cycle and ion–ion plots and geochemical modeling were performed to obtain a general conceptual model. Modeling results indicated that the main processes responsible for the hydrochemical evolution of the waters are: (i) the mixing of acid fluvial water with alkaline ocean water; (ii) precipitation of Fe oxyhydroxysulfates (schwertmannite) and hydroxides (ferrihydrite); (iii) precipitation of Al hydroxysulfates (jurbanite) and hydroxides (amorphous Al(OH)3); (iv) dissolution of calcite; and (v) dissolution of gypsum. All these processes, thermodynamically feasible in the light of their calculated saturation states, were quantified by mass-balance calculations and validated by reaction-path calculations. In addition, sorption processes were deduced by the non-conservative behavior of some elements (e.g., Cu and Zn)

  2. Development of brain mechanisms for processing affective touch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malin eBjornsdotter

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Affective tactile stimulation plays a key role in the maturation of neural circuits, but the development of brain mechanisms processing touch is poorly understood. We therefore used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to study brain responses to soft brush stroking of both glabrous (palm and hairy (forearm skin in healthy children (5-13 years, adolescents (14-17 years and adults (25-35 years. Adult-defined regions-of-interests in the primary somatosensory cortex (SI, secondary somatosensory cortex (SII, insular cortex and right posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS were significantly and similarly activated in all age groups. Whole-brain analyses revealed that responses in the ipsilateral SII were positively correlated with age in both genders, and that responses in bilateral regions near the pSTS correlated significantly and strongly with age in females but not in males. These results suggest that brain mechanisms associated with both sensory-discriminative and affective-motivational aspects of touch are largely established in school-aged children, and that there is a general continuing maturation of SII and a female-specific increase in pSTS sensitivity with age. Our work establishes a groundwork for future comparative studies of tactile processing in developmental disorders characterized by disrupted social perception such as autism.

  3. Roentgenologic image of penetrating duodenal bulb ulcer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When studying a series of aimed roentgenograms in patients with peptic ulcer a gas bubble of irregular spherical configuration or two-layer niche were determined near the bulb medial contour. Gas bubble was from 0.5-0.7 to 3.5 cm in diameter. In such cases penetrating ulcers were determined in operations. Along with other signs gas bubble symptom, sometimes two-layer signs may be used for timely and exact roentgenological diagnosis of penetrating duodenal bulb ulcer in peptic ulcer disease

  4. The "Musical Emotional Bursts": a validated set of musical affect bursts to investigate auditory affective processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquette, Sébastien; Peretz, Isabelle; Belin, Pascal

    2013-01-01

    The Musical Emotional Bursts (MEB) consist of 80 brief musical executions expressing basic emotional states (happiness, sadness and fear) and neutrality. These musical bursts were designed to be the musical analog of the Montreal Affective Voices (MAV)-a set of brief non-verbal affective vocalizations portraying different basic emotions. The MEB consist of short (mean duration: 1.6 s) improvisations on a given emotion or of imitations of a given MAV stimulus, played on a violin (10 stimuli × 4 [3 emotions + neutral]), or a clarinet (10 stimuli × 4 [3 emotions + neutral]). The MEB arguably represent a primitive form of music emotional expression, just like the MAV represent a primitive form of vocal, non-linguistic emotional expression. To create the MEB, stimuli were recorded from 10 violinists and 10 clarinetists, and then evaluated by 60 participants. Participants evaluated 240 stimuli [30 stimuli × 4 (3 emotions + neutral) × 2 instruments] by performing either a forced-choice emotion categorization task, a valence rating task or an arousal rating task (20 subjects per task); 40 MAVs were also used in the same session with similar task instructions. Recognition accuracy of emotional categories expressed by the MEB (n:80) was lower than for the MAVs but still very high with an average percent correct recognition score of 80.4%. Highest recognition accuracies were obtained for happy clarinet (92.0%) and fearful or sad violin (88.0% each) MEB stimuli. The MEB can be used to compare the cerebral processing of emotional expressions in music and vocal communication, or used for testing affective perception in patients with communication problems. PMID:23964255

  5. The Musical Emotional Bursts: A validated set of musical affect bursts to investigate auditory affective processing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien ePaquette

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The Musical Emotional Bursts (MEB consist of 80 brief musical executions expressing basic emotional states (happiness, sadness and fear and neutrality. These musical bursts were designed to be the musical analogue of the Montreal Affective Voices (MAV – a set of brief non-verbal affective vocalizations portraying different basic emotions. The MEB consist of short (mean duration: 1.6 sec improvisations on a given emotion or of imitations of a given MAV stimulus, played on a violin (n:40 or a clarinet (n:40. The MEB arguably represent a primitive form of music emotional expression, just like the MAV represent a primitive form of vocal, nonlinguistic emotional expression. To create the MEB, stimuli were recorded from 10 violinists and 10 clarinetists, and then evaluated by 60 participants. Participants evaluated 240 stimuli (30 stimuli x 4 [3 emotions + neutral] x 2 instruments by performing either a forced-choice emotion categorization task, a valence rating task or an arousal rating task (20 subjects per task; 40 MAVs were also used in the same session with similar task instructions. Recognition accuracy of emotional categories expressed by the MEB (n:80 was lower than for the MAVs but still very high with an average percent correct recognition score of 80.4%. Highest recognition accuracies were obtained for happy clarinet (92.0% and fearful or sad violin (88.0% each MEB stimuli. The MEB can be used to compare the cerebral processing of emotional expressions in music and vocal communication, or used for testing affective perception in patients with communication problems.

  6. Patterns of olfactory bulb neurogenesis in the adult zebrafish are altered following reversible deafferentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimpe, Darcy M; Byrd-Jacobs, Christine A

    2016-09-01

    Adult brain plasticity can be investigated using reversible methods that remove afferent innervation but allow return of sensory input. Repeated intranasal irrigation with Triton X-100 in adult zebrafish diminishes innervation to the olfactory bulb, resulting in a number of alterations in bulb structure and function, and cessation of the treatment allows for reinnervation and recovery. Using bromodeoxyuridine, Hu, and caspase-3 immunoreactivity we examined cell proliferation, differentiation, migration, and survival under conditions of acute and chronic deafferentation and reafferentation. Cell proliferation within the olfactory bulb was not influenced by acute or chronic deafferentation or reafferentation, but cell fate (including differentiation, migration, and/or survival of newly formed cells) was affected. We found that chronic deafferentation caused a bilateral increase in the number of newly formed cells that migrated into the bulb, although the amount of cell death of these new cells was significantly increased compared to untreated fish. Reafferentation also increased the number of newly formed cells migrating into both bulbs, suggesting that the deafferentation effect on cell fate was maintained. Reafferentation resulted in a decrease in newly formed cells that became neurons and, although death of newly formed cells was not altered from control levels, survival was reduced in relation to that seen in chronically deafferented fish. The potential effect of age on cell genesis was also examined. While the amount of cell migration into the olfactory bulbs was not affected by fish age, more of the newly formed cells became neurons in older fish. Younger fish displayed more cell death under conditions of chronic deafferentation. In sum, our results show that reversible deafferentation affects several aspects of cell fate, including cell differentiation, migration, and survival, and age of the fish influences the response to deafferentation. PMID:27343831

  7. Organic Flower Bulbs From Holland - Outlook for the French Market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamphuis, Elise

    2002-01-01

    The Netherlands is a major exporter of flower bulbs in the world. France is amongst the top10 of the biggest importers of Dutch flower bulbs. However, the growing of bulbs is very damaging to the environment. With the use of 1,5 million kilograms of pesticide and 16 million kilograms of artificial f

  8. Microstructure Affecting Cutting Quality in Fine Blanking Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bopit Bubphachot

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Fine blanking process is a high precision process and worldwide in developed countries. Since specimen does not occur fracture on the cutting edge and it is not necessary to decorate again in the finishing process for the fine blanking which can be reduced some operation steps. For example, if chain wheel of motorcycle is produced by conventional blanking, it needs nine steps. But, if it is produced by fine blanking, it requires only three steps. With these reasons, fine blanking is boom for the metal forming industry in Thailand. But, due to some mechanical properties for some kinds of metal such as low elongation or imperfect microstructure, it is not cut by using fine blanking directly. Approach: Objective of this research was to investigate microstructure of specimen for fine blanking process in order to avoid fracture surface on blank. The optimum condition will result in higher elongation while having small decrease in tensile strength. The circular specimen with diameter of 16 mm and thickness of 2 mm was chosen. Material was steel which contains 0.45% carbon. Results: Microstructures contained pearlite and ferrite grains. The grains sizes were expanded with temperature of heat treatments at 700, 800 and 900°C, respectively, for 1 h. The specimen exposes to heat treatment in each temperature results in the increase of overall shear surface and the decrease of fracture surface when compared with no heat treatment. This is due to no appearance of strain hardening. For the microstructures exposed to heat treatment at 700°C for 10-20 h were almost spherroidite. It revealed that facture surface became shear surface after heat treatment over 10 h. Conclusion/Recommendations: The changes of microstructure for 0.45% carbon steel significantly affected to the overall shear and fracture surface and yield strength due to increasing of spherroidite, thus fracture was decreased with time.

  9. If the Sun Were a Light Bulb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adney, Kenneth J.

    1991-01-01

    An activity in which students compare the sun's brightness with that of a light bulb of known luminosity (in watts) to determine the luminosity of the sun is presented. As an extension, the luminosity value that the student obtains for the sun can also be used to estimate the sun's surface temperature. (KR)

  10. How processing digital elevation models can affect simulated water budgets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuniansky, E.L.; Lowery, M.A.; Campbell, B.G.

    2009-01-01

    For regional models, the shallow water table surface is often used as a source/sink boundary condition, as model grid scale precludes simulation of the water table aquifer. This approach is appropriate when the water table surface is relatively stationary. Since water table surface maps are not readily available, the elevation of the water table used in model cells is estimated via a two-step process. First, a regression equation is developed using existing land and water table elevations from wells in the area. This equation is then used to predict the water table surface for each model cell using land surface elevation available from digital elevation models (DEM). Two methods of processing DEM for estimating the land surface for each cell are commonly used (value nearest the cell centroid or mean value in the cell). This article demonstrates how these two methods of DEM processing can affect the simulated water budget. For the example presented, approximately 20% more total flow through the aquifer system is simulated if the centroid value rather than the mean value is used. This is due to the one-third greater average ground water gradients associated with the centroid value than the mean value. The results will vary depending on the particular model area topography and cell size. The use of the mean DEM value in each model cell will result in a more conservative water budget and is more appropriate because the model cell water table value should be representative of the entire cell area, not the centroid of the model cell.

  11. Evaluation of the quality of hot air dehydrated onion coming from gamma radiated bulbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this work was to evaluate the quality of hot air dehydrated onion, as regards physical and chemical characteristics, coming from the regional product that was gamma irradiated for sprout inhibition. We worked with the onion variety Valenciana Sintetica 14. Radio inhibition was made 30 days post harvest with gamma radiation from a 60Co source at the Centro Atomico Ezeiza-CNEA, using a dose of 60 Gy. The skin of the bulbs was manually removed and the bulbs were cut in pieces 3 mm thick and between 1 and 3 cm long. The material was dehydrated in a rotating dryer with forced air circulation at 60 C degrees, between 0.8 and 1.7 m/s air speed and at ambient relative humidity. Dehydration was made 80 days after post-irradiation. The quality of the dehydrated onion was evaluated by the following physical- chemical analysis: total solids content, pungency (indirectly measured by pyruvic acid content assessment), color, pH, carbon hydrates and sensorial analysis. All analytical determinations were made in triplicate. The results obtained showed there are no significant changes between the averages of the physical-chemical properties of the control dehydrated samples and those coming from the radio-inhibited raw matter. According to the sensorial analysis, only the color of dehydrated onion was affected by the radio inhibition process. However, and according to the panel members comment, the greatest browning degree observed in ionizing radiation treated onion seemed to result more attractive to them. It may be concluded that radio inhibited regional onion can be useful as raw matter for hot air dehydrated product. It must be remarked that its use would extend the product use by dehydration plants, thus implying an increase of their processing capacity with the corresponding financial benefit. (author)

  12. Toward affective dialogue management using partially observable Markov decision processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bui, Trung Huu

    2008-01-01

    Designing and developing affective dialogue systems have recently received much interest from the dialogue research community. A distinctive feature of these systems is affect modeling. Previous work was mainly focused on showing system's emotions to the user in order to achieve the designer's goal

  13. Sprout inhibition in roots, tubers and bulbs; Inhibicion de brotes en raices, tuberculos y bulbos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luna C, P.C

    1992-05-15

    The treatment with ionizing radiations to low dose impedes that appear sprouts in the tubers (potatoes); bulbs (onion and garlic) and in roots like the ginger and the yucca. The purpose is to inhibit the germination during the process of manipulation and storage, and this way to avoid the lost ones post crop of these products. The radiation dose required to inhibit the germination goes to depend of: the development conditions, the differences of variety, of the storage state of the bulbs and the conditions of cured and storage. (Author)

  14. Hearing light from an incandescent bulb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zheyuan; Du, Li; Zhang, Youtian; Wang, Sihui; Zhou, Huijun; Gao, Wenli

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present an interesting experiment to turn the vibratory light from an incandescent light bulb into audible sound. Inspired by research on the photoacoustic effect (PAE) using lasers, we construct a similar device in an undergraduate physics laboratory with everyday articles including light bulbs, glass beakers and soot. Using our device, a distinct sound is detected and analysed experimentally. Particular attention is paid to the attenuation effect of the acoustic signal, which can be explained by modifying the existing theory and using the adiabatic boundary condition according to the incident light source we use. This demonstration is a comprehensive experiment with the combination of sound, light and heat. The modification on the model can help undergraduate students gain an intuitive understanding of different boundary conditions.

  15. Olfactory bulb encoding during learning under anaesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alister U Nicol

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Neural plasticity changes within the olfactory bulb are important for olfactory learning, although how neural encoding changes support new associations with specific odours and whether they can be investigated under anaesthesia, remain unclear. Using the social transmission of food preference olfactory learning paradigm in mice in conjunction with in vivo microdialysis sampling we have shown firstly that a learned preference for a scented food odour smelled on the breath of a demonstrator animal occurs under isofluorane anaesthesia. Furthermore, subsequent exposure to this cued odour under anaesthesia promotes the same pattern of increased release of glutamate and GABA in the olfactory bulb as previously found in conscious animals following olfactory learning, and evoked GABA release was positively correlated with the amount of scented food eaten. In a second experiment, multiarray (24 electrodes electrophysiological recordings were made from olfactory bulb mitral cells under isofluorane anaesthesia before, during and after a novel scented food odour was paired with carbon disulfide. Results showed significant increases in overall firing frequency to the cued-odour during and after learning and decreases in response to an uncued odour. Analysis of patterns of changes in individual neurons revealed that a substantial proportion (>50% of them significantly changed their response profiles during and after learning with most of those previously inhibited becoming excited. A large number of cells exhibiting no response to the odours prior to learning were either excited or inhibited afterwards. With the uncued odour many previously responsive cells became unresponsive or inhibited. Learning associated changes only occurred in the posterior part of the olfactory bulb. Thus olfactory learning under anaesthesia promotes extensive, but spatially distinct, changes in mitral cell networks to both cued and uncued odours as well as in evoked glutamate and

  16. The Influence of Affective Processing in Education and Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro, Trenton R.

    1993-01-01

    The human brain is triune--controlling physical activity, emotion, and cognition. Strategies for dealing with the affective element, such as creating self-awareness, positive self-concept, trust, and acceptance, are important influences upon learning. (SK)

  17. Regulation of spike timing-dependent plasticity of olfactory inputs in mitral cells in the rat olfactory bulb.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teng-Fei Ma

    Full Text Available The recent history of activity input onto granule cells (GCs in the main olfactory bulb can affect the strength of lateral inhibition, which functions to generate contrast enhancement. However, at the plasticity level, it is unknown whether and how the prior modification of lateral inhibition modulates the subsequent induction of long-lasting changes of the excitatory olfactory nerve (ON inputs to mitral cells (MCs. Here we found that the repetitive stimulation of two distinct excitatory inputs to the GCs induced a persistent modification of lateral inhibition in MCs in opposing directions. This bidirectional modification of inhibitory inputs differentially regulated the subsequent synaptic plasticity of the excitatory ON inputs to the MCs, which was induced by the repetitive pairing of excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs with postsynaptic bursts. The regulation of spike timing-dependent plasticity (STDP was achieved by the regulation of the inter-spike-interval (ISI of the postsynaptic bursts. This novel form of inhibition-dependent regulation of plasticity may contribute to the encoding or processing of olfactory information in the olfactory bulb.

  18. Molecular processes affecting the macroscopic tribological behavior of surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of various additives on the tribological properties of a system in the macro and nanoscale, as well as clarify lubricant interactions with surfaces and materials. To accomplish that a wide range of lubricants and additives were considered. Moreover, a detail chemical analysis was carried out, in order to explain the effect on the friction coefficient, wear mechanisms and corrosion process in lubricated tribosystems. This research was mainly focused on additives for water based lubricants. Solutions of anti-corrosion and anti-foaming agents - amines, friction modifiers - glycols and amines derivatives with longer hydrocarbon chains were investigated. The results showed that the additives build chemisorbed mono-molecular films on surfaces, what was verified by AFM, AR-XPS and AES analysis, and compared with SESSA simulation. Investigated tribo-films affect the friction coefficient in nanoscale, however during tribological test in the macroscale, they showed different results depending on contact situation (rolling and/or sliding). The conclusion states that the differences in tribological behavior might be due to the orientation of amine and hydroxyl groups on the surfaces. Furthermore, lubricants for rolling bearing elements such as polar and non polar oils with zinc dialkyldithiophosphate (ZDDP) additives were studied. The results demonstrated that a reaction layer formation is strongly dependent on the molecular polarity of the oils and additives. The evolution of the topography and mechanical properties of the ZDDP-derived tribo-layer with rubbing time showed that initially a thin and soft ZDDP reaction layer develops very quick. The second part of this work was addressed on chemical vapor deposited (CVD) diamond films and transition metal dichalcogenides (TMD) in consideration of desired properties for micro electro mechanical systems (MEMS). The main scientific goal of this part of the work was to

  19. Numerical investigation of cavitation performance on bulb tubular turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, L. G.; Guo, P. C.; Zheng, X. B.; Luo, X. Q.

    2016-05-01

    The cavitation flow phenomena may occur in the bulb tubular turbine at some certain operation conditions, which even decrease the performance of units and causes insatiably noise and vibration when it goes worse. A steady cavitating flow numerical simulations study is carried out on the bulb tubular unit with the same blade pitch angle and different guide vane openings by using the commercial code ANSYS CFX in this paper. The phenomena of cavitation induction areas and development process are obtained and draws cavitation performance curves. The numerical results show that the travelling bubble cavity is the main types of cavitation development over a wide operating range of discharge and this type of cavitation begins to sensitive to the value of cavitation number when the discharge exceeding a certain valve, in this condition, it can lead to a severe free bubble formation with the gradually decrement of cavitation number. The reported cavitation performance curves results indicate that the flow blockage incident would happen because of a mount of free bubble formation in the flow passage when the cavity developed to certain extend, which caused head drop behavior and power broken dramatically and influenced the output power.

  20. Modeling and simulation of heat transfer for glass bulb mold

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Huamin; LI Dequn

    2005-01-01

    Cooling system design in glass bulb pressing operation can greatly affect the productivity and the quality of the final product. The concept of cyclic-averaged steady temperature field is proposed in modeling. Heat transfer in the mold region is considered to be a cyclic-steady, three-dimensional conduction; heat transfer within the glass melt region is treated as a transient, one-dimensional conduction; heat exchange between the cooling system surface and coolant is treated as a steady heat convection. A hybrid model consisting of a three-dimensional boundary element method for the mold region and a finite-difference method with a variable mesh for the melt region is used for numerical simulation. Compared with the experimental data, the numerical model developed here is computationally efficient and sufficiently accurate.

  1. Novel subdomains of the mouse olfactory bulb defined by molecular heterogeneity in the nascent external plexiform and glomerular layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yona Golan

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the mouse olfactory system, the role of the olfactory bulb in guiding olfactory sensory neuron (OSN axons to their targets is poorly understood. What cell types within the bulb are necessary for targeting is unknown. What genes are important for this process is also unknown. Although projection neurons are not required, other cell-types within the external plexiform and glomerular layers also form synapses with OSNs. We hypothesized that these cells are important for targeting, and express spatially differentially expressed guidance cues that act to guide OSN axons within the bulb. Results We used laser microdissection and microarray analysis to find genes that are differentially expressed along the dorsal-ventral, medial-lateral, and anterior-posterior axes of the bulb. The expression patterns of these genes divide the bulb into previously unrecognized subdomains. Interestingly, some genes are expressed in both the medial and lateral bulb, showing for the first time the existence of symmetric expression along this axis. We use a regeneration paradigm to show that several of these genes are altered in expression in response to deafferentation, consistent with the interpretation that they are expressed in cells that interact with OSNs. Conclusion We demonstrate that the nascent external plexiform and glomerular layers of the bulb can be divided into multiple domains based on the expression of these genes, several of which are known to function in axon guidance, synaptogenesis, and angiogenesis. These genes represent candidate guidance cues that may act to guide OSN axons within the bulb during targeting.

  2. The Affects Of The Process Improvement To Business Performance

    OpenAIRE

    KAYGUSUZ, Öğr.Gör. Yeşim; KAYGUSUZ, Prof.Dr. Sait

    2014-01-01

    The main aim of the businesses is to make profit and grow sustainably accordingly. The elements which enable companies to reach this aim are price, cost and customer satisfaction. While the price is determined in the competitive market, cost is shaped in the business processes. The customer satisfaction, on the other hand, is to what extent the output of these processes satisfied the customers. Process consists of the stages which start with taking an order from the customer and end with the ...

  3. A Content Analysis of Factors Affecting New Product Development Process

    OpenAIRE

    Eda Atilgan-Inan; Aslihan Buyukkupcu; Serkan Akinci

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study is to review the international marketing literature on new product development process and compare the changes in the important factors in the process with the changes in the management approaches. For this purpose, the articles in three international marketing journals were selected and “new product development” and “new product performance” were searched for in the abstracts. After grouping the variables in the process, they were compared with the perspectives of...

  4. Drying process strongly affects probiotics viability and functionalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iaconelli, Cyril; Lemetais, Guillaume; Kechaou, Noura; Chain, Florian; Bermúdez-Humarán, Luis G; Langella, Philippe; Gervais, Patrick; Beney, Laurent

    2015-11-20

    Probiotic formulations are widely used and are proposed to have a variety of beneficial effects, depending on the probiotic strains present in the product. The impact of drying processes on the viability of probiotics is well documented. However, the impact of these processes on probiotics functionality remains unclear. In this work, we investigated variations in seven different bacterial markers after various desiccation processes. Markers were composed of four different viability evaluation (combining two growth abilities and two cytometric measurements) and in three in vitro functionalities: stimulation of IL-10 and IL-12 production by PBMCs (immunomodulation) and bacterial adhesion to hexadecane. We measured the impact of three drying processes (air-drying, freeze-drying and spray-drying), without the use of protective agents, on three types of probiotic bacteria: Bifidobacterium bifidum, Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus zeae. Our results show that the bacteria respond differently to the three different drying processes, in terms of viability and functionality. Drying methods produce important variations in bacterial immunomodulation and hydrophobicity, which are correlated. We also show that adherence can be stimulated (air-drying) or inhibited (spray-drying) by drying processes. Results of a multivariate analysis show no direct correlation between bacterial survival and functionality, but do show a correlation between probiotic responses to desiccation-rewetting and the process used to dry the bacteria. PMID:26325197

  5. Personality affects musical emotion processing: An fMRI study

    OpenAIRE

    Numminen-Kontti, Taru

    2014-01-01

    Music has an important role in our everyday lives. It is a powerful way of conveying and inducing emotions. It is even described as the language of emotions. Still, the research on the processing of musical emotions and its variations among individuals is scarce. In addition, it is not known whether the same or different neural pathways are recruited when musical emotions are processed with or without conscious awareness (i.e., implicitly or explicitly). The central aims of this thesis are 1....

  6. Psychometric Characteristics of the EEAA (Scale of Affective Strategies in the Learning Process)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villardón-Gallego, Lourdes; Yániz, Concepción

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Affective strategies for coping with affective states linked to the learning process may be oriented toward controlling emotions or toward controlling motivation. Both types affect performance, directly and indirectly. The objective of this research was to design an instrument for measuring the affective strategies used by university…

  7. Temporal factors affecting somatosensory-auditory interactions in speech processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takayuki eIto

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Speech perception is known to rely on both auditory and visual information. However, sound specific somatosensory input has been shown also to influence speech perceptual processing (Ito et al., 2009. In the present study we addressed further the relationship between somatosensory information and speech perceptual processing by addressing the hypothesis that the temporal relationship between orofacial movement and sound processing contributes to somatosensory-auditory interaction in speech perception. We examined the changes in event-related potentials in response to multisensory synchronous (simultaneous and asynchronous (90 ms lag and lead somatosensory and auditory stimulation compared to individual unisensory auditory and somatosensory stimulation alone. We used a robotic device to apply facial skin somatosensory deformations that were similar in timing and duration to those experienced in speech production. Following synchronous multisensory stimulation the amplitude of the event-related potential was reliably different from the two unisensory potentials. More importantly, the magnitude of the event-related potential difference varied as a function of the relative timing of the somatosensory-auditory stimulation. Event-related activity change due to stimulus timing was seen between 160-220 ms following somatosensory onset, mostly around the parietal area. The results demonstrate a dynamic modulation of somatosensory-auditory convergence and suggest the contribution of somatosensory information for speech processing process is dependent on the specific temporal order of sensory inputs in speech production.

  8. A Content Analysis of Factors Affecting New Product Development Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eda Atilgan-Inan

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to review the international marketing literature on new product development process and compare the changes in the important factors in the process with the changes in the management approaches. For this purpose, the articles in three international marketing journals were selected and “new product development” and “new product performance” were searched for in the abstracts. After grouping the variables in the process, they were compared with the perspectives of management in the related periods. The results indicated that organizational factors have always been important for new product development process, which is in line with the nature of the innovation process. But the emphasis on internal factors has increased in the 21st century which is congruent with the change in management perspective foregrounding resource based view. The study differs from the similar literature review studies on the point that it deals with the topic from international marketing perspective. Therefore, R&D and other marketing studies are not included in the review and the study proposes the important factors from international firms’ point of view.

  9. The Influence of Parameters Affecting Boron Removal by Electrocoagulation Process

    KAUST Repository

    Zeboudji, B.

    2013-04-01

    Boron removal in seawater desalination presents a particular challenge. In seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) systems boron removal at low concentration (<0.5 mg/L) is usually achieved by a second pass using brackish water RO membranes. However, this process requires chemical addition and important additional investment, operation and maintenance, and energy costs. Electrocoagulation (EC) process can be used to achieve such low boron concentration. In this work, the removal of boron from aqueous solution was carried out by EC process using aluminum and iron electrodes. Several operating parameters on the removal efficiency such as initial pH, current density, initial boron ion concentration, feed concentration, gap between electrodes, and electrode material, were investigated. In the case of bipolar electrocoagulation (BEC), an optimum removal efficiency of 96% corresponding to a final boron concentration of 0.4 mg/L was achieved at a current density of 6 mA/cm2 and pH = 8 using aluminum electrodes. The concentration of NaCl was 2,500 mg/L and the gap between the electrodes of 0.5 cm. Furthermore, a comparison between monopolar electrocoagulation (MEC) and BEC using both aluminum and iron electrodes was carried out. Results showed that the BEC process has reduced the current density applied to obtain high level of boron removal in a short reaction time compared to MEC process. The high performance of the EC showed that the process could be used to reduce boron concentration to acceptable levels at low-cost and more environmentally friendly. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

  10. Dynamic modelling of processes in rivers affected by precipitation runoff

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Judith L.

    1997-01-01

    In this thesis, models for the dynamics of oxygen and organic matter in receiving waters (such as rivers and creeks), which are affected by rain, are developed. A time series analysis framework is used, but presented with special emphasis on continuous time state space models. Also, the concept of...... analysis methods and model validation tools are employed. To develop the water quality model, including hydraulic relations and the states of oxygen and organic matter, the qualitative concepts of the physical, biological and chemical models are introduced. The model types used in this thesis are one...... most models, precipitation in the form of rain have been included to study the impact from this. Finally, the future and industrial perspectives are presented, along with a list of suggestions for future research related to the subjects considered in this thesis....

  11. Processes through which transformational leaders affect employee psychological health

    OpenAIRE

    Walsh, Megan; Dupré, Kathryne; Arnold, Kara A.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the processes through which transformational leaders influence employee psychological health. The results indicate that employees’ perceptions of justice of the organization and psychological empowerment mediate the positive relationship between transformational leadership and psychological health. This study supports the notion that transformational leadership influences individuals’ perceptions of organizations, as well as individuals’ perceptions of themselves, whic...

  12. Somatic Embryogenesis in Lily Bulb Scale Cultures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Shasha; WANG Jingang; FAN Jinping; CHE Daidi

    2008-01-01

    Somatic embryogenesis from lily bulb scales has not been studied in details, although tissue culture methods have been applied to the propagation for decades. The effects of different kinds and concentration of auxins for oriental lily somatic embryogenesis were investigated (Lilium hybrida car. Sorbonne).2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), thidiazuron (TDZ) and α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) media with benzyladenine(6-BA) and lactalbumin hydrolysate (LH) were used for embryogenic callus in the darkness. The best response onembryogenic callus formation was obtained on MS media supplemented 2, 4-D 2.0 mg·L-1,6-BA 0.5 mg·L-1 and LH 300 mg·L-1. Transfer embryogenic callus to the media with TDZ, 6-BA, kinetin (KT) supplemented 2, 4-D. The highest number of somatic embryos has been produced on medium with 0.5 mg.L-1 2, 4-D and 0.3 mg·L-1 KT. Germinated embryos with shoot axes were changed to MS media with 6-BA 0.5 mg· L-1. The results suggest that in vitro culture of somatic embryogenesis from lily bulb scales can be used for plant regeneration.

  13. Left Hand Dominance Affects Supra-Second Time Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Carmelo Mario Vicario; Sonia eBonnì; Giacomo eKoch

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies exploring specific brain functions of left- and right-handed subjects have shown variances in spatial and motor abilities that might be explained according to consistent structural and functional differences. Given the role of both spatial and motor information in the processing of temporal intervals, we designed a study aimed at investigating timing abilities in left-handed subjects. To this purpose both left- and right-handed subjects were asked to perform a time reproducti...

  14. Mutation of the Zinc-Binding Metalloprotease Motif Affects Bacteroides fragilis Toxin Activity but Does Not Affect Propeptide Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Franco, Augusto A.; Buckwold, Simy L.; Shin, Jai W.; Ascon, Miguel; Sears, Cynthia L.

    2005-01-01

    To evaluate the role of the zinc-binding metalloprotease in Bacteroides fragilis toxin (BFT) processing and activity, the zinc-binding consensus sequences (H348, E349, H352, G355, H358, and M366) were mutated by site-directed-mutagenesis. Our results indicated that single point mutations in the zinc-binding metalloprotease motif do not affect BFT processing but do reduce or eliminate BFT biologic activity in vitro.

  15. Mutation of the Zinc-Binding Metalloprotease Motif Affects Bacteroides fragilis Toxin Activity but Does Not Affect Propeptide Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Augusto A.; Buckwold, Simy L.; Shin, Jai W.; Ascon, Miguel; Sears, Cynthia L.

    2005-01-01

    To evaluate the role of the zinc-binding metalloprotease in Bacteroides fragilis toxin (BFT) processing and activity, the zinc-binding consensus sequences (H348, E349, H352, G355, H358, and M366) were mutated by site-directed-mutagenesis. Our results indicated that single point mutations in the zinc-binding metalloprotease motif do not affect BFT processing but do reduce or eliminate BFT biologic activity in vitro. PMID:16041055

  16. Continuous spatial representations in the olfactory bulb may reflect perceptual categories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Auffarth

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In sensory processing of odors, the olfactory bulb is an important relay station, where odor representations are noise-filtered, sharpened, and possibly re-organized. An organization by perceptual qualities has been found previously in the piriform cortex, however several recent studies indicate that the olfactory bulb code reflects behaviorally relevant dimensions spatially as well as at the population level. We apply a statistical analysis on 2-deoxyglucose images, taken over the entire bulb of glomerular layer of the rat, in order to see how the recognition of odors in the nose is translated into a map of odor quality in the brain. We first confirm previous studies that the first principal component could be related to pleasantness, however the next higher principal components are not directly clear. We then find mostly continuous spatial representations for perceptual categories. We compare the space spanned by spatial and population codes to human reports of perceptual similarity between odors and our results suggest that perceptual categories could be already embedded in glomerular activations and that spatial representations give a better match than population codes. This suggests that human and rat perceptual dimensions of odorant coding are related and indicates that perceptual qualities could be represented as continuous spatial codes of the olfactory bulb glomerulus population.

  17. Conservation of garlic bulbs (Allium sativum L. ) by gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, J.; Arranz, T.

    1979-01-01

    The effect of different doses of gamma radiation (from 5 to 30 krad) on the conservation of garlic bulbs during a 12 months period is studied. Irradiations were made at three different times and the best results were obtained with the treatment given during the two months following harvest. During this period, 5 krad are enough to inhibit garlic bulbs sprouting.

  18. The "Brightness Rules" Alternative Conception for Light Bulb Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Joel A.; Stuessy, Carol

    2006-01-01

    An alternative conception for the observed differences in light bulb brightness was revealed during an unguided inquiry investigation in which prospective elementary teachers placed identical bulbs in series, parallel, and combination direct current circuits. Classroom observations, document analyses, and video and audio transcriptions led to the…

  19. Conservation of garlic bulbs (allium sativum L.) by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of different doses of gamma radiation (from 5 to 30 krad) on the conservation of garlic bulbs during a 12 months period is studied. Irradiations were made at three different times and the best results were obtained with the treatment given during the two months following harvest. During this period, 5krad are enough to inhibit garlic bulbs sprouting. (author)

  20. Dopaminergic modulation of memory and affective processing in Parkinson depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blonder, Lee X; Slevin, John T; Kryscio, Richard J; Martin, Catherine A; Andersen, Anders H; Smith, Charles D; Schmitt, Frederick A

    2013-11-30

    Depression is common in Parkinson's disease and is associated with cognitive impairment. Dopaminergic medications are effective in treating the motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease; however, little is known regarding the effects of dopaminergic pharmacotherapy on cognitive function in depressed Parkinson patients. This study examines the neuropsychological effects of dopaminergic pharmacotherapy in Parkinsonian depression. We compared cognitive function in depressed and non-depressed Parkinson patients at two time-points: following overnight withdrawal and after the usual morning regimen of dopaminergic medications. A total of 28 non-demented, right-handed patients with mild to moderate idiopathic Parkinson's disease participated. Ten of these patients were depressed according to DSM IV criteria. Results revealed a statistically significant interaction between depression and medication status on three measures of verbal memory and a facial affect naming task. In all cases, depressed Parkinson's patients performed significantly more poorly while on dopaminergic medication than while off. The opposite pattern emerged for the non-depressed Parkinson's group. The administration of dopaminergic medication to depressed Parkinson patients may carry unintended risks. PMID:23838419

  1. Understanding processes affecting mineral deposits in humid environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seal, Robert R., II; Ayuso, Robert A.

    2011-01-01

    Recent interdisciplinary studies by the U.S. Geological Survey have resulted in substantial progress toward understanding the influence that climate and hydrology have on the geochemical signatures of mineral deposits and the resulting mine wastes in the eastern United States. Specific areas of focus include the release, transport, and fate of acid, metals, and associated elements from inactive mines in temperate coastal areas and of metals from unmined mineral deposits in tropical to subtropical areas; the influence of climate, geology, and hydrology on remediation options for abandoned mines; and the application of radiogenic isotopes to uniquely apportion source contributions that distinguish natural from mining sources and extent of metal transport. The environmental effects of abandoned mines and unmined mineral deposits result from a complex interaction of a variety of chemical and physical factors. These include the geology of the mineral deposit, the hydrologic setting of the mineral deposit and associated mine wastes, the chemistry of waters interacting with the deposit and associated waste material, the engineering of a mine as it relates to the reactivity of mine wastes, and climate, which affects such factors as temperature and the amounts of precipitation and evapotranspiration; these factors, in turn, influence the environmental behavior of mineral deposits. The role of climate is becoming increasingly important in environmental investigations of mineral deposits because of the growing concerns about climate change.

  2. Influence of size of onion bulb cv. 'Czerniakowska' on its dormancy, sprouting and rooting

    OpenAIRE

    M. Bielińska-Czarnecka; A. Kępkowa; E. Kielak; E. Zdanowska

    2013-01-01

    Sprouting and rooting of onion bulb explants (bulbs deprived of open and closed shells) and of whole onion bulbs of three sizes, horizontal diameters: 2.5-3.5 cm, 3.6-5.0 cm, 5.1-7.0 cm were studied. During storage the earliest sprouting and rooting of bulb explants and of the whole onion bulbs was observed in small bulbs of diameters: 2.5-3.5, and the latest in large bulbs of 5.1-7.0 cm. The longer the period of storage the larger the amount of sprouted and rooted bulb explants and whole bul...

  3. Broadcasting of cortical activity to the olfactory bulb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Alison M; Kato, Hiroyuki K; Komiyama, Takaki; Isaacson, Jeffry S

    2015-02-24

    Odor representations are initially formed in the olfactory bulb, which contains a topographic glomerular map of odor molecular features. The bulb transmits sensory information directly to piriform cortex, where it is encoded by distributed ensembles of pyramidal cells without spatial order. Intriguingly, piriform cortex pyramidal cells project back to the bulb, but the information contained in this feedback projection is unknown. Here, we use imaging in awake mice to directly monitor activity in the presynaptic boutons of cortical feedback fibers. We show that the cortex provides the bulb with a rich array of information for any individual odor and that cortical feedback is dependent on brain state. In contrast to the stereotyped, spatial arrangement of olfactory bulb glomeruli, cortical inputs tuned to different odors commingle and indiscriminately target individual glomerular channels. Thus, the cortex modulates early odor representations by broadcasting sensory information diffusely onto spatially ordered bulbar circuits. PMID:25704808

  4. From neurons to epidemics: How trophic coherence affects spreading processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaise, Janis; Johnson, Samuel

    2016-06-01

    Trophic coherence, a measure of the extent to which the nodes of a directed network are organised in levels, has recently been shown to be closely related to many structural and dynamical aspects of complex systems, including graph eigenspectra, the prevalence or absence of feedback cycles, and linear stability. Furthermore, non-trivial trophic structures have been observed in networks of neurons, species, genes, metabolites, cellular signalling, concatenated words, P2P users, and world trade. Here, we consider two simple yet apparently quite different dynamical models—one a susceptible-infected-susceptible epidemic model adapted to include complex contagion and the other an Amari-Hopfield neural network—and show that in both cases the related spreading processes are modulated in similar ways by the trophic coherence of the underlying networks. To do this, we propose a network assembly model which can generate structures with tunable trophic coherence, limiting in either perfectly stratified networks or random graphs. We find that trophic coherence can exert a qualitative change in spreading behaviour, determining whether a pulse of activity will percolate through the entire network or remain confined to a subset of nodes, and whether such activity will quickly die out or endure indefinitely. These results could be important for our understanding of phenomena such as epidemics, rumours, shocks to ecosystems, neuronal avalanches, and many other spreading processes.

  5. Does Signal Degradation Affect Top-Down Processing of Speech?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Anita; Pals, Carina; de Blecourt, Charlotte M; Sarampalis, Anastasios; Başkent, Deniz

    2016-01-01

    Speech perception is formed based on both the acoustic signal and listeners' knowledge of the world and semantic context. Access to semantic information can facilitate interpretation of degraded speech, such as speech in background noise or the speech signal transmitted via cochlear implants (CIs). This paper focuses on the latter, and investigates the time course of understanding words, and how sentential context reduces listeners' dependency on the acoustic signal for natural and degraded speech via an acoustic CI simulation.In an eye-tracking experiment we combined recordings of listeners' gaze fixations with pupillometry, to capture effects of semantic information on both the time course and effort of speech processing. Normal-hearing listeners were presented with sentences with or without a semantically constraining verb (e.g., crawl) preceding the target (baby), and their ocular responses were recorded to four pictures, including the target, a phonological (bay) competitor and a semantic (worm) and an unrelated distractor.The results show that in natural speech, listeners' gazes reflect their uptake of acoustic information, and integration of preceding semantic context. Degradation of the signal leads to a later disambiguation of phonologically similar words, and to a delay in integration of semantic information. Complementary to this, the pupil dilation data show that early semantic integration reduces the effort in disambiguating phonologically similar words. Processing degraded speech comes with increased effort due to the impoverished nature of the signal. Delayed integration of semantic information further constrains listeners' ability to compensate for inaudible signals. PMID:27080670

  6. Sensitivity analysis on parameters and processes affecting vapor intrusion risk

    KAUST Repository

    Picone, Sara

    2012-03-30

    A one-dimensional numerical model was developed and used to identify the key processes controlling vapor intrusion risks by means of a sensitivity analysis. The model simulates the fate of a dissolved volatile organic compound present below the ventilated crawl space of a house. In contrast to the vast majority of previous studies, this model accounts for vertical variation of soil water saturation and includes aerobic biodegradation. The attenuation factor (ratio between concentration in the crawl space and source concentration) and the characteristic time to approach maximum concentrations were calculated and compared for a variety of scenarios. These concepts allow an understanding of controlling mechanisms and aid in the identification of critical parameters to be collected for field situations. The relative distance of the source to the nearest gas-filled pores of the unsaturated zone is the most critical parameter because diffusive contaminant transport is significantly slower in water-filled pores than in gas-filled pores. Therefore, attenuation factors decrease and characteristic times increase with increasing relative distance of the contaminant dissolved source to the nearest gas diffusion front. Aerobic biodegradation may decrease the attenuation factor by up to three orders of magnitude. Moreover, the occurrence of water table oscillations is of importance. Dynamic processes leading to a retreating water table increase the attenuation factor by two orders of magnitude because of the enhanced gas phase diffusion. © 2012 SETAC.

  7. Influence of COMT genotype and affective distractors on the processing of self-generated thought

    OpenAIRE

    Kilford, E. J.; Dumontheil, I.; Wood, N. W.; Blakemore, S. J.

    2014-01-01

    The catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) enzyme is a major determinant of prefrontal dopamine levels. The Val158Met polymorphism affects COMT enzymatic activity and has been associated with variation in executive function and affective processing. This study investigated the effect of COMT genotype on the flexible modulation of the balance between processing self-generated and processing stimulus-oriented information, in the presence or absence of affective distractors. Analyses included 124 h...

  8. From neurons to epidemics: How trophic coherence affects spreading processes

    CERN Document Server

    Klaise, Janis

    2016-01-01

    Trophic coherence, a measure of the extent to which the nodes of a directed network are organised in levels, has recently been shown to be closely related to many structural and dynamical aspects of complex systems, including graph eigenspectra, the prevalence or absence of feed-back cycles, and linear stability. Furthermore, non-trivial trophic structures have been observed in networks of neurons, species, genes, metabolites, cellular signalling, concatenated words, P2P users, and world trade. Here we consider two simple yet apparently quite different dynamical models -- one a Susceptible-Infected-Susceptible (SIS) epidemic model adapted to include complex contagion, the other an Amari-Hopfield neural network -- and show that in both cases the related spreading processes are modulated in similar ways by the trophic coherence of the underlying networks. To do this, we propose a network assembly model which can generate structures with tunable trophic coherence, limiting in either perfectly stratified networks...

  9. Effects of gamma irradiation dose and timing of treatment after harvest on the storeability of garlic bulbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of gamma irradiation dose and time of treatment after harvest on the storage of garlic bulbs was investigated. The effectiveness of irradiation for external sprout inhibition was not affected by the treatment time within 45 days after harvest. At 285 days after harvest, irradiation of 50 - 150 Gy caused about 6% less decrease in weight loss compared with the unirradiated group, and spoilage rates of the unirradiated and irradiated cloves were 100% and 17 - 20%, respectively. For the overall storageability of garlic bulbs, 75 Gy was shown to be the minimal optimum dose, and there was no apparent effect depending upon the time of irradiation treatment after harvest

  10. Early Social Experience Affects the Development of Eye Gaze Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senju, Atsushi; Vernetti, Angélina; Ganea, Natasa; Hudry, Kristelle; Tucker, Leslie; Charman, Tony; Johnson, Mark H

    2015-12-01

    Eye gaze is a key channel of non-verbal communication in humans. Eye contact with others is present from birth, and eye gaze processing is crucial for social learning and adult-infant communication. However, little is known about the effect of selectively different experience of eye contact and gaze communication on early social and communicative development. To directly address this question, we assessed 14 sighted infants of blind parents (SIBPs) longitudinally at 6-10 and 12-16 months. Face scanning and gaze following were assessed using eye tracking. In addition, naturalistic observations were made when the infants were interacting with their blind parent and with an unfamiliar sighted adult. Established measures of emergent autistic-like behaviors and standardized tests of cognitive, motor, and linguistic development were also collected. These data were then compared with those obtained from a group of infants of sighted parents. Despite showing typical social skills development overall, infants of blind parents allocated less attention to adult eye movements and gaze direction, an effect that increased between 6-10 and 12-16 months of age. The results suggest that infants adjust their use of adults' eye gaze depending on gaze communication experience from early in life. The results highlight that human functional brain development shows selective experience-dependent plasticity adaptive to the individual's specific social environment. PMID:26752077

  11. The Role and Impact of Affect in the Process of Resistance to Persuasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfau, Michael; Szabo, Erin Alison; Anderson, Jason; Morrill, Joshua; Zubric, Jessica; Wan, Hua-Hsin

    2001-01-01

    Deals with the role and impact of affect in the process of resistance among undergraduate students. Notes that initial results indicated that the cognitive, affective-anger, and affective-happiness inoculation treatments all conferred resistance to persuasive attacks. Indicates that greater receiver involvement was positively associated with…

  12. A rare case of Burkitt’s lymphoma of the duodenal bulb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Joana Rita; Carrilho-Ribeiro, Luís; Zagalo, Alexandra; Medeiros, Fábio Cota; Ferreira, Cristina; Velosa, José

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal tract involvement in immunodeficiency-related Burkitt’s lymphoma is not common and the duodenal involvement is very rare. We report the case of a 35-year-old man admitted because of abdominal pain, vomiting and weight loss. Human immunodeficiency virus infection was diagnosed and upper digestive tract endoscopy showed marked edema and hyperemia of the duodenal bulb with some violaceous areas. Immunohistochemical study of the bulbar tissue samples confirmed the diagnosis of Burkitt’s lymphoma. To our knowledge, duodenal Burkitt’s lymphoma affecting only the bulb has not been previously reported in the medical literature. In patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection who present with upper gastrointestinal symptoms, upper endoscopy may be diagnostic of malignancy and biopsies should be obtained from abnormal areas. PMID:27065741

  13. The impact of adult neurogenesis on olfactory bulb circuits and computations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepousez, Gabriel; Valley, Matthew T; Lledo, Pierre-Marie

    2013-01-01

    Modern neuroscience has demonstrated how the adult brain has the ability to profoundly remodel its neurons in response to changes in external stimuli or internal states. However, adult brain plasticity, although possible throughout life, remains restricted mostly to subcellular levels rather than affecting the entire cell. New neurons are continuously generated in only a few areas of the adult brain-the olfactory bulb and the dentate gyrus-where they integrate into already functioning circuitry. In these regions, adult neurogenesis adds another dimension of plasticity that either complements or is redundant to the classical molecular and cellular mechanisms of plasticity. This review extracts clues regarding the contribution of adult-born neurons to the different circuits of the olfactory bulb and specifically how new neurons participate in existing computations and enable new computational functions. PMID:23190074

  14. Prolonged Intracellular Na+ Dynamics Govern Electrical Activity in Accessory Olfactory Bulb Mitral Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asaph Zylbertal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Persistent activity has been reported in many brain areas and is hypothesized to mediate working memory and emotional brain states and to rely upon network or biophysical feedback. Here, we demonstrate a novel mechanism by which persistent neuronal activity can be generated without feedback, relying instead on the slow removal of Na+ from neurons following bursts of activity. We show that mitral cells in the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB, which plays a major role in mammalian social behavior, may respond to a brief sensory stimulation with persistent firing. By combining electrical recordings, Ca2+ and Na+ imaging, and realistic computational modeling, we explored the mechanisms underlying the persistent activity in AOB mitral cells. We found that the exceptionally slow inward current that underlies this activity is governed by prolonged dynamics of intracellular Na+ ([Na+]i, which affects neuronal electrical activity via several pathways. Specifically, elevated dendritic [Na+]i reverses the Na+-Ca2+ exchanger activity, thus modifying the [Ca2+]i set-point. This process, which relies on ubiquitous membrane mechanisms, is likely to play a role in other neuronal types in various brain regions.

  15. Effect of Atmospheric Press on Wet Bulb Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Raymond M.; Stasiak, Michael A.; Lawson, Jamie; Wehkamp, Cara Ann P.; Dixon, Michael A.

    2008-01-01

    Our measurements of wet bulb depression at different pressures matched the modeled adiabatic saturation temps reasonably well. At a dry bulb temp of 25 C, the normal wet bulb temp for 30% RH and 100 kPa is approx.15 C, but this dropped to approx.8 C at 10 kPa. The results suggest that psychrometers need direct calibration at the target pressures or that pressure corrected charts are required. For a given vapour pressure deficit, any moist surfaces, including transpiring plant leaves, will be cooler at lower pressures due to the increased evaporation rates.

  16. Affect of different ICT processing parameters to the quality of tomograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The quality of ICT tomograms is affected by detecting processing parameters and image processing methods besides the performances of ICT systems. Optimal processing parameters and image processing methods can promote not only the quality of tomogram but also the resolution. Some research work was carried out about processing parameters and image processing methods including choice of collimator, filter, false color composite image. And some examples were given in this paper, which can provide the ICT analyst with reference. (authors)

  17. Learning mechanism for column formation in the olfactory bulb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Migliore

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Sensory discrimination requires distributed arrays of processing units. In the olfactory bulb, the processing units for odor discrimination are believed to involve dendrodendritic synaptic interactions between mitral and granule cells. There is increasing anatomical evidence that these cells are organized in columns, and that the columns processing a given odor are arranged in widely distributed arrays. Experimental evidence is lacking on the underlying learning mechanisms for how these columns and arrays are formed. To gain insight into these mechanisms, we have used a simplified realistic circuit model to test the hypothesis that distributed connectivity can self-organize through an activity-dependent dendrodendritic synaptic mechanism. The results point to action potentials propagating in the mitral cell lateral dendrites as playing a critical role in this mechanism. The model predicts that columns emerge from the interaction between the local temporal dynamics of the action potentials and the synapses that they activate during dendritic propagation. The results suggest a novel and robust learning mechanism for the development of distributed processing units in a cortical structure.

  18. The functional significance of newly born neurons integrated into olfactory bulb circuits

    OpenAIRE

    Sakamoto, Masayuki; Kageyama, Ryoichiro; Imayoshi, Itaru

    2014-01-01

    The olfactory bulb (OB) is the first central processing center for olfactory information connecting with higher areas in the brain, and this neuronal circuitry mediates a variety of odor-evoked behavioral responses. In the adult mammalian brain, continuous neurogenesis occurs in two restricted regions, the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricle and the hippocampal dentate gyrus. New neurons born in the SVZ migrate through the rostral migratory stream and are integrated into the ne...

  19. Reliable Sex and Strain Discrimination in the Mouse Vomeronasal Organ and Accessory Olfactory Bulb

    OpenAIRE

    Tolokh, Illya I.; Fu, Xiaoyan; Holy, Timothy E.

    2013-01-01

    Animals modulate their courtship and territorial behaviors in response to olfactory cues produced by other animals. In rodents, detecting these cues is the primary role of the accessory olfactory system (AOS). We sought to systematically investigate the natural stimulus coding logic and robustness in neurons of the first two stages of accessory olfactory processing, the vomeronasal organ (VNO) and accessory olfactory bulb (AOB). We show that firing rate responses of just a few well-chosen mou...

  20. Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 and -2 Expression in the Olfactory Bulb Following Methyl Bromide Gas Exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Bakos, Stephen R.; Schwob, James E.; Costanzo, Richard M.

    2010-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and MMP-2 are important for recovery following direct traumatic injury within the central nervous system (CNS). However, most CNS injury models include both direct trauma and neuronal deafferentation. This limits the ability to determine if these MMPs are important to one or both components of injury. To establish if MMPs play a role in the deafferentation processes, we investigated MMP-9 and MMP-2 in the olfactory bulb following methyl bromide gas exposure....

  1. The European Commission‘s Light Bulb Decree: Another Costly Regulation?

    OpenAIRE

    Frondel, Manuel; Lohmann, Steffen

    2011-01-01

    Since September 2009, Regulation 244/2009 of the European Commission enforces the gradual phase-out of incandescent light bulbs. As of September 2012, only energy-efficient lighting sources will be allowed for sale. Among these are halogen light bulbs, light-emitting diodes (LED), or compact fluorescent light bulbs - often referred to as energy-saving light bulbs. The Commission's justification for the phase-out of conventional light bulbs maintains that a reduction in the electricity consume...

  2. Olfactory dysfunction, olfactory bulb pathology and urban air pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; Franco-Lira, Maricela; Henríquez-Roldán, Carlos; Osnaya, Norma; González-Maciel, Angelica; Reynoso-Robles, Rafael; Villarreal-Calderon, Rafael; Herritt, Lou; Brooks, Diane; Keefe, Sheyla; Palacios-Moreno, Juan; Villarreal-Calderon, Rodolfo; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo; Medina-Cortina, Humberto; Delgado-Chávez, Ricardo

    2009-01-01

    Mexico City (MC) residents are exposed to severe air pollution and exhibit olfactory bulb inflammation. We compared the olfactory function of individuals living under conditions of extreme air pollution to that of controls from a relatively clean environment and explore associations between olfaction scores, apolipoprotein E (APOE) status, and pollution exposure. The olfactory bulbs (OBs) of 35 MC and 9 controls 20.8 ± 8.5 y were assessed by light and electron microscopy. The University of Pe...

  3. BULB: Onion-Based Measuring of OSS Communities

    OpenAIRE

    Kilamo, Terhi; Aaltonen, Timo; Heinimäki, Teemu J.

    2010-01-01

    Up to date information on the associated developer community plays a key role when a company working with open source software makes business decisions. Although methods for getting such information have been developed, decisions are often based on scarce information. In this paper a measuring model for open source communities, BULB, is introduced. BULB provides a way of collecting relevant information and relates it to the well-known onion model of open source communities.

  4. Acrodynia: exposure to mercury from fluorescent light bulbs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tunnessen, W.W. Jr.; McMahon, K.J.; Baser, M.

    1987-05-01

    Medical attention was sought for a 23-month-old toddler because of anorexia, weight loss, irritability, profuse sweating, peeling and redness of his fingers and toes, and a miliarial rash. The diagnosis was mercury poisoning, and an investigation of his environment disclosed that he had been exposed to mercury from broken fluorescent light bulbs. Acrodynia resulting from fluorescent bulbs has not been previously reported.

  5. Study of individual and group affective processes in the crew of a simulated mission to Mars: Positive affectivity as a valuable indicator of changes in the crew affectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poláčková Šolcová, Iva; Lačev, Alek; Šolcová, Iva

    2014-07-01

    The success of a long-duration space mission depends on various technical demands as well as on the psychological (cognitive, affective, and motivational) adaptation of crewmembers and the quality of interactions within the crew. We examined the ways crewmembers of a 520-day simulated spaceflight to Mars (held in the Institute for Biomedical Problems, in Moscow) experienced and regulated their moods and emotions. Results show that crewmembers experienced predominantly positive emotions throughout their 520-day isolation and the changes in mood of the crewmembers were asynchronous and balanced. The study suggests that during the simulation, crewmembers experienced and regulated their emotions differently than they usually do in their everyday life. In isolation, crewmembers preferred to suppress and neutralize their negative emotions and express overtly only emotions with positive valence. Although the affective processes were almost invariable throughout the simulation, two periods of time when the level of positive emotions declined were identified. Regarding the findings, the paper suggests that changes in positive affectivity could be a more valuable indicator of human experience in demanding but professional environments than changes in negative affectivity. Finally, the paper discusses the phenomenology of emotions during a real space mission.

  6. Premature graying as a consequence of compromised antioxidant activity in hair bulb melanocytes and their precursors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Shi

    Full Text Available Intricate coordinated mechanisms that govern the synchrony of hair growth and melanin synthesis remain largely unclear. These two events can be uncoupled in prematurely gray hair, probably due to oxidative insults that lead to the death of oxidative stress-sensitive melanocytes. In this study, we examined the gene expression profiles of middle (bulge and lower (hair bulb segments that had been micro-dissected from unpigmented and from normally pigmented hair follicles from the same donors using quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qPCR arrays. We found a significant down-regulation of melanogenesis-related genes (TYR, TYRP1, MITF, PAX3, POMC in unpigmented hair bulbs and of marker genes typical for melanocyte precursor cells (PAX3, SOX10, DCT in unpigmented mid-segments compared with their pigmented analogues. qPCR, western blotting and spin trapping assays revealed that catalase protein expression and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities are strongly repressed in unpigmented hair follicles. These data provide the first clear evidence that compromised antioxidant activity in gray hair follicles simultaneously affects mature hair bulb melanocytes and their immature precursor cells in the bulge region.

  7. Evolution of some physicochemical and antioxidant properties of black garlic whole bulbs and peeled cloves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledano-Medina, M Angeles; Pérez-Aparicio, Jesús; Moreno-Rojas, Rafael; Merinas-Amo, Tania

    2016-05-15

    Black garlic was processed at three different temperatures of heat treatment (72°, 75° and 78°C) and close to 90% of relative humidity. Two types of material source were used: whole bulbs and peeled cloves. Total soluble solids content (°Brix), pH, water activity (aw), browning intensive (L value), total polyphenol content, antioxidant capacity and total polyphenol index of the raw and heated garlic were determined. This study showed the changes occurring in the physicochemical and antioxidant properties of the garlic during the heat-treatment evolution. The soluble solids content (°Brix) in garlic increased gradually and the pH decreased in whole bulbs and peeled garlics. The polyphenol content measured by the Folin-Ciocalteu method showed a significant increase during the heat-treatment in all the cases. Also, the antioxidant capacity measured by the ABTS radical increased significantly during the heat-treatment. PMID:26775954

  8. Measurements of the depth-dependent characteristics of light bulb implosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sungho; Kang, Donhyug

    2015-11-01

    Impulsive signals generated by the implosion of an incandescent light bulb were measured in shallow water with implosion depths in the range of 10 - 80 m. The received waveform was characterized by successive negative and positive pressure pulses originating from the bubble oscillation process. The time intervals between successive bubble pulses decreased with increasing implosion depth and the peaks of subsequent bubble oscillations dissipated relatively quickly. In this paper, semi-empirical formulas are derived to model the depth-dependent characteristics of the bulb implosion signal, including the time interval between bubble pulses and peak source level. The model predictions are compared with the measured signals and with the results in the literature. Possible causes of the differences in the comparison with previous results are discussed.

  9. Treatment of impaired affective information processing and social cognition in neuropsychiatric patients: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wingbermuhle, Ellen; Roelofs, R.L.; Kessels, R.P.C.; Egger, J.I.M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Impairments in affective information processing (AIP) and social cognition (SC) have been associated with psychiatric disorders, inadequate social interaction, and lowered self-esteem. Consequently, problems in AIP and SC impede daily functioning and affect quality of life. Promoting impr

  10. Searching for Judy: How Small Mysteries Affect Narrative Processes and Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Jessica; McKoon, Gail; Gerrig, Richard J.

    2010-01-01

    Current theories of text processing say little about how authors' narrative choices, including the introduction of small mysteries, can affect readers' narrative experiences. Gerrig, Love, and McKoon (2009) provided evidence that 1 type of small mystery--a character introduced without information linking him or her to the story--affects readers'…

  11. Paying attention to smell: Cholinergic signaling in the olfactory bulb.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinaldo David D'Souza

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The tractable, layered architecture of the olfactory bulb (OB, and its function as a relay between odor input and higher cortical processing, makes it an attractive model to study how sensory information is processed at a synaptic and circuit level. The OB is also the recipient of strong neuromodulatory inputs, chief among them being the central cholinergic system. Cholinergic axons from the basal forebrain modulate the activity of various cells and synapses within the OB, particularly the numerous dendrodendritic synapses, resulting in highly variable responses of OB neurons to odor input that is dependent upon the behavioral state of the animal. Behavioral, electrophysiological, anatomical, and computational studies examining the function of muscarinic and nicotinic cholinergic receptors expressed in the OB have provided valuable insights into the role of acetylcholine (ACh in regulating its function. We here review various studies examining the modulation of OB function by cholinergic fibers and their target receptors, and provide putative models describing the role that cholinergic receptor activation might play in the encoding of odor information.

  12. Changes in attentional processing and affective reactivity in pregnancy and postpartum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gollan JK

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Jackie K Gollan, Laina Rosebrock, Denada Hoxha, Katherine L Wisner Asher Center for the Study and Treatment of Depressive Disorders, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL, USA Abstract: The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the research in attentional processing and affective reactivity in pregnancy and postpartum to inform future research. Numerous changes occur in attentional processing and affective reactivity across the childbearing period. This review focuses on the definition and methods of measuring attentional processing and affective reactivity. We discuss research studies that have examined the changes in these two processes during the perinatal phases of pregnancy and postpartum, with and without depression and anxiety. We evaluate the importance of using multiple levels of measurement, including physiological and neuroimaging techniques, to study these processes via implicit and explicit tasks. Research that has identified regions of brain activation using functional magnetic resonance imaging as well as other physiological assessments is integrated into the discussion. The importance of using sophisticated methodological techniques in future studies, such as multiple mediation models, for the purpose of elucidating mechanisms of change during these processes in pregnancy and postpartum is emphasized. We conclude with a discussion of the effect of these processes on maternal psychological functioning and infant outcomes. These processes support a strategy for individualizing treatment for pregnant and postpartum women suffering from depression and anxiety. Keywords: attentional processing, emotion, affective reactivity, depression, pregnancy, postpartum

  13. The Role of Astrocytes in the Generation, Migration, and Integration of New Neurons in the Adult Olfactory Bulb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gengatharan, Archana; Bammann, Rodrigo R; Saghatelyan, Armen

    2016-01-01

    In mammals, new neurons in the adult olfactory bulb originate from a pool of neural stem cells in the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricles. Adult-born cells play an important role in odor information processing by adjusting the neuronal network to changing environmental conditions. Olfactory bulb neurogenesis is supported by several non-neuronal cells. In this review, we focus on the role of astroglial cells in the generation, migration, integration, and survival of new neurons in the adult forebrain. In the subventricular zone, neural stem cells with astrocytic properties display regional and temporal specificity when generating different neuronal subtypes. Non-neurogenic astrocytes contribute to the establishment and maintenance of the neurogenic niche. Neuroblast chains migrate through the rostral migratory stream ensheathed by astrocytic processes. Astrocytes play an important regulatory role in neuroblast migration and also assist in the development of a vasculature scaffold in the migratory stream that is essential for neuroblast migration in the postnatal brain. In the olfactory bulb, astrocytes help to modulate the network through a complex release of cytokines, regulate blood flow, and provide metabolic support, which may promote the integration and survival of new neurons. Astrocytes thus play a pivotal role in various processes of adult olfactory bulb neurogenesis, and it is likely that many other functions of these glial cells will emerge in the near future. PMID:27092050

  14. De Novo Transcriptome Analysis of Allium cepa L. (Onion Bulb to Identify Allergens and Epitopes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemalatha Rajkumar

    Full Text Available Allium cepa (onion is a diploid plant with one of the largest nuclear genomes among all diploids. Onion is an example of an under-researched crop which has a complex heterozygous genome. There are no allergenic proteins and genomic data available for onions. This study was conducted to establish a transcriptome catalogue of onion bulb that will enable us to study onion related genes involved in medicinal use and allergies. Transcriptome dataset generated from onion bulb using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 technology showed a total of 99,074,309 high quality raw reads (~20 Gb. Based on sequence homology onion genes were categorized into 49 different functional groups. Most of the genes however, were classified under 'unknown' in all three gene ontology categories. Of the categorized genes, 61.2% showed metabolic functions followed by cellular components such as binding, cellular processes; catalytic activity and cell part. With BLASTx top hit analysis, a total of 2,511 homologous allergenic sequences were found, which had 37-100% similarity with 46 different types of allergens existing in the database. From the 46 contigs or allergens, 521 B-cell linear epitopes were identified using BepiPred linear epitope prediction tool. This is the first comprehensive insight into the transcriptome of onion bulb tissue using the NGS technology, which can be used to map IgE epitopes and prediction of structures and functions of various proteins.

  15. Investigating the outer-bulb discharge as ignition aid for automotive-HID lamps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work considers the ignition process of mercury-free high-intensity discharge lamps used for car headlights. These lamps have to run-up fast. This is achieved with a high xenon pressure of about 15 bar (cold) in the inner bulb. The high filling-gas pressure causes an increased ignition voltage compared with lower-pressure lamps used in general-lighting applications. In this paper the possibility is investigated to reduce the ignition voltage by optimizing a dielectric-barrier discharge (DBD) in the outer bulb working as ignition aid. A special outer bulb was built up allowing gas exchange and adjustment of the gas pressure. For diagnostic purposes different electrical and optical methods are used, namely the recording of ignition voltage, ignition current and light emission by a photo-diode signal on nanosecond time scale as well as short-time photography by a intensified charge-coupled device camera. It was found that the DBD mainly generates a potential distribution within the lamp which supports ignition by an increase in the E-field in front of the electrodes and the wall. It is shown that this effect is distinctly more effective than UV radiation potentially emitted by the DBD. (paper)

  16. Paced-mating increases the number of adult new born cells in the internal cellular (granular layer of the accessory olfactory bulb.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebeca Corona

    Full Text Available The continuous production and addition of new neurons during life in the olfactory bulb is well accepted and has been extensively studied in rodents. This process could allow the animals to adapt to a changing environment. Olfactory neurogenesis begins in the subventricular zone where stem cells proliferate and give rise to young undifferentiated neuroblasts that migrate along the rostral migratory stream to the olfactory bulb (OB. Olfaction is crucial for the expression of sexual behavior in rodents. In female rats, the ability to control the rate of sexual interactions (pacing has important physiological and behavioral consequences. In the present experiment we evaluated if pacing behavior modifies the rate of new cells that reach the main and accessory olfactory bulb. The BrdU marker was injected before and after different behavioral tests which included: females placed in a mating cage (control, females allowed to pace the sexual interaction, females that mated but were not able to control the rate of the sexual interaction and females exposed to a sexually active male. Subjects were sacrificed fifteen days after the behavioral test. We observed a significant increase in the density of BrdU positive cells in the internal cellular layer of the accessory olfactory bulb when females paced the sexual interaction in comparison to the other 3 groups. No differences in the cell density in the main olfactory bulb were found. These results suggest that pacing behavior promotes an increase in density of the new cells in the accessory olfactory bulb.

  17. A Pontine Region is a Neural Correlate of the Human Affective Processing Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatia M.C. Lee

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The in vivo neural activity of the pons during the perception of affective stimuli has not been studied despite the strong implications of its role in affective processing. To examine the activity of the pons during the viewing of affective stimuli, and to verify its functional and structural connectivity with other affective neural correlates, a multimodal magnetic resonance imaging methodology was employed in this study. We observed the in vivo activity of the pons when viewing affective stimuli. Furthermore, small-world connectivity indicated that the functional connectivity (FC between the pons and the cortico-limbic affective regions was meaningful, with the coefficient λ being positively associated with self-reported emotional reactivity. The FC between the pons and the cortico-limbic-striatal areas was related to self-reported negative affect. Corroborating this finding was the observation that the tract passing through the pons and the left hippocampus was negatively related to self-reported positive affect and positively correlated with emotional reactivity. Our findings support the framework that the pons works conjunctively with the distributed cortico-limbic-striatal systems in shaping individuals' affective states and reactivity. Our work paves the path for future research on the contribution of the pons to the precipitation and maintenance of affective disorders.

  18. Information-Processing and Perceptions of Control: How Attribution Style Affects Task-Relevant Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeigh, Tony

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of perceived controllability on information processing within Weiner's (1985, 1986) attributional model of learning. Attributional style was used to identify trait patterns of controllability for 37 university students. Task-relevant feedback on an information-processing task was then manipulated to test for…

  19. The situational factors that affect the software development process: Towards a comprehensive reference framework

    OpenAIRE

    Clarke, Paul; O'Connor, Rory

    2012-01-01

    Context An optimal software development process is regarded as being dependent on the situational characteristics of individual software development settings. Such characteristics include the nature of the application(s) under development, team size, requirements volatility and personnel experience. However, no comprehensive reference framework of the situational factors affecting the software development process is presently available. Objective The absence of such a comprehensive r...

  20. 76 FR 78093 - Correction of Administrative Errors; Court Orders and Legal Processes Affecting Thrift Savings...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-16

    ... payment pursuant to a retirement benefits court order. See 69 FR 18294 (April 7, 2004). The Agency... CFR Parts 1605 and 1653 Correction of Administrative Errors; Court Orders and Legal Processes... for a retirement benefits court order or legal process affecting the Thrift Savings Plan and...

  1. Culture and purification of human fetal olfactory bulb ensheathing cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To obtain high purity of human fetal olfactory bulb ensheathing cells (OB-hOECs) in vitro and to develop a simple and effective method for primary culture of OB-hOECs. Methods: OB-hOECs were cultured based on the differential rates of attachment of the various harvested cell types. Then the method was combined with arabinoside cytosine (Ara-C)inhibition, serum-free starvation or intermittent neurotrophin 3 (NT3) nutrition method to observe cell states in different cultural environments. The purity of OB-hOECs was assessed with immunocytochemical analysis. Results: OB-hOECs appeared bipolar and tripolar shape, with slender processes forming network. The purity of OECs reached 88% with the selective attachment method on day 6, and then fibroblast proliferated quickly and reduced the purity. When combined with the starvation method, the purity of OECs was 91% on day 6 and 86% on day 9, however, OECs were in a poor state. While combined with the NT3 method, the purity reached 95% on day 9 and 83% on day 12, respectively. The cells still remained in a good state. Conclusion: A combination of selective attachment and intermittent NT3 nutrition is an effective method to obtain OECs with higher purity and quality.

  2. Topological reorganization of odor representations in the olfactory bulb.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emre Yaksi

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Odors are initially represented in the olfactory bulb (OB by patterns of sensory input across the array of glomeruli. Although activated glomeruli are often widely distributed, glomeruli responding to stimuli sharing molecular features tend to be loosely clustered and thus establish a fractured chemotopic map. Neuronal circuits in the OB transform glomerular patterns of sensory input into spatiotemporal patterns of output activity and thereby extract information about a stimulus. It is, however, unknown whether the chemotopic spatial organization of glomerular inputs is maintained during these computations. To explore this issue, we measured spatiotemporal patterns of odor-evoked activity across thousands of individual neurons in the zebrafish OB by temporally deconvolved two-photon Ca(2+ imaging. Mitral cells and interneurons were distinguished by transgenic markers and exhibited different response selectivities. Shortly after response onset, activity patterns exhibited foci of activity associated with certain chemical features throughout all layers. During the subsequent few hundred milliseconds, however, MC activity was locally sparsened within the initial foci in an odor-specific manner. As a consequence, chemotopic maps disappeared and activity patterns became more informative about precise odor identity. Hence, chemotopic maps of glomerular input activity are initially transmitted to OB outputs, but not maintained during pattern processing. Nevertheless, transient chemotopic maps may support neuronal computations by establishing important synaptic interactions within the circuit. These results provide insights into the functional topology of neural activity patterns and its potential role in circuit function.

  3. Prosthetic rehabilitation of a maxillectomy with a two-piece hollow bulb obturator. A clinical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padmanabhan, T V; Kumar, V Anand; Mohamed, K Kasim; Unnikrishnan, Nandini

    2011-07-01

    Extensive bilateral midfacial defects involving the upper jaw, palate, and sinus present a formidable reconstructive challenge. A combination of total and subtotal maxillectomy is, in general, a rare surgical procedure that affects the cosmetic, functional, and psychological aspects of a patient's life. Prosthetic restoration has become the preferred method for the rehabilitation of such conditions. The use of magnets is an efficient means of providing combined prostheses with retention, quality, and stability. This clinical report describes the rehabilitation of a total and subtotal maxillectomy patient with a two-piece hollow bulb obturator retained with the help of magnets and a retention clasp. PMID:21651640

  4. Inhomogeneous Point-Processes to Instantaneously Assess Affective Haptic Perception through Heartbeat Dynamics Information

    OpenAIRE

    Valenza, G; Greco, A.; Citi, L; Bianchi, M; Barbieri, R; Scilingo, E. P.

    2016-01-01

    This study proposes the application of a comprehensive signal processing framework, based on inhomogeneous point-process models of heartbeat dynamics, to instantaneously assess affective haptic perception using electrocardiogram-derived information exclusively. The framework relies on inverse-Gaussian point-processes with Laguerre expansion of the nonlinear Wiener-Volterra kernels, accounting for the long-term information given by the past heartbeat events. Up to cubic-order nonlinearities al...

  5. Neural processing associated with cognitive and affective Theory of Mind in adolescents and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian, Catherine L; Fontaine, Nathalie M G; Bird, Geoffrey; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne; Brito, Stephane A De; McCrory, Eamon J P; Viding, Essi

    2012-01-01

    Theory of Mind (ToM) is the ability to attribute thoughts, intentions and beliefs to others. This involves component processes, including cognitive perspective taking (cognitive ToM) and understanding emotions (affective ToM). This study assessed the distinction and overlap of neural processes involved in these respective components, and also investigated their development between adolescence and adulthood. While data suggest that ToM develops between adolescence and adulthood, these populations have not been compared on cognitive and affective ToM domains. Using fMRI with 15 adolescent (aged 11-16 years) and 15 adult (aged 24-40 years) males, we assessed neural responses during cartoon vignettes requiring cognitive ToM, affective ToM or physical causality comprehension (control). An additional aim was to explore relationships between fMRI data and self-reported empathy. Both cognitive and affective ToM conditions were associated with neural responses in the classic ToM network across both groups, although only affective ToM recruited medial/ventromedial PFC (mPFC/vmPFC). Adolescents additionally activated vmPFC more than did adults during affective ToM. The specificity of the mPFC/vmPFC response during affective ToM supports evidence from lesion studies suggesting that vmPFC may integrate affective information during ToM. Furthermore, the differential neural response in vmPFC between adult and adolescent groups indicates developmental changes in affective ToM processing. PMID:21467048

  6. Extreme sensory processing patterns and their relation with clinical conditions among individuals with major affective disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel-Yeger, Batya; Muzio, Caterina; Rinosi, Giorgio; Solano, Paola; Geoffroy, Pierre Alexis; Pompili, Maurizio; Amore, Mario; Serafini, Gianluca

    2016-02-28

    Previous studies highlighted the involvement of sensory perception in emotional processes. However, the role of extreme sensory processing patterns expressed in hyper- or hyposensitivity was not thoroughly considered. The present study, in real life conditions, examined the unique sensory processing patterns of individuals with major affective disorders and their relationship with psychiatric symptomatology. The sample consisted of 105 participants with major affective conditions ranging in age from 20 to 84 years (mean=56.7±14.6). All participants completed the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego (TEMPS-A), the second version of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II), and Adolescent/Adult Sensory Profile (AASP). Sensory sensitivity/avoiding hypersensitivity patterns and low registration (a hyposensitivity pattern) were prevalent among our sample as compared to normative data. About seventy percent of the sample showed lower seeking tendency. Stepwise regression analyses revealed that depression and anxious/cyclothymic affective temperaments were predicted by sensory sensory/avoiding. Anxious and irritable affective temperaments were predicted by low registration. Hyperthymic affective temperament and lower severity of depression were predicted by sensation seeking. Hyposensitivity or hypersensitivity may be "trait" markers of individuals with major affective disorders. Interventions should refer to the individual unique sensory profiles and their behavioral and functional impact in the context of real life. PMID:26738981

  7. Towards understanding how surface life can affect interior geological processes: a non-equilibrium thermodynamics approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. G. Dyke

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Life has significantly altered the Earth's atmosphere, oceans and crust. To what extent has it also affected interior geological processes? To address this question, three models of geological processes are formulated: mantle convection, continental crust uplift and erosion and oceanic crust recycling. These processes are characterised as non-equilibrium thermodynamic systems. Their states of disequilibrium are maintained by the power generated from the dissipation of energy from the interior of the Earth. Altering the thickness of continental crust via weathering and erosion affects the upper mantle temperature which leads to changes in rates of oceanic crust recycling and consequently rates of outgassing of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. Estimates for the power generated by various elements in the Earth system are shown. This includes, inter alia, surface life generation of 264 TW of power, much greater than those of geological processes such as mantle convection at 12 TW. This high power results from life's ability to harvest energy directly from the sun. Life need only utilise a small fraction of the generated free chemical energy for geochemical transformations at the surface, such as affecting rates of weathering and erosion of continental rocks, in order to affect interior, geological processes. Consequently when assessing the effects of life on Earth, and potentially any planet with a significant biosphere, dynamical models may be required that better capture the coupled nature of biologically-mediated surface and interior processes.

  8. Localisation of 3H-GABA in the rat olfactory bulb: An in vivo and in vitro autoradiographic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In an attempt to further clarify the localisation of GABAergic elements in the olfactory bulb we have performed, in vivo and in vitro, autoradiographic studies with 3H-GABA (#betta#-amino butyric acid) and 3H-DABA (L-2,4 diamino butyric acid). The results have shown a strong labelling with 3H-GABA of the glial cells in all the layers of the olfactory bulb. A high concentration of grains was observed in the periglomerular region. The labelling in the external plexiform layer was uniformly distributed in the neuropile with the strongest activity at the level of the dendritic processes of the granule cells, leaving the mitral cell dendrites and cell bodies almost free of grains. 3H-DABA showed a very similar pattern to 3H-GABA. When olfactory bulb slices were preincubated with #betta#-alanine the labelling of the glial elements almost disappeared especially at the level of the olfactory nerve layer. The labelling pattern of the other layers of the bulb remained mostly unchanged. This supports the view that a population of periglomerular and granule cells are GABAergic and that #betta#-alanine competes with GABA uptake sites only in glial cells. (orig.)

  9. Dopaminergic modulation of mitral cell activity in the frog olfactory bulb: a combined radioligand binding-electrophysiological study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dopamine content in the amphibian olfactory bulb is supplied by interneurons scattered among mitral cells in the external plexiform/mitral cell layer. In mammals, dopamine has been found to be involved in various aspects of bulbar information processing by influencing mitral cell odour responsiveness. Dopamine action in the bulb depends directly on the localization of its receptor targets, found to be mainly of the D2 type in mammals. The present study assessed, in the frog, both the anatomical localization of D2-like, radioligand-labelled receptors of dopamine and the in vivo action of dopamine on unitary mitral cell activity in response to odours delivered over a wide range of concentrations. The [125I]iodosulpride-labelled D2 binding sites were visualized on frozen sagittal sections of frog brains by film radioautography. The sites were found to be restricted to the external plexiform/mitral cell layer; other layers of the olfactory bulb were devoid of specific labelling. Electrophysiological recordings of mitral unit activity revealed that dopamine or its agonist apomorphine induced a drastic reduction of spontaneous firing rate of mitral cells in most cases without altering odour intensity coding properties of these cells. Moreover, pre-treatment with the D2 antagonist eticlopride blocked the dopamine-induced reduction of mitral cell spontaneous activity.In the frog olfactory bulb, both anatomical localization of D2-like receptors and functional data on dopamine involvement in information processing differ from those reported in mammals. This suggests a phylogenetic evolution of dopamine action in the olfactory bulb. In the frog, anatomical data perfectly corroborate electrophysiological results, together strongly suggesting a direct action of dopamine on mitral cells. In a physiologically operating system, such an action would result in a global improvement of signal-to-noise ratio. (Copyright (c) 1997 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  10. Dopaminergic modulation of mitral cell activity in the frog olfactory bulb: a combined radioligand binding-electrophysiological study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duchamp, A.; Moyse, E.; Delaleu, J.-C.; Coronas, V.; Duchamp-Viret, P. [Laboratoire de Physiologie Neurosensorielle, Universite Claude Bernard and CNRS, F69622 Villeurbanne (France)

    1997-04-28

    Dopamine content in the amphibian olfactory bulb is supplied by interneurons scattered among mitral cells in the external plexiform/mitral cell layer. In mammals, dopamine has been found to be involved in various aspects of bulbar information processing by influencing mitral cell odour responsiveness. Dopamine action in the bulb depends directly on the localization of its receptor targets, found to be mainly of the D{sub 2} type in mammals. The present study assessed, in the frog, both the anatomical localization of D{sub 2}-like, radioligand-labelled receptors of dopamine and the in vivo action of dopamine on unitary mitral cell activity in response to odours delivered over a wide range of concentrations. The [{sup 125}I]iodosulpride-labelled D{sub 2} binding sites were visualized on frozen sagittal sections of frog brains by film radioautography. The sites were found to be restricted to the external plexiform/mitral cell layer; other layers of the olfactory bulb were devoid of specific labelling. Electrophysiological recordings of mitral unit activity revealed that dopamine or its agonist apomorphine induced a drastic reduction of spontaneous firing rate of mitral cells in most cases without altering odour intensity coding properties of these cells. Moreover, pre-treatment with the D{sub 2} antagonist eticlopride blocked the dopamine-induced reduction of mitral cell spontaneous activity.In the frog olfactory bulb, both anatomical localization of D{sub 2}-like receptors and functional data on dopamine involvement in information processing differ from those reported in mammals. This suggests a phylogenetic evolution of dopamine action in the olfactory bulb. In the frog, anatomical data perfectly corroborate electrophysiological results, together strongly suggesting a direct action of dopamine on mitral cells. In a physiologically operating system, such an action would result in a global improvement of signal-to-noise ratio. (Copyright (c) 1997 Elsevier Science B

  11. Characterization of napthenic acids in oil sands process-affected waters using fluorescence technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Process-affected water from oil sands production plants presents a major environmental challenge to oil sands operators due to its toxicity to different organisms as well as its corrosiveness in refinery units. This abstract investigated the use of fluorescence excitation-emission matrices to detect and characterize changes in naphthenic acid in oil sands process-affected waters. Samples from oil sands production plants and storage ponds were tested. The study showed that oil sands naphthenic acids show characteristic fluorescence signatures when excited by ultraviolet light in the range of 260 to 350 mm. The signal was a unique attribute of the naphthenic acid molecule. Changes in the fluorescence signature can be used to determine chemical changes such as degradation or aging. It was concluded that the technology can be used as a non-invasive continuous water quality monitoring tool to increase process control in oil sands processing plants

  12. Characterization of napthenic acids in oil sands process-affected waters using fluorescence technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, L.; Alostaz, M.; Ulrich, A. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    2009-07-01

    Process-affected water from oil sands production plants presents a major environmental challenge to oil sands operators due to its toxicity to different organisms as well as its corrosiveness in refinery units. This abstract investigated the use of fluorescence excitation-emission matrices to detect and characterize changes in naphthenic acid in oil sands process-affected waters. Samples from oil sands production plants and storage ponds were tested. The study showed that oil sands naphthenic acids show characteristic fluorescence signatures when excited by ultraviolet light in the range of 260 to 350 mm. The signal was a unique attribute of the naphthenic acid molecule. Changes in the fluorescence signature can be used to determine chemical changes such as degradation or aging. It was concluded that the technology can be used as a non-invasive continuous water quality monitoring tool to increase process control in oil sands processing plants.

  13. Nutritional and antioxidant potential of canjiqueira fruits affected by maturity stage and thermal processing

    OpenAIRE

    Mariana Ferreira Oliveira Prates; Raquel Pires Campos; Michelly Morais Barbosa da Silva; Maria Lígia Rodrigues Macedo; Priscila Aiko Hiane; Manoel Mendes Ramos Filho

    2015-01-01

    The effect of jelly processing on the chemical properties, nutrients, antinutritional factors, bioactive compounds, and antioxidant activity of unripe and ripe canjiqueira fruits was evaluated. The fruits were collected from Pantanal regions at two different ripening stages and were used to produce jellies. The processing affected the chemical characteristics and the content of all nutrients, except for the lipids. Moisture and protein content reduced, whereas the energy value increased. The ...

  14. Importance of Cognitive and Affective Processes when Working with a Computer

    OpenAIRE

    Blaž Trbižan; Vasja Roblek

    2013-01-01

    Research Question (RQ): Why and how to measure human emotions when working and learning with a computer? Are machines (computers, robots) implementing such binary records, where there is a simulation of cognitive phenomena and their processes, or do they actually reflect, therefore, able to think?Purpose: Show the importance of cognitive and affective processes of computer and ICT usage, both in learning and in daily work tasks.Method: Comparative method, where scientific findings were compar...

  15. How orthographic transparency affects morphological processing in young readers with and without reading disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lázaro, Miguel; García, Laura; Burani, Cristina

    2015-10-01

    This study investigates how orthographic modifications to the stems of complex words affect morphological processing in proficient young Spanish readers and children with reading deficits. In a definition task all children, irrespective of their reading skill, were worse at defining derived words that had an orthographic alteration of the base stem than words with no orthographic alteration. In a go/no-go lexical decision task, an interaction between base frequency and orthographic alteration was found: base frequency affected derived words with no orthographic alteration more than words with alterations, irrespective of reading skill. Overall, results show that all children benefit from a high frequency base, skilled children outperform children with reading deficits and morphological processing is affected by orthographic alterations similarly in proficient and impaired readers. PMID:25899060

  16. Factors Affecting Christian Parents' School Choice Decision Processes: A Grounded Theory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prichard, Tami G.; Swezey, James A.

    2016-01-01

    This study identifies factors affecting the decision processes for school choice by Christian parents. Grounded theory design incorporated interview transcripts, field notes, and a reflective journal to analyze themes. Comparative analysis, including open, axial, and selective coding, was used to reduce the coded statements to five code families:…

  17. Interaction between Task Oriented and Affective Information Processing in Cognitive Robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haazebroek, Pascal; van Dantzig, Saskia; Hommel, Bernhard

    There is an increasing interest in endowing robots with emotions. Robot control however is still often very task oriented. We present a cognitive architecture that allows the combination of and interaction between task representations and affective information processing. Our model is validated by comparing simulation results with empirical data from experimental psychology.

  18. Social Information Processing in Children: Specific Relations to Anxiety, Depression, and Affect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luebbe, Aaron M.; Bell, Debora J.; Allwood, Maureen A.; Swenson, Lance P.; Early, Martha C.

    2010-01-01

    Two studies examined shared and unique relations of social information processing (SIP) to youth's anxious and depressive symptoms. Whether SIP added unique variance over and above trait affect in predicting internalizing symptoms was also examined. In Study 1, 215 youth (ages 8-13) completed symptom measures of anxiety and depression and a…

  19. Facial Affect Processing and Depression Susceptibility: Cognitive Biases and Cognitive Neuroscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bistricky, Steven L.; Ingram, Rick E.; Atchley, Ruth Ann

    2011-01-01

    Facial affect processing is essential to social development and functioning and is particularly relevant to models of depression. Although cognitive and interpersonal theories have long described different pathways to depression, cognitive-interpersonal and evolutionary social risk models of depression focus on the interrelation of interpersonal…

  20. Atypical Sensory Processing in Adolescents with an Autism Spectrum Disorder and Their Non-Affected Siblings

    Science.gov (United States)

    De la Marche, Wouter; Steyaert, Jean; Noens, Ilse

    2012-01-01

    Atypical sensory processing is common in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Specific profiles have been proposed in different age groups, but no study has focused specifically on adolescents. Identifying traits of ASD that are shared by individuals with ASD and their non-affected family members can shed light on the genetic underpinnings of ASD.…

  1. Mass-independent fractionation of mercury isotopes in compact fluorescent light bulbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mead, C.; Anbar, A. D.; Lyons, J. R.; Johnson, T. M.

    2010-12-01

    Compact fluorescent lightbulbs (CFLs) are a growing source of Hg pollution. The high-energy environment of the CFLs combined with the known partitioning of Hg into the bulb walls could provide an environment for unusual isotope fractionation that could be used to trace pollution from improper bulb disposal. To investigate this possibility, we analyzed the isotope composition of Hg in CFL glass, phosphor powder, and whole bulbs from CFLs of known ages. We observed large, mass-independent fractionation of Hg isotopes between Hg embedded in the bulb wall and Hg in the liquid and vapor phases, which are the initial reservoir of Hg in the bulb. This fractionation results in the bulb wall showing enrichment of 198Hg, 199Hg, 200Hg, 201Hg, and 204Hg relative to 202Hg, the most abundant isotope. Both the amount of Hg embedded in the glass and the magnitude of the isotope enrichment were found to increase with the number of hours of light bulb use. For a CFL used for 3600 hours (with a rated lifetime of 10,000 hours), the isotopic composition of the Hg in the glass was enriched by 34.5‰, 4.1‰, 6.3‰, 21.1‰, and 12.1‰ for 198Hg/202Hg, 199Hg/202Hg, 200Hg/202Hg, 201Hg/202Hg, and 204Hg/202Hg, respectively, compared to NIST SRM-3133. This pattern of isotope enrichments is not correlated with mass differences for any of the isotope ratios. In contrast, the other mass-independent effects that have recently been observed in Hg isotopes (i.e., the nuclear volume and magnetic isotope effects) resemble mass-dependent fractionation for the even mass isotopes and are anomalous only for the odd mass isotopes, 199Hg and 201Hg. First order theoretical calculations using Hg absorption and emission data for each of the hyperfine components of the 253.7 nm line have shown that similar fractionation can be produced through an optical self-shielding effect. This effect occurs because each Hg isotope has a different degree of optical saturation at their respective absorption wavelength

  2. Genetic variation for bulb size, soluble solids content and pungency in the Spanish sweet onion variety Fuentes de Ebro. Response to selection for low pungency

    OpenAIRE

    Mallor Giménez, Cristina; Balcells Oliván, María; Mallor, F.; Sales, E.

    2011-01-01

    The cultivar ‘Fuentes de Ebro’ is a long-day onion grown in the northeast of Spain, which is characterized by its succulence and low pungency. However, to match the market demand the size, pungency, and storability need to be improved. We have evaluated these quality-related bulb traits in 15 grower’s open-pollinated lines of this cultivar. Phenotypic variation observed for bulb weight, size and soluble solids content was significantly affected by location, growing season and line, while pung...

  3. Prepare for scare-Impact of threat predictability on affective visual processing in spider phobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klahn, Anna Luisa; Klinkenberg, Isabelle A G; Notzon, Swantje; Arolt, Volker; Pantev, Christo; Zwanzger, Peter; Junghöfer, Markus

    2016-07-01

    The visual processing of emotional faces is influenced by individual's level of stress and anxiety. Valence unspecific affective processing is expected to be influenced by predictability of threat. Using a design of phasic fear (predictable threat), sustained anxiety (unpredictable threat) and safety (no threat), we investigated the magnetoencephalographic correlates and temporal dynamics of emotional face processing in a sample of phobic patients. Compared to non-anxious controls, phobic individuals revealed decreased parietal emotional attention processes during affective processing at mid-latency and late processing stages. While control subjects showed increasing parietal processing of the facial stimuli in line with decreasing threat predictability, phobic subjects revealed the opposite pattern. Decreasing threat predictability also led to increasing neural activity in the orbitofrontal and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex at mid-latency stages. Additionally, unpredictability of threat lead to higher subjective discomfort compared to predictability of threat and no threat safety condition. Our findings indicate that visual processing of emotional information is influenced by both stress induction and pathologic anxiety. PMID:27036648

  4. Voltage-Dependent Intrinsic Bursting in Olfactory Bulb Golgi Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressler, R. Todd; Rozman, Peter A.; Strowbridge, Ben W.

    2013-01-01

    In the mammalian olfactory bulb (OB), local synaptic circuits modulate the evolving pattern of activity in mitral and tufted cells following olfactory sensory stimulation. GABAergic granule cells, the most numerous interneuron subtype in this brain region, have been extensively studied. However, classic studies using Golgi staining methods…

  5. Human Adult Olfactory Bulb Neurogenesis? Novelty Is the Best Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Macklis, Jeffrey Daniel

    2012-01-01

    There is ongoing controversy as to whether the understanding of adult mammalian neurogenesis gained from rodent studies is applicable to humans. In this issue of Neuron, Bergmann et al. (2012) propose that adult human olfactory bulb neurogenesis with long-term neuronal survival is extremely limited.

  6. The ``Green Lab'': Power Consumption by Commercial Light Bulbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einsporn, James A.; Zhou, Andrew F.

    2011-09-01

    Going "green" is a slogan that is very contemporary, both with industry and in the political arena. Choosing more energy-efficient devices is one way homeowners can "go green." A simple method is to change home lighting from hot incandescent bulbs to compact fluorescent lights (CFLs). But do they really save energy? How do their illuminations compare? Even if the CFLs are more energy efficient, they still add to our pollution problem because of the mercury inside them. Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) could be the answer, but they are not available at our local stores. Can LEDs be made to screw right into a standard socket? How expensive are they? What are the power consumptions of so-called "60-W" and "100-W" CFL and LED light bulbs? These are the questions that are answered during this lab activity. Students measure the voltage and current for each of the three types of bulbs, and then calculate the electrical power required by each. An optional experiment is to set the light outputs of each bulb so they are equal in intensity, and then determine the power consumed. While not practical in the home, this experiment gives students an understanding of value for their buck.

  7. Special branches: organic greenhouse production, bulbs, ornamentals and aquaculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sukkel, W.; Hommes, M.; Meijer, R.J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Organic production methods are gaining ground in Dutch specialised production branches. Interest is growing among greenhouse horticulturalists and growers of flower bulbs, ornamentals and mushrooms. In organic horticulture Dutch research is unique in the world in thinking up innovative concepts and

  8. Experimental characterization of CFL bulbs for power quality assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vugt, van P.; Timens, R.B.; Stievano, I.S.; Leferink, F.B.J.; Canavero, F.G.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a systematic set of voltage and current transient measurements aimed at characterizing the electrical behavior of a typical energy efficient compact fluorescent light bulb. The considered device represents a well-known example of a number of nonlinear loads that ar

  9. On the Intensity Profile of Electric Lamps and Light Bulbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacalla, Xavier; Salumbides, Edcel John

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate that the time profile of the light intensity from domestic lighting sources exhibits simple yet interesting properties that foster lively student discussions. We monitor the light intensity of an industrial fluorescent lamp (also known as TL) and an incandescent bulb using a photodetector connected to an oscilloscope. The light…

  10. The "Green Lab": Power Consumption by Commercial Light Bulbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einsporn, James A.; Zhou, Andrew F.

    2011-01-01

    Going "green" is a slogan that is very contemporary, both with industry and in the political arena. Choosing more energy-efficient devices is one way homeowners can "go green." A simple method is to change home lighting from hot incandescent bulbs to compact fluorescent lights (CFLs). But do they really save energy? How do their illuminations…

  11. Protein Molecular Structures, Protein SubFractions, and Protein Availability Affected by Heat Processing: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peiqiang Yu

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The utilization and availability of protein depended on the types of protein and their specific susceptibility to enzymatic hydrolysis (inhibitory activities in the gastrointestine and was highly associated with protein molecular structures. Studying internal protein structure and protein subfraction profiles leaded to an understanding of the components that make up a whole protein. An understanding of the molecular structure of the whole protein was often vital to understanding its digestive behavior and nutritive value in animals. In this review, recently obtained information on protein molecular structural effects of heat processing was reviewed, in relation to protein characteristics affecting digestive behavior and nutrient utilization and availability. The emphasis of this review was on (1 using the newly advanced synchrotron technology (S-FTIR as a novel approach to reveal protein molecular chemistry affected by heat processing within intact plant tissues; (2 revealing the effects of heat processing on the profile changes of protein subfractions associated with digestive behaviors and kinetics manipulated by heat processing; (3 prediction of the changes of protein availability and supply after heat processing, using the advanced DVE/OEB and NRC-2001 models, and (4 obtaining information on optimal processing conditions of protein as intestinal protein source to achieve target values for potential high net absorbable protein in the small intestine. The information described in this article may give better insight in the mechanisms involved and the intrinsic protein molecular structural changes occurring upon processing.

  12. Maturation and Dysgenesis of the Human Olfactory Bulb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarnat, Harvey B; Yu, Weiming

    2016-05-01

    The olfactory bulb with its unique architecture was studied for neuronal maturation in human fetuses. Neuroblasts stream into the olfactory bulb from the rostral telencephalon and secondarily migrate radially. The transitory olfactory ventricular recess regresses postnatally. Olfactory is the only sensory system without thalamic projections but incorporates intrinsic thalamic equivalents. The bulb is a repository of progenitor cells. Maturation of the bulb and tract was studied in 18 normal human fetuses of 16-41 weeks gestation; mid-gestational twins with hydrocephalus; 7 arrhinencephaly/holoprosencephaly; 2 olfactory dysgeneses. Multiple immunoreactivities were performed. Synaptophysin around mitral neurons, in a few synaptic glomeruli and concentric lamination of the outer granular layer, was seen at 16 weeks. Outer granular neurons exhibited NeuN at 16 weeks, only 2/3 were reactive at term. Concentric alternating sheets of granular neurons and their dendrodendritic synapses are seen during maturation. Calretinin reactivity is seen in neurons and neurites, primary olfactory nerve axons, periglomerular cells and neuroepithelial cells surrounding the ventricular recess; reactivity occurs later in synaptic glomeruli than with synaptophysin; not all glomeruli are strongly reactive even at term. Nestin- and vimentin-reactive bipolar progenitor cells were demonstrated at all ages and extend into the olfactory tract. Myelin is demonstrated by Luxol fast blue (LFB) only postnatally. In hydrocephalus, the olfactory recess is dilated. Mitral cell dispersion, disrupted glomeruli, heterotopia and maturational delay are seen in some dysgeneses. Malformations exhibit unique findings. Fusion of hypoplastic bulbs can occur. Abnormal architecture is seen in hemimegalencephaly. More documentation of olfactory dysgenesis is needed in other major brain malformations. PMID:26096058

  13. Effect of heat input on dilution and heat affected zone in submerged arc welding process

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hari Om; Sunil Pandey

    2013-12-01

    Submerged arc welding (SAW) is a fusion joining process, known for its high deposition capabilities. This process is useful in joining thick section components used in various industries. Besides joining, SAW can also be used for surfacing applications. Heat Affected Zone (HAZ) produced within the base metal as a result of tremendous heat of arc is of big concern as it affects the performance of welded/surfaced structure in service due to metallurgical changes in the affected region. This work was carried out to investigate the effect of polarity and other SAW parameters on HAZ size and dilution and to establish their correlations. Influence of heat input on dilution and heat affected zone was then carried out. Four levels of heat input were used to study their effect on % dilution and HAZ area at both the electrode positive and electrode negative polarities. Proper management of heat input in welding is important, because power sources can be used more efficiently if one knows how the same heat input can be applied to get the better results. Empirical models have been developed using statistical technique.

  14. Elevated Preattentive Affective Processing in Individuals with Borderline Personality Disorder: A Preliminary fMRI Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arielle Ryan Baskin-Sommers

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Emotion dysregulation is central to the clinical conceptualization of Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD, with individuals often displaying instability in mood and intense feelings of negative affect. Although existing data suggest important neural and behavioral differences in the emotion processing of individuals with BPD, studies thus far have only explored reactions to overt emotional information. Therefore, it is unclear if BPD-related emotional hypersensitivity extends to stimuli presented below the level of conscious awareness (preattentively. Methods: Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI was used to measure neural responses to happy, angry, fearful, and neutral faces presented preattentively, using a backward masked affect paradigm. Given their tendency toward emotional hyperreactivity and altered amygdala and frontal activation, we hypothesized that individuals with BPD would demonstrate a distinct pattern of fMRI responses relative to those without BPD during the viewing of masked affective versus neutral faces in specific regions of interest (ROIs. Results: Results indicated that individuals with BPD demonstrated increases in frontal, cingulate and amygdalar activation represented by number of voxels activated and demonstrated a different pattern of activity within the ROIs relative to those without BPD while viewing masked affective versus neutral faces. Conclusions: These findings suggest that in addition to the previously documented heightened responses to overt displays of emotion, individuals with BPD also demonstrate differential responses to positive and negative emotions, early in the processing stream, even before conscious awareness.

  15. Advancing the Assessment of Personality Pathology With the Cognitive-Affective Processing System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huprich, Steven K; Nelson, Sharon M

    2015-01-01

    The Cognitive-Affective Processing System (CAPS) is a dynamic and expansive model of personality proposed by Mischel and Shoda (1995) that incorporates dispositional and processing frameworks by considering the interaction of the individual and the situation, and the patterns of variation that result. These patterns of cognition, affect, and behavior are generally defined through the use of if … then statements, and provide a rich understanding of the individual across varying levels of assessment. In this article, we describe the CAPS model and articulate ways in which it can be applied to conceptualizing and assessing personality pathology. We suggest that the CAPS model is an ideal framework that integrates a number of current theories of personality pathology, and simultaneously overcomes a number of limits that have been empirically identified in the past. PMID:26214351

  16. Approaches to Affective Computing and Learning towards Interactive Decision Making in Process Control Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Chong; LI Hong-Guang

    2013-01-01

    Numerous multi-objective decision-making problems related to industrial process control engineering such as control and operation performance evaluation are being resolved through human-computer interactions.With regard to the problems that traditional interactive evolutionary computing approaches suffer i.e.,limited searching ability and human's strong subjectivity in multi-objective-attribute decision-making,a novel affective computing and learning solution adapted to human-computer interaction mechanism is explicitly proposed.Therein,a kind of stimulating response based affective computing model (STAM) is constructed,along with quantitative relations between affective space and human's subjective preferences.Thereafter,affective learning strategies based on genetic algorithms are introduced which are responsible for gradually grasping essentials in human's subjective judgments in decision-making,reducing human's subjective fatigue as well as making the decisions more objective and scientific.Affective learning algorithm's complexity and convergence analysis are shown in Appendices A and B.To exemplify applications of the proposed methods,ad-hoc test functions and PID parameter tuning are suggested as case studies,giving rise to satisfying results and showing validity of the contributions.

  17. Integrative processing of touch and affect in social perception: an fMRI study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sjoerd eEbisch

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Social perception commonly employs multiple sources of information. The present study aimed at investigating the integrative processing of affective social signals. Task-related and task-free functional magnetic resonance imaging was performed in 26 healthy adult participants during a social perception task concerning dynamic visual stimuli simultaneously depicting facial expressions of emotion and tactile sensations that could be either congruent or incongruent. Confounding effects due to affective valence, inhibitory top-down influences, cross-modal integration, and conflict processing were minimized. The results showed that the perception of congruent, compared to incongruent stimuli, elicited enhanced neural activity in a set of brain regions including left amygdala, bilateral posterior cingulate cortex (PCC, and left superior parietal cortex. These congruency effects did not differ as a function of emotion or sensation. A complementary task-related functional interaction analysis preliminarily suggested that amygdala activity depended on previous processing stages in fusiform gyrus and PCC. The findings provide support for the integrative processing of social information about others' feelings from manifold bodily sources (sensory-affective information in amygdala and PCC. Given that the congruent stimuli were also judged as being more self-related and more familiar in terms of personal experience in an independent sample of participants, we speculate that such integrative processing might be mediated by the linking of external stimuli with self-experience. Finally, the prediction of task-related responses in amygdala by intrinsic functional connectivity between amygdala and PCC during a task-free state implies a neuro-functional basis for an individual predisposition for the integrative processing of social stimulus content.

  18. Integrative Processing of Touch and Affect in Social Perception: An fMRI Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebisch, Sjoerd J. H.; Salone, Anatolia; Martinotti, Giovanni; Carlucci, Leonardo; Mantini, Dante; Perrucci, Mauro G.; Saggino, Aristide; Romani, Gian Luca; Di Giannantonio, Massimo; Northoff, Georg; Gallese, Vittorio

    2016-01-01

    Social perception commonly employs multiple sources of information. The present study aimed at investigating the integrative processing of affective social signals. Task-related and task-free functional magnetic resonance imaging was performed in 26 healthy adult participants during a social perception task concerning dynamic visual stimuli simultaneously depicting facial expressions of emotion and tactile sensations that could be either congruent or incongruent. Confounding effects due to affective valence, inhibitory top–down influences, cross-modal integration, and conflict processing were minimized. The results showed that the perception of congruent, compared to incongruent stimuli, elicited enhanced neural activity in a set of brain regions including left amygdala, bilateral posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), and left superior parietal cortex. These congruency effects did not differ as a function of emotion or sensation. A complementary task-related functional interaction analysis preliminarily suggested that amygdala activity depended on previous processing stages in fusiform gyrus and PCC. The findings provide support for the integrative processing of social information about others’ feelings from manifold bodily sources (sensory-affective information) in amygdala and PCC. Given that the congruent stimuli were also judged as being more self-related and more familiar in terms of personal experience in an independent sample of participants, we speculate that such integrative processing might be mediated by the linking of external stimuli with self-experience. Finally, the prediction of task-related responses in amygdala by intrinsic functional connectivity between amygdala and PCC during a task-free state implies a neuro-functional basis for an individual predisposition for the integrative processing of social stimulus content. PMID:27242474

  19. The ANK3 gene and facial affect processing: An ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wan; Zhang, Qiumei; Yu, Ping; Zhang, Zhifang; Chen, Xiongying; Gu, Huang; Zhai, Jinguo; Chen, Min; Du, Boqi; Deng, Xiaoxiang; Ji, Feng; Wang, Chuanyue; Xiang, Yu-Tao; Li, Dawei; Wu, Hongjie; Dong, Qi; Luo, Yuejia; Li, Jun; Chen, Chuansheng

    2016-09-01

    ANK3 is one of the most promising candidate genes for bipolar disorder (BD). A polymorphism (rs10994336) within the ANK3 gene has been associated with BD in at least three genome-wide association studies of BD [McGuffin et al., 2003; Kieseppä, 2004; Edvardsen et al., 2008]. Because facial affect processing is disrupted in patients with BD, the current study aimed to explore whether the BD risk alleles are associated with the N170, an early event-related potential (ERP) component related to facial affect processing. We collected data from two independent samples of healthy individuals (Ns = 83 and 82, respectively) to test the association between rs10994336 and an early event-related potential (ERP) component (N170) that is sensitive to facial affect processing. Repeated-measures analysis of covariance in both samples consistently revealed significant main effects of rs10994336 genotype (Sample I: F (1, 72) = 7.24, P = 0.009; Sample II: F (1, 69) = 11.81, P = 0.001), but no significant interaction of genotype × electrodes (Ps > 0.05) or genotype × emotional conditions (Ps > 0.05). These results suggested that rs10994336 was linked to early ERP component reflecting facial structural encoding during facial affect processing. These results shed new light on the brain mechanism of this risk SNP and associated disorders such as BD. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27177275

  20. Evaluation of regulatory processes affecting nuclear power plant early site approval and standardization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the results of a survey and evaluation of existing federal, state and local regulatory considerations affecting siting approval of power plants in the United States. Those factors that may impede early site approval of nuclear power plants are identified, and findings related to the removal of these impediments and the general improvement of the approval process are presented. A brief evaluation of standardization of nuclear plant design is also presented

  1. Honey Quality as Affected by Handling, Processing and Marketing Channels in Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Nabakabya, D.; Kugonza, DR.

    2008-01-01

    The factors that affect honey quality in Uganda were surveyed in 120 beekeeping households. Honey was sampled from supermarkets, hawkers and stall markets along four transects across Kampala, the capital. Honey quality parameters assessed were diastase number (DN), free acidity (FA), moisture content (MC), hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), and water insoluble solids (WIS). Honey was mostly harvested from basket and grass hives. Pressing, boiling and straining were popular honey processing methods....

  2. The mental health of children affected by armed conflict: Protective processes and pathways to resilience

    OpenAIRE

    Betancourt, Theresa Stichick; Khan, Kashif Tanveer

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the concept of resilience in the context of children affected by armed conflict. Resilience has been frequently viewed as a unique quality of certain ‘invulnerable’ children. In contrast, this paper argues that a number of protective processes contribute to resilient mental health outcomes in children when considered through the lens of the child's social ecology. While available research has made important contributions to understanding risk factors for negative mental he...

  3. Elevated Preattentive Affective Processing in Individuals with Borderline Personality Disorder: A Preliminary fMRI Study

    OpenAIRE

    Baskin-Sommers, Arielle R.; Hooley, Jill M.; Dahlgren, Mary K; Gönenc, Atilla; Yurgelun-Todd, Deborah A.; Gruber, Staci A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Emotion dysregulation is central to the clinical conceptualization of borderline personality disorder (BPD), with individuals often displaying instability in mood and intense feelings of negative affect. Although existing data suggest important neural and behavioral differences in the emotion processing of individuals with BPD, studies thus far have only explored reactions to overt emotional information. Therefore, it is unclear if BPD-related emotional hypersensitivity extends to...

  4. Elevated Preattentive Affective Processing in Individuals with Borderline Personality Disorder: A Preliminary fMRI Study

    OpenAIRE

    Arielle Ryan Baskin-Sommers; Jill eHolley; Mary eDahlgren; Atilla eGonenc; Deborah eYurgelun-Todd; Staci eGruber

    2015-01-01

    Background: Emotion dysregulation is central to the clinical conceptualization of Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD), with individuals often displaying instability in mood and intense feelings of negative affect. Although existing data suggest important neural and behavioral differences in the emotion processing of individuals with BPD, studies thus far have only explored reactions to overt emotional information. Therefore, it is unclear if BPD-related emotional hypersensitivity extends to...

  5. The Adolescent Coping Process Interview: Measuring Temporal and Affective Components of Adolescent Responses to Peer Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Gould, Laura Feagans; Hussong, Andrea M.; Keeley, Mary L.

    2007-01-01

    The way in which adolescents cope with stressors in their lives has been established as an important correlate of adjustment. While most theoretical models of coping entail unfolding transactions between coping strategies and emotional arousal, the majority of coping measures tap only trait-level coping styles, ignoring both temporal and affective components of the coping process. The current study fills this gap by establishing the psychometric properties of a newly developed measure, the Ad...

  6. An improved method of preparing onion bulbs for the Alium test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Wierzbicka

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The tests on storage and preparation of onion (Allium cepa L. bulbs presented in this paper were performed in order to obtain the highest possible number of roots of similar length, which would be suitable for performing the Allium test. The results were subject to a detailed statistical analysis and allowed the following procedure to be recommended: 1 Store the bulbs at room temperature rather than in a refrigerator for two weeks before starting the experiments. 2 Do not use the biggest bulbs (over 80-100 g; use medium and small bulbs with the largest possible diameter of the reduced stem. 3 Just before starting the culture, wash the bottom part of the bulb, cut out the central part of the reduced stem and cut off the upper part of the bulb. At least 70% of bulbs prepared this way are expected to be suitable for cytological tests.

  7. Intrinsic colony conditions affect the provisioning and oviposition process in the stingless bee Melipona scutellaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, R A; Morais, M M; Nascimento, F S; Bego, L R

    2009-01-01

    The cell provisioning and oviposition process (POP) is a unique characteristic of stingless bees (Meliponini), in which coordinated interactions between workers and queen regulate the filling of brood cells with larval resources and subsequent egg laying. Environmental conditions seem to regulate reproduction in stingless bees; however, little is known about how the amount of food affects quantitative sequences of the process. We examined intrinsic variables by comparing three colonies in distinct conditions (strong, intermediate and weak state). We predicted that some of these variables are correlated with temporal events of POP in Melipona scutellaris colonies. The results demonstrated that the strong colony had shorter periods of POP. PMID:19554772

  8. How Are Distributed Groups Affected by an Imposed Structuring of their Decision-Making Process?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundell, Anders Lorentz; Hertzum, Morten

    2011-01-01

    show that groups using the latter system spend more time solving the task, spend more of their time on solution analysis, spend less of their time on disorganized activity, and arrive at task solutions with less extreme preferences. Thus, the type of system affects the decision-making process as well......Groups often suffer from ineffective communication and decision making. This experimental study compares distributed groups solving a preference task with support from either a communication system or a system providing both communication and a structuring of the decision-making process. Results...

  9. Using Bayesian Nonparametric Hidden Semi-Markov Models to Disentangle Affect Processes during Marital Interaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William A Griffin

    Full Text Available Sequential affect dynamics generated during the interaction of intimate dyads, such as married couples, are associated with a cascade of effects-some good and some bad-on each partner, close family members, and other social contacts. Although the effects are well documented, the probabilistic structures associated with micro-social processes connected to the varied outcomes remain enigmatic. Using extant data we developed a method of classifying and subsequently generating couple dynamics using a Hierarchical Dirichlet Process Hidden semi-Markov Model (HDP-HSMM. Our findings indicate that several key aspects of existing models of marital interaction are inadequate: affect state emissions and their durations, along with the expected variability differences between distressed and nondistressed couples are present but highly nuanced; and most surprisingly, heterogeneity among highly satisfied couples necessitate that they be divided into subgroups. We review how this unsupervised learning technique generates plausible dyadic sequences that are sensitive to relationship quality and provide a natural mechanism for computational models of behavioral and affective micro-social processes.

  10. Using Bayesian Nonparametric Hidden Semi-Markov Models to Disentangle Affect Processes during Marital Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, William A; Li, Xun

    2016-01-01

    Sequential affect dynamics generated during the interaction of intimate dyads, such as married couples, are associated with a cascade of effects-some good and some bad-on each partner, close family members, and other social contacts. Although the effects are well documented, the probabilistic structures associated with micro-social processes connected to the varied outcomes remain enigmatic. Using extant data we developed a method of classifying and subsequently generating couple dynamics using a Hierarchical Dirichlet Process Hidden semi-Markov Model (HDP-HSMM). Our findings indicate that several key aspects of existing models of marital interaction are inadequate: affect state emissions and their durations, along with the expected variability differences between distressed and nondistressed couples are present but highly nuanced; and most surprisingly, heterogeneity among highly satisfied couples necessitate that they be divided into subgroups. We review how this unsupervised learning technique generates plausible dyadic sequences that are sensitive to relationship quality and provide a natural mechanism for computational models of behavioral and affective micro-social processes. PMID:27187319

  11. Using Bayesian Nonparametric Hidden Semi-Markov Models to Disentangle Affect Processes during Marital Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, William A.; Li, Xun

    2016-01-01

    Sequential affect dynamics generated during the interaction of intimate dyads, such as married couples, are associated with a cascade of effects—some good and some bad—on each partner, close family members, and other social contacts. Although the effects are well documented, the probabilistic structures associated with micro-social processes connected to the varied outcomes remain enigmatic. Using extant data we developed a method of classifying and subsequently generating couple dynamics using a Hierarchical Dirichlet Process Hidden semi-Markov Model (HDP-HSMM). Our findings indicate that several key aspects of existing models of marital interaction are inadequate: affect state emissions and their durations, along with the expected variability differences between distressed and nondistressed couples are present but highly nuanced; and most surprisingly, heterogeneity among highly satisfied couples necessitate that they be divided into subgroups. We review how this unsupervised learning technique generates plausible dyadic sequences that are sensitive to relationship quality and provide a natural mechanism for computational models of behavioral and affective micro-social processes. PMID:27187319

  12. TMS Affects Moral Judgment, Showing the Role of DLPFC and TPJ in Cognitive and Emotional Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DaniqueJeurissen

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Decision-making involves a complex interplay of emotional responses and reasoning processes. In this study, we use TMS to explore the neurobiological substrates of moral decisions in humans. To examining the effects of TMS on the outcome of a moral-decision, we compare the decision outcome of moral-personal and moral-impersonal dilemmas to each other and examine the differential effects of applying TMS over the right DLPFC or right TPJ. In this comparison, we find that the TMS-induced disruption of the DLPFC during the decision process, affects the outcome of the moral-personal judgment, while TMS-induced disruption of TPJ affects only moral-impersonal conditions. In other words, we find a double-dissociation between DLPFC and TPJ in the outcome of a moral decision. Furthermore, we find that TMS-induced disruption of the DLPFC during non-moral, moral-impersonal, and moral-personal decisions lead to lower ratings of regret about the decision. Our results are in line with the dual-process theory and suggest a role for both the emotional response and cognitive reasoning process in moral judgment. Both the emotional and cognitive processes were shown to be involved in the decision outcome.

  13. Postnatal characterization of cells in the accessory olfactory bulb of wild type and reeler mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo eMartín-López

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Olfaction is the most relevant chemosensory sense of the rodents. General odors are primarily detected by the main olfactory system while most pheromonal signals are received by the accessory olfactory system. The first relay in the brain occurs in the olfactory bulb, which is subdivided in the main and accessory olfactory bulb (MOB/AOB. Given that the cell generation time is different between AOB and MOB, and the cell characterization of AOB remains limited, the goal of this work was first, the definition of the layering of AOB/MOB and second, the establishment of cellular phenotypes in the AOB in a time window corresponding to the early postnatal development. Moreover, since reelin deficiency has been related to layering and olfactory learning deficits, those data were compared with reeler mice. Firstly, we compared the layering between AOB and MOB at early embryonic stages. Then, cell phenotypes were established using specific neuronal and glial markers as well as the reelin adaptor protein Dab1 to analyze differences in both genetic backgrounds. There was no apparent difference in the cell phenotypes among AOB and MOB or between wild type and reeler animals. However, it was outstanding a disruption in the granular cell layer of reeler with respect to wild type mice. In conclusion, the AOB in reelin deficient mice showed similar neuronal and glial cell types being only affected the layering of granular cells.

  14. Cholecystokinin: an excitatory modulator of mitral/tufted cells in the mouse olfactory bulb.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Ma

    tuning and optimizing olfactory bulb signal processing in different odor environments.

  15. Effect of gamma radiation on the meristematic activity of garlic (Allium sativum L. ) bulbs; Efecto de la radiacion gamma sobre la actividad meristematica de bulbos de ajo (Allium sativum L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, J.; Aparicio, C.

    1979-07-01

    The effect of 10 krad of gamma radiation on the sprouting and mieristematic activity of garlic bulbs is studied. Results show that the Irradiation inhibits the meristematic activity of the bulbs independently of the epoch of treatment. When the treatment is applied several months after harvest (five or more), some apparent sprouting could be detected. This is due to a cellular elongation process rather than to cellular divisions. (Author) 47 refs.

  16. EFSA BIOHAZ Panel (EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards), 2014. Scientific Opinion on the risk posed by pathogens in food of non-animal origin. Part 2 (Salmonella Yersinia, Shigella and Norovirus in bulb and stem vegetables, and carrots)

    OpenAIRE

    Hald, Tine; Baggesen, Dorte Lau

    2014-01-01

    Bulb and stem vegetables as well as carrots may be minimally processed to obtain ready-to-eat products, and these steps include selection, washing, cleaning, cutting, packaging and storage. Risk factors for the contamination of bulb and stem vegetables as well as carrots with Salmonella, Yersinia, Shigella and Norovirus were considered in the context of the whole food chain. Available estimates of their occurrence in these vegetables were evaluated together with mitigation options relating to...

  17. In-vivo Vomeronasal Stimulation Reveals Sensory Encoding of Conspecific and Allospecific Cues by the Mouse Accessory Olfactory Bulb

    OpenAIRE

    Dulac, Catherine; Ben-Shaul, Yoram; Katz, Lawrence C.; Mooney, Richard

    2010-01-01

    The rodent vomeronasal system plays a critical role in mediating pheromone-evoked social and sexual behaviors. Recent studies of the anatomical and molecular architecture of the vomeronasal organ (VNO) and of its synaptic target, the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB), have suggested that unique features underlie vomeronasal sensory processing. However, the neuronal representation of pheromonal information leading to specific behavioral and endocrine responses has remained largely unexplored due ...

  18. Changing Light Bulbs: Practice, Motivation, and Autonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Jean A.

    2011-01-01

    The comment on the Ryan, Lynch, Vansteenkiste, and Deci (2011) article on motivation and autonomy in psychotherapy considers motivation and its role as prerequisite, process variable, or appropriate outcome, speculating that all are appropriate ways to conceptualize motivation in the behavior change process. Autonomy, as a useful addition, refers…

  19. Study of major factors to affect photoresist profile on developable bottom anti-reflective coating process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Hyo Jung; Ju, Dong Kyu; Kim, Hyun Jin; Kim, Jaehyun

    2011-04-01

    As critical dimensions continue to shrink in lithography, new materials will be needed to meet the new demands imposed by this shrinkage. Recently, there are needs for novel materials with various substrates and immersing process, including double patterning process, a high resolution implant process, and so on. Among such materials, Developable Bottom Anti-reflective Coating material (DBARC) is a good candidate for high resolution implant application as well as double patterning. DBARC should have reflectivity control function as an ordinary BARC, as well as an appropriate solubility in TMAH-based conventional developer after exposure and bake process. The most distinguished advantage of DBARC is to skip BARC etch process that is required in normal BARC process. In spite of this advantage, the photoresist profile on DBARC could be influenced by components and process conditions of DBARC. Several groups have tried to solve this issue to implement DBARC to new process. We have studied material-related factors affecting photoresist profiles, such as a polymer, photo-acid generators (PAGs), and additives. And we explored the effect of process condition for photoresist and DBARC. In case of polymer, we studied the effect of dissolution rate in developer and crosslinking functionality. For PAGs and additives, the effect of acid diffusivity and cross-linking degree according to their bulkiness were examined. We also evaluated coated film stability in a photoresist solvent after BARC bake process and compared lithographic performance of various DBARC formulations. In addition, the effect of photoresist profile with bake condition of photoresist and DBARC were investigated. In this paper, we will demonstrate the most influential factors of DBARC to photoresist profile and suggest the optimum formulation and process condition for DBARC application.

  20. The power of emotional valence – From cognitive to affective processes in reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike eAltmann

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The comprehension of stories requires the reader to imagine the cognitive and affective states of the characters. The content of many stories is unpleasant, as they often deal with conflict, disturbance or crisis. Nevertheless, unpleasant stories can be liked and enjoyed. In this fMRI study, we used a parametric approach to examine (1 the capacity of increasing negative valence of story contents to activate the mentalizing network (cognitive and affective theory of mind, ToM, and (2 the neural substrate of liking negatively valenced narratives. A set of 80 short narratives was compiled, ranging from neutral to negative emotional valence. For each story mean rating values on valence and liking were obtained from a group of 32 participants in a prestudy, and later included as parametric regressors in the fMRI analysis. Another group of 24 participants passively read the narratives in a 3 Tesla MRI scanner. Results revealed a stronger engagement of affective ToM-related brain areas with increasingly negative story valence. Stories that were unpleasant, but simulatiously liked, selectively engaged the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC, which might reflect the moral exploration of the story content. Further analysis showed that the more the mPFC becomes engaged during the reading of negatively valenced stories, the more coactivation can be observed in other brain areas related to the neural processing of affective ToM and empathy.

  1. The power of emotional valence-from cognitive to affective processes in reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altmann, Ulrike; Bohrn, Isabel C; Lubrich, Oliver; Menninghaus, Winfried; Jacobs, Arthur M

    2012-01-01

    The comprehension of stories requires the reader to imagine the cognitive and affective states of the characters. The content of many stories is unpleasant, as they often deal with conflict, disturbance or crisis. Nevertheless, unpleasant stories can be liked and enjoyed. In this fMRI study, we used a parametric approach to examine (1) the capacity of increasing negative valence of story contents to activate the mentalizing network (cognitive and affective theory of mind, ToM), and (2) the neural substrate of liking negatively valenced narratives. A set of 80 short narratives was compiled, ranging from neutral to negative emotional valence. For each story mean rating values on valence and liking were obtained from a group of 32 participants in a prestudy, and later included as parametric regressors in the fMRI analysis. Another group of 24 participants passively read the narratives in a three Tesla MRI scanner. Results revealed a stronger engagement of affective ToM-related brain areas with increasingly negative story valence. Stories that were unpleasant, but simultaneously liked, engaged the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), which might reflect the moral exploration of the story content. Further analysis showed that the more the mPFC becomes engaged during the reading of negatively valenced stories, the more coactivation can be observed in other brain areas related to the neural processing of affective ToM and empathy. PMID:22754519

  2. Positive affect and health-related neuroendocrine, cardiovascular, and inflammatory processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steptoe, Andrew; Wardle, Jane; Marmot, Michael

    2005-05-01

    Negative affective states such as depression are associated with premature mortality and increased risk of coronary heart disease, type 2 diabetes, and disability. It has been suggested that positive affective states are protective, but the pathways through which such effects might be mediated are poorly understood. Here we show that positive affect in middle-aged men and women is associated with reduced neuroendocrine, inflammatory, and cardiovascular activity. Positive affect was assessed by aggregating momentary experience samples of happiness over a working day and was inversely related to cortisol output over the day, independently of age, gender, socioeconomic position, body mass, and smoking. Similar patterns were observed on a leisure day. Happiness was also inversely related to heart rate assessed by using ambulatory monitoring methods over the day. Participants underwent mental stress testing in the laboratory, where plasma fibrinogen stress responses were smaller in happier individuals. These effects were independent of psychological distress, supporting the notion that positive well-being is directly related to health-relevant biological processes. PMID:15840727

  3. Application of ultrasound processed images in space: Quanitative assessment of diffuse affectations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Poch, A.; Bru, C.; Nicolau, C.

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate diffuse affectations in the liver using texture image processing techniques. Ultrasound diagnose equipments are the election of choice to be used in space environments as they are free from hazardous effects on health. However, due to the need for highly trained radiologists to assess the images, this imaging method is mainly applied on focal lesions rather than on non-focal ones. We have conducted a clinical study on 72 patients with different degrees of chronic hepatopaties and a group of control of 18 individuals. All subjects' clinical reports and results of biopsies were compared to the degree of affectation calculated by our computer system , thus validating the method. Full statistical results are given in the present paper showing a good correlation (r=0.61) between pathologist's report and analysis of the heterogenicity of the processed images from the liver. This computer system to analyze diffuse affectations may be used in-situ or via telemedicine to the ground.

  4. The association between chronic exposure to video game violence and affective picture processing: an ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Kira; West, Robert; Anderson, Craig A

    2011-06-01

    Exposure to video game violence (VGV) is known to result in desensitization to violent material and may alter the processing of positive emotion related to facial expressions. The present study was designed to address three questions: (1) Does the association between VGV and positive emotion extend to stimuli other than faces, (2) is the association between VGV and affective picture processing observed with a single presentation of the stimuli, and (3) is the association between VGV and the response to violent stimuli sensitive to the relevance of emotion for task performance? The data revealed that transient modulations of the event-related potentials (ERPs) related to attentional orienting and sustained modulations of the ERPs related to evaluative processing were sensitive to VGV exposure. PMID:21461985

  5. Optimizing Structure of LED Light Bulb for Heat Transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, in order to optimize the heat transfer structure of LED light bulb, the effects of various parameters on the temperature of the LED device were systematically analyzed, and a design guideline was shown. Although LED device has become popular due to its high-efficiency and long life, the design issues on the heat transfer structure of LED light bulbs has still remained. Because the original efficiency and life of the LED device can not be obtained due to the local temperature rise of LED element and the surrounding polymer molding material. Therefore, heat transfer analysis by finite element method was conducted systematically by changing parameters such as the shape, number and thickness of the radiating fin of the LED. As a result, advantage of open type structure was shown, and the proper design guidance for the structure of the fin shape was obtained.

  6. Importance of Cognitive and Affective Processes when Working with a Computer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blaž Trbižan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Research Question (RQ: Why and how to measure human emotions when working and learning with a computer? Are machines (computers, robots implementing such binary records, where there is a simulation of cognitive phenomena and their processes, or do they actually reflect, therefore, able to think?Purpose: Show the importance of cognitive and affective processes of computer and ICT usage, both in learning and in daily work tasks.Method: Comparative method, where scientific findings were compared and based on these conclusions were drawn.Results: An individual has an active role and the use of ICT enables, through the processes of reflection and exchanges of views, for an individual to resolve problems and consequently is able to achieve excellent results at both the personal (educational level and in business. In learning and working with computers, individuals needinternal motivation. Internal motivation can be increased with positive affective processes that also positively influence cognitive processes.Organization:Knowledge of generational characteristics is currently becoming a competitive advantage of organizations. Younger generations are growing up with computers and both teachers and managers have to beaware and accommodate their teaching and business processes to the requirements of ICT.Society: In the 21st century we live in a knowledge society that is unconditionally connected and dependent on the development of information technology. Digital literacy is an everyday concept that society also is aware of and training programmes are being offered on computer literacy for all generations.Originality: The paper presents a concise synthesis of research and authors points of views recorded over the last 25 years and these are combined with our own conclusions based on observations.Limitations/Future Research:The fundamental limitation is that this is a comparative research study that compares the views and conclusions of different authors

  7. Perceiving emotions in neutral faces: expression processing is biased by affective person knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suess, Franziska; Rabovsky, Milena; Abdel Rahman, Rasha

    2015-04-01

    According to a widely held view, basic emotions such as happiness or anger are reflected in facial expressions that are invariant and uniquely defined by specific facial muscle movements. Accordingly, expression perception should not be vulnerable to influences outside the face. Here, we test this assumption by manipulating the emotional valence of biographical knowledge associated with individual persons. Faces of well-known and initially unfamiliar persons displaying neutral expressions were associated with socially relevant negative, positive or comparatively neutral biographical information. The expressions of faces associated with negative information were classified as more negative than faces associated with neutral information. Event-related brain potential modulations in the early posterior negativity, a component taken to reflect early sensory processing of affective stimuli such as emotional facial expressions, suggest that negative affective knowledge can bias the perception of faces with neutral expressions toward subjectively displaying negative emotions. PMID:24948155

  8. Transcranial Electrical Stimulation over Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex Modulates Processing of Social Cognitive and Affective Information.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Conson

    Full Text Available Recent neurofunctional studies suggested that lateral prefrontal cortex is a domain-general cognitive control area modulating computation of social information. Neuropsychological evidence reported dissociations between cognitive and affective components of social cognition. Here, we tested whether performance on social cognitive and affective tasks can be modulated by transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS over dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC. To this aim, we compared the effects of tDCS on explicit recognition of emotional facial expressions (affective task, and on one cognitive task assessing the ability to adopt another person's visual perspective. In a randomized, cross-over design, male and female healthy participants performed the two experimental tasks after bi-hemispheric tDCS (sham, left anodal/right cathodal, and right anodal/left cathodal applied over DLPFC. Results showed that only in male participants explicit recognition of fearful facial expressions was significantly faster after anodal right/cathodal left stimulation with respect to anodal left/cathodal right and sham stimulations. In the visual perspective taking task, instead, anodal right/cathodal left stimulation negatively affected both male and female participants' tendency to adopt another's point of view. These findings demonstrated that concurrent facilitation of right and inhibition of left lateral prefrontal cortex can speed-up males' responses to threatening faces whereas it interferes with the ability to adopt another's viewpoint independently from gender. Thus, stimulation of cognitive control areas can lead to different effects on social cognitive skills depending on the affective vs. cognitive nature of the task, and on the gender-related differences in neural organization of emotion processing.

  9. Optical and thermal design of light emitting diodes omnidirectional bulb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Zhi Ting; Kuo, Hao-Chung; Chen, Cheng-Huan

    2015-10-01

    The penetration of LED light bulbs into the lighting market is growing quickly in recent years due to significant increase of LED efficiency and reduction of cost. One major issue to be improved is the overall light bulb efficiency, which can fulfill "Energy Star for Lamps" while keeping sufficiently high efficiency. The efficiency issue results mainly from the high directionality of the LED sources and the corresponding solutions to make the emission more diverse. In this paper, a diffusion white reflection sheet (DWRS) with an array of holes is proposed as a high efficiency solution for modulating a light emission profile with SMD type LED source. The hole size is adjusted with fixed hole pitch to both maximize the efficiency and meet the omnidirectional specification. In addition, the concept of thermal plastic insertion molding metal is proposed for thermal management without fins for cooling. The prototype demonstrates the efficiency (Ef.) of 87.6% and LED pad temperature of 85°C, which shows the feasibility as a total solution for high efficiency LED omnidirectional bulbs. PMID:26479672

  10. Hemispheric asymmetry for affective stimulus processing in healthy subjects--a fMRI study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Beraha

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: While hemispheric specialization of language processing is well established, lateralization of emotion processing is still under debate. Several conflicting hypotheses have been proposed, including right hemisphere hypothesis, valence asymmetry hypothesis and region-specific lateralization hypothesis. However, experimental evidence for these hypotheses remains inconclusive, partly because direct comparisons between hemispheres are scarce. METHODS: The present fMRI study systematically investigated functional lateralization during affective stimulus processing in 36 healthy participants. We normalized our functional data on a symmetrical template to avoid confounding effects of anatomical asymmetries. Direct comparison of BOLD responses between hemispheres was accomplished taking two approaches: a hypothesis-driven region of interest analysis focusing on brain areas most frequently reported in earlier neuroimaging studies of emotion; and an exploratory whole volume analysis contrasting non-flipped with flipped functional data using paired t-test. RESULTS: The region of interest analysis revealed lateralization towards the left in the medial prefrontal cortex (BA 10 during positive stimulus processing; while negative stimulus processing was lateralized towards the right in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (BA 9 & 46 and towards the left in the amygdala and uncus. The whole brain analysis yielded similar results and, in addition, revealed lateralization towards the right in the premotor cortex (BA 6 and the temporo-occipital junction (BA 19 & 37 during positive stimulus processing; while negative stimulus processing showed lateralization towards the right in the temporo-parietal junction (BA 37,39,42 and towards the left in the middle temporal gyrus (BA 21. CONCLUSION: Our data suggests region-specific functional lateralization of emotion processing. Findings show valence asymmetry for prefrontal cortical areas and left

  11. Inhomogeneous Point-Processes to Instantaneously Assess Affective Haptic Perception through Heartbeat Dynamics Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenza, G.; Greco, A.; Citi, L.; Bianchi, M.; Barbieri, R.; Scilingo, E. P.

    2016-06-01

    This study proposes the application of a comprehensive signal processing framework, based on inhomogeneous point-process models of heartbeat dynamics, to instantaneously assess affective haptic perception using electrocardiogram-derived information exclusively. The framework relies on inverse-Gaussian point-processes with Laguerre expansion of the nonlinear Wiener-Volterra kernels, accounting for the long-term information given by the past heartbeat events. Up to cubic-order nonlinearities allow for an instantaneous estimation of the dynamic spectrum and bispectrum of the considered cardiovascular dynamics, as well as for instantaneous measures of complexity, through Lyapunov exponents and entropy. Short-term caress-like stimuli were administered for 4.3–25 seconds on the forearms of 32 healthy volunteers (16 females) through a wearable haptic device, by selectively superimposing two levels of force, 2 N and 6 N, and two levels of velocity, 9.4 mm/s and 65 mm/s. Results demonstrated that our instantaneous linear and nonlinear features were able to finely characterize the affective haptic perception, with a recognition accuracy of 69.79% along the force dimension, and 81.25% along the velocity dimension.

  12. Affective processing bias in youth with primary bipolar disorder or primary attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, Karen E; Kim, Kerri L; Cushman, Grace K; Puzia, Megan E; Weissman, Alexandra B; Galvan, Thania; Dickstein, Daniel P

    2015-11-01

    High rates of comorbidity and overlapping diagnostic criteria between pediatric bipolar disorder (BD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) contribute to diagnostic and treatment confusion. To advance what is known about both disorders, we compared effect of emotional stimuli on response control in children with primary BD, primary ADHD and typically developing controls (TDC). Participants included 7-17 year olds with either "narrow-phenotype" pediatric BD (n = 25), ADHD (n = 25) or TDC (n = 25). Groups were matched on participant age and FSIQ. The effect of emotional stimuli on response control was assessed using the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery Affective Go/No-Go task (CANTAB AGN). We found a group by target valence interaction on commission errors [F(2,71) = 5.34, p ADHD, but not TDC participants, made more errors on negative than positive words [t(24) = -2.58, p ADHD and TDC participants. Between-subjects effects showed that ADHD participants made more errors than TDC, but not BD participants. Our main finding advances what is known about the effect of emotional stimuli on response control in children with ADHD. Our results suggesting a positive affective processing bias in children with ADHD compliment emerging literature show that difficulties with emotional processing and regulation may be core features of ADHD. Further, given the observed pattern of results in children with ADHD compared to BD children, our behavioral results suggest the importance of examining differences in the brain-behavior mechanisms involved in affective processing in children with ADHD compared to BD children. PMID:25724546

  13. Schema-Triggered Cognitive and Affective Response to Music: Applying an Information-Processing Model to Rock 'N' Roll.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelker, David H.; Pettey, Gary R.

    To account for cognitive and affective responses to popular music, a pilot study used an information processing model to show that affect results largely from the activation of affect-laden schemas by the music stimulus. Subjects, 196 students from an introductory course in interpersonal communication at a medium-sized university, listened to a…

  14. Antioxidant and functional properties of tea protein as affected by the different tea processing methods

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yu; Chen, Haixia; Ning ZHANG; Ma, Lishuai

    2013-01-01

    The Box-Behnken design combined with response surface methodology was used to optimize alkali extraction of protein from tea. Three independent extraction variables (extraction time: X1; extraction temperature: X2; alkali concentration: X3) were evaluated. The antioxidant and functional properties of tea protein as affected by different tea processing were compared. The optimum conditions were: extraction time of 85 min, extraction temperature of 80 °C, and alkali concentration of 0.15 M. Und...

  15. Thermal processing differentially affects lycopene and other carotenoids in cis-lycopene containing, tangerine tomatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooperstone, Jessica L; Francis, David M; Schwartz, Steven J

    2016-11-01

    Tangerine tomatoes, unlike red tomatoes, accumulate cis-lycopenes instead of the all-trans isomer. cis-Lycopene is the predominating isomeric form of lycopene found in blood and tissues. Our objective was to understand how thermal processing and lipid concentration affect carotenoid isomerisation and degradation in tangerine tomatoes. We conducted duplicated factorial designed experiments producing tangerine tomato juice and sauce, varying both processing time and lipid concentration. Carotenoids were extracted and analysed using high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection. Phytoene, phytofluene, ζ-carotene, neurosporene, tetra-cis-lycopene, all-trans-lycopene and other-cis-lycopenes were quantified. Tetra-cis-lycopene decreased with increasing heating time and reached 80% of the original level in sauce after processing times of 180min. All-trans-lycopene and other-cis-lycopenes increased with longer processing times. Total carotenoids and total lycopene decreased with increased heating times while phytoene and phytofluene were unchanged. These data suggest limiting thermal processing of tangerine tomato products if delivery of tetra-cis-lycopene is desirable. PMID:27211672

  16. Nutritional and antioxidant potential of canjiqueira fruits affected by maturity stage and thermal processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Ferreira Oliveira Prates

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of jelly processing on the chemical properties, nutrients, antinutritional factors, bioactive compounds, and antioxidant activity of unripe and ripe canjiqueira fruits was evaluated. The fruits were collected from Pantanal regions at two different ripening stages and were used to produce jellies. The processing affected the chemical characteristics and the content of all nutrients, except for the lipids. Moisture and protein content reduced, whereas the energy value increased. The phytic acid found in fresh fruits was eliminated after processing, and the trypsin inhibitors were reduced, especially in ripe fruits. Lectin activity was not verified in unripe and ripe fruits and jellies. The levels of bioactive compounds were reduced after jelly processing, but their retention was higher in unripe fruits. The final levels of bioactive compounds in the jelly made from unripe fruits were higher than that in the jelly made from ripe fruits, whereas the IC50 value was lower, indicating higher potential to prevent free radicals damages to human body. Jelly processing proved to be a good alternative to the use of canjiqueira fruits due to the reduction in antinutritional factors and the retention of bioactive compounds

  17. Techniques for determining probabilities of events and processes affecting the performance of geologic repositories: Literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has set a probabilistic standard for the performance of geologic repositories for the disposal of radioactive waste. This report treats not only geologic events and processes like fault movement, but also events and processes that arise from the relationship between human actions and geology, like drilling for resources, and some that arise from nongeologic processes that in turn affect a geologic process, like climatic change. It reviews the literature in several fields to determine whether existing probabilistic methods for predicting events and processes are adequate for implementation of the standard. Techniques exist for qualitatively estimating the potential for endowment of portions of earth's crust with mineral resources, but such techniques cannot easily predict whether or not human intrusion will occur. The EPA standard offers explicit guidance for the treatment of human intrusion, however. A complete method for climatic prediction could be assembled from existing techniques, although such a combination has not been tested. Existing techniques to support a probabilistic assessment of tectonic activity and seismic hazard at a repository site should be combined with expert judgment in performance assessments. Depending on the regional setting, either analytic techniques or expert judgment may be appropriate in assigning probabilities to volcanic activity. The individual chapters of this report have been cataloged separately

  18. Olfactory bulb habituation to odor stimuli

    OpenAIRE

    Chaudhury, Dipesh; Manella, Laura; Arellanos, Adolfo; Escanilla, Olga; Cleland, Thomas A.; Linster, Christiane

    2010-01-01

    Habituation is a simple form of memory, yet its neurobiological mechanisms are only beginning to be understood in mammals. In the olfactory system, the neural correlates of habituation at a fast experimental timescale involving very short intertrial intervals (tens of seconds) have been shown to depend on synaptic adaptation in olfactory cortex. In contrast, behavioral habituation to odorants on a longer timescale with intertrial intervals of several minutes depends on processes in the olfact...

  19. Verbal conditioning of affect responses of process and reactive schizophrenics in a clinical interview situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pansa, M

    1979-06-01

    Sixteen process and 16 reactive schizoprenics out-patients were compared on a verbal conditioning task in an alternating conditioning-extinction design, using verbal and non-verbal positive social reinforcement to influence the emission of self-referred affect statements. It was found that process subjects failed to condition during the time periods used, while reactives demonstrated a significant trials effect showing trends consistent with those hypothesized from the type of design used. This differential conditionability between groups was shown not to be a function of diagnosis, sex, motivation, severity of illness, medication, hospitalization history, or general speech output. It was concluded that the degree of social responsiveness manifested in the premorbid history of the two groups is also operative in behaviour during the psychotic period, specifically, in responsiveness to positive social reinforcers in a verbal conditioning task. PMID:486358

  20. Automatic processing of facial affects in patients with borderline personality disorder: associations with symptomatology and comorbid disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Donges, Uta-Susan; Dukalski, Bibiana; Kersting, Anette; Suslow, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Background Instability of affects and interpersonal relations are important features of borderline personality disorder (BPD). Interpersonal problems of individuals suffering from BPD might develop based on abnormalities in the processing of facial affects and high sensitivity to negative affective expressions. The aims of the present study were to examine automatic evaluative shifts and latencies as a function of masked facial affects in patients with BPD compared to healthy individuals. As ...

  1. Stressors impair odor recognition memory via an olfactory bulb-dependent noradrenergic mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura C Manella

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Non-associative habituation and odor recognition tasks have been widely used to probe questions social recognition, odor memory duration, and odor memory specificity. Among others, these paradigms have provided valuable insight into how neuromodulation, and specifically norepinephrine/noradrenaline (NE influences odor memory. In general, NE levels are modulated by arousal, stress, and behavioral state, and there is sparse evidence of a direct relationship between NE and odor memory in adult rodents. The present study uses simple mild psychological stressors (bright light and sound, to modulate NE levels physiologically in order to probe its effect on olfactory memory. In rats with bilateral bulbar cannulations, we show that these stressors modulate olfactory memory and that this effect is at least partially mediated by olfactory bulb. Specifically, we show that the presence of stressors during the acquisition of odor memory suppresses memory for an odor when tested 30 minutes after the acquisition. This suppression is blocked by infusing NE antagonists into the olfactory bulb prior to odor acquisition. Additionally, we find that infusion of bulbar NE is sufficient to suppress odor memory in a manner mimicking that of our stressors. These effects are unlikely to be solely mediated by locomotor/exploratory changes produced by stressors, although these stressors influence certain behaviors not directly related to odor investigation. This study provides important information about how behaviorally relevant changes in NE can influence top-down sensory processing and odor memory.

  2. The Effect of Intrinsic Motivation on the Affect and Evaluation of the Creative Process among Fine Arts Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanko-Kaczmarek, Maja

    2012-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to gain a deeper understanding of the effect of intrinsic motivation on affect, subjective evaluation, and the creative process of young artists. Relations between motivation, affect, and evaluation were treated as a dynamic process and measured several times. The unique contribution of this study is that it…

  3. Continental shelf processes affecting the oceanography of the South Atlantic Bight. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pietrafesa, L.J.

    1978-03-01

    The objectives of the project were to determine the physical/dynamical processes controlling/affecting the distribution of phytoplankton nutrients on the continental shelf in the South Atlantic Bight. The initial objectives were to determine the short term, i.e., 2 to 10 day and longer term flux of nutrients onto the continental shelf. This is clearly related to the more general problem of combined physical and biogenic control of phytoplankton nutrients. During the period from June, 1975 to March, 1978 the study of the continental shelf processes affecting the oceanography of the South Atlantic Bight has been principally involved with a substantial, coordinated field effort. The success of the data acquisition phase of the program has now required an intensive data analysis phase which has been slowly increasing in effort. Emphasis is placed on the main phase of the field program, located in Onslow Bay, which has beel completed and the data are being analyzed. During the three-year period 20 cruises were made into the Carolina Capes area and samples were collected. A list is included of some 100 publications during the period.

  4. Health of domestic mallards (Anas platyrhynchos domestica) following exposure to oil sands process-affected water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Elizabeth M; Smits, Judit E G; St Clair, Colleen Cassady

    2014-01-01

    Bitumen extraction from the oil sands of northern Alberta produces large volumes of process-affected water that contains substances toxic to wildlife. Recent monitoring has shown that tens of thousands of birds land on ponds containing this water annually, creating an urgent need to understand its effects on bird health. We emulated the repeated, short-term exposures that migrating water birds are thought to experience by exposing pekin ducks (Anas platyrhynchos domestica) to recycled oil sands process-affected water (OSPW). As indicators of health, we measured a series of physiological (electrolytes, metabolites, enzymes, hormones, and blood cells) and toxicological (metals and minerals) variables. Relative to controls, juvenile birds exposed to OSPW had higher potassium following the final exposure, and males had a higher thyroid hormone ratio (T3/T4). In adults, exposed birds had higher vanadium, and, following the final exposure, higher bicarbonate. Exposed females had higher bile acid, globulin, and molybdenum levels, and males, higher corticosterone. However, with the exception of the metals, none of these measures varied from available reference ranges for ducks, suggesting OSPW is not toxic to juvenile or adult birds after three and six weekly, 1 h exposures, but more studies are needed to know the generality of this result. PMID:25003652

  5. The Berlin Affective Word List for Children (kidBAWL): Exploring Processing of Affective Lexical Semantics in the Visual and Auditory Modalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvester, Teresa; Braun, Mario; Schmidtke, David; Jacobs, Arthur M

    2016-01-01

    While research on affective word processing in adults witnesses increasing interest, the present paper looks at another group of participants that have been neglected so far: pupils (age range: 6-12 years). Introducing a variant of the Berlin Affective Wordlist (BAWL) especially adapted for children of that age group, the "kidBAWL," we examined to what extent pupils process affective lexical semantics similarly to adults. In three experiments using rating and valence decision tasks in both the visual and auditory modality, it was established that children show the two ubiquitous phenomena observed in adults with emotional word material: the asymmetric U-shaped function relating valence to arousal ratings, and the inversely U-shaped function relating response times to valence decision latencies. The results for both modalities show large structural similarities between pupil and adult data (taken from previous studies) indicating that in the present age range, the affective lexicon and the dynamic interplay between language and emotion is already well-developed. Differential effects show that younger children tend to choose less extreme ratings than older children and that rating latencies decrease with age. Overall, our study should help to develop more realistic models of word recognition and reading that include affective processes and offer a methodology for exploring the roots of pleasant literary experiences and ludic reading. PMID:27445930

  6. Activation of raphe nuclei triggers rapid and distinct effects on parallel olfactory bulb output channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Vikrant; Provost, Allison C; Agarwal, Prateek; Murthy, Venkatesh N

    2016-02-01

    The serotonergic raphe nuclei are involved in regulating brain states over timescales of minutes and hours. We examined more rapid effects of raphe activation on two classes of principal neurons in the mouse olfactory bulb, mitral and tufted cells, which send olfactory information to distinct targets. Brief stimulation of the raphe nuclei led to excitation of tufted cells at rest and potentiation of their odor responses. While mitral cells at rest were also excited by raphe activation, their odor responses were bidirectionally modulated, leading to improved pattern separation of odors. In vitro whole-cell recordings revealed that specific optogenetic activation of raphe axons affected bulbar neurons through dual release of serotonin and glutamate. Therefore, the raphe nuclei, in addition to their role in neuromodulation of brain states, are also involved in fast, sub-second top-down modulation similar to cortical feedback. This modulation can selectively and differentially sensitize or decorrelate distinct output channels. PMID:26752161

  7. Factors affecting cashew processing by wild bearded capuchin monkeys (Sapajus libidinosus, Kerr 1792).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visalberghi, Elisabetta; Albani, Alessandro; Ventricelli, Marialba; Izar, Patricia; Schino, Gabriele; Fragazsy, Dorothy

    2016-08-01

    Cashew nuts are very nutritious but so well defended by caustic chemicals that very few species eat them. We investigated how wild bearded capuchin monkeys (Sapajus libidinosus) living at Fazenda Boa Vista (FBV; Piauí, Brazil) process cashew nuts (Anacardium spp.) to avoid the caustic chemicals contained in the seed mesocarp. We recorded the behavior of 23 individuals toward fresh (N = 1282) and dry (N = 477) cashew nuts. Adult capuchins used different sets of behaviors to process nuts: rubbing for fresh nuts and tool use for dry nuts. Moreover, adults succeed to open dry nuts both by using teeth and tools. Age and body mass significantly affected success. Signs of discomfort (e.g., chemical burns, drooling) were rare. Young capuchins do not frequently closely observe adults processing cashew nuts, nor eat bits of nut processed by others. Thus, observing the behavior of skillful group members does not seem important for learning how to process cashew nuts, although being together with group members eating cashews is likely to facilitate interest toward nuts and their inclusion into the diet. These findings differ from those obtained when capuchins crack palm nuts, where observations of others cracking nuts and encounters with the artifacts of cracking produced by others are common and support young individuals' persistent practice at cracking. Cashew nut processing by capuchins in FBV appears to differ from that observed in a conspecific population living 320 km apart, where capuchins use tools to open both fresh and dry nuts. Moreover, in the latter population, chemical burns due to cashew caustic compounds appear to be common. The sources of these differences across populations deserve investigation, especially given that social influences on young monkeys learning to open cashew nuts at FBV seem to be nonspecific. Am. J. Primatol. 78:799-815, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27008439

  8. Dilation of the olfactory bulb cavity concurrent with hydrocephalus in four small breed dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jung-Hyun; Jeon, Hyo-Won; Woo, Eung-Je; Park, Hee-Myung

    2009-01-01

    Four small breed dogs were admitted with seizures. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain revealed dilation of the olfactory bulb cavity as well as enlargement of the lateral ventricles. These findings demonstrate that dilation of the olfactory bulb cavity can occur concurrent with hydrocephalus. This is the first description of the clinical and MRI features of dilation of the olfactory bulb cavity concurrent with hydrocephalus in dogs.

  9. A dendrodendritic reciprocal synapse provides a recurrent excitatory connection in the olfactory bulb

    OpenAIRE

    Didier, Anne; Carleton, Alan; Jan G Bjaalie; Vincent, Jean-Didier; Ottersen, Ole Petter; Storm-Mathisen, Jon; Lledo, Pierre-Marie

    2001-01-01

    Neuronal synchronization in the olfactory bulb has been proposed to arise from a diffuse action of glutamate released from mitral cells (MC, olfactory bulb relay neurons). According to this hypothesis, glutamate spills over from dendrodendritic synapses formed between MC and granule cells (GC, olfactory bulb interneurons) to activate neighboring MC. The excitation of MC is balanced by a strong inhibition from GC. Here we show that MC excitation is caused by glutama...

  10. Petroleum coke adsorption as a water management option for oil sands process-affected water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Water is integral to both operational and environmental aspects of the oil sands industry. A water treatment option based on the use of petroleum coke (PC), a by-product of bitumen upgrading, was examined as an opportunity to reduce site oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) inventories and net raw water demand. Changes in OSPW quality when treated with PC included increments in pH levels and concentrations of vanadium, molybdenum, and sulphate. Constituents that decreased in concentration after PC adsorption included total acid-extractable organics (TAO), bicarbonate, calcium, barium, magnesium, and strontium. Changes in naphthenic acids (NAs) speciation were observed after PC adsorption. A battery of bioassays was used to measure the OSPW toxicity. The results indicated that untreated OSPW was toxic towards Vibrio fischeri and rainbow trout. However, OSPW treated with PC at appropriate dosages was not acutely toxic towards these test organisms. Removal of TAO was found to be an adsorption process, fitting the Langmuir and Langmuir–Freundlich isotherm models. For TAO concentrations of 60 mg/L, adsorption capacities ranged between 0.1 and 0.46 mg/g. This study demonstrates that freshly produced PC from fluid cokers provides an effective treatment of OSPW in terms of key constituents' removal and toxicity reduction. - Highlights: ► Treatment of oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) using petroleum coke (PC) adsorption was investigated. ► PC was effective at adsorbing naphthenic acids with higher cyclicity. ► OSPW treated with PC at appropriate dosages was not toxic towards Vibrio fisheri and rainbow trout. ► The adsorption of organic acids fitted the Langmuir and Langmuir–Freundlich isotherm models. ► PC has the potential to be an effective adsorbent to treat OSPW either directly or as a pretreatment step.

  11. Petroleum coke adsorption as a water management option for oil sands process-affected water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zubot, Warren [Syncrude Canada Ltd., Research and Development, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6N 1H4 (Canada); MacKinnon, Michael D. [OSPM Solutions Ltd., Hamilton, Ontario, Canada L8H 6X2 (Canada); Chelme-Ayala, Pamela; Smith, Daniel W. [University of Alberta, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2W2 (Canada); Gamal El-Din, Mohamed, E-mail: mgamalel-din@ualberta.ca [University of Alberta, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2W2 (Canada)

    2012-06-15

    Water is integral to both operational and environmental aspects of the oil sands industry. A water treatment option based on the use of petroleum coke (PC), a by-product of bitumen upgrading, was examined as an opportunity to reduce site oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) inventories and net raw water demand. Changes in OSPW quality when treated with PC included increments in pH levels and concentrations of vanadium, molybdenum, and sulphate. Constituents that decreased in concentration after PC adsorption included total acid-extractable organics (TAO), bicarbonate, calcium, barium, magnesium, and strontium. Changes in naphthenic acids (NAs) speciation were observed after PC adsorption. A battery of bioassays was used to measure the OSPW toxicity. The results indicated that untreated OSPW was toxic towards Vibrio fischeri and rainbow trout. However, OSPW treated with PC at appropriate dosages was not acutely toxic towards these test organisms. Removal of TAO was found to be an adsorption process, fitting the Langmuir and Langmuir-Freundlich isotherm models. For TAO concentrations of 60 mg/L, adsorption capacities ranged between 0.1 and 0.46 mg/g. This study demonstrates that freshly produced PC from fluid cokers provides an effective treatment of OSPW in terms of key constituents' removal and toxicity reduction. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Treatment of oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) using petroleum coke (PC) adsorption was investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PC was effective at adsorbing naphthenic acids with higher cyclicity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer OSPW treated with PC at appropriate dosages was not toxic towards Vibrio fisheri and rainbow trout. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The adsorption of organic acids fitted the Langmuir and Langmuir-Freundlich isotherm models. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PC has the potential to be an effective adsorbent to treat OSPW either directly or as a pretreatment step.

  12. Mineral-Water Interface Processes Affecting Uranium Fate in Contaminated Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalano, J. G.

    2011-12-01

    Widespread uranium contamination of soil, sediments, and groundwater systems has resulted from mining activities, nuclear weapon production, and energy generation. The fate and transport of uranium in such systems is strongly affected by geochemical processes occurring at mineral-water interfaces. I will present a summary of the mineral-water interface processes found to affect uranium fate in example contaminated sediments at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford sites and in related model systems. Processes occurring under oxic conditions will be the primary focus of this talk as under these conditions uranium is most mobile and thus presents the greatest hazard. Three dominant solid-phase uranium species are observed in contaminated soil and sediments at the Hanford site: uranyl silicates, uranyl phosphates, and uranyl adsorbed to clays and iron oxides. In deep sediments, uranyl silicates are found in microfractures in feldspar grains, likely because slow diffusion in such fractures maintains a high silicate activity. Such silicates are also found in waste-impacted shallow sediments and soil; waste fluids or evaporative processes may have generated the silicate activity needed to produce such phases. Uranyl phosphates are less abundant, occurring primarily in shallow sediments exposed to P-bearing waste fluids. However, remediation approaches under consideration may produce substantial quantities of uranyl phosphates in the future. Adsorbed uranyl is dispersed throughout contaminated soils and shallow sediments and likely has the greatest potential for remobilization. Analogue studies show that precipitation of uranyl phosphates is rapid when such phases are supersaturated and that both homogeneous and heterogeneous nucleation may occur. Specific adsorption of uranyl to minerals is strongly affected by the presence of complexation anions. Carbonate suppresses uranyl adsorption but also forms uranyl-carbonate ternary surface complexes. At conditions below

  13. Recording Temperature-induced Neuronal Activity through Monitoring Calcium Changes in the Olfactory Bulb of Xenopus laevis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kludt, Eugen; Schild, Detlev

    2016-01-01

    The olfactory system, specialized in the detection, integration and processing of chemical molecules is likely the most thoroughly studied sensory system. However, there is piling evidence that olfaction is not solely limited to chemical sensitivity, but also includes temperature sensitivity. Premetamorphic Xenopus laevis are translucent animals, with protruding nasal cavities deprived of the cribriform plate separating the nose and the olfactory bulb. These characteristics make them well suited for studying olfaction, and particularly thermosensitivity. The present article describes the complete procedure for measuring temperature responses in the olfactory bulb of X. laevis larvae. Firstly, the electroporation of olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) is performed with spectrally distinct dyes loaded into the nasal cavities in order to stain their axon terminals in the bulbar neuropil. The differential staining between left and right receptor neurons serves to identify the γ-glomerulus as the only structure innervated by contralateral presynaptic afferents. Secondly, the electroporation is combined with focal bolus loading in the olfactory bulb in order to stain mitral cells and their dendrites. The 3D brain volume is then scanned under line-illumination microscopy for the acquisition of fast calcium imaging data while small temperature drops are induced at the olfactory epithelium. Lastly, the post-acquisition analysis allows the morphological reconstruction of the thermosensitive network comprising the γ-glomerulus and its innervating mitral cells, based on specific temperature-induced Ca2+ traces. Using chemical odorants as stimuli in addition to temperature jumps enables the comparison between thermosensitive and chemosensitive networks in the olfactory bulb. PMID:27286501

  14. Conjugated linoleic acid of dairy foods is affected by cows’ feeding system and processing of milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo Avilez Ruiz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The distribution of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA in dairy products commercially available in Chile is poorly understood. This study aimed to assess the content of CLA in dairy cow products from Chile and the effect of processing fresh milk into dairy products. Samples of raw milk were categorized into two groups based on the animal feeding system utilized by the dairy farm: 1 grazing based systems (Los Lagos region; and 2 housing systems using total mixed ration (TMR diets (Los Angeles region. Simultaneously, commercial samples of condensed milk, powdered milk, butter and Gouda cheese were analyzed. Furthermore, samples of raw milk and processed products (powdered and sweetened condensed milk were also analyzed. Dairy farms based on grazing systems had higher levels of CLA in raw milk than TMR farms. In addition, average values of CLA were 1.72 g 100 g−1 of total fatty acids, in spring milk in the Los Lagos region, and 0.42 g 100 g−1 in summer milk, in the Los Angeles region. Similarly, the CLA content of dairy products was higher than that of raw milk. Milk processing affected the transferring of CLA from fresh milk into the final products. Sweetened condensed milk presented lower CLA values than raw and powdered milk. In conclusion, this study indicates the importance of the production systems to the CLA content as well as the effects of milk processing into dairy products. To sum up, more research is needed to elucidate the exact effect of the processing conditions of dairy products on the CLA content.

  15. Application of forward osmosis membrane technology for oil sands process-affected water desalination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yaxin; Liang, Jiaming; Liu, Yang

    2016-01-01

    The extraction process used to obtain bitumen from the oil sands produces large volumes of oil sands process-affected water (OSPW). As a newly emerging desalination technology, forward osmosis (FO) has shown great promise in saving electrical power requirements, increasing water recovery, and minimizing brine discharge. With the support of this funding, a FO system was constructed using a cellulose triacetate FO membrane to test the feasibility of OSPW desalination and contaminant removal. The FO systems were optimized using different types and concentrations of draw solution. The FO system using 4 M NH4HCO3 as a draw solution achieved 85% water recovery from OSPW, and 80 to 100% contaminant rejection for most metals and ions. A water backwash cleaning method was applied to clean the fouled membrane, and the cleaned membrane achieved 77% water recovery, a performance comparable to that of new FO membranes. This suggests that the membrane fouling was reversible. The FO system developed in this project provides a novel and energy efficient strategy to remediate the tailings waters generated by oil sands bitumen extraction and processing. PMID:27120634

  16. Adult Born Olfactory Bulb Dopaminergic Interneurons: Molecular Determinants and Experience-Dependent Plasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonzano, Sara; Bovetti, Serena; Gendusa, Claudio; Peretto, Paolo; De Marchis, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    The olfactory bulb (OB) is a highly plastic brain region involved in the early processing of olfactory information. A remarkably feature of the OB circuits in rodents is the constitutive integration of new neurons that takes place during adulthood. Newborn cells in the adult OB are mostly inhibitory interneurons belonging to chemically, morphologically and functionally heterogeneous types. Although there is general agreement that adult neurogenesis in the OB plays a key role in sensory information processing and olfaction-related plasticity, the contribution of each interneuron subtype to such functions is far to be elucidated. Here, we focus on the dopaminergic (DA) interneurons: we highlight recent findings about their morphological features and then describe the molecular factors required for the specification/differentiation and maintenance of the DA phenotype in adult born neurons. We also discuss dynamic changes of the DA interneuron population related to age, environmental stimuli and lesions, and their possible functional implications. PMID:27199651

  17. Irradiation of bulbs and tuber crops. A compilation of technical data for its authorization and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication contains a compilation of available scientific and technical data on the irradiation of bulbs and tuber crops. It is intended to assist governments in considering the authorization of this particular application of radiation processing of food and in ensuring its control in the facility and the control of irradiated food products moving in trade. The compilation was prepared in response to the requirement of the Codex General Standard for Irradiated Foods and associated Code that radiation treatment of food be justified on the basis of a technological need or of a need to improve the hygienic quality of the food. It was also in response to the recommendations of the FAO/IAEA/WHO/ITC-UNCTAD/GATT International Conference on the Acceptance, Control of and Trade in Irradiated Food (Geneva, 1989) concerning the need for regulatory control of radiation processing of food. 448 refs, 6 tabs

  18. Analysis of physical processes affecting restructuring of UO2 fuel in Rim-zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the presented paper is the analysis of the processes affecting so-called 'rim-zone' formation in UO2 and the development of the model describing isotope content profiles at extended burnup. The influence of rim-zone and extended burnup on fuel temperatures is also considered. A brief review of the worldwide models for fission rate and isotope content profiles at extended burnup is given. In this frame, a new model for for prediction of radial profiles of burnup, fission rate and plutonium isotopes have been developed in the TRINITY (Russia). The results from the comparison of the model predictions with experimental data show that the model has good predictability. A new model describing the conditions of dislocation loop nucleation from interstitial atom clusters on fission spikes is also proposed in this paper. The results of the model show that the fuel grain diameter significantly affects the concentration of point defects and dislocation loops. The paper presents the results from the RTOP code calculations of fuel temperature, taking into account non-uniform fission rate and thermal conductivity degradation as result of burnup increasing

  19. Personal Encounter and Affective Links: "Pilot Guidance" and the Relational Nurturing Process in Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Vicente Vaquer Chiva

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Educational institutions represent the special setting for teenagers´ socialization and development in Spain. The concern for some disruptive phenomenon which take place within the educational setting draws the attention to investigate the aspects of the educational relationship that contribute positively to students´ development and learning. From a qualitative research design, according to the criteria of theoretical sampling proposed in the methodology of qualitative data analysis of the «Grounded Theory», twenty-three individual interviews were done to secondary school parents, teachers and students. The achieved results allow to suggest the «encounter» between student and teacher, with its respective acceptance and mutual appreciation, as a central issue that enables affective link and the practice of "pilot guidance". The emergence of the basic social process referred as «relational nurturing» implies that affective support and an instructional guide empower educational and personal growth. The "pilot guidance" function, both with individuals and in class, constitutes the center of the educational relationship fostering the students´ full growth.

  20. Key parameters and processes affecting the re-establishment of eelgrass in estuaries and coastal water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canal Vergés, Paula

    . As a result it was proven that macroalgae generated SPM affected the light climate by dampening greatly the light availability at the sea bed in shallow coastal waters. An agent based model to simulate opportunistic and slower growing macroalgae species transport in Odense fjord was created. In this model...... of the objectives were to gain a further and deeper understanding on eelgrass recolonization processes and to gather all the collected data into a modelling tool which allowing to predict eelgrass reestablishment. Eelgrass re-establishment in Denmark has to be based on seed and seedling success, therefore a series...... resulted in a diverse range of cellular lyses, which will limit the validation on the uses of such techniques for EPS measurements. A model to simulate bedload resuspension generated by macroalgae drift was created. The aim of the model was to test the influence on such resuspension on light climate...

  1. Trait-based Affective Processes in Alcohol-Involved Risk Behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Wray, Tyler B.; Simons, Jeffrey S.; Dvorak, Robert D.; Gaher, Raluca M.

    2012-01-01

    This study tested a theoretical model of alcohol use, markers of extreme intoxication, and risk behavior as a function of trait affect, distress tolerance, and affect-based behavior dysregulation. Positive affective pathways to risk behavior were primarily expected to be indirect via high levels of alcohol use, while negative affect paths were expected to be more directly associated with engagement in risk behavior. In addition, we expected trait affectivity and distress tolerance would prima...

  2. Can a topical scalp treatment reduce hair bulb extraction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, James V; Bouldin, Lisa; Lou, Kevin

    2007-01-01

    Generally speaking, when people talk about "hair breakage" they are typically referring to the idea that as they comb or brush their hair, the fibers are elongating and snapping at some weak point in the fiber length. It is well established that as people chemically treat their hair, the keratin proteins are degraded further and the hair become more brittle and susceptible to breakage. For the consumer, hair breakage is registered as hair fibers noted in their comb or brush, and in the drain that they see after a cosmetic treatment. However, a fundamental question that needs to be asked is whether or not the hairs that are seen in the drain are really the result of hair breakage (i.e., a fiber snapping) or are they the result of hairs that are actually being extracted from the scalp by their root bulbs. If the bulk of the hair fibers are actually extracted by the bulb, than it seems somewhat superfluous to try and improve hair strength by improving the exterior of the fiber. The fiber is dead and topical treatments can only smooth, and possibly moisten already established fiber structure and integrity. This paper will attempt to address hair strength by looking at the scalp and follicle as the target for treatment, showing that topical application of a product containing a blend of well-known skin active ingredients can demonstrate potential reductions in hair extractions. An in vivo testing protocol in which 15 voluntary participants with at least 12" hair length were professionally shampooed, and then treated, half-head, with a commercial conditioner, or the same conditioner that contained 5% of a mixture of yeast peptides, fruit acids and green tea polyphenols every day for five days will be discussed. At the beginning and end of the treatment period, the number of hairs that either broke along the fiber, or extracted by the bulb were gathered, separated and counted for both the treated and untreated side of the head. The results of this one-week study

  3. Radiological aspects of the mucosal surface of the duodenal bulbe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Double contrast barium meal, endoscopy and hystology of the doudenal bulb were blindly compared in 47 consecutive patients. The agreement in the judgement of normality of the mucosal surface between radiology and endoscopy was 78%. The agreement in the diagnosis of presence or absence of nodularity and thickened folds was respectively 91% and 87%. The findings of nodularity correspond to doudenitis with pyloric metaplasia or to heterotopic gastric mucosa, while the thickened folds correspond to duodenitis with pyloric metaplasia, Brunner's hyperplasia, lymphathic nodular dilatation. The diagnostic errors in the radiological examination in respect to endoscopy is quite important in the case of erosions

  4. Duodenal bulb plasma cells in duodenitis and duodenal ulceration.

    OpenAIRE

    Scott, B B; Goodall, A; Stephenson, P.; D. Jenkins(University of York, UK)

    1985-01-01

    Using an immunoperoxidase technique IgA, IgM, IgE and IgG plasma cells were studied in endoscopic duodenal bulb biopsies taken from 14 controls, 25 patients with grade 1 duodenitis (Whitehead classification), 12 patients with grade 2 duodenitis and three with grade 3 duodenitis. The control counts were compared with those in the jejunum and rectum. In addition cell counts were compared in 16 pairs of patients, with and without duodenal ulcer, exactly matched for grade of duodenitis. The contr...

  5. Stochasticity and determinism: how density-independent and density-dependent processes affect population variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlberger, Jan; Rogers, Lauren A; Stenseth, Nils Chr

    2014-01-01

    A persistent debate in population ecology concerns the relative importance of environmental stochasticity and density dependence in determining variability in adult year-class strength, which contributes to future reproduction as well as potential yield in exploited populations. Apart from the strength of the processes, the timing of density regulation may affect how stochastic variation, for instance through climate, translates into changes in adult abundance. In this study, we develop a life-cycle model for the population dynamics of a large marine fish population, Northeast Arctic cod, to disentangle the effects of density-independent and density-dependent processes on early life-stages, and to quantify the strength of compensatory density dependence in the population. The model incorporates information from scientific surveys and commercial harvest, and dynamically links multiple effects of intrinsic and extrinsic factors on all life-stages, from eggs to spawners. Using a state-space approach we account for observation error and stochasticity in the population dynamics. Our findings highlight the importance of density-dependent survival in juveniles, indicating that this period of the life cycle largely determines the compensatory capacity of the population. Density regulation at the juvenile life-stage dampens the impact of stochastic processes operating earlier in life such as environmental impacts on the production of eggs and climate-dependent survival of larvae. The timing of stochastic versus regulatory processes thus plays a crucial role in determining variability in adult abundance. Quantifying the contribution of environmental stochasticity and compensatory mechanisms in determining population abundance is essential for assessing population responses to climate change and exploitation by humans. PMID:24893001

  6. Faces in context: A review and systematization of contextual influences on affective face processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias J Wieser

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Facial expressions are of eminent importance for social interaction as they convey information about other individuals’ emotions and social intentions. According to the predominant basic emotion approach, the perception of emotion in faces is based on the rapid, automatic categorization of prototypical, universal expressions. Consequently, the perception of facial expressions has typically been investigated using isolated, decontextualized, static pictures of facial expressions that maximize the distinction between categories. However, in everyday life, an individual’s face is not perceived in isolation, but almost always appears within a situational context, which may arise from other people, the physical environment surrounding the face, as well as multichannel information from the sender. Furthermore, situational context may be provided by the perceiver, including already present social information gained from affective learning and implicit processing biases such as race bias. Thus, the perception of facial expressions is presumably always influenced by contextual variables. In this comprehensive review, we aim at 1 systematizing the contextual variables that may influence the perception of facial expressions and 2 summarizing experimental paradigms and findings that have been used to investigate these influences. The studies reviewed here demonstrate that perception and neural processing of facial expressions are substantially modified by contextual information, including verbal, visual, and auditory information presented together with the face as well as knowledge or processing biases already present in the observer. These findings further challenge the assumption of automatic, hardwired categorical emotion extraction mechanisms predicted by basic emotion theories. Taking into account a recent model on face processing, we discuss where and when these different contextual influences may take place, thus outlining potential avenues in

  7. Faces in context: a review and systematization of contextual influences on affective face processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieser, Matthias J; Brosch, Tobias

    2012-01-01

    Facial expressions are of eminent importance for social interaction as they convey information about other individuals' emotions and social intentions. According to the predominant "basic emotion" approach, the perception of emotion in faces is based on the rapid, automatic categorization of prototypical, universal expressions. Consequently, the perception of facial expressions has typically been investigated using isolated, de-contextualized, static pictures of facial expressions that maximize the distinction between categories. However, in everyday life, an individual's face is not perceived in isolation, but almost always appears within a situational context, which may arise from other people, the physical environment surrounding the face, as well as multichannel information from the sender. Furthermore, situational context may be provided by the perceiver, including already present social information gained from affective learning and implicit processing biases such as race bias. Thus, the perception of facial expressions is presumably always influenced by contextual variables. In this comprehensive review, we aim at (1) systematizing the contextual variables that may influence the perception of facial expressions and (2) summarizing experimental paradigms and findings that have been used to investigate these influences. The studies reviewed here demonstrate that perception and neural processing of facial expressions are substantially modified by contextual information, including verbal, visual, and auditory information presented together with the face as well as knowledge or processing biases already present in the observer. These findings further challenge the assumption of automatic, hardwired categorical emotion extraction mechanisms predicted by basic emotion theories. Taking into account a recent model on face processing, we discuss where and when these different contextual influences may take place, thus outlining potential avenues in future research

  8. Carbon availability affects diurnally controlled processes and cell morphology of Cyanothece 51142.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Stöckel

    Full Text Available Cyanobacteria are oxygenic photoautotrophs notable for their ability to utilize atmospheric CO2 as the major source of carbon. The prospect of using cyanobacteria to convert solar energy and high concentrations of CO2 efficiently into biomass and renewable energy sources has sparked substantial interest in using flue gas from coal-burning power plants as a source of inorganic carbon. However, in order to guide further advances in this area, a better understanding of the metabolic changes that occur under conditions of high CO2 is needed. To determine the effect of high CO2 on cell physiology and growth, we analyzed the global transcriptional changes in the unicellular diazotrophic cyanobacterium Cyanothece 51142 grown in 8% CO2-enriched air. We found a concerted response of genes related to photosynthesis, carbon metabolism, respiration, nitrogen fixation, ribosome biosynthesis, and the synthesis of nucleotides and structural cell wall polysaccharides. The overall response to 8% CO2 in Cyanothece 51142 involves different strategies, to compensate for the high C/N ratio during both phases of the diurnal cycle. Our analyses show that high CO2 conditions trigger the production of carbon-rich compounds and stimulate processes such as respiration and nitrogen fixation. In addition, we observed that high levels of CO2 affect fundamental cellular processes such as cell growth and dramatically alter the intracellular morphology. This study provides novel insights on how diurnal and developmental rhythms are integrated to facilitate adaptation to high CO2 in Cyanothece 51142.

  9. Neuroimaging of affect processing in schizophrenia; Funktionelle Bildgebung von emotionalem Verhalten und Erleben bei schizophrenen Patienten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habel, U. [Universitaetsklinikum Aachen (Germany). Klinik fuer Psychiatrie und Psychotherapie; Universitaetsklinikum, Klinik fuer Psychiatrie und Psychotherapie, Aachen (Germany); Kircher, T.; Schneider, F. [Universitaetsklinikum Aachen (Germany). Klinik fuer Psychiatrie und Psychotherapie

    2005-02-01

    Functional imaging of normal and dysfunctional emotional processes is an important tool for a better understanding of the pathophysiology of affective symptoms in schizophrenia patients. These symptoms are still poorly characterized with respect to their neural correlates. Comparisons of cerebral activation during emotional paradigms offered the possibility for a better characterization of cerebral dysfunctions during emotional processing in schizophrenia. Abnormal activation patterns reveal a complex dysfunctional subcortical-cortical network. This is modulated by respective genotypes as well as psycho- and pharmacotherapy. (orig.) [German] Die funktionell bildgebende Untersuchung emotionaler Prozesse und ihrer Dysfunktionen ist fuer ein besseres Verstaendnis der Pathophysiologie emotionaler Stoerungen wesentlich. Schizophrene Patienten zeigen eine Reihe affektiver Symptome, die klinisch relevant, aber nur unzureichend bzgl. ihrer neurobiologischen Korrelate bekannt sind. Der Vergleich zerebraler Aktivierung zwischen gesunden und schizophrenen Patienten waehrend unterschiedlicher emotionaler Paradigmen hat dazu beigetragen, zerebrale Dysfunktionen naeher zu charakterisieren. So weisen auffaellige Aktivierungsmuster auf eine komplex gestoerte subkortikal-kortikale Netzwerkstruktur hin. Deren Modulation durch genetische Faktoren und durch psycho- wie auch pharmakologische therapeutische Interventionen konnte mittlerweile nachgewiesen werden. (orig.)

  10. Ageing differentially affects neural processing of different conflict types – an fMRI study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarethe eKorsch

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Interference control and conflict resolution is affected by ageing. There is increasing evidence that ageing does not compromise interference control in general but rather shows distinctive effects on different components of interference control. Different conflict types, (e.g. stimulus-stimulus (S-S or stimulus-response (S-R conflicts trigger different cognitive processes and thus activate different neural networks. In the present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI study, we used a combined Flanker and Stimulus Response Conflict (SRC task to investigate the effect of ageing on S-S and S-R conflicts. Behavioral data analysis revealed larger SRC effects in elderly. fMRI Results show that both age groups recruited similar regions (caudate nucleus, cingulate gyrus and middle occipital gyrus during Flanker conflict processing. Furthermore, elderly show an additional activation pattern in parietal and frontal areas. In contrast, no common activation of both age groups was found in response to the SRC. These data suggest that ageing has distinctive effects on S-S and S-R conflicts.

  11. Petroleum coke adsorption as a water management option for oil sands process-affected water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubot, Warren; MacKinnon, Michael D; Chelme-Ayala, Pamela; Smith, Daniel W; Gamal El-Din, Mohamed

    2012-06-15

    Water is integral to both operational and environmental aspects of the oil sands industry. A water treatment option based on the use of petroleum coke (PC), a by-product of bitumen upgrading, was examined as an opportunity to reduce site oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) inventories and net raw water demand. Changes in OSPW quality when treated with PC included increments in pH levels and concentrations of vanadium, molybdenum, and sulphate. Constituents that decreased in concentration after PC adsorption included total acid-extractable organics (TAO), bicarbonate, calcium, barium, magnesium, and strontium. Changes in naphthenic acids (NAs) speciation were observed after PC adsorption. A battery of bioassays was used to measure the OSPW toxicity. The results indicated that untreated OSPW was toxic towards Vibrio fischeri and rainbow trout. However, OSPW treated with PC at appropriate dosages was not acutely toxic towards these test organisms. Removal of TAO was found to be an adsorption process, fitting the Langmuir and Langmuir-Freundlich isotherm models. For TAO concentrations of 60 mg/L, adsorption capacities ranged between 0.1 and 0.46 mg/g. This study demonstrates that freshly produced PC from fluid cokers provides an effective treatment of OSPW in terms of key constituents' removal and toxicity reduction. PMID:22575375

  12. Honey Quality as Affected by Handling, Processing and Marketing Channels in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabakabya, D.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The factors that affect honey quality in Uganda were surveyed in 120 beekeeping households. Honey was sampled from supermarkets, hawkers and stall markets along four transects across Kampala, the capital. Honey quality parameters assessed were diastase number (DN, free acidity (FA, moisture content (MC, hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF, and water insoluble solids (WIS. Honey was mostly harvested from basket and grass hives. Pressing, boiling and straining were popular honey processing methods. Honey quality was mainly compromised by harvesting immature honey, bad extraction methods and contamination by extraneous materials. Constraints to beekeeping were lack of appropriate equipment (52%, inadequate farmer skills, bad weather and vermin. Honey brands differed (P< 0.05 in DN, most failed the Uganda and Codex Alimentarius standards, and 20% met European Union HMF and DN standards. Correlation was observed between HMF vs. DN (r= 0.94; MC vs. FA (r= 0.56. Supermarket honey (4.65 was more superior (P< 0.05 in DN than stall markets (1.93, and hawkers (2.3. Similarly, WIS levels differed (P< 0.05 between honeys from supermarkets (0.08, stall markets (3.0 and hawkers (3.15. All honeys met MC standards, while DN and WIS were major shortcomings. Farmer training and extension in proper honey harvesting, handling and processing should be strengthened. Quality monitoring at all levels should be emphasized.

  13. Solar photocatalytic degradation of naphthenic acids in oil sands process-affected water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leshuk, Tim; Wong, Timothy; Linley, Stuart; Peru, Kerry M; Headley, John V; Gu, Frank

    2016-02-01

    Bitumen mining in the Canadian oil sands creates large volumes of oil sands process-affected water (OSPW), the toxicity of which is due in part to naphthenic acids (NAs) and other acid extractable organics (AEO). The objective of this work was to evaluate the potential of solar photocatalysis over TiO2 to remove AEO from OSPW. One day of photocatalytic treatment under natural sunlight (25 MJ/m(2) over ∼14 h daylight) eradicated AEO from raw OSPW, and acute toxicity of the OSPW toward Vibrio fischeri was eliminated. Nearly complete mineralization of organic carbon was achieved within 1-7 day equivalents of sunlight exposure, and degradation was shown to proceed through a superoxide-mediated oxidation pathway. High resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) analysis of oxidized intermediate compounds indicated preferential degradation of the heavier and more cyclic NAs (higher number of double bond equivalents), which are the most environmentally persistent fractions. The photocatalyst was shown to be recyclable for multiple uses, and thus solar photocatalysis may be a promising "green" advanced oxidation process (AOP) for OSPW treatment. PMID:26539710

  14. Assessment of processes affecting low-flow water quality of Cedar Creek, west-central Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Arthur R.; Freeman, W.O.; McFarlane, R.D.

    1989-01-01

    Water quality and the processes that affect dissolved oxygen, nutrient (nitrogen and phosphorus species), and algal concentrations were evaluated for a 23.8-mile reach of Cedar Creek near Galesburg, west-central Illinois, during periods of warm-weather, low-flow conditions. Water quality samples were collected and stream conditions were measured over a diel (24 hour) period on three occasions during July and August 1985. Analysis of data from the diel-sampling periods indicates that concentrations of iron, copper, manganese, phenols, and total dissolved-solids exceeded Illinois ' general-use water quality standards in some locations. Dissolved-oxygen concentrations were less than the State minimum standard throughout much of the study reach. These data were used to calibrate and verify a one-dimensional, steady-state, water quality model. The computer model was used to assess the relative effects on low-flow water quality of processes such as algal photosynthesis and respiration, ammonia oxidation, biochemical oxygen demand, sediment oxygen demand, and stream reaeration. Results from model simulations and sensitivity analysis indicate that sediment oxygen demand is the principal cause of low dissolved-oxygen concentrations in the creek. (USGS)

  15. Understanding the Local Socio-political Processes Affecting Conservation Management Outcomes in Corbett Tiger Reserve, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, Archi; Hickey, Gordon M.; Badola, Ruchi; Hussain, Syed Ainul

    2014-05-01

    Several measures have been recommended to guarantee a sustainable population of tigers: sufficient inviolate spaces for a viable population, sufficient prey populations, trained and skilled manpower to guard against poaching and intrusion, banning trade in tiger products to reduce poaching, and importantly, the political will to precipitate these recommendations into implementation. Of these, the creation of sufficient inviolate spaces (generally in the form of protected areas) has created the most issues with local resource-dependent communities, often resulting in significant challenges for tiger conservation policy and management. Very little empirical research has, however, been done to understand and contextualize the local-level socio-political interactions that may influence the efficacy of tiger conservation in India. In this paper, we present the results of exploratory research into the ways in which local-stakeholder groups affect the management of Corbett Tiger Reserve (CTR). Using a combined grounded theory-case study research design, and the Institutional Analysis and Development framework for analysis, we identify the socio-political processes through which local-stakeholder groups are able to articulate their issues and elicit desirable actions from the management of CTR. Increasing our awareness of these processes can help inform the design and implementation of more effective tiger conservation management and policy strategies that have the potential to create more supportive coalitions of tiger conservation stakeholders at the local level.

  16. Understanding the local socio-political processes affecting conservation management outcomes in Corbett Tiger Reserve, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, Archi; Hickey, Gordon M; Badola, Ruchi; Hussain, Syed Ainul

    2014-05-01

    Several measures have been recommended to guarantee a sustainable population of tigers: sufficient inviolate spaces for a viable population, sufficient prey populations, trained and skilled manpower to guard against poaching and intrusion, banning trade in tiger products to reduce poaching, and importantly, the political will to precipitate these recommendations into implementation. Of these, the creation of sufficient inviolate spaces (generally in the form of protected areas) has created the most issues with local resource-dependent communities, often resulting in significant challenges for tiger conservation policy and management. Very little empirical research has, however, been done to understand and contextualize the local-level socio-political interactions that may influence the efficacy of tiger conservation in India. In this paper, we present the results of exploratory research into the ways in which local-stakeholder groups affect the management of Corbett Tiger Reserve (CTR). Using a combined grounded theory-case study research design, and the Institutional Analysis and Development framework for analysis, we identify the socio-political processes through which local-stakeholder groups are able to articulate their issues and elicit desirable actions from the management of CTR. Increasing our awareness of these processes can help inform the design and implementation of more effective tiger conservation management and policy strategies that have the potential to create more supportive coalitions of tiger conservation stakeholders at the local level. PMID:24522894

  17. Nanomorphology of Itokawa regolith particles: Application to space-weathering processes affecting the Itokawa asteroid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Toru; Tsuchiyama, Akira; Uesugi, Kentaro; Nakano, Tsukasa; Uesugi, Masayuki; Matsuno, Junya; Nagano, Takashi; Shimada, Akira; Takeuchi, Akihisa; Suzuki, Yoshio; Nakamura, Tomoki; Nakamura, Michihiko; Gucsik, Arnold; Nagaki, Keita; Sakaiya, Tatsuhiro; Kondo, Tadashi

    2016-08-01

    The morphological properties of 26 regolith particles from asteroid Itokawa were observed using scanning electron microscopes in combination with an investigation of their three-dimensional shapes obtained through X-ray microtomography. Surface observations of a cross section of the LL5 chondrite, and of crystals of olivine and pyroxene, were also performed for comparison. Some Itokawa particles have surfaces corresponding to walls of microdruses in the LL chondrite, where concentric polygonal steps develop and euhedral or subhedral grains exist. These formed through vapor growth owing to thermal annealing, which might have been caused by thermal metamorphism or shock-induced heating in Itokawa's parent body. Most of the Itokawa particles have more or less fractured surfaces, indicating that they were formed by disaggregation, probably caused by impacts. Itokawa particles with angular and rounded edges observed in computed tomography images are associated with surfaces exhibiting clear and faint structures, respectively. These surfaces can be interpreted by invoking different degrees of abrasion after regolith formation. A possible mechanism for the abrasion process is grain migration caused by impact-driven seismic waves. Space-weathered rims with blisters are distributed heterogeneously across the Itokawa regolith particles. This heterogeneous distribution can be explained by particle motion and fracturing, combined with solar-wind irradiation of the particle surfaces. The regolith activity-including grain motion, fracturing, and abrasion-might effectively act as refreshing process of Itokawa particles against space-weathered rim formation. The space-weathering processes affecting Itokawa would have developed simultaneously with space-weathered rim formation and regolith particle refreshment.

  18. Removal of ovarian hormones affects the ageing process of acetate metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihisa Urita

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Despite a close association between gastrointestinal motility and sex hormones, it has been unknown whether ovarian hormones affect absorption and metabolism of nutrients. The aim of this study is, therefore, to evaluate metabolism of acetate in rats with age and the influence of ovariectomy on its change. M ethods : Fourteen female rats of the F344 strain were used, and 13C-acetate breath test was performed at 2, 7 and 13 months of age. Seven rats were ovariectomized at three weeks of age (ovariectomy group and the remaining seven rats were studied as control group. After 24-hr fasting, rats are orally administrated 1ml of water containing sodium 13C-acetate (100mg/kg and housed in an animal chamber. The expired air in the chamber is collected in a breath-sampling bag using a aspiration pump. The 13CO2 concentration is measured using an infrared spectrometer for 120 min and expressed as delta per mil. Results : The breath 13CO2 excretion increased with time and peaked 30 min in control rats. In ovariectomized rats, thee peak time of 13CO2 excretion was prolonged to 40 min at 7 and 13 months of age. Cmax was significantly higher at 2 months of age but lower at 4 months of age in ovariectomized rats than in control rats. Those of two groups became equal at 7 months of age. Conclusions : From the viewpoint of acetate metabolism, removal of ovarian hormones might make rats to be precocious ones and accelerate ageing. (Urita Y, Watanabe T, Imai T, Yasuyuki Miura Y, Washizawa N, Masaki Sanaka M, Nakajima H, Sugimoto M. Removal of ovarian hormones affects the ageing process of acetate metabolism.

  19. Advances in Understanding Sorption and Transport Processes Affecting the Fate of Environmental Pollutants in the Subsurface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karapanagioti, H. K.; Werner, D.; Werth, C.

    2012-04-01

    The results of a call for a special issue that is now in press by the Journal of Contaminant Hydrology will be presented. This special issue is edited by the authors and is entitled "Sorption and Transport Processes Affecting the Fate of Environmental Pollutants in the Subsurface". A short abstract of each paper will be presented along with the most interesting results. Nine papers were accepted. Pollutants studied include: biocolloids, metals (arsenic, chromium, nickel), organic compounds such as hydrocarbons, chlorinated hydrocarbons, micropollutants (PAHs, PCBs), pesticides (glyphosate, 2,4-D). Findings presented in the papers include a modified batch reactor system to study equilibrium-reactive transport problems of metals. Column studies along with theoretical approximations evaluate the combined effects of grain size and pore water velocity on the transport in water saturated porous media of three biocolloids. A polluted sediment remediation method is evaluated considering site-specific conditions through monitoring results and modelling. A field study points to glogging and also sorption as mechanisms affecting the effectiveness of sub-surface flow constructed wetlands. A new isotherm model combining modified traditionally used isotherms is proposed that can be used to simulate pH-dependent metal adsorption. Linear free energy relationships (LFERs) demonstrate ability to predict slight isotope shifts into the groundwater due to sorption. Possible modifications that improve the reliability of kinetic models and parameter values during the evaluation of experiments that assess the sorption of pesticides on soils are tested. Challenges in selecting groundwater pollutant fate and transport models that account for the effect of grain-scale sorption rate limitations are evaluated based on experimental results and are discussed based on the Damköhler number. Finally, a thorough review paper presents the impact of mineral micropores on the transport and fate of

  20. Positive affect and health-related neuroendocrine, cardiovascular, and inflammatory processes

    OpenAIRE

    Steptoe, A; Wardle, J; Marmot, M.

    2005-01-01

    Negative affective states such as depression are associated with premature mortality and increased risk of coronary heart disease, type 2 diabetes, and disability. It has been suggested that positive affective states are protective, but the pathways through which such effects might be mediated are poorly understood. Here we show that positive affect in middle-aged men and women is associated with reduced neuroendocrine, inflammatory, and cardiovascular activity. Positive affect was assessed b...

  1. Physiological and phytochemical quality of ready-to-eat rocket leaves as affected by processing, modified atmosphere and storage temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Amaro, Ana Luísa; Pereira, Maria João; Carvalho, Susana; Vasconcelos, Marta; Pintado, Maria Manuela

    2014-01-01

    Rocket leaves are widely consumed as a ready-to-eat (RTE) leafy vegetable, valued by its wide range of health promoting phytonutrients, including vitamin C and phenolic compounds. Processing and storage conditions are known to affect quality of RTE rocket leaves, with package atmosphere and low temperature as key factors in quality maintenance throughout processing to consumption. However, information on rocket leaves nutritional quality as affected by modified atmosphere and storage...

  2. Control of Mitral/Tufted Cell Output by Selective Inhibition among Olfactory Bulb Glomeruli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Economo, Michael N; Hansen, Kyle R; Wachowiak, Matt

    2016-07-20

    Inhibition is fundamental to information processing by neural circuits. In the olfactory bulb (OB), glomeruli are the functional units for odor information coding, but inhibition among glomeruli is poorly characterized. We used two-photon calcium imaging in anesthetized and awake mice to visualize both odorant-evoked excitation and suppression in OB output neurons (mitral and tufted, MT cells). MT cell response polarity mapped uniformly to discrete OB glomeruli, allowing us to analyze how inhibition shapes OB output relative to the glomerular map. Odorants elicited unique patterns of suppression in only a subset of glomeruli in which such suppression could be detected, and excited and suppressed glomeruli were spatially intermingled. Binary mixture experiments revealed that interglomerular inhibition could suppress excitatory mitral cell responses to odorants. These results reveal that inhibitory OB circuits nonlinearly transform odor representations and support a model of selective and nonrandom inhibition among glomerular ensembles. PMID:27346531

  3. Neuronal pattern separation in the olfactory bulb improves odor discrimination learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagier, Samuel; Begnaud, Frédéric; Rodriguez, Ivan; Carleton, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Neuronal pattern separation is thought to enable the brain to disambiguate sensory stimuli with overlapping features thereby extracting valuable information. In the olfactory system, it remains unknown whether pattern separation acts as a driving force for sensory discrimination and the learning thereof. Here we show that overlapping odor-evoked input patterns to the mouse olfactory bulb (OB) are dynamically reformatted in the network at the timescale of a single breath, giving rise to separated patterns of activity in ensemble of output neurons (mitral/tufted cells; M/T). Strikingly, the extent of pattern separation in M/T assemblies predicts behavioral discrimination performance during the learning phase. Furthermore, exciting or inhibiting GABAergic OB interneurons, using optogenetics or pharmacogenetics, altered pattern separation and thereby odor discrimination learning in a bidirectional way. In conclusion, we propose that the OB network can act as a pattern separator facilitating olfactory stimuli distinction, a process that is sculpted by synaptic inhibition. PMID:26301325

  4. Sulfate reducing bacteria and their activities in oil sands process-affected water biofilm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biofilm reactors were constructed to grow stratified multispecies biofilm in oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) supplemented with growth medium. The development of sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) within the biofilm and the biofilm treatment of OSPW were evaluated. The community structure and potential activity of SRB in the biofilm were investigated with H2S microsensor measurements, dsrB gene-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), and the real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Multispecies biofilm with a thickness of 1000 μm was successfully developed on engineered biocarriers. H2S production was observed in the deeper anoxic zone of the biofilm from around 750 μm to 1000 μm below the bulk water-biofilm interface, revealing sulfate reduction in the deeper zone of the stratified biofilm. The biofilm removed chemical oxygen demand (COD), sulfate, and nitrogen. The study expands current knowledge of biofilm treatment of OSPW and the function of anaerobic SRB in OSPW biofilm, and thus provides information for future bioreactor development in the reclamation of OSPW. - Graphical abstract: The development of sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) within Oil Sands Process-affected Water (OSPW) biofilm and the biofilm treatment of OSPW were evaluated by Liu and coworkers. Combined microsensor and molecular biology techniques were utilized in this study. Their results demonstrated that multispecies biofilm with a thickness of 1000 μm was successfully developed on engineered biocarriers. H2S production was observed in the deeper anoxic zone of the biofilm from around 750 μm to 1000 μm below the bulk water-biofilm interface, revealing sulfate reduction in the deeper zone of the biofilm. The biofilm removed chemical oxygen demand (COD), sulfate, and nitrogen. - Highlights: • Biofilm in oil sands wastewater was developed on engineered biocarriers. • Bacterial community and in situ activity of SRB were studied in the biofilm. • Sulfate

  5. Sulfate reducing bacteria and their activities in oil sands process-affected water biofilm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Hong; Yu, Tong, E-mail: tong.yu@ualberta.ca; Liu, Yang, E-mail: yang.liu@ualberta.ca

    2015-12-01

    Biofilm reactors were constructed to grow stratified multispecies biofilm in oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) supplemented with growth medium. The development of sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) within the biofilm and the biofilm treatment of OSPW were evaluated. The community structure and potential activity of SRB in the biofilm were investigated with H{sub 2}S microsensor measurements, dsrB gene-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), and the real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Multispecies biofilm with a thickness of 1000 μm was successfully developed on engineered biocarriers. H{sub 2}S production was observed in the deeper anoxic zone of the biofilm from around 750 μm to 1000 μm below the bulk water-biofilm interface, revealing sulfate reduction in the deeper zone of the stratified biofilm. The biofilm removed chemical oxygen demand (COD), sulfate, and nitrogen. The study expands current knowledge of biofilm treatment of OSPW and the function of anaerobic SRB in OSPW biofilm, and thus provides information for future bioreactor development in the reclamation of OSPW. - Graphical abstract: The development of sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) within Oil Sands Process-affected Water (OSPW) biofilm and the biofilm treatment of OSPW were evaluated by Liu and coworkers. Combined microsensor and molecular biology techniques were utilized in this study. Their results demonstrated that multispecies biofilm with a thickness of 1000 μm was successfully developed on engineered biocarriers. H{sub 2}S production was observed in the deeper anoxic zone of the biofilm from around 750 μm to 1000 μm below the bulk water-biofilm interface, revealing sulfate reduction in the deeper zone of the biofilm. The biofilm removed chemical oxygen demand (COD), sulfate, and nitrogen. - Highlights: • Biofilm in oil sands wastewater was developed on engineered biocarriers. • Bacterial community and in situ activity of SRB were studied in the

  6. Light Bulb Presentations in a Mathematics for the Liberal Arts Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Joseph A.

    2008-01-01

    Encouraging students to make independent discoveries is an effective way to get them excited about mathematics, and sharing their triumphant moments (their light bulb moments) helps to spread this excitement to their peers. A Mathematics for the Liberal Arts course is a perfect venue for the sharing of light bulb moments, as it helps to correct…

  7. Non-condensible gas fraction predictions using wet and dry bulb temperature measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A technique is presented whereby non-condensible gas mass fractions in a closed system can be determined using wet bulb and dry bulb temperature and system pressure measurements. This technique would have application in situations where sampling techniques could not be used. Using an energy balance about the wet bulb wick, and expression is obtained which relates the vapor concentration difference between the wet bulb wick and the free stream to the wet and dry bulb temperature difference and a heat to mass transfer coefficient ratio. This coefficient ratio was examined for forced and natural convection flows. This analysis was verified with forced and natural convection tests over the range of pressure and temperature from 50 to 557 psig and 415 to 5760F. All the data could best be fit by the natural convection analysis. This is useful when no information about the flow field is known

  8. Factors Affecting Cervical Cancer Screening Behaviors Based on the Precaution Adoption Process Model: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahmani, Afshin; Baghianimoghadam, Mohammad Hossein; Enjezab, Behnaz; Mahmoodabad, Seyed Saeed Mazloomy; Askarshahi, Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    One of the most preventable cancers in women is cervical cancer. Pap smear test is an effective screening program; however, it is not conducted very frequently. The aim of this study is explaining the determinants affecting women’s participation in the Pap smear test based on precaution adoption process model with a qualitative approach. This study was a qualitative approach using a Directed Content Analysis methodology which was conducted in 2014. Participants were 30 rural women who participated in this study voluntarily in sarvabad, Iran. Purposive sampling was initiated and continued until data saturation. Semi-structured interviews were the primary method of data collection. Data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis and continuous comparisons. Women`s information and awareness about cervical cancer and Pap smear is insufficient and most of them believed that they were not at risk; however, they perceived the severity of the disease. Some of them had no adequate understanding of the test benefits. They pointed to the lack of time, financial difficulties, fear of test result and lack of awareness as the main barriers against the Pap smear test; however, they did not say that they were not willing to do the test. Findings could help health policy makers to find the right area and purpose to facilitate the participation of women in the Pap smear test. PMID:26755465

  9. Working memory load affects processing time in spoken word recognition: Evidence from eye-movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Britt eHadar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In daily life, speech perception is usually accompanied by other tasks that tap into working memory capacity. However, the role of working memory on speech processing is not clear. The goal of this study was to examine how working memory load affects the timeline for spoken word recognition in ideal listening conditions. We used the ‘visual world’ eye-tracking paradigm. The task consisted of spoken instructions referring to one of four objects depicted on a computer monitor (e.g. point at the candle. Half of the trials presented a phonological competitor to the target word that either overlapped in the initial syllable (onset or at the last syllable (offset. Eye movements captured listeners’ ability to differentiate the target noun from its depicted phonological competitor (e.g., candy or sandal. We manipulated working memory load by using a digit pre-load task, where participants had to retain either one (low-load or four (high-load spoken digits for the duration of a spoken word recognition trial. The data show that the high-load condition delayed real-time target discrimination. Specifically, a four-digit load was sufficient to delay the point of discrimination between the spoken target word and its phonological competitor. Our results emphasize the important role working memory plays in speech perception, even when performed by young adults in ideal listening conditions.

  10. Working Memory Load Affects Processing Time in Spoken Word Recognition: Evidence from Eye-Movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadar, Britt; Skrzypek, Joshua E; Wingfield, Arthur; Ben-David, Boaz M

    2016-01-01

    In daily life, speech perception is usually accompanied by other tasks that tap into working memory capacity. However, the role of working memory on speech processing is not clear. The goal of this study was to examine how working memory load affects the timeline for spoken word recognition in ideal listening conditions. We used the "visual world" eye-tracking paradigm. The task consisted of spoken instructions referring to one of four objects depicted on a computer monitor (e.g., "point at the candle"). Half of the trials presented a phonological competitor to the target word that either overlapped in the initial syllable (onset) or at the last syllable (offset). Eye movements captured listeners' ability to differentiate the target noun from its depicted phonological competitor (e.g., candy or sandal). We manipulated working memory load by using a digit pre-load task, where participants had to retain either one (low-load) or four (high-load) spoken digits for the duration of a spoken word recognition trial. The data show that the high-load condition delayed real-time target discrimination. Specifically, a four-digit load was sufficient to delay the point of discrimination between the spoken target word and its phonological competitor. Our results emphasize the important role working memory plays in speech perception, even when performed by young adults in ideal listening conditions. PMID:27242424

  11. Rapid assessment of toxicity of oil sands process-affected waters using fish cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oil-sand process-affected waters (OSPAW) are being evaluated in acute and chronic toxicity tests with various model organisms to assess the safety of reclamation ponds where OSPAWs are being deposited. Classical toxicity assays typically require large volumes of test waters, take time and are costly. They may also require expensive analytical assays to characterize the contaminants present. Cytotoxicity assays using indigenous and model fish cell lines may prove useful for a prompt comparative toxicity assessment of copious samples retrieved at various temporal and spatial sites at a fraction of cost and time compared to in vivo assays. This presentation reported on a study in which a rapid fluorometric assay using several fish cell lines was used to assess the acute toxicity of 20 water samples including OSPAW. The water samples were mixed with media salts and evaluated directly on cells in culture without prior extraction procedures. The evaluation was done in blind and a consistent pattern of toxicity was observed with the tested cell lines. It was concluded that this approach may minimize the need of using whole organisms for toxicity assessment of OSPAW.

  12. Oxidation of Oil Sands Process-Affected Water by Potassium Ferrate(VI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chengjin; Klamerth, Nikolaus; Huang, Rongfu; Elnakar, Haitham; Gamal El-Din, Mohamed

    2016-04-19

    This paper investigates the oxidation of oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) by potassium ferrate(VI). Due to the selectivity of ferrate(VI) oxidation, two-ring and three-ring fluorescing aromatics were preferentially removed at doses removed only at doses ≥100 mg/L Fe(VI). Ferrate(VI) oxidation achieved 64.0% and 78.4% removal of naphthenic acids (NAs) at the dose of 200 mg/L and 400 mg/L Fe(VI) respectively, and NAs with high carbon number and ring number were removed preferentially. (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR) spectra indicated that the oxidation of fluorescing aromatics resulted in the opening of some aromatic rings. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) analysis detected signals of organic radical intermediates, indicating that one-electron transfer is one of the probable mechanisms in the oxidation of NAs. The inhibition effect of OSPW on Vibrio fischeri and the toxicity effect on goldfish primary kidney macrophages (PKMs) were both reduced after ferrate(VI) oxidation. The fluorescing aromatics in OSPW were proposed to be an important contributor to this acute toxicity. Degradation of model compounds with ferrate(VI) was also investigated and the results confirmed our findings in OSPW study. PMID:27008571

  13. Laboratory study of the clogging process and factors affecting clogging in a tailings dam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jun; Wu, Yanqing; Lu, Jian

    2008-05-01

    Laboratory simulation of clogging in the Lixi tailings dam (Shaanxi Province, China) is urgently required because clogging is an important factor affecting the dam stability. This work firstly presents the results of ferrous iron oxidation experiments using buffer solution. The results indicate that the ferrous iron oxidation follows first order kinetics, and the oxidation process is strongly dependent on pH, a higher pH resulting in a higher oxidation rate. Furthermore, when the pH exceeds 7.0, the oxidation rate constant increases significantly. Secondly, a column experiment was carried out under the conditions of the pH ranging from 6.8 to 7.5 and the natural oxygen supply. Ferrous iron oxidation and precipitation were found to reach equilibrium under these conditions. After 23 days, the column experiment was stopped when the clogging materials blocked the column outlet. The clogging materials were found to be a mixture of ferric hydroxide and its converted products, and these existed in amorphous form with a loose cluster microstructure according to the results of XRD and SEM.

  14. Emotion Regulation and Excess Weight: Impaired Affective Processing Characterized by Dysfunctional Insula Activation and Connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata, Fernanda; Martínez-Zalacaín, Ignacio; Cano, Marta; Contreras-Rodríguez, Oren; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Yucel, Murat; Soriano-Mas, Carles; Verdejo-García, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Emotion-regulation strategies are understood to influence food intake. This study examined the neurophysiological underpinnings of negative emotion processing and emotion regulation in individuals with excess weight compared to normal-weight controls. Fifteen participants with excess-weight (body mass index >25) and sixteen normal-weight controls (body mass index 18–25) performed an emotion-regulation task during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Participants were exposed to 24 negative affective or neutral pictures that they were instructed to Observe (neutral pictures), Maintain (sustain the emotion elicited by negative pictures) or Regulate (down-regulate the emotion provoked by negative pictures through previously trained reappraisal techniques). When instructed to regulate negative emotions by means of cognitive reappraisal, participants with excess weight displayed persistently heightened activation in the right anterior insula. Decreased responsivity was also found in right anterior insula, the orbitofrontal cortex and cerebellum during negative emotion experience in participants with excess weight. Psycho-physiological interaction analyses showed that excess-weight participants had decreased negative functional coupling between the right anterior insula and the right dlPFC, and the bilateral dmPFC during cognitive reappraisal. Our findings support contentions that excess weight is linked to an abnormal pattern of neural activation and connectivity during the experience and regulation of negative emotions, with the insula playing a key role in these alterations. We posit that ineffective regulation of emotional states contributes to the acquisition and preservation of excess weight. PMID:27003840

  15. The Electrochemical Properties of Biochars and How They Affect Soil Redox Properties and Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Joseph

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Biochars are complex heterogeneous materials that consist of mineral phases, amorphous C, graphitic C, and labile organic molecules, many of which can be either electron donors or acceptors when placed in soil. Biochar is a reductant, but its electrical and electrochemical properties are a function of both the temperature of production and the concentration and composition of the various redox active mineral and organic phases present. When biochars are added to soils, they interact with plant roots and root hairs, micro-organisms, soil organic matter, proteins and the nutrient-rich water to form complex organo-mineral-biochar complexes Redox reactions can play an important role in the development of these complexes, and can also result in significant changes in the original C matrix. This paper reviews the redox processes that take place in soil and how they may be affected by the addition of biochar. It reviews the available literature on the redox properties of different biochars. It also reviews how biochar redox properties have been measured and presents new methods and data for determining redox properties of fresh biochars and for biochar/soil systems.

  16. Power to Punish Norm Violations Affects the Neural Processes of Fairness-Related Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xuemei; Zheng, Li; Li, Lin; Guo, Xiuyan; Wang, Qianfeng; Lord, Anton; Hu, Zengxi; Yang, Guang

    2015-01-01

    Punishing norm violations is considered an important motive during rejection of unfair offers in the ultimatum game (UG). The present study investigates the impact of the power to punish norm violations on people's responses to unfairness and associated neural correlates. In the UG condition participants had the power to punish norm violations, while an alternate condition, the impunity game (IG), was presented where participants had no power to punish norm violations since rejection only reduced the responder's income to zero. Results showed that unfair offers were rejected more often in UG compared to IG. At the neural level, anterior insula and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex were more active when participants received and rejected unfair offers in both UG and IG. Moreover, greater dorsolateral prefrontal cortex activity was observed when participants rejected than accepted unfair offers in UG but not in IG. Ventromedial prefrontal cortex activation was higher in UG than IG when unfair offers were accepted as well as when rejecting unfair offers in IG as opposed to UG. Taken together, our results demonstrate that the power to punish norm violations affects not only people's behavioral responses to unfairness but also the neural correlates of the fairness-related social decision-making process. PMID:26696858

  17. Power to punish norm violations affects the neural processes of fairness-related decision making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuemei Cheng

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Punishing norm violations is considered an important motive during rejection of unfair offers in the Ultimatum Game (UG. The present study investigates the impact of the power to punish norm violations on people’s responses to unfairness and associated neural correlates. In the UG condition participants had the power to punish norm violations, while an alternate condition, the Impunity Game (IG, was presented where participants had no power to punish norm violations since rejection only reduced the responder’s income to zero. Results showed that unfair offers were rejected more often in UG compared to IG. At the neural level, anterior insula and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex were more active when participants received and rejected unfair offers in both UG and IG. Moreover, greater dorsolateral prefrontal cortex activity was observed when participants rejected than accepted unfair offers in UG but not in IG. Ventromedial prefrontal cortex activation was higher in UG than IG when unfair offers were accepted as well as when rejecting unfair offers in IG as opposed to UG. Taken together, our results demonstrate that the power to punish norm violations affects not only people’s behavioral responses to unfairness but also the neural correlates of the fairness-related social decision-making process.

  18. Sulfate reducing bacteria and their activities in oil sands process-affected water biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hong; Yu, Tong; Liu, Yang

    2015-12-01

    Biofilm reactors were constructed to grow stratified multispecies biofilm in oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) supplemented with growth medium. The development of sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) within the biofilm and the biofilm treatment of OSPW were evaluated. The community structure and potential activity of SRB in the biofilm were investigated with H2S microsensor measurements, dsrB gene-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), and the real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Multispecies biofilm with a thickness of 1000 μm was successfully developed on engineered biocarriers. H2S production was observed in the deeper anoxic zone of the biofilm from around 750 μm to 1000 μm below the bulk water-biofilm interface, revealing sulfate reduction in the deeper zone of the stratified biofilm. The biofilm removed chemical oxygen demand (COD), sulfate, and nitrogen. The study expands current knowledge of biofilm treatment of OSPW and the function of anaerobic SRB in OSPW biofilm, and thus provides information for future bioreactor development in the reclamation of OSPW. PMID:26204047

  19. An integrative affect regulation process model of internalized weight bias and intuitive eating in college women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Jennifer B; Hardin, Abigail S

    2016-07-01

    The present study extended the weight stigma and well-being process model (Tylka et al., 2014) by examining three affect regulation pathways that may help simultaneously explain the predicted inverse association between internalized weight bias and intuitive eating. A weight-diverse sample of 333 college women completed an online survey assessing internalized weight stigma, intuitive eating, body shame, body image flexibility, and self-compassion. Self-reported height and weight were used to calculate body mass index (BMI). Non-parametric bootstrap resampling procedures were computed to ascertain the presence of the indirect effects of internalized weight bias on intuitive eating via the three hypothesized mediators controlling for BMI in a combined model. Results demonstrated that body image flexibility significantly and self-compassion marginally contributed unique variance in accounting for this relationship. Our preliminary cross-sectional findings contribute to a nascent body of scholarship seeking to provide a theoretically-driven understanding of how negative and positive forms of experiencing and relating to the body may co-occur within individuals. Results also point to potential target variables to consider incorporating in later-stage efforts to promote more adaptive ways of eating amidst internalized weight stigma. PMID:26893074

  20. Olfactory dysfunction: Correlation of olfactory bulb volume on MRI and objective olfactometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To define the role of olfactory bulb volume measurement by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for detecting olfactory dysfunction in comparison with objective olfactometry. Materials and Methods: Thirty patients with suspected olfactory dysfunction (16 women, 14 men; mean age 52 years, range 20-79 years) were examined by MRI and objective olfactometry between January 2006 and January 2009. Olfactory bulb volumes were measured by two neuroradiologists using 3D MR data sets. The olfactory function was categorized as normosmia, hyposmia, and anosmia on the basis of objective olfactometry. Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated for objective olfactometry and olfactory bulb volumes on MRI. ROC analysis was performed to determine whether MRI bulb volumes can serve to predict anosmia or hyposmia. Results: The bulb volumes measured by MRI ranged from 0 to 135.9 mm3. Based on olfactometry, anosmia was present in 11 patients (total bulb volume of 15.7 ± 23.3 mm3), hyposmia in 9 patients (total bulb volume of 50.0 ± 25.5 mm3), and normosmia in 10 patients (total bulb volume of 110.7 ± 21.5 mm3). There was good correlation (r>0.9) between objective olfactometry and olfactory bulb volume on MRI. ROC analysis yielded a cut-off value of 32 mm3 for anosmia, which had a sensitivity of 0.91 and specificity of 0.947. The cut-off value for olfactory dysfunction was 80.7 mm3 (sensitivity 0.95; specificity of 0.9). Conclusion: The olfactory bulb volume determined by MRI is a suitable parameter for diagnosing complete or partial loss of the sense of smell. (orig.)

  1. Inhibition of ABC transport proteins by oil sands process affected water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alharbi, Hattan A; Saunders, David M V; Al-Mousa, Ahmed; Alcorn, Jane; Pereira, Alberto S; Martin, Jonathan W; Giesy, John P; Wiseman, Steve B

    2016-01-01

    The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) superfamily of transporter proteins is important for detoxification of xenobiotics. For example, ABC transporters from the multidrug-resistance protein (MRP) subfamily are important for excretion of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their metabolites. Effects of chemicals in the water soluble organic fraction of relatively fresh oil sands process affected water (OSPW) from Base Mine Lake (BML-OSPW) and aged OSPW from Pond 9 (P9-OSPW) on the activity of MRP transporters were investigated in vivo by use of Japanese medaka at the fry stage of development. Activities of MRPs were monitored by use of the lipophilic dye calcein, which is transported from cells by ABC proteins, including MRPs. To begin to identify chemicals that might inhibit activity of MRPs, BML-OSPW and P9-OSPW were fractionated into acidic, basic, and neutral fractions by use of mixed-mode sorbents. Chemical compositions of fractions were determined by use of ultrahigh resolution orbitrap mass spectrometry in ESI(+) and ESI(-) mode. Greater amounts of calcein were retained in fry exposed to BML-OSPW at concentration equivalents greater than 1× (i.e., full strength). The neutral and basic fractions of BML-OSPW, but not the acidic fraction, caused greater retention of calcein. Exposure to P9-OSPW did not affect the amount of calcein in fry. Neutral and basic fractions of BML-OSPW contained relatively greater amounts of several oxygen-, sulfur, and nitrogen-containing chemical species that might inhibit MRPs, such as O(+), SO(+), and NO(+) chemical species, although secondary fractionation will be required to conclusively identify the most potent inhibitors. Naphthenic acids (O2(-)), which were dominant in the acidic fraction, did not appear to be the cause of the inhibition. This is the first study to demonstrate that chemicals in the water soluble organic fraction of OSPW inhibit activity of this important class of proteins. However, aging of OSPW attenuates

  2. Team Regulation in a Simulated Medical Emergency: An In-Depth Analysis of Cognitive, Metacognitive, and Affective Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Melissa C.; Azevedo, Roger; Sun, Ning-Zi; Griscom, Sophia E.; Stead, Victoria; Crelinsten, Linda; Wiseman, Jeffrey; Maniatis, Thomas; Lachapelle, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the nature of cognitive, metacognitive, and affective processes among a medical team experiencing difficulty managing a challenging simulated medical emergency case by conducting in-depth analysis of process data. Medical residents participated in a simulation exercise designed to help trainees to develop medical expertise,…

  3. An Integrative Process Approach on Judgment and Decision Making: The Impact of Arousal, Affect, Motivation, and Cognitive Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roets, Arne; Van Hiel, Alain

    2011-01-01

    This article aims to integrate the findings from various research traditions on human judgment and decision making, focusing on four process variables: arousal, affect, motivation, and cognitive capacity/ability. We advocate a broad perspective referred to as the integrative process approach (IPA) of decision making, in which these process…

  4. Rainfall interception modelling: Is the wet bulb approach adequate to estimate mean evaporation rate from wet/saturated canopies in all forest types?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, F. L.; Valente, F.; David, J. S.; Jackson, N.; Minunno, F.; Gash, J. H.

    2016-03-01

    The Penman-Monteith equation has been widely used to estimate the maximum evaporation rate (E) from wet/saturated forest canopies, regardless of canopy cover fraction. Forests are then represented as a big leaf and interception loss considered essentially as a one-dimensional process. With increasing forest sparseness the assumptions behind this big leaf approach become questionable. In sparse forests it might be better to model E and interception loss at the tree level assuming that the individual tree crowns behave as wet bulbs ("wet bulb approach"). In this study, and for five different forest types and climate conditions, interception loss measurements were compared to modelled values (Gash's interception model) based on estimates of E by the Penman-Monteith and the wet bulb approaches. Results show that the wet bulb approach is a good, and less data demanding, alternative to estimate E when the forest canopy is fully ventilated (very sparse forests with a narrow canopy depth). When the canopy is not fully ventilated, the wet bulb approach requires a reduction of leaf area index to the upper, more ventilated parts of the canopy, needing data on the vertical leaf area distribution, which is seldom-available. In such cases, the Penman-Monteith approach seems preferable. Our data also show that canopy cover does not per se allow us to identify if a forest canopy is fully ventilated or not. New methodologies of sensitivity analyses applied to Gash's model showed that a correct estimate of E is critical for the proper modelling of interception loss.

  5. Sexual activity increases the number of newborn cells in the accessory olfactory bulb of male rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy ePortillo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In rodents, sexual behavior depends on the adequate detection of sexually relevant stimuli. The olfactory bulb (OB is a region of the adult mammalian brain undergoing constant cell renewal by continuous integration of new granular and periglomerular neurons in the accessory (AOB and main (MOB olfactory bulbs. The proliferation, migration, survival, maturation, and integration of these new cells to the OB depend on the stimulus that the subjects received. We have previously shown that 15 days after females control (paced the sexual interaction an increase in the number of cells is observed in the AOB. No changes are observed in the number of cells when females are not allowed to control the sexual interaction. In the present study we investigated if in male rats sexual behavior increases the number of new cells in the OB. Male rats were divided in five groups: 1 males that did not receive any sexual stimulation, 2 males that were exposed to female odors, 3 males that mated for 1 h and could not pace their sexual interaction, 4 males that paced their sexual interaction and ejaculated 1 time and 5 males that paced their sexual interaction and ejaculated 3 times. All males received three injections of the DNA synthesis marker bromodeoxyuridine at 1h intervals, starting 1h before the beginning of the behavioral test. Fifteen days later, males were sacrificed and the brains were processed to identify new cells and to evaluate if they differentiated into neurons. The number of newborn cells increased in the granular cell layer (also known as the internal cell layer of the AOB in males that ejaculated one or three times controlling (paced the rate of the sexual interaction. Some of these new cells were identified as neurons. In contrast, no significant differences were found in the mitral cell layer (also known as the external cell layer and glomerular cell layer of the AOB. In addition, no significant differences were found between groups in the MOB in

  6. When Feelings Arise with Meanings: How Emotion and Meaning of a Native Language Affect Second Language Processing in Adult Learners.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Sianipar

    Full Text Available To determine when and how L2 learners start to process L2 words affectively and semantically, we conducted a longitudinal study on their interaction in adult L2 learners. In four test sessions, spanning half a year of L2 learning, we monitored behavioral and ERP learning-related changes for one and the same set of words by means of a primed lexical-decision paradigm with L1 primes and L2 targets. Sensitivity rates, accuracy rates, RTs, and N400 amplitude to L2 words and pseudowords improved significantly across sessions. A semantic priming effect (e.g, prime "driver"facilitating response to target "street" was found in accuracy rates and RTs when collapsing Sessions 1 to 4, while this effect modulated ERP amplitudes within the first 300 ms of L2 target processing. An overall affective priming effect (e.g., "sweet" facilitating"taste" was also found in RTs and ERPs (posterior P1. Importantly, the ERPs showed an L2 valence effect across sessions (e.g., positive words were easier to process than neutral words, indicating that L2 learners were sensitive to L2 affective meaning. Semantic and affective priming interacted in the N400 time-window only in Session 4, implying that they affected meaning integration during L2 immersion together. The results suggest that L1 and L2 are initially processed semantically and affectively via relatively separate channels that are more and more linked contingent on L2 exposure.

  7. Latent Differential Equation Modeling of Self-Regulatory and Coregulatory Affective Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Joel S.; Ferrer, Emilio

    2011-01-01

    We examine emotion self-regulation and coregulation in romantic couples using daily self-reports of positive and negative affect. We fit these data using a damped linear oscillator model specified as a latent differential equation to investigate affect dynamics at the individual level and coupled influences for the 2 partners in each couple.…

  8. ER stress affects processing of MHC class I-associated peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meloche Sylvain

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Viral infection and neoplastic transformation trigger endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress. Thus, a large proportion of the cells that must be recognized by the immune system are stressed cells. Cells respond to ER stress by launching the unfolded protein response (UPR. The UPR regulates the two key processes that control major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC I-peptide presentation: protein synthesis and degradation. We therefore asked whether and how the UPR impinges on MHC I-peptide presentation. Results We evaluated the impact of the UPR on global MHC I expression and on presentation of the H2Kb-associated SIINFEKL peptide. EL4 cells stably transfected with vectors coding hen egg lysozyme (HEL-SIINFEKL protein variants were stressed with palmitate or exposed to glucose deprivation. UPR decreased surface expression of MHC I but did not affect MHC I mRNA level nor the total amount of intracellular MHC I proteins. Impaired MHC I-peptide presentation was due mainly to reduced supply of peptides owing to an inhibition of overall protein synthesis. Consequently, generation of H2Kb-SIINFEKL complexes was curtailed during ER stress, illustrating how generation of MHC I peptide ligands is tightly coupled to ongoing protein synthesis. Notably, the UPR-induced decline of MHC I-peptide presentation was more severe when the protein source of peptides was localized in the cytosol than in the ER. This difference was not due to changes in the translation rates of the precursor proteins but to increased stability of the cytosolic protein during ER stress. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that ER stress impairs MHC I-peptide presentation, and that it differentially regulates expression of ER- vs. cytosol-derived peptides. Furthermore, this work illustrates how ER stress, a typical feature of infected and malignant cells, can impinge on cues for adaptive immune recognition.

  9. Characterization of oil sands process-affected waters by liquid chromatography orbitrap mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Alberto S; Bhattacharjee, Subir; Martin, Jonathan W

    2013-05-21

    Recovery of bitumen from oil sands in northern Alberta, Canada, occurs by surface mining or in situ thermal recovery, and both methods produce toxic oil sands process-affected water (OSPW). A new characterization strategy for surface mining OSPW (sm-OSPW) and in situ OSPW (is-OSPW) was achieved by combining liquid chromatography with orbitrap mass spectrometry (MS). In electrospray positive and negative ionization modes (ESI(+)/ESI(-)), mass spectral data were acquired with high resolving power (RP > 100,000-190,000) and mass accuracy (<2 ppm). The additional chromatographic resolution allowed for separation of various isomers and interference-free MS(n) experiments. Overall, ∼3000 elemental compositions were revealed in each OSPW sample, corresponding to a range of heteroatom-containing homologue classes: Ox (where x = 1-6), NOx (where x = 1-4), SOx (where x = 1-4), NO₂S, N, and S. Despite similarities between the OSPW samples at the level of heteroatom class, the two samples were very different when considering isomer patterns and double-bond equivalent profiles. The chromatographic separations also allowed for confirmation that, in both OSPW samples, the O₂ species detected in ESI(-) (i.e., naphthenic acids) were chemically distinct from the corresponding O₂ species detected in ESI(+). In comparison to model compounds, tandem MS spectra of these new O₂ species suggested a group of non-acidic compounds with dihydroxy, diketo, or ketohydroxy functionality. In light of the known endocrine-disrupting potential of sm-OSPW, the toxicity of these O₂ species deserves attention and the method should be further applied to environmental forensic analysis of water in the region. PMID:23607765

  10. Lung vitamin E transport processes are affected by both age and environmental oxidants in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite the physiological importance of alpha-tocopherol (AT), the molecular mechanisms involved in maintaining cellular and tissue tocopherol levels remain to be fully characterized. Scavenger receptor B1 (SRB1), one of a large family of scavenger receptors, has been shown to facilitate AT transfer from HDL to peripheral tissues via apo A-1-mediated processes and to be important in the delivery of AT to the lung cells. In the present studies the effects of age and two environmental oxidants ozone (O3) (0.25 ppm 6 h/day) and cigarette smoke (CS) (60 mg/m3 6 h/day) for 4 days on selected aspects of AT transport in murine lung tissues were assessed. While AT levels were 25% higher (p 3 or CS at the doses used had no effect. Gene expression levels, determined by RT-PCR of AT transport protein (ATTP), SRB1, CD36, ATP binding cassette 3 (ABCA3) and ABCA1 and protein levels, determined by Western blots for SRB1, ATTP and ABCA1 were assessed. Aged mouse lung showed a lower levels of ATTP, ABCA3 and SRB1 and a higher level CD36 and ABCA1. Acute exposure to either O3 or CS induced declines in ATTP and SRB1 in both aged and young mice lung. CD36 increased in both young and aged mice lung upon exposure to O3 and CS. These findings suggest that both age and environmental oxidant exposure affect pathways related to lung AT homeostasis and do so in a way that favors declines in lung AT. However, given the approach taken, the effects cannot be traced to changes in these pathways or AT content in any specific lung associated cell type and thus highlight the need for further follow-up studies looking at specific lung associated cell types

  11. Acute changes in murine hippocampus and olfactory bulb after nasal instillation of varying size cerium dioxide particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Li, Yuanyuan; Yang, Tongwang; Yang, Jing; Wang, He; Wu, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Cerium (Ce)-containing compounds are now widely applied in medicine, agriculture, and animal breeding. However, the effects of Ce on humans, especially on the central nervous system (CNS), remain to be determined. In order to investigate whether Ce exposure affected the CNS, the aim of this study was to expose female ICR mice to varying nanoparticle sizes of 35 nm and 300 nm, and to a mixture of 1-5 µM cerium dioxide (CeO2) particles through intranasal (i.n.) instillation at daily dose of 40 mg/kg body weight. Immunohistochemical data showed that glial fibrillary acidic protein expression (GFAP) increased significantly in the hippocampus and olfactory bulb in all Ce-administered groups. The ultrastructure of olfactory bulb cells displayed chromatin reduction. In the hippocampus decreased chromatin was associated with ribosome shedding as evidenced from transmission electron microscopy (TEM). No significant differences in immunohistochemistry were noted between varying sizes of CeO2 groups. The results of inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) analysis group exposed to 1-5 µM demonstrated that Ce levels were significantly higher in whole brain (0.17 ng/mg) than for the control (0.04 ng/mg). Data thus demonstrated that i.n. instillation of different sized CeO2 particles induced damage in the olfactory bulb and hippocampus and that CeO2 particle size did not appear to play a role in the observed adverse responses. PMID:27599233

  12. Natural and anthropogenic sources and processes affecting water chemistry in two South Korean streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) in a watershed provides potential sources of pollutants for surface and subsurface waters that can deteriorate water quality. Between March and early August 2011, water samples were collected from two streams in South Korea, one dominantly draining a watershed with carbonate bedrock affected by coal mines and another draining a watershed with silicate bedrock and a relatively undisturbed catchment area. The objective of the study was to identify the sources and processes controlling water chemistry, which was dependent on bedrock and land use. In the Odae stream (OS), the stream in the silicate-dominated catchment, Ca, Na, and HCO3 were the dominant ions and total dissolved solids (TDS) was low (26.1–165 mg/L). In the Jijang stream (JS), in the carbonate-dominated watershed, TDS (224–434 mg/L) and ion concentrations were typically higher, and Ca and SO4 were the dominant ions due to carbonate weathering and oxidation of pyrite exposed at coal mines. Dual isotopic compositions of sulfate (δ34SSO4 and δ18OSO4) verified that the SO4 in JS is derived mainly from sulfide mineral oxidation in coal mines. Cl in JS was highest upstream and decreased progressively downstream, which implies that pollutants from recreational facilities in the uppermost part of the catchment are the major source governing Cl concentrations within the discharge basin. Dual isotopic compositions of nitrate (δ15NNO3 and δ18ONO3) indicated that NO3 in JS is attributable to nitrification of soil organic matter but that NO3 in OS is derived mostly from manure. Additionally, the contributions of potential anthropogenic sources to the two streams were estimated in more detail by using a plot of δ34SSO4 and δ15NNO3. This study suggests that the dual isotope approach for sulfate and nitrate is an excellent additional tool for elucidating the sources and processes controlling the water chemistry of streams draining watersheds having different lithologies and land

  13. Do Problems with Information Processing Affect the Process of Psychotherapy for Adults with Learning Disabilities or Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosden, Merith; Patz, Sarah; Smith, Steven

    2009-01-01

    Problems in processing information can affect psychosocial functioning. Psychotherapy can be used to address psychosocial problems; however, the same information-processing problems that contribute to disabilities, such as learning disabilities (LD) or attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), particularly deficits in auditory processing…

  14. Task Difficulty Differentially Affects Two Measures of Processing Load: The Pupil Response during Sentence Processing and Delayed Cued Recall of the Sentences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zekveld, Adriana A.; Festen, Joost M.; Kramer, Kramera

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors assessed the influence of masking level (29% or 71% sentence perception) and test modality on the processing load during language perception as reflected by the pupil response. In addition, the authors administered a delayed cued stimulus recall test to examine whether processing load affected the encoding of…

  15. Numerical simulation of draft tube flow of a bulb turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho, J.G. [Federal University of Triangulo Mineiro, Institute of Technological and Exact Sciences, Avenida Doutor Randolfo Borges Junior, 1250 – Uberaba – MG (Brazil); Brasil, A.C.P. Jr. [University of Brasilia, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Campus Darcy Ribeiro, Brasilia – DF (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    In this work a numerical study of draft tube of a bulb hydraulic turbine is presented, where a new geometry is proposed. This new proposal of draft tube has the unaffected ratio area, a great reduction in his length and approximately the same efficiency of the draft tube conventionally used. The numerical simulations were obtained in commercial software of calculation of flow (CFX-14), using the turbulence model SST, that allows a description of the field fluid dynamic near to the wall. The simulation strategy has an intention of identifying the stall of the boundary layer precisely limits near to the wall and recirculations in the central part, once those are the great causes of the decrease of efficiency of a draft tube. Finally, it is obtained qualitative and quantitative results about the flow in draft tubes.

  16. Sulfur-containing components of gamma-irradiated garlic bulbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Joong-Ho; Choi, Jong-Uck; Yoon, Hyung-Sik

    Sulfur-containing components associated with garlic flavors were investigated to determine the effect of γ-irradiation at 0.1 kGy on the quality of garlic bulbs ( Allium sativum L.) during storage at 3±1°C and 80±5% RH for 10 months. Irradiation treatment had no influence on the amount of total sulfur and thiosulfinate of stored garlic for 10 months, while the storage period brought about a significant reduction ( P<0.05) in the content of both components after the 6-8th month of storage compared with that at the beginning of storage period. The identity of irradiated alliin ( S-allyl- L-cysteine sulfoxide) at sprout-inhibition dose was confirmed according to thin-layer chromatography, i.r. and NMR spectroscopy data.

  17. Sulfur-containing components of gamma-irradiated garlic bulbs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joongho Kwon (Korea Advanced Energy Research Inst., Daeduk (Republic of Korea)); Jonguck Choi; Hyungsik Yoon (Kyungpook National Univ., Taegu (Republic of Korea))

    1989-01-01

    Sulfur-containing components associated with garlic flavors were investigated to determine the effect of {gamma}-irradiation at 0.1Gy on the quality of garlic bulbs (Allium sativum L.) during storage at 3{plus minus}1{sup 0}C and 80{plus minus}5% RH for 10 months. Irradiation treatment had no influence on the amount of total sulfur and thiosulfinate of stored garlic for 10 months, while the storage period brought about a significant reduction (P < 0.05) in the content of both components after the 6-8th month of storage compared with that at the beginning of storage period. The identity of irradiated alliin (S-allyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide) at sprout-inhibition dose was confirmed according to thin-layer chromatography, i.r. and NMR spectroscopy data. (author).

  18. Wnt5a controls neurite development in olfactory bulb interneurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngshik Choe

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Neurons born in the postnatal SVZ (subventricular zone must migrate a great distance before becoming mature interneurons of the OB (olfactory bulb. During migration immature OB neurons maintain an immature morphology until they reach their destination. While the morphological development of these cells must be tightly regulated, the cellular pathways responsible are still largely unknown. Our results show that the non-canonical Wnt pathway induced by Wnt5a is important for the morphological development of OB interneurons both in vitro and in vivo. Additionally, we demonstrate that non-canonical Wnt signalling works in opposition to canonical Wnt signalling in neural precursors from the SVZ in vitro. This represents a novel role for Wnt5a in the development of OB interneurons and suggests that canonical and non-canonical Wnt pathways dynamically oppose each other in the regulation of dendrite maturation.

  19. Sulfur-containing components of gamma-irradiated garlic bulbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulfur-containing components associated with garlic flavors were investigated to determine the effect of γ-irradiation at 0.1Gy on the quality of garlic bulbs (Allium sativum L.) during storage at 3±10C and 80±5% RH for 10 months. Irradiation treatment had no influence on the amount of total sulfur and thiosulfinate of stored garlic for 10 months, while the storage period brought about a significant reduction (P < 0.05) in the content of both components after the 6-8th month of storage compared with that at the beginning of storage period. The identity of irradiated alliin (S-allyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide) at sprout-inhibition dose was confirmed according to thin-layer chromatography, i.r. and NMR spectroscopy data. (author)

  20. Draft tube flow phenomena across the bulb turbine hill chart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the framework of the BulbT project launched by the Consortium on Hydraulic Machines and the LAMH (Hydraulic Machine Laboratory of Laval University) in 2011, an intensive campaign to identify flow phenomena in the draft tube of a model bulb turbine has been done. A special focus was put on the draft tube component since it has a particular importance for recuperation in low head turbines. Particular operating points were chosen to analyse flow phenomena in this component. For each of these operating points, power, efficiency and pressure were measured following the IEC 60193 standard. Visualizations, unsteady wall pressure and efficiency measurements were performed in this component. The unsteady wall pressure was monitored at seven locations in the draft tube. The frequency content of each pressure signal was analyzed in order to characterize the flow phenomena across the efficiency hill chart. Visualizations were recorded with a high speed camera using tufts and cavitation bubbles as markers. The predominant detected phenomena were mapped and categorized in relation to the efficiency hill charts obtained for three runner blade openings. At partial load, the vortex rope was detected and characterized. An inflection in the partial load efficiency curves was found to be related to complex vortex rope instabilities. For overload conditions, the efficiency curves present a sharp drop after the best efficiency point, corresponding to an inflection on the power curves. This break off is more severe towards the highest blade openings. It is correlated to a flow separation at the wall of the draft tube. Also, due to the separation occurring in these conditions, a hysteresis effect was observed on the efficiency curves

  1. Olfactory dysfunction, olfactory bulb pathology and urban air pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; Franco-Lira, Maricela; Henríquez-Roldán, Carlos; Osnaya, Norma; González-Maciel, Angelica; Reynoso-Robles, Rafael; Villarreal-Calderon, Rafael; Herritt, Lou; Brooks, Diane; Keefe, Sheyla; Palacios-Moreno, Juan; Villarreal-Calderon, Rodolfo; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo; Medina-Cortina, Humberto; Delgado-Chávez, Ricardo; Aiello-Mora, Mario; Maronpot, Robert R.; Doty, Richard L

    2010-01-01

    Mexico City (MC) residents are exposed to severe air pollution and exhibit olfactory bulb inflammation. We compared the olfactory function of individuals living under conditions of extreme air pollution to that of controls from a relatively clean environment and explore associations between olfaction scores, apolipoprotein E (APOE) status, and pollution exposure. The olfactory bulbs (OBs) of 35 MC and 9 controls 20.8 ± 8.5 y were assessed by light and electron microscopy. The University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT) was administered to 62 MC / 25 controls 21.2 ±2.7 y. MC subjects had significantly lower UPSIT scores: 34.24 ± 0.42 versus controls 35.76 ± 0.40, p=0.03. Olfaction deficits were present in 35.5% MC and 12% of controls. MC APOE ε 4 carriers failed 2.4 ± 0.54 items in the 10-item smell identification scale from the UPSIT related to Alzheimer's disease, while APOE 2/3 and 3/3 subjects failed 1.36 ± 0.16 items, p = 0.01. MC residents exhibited OB endothelial hyperplasia, neuronal accumulation of particles (2/35), and immunoreactivity to beta amyloid βA42 (29/35) and/or α-synuclein (4/35) in neurons, glial cells and/or blood vessels. Ultrafine particles were present in OBs endothelial cytoplasm and basement membranes. Control OBs were unremarkable. Air pollution exposure is associated with olfactory dysfunction and OB pathology, APOE 4 may confer greater susceptibility to such abnormalities, and ultrafine particles could play a key role in the OB pathology. This study contributes to our understanding of the influences of air pollution on olfaction and its potential contribution to neurodegeneration. PMID:19297138

  2. Model test and CFD calculation of a cavitating bulb turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Necker, J; Aschenbrenner, T, E-mail: joerg.necker@voith.co [Voith Hydro Holding GmbH and Co. KG Alexanderstrasse 11, 89522 Heidenheim (Germany)

    2010-08-15

    The flow in a horizontal shaft bulb turbine is calculated as a two-phase flow with a commercial Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD-)-code including cavitation model. The results are compared with experimental results achieved at a closed loop test rig for model turbines. On the model test rig, for a certain operating point (i.e. volume flow, net head, blade angle, guide vane opening) the pressure behind the turbine is lowered (i.e. the Thoma-coefficient {sigma} is lowered) and the efficiency of the turbine is recorded. The measured values can be depicted in a so-called {sigma}-break curve or {eta}- {sigma}-diagram. Usually, the efficiency is independent of the Thoma-coefficient up to a certain value. When lowering the Thoma-coefficient below this value the efficiency will drop rapidly. Visual observations of the different cavitation conditions complete the experiment. In analogy, several calculations are done for different Thoma-coefficients {sigma}and the corresponding hydraulic losses of the runner are evaluated quantitatively. For a low {sigma}-value showing in the experiment significant efficiency loss, the the change of volume flow in the experiment was simulated. Besides, the fraction of water vapour as an indication of the size of the cavitation cavity is analyzed qualitatively. The experimentally and the numerically obtained results are compared and show a good agreement. Especially the drop in efficiency can be calculated with satisfying accuracy. This drop in efficiency is of high practical importance since it is one criterion to determine the admissible cavitation in a bulb-turbine. The visual impression of the cavitation in the CFD-analysis is well in accordance with the observed cavitation bubbles recorded on sketches and/or photographs.

  3. Serotonin increases synaptic activity in olfactory bulb glomeruli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brill, Julia; Shao, Zuoyi; Puche, Adam C; Wachowiak, Matt; Shipley, Michael T

    2016-03-01

    Serotoninergic fibers densely innervate olfactory bulb glomeruli, the first sites of synaptic integration in the olfactory system. Acting through 5HT2A receptors, serotonin (5HT) directly excites external tufted cells (ETCs), key excitatory glomerular neurons, and depolarizes some mitral cells (MCs), the olfactory bulb's main output neurons. We further investigated 5HT action on MCs and determined its effects on the two major classes of glomerular interneurons: GABAergic/dopaminergic short axon cells (SACs) and GABAergic periglomerular cells (PGCs). In SACs, 5HT evoked a depolarizing current mediated by 5HT2C receptors but did not significantly impact spike rate. 5HT had no measurable direct effect in PGCs. Serotonin increased spontaneous excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs and sIPSCs) in PGCs and SACs. Increased sEPSCs were mediated by 5HT2A receptors, suggesting that they are primarily due to enhanced excitatory drive from ETCs. Increased sIPSCs resulted from elevated excitatory drive onto GABAergic interneurons and augmented GABA release from SACs. Serotonin-mediated GABA release from SACs was action potential independent and significantly increased miniature IPSC frequency in glomerular neurons. When focally applied to a glomerulus, 5HT increased MC spontaneous firing greater than twofold but did not increase olfactory nerve-evoked responses. Taken together, 5HT modulates glomerular network activity in several ways: 1) it increases ETC-mediated feed-forward excitation onto MCs, SACs, and PGCs; 2) it increases inhibition of glomerular interneurons; 3) it directly triggers action potential-independent GABA release from SACs; and 4) these network actions increase spontaneous MC firing without enhancing responses to suprathreshold sensory input. This may enhance MC sensitivity while maintaining dynamic range. PMID:26655822

  4. Immobilization of trypsin on miniature incandescent bulbs for infrared-assisted proteolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Trypsin was immobilized on miniature incandescent bulbs via chitosan coating. • The bulbs acted as enzymatic reactors and the generators of infrared radiation. • The bulb bioreactors were successfully employed in infrared-assisted proteolysis. • The proteolysis could accomplish within 5 min with high sequence coverages. - Abstract: A novel efficient proteolysis approach was developed based on trypsin-immobilized miniature incandescent bulbs and infrared (IR) radiation. Trypsin was covalently immobilized in the chitosan coating on the outer surface of miniature incandescent bulbs with the aid of glutaraldehyde. When an illuminated enzyme-immobilized bulb was immersed in protein solution, the emitted IR radiation could trigger and accelerate heterogeneous protein digestion. The feasibility and performance of the novel proteolysis approach were demonstrated by the digestion of hemoglobin (HEM), cytochrome c (Cyt-c), lysozyme (LYS), and ovalbumin (OVA) and the digestion time was significantly reduced to 5 min. The obtained digests were identified by MALDI-TOF-MS with the sequence coverages of 91%, 77%, 80%, and 52% for HEM, Cyt-c, LYS, and OVA (200 ng μL−1 each), respectively. The suitability of the prepared bulb bioreactors to complex proteins was demonstrated by digesting human serum

  5. Immobilization of trypsin on miniature incandescent bulbs for infrared-assisted proteolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ge, Huimin; Bao, Huimin; Zhang, Luyan; Chen, Gang, E-mail: gangchen@fudan.edu.cn

    2014-10-03

    Highlights: • Trypsin was immobilized on miniature incandescent bulbs via chitosan coating. • The bulbs acted as enzymatic reactors and the generators of infrared radiation. • The bulb bioreactors were successfully employed in infrared-assisted proteolysis. • The proteolysis could accomplish within 5 min with high sequence coverages. - Abstract: A novel efficient proteolysis approach was developed based on trypsin-immobilized miniature incandescent bulbs and infrared (IR) radiation. Trypsin was covalently immobilized in the chitosan coating on the outer surface of miniature incandescent bulbs with the aid of glutaraldehyde. When an illuminated enzyme-immobilized bulb was immersed in protein solution, the emitted IR radiation could trigger and accelerate heterogeneous protein digestion. The feasibility and performance of the novel proteolysis approach were demonstrated by the digestion of hemoglobin (HEM), cytochrome c (Cyt-c), lysozyme (LYS), and ovalbumin (OVA) and the digestion time was significantly reduced to 5 min. The obtained digests were identified by MALDI-TOF-MS with the sequence coverages of 91%, 77%, 80%, and 52% for HEM, Cyt-c, LYS, and OVA (200 ng μL{sup −1} each), respectively. The suitability of the prepared bulb bioreactors to complex proteins was demonstrated by digesting human serum.

  6. Process evaluation and proximal impact of an affect-based exercise intervention among adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the implementation and proximal impact of an intervention designed to enhance adolescents’ affective experience during Physical Education (PE). Healthy adolescents (N = 74) were randomly assigned to an affect-based or a traditional exercise prescription. Intervention logs, observations and interviews documented the implementation of the intervention. Participants completed a 30-min exercise task at an intensity that felt “good” to them before and af...

  7. Assessing Factors Affecting Implementation of Information Technology Infrastructure Library Process Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Kristy

    2010-01-01

    The capability of organizations to operate on the Information Technology Infrastructure Library (ITIL) framework is reliant on ITIL process measurements. Appropriate ITIL process measurements help ensure desired outcomes, enable corrective actions to take place prior to process failure, and direct process activities towards continuous improvement.…

  8. Morphological analysis of activity-reduced adult-born neurons in the mouse olfactory bulb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey E Dahlen

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Adult born neurons are added to the olfactory bulb (OB throughout life in rodents. While many factors have been identified as regulating the survival and integration of adult-born neurons (ABNs into existing circuitry, the understanding of how these factors affect ABN morphology and connectivity is limited. Here we compare how cell intrinsic (siRNA knock down of voltage gated sodium channels NaV1.1-1.3 and circuit level (naris occlusion reductions in activity affect ABN morphology during integration into the OB. We found that both manipulations reduce the number of dendritic spines (and thus likely the number of reciprocal synaptic connections formed with the surrounding circuitry and inhibited dendritic ramification of ABNs. Further, we identified regions of ABN apical dendrites where the largest and most significant decreases occur following siRNA knock down or naris occlusion. In siRNA knock down cells, reduction of spines is observed in proximal regions of the apical dendrite. This suggests that distal regions of the dendrite may remain active independent of NaV1.1-1.3 channel expression, perhaps facilitated by activation of T-type calcium channels and NMDA receptors. By contrast, circuit level reduction of activity by naris occlusion resulted in a global depression of spine number. Together, these results indicate that ABNs retain the ability to develop their typical overall morphological features regardless of experienced activity, and activity modulates the number and location of formed connections.

  9. Role of the Retinoblastoma protein, Rb, during adult neurogenesis in the olfactory bulb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naser, Rayan; Vandenbosch, Renaud; Omais, Saad; Hayek, Dayana; Jaafar, Carine; Al Lafi, Sawsan; Saliba, Afaf; Baghdadi, Maarouf; Skaf, Larissa; Ghanem, Noël

    2016-01-01

    Adult neural stem cells (aNSCs) are relatively quiescent populations that give rise to distinct neuronal subtypes throughout life, yet, at a very low rate and restricted differentiation potential. Thus, identifying the molecular mechanisms that control their cellular expansion is critical for regeneration after brain injury. Loss of the Retinoblastoma protein, Rb, leads to several defects in cell cycle as well as neuronal differentiation and migration during brain development. Here, we investigated the role of Rb during adult neurogenesis in the olfactory bulb (OB) by inducing its temporal deletion in aNSCs and progenitors. Loss of Rb was associated with increased proliferation of adult progenitors in the subventricular zone (SVZ) and the rostral migratory stream (RMS) but did not alter self-renewal of aNSCs or neuroblasts subsequent migration and terminal differentiation. Hence, one month after their birth, Rb-null neuroblasts were able to differentiate into distinct subtypes of GABAergic OB interneurons but were gradually lost after 3 months. Similarly, Rb controlled aNSCs/progenitors proliferation in vitro without affecting their differentiation capacity. This enhanced SVZ/OB neurogenesis associated with loss of Rb was only transient and negatively affected by increased apoptosis indicating a critical requirement for Rb in the long-term survival of adult-born OB interneurons. PMID:26847607

  10. Representations of modality-specific affective processing for visual and auditory stimuli derived from functional magnetic resonance imaging data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinkareva, Svetlana V; Wang, Jing; Kim, Jongwan; Facciani, Matthew J; Baucom, Laura B; Wedell, Douglas H

    2014-07-01

    There is converging evidence that people rapidly and automatically encode affective dimensions of objects, events, and environments that they encounter in the normal course of their daily routines. An important research question is whether affective representations differ with sensory modality. This research examined the nature of the dependency of affect and sensory modality at a whole-brain level of analysis in an incidental affective processing paradigm. Participants were presented with picture and sound stimuli that differed in positive or negative valence in an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment. Global statistical tests, applied at a level of the individual, demonstrated significant sensitivity to valence within modality, but not valence across modalities. Modality-general and modality-specific valence hypotheses predict distinctly different multidimensional patterns of the stimulus conditions. Examination of lower dimensional representation of the data demonstrated separable dimensions for valence processing within each modality. These results provide support for modality-specific valence processing in an incidental affective processing paradigm at a whole-brain level of analysis. Future research should further investigate how stimulus-specific emotional decoding may be mediated by the physical properties of the stimuli. PMID:24302696

  11. Histological and lectin histochemical studies on the main and accessory olfactory bulbs in the Japanese striped snake, Elaphe quadrivirgata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondoh, Daisuke; Wada, Akimi; Endo, Daisuke; Nakamuta, Nobuaki; Taniguchi, Kazuyuki

    2013-01-01

    The main and accessory olfactory bulbs were examined by histological methods and lectin histochemistry in the Japanese striped snake. As the results, the histological properties are similar between the main olfactory bulb and the accessory olfactory bulb. In lectin histochemistry, 21 lectins used in this study showed similar binding patterns in the main olfactory bulb and the accessory olfactory bulb. In detail, 15 lectins stained these olfactory bulbs with similar manner, and 6 lectins did not stain them at all. Two lectins, Lycopersicon esculentum lectin (LEL) and Solanum tuberosum lectin (STL), stained the nerve and glomerular layers and did not stain any other layers in both olfactory bulbs. Four lectins, Soybean agglutinin (SBA), Vicia villosa agglutinin (VVA), Peanut agglutinin (PNA) and Phaseolus vulgaris agglutinin-L (PHA-L) stained the nerve and glomerular layers more intensely than other layers in both olfactory bulbs. In addition, VVA showed the dot-like stainings in the glomeruli of both olfactory bulbs. These findings suggest that the degree of development and the properties of glycoconjugates are similar between the main olfactory bulb and the accessory olfactory bulb in the Japanese striped snake. PMID:23257605

  12. Edible Lily Bulb Modulates Colonic Barrier Functions, Microflora and Fermentation in Rats Fed a High-Fat Die

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukako Okazaki

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Lily bulb (Lilium leichtlinii var. maximowiczii Baker is traditionally consumed in Asia as both a root vegetable and a herbal medicine. The objective of this study was to determine if dietary edible lily bulbs modulated the colonic luminal environment in rats fed a high-fat (HF diet. In experiment 1, male SD rats were fed a HF diet (30% beef tallow with or without 5% or 10% raw lily bulb powder for 3 weeks. Dietary raw lily bulb significantly increased cecal and fecal mucins, IgA (indices of intestinal barrier and immune functions and the cecal ratio of Lactobacillales and Bifidobacterium in a dose-dependent manner. In experiment 2, the rats were fed a HF diet with or without 7% steamed or raw lily bulb powder for 3 weeks. Cecal ratio of Lactobacillales was significantly increased in the HF + raw lily bulb group, with a similar trends being observed in the HF + steamed lily bulb group. Consumption of both steamed and raw lily bulb caused markedly increases in cecal and fecal mucins and cecal organic acids, including lactate, propionate, acetate, and butyrate. Unexpectedly, HF + steamed lily bulb diet caused a significant reduction in the fecal activity of mucinase, a risk factor for colon diseases, and mesenteric adipose tissue weight, whereas the HF + raw lily bulb diet did not. These results suggest a favorable effect of lily bulb on colon health by modulating colonic barrier function, microflora profile, and fermentation in rats fed a high-fat diet.

  13. Production of Quorum Sensing Inhibitors in Growing Onion Bulbs Infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa E (HQ324110)

    OpenAIRE

    Abd-Alla, Mohamed H.; Bashandy, Shymaa R.

    2012-01-01

    Eighteen organic compounds were present in growing onion bulbs cultivar Giza 6 infected with P. aeruginosa, but only fourteen of them are present in dry infected onion bulbs; however, four compounds were missing in dry onion. The missing compounds in dry infected onion bulbs are pantolactone, 4,5-dihydro-4,5-dimethylfuran-2(3H)-one, myristic acid, and linoleic acid. All of them were detected in growing onion (living cell) during Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection, and it is hypothesized that it...

  14. Odor recognition and segmentation by coupled olfactory bulb and cortical networks

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Z; Li, Zhaoping; Hertz, John

    1999-01-01

    We present a model of a coupled system of the olfactory bulb and cortex. Odor inputs to the epithelium are transformed to oscillatory bulbar activities. The cortex recognizes the odor by resonating to the bulbar oscillating pattern when the amplitude and phase patterns from the bulb match an odor memory stored in the intracortical synapses. We assume a cortical structure which transforms the odor information in the oscillatory pattern to a slow DC feedback signal to the bulb. This feedback suppresses the bulbar response to the pre-existing odor, allowing subsequent odor objects to be segmented out for recognition.

  15. Accumulation of [35S]taurine in peripheral layers of the olfactory bulb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accumulation of [35S]taurine in the laminae of the olfactory bulb of the adult cat, rat, mouse and rabbit was examined autoradiographically. [35S]Taurine was administered either i.p. or i.v. and olfactory bulbs were excised 24 h post-injection. High concentrations of [35S]taurine were restricted to the olfactory nerve and glomerular layers of the olfactory bulb in all species examined. Olfactory neurons are continuously renewed and the results obtained suggest that taurine may have an important role in olfactory receptor axons. (Auth.)

  16. Linear halogen bulb as a powerful light source for physics experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochníček, Zdeněk

    2015-11-01

    The paper describes the usage of a conventional lamp equipped with a linear halogen bulb for physics experiments. The irradiance gain and limitation of spectral resolution are treated in detail theoretically and verified experimentally. The analysis shows that, in comparison with a standard bulb and slit arrangement, the linear bulb can increase irradiance of the spectrum image by an order of magnitude without a significant loss of spectral resolution in comparable experimental arrangements. Some concrete examples of experiments with a white light spectrum and diffraction are presented.

  17. Enhanced Geothermal Systems Research and Development: Models of Subsurface Chemical Processes Affecting Fluid Flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moller, Nancy; Weare J. H.

    2008-05-29

    Successful exploitation of the vast amount of heat stored beneath the earth’s surface in hydrothermal and fluid-limited, low permeability geothermal resources would greatly expand the Nation’s domestic energy inventory and thereby promote a more secure energy supply, a stronger economy and a cleaner environment. However, a major factor limiting the expanded development of current hydrothermal resources as well as the production of enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) is insufficient knowledge about the chemical processes controlling subsurface fluid flow. With funding from past grants from the DOE geothermal program and other agencies, we successfully developed advanced equation of state (EOS) and simulation technologies that accurately describe the chemistry of geothermal reservoirs and energy production processes via their free energies for wide XTP ranges. Using the specific interaction equations of Pitzer, we showed that our TEQUIL chemical models can correctly simulate behavior (e.g., mineral scaling and saturation ratios, gas break out, brine mixing effects, down hole temperatures and fluid chemical composition, spent brine incompatibilities) within the compositional range (Na-K-Ca-Cl-SO4-CO3-H2O-SiO2-CO2(g)) and temperature range (T < 350°C) associated with many current geothermal energy production sites that produce brines with temperatures below the critical point of water. The goal of research carried out under DOE grant DE-FG36-04GO14300 (10/1/2004-12/31/2007) was to expand the compositional range of our Pitzer-based TEQUIL fluid/rock interaction models to include the important aluminum and silica interactions (T < 350°C). Aluminum is the third most abundant element in the earth’s crust; and, as a constituent of aluminosilicate minerals, it is found in two thirds of the minerals in the earth’s crust. The ability to accurately characterize effects of temperature, fluid mixing and interactions between major rock-forming minerals and hydrothermal and

  18. Natural and anthropogenic sources and processes affecting water chemistry in two South Korean streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Woo-Jin [Division of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Korea Basic Science Institute, Cheongwon-gun, Chungbuk 363-883 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Geoscience, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4 (Canada); Ryu, Jong-Sik [Division of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Korea Basic Science Institute, Cheongwon-gun, Chungbuk 363-883 (Korea, Republic of); Mayer, Bernhard [Department of Geoscience, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4 (Canada); Lee, Kwang-Sik, E-mail: kslee@kbsi.re.kr [Division of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Korea Basic Science Institute, Cheongwon-gun, Chungbuk 363-883 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sin-Woo [Division of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Korea Basic Science Institute, Cheongwon-gun, Chungbuk 363-883 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Geology, Chungnam National University, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) in a watershed provides potential sources of pollutants for surface and subsurface waters that can deteriorate water quality. Between March and early August 2011, water samples were collected from two streams in South Korea, one dominantly draining a watershed with carbonate bedrock affected by coal mines and another draining a watershed with silicate bedrock and a relatively undisturbed catchment area. The objective of the study was to identify the sources and processes controlling water chemistry, which was dependent on bedrock and land use. In the Odae stream (OS), the stream in the silicate-dominated catchment, Ca, Na, and HCO{sub 3} were the dominant ions and total dissolved solids (TDS) was low (26.1–165 mg/L). In the Jijang stream (JS), in the carbonate-dominated watershed, TDS (224–434 mg/L) and ion concentrations were typically higher, and Ca and SO{sub 4} were the dominant ions due to carbonate weathering and oxidation of pyrite exposed at coal mines. Dual isotopic compositions of sulfate (δ{sup 34}S{sub SO4} and δ{sup 18}O{sub SO4}) verified that the SO{sub 4} in JS is derived mainly from sulfide mineral oxidation in coal mines. Cl in JS was highest upstream and decreased progressively downstream, which implies that pollutants from recreational facilities in the uppermost part of the catchment are the major source governing Cl concentrations within the discharge basin. Dual isotopic compositions of nitrate (δ{sup 15}N{sub NO3} and δ{sup 18}O{sub NO3}) indicated that NO{sub 3} in JS is attributable to nitrification of soil organic matter but that NO{sub 3} in OS is derived mostly from manure. Additionally, the contributions of potential anthropogenic sources to the two streams were estimated in more detail by using a plot of δ{sup 34}S{sub SO4} and δ{sup 15}N{sub NO3}. This study suggests that the dual isotope approach for sulfate and nitrate is an excellent additional tool for elucidating the sources and processes

  19. Cross-Cultural Differences in the Processing of Nonverbal Affective Vocalizations by Japanese and Canadian Listeners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MichihikoKoeda

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The Montreal Affective Voices (MAVs consist of a database of nonverbal affect bursts portrayed by Canadian actors, and high recognitions accuracies were observed in Canadian listeners. Whether listeners from other cultures would be as accurate is unclear. We tested for cross-cultural differences in perception of the MAVs: Japanese listeners were asked to rate the MAVs on several affective dimensions and ratings were compared to those obtained by Canadian listeners. Significant Group x Emotion interactions were observed for ratings of Intensity, Valence, and Arousal. Whereas Intensity and Valence ratings did not differ across cultural groups for sad and happy vocalizations, they were significantly less intense and less negative in Japanese listeners for angry, disgusted, and fearful vocalizations. Similarly, pleased vocalizations were rated as less intense and less positive by Japanese listeners. These results demonstrate important cross-cultural differences in affective perception not just of nonverbal vocalizations expressing positive affect (Sauter et al, 2010, but also of vocalizations expressing basic negative emotions.

  20. Ratio of dopamine synthesis capacity to D2 receptor availability in ventral striatum correlates with central processing of affective stimuli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kienast, Thorsten; Rapp, Michael [Charite Campus Mitte, Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy of the Charite University Medical Center, Berlin (Germany); Siessmeier, Thomas; Buchholz, Hans G.; Schreckenberger, Mathias [University of Mainz, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Mainz (Germany); Wrase, Jana; Heinz, Andreas [Charite Campus Mitte, Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy of the Charite University Medical Center, Berlin (Germany); Central Institute of Mental Health, Mannheim (Germany); Braus, Dieter F. [University of Hamburg, Neuroimage Nord, Department of Psychiatry, Hamburg (Germany); Smolka, Michael N.; Mann, Karl [Central Institute of Mental Health, Mannheim (Germany); Roesch, Frank [University of Mainz, Institute of Nuclear Chemistry, Mainz (Germany); Cumming, Paul [PET Center and Center for Functionally Integrative Neuroscience, Aarhus (Denmark); Gruender, Gerhard [Aachen University Medical Center, Department of Psychiatry of the RWTH, Mainz (Germany); Bartenstein, Peter [Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Munich (Germany)

    2008-06-15

    Dopaminergic neurotransmission in the ventral striatum may interact with limbic processing of affective stimuli, whereas dorsal striatal dopaminergic neurotransmission can affect habitual processing of emotionally salient stimuli in the pre-frontal cortex. We investigated the dopaminergic neurotransmission in the ventral and dorsal striatum with respect to central processing of affective stimuli in healthy subjects. Subjects were investigated with positron emission tomography and [{sup 18}F]DOPA for measurements of dopamine synthesis capacity and [{sup 18}F]DMFP for estimation of dopamine D2 receptor binding potential. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to assess the blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) response to affective pictures, which was correlated with the ratio of [{sup 18}F]DOPA net influx constant K{sub in}{sup app} /[{sup 18}F]DMFP-binding potential (BP{sub N}D) in the ventral and dorsal striatum. The magnitude of the ratio in the ventral striatum was positively correlated with BOLD signal increases elicited by negative versus neutral pictures in the right medial frontal gyrus (BA10), right inferior parietal lobe and left post-central gyrus. In the dorsal striatum, the ratio was positively correlated with BOLD signal activation elicited by negative versus neutral stimuli in the left post-central gyrus. The BOLD signal elicited by positive versus neutral stimuli in the superior parietal gyrus was positively correlated with the dorsal and ventral striatal ratio. The correlations of the ratio in the ventral and dorsal striatum with processing of affective stimuli in the named cortical regions support the hypothesis that dopamine transmission in functional divisions of the striatum modulates processing of affective stimuli in specific cortical areas. (orig.)

  1. Ratio of dopamine synthesis capacity to D2 receptor availability in ventral striatum correlates with central processing of affective stimuli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dopaminergic neurotransmission in the ventral striatum may interact with limbic processing of affective stimuli, whereas dorsal striatal dopaminergic neurotransmission can affect habitual processing of emotionally salient stimuli in the pre-frontal cortex. We investigated the dopaminergic neurotransmission in the ventral and dorsal striatum with respect to central processing of affective stimuli in healthy subjects. Subjects were investigated with positron emission tomography and [18F]DOPA for measurements of dopamine synthesis capacity and [18F]DMFP for estimation of dopamine D2 receptor binding potential. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to assess the blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) response to affective pictures, which was correlated with the ratio of [18F]DOPA net influx constant Kinapp /[18F]DMFP-binding potential (BPND) in the ventral and dorsal striatum. The magnitude of the ratio in the ventral striatum was positively correlated with BOLD signal increases elicited by negative versus neutral pictures in the right medial frontal gyrus (BA10), right inferior parietal lobe and left post-central gyrus. In the dorsal striatum, the ratio was positively correlated with BOLD signal activation elicited by negative versus neutral stimuli in the left post-central gyrus. The BOLD signal elicited by positive versus neutral stimuli in the superior parietal gyrus was positively correlated with the dorsal and ventral striatal ratio. The correlations of the ratio in the ventral and dorsal striatum with processing of affective stimuli in the named cortical regions support the hypothesis that dopamine transmission in functional divisions of the striatum modulates processing of affective stimuli in specific cortical areas. (orig.)

  2. Inorganic deterioration affecting the Altamira Cave, N Spain: quantitative approach to wall-corrosion (solutional etching) processes induced by visitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Moral, S; Soler, V; Cañaveras, J C; Sanz-Rubio, E; Van Grieken, R; Gysels, K

    1999-12-15

    In order to study the wall corrosion processes induced by visitors in the Altamira Cave (northern Spain), a multidisciplinary study was conducted in the cave. For a period of 1 year, a microclimate monitoring system, measuring the temperature, relative humidity, CO2 and 222Rn concentrations was operated. Host rock samples were collected as well as indoor and outdoor atmospheric particulate matter. These data are used for a quantitative assessment of the wall corrosion processes. The presence of visitors was found to enhance the corrosion processes up to 78 times in comparison with the natural processes. Outdoor air pollution did not have a significant affect. PMID:10635591

  3. INSECTICIDAL ACTIVITY OF PROTEIN EXTRACTS OBTAINED FROM BULBS OF CHILEAN AMARYLLIDACEAE AGAINST TRIALEURODES VAPORARIORUM WESTWOOD AND PSEUDOCOCCUS VIBURNI SIGNORET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata, N; Vargas, M; Coronado, A; Van Damme, E J M; Smagghe, G

    2015-01-01

    Entomotoxic proteins are produced by plants in defence against insect herbivory. Some carbohydrate-binding proteins exhibit strong insecticidal activity affecting the survival, growth, development and feeding behavior of phytophagous insects. The occurrence of entomotoxic lectins is well documented in the Amaryllidaceae, a plant family spread world-wide. In Chile, this family is represented by numerous species, many of which are also of high ornamental value. Protein extracts were obtained from bulbs of five different species of Chilean Amaryllidaceae. A dose-response assay was carried out with two important pests: the greenhouse whitefly Trialeurodes vaporariorum Westwood and the mealybug Pseudococcus viburni Signoret. The extracts were offered to insects in a liquid artificial diet for three days and the mortality was scored. The Phycella australis Ravenna extract caused the highest insecticidal activity (T. vaporariorum LC₅₀: 7200 µg/mL; P. viburni LC₅₀: 9500 µg/mL). Applied at 1000 µg/mL in the diet the P. australis extract did not repel feeding of these pests. A mannose-binding lectin isolated from the bulbs of P. australis proved to be moderately toxic for these pests (T. vaporariorum LC₅₀: 1127 µg/mL; P. viburni LC₅₀: 2320 µg/mL). PMID:27145586

  4. Relative Saliency in Change Signals Affects Perceptual Comparison and Decision Processes in Change Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Cheng-Ta

    2011-01-01

    Change detection requires perceptual comparison and decision processes on different features of multiattribute objects. How relative salience between two feature-changes influences the processes has not been addressed. This study used the systems factorial technology to investigate the processes when detecting changes in a Gabor patch with visual…

  5. The Eagle and the Circle of Gold Stars: Does the Bologna Process Affect US Higher Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookes, Marilyn; Huisman, Jeroen

    2009-01-01

    The Bologna Process is almost at its end and European policy-makers currently reflect on appropriate objectives and policies for the next decade. Given that the Bologna Process is generally seen as an example of unprecedented change in European higher education and that the major overarching objective of the Process was to increase the…

  6. Multiobjective optimization of GMAW process of the AA 6063-t5 alloy based on penetration and heat affected zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The selection of technological parameters in a welding process must be led to the optimized results of the operation. Penetration is one of the most decisive factors for the success of the joint. Another important factor is the Heat Affected Zone (HAZ), when the mechanical properties of this one are modified respecting to the base material. The way in which the technological variables of the process affects to both them, penetration and HAZ, are inverse in each case. This work presents an optimization methodology based on the Design of Experiments (DOE) and the Response Surface Method (RSM) of the GMAW process applied to the aluminum alloy AA 6063-T5. This research is focused to obtain penetration rates that make HAZ values to be suitable in current applications. Welding rate has been found to be the most significant technological parameter for controlling the process. (Author)

  7. Subliminal cues bias perception of facial affect in patients with social phobia: evidence for enhanced unconscious threat processing

    OpenAIRE

    Aiste eJusyte; Michael eSchoenenberg

    2014-01-01

    AbstractSocially anxious individuals have been shown to exhibit altered processing of facial affect, especially expressions signalling threat. Enhanced unaware processing has been suggested an important mechanism which may give rise to anxious conscious cognition and behavior. This study investigated whether individuals with social anxiety disorder (SAD) are perceptually more vulnerable to the biasing effects of subliminal threat cues compared to healthy controls. In a perceptual judgment tas...

  8. Scaling preferential flow processes in agricultural soils affected by tillage and trafficking at the field scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipović, Vilim; Coquet, Yves

    2016-04-01

    There is an accumulation of experimental evidences that agricultural soils, at least the top horizons affected by tillage practices, are not homogeneous and present a structure that is strongly dependent on farming practices like tillage and trafficking. Soil tillage and trafficking can create compacted zones in the soil with hydraulic properties and porosity which are different from those of the non-compacted zones. This spatial variability can strongly influence transport processes and initiate preferential flow. Two or three dimensional models can be used to account for spatial variability created by agricultural practices, but such models need a detailed assessment of spatial heterogeneity which can be rather impractical to provide. This logically raises the question whether and how one dimensional model may be designed and used to account for the within-field spatial variability in soil structure created by agricultural practices. Preferential flow (dual-permeability) modelling performed with HYDRUS-1D will be confronted to classical modelling based on the Richards and convection-dispersion equations using HYDRUS-2D taking into account the various soil heterogeneities created by agricultural practices. Our goal is to derive one set of equivalent 1D soil hydraulic parameters from 2D simulations which accounts for soil heterogeneities created by agricultural operations. A field experiment was carried out in two phases: infiltration and redistribution on a plot by uniform sprinkle irrigation with water or bromide solution. Prior to the field experiment the soil structure of the tilled layer was determined along the face of a large trench perpendicular to the tillage direction (0.7 m depth and 3.1 m wide). Thirty TDR probes and tensiometers were installed in different soil structural zones (Δ compacted soil and Γ macroporous soil) which ensured soil water monitoring throughout the experiment. A map of bromide was constructed from small core samples (4 cm diam

  9. Does nitrogen gas bubbled through a low density polymer gel dosimeter solution affect the polymerization process?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daryoush Shahbazi-Gahrouei

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: It appeared that reactions between gelatin-free radicals and monomers, due to an increase in the gel temperature during rotation in the household mixer, led to a higher R 2 -background response. In the second type of gel, it seemed that the collapse of the nitrogen bubbles was the main factor that affected the R 2 -responses.

  10. A review of OECD Nuclear Energy Agency activities related to coupled processes affecting the performance of a nuclear waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA0) activities related to coupled processes. The scope of these activities affecting the performance of a nuclear waste repository are focused on. They cover two general headings: the development of performance assessment methodologies and the acquisition of field and laboratory data

  11. Volumetric study of the olfactory bulb in patients with chronic rhinonasal sinusitis using MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reda A. Alarabawy

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: MRI with volumetric analysis is a useful tool in assessment of the olfactory bulb volume in patients with olfactory loss and appears to be of help in assessment of the degree of recovery in patients after sinus surgery.

  12. Blood Supply--Susceptible Formation of Melanin Pigment in Hair Bulb Melanocytes of Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shogo Maeda, MD

    2015-03-01

    Conclusions: Melanin pigment formation in the hair bulb melanocytes appeared to be susceptible to the blood supply, and melanocytosis was promoted in the follicles and in the epidermis of Kitl-Tg C57BL/6 mice.

  13. How state preparation can affect a quantum experiment: Quantum process tomography for open systems

    OpenAIRE

    Kuah, Aik-meng; Modi, Kavan; Rodríguez-Rosario, César A.; Sudarshan, E. C. G.

    2007-01-01

    We study the effects of preparation of input states in a quantum tomography experiment. We show that maps arising from a quantum process tomography experiment (called process maps) differ from the well know dynamical maps. The difference between the two is due to the preparation procedure that is necessary for any quantum experiment. We study two preparation procedures, stochastic preparation and preparation by measurements. The stochastic preparation procedure yields process maps that are li...

  14. Gas transport processes in sea ice: How convection and diffusion processes might affect biological imprints, a challenge for modellers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tison, J.-L.; Zhou, Shaola J. G.; Thomas, D. N.;

    2012-01-01

    salts under the mushy layer brine convection process. In some cases, mainly in the early stages of the freezing process (first 10-20 cm) where temperature gradients are strong and the ice still permeable on its whole thickness, repeated convection and bubble nucleation can actually increase the gas...... within the sea ice cover, including in the gaseous form. Diffusive processes will become dominant once internal melting is strong enough to stratify the brine network within the ice. In the Kapisilit case, the regular decrease of an internal gas peak intensity due to external forcing during ice growth......Recent data from a year-round survey of landfast sea ice growth in Barrow (Alaska) have shown how O2/N2 and O2/Ar ratios could be used to pinpoint primary production in sea ice and derive net productivity rates from the temporal evolution of the oxygen concentration at a given depth within the sea...

  15. Producing bulbs and perennials : sustainable control of diseases, pests and weeds

    OpenAIRE

    Boer

    2011-01-01

    In the Netherlands every year flower bulbs and perennials are produced representing a value of € 500 m (flower bulbs) and of € 65 m (perennials, 2004). The growers are faced with several threatening pests and diseases during the production. They usually deal with these problems by using pesticides. In 2004 the Ministry of Agriculture and the stakeholders in Agribusiness made an agreement on reducing the environmental impact of pesticides by developing and implementing knowledge on Integrated ...

  16. Sexual activity increases the number of newborn cells in the accessory olfactory bulb of male rats

    OpenAIRE

    Portillo, Wendy; Unda, Nancy; Camacho, Francisco J.; Sánchez, María; Corona, Rebeca; Arzate, Dulce Ma.; Díaz, Néstor F.; Paredes, Raúl G.

    2012-01-01

    In rodents, sexual behavior depends on the adequate detection of sexually relevant stimuli. The olfactory bulb (OB) is a region of the adult mammalian brain undergoing constant cell renewal by continuous integration of new granular and periglomerular neurons in the accessory (AOB) and main (MOB) olfactory bulbs. The proliferation, migration, survival, maturation, and integration of these new cells to the OB depend on the stimulus that the subjects received. We have previously shown that 15 da...

  17. Sexual activity increases the number of newborn cells in the accessory olfactory bulb of male rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Wendy Portillo; Díaz, Néstor F.

    2012-01-01

    In rodents, sexual behavior depends on the adequate detection of sexually relevant stimuli. The olfactory bulb (OB) is a region of the adult mammalian brain undergoing constant cell renewal by continuous integration of new granular and periglomerular neurons in the accessory (AOB) and main (MOB) olfactory bulbs. The proliferation, migration, survival, maturation, and integration of these new cells to the OB depend on the stimulus that the subjects received. We have previously shown that 15 da...

  18. The presence and survival of soft rot (Erwinia) in flower bulb production systems

    OpenAIRE

    Doorn, van, MGLM; Vreeburg, P.J.M.; van, Leeuwen, M.; Dees, R.H.L.

    2011-01-01

    Soft rot is causing increasing damage in the flower bulb industry. Bulbous ornamentals such as Hyacinthus, Dahlia, Iris, Muscari, Freesia and Zantedeschia can be infected. Soft rot in flower bulbs is mainly caused by Dickeya spp. (Dickeya spp.) and Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora (Pectobacterium carotovorum spp. carotovorum).To identify and detect these soft rot bacterial species in several bulbous ornamentals, standard PCR methods were used. During the last four years, research was dire...

  19. First report of Fusarium proliferatum causing rot of garlic bulbs in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Palmero Llamas, Daniel; Cara Garcia, Miguel de; Moreno, Marta Maria; Iglesias Gonzalez, Concepcion; Gonzalez, N; Tello Marquina, Julio

    2010-01-01

    In October of 2008, decayed garlic bulbs (Allium sativum cv. Blancomor de Vallelado) were received from a producer in Segovia, Spain. In November of 2009, similar symptoms were observed on stored bulbs (cultivars Blancomor de Vallelado and Garcua) from each of 30 municipalities in northwest Segovia and Valladolid. A minimum of one sample was collected from 12 localities. On the basis of morphological features and pathogenicity tests, the causal agent was identified as Fusarium proliferatum. F...

  20. Osterix is dispensable for the development of the mouse olfactory bulb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ji-Soo; Park, Geon-Il; Kim, Jung-Eun

    2016-09-01

    Osterix (Osx) has been shown to be an osteoblast-specific transcription factor for bone formation. Recently, it has been reported that Osx is significantly expressed in the mouse olfactory bulb, proving that Osx may play a role in olfactory bulb development, as well as bone development. Here, we studied morphological differences and neuronal cell alterations in the olfactory bulb using an Osx gene-modified mouse model. Although Osx expression was reduced, morphological differences were not observed in the olfactory bulb of Osx heterozygous mice compared with that of wild-type mice. Immunofluorescence using the neuronal marker genes DCX, MAP2, NeuN, and GFAP showed neuronal cell alterations caused by Osx deficiency in the mitral cell layer (MCL) and granule cell layer (GCL) of the olfactory bulb at postnatal stage. The number, morphology, and expression patterns of immature neurons, mature neurons, and astrocytes were identical in both wild-type and Osx heterozygous mice. At the post-embryonic stage, the expression of neuronal markers DCX, Nestin, MAP2, and NeuN were examined in the MCL and GCL of the olfactory bulb in wild-type, Osx heterozygous, and Osx knockout embryos. Both DCX- and Nestin-positive immature neurons, and MAP2- and NeuN-positive mature neurons, revealed a similar expression pattern in all mouse types. These results indicated that olfactory bulb development was not significantly impaired in the absence of Osx. Further study may be necessary to explain the functional properties of the olfactory bulb caused by Osx deficiency. PMID:27449610

  1. Accessory Olfactory Bulb Function is Modulated by Input from the Main Olfactory Epithelium

    OpenAIRE

    Slotnick, Burton; Restrepo, Diego; Schellinck, Heather; Archbold, Georgina; Price, Stephen; Lin, Weihong

    2010-01-01

    While it is now established that sensory neurons in both the main olfactory epithelium and the vomeronasal organ may be activated by both general and pheromonal odorants, it remains unclear what initiates sampling by the VNO. Anterograde transport of wheat germ agglutinin-horseradish peroxidase was used to determine that adequate intranasal syringing with zinc sulfate interrupted all inputs to the main olfactory bulb but left intact those to the accessory olfactory bulb. Adult male treated mi...

  2. Transplant connectivity in the rat olfactory bulb traced with DiI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tritiated thymidine pre-labelled presumptive olfactory bulbs (E15-17) were homo-topically transplanted in unilaterally bulbectomized neonatal rats (P3-5). At the time of transplantation a crystal of carbocyanine dye (DiI) was inserted into the center of the donor tissue. The results of in vivo DiI application demonstrated reestablished connections between the transplanted olfactory bulb and the higher olfactory centers of the host.. (authors)

  3. Critical design issues of retrofit light-emitting diode (LED) light bulb

    OpenAIRE

    H Chen; Li, S.; Waffenschmidt, E; Tan, SC; Hui, RSY

    2014-01-01

    For retrofit applications, some high-brightness (HB) light-emitting diode (LED) products have the same form factor restrictions as existing light bulbs. Such form factor constraints may restrict the design and optimal performance of the LED technology. In this paper, some critical design issues for a commercial LED bulb designed for replacing an E27 incandescent lamp are quantitatively analyzed. The analysis involves a power audit on such densely packed LED system so that the amounts of power...

  4. Hypothesis That Urethral Bulb (Corpus Spongiosum) Plays an Active Role in Male Urinary Continence

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Rehder; Staudacher, Nina M.; Joerg Schachtner; Berger, Maria E.; Florian Schillfahrt; Verena Hauser; Raphael Mueller; Viktor Skradski; Wolfgang Horninger; Bernhard Glodny

    2016-01-01

    The proximal urethral bulb in men is enlarged, surrounds the bulbous urethra, and extends dorsally towards the perineum. During intercourse engorgement takes place due to increased blood flow through the corpus spongiosum. Antegrade ejaculation is facilitated by contraction of the bulbospongiosus muscles during climax. Micturition during sexual stimulation is functionally inhibited. Supporting the bulb may indirectly facilitate continence in a certain subset of patients with postprostatectomy...

  5. Compensatory premotor activity during affective face processing in subclinical carriers of a single mutant Parkin allele

    OpenAIRE

    Anders, Silke; Sack, Benjamin; Pohl, Anna; Münte, Thomas; Pramstaller, Peter; Klein, Christine; Binkofski, Ferdinand

    2012-01-01

    Patients with Parkinson's disease suffer from significant motor impairments and accompanying cognitive and affective dysfunction due to progressive disturbances of basal ganglia–cortical gating loops. Parkinson's disease has a long presymptomatic stage, which indicates a substantial capacity of the human brain to compensate for dopaminergic nerve degeneration before clinical manifestation of the disease. Neuroimaging studies provide evidence that increased motor-related cortical activity can ...

  6. Contrasting biogeomorphic processes affecting salt-marsh development of the Mokbaai, Texel, The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baptist, M.J.; Groot, de A.V.; Duin, van W.E.

    2016-01-01

    The growth and decline of salt marshes may be the result of various interacting biogeomorphic processes and external factors. We present a case study of the Mokbaai on the Wadden island of Texel, where we assess the relative importance and the interaction between the biogeomorphic processes and vari

  7. 12 CFR 516.190 - Will a meeting affect application processing time frames?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... time frames? 516.190 Section 516.190 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE... processing time frames? If OTS decides to conduct a meeting, it may suspend applicable application processing time frames, including the time frames for deeming an application complete and the applicable...

  8. The relation of expression recognition and affective experience in facial expression processing: an event-related potential study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangheng Dong

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Guangheng Dong1, Shenglan Lu21Department of Psychology, 2Department of International Education, Zhejiang Normal University, Jinhua, ChinaAbstract: The present study investigates the relationship of expression recognition and affective experience during facial expression processing by event-related potentials (ERP. Facial expressions used in the present study can be divided into three categories: positive (happy, neutral (neutral, and negative (angry. Participants were asked to finish two kinds of facial recognition tasks: one was easy, and the other was difficult. In the easy task, significant main effects were found for different valence conditions, meaning that emotions were evoked effectively when participants recognized the expressions in facial expression processing. However, no difference was found in the difficult task, meaning that even if participants had identified the expressions correctly, no relevant emotion was evoked during the process. The findings suggest that emotional experience was not simultaneous with expression identification in facial expression processing, and the affective experience process could be suppressed in challenging cognitive tasks. The results indicate that we should pay attention to the level of cognitive load when using facial expressions as emotion-eliciting materials in emotion studies; otherwise, the emotion may not be evoked effectively.Keywords: affective experience, expression recognition, cognitive load, event-related potential

  9. Permanent transparent color-warming glazes for dimmable and non-dimmable LED bulbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanard, Jan-Marie A.

    2014-02-01

    Illuminant metameric failure is frequently experienced when viewing material samples under LED generated light vs. traditional incandescent light. LED light temperatures can be improved with phosphor coatings, but long-wave red light is still generally absent in LED "warm-white" light, resulting in metameric failure of orange-to-red objects. Drawing on techniques developed for the architectural restoration of stained glass, we find that transparent, heat-resistant, permanent, pigmented coatings can be applied to any glass, aluminum or plastic surface of an LED bulb, including the phosphor plate, dome or envelope, to produce warmer visible light than in current warm-light LED bulbs. These glazes can be applied in combination with existing technologies to better tune the LED emitted light or they may be used alone. These pigmented coatings include, but are not limited to, those made by suspending inorganic materials in potassium silicates or durable transparent pigmented resins. The pigmented resin glazes may be produced in either a clear gloss vehicle or an iridescent, light diffusing transparent base. Further, a graduated density of the tinted glazes on dimmable bulbs allow the light to change color as wattage is diminished. The glazes may be applied in the manufacturing of the bulb or marketed to current bulb owners as an after-market product to better tune the thousands of LED light bulbs currently in use.

  10. Activation of the OVOL1-OVOL2 Axis in the Hair Bulb and in Pilomatricoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Takamichi; Tsuji, Gaku; Ohno, Fumitaka; Uchi, Hiroshi; Nakahara, Takeshi; Hashimoto-Hachiya, Akiko; Yoshida, Yuichi; Yamamoto, Osamu; Oda, Yoshinao; Furue, Masutaka

    2016-04-01

    OVOL1 and OVOL2, ubiquitously conserved genes encoding C2H2 zinc finger transcription factors in mammals, control epithelial cell proliferation, and differentiation, including those in skin. OVOL1 and OVOL2 expression is coordinately mediated via the Wnt signaling pathway, and OVOL1 negatively regulates OVOL2 expression in a transcriptional manner. Our previous study of OVOL1 expression in human skin revealed that OVOL1 is preferentially expressed in the inner root sheath of the hair follicle. Therefore, we hypothesized that the OVOL1-OVOL2 axis is involved in normal and neoplastic follicular differentiation. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that OVOL1 and OVOL2 were strongly expressed in a mutually exclusive manner in the cytoplasm of inner root sheath cells and matrix cells, respectively, in normal follicles. OVOL2 was also expressed in pilomatricoma, with only partial expression of OVOL1. Cultured human keratinocytes expressed OVOL1 and OVOL2 on both the mRNA and protein levels. The expression of OVOL2 was higher in keratinocytes transfected with siRNA of OVOL1. Ketoconazole, a hair growth stimulant, up-regulated the expression of OVOL1 but did not affect OVOL2 expression. These results indicated that the OVOL1-OVOL2 axis may actively contribute to cell differentiation and proliferation in the hair bulb, suggesting that the OVOL1 and OVOL2 may be therapeutic targets of hair disorders, including alopecia, and play important roles in the tumorigenesis of pilomatricoma. PMID:26873447

  11. Statistical analysis of coding for molecular properties in the olfactory bulb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin eAuffarth

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between molecular properties of odorants and neural activities is arguably one of the most important issues in olfaction and the rules governing this relationship are still not clear. In the olfactory bulb (OB, glomeruli relay olfactory information to second-order neurons which in turn project to cortical areas. We investigate relevance of odorant properties, spatial localization of glomerular coding sites, and size of coding zones in a dataset of 2-deoxyglucose images of glomeruli over the entire OB of the rat. We relate molecular properties to activation of glomeruli in the OB using a nonparametric statistical test and a support-vector machine classification study. Our method permits to systematically map the topographic representation of various classes of odorants in the OB. Our results suggest many localized coding sites for particular molecular properties and some molecular properties that could form the basis for a spatial map of olfactory information. We found that alkynes, alkanes, alkenes, and amines affect activation maps very strongly as compared to other properties and that amines, sulfur-containing compounds, and alkynes have small zones and high relevance to activation changes, while aromatics, alkanes, and carboxylics acid recruit very big zones in the dataset. Results suggest a local spatial encoding for molecular properties.

  12. Olfactory bulb volume predicts therapeutic outcome in major depression disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negoias, Simona; Hummel, Thomas; Symmank, Anja; Schellong, Julia; Joraschky, Peter; Croy, Ilona

    2016-06-01

    The volume of the olfactory bulb (OB) is strongly reduced in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and this group exhibits markedly decreased olfactory function. It has been suggested that olfactory input is important for maintaining balance in limbic neurocircuits. The aim of our study was to investigate whether reduced OB volume is associated with response to therapy in MDD. Twenty-four inpatients (all women, age 21-49 years, mean 38 ± 10 years SD) with MDD and 36 healthy controls (all women, age 20-52 years, mean 36 ± 10 years SD) underwent structural MRI. OB volume was compared between responders (N = 13) and non-responders (N = 11) to psychotherapy. Retest of OB volume was performed about 6 months after the end of therapy in nine of the patients. Therapy responders exhibited no significant difference in OB volume compared to healthy controls. However, average OB volume of non-responders was 23 % smaller compared to responders (p = .0011). Furthermore, OB volume was correlated with the change of depression severity (r = .46, p = .024). Volume of the OB did not change in the course of therapy. OB volume may be a biological vulnerability factor for the occurrence and/or maintenance of depression, at least in women. PMID:25977168

  13. Biophysical constraints on lateral inhibition in the olfactory bulb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Alexa B R; Cleland, Thomas A

    2016-06-01

    The mitral cells (MCs) of the mammalian olfactory bulb (OB) constitute one of two populations of principal neurons (along with middle/deep tufted cells) that integrate afferent olfactory information with top-down inputs and intrinsic learning and deliver output to downstream olfactory areas. MC activity is regulated in part by inhibition from granule cells, which form reciprocal synapses with MCs along the extents of their lateral dendrites. However, with MC lateral dendrites reaching over 1.5 mm in length in rats, the roles of distal inhibitory synapses pose a quandary. Here, we systematically vary the properties of a MC model to assess the capacity of inhibitory synaptic inputs on lateral dendrites to influence afferent information flow through MCs. Simulations using passivized models with varying dendritic morphologies and synaptic properties demonstrated that, even with unrealistically favorable parameters, passive propagation fails to convey effective inhibitory signals to the soma from distal sources. Additional simulations using an active model exhibiting action potentials, subthreshold oscillations, and a dendritic morphology closely matched to experimental values further confirmed that distal synaptic inputs along the lateral dendrite could not exert physiologically relevant effects on MC spike timing at the soma. Larger synaptic conductances representative of multiple simultaneous inputs were not sufficient to compensate for the decline in signal with distance. Reciprocal synapses on distal MC lateral dendrites may instead serve to maintain a common fast oscillatory clock across the OB by delaying spike propagation within the lateral dendrites themselves. PMID:27009162

  14. Speech rehabilitation of maxillectomy patients with hollow bulb obturator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pravesh Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the effect of hollow bulb obturator prosthesis on articulation and nasalance in maxillectomy patients. Materials and Methods: A total of 10 patients, who were to undergo maxillectomy, falling under Aramany classes I and II, with normal speech and hearing pattern were selected for the study. They were provided with definitive maxillary obturators after complete healing of the defect. The patients were asked to wear the obturator for six weeks and speech analysis was done to measure changes in articulation and nasalance at four different stages of treatment, namely, preoperative, postoperative (after complete healing, that is, 3-4 months after surgery, after 24 hours, and after six weeks of providing the obturators. Articulation was measured objectively for distortion, addition, substitution, and omission by a speech pathologist, and nasalance was measured by Dr. Speech software. Results: The statistical comparison of preoperative and six weeks post rehabilitation levels showed insignificance in articulation and nasalance. Comparison of post surgery complete healing with six weeks after rehabilitation showed significant differences in both nasalance and articulation. Conclusion: Providing an obturator improves the speech closer to presurgical levels of articulation and there is improvement in nasality also.

  15. How Hearing Impairment Affects Sentence Comprehension: Using Eye Fixations to Investigate the Duration of Speech Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wendt, Dorothea; Kollmeier, Birger; Brand, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to investigate the extent to which hearing impairment influences the duration of sentence processing. An eye-tracking paradigm is introduced that provides an online measure of how hearing impairment prolongs processing of linguistically complex sentences; this...... quiet and in two different noise conditions. Participants with hearing impairment spent more time processing sentences, even at high levels of speech intelligibility. In addition, the relationship between the proposed online measure and listener-specific factors, such as hearing aid use and cognitive...

  16. Coupled processes affecting the performance of a nuclear waste repository. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contributed papers were in the following subject areas: geochemistry, geohydrology, and geomechanics. In addition to the contributed papers, current field projects were reviewed. Individual papers were processed separately. (LM)

  17. Antioxidant vitamin contents of Capsicum annuum fruit extracts as affected by processing and varietal factors

    OpenAIRE

    Irena Perucka; Małgorzata Materska

    2007-01-01

    The presented work defines the influence of technological process on chemical composition of peppers. The technological treatments made in this work were: lyophilization and samples evaporation. Evaporation process was conducted in two conditions of temperature and pressure: I – 35°C and 70 mbar, II – 50°C and 400 mbar. The working material consisted of four pepper cultivars, two sweet: ‘King Artur’ and ‘Red Knight’, and tw...

  18. Help or hindrance: How violation of different assimilation rules affects spoken-language processing

    OpenAIRE

    Weber, A.

    2001-01-01

    Four phoneme-detection studies tested the conclusion from recent research that spoken-language processing is inhibited by violation of obligatory assimilation processes in the listeners’ native language. In Experiment 1, native listeners of German detected a target fricative in monosyllabic Dutch nonwords, half of which violated progressive German fricative place assimilation. In contrast to the earlier findings, listeners detected the fricative more quickly when assimilation was violated tha...

  19. 番红花种球定量留芽增产效果研究简报%Bulb yield of saffron as influenced by number of seed bulb sprouts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董卫明

    2012-01-01

    为实现番红花球茎高产,提高繁殖率,开展了番红花种球定量留芽田间试验.结果表明:26~30 g的大球茎留3芽、18~25 g的中球茎留2芽、18 g以下的小球茎留1芽为合理留芽量.%In order to improve the bulb yield and reproduction rate of saffron,field experiments with saffron were carried out under different numbers of sprouts reserved on the seed bulb. The result showed that the suitable number of sprouts reserved on the bulb was 3 if the bulb weighed 26 - 30 g,2 if the bulb weighed 18-25 g,and 1 if the bulb weighed less than 18 g.

  20. Local Navon letter processing affects skilled behavior: a golf-putting experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Michael B; Dawkins, Gemma

    2015-04-01

    Expert or skilled behaviors (for example, face recognition or sporting performance) are typically performed automatically and with little conscious awareness. Previous studies, in various domains of performance, have shown that activities immediately prior to a task demanding a learned skill can affect performance. In sport, describing the to-be-performed action is detrimental, whereas in face recognition, describing a face or reading local Navon letters is detrimental. Two golf-putting experiments are presented that compare the effects that these three tasks have on experienced and novice golfers. Experiment 1 found a Navon effect on golf performance for experienced players. Experiment 2 found, for experienced players only, that performance was impaired following the three tasks described above, when compared with reading or global Navon tasks. It is suggested that the three tasks affect skilled performance by provoking a shift from automatic behavior to a more analytic style. By demonstrating similarities between effects in face recognition and sporting behavior, it is hoped to better understand concepts in both fields. PMID:25102927

  1. Familiarity differentially affects right hemisphere contributions to processing metaphors and literals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Vicky T; van Dam, Wessel; Conant, Lisa L; Binder, Jeffrey R; Desai, Rutvik H

    2015-01-01

    The role of the two hemispheres in processing metaphoric language is controversial. While some studies have reported a special role of the right hemisphere (RH) in processing metaphors, others indicate no difference in laterality relative to literal language. Some studies have found a role of the RH for novel/unfamiliar metaphors, but not conventional/familiar metaphors. It is not clear, however, whether the role of the RH is specific to metaphor novelty, or whether it reflects processing, reinterpretation or reanalysis of novel/unfamiliar language in general. Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine the effects of familiarity in both metaphoric and non-metaphoric sentences. A left lateralized network containing the middle and inferior frontal gyri, posterior temporal regions in the left hemisphere (LH), and inferior frontal regions in the RH, was engaged across both metaphoric and non-metaphoric sentences; engagement of this network decreased as familiarity decreased. No region was engaged selectively for greater metaphoric unfamiliarity. An analysis of laterality, however, showed that the contribution of the RH relative to that of LH does increase in a metaphor-specific manner as familiarity decreases. These results show that RH regions, taken by themselves, including commonly reported regions such as the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), are responsive to increased cognitive demands of processing unfamiliar stimuli, rather than being metaphor-selective. The division of labor between the two hemispheres, however, does shift towards the right for metaphoric processing. The shift results not because the RH contributes more to metaphoric processing. Rather, relative to its contribution for processing literals, the LH contributes less. PMID:25713522

  2. The effects of an action video game on visual and affective information processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Kira; West, Robert

    2013-04-01

    Playing action video games can have beneficial effects on visuospatial cognition and negative effects on social information processing. However, these two effects have not been demonstrated in the same individuals in a single study. The current study used event-related brain potentials (ERPs) to examine the effects of playing an action or non-action video game on the processing of emotion in facial expression. The data revealed that 10h of playing an action or non-action video game had differential effects on the ERPs relative to a no-contact control group. Playing an action game resulted in two effects: one that reflected an increase in the amplitude of the ERPs following training over the right frontal and posterior regions that was similar for angry, happy, and neutral faces; and one that reflected a reduction in the allocation of attention to happy faces. In contrast, playing a non-action game resulted in changes in slow wave activity over the central-parietal and frontal regions that were greater for targets (i.e., angry and happy faces) than for non-targets (i.e., neutral faces). These data demonstrate that the contrasting effects of action video games on visuospatial and emotion processing occur in the same individuals following the same level of gaming experience. This observation leads to the suggestion that caution should be exercised when using action video games to modify visual processing, as this experience could also have unintended effects on emotion processing. PMID:23419898

  3. Ex vivo preparations of the intact vomeronasal organ and accessory olfactory bulb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Wayne I; Hammen, Gary F; Meeks, Julian P

    2014-01-01

    The mouse accessory olfactory system (AOS) is a specialized sensory pathway for detecting nonvolatile social odors, pheromones, and kairomones. The first neural circuit in the AOS pathway, called the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB), plays an important role in establishing sex-typical behaviors such as territorial aggression and mating. This small (organization of this system presents unique opportunities for recording from large portions of the circuit simultaneously, investigation of sensory processing in the AOB remains challenging, largely due to its experimentally disadvantageous location in the brain. Here, we demonstrate a multi-stage dissection that removes the intact AOB inside a single hemisphere of the anterior mouse skull, leaving connections to both the peripheral vomeronasal sensory neurons (VSNs) and local neuronal circuitry intact. The procedure exposes the AOB surface to direct visual inspection, facilitating electrophysiological and optical recordings from AOB circuit elements in the absence of anesthetics. Upon inserting a thin cannula into the vomeronasal organ (VNO), which houses the VSNs, one can directly expose the periphery to social odors and pheromones while recording downstream activity in the AOB. This procedure enables controlled inquiries into AOS information processing, which can shed light on mechanisms linking pheromone exposure to changes in behavior. PMID:25145699

  4. Quality of rolled barley flakes as affected by batch of grain and processing technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundberg, B; Abrahamsson, L; Aman, P

    1994-02-01

    Rolled barely flakes were prepared from three different batches of grain by pearling, steaming and rolling. Autoclaved and malted barleys from the three batches were also processed in the same way. Analysis of the nine products showed that both batch of barley and process had significant effects on chemical composition and viscosity. Puddings were prepared from the products and mechanical consistency, juiciness and grain consistency were graded on both newly prepared and heated puddings by a sensory taste panel. Batch of barley had no effect on mechanical consistency but significant effects on juiciness and grain consistency. Type of processing had significant effect on all three parameters for both newly prepared and heated puddings. PMID:8153065

  5. Techniques for determining probabilities of events and processes affecting the performance of geologic repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Environmental Protection Agency has established a standard for the performance of geologic repositories for the disposal of radioactive waste. This standard is probabilistic in nature, but the methods for determining probabilities of events and processes of interest in implementing such a standard are still being developed. Decision Theory, which involves Bayesian probability techniques, can serve as a framework for estimating the probability of occurrence of processes and events that are likely to disrupt a geologic repository. This report presents the mathematical basis for such a methodology and demonstrates an application of it in three areas: climate change, tectonic events, and human intrusion. 125 refs., 27 figs., 14 tabs

  6. Market oriented new product development: How can a means-end chain approach affect the process?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Helle Alsted

    Few disagree on the advantage of market oriented product development. However, can a well-known theory on consumer behaviour be used as a catalyst for achieving it? This paper describes a case study where means-end chain (MEC) approach was introduced to a cross-functional development team at two...... different stages of the development process. Results show that MEC data is perceived as a good way of gaining knowledge about consumers; that the information serves well as the basis of discussions and for keeping project goals fixed. The results also indicate that MEC data are most valuable to the team in...... the early stages of development process....

  7. Mutations affecting mRNA processing and fimbrial biogenesis in the Escherichia coli pap operon.

    OpenAIRE

    P. Nilsson; Naureckiene, S; Uhlin, B E

    1996-01-01

    The Escherichia coli pap genetic determinant includes 11 genes and encodes expression of Pap pili on the bacterial surface. An RNase E-dependent mRNA-processing event in the intercistronic papB-papA region results in the accumulation of a papA-gene-specific mRNA in considerable excess of the primary papB-papA mRNA transcription product. We have introduced mutations in the intercistronic region and studied the effect in vivo of these mutations on the processing event, PapA protein expression, ...

  8. Investigations of coupled biogeochemical processes affecting the transformation of U: Integration of synchrotron-based approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The summary of this paper is that: (1) An improved understanding of fundamental coupled biogeochemical processes obviously is critical for decision making for environmental remediation and long-term stewardship. (2) Synchrotron x-ray radiation provides the most versatile and powerful approach for directly determining the chemical speciation of the radionuclide and heavy metal contaminants of concern to DOE. (3) Integration of synchrotron approaches with integrated multidisciplinary scientific investigations provides a powerful way of understanding coupled biogeochemical processes whereby the scientific question drives the development of new synchrotron-based technologies and the unique information provided by the synchrotron-based technology enables the development of new scientific hypotheses and insights

  9. The bimusical brain is not two monomusical brains in one: evidence from musical affective processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Patrick C M; Chan, Alice H D; Roy, Anil; Margulis, Elizabeth H

    2011-12-01

    Complex auditory exposures in ambient environments include systems of not only linguistic but also musical sounds. Because musical exposure is often passive, consisting of listening rather than performing, examining listeners without formal musical training allows for the investigation of the effects of passive exposure on our nervous system without active use. Additionally, studying listeners who have exposure to more than one musical system allows for an evaluation of how the brain acquires multiple symbolic and communicative systems. In the present fMRI study, listeners who had been exposed to Western-only (monomusicals) and both Indian and Western musical systems (bimusicals) since childhood and did not have significant formal musical training made tension judgments on Western and Indian music. Significant group by music interactions in temporal and limbic regions were found, with effects predominantly driven by between-music differences in temporal regions in the monomusicals and by between-music differences in limbic regions in the bimusicals. Effective connectivity analysis of this network via structural equation modeling (SEM) showed significant path differences across groups and music conditions, most notably a higher degree of connectivity and larger differentiation between the music conditions within the bimusicals. SEM was also used to examine the relationships among the degree of music exposure, affective responses, and activation in various brain regions. Results revealed a more complex behavioral-neural relationship in the bimusicals, suggesting that affective responses in this group are shaped by multiple behavioral and neural factors. These three lines of evidence suggest a clear differentiation of the effects of the exposure of one versus multiple musical systems. PMID:21812560

  10. Inferential Judgments Affecting the Decision-Making Process in the Attorney General's Commission on Pornography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouran, Dennis S.

    Although the Attorney General's Commission on Pornography, also known as the Meese Commission, has been criticized excessively at times for threatening freedom of speech and press and individual rights to privacy, an analysis of its "Final Report" reveals numerous deficiencies in the Commission's decision-making process. These deficiencies,…

  11. 76 FR 30509 - Court Orders and Legal Processes Affecting Thrift Savings Plan Accounts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-26

    ... character. As a result, no notice and comment period is required by the Administrative Procedure Act. See 5... finalize the process by which TSP accounts may be garnished efficiently--consistent with law and regulation..., no notice and comment period is required by the Administrative Procedure Act (APA). See 5 U.S.C....

  12. The Influence of Affective States on the Process of Lie Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhard, Marc-Andre; Schwarz, Norbert

    2012-01-01

    Lay theories about the tell tale signs of deception include numerous nonverbal cues; empirically, however, a focus on message content results in better lie detection than a focus on nonverbal elements. Feelings-as-information theory (Schwarz, 1990, 2012) predicts that systematic processing of message content is more likely under sad than happy…

  13. Study of Excipients Affecting Dissolution Profile of Drug with Special Emphasis on Co Processed Excipients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parmar K

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of present work is to study the impact of various excipients and co-processed excipientson dissolution rate. Direct compression is the preferred method for the preparation of tablets. Coprocessing is the one of the most widely explored and commercially utilized method for the preparationof directly compressible vehicle. The objective of present study is to prepare and characterize various coprocessed excipients and its application in tablet formulation. Co-processed excipient prepared wascharacterized by flow properties, solubility, Hardness, Friability, % drug content in tablet formulation.FTIR and SEM show no physical interaction between them with no chemical change. Co processing ofexcipients was evaluated for Drug release, mean dissolution time and dissolution efficiency Sucrose:MCC (2:1 used to extend the drug release up to 6 hr, we can prepare sustain release tablet of this COprocessing by incorporation of sustain release polymer. MCC: Kyron was used to prepare immediatedrug release. So based on these properties we was prepared immediate release formulation and sustainrelease formulation. Co-processing of Sucrose: MCC have been used to achieve sustain release byincorporation of pectin, by using this combination we can achieve sustain release up to 10 hr similarlyKyron: MCC was used in immediate release formulation. Comparison with both IR and SR marketedproduct and evaluated for F2 test shows there is similarity in dissolution profile between both thebatches.

  14. Neural correlates of cognitive and affective processing in maltreated youth with posttraumatic stress symptoms: Does gender matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Crozier, Joseph C.; Wang, Lihong; Huettel, Scott A.; De Bellis, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the relationship of gender to cognitive and affective processing in maltreated youth with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Maltreated (N=29; n=13 females, n=16 males) and non-maltreated participants (N=45; n=26 females, n=19 males) performed an emotional oddball task that involved detection of targets with fear or scrambled face distractors. Results were moderated by gender. During the executive component of this task, ...

  15. Spatial Cognition, Body Representation and Affective Processes: The Role of Vestibular Information beyond Ocular Reflexes and Control of Posture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred W Mast

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A growing number of studies in humans demonstrate the involvement of vestibular information in tasks that are seemingly remote from well-known functions such as space constancy or postural control. In this review article we point out three emerging streams of research highlighting the importance of vestibular input: 1 Spatial Cognition: Modulation of vestibular signals can induce specific changes in spatial cognitive tasks like mental imagery and the processing of numbers. This has been shown in studies manipulating body orientation (changing the input from the otoliths, body rotation (changing the input from the semicircular canals, in clinical findings with vestibular patients, and in studies carried out in microgravity. There is also an effect in the reverse direction; top-down processes can affect perception of vestibular stimuli. 2 Body Representation: Numerous studies demonstrate that vestibular stimulation changes the representation of body parts, and sensitivity to tactile input or pain. Thus, the vestibular system plays an integral role in multisensory coordination of body representation. 3 Affective Processes and Disorders: Studies in psychiatric patients and patients with a vestibular disorder report a high comorbidity of vestibular dysfunctions and psychiatric symptoms. Recent studies investigated the beneficial effect of vestibular stimulation on psychiatric disorders, and how vestibular input can change mood and affect. These three emerging streams of research in vestibular science are – at least in part – associated with different neuronal core mechanisms. Spatial transformations draw on parietal areas, body representation is associated with somatosensory areas, and affective processes involve insular and cingulate cortices, all of which receive vestibular input. Even though a wide range of different vestibular cortical projection areas has been ascertained, their functionality still is scarcely understood.

  16. FACTORS AFFECTING FARMER???S ADOPTION OF TECHNOLOGY FOR PROCESSING BEEF CATTLE WASTE ON INTEGRATED FARMING SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Abdullah, Agustina; M Ali, Hikmah; J. A. Syamsu1

    2014-01-01

    FACTORS AFFECTING FARMER???S ADOPTION OF TECHNOLOGY FOR PROCESSING BEEF CATTLE WASTE ON INTEGRATED FARMING SYSTEMS Agustina Abdullah 1*), J. A.Syamsu 1) dan Hikmah M.A 1) 1) Faculty of Animal Agriculture, Hasanuddin University. * Corresponding author : Jl.Perintis Kemerdekaan Km.10 Tamalanrea, Makassar - 90245 South Sulawesi. Email address : ABSTRACT Integrated farming systems of beef cattle with paddy is the best strategy to improve the op...

  17. Subliminal cues bias perception of facial affect in patients with social phobia: evidence for enhanced unconscious threat processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jusyte, Aiste; Schönenberg, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Socially anxious individuals have been shown to exhibit altered processing of facial affect, especially expressions signaling threat. Enhanced unaware processing has been suggested an important mechanism which may give rise to anxious conscious cognition and behavior. This study investigated whether individuals with social anxiety disorder (SAD) are perceptually more vulnerable to the biasing effects of subliminal threat cues compared to healthy controls. In a perceptual judgment task, 23 SAD and 23 matched control participants were asked to rate the affective valence of parametrically manipulated affective expressions ranging from neutral to angry. Each trial was preceded by subliminal presentation of an angry/neutral cue. The SAD group tended to rate target faces as "angry" when the preceding subliminal stimulus was angry vs. neutral, while healthy participants were not biased by the subliminal stimulus presentation. The perceptual bias in SAD was also associated with higher reaction time latencies in the subliminal angry cue condition. The results provide further support for enhanced unconscious threat processing in SAD individuals. The implications for etiology, maintenance, and treatment of SAD are discussed. PMID:25136307

  18. Subliminal Cues Bias Perception of Facial Affect in Patients with Generalized Social Phobia: Evidence for Enhanced Unconscious Threat Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiste eJusyte

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractSocially anxious individuals have been shown to exhibit altered processing of facial affect, especially expressions signalling threat. Enhanced unaware processing has been suggested an important mechanism which may give rise to anxious conscious cognition and behavior. This study investigated whether individuals with social anxiety disorder (SAD are perceptually more vulnerable to the biasing effects of subliminal threat cues compared to healthy controls. In a perceptual judgment task, 23 SAD and 23 matched control participants were asked to rate the affective valence of parametrically manipulated affective expressions ranging from neutral to angry. Each trial was preceded by subliminal presentation of an angry/ neutral cue. The SAD group tended to rate target faces as angry when the preceding subliminal stimulus was angry vs. neutral, while healthy participants were not biased by the subliminal stimulus presentation. The perceptual bias in SAD was also associated with higher reaction time latencies in the subliminal angry cue condition. The results provide further support for enhanced unconscious threat processing in SAD individuals. The implications for etiology, maintenance and treatment of SAD are discussed.

  19. Extrusion and Extruded Products: Changes in Quality Attributes as Affected by Extrusion Process Parameters: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, M S; Kaur, Jasmeen; Khaira, Harjot; Gupta, Kalika

    2016-01-01

    Extrusion of foods is an emerging technology for the food industries to process and market a large number of products of varying size, shape, texture, and taste. Extrusion cooking technology has led to production of wide variety of products like pasta, breakfast cereals, bread crumbs, biscuits, crackers, croutons, baby foods, snack foods, confectionery items, chewing gum, texturized vegetable protein (TVP), modified starch, pet foods, dried soups, dry beverage mixes etc. The functional properties of extruded foods plays an important role for their acceptability which include water absorption, water solubility, oil absorption indexes, expansion index, bulk density and viscosity of the dough. The aim of this review is to give the detailed outlines about the potential of extrusion technology in development of different types of products and the role of extrusion-operating conditions and their effect on product development resulting in quality changes i.e physical, chemical, and nutritional, experienced during the extrusion process. PMID:25574813

  20. HOW LABELING OF SAFETY AND PROCESS ATTRIBUTES AFFECTS MARKETS FOR FOOD

    OpenAIRE

    Julie A Caswell

    1998-01-01

    Consumers are increasingly considering information on the safety and process (how foods are produced) attributes of food in making their buying decisions. Producers, processors, and retailers may choose voluntary labeling of these attributes, may be required to label by government regulations, or may use a combination of these approaches. The market effects depend on consumer perceptions of the attributes, the benefits and costs of labeling for companies, and the goals of government policy. T...

  1. Conjugated linoleic acid of dairy foods is affected by cows’ feeding system and processing of milk

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Pablo Avilez Ruiz; Marcelo Wladimir Alonzo; Manuel Delgado Pertíñez

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The distribution of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in dairy products commercially available in Chile is poorly understood. This study aimed to assess the content of CLA in dairy cow products from Chile and the effect of processing fresh milk into dairy products. Samples of raw milk were categorized into two groups based on the animal feeding system utilized by the dairy farm: 1) grazing based systems (Los Lagos region); and 2) housing systems using total mixed ration (TMR) diets (Los...

  2. Neurophysiological processing of emotion and parenting interact to predict inhibited behavior: an affective-motivational framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessel, Ellen M; Huselid, Rebecca F; Decicco, Jennifer M; Dennis, Tracy A

    2013-01-01

    Although inhibited behavior problems are prevalent in childhood, relatively little is known about the intrinsic and extrinsic factors that predict a child's ability to regulate inhibited behavior during fear- and anxiety-provoking tasks. Inhibited behavior may be linked to both disruptions in avoidance-related processing of aversive stimuli and in approach-related processing of appetitive stimuli, but previous findings are contradictory and rarely integrate consideration of the socialization context. The current exploratory study used a novel combination of neurophysiological and observation-based methods to examine whether a neurophysiological measure sensitive to approach- and avoidance-oriented emotional processing, the late positive potential (LPP), interacted with observed approach- (promotion) and avoidance- (prevention) oriented parenting practices to predict children's observed inhibited behavior. Participants were 5- to 7-year-old (N = 32) typically-developing children (M = 75.72 months, SD = 6.01). Electroencephalography was continuously recorded while children viewed aversive, appetitive, or neutral images, and the LPP was generated to each picture type separately. Promotion and prevention parenting were observed during an emotional challenge with the child. Child inhibited behavior was observed during a fear and a social evaluation task. As predicted, larger LPPs to aversive images predicted more inhibited behavior during both tasks, but only when parents demonstrated low promotion. In contrast, larger LPPs to appetitive images predicted less inhibited behavior during the social evaluative task, but only when parents demonstrated high promotion; children of high promotion parents showing smaller LPPs to appetitive images showed the greatest inhibition. Parent-child goodness-of-fit and the LPP as a neural biomarker for emotional processes related to inhibited behavior are discussed. PMID:23847499

  3. Neurophysiological Processing of Emotion and Parenting Interact to Predict Inhibited Behavior: An Affective-Motivational Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen M Kessel

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Although inhibited behavior problems are prevalent in childhood, relatively little is known about the intrinsic and extrinsic factors that predict a child’s ability to regulate inhibited behavior during fear- and anxiety-provoking tasks. Inhibited behavior may be linked to both disruptions in avoidance-related processing of aversive stimuli and in approach-related processing of appetitive stimuli, but previous findings are contradictory and rarely integrate consideration of the socialization context. The current exploratory study used a novel combination of neurophysiological and observation-based methods to examine whether a neurophysiological measure sensitive to approach- and avoidance-oriented emotional processing, the late positive potential (LPP, interacted with observed approach- (promotion and avoidance- (prevention oriented parenting practices to predict children’s observed inhibited behavior. Participants were 5- to 7-year-old (N = 32 typically-developing children (M = 75.72 months, SD = 6.01. Electroencephalography was continuously recorded while children viewed aversive, appetitive, or neutral images, and the LPP was generated to each picture type separately. Promotion and prevention parenting were observed during an emotional challenge with the child. Child inhibited behavior was observed during a fear and a social evaluation task. As predicted, larger LPPs to aversive images predicted more inhibited behavior during both tasks, but only when parents demonstrated low promotion. In contrast, larger LPPs to appetitive images predicted less inhibited behavior during the social evaluative task, but only when parents demonstrated high promotion; children of high promotion parents showing smaller LPPs to appetitive images showed the greatest inhibition. Parent-child goodness-of-fit and the LPP as a neural biomarker for emotional processes related to inhibited behavior are discussed.

  4. Genetic Variation of the Serotonin 2a Receptor Affects Hippocampal Novelty Processing in Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Schott, B. H.; Seidenbecher, C. I.; Richter, S.; Wustenberg, T.; Debska-Vielhaber, G.; Schubert, H.; Heinze, H J; Richardson-Klavehn, A; Duzel, E.

    2011-01-01

    Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) is an important neuromodulator in learning and memory processes. A functional genetic polymorphism of the 5-HT 2a receptor (5-HTR2a His452Tyr), which leads to blunted intracellular signaling, has previously been associated with explicit memory performance in several independent cohorts, but the underlying neural mechanisms are thus far unclear. The human hippocampus plays a critical role in memory, particularly in the detection and encoding of novel infor...

  5. Behavioural, population, and genetic processes affecting metapopulation dynamics of the Glanville fritillary butterfly

    OpenAIRE

    Sarhan, Alia

    2006-01-01

    In my thesis I have been studying the effects of population fragmentation and extinction-recolonization dynamics on genetic and evolutionary processes in the Glanville fritillary butterfly (Melitaea cinxia). By conducting crosses within and among newly-colonized populations and using several fitness measures, I found a strong decrease in fitness following colonization by a few related individuals, and a strong negative relationship between parental relatedness and offspring fitness. Thereafte...

  6. The potential of denitrification for the stabilization of activated sludge processes affected by low alkalinity problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heike Hoffmann

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the problems provoked by nitrification of wastewater with low alkalinity were analyzed in a pilot sequencing batch activated sludge reactor (SBR. Decrease in pH resulted in disappearence of protozoa. De-flocculation of the activated sludge floc started below pH 6.5, resulting in enhanced effluent turbidity and loss of bacteria. Nitrification efficiency was affected below pH 6.2. The denitrification activity was not sufficient to keep up the pH, due to a low C/N ratio of the wastewater. Based on alkalinity and ammonia concentration of the wastewater and the necessary denitrification rate to prevent operational problems, was developed a prognostic diagram. The applicability of this diagram was tested for the SBR with excellent results. The diagram could be applied to optimize the operation of wastewater treatment plants affected by problems with low alkalinity wastewater.Os problemas provocados pela nitrificação no esgoto com baixa alcalinidade foram analisados num reator piloto do tipo lodos ativados seqüencial por batelada (RSB, alimentado por esgoto urbano. A diminuição do pH se mostrou em três níveis: com pH de 6,8 - 6,0 os protozoários, responsáveis para a filtração da fase liquida, desaparecerem; os flocos de lodos ativados começaram a se destruir abaixo pH 6,5 resultando em elevação da turbidez no efluente final e abaixo de pH 6,2-6,0 a nitrificação foi afetada. A influência da desnitrificação para manter o pH foi analisada. Devido a baixa relação C:N no esgoto pré-tratado, a desnitrificação não se mostrou suficiente para manter o pH estável. Este trabalho apresenta o cálculo da alcalinidade que considera a influência da nitrificação e desnitrificação, de acordo com os resultados obtidos no RSB. Baseado nesse cálculo, foi desenvolvida uma recomendação na forma gráfica para usar em ETE´s afetadas por baixa alcalinidade.

  7. Emotional voices in context: A neurobiological model of multimodal affective information processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brück, Carolin; Kreifelts, Benjamin; Wildgruber, Dirk

    2011-12-01

    Just as eyes are often considered a gateway to the soul, the human voice offers a window through which we gain access to our fellow human beings' minds - their attitudes, intentions and feelings. Whether in talking or singing, crying or laughing, sighing or screaming, the sheer sound of a voice communicates a wealth of information that, in turn, may serve the observant listener as valuable guidepost in social interaction. But how do human beings extract information from the tone of a voice? In an attempt to answer this question, the present article reviews empirical evidence detailing the cerebral processes that underlie our ability to decode emotional information from vocal signals. The review will focus primarily on two prominent classes of vocal emotion cues: laughter and speech prosody (i.e. the tone of voice while speaking). Following a brief introduction, behavioral as well as neuroimaging data will be summarized that allows to outline cerebral mechanisms associated with the decoding of emotional voice cues, as well as the influence of various context variables (e.g. co-occurring facial and verbal emotional signals, attention focus, person-specific parameters such as gender and personality) on the respective processes. Building on the presented evidence, a cerebral network model will be introduced that proposes a differential contribution of various cortical and subcortical brain structures to the processing of emotional voice signals both in isolation and in context of accompanying (facial and verbal) emotional cues.

  8. Antioxidant vitamin contents of Capsicum annuum fruit extracts as affected by processing and varietal factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Perucka

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The presented work defines the influence of technological process on chemical composition of peppers. The technological treatments made in this work were: lyophilization and samples evaporation. Evaporation process was conducted in two conditions of temperature and pressure: I – 35°C and 70 mbar, II – 50°C and 400 mbar. The working material consisted of four pepper cultivars, two sweet: ‘King Artur’ and ‘Red Knight’, and two hot: ‘Capel Hot’ and ‘Robustini’. The changes of vitamins C and E, β-carotene, xanthophylls and phenolic compounds were investigated as processing and cultivar factors. Additionally antioxidant activity of phenolic compounds was evaluated by method with DPPH radical. The extracts prepared in conditions I had a significantly higher concentration of vitamin C, E, β-carotene, total phenol and antioxidant properties than the extracts obtained at the higher temperature and under the higher pressure. It was found that extracts obtained from hot fruits had a higher vitamin E and β-carotene contents than from the sweet ones. However, the extracts from sweet varieties were characterized by higher antioxidant properties and phenolic compounds than the ones obtained from hot peppers.

  9. Prenatal genetic testing: an investigation of determining factors affecting the decision-making process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivetti, Monica; Melotti, Giannino

    2013-02-01

    Despite the increase in popularity of prenatal genetic testing, relatively little is known about the role psychological factors play in the decision-making process. In this analogue study, a sample of Italian female university students was used to investigate determining factors that predict the intention of undergoing prenatal genetic testing. Structural Equation Modelling was used to describe the dynamic interplay between knowledge, beliefs, attitudes and health-related behaviour such as prenatal genetic testing. Following the Theory of Reasoned Action, three dimensions predicted the intention to undergo prenatal genetic testing: the need for more scientific information, a positive attitude towards genetic testing, and the inclination to terminate pregnancy after receiving a positive test result. Results showed that less religious women tended to be more in favour of prenatal tests and in undertaking such tests. This preliminary study provides genetic counsellors and policy makers with a clearer picture of their clients' motives and attitudes behind the decision-making process of prenatal genetic testing, contributing to improving both the communication process between counsellors and their clients and the organization of genetic services. PMID:22477148

  10. Factors affecting ice crystal purity during freeze concentration process for urine treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Freeze concentration has great potential in treating wastewaters containing soluble pollutions. It is important for freeze concentration process to produce ice crystals with large size and high purity. In this work raw urines of 4660-7914 mg/L in COD,512.71-872.41 mg/L in NH3-N and 22600-28800μs/cm in e lectric conductivity were studied. Urines were frozen by a digital refrigerated circulator bath. Ice crystals were purified by ice-water steep and vacuum filtration. The COD,NH3-N,and electric conductivity levels of the melted ices were measured to reflect ice crystal purity. Effects of coolant temperature, ice crystal shape, initial solution temperature, solution concentration, ice seeding, re-crystallization process and crystallization time on ice crystal purity were analyzed. The results show that an appropriate coolant temperature, suspended ice crystals,an initial solution temperature of about 6 C, introduction of seed ice, addition of re-crystallization process. And crystallization time of less than 30 min are in favor of producing ice crystals with hith purity.Under such conditions, more than 99 percent of inorganic salts, COD and NH3-N sources in raw urine could be removed.

  11. How multiple social networks affect user awareness: The information diffusion process in multiplex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weihua; Tang, Shaoting; Fang, Wenyi; Guo, Quantong; Zhang, Xiao; Zheng, Zhiming

    2015-10-01

    The information diffusion process in single complex networks has been extensively studied, especially for modeling the spreading activities in online social networks. However, individuals usually use multiple social networks at the same time, and can share the information they have learned from one social network to another. This phenomenon gives rise to a new diffusion process on multiplex networks with more than one network layer. In this paper we account for this multiplex network spreading by proposing a model of information diffusion in two-layer multiplex networks. We develop a theoretical framework using bond percolation and cascading failure to describe the intralayer and interlayer diffusion. This allows us to obtain analytical solutions for the fraction of informed individuals as a function of transmissibility T and the interlayer transmission rate θ . Simulation results show that interaction between layers can greatly enhance the information diffusion process. And explosive diffusion can occur even if the transmissibility of the focal layer is under the critical threshold, due to interlayer transmission.

  12. Students’ factors affecting undergraduates’ perceptions of their teaching and learning process within ECTS experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus eDe La Fuente

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The objective of this research was to learn what variables determine satisfaction with the teaching-learning process (TLP, from the perspective of students participating in the ECTS experience (European Credit Transfer System. Method. A total of 1490 students from the Universities of Almería and Granada (Spain participated in an evaluation of their class subjects. They completed a protocol for evaluating the ECTS experience. Analyses of Variance were carried out, taking different measures as independent variables, such as student’s grade average, year in school, branch of studies, workload in terms of ECTS credits per subject and the use of e-learning. Perception of TLP was used as the dependent variable.Results. Variables that establish significant differences in the perception of the TL process were determined. Student’s grade average (in favor of high performers, year in school (in favor of earlier years, ECTS load (in favor of subjects with a medium load of credits, and e-learning (in favor of its use establish a sufficiently delimited profile of factors that trigger a favorable perception of this process. Discussion and Conclusions. The appearance of significant differences showed that perception of TLP depends on different variables that were assessed. Thus, it is important to take these variables into consideration in giving shape to the European Higher Education Area. We comment on the results and their implications for the large-scale implementation of the ECTS.

  13. Brain Mechanisms for Processing Affective (and Nonaffective) Touch Are Atypical in Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Martha D; Yang, Daniel Y-J; Voos, Avery C; Bennett, Randi H; Gordon, Ilanit; Pretzsch, Charlotte; Beam, Danielle; Keifer, Cara; Eilbott, Jeffrey; McGlone, Francis; Pelphrey, Kevin A

    2016-06-01

    C-tactile (CT) afferents encode caress-like touch that supports social-emotional development, and stimulation of the CT system engages the insula and cortical circuitry involved in social-emotional processing. Very few neuroimaging studies have investigated the neural mechanisms of touch processing in people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), who often exhibit atypical responses to touch. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we evaluated the hypothesis that children and adolescents with ASD would exhibit atypical brain responses to CT-targeted touch. Children and adolescents with ASD, relative to typically developing (TD) participants, exhibited reduced activity in response to CT-targeted (arm) versus non-CT-targeted (palm) touch in a network of brain regions known to be involved in social-emotional information processing including bilateral insula and insular operculum, the right posterior superior temporal sulcus, bilateral temporoparietal junction extending into the inferior parietal lobule, right fusiform gyrus, right amygdala, and bilateral ventrolateral prefrontal cortex including the inferior frontal and precentral gyri, suggesting atypical social brain hypoactivation. Individuals with ASD (vs. TD) showed an enhanced response to non-CT-targeted versus CT-targeted touch in the primary somatosensory cortex, suggesting atypical sensory cortical hyper-reactivity. PMID:26048952

  14. A circadian clock in the olfactory bulb anticipates feeding during food anticipatory activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahum Nolasco

    Full Text Available Rabbit pups ingest food, in this case milk, once a day with circadian periodicity and are a natural model of food anticipatory activity. During nursing, several sensory systems receive information about properties of the food, one of them being the olfactory system, which has received little attention in relation to synchronization by food. In addition, the olfactory bulb has a circadian pacemaker that exhibits rhythms independently of the suprachiasmatic nucleus, but the biological functions of these rhythms are largely unknown. In the present contribution, we hypothesized that circadian suckling of milk synchronizes rhythms in the olfactory bulb. To this aim we explored by immunohistochemistry, rhythms of FOS and PER1 proteins, as indicators of activation and reporter of oscillations, respectively, through a complete 24-h cycle in periglomerular, mitral and granular cell layers of both the main and the accessory olfactory bulb. Subjects were 7-day-old rabbit pups scheduled to nurse during the night (02:00 h or day (10:00 h, and also fasted subjects, to explore the possible persistence of oscillations. In the three layers of the main olfactory bulb, FOS was high at time of nursing, then further increased 1.5 h afterward, and then decreased to increase again in advance of the next nursing bout. This pattern persisted, without the postprandial increase, in fasted subjects with a shift in subjects nursed at 02:00. PER1 was increased 2-8 h after nursing and this increase persisted in most cell layers, with a shift, in fasted subjects. In the accessory olfactory bulb we only observed a consistent pattern of FOS expression in the mitral cell layer of nursed subjects, similar to that of the main olfactory bulb. We conclude that the main olfactory bulb is synchronized during milk ingestion, but during fasting its oscillations perhaps are modulated by the suprachiasmatic nucleus, as proposed for rodents.

  15. Fungal endophyte Phomopsis liquidambari affects nitrogen transformation processes and related microorganisms in the rice rhizosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo eYang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The endophytic fungus Phomopsis liquidambari performs an important ecosystem service by assisting its host with acquiring soil nitrogen (N, but little is known regarding how this fungus influences soil N nutrient properties and microbial communities. In this study, we investigated the impact of P. liquidambari on N dynamics,the abundance and composition of N cycling genes in rhizosphere soil treated with three levels of N (urea. Ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA, ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB and diazotrophs were assayed using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis at four rice growing stages (S0: before planting, S1: tillering stage, S2: grain filling stage, and S3: ripening stage. A significant increase in the available nitrate and ammonium contents was found in the rhizosphere soil of endophyte-infected rice under low N conditions. Moreover, P. liquidambari significantly increased the potential nitrification rates (PNR, affected the abundance and community structure of AOA, AOB and diazotrophs under low N conditions in the S1 and S2 stages. The root exudates were determined due to their important role in rhizosphere interactions. P. liquidambari colonization altered the exudation of organic compounds by rice roots and P. liquidambari increased the concentration of soluble saccharides, total free amino acids and organic acids

  16. Anthropogenic processing of dust affects the oxygen content of the North Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nenes, Athanasios; Ito, Taka; Johnson, Matthew; Meskhidze, Nicholas; Valett, Jackie; Deutsch, Curtis

    2015-04-01

    Observations from the last several decades show a significant expansion of the tropical Pacific oxygen minimum zone (OMZ). However, the underlying causes remain elusive, as the currently accepted effects of ocean warming and associated solubility decease cannot fully explain the observed oxygen trend. Here we show that anthropogenic pollution can change the pattern of biological productivity and oxygen trends consistent with observations in the tropics and extratropics. These effects are caused by the mobilization of iron in mineral dust by pollutants, where it is transported and deposited to the HNLC regions of the tropical pacific affecting primary productivity and oxygen consumption by bacterial respiration. In this study, it is shown that pollution-mobilized iron deposited to high latitude oceanic environments can profoundly impact subsurface oxygen and the extent of the OMZ through long-range oceanic transport. Together with the intensification of tropical upwelling since the 1990s associated with natural climate variability, our results can explain the expansion of the OMZ in the tropical Pacific in the late twentieth century. Unlike climate variability, however, anthropogenic pollution likely influences the long-term trends in marine biogeochemistry and further alters regional productivity and subsurface oxygen distributions with profound implications for marine habitats and nitrate inventory of the oceans.

  17. From Positivity to Negativity Bias: Ambiguity Affects the Neurophysiological Signatures of Feedback Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Henning; Schnuerch, Robert; Stahl, Jutta

    2016-04-01

    Previous studies on the neurophysiological underpinnings of feedback processing almost exclusively used low-ambiguity feedback, which does not fully address the diversity of situations in everyday life. We therefore used a pseudo trial-and-error learning task to investigate ERPs of low- versus high-ambiguity feedback. Twenty-eight participants tried to deduce the rule governing visual feedback to their button presses in response to visual stimuli. In the blocked condition, the same two feedback words were presented across several consecutive trials, whereas in the random condition feedback was randomly drawn on each trial from sets of five positive and five negative words. The feedback-related negativity (FRN-D), a frontocentral ERP difference between negative and positive feedback, was significantly larger in the blocked condition, whereas the centroparietal late positive complex indicating controlled attention was enhanced for negative feedback irrespective of condition. Moreover, FRN-D in the blocked condition was due to increased reward positivity (Rew-P) for positive feedback, rather than increased (raw) FRN for negative feedback. Our findings strongly support recent lines of evidence that the FRN-D, one of the most widely studied signatures of reinforcement learning in the human brain, critically depends on feedback discriminability and is primarily driven by the Rew-P. A novel finding concerned larger frontocentral P2 for negative feedback in the random but not the blocked condition. Although Rew-P points to a positivity bias in feedback processing under conditions of low feedback ambiguity, P2 suggests a specific adaptation of information processing in case of highly ambiguous feedback, involving an early negativity bias. Generalizability of the P2 findings was demonstrated in a second experiment using explicit valence categorization of highly emotional positive and negative adjectives. PMID:26765948

  18. Biogeochemical processes and buffering capacity concurrently affect acidification in a seasonally hypoxic coastal marine basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hagens

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Coastal areas are impacted by multiple natural and anthropogenic processes and experience stronger pH fluctuations than the open ocean. These variations can weaken or intensify the ocean acidification signal induced by increasing atmospheric pCO2. The development of eutrophication-induced hypoxia intensifies coastal acidification, since the CO2 produced during respiration decreases the buffering capacity of the hypoxic bottom water. To assess the combined ecosystem impacts of acidification and hypoxia, we quantified the seasonal variation in pH and oxygen dynamics in the water column of a seasonally stratified coastal basin (Lake Grevelingen, the Netherlands. Monthly water column chemistry measurements were complemented with estimates of primary production and respiration using O2 light-dark incubations, in addition to sediment-water fluxes of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC and total alkalinity (TA. The resulting dataset was used to set up a proton budget on a seasonal scale. Temperature-induced seasonal stratification combined with a high community respiration was responsible for the depletion of oxygen in the bottom water in summer. The surface water showed strong seasonal variation in process rates (primary production, CO2 air–sea exchange, but relatively small seasonal pH fluctuations (0.46 units on the total hydrogen ion scale. In contrast, the bottom water showed less seasonality in biogeochemical rates (respiration, sediment–water exchange, but stronger pH fluctuations (0.60 units. This marked difference in pH dynamics could be attributed to a substantial reduction in the acid-base buffering capacity of the hypoxic bottom water in the summer period. Our results highlight the importance of acid-base buffering in the pH dynamics of coastal systems and illustrate the increasing vulnerability of hypoxic, CO2-rich waters to any acidifying process.

  19. Common African cooking processes do not affect the aflatoxin binding efficacy of refined calcium montmorillonite clay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmore, Sarah E; Mitchell, Nicole; Mays, Travis; Brown, Kristal; Marroquin-Cardona, Alicia; Romoser, Amelia; Phillips, Timothy D

    2014-03-01

    Aflatoxins are common contaminants of staple crops, such as corn and groundnuts, and a significant cause of concern for food safety and public health in developing countries. Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) has been implicated in the etiology of acute and chronic disease in humans and animals, including growth stunting, liver cancer and death. Cost effective and culturally acceptable intervention strategies for the reduction of dietary AFB1 exposure are of critical need in populations at high risk for aflatoxicosis. Fermented gruels consisting of cornmeal are a common source for such exposure and are consumed by both children and adults in many countries with a history of frequent, high-level aflatoxin exposure. One proposed method to reduce aflatoxins in the diet is to include a selective enterosorbent, Uniform Particle Size NovaSil (UPSN), as a food additive in contaminated foods. For UPSN to be effective in this capacity, it must be stable in complex, acidic mixtures that are often exposed to heat during the process of fermented gruel preparation. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to test the ability of UPSN to sorb aflatoxin while common cooking conditions were applied. The influence of fermentation, heat treatment, acidity, and processing time were investigated with and without UPSN. Analyses were performed using the field-practical Vicam assay with HPLC verification of trends. Our findings demonstrated that UPSN significantly reduced aflatoxin levels (47-100%) in cornmeal, regardless of processing conditions. Upon comparison of each element tested, time appeared to be the primary factor influencing UPSN efficacy. The greatest decreases in AFB1 were reported in samples allowed to incubate (with or without fermentation) for 72 hrs. This data suggests that addition of UPSN to staple corn ingredients likely to contain aflatoxins would be a sustainable approach to reduce exposure. PMID:24311894

  20. Identification of Loop Nucleotide Polymorphisms Affecting MicroRNA Processing and Function

    OpenAIRE

    Xiong, Xiaoxing; Kang, Xianhui; Zheng, Yueying; Yue, Sibiao; Zhu, Shengmei

    2013-01-01

    MicroRNAs are short 21–22 nucleotide single strand RNAs that are involved in post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. Most microRNAs are first transcribed as long primary microRNAs and then undergo a two step-wise sequential processing to yield single-stranded mature microRNAs. It has been suggested that the loop region of primary microRNAs plays an important role in regulating microRNA biogenesis and target recognition. However, despite the fact that several single nucleotide poly...

  1. Dyads and triads at 35,000 feet - Factors affecting group process and aircrew performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foushee, H. C.

    1984-01-01

    The task of flying a multipilot transport aircraft is a classic small-group performance situation where a number of social, organizational, and personality factors are relevant to important outcome variables such as safety. The aviation community is becoming increasingly aware of the importance of these factors but is hampered in its efforts to improve the system because of research psychology's problems in defining the nature of the group process. This article identifies some of the problem areas as well as methods used to address these issues. It is argued that high fidelity flight simulators provide an environment that offers unique opportunities for work meeting both basic and applied research criteria.

  2. Dyads and triads at 35,000 feet: Factors affecting group process and aircrew performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foushee, H. Clayton

    1987-01-01

    The task of flying a multipilot transport aircraft is a classic small-group performance situation where a number of social, organizational, and personality factors are relevant to important outcome variables such as safety. The aviation community is becoming increasingly aware of the importance of these factors but is hampered in its efforts to improve the system because of research psychology's problems in defining the nature of the group process. This article identifies some of the problem areas as well as methods used to address these issues. It is argued that high fidelity flight simulators provide an environment that offers unique opportunities for work meeting both basic and applied research criteria.

  3. Removal of ovarian hormones affects the ageing process of acetate metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsunehiko Imai

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite a close association between gastrointestinal motility and sex hormones, it has been unknown whether ovarian hormones affect absorption and metabolism of nutrients. The aim of this study is, therefore, to evaluate metabolism of acetate in rats with age and the influence of ovariectomy on its change. Methods: Fourteen female rats of the F344 strain were used, and 13C-acetate breath test was performed at 2, 7 and 13 months of age. Seven rats were ovariectomized at three weeks of age (ovariectomy group and the remaining seven rats were studied as control group. After 24-hr fasting, rats are orally administrated 1ml of water containing sodium 13C-acetate (100mg/kg and housed in an animal chamber. The expired air in the chamber is collected in a breath-sampling bag using a aspiration pump. The 13CO2 concentration is measured using an infrared spectrometer for 120 min and expressed as delta per mil. Results: The breath 13CO2 excretion increased with time and peaked 30 min in control rats. In ovariectomized rats, thee peak time of 13CO2 excretion was prolonged to 40 min at 7 and 13 months of age. Cmax was significantly higher at 2 months of age but lower at 4 months of age in ovariectomized rats than in control rats. Those of two groups became equal at 7 months of age. Conclusions: From the viewpoint of acetate metabolism, removal of ovarian hormones might make rats to be precocious ones and accelerate ageing.

  4. Spatial Variation and Resuscitation Process Affecting Survival after Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrests (OHCA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Chou Chen

    Full Text Available Ambulance response times and resuscitation efforts are critical predictors of the survival rate after out-of-hospital cardiac arrests (OHCA. On the other hand, rural-urban differences in the OHCA survival rates are an important public health issue.We retrospectively reviewed the January 2011-December 2013 OHCA registry data of Kaohsiung City, Taiwan. With particular focus on geospatial variables, we aimed to unveil risk factors predicting the overall OHCA survival until hospital admission. Spatial analysis, network analysis, and the Kriging method by using geographic information systems were applied to analyze spatial variations and calculate the transport distance. Logistic regression was used to identify the risk factors for OHCA survival.Among the 4,957 patients, the overall OHCA survival to hospital admission was 16.5%. In the multivariate analysis, female sex (adjusted odds ratio:, AOR, 1.24 [1.06-1.45], events in public areas (AOR: 1.30 [1.05-1.61], exposure to automated external defibrillator (AED shock (AOR: 1.70 [1.30-2.23], use of laryngeal mask airway (LMA (AOR: 1.35 [1.16-1.58], non-trauma patients (AOR: 1.41 [1.04-1.90], ambulance bypassed the closest hospital (AOR: 1.28 [1.07-1.53], and OHCA within the high population density areas (AOR: 1.89 [1.55-2.32] were positively associated with improved OHCA survival. By contrast, a prolonged total emergency medical services (EMS time interval was negatively associated with OHCA survival (AOR: 0.98 [0.96-0.99].Resuscitative efforts, such as AED or LMA use, and a short total EMS time interval improved OHCA outcomes in emergency departments. The spatial heterogeneity of emergency medical resources between rural and urban areas might affect survival rate.

  5. The Cognitive Processes underlying Affective Decision-making Predicting Adolescent Smoking Behaviors in a Longitudinal Study

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    Lin eXiao

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the relationship between three different cognitive processes underlying the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT and adolescent smoking behaviors in a longitudinal study. We conducted a longitudinal study of 181 Chinese adolescents in Chengdu City, China. The participants were followed from 10th grade to 11th grade. When they were in the 10th grade (Time 1, we tested these adolescents’ decision-making using the Iowa Gambling Task and working memory capacity using the Self-ordered Pointing Test (SOPT. Self-report questionnaires were used to assess school academic performance and smoking behaviors. The same questionnaires were completed again at the one-year follow-up (Time 2. The Expectancy-Valence (EV Model was applied to distill the IGT performance into three different underlying psychological components: (i a motivational component which indicates the subjective weight the adolescents assign to gains versus losses; (ii a learning-rate component which indicates the sensitivity to recent outcomes versus past experiences; and (iii a response component which indicates how consistent the adolescents are between learning and responding. The subjective weight to gains vs. losses at Time 1 significantly predicted current smokers and current smoking levels at Time 2, controlling for demographic variables and baseline smoking behaviors. Therefore, by decomposing the IGT into three different psychological components, we found that the motivational process of weight gain vs. losses may serve as a neuropsychological marker to predict adolescent smoking behaviors in a general youth population.

  6. Micro-Raman spectroscopy shows how the coating process affects the characteristics of hydroxylapatite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saber-Samandari, Saeed; Alamara, Kadhim; Saber-Samandari, Samaneh; Gross, Karlis A

    2013-12-01

    The diversity in the structural and chemical state of apatites allows implant manufacturers to fine-tune implant properties. This requires suitable manufacturing processes and characterization tools to adjust the amorphous phase and hydroxyl content from the source hydroxylapatite. Hydroxylapatite was processed by high-velocity oxy-fuel spraying, plasma spraying and flame spraying, and primarily analyzed by Raman spectroscopy. Investigation of rounded splats, the building blocks of thermal spray coatings, allowed correlation between the visual identity of the splat surface and the Raman spectra. Splats were heat-treated to crystallize any remaining amorphous phase. The ν1 PO4 stretching peak at 950-970 cm(-1) displayed the crystalline order, but the hydroxyl peak at 3572 cm(-1) followed the degree of dehydroxylation. Hydroxyl loss was greatest for flame-sprayed particles, which create the longest residence time for the melted particle. Higher-frequency hydroxyl peaks in flame- and plasma-sprayed splats indicated a lower structural order for the recrystallized hydroxylapatite within the splats. Crystallization at 700 °C has shown potential for revealing hydroxyl ions previously trapped in amorphous calcium phosphate. This work compares Fourier transform infrared and Raman spectroscopy to measure the hydroxyl content in rapidly solidified apatites and shows that Raman spectroscopy is more suitable. PMID:23973389

  7. Network-based analysis of affected biological processes in type 2 diabetes models.

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    Manway Liu

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a complex disorder associated with multiple genetic, epigenetic, developmental, and environmental factors. Animal models of type 2 diabetes differ based on diet, drug treatment, and gene knockouts, and yet all display the clinical hallmarks of hyperglycemia and insulin resistance in peripheral tissue. The recent advances in gene-expression microarray technologies present an unprecedented opportunity to study type 2 diabetes mellitus at a genome-wide scale and across different models. To date, a key challenge has been to identify the biological processes or signaling pathways that play significant roles in the disorder. Here, using a network-based analysis methodology, we identified two sets of genes, associated with insulin signaling and a network of nuclear receptors, which are recurrent in a statistically significant number of diabetes and insulin resistance models and transcriptionally altered across diverse tissue types. We additionally identified a network of protein-protein interactions between members from the two gene sets that may facilitate signaling between them. Taken together, the results illustrate the benefits of integrating high-throughput microarray studies, together with protein-protein interaction networks, in elucidating the underlying biological processes associated with a complex disorder.

  8. Odorant recognition using biological responses recorded in olfactory bulb of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vizcay, Marcela A; Duarte-Mermoud, Manuel A; Aylwin, María de la Luz

    2015-01-01

    In this study we applied pattern recognition (PR) techniques to extract odorant information from local field potential (LFP) signals recorded in the olfactory bulb (OB) of rats subjected to different odorant stimuli. We claim that LFP signals registered on the OB, the first stage of olfactory processing, are stimulus specific in animals with normal sensory experience, and that these patterns correspond to the neural substrate likely required for perceptual discrimination. Thus, these signals can be used as input to an artificial odorant classification system with great success. In this paper we have designed and compared the performance of several configurations of artificial olfaction systems (AOS) based on the combination of four feature extraction (FE) methods (Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Fisher Transformation (FT), Sammon NonLinear Map (NLM) and Wavelet Transform (WT)), and three PR techniques (Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA), Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) and Support Vector Machine (SVM)), when four different stimuli are presented to rats. The best results were reached when PCA extraction followed by SVM as classifier were used, obtaining a classification accuracy of over 95% for all four stimuli. PMID:25464359

  9. Retronasal odor concentration coding in glomeruli of the rat olfactory bulb

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    Justus V Verhagen

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The mammalian olfactory system processes odorants presented orthonasally (inhalation through the nose and also retronasally (exhalation, enabling identification of both external as well as internal objects during food consumption. There are distinct differences between ortho- and retronasal air flow patterns, psychophysics, multimodal integration and glomerular responses. Recent work indicates that rats can also detect odors retronasally, that rats can associate retronasal odors with tastes, and that their olfactory bulbs (OBs can respond to retronasal odorants but differently than to orthonasal odors. To further characterize retronasal OB input activity patterns, experiments here focus on determining the effects of odorant concentration on glomerular activity by monitoring calcium activity in the dorsal OB of rats using a dextran-conjugated calcium-sensitive dye in vivo. Results showed reliable concentration-response curves that differed between odorants, and recruitment of additional glomeruli, as odorant concentration increases. We found evidence of different concentration-response functions between glomeruli, that in turn depended on odor. Further, the relation between dynamics and concentration differed remarkably among retronasal odorants. These dynamics are suggested to reduce the odor map ambiguity based on response amplitude. Elucidating the coding of retronasal odor intensity is fundamental to the understanding of feeding behavior and the neural basis of flavor. These data further establish and refine the rodent model of flavor neuroscience.

  10. The functional significance of newly born neurons integrated into olfactory bulb circuits

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    Masayuki eSakamoto

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The olfactory bulb (OB is the first central processing center for olfactory information connecting with higher areas in the brain, and this neuronal circuitry mediates a variety of odor-evoked behavioral responses. In the adult mammalian brain, continuous neurogenesis occurs in two restricted regions, the subventricular zone (SVZ of the lateral ventricle and the hippocampal dentate gyrus. New neurons born in the SVZ migrate through the rostral migratory stream and are integrated into the neuronal circuits of the OB throughout life. The significance of this continuous supply of new neurons in the OB has been implicated in plasticity and memory regulation. Two decades of huge investigation in adult neurogenesis revealed the biological importance of integration of new neurons into the olfactory circuits. In this review, we highlight the recent findings about the physiological functions of newly generated neurons in rodent OB circuits and then discuss the contribution of neurogenesis in the brain function. Finally, we introduce cutting edge technologies to monitor and manipulate the activity of new neurons.

  11. Reliable sex and strain discrimination in the mouse vomeronasal organ and accessory olfactory bulb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolokh, Illya I; Fu, Xiaoyan; Holy, Timothy E

    2013-08-21

    Animals modulate their courtship and territorial behaviors in response to olfactory cues produced by other animals. In rodents, detecting these cues is the primary role of the accessory olfactory system (AOS). We sought to systematically investigate the natural stimulus coding logic and robustness in neurons of the first two stages of accessory olfactory processing, the vomeronasal organ (VNO) and accessory olfactory bulb (AOB). We show that firing rate responses of just a few well-chosen mouse VNO or AOB neurons can be used to reliably encode both sex and strain of other mice from cues contained in urine. Additionally, we show that this population code can generalize to new concentrations of stimuli and appears to represent stimulus identity in terms of diverging paths in coding space. Together, the results indicate that firing rate code on the temporal order of seconds is sufficient for accurate classification of pheromonal patterns at different concentrations and may be used by AOS neural circuitry to discriminate among naturally occurring urine stimuli. PMID:23966710

  12. N-Vinylcarbazole as Versatile Photoinaddimer of Photopolymerization under Household UV LED Bulb (392 nm).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Pu; Lalevée, Jacques; Zhao, Jiacheng; Stenzel, Martina H

    2015-09-01

    N-vinylcarbazole (NVK) can act simultaneously as a photoinitiator, an additive, and a mono-mer (photoinaddimer) of photopolymerization upon exposure to the household ultraviolet (UV) light-emitting diode (LED) bulb (emission wavelength centered at 392 nm). Even though the light absorption spectrum of NVK exhibits weak overlapping with the emission spectrum of the UV LED, the active species (i.e., radicals and cations) can be generated from the interaction between NVK and diphenyliodonium hexafluorophosphate (Iod) under irradiation of this LED device, which is investigated by steady state photolysis and electron spin resonance spin-trapping methods. Interestingly, the generated radicals and cations from the NVK/Iod system demonstrate high efficiency to initiate the free radical photopolymerization of (meth)acrylates and the cationic photopolymerization of epoxide and divinyl ether under the UV LED irradiation, and the one-step simultaneous catonic/radical photopolymerization of expoxide/acrylate blend can lead to the formation of tack free polyacrylate/polyether-based interpenetrated polymer network film within 10 min even when the polymerization process is exposed to the atmosphere highlighting the high efficiency of the system to reduce the oxygen inhibition effect. More interestingly, NVK/Iod system can also initiate the photopolymerization of NVK under the UV LED irradiation to produce polyvinylcarbazole, and NVK acts as both a photoinitiator and a monomer in the system. PMID:26174706

  13. Antioxidants and its Properties as Affected by Extrusion Process: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wani, Sajad A; Kumar, Pradyuman

    2015-01-01

    Antioxidants are important for plant and animal's life or health. These are the substances that protect them from the damage produced by unstable molecules called as free radicals. There are various types of antioxidants to be reported both natural as well as synthetic such as melatonin, Vitamin C, glutathione, tocopherols and tocotrienols, BHA and BHT, etc. A new antioxidant 5-O-[6˝-(3- hydroxy-3methyl glutarate) β-D-glucodise was found while studying bioactive antioxidants from plant foods for nutraceutical product development. Antioxidants have been used for increasing shelf life of various food products including extruded product. Antioxidants, their beneficial advantages and the effect of extrusion on antioxidants were reviewed and found to be effective in increasing the shelf life. This review article discusses recent patents, presents importance of antioxidant, phytochemicals and effect of process of extrusion on antioxidants. PMID:26152136

  14. Marine mammals' influence on ecosystem processes affecting fisheries in the Barents Sea is trivial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corkeron, Peter J

    2009-04-23

    Some interpretations of ecosystem-based fishery management include culling marine mammals as an integral component. The current Norwegian policy on marine mammal management is one example. Scientific support for this policy includes the Scenario Barents Sea (SBS) models. These modelled interactions between cod, Gadus morhua, herring, Clupea harengus, capelin, Mallotus villosus and northern minke whales, Balaenoptera acutorostrata. Adding harp seals Phoca groenlandica into this top-down modelling approach resulted in unrealistic model outputs. Another set of models of the Barents Sea fish-fisheries system focused on interactions within and between the three fish populations, fisheries and climate. These model key processes of the system successfully. Continuing calls to support the SBS models despite their failure suggest a belief that marine mammal predation must be a problem for fisheries. The best available scientific evidence provides no justification for marine mammal culls as a primary component of an ecosystem-based approach to managing the fisheries of the Barents Sea. PMID:19126534

  15. Deep brain stimulation of nucleus accumbens region in alcoholism affects reward processing.

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    Marcus Heldmann

    Full Text Available The influence of bilateral deep brain stimulation (DBS of the nucleus nucleus (NAcc on the processing of reward in a gambling paradigm was investigated using H(2[(15O]-PET (positron emission tomography in a 38-year-old man treated for severe alcohol addiction. Behavioral data analysis revealed a less risky, more careful choice behavior under active DBS compared to DBS switched off. PET showed win- and loss-related activations in the paracingulate cortex, temporal poles, precuneus and hippocampus under active DBS, brain areas that have been implicated in action monitoring and behavioral control. Except for the temporal pole these activations were not seen when DBS was deactivated. These findings suggest that DBS of the NAcc may act partially by improving behavioral control.

  16. Designing a model for factors affecting the process of capital Assests purchase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    saeed fathi

    2014-01-01

    This research tries to find an answer for the question of how individual investors in regional Isfahan Stock Exchange Market decide regarding buying the stock and which factors are effective in their decision making process. Results confirm that at error rate of 0.05, openness to new experiences and informational efficiency of the companies which are exchange member are effective on return maximizing policy, the exchange significance in family economy and informational are efficiency of the companies which are exchange member effective on technical inclination, perceived economic risks is effective on performance evolution criteria diversification and openness to new experiences and informational efficiency of the companies which are exchange member are effective on perceived performance evolution.

  17. Stability of micronutrients and phytochemicals of grapefruit jam as affected by the obtention process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igual, M; García-Martínez, E; Camacho, M M; Martínez-Navarrete, N

    2016-04-01

    Fruits are widely revered for their micronutrient properties. They serve as a primary source of vitamins and minerals as well as of natural phytonutrients with antioxidant properties. Jam constitutes an interesting way to preserve fruit. Traditionally, this product is obtained by intense heat treatment that may cause irreversible loss of these bioactive compounds responsible for the health-related properties of fruits. In this work, different grapefruit jams obtained by conventional, osmotic dehydration (OD) without thermal treatment and/or microwave (MW) techniques were compared in terms of their vitamin, organic acid and phytochemical content and their stability through three months of storage. If compared with heating, osmotic treatments lead to a greater loss of organic acids and vitamin C during both processing and storage. MW treatments permit jam to be obtained which has a similar nutritional and functional value than that obtained when using a conventional heating method, but in a much shorter time. PMID:25956906

  18. Process parameters affecting the sustainability of fermentative hydrogen production: A short-review

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    Carlos Dinamarca, Rune Bakke

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic fermentation is regarded as the least energy intensive method for H2 production. Extensive literature on experimental attempts to achieve the highest possible theoretical yield (e.g. 4 mol H2/mol glucose is available. All published steady state, mixed culture studies show yields much lower than the theoretical maximums for the substrates applied. This article summarizes the influence of key process parameters (pH and buffer systems, temperature, H2 partial pressure, feed stock, and reactor configuration on fermentative hydrogen production. The following three requirements for successful Bio-H2 fermentation in mixed cultures are identified: (1 Maintain environmental conditions for the formation of oxidized products; (2 Optimize the relationship between biomass and hydrogen yields; and (3 Maintain unfavorable conditions for hydrogen consuming organisms. Fulfilling these requirements has not yet been achieved in stable continuous cultures, and it may not be achievable do to some fundamental limitation.

  19. Response of garlic (Allium sativum L.) bolting and bulbing to temperature and photoperiod treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Cuinan; Wang, Mengyi; Cheng, Zhihui; Meng, Huanwen

    2016-01-01

    This research was conducted to evaluate the effect of temperature and photoperiod treatments on the bolting and bulb formation of three local garlic cultivars (cvs) in two consecutive years. Naturally vernalized plants of cvs G107, G025 and G064 were transplanted into growth chambers and subjected to various combinations of temperature [T15/10, 15°C/10°C; T20/15, 20°C/15°C and T25/18, 25°C/18°C (day/night)] and photoperiod (L8, 8 h and L14,14 h) treatments. Plant growth, endogenous phytohormone and methyl jasmonate (MeJA) levels, along with the bolting and yield of garlic were evaluated. The experimental results from two consecutive years indicated that higher temperature (20°C or 25°C) and longer photoperiod (14 h) treatments significantly enhanced the garlic bolting, bulbing and cloving with a shorter growth period and a higher bulb weight. Moreover, the endogenous phytohormone and MeJA levels in the test plants were significantly increased by the higher temperature (25°C for the phytohormone level; 20°C for the MeJA level) and longer photoperiod [14 h, except for abscisic acid (ABA), which had the highest level at 8 h] conditions and were decreased by the lowest test temperature (15°C) and shorter photoperiod (8 h, except for ABA) conditions. This response coincided with that of the bulbing index, bolting rate, growth period and bulb weight. In addition, plants treated under the conditions of 20°C/15°C-14 h and 25°C/18°C-14 h produced the highest phytohormone levels (except for ABA) for cvs G025 and G064, respectively, and showed the best bolting and bulbing behavior. It is reasonable to assume that endogenous phytohormone (especially gibberellic acid) and MeJA levels are highly related to garlic bolting and bulbing, which might lead to the different responses of the three studied cultivars to the combination of temperature and photoperiod treatments. Furthermore, cvs G107 and G025 bolt well and have better bulb formation under 20

  20. Some processes affecting the mobility of thorium in natural ground waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorium is a useful model element for tetravalent actinides such as U(IV), Pu(IV) and Np(IV) which are important constituents of spent nuclear fuel. Thorium is also an important tracer element for particle pathways in natural environments. In order to correctly model the transport of Th in the environment, it is important to have quantitative models for processes that effect its mobility. Some of these processes have been experimentally investigated in laboratory studies, and interpreted with quantitative models where possible. The carbonate complexation in aqueous solution of Th has been investigated through solubility studies of ThO2 in carbonate media. It is shown, that thorium carbonate complexes are likely to be predominant in many natural waters. They also increase solubility of the oxide significantly, and hence the mobility of Th. Carbonate also increases the dissolution rate of thorium oxide. This effect will only be important in environments with a pH and total carbonate alkalinity higher than those of most natural aquatic environments. Solubility studies of thorium oxide in phosphate media show that phosphate does not significantly increase the mobility of Th in aqueous media. The presence of phosphate may cause the precipitation of sparingly soluble thorium phosphates which will decrease the mobility of Th. The pentahydroxo complex for Th is shown to be significant up to pH 13. Potentiometric studies of Th sorption on amorphous colloidal silica indicate, that pure aluminosilicates will probably not be efficient scavengers of tetravalent actinides above pH values of approximately 6. In neutral to alkaline solutions, iron (hydr)oxides are likely to be the predominant sorbents. Th binds to the silica surface through corner-sharing bonds, where Th and Si share one, but not more oxygen atoms. 72 refs

  1. Dll1 haploinsufficiency in adult mice leads to a complex phenotype affecting metabolic and immunological processes.

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    Isabel Rubio-Aliaga

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Notch signaling pathway is an evolutionary conserved signal transduction pathway involved in embryonic patterning and regulation of cell fates during development and self-renewal. Recent studies have demonstrated that this pathway is integral to a complex system of interactions, involving as well other signal transduction pathways, and implicated in distinct human diseases. Delta-like 1 (Dll1 is one of the known ligands of the Notch receptors. The role of the Notch ligands is less well understood. Loss-of-function of Dll1 leads to embryonic lethality, but reduction of Delta-like 1 protein levels has not been studied in adult stage. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we present the haploinsufficient phenotype of Dll1 and a missense mutant Dll1 allele (Dll1(C413Y. Haploinsufficiency leads to a complex phenotype with several biological processes altered. These alterations reveal the importance of Dll1 mainly in metabolism, energy balance and in immunology. The animals are smaller, lighter, with altered fat to lean ratio and have increased blood pressure and a slight bradycardia. The animals have reduced cholesterol and triglyceride levels in blood. At the immunological level a subtle phenotype is observed due to the effect and fine-tuning of the signaling network at the different levels of differentiation, proliferation and function of lymphocytes. Moreover, the importance of the proteolytic regulation of the Notch signaling network emphasized. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In conclusion, slight alterations in one player of Notch signaling alter the entire organism, emphasizing the fine-tuning character of this pathway in a high number of processes.

  2. Does residence time affect responses of alien species richness to environmental and spatial processes?

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    Matteo Dainese

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the most robust emerging generalisations in invasion biology is that the probability of invasion increases with the time since introduction (residence time. We analysed the spatial distribution of alien vascular plant species in a region of north-eastern Italy to understand the influence of residence time on patterns of alien species richness. Neophytes were grouped according to three periods of arrival in the study region (1500–1800, 1800–1900, and > 1900. We applied multiple regression (spatial and non-spatial with hierarchical partitioning to determine the influence of climate and human pressure on species richness within the groups. We also applied variation partitioning to evaluate the relative importance of environmental and spatial processes. Temperature mainly influenced groups with speciesa longer residence time, while human pressure influenced the more recently introduced species, although its influence remained significant in all groups. Partial regression analyses showed that most of the variation explained by the models is attributable to spatially structured environmental variation, while environment and space had small independent effects. However, effects independent of environment decreased, and spatially independent effects increased, from older to the more recent neophytes. Our data illustrate that the distribution of alien species richness for species that arrived recently is related to propagule pressure, availability of novel niches created by human activity, and neutral-based (dispersal limitation processes, while climate filtering plays a key role in the distribution of species that arrived earlier. This study highlights the importance of residence time, spatial structure, and environmental conditions in the patterns of alien species richness and for a better understanding of its geographical variation.

  3. Remote sensed and in situ constraints on processes affecting tropical tropospheric ozone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Sauvage

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We use a global chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem to evaluate the consistency of satellite measurements of lightning flashes and ozone precursors with in situ measurements of tropical tropospheric ozone. The measurements are tropospheric O3, NO2, and HCHO columns from the GOME satellite instrument, lightning flashes from the OTD and LIS satellite instruments, profiles of O3, CO, and relative humidity from the MOZAIC aircraft program, and profiles of O3 from the SHADOZ ozonesonde network. We interpret these multiple data sources with our model to better understand what controls tropical tropospheric ozone. Tropical tropospheric ozone is mainly affected by lightning NOx and convection in the upper troposphere and by surface emissions in the lower troposphere. Scaling the spatial distribution of lightning in the model to the observed flashes improves the simulation of O3 in the upper troposphere by 5–20 ppbv versus in situ observations and by 1–4 Dobson Units versus GOME retrievals of tropospheric O3 columns. A lightning source strength of 6±2 Tg N/yr best represents in situ observations from aircraft and ozonesonde. Tropospheric NO2 and HCHO columns from GOME are applied to provide top-down constraints on emission inventories of NOx (biomass burning and soils and VOCs (biomass burning. The top-down biomass burning inventory is larger than the bottom-up inventory by a factor of 2 for HCHO and alkenes, and by a factor of 2.6 for NOx over northern equatorial Africa. These emissions increase lower tropospheric O3 by 5–20 ppbv, improving the simulation versus aircraft observations, and by 4 Dobson Units versus GOME observations of tropospheric O3 columns. Emission factors in the a posteriori inventory are more consistent with a recent compilation from in situ measurements. The ozone simulation using two different dynamical schemes (GEOS-3 and GEOS-4 is evaluated versus observations; GEOS-4 better represents O3 observations by 5–15 ppbv

  4. Remote sensed and in situ constraints on processes affecting tropical tropospheric ozone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Sauvage

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available We use a global chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem to evaluate the consistency of satellite measurements of lightning flashes and ozone precursors with in situ measurements of tropical tropospheric ozone. The measurements are tropospheric O3, NO2, and HCHO columns from the GOME satellite instrument, lightning flashes from the OTD and LIS instruments, profiles of O3, CO, and relative humidity from the MOZAIC aircraft program, and profiles of O3 from the SHADOZ ozonesonde network. We interpret these multiple data sources with our model to better understand what controls tropical tropospheric ozone. Tropical tropospheric ozone is mainly affected by lightning and convection in the upper troposphere and by surface emissions in the lower troposphere. Scaling the spatial distribution of lightning in the model to the observed flash counts improves the simulation of O3 in the upper troposphere by 5–20 ppbv versus in situ observations and by 1–4 Dobson Units versus GOME retrievals of tropospheric O3 columns. A lightning source strength of 5±2 Tg N/yr best represents in situ observations from aircraft and ozonesonde. Tropospheric NO2 and HCHO columns from GOME are applied to provide top-down constraints on emission inventories of NOx (biomass burning and soils and VOCs (biomass burning. The top-down biomass burning inventory is larger by a factor of 2 for HCHO and alkenes, and by 2.6 for NOx over northern equatorial Africa. These emissions increase lower tropospheric O3 by 5–20 ppbv, improving the simulation versus aircraft observations, and by 4 Dobson Units versus GOME observations of tropospheric O3 columns. Emission factors in the a posteriori inventory are more consistent with a recent compilation from in situ measurements. The ozone simulation using two different dynamical schemes (GEOS-3 and GEOS-4 is evaluated versus

  5. The applications of VIP 397/418 bulbs in free radical white pigmented coatings: UV curing evaluation for different free radical white pigmented formulations (I)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White pigmented coatings have gained commercial success using a Gallium doped microwave F600-V bulb. A novel VIP 397/418 bulb has been made recently, by Fusion UV Systems, to increase UV curing efficiency of white pigmented coatings. Previous research work has shown that the VIP 397/418 bulb can cure cationic white pigmented coatings 40-60% faster than a F600-V bulb. Further evaluations of free radical white pigmented coatings have produced significant data indicating that better physical properties (40-50%) or higher cure speeds (50%) can be obtained by using the VIP 397/418 bulb than a F600-V bulb

  6. Factors Affecting the Integration of Information Literacy in the Teaching and Learning Processes of General Education Courses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Therdsak Maitaouthong

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the factors affecting the integration of information literacy in the teaching and learning processes of general education courses at an undergraduate level, where information literacy is used as a tool in the student-centered teaching approach. The research was divided into two phases: (1 The study of factors affecting at a policy level – a qualitative research method conducted through an in-depth interview of the vice president for academic affairs and the Director of the General Education Management Center, and (2 The survey of factors affecting in the teaching and learning processes, which is concluded through the questioning of lecturers of general education courses, and librarians. The qualitative data was analyzed on content, and the quantitative data was analyzed through the use of descriptive statistics, weight of score prioritization and percentage. Two major categories were found to have an impact on integrating information literacy in the teaching and learning of general education courses at an undergraduate level. (1 Six factors at a policy level, namely, institutional policy, administrative structure and system, administrators’ roles, resources and infrastructures, learning resources and supporting programs, and teacher evaluation and development. (2 There are eleven instructional factors: roles of lecturers, roles of librarians, roles of learners, knowledge and understanding of information literacy of lecturers and librarians, cooperation between librarians and lecturers, learning outcomes, teaching plans, teaching methods, teaching activities, teaching aids, and student assessment and evaluation.

  7. Neuropeptide Y-like immunoreactive neurons in the human olfactory bulb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohm, T G; Braak, E; Probst, A; Weindl, A

    1988-06-01

    Neuropeptide Y-like (NPY) immunoreactivity was localized in the adult human olfactory bulb by the unlabeled antibody enzyme (peroxidase anti-peroxidase; PAP) technique in vibratome sections. The majority of NPY-immunoreactive somata was localized in the white matter surrounding the anterior olfactory nucleus. Immunoreactive neurons were less numerous within the anterior olfactory nucleus and within the olfactory bulb layers. NPY-immunoreactive fibres were present in the white matter, the anterior olfactory nucleus, and in the olfactory bulb layers. Fibres within the white matter were generally aligned in a straight path parallel to the long axis of the olfactory bulb and tract. Fibres within the anterior olfactory nucleus showed no clear orientation and displayed numerous branching points. Coiled plexus of NPY-immunoreactive fibres were present in the glomerular layer of the olfactory bulb. Additional characteristics of the NPY-immunoreactive neurons were studied after decolouring the chromogen and restaining the sections with aldehydefuchsin to demonstrate the presence of lipofuscin granules and also with gallocyanin chrome alum to stain the Nissl substance. This analysis showed that the neurons belong to the class of non-pigmented nerve cells. PMID:3251589

  8. Spatial assessment of net mercury emissions from the use of fluorescent bulbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckelman, Matthew J; Anastas, Paul T; Zimmerman, Julie B

    2008-11-15

    While fluorescent lighting is an important technology for reducing electrical energy demand, mercury used in the bulbs is an ongoing concern. Using state and country level data, net emissions of mercury from the marginal use of fluorescent lightbulbs are examined for a base year of 2004 for each of the 50 United States and 130 countries. Combustion of coal for electric power generation is generally the largest source of atmospheric mercury pollution; reduction in electricity demand from the substitution of incandescent bulbs with fluorescents leads to reduced mercury emissions during the use of the bulb. This analysis considers the local mix of power sources, coal quality, thermal conversion efficiencies, distribution losses, and any mercury control technologies that might be in place. Emissions of mercury from production and end-of-life treatment of the bulbs are also considered, providing a life-cycle perspective. Net reductions in mercury over the entire life cycle range from -1.2 to 97 mg per bulb depending on the country. The consequences for atmospheric mercury emissions of several policy scenarios are also discussed. PMID:19068849

  9. Organization and distribution of glomeruli in the bowhead whale olfactory bulb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takushi Kishida

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Although modern baleen whales (Mysticeti retain a functional olfactory system that includes olfactory bulbs, cranial nerve I and olfactory receptor genes, their olfactory capabilities have been reduced to a great degree. This reduction likely occurred as a selective response to their fully aquatic lifestyle. The glomeruli that occur in the olfactory bulb can be divided into two non-overlapping domains, a dorsal domain and a ventral domain. Recent molecular studies revealed that all modern whales have lost olfactory receptor genes and marker genes that are specific to the dorsal domain. Here we show that olfactory bulbs of bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus lack glomeruli on the dorsal side, consistent with the molecular data. In addition, we estimate that there are more than 4,000 glomeruli elsewhere in the bowhead whale olfactory bulb, which is surprising given that bowhead whales possess only 80 intact olfactory receptor genes. Olfactory sensory neurons that express the same olfactory receptors in rodents generally project to two specific glomeruli in an olfactory bulb, implying an approximate 1:2 ratio of the number of olfactory receptors to the number of glomeruli. Here we show that this ratio does not apply to bowhead whales, reiterating the conceptual limits of using rodents as model organisms for understanding the initial coding of odor information among mammals.

  10. Changes in total protein and amino acids content of the onion bulb fly, Eumerus Amoenus loew (Diptera: Syrphidae) Sterilized with gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work was carried out on the onion bulb fly, Eumerus Amoenus to study the changes which occurred in the components of the sterilized adults, especially the total protein content and amino acid composition. The total protein content in males was more than in females and decreased in sterilized males. An increase from 170.8 in the control to 177.5, 214.3 and 207.7 mg/g body weight was noted in sterilized females. The amino acid contents of the sterilized flies was greatly affected, the effect was obvious in alanine, glycine and glutamic acid. 2 tabs

  11. Quality of carrots as affected by pre- and postharvest factors and processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seljåsen, Randi; Kristensen, Hanne L; Lauridsen, Charlotte;

    2013-01-01

    in content of terpenes, β-carotene, magnesium, iron and phenolics as well as a 1–4-fold difference in falcarindiol, bitter taste and sweet taste. Climate-related factors may cause a difference of up to 20-fold for terpenes, 82% for total sugars and 30–40% for β-carotene, sweet taste and bitter taste....... Organic farming in comparison with conventional farming has shown 70% higher levels for magnesium and 10% for iron. Low nitrogen fertilisation level may cause up to 100% increase in terpene content, minor increase in dry matter (+4 to +6%) and magnesium (+8%) and reduction in β-carotene content (−8 to −11......%). Retail storage at room temperature causes the highest reduction in β-carotene (−70%) and ascorbic acid (−70%). Heat processing by boiling reduces shear force (−300 to −1000%) and crispiness (−67%) as well as content of phenolics (−150%), terpenes (−85%) and total carotenes (−20%) and increases the risk...

  12. Comparison of Soybean Transformation Efficiency and Plant Factors Affecting Transformation during the Agrobacterium Infection Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuying Jia

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The susceptibility of soybean genotype to Agrobacterium infection is a key factor for the high level of genetic transformation efficiency. The objective of this study is to evaluate the plant factors related to transformation in cotyledonary nodes during the Agrobacterium infection process. This study selected three genotypes (Williams 82, Shennong 9 and Bert with high transformation efficiency, which presented better susceptibility to Agrobacterium infection, and three low transformation efficiency genotypes (General, Liaodou 16 and Kottman, which showed a relatively weak susceptibility. Gibberellin (GA levels and soybean GA20ox2 and CYP707A2 transcripts of high-efficiency genotypes increased and were higher than those of low-efficiency genotypes; however, the opposite performance was shown in abscisic acid (ABA. Higher zeatin riboside (ZR content and DNA quantity, and relatively higher expression of soybean IPT5, CYCD3 and CYCA3 were obtained in high-efficiency genotypes. High-efficiency genotypes had low methyl jasmonate (MeJA content, polyphenol oxidase (PPO and peroxidase (POD activity, and relatively lower expression of soybean OPR3, PPO1 and PRX71. GA and ZR were positive plant factors for Agrobacterium-mediated soybean transformation by facilitating germination and growth, and increasing the number of cells in DNA synthesis cycle, respectively; MeJA, PPO, POD and ABA were negative plant factors by inducing defence reactions and repressing germination and growth, respectively.

  13. Processes and features affecting the near field hydrochemistry. Groundwater-bentonite interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report discusses in a quantitative manner the evolution of the near field aqueous chemistry as a result of the interactions between three different intruding groundwaters (Aespoe, Gideaa and Finnsjoen) with the MX-80 bentonite buffer material. The main emphasis has been placed on studying the evolution of the main chemical buffers of the system (alkalinity and redox capacities) and the resulting master variables (pH and pe). The calculations have been done by using a set of thermodynamic and kinetic parameters previously calibrated against experimental data on bentonite/granitic groundwater interactions, in combination with the PHREEQC geochemical code. The results of the calculations indicate that the alkalinity buffer capacity is mainly exerted by the accessory content of carbonate minerals (calcite) in the bentonite system, while the ion exchange process plays a secondary (but not negligible) role. The Ca(II) content of the intruding groundwater has an impact on the resulting pH. For Ca(II) rich waters, like Aespoe, the resulting pH remains in the range of granitic groundwaters (7.5-9.5) during the overall repository lifetime (1 million years). For Ca(II) poor groundwaters, the systems evolves to high alkalinity (pH : 10.5 - 10.8) due to the depletion of calcite and the release of carbonate in to the near field aqueous chemistry. Concerning the reducing capacity of the system, this is mainly controlled by the accessory pyrite content, although the Fe(II) content in montmorillonite and in the carbonates cannot be disregarded. Reducing conditions in the bentonite/groundwater system are ensured throughout the lifetime of the repository system unless this is placed in direct and lifetime contact with the atmosphere (surface storage)

  14. Psychophysical Investigations into the Role of Low-Threshold C Fibres in Non-Painful Affective Processing and Pain Modulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumaiya Shaikh

    Full Text Available We recently showed that C low-threshold mechanoreceptors (CLTMRs contribute to touch-evoked pain (allodynia during experimental muscle pain. Conversely, in absence of ongoing pain, the activation of CLTMRs has been shown to correlate with a diffuse sensation of pleasant touch. In this study, we evaluated (1 the primary afferent fibre types contributing to positive (pleasant and negative (unpleasant affective touch and (2 the effects of tactile stimuli on tonic muscle pain by varying affective attributes and frequency parameters. Psychophysical observations were made in 10 healthy participants. Two types of test stimuli were applied: stroking stimulus using velvet or sandpaper at speeds of 0.1, 1.0 and 10.0 cm/s; focal vibrotactile stimulus at low (20 Hz or high (200 Hz frequency. These stimuli were applied in the normal condition (i.e. no experimental pain and following the induction of muscle pain by infusing hypertonic saline (5% into the tibialis anterior muscle. These observations were repeated following the conduction block of myelinated fibres by compression of sciatic nerve. In absence of muscle pain, all participants reliably linked velvet-stroking to pleasantness and sandpaper-stroking to unpleasantness (no pain. Likewise, low-frequency vibration was linked to pleasantness and high-frequency vibration to unpleasantness. During muscle pain, the application of previously pleasant stimuli resulted in overall pain relief, whereas the application of previously unpleasant stimuli resulted in overall pain intensification. These effects were significant, reproducible and persisted following the blockade of myelinated fibres. Taken together, these findings suggest the role of low-threshold C fibres in affective and pain processing. Furthermore, these observations suggest that temporal coding need not be limited to discriminative aspects of tactile processing, but may contribute to affective attributes, which in turn predispose individual

  15. [Medical simulation as a professional tool which affect the safety of the patient used in the learning process].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czekajlo, Michael; Dąbrowski, Marek; Dąbrowska, Agata; Torres, Kamil; Torres, Anna; Witt, Magdalena; Gąsiorowski, Łukasz; Szukała, Magdalena

    2015-06-01

    Simulation is the methodology of teaching, learning process using educational equipment from simple simulators, designed to study individual tasks, through advanced mannequins called human patient stimulators faithfully mimic the human and its parameters. The medical simulation's main task is education and improvement patients' safety. Advanced human simulators can realistically cough, vomit with artificial chyme and bleed with artificial blood causing a real stress of medical personnel and the need for immediate action. Medical simulation gives the opportunity to prepare medical personnel to the profession more effectively, in less time than traditional education and also clearly affects the patients' safety. PMID:26098659

  16. Photokeratitis Linked to Metal Halide Bulbs in Two Gymnasiums - Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 2011 and 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Lauren E; Gutowski, Jennifer; Alles, Steve; Mirowitz, Naomi; Johnson, Caroline; Osterhoudt, Kevin C; Patel, Ami

    2016-01-01

    In December 2011 and December 2013, the Philadelphia Department of Public Health (PDPH) received separate reports of clusters of photokeratitis linked to gymnasium events. Photokeratitis, a painful eye condition resulting from unprotected exposure to ultraviolet radiation, has previously been linked to metal halide lamps with broken outer envelopes (1,2). To investigate the cause of these clusters and further characterize patients with photokeratitis, PDPH administered questionnaires to potentially exposed persons, established a case definition, and conducted environmental assessments of both gymnasiums. Because event attendee registration information was available, a cohort study was conducted to evaluate the 2011 cluster of 242 persons who met the photokeratitis case definition. A case-series investigation was conducted to evaluate the 2013 cluster of 20 persons who met the photokeratitis case definition for that event. These investigations indicated that Type R metal halide bulbs with broken outer envelopes found in both gymnasiums were the probable cause of the photokeratitis. The Food and Drug Administration has made a number of recommendations regarding the use of metal halide bulbs in facilities where bulbs are at elevated risk for breaking, such as schools and indoor sports facilities (3). Because Type R metal halide lamps do not self-extinguish once the outer envelope is broken, these bulbs should be removed from settings with a high risk for outer envelope rupture, such as gymnasiums, or should be placed within enclosed fixtures. In instances where these bulbs cannot be exchanged for self-extinguishing lamps, Type R lamps with a broken outer envelope should be replaced immediately to limit exposure to ultraviolet radiation. A broken outer envelope can be detected by the presence of glass on the floor, or visual examination of the bulb when the power is turned off. A broken outer envelope is difficult to detect when the lamp is emitting light. PMID

  17. Cellular and molecular cues of glucose sensing in the rat olfactory bulb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolly eAl Koborssy

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In the brain, glucose homeostasis of extracellular fluid is crucial to the point that systems specifically dedicated to glucose sensing are found in areas involved in energy regulation and feeding behavior. Olfaction is a major sensory modality regulating food consumption. Nutritional status in turn modulates olfactory detection. Recently it has been proposed that some olfactory bulb (OB neurons respond to glucose similarly to hypothalamic neurons. However, the precise molecular cues governing glucose sensing in the OB are largely unknown. To decrypt these molecular mechanisms, we first used immunostaining to demonstrate a strong expression of two neuronal markers of glucose-sensitivity, insulin-dependent glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4, and sodium glucose co-transporter type 1 (SGLT1 in specific OB layers. We showed that expression and mapping of GLUT4 but not SGLT1 were feeding state-dependent. In order to investigate the impact of metabolic status on the delivery of blood-borne glucose to the OB, we measured extracellular fluid glucose concentration using glucose biosensors simultaneously in the OB and cortex of anesthetized rats. We showed that glucose concentration in the OB is higher than in the cortex, that metabolic steady-state glucose concentration is independent of feeding state in the two brain areas, and that acute changes in glycemic conditions affect bulbar glucose concentration alone. These data provide new evidence of a direct relationship between the OB and peripheral metabolism, and emphasize the importance of glucose for the OB network, providing strong arguments toward establishing the OB as a glucose-sensing organ.

  18. Plant regeneration from excised bulb scale segments of Zephyranthes robusta Baker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirosława Furmanowa

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Zephyranthes robusta Baker excised bulb scale segments with the basal plate were grown on Murashige and Skoog (MS medium in four modifications. The cultures were kept at 25°C in darkness. The best results (bulbing, leaf development and rooting were obtained on MS medium with 1 mg/l IBA, 2-6 bulblets being developed from one explant. After 6 weeks the plantlets (4-6 cm high were transferred to pots filled with sterilized soil mixes. After two months the leaves of the plants reached a length of 20 cm.

  19. The food matrix affects the anthocyanin profile of fortified egg and dairy matrices during processing and in vitro digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda-Vadillo, Carlos; Nau, Françoise; Guerin-Dubiard, Catherin; Jardin, Julien; Lechevalier, Valérie; Sanz-Buenhombre, Marisa; Guadarrama, Alberto; Tóth, Tamás; Csavajda, Éva; Hingyi, Hajnalka; Karakaya, Sibel; Sibakov, Juhani; Capozzi, Francesco; Bordoni, Alessandra; Dupont, Didier

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to understand to what extent the inclusion of anthocyanins into dairy and egg matrices could affect their stability after processing and their release and solubility during digestion. For this purpose, individual and total anthocyanin content of four different enriched matrices, namely custard dessert, milkshake, pancake and omelettete, was determined after their manufacturing and during in vitro digestion. Results showed that anthocyanin recovery after processing largely varied among matrices, mainly due to the treatments applied and the interactions developed with other food components. In terms of digestion, the present study showed that the inclusion of anthocyanins into food matrices could be an effective way to protect them against intestinal degradation, and also the incorporation of anthocyanins into matrices with different compositions and structures could represent an interesting and effective method to control the delivery of anthocyanins within the different compartments of the digestive tract. PMID:27507502

  20. HIV-1 Adaptation to Antigen Processing Results in Population-Level Immune Evasion and Affects Subtype Diversification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tenzer, Stefan; Crawford, Hayley; Pymm, Phillip;

    2014-01-01

    subtype-specific motifs. Multiple HLA variants presenting epitopes situated next to a given subtype-specific motif drive selection at this subtype-specific position, and epitope abundances correlate inversely with the HLA frequency distribution in affected populations. This adaptation reflects the sum of......The recent HIV-1 vaccine failures highlight the need to better understand virus-host interactions. One key question is why CD8(+) T cell responses to two HIV-Gag regions are uniquely associated with delayed disease progression only in patients expressing a few rare HLA class I variants when these...... regions encode epitopes presented by ~30 more common HLA variants. By combining epitope processing and computational analyses of the two HIV subtypes responsible for ~60% of worldwide infections, we identified a hitherto unrecognized adaptation to the antigen-processing machinery through substitutions at...

  1. Ergonomische adviezen bij de ontwikkeling van uniform fust voor bloemenbollen = Ergonomic advices concerning standardized flower bulbs crates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofs, P.F.M.M.; Baltissen, A.H.M.C.; Diepen, van M.; Looije, A.A.J.

    2007-01-01

    In 2006 a study is done to generate ergonomic advices with respect to the design of a standardized crate that is to be used in flower bulb cultivation and flower bulb trade. Reason for this study was an earlier AKK study, which concluded that standardisation of the crates will reduce costs (particul

  2. Effects of postharvest onion curing parameters on bulb rot caused by Pantoea agglomerans, Pantoea ananatis, and Pantoea allii in storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crop loss of onion bulbs during storage carries an exceptionally high economic impact since a large portion of the production expenses have been expended before storage occurs. Because of this, it is important to define practices that can reduce onion bulb losses caused by storage rots. This study...

  3. Structural development and bioactive content of red bulb plant (Eleutherine americana; a traditional medicines for local Kalimantan people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LAURENTIUS HARTANTO NUGROHO

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Kuntorini EM, Nugroho LH (2010 Structural development and bioactive content of red bulb plant (Eleutherine americana; a traditional medicines for local Kalimantan people. Biodiversitas 11 (2: 102-106. Red bulb plant or “bawang dayak” (Eleutherine americana Merr. is commonly used as a traditional medicine especially for anti breast cancer of Kalimantan people, because it contains bioactive naphtoquinone-derivatives. Naphtoquinones is usually used as antimicrobial, antifungal, antiviral and antiparasitic agents. This study was aimed to complete the investigation of Red bulb plant as a traditional medicine from anatomical and phytochemical point of view, especially the anatomical structure of bulb and leaf of red bulb plants during their development and their naphtoquinone derivative contents. The anatomical structures of bulb and leaf were analyzed by paraffin embedding method and naphtoquinone derivative contents were analyzed using HPLC. During plant development, the diameter and the length of bulbs as well as the thickness of mesophyll and epidermis layers of the leaves increased significantly. The size of vascular bundles increased and so did phloem and xylem components. The content of bioactive compounds in bulbs increased significantly as the size of parenchymal cells increased. There was no significant difference in the content of bioactive compounds of leaves during development, despite the rise in the thickness of mesophyll and the constituting cells as the location of synthesis.

  4. Morphological structure and water status in tulip bulbs from dormancy to active growth : visualization by NMR imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toorn, van der A.; Zemah, H.; As, van H.; Bendel, P.; Kamenetsky, R.

    2000-01-01

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to follow time-dependent morphological changes and changes in water status of tulip bulbs (Tulipa gesneriana L., cv. ‘Apeldoorn’) during bulb storage for 12 weeks at 20 °C (non-chilled) or 4 °C (chilled) and

  5. Elemental mercury emission in the indoor environment due to broken compact fluorescent light (CFL) bulbs--paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compact fluorescent light (CFL) bulbs contain a few milligrams (mg) of elemental mercury. When a CFL breaks, some of the mercury is immediately released as elemental mercury vapor and the remainder is deposited on indoor surfaces with the bulb debris. In a controlled study design...

  6. Impaired olfactory bulb neurogenesis depends on the presence of human wild-type alpha-synuclein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, V E L; Nuber, S; Marxreiter, F; Riess, O; Winner, B; Winkler, J

    2012-10-11

    Synucleinopathies including Parkinson's disease (PD) are characterized by the accumulation of alpha-synuclein (α-syn) within neural cell bodies and their processes. Transgenic mice overexpressing human wild-type or mutant forms of α-syn under the control of different promoters were developed to analyse the underlying neuropathology of PD. One of the earliest clinical symptoms associated with PD is olfactory impairment. The generation of new neurons persists up to adulthood in mammals, in particular the olfactory bulb (OB). In order to assess this process in relation to α-syn accumulation, we used mice overexpressing human wild-type α-syn under the regulatable control (tet-off) of the calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IIα-promoter (CaMKII). We observed a decrease in OB neurogenesis in transgenic animals compared to controls using 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) to label newly generated cells (neuron-specific nuclear protein; NeuN). After cessation of transgene expression we detected an increase in newly generated cells both in granular (GCL) and glomerular (GLOM) layers of the OB. This led to a rescue of newly generated neurons (BrdU(+)/NeuN(+)) within the GLOM with a distinct specificity for the dopaminergic subpopulation. In contrast, we did not detect a cell-specific rescue of neuronal cells in the GCL suggesting diverse effects of alpha-synucleinopathy in both interneuronal layers of the OB. Colabelling of BrdU with glial markers showed that a differentiation into neither astroglia nor microglia attributed to the observed phenotype in the GCL. In particular, BrdU(+) particles located within microglial cells were predominantly associated close to the membrane therefore the resembling phagocytosed nuclear fragments of BrdU(+) cells. Thus, our study further contributes insights into α-syn accumulation as a causative player in the impairment of adult neurogenesis and emphasizes its diverse role in cell renewal of distinct OB cell layers. PMID:22814000

  7. The changes of soil physical and chemical properties of Andisols as affected by drying and rewetting processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rahayu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Soils from a toposequence in northern slope of Mt. Kawi, Malang were sampled to study the effect of amorphous content on the irreversible drying properties of the soils. Water, clay, organic-C, and available P contents were measured at field capacity (KL, after air-drying for 2 days (K2 , air-drying for 4 days (K4, oven-drying at 40 °C for 1 day (Ko, as well as after rewetting K2 (KL2; K4 (KL4, and Ko (KLo. The results showed that water, clay, organic-C, and available P contents changed after drying and rewetting processes. Drying process decreased clay content but increased available P content. Clay and water content of the rewetted samples, especially after oven-drying (KLo were lower than at initial field capacity (KL, as indication of irreversible properties. In contrast, available P and organic-C content were higher after drying-rewetting processes. Variation of water, clay, organic-C, and available P contents after drying-rewetting processes were significantly affected by respected properties at initial field capacity. These properties tended to change in accordance to Alo+½Feo content. The effect of Alo+½Feo content, however was statisticaly detected only on the water content at KLo (rewetted after oven-dried and on organic C content at KL2 and KL4 (rewetted after air-dried for 2 and 4 days.

  8. α-Synuclein aggregation in the olfactory bulb of middle-aged common marmoset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Reona; Takahashi-Fujigasaki, Junko; Shiozawa, Seiji; Hara-Miyauchi, Chikako; Inoue, Takashi; Okano, Hirotaka James; Sasaki, Erika; Okano, Hideyuki

    2016-05-01

    The synaptic protein α-synuclein has been identified as a major component of Lewy bodies, a pathological hallmark of Parkinson's disease (PD). Prior to the formation of Lewy bodies, mislocalization and aggregation of the α-synuclein in brain tissue is frequently observed in various neurodegenerative diseases. Aberrant accumulation and localization of α-synuclein are also observed in the aging human brain, for which reason aging is regarded as a risk factor for neurodegenerative disease. To investigate changes in α-synuclein properties in the aging brain, we compared α-synuclein immunoreactivity in brain tissue of young (2-years-old) and middle-aged (6-years-old) common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus). Our analyses revealed marked changes in α-synuclein immunoreactivity in the olfactory bulb of common marmosets of these age cohorts. Perikaryal α-synuclein aggregations were formed in the olfactory bulb in middle-aged animals. We also observed signals of α-synuclein accumulation in hippocampus in this cohort; however, unlike in the olfactory bulb, hippocampal α-synuclein signals were localized in the synaptic terminals. We did not observe either of these features in younger marmosets, which suggest that aging may play a role in these phenomena. Our results using common marmoset brain corresponded with the observation that the α-synuclein aggregations were first occurred from olfactory bulb in human normal aged and PD brain. Therefore, common marmoset is expected as useful model for α-synuclein pathology. PMID:26643383

  9. Gummosis in grape hyacinth (Muscari armeniacum) bulbs: hormonal regulation and chemical composition of gums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Kensuke; Kotake, Toshihisa; Sasamoto, Makiko; Saniewski, Marian; Ueda, Junichi

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the hormonal regulation of gummosis in grape hyacinth (Muscari armeniacum) bulbs, focusing especially on the chemical composition of the gums. The application of ethephon (2-chloroethylphosphonic acid), an ethylene-releasing compound, at 1% and 2% (w/w) in lanolin as well as ethylene induced gummosis in the bulbs within several days. Methyl jasmonate (JA-Me, 0.1-2% in lanolin) alone had no effect on gummosis. However, simultaneous application of JA-Me and ethephon led to extreme stimulation of ethephon-induced gummosis. Ethephon-induced gummosis in the bulbs depended on the maturation stage of the bulbs, increasing from April to July, but decreasing from August to September. Regardless of the presence of JA-Me, the application of ethephon to the inflorescence axis of grape hyacinths did not induce gummosis. Gel permeation chromatography analysis revealed that gums were homogenous polysaccharides with an average molecular mass of ca. 8.3 kDa. Analysis of the sugar composition of the gums after hydrolysis revealed that the molar ratio of Rha:Ara:Gal:GalA:GlcA was 25:10:40:7:15. These results suggest that principal factors of gummosis as well as the chemical composition of gums differ between species of bulbous plants. PMID:19941030

  10. Improved spatial accuracy of functional maps in the rat olfactory bulb using supervised machine learning approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Matthew C; Poplawsky, Alexander J; Vazquez, Alberto L; Chan, Kevin C; Kim, Seong-Gi; Fukuda, Mitsuhiro

    2016-08-15

    Functional MRI (fMRI) is a popular and important tool for noninvasive mapping of neural activity. As fMRI measures the hemodynamic response, the resulting activation maps do not perfectly reflect the underlying neural activity. The purpose of this work was to design a data-driven model to improve the spatial accuracy of fMRI maps in the rat olfactory bulb. This system is an ideal choice for this investigation since the bulb circuit is well characterized, allowing for an accurate definition of activity patterns in order to train the model. We generated models for both cerebral blood volume weighted (CBVw) and blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) fMRI data. The results indicate that the spatial accuracy of the activation maps is either significantly improved or at worst not significantly different when using the learned models compared to a conventional general linear model approach, particularly for BOLD images and activity patterns involving deep layers of the bulb. Furthermore, the activation maps computed by CBVw and BOLD data show increased agreement when using the learned models, lending more confidence to their accuracy. The models presented here could have an immediate impact on studies of the olfactory bulb, but perhaps more importantly, demonstrate the potential for similar flexible, data-driven models to improve the quality of activation maps calculated using fMRI data. PMID:27236085

  11. Adult Olfactory Bulb Interneuron Phenotypes Identified by Targeting Embryonic and Postnatal Neural Progenitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueres-Oñate, Maria; López-Mascaraque, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Neurons are generated during embryonic development and in adulthood, although adult neurogenesis is restricted to two main brain regions, the hippocampus and olfactory bulb. The subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricles generates neural stem/progenitor cells that continually provide the olfactory bulb (OB) with new granule or periglomerular neurons, cells that arrive from the SVZ via the rostral migratory stream. The continued neurogenesis and the adequate integration of these newly generated interneurons is essential to maintain homeostasis in the olfactory bulb, where the differentiation of these cells into specific neural cell types is strongly influenced by temporal cues. Therefore, identifying the critical features that control the generation of adult OB interneurons at either pre- or post-natal stages is important to understand the dynamic contribution of neural stem cells. Here, we used in utero and neonatal SVZ electroporation along with a transposase-mediated stable integration plasmid, in order to track interneurons and glial lineages in the OB. These plasmids are valuable tools to study the development of OB interneurons from embryonic and post-natal SVZ progenitors. Accordingly, we examined the location and identity of the adult progeny of embryonic and post-natally transfected progenitors by examining neurochemical markers in the adult OB. These data reveal the different cell types in the olfactory bulb that are generated in function of age and different electroporation conditions. PMID:27242400

  12. Ex Vivo Preparations of the Intact Vomeronasal Organ and Accessory Olfactory Bulb

    OpenAIRE

    Doyle, Wayne I.; Hammen, Gary F.; Meeks, Julian P.

    2014-01-01

    The mouse accessory olfactory system (AOS) is a specialized sensory pathway for detecting nonvolatile social odors, pheromones, and kairomones. The first neural circuit in the AOS pathway, called the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB), plays an important role in establishing sex-typical behaviors such as territorial aggression and mating. This small (

  13. Regulation of granule cell excitability by a low-threshold calcium spike in turtle olfactory bulb

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinato, Giulietta; Midtgaard, Jens

    2003-01-01

    Granule cells excitability in the turtle olfactory bulb was analyzed using whole cell recordings in current- and voltage-clamp mode. Low-threshold spikes (LTSs) were evoked at potentials that are subthreshold for Na spikes in normal medium. The LTSs were evoked from rest, but hyperpolarization of...

  14. Endovascular treatment of symptomatic vestibular aqueduct dehiscence as a result of jugular bulb abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thénint, Marie-Aude; Barbier, Charlotte; Hitier, Martin; Patron, Vincent; Saleme, Suzana; Courthéoux, Patrick

    2014-11-01

    A new endovascular treatment consisting of stent-assisted coil implantation is described for jugular bulb abnormalities causing symptomatic vestibular aqueduct dehiscence. Three patients presenting with vertigo associated with pulsatile tinnitus or hearing loss were treated. This technique cured the vertigo and pulsatile tinnitus in all patients and preserved normal cerebral venous drainage with no side effects. PMID:25442142

  15. Numerical prediction of a bulb turbine performance hill chart through RANS simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the framework of an international research consortium on low-head hydraulic turbine flow dynamics, the predictive behavior of Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) simulations of the efficiency (η) hill chart of a bulb turbine is investigated. The paper presents the impacts of the blade tip gap and the hub gaps on performance predictions.

  16. Hypothesis That Urethral Bulb (Corpus Spongiosum) Plays an Active Role in Male Urinary Continence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehder, Peter; Staudacher, Nina M; Schachtner, Joerg; Berger, Maria E; Schillfahrt, Florian; Hauser, Verena; Mueller, Raphael; Skradski, Viktor; Horninger, Wolfgang; Glodny, Bernhard

    2016-01-01

    The proximal urethral bulb in men is enlarged, surrounds the bulbous urethra, and extends dorsally towards the perineum. During intercourse engorgement takes place due to increased blood flow through the corpus spongiosum. Antegrade ejaculation is facilitated by contraction of the bulbospongiosus muscles during climax. Micturition during sexual stimulation is functionally inhibited. Supporting the bulb may indirectly facilitate continence in a certain subset of patients with postprostatectomy incontinence. During physical activity with increased abdominal pressure, reflex contraction of the pelvic floor muscles as well as the bulbospongiosus muscles occurs to support sphincter function and limit urinary incontinence. Operations to the prostate may weaken urinary sphincter function. It is hypothesized that the distal urinary sphincter may be supported indirectly by placing a hammock underneath the urethral bulb. During moments of physical stress the "cushion" of blood within the supported corpus spongiosum helps to increase the zone of coaptation within the sphincteric (membranous) urethra. This may lead to urinary continence in patients treated by a transobturator repositioning sling in patients with postprostatectomy incontinence. This paper describes the possible role of the urethral bulb in male urinary continence, including its function after retroluminal sling placement (AdVance, AdVance XP® Male Sling System, Minnetonka, USA). PMID:27022393

  17. Hypothesis That Urethral Bulb (Corpus Spongiosum Plays an Active Role in Male Urinary Continence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Rehder

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The proximal urethral bulb in men is enlarged, surrounds the bulbous urethra, and extends dorsally towards the perineum. During intercourse engorgement takes place due to increased blood flow through the corpus spongiosum. Antegrade ejaculation is facilitated by contraction of the bulbospongiosus muscles during climax. Micturition during sexual stimulation is functionally inhibited. Supporting the bulb may indirectly facilitate continence in a certain subset of patients with postprostatectomy incontinence. During physical activity with increased abdominal pressure, reflex contraction of the pelvic floor muscles as well as the bulbospongiosus muscles occurs to support sphincter function and limit urinary incontinence. Operations to the prostate may weaken urinary sphincter function. It is hypothesized that the distal urinary sphincter may be supported indirectly by placing a hammock underneath the urethral bulb. During moments of physical stress the “cushion” of blood within the supported corpus spongiosum helps to increase the zone of coaptation within the sphincteric (membranous urethra. This may lead to urinary continence in patients treated by a transobturator repositioning sling in patients with postprostatectomy incontinence. This paper describes the possible role of the urethral bulb in male urinary continence, including its function after retroluminal sling placement (AdVance, AdVance XP® Male Sling System, Minnetonka, USA.

  18. Turn It on with Light Bulb Reading! Sound-Switching Strategies for Struggling Readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Maryellen; Nagano, Patty

    2003-01-01

    Notes that "Light Bulb Reading" is done in short, one-on-one, daily lessons that include oral reading with note-taking and discussions about miscues, skills, and strategies. Suggests that this is an effective approach for assisting struggling readers that focuses on specific, individual, assessed needs. Outlines an 11-step plan. (SG)

  19. Quality evaluation of irradiated Holland onion bulbs and potato tubers after shipment to Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes the general sprouted bulbs and tubers, edible and spoilage percentage of irradiated onions and potatoes treated in the Netherlands and shipped to Egypt. Radiation doses of 0.05, 0.1 KGy inhibited sprouting completely in Dutch onions and potatoes respectively

  20. Family identification: a beneficial process for young adults who grow up in homes affected by parental intimate partner violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naughton, Catherine M; O'Donnell, Aisling T; Muldoon, Orla T

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to parental intimate partner violence (parental IPV) is a complex trauma. Research within social psychology establishes that identification with social groups impacts positively on how we appraise, respond to and recover from traumatic events. IPV is also a highly stigmatized social phenomenon and social isolation is a major factor for families affected by IPV, yet strong identification with the family group may act as a beneficial psychological resource to young people who grew up in homes affected by IPV. The current study, an online survey of 355 students (M age = 20, 70% female), investigated if a psychosocial process, specifically identification with the family, may influence the relationship between the predictor, exposure to parental IPV, and outcomes, global self-esteem and state anxiety. Mediation analysis suggests that identification with the family has a positive influence on the relationship between exposure to parental IPV and psychological outcomes; exposure to parental IPV results in reduced family identification, but when family identification is strong it results in both reduced anxiety and increased self-esteem for young people. The findings highlight the importance of having a strong sense of belonging to the extended family for young people who were exposed to parental IPV, thus has implications for prevention, intervention, and social policy. PMID:26379582

  1. Family identification: A beneficial process for young adults who grow up in homes affected by parental intimate partner violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Mary Naughton

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to parental intimate partner violence (parental IPV is a complex trauma. Research within social psychology establishes that identification with social groups impacts positively on how we appraise, respond to and recover from traumatic events. Intimate partner violence (IPV is also a highly stigmatized social phenomenon and social isolation is a major factor for families affected by IPV, yet strong identification with the family group may act as a beneficial psychological resource to young people who grew up in homes affected by IPV. The current study, an online survey of 355 students (M age = 20, 70% female, investigated if a psychosocial process, specifically identification with the family, may influence the relationship between the predictor, exposure to parental IPV, and outcomes, global self-esteem and state anxiety. Mediation analysis suggests that identification with the family has a positive influence on the relationship between exposure to parental IPV and psychological outcomes; exposure to parental IPV results in reduced family identification, but when family identification is strong it results in both reduced anxiety and increased self-esteem for young people. The findings highlight the importance of having a strong sense of belonging to the extended family for young people who were exposed to parental IPV, thus has implications for prevention, intervention and social policy.

  2. The adsorption of oil sands naphthenic acids from process-affected tailings water using activated petroleum coke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Small, C.C.; Hashisho, Z.; Ulrich, A.C. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    2010-07-01

    Eighty percent of the organic acids in the Athabasca oil sands region are comprised of naphthenic acids that are toxic to a variety of aquatic life-forms as well as being highly corrosive. This PowerPoint presentation discussed a method of adsorbing naphthenic acids from process-affected water. Activated petroleum coke was studied in order to investigate optimal physical activation conditions for adsorbing oil sands naphthenic acids. Experimental tests were conducted in a centrifuge and analyzed with Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and fluorescence spectrometry. The study demonstrated that delayed and fluid petroleum cokes can be turned into high surface area carbons with increased activation time, temperature, and steam rate. The coke can be used as an adsorbent to remove oil sands naphthenic acids. tabs., figs.

  3. A single high dose of escitalopram increases mismatch negativity without affecting processing negativity or P300 amplitude in healthy volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wienberg, M; Glenthøj, Birte Yding; Jensen, K S;

    2009-01-01

    processing. The present study was designed to replicate and further extent the results of our initial study on the effects of a low dose of escitalopram (10 mg) on MMN, PN and P300 amplitude. In a randomised, double-blind, cross-over experiment, 20 healthy male volunteers received either a single, orally...... administered dose of 15 mg escitalopram (a highly selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI)) or placebo, after which their PN, MMN and P300 amplitude were assessed. Similar to our initial study with 10 mg escitalopram, 15 mg escitalopram significantly increased MMN, while it did not affect P300 amplitude....... In contrast to our initial study, however, the currently higher dose of escitalopram did not increase PN. Results support the view that a broad range of increased serotonergic activity enhances MMN, while the relationship between serotonin and PN seems more complex. The current study does not support...

  4. Processes affecting the dissipation of the herbicide isoxaflutole and its diketonitrile metabolite in agricultural soils under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papiernik, Sharon K; Yates, Scott R; Koskinen, William C; Barber, Brian

    2007-10-17

    Two-year field dissipation studies were conducted in three soil types in Minnesota to examine the processes affecting the dissipation of the herbicide isoxaflutole and its phytotoxic diketonitrile metabolite (DKN) under relatively cool, wet soil conditions. Plots of cuphea were treated with isoxaflutole and potassium bromide, a nonsorbed, nondegraded tracer. Replicate soil cores were collected six times during the growing season to a depth of 1 m, and the bromide or herbicide concentration was measured in each of five depth increments. The dissipation half-life (DT50) of isoxaflutole + DKN was 8-18 days in each soil. Bromide and herbicide concentrations were low at depths >40 cm throughout the study, and herbicide concentrations in soil 100 days after application were usually undetectable. Simulation modeling using Hydrus-1D for the loam soil suggested that plant uptake was an important mechanism of dissipation. PMID:17880161

  5. Extracting Behaviorally Relevant Traits from Natural Stimuli: Benefits of Combinatorial Representations at the Accessory Olfactory Bulb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahan, Anat; Ben-Shaul, Yoram

    2016-03-01

    For many animals, chemosensation is essential for guiding social behavior. However, because multiple factors can modulate levels of individual chemical cues, deriving information about other individuals via natural chemical stimuli involves considerable challenges. How social information is extracted despite these sources of variability is poorly understood. The vomeronasal system provides an excellent opportunity to study this topic due to its role in detecting socially relevant traits. Here, we focus on two such traits: a female mouse's strain and reproductive state. In particular, we measure stimulus-induced neuronal activity in the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) in response to various dilutions of urine, vaginal secretions, and saliva, from estrus and non-estrus female mice from two different strains. We first show that all tested secretions provide information about a female's receptivity and genotype. Next, we investigate how these traits can be decoded from neuronal activity despite multiple sources of variability. We show that individual neurons are limited in their capacity to allow trait classification across multiple sources of variability. However, simple linear classifiers sampling neuronal activity from small neuronal ensembles can provide a substantial improvement over that attained with individual units. Furthermore, we show that some traits are more efficiently detected than others, and that particular secretions may be optimized for conveying information about specific traits. Across all tested stimulus sources, discrimination between strains is more accurate than discrimination of receptivity, and detection of receptivity is more accurate with vaginal secretions than with urine. Our findings highlight the challenges of chemosensory processing of natural stimuli, and suggest that downstream readout stages decode multiple behaviorally relevant traits by sampling information from distinct but overlapping populations of AOB neurons. PMID:26938460

  6. Extracting Behaviorally Relevant Traits from Natural Stimuli: Benefits of Combinatorial Representations at the Accessory Olfactory Bulb.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anat Kahan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available For many animals, chemosensation is essential for guiding social behavior. However, because multiple factors can modulate levels of individual chemical cues, deriving information about other individuals via natural chemical stimuli involves considerable challenges. How social information is extracted despite these sources of variability is poorly understood. The vomeronasal system provides an excellent opportunity to study this topic due to its role in detecting socially relevant traits. Here, we focus on two such traits: a female mouse's strain and reproductive state. In particular, we measure stimulus-induced neuronal activity in the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB in response to various dilutions of urine, vaginal secretions, and saliva, from estrus and non-estrus female mice from two different strains. We first show that all tested secretions provide information about a female's receptivity and genotype. Next, we investigate how these traits can be decoded from neuronal activity despite multiple sources of variability. We show that individual neurons are limited in their capacity to allow trait classification across multiple sources of variability. However, simple linear classifiers sampling neuronal activity from small neuronal ensembles can provide a substantial improvement over that attained with individual units. Furthermore, we show that some traits are more efficiently detected than others, and that particular secretions may be optimized for conveying information about specific traits. Across all tested stimulus sources, discrimination between strains is more accurate than discrimination of receptivity, and detection of receptivity is more accurate with vaginal secretions than with urine. Our findings highlight the challenges of chemosensory processing of natural stimuli, and suggest that downstream readout stages decode multiple behaviorally relevant traits by sampling information from distinct but overlapping populations of AOB neurons.

  7. Functional recovery of odor representations in regenerated sensory inputs to the olfactory bulb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James E Schwob

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The olfactory system has a unique capacity for recovery from peripheral damage. After injury to the olfactory epithelium, olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs regenerate and re-converge on target glomeruli of the olfactory bulb (OB. Thus far, this process has been described anatomically for only a few defined populations of OSNs. Here we characterize this regeneration at a functional level by assessing how odor representations carried by OSN inputs to the OB recover after massive loss and regeneration of the sensory neuron population. We used chronic imaging of mice expressing synaptopHluorin in OSNs to monitor odor representations in the dorsal OB before lesion by the olfactotoxin methyl bromide and after a 12 week recovery period. Methyl bromide eliminated functional inputs to the OB, and these inputs recovered to near-normal levels of response magnitude within 12 weeks. We also found that the functional topography of odor representations recovered after lesion, with odorants evoking OSN input to glomerular foci within the same functional domains as before lesion. At a finer spatial scale, however, we found evidence for mistargeting of regenerated OSN axons onto OB targets, with odorants evoking synaptopHluorin signals in small foci that did not conform to a typical glomerular structure but whose distribution was nonetheless odorant-specific. These results indicate that OSNs have a robust ability to reestablish functional inputs to the OB and that the mechanisms underlying the topography of bulbar reinnervation during development persist in the adult and allow primary sensory representations to be largely restored after massive sensory neuron loss.

  8. 室内鳞片扦插法高效再生麝香百合%Mass propagation of Lilium longiflorum through bulb scale cutting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘菊华; 张静; 金志强; 谭光兰; 贾彩红; 杨小亮; 徐碧玉

    2008-01-01

    Lilium longiflorum was multiplied successfully by using bulb scale cutting technique. The effects of different positions of bulb scales, different media and different concentrations of NAA or IBA on the propagation efficiency were tested. The outer bulb scales were found to produced the highest multiplication rate (900%) when quickly dipped into 100mg/L NAA and 1.5mg/L IBA for 1~2s and cultured on the mixed medium with equal volume of sand, coconut coir and loam soil. The bulbil formation and growth were greatly affected by light. This technique is optimal for rapid propagation of Lilium longiflorum due to its higher multiplication rate and lower investment.%采用鳞片扦插法有效地繁殖了麝香百合鳞茎.研究不同部位的鳞片、不同的培养基质、不同浓度的NAA或IBA对繁殖效率的影响.结果表明:当外部鳞片迅速蘸入NAA(100mg/L)和IBA(1.5mg/L)后插入由等体积的砂,椰糠和壤士配比的培养基质中,所再生小鳞茎的效果最好.研究中还发现,小鳞茎的形成与生长受光照的影响很大.该技术具有繁殖效率高、成本低的优点,是一条快速繁殖麝香百合种球的良好的技术途径.

  9. Reproductive and health assessment of fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) inhabiting a pond containing oil sands process-affected water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kavanagh, Richard J., E-mail: rkavanag@uoguelph.ca [Department of Integrative Biology, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada N1G 2W1 (Canada); Frank, Richard A.; Solomon, Keith R. [Centre for Toxicology, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada N1G 2W1 (Canada); Van Der Kraak, Glen [Department of Integrative Biology, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada N1G 2W1 (Canada)

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ► Fish were collected from a pond containing oil sands process-affected water (OSPW). ► They were compared to fish from two reference sites within the oil sands region. ► Differences in GSIs and tubercle numbers were observed in fish from the OSPW pond. ► Opercula, gills, and 11-KT concentrations also differed in fish from the OSPW pond. ► Black spot and tapeworms were not observed in any of the fish from the OSPW pond. -- Abstract: Previous laboratory based studies have shown that oil sands process-affected waters (OSPWs) containing high concentrations of naphthenic acids (>25 mg/l) have adverse effects on the reproductive physiology of fish. The purpose of this study was to assess the reproductive development and health of a wild population of fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) inhabiting an OSPW pond that has moderate concentrations of naphthenic acids (∼10 mg/l). Fathead minnows were collected at various times during the period of 2006 through 2008 from Demonstration Pond (OSPW) located at Syncrude Canada Ltd., and two reference sites, Beaver Creek reservoir and Poplar Creek reservoir, which are all north of Fort McMurray, AB, Canada. Condition factor, gill histopathology, gonadosomatic indices, liver somatic indices, male secondary sexual characteristics, and plasma sex steroids were examined. Depending on the time of year that fathead minnows were collected, there were differences in the condition factor, gonadosomatic indices, liver somatic indices, and secondary sexual characteristics of fathead minnows (in males) from Demonstration Pond when compared to the fathead minnows from the reference sites. In comparison to reference fish, lower concentrations of 11-ketotestosterone were measured in the plasma of male fathead minnows collected from Demonstration Pond in June 2006 and July 2007. Black spot disease and Ligula intestinalis were prevalent in fathead minnows from the reference sites but were not observed in fathead minnows

  10. Reproductive and health assessment of fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) inhabiting a pond containing oil sands process-affected water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Fish were collected from a pond containing oil sands process-affected water (OSPW). ► They were compared to fish from two reference sites within the oil sands region. ► Differences in GSIs and tubercle numbers were observed in fish from the OSPW pond. ► Opercula, gills, and 11-KT concentrations also differed in fish from the OSPW pond. ► Black spot and tapeworms were not observed in any of the fish from the OSPW pond. -- Abstract: Previous laboratory based studies have shown that oil sands process-affected waters (OSPWs) containing high concentrations of naphthenic acids (>25 mg/l) have adverse effects on the reproductive physiology of fish. The purpose of this study was to assess the reproductive development and health of a wild population of fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) inhabiting an OSPW pond that has moderate concentrations of naphthenic acids (∼10 mg/l). Fathead minnows were collected at various times during the period of 2006 through 2008 from Demonstration Pond (OSPW) located at Syncrude Canada Ltd., and two reference sites, Beaver Creek reservoir and Poplar Creek reservoir, which are all north of Fort McMurray, AB, Canada. Condition factor, gill histopathology, gonadosomatic indices, liver somatic indices, male secondary sexual characteristics, and plasma sex steroids were examined. Depending on the time of year that fathead minnows were collected, there were differences in the condition factor, gonadosomatic indices, liver somatic indices, and secondary sexual characteristics of fathead minnows (in males) from Demonstration Pond when compared to the fathead minnows from the reference sites. In comparison to reference fish, lower concentrations of 11-ketotestosterone were measured in the plasma of male fathead minnows collected from Demonstration Pond in June 2006 and July 2007. Black spot disease and Ligula intestinalis were prevalent in fathead minnows from the reference sites but were not observed in fathead minnows

  11. Crossmodal semantic congruence can affect visuo-spatial processing and activity of the fronto-parietal attention networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena eMastroberardino

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that multisensory stimuli can contribute to attention control. Here we investigate whether irrelevant audio-visual stimuli can affect the processing of subsequent visual targets, in the absence of any direct bottom-up signals generated by low-level sensory changes and any goal-related associations between the multisensory stimuli and the visual targets. Each trial included two pictures (cat/dog, one in each visual hemifield, and a central sound that was semantically congruent with one of the two pictures (i.e. either meow or woof sound. These irrelevant audio-visual stimuli were followed by a visual target that appeared either where the congruent or the incongruent picture had been presented (valid/invalid trials. The visual target was a Gabor patch requiring an orientation discrimination judgment, allowing us to uncouple the visual task from the audio-visual stimuli. Behaviourally we found lower performance for invalid than valid trials, but only when the task demands were high (Gabor target presented together with a Gabor distractor vs. Gabor target alone. The fMRI analyses revealed greater activity for invalid than for valid trials in the dorsal and the ventral fronto-parietal attention networks. The dorsal network was recruited irrespective of task demands, while the ventral network was recruited only when task demands were high and target discrimination required additional top-down control. We propose that crossmodal semantic congruence generates a processing bias associated with the location of congruent picture, and that the presentation of the visual target on the opposite side required updating these processing priorities. We relate the activation of the attention networks to these updating operations. We conclude that the fronto-parietal networks mediate the influence of crossmodal semantic congruence on visuo-spatial processing, even in the absence of any low-level sensory cue and any goal-driven task

  12. Crossmodal semantic congruence can affect visuo-spatial processing and activity of the fronto-parietal attention networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastroberardino, Serena; Santangelo, Valerio; Macaluso, Emiliano

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that multisensory stimuli can contribute to attention control. Here we investigate whether irrelevant audio-visual stimuli can affect the processing of subsequent visual targets, in the absence of any direct bottom-up signals generated by low-level sensory changes and any goal-related associations between the multisensory stimuli and the visual targets. Each trial included two pictures (cat/dog), one in each visual hemifield, and a central sound that was semantically congruent with one of the two pictures (i.e., either "meow" or "woof" sound). These irrelevant audio-visual stimuli were followed by a visual target that appeared either where the congruent or the incongruent picture had been presented (valid/invalid trials). The visual target was a Gabor patch requiring an orientation discrimination judgment, allowing us to uncouple the visual task from the audio-visual stimuli. Behaviourally we found lower performance for invalid than valid trials, but only when the task demands were high (Gabor target presented together with a Gabor distractor vs. Gabor target alone). The fMRI analyses revealed greater activity for invalid than for valid trials in the dorsal and the ventral fronto-parietal attention networks. The dorsal network was recruited irrespective of task demands, while the ventral network was recruited only when task demands were high and target discrimination required additional top-down control. We propose that crossmodal semantic congruence generates a processing bias associated with the location of congruent picture, and that the presentation of the visual target on the opposite side required updating these processing priorities. We relate the activation of the attention networks to these updating operations. We conclude that the fronto-parietal networks mediate the influence of crossmodal semantic congruence on visuo-spatial processing, even in the absence of any low-level sensory cue and any goal-driven task associations

  13. Implications for Ecosystem Services of Watershed Processes that affect the Transport and Transformations of Mercury in an Adirondack Stream Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, D. A.; Riva-Murray, K.; Bradley, P. M.

    2012-12-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a potent neurotoxin that can affect the health of humans and wildlife through the ingestion of methyl Hg. Mercury contamination of ecosystems originates from human activities such as mining, coal burning and other industrial emissions, and the use of Hg-containing products. Natural sources such as volcanic and geothermal emissions and the weathering of Hg-bearing minerals also contribute to Hg contamination, but are believed to be minor sources in most ecosystems. Various ecosystem disturbances including fires, forest harvesting, and the submergence of land by impoundment may also contribute to Hg ecosystem contamination by mobilizing stores that have previously originated from the sources described above. Mercury from a mix of regional and global emissions sources is transported in the atmosphere to remote landscapes that are distant from local emissions sources. The Adirondacks of New York State is a forested, mountainous region characterized by abundant lakes and streams, and is distant from local emissions sources. Recreational fishing, wildlife viewing, hiking, and hunting are valued ecosystem services in this region. Here, we report on the relevance to ecosystem services of findings based on five years of Hg data collection of stream water, groundwater, invertebrates, and fish in the upper Hudson River basin in the central part of the Adirondack region. The New York State Dept. of Health has issued fish consumption advisories for the entire Adirondacks based on elevated levels previously measured in lakes and rivers of this region. Our work seeks improved understanding and models of the landscape sources and watershed processes that control the transformation of Hg to its methyl form (MeHg), the transport of MeHg to streams, and bioaccumulation of MeHg in aquatic food webs. Mean annual atmospheric Hg deposition was 6.3 μg/m2/yr during 2007-09, compared to mean annual filtered total Hg stream yields of 1.66 μg/m2/yr and filtered MeHg stream

  14. Advanced analytical mass spectrometric techniques and bioassays to characterize untreated and ozonated oil sands process-affected water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Nian; Chelme-Ayala, Pamela; Klamerth, Nikolaus; McPhedran, Kerry N; Islam, Md Shahinoor; Perez-Estrada, Leonidas; Drzewicz, Przemysław; Blunt, Brian J; Reichert, Megan; Hagen, Mariel; Tierney, Keith B; Belosevic, Miodrag; Gamal El-Din, Mohamed

    2014-10-01

    Oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) is a toxic and poorly biodegradable mixture of sand, silt, heavy metals, and organics. In this study, qualitative and quantitative comparisons of naphthenic acids (NAs) were done using ultraperformance liquid chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC TOF-MS), Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) MS, and ion mobility spectrometry (IMS). The unique combination of these analyses allowed for the determination and correlation of NAs, oxidized NAs, and heteroatom (sulfur or nitrogen) NAs. Despite its lower resolution, UPLC-TOF MS was shown to offer a comparable level of reliability and precision as the high resolution FT-ICR MS. Additionally, the impacts of ozonation (35 mg/L utilized ozone dose) and subsequent NAs degradation on OSPW toxicity were assessed via a collection of organisms and toxicity end points using Vibrio fischeri (nonspecific), specific fish macrophage antimicrobial responses, and fish olfactory responses. Fish macrophages exposed to ozonated OSPW for 1 week showed higher production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen intermediates; however, after 12 weeks the responses were reduced significantly. Fish olfactory tests suggested that OSPW interfered with their perception of odorants. Current results indicate that the quantification of NAs species, using novel analytical methods, can be combined with various toxicity methods to assess the efficiency of OSPW treatment processes. PMID:25211339

  15. HIV-1 Adaptation to Antigen Processing Results in Population-Level Immune Evasion and Affects Subtype Diversification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Tenzer

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The recent HIV-1 vaccine failures highlight the need to better understand virus-host interactions. One key question is why CD8+ T cell responses to two HIV-Gag regions are uniquely associated with delayed disease progression only in patients expressing a few rare HLA class I variants when these regions encode epitopes presented by ∼30 more common HLA variants. By combining epitope processing and computational analyses of the two HIV subtypes responsible for ∼60% of worldwide infections, we identified a hitherto unrecognized adaptation to the antigen-processing machinery through substitutions at subtype-specific motifs. Multiple HLA variants presenting epitopes situated next to a given subtype-specific motif drive selection at this subtype-specific position, and epitope abundances correlate inversely with the HLA frequency distribution in affected populations. This adaptation reflects the sum of intrapatient adaptations, is predictable, facilitates viral subtype diversification, and increases global HIV diversity. Because low epitope abundance is associated with infrequent and weak T cell responses, this most likely results in both population-level immune evasion and inadequate responses in most people vaccinated with natural HIV-1 sequence constructs. Our results suggest that artificial sequence modifications at subtype-specific positions in vitro could refocus and reverse the poor immunogenicity of HIV proteins.

  16. Molecular identification of a yellow perch viral disease associated with exposure to oil sands process affected waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Large volumes of tailings and process affected water are generated as a result of oil sand mining processes. This presentation discussed the safe incorporation of these wastes into the terrestrial and aquatic landscape. A study was conducted in which yellow perch were stocked into experimental ponds, namely Demonstration Pond and South Bison Pond, during the periods of 1995-1997 and 2008-2010. Demonstration Pond was comprised of mature fine tailings capped with natural surface water, while South Bison Pond was formed at a site surrounded by overburden or lean oil sands. Disease surveys were conducted at these experimental ponds and also at Mildred, Sucker, and Kimowin Lakes. External white nodular lesions, characteristic of lymphocystis disease were observed on perch at all sites except Kimowin Lake. The identity of the virus was confirmed by DNA extraction and PCR with genotype generic major capsid protein gene primers. The presence of lymphocystis disease virus in perch was confirmed through sequencing of PCR results. The viral genotype appeared to be different from any previously isolated viral genotype. During the course of the study, there was an increasing incidence of the disease at Demonstration Pond and a decreasing incidence at the South Bison Pond. The intensity of the disease was found to be proportional to the incidence, which was positively correlated with changes in naphthenic acid concentration.

  17. 是什么改变了语言学习的过程?%What affects the language learning process?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨晓华

    2008-01-01

    Learners are different. They will bring to the learning situation different beliefs and attitudes about the na-ture of language and language learning. They may act on the basis of their beliefs. Meanwhile, teachers' beliefs about what is involved in learning will also influence the learning pro-cess. Their beliefs may affect the way in which they teach.Therefore, students' beliefs must be taken into account if teachers were to account for students' behaviors. At the same time, Teachers' beliefs also need to be taken into considera-tion. Teachers must recognize that teaching is an expression of values and attitudes, not just information and knowledge.Teachers must recognize that a teacher who does not accept his/her learners for whom they are makes it difficult for them to accept themselves. Teachers must recognize that they themselves are constantly involved in a lifelong process of learning and change, and that how they behave in the class-room may have profound effects on the way their students change.

  18. 2011 and 2012 Early Careers Achievement Awards: farm and pig factors affecting welfare during the marketing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, A K; Gesing, L M; Ellis, M; McGlone, J J; Berg, E; Lonergan, S M; Fitzgerald, R; Karriker, L A; Ramirez, A; Stalder, K J; Sapkota, A; Kephart, R; Selsby, J T; Sadler, L J; Ritter, M J

    2013-06-01

    The objective of this paper is to review the scientific literature to identify on-farm factors that contribute to market weight pig transportation losses. Transportation of market weight pigs is an essential element to the multisite pork production model used in the United States. In 2011 alone, approximately 111 million market weight pigs were transported from the finishing site to the abattoir. For pigs, the marketing process can present a combination of potentially novel, physical, and/or unfamiliar experiences that can be stressful. If the pig cannot cope with these sequential and additive stressors, then an increased rate of transportation losses could occur with a detrimental effect on pork carcass value. Current yearly estimates for transport losses are 1 million pigs (1%). A variety of market weight pig and farm factors have been reported to detrimentally affect transportation losses. By understanding how pigs interact with their environment during marketing, researchers, producers, and personnel at the abattoir may begin to identify, prioritize, and attempt to minimize or eliminate these stressors. This process will ultimately decrease transportation losses, improve pork quality, and increase profitability. PMID:23478817

  19. One teacher's identity, emotions, and commitment to change : A case study into the cognitive-affective processes of a secondary school teacher in the context of reforms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Veen, K; Sleegers, P; van de Ven, PH

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a cognitive social-psychological theoretical framework on emotions, derived from Richard Lazarus, to understand how teachers' identity can be affected in a context of reforms. The emphasis of this approach is on the cognitive-affective processes of individual teachers, enabling u

  20. Qualidade de bulbos de cebola em consequência de tratamentos pré-colheita Onion bulb quality due to pre-harvest treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos David Ferreira

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de se avaliar o efeito de tratamentos pré-colheita na qualidade de bulbos de cebola, através dos parâmetros perda de peso, espessura e coloração da casca, diâmetro e firmeza do bulbo, foi conduzido experimento em Paulínia, Estado de São Paulo, em 1997. Foram utilizados quatro tratamentos: testemunha; oxicloreto de cobre (250 g 100 L-1 de água; ácido bórico (250 g 100 L-1 de água; e a combinação dos dois últimos e seis cultivares: Serrana, Régia, Crioula e três híbridos da SVS, HT, HS-1 e HS-2. Os tratamentos foram aplicados durante a bulbificação. Os bulbos foram armazenados à temperatura ambiente (25ºC e analisados periodicamente para os parâmetros citados. Os resultados permitiram observar que a aplicação pré-colheita do oxicloreto de cobre, nas quatro últimas semanas do ciclo, aumentou significativamente a resistência da casca dos bulbos, reduziu a perda de peso e incrementou a coloração dos mesmos, para todas as cultivares. Cultivares com casca mais escura apresentaram melhor resposta aos tratamentos pré-colheita para a coloração, do que as de casca mais clara. A firmeza dos bulbos, não foi influenciada pelos tratamentos pré-colheita.Pre-harvest treatments were evaluated to enhance onion bulb quality in different onion cultivars adapted to tropical conditions. Parameters used were weight loss, skin color and thickness, bulb and firmness. Trials were carried out in 1997. Four treatments were used: control, copper oxicloride (250 g 100 L-1; boric acid (250 g 100 L-1, and a combination of the two chemical treatments (250 g 100 L-1 of each. Treatments were applied at bulbing stage. The six cultivars were Serrana, Régia, Crioula, and the hybrids HT, HS-1 and HS-2. Bulbs were stored at room temperature prior to evaluations. Results showed that copper oxicloride (250 g 100 L-1 induced an increase in skin thickness, decreased weight loss and enhanced color in cultivars. Dark skin cultivars had a