WorldWideScience

Sample records for buildup

  1. From detached to attached buildup complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rafaelsen, B.; Elvebakk, G.; Andreassen, K.

    2008-01-01

    warm- and cool-water carbonate buildups from the Finnmark Platform is controlled by faults and the sea floor morphology at the time of their growth. A fluctuating sea level affected the growth of the carbonate buildups, but they also influenced their own environment by forming lagoons, atoll...... deposition and buildup growth bridged the detached platform with the attached platform. In the Bjarmeland Group (Lower Permian) 0.35-4.8 km wide, 1.5-27 km long and 60-420 m thick cool-water bryozoan-dominated straight, sinuous and continuous carbonate ridges or atoll-like ridges are located on top...

  2. Metal transfer and build-up in friction and cutting

    CERN Document Server

    Kuznetsov, V D

    1956-01-01

    Metal Transfer and Build-up in Friction and Cutting aims to systematize our knowledge of the metal build-up, to describe some of the investigations past and present carried out in SFTI (Tomsk), and to make an effort to explain a number of the phenomena in cutting, scratching, and sliding from the point of view of metal transfer theory. The book opens with a chapter on the temperature of the rubbing interface of two solids. This temperature is needed in order to elucidate the nature of the formation of a build-up in scratching, cutting, and sliding. Separate chapters follow on the seizure phen

  3. Human electrophysiological examination of buildup of the precedence effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrijevic, Andrew; Stapells, David R

    2006-07-31

    Event-related potential correlates of the buildup of precedence effect were examined. Buildup is a type of precedence effect illusion in which perception changes (from hearing two clicks to hearing one click) during a click train. Buildup occurs faster for right-leading than left-leading clicks. Continuous click trains that changed leading sides every 15 clicks were presented. Event-related potential N1 amplitudes became smaller with click train for right-leading only. N1 latency decreased with click trains. Mismatch negativity was seen after lead-lag sides were changed. When the perceived change differed in location (left-to-right), mismatch negativity peaked earlier than when the perceived change differed in location and number of clicks (right-to-left). Results suggest that buildup relates to: N1 refractoriness, event-related potential 'lead domination' and mismatch negativity differences.

  4. Analysis of pressure buildup data following a short flow period

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raghavan, R.; Reynolds, A.C. Jr.; Meng, H.Z.

    1982-04-01

    Methods of analyzing buildup data following a short flow period are presented, discussed, and illustrated. A new type curve for uniform-flux and infinite-conductivity vertically fractured wells is presented. By matching buildup data with this new type curve, it is possible to determine the dimensionless flowing time before shut-in. A method for converting buildup data to equivalent drawdown data is discussed. This method can be used to combine buildup and drawdown data to obtain a longer band of data for type-curve matching. This method can be used for constant-rate production, constant-pressure production, and for the case where both pressure and rate vary during production. 17 refs.

  5. Dynamical analysis of the buildup process near resonance

    CERN Document Server

    Villavicencio, J; Villavicencio, Jorge; Romo, Roberto

    2000-01-01

    The time evolution of the buildup process inside a double-barrier system for off-resonance incidence energies is studied by considering the analytic solution of the time dependent Schr\\"{o}dinger equation with cutoff plane wave initial conditions. We show that the buildup process exhibits invariances under arbitrary changes on the system parameters, which can be successfully described by a simple and easy-to-use one-level formula. We find that the buildup of the off-resonant probability density is characterized by an oscillatory pattern modulated by the resonant case which governs the duration of the transient regime. This is evidence that off-resonant and resonant tunneling are two correlated processes, whose transient regime is characterized by the same transient time constant of two lifetimes.

  6. Semilog analysis of gas well drawdown and buildup data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, A.C.; Bratvold, R.G.; Ding, W.

    1985-03-01

    The pseudo-pressure function is well understood and widely used for analyzing gas well drawdown and buildup data. The utility of the pseudo-time function for analyzing buildup data using drawdown type curves also has been established. Unfortunately, the pseudotime concept is often incorrectly applied when analyzing drawdown data by semilog methods. This work provides information on appropriate definitions of time which yield accurate analysis of data obtained under radial flow conditions. From the pratical viewpoint, the most important result is that there exist two Horner time ratios, one based on a normalized shut-in time and one based on shut-in pseudo-time which yield an accurate analysis of buildup data including the correct determination of average pressure using the liquid Matthews-Brons-Hazebroek functions.

  7. Semilog analysis of gas well drawdown and buildup data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, A.C.; Bratvold, R.B.; Ding, W.

    1987-12-01

    The pseudopressure function is well understood and widely used for analyzing gas well drawdown and buildup data. The usefulness of the pseudotime function for analyzing buildup data with drawdown type curves has also been established. Unfortunately, the pseudotime concept is often incorrectly applied when drawdown data are analyzed by semilog methods. This work provides information on appropriate definitions of dimensionless time that yield accurate analysis of data obtained under radial flow conditions. From the practical viewpoint, the most important result is that two Horner time ratios exist - one based on a normalized shut-in time and one based on shut-in pseudotime - that yield an accurate analysis of buildup data, including the correct determination of average pressure using the liquid Matthews-Brons-Hazebroek (MBH) functions.

  8. Amalgam buildups: shear strength and dentin sealing properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashley, E L; Comer, R W; Parry, E E; Pashley, D H

    1991-01-01

    The retentive strength and sealing properties of amalgam buildups were compared in vitro in three groups of specimens. All teeth were prepared with flat, nonretentive surfaces. In the first group, the amalgam buildups were retained by four self-threading Minim pins. In the second group, retention was provided by a circumferential slot prepared in the dentin just inside the DEJ. The third group utilized an adhesive resin for retention. Dentin permeability was measured as a hydraulic conductance before and after placement of the amalgam buildups and before and after thermocycling. All methods of retention sealed dentin very well even in the absence of cavity varnish. The 90 degree retentive strength was: pins, 10.3 +/- 0.9 MPa; slots, 4.1 +/- 0.5 MPa; resin, 3.1 +/- 0.8 MPa (mean +/- SEM).

  9. Humidity Buildup in Electronic Enclosures Exposed to Constant Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conseil, Helene; Staliulionis, Zygimantas; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl

    2017-01-01

    parameters such as openings in the enclosure (drain holes, intentional openings or leak) and sealing and casing material. Related corrosion reliability issues due to humidity buildup have been evaluated using an interdigitated surface insulation resistance pattern placed inside the enclosure during exposure...

  10. Improvement of Photon Buildup Factors for Radiological Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schirmers, Fritz Gordon [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

    2006-07-01

    Slant-path buildup factors for photons between 1 keV and 10 MeV for nine radiation shielding materials (air, aluminum, concrete, iron, lead, leaded glass, polyethylene, stainless steel, and water) are calculated with the most recent cross-section data available using Monte Carlo and discrete ordinates methods. Discrete ordinates calculations use a 244-group energy structure that is based on previous research at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), but extended with the results of this thesis, and its focused studies on low-energy photon transport and the effects of group widths in multigroup calculations. Buildup factor calculations in discrete ordinates benefit from coupled photon/electron cross sections to account for secondary photon effects. Also, ambient dose equivalent (herein referred to as dose) buildup factors were analyzed at lower energies where corresponding response functions do not exist in literature. The results of these studies are directly applicable to radiation safety at LANL, where the dose modeling tool Pandemonium is used to estimate worker dose in plutonium handling facilities. Buildup factors determined in this thesis will be used to enhance the code's modeling capabilities, but should be of interest to the radiation shielding community.

  11. Energy Absorption and Exposure Buildup Factors of Essential Amino Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ertuğrul Bursalıoğlu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effective atomic number and effective electron density in amino acids are of significant interest due to their use in various applications. The energy absorption buildup factors, exposure buildup factors, effective atomic numbers, and electron densities of essential amino acids such as Leucine (C6H13NO2, Lysine (C6H14N2O2, Methionine (C5H11NO2S, Phenylalanine (C9H11NO2, Threonine (C4H9NO3, Tryptophan (C11H12N2O2, Valine (C5H11NO2, Arginine (C6H14N4O2, and Histidine (C6H9N3O2 were determined theoretically in the energy range 0.015–15 MeV.

  12. Humidity Buildup in Electronic Enclosures Exposed to Constant Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conseil, Helene; Staliulionis, Zygimantas; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl;

    2017-01-01

    Electronic components and devices are exposed to a wide variety of climatic conditions, therefore the protection of electronic devices from humidity is becoming a critical factor in the system design. The ingress of moisture into typical electronic enclosures has been studied with defined....... The moisture buildup inside the enclosure has been simulated using an equivalent RC circuit consisting of variables like controlled resistors and capacitors to describe the diffusivity, permeability, and storage in polymers....

  13. The effect of suspension concentration on the buildup evolution in a HGMF-axial magnetic filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murariu, V.; Rezlescu, N.; Rotariu, O.; Badescu, V.

    1998-01-01

    In this work the influence of solid particles concentration from suspension on the buildup evolution for a single wire from a magnetic filter working in axial configuration is presented. The buildup differential equations are solved and the surface contour of the buildup at different moments is obtained. It is evidenced the existence of a suspension concentration for which the radial deposit extension is maximum.

  14. The mean meridional circulation and midlatitude ozone buildup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Nikulin

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The development of wintertime ozone buildup over the Northern Hemisphere (NH midlatitudes and its connection with the mean meridional circulation in the stratosphere are examined statistically on a monthly basis from October to March (1980–2002. The ozone buildup begins locally in October with positive ozone tendencies over the North Pacific, which spread eastward and westward in November and finally cover all midlatitudes in December. During October–January a longitudinal distribution of the ozone tendencies mirrors a structure of quasi-stationary planetary waves in the lower stratosphere and has less similarity with this structure in February–March when chemistry begins to play a more important role. From November to March, zonal mean ozone tendencies (50°–60° N show strong correlation (|r|=0.7 with different parameters used as proxies of the mean meridional circulation, namely: eddy heat flux, the vertical residual velocity (diabatically-derived and temperature tendency. The correlation patterns between ozone tendency and the vertical residual velocity or temperature tendency are more homogeneous from month to month than ones for eddy heat flux. A partial exception is December when correlation is strong only for the vertical residual velocity. In October zonal mean ozone tendencies have no coupling with the proxies. However, positive tendencies averaged over the North Pacific correlate well, with all of them suggesting that intensification of northward ozone transport starts locally over the Pacific already in October. We show that the NH midlatitude ozone buildup has stable statistical relation with the mean meridional circulation in all months from October to March and half of the interannual variability in monthly ozone tendencies can be explained by applying different proxies of the mean meridional circulation.

  15. Dust buildup tests of heliostats and mirror specimens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blackmon, J.B.

    1978-09-01

    Reflectivity variation data are presented for full-scale heliostats and sixty mirror specimens that were tested in a desert environment. Factors investigated included weather, site location, mirror type, and storage position. A method of obtaining reflectivity data for heliostats and specimens under field conditions is presented. Reflectivity degradation rates are determined for different storage positions and compared with weather conditions. Time-averaged reflectivity values are determined. Natural cleaning effectiveness of rain, snow, and frost is discussed. Heliostat operational procedures which appear to decrease reflectivity losses due to dust buildup are described.

  16. Simulation on Buildup of Electron Cloud in Proton Circular Accelerator

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Yu-Dong

    2014-01-01

    Electron cloud interaction with high energy positive beam are believed responsible for various undesirable effects such as vacuum degradation, collective beam instability and even beam loss in high power proton circular accelerator. An important uncertainty in predicting electron cloud instability lies in the detail processes on the generation and accumulation of the electron cloud. The simulation on the build-up of electron cloud is necessary to further studies on beam instability caused by electron cloud. China Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS) is the largest scientific project in building, whose accelerator complex includes two main parts: an H- linac and a rapid cycling synchrotron (RCS). The RCS accumulates the 80Mev proton beam and accelerates it to 1.6GeV with a repetition rate 25Hz. During the beam injection with lower energy, the emerging electron cloud may cause a serious instability and beam loss on the vacuum pipe. A simulation code has been developed to simulate the build-up, distribution and dens...

  17. Energy buildup in sheared force-free magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfson, Richard; Low, Boon C.

    1992-01-01

    Photospheric displacement of the footpoints of solar magnetic field lines results in shearing and twisting of the field, and consequently in the buildup of electric currents and magnetic free energy in the corona. The sudden release of this free energy may be the origin of eruptive events like coronal mass ejections, prominence eruptions, and flares. An important question is whether such an energy release may be accompanied by the opening of magnetic field lines that were previously closed, for such open field lines can provide a route for matter frozen into the field to escape the sun altogether. This paper presents the results of numerical calculations showing that opening of the magnetic field is permitted energetically, in that it is possible to build up more free energy in a sheared, closed, force-free magnetic field than is in a related magnetic configuration having both closed and open field lines. Whether or not the closed force-free field attains enough energy to become partially open depends on the form of the shear profile; the results presented compare the energy buildup for different shear profiles. Implications for solar activity are discussed briefly.

  18. Electron-Cloud Build-Up: Theory and Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furman, M. A.

    2010-10-08

    We present a broad-brush survey of the phenomenology, history and importance of the electron-cloud effect (ECE). We briefly discuss the simulation techniques used to quantify the electron-cloud (EC) dynamics. Finally, we present in more detail an effective theory to describe the EC density build-up in terms of a few effective parameters. For further details, the reader is encouraged to refer to the proceedings of many prior workshops, either dedicated to EC or with significant EC contents, including the entire 'ECLOUD' series. In addition, the proceedings of the various flavors of Particle Accelerator Conferences contain a large number of EC-related publications. The ICFA Beam Dynamics Newsletter series contains one dedicated issue, and several occasional articles, on EC. An extensive reference database is the LHC website on EC.

  19. Analysis of pressure buildup data influenced by wellbore phase redistribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, L.G.; Jones, J.R.; Reynolds, A.C.

    1986-10-01

    This work considers the influence of wellbore phase redistribution effects on the analysis of pressure buildup data. First, the authors show that the pressure responses observed when phase redistribution effects exist consist of three distinct types and delineate the conditions under which each type exists. Second, they investigate the reliability of Fair's type curves for analyzing pressure data. Third, for each type of pressure response, they provide rules for determining when the conventional semilog straight line will begin on a semilog plot of pressure data vs. time. They also consider general procedures that are based on Duhamel's principle for analyzing pressure data when sandface flow rates are also available. They discuss the application of these methods to analyze pressure data influenced by wellbore storage effects and investigate the effect that errors in the measured sandface rate have on the analysis.

  20. Contour Crafting Simulation Plan for Lunar Settlement Infrastructure Build-Up Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Economically viable and reliable building systems and tool sets are being sought, examined, and tested for extraterrestrial habitat and infrastructure buildup. This...

  1. Quiet Spike Build-Up Ground Vibration Testing Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spivey, Natalie D.; Herrera, Claudia Y.; Truax, Roger; Pak, Chan-gi; Freund, Donald

    2007-01-01

    NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center uses a modified F-15B (836) aircraft as a testbed for a variety of flight research:experiments mounted underneath the aircraft fuselage. The F-15B was selected to fly Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation's (GAC)QuietSpike(TM)(QS) project; however, this experiment is very unique and unlike any of the previous testbed experiments flown on the F-15B. It involves the addition of a relatively long quiet spike boom attached to the radar bulkhead of the aircraft. This QS experiment is a stepping stone to airframe structural morphing technologies designed to mitigate sonic born strength of business jets over land. The QS boom is a concept in Which an aircraft's front-end would be extended prior to supersonic acceleration. This morphing would effectively lengthen the aircraft, reducing peak sonic boom amplitude, but is also expected to partition the otherwise strong bow shock into a series of reduced-strength, non-coalescing shocklets. Prior to flying the Quietspike(TM) experiment on the F-15B aircraft several ground vibration tests (GVT) were required in order to understand the QS modal characteristics and coupling effects with the F-15B. However, due to the project's late hardware delivery of the QS and the intense schedule, a "traditional" GVT of the mated F-1513 Quietspike(tm) ready-for-flight configuration would not have left sufficient time available for the finite element model update and flutter analyses before flight testing. Therefore, a "nontraditional" ground vibration testing approach was taken. The objective of the QuietSpike (TM) build-up ground testing approach was to ultimately obtain confidence in the F-15B Quietspike(TM) finite element model (FEM) to be used for the flutter analysis. In order to obtain the F15B QS FEM with reliable foundation stiffness between the QS and the F-15B radar bulkhead as well as QS modal characteristics, several different GVT configurations were performed. EAch of the four GVT's performed had a

  2. Taxonomy of factors which influence heavy metal build-up on urban road surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, An; Gunawardana, Chandima; Gunawardena, Janaka; Egodawatta, Prasanna; Ayoko, Godwin A; Goonetilleke, Ashantha

    2016-06-01

    Heavy metals build-up on urban road surfaces is a complex process and influenced by a diverse range of factors. Although numerous research studies have been conducted in the area of heavy metals build-up, limited research has been undertaken to rank these factors in terms of their influence on the build-up process. This results in limitations in the identification of the most critical factor/s for accurately estimating heavy metal loads and for designing effective stormwater treatment measures. The research study undertook an in-depth analysis of the factors which influence heavy metals build-up based on data generated from a number of different geographical locations around the world. Traffic volume was found to be the highest ranked factor in terms of influencing heavy metals build-up while land use was ranked the second. Proximity to arterial roads, antecedent dry days and road surface roughness has a relatively lower ranking. Furthermore, the study outcomes advances the conceptual understanding of heavy metals build-up based on the finding that with increasing traffic volume, total heavy metal build-up load increases while the variability decreases. The outcomes from this research study are expected to contribute to more accurate estimation of heavy metals build-up loads leading to more effective stormwater treatment design.

  3. Investigating the build-up of precedence effect using reflection masking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartcher-O'Brien, Jessica; Buchholz, Jörg

    2006-01-01

    The auditory processing level involved in the build-up of precedence [Freyman et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 90, 874–884 (1991)] has been investigated here by employing reflection masked threshold (RMT) techniques. Given that RMT techniques are generally assumed to address lower levels of the auditory...... signal processing, such an approach represents a bottom-up approach to the buildup of precedence. Three conditioner configurations measuring a possible buildup of reflection suppression were compared to the baseline RMT for four reflection delays ranging from 2.5–15 ms. No buildup of reflection...... suppression was observed for any of the conditioner configurations. Buildup of template (decrease in RMT for two of the conditioners), on the other hand, was found to be delay dependent. For five of six listeners, with reflection delay=2.5 and 15 ms, RMT decreased relative to the baseline. For 5- and 10-ms...

  4. Energy absorption buildup factors, exposure buildup factors and Kerma for optically stimulated luminescence materials and their tissue equivalence for radiation dosimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vishwanath P.; Badiger, N. M.

    2014-11-01

    Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) materials are sensitive dosimetric materials used for precise and accurate dose measurement for low-energy ionizing radiation. Low dose measurement capability with improved sensitivity makes these dosimeters very useful for diagnostic imaging, personnel monitoring and environmental radiation dosimetry. Gamma ray energy absorption buildup factors and exposure build factors were computed for OSL materials using the five-parameter Geometric Progression (G-P) fitting method in the energy range 0.015-15 MeV for penetration depths up to 40 mean free path. The computed energy absorption buildup factor and exposure buildup factor values were studied as a function of penetration depth and incident photon energy. Effective atomic numbers and Kerma relative to air of the selected OSL materials and tissue equivalence were computed and compared with that of water, PMMA and ICRU standard tissues. The buildup factors and kerma relative to air were found dependent upon effective atomic numbers. Buildup factors determined in the present work should be useful in radiation dosimetry, medical diagnostics and therapy, space dosimetry, accident dosimetry and personnel monitoring.

  5. Energy absorption buildup factors for thermoluminescent dosimetric materials and their tissue equivalence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manohara, S.R.; Hanagodimath, S.M.; Gerward, Leif

    2010-01-01

    -absorption buildup factor data have been studied as a function of penetration depth and incident photon energy. Buildup factors determined in the present work should be useful in radiation dosimetry, diagnostics and therapy. The tissue equivalence of TLD materials is also discussed.......Gamma ray energy-absorption buildup factors were computed using the five-parameter geometric progression (G-P) fitting formula for seven thermoluminescent dosimetric (TLD) materials in the energy range 0.015-15 MeV, and for penetration depths up to 40 mfp (mean free path). The generated energy...

  6. Variation of energy absorption build-up factor with penetration depth for some titanium compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Lovedeep

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The buildup factor is an important characteristic that need to be studied and determined prior to using a material clinically in radiation treatment and protection. Energy absorption buildup factors for some titanium compounds like Titanium dioxide (TiO2, Titanium Carbide (TiC, Titanium Nitride (TiN and Titanium Silicate (TiSi2 has been calculated using the G.P. fitting technique upto penetration depth of 40 mean free path (mfp and in an energy range from 0.015 to 15.0 MeV. The variation of absorption buildup factors with penetration depth for the selected compounds of titanium has been studied. It has been found that the maximum value of energy absorption buildup factors shifts to the intermediate incident photon energy regions with the increase in penetration depth of the selected compounds of titanium.

  7. Well-test analysis for solution-gas-drive reservoirs. Part 2; Buildup analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serra, K.V.; Peres, A.M.M. (PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)); Reynolds, A.C. (Tulsa Univ., OK (USA))

    1990-06-01

    This work presents new analysis methods for pressure-buildup data from a well completed in a solution-gas-drive reservoir. New procedures for estimating effective phase permeabilities as functions of pressure and saturation are presented.

  8. Analysis of short-time buildup data for finite-conductivity fractures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosato, N.D.; Bennett, C.O.; Raghavan, R.; Reynolds, A.C.

    1982-10-01

    A finite-conductivity vertical fracture intersecting a well is considered. The well is produced at a constant rate or at a constant pressure and then is shut in. The pressure response during the buildup period and the pressure or rate response during the production period are obtained from a numerical model. In this work the authors discuss the analysis of pressure buildup data following a short flow period. The authors present a buildup type curve to analyze pressure buildup data when the pressure (or rate) response is influenced by only the bilinear flow period. This type curve can be used to estimate the fracture flow capacity and a lower limit for the fracture half-length. It will be useful when the equivalent-time or the equivalent-drawdown concepts cannot be used. The authors discuss strengths and limitations of the equivalenttime method proposed in the literature. The theoretical basis for this procedure is provided.

  9. A new modeling of the initial buildup evolution on a wire in an axial HGMF filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badescu, V.; Murariu, V.; Rotariu, O.; Rezlescu, N.

    1996-10-01

    The buildup differential equations are solved for a single wire in the axial HGMF configuration. A new equation for the deposit contour surface at different moments for the initial buildup process is obtained. In addition, a limitation is obtained for the deposit surface, considering the balance between the magnetic force and the hydrodynamic erosion force. From this, the saturation accumulation radius is obtained in terms of the Reynolds' number for a particle and the {v m}/{v 0} ratio.

  10. Analysis of the build-up of semi and non volatile organic compounds on urban roads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahbub, Parvez; Ayoko, Godwin A; Goonetilleke, Ashantha; Egodawatta, Prasanna

    2011-04-01

    Vehicular traffic in urban areas may adversely affect urban water quality through the build-up of traffic generated semi and non volatile organic compounds (SVOCs and NVOCs) on road surfaces. The characterisation of the build-up processes is the key to developing mitigation measures for the removal of such pollutants from urban stormwater. An in-depth analysis of the build-up of SVOCs and NVOCs was undertaken in the Gold Coast region in Australia. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Multicriteria Decision tools such as PROMETHEE and GAIA were employed to understand the SVOC and NVOC build-up under combined traffic scenarios of low, moderate, and high traffic in different land uses. It was found that congestion in the commercial areas and use of lubricants and motor oils in the industrial areas were the main sources of SVOCs and NVOCs on urban roads, respectively. The contribution from residential areas to the build-up of such pollutants was hardly noticeable. It was also revealed through this investigation that the target SVOCs and NVOCs were mainly attached to particulate fractions of 75-300 μm whilst the redistribution of coarse fractions due to vehicle activity mainly occurred in the >300 μm size range. Lastly, under combined traffic scenario, moderate traffic with average daily traffic ranging from 2300 to 5900 and average congestion of 0.47 were found to dominate SVOC and NVOC build-up on roads.

  11. Ranking the factors influencing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) build-up on urban roads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, An; Ma, Yukun; Deilami, Kaveh; Egodawatta, Prasanna; Goonetilleke, Ashantha

    2017-05-01

    An in-depth understanding of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) build-up on urban roads is essential for effective stormwater treatment design. Past research studies have pointed out the relationship between influential factors and PAHs build-up individually. However, these studies do not provide a comprehensive analysis of the relationships and the hierarchy of factors in terms of their importance in influencing PAHs build-up. This paper presents the outcomes of an in-depth investigation into the range of influential factors, including traffic volume, land use, distance to highway and roughness of road surfaces by ranking them in terms of their influence on PAHs build-up. A number of data analysis techniques including forward stepwise linear regression (FSWLR), principal component analysis (PCA) and multiple linear regression (MLR) were employed for the analyses undertaken. The outcomes confirmed that traffic volume is ranked first while land use and roughness of road surfaces are second and the third, respectively. Distance to highway did not show a significant influence on PAHs build-up. Additionally, it was noted that a high traffic volume tended to produce high loads of PAHs with more than 4 rings and the spatial variability of PAHs build-up were relatively higher in high traffic volume areas. These outcomes contributed to the formulation of a robust stormwater treatment strategy and generation of priority area maps focusing on the removal of PAHs.

  12. Analysis of build-up of heavy metals and volatile organics on urban roads in gold coast, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahbub, Parvez; Goonetilleke, Ashantha; Ayoko, Godwin A; Egodawatta, Prasanna; Yigitcanlar, Tan

    2011-01-01

    Urban water quality can be significantly impaired by the build-up of pollutants such as heavy metals and volatile organics on urban road surfaces due to vehicular traffic. Any control strategy for the mitigation of traffic related build-up of heavy metals and volatile organic pollutants should be based on the knowledge of their build-up processes. In the study discussed in this paper, the outcomes of a detailed experimental investigation into build-up processes of heavy metals and volatile organics are presented. It was found that traffic parameters such as average daily traffic, volume over capacity ratio and surface texture depth had similar strong correlations with the build-up of heavy metals and volatile organics. Multicriteria decision analyses revealed that that the 1-74 microm particulate fraction of total suspended solids (TSS) could be regarded as a surrogate indicator for particulate heavy metals in build-up and this same fraction of total organic carbon could be regarded as a surrogate indicator for particulate volatile organics build-up. In terms of pollutants affinity, TSS was found to be the predominant parameter for particulate heavy metals build-up and total dissolved solids was found to be the predominant parameter for the potential dissolved particulate fraction in heavy metals buildup. It was also found that land use did not play a significant role in the build-up of traffic generated heavy metals and volatile organics.

  13. Monte Carlo simulation of photon buildup factors for shielding materials in radiotherapy x-ray facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karim Karoui, Mohamed [Faculte des Sciences de Monastir, Avenue de l' environnement 5019 Monastir -Tunisia (Tunisia); Kharrati, Hedi [Ecole Superieure des Sciences et Techniques de la Sante de Monastir, Avenue Avicenne 5000 Monastir (Tunisia)

    2013-07-15

    Purpose: This paper presents the results of a series of calculations to determine buildup factors for ordinary concrete, baryte concrete, lead, steel, and iron in broad beam geometry for photons energies from 0.125 to 25.125 MeV at 0.250 MeV intervals.Methods: Monte Carlo N-particle radiation transport computer code has been used to determine the buildup factors for the studied shielding materials.Results: The computation of the primary broad beams using buildup factors data was done for nine published megavoltage photon beam spectra ranging from 4 to 25 MV in nominal energies, representing linacs made by the three major manufacturers. The first tenth value layer and the equilibrium tenth value layer are calculated from the broad beam transmission for these nine primary megavoltage photon beam spectra.Conclusions: The results, compared with published data, show the ability of these buildup factor data to predict shielding transmission curves for the primary radiation beam. Therefore, the buildup factor data can be combined with primary, scatter, and leakage x-ray spectra to perform computation of broad beam transmission for barriers in radiotherapy shielding x-ray facilities.

  14. Characterizing heavy metal build-up on urban road surfaces: Implication for stormwater reuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, An [Research Centre of Environmental Engineering and Management, Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, 518055 Shenzhen (China); Cooperative Research and Education Centre for Environmental Technology, Kyoto University–Tsinghua University, 518055 Shenzhen (China); Liu, Liang; Li, Dunzhu [Research Centre of Environmental Engineering and Management, Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, 518055 Shenzhen (China); Guan, Yuntao, E-mail: guanyt@tsinghua.edu.cn [Research Centre of Environmental Engineering and Management, Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, 518055 Shenzhen (China); School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2015-05-15

    Stormwater reuse is increasingly popular in the worldwide. In terms of urban road stormwater, it commonly contains toxic pollutants such as heavy metals, which could undermine the reuse safety. The research study investigated heavy metal build-up characteristics on urban roads in a typical megacity of South China. The research outcomes show the high variability in heavy metal build-up loads among different urban road sites. The degree of traffic congestion and road surface roughness was found to exert a more significant influence on heavy metal build-up rather than traffic volume. Due to relatively higher heavy metal loads, stormwater from roads with more congested traffic conditions or rougher surfaces might be suitable for low-water-quality required activities while the stormwater from by-pass road sections could be appropriate for relatively high-water-quality required purposes since the stormwater could be relatively less polluted. Based on the research outcomes, a decision-making process for heavy metals based urban road stormwater reuse was proposed. The new finding highlights the importance to undertaking a “fit-for-purpose” road stormwater reuse strategy. Additionally, the research results can also contribute to enhancing stormwater reuse safety. - Highlights: • Heavy metal (HM) build-up varies with traffic and road surface conditions. • Traffic congestion and surface roughness exert a higher impact on HM build-up. • A “fit-for-purpose” strategy could suit urban road stormwater reuse.

  15. Analysis of pressure-buildup data from a well in a multiwell system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onur, M. (Istanbul Technical Univ. (TR)); Serra, K.V. (Petrobras, S.A. (BR)); Reynolds, A.C. (Tulsa Univ., OK (United States))

    1991-03-01

    This paper investigates the buildup response of a well located in a system of producing wells completed in a closed, bounded reservoir. Using an analysis method based on the pressure derivative, the authors show that the drainage area of the well (at the instant of shut-in) and the flow-capacity (permeability-thickness) product can be computed directly from the derivative of pressure-buildup data even in cases when conventional semilog straight lines are not well defined. The analysis methods assume that the buildup-surveyed well has established its own drainage area before shut-in. For a system of wells located in a closed, bounded reservoir, this means that pseudo-steady-state flow prevails at the instant of shut-in. The authors also present a second method for estimating a well's drainage area from pressure-buildup data. The second method relies on the fact that during buildup, the well's shut-in pressure increases to a maximum and then decreases as a result of interference from neighboring producing wells. It is shown that the maximum shut-in pressure, and the time at which it occurs, often can also be used to compute the well's drainage area st the instant of shut-in and the average pressure in this drainage area.

  16. Gamma-ray energy buildup factor calculations and shielding effects of some Jordanian building structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharaf, J. M.; Saleh, H.

    2015-05-01

    The shielding properties of three different construction styles, and building materials, commonly used in Jordan, were evaluated using parameters such as attenuation coefficients, equivalent atomic number, penetration depth and energy buildup factor. Geometric progression (GP) method was used to calculate gamma-ray energy buildup factors of limestone, concrete, bricks, cement plaster and air for the energy range 0.05-3 MeV, and penetration depths up to 40 mfp. It has been observed that among the examined building materials, limestone offers highest value for equivalent atomic number and linear attenuation coefficient and the lowest values for penetration depth and energy buildup factor. The obtained buildup factors were used as basic data to establish the total equivalent energy buildup factors for three different multilayer construction styles using an iterative method. The three styles were then compared in terms of fractional transmission of photons at different incident photon energies. It is concluded that, in case of any nuclear accident, large multistory buildings with five layers exterior walls, style A, could effectively attenuate radiation more than small dwellings of any construction style.

  17. Contour Crafting Simulation Plan for Lunar Settlement Infrastructure Build-Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoshnevis, B.; Carlson, A.; Leach N.; Thangavelu, M.

    2016-01-01

    Economically viable and reliable building systems and tool sets are being sought, examined and tested for extraterrestrial infrastructure buildup. This project focused on a unique architecture weaving the robotic building construction technology with designs for assisting rapid buildup of initial operational capability Lunar and Martian bases. The project aimed to study new methodologies to construct certain crucial infrastructure elements in order to evaluate the merits, limitations and feasibility of adapting and using such technologies for extraterrestrial application. Current extraterrestrial settlement buildup philosophy holds that in order to minimize the materials needed to be flown in, at great transportation costs, strategies that maximize the use of locally available resources must be adopted. Tools and equipment flown as cargo from Earth are proposed to build required infrastructure to support future missions and settlements on the Moon and Mars.

  18. Build-up of actinides in irradiated fuel rods of the ET-RR-1 reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adib, M.; Naguib, K.; Morcos, H.N

    2001-09-01

    The content concentrations of actinides are calculated as a function of operating reactor regime and cooling time at different percentage of fuel burn-up. The build-up transmutation equations of actinides content in an irradiated fuel are solved numerically .A computer code BAC was written to operate on a PC computer to provide the required calculations. The fuel element of 10% {sup 235}U enrichment of ET-RR-1 reactor was taken as an example for calculations using the BAC code. The results are compared with other calculations for the ET-RR-1 fuel rod. An estimation of fissile build-up content of a proposed new fuel of 20% {sup 235}U enrichment for ET-RR-1 reactor is given. The sensitivity coefficients of build-up plutonium concentrations as a function of cross-section data uncertainties are also calculated.

  19. Change in surface SP caused by pressure buildup observed at the Nigorikawa geothermal area; Nigorikawa chiiki ni okeru atsuryoku buildup ji no shizen den`i henka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasukawa, K.; Yano, Y.; Matsushima, N.; Ishido, T. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan); Takahashi, M.; Suzuki, I.; Aoyama, K.; Kuwano, T.

    1996-10-01

    To examine the effect of change of subsurface flow system on the surface SP (self potential), SP measurements were carried out before and after the pressure buildup and drawdown during the periodic inspection at Nigorikawa area. Relation between the SP distribution and the observed data was also examined by 2-D numerical simulation. Tendency was found that the SP increased gradually with the production near the production well, decreased during the pressure buildup, and increased again during the drawdown. There were some points having the reverse tendency in the surrounding area. Behavior during the pressure buildup and drawdown was not clear. The resistivity near the ground surface was low ranging between 2 and 5 ohm/m within the Nigorikawa basin. The variation of SP was not so large when compared with the measuring error. The SP profiles on the secondary section passing in the center of caldera at the production stop and at one week after the production start were well corresponded with the profiles under natural conditions which were reproduces using the 2-D model. It was considered that the SP profile before the production stop was affected by the production. 12 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Neutron shielding qualities and gamma ray buildup factors of concretes containing limonite ore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oto, Berna, E-mail: bpekgoz@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Yüzüncü Yıl University, 65080 Van (Turkey); Yıldız, Nergiz [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Yüzüncü Yıl University, 65080 Van (Turkey); Korkut, Turgay [Department of Nuclear Energy Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Sinop University, 57000 Sinop (Turkey); Kavaz, Esra [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Ataturk University, 25240 Erzurum (Turkey)

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • Macroscopic removal cross-sections (Σ{sub R}, cm{sup −1}) have been determined experimentally and theoretically for concrete samples. • EABF and EBF of the concrete samples has been determined using the Geometric Progression (G-P) approximation. • Penetration depth and energy dependence of the buildup factors evaluated. • FCL is good shielding material for neutron and gamma radiation. - Abstract: Neutron dose transmissions for fast neutrons produced by 5.486 MeV alpha particles on beryllium are measured in concrete samples with and without limonite ore to investigate their neutron shielding qualities. Using measured values, macroscopic removal cross-sections (Σ{sub R}, cm{sup −1}) have been determined experimentally and also Σ{sub R}values have been calculated theoretically using the elemental composition of the concrete mixes. The best neutron shielding property of concrete sample containing 100% limonite ore (FCL: fine and coarse limonite) was found. Additionally, energy absorption buildup factor (EABF) and exposure buildup factor (EBF) of concrete sample were calculated using the five-parameter Geometric Progression (G-P) approximation in the energy range of 0.015–15 MeV for penetration depths up to 40 mean free path (mfp). The incident photon energy and penetration depth dependence of buildup factors were examined. Finally, we observed that concrete samples have maximum values of buildup factors in the intermediate energy region around 0.1–0.3 MeV. FCL has the minimum values of both of the buildup factors. FCL has the excellent gamma shielding properties compared to the concrete samples.

  1. Pennsylvanian carbonate buildups, Paradox basin: Increasing reserves in heterogeneous, shallow-shelf reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, S.L.; Chidsey, T.C.; Eby, D.E.; Lorenz, D.M.; Culham, W.E.

    1999-01-01

    Productive carbonate buildups of Pennsylvanian age in the southern Paradox basin, Utah, contain up to 200 million bbl remaining oil potentially recoverable by enhanced recovery methods. These buildups comprise over 100 satellite fields to the giant Greater Aneth field, where secondary recovery operations thus far have been concentrated. Several types of satellite buildups exist and produce oil from the Desert Creek zone of the Paradox Formation. Many of the relevant fields have undergone early abandonment; wells in Desert Creek carbonate mounds commonly produce at very high initial rates (>1000 bbl/day) and then suffer precipitous declines. An important new study focused on the detailed characterization of five separate reservoirs has resulted in significant information relevant to their future redevelopment. Completed assessment of Anasazi field suggests that phylloid algal mounds, the major productive buildup type in this area, consist of ten separate lithotypes and can be described in terms of a two-level reservoir system with an underlying high-permeability mound-core interval overlain by a lower permeability but volumetrically larger supramound (mound capping) interval. Reservoir simulations and related performance predictions indicate that CO2 flooding of these reservoirs should have considerable success in recovering remaining oil reserves.Productive carbonate buildups of Pennsylvanian age in the southern Paradox basin, Utah, contain up to 200 million bbl remaining oil potentially recoverable by enhanced recovery methods. These buildups comprise over 100 satellite fields to the giant Greater Aneth field, where secondary recovery operations thus far have been concentrated. Several types of satellite buildups exist and produce oil from the Desert Creek zone of the Paradox Formation. Many of the relevant fields have undergone early abandonment; wells in Desert Creek carbonate mounds commonly produce at very high initial rates (>1000 bbl/day) and then suffer

  2. Exposure Buildup Factors for Heavy Metal Oxide Glass: A Radiation Shield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manonara, S. R.; Hanagodimath, S. M.; Gerward, Leif;

    2011-01-01

    Gamma ray exposure buildup factors for three Heavy Metal Oxide (HMO) glass systems, viz. PbO-Bi2O3-B2O3, PbO-B2O3, and Bi2O3-B2O3 glasses are presented. The computations were done by interpolation method using the Geometric Progression fitting formula and ANSI/ANS-6.4.3 library for the energy ran...... of graphs. Buildup factors of these HMO glasses cannot be found in any standard database, but they are useful for practical calculations in gamma ray shield designs, and they also, help to determine and control the thickness of the shielding material used....

  3. Space charge build-up in XLPE-cable with temperature gradient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holbøll, Joachim; Henriksen, Mogens; Hjerrild, Jesper

    2000-01-01

    Space charge build-up in standard XLPE insulated AC cables has been studied under varying temperature and field conditions. The cables were triple-extruded with the inner semicon on a solid aluminum conductor, 5.5mm XLPE-insulation and an outer semicon. The cables were stressed up to 15kV/mm DC...

  4. "Testing during Study Insulates against the Buildup of Proactive Interference": Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szpunar, Karl K.; McDermott, Kathleen B.; Roedigger, Henry L., III

    2009-01-01

    Reports an error in "Testing during study insulates against the buildup of proactive interference" by Karl K. Szpunar, Kathleen B. McDermott and Henry L. Roediger III ("Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition," 2008[Nov], Vol 34[6], 1392-1399). Incorrect figures were printed due to an error in the…

  5. Monte Carlo simulation of photon buildup factors for shielding materials in diagnostic x-ray facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kharrati, Hedi; Agrebi, Amel; Karoui, Mohamed Karim [Ecole Superieure des Sciences et Techniques de la Sante de Monastir, Avenue Avicenne, 5000 Monastir (Tunisia); Faculte des Sciences de Monastir, 5000 Monastir (Tunisia)

    2012-10-15

    Purpose: A simulation of buildup factors for ordinary concrete, steel, lead, plate glass, lead glass, and gypsum wallboard in broad beam geometry for photons energies from 10 keV to 150 keV at 5 keV intervals is presented. Methods: Monte Carlo N-particle radiation transport computer code has been used to determine the buildup factors for the studied shielding materials. Results: An example concretizing the use of the obtained buildup factors data in computing the broad beam transmission for tube potentials at 70, 100, 120, and 140 kVp is given. The half value layer, the tenth value layer, and the equilibrium tenth value layer are calculated from the broad beam transmission for these tube potentials. Conclusions: The obtained values compared with those calculated from the published data show the ability of these data to predict shielding transmission curves. Therefore, the buildup factors data can be combined with primary, scatter, and leakage x-ray spectra to provide a computationally based solution to broad beam transmission for barriers in shielding x-ray facilities.

  6. Finite and infinite system gamma ray buildup factor calculations with detailed physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atak, Haluk; Çelikten, Osman Şahin; Tombakoğlu, Mehmet

    2015-11-01

    Examination of physical interactions of photons in materials is a significant subject for buildup factor studies. In most of the buildup calculations, by default, coherent (Rayleigh) scattering is ignored and the Compton scattering is modeled by free-electron Klein-Nishina formula with "simple physics" treatment. In this work, photon buildup factors are calculated for many different cases including "detailed physics" by taking into account coherent and bound-electron Compton scatterings with the Monte Carlo code, MCNP5, and the results are compared with the literature values. They are computed for point isotropic photon sources up to depths of 20 mean free paths and at the three photon energies most widely used (0.06, 0.6 and 6MeV). Calculations are made for both finite and infinite homogeneous ordinary water media. It is concluded that Coherent scattering is very dominant at low energies and for deep penetrations and assumed physical approximation (simple/detailed, finite/infinite) is the critical point for determining shielding material dimensions. After all, it can be stated that all parametric assumptions should be clearly given and indicated in the tabulation of photon buildup factors.

  7. Repair bond strength of dual-cured resin composite core buildup materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Deeb, Heba A; Ghalab, Radwa M; Elsayed Akah, Mai M; Mobarak, Enas H

    2016-03-01

    The reparability of dual-cured resin composite core buildup materials using a light-cured one following one week or three months storage, prior to repair was evaluated. Two different dual-cured resin composites; Cosmecore™ DC automix and Clearfil™ DC automix core buildup materials and a light-cured nanofilled resin composite; Filtek™ Z350 XT were used. Substrate specimens were prepared (n = 12/each substrate material) and stored in artificial saliva at 37 °C either for one week or three months. Afterward, all specimens were ground flat, etched using Scotchbond™ phosphoric acid etchant and received Single Bond Universal adhesive system according to the manufacturers' instructions. The light-cured nanofilled resin composite (Filtek™ Z350 XT) was used as a repair material buildup. To determine the cohesive strength of each solid substrate material, additional specimens from each core material (n = 12) were prepared and stored for the same periods. Five sticks (0.8 ± 0.01 mm(2)) were obtained from each specimen (30 sticks/group) for microtensile bond strength (μTBS) testing. Modes of failure were also determined. Two-way ANOVA revealed a significant effect for the core materials but not for the storage periods or their interaction. After one week, dual-cured resin composite core buildup materials (Cosmecore™ DC and Clearfil™ DC) achieved significantly higher repair μTBS than the light-cured nanofilled resin composite (Filtek™ Z350 XT). However, Clearfil™ DC revealed the highest value, then Cosmecore™ DC and Filtek™ Z350 XT, following storage for 3-month. Repair strength values recovered 64-86% of the cohesive strengths of solid substrate materials. The predominant mode of failure was the mixed type. Dual-cured resin composite core buildup materials revealed acceptable repair bond strength values even after 3-month storage.

  8. The development and benefits of vertical dimension primary molar buildup crowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loudon, Merle E; Nguyen, Thai Vinh

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the technique and advantages of vertical dimension-primary molar buildups (VD-PMB's). These primary molar buildups help correct the vertical dimension on overclosed children from 3 to 12 years old. The advantages of these VD-PMB's are enormous, with very little or no disadvantages when placed correctly. This is a very important procedure for the orthodontist because opening the bite on these children has many beneficial results. It changes the resting tongue position, changes the slope of the anterior border of the glenoid fossa from steep to normal on Class 2 div 2 patients, corrects overclosure and otitus media with effusion (ear infections). It is important for the orthodontist since it is very simple and an easy way to correct overclosure on class 2 patients, which is often not done in the correction of overclosed patients.

  9. Calculation of point isotropic buildup factors of gamma rays for water and lead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. H.

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available   Exposure buildup factors for water and lead have been calculated by the Monte-Carlo method for an isotropic point source in an infinite homogeneous medium, using the latest cross secions available on the Internet. The types of interactions considered are ,photoelectric effect, incoherent (or bound-electron Compton. Scattering, coherent (or Rayleigh scattering and pair production. Fluorescence radiations have also been taken into acount for lead. For each material, calculations were made at 10 gamma ray energies in the 40 keV to 10 MeV range and up to penetration depths of 10 mean free paths at each energy point. The results presented in this paper can be considered as modified gamma ray exposure buildup factors and be used in radiation shielding designs.

  10. New and Modified Equations for Planning Two-Buildup Directional and Horizontal Wells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Tengfei

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Two-buildup directional and horizontal well is usually used for the type trajectory that the target zone is accurate but build rate is not. In the past and at present, the petroleum engineers use the Karlsson method and equations to design the two-buildup directional and horizontal well. But through rigid derivation and analysis, we have found some places that need to be improved. This study has put forward new and modified equations on the basis of Karlsson method. The new method considers the maximum and minimum build rates expected in the first and second curves and supposes that the upper and lower bound trajectory are all two-build up trajectory type. This study also has considered the difference of the maximum and minimum build rates expected in the second curve and the first curve. The new and modified method and equations are tested through two examples.

  11. Build-up dynamics of heavy metals deposited on impermeable urban surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicke, D; Cochrane, T A; O'Sullivan, A

    2012-12-30

    A method using thin boards (3 cm thick, 0.56 m(2)) comprising different paving materials typically used in urban environments (2 asphalt types and concrete) was employed to specifically investigate air-borne deposition dynamics of TSS, zinc, copper and lead. Boards were exposed at an urban car park near vehicular traffic to determine the rate of contaminant build-up over a 13-day dry period. Concentration profiles from simulated rainfall wash-off were used to determine contaminant yields at different antecedent dry days. Maximum contaminant yields after 13 days of exposure were 2.7 kg ha(-1) for TSS, 35 g ha(-1) zinc, 2.3 g ha(-1) copper and 0.4 g ha(-1) lead. Accumulation of all contaminants increased over the first week and levelled off thereafter, supporting theoretical assumptions that contaminant accumulation on impervious surfaces asymptotically approaches a maximum. Comparison of different surface types showed approximately four times higher zinc concentrations in runoff from asphalt surfaces and two times higher TSS concentrations in runoff from concrete, which is attributed to different physical and chemical compositions of the pavement types. Contaminant build-up and wash-off behaviours were modelled using exponential and saturation functions commonly applied in the US EPA's Stormwater Management Model (SWMM) showing good correlation between measured and modelled concentrations. Maximum build-up, half-saturation time, build-up rate constants and wash-off coefficients, necessary for stormwater contaminant modelling, were determined for the four contaminants studied. These parameters are required to model contaminant concentrations in urban runoff assisting in stormwater management decisions.

  12. Secondary side TSP deposit buildup: lab test investigation focused on electrokinetic considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barale, M.; Guillodo, M.; Foucault, M., E-mail: Morgan.Barale@areva.com [AREVA NP SAS, Technical Centre, Le Creusot (France); Ryckelynck, N.; Clinard, M-H.; Chahma, F.; Brun, C. [AREVA NP SAS, Chemistry and Radiochemistry Group, Paris (France); Corredera, G. [Electricite de France, Centre d' Expertise et d' Inspection dans les domaines de la Realisation et de l' Exploitation, Saint-Denis (France)

    2010-07-01

    Deposit buildup which caused the clogging of the 'foils' of the upper tube-support-plates (TSP) inside a PWR steam generator of French NPPs in 2006 presents certain similarities with deposits observed in lab tests performed in secondary coolant chemistry at the Technical Centre of AREVA NP in 2002. The mechanism of TSP clogging seems not to present obvious phenomenological links with the fouling of the free span of SG since deposits buildup is quite uniform and is currently related to a surface boiling effect due to the surface heat flux. A specific mechanism could account for TSP clogging. In particular, electrokinetic effects were investigated by EDF-CEIDRE and AREVA NP SAS in the framework of a lab test program started in 2007. The electrokinetic approach is to consider that the coupling of local hydrodynamic and surface electrochemistry could lead to the formation of a very localized and heterogeneous deposit at the leading edge between both TSP and SG tubing material. Electrokinetic effects can lead to the oxidation and/or the precipitation of ferrous ions and to a variation of the electrokinetic potential which can produce strong attraction of iron oxide colloids. These electrokinetic effects are dependent of the T/H and local hydrodynamic conditions and surface electrochemistry explaining. The objective of this EDF-AREVA lab test program is to investigate the role of secondary chemistry coolant (pH, DH, N{sub 2}H{sub 4}, amine, redox) and of the nature of materials (SS, Ni base alloy) on deposit buildup. Properties of oxide surface and zeta potential of oxidized metallic materials have been also determined at temperature to understand their potential contribution on mechanism of TSP clogging in secondary side chemistry coolant. In this paper, a set of specific experiments carried out in this frame have been presented and discussed, paying particular attention to the effects of electrokinetic considerations and surface charges at oxide

  13. Optimal Thermo-Structural Analysis for High Density Package Mounting on Build-up Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Tohru; Hase, Tomohiro

    The importance of the high density packaging technology and mounting technology on the printed wiring build-up board has been increased for the consumer electric products. On the other hand, the chance to use the build-up boards for mounting the high density packages has been increased. However, the understanding that the reliability of the solder connection depends on the structure of the package, the motherboard, and the material properties, is not very high. In this paper, the reliability for high density packaging, mounted on the build-up board, is assessed. The compact numerical analysis model for the reliability assessment is suggested and the most reliable packaging design with optimizing each of the parameters is reported. For introduction to the reliability assessment of the FCA attachment, ceramic and silicon are compared as the inter-poser with the parameter of the solder height. The verification of the numerical analysis results using tests on the actual hardware is also shown. And the established numerical analysis model is applied to the study of influence of the copper balance between the front side and the back side copper layers.

  14. On spatial stabilization of dielectric barrier discharge microfilaments by residual heat build-up in air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ráhel, Jozef; Szalay, Zsolt; Čech, Jan; Morávek, Tomás

    2016-04-01

    Microfilaments of dielectric barrier discharge are known for their multiple re-appearance at the same spot on dielectrics. This effect of localized re-appearance is driven by residual excited species and ions, surface charge deposited on the dielectric and the local temperature build-up resulting in the local increase of reduced electric field E/ΔN. To assess the magnitude of the latter, the breakdown voltage vs. temperature up to 180 °C was carefully measured at coplanar DBD and used as an input into the numerical simulation of heat build-up by the train of discharge pulses. An average reduction of breakdown voltage was found to be 20 V/K. The model predicted a quasi-stable microfilament temperature into which the thermal build-up rapidly converges. Its magnitude agreed well with the reported rotational temperature of similar electrode configuration. The impact of quasi-stable temperature on microfilament formation dynamics is further discussed. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Recent Breakthroughs in Microplasma Science and Technology", edited by Kurt Becker, Jose Lopez, David Staack, Klaus-Dieter Weltmann and Wei Dong Zhu.

  15. Pressure Buildup Analysis for Two-Phase Geothermal Wells: Application to the Baca Geothermal Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riney, T. D.; Garg, S. K.

    1985-03-01

    The recently published pressure transient analysis methods for two-phase geothermal wells are employed to analyze the pressure buildup data for several wells located in the Redondo Creek area of the Baca geothermal field in New Mexico. The downhole drilling information and pressure/temperature surveys are first interpreted to locate zones at which fluid enters the well bore from the formation and to estimate the initial reservoir temperature and pressure in these zones. All of the Baca wells considered here induced flashing in the formation upon production. Interpretation of the buildup data for each well considers well bore effects (e.g., phase change in the well bore fluid and location of the pressure sensor with respect to the permeable horizon) and the carbon dioxide content of the fluid and its effects on the phase behavior of the reservoir fluids and differentiates between the single- and two-phase portions of the pressure buildup data. Different straight-line approximations to the two portions (i.e., single- and two-phase) of the data on the Homer plot are used to obtain corresponding estimates for the single- and two-phase mobilities. Estimates for the formation permeability-thickness (kH) product are also given.

  16. Reduction of the Buildup Contribution in Gamma Ray Attenuation Measurements and a New Way to Study This Experiment in a Student Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamides, E.; Kavadjiklis, A.; Koutroubas, S.K.; Moshonas, N.; Tzedakis, A.; Yiasemides, K.

    2014-01-01

    In continuation of our investigation into the buildup phenomenon appearing in gamma ray attenuation measurements in laboratory experiments we study the dependence of the buildup factor on the area of the absorber in an effort to reduce the buildup of photons. Detailed measurements are performed for up to two mean free paths of [superscript 60]Co…

  17. Whisker-reinforced dental core buildup composites: effect of filler level on mechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, H H; Smith, D T; Schumacher, G E; Eichmiller, F C

    2000-12-15

    The strength and toughness of dental core buildup composites in large stress-bearing restorations need to be improved to reduce the incidence of fracture due to stresses from chewing and clenching. The aims of the present study were to develop novel core buildup composites reinforced with ceramic whiskers, to examine the effect of filler level, and to investigate the reinforcement mechanisms. Silica particles were fused onto the whiskers to facilitate silanization and to roughen the whisker surface for improved retention in the matrix. Filler level was varied from 0 to 70%. Flexural strength, compressive strength, and fracture toughness of the composites were measured. A nano-indentation system was used to measure elastic modulus and hardness. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to examine the fracture surfaces of specimens. Whisker filler level had significant effects on composite properties. The flexural strength in MPa (mean +/- SD; n = 6) increased from (95+/-15) for the unfilled resin to (193+/- 8) for the composite with 50% filler level, then slightly decreased to (176+/-12) at 70% filler level. The compressive strength increased from (149+/-33) for the unfilled resin to (282+/-48) at 10% filler level, and remained equivalent from 10 to 70% filler level. Both the modulus and hardness increased monotonically with filler level. In conclusion, silica particle-fused ceramic single-crystalline whiskers significantly reinforced dental core buildup composites. The reinforcement mechanisms appeared to be crack deflection and bridging by the whiskers. Whisker filler level had significant effects on the flexural strength, compressive strength, elastic modulus, and hardness of composites.

  18. Build-up material requirements in clinical dosimetry during total body irradiation treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butson, Martin; Pope, Dane; Haque, Mamoon; Chen, Tom; Song, Guangli; Whitaker, May

    2016-01-01

    Total body irradiation (TBI) treatments are mainly used in a preparative regimen for hematopoietic stem cell (or bone marrow) transplantation. Our standard clinical regimen is a 12 Gy/6 fraction bi-daily technique using 6MV X-rays at a large extended source to surface distance (SSD). This work investigates and quantifies the dose build-up characteristics and thus the requirements for bolus used for in vivo dosimetry for TBI applications. Percentage dose build-up characteristics of photon beams have been investigated at large extended SSDs using ionization chambers and Gafchromic film. Open field measurements at different field sizes and with differing scatter conditions such as the introduction of standard Perspex scattering plates at different distances to the measurement point were made in an effort to determine the required bolus/build-up material required for accurate determination of applied dose. Percentage surface dose values measured for open fields at 300 cm SSD were found to range from 20% up to 65.5% for fields 5 cm × 5 cm to 40 cm × 40 cm, respectively. With the introduction of 1 cm Perspex scattering plates used in TBI treatments, the surface dose values increased up to 83-90% (93-97% at 1 mm depth), depending on the position of the Perspex scattering plate compared to the measurement point. Our work showed that at least 5 mm water equivalent bolus/scatter material should be placed over the EBT3 film for accurate dose assessment for TBI treatments. Results also show that a small but measurable decrease in measured dose occurred with 5 mm water equivalent thick bolus material of areas '3 cm(2). As such, we recommend that 3 cm × 3 cm × 5 mm bolus build-up is the smallest size that should be placed over EBT3 Gafchromic film when used for accurate in vivo dosimetry for TBI applications.

  19. Influence of iron and nickel species upon activity buildup under simulated BWR conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjornsson, S.; Chen, J. [Studsvik Nuclear AB, Nykoping (Sweden); Lejon, J. [OKG AB, Oskarshamn (Sweden); Granath, G. [Ringhals AB, Varobacka (Sweden); Tanse-Larsson, M. [Forsmarks Kraftgrupp AB, Osthammar (Sweden)

    2010-07-01

    Activity build-up in BWR systems are of importance for service- and maintenance work performed at the plants. Minimizing the activity build-up is desirable for minimizing doses of personnel at the plants. Numerous studies have been carried out in this important field to understand the activity uptake mechanisms. This paper studied the possible role of Fe(II/III) and Ni(II) impurities in reactor water in activity uptake on stainless steel surfaces. The study was carried out by using a test loop with simulated BWR water containing Fe(II/III), Ni(II) and Co-60 marked Co(II) species of varied concentration and 500 ppb O{sub 2}. The test tube section in the loop system was pre-exposed type 316L stainless steel material. The microstructures of the formed oxide films were examined with high resolution electron microscopy (FE-SEM and FE-TEM). The activity monitoring on the test section showed that injection of 10 ppb Ni(II) and 0.1 ppb Fe(II/III) in the water with 0.1 ppb Co(II) was capable of stopping completely activity uptake. When Co(II) addition in the loop was stopped no activity return to the water could be seen. In another exposure test, injection of combined 2 ppb Fe(II/III) and 0.5∼10 ppb Ni(II) profoundly increased activity uptake on the test section with a maximum in activity buildup at 5 ppb Ni(II). When Co(II) addition in the loop was stopped a slight activity return was seen. The observed differences as seen in the two tests are discussed in view of the microstructures of the oxide films formed. (author)

  20. Damage buildup in Ar-ion-irradiated 3C-SiC at elevated temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, J. B.; Bayu Aji, L. B.; Li, T. T.; Shao, L.; Kucheyev, S. O.

    2015-09-01

    Above room temperature, the accumulation of radiation damage in 3C-SiC is strongly influenced by dynamic defect interaction processes and remains poorly understood. Here, we use a combination of ion channeling and transmission electron microscopy to study lattice disorder in 3C-SiC irradiated with 500 keV Ar ions in the temperature range of 25-250 °C. Results reveal sigmoidal damage buildup for all the temperatures studied. For 150 °C and below, the damage level monotonically increases with ion dose up to amorphization. Starting at 200 °C, the shape of damage-depth profiles becomes anomalous, with the damage peak narrowing and moving to larger depths and an additional shoulder forming close to the ion end of range. As a result, damage buildup curves for 200 and 250 °C exhibit an anomalous two-step shape, with a damage saturation stage followed by rapid amorphization above a critical ion dose, suggesting a nucleation-limited amorphization behavior. Despite their complexity, all damage buildup curves are well described by a phenomenological model based on an assumption of a linear dependence of the effective amorphization cross section on ion dose. In contrast to the results of previous studies, 3C-SiC can be amorphized by bombardment with 500 keV Ar ions even at 250 °C with a relatively large dose rate of ˜2 ×1013 cm-2 s-1, revealing a dominant role of defect interaction dynamics at elevated temperatures.

  1. Rime Mushrooms - Extreme Rime Ice Buildup on Mountain Summits of Southern Patagonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteman, C. D.

    2015-12-01

    The Southern Patagonian Andes are known among mountain climbers for a meteorological phenomenon that occurs there but is unknown in many other mountain areas. The phenomenon is the buildup of rime ice in large bulbous or mushroom-shaped accretions on the windward side of projecting mountain summits, ridges and exposed near-vertical rock faces. These "ice mushrooms" have never been investigated scientifically. This talk will introduce the audience to ice mushrooms, describe where they are found, consider the meteorological factors leading to their formation, and illustrate how they are negotiated by mountain climbers using photographs and descriptions from Southern Patagonia.

  2. Optimal Pile Arrangement for Minimizing Excess Pore Water Pressure Build-Up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barari, Amin; Saadati, Meysam; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2013-01-01

    Numerical analysis of pile group in a liquefiable soil was considered to investigate the influence of pile spacing on excess pore pressure distribution and liquefaction potential. The analysis is conducted using a two-dimensional plain strain finite difference program considering a nonlinear...... constitutive model for sandy soil, strength and stiffness reduction, and pile-soil interaction. The Mohr-Coulomb constitutive model coupled with Byrne pore pressure build-up model have been employed in the analysis. Numerical analysis results show that pile groups have significant influence on the dynamic...... response of sandy soil as they reduce the amount of excess pore pressure development during seismic shaking and may even prevent liquefaction....

  3. Simulation on buildup of electron cloud in a proton circular accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kai-Wei; Liu, Yu-Dong

    2015-10-01

    Electron cloud interaction with high energy positive beams are believed responsible for various undesirable effects such as vacuum degradation, collective beam instability and even beam loss in high power proton circular accelerators. An important uncertainty in predicting electron cloud instability lies in the detailed processes of the generation and accumulation of the electron cloud. The simulation on the build-up of electron cloud is necessary to further studies on beam instability caused by electron clouds. The China Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS) is an intense proton accelerator facility now being built, whose accelerator complex includes two main parts: an H-linac and a rapid cycling synchrotron (RCS). The RCS accumulates the 80 MeV proton beam and accelerates it to 1.6 GeV with a repetition rate of 25 Hz. During beam injection with lower energy, the emerging electron cloud may cause serious instability and beam loss on the vacuum pipe. A simulation code has been developed to simulate the build-up, distribution and density of electron cloud in CSNS/RCS. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11275221, 11175193)

  4. Optical fiber sensors and their application in monitoring stress build-up in dental resin cements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottevaere, H.; Tabak, M.; Fernandez Fernandez, A.; Berghmans, F.; Thienpont, H.

    2005-09-01

    The field of optical fiber sensing is highly diverse and this diversity is perceived as a great advantage over more conventional sensors in that an optical sensor can be tailored to measure any of a myriad of physical parameters. In this paper we present a niche application for optical fiber sensors in the domain of biophotonics, namely the monitoring of stress build-up during the curing process of dental resin cements. We discuss the origin of this stress build-up and the problems it can cause when treating patients. Optical fiber sensors aim at excelling in two kind of applications: firstly to perform quality control on batch produced dental cements and measure their total material shrinkage, secondly to monitor the hardening of the cement during in-vivo measurements resulting in the dynamic measurement of the shrinkage and to control the stress in a facing based restoration. We therefore investigated two types of optical fiber sensors as alternatives to conventional measurement techniques; namely polarimetric optical fiber sensors and fiber Bragg gratings written in polarization maintaining fibers. After discussing the results obtained with both optical fiber sensors, we will conclude with a critical assessment of the suitability of the two proposed sensing configurations for multi-parameter stress monitoring.

  5. Investigation of Pectin/Chitosan Multilayers Build-up on Corona Charged Polylactide Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yovcheva, T. A.; Marudova, M. G.; Viraneva, A. P.; Gencheva, E. A.; Mekishev, G. A.; Sainov, S. H.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present research is to investigate the formation and stability of pectin/chitosan multilayer films on preliminary corona charged polylactide substrate with different polarity. For this purpose two different multilayer structures with alternative ordering of polycation and polyanion layers were prepared. Layer-by-layer (LbL) deposition technique was used for multilayer build-up. The FT-IR transmittance spectra of the substrates with multilayers indicated of the presence of pectin and chitosan. The intensity of the typical bands was found to increase with increasing of the number of the deposited layers. The stability and physico-chemical properties of the multilayer structures were investigated by determination of surface refractive index and swelling behaviour. Multilayers are stable enough in distilled water and their equilibrium degree of swelling increases with the increase of build-up layers. This relation is correlated with the increased amount of hydrophilic biopolymers. It was found out that chitosan/pectin multilayers buil-up on negatively charged substrate consist of higher amount of polyelectrolytes and are more stable in distilled water.

  6. Energy-dependent finite-orbit treatment for plasma buildup in mirror fusion devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, M.M.

    1980-01-01

    A computer simulation of hot plasma buildup in mirror fusion devices and results from this model are presented. In a small, hot magnetically confined plasma, the ion orbit radius (rho/sub i/) can be comparable to the plasma radius (R/sub p/). It a mirror-confined plasma were rho/sub i//R/sub p/ > 1/25 (such as 2XII-B), a point kinetic treatment of ion interactions becomes inaccurate and a finite gyro-radius (FGR) treatment must be used to adequately describe plasma buildup processes. This is particularly true for describing losses due to cold-gas charge exchange (c-x) near the plasma surface, since a particle lost near the vacuum interface may have contributed to the density as far as 2 rho/sub i/ radially inward from the c-x point. A similar FGR effect applies to beam-deposited ions whose large orbits influence the density up to 2 rho/sub i/ from the trapping point.

  7. Prediction model of the buildup of volatile organic compounds on urban roads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahbub, Parvez; Goonetilleke, Ashantha; Ayoko, Godwin A

    2011-05-15

    A model to predict the buildup of mainly traffic-generated volatile organic compounds or VOCs (toluene, ethylbenzene, ortho-xylene, meta-xylene, and para-xylene) on urban road surfaces is presented. The model required three traffic parameters, namely average daily traffic (ADT), volume to capacity ratio (V/C), and surface texture depth (STD), and two chemical parameters, namely total suspended solid (TSS) and total organic carbon (TOC), as predictor variables. Principal component analysis and two phase factor analysis were performed to characterize the model calibration parameters. Traffic congestion was found to be the underlying cause of traffic-related VOC buildup on urban roads. The model calibration was optimized using orthogonal experimental design. Partial least squares regression was used for model prediction. It was found that a better optimized orthogonal design could be achieved by including the latent factors of the data matrix into the design. The model performed fairly accurately for three different land uses as well as five different particle size fractions. The relative prediction errors were 10-40% for the different size fractions and 28-40% for the different land uses while the coefficients of variation of the predicted intersite VOC concentrations were in the range of 25-45% for the different size fractions. Considering the sizes of the data matrices, these coefficients of variation were within the acceptable interlaboratory range for analytes at ppb concentration levels.

  8. Effects of damage build-up in range profiles in crystalline Si; Molecular dynamics simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Peltola, J; Keinonen, J

    2002-01-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) has been successful in predicting range profiles for ions implanted into crystalline materials in the fluence regime where it can be approximated that changes in the sample structure do not affect the profiles. Many experimental distributions are, however, strongly fluence-dependent due to the amorphization of the crystalline material. This has so far been taken into account only in some binary-collision-approximation calculations with a damage build-up model that depends on the probability of amorphization occurring at a certain depth. We present here a fast MD model for predicting range profiles of ions in crystalline Si. The model includes cumulative damage build-up, where the amorphization states of the material are taken from MD simulations of cascade damage. The method can be used to predict profiles for any material. We used silicon because of the large amount of experimental data available. No free parameters were used. Comparison of results with the results of a wide range of ...

  9. Impact of eccentricity build-up and graveyard disposal Strategies on MEO navigation constellations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radtke, Jonas; Domínguez-González, Raúl; Flegel, Sven K.; Sánchez-Ortiz, Noelia; Merz, Klaus

    2015-12-01

    With currently two constellations being in or close to the build-up phase, in a few years the Medium Earth Orbit (MEO) region will be populated with four complete navigation systems in relatively close orbital altitudes: The American GPS, Russian GLONASS, European Galileo, and Chinese BeiDou. To guarantee an appropriate visibility of constellation satellites from Earth, these constellations rely on certain defined orbits. For this, both the repeat pattern, which is basically defined by the semimajor axis and inclination, as well as the orbital planes, which are defined by the right ascension of ascending node, are determining values. To avoid an overcrowding of the region of interest, the disposal of satellites after their end-of-life is recommended. However, for the MEO region, no internationally agreed mitigation guidelines exist. Because of their distances to Earth, ordinary disposal manoeuvres leading to a direct or delayed re-entry due to atmospheric drag are not feasible: The needed fuel masses for such manoeuvres are by far above the reasonable limits and available fuel budgets. Thus, additional approaches have to be applied. For this, in general two options exist: disposal to graveyard orbits or the disposal to eccentricity build-up orbits. In the study performed, the key criterion for the graveyard strategy is that the disposed spacecraft must keep a safe minimum distance to the altitude of the active constellation on a long-term time scale of up to 200 years. This constraint imposes stringent requirements on the stability of the graveyard orbit. Similar disposals are also performed for high LEO satellites and disposed GEO payloads. The eccentricity build-up strategy on the other hand uses resonant effects between the Earth's geopotential, the Sun and the Moon. Depending on the initial conditions, these can cause a large eccentricity build-up, which finally can lead to a re-entry of the satellite. In this paper, the effects of applying either the first or

  10. Comparison of dose estimates using the buildup-factor method and a Baryon transport code (BRYNTRN) with Monte Carlo results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinn, Judy L.; Wilson, John W.; Nealy, John E.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    1990-01-01

    Continuing efforts toward validating the buildup factor method and the BRYNTRN code, which use the deterministic approach in solving radiation transport problems and are the candidate engineering tools in space radiation shielding analyses, are presented. A simplified theory of proton buildup factors assuming no neutron coupling is derived to verify a previously chosen form for parameterizing the dose conversion factor that includes the secondary particle buildup effect. Estimates of dose in tissue made by the two deterministic approaches and the Monte Carlo method are intercompared for cases with various thicknesses of shields and various types of proton spectra. The results are found to be in reasonable agreement but with some overestimation by the buildup factor method when the effect of neutron production in the shield is significant. Future improvement to include neutron coupling in the buildup factor theory is suggested to alleviate this shortcoming. Impressive agreement for individual components of doses, such as those from the secondaries and heavy particle recoils, are obtained between BRYNTRN and Monte Carlo results.

  11. Differential aquaporin 4 expression during edema build-up and resolution phases of brain inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brochet Bruno

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vasogenic edema dynamically accumulates in many brain disorders associated with brain inflammation, with the critical step of edema exacerbation feared in patient care. Water entrance through blood-brain barrier (BBB opening is thought to have a role in edema formation. Nevertheless, the mechanisms of edema resolution remain poorly understood. Because the water channel aquaporin 4 (AQP4 provides an important route for vasogenic edema resolution, we studied the time course of AQP4 expression to better understand its potential effect in countering the exacerbation of vasogenic edema. Methods Focal inflammation was induced in the rat brain by a lysolecithin injection and was evaluated at 1, 3, 7, 14 and 20 days using a combination of in vivo MRI with apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC measurements used as a marker of water content, and molecular and histological approaches for the quantification of AQP4 expression. Markers of active inflammation (macrophages, BBB permeability, and interleukin-1β and markers of scarring (gliosis were also quantified. Results This animal model of brain inflammation demonstrated two phases of edema development: an initial edema build-up phase during active inflammation that peaked after 3 days (ADC increase was followed by an edema resolution phase that lasted from 7 to 20 days post injection (ADC decrease and was accompanied by glial scar formation. A moderate upregulation in AQP4 was observed during the build-up phase, but a much stronger transcriptional and translational level of AQP4 expression was observed during the secondary edema resolution phase. Conclusions We conclude that a time lag in AQP4 expression occurs such that the more significant upregulation was achieved only after a delay period. This change in AQP4 expression appears to act as an important determinant in the exacerbation of edema, considering that AQP4 expression is insufficient to counter the water influx during the build-up

  12. Energy absorption buildup factors of human organs and tissues at energies and penetration depths relevant for radiotherapy and diagnostics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manohara, S. R.; Hanagodimath, S. M.; Gerward, Leif

    2011-01-01

    Energy absorption geometric progression (GP) fitting parameters and the corresponding buildup factors have been computed for human organs and tissues, such as adipose tissue, blood (whole), cortical bone, brain (grey/white matter), breast tissue, eye lens, lung tissue, skeletal muscle, ovary......, testis, soft tissue, and soft tissue (4-component), for the photon energy range 0.015-15 MeV and for penetration depths up to 40 mfp (mean free path). The chemical composition of human organs and tissues is seen to influence the energy absorption buildup factors. It is also found that the buildup factor...... of human organs and tissues changes significantly with the change of incident photon energy and effective atomic number, Zeff. These changes are due to the dominance of different photon interaction processes in different energy regions and different chemical compositions of human organs and tissues...

  13. Resonant laser power build-up in ALPS - a "light-shining-through-walls" experiment -

    CERN Document Server

    Ehret, Klaus; Ghazaryan, Samvel; Hildebrandt, Matthias; Knabbe, Ernst-Axel; Kracht, Dietmar; Lindner, Axel; List, Jenny; Meier, Tobias; Meyer, Niels; Notz, D; Redondo, Javier; Ringwald, Andreas; Wiedemann, Günter; Willke, Benno

    2009-01-01

    The ALPS collaboration runs a light-shining-through-walls (LSW) experiment to search for photon oscillations into "weakly interacting sub-eV particles" (WISPs) inside of a superconducting HERA dipole magnet at the site of DESY. In this paper we report on the first successful integration of a large-scale optical cavity to boost the available power for WISP production in this type of experiments. The key elements are a frequency tunable narrow line-width continuous wave laser acting as the primary light source and an electronic feed-back control loop to stabilize the power build-up. We describe and characterize our apparatus and demonstrate the data analysis procedures on the basis of a brief exemplary run.

  14. Understanding the build-up of a technological innovation system around hydrogen and fuel cell technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suurs, Roald A.A. [Innovation Studies Group, Copernicus Institute for Sustainable Development and Innovation, Utrecht University, Heidelberglaan 2, 3584 CS Utrecht (Netherlands); TNO Built Environment and Geosciences, Business Unit Innovation and Environment, Van Mourik Broekmanweg 6, 2628 XE Delft (Netherlands); Hekkert, Marko P.; Smits, Ruud E.H.M. [Innovation Studies Group, Copernicus Institute for Sustainable Development and Innovation, Utrecht University, Heidelberglaan 2, 3584 CS Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2009-12-15

    This study provides insight into the development of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies in the Netherlands (1980-2007). This is done by applying a Technological Innovation System (TIS) approach. This approach takes the perspective that a technology is shaped by a surrounding network of actors, institutions and technologies. When a technology is in an early stage of development, a TIS has yet to be built up in order to propel technological progress. This build-up process is studied for the hydrogen and fuel cell innovation system in the Netherlands. This is done by systematically studying the dynamics of seven key activities that accelerated (or slowed down) developments around hydrogen and fuel cell technologies. The analysis contributes to a better understanding of these dynamics and of the drivers and barriers that caused them to emerge. The study derives important lessons for practitioners. (author)

  15. The Accelerated Build-up of the Red Sequence in High Redshift Galaxy Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Cerulo, P; Lidman, C; Demarco, R; Huertas-Company, M; Mei, S; Sánchez-Janssen, R; Barrientos, L F; Muñoz, R P

    2016-01-01

    We analyse the evolution of the red sequence in a sample of galaxy clusters at redshifts $0.8 11.5$) red sequence galaxies in the WINGS clusters, which do not include only the brightest cluster galaxies and which are not present in the HCS clusters, suggesting that they formed at epochs later than $z=0.8$. The comparison with the luminosity distribution of a sample of passive red sequence galaxies drawn from the COSMOS/UltraVISTA field in the photometric redshift range $0.8build-up of the red sequence.

  16. On the reversibility of cake buildup and compression in a membrane bioreactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Mads Koustrup; Keiding, Kristian; Christensen, Morten Lykkegaard

    2014-01-01

    Fouling in a membrane bioreactor was studied by describing the reversibility of fouling developing during short-term experiments. Data were fitted to a recently proposed model of the buildup and compression of fouling layers. Shear stepping experiments performed to characterize the efficiency...... on compressed cake layers is released, the cake swells back to a looser structure. Based on these observations, we discuss the validity of using the critical flux concept to study fouling irreversibility. Modeling data of short-term filtration tests shows that the presence of a critical flux for irreversible...... fouling depends on the relaxation time relative to the filtration time and pressure. Therefore, to observe a critical flux for irreversible fouling, the relaxation times applied in the stepping approach should be customized to be sufficient to remove all removable fouling. The model suggests...

  17. Use of Nuclear Spin Noise Spectroscopy to Monitor Slow Magnetization Buildup at Millikelvin Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pöschko, Maria Theresia; Peat, David; Owers‐Bradley, John

    2016-01-01

    Abstract At ultralow temperatures, longitudinal nuclear magnetic relaxation times become exceedingly long and spectral lines are very broad. These facts pose particular challenges for the measurement of NMR spectra and spin relaxation phenomena. Nuclear spin noise spectroscopy is used to monitor proton spin polarization buildup to thermal equilibrium of a mixture of glycerol, water, and copper oxide nanoparticles at 17.5 mK in a static magnetic field of 2.5 T. Relaxation times determined in such a way are essentially free from perturbations caused by excitation radiofrequency pulses, radiation damping, and insufficient excitation bandwidth. The experimental spin‐lattice relaxation times determined on resonance by saturation recovery with spin noise detection are consistently longer than those determined by using pulse excitation. These longer values are in better accordance with the expected field dependence trend than those obtained by on‐resonance experiments with pulsed excitation. PMID:27305629

  18. Structure build-up and evolution in the drying of sessile blood droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craster, Richard; Uppal, Aran; Matar, Omar

    2016-11-01

    Experimental observations have recorded blood undergoing a sol-gel transition during the evaporation process. Consequently, the rheology becomes non-uniform throughout the droplet and exhibits transitional complex phenomena that we must capture if we wish to accurately model the evaporative/cracking process. We propose a model where thixotropy is introduced to capture the evolving rheology as evaporation occurs. Thixotropy is often used to describe fluids which exhibit a decrease in viscosity due to flow and subsequent slow recovery of viscosity after the cessation of the flow. We introduce an additional parameter to describe the internal structure of the fluid at each point and consider a droplet in the limit of the lubrication approximation. We present a discussion of our results that demonstrates the dependence of structure build-up, which accompanies the spatio-temporal evolution of the drop, on system parameters. EPSRC UK Centre for Doctoral Training.

  19. Numerical simulation of flare energy build-up and release via Joule dissipation. [solar MHD model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, S. T.; Bao, J. J.; Wang, J. F.

    1986-01-01

    A new numerical MHD model is developed to study the evolution of an active region due to photospheric converging motion, which leads to magnetic-energy buildup in the form of electric current. Because this new MHD model has incorporated finite conductivity, the energy conversion occurs from magnetic mode to thermal mode through Joule dissipation. In order to test the causality relationship between the occurrence of flare and photospheric motion, a multiple-pole configuration with neutral point is used. Using these results it is found that in addition to the converging motion, the initial magnetic-field configuration and the redistribution of the magnetic flux at photospheric level enhance the possibility for the development of a flare.

  20. Simulation of sulfide buildup in wastewater and atmosphere of sewer networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, A H; Yongsiri, C; Hvitved-Jacobsen, T; Vollertsen, J

    2005-01-01

    A model concept for prediction of sulfide buildup in sewer networks is presented. The model concept is an extension to--and a further development of--the WATS model (Wastewater Aerobic-anaerobic Transformations in Sewers), which has been developed by Hvitved-Jacobsen and co-workers at Aalborg University. In addition to the sulfur cycle, the WATS model simulates changes in dissolved oxygen and carbon fractions of different biodegradability. The sulfur cycle was introduced via six processes: 1. sulfide production taking place in the biofilm covering the permanently wetted sewer walls; 2. biological sulfide oxidation in the permanently wetted biofilm; 3. chemical and biological sulfide oxidation in the water phase; 4. sulfide precipitation with metals present in the wastewater; 5. emission of hydrogen sulfide to the sewer atmosphere and 6. adsorption and oxidation of hydrogen sulfide on the moist sewer walls where concrete corrosion may take place.

  1. Model Study of the Pressure Build-Up during Subcutaneous Injection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Maria; Hernandez Garcia, Anier; Mathiesen, Joachim;

    2014-01-01

    of a porous medium. For equivalent injection forces we measure the change in the infusion rate between injections in air at atmospheric pressure and in tissue. From a best fit with our model, we then determine the flow permeability as well as the bulk modulus of the tissue, estimated to be of the order 10......In this study we estimate the subcutaneous tissue counter pressure during drug infusion from a series of injections of insulin in type 2 diabetic patients using a non-invasive method. We construct a model for the pressure evolution in subcutaneous tissue based on mass continuity and the flow laws......-11-10-10 m2 and 105 Pa, respectively. The permeability is in good agreement with reported values for adipose porcine tissue. We suggest our model as a general way to estimate the pressure build-up in tissue during subcutaneous injection....

  2. Natural refuge crops, buildup of resistance, and zero-refuge strategy for Bt cotton in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ROZELLE; Scott; WILEN; James

    2010-01-01

    In the context of genetically modified crops expressing the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxin, a ‘refuge’ refers to a crop of the same or a related species that is planted nearby to enable growth and reproduction of the target pest without the selection pres- sure imposed by the Bt toxin. The goal of this study is to discuss the role of natural refuge crops in slowing down the buildup of resistance of cotton bollworm (CBW), and to evaluate China’s no-refuge policy for Bt cotton. We describe in detail the dif- ferent factors that China should consider in relation to the refuge policy. Drawing on a review of scientific data, economic analyses of other cases, and a simulation exercise using a bio-economic model, we show that in the case of Bt cotton in China, the no-refuge policy is defensible.

  3. History of water loss and atmospheric O2 buildup on rocky exoplanets near M dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Feng

    2015-12-01

    It is recently proposed that early stellar luminosity evolution of M dwarfs leads to severe water loss and the buildup of massive O2 atmospheres on rocky exoplanets in the habitable zone of these stars if interactions of such O2 atmospheres with planetary surfaces are inefficient. Here we show that even without considering atmosphere-surface interactions, the existence of a massive O2 atmosphere on such exoplanets is not an unavoidable consequence around M0-M3 stars and depends on stellar XUV properties, the mass of the exoplanets, and most importantly the initial planetary water inventories. In the case of inefficient atmosphere-surface interactions, the distribution of atmospheric O2 contents on these exoplanets should be bi-modal and such a distribution could be verified by future surveys of rocky exoplanets.

  4. Build-up and decline of organic matter during PeECE III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. G. Schulz

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2 concentrations due to anthropogenic fossil fuel combustion currently change the ocean's chemistry. Increasing oceanic [CO2] and subsequent decreasing seawater pH have the potential to significantly impact marine life. Here we describe and analyze the build-up and decline of a natural phytoplankton bloom initiated during the 2005 mesocosm Pelagic Ecosystem CO2 Enrichment study (PeECE III. We show that processes of inorganic carbon uptake in mixed surface waters and organic carbon export to depth were significantly enhanced at elevated CO2, while ammonium regeneration in deep waters was substantially reduced. This has important implications for our understanding of pelagic ecosystem functioning and future carbon cycling.

  5. Log jams and flood sediment buildup caused channel avulsion in the Pennsylvanian of Atlantic Canada

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gibling, Martin R; Bashforth, Arden Roy; Falcon-Lang, Howard J;

    2010-01-01

    Accumulations of logs and flood sediment frequently block modern channels and may trigger avulsion, but these effects are difficult to demonstrate for the ancient record. Braided-fluvial channels in the Pennsylvanian South Bar Formation of Atlantic Canada contain sandstone successions up to 6 m...... are interpreted as stable ‘‘transport log jams’’ formed during floods, although some may have been ‘‘unstable jams’’ stranded on bars during peak-flow recession. Associated with the logs are extrabasinal gravel and intraclasts of mudstone and coal, which suggest that floods in sediment-choked channels undercut...... in some modern rivers. In two instances, a radical change in paleoflow between pre- and post-abandonment channels is consistent with an interpretation that log jams and flood sediment buildup promoted channel-belt avulsion. Although large trees had evolved by Middle to Late Devonian times, it is unlikely...

  6. Study of Gamma Ray Exposure Buildup Factor for Some Ceramics with Photon Energy, Penetration Depth and Chemical Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tejbir Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gamma ray exposure buildup factor for some ceramics such as boron nitride (BN, magnesium diboride (MgB2, silicon carbide (SiC, titanium carbide (TiC and ferrite (Fe3O4 has been computed using five parametric geometric progression (G.P. fitting method in the energy range of 0.015 to 15.0 MeV, up to the penetration of 40 mean free path (mfp. The variation of exposure buildup factors for all the selected ceramics with incident photon energy, penetration depth, and chemical composition has been studied.

  7. Effect of the calibration in water and the build-up cap on the Mg(Ar) ionization chamber measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koivunoro, H; Hyvönen, H; Uusi-Simola, J; Jokelainen, I; Kosunen, A; Kortesniemi, M; Seppälä, T; Auterinen, I; Savolainen, S

    2011-12-01

    Magnesium-walled argon gas flow ionization chamber (Mg(Ar)) is used for photon dose measurements in the epithermal neutron beam of FiR 1 reactor in Finland. In this study, the photon dose measurements were re-evaluated against calculations applying a new chamber calibration factor defined in water instead of in air. Also, effect of the build-up cap on the measurements was investigated. The new calibration factor provides improved agreement between measured and calculated photon dose. Use of the build-up cap does not affect the measured signal in water in neutron beam.

  8. Effect of the calibration in water and the build-up cap on the Mg(Ar) ionization chamber measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koivunoro, H., E-mail: hanna.koivunoro@helsinki.fi [Boneca Corporation, FI-00290 Helsinki (Finland)] [Department of Physics, P.O.B. 64, FI-00014 University of Helsinki (Finland)] [Department of Oncology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, P.O.B. 180, 00029 HUS (Finland); Hyvoenen, H. [Boneca Corporation, FI-00290 Helsinki (Finland); Uusi-Simola, J. [HUS Helsinki Medical Imaging Center, University of Helsinki (Finland); Jokelainen, I.; Kosunen, A. [Radiation Metrology Laboratory, Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority-STUK, FI-00881 (Finland); Kortesniemi, M. [HUS Helsinki Medical Imaging Center, University of Helsinki (Finland); Seppaelae, T. [Department of Oncology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, P.O.B. 180, 00029 HUS (Finland); Auterinen, I. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Savolainen, S. [Department of Physics, P.O.B. 64, FI-00014 University of Helsinki (Finland)] [HUS Helsinki Medical Imaging Center, University of Helsinki (Finland)

    2011-12-15

    Magnesium-walled argon gas flow ionization chamber (Mg(Ar)) is used for photon dose measurements in the epithermal neutron beam of FiR 1 reactor in Finland. In this study, the photon dose measurements were re-evaluated against calculations applying a new chamber calibration factor defined in water instead of in air. Also, effect of the build-up cap on the measurements was investigated. The new calibration factor provides improved agreement between measured and calculated photon dose. Use of the build-up cap does not affect the measured signal in water in neutron beam.

  9. Humidity Build-Up in a Typical Electronic Enclosure Exposed to Cycling Conditions and Effect on Corrosion Reliability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conseil, Helene; Gudla, Visweswara Chakravarthy; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl

    2016-01-01

    , thermal mass, and port/opening size. The effect of the internal humidity build-up on corrosion reliability has been evaluated by measuring the leakage current (LC) on interdigitated test comb patterns, which are precontaminated with sodium chloride and placed inside the enclosure. The results showed...

  10. Evaluation of a relativistic electron ring system as a plasma target for buildup of compact-toroid configurations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Condit, W.C.

    1980-06-26

    A review of the idea of using plasma-loaded electron rings as buildup targets for future compact-toroid machines is presented. Present experiments at Cornell University and Nagoya University are analyzed, and the need for auxiliary heating to reach interesting temperatures is described. Consideration of the effect of two-stream instability, toroidal field, and plasma containment are discussed.

  11. 76 FR 7238 - Pipeline Safety: Dangers of Abnormal Snow and Ice Build-Up on Gas Distribution Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-09

    ... Build-Up on Gas Distribution Systems AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration... owners and operators of petroleum gas and natural gas facilities of the need to take the appropriate steps to prevent damage to pipeline facilities from accumulated snow or ice. Past events on natural...

  12. The effects of preceding lead-alone and lag-alone click trains on the buildup of echo suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Christopher W; Yadav, Deepak; London, Sam; Miller, Lee M

    2014-08-01

    Spatial perception in echoic environments is influenced by recent acoustic history. For instance, echo suppression becomes more effective or "builds up" with repeated exposure to echoes having a consistent acoustic relationship to a temporally leading sound. Four experiments were conducted to investigate how buildup is affected by prior exposure to unpaired lead-alone or lag-alone click trains. Unpaired trains preceded lead-lag click trains designed to evoke and assay buildup. Listeners reported how many sounds they heard from the echo hemifield during the lead-lag trains. Stimuli were presented in free field (experiments 1 and 4) or dichotically through earphones (experiments 2 and 3). In experiment 1, listeners reported more echoes following a lead-alone train compared to a period of silence. In contrast, listeners reported fewer echoes following a lag-alone train; similar results were observed with earphones. Interestingly, the effects of lag-alone click trains on buildup were qualitatively different when compared to a no-conditioner trial type in experiment 4. Finally, experiment 3 demonstrated that the effects of preceding click trains on buildup cannot be explained by a change in counting strategy or perceived click salience. Together, these findings demonstrate that echo suppression is affected by prior exposure to unpaired stimuli.

  13. Energy absorption buildup factors of human organs and tissues at energies and penetration depths relevant for radiotherapy and diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manohara, S R; Hanagodimath, S M; Gerward, L

    2011-11-15

    Energy absorption geometric progression (GP) fitting parameters and the corresponding buildup factors have been computed for human organs and tissues, such as adipose tissue, blood (whole), cortical bone, brain (grey/white matter), breast tissue, eye lens, lung tissue, skeletal muscle, ovary, testis, soft tissue, and soft tissue (4-component), for the photon energy range 0.015-15 MeV and for penetration depths up to 40 mfp (mean free path). The chemical composition of human organs and tissues is seen to influence the energy absorption buildup factors. It is also found that the buildup factor of human organs and tissues changes significantly with the change of incident photon energy and effective atomic number, Z(eff). These changes are due to the dominance of different photon interaction processes in different energy regions and different chemical compositions of human organs and tissues. With the proper knowledge of buildup factors of human organs and tissues, energy absorption in the human body can be carefully controlled. The present results will help in estimating safe dose levels for radiotherapy patients and also useful in diagnostics and dosimetry. The tissue-equivalent materials for skeletal muscle, adipose tissue, cortical bone, and lung tissue are also discussed. It is observed that water and MS20 are good tissue equivalent materials for skeletal muscle in the extended energy range.

  14. Calculation of gamma-ray buildup factors up to depths of 100 mfp by the method of invariant embedding. (2) Improved treatment of bremsstrahlung

    CERN Document Server

    Shimizu, A

    2003-01-01

    An improved method to calculate the gamma-ray buildup factors including bremsstrahlung has been developed. The exposure buildup factors with bremsstrahlung were computer by the present method for lead, iron and water at the source energy of 10.0 MeV up to depths of 100 mfp. The accuracy of the present method was checked by comparison with the calculations by use of EGS4. Excellent agreement was obtained between the calculations by both methods about the exposure buildup factors per energy (energy spectrum of transmitted photons) for lead up to depths of 10 mfp and the ratio of the exposure buildup factor with bremsstrahlung to that without bremsstrahlung for lead, iron and water up to depths of 40 mfp. It is confirmed that the present method has an accuracy sufficient to be used to the generation of an improved set of gamma-ray buildup factors including bremsstrahlung. (author)

  15. Assessment of potential nutrient build-up around beef cattle production areas using electromagnetic induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeiro, Marcos R C; Ranjan, Ramanathan Sri; Cicek, Nazim

    2011-12-01

    Electromagnetic induction (EMI) has been used to map soil properties such as salinity and water content. The objective of this research is to use EMI to map the potential distribution of nutrients around beef cattle pens and to relate this distribution to major physiographic field features. Beef cattle farms in different physiographic locations were surveyed in Manitoba, Canada, using an EM-38 conductivity meter georeferenced with a GPS receiver. Samples were collected using a response surface design and analysed for electrical conductivity (ECe), which was used as a proxy for determining potential build-up of nutrients. Multiple linear regression models (MLR) were used for calibration of the EM readings. The results showed that areas 1 through 4 had ECe soil layer to accumulate the nutrients. Micro-depressions played a major role in salt accumulation, with the depressions corresponding to higher values of ECe. The presence of features such as drainage ditches and compacted soils beneath roads strongly affected the direction of the plumes. Based on these results, the location of the pens on high elevations and the provision to collect the run-off from the pens were identified as good design criteria. Highly permeable soils may require a low permeability liner to capture the deep percolation and redirect it towards a collection area.

  16. Renewable build-up pathways for the US: Generation costs are not system costs

    CERN Document Server

    Becker, Sarah; Andresen, Gorm B; Jacobson, Mark Z; Schramm, Stefan; Greiner, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The transition to a future electricity system based primarily on wind and solar PV is examined for all regions in the contiguous US. We present optimized pathways for the build-up of wind and solar power for least backup energy needs as well as for least cost obtained with a simplified, lightweight model based on long-term high resolution weather-determined generation data. In the absence of storage, the pathway which achieves the best match of generation and load, thus resulting in the least backup energy requirements, generally favors a combination of both technologies, with a wind/solar PV energy mix of about 80/20 in a fully renewable scenario. The least cost development is seen to start with 100% of the technology with the lowest average generation costs first, but with increasing renewable installations, economically unfavorable excess generation pushes it toward the minimal backup pathway. Surplus generation and the entailed costs can be reduced significantly by combining wind and solar power, and/or a...

  17. An automated classification approach to ranking photospheric proxies of magnetic energy build-up

    CERN Document Server

    Al-Ghraibah, Amani; McAteer, R T James

    2015-01-01

    We study the photospheric magnetic field of ~2000 active regions in solar cycle 23 to search for parameters indicative of energy build-up and subsequent release as a solar flare. We extract three sets of parameters: snapshots in space and time- total flux, magnetic gradients, and neutral lines; evolution in time- flux evolution; structures at multiple size scales- wavelet analysis. This combines pattern recognition and classification techniques via a relevance vector machine to determine whether a region will flare. We consider classification performance using all 38 extracted features and several feature subsets. Classification performance is quantified using both the true positive rate and the true negative rate. Additionally, we compute the true skill score which provides an equal weighting to true positive rate and true negative rate and the Heidke skill score to allow comparison to other flare forecasting work. We obtain a true skill score of ~0.5 for any predictive time window in the range 2-24hr, with ...

  18. Prediction of wax buildup in 24 inch cold, deep sea oil loading line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asperger, R.G.; Sattler, R.E.; Tolonen, W.J.; Pitchford, A.C.

    1981-10-01

    When designing pipelines for cold environments, it is important to know how to predict potential problems due to wax deposition on the pipeline's inner surface. The goal of this work was to determine the rate of wax buildup and the maximum, equlibrium wax thickness for a North Sea field loading line. The experimental techniques and results used to evaluate the waxing potential of the crude oil (B) are described. Also, the theoretic model which was used for predicting the maximum wax deposit thickness in the crude oil (B) loading pipeline at controlled temperatures of 40 F (4.4 C) and 100 F (38 C), is illustrated. Included is a recommendation of a procedure for using hot oil at the end of a tanker loading period in order to dewax the crude oil (B) line. This technique would give maximum heating of the pipeline and should be followed by shutting the hot oil into the pipeline at the end of the loading cycle which will provide a hot oil soaking to help soften existing wax. 14 references.

  19. The Build-up of the Colour-Magnitude Relation as a Function of Environment

    CERN Document Server

    Tanaka, M; Arimoto, N; Okamura, S; Umetsu, K; Shimasaku, K; Tanaka, I; Yamada, T; Tanaka, Masayuki; Kodama, Tadayuki; Arimoto, Nobuo; Okamura, Sadanori; Umetsu, Keiichi; Shimasaku, Kazuhiro; Tanaka, Ichi; Yamada, Toru

    2005-01-01

    We discuss the environmental dependence of galaxy evolution based on deep panoramic imaging of two distant clusters taken with Suprime-Cam as part of the PISCES project. By combining with the SDSS data as a local counterpart for comparison, we construct a large sample of galaxies that spans wide ranges in environment, time, and stellar mass (or luminosity). We find that colours of galaxies, especially those of faint galaxies ($M_V>M_V^*+1$), change from blue to red at a break density as we go to denser regions. Based on local and global densities of galaxies, we classify three environments: field, groups, and clusters. We show that the cluster colour-magnitude relation is already built at $z=0.83$. In contrast to this, the bright-end of the field colour-magnitude relation has been vigorously built all the way down to the present-day and the build-up at the faint-end has not started yet. A possible interpretation of these results is that galaxies evolve in the 'down-sizing' fashion. That is, massive galaxies c...

  20. Analytical solution for pressure buildup and plume evolution during injection of CO2 into saline aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathias, S. A.; Hardisty, P. E.; Trudell, M. R.; Zimmerman, R. W.

    2008-12-01

    If geo-sequestration of CO2 is to be employed as a key greenhouse gas reduction method in the global effort to mitigate climate change, simple yet robust methods must be available to help design and monitor injection into saline aquifers. There has been significant development of simple analytical and semi-analytical techniques to support screening analysis and performance assessment for potential carbon sequestration sites. These techniques have generally been used to estimate the size of CO2 plumes for the purpose of leakage rate estimation. A common assumption of previous has been that both the fluids and the geological formation are incompressible. Consequently, calculation of pressure distribution requires the specification of an arbitrary radius of influence. In the present work, we relax this restriction by incorporating fluid and formation compressibility into our governing equations. These equations are transformed into ordinary differential equations using a similarity transformation, and are then solved using the method of matched asymptotic expansions. By allowing for compressibility in the fluids and formation, the solutions improve on previous work by not requiring the specification of an arbitrary radius of influence. Our solution is also capable of accounting for non-Darcy inertial effects modeled by the Forchheimer equation. These analytical solutions are validated by comparison with finite difference solutions. Our analysis leads to a simple yet highly accurate algebraic equation for estimating the evolution of a CO2 plume, and the associated pressure buildup, as a function of time.

  1. Simulations of the electron cloud buildup and its influence on the microwave transmission measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Oliver Sebastian; Boine-Frankenheim, Oliver; Petrov, Fedor

    2013-11-01

    An electron cloud density in an accelerator can be measured using the Microwave Transmission (MWT) method. The aim of our study is to evaluate the influence of a realistic, nonuniform electron cloud on the MWT. We conduct electron cloud buildup simulations for beam pipe geometries and bunch parameters resembling roughly the conditions in the CERN SPS. For different microwave waveguide modes the phase shift induced by a known electron cloud density is obtained from three different approaches: 3D Particle-In-Cell (PIC) simulation of the electron response, a 2D eigenvalue solver for waveguide modes assuming a dielectric response function for cold electrons, a perturbative method assuming a sufficiently smooth density profile. While several electron cloud parameters, such as temperature, result in minor errors in the determined density, the transversely inhomogeneous density can introduce a large error in the measured electron density. We show that the perturbative approach is sufficient to describe the phase shift under realistic electron cloud conditions. Depending on the geometry of the beam pipe, the external magnetic field configuration and the used waveguide mode, the electron cloud density can be concentrated at the beam pipe or near the beam pipe center, leading to a severe over- or underestimation of the electron density. Electron cloud distributions are very inhomogeneous, especially in dipoles. These inhomogeneities affect the microwave transmission measurement results. Electron density might be over- or underestimated, depending on setup. This can be quantified with several models, e.g. a perturbative approach.

  2. Build-up and decline of organic matter during PeECE III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. G. Schulz

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2 concentrations due to anthropogenic fossil fuel combustion are currently changing the ocean's chemistry. Increasing oceanic [CO2] and consequently decreasing seawater pH have the potential to significantly impact marine life. Here we describe and analyze the build-up and decline of a natural phytoplankton bloom initiated during the 2005 mesocosm Pelagic Ecosystem CO2 Enrichment study (PeECE III. The draw-down of inorganic nutrients in the upper surface layer of the mesocosms was reflected by a concomitant increase of organic matter until day t11, the peak of the bloom. From then on, biomass standing stocks steadily decreased as more and more particulate organic matter was lost into the deeper layer of the mesocosms. We show that organic carbon export to the deeper layer was significantly enhanced at elevated CO2. This phenomenon might have impacted organic matter remineralization leading to decreased oxygen concentrations in the deeper layer of the high CO2 mesocosms as indicated by deep water ammonium concentrations. This would have important implications for our understanding of pelagic ecosystem functioning and future carbon cycling.

  3. Integration of micro-filtration into osmotic membrane bioreactors to prevent salinity build-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinhua; Yuan, Bo; Chen, Yao; Li, Xiufen; Ren, Yueping

    2014-09-01

    The high salinity remains as one of major obstacles of the osmotic membrane bioreactor (OMBR). In this study, a new pathway was explored to prevent the salinity build-up by integrating the micro-filtration (MF) membrane to the OMBR (MF-OMBR). The results indicated that the salinity characterized by conductivity in the MF-OMBR was effectively alleviated and controlled at a lower value of about 5 mS/cm, and the stable flux of forward osmosis (FO) membrane correspondingly increased to approximately 5.5L/(m(2)h). Besides, the addition of MF membrane in the OMBR could increase the total organic carbon (TOC) and ammonium nitrogen (NH3-N) removals due to the activated sludge by improving the microbial activity. The membrane fouling especially the reversible fouling in the MF-OMBR was severer compared to that in the conventional OMBR, which resulted in a lower water flux than the expectation due to the increase of filtration resistance and external concentration polarization.

  4. Comparative study of mechanical properties of direct core build-up materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girish Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The strength greatly influences the selection of core material because core must withstand forces due to mastication and para-function for many years. This study was conducted to evaluate certain mechanical properties of commonly used materials for direct core build-up, including visible light cured composite, polyacid modified composite, resin modified glass ionomer, high copper amalgam, and silver cermet cement. Materials and Methods: All the materials were manipulated according to the manufacturer′s recommendations and standard test specimens were prepared. A universal testing machine at different cross-head speed was used to determine all the four mechanical properties. Mean compressive strength, diametral tensile strength, flexural strength, and elastic modulus with standard deviations were calculated. Multiple comparisons of the materials were also done. Results: Considerable differences in compressive strength, diametral tensile strength, and flexural strength were observed. Visible light cured composite showed relatively high compressive strength, diametral tensile strength, and flexural strength compared with the other tested materials. Amalgam showed the highest value for elastic modulus. Silver cermet showed less value for all the properties except for elastic modulus. Conclusions: Strength is one of the most important criteria for selection of a core material. Stronger materials better resist deformation and fracture provide more equitable stress distribution, greater stability, and greater probability of clinical success.

  5. The Build-Up Course of Visuo-Motor and Audio-Motor Temporal Recalibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshimori Sugano

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The sensorimotor timing is recalibrated after a brief exposure to a delayed feedback of voluntary actions (temporal recalibration effect: TRE (Heron et al., 2009; Stetson et al., 2006; Sugano et al., 2010. We introduce a new paradigm, namely ‘synchronous tapping’ (ST which allows us to investigate how the TRE builds up during adaptation. In each experimental trial, participants were repeatedly exposed to a constant lag (∼150 ms between their voluntary action (pressing a mouse and a feedback stimulus (a visual flash / an auditory click 10 times. Immediately after that, they performed a ST task with the same stimulus as a pace signal (7 flashes / clicks. A subjective ‘no-delay condition’ (∼50 ms served as control. The TRE manifested itself as a change in the tap-stimulus asynchrony that compensated the exposed lag (eg, after lag adaptation, the tap preceded the stimulus more than in control and built up quickly (∼3–6 trials, ∼23–45 sec in both the visuo- and audio-motor domain. The audio-motor TRE was bigger and built-up faster than the visuo-motor one. To conclude, the TRE is comparable between visuo- and audio-motor domain, though they are slightly different in size and build-up rate.

  6. Relative hardness of composite buildups polymerized with two different LED lights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Shamy, Hassan; El-Mowafy, Omar

    2009-01-01

    The relative hardness (RH) of five composite materials was determined through polymerization via LED lights. Disk specimens were prepared by using composites composed of Artiste, an experimental glass fiber composite, Filtek Supreme, Z100, and LuxaCore. Specimens were polymerized for 10 and 20 seconds from the top surface only with two lights, Smartlite-IQ2 and DEMI LED, with light maintained 8 mm from the surface through a coronal section of the molar tooth. Knoop hardness numbers were determined for the top and bottom surfaces both immediately and 24 hours later. Ten RH values per group were calculated and data were statistically analyzed. Generally, RH increased with increasing polymerization time. The DEMI LED light resulted in RH values that were significantly higher than those obtained with Smartlite IQ2. Z100 had RH values of > 80% under most testing conditions and had the highest hardness values of all composites tested. Therefore, it is considered to be the most appropriate for core buildups.

  7. Evaluation of gamma-ray exposure buildup factors and neutron shielding for bismuth borosilicate glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vishwanath P.; Badiger, N. M.; Chanthima, N.; Kaewkhao, J.

    2014-05-01

    Gamma-ray exposure buildup factor (EBF) values and neutron shielding effectiveness of bismuth borosilicate (BBS) glass systems in composition (50-x)SiO2:15B2O3:2Al2O3:10CaO:23Na2O:xBi2O3 (where x=0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 mol%) were calculated. The EBF values were computed for photon energy 0.015-15 MeV up to penetration depths of 40 mfp (mean free path) by the geometrical progression (G-P) method. The EBF values were found dependent upon incident photon energy, penetration and bismuth molar concentration. In low- and high-energy photon regions, the EBF values were minimum whereas maximum in the intermediate-energy region. The fast neutron removal cross sections for energy 2-12 MeV were calculated by the partial density method. The BBS glass with 20 mol% Bi2O3 is found to be superior gamma-ray and neutron transparent shielding. The EBF values of the BBS glasses were compared with steel-magnetite concrete and lead. The investigation was carried out to explore the advantages of the BBS glasses in different radiation shielding applications.

  8. Measurements and Phenomenological Modeling of Magnetic FluxBuildup in Spheromak Plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero-Talamas, C A; Hooper, E B; Jayakumar, R; McLean, H S; Wood, R D; Moller, J M

    2007-12-14

    Internal magnetic field measurements and high-speed imaging at the Sustained Spheromak Physics Experiment (SSPX) [E. B. Hooper, L. D. Pearlstein, R. H. Bulmer, Nucl. Fusion 39, 863 (1999)] are used to study spheromak formation and field buildup. The measurements are analyzed in the context of a phenomenological model of magnetic helicity based on the topological constraint of minimum helicity in the open flux before reconnecting and linking closed flux. Two stages are analyzed: (1) the initial spheromak formation, i. e. when all flux surfaces are initially open and reconnect to form open and closed flux surfaces, and (2) the stepwise increase of closed flux when operating the gun on a new mode that can apply a train of high-current pulses to the plasma. In the first stage, large kinks in the open flux surfaces are observed in the high-speed images taken shortly after plasma breakdown, and coincide with large magnetic asymmetries recorded in a fixed insertable magnetic probe that spans the flux conserver radius. Closed flux (in the toroidal average sense) appears shortly after this. This stage is also investigated using resistive magnetohydrodynamic simulations. In the second stage, a time lag in response between open and closed flux surfaces after each current pulse is interpreted as the time for the open flux to build helicity, before transferring it through reconnection to the closed flux. Large asymmetries are seen during these events, which then relax to a slowly decaying spheromak before the next pulse.

  9. ANALYSIS OF TWO-PHASE FLOW PRESSURE BUILDUP DATA FROM A WELL IN AN INFINITE MULTIWELL RESERVOIR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Jia-en; YANG Hui-zhu

    2005-01-01

    A general method has been developed for analyzing two-phase flow pressure buildup data from a well located in a system of both production and injection wells completed in an infinite multiwell reservoir. The analysis technique assumes that the tested well has established its own drainage area before shut-in and a linear reservoir pressure trend dominates the well pressure behavior at the instant of shut-in. And for the two-phase flow problems the horizontal saturation gradients are assumed to be negligible. The entire pressure response, whether or not conventional semilog straight lines exist, can be analyzed and the Injection-Production Ratio (IPR), the total fluid (oil/water) mobility, the average drainage-area pressure, and also the skin factor can be calculated much easily. The validity and applicability of the method are demonstrated by a field example. The technique by using the type curves for analyzing the pressure-buildup data is also presented here.

  10. Effects of salinity build-up on the performance and bacterial community structure of a membrane bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Wenhai; Phan, Hop V; Hai, Faisal I; Price, William E; Guo, Wenshan; Ngo, Hao H; Yamamoto, Kazuo; Nghiem, Long D

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of salinity increase on bacterial community structure in a membrane bioreactor (MBR) for wastewater treatment. The influent salt loading was increased gradually to simulate salinity build-up in the bioreactor during the operation of a high retention-membrane bioreactor (HR-MBR). Bacterial community diversity and structure were analyzed using 454 pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes of MBR mixed liquor samples. Results show that salinity increase reduced biological performance but did not affect microbial diversity in the bioreactor. Unweighted UniFrac and taxonomic analyses were conducted to relate the reduced biological performance to the change of bacterial community structure. In response to the elevated salinity condition, the succession of halophobic bacteria by halotolerant/halophilic microbes occurred and thereby the biological performance of MBR was recovered. These results suggest that salinity build-up during HR-MBR operation could be managed by allowing for the proliferation of halotolerant/halophilic bacteria.

  11. Simulations of the electron cloud buildup and its influence on the microwave transmission measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haas, Oliver Sebastian, E-mail: o.haas@gsi.de [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Planckstraße 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Boine-Frankenheim, Oliver [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Planckstraße 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Technische Universität Darmstadt, Institut für Theorie Elektromagnetischer Felder, Schlossgartenstraße 8, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Petrov, Fedor [Technische Universität Darmstadt, Institut für Theorie Elektromagnetischer Felder, Schlossgartenstraße 8, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2013-11-21

    An electron cloud density in an accelerator can be measured using the Microwave Transmission (MWT) method. The aim of our study is to evaluate the influence of a realistic, nonuniform electron cloud on the MWT. We conduct electron cloud buildup simulations for beam pipe geometries and bunch parameters resembling roughly the conditions in the CERN SPS. For different microwave waveguide modes the phase shift induced by a known electron cloud density is obtained from three different approaches: 3D Particle-In-Cell (PIC) simulation of the electron response, a 2D eigenvalue solver for waveguide modes assuming a dielectric response function for cold electrons, a perturbative method assuming a sufficiently smooth density profile. While several electron cloud parameters, such as temperature, result in minor errors in the determined density, the transversely inhomogeneous density can introduce a large error in the measured electron density. We show that the perturbative approach is sufficient to describe the phase shift under realistic electron cloud conditions. Depending on the geometry of the beam pipe, the external magnetic field configuration and the used waveguide mode, the electron cloud density can be concentrated at the beam pipe or near the beam pipe center, leading to a severe over- or underestimation of the electron density. -- Author-Highlights: •Electron cloud distributions are very inhomogeneous, especially in dipoles. •These inhomogeneities affect the microwave transmission measurement results. •Electron density might be over- or underestimated, depending on setup. •This can be quantified with several models, e.g. a perturbative approach.

  12. The Buildup of Passive Galaxies in Clusters and the Field Over the Last 7 Billion Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudnick, Gregory; van der Wel, A.; Moustakas, J.; Jablonka, P.

    2011-01-01

    One of galaxy evolution's most long-standing problems is determining how clusters affect the properties of infalling galaxies. One useful metric for this is how quickly the passive galaxy population in clusters assembles over time. Standard practice has been to assume that all red sequence galaxies are passive and to measure the evolution in the red fraction and red sequence luminosity function over time. This approach, however, neglects the possible contribution of dusty galaxies to the red sequence, which can be significant at intermediate environment and low to intermediate stellar masses. We move beyond a simple red sequence cut by using a new multi-color technique to distinguish red passive galaxies from red dusty star-forming galaxies. Isolating passive galaxies is inherently more physical than studying galaxies selected on one color alone. We track the buildup of passive galaxies in the field and in clusters using the COSMOS data for the former and a large imaging and spectroscopy survey of intermediate redshift clusters for the latter. The fraction of passive galaxies in clusters increases with increasing galaxy mass, increasing cluster velocity dispersion, and with time at a fixed mass and velocity dispersion. We relate the passive fraction in clusters to that for field galaxies of similar masses and use this to constrain the processes that shut off star formation in infalling cluster galaxies. The fraction of dust-obscured star forming galaxies changes with stellar mass and environment and this affects the interpretation of the rapid evolution in the faint red sequence galaxy population and its environmental dependence, as seen in other works.

  13. Clinical comparison of various esthetic restorative options for coronal build-up of primary anterior teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himanshu Duhan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study was designed to compare the clinical performance of composite, strip crowns, biological restoration, and composite with stainless steel band when used for the coronal build-up of anterior teeth. Materials and Methods: A total of 20 patients aged 3-6 years presenting with mutilated primary anterior teeth due to caries or trauma were selected for the study using randomized simple sampling. A total of 52 primary anterior teeth were randomly divided into four equal groups having 13 teeth in each group. Teeth in Group I were restored with composite, in Group II with strip crowns, in Group III with biologic restoration and with stainless steel band reinforced composite in group IV. The restorations were evaluated for color match, retention, surface texture, and anatomic form according to Ryge′s Direct (US Public Health Service evaluation criteria at baseline (immediate postoperative, after 48 h, 3, 6, and 9 months. The data obtained were statistically analyzed using Chi-square test, and level of significance, that is, P value was determined. Results: At baseline, none of the groups showed any color changes. Other than Group III all other groups showed highly significant changes (P 0.05. Deterioration in surface texture was exhibited maximum by restorations in Group IV followed by Group I at 3 months. Whereas, no surface changes were seen in Group II and III. Only Group I and IV showed discontinuity in anatomic form after 3 months. After 6 months, except in Group II, discontinuity in anatomic form was observed in all the groups. Discontinuity in anatomic form was seen in all the 4 groups after 9 months although the difference was not significant (P > 0.05. Conclusion: Biological restoration was found to be most satisfying esthetically owing to color compatibility with the patient′s tooth. Thus, it has a great potential to be used as esthetic restorative option in primary anteriors.

  14. Clinical comparison of various esthetic restorative options for coronal build-up of primary anterior teeth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duhan, Himanshu; Pandit, Inder Kumar; Srivastava, Nikhil; Gugnani, Neeraj; Gupta, Monika; Kochhar, Gulsheen Kaur

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study was designed to compare the clinical performance of composite, strip crowns, biological restoration, and composite with stainless steel band when used for the coronal build-up of anterior teeth. Materials and Methods: A total of 20 patients aged 3-6 years presenting with mutilated primary anterior teeth due to caries or trauma were selected for the study using randomized simple sampling. A total of 52 primary anterior teeth were randomly divided into four equal groups having 13 teeth in each group. Teeth in Group I were restored with composite, in Group II with strip crowns, in Group III with biologic restoration and with stainless steel band reinforced composite in group IV. The restorations were evaluated for color match, retention, surface texture, and anatomic form according to Ryge's Direct (US Public Health Service) evaluation criteria at baseline (immediate postoperative), after 48 h, 3, 6, and 9 months. The data obtained were statistically analyzed using Chi-square test, and level of significance, that is, P value was determined. Results: At baseline, none of the groups showed any color changes. Other than Group III all other groups showed highly significant changes (P 0.05). Deterioration in surface texture was exhibited maximum by restorations in Group IV followed by Group I at 3 months. Whereas, no surface changes were seen in Group II and III. Only Group I and IV showed discontinuity in anatomic form after 3 months. After 6 months, except in Group II, discontinuity in anatomic form was observed in all the groups. Discontinuity in anatomic form was seen in all the 4 groups after 9 months although the difference was not significant (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Biological restoration was found to be most satisfying esthetically owing to color compatibility with the patient's tooth. Thus, it has a great potential to be used as esthetic restorative option in primary anteriors. PMID:26759595

  15. Uncertainty quantification of overpressure buildup through inverse modeling of compaction processes in sedimentary basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Ivo; Porta, Giovanni M.; Ruffo, Paolo; Guadagnini, Alberto

    2016-11-01

    This study illustrates a procedure conducive to a preliminary risk analysis of overpressure development in sedimentary basins characterized by alternating depositional events of sandstone and shale layers. The approach rests on two key elements: (1) forward modeling of fluid flow and compaction, and (2) application of a model-complexity reduction technique based on a generalized polynomial chaos expansion (gPCE). The forward model considers a one-dimensional vertical compaction processes. The gPCE model is then used in an inverse modeling context to obtain efficient model parameter estimation and uncertainty quantification. The methodology is applied to two field settings considered in previous literature works, i.e. the Venture Field (Scotian Shelf, Canada) and the Navarin Basin (Bering Sea, Alaska, USA), relying on available porosity and pressure information for model calibration. It is found that the best result is obtained when porosity and pressure data are considered jointly in the model calibration procedure. Uncertainty propagation from unknown input parameters to model outputs, such as pore pressure vertical distribution, is investigated and quantified. This modeling strategy enables one to quantify the relative importance of key phenomena governing the feedback between sediment compaction and fluid flow processes and driving the buildup of fluid overpressure in stratified sedimentary basins characterized by the presence of low-permeability layers. The results here illustrated (1) allow for diagnosis of the critical role played by the parameters of quantitative formulations linking porosity and permeability in compacted shales and (2) provide an explicit and detailed quantification of the effects of their uncertainty in field settings.

  16. Uncertainty quantification of overpressure buildup through inverse modeling of compaction processes in sedimentary basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Ivo; Porta, Giovanni M.; Ruffo, Paolo; Guadagnini, Alberto

    2017-03-01

    This study illustrates a procedure conducive to a preliminary risk analysis of overpressure development in sedimentary basins characterized by alternating depositional events of sandstone and shale layers. The approach rests on two key elements: (1) forward modeling of fluid flow and compaction, and (2) application of a model-complexity reduction technique based on a generalized polynomial chaos expansion (gPCE). The forward model considers a one-dimensional vertical compaction processes. The gPCE model is then used in an inverse modeling context to obtain efficient model parameter estimation and uncertainty quantification. The methodology is applied to two field settings considered in previous literature works, i.e. the Venture Field (Scotian Shelf, Canada) and the Navarin Basin (Bering Sea, Alaska, USA), relying on available porosity and pressure information for model calibration. It is found that the best result is obtained when porosity and pressure data are considered jointly in the model calibration procedure. Uncertainty propagation from unknown input parameters to model outputs, such as pore pressure vertical distribution, is investigated and quantified. This modeling strategy enables one to quantify the relative importance of key phenomena governing the feedback between sediment compaction and fluid flow processes and driving the buildup of fluid overpressure in stratified sedimentary basins characterized by the presence of low-permeability layers. The results here illustrated (1) allow for diagnosis of the critical role played by the parameters of quantitative formulations linking porosity and permeability in compacted shales and (2) provide an explicit and detailed quantification of the effects of their uncertainty in field settings.

  17. SU-E-T-59: Calculations of Collimator Scatter Factors (Sc) with and Without Custom-Made Build-Up Caps for CyberKnife

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wokoma, S; Yoon, J; Jung, J [East Carolina University, Greenville, NC (United States); Lee, S [Rhode Island Hospital / Warren Alpert Medical, Providence, RI (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To investigate the impact of custom-made build-up caps for a diode detector in robotic radiosurgery radiation fields with variable collimator (IRIS) for collimator scatter factor (Sc) calculation. Methods: An acrylic cap was custom-made to fit our SFD (IBA Dosimetry, Germany) diode detector. The cap has thickness of 5 cm, corresponding to a depth beyond electron contamination. IAEA phase space data was used for beam modeling and DOSRZnrc code was used to model the detector. The detector was positioned at 80 cm source-to-detector distance. Calculations were performed with the SFD, with and without the build-up cap, for clinical IRIS settings ranging from 7.5 to 60 mm. Results: The collimator scatter factors were calculated with and without 5 cm build-up cap. They were agreed within 3% difference except 15 mm cone. The Sc factor for 15 mm cone without buildup was 13.2% lower than that with buildup. Conclusion: Sc data is a critical component in advanced algorithms for treatment planning in order to calculate the dose accurately. After incorporating build-up cap, we discovered differences of up to 13.2 % in Sc factors in the SFD detector, when compared against in-air measurements without build-up caps.

  18. The effect of different initial densities of nematode (Meloidogyne javanica) on the build-up of Pasteuria penetrans population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DARBAN Daim Ali; PATHAN Mumtaz Ali; BHATTI Abdul Ghaffar; MAITELO Sultan Ahmed

    2005-01-01

    Pasteuria penetrans will build-up faster where there is a high initial nematode density and can suppress root-knot nematode populations in the roots of tomato plants. The effect of different initial densities of nematode (Meloidogyne javanica)(150, 750, 1500, 3000) and P. penetrans infected females (F1, F3) densities (F0=control and AC=absolute control without nematode or P. penetrans inoculum) on the build-up of Pasteuria population was investigated over four crop cycles. Two major points of interest were highlighted. First, that within a confined soil volume, densities of P. penetrans can increase >100 times within 2 or 3 crop cycles. Second, from a relatively small amount of spore inoculum, infection of the host is very high. There were more infected females in the higher P. penetrans doses. The root growth data confirms the greater number of females in the controls particularly at the higher inoculum densities in the third and fourth crops. P. penetrans generally caused the fresh root weights to be higher than those in the control. P. penetrans has shown greater reduction of egg masses per plant at most densities.The effects of different initial densities of M. javanica and P. penetrans on the development of the pest and parasite populations were monitored. And no attempt was made to return the P. penetrans spores to the pots after each crop so the build-up in actual numbers of infected females and spores under natural conditions may be underestimated.

  19. Build-up of lead in the bodies of beetles living in an environment contaminated by automotive exhaust gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhulidov, A.V.; Yemets, V.M.

    1979-01-01

    Lead in automobile exhaust gases gets deposited on and builds up in roadside soils, grasses, plants, trees, shrubs, mosses, and the bodies of birds and mammals. Insects, and particularly beetles, have not been studied in this respect. This gap is now filled by investigating the build-up of lead in the bodies of the beetles inhabiting these milieux. To this end, insects of 12 species were gathered from forested areas in neighborhood of a heavily traveled highway, along with samples of soil and vegetation. The lead content in all these samples was determined in the form of the colloidal ash of a sulfur compound. For comparison, beetles of 5 species gathered in the same area during 1930 to 1939 were also analyzed. The build-up of lead in the beetles was markedly higher than in the soil and vegetation samples. The lead content of the beetles varied depending on species: the soil-infesting beetles (Carabidae) contained much more lead in their bodies than the plant infesting beetles such as the Scarabeidae, the Buprestidae, and the Cerambycidae. Compared with the beetles collected during 1930 to 1939, the beetles collected in 1975 in the Voronezh Natural Preserve (through which the highway runs) display a much higher lead content. The build-up of lead in beetle bodies can be used as an index of environmental pollution to monitor the state of roadside ecosystems. This is particularly important for natural preserves on which, in general, heavy motor vehicle traffic is not justified.

  20. Evaluation of Geometric Progression (GP Buildup Factors using MCNP Codes (MCNP6.1 and MCNP5-1.60

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Kyung-O

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The gamma-ray buildup factors of three-dimensional point kernel code (QAD-CGGP are re-evaluated by using MCNP codes (MCNP6.1 and MCNPX5-1.60 and ENDF/B-VI.8 photoatomic data, which cover an energy range of 0.015–15 MeV and an iron thickness of 0.5–40 Mean Free Path (MFP. These new data are fitted to the Geometric Progression (GP fitting function and are then compared with ANS standard data equipped with QAD-CGGP. In addition, a simple benchmark calculation was performed to compare the QAD-CGGP results applied with new and existing buildup factors based on the MCNP codes. In the case of the buildup factors of low-energy gamma-rays, new data are evaluated to be about 5% higher than the existing data. In other cases, these new data present a similar trend based on the specific penetration depth, while existing data continuously increase beyond that depth. In a simple benchmark, the calculations using the existing data were slightly underestimated compared to the reference data at a deep penetration depth. On the other hand, the calculations with new data were stabilized with an increasing penetration depth, despite a slight overestimation at a shallow penetration depth.

  1. Anatomy of a phylloid algal buildup, Raytown Limestone, Iola Formation, Pennsylvanian, Southeast Kansas, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, William C.; Carozzi, Albert V.

    1986-05-01

    Quantitative petrography and temporal-spatial relationships of microfacies were used to interpret the depositional history of Iola carbonates. The Paola Limestone, consisting of four microfacies, was deposited on a carbonate ramp and appears to record the maximum transgression within the Iola cycle of deposition. The overlying Raytown Limestone was composed of nineteen microfacies arranged in three vertically successive depositional models of similar general configuration. These models revealed an initial bioclastic bar evolving upward into a complex bioaccumulated-bioconstructed phylloid algal buildup. The latter was replaced landward by a siliciclastic distal deltaic environment and graded basinward into upper ramp and lower ramp carbonates. Locally, restricted circulation caused the development of hypersaline conditions. The shallowing-upward depositional evolution of the phylloid algal buildup consisted of four distinct stages: bioclastic (hydrodynamic buildup), bioaccumulation, bioconstruction, and bioclastic (destruction in storm-dominated conditions and intermittent emergence). Diagenesis of Iola microfacies was complex and included: marine phreatic 1 (bioturbation, syneresis, micritization, micrite lithification, and hardground genesis; freshwater vadose—phreatic undersaturated 1 (dissolution of evaporites, moldic dissolution, collapse brecciation, and vadose silt infiltration); marine phreatic 2 (isopachous rim and botryoidal cementation); freshwater phreatic saturated 2 (sparite cementation, and extensive neomorphism); deep burial (anhydritization, dolomitization, stylolitization, and silicification); and late uplift (fracturation and cementation). Most of the diagenesis was microfacies specific.

  2. A comprehensive interpretation of the NEEM basal ice build-up using a multi parametric approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goossens, T.; Sapart, C. J.; Dahl-Jensen, D.; Popp, T.; El Amri, S.; Tison, J. L.

    2015-10-01

    interpretative framework for the build-up of the NEEM basal ice sequence, based on the origin of the various ice types.

  3. Deposit buildup on prosthetic eyes and implications for conjunctival inflammation and mucoid discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pine KR

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Keith Raymond Pine,1 Brian Sloan,2 Robert John Jacobs11Department of Optometry and Vision Science, 2New Zealand National Eye Centre, The University of Auckland, Auckland, New ZealandBackground: The aim of this study was to investigate deposit buildup on prosthetic eyes and the implications for conjunctival inflammation and discharge.Methods: Forty-three prosthetic eye wearers participated in the study. Twenty-three had their prostheses polished normally before being worn continuously for 2 weeks. After this time, surface deposits were stained, photographed, and graded. The prostheses were then repolished to optical quality contact lens standard and worn for a further 2 weeks, when the deposits were again stained, photographed, and graded. Two participants had deposits on their prostheses stained, photographed, and graded on nine occasions at decreasing intervals ranging from 1 year to 1 day. Eighteen participants had the wetting angles on their prostheses measured with a goniometer before and after cleaning, after polishing normally, after polishing to optical quality contact lens standard, and after 10 minutes of wearing their optical quality contact lens polished prostheses. Concordance correlation, multiple regression, and paired t-tests were used for the statistical analysis.Results: More surface deposits accumulated on prostheses polished normally than on those polished to an optical quality contact lens standard after 2 weeks of wear. The interpalpebral zone of most prostheses (observed without magnification appeared to be clear of deposits. Removal of deposits significantly decreased surface wettability, but wettability returned after 10 minutes of wear. Optical quality contact lens polishing produced more wettable surfaces and a slower rate of deposit accumulation than normal polishing.Conclusion: We recommend that an optical quality contact lens standard be the minimum standard of finish for prosthetic eyes. This standard may assist the

  4. Deposit buildup on prosthetic eye material (in vitro and its effect on surface wettability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pine KR

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Keith Raymond Pine,1 Brian Sloan,2 KyuYeon Ivy Han,1 Simon Swift,3 Robert John Jacobs11Department of Optometry and Vision Science, New Zealand National Eye Centre, The University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand; 2New Zealand National Eye Centre, The University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand; 3Department of Molecular Medicine and Pathology, School of Medical Sciences, The University of Auckland, Auckland, New ZealandBackground: The aim of this in-vitro study was to investigate the effect of different polishing standards on prosthetic eye material (poly(methyl methacrylate [PMMA] on surface wettability and the rate of protein and lipid buildup.Methods: Sample disks (12 mm diameter × 1 mm thickness of PMMA were polished to three different standards of surface finish: low, normal, and optical quality contact lens standard. The sample disks were incubated in a protein-rich artificial tear solution (ATS for the following periods of time: 1 second, 30 minutes, 1 hour, 4 hours, 24 hours, and 14 days. Surface wettability was measured with a goniometer before and after protein deposits were removed. One-way analysis of variance and paired-samples t-test were used for the statistical analysis.Results: Between 13.64 and 62.88 µg of protein adhered to the sample disks immediately upon immersion in ATS. Sample disks with the highest polish attracted less protein deposits. The sample disks polished to optical quality contact lens standard were more wettable than those less highly polished, and wettability significantly decreased following removal of protein deposits. The addition of lipids to protein-only ATS made no difference to the amount of protein deposited on the sample disks for any of the standards of surface polish tested.Conclusion: The findings are consistent with the results of the in-vivo investigation reported previously by the authors. Our view that the minimum standard of polish for prosthetic eyes should be optical quality contact

  5. A comprehensive interpretation of the NEEM basal ice build-up using a multi parametric approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Goossens

    2015-10-01

    propose a first interpretative framework for the build-up of the NEEM basal ice sequence, based on the origin of the various ice types.

  6. Effects of salinity build-up on biomass characteristics and trace organic chemical removal: implications on the development of high retention membrane bioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Wenhai; Hai, Faisal I; Kang, Jinguo; Price, William E; Guo, Wenshan; Ngo, Hao H; Yamamoto, Kazuo; Nghiem, Long D

    2015-02-01

    This study investigated the impact of salinity build-up on the performance of membrane bioreactor (MBR), specifically in terms of the removal and fate of trace organic chemicals (TrOCs), nutrient removal, and biomass characteristics. Stepwise increase of the influent salinity, simulating salinity build-up in high retention MBRs, adversely affected the metabolic activity in the bioreactor, thereby reducing organic and nutrient removal. The removal of hydrophilic TrOCs by MBR decreased due to salinity build-up. By contrast, with the exception of 17α-ethynylestradiol, the removal of all hydrophobic TrOCs was not affected at high salinity. Moreover, salinity build-up had negligible impact on the residual accumulation of TrOCs in the sludge phase except for a few hydrophilic compounds. Additionally, the response of the biomass to salinity stress also dramatically enhanced the release of both soluble microbial products (SMP) and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), leading to severe membrane fouling.

  7. On scale and magnitude of pressure build-up induced by large-scale geologic storage of CO2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Q.; Birkholzer, J. T.

    2011-05-01

    The scale and magnitude of pressure perturbation and brine migration induced by geologic carbon sequestration is discussed assuming a full-scale deployment scenario in which enough CO{sub 2} is captured and stored to make relevant contributions to global climate change mitigation. In this scenario, the volumetric rates and cumulative volumes of CO{sub 2} injection would be comparable to or higher than those related to existing deep-subsurface injection and extraction activities, such as oil production. Large-scale pressure build-up in response to the injection may limit the dynamic storage capacity of suitable formations, because over-pressurization may fracture the caprock, may drive CO{sub 2}/brine leakage through localized pathways, and may cause induced seismicity. On the other hand, laterally extensive sedimentary basins may be less affected by such limitations because (i) local pressure effects are moderated by pressure propagation and brine displacement into regions far away from the CO{sub 2} storage domain; and (ii) diffuse and/or localized brine migration into overlying and underlying formations allows for pressure bleed-off in the vertical direction. A quick analytical estimate of the extent of pressure build-up induced by industrial-scale CO{sub 2} storage projects is presented. Also discussed are pressure perturbation and attenuation effects simulated for two representative sedimentary basins in the USA: the laterally extensive Illinois Basin and the partially compartmentalized southern San Joaquin Basin in California. These studies show that the limiting effect of pressure build-up on dynamic storage capacity is not as significant as suggested by Ehlig-Economides and Economides, who considered closed systems without any attenuation effects.

  8. Understanding the build-up of supermassive black holes and galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrera, Francisco; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Georgakakis, Antonis

    2016-07-01

    . The excellent survey capabilities of Athena/WFI (effective area, angular resolution, field of view) will allow to measure the incidence of feedback in the shape of warm absorbers and Ultra Fast Outflows among the general population of AGN, as well as to complete the census of black hole growth by detecting and characterising significant samples of the most heavily obscured (including Compton thick) AGN, to redshifts z~3-4. The outstanding spectral throughput and resolution of Athena/X-IFU will permit measuring the energetics of those outflows to assess their influence on their host galaxies. The demographics of the heavily obscured and outflowing populations relative to their hosts are fundamental for understanding how major black hole growth events relate to the build-up of galaxies.

  9. Simulation of Electron-Cloud Build-Up for the Cold Arcs of the LHC and Comparison with Measured Data

    CERN Document Server

    Maury Cuna, H; Rumolo, G; Tavian, L; Zimmermann, F

    2011-01-01

    The electron cloud generated by synchrotron radiation or residual gas ionization is a concern for LHC operation and performance. We report the results of simulations studies which examine the electron cloud build-up, at injection energy, 3.5 TeV for various operation parameters. In particular, we determine the value of the secondary emission yield corresponding to the multipacting threshold, and investigate the electron density, and heat as a function of bunch intensity for dipoles and field-free regions. We also include a comparison between simulations results and measured heat-load data from the LHC scrubbing runs in 2011.

  10. Study of Upper Albian rudist buildups in the Edwards Formation using ground-based hyperspectral imaging and terrestrial laser scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupnik, Diana; Khan, Shuhab; Okyay, Unal; Hartzell, Preston; Zhou, Hua-Wei

    2016-11-01

    Ground-based hyperspectral imaging is used for development of digital outcrop models which can facilitate detailed qualitative and quantitative sedimentological analysis and augment the study of depositional environment, diagenetic processes, and hydrocarbon reservoir characterization in areas which are physically inaccessible. For this investigation, ground-based hyperspectral imaging is combined with terrestrial laser scanning to produce mineralogical maps of Late Albian rudist buildups of the Edwards formation in the Lake Georgetown Spillway in Williamson County, Texas. The Edwards Formation consists of shallow water deposits of reef and associated interreef facies. It is an aquifer in western Texas and was investigated as a hydrocarbon play in south Texas. Hyperspectral data were registered to a geometrically accurate laser point cloud-generated mesh with sub-pixel accuracy and were used to map compositional variation by distinguishing spectral properties unique to each material. More calcitic flat-topped toucasid-rich bioherm facies were distinguished from overlying porous sucrosic dolostones, and peloid wackestones and packstones of back-reef facies. Ground truth was established by petrographic study of samples from this area. This research integrates high-resolution datasets to analyze geometrical and compositional properties of this carbonate formation at a finer scale than traditional methods have achieved and to model the geometry and composition of rudist buildups.

  11. The global build-up to intrinsic ELM bursts seen in divertor full flux loops in Jet

    CERN Document Server

    Chapman, S C; Todd, T N; Watkins, N W; Calderon, F A; Morris, J; Contributors, JET

    2015-01-01

    A global signature of the build-up to an intrinsic ELM is found in the phase of signals measured in full flux azimuthal loops in the divertor region of JET. Full flux loop signals provide a global measurement proportional to the voltage induced by changes in poloidal magnetic flux; they are electromagnetically induced by the dynamics of spatially integrated current density. We perform direct time-domain analysis of the high time-resolution full flux loop signals VLD2 and VLD3. We analyze plasmas where a steady H-mode is sustained over several seconds, during which all the observed ELMs are intrinsic; there is no deliberate intent to pace the ELMing process by external means. ELM occurrence times are determined from the Be II emission at the divertor. We previously found that the occurrence times of intrinsic ELMs correlate with specific phases of the VLD2 and VLD3 signals. Here, we investigate how the VLD2 and VLD3 phases vary with time in advance of the ELM occurrence time. We identify a build-up to the ELM ...

  12. Gamma-ray double-layered transmission exposure buildup factors of some engineering materials, a comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Kulwinder Singh; Heer, Manmohan Singh; Rani, Asha

    2016-08-01

    Comparative study on various deterministic methods and formulae of double layered transmission exposure buildup factors (DLEBF) for point isotropic gamma-ray sources has been performed and the results are provided here. This investigation has been performed on some commonly available engineering materials for the purpose of gamma-ray shielding. In reality, the presence of air around the gamma-ray shield motivated to focus this study on exposure buildup factor (EBF). DLEBF have been computed at four energies viz. 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 MeV for various combinations of the chosen five samples taken two at a time with combined optical thickness up to 8 mean free path (mfp). For the necessary computations for DLEBF, a computer program (BUF-toolkit) has been designed. Comparison of Monte Carlo (EGS4-code) and Geometric Progression (G.P.) fitting point kernel methods were done for DLEBF computation. It is concluded that empirical formula given by Lin and Jiang using EBF computed by G.P. fitting formula is the most accurate and easiest method for DLEBF computations. It was observed that DLEBF values at selected energies for two layered slabs with an orientation (low-Z material followed by high-Z material) were lower than the opposite orientation. For optical thickness up to 8 mfp and chosen energy range (0.5-3.0 MeV), Aluminum-Lime Stone shield, appears to provide the best protection against the gamma-rays.

  13. Endodontic treatment and esthetic management of a primary double tooth with direct composite using silicone buildup guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Vinaya Kumar; Ragavendra, T Raju; Deshmukh, Jeevanand; Vanka, Amit; Duddu, Mahesh Kumar; Patil, Anand Kumar G

    2012-04-01

    Gemination and fusion are morphological dental anomalies, characterized by the formation of a clinically wide tooth. Gemination occurs when one tooth bud tries to divide, while fusion occurs if two buds unite. The terms double teeth, double formation, conjoined teeth, geminifusion, vicinifusion and dental twinning are often used to describe fusion and gemination. Double teeth are associated with clinical problems such as poor esthetics, spacing problems and caries susceptibility. Management of such cases requires a comprehensive knowledge of the clinical entity as well as the problems associated with it. This report presents a case of primary double tooth in a 6-year-old boy involving maxillary left central incisor. The anomalous tooth was carious and pulpally involved. This was treated conservatively by endodontic treatment and esthetic rehabilitation was done with direct composite restoration using a silicone buildup guide. The treated tooth was followed up until exfoliation.

  14. Two-step build-up of a thermoreversible polymer network: From early local to late collective dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souguir, H; Ronsin, O; Caroli, C; Baumberger, T

    2015-04-01

    We probe the mechanisms at work in the build-up of thermoreversible gel networks, with the help of hybrid gelatin gels containing a controlled density of irreversible, covalent crosslinks (CLs), which we quench below the physical gelation temperature. The detailed analysis of the dependence on covalent crosslink density of both the shear modulus and optical activity evolutions with time after quench enables us to identify two stages of the physical gelation process, separated by a temperature-dependent crossover modulus: (i) an early nucleation regime during which rearrangements of the triple-helix CLs play a negligible role, and (ii) a late, logarithmic aging one, which is preserved, though slowed down, in the presence of irreversible CLs. We show that aging is fully controlled by rearrangements and discuss the implication of our results in terms of the switch from an early, local dynamics to a late, cooperative long-range one.

  15. Resonant laser power build-up in ALPS-A 'light shining through a wall' experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehret, Klaus [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestrasse 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Frede, Maik [Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V., Hollerithallee 8, D-30419 Hannover (Germany); Ghazaryan, Samvel [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestrasse 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Hildebrandt, Matthias [Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V., Hollerithallee 8, D-30419 Hannover (Germany); Knabbe, Ernst-Axel [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestrasse 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Kracht, Dietmar [Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V., Hollerithallee 8, D-30419 Hannover (Germany); Lindner, Axel, E-mail: axel.lindner@desy.d [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestrasse 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); List, Jenny [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestrasse 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Meier, Tobias [Max-Planck-Institute for Gravitational Physics, Albert-Einstein-Institute, and Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik, Leibniz Universitaet, Hannover, Callinstrasse 38, D-30167 Hannover (Germany); Meyer, Niels; Notz, Dieter; Redondo, Javier; Ringwald, Andreas [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestrasse 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Wiedemann, Guenter [Hamburger Sternwarte, Gojenbergsweg 112, D-21029 Hamburg (Germany); Willke, Benno [Max-Planck-Institute for Gravitational Physics, Albert-Einstein-Institute, and Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik, Leibniz Universitaet, Hannover, Callinstrasse 38, D-30167 Hannover (Germany)

    2009-12-21

    The ALPS Collaboration runs a 'light shining through a wall' (LSW) experiment to search for photon oscillations into 'weakly interacting sub-eV particles' (WISPs) inside of a superconducting HERA dipole magnet at the site of DESY. In this paper we report on the first successful integration of a large-scale optical resonant cavity to boost the available power for WISP production in this type of experiments. The key elements are a frequency tunable narrow line-width continuous wave laser acting as the primary light source and an electronic feed-back control loop to stabilize the power build-up. We describe and characterize our apparatus and demonstrate the data analysis procedures on the basis of a brief exemplary run.

  16. Endodontic treatment and esthetic management of a primary double tooth with direct composite using silicone buildup guide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinaya Kumar Kulkarni

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Gemination and fusion are morphological dental anomalies, characterized by the formation of a clinically wide tooth. Gemination occurs when one tooth bud tries to divide, while fusion occurs if two buds unite. The terms double teeth, double formation, conjoined teeth, geminifusion, vicinifusion and dental twinning are often used to describe fusion and gemination. Double teeth are associated with clinical problems such as poor esthetics, spacing problems and caries susceptibility. Management of such cases requires a comprehensive knowledge of the clinical entity as well as the problems associated with it. This report presents a case of primary double tooth in a 6-year-old boy involving maxillary left central incisor. The anomalous tooth was carious and pulpally involved. This was treated conservatively by endodontic treatment and esthetic rehabilitation was done with direct composite restoration using a silicone buildup guide. The treated tooth was followed up until exfoliation.

  17. Resonant laser power build-up in ALPS. A 'light-shining-through-walls' experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehret, Klaus; Ghazaryan, Samvel [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Frede, Maik [Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V. (DE)] (and others)

    2009-05-15

    The ALPS collaboration runs a light-shining-through-walls (LSW) experiment to search for photon oscillations into weakly interacting sub-eV particles (WISPs) inside of a superconducting HERA dipole magnet at the site of DESY. In this paper we report on the first successful integration of a large-scale optical cavity to boost the available power for WISP production in this type of experiments. The key elements are a frequency tunable narrow line-width continuous wave laser acting as the primary light source and an electronic feed-back control loop to stabilize the power build-up. We describe and characterize our apparatus and demonstrate the data analysis procedures on the basis of a brief exemplary run. (orig.)

  18. Note: Utilization of polymer gel as a bolus compensator and a dosimeter in the near-surface buildup region for breast-conserving therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuse, Hiraku, E-mail: fuseh@ipu.ac.jp; Inohira, Masaya; Kawamura, Hiraku; Fujisaki, Tatsuya [Department of Radiological Sciences, Ibaraki Prefectural University of Health Sciences, Inashiki-gun, Ibaraki 300-0331 (Japan); Shinoda, Kazuya [Graduate School of Radiological Sciences, Ibaraki Prefectural University of Health Sciences, Ibaraki (Japan); Department of Radiological Technology, Tsukuba Medical Center Hospital, Tsukuba (Japan); Miyamoto, Katsumi [Department of Radiological Technology, Tsukuba Medical Center Hospital, Tsukuba (Japan); Sakae, Takeji [Faculty of Medicine, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba (Japan)

    2015-09-15

    Tangential beam radiotherapy is routinely used for radiation therapy after breast conserving surgery. A tissue-equivalent bolus placed on the irradiated area shifts the depth of the dose distribution; this bolus provides uniform dose distribution to the breast. The gel bolus made by the BANG-Pro{sup ®} polymer gel and in an oxygen non-transmission pack was applicable as a dosimeter to measure dose distribution in near-surface buildup region. We validated the use of the gel bolus to improve in the whole-breast/chest wall, including the near-surface buildup region.

  19. A Comprehensive Study on Gamma-Ray Exposure Build-Up Factors and Fast Neutron Removal Cross Sections of Fly-Ash Bricks

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Geometric progression (GP) method was utilized to investigate gamma-ray exposure build-up factors of fly-ash bricks for energies from 0.015 to 15 MeV up to 40 mfp penetration depth. The EBFs of the fly-ash bricks are dependent upon the photon energy, penetration depths, and the chemical compositions of the elements. Appreciable variations in exposure build-up factor (EBF) are noted for the fly-ash bricks. The EBFs were found to be small in low and high photon energy regions whereas very large...

  20. Effect of the thermoplastic masks on dose distribution in the build-up region for photon beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Półtorak, Michał; Fujak, Edyta; Kukołowicz, Paweł

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of thermoplastic masks material (Klarity Medical&Equipment Co., Guangzhou, China) with different diameters of holes (ϕ 0.25 cm and ϕ 0.40 cm) on the dose distribution in the build-up region for photon beams. Measurements were made for external radiation beams produced by the linear accelerator (TrueBeam, Varian Medical Systems, Inc., Palo Alto, CA, USA) using the Markus parallel plane ionization chamber and the Unidos electrometer (both from PTW, Freiburg, Germany). Measurements were made in a solid water phantom for two photon energies 6 MV and 15 MV, at 90 cm source to skin distance, for four fields of 5 cm × 5 cm, 10 cm × 10 cm, 15 cm × 15 cm and 20 cm × 20 cm. Compared to the open field, the maximum dose with mask was closer to the surface of the phantom by about 1.4 mm and 1.2 mm for 6 MV and 15 MV X-Rays, respectively. The surface dose increase from 10% to 42% for 6 MV and from 5% to 28% for 15 MV X-Rays.

  1. On stress-forecasting strategy of earthquakes from stress buildup, stress shadow and stress transfer (SSS) based on numerical approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chunan Tang; Tianhui Ma; Xiaoli Ding

    2009-01-01

    Global Positioning System (GPS) and Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR), used for monitoring crust deformation, are found to be very promising in earthquake prediction subject to stress-forecasting. However, it is rec-ognized that unless we can give reasonable explanations of these curious precursory phenomena that continue to be seren-dipitously observed fi'om time to time, such high technology of GPS or InSAR is difficult to be efficiently used. Therefore, a proper model revealing the relation between earthquake evolution and stress variation, such as the phenomena of stress buildup, stress shadow and stress transfer (SSS), is crucial to the GPS or lnSAR based earthquake prediction. Here we ad-dress this question through a numerical approach of earthquake development using an intuitive physical model with a map-like configuration of discontinuous fault system. The simulation provides a physical basis for the principle of stress-forecasting of earthquakes based on SSS and for the application of GPS or InSAR in earthquake prediction. The ob-served SSS associated phenomena with images of stress distribution during the failure process can be continuously simulated. It is shown that the SSS are better indicators of earthquake precursors than that of seismic foreshocks, suggesting a predict-ability of earthquakes based on stress-forecasting strategy.

  2. Precipitation dominates fire occurrence in Greece (1900–2010: its dual role in fuel build-up and dryness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Xystrakis

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Historical fire records and meteorological observations spanning over one century (1894–2010, were assembled in a database to collect long-term fire and weather data in Greece. Positive/negative events of fire occurrence on an annual basis were considered the years where the annual values of the examined parameters were above (positive values or below (negative values the 95% confidence limits around the trend line of the corresponding parameter. To analyze the association of positive/negative events of fire occurrence and meteorological extremes, we proceeded with a cross-tabulation analysis based on a Monte Carlo randomization. Positive/negative values of total annual precipitation were randomly associated with the corresponding values of burned areas, and significant associations were observed for seasonal precipitation totals (spring and fire season. Fire season precipitation is the dominant factor coinciding with negative values of area burned, while years with high spring precipitation coincide with large burnt area burned. These results demonstrate the dual role of precipitation in controlling a fire's extent through fuel build-up and dryness. Additionally, there is a clear outperformance of precipitation-related against temperature-related weather variables revealing that, at least in Greece, fire spread is controlled by precipitation totals rather than air temperature.

  3. Multiwell CO2 injectivity: impact of boundary conditions and brine extraction on geologic CO2 storage efficiency and pressure buildup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Jason E; McKenna, Sean A; Dewers, Thomas A; Roach, Jesse D; Kobos, Peter H

    2014-01-21

    CO2 storage efficiency is a metric that expresses the portion of the pore space of a subsurface geologic formation that is available to store CO2. Estimates of storage efficiency for large-scale geologic CO2 storage depend on a variety of factors including geologic properties and operational design. These factors govern estimates on CO2 storage resources, the longevity of storage sites, and potential pressure buildup in storage reservoirs. This study employs numerical modeling to quantify CO2 injection well numbers, well spacing, and storage efficiency as a function of geologic formation properties, open-versus-closed boundary conditions, and injection with or without brine extraction. The set of modeling runs is important as it allows the comparison of controlling factors on CO2 storage efficiency. Brine extraction in closed domains can result in storage efficiencies that are similar to those of injection in open-boundary domains. Geomechanical constraints on downhole pressure at both injection and extraction wells lower CO2 storage efficiency as compared to the idealized scenario in which the same volumes of CO2 and brine are injected and extracted, respectively. Geomechanical constraints should be taken into account to avoid potential damage to the storage site.

  4. Study on γ-ray exposure buildup factors and fast neutron-shielding properties of some building materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vishwanath P.; Badiger, N. M.; El-Khayatt, A. M.

    2014-06-01

    We have computed γ-ray exposure buildup factors (EBF) of some building materials; glass, marble, flyash, cement, limestone, brick, plaster of paris (POP) and gypsum for energy 0.015-15 MeV up to 40 mfp (mfp, mean free path) penetration depth. Also, the macroscopic effective removal cross-sections (ΣR) for fast neutron were calculated. We discussed the dependency of EBF values on photon energy, penetration depth and chemical elements. The half-value layer and kinetic energy per unit mass relative to air of building materials were calculated for assessment of shielding effectiveness. Shielding thicknesses for glass, marble, flyash, cement, limestone and gypsum plaster (or Plaster of Paris, POP) were found comparable with ordinary concrete. Among the studied materials limestone and POP showed superior shielding properties for γ-ray and neutron, respectively. Radiation safety inside houses, schools and primary health centers for sheltering and annual dose can be assessed by the determination of shielding parameters of common building materials.

  5. Enhanced damage buildup in C{sup +}-implanted GaN film studied by a monoenergetic positron beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, X. F.; Chen, Z. Q., E-mail: chenzq@whu.edu.cn; Liu, C. [Department of Physics, Hubei Nuclear Solid Physics Key Laboratory, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Zhang, H. J.; Kawasuso, A. [Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 1233 Watanuki, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan)

    2015-02-28

    Wurtzite GaN films grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy were implanted with 280 keV C{sup +} ions to a dose of 6 × 10{sup 16 }cm{sup −2}. Vacancy-type defects in C{sup +}-implanted GaN were probed using a slow positron beam. The increase of Doppler broadening S parameter to a high value of 1.08–1.09 after implantation indicates introduction of very large vacancy clusters. Post-implantation annealing at temperatures up to 800 °C makes these vacancy clusters to agglomerate into microvoids. The vacancy clusters or microvoids show high thermal stability, and they are only partially removed after annealing up to 1000 °C. The other measurements such as X-ray diffraction, Raman scattering and Photoluminescence all indicate severe damage and even disordered structure induced by C{sup +}-implantation. The disordered lattice shows a partial recovery after annealing above 800 °C. Amorphous regions are observed by high resolution transmission electron microscopy measurement, which directly confirms that amorphization is induced by C{sup +}-implantation. The disordered GaN lattice is possibly due to special feature of carbon impurities, which enhance the damage buildup during implantation.

  6. Delayed build-up of Arctic ice sheets during 400, 000-year minima in insolation variability confirmed by Chinese loess

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Qingzhen; Wang, Luo; Oldfield, Frank; Peng, Shuzhen; Qin, Li; Song, Yang; Xu, Bing; Qiao, Yansong; Bloemendal, Jan; Guo, Zhengtang

    2014-05-01

    The growth and decay of the Northern Hemisphere ice volume led to alternations of glacial and interglacial climate. Unfortunately, long-term continuous records of ice-sheet variability in the Northern Hemisphere during the Quaternary period only are scarce because benthic δ18O records represent an integrated signal of changes in ice volume in both polar regions. However, variations in Northern Hemisphere ice sheets influence the Siberian High (an atmospheric pressure system), so variations in the East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM)—as recorded in the aeolian dust deposits on the Chinese Loess Plateau—can serve as a useful proxy of Arctic climate variability. Here we present an EAWM proxy record using grain-size variations in two parallel loess sections over the past 900 kyr to address the timing of build-up of Northern hemisphere ice sheets around 413 kyr mimina in eccentricity and precessional variability. These periods are regarded as the astronomical analogues of the present interglacial. The grain-size-inferred intensity of the EAWM records shows that the wind strength of EAWM increased rapidly after the end of most interglacials. However, during periods of low eccentricity and precessional variability around 400 kyr and 800 kyr ago, EAWM remains weak for up to 20 kyr after the end of the interglacial episodes MIS 11, MIS 19 and MIS 21. We conclude that the delayed increase in wind strength of the EAWM was caused by delayed buildup of Arctic ice sheets at the ends of the interglacials at 400 kyr intervals, which had led to much longer climate of interglacial mode at high northern latitudes than expected from the marine oxygen isotope records. During these times, the less severe summer insolation minima at 65° N (modulated by 413-kyr eccentricity cycles) would have suppressed ice and snow accumulation, leading to a weak Siberian High and, consequently, weak EAWM winds. Astronomically driven insolation during the present interglacial and in the near future is

  7. SU-E-T-492: Influence of Clipping PTV in Build-Up Region On IMRT Plan Quality and Deliverability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, S; Manigandan, D; Sahai, P; Biswas, A; Subramani, V; Chander, S; Julkha, P; Rath, G [Fortis Hospital, Mohali, Punjab (India)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To study the influence of clipping PTV from body contour on plan quality and deliverability in build-up region for superficial target. Methods: Five previously treated patients of post-operative carcinoma of parotid were re-planned for IMRT (6MV X-rays, sliding window technique, five fields and 60Gy/30 fractions) using eclipse treatment planning system (TPS) by keeping dose volume constraints and all other parameters constant, only PTV was clipped from body contour by 0mm, 1mm, 2mm and 3mm respectively. Planned fluence was transferred to previously scanned solid water phantom by placing I’matriXX array at 0.5cm depth (2mm slab+3mm inherent). Fluence was delivered by Varian CL2300C/D linac at 99.5cm source to detector distance. Measured fluence was compared with TPS dose plane using 2D gamma evaluation using 3%/3mm DTA criteria. Total MU (monitor unit) required to deliver a plan was also noted. For plan quality, PTV, maximum-dose, minimum-dose, coverage index (CI=PTV volume covered by prescription dose/PTV) and heterogeneity index HI=D5/D95 were analyzed using dose volume histogram (DVH). Results: The Result of gamma function analysis for I’matriXX and TPS were 97.63±1.79%, 97.48±0.99, 98.08±0.89% and 98.01±0.78% at 0.5cm build-up depth for 0, 1, 2 and 3mm PTV clipping, respectively. I’matriXX measured dose was higher compared to TPS. Total MU required for delivering a plan were 552±61, 503±47, 436±24 and 407±22. Maximum-dose to PTV was 6635.80±62.01cGy, 6635.80±40.60cGy, 6608.43±51.07cGy and 6564.20±28.51cGy. Similarly, minimum-dose to PTV was 3306.23±458.56cGy, 3546.57±721.01cGy, 4591.43±298.81cGy and 4861.90±412.40cGy. CI was 0.9347±0.020, 0.9398±0.021, 0.9448±0.022 and 0.9481±0.021. Similarly, HI was 1.089±0.015, 1.084±0.014, 1.078±0.009 and 1.074±0.008 for 0, 1, 2 and 3mm PTV clipping, respectively. Conclusion: Gamma function analysis resulted in almost similar results. However, I’matriXX was overestimating the dose

  8. Together, slowly but surely: the role of social interaction and feedback in the build-up of benefit in collective decision-making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahrami, Bahador; Olsen, Karsten; Bang, Dan;

    2011-01-01

    were robust and statistically indistinguishable. Taken together, this work demonstrates that social interaction was necessary for build-up of reliable collaborative benefit, whereas objective reference only accelerated the process but-given enough opportunity for practice-was not necessary for building......That objective reference is necessary for formation of reliable beliefs about the external world is almost axiomatic. However, Condorcet (1785) suggested that purely subjective information-if shared and combined via social interaction-is enough for accurate understanding of the external world. We...... asked if social interaction and objective reference contribute differently to the formation and build-up of collective perceptual beliefs. In three experiments, dyads made individual and collective perceptual decisions in a two-interval, forced-choice, visual search task. In Experiment 1, participants...

  9. Artifacts in time-resolved NUS: A case study of NOE build-up curves from 2D NOESY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dass, Rupashree; Kasprzak, Paweł; Koźmiński, Wiktor; Kazimierczuk, Krzysztof

    2016-04-01

    Multidimensional NMR spectroscopy requires time-consuming sampling of indirect dimensions and so is usually used to study stable samples. However, dynamically changing compounds or their mixtures commonly occur in problems of natural science. Monitoring them requires the use multidimensional NMR in a time-resolved manner - in other words, a series of quick spectra must be acquired at different points in time. Among the many solutions that have been proposed to achieve this goal, time-resolved non-uniform sampling (TR-NUS) is one of the simplest. In a TR-NUS experiment, the signal is sampled using a shuffled random schedule and then divided into overlapping subsets. These subsets are then processed using one of the NUS reconstruction methods, for example compressed sensing (CS). The resulting stack of spectra forms a temporal "pseudo-dimension" that shows the changes caused by the process occurring in the sample. CS enables the use of small subsets of data, which minimizes the averaging of the effects studied. Yet, even within these limited timeframes, the sample undergoes certain changes. In this paper we discuss the effect of varying signal amplitude in a TR-NUS experiment. Our theoretical calculations show that the variations within the subsets lead to t1 -noise, which is dependent on the rate of change of the signal amplitude. We verify these predictions experimentally. As a model case we choose a novel 2D TR-NOESY experiment in which mixing time is varied in parallel with shuffled NUS in the indirect dimension. The experiment, performed on a sample of strychnine, provides a near-continuous NOE build-up curve, whose shape closely reflects the t1 -noise level. 2D TR-NOESY reduces the measurement time compared to the conventional approach and makes it possible to verify the theoretical predictions about signal variations during TR-NUS.

  10. The global build-up to intrinsic ELM bursts and comparison with pellet triggered ELMs seen in JET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, S. C.; Dendy, R. O.; Lang, P. T.; Watkins, N. W.; Calderon, F. A.; Romanelli, M.; Todd, T. N.; Contributors, JET

    2017-02-01

    We focus on JET plasmas in which ELMs are triggered by pellets in the presence of ELMs which occur naturally. We perform direct time domain analysis of signals from fast radial field coils and toroidal full flux azimuthal loops. These toroidally integrating signals provide simultaneous high time resolution measurements of global plasma dynamics and its coupling to the control system. We examine the time dynamics of these signals in plasmas where pellet injection is used to trigger ELMs in the presence of naturally occurring ELMs. Pellets whose size and speed are intended to provide maximum local perturbation for ELM triggering are launched at pre-programmed times, without correlation to the occurrence times of intrinsic ELMs. Pellet rates were sufficiently low to prevent sustained changes of the underlying plasma conditions and natural ELM behaviour. We find a global signature of the build-up to natural ELMs in the temporal analytic phase of both the full flux loops and fast radial field coil signals. Before a natural ELM, the signal phases align to the same value on a ˜ 2-5 ms timescale. This global build up to a natural ELM occurs whilst the amplitude of the full flux loop and fast radial field coil signals are at their background value: it precedes the response seen in these signals to the onset of ELMing. In contrast these signals do not clearly phase align before the ELM for ELMs which are the first to occur following pellet injection. This provides a direct test that can distinguish when an ELM is triggered by a pellet as opposed to occurring naturally. It further supports the idea [1-4] of a global build up phase that precedes natural ELMs; pellets can trigger ELMs even when the signal phase is at a value when a natural ELM is unlikely to occur.

  11. The role of convection in the buildup of the ring current pressure during the 17 March 2013 storm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menz, A. M.; Kistler, L. M.; Mouikis, C. G.; Spence, H. E.; Skoug, R. M.; Funsten, H. O.; Larsen, B. A.; Mitchell, D. G.; Gkioulidou, M.

    2017-01-01

    On 17 March 2013, the Van Allen Probes measured the H+ and O+ fluxes of the ring current during a large geomagnetic storm. Detailed examination of the pressure buildup during the storm shows large differences in the pressure measured by the two spacecraft, with measurements separated by only an hour, and large differences in the pressure measured at different local times. In addition, while the H+ and O+ pressure contributions are about equal during the main phase in the near-Earth plasma sheet outside L = 5.5, the O+ pressure dominates at lower L values. We test whether adiabatic convective transport from the near-Earth plasma sheet (L > 5.5) to the inner magnetosphere can explain these observations by comparing the observed inner magnetospheric distributions with the source distribution at constant magnetic moment, mu. We find that adiabatic convection can account for the enhanced pressure observed during the storm. Using a Weimer 1996 electric field we model the drift trajectories to show that the key features can be explained by variation in the near-Earth plasma sheet population and particle access that changes with energy and L shell. Finally, we show that the dominance of O+ at low L shells is due partly to a near-Earth plasma sheet that is preferentially enhanced in O+ at lower energies (5-10 keV) and partly due to the time dependence in the source combined with longer drift times to low L shells. No source of O+ inside L = 5.5 is required to explain the observations at low L shells.

  12. Study of the Porosity in Plasma-Sprayed Alumina through an Innovative Three-Dimensional Simulation of the Coating Buildup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauvais, S.; Guipont, V.; Jeandin, M.; Jeulin, D.; Robisson, A.; Saenger, R.

    2008-11-01

    Porosity is a key feature of a thermally sprayed coating microstructure. Within ceramic coatings, porosity is made of pores and cracks of various shapes, dimensions, and orientations. Cracks can be intralamellar or interlamellar due to the buildup of the coating, which leads to piled-up lamellae from impinging and the additional rapid solidification of liquid droplets. Pores are interconnected with cracks, which results in a three-dimensional (3-D) porosity network. Direct observation of this network is an intricate task and current attempts remain somewhat limited. A 3-D simulation of this network was, therefore, developed in this work, based on a stochastic approach to the building up of simulated lamellae in the sprayed microstructure. A library of mathematical objects was achieved from morphological measurements, using confocal microscopy of actual isolated flattened lamellae, i.e., “splats” and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). This stochastic approach to the simulation of hundreds of lamellae also involves the random distribution of cracks and pores. Simulation fit parameters were selected according to the overall characteristics of porosity ( i.e., content, orientation, size, etc.) that were determined from the thorough quantitative image analysis (QIA) of cross-sectioned plasma-sprayed alumina coatings. Two plasma modes that varied the atmosphere in a controlled-atmosphere plasma spraying (CAPS) chamber were applied, to produce the microstructures of two different alumina coatings. The 3-D random modeling tool allowed the processing of a volume of digital material through a 3-D simulated binary image of a two-phased composite material. Using one 3-D image result of the simulation, finite element (FE) calculations were performed, in order to study the overall dielectric properties of a plasma-sprayed alumina as a function of porosity. The influence of anisotropy is discussed, in particular, and both analytical and numerical predicted values were

  13. Surface and buildup region dose measurements with Markus parallel-plate ionization chamber, Gafchromic EBT3 film and MOSFET detector for high energy photon beams

    CERN Document Server

    Akbas, Ugur; Koksal, Canan; Bilge, Hatice

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate surface and buildup region doses for 6 MV photon beams using a Markus parallel-plate ionization chamber, GafChromic EBT3 film and MOSFET detector for different field sizes and beam angles. The measurements were made in a water equivalent solid phantom at the surface and in the buildup region of the 6 MV photon beams at 100 cm source-detector distance (SDD) for 5x5, 10x10 and 20x20 cm2 field sizes and 0, 30, 60, 80 and 90 beam angles. The surface doses for 10x10 cm2 field size were found to be 20.33%, 18.80% and 25.48% for Markus chamber, EBT3 film and MOSFET detector, respectively. The surface dose increased with field size for all dosimeters. As the angle of the incident radiation beam became more oblique, the surface dose increased. The effective measurement depths of dosimeters vary, thus the results of the measurements could be different. This issue can lead to mistakes at surface and buildup dosimetry, and must be taken into account.

  14. Comparative evaluation of shear bond strength of three resin based dual-cure core build-up materials: An In-vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Jain

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The in-vitro study compared the shear bond strength (SBS of three recently introduced dual-cure resin based core build-up materials namely ParaCore, FluoroCore, and MultiCore. Materials and Methods: One hundred twenty extracted permanent human mandibular molar teeth were taken and sectioned horizontally beneath the dentinoenamel junction to expose the coronal dentin. The specimens obtained were divided into three main groups based on the materials used and then further divided into four sub-groups based on time interval with ten samples each. The dentin surface was treated with the respective adhesives of the groups and then bulk filled with core build-up materials. The attained samples were than subjected to shear loading in Instron Universal Testing Machine. The data were tabulated and statistically analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA, Tukey′s HSD, and Levene′s test. Results: The mean SBS was highest in MultiCore at all time periods as compared to FluoroCore and ParaCore and was also higher at 48 h thermocycling in all three groups studied. Conclusion: MultiCore dual-cure resin based core build-up material showed the highest mean SBS as compared to FluoroCore and ParaCore. SBS was not negatively affected by thermocycling.

  15. Determination of effective atomic numbers, effective electrons numbers, total atomic cross-sections and buildup factor of some compounds for different radiation sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levet, A.; Özdemir, Y.

    2017-01-01

    The photon interaction parameters such as mass attenuation coefficient, effective atomic number, effective electron density, buildup factor have been measured for Fe(NO3)3, V4O2, NaCO3·H2O, C6H5FeO7·H2O and CuCI compounds using 137Ba, 157Gd and 241Am γ-rays sources in stable geometry. The mass attenuation coefficients have been determined experimentally via Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy (EDXRF) system and theoretically by using WinXCom computer program. Then, effective atomic numbers, Zeff, and electron densities, Neff, have been calculated by using the mass attenuation coefficients. The obtained values of effective atomic numbers have been compared with the ones calculated according to a different approach proposed by Hine and the calculated ones from theory. Also, photon buildup factors were obtained by changing collimator diameters in the different photon energies. We observed that the buildup factor increased as the collimator diameter increased for all sources used.

  16. A comprehensive interpretation of the NEEM basal ice build-up using a multi-parametric approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goossens, Thomas; Sapart, Célia J.; Dahl-Jensen, Dorthe; Popp, Trevor; El Amri, Saïda; Tison, Jean-Louis

    2016-03-01

    stratified debris-rich layers and the ice containing dispersed debris layers respectively express an "open" or "closed" system melting/refreezing signature, somewhat blurred by mixing processes in the upper part of the sequence. Climatic reconstruction is therefore prohibited from these ice types. We propose a first interpretative framework for the build-up of the NEEM basal ice sequence, based on the origin of the various ice types.

  17. Eumelanin buildup on the nanoscale: aggregate growth/assembly and visible absorption development in biomimetic 5,6-dihydroxyindole polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzillo, Marianna; Mangiapia, Gaetano; Pezzella, Alessandro; Heenan, Richard K; Radulescu, Aurel; Paduano, Luigi; d'Ischia, Marco

    2012-08-13

    Establishing structure-property relationships in the black insoluble eumelanins, the key determinants of human pigmentation and skin photoprotective system, is a considerable conceptual and experimental challenge in the current drive for elucidation of the biological roles of these biopolymers and their application as advanced materials for organoelectronics. Herein, we report a new breakthrough toward this goal by the first detailed investigation on the nanoscale level of the oxidative polymerization of 5,6-dihydroxyindole (DHI), a model process of eumelanin synthesis. On the basis of a combined use of spectrophotometry, dynamic light scattering (DLS), and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) investigations, it was possible to unveil the dynamics of the aggregation process before precipitation, the key relationships with visible light absorption and the shape of fundamental aggregates. The results indicated a polymerization mechanism of the type: Polymer(n) + DHI(x) = Polymer(n+x), where DHI(x) indicates monomer, dimer, or low oligomers (x ≤ 5). During polymerization, visible absorption increases rapidly, reaching a plateau. Particle growth proceeds slowly, with formation of 2-D structures ~55 nm thick, until precipitation occurs, that is, when large aggregates with a maximum hydrodynamic radius (R(h)) of ~1200 nm are formed. Notably, markedly smaller R(h) values, up to ~110 nm, were determined in the presence of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) that was shown to be an efficient aggregation-preventing agent for polymerizing DHI ensuring water solubilization. Finally, it is shown that DHI monomer can be efficiently and partially irreversibly depleted from aqueous solutions by the addition of eumelanin suspensions. This behavior is suggested to reflect oxidant-independent competing pathways of polymer synthesis and buildup via monomer conversion on the active aggregate surface contributing to particle growth. Besides filling crucial gaps in DHI polymerization, these

  18. Precipitation dominates fire occurrence in Greece (1900-2010): its dual role in fuel build-up and dryness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xystrakis, F.; Kallimanis, A. S.; Dimopoulos, P.; Halley, J. M.; Koutsias, N.

    2014-01-01

    Historical fire records and meteorological observations spanning over one century (1894-2010) were assembled in a database to collect long-term fire and weather data in Greece. Positive/negative events of fire occurrence on an annual basis were considered as the years where the annual values of the examined parameters were above (positive values) or below (negative values) the 95% confidence limits around the trend line of the corresponding parameter. To analyse the association of positive/negative events of fire occurrence with meteorological extremes, we proceeded with a cross-tabulation analysis based on a Monte Carlo randomization. Positive/negative values of total annual precipitation were randomly associated with the corresponding values of burned areas, and significant associations were observed for seasonal precipitation totals (spring and fire season). Fire season precipitation is the dominant factor coinciding with negative values of area burned, while years with high spring precipitation coincide with years with large areas burned. These results demonstrate the dual role of precipitation in controlling a fire's extent through fuel build-up and dryness. Additionally, there is a clear outperformance of precipitation-related variables compared with temperature-related weather revealing that, at least in Greece, total area burned at the national scale is controlled by precipitation totals rather than air temperature. This analysis improves our understanding of the underlying mechanisms of fire regimes and provides valuable information concerning the development of models relating fire activity to weather parameters, which are essential when facing a changing climate that may be associated with shifts in various aspects of the typical fire regimes of ecosystems. Our results may allow fire managers to more easily incorporate the effect of extreme weather conditions into long-term planning strategies. They contribute to the exploration of fire

  19. Surface and Buildup Region Dose Measurements with Markus Parallel-Plate Ionization Chamber, GafChromic EBT3 Film, and MOSFET Detector for High-Energy Photon Beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugur Akbas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate surface and buildup region doses for 6 MV and 15 MV photon beams using a Markus parallel-plate ionization chamber, GafChromic EBT3 film, and MOSFET detector for different field sizes and beam angles. The measurements were made in a water equivalent solid phantom at the surface and in the buildup region of the 6 MV and 15 MV photon beams at 100 cm source-detector distance for 5 × 5, 10 × 10, and 20 × 20 cm2 field sizes and 0°, 30°, 60°, and 80° beam angles. The surface doses using 6 MV photon beams for 10 × 10 cm2 field size were found to be 20.3%, 18.8%, and 25.5% for Markus chamber, EBT3 film, and MOSFET detector, respectively. The surface doses using 15 MV photon beams for 10 × 10 cm2 field size were found to be 14.9%, 13.4%, and 16.4% for Markus chamber, EBT3 film, and MOSFET detector, respectively. The surface dose increased with field size for all dosimeters. As the angle of the incident radiation beam became more oblique, the surface dose increased. The effective measurement depths of dosimeters vary; thus, the results of the measurements could be different. This issue can lead to mistakes at surface and buildup dosimetry and must be taken into account.

  20. Dynamics of the North American Ice Sheet Complex during its inception and build-up to the Last Glacial Maximum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Chris R.; Tarasov, Lev; Dyke, Arthur S.

    2012-09-01

    The North American Ice Sheet Complex played a major role in global sea level fluctuations during the Late Quaternary but our knowledge of its dynamics is based mostly on its demise from the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), a period characterised by non-linear behaviour in the form of punctuated ice margin recession, episodic ice streaming and major shifts in the location of ice divides. In comparison, knowledge of the pre-LGM ice complex is poorly constrained, largely because of the fragmentary nature of the evidence relating to ice sheet build-up. In this paper, we explore the inception and growth of ice (120-20 ka) using a glacial systems model which has been calibrated against a large and diverse set of data relating to the deglacial interval. We make use of calibration data prior to the LGM but its scarcity introduces greater uncertainty, which is partly alleviated by our large ensemble analysis. Results suggest that, following the last interglaciation (Oxygen Isotope Stage: OIS 5e), the ice complex initiated over the north-eastern Canadian Arctic and in the Cordillera within a few thousand years. It then underwent rapid growth to an OIS 5 maximum at ˜110 ka (5d) and covered ˜70% of the area occupied by the LGM ice cover (although only 30% by volume). An OIS 5 minimum is modelled at ˜80 ka (5a), before a second phase of rapid growth at the start of OIS 4, which culminated in a large ice complex at ˜65 ka (almost as large as at the LGM). Subsequent deglaciation was rapid (maximum modelled sea level contribution of >16 cm per century) and resulted in an OIS 3 minimum between ca 55-60 ka. Thereafter, the ice complex grew towards its LGM configuration, interrupted by several phases of successively less significant mass loss. Our results support and extend previous inferences based on geological evidence and reinforce the notion of a highly dynamic pre-LGM ice complex (e.g. with episodes of ±10 s m of eustatic sea level equivalent in ice increases towards the LGM

  1. Effect of Er:YAG laser pretreatment on bond strength of a composite core build-up material to fiber posts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Križnar, Igor; Jevnikar, Peter; Fidler, Aleš

    2015-02-01

    The study evaluated the micro push-out bond strength of resin material (Multicore Flow) to two types of fiber posts (FP), namely fiber-reinforced composite (FRC) Postec and Radix Fiber posts using Er:YAG laser pretreatment. FP were divided into four groups, two being control groups. Before the core build-up procedure, representative specimens from each group were chosen to determine the surface roughness (Ra) at three different areas using a contact profilometer, while after the procedure, 1.5-mm-thick discs were sectioned and the micro push-out method was used to assess the bond strength of the core build-up material to the fiber post in each group. Two-way analysis of variance was used for statistical analysis with the level of significance set at p Er:YAG laser pretreatment and to classify the failure mode after loading. The type of pretreatment (p Er:YAG laser pretreatment group was significantly lower compared to the FRC Postec posts control group (p Er:YAG laser pretreatment groups were significantly higher compared to control groups (p Er:YAG laser pretreatment at tested parameters negatively affected the bond strength of Multicore to FP and cannot be recommended as a standard procedure.

  2. Suspension-firing of wood with coal ash addition: Probe measurements of ash deposit build-up at Avedøre Power Plant (AVV2)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shafique Bashir, Muhammad; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Jappe Frandsen, Flemming;

    This report is about full-scale probe measurements of deposit build-up and removal conducted at the Avedøreværket Unit 2, a 800 MWth suspension boiler, firing wood and natural gas with the addition of coal ash. Coal ash was used as an additive to capture potassium (K) from wood-firing. Investigat......This report is about full-scale probe measurements of deposit build-up and removal conducted at the Avedøreværket Unit 2, a 800 MWth suspension boiler, firing wood and natural gas with the addition of coal ash. Coal ash was used as an additive to capture potassium (K) from wood......-firing. Investigations of deposit formation rate were made by use of an advanced online ash deposition/shedding probe. Quantification of ash deposition and shedding was made via deposit mass uptake signals obtained from the deposit probe. The influence of coal ash, flue gas temperature, probe surface temperature...... and boiler load on ash deposition propensity was investigated. Results of ash deposition propensity showed increasing trend with increasing flue gas temperature. Video monitoring revealed that the deposits formed were not sticky and could be easily removed, and even at very high flue gas temperatures (> 1350...

  3. A Comprehensive Study on Gamma-Ray Exposure Build-Up Factors and Fast Neutron Removal Cross Sections of Fly-Ash Bricks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishwanath P. Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Geometric progression (GP method was utilized to investigate gamma-ray exposure build-up factors of fly-ash bricks for energies from 0.015 to 15 MeV up to 40 mfp penetration depth. The EBFs of the fly-ash bricks are dependent upon the photon energy, penetration depths, and the chemical compositions of the elements. Appreciable variations in exposure build-up factor (EBF are noted for the fly-ash bricks. The EBFs were found to be small in low and high photon energy regions whereas very large in medium energy region. EBF of the bricks is inversely proportional to equivalent atomic number below 10 mfp for entire energy region of interest 0.015 to 15 MeV. The EBFs of fly-ash, brick of mud, and common brick were similar at 1.5 MeV photon energy. The EBF of the fly-ash bricks was found to be higher than that of the brick of mud, and common brick. The fast neutron removal cross sections of the fly-ash bricks, brick of mud, and common bricks were also calculated which were found to be in the same order. It is expected that this study should be very directly useful for shielding effectiveness of fly-ash brick materials and dose estimation.

  4. Comparative evaluation of microleakage in Class II restorations using open vs. closed centripetal build-up techniques with different lining materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shefali Sawani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Evaluation of microleakage is important for assessing the success of new restorative materials and methods. Aim and Objectives: Comparative evaluation of microleakage in Class II restorations using open vs. closed centripetal build-up techniques with different lining materials. Materials and Methods: Standardized mesi-occlusal (MO and distoocclusal (DO Class II tooth preparations were preparedon 53 molars and samples were randomly divided into six experimental groups and one control group for restorations. Group 1: Open-Sandwich technique (OST with flowable composite at the gingival seat. Group 2: OST with resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC at the gingival seat. Group 3: Closed-Sandwich technique (CST with flowable composite at the pulpal floor and axial wall. Group 4: CST with RMGIC at the pulpal floor and axial wall. Group 5: OST with flowable composite at the pulpal floor, axial wall, and gingival seat. Group 6: OST with RMGIC at the pulpal floor, axial wall, and gingival seat. Group 7: Control - no lining material, centripetal technique only. After restorations and thermocycling, apices were sealed and samples were immersed in 0.5% basic fuchsin dye. Sectioning was followed by stereomicroscopic evaluation. Results: Results were analyzed using Post Hoc Bonferroni test (statistics is not a form of tabulation. Cervical scores of control were more than the exprimental groups (P 0.05. Conclusion: Class II composite restorations with centripetal build-up alone or when placed with CST reduces the cervical microleakage when compared to OST.

  5. Lepton contamination and photon scatter produced by open field 18 MV X-ray beams in the build-up region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butson, M.J. E-mail: mbutson@guessmail.com; Cheung Tsang; Yu, P.K.N

    2002-04-01

    18 MV X-ray beams used in radiotherapy have skin sparing properties as they produce a dose build-up effect whereby a smaller dose is delivered to the skin compared to dose at depth. Experimental results have shown that variations in the build-up dose significantly contribute to lepton contamination produced outside of the patient or the phantom in question. Monte Carlo simulations of 18 MV X-ray beams show that the surface dose contribution from in-phantom scatter alone is approximately 6% of the maximum dose. The contribution to dose from lepton contamination is found by comparison of Monte Carlo phantom photon scatter dose only and experimental data. Results show that the percentage contributions to dose from lepton contamination are approximately, 65%, 90% of dose at 0.05 mm (basal cell layer), 52%, 79% at 1 mm depth (dermal layer) and 15%, 26% at 10 mm depth (subcutaneous tissue) for 10 cmx10 cm{sup 2} and 40 cmx40 cm{sup 2} fields, respectively.

  6. Characterization of 2 MeV, 4 MeV, 6 MeV and 18 MeV buildup caps for use with a 0.6 cubic centimeter thimble ionization chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salyer, R.L.; VanDenburg, J.W.; Prinja, A.K.; Kirby, T.; Busch, R. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hong-Nian Jow [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-07-01

    The purpose of this research is to characterize existing 2 MeV, 4 MeV and 6 MeV buildup caps, and to determine if a buildup cap can be made for the 0.6 cm{sup 3} thimble ionization chamber that will accurately measure exposures in a high-energy photon radiation field. Two different radiation transport codes were used to computationally characterize existing 2 MeV, 4 MeV, and 6 MeV buildup caps for a 0.6 cm{sup 3} active volume thimble ionization chamber: ITS, The Integrated TIGER Series of Coupled Electron-Photon Monte Carlo Transport Codes; and CEPXS/ONEDANT, A One-Dimensional Coupled Electron-Photon Discrete Ordinates Code Package. These codes were also used to determine the design characteristics of a buildup cap for use in the 18 MeV photon beam produced by the 14 TW pulsed power HERMES-III electron accelerator. The maximum range of the secondary electron, the depth at which maximum dose occurs, and the point where dose and collision kerma are equal have been determined to establish the validity of electronic equilibrium. The ionization chamber with the appropriate buildup cap was then subjected to a 4 MeV and a 6 MeV bremmstrahlung radiation spectrum to determine the detector response.

  7. Effects of salinity build-up on the performance of an anaerobic membrane bioreactor regarding basic water quality parameters and removal of trace organic contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiaoye; McDonald, James; Price, William E; Khan, Stuart J; Hai, Faisal I; Ngo, Hao H; Guo, Wenshan; Nghiem, Long D

    2016-09-01

    The effects of elevated inorganic salt concentration on anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) treatment regarding basic biological performance and trace organic contaminant (TrOC) removal were investigated. A set of 33 TrOCs were selected to represent pharmaceuticals, steroids, and pesticides in municipal wastewater. Results show potential adverse effects of increase in the bioreactor salinity to 15g/L (as NaCl) on the performance of AnMBR with respect to chemical oxygen demand removal, biogas production, and the removal of most hydrophilic TrOCs. Furthermore, a decrease in biomass production was observed as salinity in the bioreactor increased. The removal of most hydrophobic TrOCs was high and was not significantly affected by salinity build-up in the bioreactor. The accumulation of a few persistent TrOCs in the sludge phase was observed, but such accumulation did not vary significantly as salinity in the bioreactor increased.

  8. Variation of energy absorption and exposure buildup factors with incident photon energy and penetration depth for boro-tellurite (B2O3-TeO2) glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayyed, M. I.; Elhouichet, H.

    2017-01-01

    The gamma ray energy absorption (EABF) and exposure buildup factors (EBF) of (100-x)TeO2-xB2O3 glass systems (where x=5, 10, 15, 20, 22.5 and 25 mol%) have been calculated in the energy region 0.015-15 MeV up to a penetration depth of 40 mfp (mean free path). The five parameters (G-P) fitting method has been used to estimate both EABF and EBF values. Variations of EABF and EBF with incident photon energy and penetration depth have been studied. It was found that EABF and EBF values were higher in the intermediate energy region, for all the glass systems. Furthermore, boro-tellurite glass with 5 mol% B2O3, was found to present the lowest EABF and EBF values, hence it is superior gamma-ray shielding material. The results indicate that the boro-tellurite glasses can be used as radiation shielding materials.

  9. Study of the effect of external heating and internal temperature build-up during polymerization on the morphology of porous polymethacrylate adsorbent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Chan Yi, E-mail: vicchanyiwei@hotmail.com; Ongkudon, Clarence M., E-mail: clarence@ums.edu.my; Kansil, Tamar, E-mail: tamarkansil87@gmail.com [Biotechnology Research Institute, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Jalan UMS, 88400 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah (Malaysia)

    2015-07-22

    Modern day synthesis protocols of methacrylate monolithic polymer adsorbent are based on existing polymerization blueprint without a thorough understanding of the dynamics of pore structure and formation. This has resulted in unproductiveness of polymer adsorbent consequently affecting purity and recovery of final product, productivity, retention time and cost effectiveness of the whole process. The problems magnified in monolith scaling-up where internal heat buildup resulting from external heating and high exothermic polymerization reaction was reflected in cracking of the adsorbent. We believe that through careful and precise control of the polymerization kinetics and parameters, it is possible to prepare macroporous methacrylate monolithic adsorbents with controlled pore structures despite being carried out in an unstirred mould. This research involved the study of the effect of scaling-up on pore morphology of monolith, in other words, porous polymethacrylate adsorbents that were prepared via bulk free radical polymerization process by imaging the porous morphology of polymethacrylate with scanning electron microscope.

  10. The influence of modified water chemistries on metal oxide films, activity build-up and stress corrosion cracking of structural materials in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maekelae, K.; Laitinen, T.; Bojinov, M. [VTT Manufacturing Technology, Espoo (Finland)

    1999-03-01

    The primary coolant oxidises the surfaces of construction materials in nuclear power plants. The properties of the oxide films influence significantly the extent of incorporation of actuated corrosion products into the primary circuit surfaces, which may cause additional occupational doses for the maintenance personnel. The physical and chemical properties of the oxide films play also an important role in different forms of corrosion observed in power plants. This report gives a short overview of the factors influencing activity build-up and corrosion phenomena in nuclear power plants. Furthermore, the most recent modifications in the water chemistry to decrease these risks are discussed. A special focus is put on zinc water chemistry, and a preliminary discussion on the mechanism via which zinc influences activity build-up is presented. Even though the exact mechanisms by which zinc acts are not yet known, it is assumed that Zn may block the diffusion paths within the oxide film. This reduces ion transport through the oxide films leading to a reduced rate of oxide growth. Simultaneously the number of available adsorption sites for {sup 60}Co is also reduced. The current models for stress corrosion cracking assume that the anodic and the respective cathodic reactions contributing to crack growth occur partly on or in the oxide films. The rates of these reactions may control the crack propagation rate and therefore, the properties of the oxide films play a crucial role in determining the susceptibility of the material to stress corrosion cracking. Finally, attention is paid also on the novel techniques which can be used to mitigate the susceptibility of construction materials to stress corrosion cracking. (orig.) 127 refs.

  11. Study of Diagenetic Features in Rudist Buildups of Cretaceous Edwards Formation Using Ground Based Hyperspectral Scanning and Terrestrial LiDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupnik, D.; Khan, S.; Okyay, U.; Hartzell, P. J.; Biber, K.

    2015-12-01

    Ground based remote sensing is a novel technique for development of digital outcrop models which can be instrumental in performing detailed qualitative and quantitative sedimentological analysis for the study of depositional environment, diagenetic processes, and hydrocarbon reservoir characterization. For this investigation, ground-based hyperspectral data collection is combined with terrestrial LiDAR to study outcrops of Late Albian rudist buildups of the Edwards formation in the Lake Georgetown Spillway in Williamson County, Texas. The Edwards formation consists of shallow water deposits of reef and associated inter-reef facies, including rudist bioherms and biostromes. It is a significant aquifer and was investigated as a hydrocarbon play in south central Texas. Hyperspectral data were used to map compositional variation in the outcrop by distinguishing spectral properties unique to each material. Lithological variation was mapped in detail to investigate the structure and composition of rudist buildups. Hyperspectral imagery was registered to a 3D model produced from the LiDAR point cloud with an accuracy of up to one pixel. Flat-topped toucasid-rich bioherm facies were distinguished from overlying toucasid-rich biostrome facies containing chert nodules, overlying sucrosic dolostones, and uppermost peloid wackestones and packstones of back-reef facies. Ground truth was established by petrographic study of samples from this area and has validated classification products of remote sensing data. Several types of porosity were observed and have been associated with increased dolomitization. This ongoing research involves integration of remotely sensed datasets to analyze geometrical and compositional properties of this carbonate formation at a finer scale than traditional methods have achieved and seeks to develop a workflow for quick and efficient ground based remote sensing-assisted outcrop studies.

  12. Evolutionary paths among different red galaxy types at 0.3 < z < 1.5 and the build-up of massive E-S0's

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego, Jesús; Prieto, Mercedes; Eliche-Moral, M. Carmen; Balcells, Marc; Cristóbal-Hornillos, David; Erwin, Peter; Abreu, David; Domínguez-Palmero, Lilian; Hempel, Angela; López-Sanjuan, Carlos; Guzmán, Rafael; Pérez-González, Pablo G.; Barro, Guillermo; Zamorano, Jaime

    2013-07-01

    Some recent observations seem to disagree with hierarchical theories of galaxy formation on the role of major mergers in a late build-up of massive early-type galaxies. We re-address this question by analysing the morphology, structural distortion level, and star formation enhancement of a sample of massive galaxies (M* > 5 × 1010M⊙) lying on the Red Sequence and its surroundings at 0.3 migrated to the Red Sequence majoritarily through major mergers at 0.6 1011M⊙ at z = 0 through gas-rich major mergers has frozen since z ~ 0.6. Our results support that major mergers have played the dominant role in the definitive build-up of present-day E-S0's with M* > 1011M⊙ at 0.6 < z < 1.2, in good agreement with the hierarchical scenario proposed in the Eliche-Moral et al. (2010a) model (see also Eliche-Moral et al. 2010b). This study is published in Prieto et al. (2012). Supported by the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation (MICINN) under projects AYA2009-10368, AYA2006-12955, AYA2010-21887-C04-04, and AYA2009-11137, by the Madrid Regional Government through the AstroMadrid Project (CAM S2009/ESP-1496), and by the Spanish MICINN under the Consolider-Ingenio 2010 Program grant CSD2006-00070: ``First Science with the GTC'' (http://www.iac.es/consolider-ingenio-gtc/). S. D. H. & G.

  13. SU-E-J-239: Influence of RF Coil Materials On Surface and Buildup Dose From a 6MV Photon Beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghila, A; Fallone, B; Rathee, S [Cross Cancer Institute, Edmonton, AB (United Kingdom)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: In order to perform real time tumour tracking using an integrated Linac-MR, images have to be acquired during irradiation. MRI uses RF coils in close proximity to the imaged volume. Given current RF coil designs this means that the high energy photons will be passing through the coil before reaching the patient. This study experimentally investigates the dose modifications that occur due to the presence of various RF coil materials in the treatment beam. Methods: Polycarbonate, copper or aluminum tape, and Teflon were used to emulate the base, conductor and cover respectively of a surface RF coil. These materials were placed at various distances from the surface of polystyrene or solid water phantoms which were irradiated in the presence of no magnetic field, a transverse 0.2T magnetic field, and a parallel 0.2T magnetic field. Percent depth doses were measured using ion chambers. Results: A significant increase in surface and buildup dose is observed. The surface dose is seen to decrease with an increasing separation between the emulated coil and the phantom surface, when no magnetic field is present. When a transverse magnetic field is applied the surface dose decreases faster with increasing separation, as some of the electrons created in the coil are curved away from the phantom’s surface. When a parallel field is present the surface dose stays approximately constant for small separations, only slightly decreasing for separations greater than 5cm, since the magnetic field focuses the electrons produced in the coil materials not allowing them to scatter. Conclusion: Irradiating a patient through an RF coil leads to an increase in the surface and buildup doses. Mitigating this increase is important for the successful clinical use of either a transverse or a parallel configuration Linac-MR unit. This project is partially supported by an operating grant from the Canadian Institute of Health Research (CIHR MOP 93752)

  14. Comparison of build-up dose between Elekta and Varian linear accelerators for high-energy photon beams using radiochromic film and clinical implications for IMRT head and neck treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paelinck, L; De Wagter, C; Van Esch, A; Duthoy, W; Depuydt, T; De Neve, W

    2005-02-07

    Skin toxicity has been reported for IMRT of head and neck cancer. The purpose of this study was to investigate the dose in the build-up region delivered by a 6 MV treatment plan for which important skin toxicity was observed. We also investigated if the different designs of the treatment head of an Elekta and a Varian linear accelerator, especially the lower position of the Varian multi-leaf collimator, give rise to different build-up doses. For regular square open beams, the build-up dose along the central beam axis is higher for the Varian machine than for the Elekta machine, both for 6 MV and 18 MV. At the Elekta machine at 18 MV, the superficial dose of a diamond shaped 10 x 10 cm2 field is 3.6% lower than the superficial dose of a regular 10 x 10 cm2 field. This effect is not seen at 6 MV. At the Varian machine, the superficial dose of the diamond shaped field is respectively 3.5 and 14.2% higher than the superficial dose of the regular 10 x 10 cm2 field for 6 MV and 18 MV. Despite the differences measured in build-up dose for single beams between the Elekta and the Varian linear accelerator, there were no measurable differences in superficial dose when a typical IMRT dose plan of 6 MV for a head and neck tumour is executed at the two machines.

  15. METHODS FOR PALEO-FLUID PRESSURE BUILD-UP IN BASINS%盆地中古流体压力的恢复方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王爱国

    2011-01-01

    为了优化古流体压力恢复的技术途径,结合国内外的研究进展对盆地中古流体压力的恢复方法进行了梳理、分析和讨论.恢复方法主要包括泥岩声波时差法、盆地模拟法和流体包裹体法.泥岩声波时差法廉价、快速,但只能恢复最大埋深时的古流体压力,而不适于欠压实以外其他异常压力形成机制;盆地模拟方法可恢复压力的演化史,但其地质模型复杂、参数繁多且不确定性较强,结果的准确度较低;流体包裹体法不必考虑复杂的地质历史和压力形成机制,但目前在绝多数情况下获得的是均一压力或最小捕获压力.进一步研究盐水包裹体的等容线,可提高古流体压力的准确度.每种恢复方法都有其优缺点,对其局限性进行了重点讨论,并指出了发展方向.%In order to optimize the technical methods of paleo-fluid pressure build-up, the methods for paleo-fluid build-up in basins are sorted out, compared, analyzed and discussed based on the research progresses at home and abroad. The build-up methods mainly include mudstone acoustic travel time method, basin modeling method and fluid inclusion method. Mudstone acoustic travel time method is cheap and rapid. However, it can only recover the paleo-fluid pressure at the maximum burial depth, and it is not suitable for other abnormal pressure formation mechanism except for uncompaction. Basin modeling method can recover the evolutionary history. But in this method, its geological model is complex and has many parameters, moreover many of which have relatively high uncertainty, therefore the accuracy of result obtained by this method is relatively low. Fluid inclusion method can get paleo-fluid pressure without considering the complex geologic history and pressure formation mechanism. However, in most cases ,this method can only obtain homogeneous pressure or minimum trapping pressure at present. The further study on isometric line of saline

  16. HETEROGENEOUS SHALLOW-SHELF CARBONATE BUILDUPS IN THE PARADOX BASIN, UTAH AND COLORADO: TARGETS FOR INCREASED OIL PRODUCTION AND RESERVES USING HORIZONTAL DRILLING TECHNIQUES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David E. Eby; Thomas C. Chidsey, Jr.; Kevin McClure; Craig D. Morgan

    2003-07-01

    The Paradox Basin of Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico contains nearly 100 small oil fields producing from carbonate buildups within the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation. These fields typically have one to 10 wells with primary production ranging from 700,000 to 2,000,000 barrels (111,300-318,000 m{sup 3}) of oil per field and a 15 to 20 percent recovery rate. At least 200 million barrels (31.8 million m{sup 3}) of oil will not be recovered from these small fields because of inefficient recovery practices and undrained heterogeneous reservoirs. Several fields in southeastern Utah and southwestern Colorado are being evaluated as candidates for horizontal drilling and enhanced oil recovery from existing vertical wells based upon geological characterization and reservoir modeling case studies. Geological characterization on a local scale is focused on reservoir heterogeneity, quality, and lateral continuity, as well as possible reservoir compartmentalization, within these fields. This study utilizes representative cores, geophysical logs, and thin sections to characterize and grade each field's potential for drilling horizontal laterals from existing development wells. The results of these studies can be applied to similar fields elsewhere in the Paradox Basin and the Rocky Mountain region, the Michigan and Illinois Basins, and the Midcontinent region. This report covers research activities for the second half of the third project year (October 6, 2002, through April 5, 2003). The primary work included describing and mapping regional facies of the upper Ismay and lower Desert Creek zones of the Paradox Formation in the Blanding sub-basin, Utah. Regional cross sections show the development of ''clean carbonate'' packages that contain all of the productive reservoir facies. These clean carbonates abruptly change laterally into thick anhydrite packages that filled several small intra-shelf basins in the upper Ismay zone

  17. A Theoretical Study of the Build-up of the Sun’s Polar Magnetic Field by using a 3D Kinematic Dynamo Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazra, Gopal; Choudhuri, Arnab Rai; Miesch, Mark S.

    2017-01-01

    We develop a three-dimensional kinematic self-sustaining model of the solar dynamo in which the poloidal field generation is from tilted bipolar sunspot pairs placed on the solar surface above regions of strong toroidal field by using the SpotMaker algorithm, and then the transport of this poloidal field to the tachocline is primarily caused by turbulent diffusion. We obtain a dipolar solution within a certain range of parameters. We use this model to study the build-up of the polar magnetic field and show that some insights obtained from surface flux transport models have to be revised. We present results obtained by putting a single bipolar sunspot pair in a hemisphere and two symmetrical sunspot pairs in two hemispheres. We find that the polar fields produced by them disappear due to the upward advection of poloidal flux at low latitudes, which emerges as oppositely signed radial flux and which is then advected poleward by the meridional flow. We also study the effect that a large sunspot pair, violating Hale’s polarity law, would have on the polar field. We find that there would be some effect—especially if the anti-Hale pair appears at high latitudes in the mid-phase of the cycle—though the effect is not very dramatic.

  18. A theoretical study of the build-up of the Sun's polar magnetic field by using a 3D kinematic dynamo model

    CERN Document Server

    Hazra, Gopal; Miesch, Mark S

    2016-01-01

    We develop a three-dimensional kinematic self-sustaining model of the solar dynamo in which the poloidal field generation is from tilted bipolar sunspot pairs placed on the solar surface above regions of strong toroidal field by using the SpotMaker algorithm and then the transport of this poloidal field to the tachocline is primarily caused by turbulent diffusion. We obtain a dipolar solution within a certain range of parameters. We use this model to study the build-up of the polar magnetic field and show that some insights obtained from surface flux transport (SFT) models have to be revised. We present results obtained by putting a single bipolar sunspot pair in a hemisphere and two symmetrical sunspot pairs in two hemispheres. We find that the polar fields produced by them disappear due to subduction by the meridional circulation sinking underneath the surface in the polar region, which is not included in the SFT models. We also study the effect that a large sunspot pair violating Hale's polarity law would ...

  19. The coordinated key role of wet, mixed, and dry major mergers in the buildup of massive early-type galaxies at z<~1

    CERN Document Server

    Eliche-Moral, M Carmen; Gallego, Jesus; Zamorano, Jaime

    2010-01-01

    Hierarchical models predict that massive early-type galaxies (mETGs) derive from the most massive and violent merging sequences occurred in the Universe. However, the role of wet, mixed, and dry major mergers in the assembly of mETGs is questioned by some recent observations. We have developed a semi-analytical model to test the feasibility of the major-merger origin hypothesis for mETGs, just accounting for the effects on galaxy evolution of the major mergers strictly reported by observations. The model proves that it is feasible to reproduce the observed number density evolution of mETGs since z~1, just accounting for the coordinated effects of wet/mixed/dry major mergers. It can also reconcile the different assembly redshifts derived by hierarchical models and by mass downsizing data for mETGs, just considering that a mETG observed at a certain redshift is not necessarily in place since then. The model predicts that wet major mergers have controlled the mETGs buildup since z~1, although dry and mixed merge...

  20. Four phases of angular-momentum buildup in high-z galaxies:from cosmic-web streams to an extended tilted ring, disc and bulge

    CERN Document Server

    Danovich, Mark; Hahn, Oliver; Ceverino, Daniel; Primack, Joel

    2014-01-01

    We study the buildup of angular momentum (AM) in high-z galaxies using zoom-in hydro-cosmological simulations. The disc AM originates in a few co-planar streams of cold gas and merging galaxies tracing filaments of the cosmic web and undergo 4 phases of evolution. In phase I, outside the halo virial radius (Rv), the elongated streams gain AM by tidal torques with a specific AM (sAM) ~1.7 times that of the dark matter (DM) due to the gas' higher quadrupole moment. This AM is expressed as stream impact parameters, from ~0.3Rv to occasional counter rotation. In phase II, in the outer halo, while the incoming DM mixes with the existing halo of lower sAM to a spin $\\lambda_{\\rm dm}\\sim0.04$, the cold streams transport the AM to the inner halo such that their spin in the halo is $\\sim3\\lambda_{\\rm dm}$. In phase III, near pericenter, the streams dissipate and form a non-uniform, rotating ring extending to ~0.3Rv and tilted relative to the inner disc. Torques exerted partly by the disc make the gas ring lose AM, spi...

  1. In-situ restoration of one-stage partial nitritation-anammox process deteriorated by nitrate build-up via elevated substrate levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaolong; Gao, Dawen

    2016-11-01

    The one-stage partial nitritation and anammox process (PN/A) has been a promising microbial process to remove ammonia from wastewater especially with low carbon/nitrogen ratio. The main breakdown was the deterioration caused by overgrowth of nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB) resulting effluent nitrate build-up in the PN/A process. This study presented an in-situ restoring strategy for suppressing NOB activity in a one-stage granular PN/A system deteriorated over 2 months, using elevated concentrations of substrates (ammonia and nitrite) under limited dissolved oxygen level. The results showed that the NOB activity was successfully suppressed after 56 days of restoration, and finally the ratio of produced nitrate/consumed ammonium was reduced from 36.8% to 7%. On day 66 the nitrogen removal rate obtained as 1.2 kg N/(m3·d). The high FA level (5–40 mg/L) and low dissolved oxygen (growth, and AOB stay stable, but Nitrospira increase and Nitrobacter declined. High amount of NOB was still persistent in the granules, which was not easy to wash-out and threaten the deammonification performance.

  2. Coupling between pupil fluctuations and resting-state fMRI uncovers a slow build-up of antagonistic responses in the human cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yellin, Dov; Berkovich-Ohana, Aviva; Malach, Rafael

    2015-02-01

    Even in absence of overt tasks, the human cortex manifests rich patterns of spontaneous "resting state" BOLD-fMRI fluctuations. However, the link of these spontaneous fluctuations to behavior is presently unclear. Attempts to directly investigate this link invariably lead to disruptions of the resting state. Here we took advantage of the well-established association between pupil diameter and attentional gain to address this issue by examining the correlation between the resting state BOLD and pupil fluctuations. Our results uncover a spontaneously emerging spatiotemporal pupil-BOLD correlation whereby a slow buildup of activity in default mode areas preceded both pupil dilation and wide-spread BOLD suppression in sensorimotor cortex. Control experiments excluded a role for luminance fluctuations or fixation. Comparing the pupil-correlated patterns to activation maps during visual imagery revealed a substantial overlap. Our results indicate a link between behavior, as indexed by pupil diameter, and resting state BOLD fluctuations. These pupil dilations, assumed to be related to attentional gain, were associated with spontaneously emerging antagonism between fundamental cortical networks.

  3. Evolutionary paths among different red galaxy types at 0.3 < z < 1.5 and the late buildup of massive E-S0's through major mergers

    CERN Document Server

    Prieto, Mercedes; Balcells, Marc; Cristobal-Hornillos, David; Erwin, Peter; Abreu, David; Dominguez-Palmero, Lilian; Hempel, Angela; Lopez-Sanjuan, Carlos; Guzman, Rafael; Perez-Gonzalez, Pablo G; Barro, Guillermo; Gallego, Jesus; Zamorano, Jaime

    2012-01-01

    Some recent observations seem to disagree with hierarchical theories of galaxy formation about the role played by major mergers in the late buildup of massive E-S0's. We re-address this question by analysing the morphology, structural distortion level, and star formation enhancement of a sample of massive galaxies (M_* > 5 * 10^10 Msun) lying on the Red Sequence and its surroundings at 0.3 10^11 Msun at z=0 through gas-rich major mergers has frozen since z~0.6. All these facts support that major mergers have played the dominant role in the definitive buildup of present-day E-S0's with M_*> 10^11 Msun at 0.6

  4. Soil environmental conditions and microbial build-up mediate the effect of plant diversity on soil nitrifying and denitrifying enzyme activities in temperate grasslands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Le Roux

    Full Text Available Random reductions in plant diversity can affect ecosystem functioning, but it is still unclear which components of plant diversity (species number - namely richness, presence of particular plant functional groups, or particular combinations of these and associated biotic and abiotic drivers explain the observed relationships, particularly for soil processes. We assembled grassland communities including 1 to 16 plant species with a factorial separation of the effects of richness and functional group composition to analyze how plant diversity components influence soil nitrifying and denitrifying enzyme activities (NEA and DEA, respectively, the abundance of nitrifiers (bacterial and archaeal amoA gene number and denitrifiers (nirK, nirS and nosZ gene number, and key soil environmental conditions. Plant diversity effects were largely due to differences in functional group composition between communities of identical richness (number of sown species, though richness also had an effect per se. NEA was positively related to the percentage of legumes in terms of sown species number, the additional effect of richness at any given legume percentage being negative. DEA was higher in plots with legumes, decreased with increasing percentage of grasses, and increased with richness. No correlation was observed between DEA and denitrifier abundance. NEA increased with the abundance of ammonia oxidizing bacteria. The effect of richness on NEA was entirely due to the build-up of nitrifying organisms, while legume effect was partly linked to modified ammonium availability and nitrifier abundance. Richness effect on DEA was entirely due to changes in soil moisture, while the effects of legumes and grasses were partly due to modified nitrate availability, which influenced the specific activity of denitrifiers. These results suggest that plant diversity-induced changes in microbial specific activity are important for facultative activities such as denitrification

  5. Trace organic solutes in closed-loop forward osmosis applications: influence of membrane fouling and modeling of solute build-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Haese, Arnout; Le-Clech, Pierre; Van Nevel, Sam; Verbeken, Kim; Cornelissen, Emile R; Khan, Stuart J; Verliefde, Arne R D

    2013-09-15

    In this study, trace organics transport in closed-loop forward osmosis (FO) systems was assessed. The FO systems considered, consisted of an FO unit and a nanofiltration (NF) or reverse osmosis (RO) unit, with the draw solution circulating between both units. The rejection of trace organics by FO, NF and RO was tested. It was found that the rejection rates of FO were generally comparable with NF and lower than RO rejection rates. To assess the influence of fouling in FO on trace organics rejection, FO membranes were fouled with sodium alginate, bovine serum albumin or by biofilm growth, after which trace organics rejection was tested. A negative influence of fouling on FO rejection was found which was limited in most cases, while it was significant for some compounds such as paracetamol and naproxen, indicating specific compound-foulant interactions. The transport mechanism of trace organics in FO was tested, in order to differentiate between diffusive and convective transport. The concentration of trace organics in the final product water and the build-up of trace organics in the draw solution were modeled assuming the draw solution was reconcentrated by NF/RO and taking into account different transport mechanisms for the FO membrane and different rejection rates by NF/RO. Modeling results showed that if the FO rejection rate is lower than the RO rejection rate (as is the case for most compounds tested), the added value of the FO-RO cycle compared to RO only at steady-state was small for diffusively and negative for convectively transported trace organics. Modeling also showed that trace organics accumulate in the draw solution.

  6. The build-up, configuration, and dynamical sensitivity of the Eurasian ice-sheet complex to Late Weichselian climatic and oceanic forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Henry; Hubbard, Alun; Andreassen, Karin; Winsborrow, Monica; Stroeven, Arjen P.

    2016-12-01

    The Eurasian ice-sheet complex (EISC) was the third largest ice mass during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), after the Antarctic and North American ice sheets. Despite its global significance, a comprehensive account of its evolution from independent nucleation centres to its maximum extent is conspicuously lacking. Here, a first-order, thermomechanical model, robustly constrained by empirical evidence, is used to investigate the dynamics of the EISC throughout its build-up to its maximum configuration. The ice flow model is coupled to a reference climate and applied at 10 km spatial resolution across a domain that includes the three main spreading centres of the Celtic, Fennoscandian and Barents Sea ice sheets. The model is forced with the NGRIP palaeo-isotope curve from 37 ka BP onwards and model skill is assessed against collated flowsets, marginal moraines, exposure ages and relative sea-level history. The evolution of the EISC to its LGM configuration was complex and asynchronous; the western, maritime margins of the Fennoscandian and Celtic ice sheets responded rapidly and advanced across their continental shelves by 29 ka BP, yet the maximum aerial extent (5.48 × 106 km2) and volume (7.18 × 106 km3) of the ice complex was attained some 6 ka later at c. 22.7 ka BP. This maximum stand was short-lived as the North Sea and Atlantic margins were already in retreat whilst eastern margins were still advancing up until c. 20 ka BP. High rates of basal erosion are modelled beneath ice streams and outlet glaciers draining the Celtic and Fennoscandian ice sheets with extensive preservation elsewhere due to frozen subglacial conditions, including much of the Barents and Kara seas. Here, and elsewhere across the Norwegian shelf and North Sea, high pressure subglacial conditions would have promoted localised gas hydrate formation.

  7. Effect of thiocyanate counterion condensation on poly(allylamine hydrochloride) chains on the buildup and permeability of polystyrenesulfonate/polyallylamine polyelectrolyte multilayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Vincent; Voegel, Jean-Claude; Schaaf, Pierre

    2005-04-26

    In this study, we investigate the buildup of PEI-(PSS-PAH)(n) polyelectrolyte multilayers at pH 7.4 in the presence of either NaCl or NaSCN as a supporting electrolyte. It appears that in the presence of increasing thiocyanate concentrations (from 0.1 to 0.5 M), the thickness increment, obtained from optical waveguide lightmode spectroscopy experiments, increases whereas it stays practically constant for increasing sodium chloride concentrations (between 0.1 and 0.5 M). The hydration of the films differs also markedly between both electrolyte solutions. The differences in the construction of the polyelectrolyte multilayers in the presence of both supporting electrolytes are rationalized in terms of strong SCN(-) condensation on the PAH chains. The occurrence of this ion condensation is indirectly demonstrated by means of zeta potential measurements and directly demonstrated by means of attenuated total internal reflection infrared spectroscopy on the multilayer films. Moreover when the films are built up in the presence of SCN(-), these ions are only slowly exchanged by the Cl(-) ions introduced in the bulk. Conversely the thick films obtained from 0.5 M NaSCN solutions do not deswell when the buffer solution is replaced by a 0.5 M NaCl containing buffer. The permeability of the films constructed in the presence of both sodium salts is also studied by means of cyclic voltametry and is found to be markedly different in the case of films made from five bilayers at 0.5 M salt concentration. This difference is due to the different morphology and porosity of the films constructed in the presence of 0.5 M NaCl and 0.5 M NaSCN.

  8. Build-ups in the supply chain of the brain: on the neuroenergetic cause of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achim Peters

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Obesity and type 2 diabetes have become the major health problems in many industrialized countries. A few theoretical frameworks have been set up to derive the possible determinative cause of obesity. One concept views that food availability determines food intake, i.e. that obesity is the result of an external energy “push” into the body. Another one views that the energy milieu within the human organism determines food intake, i.e. that obesity is due to an excessive “pull” from inside the organism. Here we present the unconventional concept that a healthy organism is maintained by a „competent brain-pull“ which serves systemic homeostasis, and that the underlying cause of obesity is “incompetent brain-pull”, i.e. that the brain is unable to properly demand glucose from the body. We describe the energy fluxes from the environment, through the body, towards the brain with a mathematical “supply chain” model and test whether its predictions fit medical and experimental data sets from our and other research groups. In this way, we show data-based support of our hypothesis, which states that under conditions of food abundance incompetent brain-pull will lead to build-ups in the supply chain culminating in obesity and type 2 diabetes. In the same way, we demonstrate support of the related hypothesis, which states that under conditions of food deprivation a competent brain-pull mechanism is indispensable for the continuance of the brain´s high energy level. In conclusion, we took the viewpoint of integrative physiology and provided evidence for the necessity of brain-pull mechanisms for the benefit of health. Along these lines, our work supports recent molecular findings from the field of neuroenergetics and continues the work on the “Selfish Brain” theory dealing with the maintenance of the cerebral and peripheral energy homeostasis.

  9. Influence of light-exposure methods and depths of cavity on the microhardness of dual-cured core build-up resin composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiichi YOSHIDA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the Knoop hardness number (KHN of dual-cured core build-up resin composites (DCBRCs at 6 depths of cavity after 3 post-irradiation times by 4 light-exposure methods. Material and Methods: Five specimens each of DCBRCs (Clearfil DC Core Plus [DCP] and Unifil Core EM [UCE] were filled in acrylic resin blocks with a semi-cylindrical cavity and light-cured using an LED light unit (power density: 1,000 mW/cm2at the top surface by irradiation for 20 seconds (20 s, 40 seconds (40 s, bonding agent plus 20 seconds (B+20 s, or 40 seconds plus light irradiation of both sides of each acrylic resin block for 40 seconds each (120 s. KHN was measured at depths of 0.5, 2.0, 4.0, 6.0, 8.0, and 10.0 mm at 0.5 hours, 24 hours, and 7 days post-irradiation. Statistical analysis was performed using repeated measures ANOVA and Tukey's compromise post-hoc test with a significance level of p0.05. In DCP, and not UCE, at 24 hours and 7 days post-irradiation, the B+20 s method showed significantly higher KHN at all depths of cavity, except the depth of 0.5 mm (p<0.05. Conclusion: KHN depends on the light-exposure method, use of bonding agent, depth of cavity, post-irradiation time, and material brand. Based on the microhardness behavior, DCBRCs are preferably prepared by the effective exposure method, when used for a greater depth of cavity.

  10. Appliance of AC Servo System in Build-up Force Standard Machine Based on FM354%基于FM354的交流伺服系统在机械比对力机上的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张大兴; 张振洲

    2012-01-01

    针对机械比对力机的工艺和控制要求,详细介绍了SIMODRIVE 611A交流伺服驱动系统在机械比对力机上的应用.利用高性能的伺服定位模块FM354,控制交流伺服驱动系统,满足机械比对力机对速度、力矩和大调速范围的要求,使力机满足国家称重传感器检定规程( JJG669 - 90)和称重传感器生产检测要求.%Aimed at technics and control requirement of build-up standard machine,this paper introduced the appliance of SI-MODRIVE 611A AC servo system in build-up standard machine. It use high-powered servo orientation module FM354 to control AC servo drive system. It satisfies the speed,moment and timing range of build-up standard machine,and also satisfies verification regulation of weighing cell (JJG669 -90) and measure requirement of weighing cell in manufacture.

  11. Monte Carlo correction factors for a Farmer 0.6 cm{sup 3} ion chamber dose measurement in the build-up region of the 6 MV clinical beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pena, J [Departamento de Fisica de PartIculas, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Sanchez-Doblado, F [Hospital Universitario Virgen Macarena, RadioFisica, Sevilla (Spain); Departamento de FisiologIa y BioFisica, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Sevilla (Spain); Capote, R [International Atomic Energy Agency, Nuclear Data Section, Vienna (Austria); Terron, J A [Hospital Universitario Virgen Macarena, RadioFisica, Sevilla (Spain); Departamento de FisiologIa y BioFisica, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Sevilla (Spain); Gomez, F [Departamento de Fisica de PartIculas, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

    2006-03-21

    Reference dosimetry of photon fields is a well-established subject and currently available protocols (such as the IAEA TRS-398 and AAPM TG-51) provide methods for converting the ionization chamber (IC) reading into dose to water, provided reference conditions of charged particle equilibrium (CPE) are fulfilled. But these protocols cannot deal with the build-up region, where the lack of CPE limits the applicability of the cavity theorems and so the chamber correction factors become depth dependent. By explicitly including the IC geometry in the Monte Carlo simulations, depth-dependent dose correction factors are calculated for a PTW 30001 0.6 cm{sup 3} ion chamber in the build-up region of the 6 MV photon beam. The corrected percentage depth dose (PDD) agrees within 2% with that measured using the NACP 02 plane-parallel ion chamber in the build-up region at depths greater than 0.4 cm, where the Farmer chamber wall reaches the phantom surface.

  12. HETEROGENEOUS SHALLOW-SHELF CARBONATE BUILDUPS IN THE PARADOX BASIN, UTAH AND COLORADO: TARGETS FOR INCREASED OIL PRODUCTION AND RESERVES USING HORIZONTAL DRILLING TECHNIQUES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas C. Chidsey, Jr.

    2002-12-01

    The Paradox Basin of Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico contains nearly 100 small oil fields producing from carbonate buildups within the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation. These fields typically have one to 10 wells with primary production ranging from 700,000 to 2,000,000 barrels (111,300-318,000 m{sup 3}) of oil per field and a 15 to 20 percent recovery rate. At least 200 million barrels (31.8 million m{sup 3}) of oil will not be recovered from these small fields because of inefficient recovery practices and undrained heterogeneous reservoirs. Several fields in southeastern Utah and southwestern Colorado are being evaluated as candidates for horizontal drilling and enhanced oil recovery from existing, vertical, field wells based upon geological characterization and reservoir modeling case studies. Geological characterization on a local scale is focused on reservoir heterogeneity, quality, and lateral continuity, as well as possible reservoir compartmentalization, within these fields. This study utilizes representative cores, geophysical logs, and thin sections to characterize and grade each field's potential for drilling horizontal laterals from existing development wells. The results of these studies can be applied to similar fields elsewhere in the Paradox Basin and the Rocky Mountain region, the Michigan and Illinois Basins, and the Midcontinent region. This report covers research activities for the first half of the third project year (April 6 through October 5, 2002). This work included capillary pressure/mercury injection analysis, scanning electron microscopy, and pore casting on selected samples from Cherokee and Bug fields, Utah. The diagenetic fabrics and porosity types found at these fields are indicators of reservoir flow capacity, storage capacity, and potential for enhanced oil recovery via horizontal drilling. The reservoir quality of Cherokee and Bug fields has been affected by multiple generations of dissolution, anhydrite

  13. Galaxy stellar mass functions from ZFOURGE/CANDELS: An excess of low-mass galaxies since z = 2 and the rapid buildup of quiescent galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomczak, Adam R.; Tran, Kim-Vy H.; Papovich, Casey; Kawinwanichakij, Lalitwadee; Mehrtens, Nicola; Spitler, Lee R.; Tilvi, Vithal [George P. and Cynthia W. Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Quadri, Ryan F.; Kelson, Daniel D.; McCarthy, Patrick J.; Monson, Andrew J.; Persson, S. Eric [Carnegie Observatories, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Labbé, Ivo; Straatman, Caroline M. S. [Sterrewacht Leiden, Leiden University, NL-2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Glazebrook, Karl; Allen, Rebecca; Kacprzak, Glenn G. [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University, Hawthorn, VIC 3122 (Australia); Brammer, Gabriel B. [European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Córdova 3107, Casilla 19001, Vitacura, Santiago (Chile); Van Dokkum, Pieter, E-mail: tomczak@physics.tamu.edu [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States)

    2014-03-10

    Using observations from the FourStar Galaxy Evolution Survey (ZFOURGE), we obtain the deepest measurements to date of the galaxy stellar mass function (SMF) at 0.2 < z < 3. ZFOURGE provides well-constrained photometric redshifts made possible through deep medium-bandwidth imaging at 1-2 μm. We combine this with Hubble Space Telescope imaging from the Cosmic Assembly Near-IR Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey, allowing for the efficient selection of both blue and red galaxies down to stellar masses of ∼10{sup 9.5} M {sub ☉} at z ∼ 2.5. The total surveyed area is 316 arcmin{sup 2} distributed over three independent fields. We supplement these data with the wider and shallower NEWFIRM Medium-Band Survey to provide stronger constraints at high masses. Several studies at z ≤ 1.5 have revealed a steepening of the slope at the low-mass end of the SMF, leading to an upturn at masses <10{sup 10} M {sub ☉} that is not well described by a standard single-Schechter function. We find evidence that this feature extends to at least z ∼ 2 and that it can be found in both the star-forming and quiescent populations individually. The characteristic mass (M*) and slope at the lowest masses (α) of a double-Schechter function fit to the SMF stay roughly constant at Log(M/M {sub ☉}) ∼ 10.65 and ∼ – 1.5, respectively. The SMF of star-forming galaxies has evolved primarily in normalization, while the change in shape is relatively minor. Our data allow us, for the first time, to observe a rapid buildup at the low-mass end of the quiescent SMF. Since z = 2.5, the total stellar mass density of quiescent galaxies (down to 10{sup 9} M {sub ☉}) has increased by a factor of ∼12, whereas the mass density of star-forming galaxies only increases by a factor of ∼2.2.

  14. 组合非球面太阳能聚光镜的光学设计%Optical design of build-up aspherical solar concentrating mirror

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦华; 冯东太; 葛硕硕; 王勇

    2014-01-01

    In this paper , a build-up aspherical solar concentrating mirror and its design method are presented . It is composed of 38 pieces of revolution surfaces , and each piece of revolution surface is the part of the as-pheric surface defined by a set of specific coefficients C,a2 ,a4 ,a6 ,a8 ,a10 .According to the even aspherical e-quation and the law of reflection in vector form , the relationship between the direction vectors of rays of light reflected from the inner wall of aspheric surface and the coefficients of an aspherical equation , C,a2 ,a4 ,a6 , a8 ,a10 , has been derived .By appropriately choosing these aspherical coefficients , namely, appropriately ad-justing an aspherical surface type , the reflected light beam can have specific direction vectors , which can make the sunbeams incident on an aspherical inner wall focus on a particular area and form a small spot .Each group of specific coefficients is obtained by using particle swarm optimization algorithm .The focusing effect of the solar concentrating mirror with the specific coefficients is demonstrated by using computer simulations and proved experimentally .The theoretical compression ratio for this concentrating mirror is 330∶1 .The focused spot can be used as a high temperature heat source and the concentrating mirror can be used in a solar heating device .%提出了一种组合非球面反射型太阳能聚光镜并给出了设计方法。聚光镜由38片非球面组成,每一片非球面都由一组特定系数C,a2,a4,a6,a8,a10的偶次非球面方程决定,是此特定非球面的一部分。根据非球面方程和光反射定律矢量形式,导出了非球面内壁上太阳反射光束的方向矢量与非球面系数C,a2,a4,a6,a8,a10的关系,适当地选择这些非球面系数,即适当地调整非球面面型,可以使太阳反射光束具有特定的方向矢量,使入射到非球面内壁上的太阳光束反射后全部聚焦在某一特定的区域

  15. Heterogeneous Shallow-Shelf Carbonate Buildups in the Paradox Basin, Utah and Colorado: Targets for Increased Oil Production and Reserves Using Horizontal Drilling Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas C. Chidsey; Kevin McClure; Craig D. Morgan

    2003-10-05

    The Paradox Basin of Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico contains nearly 100 small oil fields producing from carbonate buildups within the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation. These fields typically have one to 10 wells with primary production ranging from 700,000 to 2,000,000 barrels (111,300-318,000 m{sup 3}) of oil per field and a 15 to 20 percent recovery rate. At least 200 million barrels (31.8 million m{sup 3}) of oil will not be recovered from these small fields because of inefficient recovery practices and undrained heterogeneous reservoirs. Several fields in southeastern Utah and southwestern Colorado are being evaluated as candidates for horizontal drilling and enhanced oil recovery from existing vertical wells based upon geological characterization and reservoir modeling case studies. Geological characterization on a local scale is focused on reservoir heterogeneity, quality, and lateral continuity, as well as possible reservoir compartmentalization, within these fields. This study utilizes representative cores, geophysical logs, and thin sections to characterize and grade each field's potential for drilling horizontal laterals from existing development wells. The results of these studies can be applied to similar fields elsewhere in the Paradox Basin and the Rocky Mountain region, the Michigan and Illinois Basins, and the Midcontinent region. This report covers research activities for the first half of the fourth project year (April 6 through October 5, 2003). The work included (1) analysis of well-test data and oil production from Cherokee and Bug fields, San Juan County, Utah, and (2) diagenetic evaluation of stable isotopes from the upper Ismay and lower Desert Creek zones of the Paradox Formation in the Blanding sub-basin, Utah. Production ''sweet spots'' and potential horizontal drilling candidates were identified for Cherokee and Bug fields. In Cherokee field, the most productive wells are located in the

  16. The Young-Feynman two-slits experiment with single electrons: Build-up of the interference pattern and arrival-time distribution using a fast-readout pixel detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frabboni, Stefano [Department of Physics, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Via G. Campi 213/a, 41125 Modena (Italy); CNR-Institute of Nanoscience-S3, Via G. Campi 213/a, 41125 Modena (Italy); Gabrielli, Alessandro [Department of Physics, University of Bologna, Viale B. Pichat 6/2, 40127 Bologna (Italy); INFN, Viale B. Pichat 6/2, 40127 Bologna (Italy); Carlo Gazzadi, Gian [CNR-Institute of Nanoscience-S3, Via G. Campi 213/a, 41125 Modena (Italy); Giorgi, Filippo [Department of Physics, University of Bologna, Viale B. Pichat 6/2, 40127 Bologna (Italy); INFN, Viale B. Pichat 6/2, 40127 Bologna (Italy); Matteucci, Giorgio [Department of Physics, University of Bologna, Viale B. Pichat 6/2, 40127 Bologna (Italy); Pozzi, Giulio, E-mail: giulio.pozzi@unibo.it [Department of Physics, University of Bologna, Viale B. Pichat 6/2, 40127 Bologna (Italy); Cesari, Nicola Semprini; Villa, Mauro; Zoccoli, Antonio [Department of Physics, University of Bologna, Viale B. Pichat 6/2, 40127 Bologna (Italy); INFN, Viale B. Pichat 6/2, 40127 Bologna (Italy)

    2012-05-15

    The two-slits experiment for single electrons has been carried out by inserting in a conventional transmission electron microscope a thick sample with two nano-slits fabricated by Focused Ion Beam technique and a fast recording system able to measure the electron arrival-time. The detector, designed for experiments in future colliders, is based on a custom CMOS chip equipped with a fast readout chain able to manage up to 10{sup 6} frames per second. In this way, high statistic samples of single electron events can be collected within a time interval short enough to measure the distribution of the electron arrival-times and to observe the build-up of the interference pattern. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We present the first results obtained regarding the two-slits Young-Feynman experiment with single electrons. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We use two nano-slits fabricated by Focused Ion Beam technique. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We insert in the transmission electron microscope a detector, designed for experiments in future colliders. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We record the build-up of high statistic single electron interference patterns. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We measure the time distribution of electron arrivals.

  17. A comprehensive study on energy absorption and exposure buildup factors for some essential amino acids, fatty acids and carbohydrates in the energy range 0.015-15 MeV up to 40 mean free path

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurudirek, Murat, E-mail: mkurudirek@gmail.com; Ozdemir, Yueksel

    2011-01-01

    The gamma ray energy absorption (EABF) and exposure buildup factors (EBF) have been calculated for some essential amino acids, fatty acids and carbohydrates in the energy region 0.015-15 MeV up to a penetration depth of 40 mfp (mean free path). The five parameter geometric progression (G-P) fitting approximation has been used to calculate both EABF and EBF. Variations of EABF and EBF with incident photon energy, penetration depth and weight fraction of elements have been studied. While the significant variations in EABF and EBF for amino acids and fatty acids have been observed at the intermediate energy region where Compton scattering is the main photon interaction process, the values of EABF and EBF appear to be almost the same for all carbohydrates in the continuous energy region. It has been observed that the fatty acids have the largest EABF and EBF at 0.08 and 0.1 MeV, respectively, whereas the maximum values of EABF and EBF have been observed for aminoacids and carbohydrates at 0.1 MeV. At the fixed energy of 1.5 MeV, the variation of EABF with penetration depth appears to be independent of the variations in chemical composition of the amino acids, fatty acids and carbohydrates. Significant variations were also observed between EABF and EBF which may be due to the variations in chemical composition of the given materials.

  18. Polysaccharide Thin Films – Buildup and Hydration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plating, painting and the application of enamel are common anti-corrosion treatments by providing a barrier of resistant material between the damaging environment and the structural material. Coatings start failing rapidly if scratched or damaged because “pitting” occurs at high rates in cracks or p...

  19. 基于压力恢复曲线的油井堵水决策技术%Decision-making technique of oil well water plugging based on pressure buildup curve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲占庆; 张杰; 齐宁; 曲永林; 王荣

    2013-01-01

    从渗流力学基础理论出发,利用压力恢复曲线,建立数学模型并推导出计算油井堵水的决策指数fPBD的公式,在此基础上,结合影响堵水油井选择的含水上升率指数和剩余油饱和度两个因素,运用综合模糊评判方法求取油井堵水综合决策值,对需堵水的油井进行选择.对垦东521区块某小块7口油井进行堵水选井决策.结果表明:fPBD与水相渗透率相关,可以作为堵水油井决策的依据;该决策选井方法考虑因素完善、数据易取、决策准确,与成功的经验选井方法得出结果吻合程度较高.%The mathematical model and decision-making index (fPBD) of water shutoff can be established using the seepage mechanics theory and pressure buildup curve.The target wells were selected based on the fPBD value,water cut rising index,remaining oil saturation and water shutoff comprehensive decision value obtained by fuzzy evaluation method.Seven production wells in KD521 block were chosen.The results show thatfPBD is related to water permeability,which can be considered as the foundation of water shutoff decision-making.The decision method of selecting well is characterized by taking into account all the factors,data easy to be obtained,and precise decision.The results agree well with that of experienced well selection method.

  20. Methods of increasing the performance of radionuclide generators used in nuclear medicine: daughter nuclide build-up optimisation, elution-purification-concentration integration, and effective control of radionuclidic purity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Van So; Do, Zoe Phuc-Hien; Le, Minh Khoi; Le, Vicki; Le, Natalie Nha-Truc

    2014-06-10

    Methods of increasing the performance of radionuclide generators used in nuclear medicine radiotherapy and SPECT/PET imaging were developed and detailed for 99Mo/99mTc and 68Ge/68Ga radionuclide generators as the cases. Optimisation methods of the daughter nuclide build-up versus stand-by time and/or specific activity using mean progress functions were developed for increasing the performance of radionuclide generators. As a result of this optimisation, the separation of the daughter nuclide from its parent one should be performed at a defined optimal time to avoid the deterioration in specific activity of the daughter nuclide and wasting stand-by time of the generator, while the daughter nuclide yield is maintained to a reasonably high extent. A new characteristic parameter of the formation-decay kinetics of parent/daughter nuclide system was found and effectively used in the practice of the generator production and utilisation. A method of "early elution schedule" was also developed for increasing the daughter nuclide production yield and specific radioactivity, thus saving the cost of the generator and improving the quality of the daughter radionuclide solution. These newly developed optimisation methods in combination with an integrated elution-purification-concentration system of radionuclide generators recently developed is the most suitable way to operate the generator effectively on the basis of economic use and improvement of purposely suitable quality and specific activity of the produced daughter radionuclides. All these features benefit the economic use of the generator, the improved quality of labelling/scan, and the lowered cost of nuclear medicine procedure. Besides, a new method of quality control protocol set-up for post-delivery test of radionuclidic purity has been developed based on the relationship between gamma ray spectrometric detection limit, required limit of impure radionuclide activity and its measurement certainty with respect to

  1. P-T封隔器在异常高压低渗透层渗漏原因初探%Exploratory Research on the P-T Pack Leakage Reasons during Pressure Buildup Test in the Abmormal High Pressure Low Permeability Reservoir

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白学东; 耿玉乾; 祁连秋

    2001-01-01

    The P-T pack leakage reasons are pointed out,which are accrued during pressure buildup test in the abnormal high pres sure low penneability reservoir. The calculation formation for determining the highest leakage pressures,and its practica bility is verified by the field examples. The leakage solving methods and measures are given.%用P-T封隔器测试高压低渗透层易发生渗漏,取不到完整的地层资料。经对P-T封隔器 进行井下受力分析,找出了封隔器发生渗漏的原因;给出了确定发生渗漏时最高关井压力的计算公 式并验证了其正确性;提出了解决P-T封隔器渗漏问题的相关措施。

  2. P-T封隔器在异常高压低渗透层渗漏原因初探%Exploratory Research on the P-T Pack Leakage Reasons during Pressure Buildup Test in the Abmormal High Pressure Low Permeability Reservoir

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白学东; 耿玉乾; 祁连秋

    2001-01-01

    The P-T pack leakage reasons are pointed out,which are accruedduring pressure buildup test in the abnormal high pres sure low penneability reservoir. The calculation formation for determining the highest leakage pressures,and its practica bility is verified by the field examples. The leakage solving methods and measures are given.%用P-T封隔器测试高压低渗透层易发生渗漏,取不到完整的地层资料。经对P-T封隔器进行井下受力分析,找出了封隔器发生渗漏的原因;给出了确定发生渗漏时最高关井压力的计算公 式并验证了其正确性;提出了解决P-T封隔器渗漏问题的相关措施。

  3. CCIEE-SSI TO BUILDUP CHINA SHIPPING SOFT POWER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Yan

    2010-01-01

    @@ International shipping commonly uses indices, such as the index from the Baltic Shipping Exchange Kelaikesong. Most of the world's leading shipping agencies issue a Freight Index, which is based on tariffs as a fo-cal point, merely using the freight index as a measure of the state of devel-opment entails certain shortcomings, especially regarding the Forward Freight Agreement (FFA) which allows the introduction of additional freight indices and could become an object of financial speculation, which could not response to the actual situation of the global shipping industry.

  4. The Build-Up of Diversity in Complex Ecosystems

    CERN Document Server

    Tacchella, Andrea; Gabrielli, Andrea; Pietronero, Luciano

    2016-01-01

    Diversity is a fundamental feature of ecosystems, even when the concept of ecosystem is extended to sociology or economics. Diversity can be intended as the count of different items, animals, or, more generally, interactions. There are two classes of stylized facts that emerge when diversity is taken into account. The first are Diversity explosions: evolutionary radiations in biology, or the process of escaping 'Poverty Traps' in economics are two well known examples. The second is nestedness: entities with a very diverse set of interactions are the only ones that interact with more specialized ones. In a single sentence: specialists interact with generalists. Nestedness is observed in a variety of bipartite networks of interactions: Biogeographic, macroeconomic and mutualistic to name a few. This indicates that entities diversify following a pattern. Since they appear in such very different systems, these two stylized facts point out that the build up of diversity is driven by a fundamental probabilistic mec...

  5. Time-dependent correlation buildup in spherical Yukawa balls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaehlert, Hanno; Bonitz, Michael

    2009-11-01

    In recent years it has become possible to create 3D dust crystals in experiments [1], where the particles arrange on concentric spherical shells. Compared to confined ions the interaction between the dust particles is screened, which has been shown to affect the shell occupation of the ground state [2], and the probability of metastable states [3,4]. Here we study dynamical processes in a trapped Yukawa plasma by means of Langevin dynamics simulations, which fully include the Coulomb correlations, the confinement and friction with the neutral gas. By cooling a weakly correlated initial state towards the strong coupling regime, the formation of concentric shells is observed. While in systems with Coulomb interaction the shells clearly emerge at the cluster boundary, they appear almost simultaneously for sufficiently large screening. Monte Carlo simulations are used to show that the sequence, in which radial order is established, is determined by the confinement potential.[4pt] [1] O. Arp, D. Block, A. Piel, and A. Melzer, PRL 93, 165004 (2004)[0pt] [2] H. Baumgartner et al., New J. Phys. 10, 093019 (2008)[0pt] [3] D. Block et al., Phys. Plasmas 15, 040701 (2008)[0pt] [4] H. K"ahlert et al., Phys. Rev. E 78, 036408 (2008)

  6. Pilot studies on discolouration loose deposits' build-up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poças, Ana; Rebola, Nazaré; Rodrigues, Sérgio; Benoliel, Maria João; Rietveld, Luuk; Vreeburg, Jan; Menaia, José

    2015-01-01

    Tap water discolouration occurs due to resuspension of loose deposits (LD) that accumulate in drinking water distribution systems. Strategies for discolouration control involve network pipe cleaning and replacement of cast-iron pipes. However, the sole application of such measures is not generall

  7. DROWNING OF ATOLL-LIKE CARBONATE BUILDUPS ON THE NW PACIFIC GUYOTS LINKED TO CRETACEOUS EQUATORIAL CURRENTS%太平洋西北平顶海山上环礁型碳酸盐建造与白垩纪赤道洋流

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luba JANSA

    2005-01-01

    Cretaceous-Paleogene atolls. These formed through an accumulation of biogenic and inorganic carbonate sediments in mid-oceanic regions. Deep-sea drilling has documented that shallow-water carbonate buildups resembling atolls are capping many of the northwest Pacific guyots. In contrast to the coral-algal bulwarks of modern atolls, the perimeter ridges of these isolated Cretaceous and Paleogene atolls have negligible biohermal content and thus lower up-building capacity. These atolls drowned during the earliest Albian, latest Albian, late Maastrichtian and middle Eocene. The carbonate systems recovered from earlier brief episodes of subaerial exposure and subsequent transgressive flooding. However, when the northward drift of the Pacific plate carried piggy-back these guyots to within ~7° S paleolatitude, the atolls drowned. Several different hypotheses such as atolls emergence, karsting and subaerial erosion, enhanced equatorial upwelling, anoxia and/or presence of nutrient-rich, turbid waters were suggested as the causes of atoll drowning. Study of sedimentary sequences capping the guyots, comprised of a shallow water carbonate buildup, Fe-Mn crusts coating the top of the carbonate buildups and or volcanic pedestal surfaces, and of the overlying pelagic carbonate cap, provide evidence of an overwhelming effect of an equatorial current system on sediment deposition. These late Cretaceous-Paleogene in age atolls drowned when they came into the influence of the proto-South Equatorial Current (pSEC), which created an inhospitable environment for carbonate secreting organisms. A combination of continuing guyot subsidence and northwestward drift of the Pacific plate brought submerging surfaces of guyots into the influence of strong proto-Equatorial Undercurrent (50~400 m bsl), indicated by nondeposition and erosion on guyot surfaces. Precipitation of ferromanganese crusts was initiated between paleolatitude of ~5°S and the equator, when the tops of the guyots subsided

  8. Resistência à remoção por tração de coroas totais metálicas cimentadas em dentes com e sem reconstrução coronária Tensile strength of metal crowns cemented on dental and buildup surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Batista FRANCO

    1999-12-01

    C, 37°C and 55°C, and later subjected to tensile tests in a Universal Kratos testing machine. The results obtained were submitted to ANOVA, showing statistically significant differences (5% between the distinct conditions studied. Regarding the teeth without reconstruction, we verified improved results of Ketac-Cem when using polyacrylic acid. The teeth reconstructed with Vitremer did not show significant statistical difference between the two cementing agents. The reconstruction of teeth buildup surfaces did not hinder the retentiveness of the metal crowns.

  9. Depth Profiling (ICP-MS Study of Toxic Metal Buildup in Concrete Matrices: Potential Environmental Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghada Bassioni

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the potential of concrete material to accumulate toxic trace elements using ablative laser technology (ICP-MS. Concrete existing in offshore structures submerged in seawater acts as a sink for hazardous metals, which could be gradually released into the ocean creating pollution and anoxic conditions for marine life. Ablative laser technology is a valuable tool for depth profiling concrete to evaluate the distribution of toxic metals and locate internal areas where such metals accumulate. Upon rapid degradation of concrete these “hotspots” could be suddenly released, thus posing a distinct threat to aquatic life. Our work simulated offshore drilling conditions by immersing concrete blocks in seawater and investigating accumulated toxic trace metals (As, Be, Cd, Hg, Os, Pb in cored samples by laser ablation. The experimental results showed distinct inhomogeneity in metal distribution. The data suggest that conditions within the concrete structure are favorable for random metal accumulation at certain points. The exact mechanism for this behavior is not clear at this stage and has considerable scope for extended research including modeling and remedial studies.

  10. The Hierarchical Build-Up of Massive Galaxies And the Intracluster Light Since z=1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conroy, Charlie; /Princeton U.; Wechsler, Risa H.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC; Kravtsov, Andrey V.; /Chicago U., Astron. Astrophys. Ctr. /Chicago U., EFI

    2007-03-19

    We use a set of simulation-based models for the dissipationless evolution of galaxies since z = 1 to constrain the fate of accreted satellites embedded in dark matter subhalos. These models assign stellar mass to dark matter halos at z = 1 by relating the observed galaxy stellar mass function (GSMF) to the halo+subhalo mass function monotonically. The evolution of the stellar mass content is then followed using halo merger trees extracted from N-body simulations. Our models are differentiated only in the fate assigned to satellite galaxies once subhalos, within which satellites are embedded, disrupt. These models are confronted with the observed evolution in the massive end of the GSMF, the z {approx} 0 brightest cluster galaxy (BCG)-cluster mass relation, and the combined BCG and intracluster light (ICL) luminosity distribution--all observables expected to evolve approximately dissipationlessly since z = 1. The combined observational constraints favor a model in which the vast majority ({approx}> 80%) of satellite stars from disrupted subhalos go into the ICL (operationally defined here as light below a surface brightness cut of {mu}{sub i} {approx} 23mag arcsec{sup -2}). Conversely, models that leave behind a significant population of satellite galaxies once the subhalo has disrupted are strongly disfavored, as are models that put a significant fraction of satellite stars into the BCG. Our results show that observations of the ICL provide useful and unique constraints on models of galaxy merging and the dissipationless evolution of galaxies in groups and clusters.

  11. Characterization and Quantification of Deposits Buildup and Removal in Biomass Suspension-Fired Boilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shafique Bashir, Muhammad; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Frandsen, Flemming

    2010-01-01

    Utilization of biomass as wood or straw in large suspension­fired boilers is an efficient method to reduce the use of fossil fuels consumption and to reduce the net CO2 formation. However, the presence of chlorine and alkali metals in biomass (straw) generate ash with a low melting point and indu...

  12. Testing Cold Dark Matter with the hierarchical buildup of stellar light

    CERN Document Server

    Balogh, Michael L; Bower, Richard G; Eke, Vincent R

    2008-01-01

    (Abridged) We demonstrate that the tenet of hierarchical structure growth leads directly to a robust, falsifiable prediction for the correlation between stellar fraction (fstar) and total system mass (M500) of galaxy groups and clusters. This prediction is relatively insensitive to the details of baryonic physics or cosmological parameters. In particular, if the fstar-M500 relation is fixed and does not evolve with redshift, CDM models predict the logarithmic slope of this relation to be b>-0.3. This constraint can be weakened if the fstar-M500 relation evolves strongly, but this implies more stars must be formed in situ in groups at low redshift. Conservatively requiring that at least half the stars in groups were formed by z=1, the constraint from evolution models is b>-0.35. Since the most massive clusters (M500=1E15 Msun) are observed to have fstar=0.01, this means that groups with M500=5E13 Msun must have fstar0.04 in groups, leading to b=-0.64. If confirmed, this would rule out hierarchical structure fo...

  13. Effect of density of hydrogen-bonding donor on hydrogen-bonded multilayer buildup

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hongyu; MA Ning; WANG Zhiqiang

    2005-01-01

    The effect of density of hydrogen-bonding donor (HBD) on the formation of layer-by-layer assemblies of poly(4-vinylpyridine) and poly(4-vinylphenol) was investigated. For this purpose, a series of ethyl-substituted poly(4-vinylphenol) (EsPVPhf) with variable ethyl substitute percentage was synthesized by grafting the phenol moiety along the poly(4-vinylphenol) backbone with 1-bromoethane. UV-vis spectroscopy revealed a uniform deposition process of the hydrogen-bonded multilayer consisting of poly(4- vinylpyridine) (PVPy) and EsPVPhf with variable density of HBD. Notably, it was found that increasing the HBD density of EsPVPhf resulted in a marked decrease of both amount of polymers adsorbed and film thickness, which should be related to the EsPVPhf conformation change from coiled state to extended conformation in ethanol solution. Compared with the effect of charge density in polyelectrolyte multilayer, however, there does not exist a critical density of HBD in our case of hydrogen-bonded multilayer assembly. In addition, surface structures of PVPy/EsPVPhf multilayer films also can be tailored controllably by adjusting HBD density of EsPVPhf. As a result, a new method for tuning the structure of hydrogen-bonding-directed multilayer films was developed.

  14. Effectiveness of bonding fiber posts to root canals and composite core build-ups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathke, Andreas; Haj-Omer, Dima; Muche, Rainer; Haller, Bernd

    2009-10-01

    This study investigated the effects of fiber posts, silanization, and luting agents on the interfacial strength to root dentin and composite cores. Root canals of 120 crownless human teeth were instrumented. Three different posts (opaque and translucent), with and without silane treatment, were bonded using etch-and-rinse, self-etch, and self-adhesive luting agents. The restored roots were built up with dual-curing composite. After storage in water for 24 h at 37 degrees C, 2-mm-thick slices were cut from each sample: one from the composite core and one from the restored root. Interfacial push-out bond strengths of the posts were determined in a universal testing machine. Failure modes were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy. The post type and the luting agent had significant effects on both the post-to-dentin and post-to-core strengths. Silanization did not significantly influence post-to-dentin strengths, but enhanced post-to-core strengths. With etch-and-rinse luting agents, debonding occurred predominantly between the post and the cement, while the self-etch and self-adhesive luting agents showed more failures on root dentin. No failures occurred between the composite core and the cement. The combination of translucent posts and etch-and-rinse dual-curing luting agents can positively influence the retention of fiber posts in root canals. Silanization seems to be less relevant for intra-root canal bonding, but may have beneficial effects on post-to-core strengths.

  15. Bolaform supramolecular amphiphiles as a novel concept for the buildup of surface-imprinted films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiawei; Liu, Yiliu; Wu, Guanglu; Schönhoff, Monika; Zhang, Xi

    2011-09-06

    Stable multilayer films were fabricated on the basis of the alternating layer-by-layer assembly of a two-component bolaform supramolecular amphiphile and diazoresins, followed by photochemical cross-linking of the structure. UV-visible spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy revealed a uniform deposition process. Moreover, one component of the supramolecular amphiphile can be removed from the multilayer films after cross-linking between the second component and the diazoresin. The release and uptake of the imprinted supramolecular amphiphile component are shown to be reversible. Furthermore, uptake experiments of different molecules show the selectivity of the imprinted sites for the template molecule. Thus, surface-imprinted films can be formed by employing dissociable two-component supramolecular amphiphiles. This research reveals that supramolecular amphiphiles can be used as a novel concept for the construction of multilayer films, and it also provides a new method of generating surface-imprinted multilayers.

  16. Build-up of macroscopic eigenstates in a memory-based constrained system

    CERN Document Server

    Labousse, Matthieu; Couder, Yves; Fort, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    A bouncing drop and its associated accompanying wave forms a walker. Based on previous works, we show in this article that it is possible to formulate a simple theoretical framework for the walker dynamics. It relies on a time scale decomposition corresponding to the effects successively generated when the memory effects increase. While the short time scale effect is simply responsible for the walker's propulsion, the intermediate scale generates spontaneously pivotal structures endowed with angular momentum. At an even larger memory scale, if the walker is spatially confined, the pivots become the building blocks of a self-organization into a global structure. This new theoretical framework is applied in the presence of an external harmonic potential, and reveals the underlying mechanisms leading to the emergence of the macroscopic spatial organization reported by Perrard et al. (2014, Nature Commun. 5, 3219)

  17. Understanding the build-up of a technological innovation system around hydrogen and fuel cell technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suurs, R.A.A.; Hekkert, M.P.; Smits, R.E.H.M.

    2009-01-01

    This study provides insight into the development of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies in the Netherlands (1980-2007). This is done by applying a Technological Innovation System (TIS) approach. This approach takes the perspective that a technology is shaped by a surrounding network of actors, insti

  18. Fast wave heating in a mirror during plasma build-up

    OpenAIRE

    Moiseenko, Vladimir; Dreval, N.; Ågren, Olov; Stepanov, K.; A. Burdakov; Kalinin, P.; Tereshin, V.

    2010-01-01

    A heating method for partially ionized plasma has been described in reference [V.E. Moiseenko, Sov. J. Plasma Phys. 12, 427 (1986)]. It exploits the collisional damping of fast waves that is large owing to the high rate of charge exchange collisions. Since the time of heating is limited by the duration of neutral gas ionization, the heating needs to be strong enough to achieve a high final ion temperature. This heating method has been studied numerically in the framework of MHD-like (magneto-...

  19. The challenging SO2-mediated chemical build-up of protein aggregates in wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagas, Ricardo; Ferreira, Luísa M; Laia, César A T; Monteiro, Sara; Ferreira, Ricardo B

    2016-02-01

    Despite the extensive research performed during the last decades, the multifactorial mechanism responsible for white wine protein haze formation is not fully characterized. A model is proposed, which is essentially based on two postulates: the experimental identification of sulfur dioxide as the non-proteinaceous factor, and the inference from reliable data available in the literature of the dynamic chemistry played by wine protein sulfhydryl groups. Unlike other reducing agents, addition of SO2 to must/wine upon heating cleaves intraprotein disulfide bonds, hinders thiol-disulfide exchange during protein interactions, and leads to formation of novel interprotein disulfide bonds. These bonds are ultimately responsible for wine protein aggregation following a nucleation-growth kinetic model, as shown by Dynamic Light Scattering experiments. The model was tested in wine model solution (using total and fractionated wine proteins) and validated under real wine conditions. The results achieved may open the way to develop techniques that will find wide application in the wine industry.

  20. Log jams and flood sediment buildup caused channel avulsion in the Pennsylvanian of Atlantic Canada

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gibling, Martin R; Bashforth, Arden Roy; Falcon-Lang, Howard J;

    2010-01-01

    channels. The logs include lycopsids, calamiteans, tree ferns, pteridosperms and cordaitaleans, inferred to have grown on inactive braided tracts near the channels. A compaction estimate suggests that one log accumulation was originally more than four times its present thickness. Most accumulations...

  1. Military Buildup on Guam: Costs and Challenges in Meeting Construction Timelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-27

    Rodham Clinton, Secretary of Defense Robert M. Gates, Minister for Foreign Affairs Matsumoto, and Minister of Defense Kitazawa . Report Documentation...Timelines 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR( S ) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7...PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) U.S. Government Accountability Office,441 G Street NW,Washington,DC,20548 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION

  2. Effect of the LHC Beam Screen Baffle on the Electron Cloud Buildup

    CERN Document Server

    Romano, Annalisa; Li, Kevin; Rumolo, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Electron Cloud (EC) has been identified as one of the major intensity-limiting factors in the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Due to the EC, an additional heat load is deposited on the perforated LHC beam screen, for which only a small cooling capacity is available. In order to preserve the superconducting state of the magnets, pumping slots shields were added on the outer side of the beam screens. In the framework of the design of the beam screens of the new HL-LHC triplets, the impact of these shields on the multipacting process was studied with macroparticle simulations. For this purpose multiple new features had to be introduced in the PyECLOUD code. This contribution will describe the implemented simulation model and summarize the outcome of this study.

  3. Energy Buildup, Flux Confinement and Helicity Accumulation in the Solar Corona

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    You-Qiu Hu; Wen Li

    2006-01-01

    Starting from a dipole field and a given distribution of footpoint displacement of field lines on the photosphere, we find axisymmetric, force-free field solutions in spherical coordinates that have the same distribution of normal field on the photosphere and magnetic topology as the dipole field. A photospheric shear is introduced in the azimuthal direction in a region that strides across the equator and ends at latitude λs. The footpoint displacement has a sine distribution in latitude and a peak amplitude of ψm. The magnetic energy E, azimuthal flux Fψ, and magnetic helicity HT in the solar corona are then calculated for each force-free field solution. It is found that for a given shear region range λs, all of the three quantities increase monotonically with increasing ψm. In particular, both Fψ and HT have a linear dependence on ψm. When ψm reaches a certain critical value ψmc, the force-free field loses equilibrium, leading to a partial opening of the field and the appearance of a current sheet in the equatorial plane. At this point, E, Fψ and HT reach their maximum values,Ec, Fψc and HTc. Ec increases, and Fψc and HTc decrease with decreasing λs. It is found that Ec is always smaller than the open field energy, in agreement with the Aly conjecture. Of the three critical parameters, Ec has the weakest dependence on λs. Therefore, if one is interested in the transition of a magnetic configuration from a stable state to a dynamic one, the magnetic energy is probably the most appropriate marker of the transition.

  4. Modeling of air-droplet interaction, substrate melting and coating buildup in thermal spraying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Guanghua

    Among the many surface coating techniques now available, thermal spray is known to offer the most advantages. It can meet a wide range of technical and engineering requirements in a relatively inexpensive and easily controllable way with the capability of producing repeatable results. In the last few decades a lot of important strides have been made in the field of measurements and modelling of thermal spraying. However, due to the complex of the process and the lack of basic materials-based knowledge about the particle melting, spreading and deposition, the relationship between the process parameters and the coating properties still remains unclear. In thermal spraying, a particle is melted to form a droplet with morphology and thermal- and kinetic-energy status change by the interaction with the plasma/flame. In order to produce higher-quality coatings and expand the use of this versatile family of technologies, modelling of the particle behaviors during in-flight, spreading and deposition is essential. This thesis investigates the connections between particle characteristics and coating properties. Momentum, heat and mass transfer phenomena related to particle in-flight, droplet impacting, spreading, and splat layering are studied. Numerical models are developed to establish the quantitative relationships between spray parameters, particle and substrate properties and deposition characteristics. Most existing theoretical studies of in-flight particle assume that the particle is in a spherical shape without voids inside. The behavior of porous particles in thermal spray has not been well understood. However, the presence of voids in the feedstock powders may have a great impact on particle in-flight behaviors such as particle acceleration, melting and oxidation because a hollowed particle is also lighter than a densed one and this will affect the particle trajectory. The particle shape also needs to be taken into account because it influences the drag force and particle feeding velocity. In this thesis, the level set method is used to study the interaction between the droplet and the surrounding air. The level set function is used to track the deformation of the free surface. The capability of this model on accurately and efficiently simulating the droplet deformation and oscillation is demonstrated. The droplet deformation during in-flight caused by the air-droplet interaction and the droplet-substrate interaction are considered here. Particles with different surface tension and morphologies are studied as well. Droplet substrate interaction is studied to understand the substrate melting behavior. A numerical model is developed to investigate the droplet solidification, substrate melting and re-solidification. A dimensionless parameter, "temperature factor", is proposed from analysis and it can be used as an indicator to predict whether substrate melting will occur for a certain combination of the droplet and substrate. This parameter can be correlated with the maximum melting depth of the substrate. The possibility of heating up the substrate by plasma flame, and attaching a temperature-control device on the backside of the substrate to achieve substrate melting is studied. The substrate front surface temperature can be controlled at a sufficient high temperature. With additional heating from superheated molten droplets and the latent heat of droplet solidification, a thin liquid layer of the substrate can be obtained and epitaxy growth of the splats is possible. This could expand thermal spray technology to the applications of semiconductor and solar energy, both of which need epitaxy crystal with big sizes. To better control the existing thermal spray process, it is important to develop the quantitative relationships between spray parameters and coating characteristics. Until recently, the simulation studies have been focused on two-dimensional models and prediction of the cross-section structure of deposited layers; although a few three-dimensional models are developed as well by using the statistical particle par

  5. Quiet Spike(TradeMark) Build-up Ground Vibration Testing Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spivey, Natalie D.; Herrera, Claudia Y.; Truax, Roger; Pak, Chan-gi; Freund, Donald

    2007-01-01

    Flight tests of the Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation s Quiet Spike(TradeMark) hardware were recently completed on the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Dryden Flight Research Center F-15B airplane. NASA Dryden uses a modified F-15B (836) airplane as a testbed aircraft to cost-effectively fly flight research experiments that are typically mounted underneath the airplane, along the fuselage centerline. For the Quiet Spike(TradeMark) experiment, instead of a centerline mounting, a forward-pointing boom was attached to the radar bulkhead of the airplane. The Quiet Spike(TradeMark) experiment is a stepping-stone to airframe structural morphing technologies designed to mitigate the sonic-boom strength of business jets flying over land. Prior to flying the Quiet Spike(TradeMark) experiment on the F-15B airplane several ground vibration tests were required to understand the Quiet Spike(TradeMark) modal characteristics and coupling effects with the F-15B airplane. Because of flight hardware availability and compressed schedule requirements, a "traditional" ground vibration test of the mated F-15B Quiet Spike(TradeMark) ready-for-flight configuration did not leave sufficient time available for the finite element model update and flutter analyses before flight-testing. Therefore, a "nontraditional" ground vibration testing approach was taken. This report provides an overview of each phase of the "nontraditional" ground vibration testing completed for the Quiet Spike(TradeMark) project.

  6. Evaluation of microshield build-up factors and their limits of applicability / Lucky Mkhonza

    OpenAIRE

    Mkhonza, Lucky

    2007-01-01

    MicroShield is a point-kernel computer code used for gamma-ray shielding and dose rate assessment. It allows the modeling of simple source geometries and simple shielding layouts which lead to very accurate results with low computer time consumption, compared with more advanced methods such as Monte Carlo transport code (e.g., MCNP), among others. The short computer time in finding solutions is due to a deterministic transport using analytic solutions for the direct source contribution (unsca...

  7. The Argo Simulation: II. The Early Build-up of the Hubble Sequence

    CERN Document Server

    Feldmann, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The Hubble sequence is a common classification scheme for the structure of galaxies. Despite the tremendous usefulness of this diagnostic, we still do not fully understand when, where, and how this morphological ordering was put in place. Here, we investigate the morphological evolution of a sample of 22 high redshift ($z\\geq3$) galaxies extracted from the Argo simulation. Argo is a cosmological zoom-in simulation of a group-sized halo and its environment. It adopts the same high resolution ($\\sim10^4$ M$_\\odot$, $\\sim100$ pc) and sub-grid physical model that was used in the Eris simulation but probes a sub-volume almost ten times bigger with as many as 45 million gas and star particles in the zoom-in region. Argo follows the early assembly of galaxies with a broad range of stellar masses ($\\log M_{\\star}/{\\rm M}_{\\odot}\\sim8-11$ at $z\\simeq3$), while resolving properly their structural properties. We recover a diversity of morphologies, including late-type/irregular disc galaxies with flat rotation curves, s...

  8. Simulated Internal Storage Buildup, Release, and Runoff from Greenland Ice Sheet at Kangerlussuaq, West Greenland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mernild, S. H.; Liston, G. E.; van den Broeke, M.R.

    2012-01-01

    This study focused on simulated glacier surface conditions (simulated Surface Melt and liquid Precipitation available for supra-, en-, sub-, and proglacial flow processes [after vertical percolation and potential storage within the snowpack] [henceforth SMP]), internal water storage and release, and

  9. Modelling Venting and Pressure Build-up in a 18650 LCO Cell during Thermal Runaway (ABSTRACT)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coman, Paul Tiberiu; Veje, Christian; White, Ralph

    reactions in the anode, cathode and SEI, but also in electrochemical reactions and boiling of the electrolyte is developed for a cylindrical 18650 LCO cell (Lithium Cobalt Oxide). For determining the pressure and the temperature after venting, the isentropic flow equations are included in the model...

  10. Adaptive build-up and breakdown of trust : An agent based computational approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorobets, A.; Nooteboom, B.

    2005-01-01

    This article employs Agent-Based Computational Economics (ACE) to investigate whether, and under what conditions, trust is viable in markets. The emergence and breakdown of trust is modeled in a context of multiple buyers and suppliers. Agents develop trust in a partner as a function of observed loy

  11. Observing the build-up of the colour-magnitude relation at redshift ~0.8

    CERN Document Server

    De Lucia, G; Aragón-Salamanca, A; Clowe, D; Halliday, C; Jablonka, P; Milvang-Jensen, B; Pellò, R; Poirier, S; Rudnick, G; Saglia, R; Simard, L C; White, S D M

    2004-01-01

    We analyse the rest-frame (U-V) colour-magnitude relation for 2 clusters at redshift 0.7 and 0.8, drawn from the ESO Distant Cluster Survey. By comparing with the population of red galaxies in the Coma cluster, we show that the high redshift clusters exhibit a deficit of passive faint red galaxies. Our results show that the red-sequence population cannot be explained in terms of a monolithic and synchronous formation scenario. A large fraction of faint passive galaxies in clusters today has moved onto the red sequence relatively recently as a consequence of the fact that their star formation activity has come to an end at z<0.8.

  12. Buildup and simulation of a truck model with rear air suspension using leaf spring as guiding rod

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A new kind of commercial truck is presented, which has rear air suspension using leaf spring as guiding rod instead of original leaf spring. ADAMS/Car is used as a tool to build the whole truck model. The designed truck's constant-radius cornering analysis and its ride performance simulation analysis under B class random road condition are carried out according to national experimental method standards. Compared the simulation results with the field test results indicate that performance index of the designed air suspension truck's constant-radius cornering and its ride performance meets the design requirements and reaches its prospective target. And results from simulation are similar to those from tests in value and trend, which indicates the virtual prototype is correct. The model can be used further to optinize suspension parameters and do some design work on the control system of air suspension.

  13. Modification of SRIM-calculated dose and injected ion profiles due to sputtering, injected ion buildup and void swelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jing; Toloczko, Mychailo B.; Bailey, Nathan; Garner, Frank A.; Gigax, Jonathan; Shao, Lin

    2016-11-01

    In radiation effects on materials utilizing self-ion irradiations, it is necessary to calculate the local displacement damage level and ion injection profile because of the short distance that self-ions travel in a material and because of the strong variation of displacement rate with depth in a specimen. The most frequently used tool for this is the software package called Stopping and Range of Ions in Matter (SRIM). A SRIM-calculated depth-dependent dose level is usually determined under the implicit assumption that the target does not undergo any significant changes in volume during the process, in particular SRIM ignores the effect of sputtering, injected ions, and void swelling on the redistribution of the dose and injected atom profiles. This approach become increasingly invalid as the ion fluence reaches ever higher levels, especially for low energy ion irradiations. The original surface is not maintained due to sputter-induced erosion, while within the irradiated region of the specimen, injected ions are adding material, and if void swelling is occurring, it is creating empty space. An iterative mathematical treatment of SRIM outputs to produce corrected dose and injected atom profiles is presented along with examples differences between SRIM-calculated values and corrected values over a range of typical ion energies.

  14. Quantification of Ash Deposit Build-up and Removal in a Straw and Wood Suspension-Fired Boiler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shafique Bashir, Muhammad; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Frandsen, Flemming

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate ash deposit formation rate, heat uptake reduction and deposit removal by using advanced online ash deposition and sootblowing probes in a 350 MWth suspension­fired boiler, utilizing wood and straw pellets as fuel. The influence of fuel type (straw share in...

  15. The Liquid Sustainer Build-up Time Impact on the Emptying Spacecraft Fuel Tank in Free Orbiting Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. B. Sapozhnikov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Trouble-free operation of liquid rocket engines (LRE depends, among other factors, on the nonstop supply of liquid rocket fuel components in the fuel tank feed line with continuous flow.This condition becomes especially relevant for the aerial vehicles (AV in orbital (suborbital environment. With a little filled fuel tanks discontinuity of flow may occur because of pressurizing gas blow-by in the feed line as a result of the funnel generation (with or without vortex formation and so-called phenomenon of dynamic failure of the interface "liquid-gas”.The paper presents a mathematical model of the process of emptying tank initially a little filled and having a reduced level of the gravity acceleration. Using the developed mathematical model a parametric study has been conducted to find how stabilization rate of liquid flow effects on the volume of drained liquid. The computational experiment defines gas blow-by points in the feed line and propellant residuals, depending on the flow rate, physical properties of the fuel components, residual value of the acceleration, and diameter of the feed line.As a result, an effect is discovered that previously has been never mentioned in publications on research of the emptying processes of the aircraft fuel tanks, namely: with abrupt bootstrap of the flow rate a blow-by of gas occurs at the initial stage of emptying tank. In this case, to ensure LRE trouble-free operation there is a need in a special inner-tank device to prevent premature blow-by of pressurizing gas in the tank feed line.

  16. Modification of SRIM-calculated dose and injected ion profiles due to sputtering, injected ion buildup and void swelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Toloczko, Mychailo B.; Bailey, Nathan; Garner, Frank A.; Gigax, Jonathan; Shao, Lin

    2016-11-01

    In radiation effects on materials utilizing self-ion irradiations, it is necessary to calculate the local displacement damage level and ion injection profile because of the short distance that self-ions travel in a material and because of the strong variation of displacement rate with depth in a specimen. The most frequently used tool for this is the software package called Stopping and Range of Ions in Matter (SRIM). A SRIM-calculated depth-dependent dose level is usually determined under the implicit assumption that the target does not undergo any significant changes in volume during the process, in particular SRIM ignores the effect of sputtering, injected ions, and void swelling on the redistribution of the dose and injected ion profiles. This approach become increasingly invalid as the ion fluence reaches ever higher levels, especially for low energy ion irradiations. The original surface is not maintained due to sputter-induced erosion, while within the irradiated region of the specimen, injected ions are adding material, and if void swelling is occurring, it is creating empty space. An iterative mathematical treatment of SRIM outputs to produce corrected dose and injected ion profiles based on these phenomenon and without regard to diffusion is presented along with examples of differences between SRIM-calculated values and corrected values over a range of typical ion energies. The intent is to provide the reader with a convenient tool for more accurately calculating dose and injected ion profiles for heavy-ion irradiations.

  17. Landscape imprints of changing glacial regimes during ice sheet build-up and decay: A study from Svalbard, Norwegian Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landvik, J. Y.; Alexanderson, H.; Henriksen, M.; Ingolfsson, O.

    2013-12-01

    Ice sheet behavior and their geologic imprints in fjord regions are often multifaceted. Fjords, which were temporarily occupied by fast flowing outlet glaciers or ice streams during major glaciations, and inter-fjord areas, which were covered by less active ice, show different signatures of past glaciations. The land and marine records of glaciations over the western Svalbard fjord region have been extensively studied during the last few decades. We have re-examined ice flow records from stratigraphic and geomorphic settings, and propose a succession of ice flow styles that occurred repeatedly over the glacial cycles: the maximum, the transitional, and the local flow style. The different topographically constrained segments of the ice sheet switched behavior as glacial dynamics changed during each glacial cycle. These segments, as well as the different flow styles, are reflected differently in the offshore stratigraphic record. We propose that the glacial geomorphological signatures in the inter ice-stream areas mostly developed under warm-based conditions during a late phase of the glaciations, and that the overall glacial imprints in the landscape are strongly biased towards the youngest events.

  18. Transmission grid extensions during the build-up of a fully renewable pan-European electricity supply

    CERN Document Server

    Becker, Sarah; Andresen, Gorm B; Schramm, Stefan; Greiner, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Spatio-temporal generation patterns for wind and solar photovoltaic power in Europe are used to investigate the future rise in transmission needs with an increasing penetration of these variable renewable energy sources (VRES) on the pan-European electricity system. VRES growth predictions according to the official National Renewable Energy Action Plans of the EU countries are used and extrapolated logistically up to a fully VRES-supplied power system. We find that keeping today's international net transfer capacities (NTCs) fixed over the next forty years reduces the final need for backup energy by 13% when compared to the situation with no NTCs. An overall doubling of today's NTCs will lead to a 26% reduction, and an overall quadrupling to a 33% reduction. The remaining need for backup energy is due to correlations in the generation patterns, and cannot be further reduced by transmission. The main investments in transmission lines are due during the ramp-up of VRES from 15% (as planned for 2020) to 80%. Add...

  19. Ash transformation and deposit build-up during biomass suspension and grate firing: Full-scale experimental studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shafique Bashir, Muhammad; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Frandsen, Flemming

    2012-01-01

    of this study was to investigate ash transformation and deposition behavior in two biomass-fired boilers, firing wheat straw and/or wood. The influence of strawfiring technology (grate and suspension) on the ash transformation, deposit formation rate and deposit characteristics has been investigated. Bulk...... on similar levels. This was observed even though the concentration of fly ash in the flue gas was significantly higher during straw suspension firing. The influence of co-combustion of wood with straw on deposit formation rate, probe heat uptake and deposit characteristicswas also investigated during...... suspension firing conditions. Data from 35% straw suspension firing with wood showed a deposit formation rate of 33 g/m2/h for the first 12 h. The deposit formation rate increased to 41 g/m2/h with 100% strawfiring. The probe heat uptake reduction up to 40 h of exposure time was 3.0, 7.3, 8.4 and 16.5 kW/m2...

  20. Modeling of gamma ray energy-absorption buildup factors for thermoluminescent dosimetric materials using multilayer perceptron neural network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kucuk, Nil; Manohara, S.R.; Hanagodimath, S.M.

    2013-01-01

    V, and for penetration depths up to 10 mfp (mean-free-path). The MLPNNs have been trained by a Levenberg–Marquardt learning algorithm. The developed model is in 99% agreement with the ANSI/ANS-6.4.3 standard data set. Furthermore, the model is fast and does not require tremendous computational efforts. The estimated BA...

  1. VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS). The distinct build-up of dense and normal massive passive galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Gargiulo, A; Scodeggio, M; Krywult, J; De Lucia, G; Guzzo, L; Garilli, B; Grannet, B R; de la Torre, S; Abbas, U; Adami, C; Arnouts, S; Bottini, D; Cappi, A; Cucciati, O; Davidzon, I; Franzetti, P; Fritz, A; Haines, C; Hawken, A; Iovino, A; Brun, V Le; Fèvre, O Le; Maccagni, D; Małek, K; Marulli, F; Moutard, T; Polletta, M; Pollo, A; Tasca, L A M; Tojeiro, R; Vergani, D; Zanichelli, A; Zamorani, G; Bel, J; Branchini, E; Coupon, J; Ilbert, O; Moscardini, L

    2016-01-01

    We use the final data from the VIPERS redshift survey to extract an unparalleled sample of more than 2000 massive M > 10^11 M_sun passive galaxies (MPGs) at redshift 0.5 2000 M_sun pc^-2) MPGs show a constant comoving number density over this redshift range, whilst this increases by a factor ~ 4 for the least dense objects, defined as having Sigma 10^11 M_sun objects). Such systems observed at z ~ 1 in VIPERS, therefore, represent the most plausible progenitors of the subsequent emerging class of larger MPGs.

  2. Resonant light power buildup in ALPS, a ''light shining through a wall''-experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, Tobias; Danzmann, Karsten; Willke, Benno [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik, Albert Einstein Institut (Germany); Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik, Leibniz Universitaet Hannover, Callinstrasse 38, D-30167 Hannover (Germany); Ehret, Klaus; Ghazaryan, Samvel; Knabbe, Axel; Lindner, Axel; List, Jenny; Meyer, Niels; Notz, Dieter; Redondo, Javier; Ringwald, Andreas [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestrasse 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Frede, Maik; Hildebrandt, Matthias [Laserzentrum Hannover e.V., Hollerithallee 8, D-30419 Hannover (Germany); Wiedemann, Guenter [Hamburger Sternwarte, Gojenbergsweg 112, D-21029 Hamburg (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    We report on the first successfull application of a new experimental technique to search for weakly interacting sub-eV particles (WISPs) coupling to photons. As part of the ALPS experiment located at DESY in Hamburg, this technique uses an optical resonator to enhance the power inside a HERA dipole magnet on the production side of a typical ''light shining through a wall''-experiment. We use a frequency doubled continuous-wave laser emitting 0.6 W of power at 532 nm that is stabilized to a linear optical resonator with 8 m length. On resonance we achieve a circulating power of 34 W within the magnet. With this we obtained sensitivities corresponding to a coupling strength of g{approx}5.10{sup -7} GeV{sup -1} for interactions of axion-like particles and photons. The experimental setup and possible improvements are described and compared with common experimental designs with pulsed lasers.

  3. Numerical modeling of field-assisted ion-exchanged channel waveguides by the explicit consideration of space-charge buildup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrozek, Piotr

    2011-08-01

    A numerical model explicitly considering the space-charge density evolved both under the mask and in the region of optical structure formation was used to predict the profiles of Ag concentration during field-assisted Ag+--Na+ ion exchange channel waveguide fabrication. The influence of the unequal values of diffusion constants and mobilities of incoming and outgoing ions, the value of a correlation factor (Haven ratio), and particularly space-charge density induced during the ion exchange, on the resulting profiles of Ag concentration was analyzed and discussed. It was shown that the incorporation into the numerical model of a small quantity of highly mobile ions other than exclusively Ag+ and Na+ may considerably affect the range and shape of calculated Ag profiles in the multicomponent glass. The Poisson equation was used to predict the electric field spread evolution in the glass substrate. The results of the numerical analysis were verified by the experimental data of Ag concentration in a channel waveguide fabricated using a field-assisted process.

  4. Buildup of aerosol precursor gases and sulfur-induced activation of soot in nascent jet aircraft exhaust plumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaercher, B.; Hirschberg, M.M.; Fabian, P. [Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Bioklimatologie und Immissionsforschung; Gerz, T. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Oberpfaffenhofen (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere

    1997-12-31

    Research issues concerning the chemical transformation of exhaust trace gases are summarized. The photochemical evolution of NO{sub x} early in the plume is strongly coupled to plume mixing. Substantial amounts of HNO{sub 3} are generated in nascent plumes even if no NO{sub 2} is emitted. The production of H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} becomes very efficient if part of the fuel sulfur is emitted as SO{sub 3}. Each emitted soot particle can acquire 1-10% by mass fully oxidized sulfur molecules prior to binary homogeneous nucleation, if a few percent of the exhaust SO{sub x} are emitted as SO{sub 3}, indicating an important activation pathway for soot, and leading to a marked enhancement of new aerosol formation and growth rates. (author) 11 refs.

  5. Report on the Second KIMS-CNA Conference: The PLA Navys Build-Up and ROK-USN Cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    day Manchuria . 5 Awareness of this dispute over history is important to keep in mind, since it introduces elements of both outrage and suspicion...Urgency and Responsibility in Carrying out the PLA’s Historic Missions), Harbin Engineering University Navy Selection Office (haijun xuanpeiban; 海军选配办...region—which extends to much of Manchuria —well into the future can be nipped in the bud should any ancient histories of China’s current northeastern

  6. In-situ buildup of cosmogenic isotopes at the earth`s surface: measurement of erosion rates and exposure times

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fifield, L.K.; Allan, G.L.; Stone, J.O.H.; Evans, J.M.; Cresswell, R.G.; Ophel, T.R. [Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT (Australia)

    1993-12-31

    Cosmic rays produce a number of nuclides in rocks that can be used to determine the geomorphic history of surfaces. The most useful are the radioactive isotopes {sup 10}Be (t{sub 1/2} = 1.5Ma), {sup 26}Al (0.7Ma) and {sup 36}Cl (0.3Ma). Within the top 2m of the surface, these are produced principally by fast neutrons. At greater depths, production is dominated by the capture of negative muons. Measurements of a single nuclide produced in situ can be used to determine total exposure times or erosion rates. The use of multiple nuclides with different half-lives makes it possible to determine more complex histories, such as exposures interrupted by periods of burial. At the ANU, all three of the isotopes above are being used to study a variety of problems in geomorphology and paleoclimatology, although to date, most of the work has concentrated on {sup 36}Cl. The accumulation of cosmogenic {sup 36}Cl in calcite (CaCO{sub 3}) provides a means of measuring erosion rates on limestone surfaces. Sensitivity is achieved over a wide range of erosion rates due to the high production rate of {sup 36}Cl in calcite (typically greater than 30 atoms/g/yr) and a detection limit of ca. 5000 atoms/g attainable with the ANU AMS system. The method is simplified by the predominance of Ca reactions (principally spallation) over other sources of {sup 36}Cl in calcite, and the ease of sample preparation. This presentation discuss the results of measurements of {sup 36}Cl in calcite from limestone samples from Australia and Papua New Guinea. Erosion rates derived from these measurements range from 3 microns per year (Australia) to over 200 microns per year in the New Guinea highlands. 3 refs.

  7. The build-up of osmotic stress responses within the growing root apex using kinematics and RNA-sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royer, Mathilde; Cohen, David; Aubry, Nathalie; Vendramin, Vera; Scalabrin, Simone; Cattonaro, Federica; Bogeat-Triboulot, Marie-Béatrice; Hummel, Irène

    2016-11-01

    Molecular regulation of growth must include spatial and temporal coupling of cell production and cell expansion. The underlying mechanisms, especially under environmental challenge, remain obscure. Spatial patterns of cell processes make the root apex well suited to deciphering stress signaling pathways, and to investigating both processes. Kinematics and RNA-sequencing were used to analyze the immediate growth response of hydroponically grown Populus nigra cuttings submitted to osmotic stress. About 7400 genes and unannotated transcriptionally active regions were differentially expressed between the division and elongation zones. Following the onset of stress, growth decreased sharply, probably due to mechanical effects, before recovering partially. Stress impaired cell expansion over the apex, progressively shortened the elongation zone, and reduced the cell production rate. Changes in gene expression revealed that growth reduction was mediated by a shift in hormone homeostasis. Osmotic stress rapidly elicited auxin, ethylene, and abscisic acid. When growth restabilized, transcriptome remodeling became complex and zone specific, with the deployment of hormone signaling cascades, transcriptional regulators, and stress-responsive genes. Most transcriptional regulations fit growth reduction, but stress also promoted expression of some growth effectors, including aquaporins and expansins Together, osmotic stress interfered with growth by activating regulatory proteins rather than by repressing the machinery of expansive growth.

  8. Bed mixing and leachate recycling strategies to overcome pressure drop buildup in the biofiltration of hydrogen sulfide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshani, Babak; Torkian, Ayoob; Aslani, Hasan; Dehghanzadeh, Reza

    2012-04-01

    The effects of leachate recycling and bed mixing on the removal rate of H(2)S from waste gas stream were investigated. The experimental setup consisted of an epoxy-coated three-section biofilter with an ID of 8 cm and effective bed height of 120 cm. Bed material consisted of municipal solid waste compost and PVC bits with an overall porosity of 54% and dry bulk density of 0.456 g cm(-3). Leachate recycling had a positive effect of increasing elimination capacity (EC) up to 21 g S m(-3) bed h(-1) at recycling rates of 75 ml d(-1), but in the bed mixing period EC declined to 8 g S m(-3) bed h(-1). Pressure drop had a range of zero to 18 mm H(2)O m(-1) in the course of leachate recycling. Accumulation of sulfur reduced removal efficiency and increased pressure drop up to 110 mm H(2)O m(-1) filter during the bed mixing stage.

  9. Evaluation of build-up dose from 6 MV X-rays under pelvic and abdominal patient immobilisation devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheung Tsang; Butson, M.J.Martin J. E-mail: mbutson@usa.netmbutson@guessmail.com; Yu, P.K.N

    2002-06-01

    The use of pelvic and abdominal immobilisation devices in radiotherapy is required for accurate positioning and repositioning of patients during their fractionated treatment delivered normally over a period of 5-6 weeks. 6 MV X-rays produced by a medical linear accelerator have a skin sparing effect whereby the skin dose delivered is considerably less than that received by the tumour. The treatment through a vacuum compressed immobilisation device (Vacbag) however increases the dose delivered to the skin by interactions of the X-rays within the Vacbag material. For example, the basal layer doses increased from 16% for an open field to 52% of maximum with a bag thickness of 2.5 cm for a 10 cmx10 cm field at 6 MV X-ray energy. At the same field size the dermal skin layer (1 mm depth) doses increased from 44% (no bag) to 60% for a bag thickness of 2.5 cm at 6 MV X-rays. The Vacbag should be placed outside the treatment field whenever possible to keep skin dose to a minimum level.

  10. The optimization of intensity modulated radiotherapy in cases where the planning target volume extends into the build-up region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, T B; Hoole, A C F; Thomas, S J [Medical Physics Department, Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Hills Road, Cambridge CB2 0QQ (United Kingdom); Burnet, N G [Department of Oncology, University of Cambridge, Oncology Centre (Box 193), Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Hills Road, Cambridge, CB2 0QQ (United Kingdom)], E-mail: binh.nguyen-thai@polytechnique.org

    2009-04-21

    A common clinical problem in IMRT, especially when treating head and neck cases, is that the clinical target volume (CTV) stops short of the skin surface, whilst the margin for geometric uncertainties may take the planning target volume (PTV) to the skin surface or beyond. In these cases, optimization leads to over-dosing of the skin, unless the planner resorts to procedural tricks to avoid this, such as the use of pretend bolus or reduction of the PTV followed by adding 'flash' after optimization. This paper describes a method of avoiding the need for these tricks by using a multiple-isocentre CTV-based objective function. This enables plans to be produced that will give good coverage of the CTV for all the geometrical uncertainties that would have been covered by the PTV without causing the problem of over-dosing the skin. Eight isocentre shifts, equally distributed on the surface of a sphere with a radius equal to the CTV-PTV margin, are shown to be adequate for the optimization process. The resulting fluence maps are much simpler than those resulting from PTV optimization and will therefore be simpler to deliver. The method also permits better sparing of organs at risk such as the spinal cord.

  11. The optimization of intensity modulated radiotherapy in cases where the planning target volume extends into the build-up region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, T. B.; Hoole, A. C. F.; Burnet, N. G.; Thomas, S. J.

    2009-04-01

    A common clinical problem in IMRT, especially when treating head and neck cases, is that the clinical target volume (CTV) stops short of the skin surface, whilst the margin for geometric uncertainties may take the planning target volume (PTV) to the skin surface or beyond. In these cases, optimization leads to over-dosing of the skin, unless the planner resorts to procedural tricks to avoid this, such as the use of pretend bolus or reduction of the PTV followed by adding 'flash' after optimization. This paper describes a method of avoiding the need for these tricks by using a multiple-isocentre CTV-based objective function. This enables plans to be produced that will give good coverage of the CTV for all the geometrical uncertainties that would have been covered by the PTV without causing the problem of over-dosing the skin. Eight isocentre shifts, equally distributed on the surface of a sphere with a radius equal to the CTV-PTV margin, are shown to be adequate for the optimization process. The resulting fluence maps are much simpler than those resulting from PTV optimization and will therefore be simpler to deliver. The method also permits better sparing of organs at risk such as the spinal cord.

  12. Fertility build-up in differently fertilized Salix stands. Final report; Boerdighetsuppbyggnad i differentierat goedslade Salixbestaand. Slutrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alriksson, Boerje; Granhall, U. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2001-12-01

    In order to study the effects of intensively grown short rotation willow coppice on soil chemical and micro-biological properties, pH, C{sub tot}, N{sub tot}, NO{sub 3}{sup -}, NH{sub 4}{sup +}, microbial-biomass (CFE), potential mineralisation (NH{sub 4}{sup +} conc. after anaerobic incubation) in differentially N-fertilised willow stands (Salix viminalis) were investigated. Especially fertilisation performed during the 2:nd rotation resulted in a reduction in pH in the upper 5acm. C{sub tot} in the upper 2 cm layer tended to increase with increasing total willow production, a relationship that was counteracted by fertilisation performed during the 2:nd rotation. The ratio C{sub tot}/N{sub tot} decreased in the upper 2 cm layer with increasing amounts of N-fertilisers supplied during the 2:nd rotation mainly due to a lower immobilisation of C in microbial-biomass. Stem-wood production during the 2:nd rotation was negatively or noncorrelated to fertilisation supplied in single years during the 2:nd rotation. The willow plants used only a smaller portion of the N supplied during the 2:nd rotation and the excess influenced negatively on soil parameters that are crucial for soil fertility (pH, N-mineralisation). Our results show that an intense supply of N-fertilisers during the last year of the list rotation and annual supplies higher than 50 kg N/ha, didn't lead to an increased willow production but instead resulted in a reduced soil fertility.

  13. Herschel -ATLAS: revealing dust build-up and decline across gas, dust and stellar mass selected samples - I. Scaling relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vis, P.; Dunne, L.; Maddox, S.; Gomez, H. L.; Clark, C. J. R.; Bauer, A. E.; Viaene, S.; Schofield, S. P.; Baes, M.; Baker, A. J.; Bourne, N.; Driver, S. P.; Dye, S.; Eales, S. A.; Furlanetto, C.; Ivison, R. J.; Robotham, A. S. G.; Rowlands, K.; Smith, D. J. B.; Smith, M. W. L.; Valiante, E.; Wright, A. H.

    2017-02-01

    We present a study of the dust, stars and atomic gas (H I) in an H I-selected sample of local galaxies (z sample reveals a population of very high gas fraction (>80 per cent), low stellar mass sources that appear to be in the earliest stages of their evolution. We compare this sample with dust- and stellar-mass-selected samples to study the dust and gas scaling relations over a wide range of gas fractions (proxy for evolutionary state of a galaxy). The most robust scaling relations for gas and dust are those linked to near-ultraviolet - r (specific star formation rate) and gas fraction; these do not depend on sample selection or environment. At the highest gas fractions, our additional sample shows that the dust content is well below expectations from extrapolating scaling relations for more evolved sources, and dust is not a good tracer of the gas content. The specific dust mass for local galaxies peaks at a gas fraction of ˜75 per cent. The atomic gas depletion time is also longer for high gas fraction galaxies, opposite to the trend found for molecular gas depletion time-scale. We link this trend to the changing efficiency of conversion of H I to H2 as galaxies increase in stellar mass surface density during their evolution. Finally, we show that galaxies start out barely obscured and increase in obscuration as they evolve, yet there is no clear and simple link between obscuration and global galaxy properties.

  14. The build-up of the colour-magnitude relation in galaxy clusters since z~0.8

    CERN Document Server

    De Lucia, G; Aragón-Salamanca, A; White, S D M; Zaritsky, D; Clowe, D; Halliday, C; Jablonka, P; Von der Linden, A; Milvang-Jensen, B; Pellò, R; Rudnick, G; Saglia, R P; Simard, L; Lucia, Gabriella De; Poggianti, Bianca M.; Aragon-Salamanca, Alfonso; White, Simon D. M.; Zaritsky, Dennis; Clowe, Douglas; Halliday, Claire; Jablonka, Pascale; Linden, Anja von der; Milvang-Jensen, Bo; Pello', Roser; Rudnick, Gregory; Saglia, Roberto P.; Simard, Luc

    2006-01-01

    Using galaxy clusters from the ESO Distant Cluster Survey, we study how the distribution of galaxies along the colour-magnitude relation has evolved since z~0.8. While red-sequence galaxies in all these clusters are well described by an old, passively evolving population, we confirm our previous finding of a significant evolution in their luminosity distribution as a function of redshift. When compared to galaxy clusters in the local Universe, the high redshift EDisCS clusters exhibit a significant "deficit" of faint red galaxies. Combining clusters in three different redshift bins, and defining as `faint' all galaxies in the range 0.4 > L/L* > 0.1, we find a clear decrease in the luminous-to-faint ratio of red galaxies from z~0.8 to z~0.4. The amount of such a decrease appears to be in qualitative agreement with predictions of a model where the blue bright galaxies that populate the colour-magnitude diagram of high redshift clusters, have their star formation suppressed by the hostile cluster environment. Al...

  15. The build-up of the red-sequence in galaxy clusters since z~0.8

    CERN Document Server

    De Lucia, G; Aragón-Salamanca, A; Clowe, D; Halliday, C; Jablonka, P; Milvang-Jensen, B; Pellò, R; Poirier, S; Rudnick, G; Saglia, R; Simard, L; White, S D M

    2004-01-01

    We study the rest-frame (U-V) color-magnitude relation in 4 clusters at redshifts 0.7-0.8, drawn from the ESO Distant Cluster Survey. We confirm that red-sequence galaxies in these clusters can be described as an old, passively-evolving population and we demonstrate, by comparison with the Coma cluster, that there has been significant evolution in the stellar mass distribution of red-sequence galaxies since z~0.75. The EDisCS clusters exhibit a deficiency of low luminosity passive red galaxies. Defining as `faint' all galaxies in the passive evolution corrected range 0.4>~ L/L*>~0.1, the luminous-to-faint ratio of red-sequence galaxies varies from 0.34+/-0.06 for the Coma cluster to 0.81+/-0.18 for the high redshift clusters. These results exclude a synchronous formation of all red-sequence galaxies and suggest that a large fraction of the faint red galaxies in current clusters moved on to the red-sequence relatively recently. Their star formation activity presumably came to an end at z<~0.8.

  16. Effect of Carbon Sources on the Biomass Build-Up and Degradation of Rubber Processing Industry Effluent

    OpenAIRE

    Girish, K.

    2014-01-01

    Rubber processing industry effluent represents a serious environmental pollution problem especially for underground and surface water. Wastewater collected from rubber processing industry was characterized for their pollution characteristics. Analysis showed that the biological oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total dissolved solids (TDS), total suspended solids (TSS), total solids (TS), ammonia and phosphate were high when compared to effluent discharge standard for industr...

  17. An Objective Measurement of the Build-Up of Auditory Streaming and of Its Modulation by Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Sarah K.; Carlyon, Robert P.; Cusack, Rhodri

    2011-01-01

    Three experiments studied auditory streaming using sequences of alternating "ABA" triplets, where "A" and "B" were 50-ms tones differing in frequency by [delta]f semitones and separated by 75-ms gaps. Experiment 1 showed that detection of a short increase in the gap between a B tone and the preceding A tone, imposed on one ABA triplet, was better…

  18. Extreme Water Loss and Abiotic O$_2$ Buildup On Planets Throughout the Habitable Zones of M Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Luger, Rodrigo

    2014-01-01

    We show that terrestrial planets in the habitable zones of M dwarfs older than $\\sim$ 1 Gyr could have been in runaway greenhouses for several hundred Myr following their formation due to the star's extended pre-main sequence phase, provided they form with abundant surface water. Such prolonged runaway greenhouses can lead to planetary evolution divergent from that of Earth. During this early runaway phase, photolysis of water vapor and hydrogen/oxygen escape to space can lead to the loss of several Earth oceans of water from planets throughout the habitable zone, regardless of whether the escape is energy-limited or diffusion-limited. We find that the amount of water lost scales with the planet mass, since the diffusion-limited hydrogen escape flux is proportional to the planet surface gravity. In addition to undergoing potential desiccation, planets with inefficient oxygen sinks at the surface may build up hundreds to thousands of bars of abiotically produced O$_2$, resulting in potential false positives fo...

  19. Extreme water loss and abiotic O2 buildup on planets throughout the habitable zones of M dwarfs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luger, R; Barnes, R

    2015-02-01

    We show that terrestrial planets in the habitable zones of M dwarfs older than ∼1 Gyr could have been in runaway greenhouses for several hundred million years following their formation due to the star's extended pre-main sequence phase, provided they form with abundant surface water. Such prolonged runaway greenhouses can lead to planetary evolution divergent from that of Earth. During this early runaway phase, photolysis of water vapor and hydrogen/oxygen escape to space can lead to the loss of several Earth oceans of water from planets throughout the habitable zone, regardless of whether the escape is energy-limited or diffusion-limited. We find that the amount of water lost scales with the planet mass, since the diffusion-limited hydrogen escape flux is proportional to the planet surface gravity. In addition to undergoing potential desiccation, planets with inefficient oxygen sinks at the surface may build up hundreds to thousands of bar of abiotically produced O2, resulting in potential false positives for life. The amount of O2 that builds up also scales with the planet mass; we find that O2 builds up at a constant rate that is controlled by diffusion: ∼5 bar/Myr on Earth-mass planets and up to ∼25 bar/Myr on super-Earths. As a result, some recently discovered super-Earths in the habitable zone such as GJ 667Cc could have built up as many as 2000 bar of O2 due to the loss of up to 10 Earth oceans of water. The fate of a given planet strongly depends on the extreme ultraviolet flux, the duration of the runaway regime, the initial water content, and the rate at which oxygen is absorbed by the surface. In general, we find that the initial phase of high luminosity may compromise the habitability of many terrestrial planets orbiting low-mass stars.

  20. Providing of environmental safety at construction of residential buildings in compact build-up area / Обеспечение экологической безопасности при строительстве жилых зданий в районах с плотной застройкой

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seleznev M.G. / Селезнев Михаил Георгиевич

    Full Text Available Manufacture of civil work in areas with dense building is defined by some major factors of ecological safety of inhabitants. To these factors carry also essential increase in levels of the power impurity including effect of vibration on objects and people in a wide range of frequencies (I include infraыonic and ultrasonic. In article the problem of influence of the raised level of sound pressure on on people and objects is described. The issue of influence of the increased level of sound pressure on people and objects in the areas of compact build-up area was considered. Suitability of assessment of levels of vibration influence on nearby buildings and structures at the stage of design by means of calculation way with the next changing of technological process during the implementation of construction operations was argued. / Освещена проблема влияния повышенного уровня звукового давления на людей и объекты в районах с плотной застройкой. Обоснована целесообразность оценки уровней вибровоз-действия на близлежащие здания и сооружения на стадии проектирования расчетным способом с последующим внесением изменений в технологический процесс при производстве строительных работ.

  1. Diagenesis and application of LiDAR in reservoir analogue studies: karstification in the Cretaceous Apulia carbonate platform dolomitization in the Triassic Latemar carbonate buildup

    OpenAIRE

    Jacquemyn, Carl

    2013-01-01

    The ever-increasing demand for energy and hydrocarbons coincides with gradual depletion of currently producing conventional oil and gas reservoirs. Therefore new exploration plays are extended to more complex oil and gas plays, such as karstified limestones and hydrothermal dolomites. Furthermore production from currently producing reservoirs is optimized by revisiting or improving the geological knowledge of these reservoirs. These two perspectives are covered in this study on dolomitization...

  2. A Study of Venezuela’s Internal and External Threat and the United States Security Assistance Program in the Build-Up and Modernization of Her Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-09-01

    to this threat by creating her own "Comision para el Desarrollo .• 99 .°mWhI ° del Sur de Venezuela (CODESUR)" - Commission for the Development of...Management, WPAFB OH, 3 January 1984. 17. Diccionario Enciclopedico Abreviado. Espasa-Calpe, S.A. Madrid, Spain, 941-971, 197. 18. Denton, Charles F

  3. Fast prediction of the fatigue behavior of short-fiber-reinforced thermoplastics based on heat build-up measurements: application to heterogeneous cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Leonell; Marco, Yann; Le Saux, Vincent; Robert, Gilles; Charrier, Pierre

    2017-03-01

    Short-fiber-reinforced thermoplastics components for structural applications are usually very complex parts as stiffeners, ribs and thickness variations are used to compensate the quite low material intrinsic stiffness. These complex geometries induce complex local mechanical fields but also complex microstructures due to the injection process. Accounting for these two aspects is crucial for the design in regard to fatigue of these parts, especially for automotive industry. The aim of this paper is to challenge an energetic approach, defined to evaluate quickly the fatigue lifetime, on three different heterogeneous cases: a classic dog-bone sample with a skin-core microstructure and two structural samples representative of the thickness variations observed for industrial components. First, a method to evaluate dissipated energy fields from thermal measurements is described and is applied to the three samples in order to relate the cyclic loading amplitude to the fields of cyclic dissipated energy. Then, a local analysis is detailed in order to link the energy dissipated at the failure location to the fatigue lifetime and to predict the fatigue curve from the thermomechanical response of one single sample. The predictions obtained for the three cases are compared successfully to the Wöhler curves obtained with classic fatigue tests. Finally, a discussion is proposed to compare results for the three samples in terms of dissipation fields and fatigue lifetime. This comparison illustrates that, if the approach is leading to a very relevant diagnosis on each case, the dissipated energy field is not giving a straightforward access to the lifetime cartography as the relation between fatigue failure and dissipated energy seems to be dependent on the local mechanical and microstructural state.

  4. Employer Brand Buildup Based on Human Resources Management Procedure%基于人力资源管理流程的雇主品牌构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冉宁

    2015-01-01

    雇主品牌能够帮助企业吸引和留住优秀的人才,在人力资源市场获得持久竞争优势。文章分析了人力资源管理与雇员聘用的状态关系,并以此为基础,从识人、选人、用人、育人、留人的人力资源管理流程方面阐述了如何构建雇主品牌。%Employer Brand can help enterprises attract and retain outstanding employees as well as enhancing lasting competitive advantages in the human resources market. This paper analyzes the relationship between human resource management and employment, and with the thus obtained results, expounds how to establish the Employer Brand from the procedure of human resource management including selecting, employing, training and retaining employees.

  5. Characterization and Quantification of Deposit Build-up and Removal in Straw Suspension-Fired Boilers - Ph.d. thesis Muhammad Shafique Bashir

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shafique Bashir, Muhammad

    of the local parameters as fuel gas temperature, probe surface temperature and fuel changes. Simulation results showed that the model over predicts the DDF-rate quantitatively but the qualitative behavior was in accordance with the experimental findings. The model predictions regarding probe heat uptake were......An increased use of biomass in large suspension-red power plants can be a relatively economic and potentially also efficient way to utilize biomass for heat and power production. However, large deposit formation problems limit the electrical efficiency by limiting the maximum applicable superheater...... in different biomass suspension-red boilers by using advanced ash deposition probes. Two kinds of ash deposition probes have been used. A horizontal probe that has been developed further, which can register probe temperature, deposit mass uptake, heat uptake and video monitoring. First steps have also been...

  6. Fuel buildup and potential fire behavior after stand-replacing fires, logging fire-killed trees and herbicide shrub removal in Sierra Nevada forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinnis, Thomas W.; Keeley, Jon E.; Stephens, Scott L.; Roller, Gary B.

    2010-01-01

    Typically, after large stand-replacing fires in mid-elevation Sierra Nevada forests, dense shrub fields occupy sites formerly occupied by mature conifers, until eventually conifers overtop and shade out shrubs. Attempting to reduce fuel loads and expedite forest regeneration in these areas, the USDA Forest Service often disrupts this cycle by the logging of fire-killed trees, replanting of conifers and killing of shrubs. We measured the effects of these treatments on live and dead fuel loads and alien species and modeled potential fire behavior and fire effects on regenerating forests. Sampling occurred in untreated, logged and herbicide-treated stands throughout the Sierra Nevada in four large fire areas 4–21 years after stand-replacing fires. Logging fire-killed trees significantly increased total available dead fuel loads in the short term but did not affect shrub cover, grass and forb cover, alien species cover or alien species richness. Despite the greater available dead fuel loads, fire behavior was not modeled to be different between logged and untreated stands, due to abundant shrub fuels in both logged and untreated stands. In contrast, the herbicide treatment directed at shrubs resulted in extremely low shrub cover, significantly greater alien species richness and significantly greater alien grass and forb cover. Grass and forb cover was strongly correlated with solar radiation on the ground, which may be the primary reason that grass and forb cover was higher in herbicide treated stands with low shrub and tree cover. Repeat burning exacerbated the alien grass problem in some stands. Although modeled surface fire flame lengths and rates of spread were found to be greater in stands dominated by shrubs, compared to low shrub cover conifer plantations, surface fire would still be intense enough to kill most trees, given their small size and low crown heights in the first two decades after planting.

  7. Heterogeneous Shallow-Shelf Carbonate Buildups in the Paradox Basin, Utah and Colorado: Targets for Increased Oil Production and Reserves Using Horizontal Drilling Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chidsey, Jr., Thomas C.; Eby, David E.; Wray, Laural L.

    2001-11-26

    The project's primary objective was to enhance domestic petroleum production by demonstration and transfer of horizontal drilling technology in the Paradox Basin, Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico. If this project can demonstrate technical and economic feasibility, then the technique can be applied to approximately 100 additional small fields in the Paradox Basin alone, and result in increased recovery of 25 to 50 million barrels (4-8 million m3) of oil. This project was designed to characterize several shallow-shelf carbonate reservoirs in the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation, choose the best candidate(s) for a pilot demonstration project to drill horizontally from existing vertical wells, monitor well performance(s), and report associated validation activities.

  8. Heterogeneous Shallow-Shelf Carbonate Buildups in the Paradox Basin, Utah and Colorado: Targets for Increased Oil Production and Reserves Using Horizontal Drilling Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wray, Laura L.; Eby, David E.; Chidsey, Jr., Thomas C.

    2002-07-24

    This report covers research activities for the second half of the second project year (October 6, 2001, through April 5, 2002). This work includes description and analysis of cores, correlation of geophysical well logs, reservoir mapping, petrographic description of thin sections, cross plotting of permeability and porosity data, and development of horizontal drilling strategies for the Little Ute and Sleeping Ute fields in Montezuma County, Colorado. Geological characterization on a local scale focused on reservoir heterogeneity, quality, and lateral continuity, as well as possible compartmentalization, within these fields. This study utilizes representative core, geophysical logs, and thin sections to characterize and grade each field's potential for drilling horizontal laterals from existing development wells.

  9. Royal jelly-like protein localization reveals differences in hypopharyngeal glands buildup and conserved expression pattern in brains of bumblebees and honeybees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Štefan Albert

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Royal jelly proteins (MRJPs of the honeybee bear several open questions. One of them is their expression in tissues other than the hypopharyngeal glands (HGs, the site of royal jelly production. The sole MRJP-like gene of the bumblebee, Bombus terrestris (BtRJPL, represents a pre-diversification stage of the MRJP gene evolution in bees. Here we investigate the expression of BtRJPL in the HGs and the brain of bumblebees. Comparison of the HGs of bumblebees and honeybees revealed striking differences in their morphology with respect to sex- and caste-specific appearance, number of cells per acinus, and filamentous actin (F-actin rings. At the cellular level, we found a temporary F-actin-covered meshwork in the secretory cells, which suggests a role for actin in the biogenesis of the end apparatus in HGs. Using immunohistochemical localization, we show that BtRJPL is expressed in the bumblebee brain, predominantly in the Kenyon cells of the mushroom bodies, the site of sensory integration in insects, and in the optic lobes. Our data suggest that a dual gland-brain function preceded the multiplication of MRJPs in the honeybee lineage. In the course of the honeybee evolution, HGs dramatically changed their morphology in order to serve a food-producing function.

  10. Characterization and Quantification of Deposit Build-up and Removal in Straw Suspension-Fired Boilers - Ph.d. thesis Muhammad Shafique Bashir

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shafique Bashir, Muhammad

    characteristics has been investigated. Full-scale probe measurements were conducted at a 250 MWth suspension boiler, ring straw and wood in suspension, and the results were compared with measurements conducted at a 105 MWth straw-red grate boiler. Bulk elemental analysis of fly ashes revealed that fly ash from...... molten particles (> 20 m) rich in Si, K and Ca with small amounts of Mg, P, and potassium salts on the outer surface, and 3) small particles rich in K, Cl and S (aerosols, between 0.1 and 5 m). Ash deposition data were compared with data from previously conducted deposit probe measurements in biomass...... was higher during straw suspension ring. The objective of the second probe measuring series was to investigate the influence of fuel type (straw share in wood), probe exposure time, probe surface temperature (500 °C, 550 °C and 600 °C), and fuel gas temperature (600-1050 °C) on the transient deposit build...

  11. An Innovative Rigid Tray Technique as a New Alternative Matrix System for Buildup of Severely Damaged Endodontically Treated Teeth (A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saied Mostafa Moazzami

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Direct restoration of severely damaged endodontically treated teeth (ETT using available and conventional and current matrix systems is sometimes impractical and in some clinical cases is impossible. The aim of this paper is to introduce and describe a new matrix system based on Rigid Tray Technique (RTT for dealing with such difficult clinical cases.

  12. Herschel-ATLAS: Revealing dust build-up and decline across gas, dust and stellar mass selected samples: I. Scaling relations

    CERN Document Server

    De Vis, P; Maddox, S; Gomez, H L; Clark, C J R; Bauer, A E; Viaene, S; Schofield, S P; Baes, M; Baker, A J; Bourne, N; Driver, S P; Dye, S; Eales, S A; Furlanetto, C; Ivison, R J; Robotham, A S G; Rowlands, K; Smith, D J B; Smith, M W L; Valiante, E; Wright, A H

    2016-01-01

    We present a study of the dust, stars and atomic gas (HI) in an HI-selected sample of local galaxies (z80 per cent), low stellar mass sources that appear to be in the earliest stages of their evolution. We compare this sample with dust and stellar mass selected samples to study the dust and gas scaling relations over a wide range of gas fraction (proxy for evolutionary state of a galaxy). The most robust scaling relations for gas and dust are those linked to NUV-r (SSFR) and gas fraction, these do not depend on sample selection or environment. At the highest gas fractions, our additional sample shows the dust content is well below expectations from extrapolating scaling relations for more evolved sources, and dust is not a good tracer of the gas content. The specific dust mass for local galaxies peaks at a gas fraction of ~75 per cent. The atomic gas depletion time is also longer for high gas fraction galaxies, opposite to the trend found for molecular gas depletion timescale. We link this trend to the changi...

  13. On the buildup of massive early-type galaxies at z<~1. I- Reconciling a significant, recent assembly through major mergers with mass-downsizing

    CERN Document Server

    Eliche-Moral, M C; Gallego, J; Barro, G; Zamorano, J; Lopez-Sanjuan, C; Balcells, M; Guzman, R; Munoz-Mateos, J C

    2010-01-01

    Several studies have tried to ascertain whether or not the increase in abundance of the early-type galaxies (E-S0a's) with time is mainly due to major mergers, reaching opposite conclusions. We have tested it directly through semi-analytical modelling, by studying how the massive early-type galaxies with log(M_*/Msun)>11 at z~0 (mETGs) would have evolved backwards-in-time, under the hypothesis that each major merger gives place to an early-type galaxy. The study was carried out just considering the major mergers strictly reported by observations at each redshift, and assuming that gas-rich major mergers experience transitory phases of dust-reddened, star-forming galaxies (DSFs). The model is able to reproduce the observed evolution of the galaxy LFs at z<~1, simultaneously for different rest-frame bands (B, I, and K) and for different selection criteria on color and morphology. It also provides a framework in which apparently-contradictory results on the recent evolution of the luminosity function (LF) of ...

  14. A dosimetric phantom study of dose accuracy and build-up effects using IMRT and RapidArc in stereotactic irradiation of lung tumours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seppala Jan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and purpose Stereotactic lung radiotherapy (SLRT has emerged as a curative treatment for medically inoperable patients with early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC and the use of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT and volumetric modulated arc treatments (VMAT have been proposed as the best practical approaches for the delivery of SLRT. However, a large number of narrow field shapes are needed in the dose delivery of intensity-modulated techniques and the probability of underdosing the tumour periphery increases as the effective field size is decreased. The purpose of this study was to evaluate small lung tumour doses irradiated by intensity-modulated techniques to understand the risk for dose calculation errors in precision radiotherapy such as SLRT. Materials and methods The study was executed with two heterogeneous phantoms with targets of Ø1.5 and Ø4.0 cm. Dose distributions in the simulated tumours delivered by small sliding window apertures (SWAs, IMRT and RapidArc treatment plans were measured with radiochromic film. Calculation algorithms of pencil beam convolution (PBC and anisotropic analytic algorithm (AAA were used to calculate the corresponding dose distributions. Results Peripheral doses of the tumours were decreased as SWA decreased, which was not modelled by the calculation algorithms. The smallest SWA studied was 2 mm, which reduced the 90% isodose line width by 4.2 mm with the Ø4.0 cm tumour as compared to open field irradiation. PBC was not able to predict the dose accurately as the gamma evaluation failed to meet the criteria of ±3%/±1 mm on average in 61% of the defined volume with the smaller tumour. With AAA the corresponding value was 16%. The dosimetric inaccuracy of AAA was within ±3% with the optimized treatment plans of IMRT and RapidArc. The exception was the clinical RapidArc plan with dose overestimation of 4%. Conclusions Overall, the peripheral doses of the simulated lung tumours were decreased by decreasing the SWA. To achieve adequate surface dose coverage to small lung tumours with a difference less than 1 mm in the isodose line radius between the open and modulated field, a larger than 6 mm SWA should be used in the dose delivery of SLRT.

  15. Transport and build-up of tropospheric trace gases during the MINOS campaign: comparision of GOME, in situ aircraft measurements and MATCH-MPIC-data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ladstätter-Weißenmayer

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The MINOS (Mediterranean INtensive Oxidant Study campaign was an international, multi-platform field campaign to measure long-range transport of air-pollution and aerosols from South East Asia and Europe towards the Mediterranean basin during August 2001. High pollution events were observed during this campaign. For the Mediterranean region enhanced tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2 and formaldehyde (HCHO, which are precursors of tropospheric ozone (O3, were detected by the satellite based GOME (Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment instrument and compared with airborne in situ measurements as well as with the output from the global 3D photochemistry-transport model MATCH-MPIC (Model of Atmospheric Transport and CHemistry - Max Planck Institute for Chemistry. The increase of pollution in that region leads to severe air quality degradation with regional and global implications.

  16. High Back Pressure on Pressure Safety Valves (PSVs) in a Flare System. Developing the Simulation model, Identifying and analyzing the back-pressure build-up

    OpenAIRE

    Sahoo, Muktikanta

    2013-01-01

    Process safety is a disciplined framework for managing the integrity of operating systems and processes handling hazardous substances. It is achieved by applying good design principles, engineering, and operating and maintenance practices. Flare systems play an important role in the safety of Oil and Gas installations by serving as outlets for emergency pressure relief in case of process upsets. Accurate and reliable estimation of system thermo-hydraulic parameters, especially system ...

  17. 甲醇合成过程的建模、分析与优化%Module Build-up, Analysis and Optimization for Methanol Synthesis Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟庆军

    2005-01-01

    通过物料衡算与热量衡算,对甲醇合成反应过程进行了建模,以matlab语言为工具进行了多元非线性方程组的求解与验证,从而定量给出了各种工况下的工艺指标、各股物料参数,定量分析和探讨了各操作参数对合成反应过程的影响.

  18. Spectroscopic far ultraviolet observations of transition zone instabilities and their possible role in a pre-flare energy build-up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brueckner, G. E.; Patterson, N. P.; Scherrer, V. E.

    1976-01-01

    Highly flare-productive newly emerging active regions are characterized by numerous small low-lying loops which frequently show a chaotic pattern. Flare activity in such a region subsides as the chaotic loop structures relax and expand into a bipolar configuration. The transition zone in such an active region is highly unstable, as shown by broadened and shifted nonthermal line profiles of medium-ionized elements like Si III, Si IV, and C IV. These transition-zone instabilities, which occur as isolated events in active regions of low flare productivity, are often observed prior to flares. Transition-zone instabilities can be traced to the footpoints of active loops and seem to be accompanied by heating of the loop. The loops vary in size and show differing degrees of activity, with the brightest and most compact ones seemingly being in a pre-flare state which results in the catastrophic energy release along the loop during a flare.

  19. Performance of a Novel Fertilizer-Drawn Forward Osmosis Aerobic Membrane Bioreactor (FDFO-MBR: Mitigating Salinity Build-Up by Integrating Microfiltration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, three different fertilizer draw solutions were tested in a novel forward osmosis-microfiltration aerobic membrane bioreactor (MF-FDFO-MBR hybrid system and their performance were evaluated in terms of water flux and reverse salt diffusion. Results were also compared with a standard solution. Results showed that ammonium sulfate is the most suitable fertilizer for this hybrid system since it has a relatively high water flux (6.85 LMH with a comparatively low reverse salt flux (3.02 gMH. The performance of the process was also studied by investigating different process parameters: draw solution concentration, FO draw solution flow rate and MF imposed flux. It was found that the optimal conditions for this hybrid system were: draw solution concentration of 1 M, FO draw solution flow rate of 200 mL/min and MF imposed flux of 10 LMH. The salt accumulation increased from 834 to 5400 μS/cm during the first four weeks but after integrating MF, the salinity dropped significantly from 5400 to 1100 μS/cm suggesting that MF is efficient in mitigating the salinity build up inside the reactor. This study demonstrated that the integration of the MF membrane could effectively control the salinity and enhance the stable FO flux in the OMBR.

  20. Single-atom coherent field electron emitters for practical application to electron microscopy: Buildup controllability, self-repairing function and demountable characteristic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rokuta, E. [Institute for Material Science and Technologies, Waseda University, 2-8-26 Nishiwaseda, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-0051 (Japan)]. E-mail: rokuta@waseda.jp; Itagaki, T. [Institute for Material Science and Technologies, Waseda University, 2-8-26 Nishiwaseda, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-0051 (Japan); Ishikawa, T. [Institute for Material Science and Technologies, Waseda University, 2-8-26 Nishiwaseda, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-0051 (Japan); Cho, B.-L. [Institute for Material Science and Technologies, Waseda University, 2-8-26 Nishiwaseda, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-0051 (Japan); Kuo, H.-S. [Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Nankang, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Tsong, T.T. [Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Nankang, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Oshima, C. [Institute for Material Science and Technologies, Waseda University, 2-8-26 Nishiwaseda, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-0051 (Japan)

    2006-03-15

    We have fabricated single-atom field emission (FE) tips by annealing Rh-deposited W tips at 900 K, and the FE characteristics were investigated. Due to the formation of the nanotips, the electron beams were confined in a semi-cone angle of 3 deg., an indication quite different from the conventional FE beams. In repairing-function test where the FE nanotips were intentionally destroyed beforehand, they recovered the peculiar FE characteristics by means of feasible low temperature annealing. Finally, we found that the present nanotips equipped the capability of recovering the unique FE properties even after an exposure to the air. These characteristics are significantly relevant to the practical applications to electron-optics instruments.

  1. Together, Slowly but Surely: The Role of Social Interaction and Feedback on the Build-Up of Benefit in Collective Decision-Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami, Bahador; Olsen, Karsten; Bang, Dan; Roepstorff, Andreas; Rees, Geraint; Frith, Chris

    2012-01-01

    That objective reference is necessary for formation of reliable beliefs about the external world is almost axiomatic. However, Condorcet (1785) suggested that purely subjective information--if shared and combined via social interaction--is enough for accurate understanding of the external world. We asked if social interaction and objective…

  2. The 3 vs 1 game build-up effectiveness examination in physical and technical tests of 11-year-old football players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tóth jr. Janos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Study aim: The aim of this study is to prove that young players who have been coached with the main focus on technical ability and player interaction, perform better when tested on physical and technical attributes.

  3. Heterogeneous Shallow-Shelf Carbonate Buildups in the Paradox Basin, Utah and Colorado: Targets for Increased Oil Production and Reserves Using Horizontal Drilling Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chidsey, Thomas C. Jr.; Eby, David E.; Wray, Laura L.

    2001-04-19

    The primary objective of this project was to enhance domestic petroleum production by demonstration and transfer of horizontal drilling technology in the Paradox basin, Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico. If this project can demonstrate technical and economic feasibility, then the technique can be applied to approximately 100 additional small fields in the Paradox basin alone, and result in increased recovery of 25 to 50 million barrels (40-80 million m3) of oil. This project was designed to characterize several shallow-shelf carbonate reservoirs in the Pennsylvania (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation, choose the best candidate(s) for a pilot demonstration project to drill horizontally from existing vertical wells, monitor well performances, and report associated validation activities.

  4. Tentative idea for build-up of Shanghai natural gas SCADA system%上海天然气SCADA系统组建设想

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄均义

    2000-01-01

    作者根据自己多年来从事计算机应用项目,尤其是SCADA系统项目的经验,针对"西气东输"后上海地区天然气发展的客观要求,讨论了天然气SCADA系统的有关技术问题,提出了组建天然气SCADA系统的设想.

  5. The Coronal Global Evolutionary Model (CGEM): Using HMI Vector Magnetogram and Doppler Data to Model the Buildup of Free Magnetic Energy in the Solar Corona

    CERN Document Server

    Fisher, George H; Bercik, David J; Kazachenko, Maria D; Lynch, Benjamin J; Welsch, Brian T; Hoeksema, J Todd; Hayashi, Keiji; Liu, Yang; Norton, Aimee A; Dalda, Alberto Sainz; Sun, Xudong; DeRosa, Marc L; Cheung, Mark C M

    2015-01-01

    The most violent space weather events (eruptive solar flares and coronal mass ejections) are driven by the release of free magnetic energy stored in the solar corona. Energy can build up on timescales of hours to days, and then may be suddenly released in the form of a magnetic eruption, which then propagates through interplanetary space, possibly impacting the Earth's space environment. Can we use the observed evolution of the magnetic and velocity fields in the solar photosphere to model the evolution of the overlying solar coronal field, including the storage and release of magnetic energy in such eruptions? The objective of CGEM, the Coronal Global Evolutionary Model, funded by the NASA/NSF Space Weather Modeling program, is to develop and evaluate such a model for the evolution of the coronal magnetic field. The evolving coronal magnetic field can then be used as a starting point for magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) models of the corona, which can then be used to drive models of heliospheric evolution and predi...

  6. The cosmic far-infrared background buildup since redshift 2 at 70 and 160 microns in the COSMOS and GOODS fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jauzac, M.; Dole, H.; Le Floc'h, E.; Aussel, H.; Caputi, K.; Ilbert, O.; Salvato, M.; Bavouzet, N.; Beelen, A.; Bethermin, M.; Kneib, J. -P.; Lagache, G.; Puget, J. -L.

    2011-01-01

    Context. The cosmic far-infrared background (CIB) at wavelengths around 160 mu m corresponds to the peak intensity of the whole extragalactic background light, which is being measured with increasing accuracy. However, the build up of the CIB emission as a function of redshift is still not well know

  7. The Relation between Galaxy Structure and Spectral Type: Implications for the Buildup of the Quiescent Galaxy Population at 0.5

    CERN Document Server

    Yano, Michael; van der Wel, Arjen; Whitaker, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    We present the relation between galaxy structure and spectral type, using a K-selected galaxy sample at 0.51.5 and significantly smaller than all other galaxy types at the same redshift. This result suggests that the suppression of star formation may be associated with significant structural evolution at z>1.5. At z<1, galaxy types with intermediate sSFRs (10^{-11.5}-10^{-10.5} yr^-1) do not have post-starburst SED shapes. These galaxies have similar sizes as older quiescent galaxies, implying that they can passively evolve onto the quiescent sequence, without increasing the average size of the quiescent galaxy population.

  8. The Coronal Global Evolutionary Model: Using HMI Vector Magnetogram and Doppler Data to Model the Buildup of Free Magnetic Energy in the Solar Corona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, G. H.; Abbett, W. P.; Bercik, D. J.; Kazachenko, M. D.; Lynch, B. J.; Welsch, B. T.; Hoeksema, J. T.; Hayashi, K.; Liu, Y.; Norton, A. A.; Dalda, A. Sainz; Sun, X.; DeRosa, M. L.; Cheung, M. C. M.

    2015-06-01

    The most violent space weather events (eruptive solar flares and coronal mass ejections) are driven by the release of free magnetic energy stored in the solar corona. Energy can build up on timescales of hours to days, and then may be suddenly released in the form of a magnetic eruption, which then propagates through interplanetary space, possibly impacting the Earth's space environment. Can we use the observed evolution of the magnetic and velocity fields in the solar photosphere to model the evolution of the overlying solar coronal field, including the storage and release of magnetic energy in such eruptions? The objective of CGEM, the Coronal Global Evolutionary Model, funded by the NASA/NSF Space Weather Modeling program, is to develop and evaluate such a model for the evolution of the coronal magnetic field. The evolving coronal magnetic field can then be used as a starting point for magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) models of the corona, which can then be used to drive models of heliospheric evolution and predictions of magnetic field and plasma density conditions at 1AU.

  9. On the role of the post-starburst phase in the build-up of the red-sequence of intermediate redshift clusters

    CERN Document Server

    De Lucia, Gabriella; Halliday, Claire; Milvang-Jensen, Bo; Noll, Stefan; Smail, Ian; Zaritsky, Dennis

    2009-01-01

    We present new deep spectroscopic observations of 0.05--0.5 L_* galaxies in one cluster (cl1232.5-1250) drawn from the ESO Distant Cluster Survey (EDisCS) sample, at z = 0.54. The new data extend the spectroscopy already available for this cluster by about 1 magnitude. The cluster has a large fraction of passive galaxies and exhibits a well defined and relatively tight colour-magnitude relation. Among spectroscopic members, only six galaxies are classified as `post-starburst' (k+a). For another EDisCS cluster at similar redshift and with as deep spectroscopy, no member is found to have a k+a spectrum. The low measured numbers of post-starburst systems appear to be inadequate to explain the observed increase of faint red galaxies at lower redshift, even when accounting for the infall of new galaxies onto the cluster. Post-starburst galaxies represent a possible channel to move galaxies from the blue star-forming cloud to the red-sequence, but the available data suggest this is not the dominant channel in galax...

  10. Build-up restoration of the journals of wheelset axles%轮对车轴轴颈的喷涂修复

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    В·A·ОКОВИТЫЙ

    2004-01-01

    就经济方面而言,金属喷涂修复工艺可为企业创造巨大的经济效益.文章介绍了用该方法修复内燃机车车轴轴颈的详细过程.同时,还对经修复的车轴进行了装车试验,效果显著.

  11. Cenozoic exhumation of the internal Zagros : First constraints from low-temperature thermochronology and implications for the build-up of the Iranian plateau

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    François, T.; Agard, P.; Bernet, M.; Meyer, B.; Chung, S.-L.; Zarrinkoub, M. H.; Burov, E.; Monié, P.

    2014-01-01

    The Iranian plateau is a flat ~. 1.5-2. km high plateau thought to result from the collision between the Arabian and Eurasian plates since ~. 30 ± 5. Ma, and may represent a young analogue to the so far better studied Tibetan plateau. In order to constrain the exhumation history of the internal Zagr

  12. Build-up SQL Server 2005 Based Hospital Data Warehouse and Data Mining%基于SQL Server 2005数据仓库构建与数据挖掘

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺海平; 李捷; 贺明

    2008-01-01

    采用Microsoft SQL Server 2005作为构建数据仓库的技术平台,针对医院的住院、门诊和病历首页的历史记录,构建了医院的数据仓库实例,为医院管理者提供多层次、多角度的数据挖掘和分析,增强医院决策和合理配置医疗资源起到积极作用.

  13. EFFECT OF TIG SURFACE REMELTING PROCESS ON CAVITATION EROSION RESISTANCE FOR A PRE-WELD BUILDUP LAYER%TIG表面重熔对堆焊层耐空泡腐蚀的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷玉成; 冯良厚; 赵晓军

    2007-01-01

    用氩弧熔化焊(MIG)在4020碳钢表面堆焊耐空泡腐蚀材料,然后采用TIG(钨极氩弧焊),将堆焊层改性;通过与传统磨削表面加工对比,研究了TIG表面重熔对空泡腐蚀的影响.结果表明:在45 h空泡腐蚀试验后,磨削试样的累积失重量是TIG表面重熔试样的1.57倍;奥氏体到马氏体的相变是Stellite 21材料吸收空泡冲击能的主要途径,而TIG表面重熔加工可以延迟相变,延长吸收空泡冲击的时间,减缓空蚀;TIG重熔表面抑制了片层状马氏体的裂纹发展,避免了大的物质剥落.

  14. HerMES: deep number counts at 250, 350, and 500 microns in the COSMOS and GOODS-N fields and the build-up of the cosmic infrared background

    CERN Document Server

    Béthermin, M; Ilbert, O; Conley, A; Lagache, G; Amblard, A; Arumugam, V; Aussel, H; Berta, S; Bock, J; Boselli, A; Buat, V; Casey, C M; Castro-Rodríguez, N; Cava, A; Clements, D L; Cooray, A; Dowell, C D; Eales, S; Farrah, D; Franceschini, A; Glenn, J; Griffin, M; Hatziminaoglou, E; Heinis, S; Ibar, E; Ivison, R J; Kartaltepe, J S; Levenson, L; Magdis, G; Marchetti, L; Marsden, G; Nguyen, H T; O'Halloran, B; Oliver, S J; Omont, A; Page, M J; Panuzzo, P; Papageorgiou, A; Pearson, C P; Pérez-Fournon, I; Pohlen, M; Rigopoulou, D; Roseboom, I G; Rowan-Robinson, M; Salvato, M; Schulz, B; Scott, Douglas; Seymour, N; Shupe, D L; Smith, A J; Symeonidis, M; Trichas, M; Tugwell, K E; Vaccari, M; Valtchanov, I; Vieira, J D; Viero, M; Wang, L; Xu, C K; Zemcov, M

    2012-01-01

    ABRIGED Herschel/SPIRE has provided confusion limited maps of deep fields at 250, 350, and 500um, as part of the HerMES survey. Due to confusion, only a small fraction of the Cosmic Infrared Background can be resolved into individually-detected sources. Our goal is to produce deep galaxy number counts and redshift distributions below the confusion limit, which we then use to place strong constraints on the origins of the cosmic infrared background and on models of galaxy evolution. We individually extracted the bright SPIRE with a method using the positions, the flux densities, and the redshifts of the 24um sources as a prior, and derived the number counts and redshift distributions of the bright SPIRE sources. For fainter SPIRE sources, we reconstructed the number counts and the redshift distribution below the confusion limit using the deep 24um catalogs associated with photometric redshift and information provided by the stacking of these sources into the deep SPIRE maps. Finally, by integrating all these c...

  15. Core Power Delivery Network Analysis of Core and Coreless Substrates in a Multilayer Organic Buildup Package%对有核与无核多层基板的供电网络分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ozgur Misman; Mike DeVita; Nozad Karim

    2014-01-01

    由于具有高密度布线能力和相对合理的成本,在特殊用途集成电路(ASICs)的倒装封装中使用叠积层式(build-up)有机基板非常受欢迎.典型的叠积层式基板包括核层和其双侧的高密度布线层(叠积层).核层为封装提供所需刚度,其厚度可以是400μm,600μm,或800μm.新兴的无核基板技术去除了核层,可以提高布线密度,减薄封装,和获得更好的电气性能.本文比较了8层有核与无核基板在31mm和900锡球封装中的核心供电网络(PDN)的性能.在50MHz到2GHz频域内,我们用矢量网络分析仪测得两路高频S参数以分析相应的PDN.测量与模拟结果十分吻合.另外,我们还在时域内模拟计算了PDN对瞬变电流的响应.

  16. 海尔市场链再造和SBU建设解析%Research and analysis on Haier market chain-based BPR and the build-up of SBU

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏梅; 滕文志

    2005-01-01

    海尔集团在其市场链流程再造过程中,不仅按市场化模式对其主、辅流程进行了重构,而且实施了旨在为每一位员工创造"经营自我"创新环境的市场链经营主体(SBU)建设,将海尔市场链流程再造的变革推向了一个新的高度.深入研究这一管理模式内在的机理及其产生的影响,对推进我国企业制度变革和管理创新具有重要意义.

  17. Changing the paradigm for marine data production, dissemination and validation with Collaborative Platforms. The GlobColour webservice, a prime example which leads to the integration of CWE technologies to build-up virtual research centres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanton d'Andon, Odile; Martin-Lauzer, François-Regis; Mangin, Antoine; Barrot, Gilbert; Clouaire, Stephane; Sardou, Olivier; Demaria, Julien; Serra, Romain

    2015-04-01

    The GlobColour webservice provides a rich dataset of marine bio-geochemical information for research and education purposes. We report on recent evolutions to improve the functionalities of the service to access EO and in-situ data and check information quality. In addition, a new concept, the Collaborative Platform, support the processing of bespoke information for remote users. At the root of the service is an integrated and automated production chain, processing not only EO satellite data but also in-situ measurements from bio-Argo floats. This production chain provides daily updated bio-geochemical data and performs automated data analysis (merging of sensors, temporal and spatial binning). The GlobColour webservice has been recently upgraded to provide improved navigation and selection capabilities. These evolutions were necessary as the catalogue of EO products has been significantly increased, with many new parameters, new spatial resolution (1 km over Europe in addition to 4 km global products) and projections (rectangular grid in addition to sinus grid). The validation and quality control of the information is essential to demonstrate the fitness-for-purpose of the service. Match-ups between in-situ measurements and EO data are a key element to establish the validity of the information. The standard approach is to perform these match-ups off-line using a database of in-situ measurements, and report the results in a validation document. Two innovations are introduced which greatly increase the value for the user: • An interactive navigation tool allows a detailed analysis the results of the match-ups, with temporal and geographical selection capabilities. Background information for each match-up can be easily retrieved, both for in-situ (measurement identification) and for satellite data (context retrieval, providing information such as cloud coverage and spatial variability). This allows users to get a better insight into the validity of the retrieved data for their particular applications. • Match-ups using real-time EO data and data collected from bio-Argo floats are processed automatically on-the-fly. • This is possible because quality control of the bio-Argo float data is also automated. A dedicated interface has been set-up to monitor the whole fleet of Bio-Argo floats, and access detailed information from each acquired profile. Finally, a Collaborative Platform has been developed to support R&D activities in parallel to the standard production chain, enabling users to work remotely within a dedicated production environment in order to develop new algorithms and methods. The Collaborative Platform is based on a Collaborative Working Environment, a secured IT environment mixing hardware and software elements. It provides access to raw data, to processing and storage facilities, to specific applicative software (e.g. visualisation and post-processing tools). In addition, collaborative tools to exchange data, information and ideas between participants (through forums, web-conferencing…) contribute to create a "Virtual Research Centre" preparing future evolutions of the service. Acknowledgements: This research received funding from the following projects: • MCGS project funded by the Fonds Unique Interministériel, French regional funds PACA and Bretagne, the Fonds Européen de Développement Régional • FP7 Copernicus projects OSS2015 (grant n° 282723) and E-AIMS (grant n° 312642). • The French EQUIPEX project NAOS

  18. Two improvements to the dynamic wake meandering model: including the effects of atmospheric shear on wake turbulence and incorporating turbulence build-up in a row of wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keck, Rolf-Erik; de Mare, Martin Tobias; Churchfield, Matthew J.;

    2015-01-01

    agreement with the reference data. A quantitative comparison between the mean flow field of the DWM model with and without the suggested improvements, to that of the AL model, shows that the root-mean-square difference in terms of wind speed and turbulence intensity is reduced on the order of 30% and 40......%, respectively, by including the proposed corrections for a row of eight turbines. Furthermore, it is found that the root-mean-square difference between the AL model and the modified DWM model in terms of wind speed and turbulence intensity does not increase over a row of turbines compared with the root-mean-square...

  19. Report on the KIMS-CNA Conference (2nd): The PLA Navy’s Build-Up and ROK-USN Cooperation, Held in Seoul, Korea on 20 November 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    could lay claim to what the Koreans call the "Gando" region which includes much of present day Manchuria . Awareness of this dispute over history is... Harbin Engineering University Navy Selection Office (haijun xuanpeiban; #5¥i&;S2#0, May 28, 2006, http://aonqxue.cn/auofanashichuanq/ShowArticle.asp...unified Korea’s possible claim over the Gando region—which extends to much of Manchuria —well into the future can be nipped in the bud should any

  20. 复合树脂核材料与牙本质黏结强度的实验研究%Experimental study of bonding strength between resin composite direct core build-up materials and dentin in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞长路; 陈梅梅; 叶茂昌

    2012-01-01

    目的 比较使用3种不同牙本质黏结剂时,2种复合树脂核材料与精细粒度车针预备的牙本质之间的微拉伸黏结强度.方法 本实验使用的2种复合树脂核材料为Bisfil-core和Luxacore,3种黏结剂为ONE-STEPRPLUS、Contax和ibond,各对应的组别为BO组、LO组、BC组、LC组、Bi组和Li组.18颗人类磨牙用于本实验,每组3颗牙齿.所有牙齿均去除冠部釉质,暴露出完整的表浅牙本质,并用精细粒度金钢砂车针预备牙本质.然后按照各厂家的说明完成黏结剂的应用并用2种核材料分别修复牙冠.牙齿在37℃的自来水中保存24 h后,沿与黏结面垂直的方向片切成厚约0.7 mm的薄片,然后修整黏结面,使其面积大约在1.0 mm2.样本在MTS Synergie100材料测试机上进行黏结强度测试,所得数据用方差分析和LSD检验进行统计学处理.结果 各组的黏结强度分别为BO组(27.34±6.52)MPa、LO组(36.49±11.74)MPa、BC组(23.78±9.03)MPa、LC组(34.35±13.35)MPa、Bi组(29.12±7.99)MPa、Li组(32.63±8.17)MPa.统计学分析显示,黏结强度的差异在不同黏结剂之间无统计学意义,在不同的核材料之间差异有统计学意义.结论 3种黏结剂均可以满足临床需要,流动性复合树脂核材料可以显著提高黏结强度.%Objective To compare the microtensile bonding strength between two resin composite direct core build - up materials and dentin prepared with a superfine - grit diamond bur when using three different dentin adhesives. Methods Two kinds of resin composite core build - up materials, Bisfil - core and Luxacore, and three kinds of adhesives, ONE - STEP O RPLUS, Contax and ibond, were used in this stud)'. The six corresponding groups were BO, LO, BC, LC, Bi, Li, respectively. Eighteen human molarswere randomly divided into six groups with three teeth in each group in this stud)'. The coronal enamel of all teeth was removed and the superficial dentin was exposed, which were then prepared with a superfine - grit diamond bur. The dentin adhesives were applied to dentin surface according to manufacturers 'instructions. The teeth were then restored with two resin composite direct core build - up materials and stored in tap water at 370C for 24 hours. After that, the teeth were sectioned perpendicular to the bonded surface into slices approximately 0. 7mm thickness. Each slice was then trimmed into an hourglass shape to provide a 1. 0 mm2 bonded area. The specimens were subjected to microtensile bond strength testing on MTS SynergielOO testing machine. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and LSD test. Results Bonding strength of each group as follows: BO (927.34 ±6.52 )MPa,LO( 36.49 ±11.74 ) MPa,BC ( 23.78 ±9.03 )MPa,LC( 34.35 ±13.35 )MPa,Bi( 29. 12 ±7.99 )MPa,Li( 32.63 ± 8. 17 )MPa. The difference is not significant in dentin adhesives but significant in resin composite direct core build - up materials. Conclusion  All three dentin adhesives can meet the demand of clinical practice. A flowable resin composite core material can enhance the bonding strength significantly.

  1. THE RELATION BETWEEN GALAXY STRUCTURE AND SPECTRAL TYPE: IMPLICATIONS FOR THE BUILDUP OF THE QUIESCENT GALAXY POPULATION AT 0.5 < z < 2.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yano, Michael; Kriek, Mariska [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Wel, Arjen van der [Max-Planck Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117, Heidelberg (Germany); Whitaker, Katherine E. [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States)

    2016-02-01

    We present the relation between galaxy structure and spectral type, using a K-selected galaxy sample at 0.5 < z < 2.0. Based on similarities between the UV-to-NIR spectral energy distributions (SEDs), we classify galaxies into 32 spectral types. The different types span a wide range in evolutionary phases, and thus—in combination with available CANDELS/F160W imaging—are ideal to study the structural evolution of galaxies. Effective radii (R{sub e}) and Sérsic parameters (n) have been measured for 572 individual galaxies, and for each type, we determine R{sub e} at fixed stellar mass by correcting for the mass-size relation. We use the rest-frame U − V versus V − J diagram to investigate evolutionary trends. When moving into the direction perpendicular to the star-forming sequence, in which we see the Hα equivalent width and the specific star formation rate (sSFR) decrease, we find a decrease in R{sub e} and an increase in n. On the quiescent sequence we find an opposite trend, with older redder galaxies being larger. When splitting the sample into redshift bins, we find that young post-starburst galaxies are most prevalent at z > 1.5 and significantly smaller than all other galaxy types at the same redshift. This result suggests that the suppression of star formation may be associated with significant structural evolution at z > 1.5. At z < 1, galaxy types with intermediate sSFRs (10{sup −11.5}–10{sup −10.5} yr{sup −1}) do not have post-starburst SED shapes. These galaxies have similar sizes as older quiescent galaxies, implying that they can passively evolve onto the quiescent sequence, without increasing the average size of the quiescent galaxy population.

  2. 应用压力早期恢复资料确定低渗地层压力%The Application of Determining Low-permeability Reservoir Pressure by Using Early Build-up Pressure Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏芳

    2007-01-01

    低渗透油藏的压力恢复曲线,不能用Horner外推压力求取地层压力.基于Horner方程的等轴双曲线形式,提出了应用压力早期恢复资料确定低渗地层压力的新方法.通过油井实际资料计算验证,用该方法计算的地层压力准确可靠,较好地解决了低渗透油藏求地层压力的问题.

  3. Appliance of AC Servo System in Build-up Force Standard Machine Based on FM354%基于FM354的交流伺服系统在机械比对力机上的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张振洲; 马宏发

    2007-01-01

    针对机械比对力机的工艺和控制要求,详细介绍了西门子SIMODRIVE 611A交流伺服驱动系统在机械比对力机上的应用.利用高性能的伺服定位模块FM354,控制交流伺服驱动系统,满足机械比对力机对速度、力矩和大调速范围的要求,使力机满足国家称重传感器检定规程(JJG669-90)和称重传感器生产检测要求.

  4. Buildup and environmental effect of clean mariculture model in land-based enclosure%围塘清洁养殖模式的构建及其环境效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢光明; 徐永健; 陆慧贤

    2011-01-01

    采用陆基围隔方法,构建了单养鱼(F)、鱼+藻(FG)、鱼+藻+沙蚕(FGP)以及鱼+沙蚕(FP)4种养殖模式,试验生物包括菊花江蓠(Gracilaria lichenoides)、双齿围沙蚕(Perinereis aibuhitensis)和黑鲷(Sparus macrocephlus),分别对不同养殖模式系统中水体及沉积物的氮、磷等进行跟踪监测,分析其环境效应.结果表明:在4个模式中,放养菊花江蓠1.5kg·m-2、双齿围沙蚕22.5 kg·hm-2的密度下,能够对养殖水体及沉积物起到较好的净化效果,并且能够有效提高黑鲷的收获规格及产量;其中菊花江蓠主要体现在对于水体中DIN和DIP的净化,具藻处理中氮、磷含量均较不具藻处理低(P<0.05),而具藻处理(FG、FGP)和不具藻处理(F、FP)之间差异不显著(P>0.05).双齿围沙蚕主要体现在对于沉积物POM的修复,具沙蚕处理的氮、磷含量均低于不具沙蚕处理,这在1~2 cm和2~4 cm 2个层段中特别明显,具沙蚕处理沉积物中总氮、总磷要较不具沙蚕处理分别低7%和9%,两者差异显著(P<0.05).搭配藻类或沙蚕处理的黑鲷养殖产量都显著高于单养黑鲷处理(P<0.05),其中FGP处理黑鲷产量比F处理高57%.综合考虑,FGP模式具有最佳的环境效益、产量效益及综合效益.%By the method of land-based enclosure, three kind organisms including fish ( Sparus macrocephlus ) , seaweed ( Gracilaria lichevoides ) , and benthos ( Perinereis aibuhitensis ) were selected to construct four kinds of mariculture models, i. e. , S. macrocephlus ( F) , S. macrocephlus + C. lichevoides (FG) , S. macrocephlus + P. aibuhitensis ( FP) , and S. macrocephlus + G. lichevoide + P. aibuhitensis ( FGP) to study the removal of nitrogen (N) , phosphorus (P) , and particulate organic matter ( POM) in water body and sediment, and to analyze the environmental effect of each mariculture model, aimed to approach a clean mariculture model in landbased enclosure. Among the four mariculture models, culturing fish with 1. 5 kg · m-2 of seaweed and 22. 5 kg · hm-2 of benthos had better effects in purifying water body and sediment, and effectively increased the harvested fish yield. The seaweed could effectively remove the dissolved inorganic nitrogen ( DIN) and dissolved inorganic phosphorus ( DIP) in water body. The models with seaweed had significantly lower concentrations of N and P in water bodies, compared with the models without seaweed (P<0. 05) , but no significant differences were observed between treatments FG and FGP and between F and FP. The benthos could remove the POM in the sediment, and the models with benthos had lower concentrations of N and P in the sediment. Especially in the sediment layers 1-2 cm and 2-4 cm, the N and P concentrations in the models with benthos were 7% and 9% lower than those in the models without benthos, respectively (P<0. 05 ) . Furthermore, the models with seaweed or/and benthos had higher fish yield, compared with fish monoculture model ( P<0. 05 ) , and the fish yield in treatment FGP was 57% higher than that in treatment F. To have an integrative consideration. culture model FGP had the optimal environmental, economic, and comprehensive benefits.

  5. Heat treatment of CVD and PVD coated steels. Influence on coating build-up, dimensional changes, residual stress distribution and technological properties. Final report; Waermebehandlung CVD- und PVD-beschichteter Staehle. Einfluss auf Schichtaufbau, Massaenderungen, Eigenspannungsverteilung und technologische Eigenschaften. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kessler, O.

    1993-12-31

    Coating in accordance with the CVD process offers a number of advantages as compared to other processes. CVD facilities are of a relatively simple construction, as coating is possible almost at ambient pressure. The disadvantage of the CVD process is the high coating temperature involved. Previously, this fact has led to a low volume of air-hardening steels being coated. Due to high coating temperatures, coated steel substrates require subsequent heat treatment, in order to obtain an operational material condition. Steels with different hardenabilities (Ck 45, 42 CrMo 4, 100 Cr 6, X 155 CrVmo 12.1) and different coatings (HT-CVD TiN, MT-CVD TiCN, PVD TiN) were retreated with heat under inert gas and vacuum. The following coating and substrate properties were investigated before and after retreatment with heat: chemical and phase composition, structure, hardness, residual stresses, and adhesion of the coating. It was possible to obtain the desired structures and hardnesses in the substrates. The coatings remained macroscopically unchanged during vacuum heat treatment, while the coating color changed during inert gas heat treatment. (orig./MM) [Deutsch] Die Beschichtung nach dem CVD-Verfahren weist gegenueber anderen Verfahren eine Reihe von Vorteilen auf. CVD-Anlagen sind relativ einfach aufgebaut, da nahezu bei Umgebungsdruck beschichtet werden kann. Der Nachteil des CVD-Verfahrens ist die hohe Beschichtungstemperatur. Diese Tatsache hat bisher dazu gefuehrt, dass nicht lufthaertende Staehle nur in geringem Umfang beschichtet wurden. Aufgrund der hohen Beschichtungstemperaturen beduerfen beschichtete Stahlsubstrate einer nachtraeglichen Waermebehandlung zur Erzielung eines einsatzgerechten Werkstoffzustands. Staehle mit unterschiedlichen Haertbarkeiten (Ck 45, 42 CrMo 4, 100 Cr 6, X 155 CrVMo 12.1) und verschiedenen Schichten (HT-CVD TiN, MT-CVDTiCN, PVD TiN) wurden unter Schutzgas und Vakuum nachwaermebehandelt. Folgende Schicht- und Substrateigenschaften wurden vor und nach der Nachwaermebehandlung untersucht: Chemische und phasenmaessige Zusammensetzung, Gefuege, Haerte, Eigenspannungen und Schichthaftung. In den Substraten konnten ueberwiegend die gewuenschten Gefuege und Haerten eingestellt werden. Die Schichten blieben bei der Vakuumwaermebehandlung makroskopisch unveraendert, bei der Schutzgaswaermebehandlung veraenderte sich die Farbe der Schichten. (orig./MM)

  6. 压力恢复分析法中关井前生产时间的确定%A Method to Determine Producing Time for Pressure Build-up Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    操银香; 黄炳光

    2013-01-01

    研究不同关井前生产时间对双对数坐标系中压差及压力导数曲线形态的影响,利用试井软件Saphir中的压降导数曲线和压力恢复导数曲线的对比功能,最终确定满足测试要求的关井前生产时间.

  7. 4-[18F]Fluorophenylpiperazines by Improved Hartwig-Buchwald N-Arylation of 4-[18F]fluoroiodobenzene, Formed via Hypervalent λ3-Iodane Precursors: Application to Build-Up of the Dopamine D4 Ligand [18F]FAUC 316

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Kügler

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Substituted phenylpiperazines are often neuropharmacologically active compounds and in many cases are essential pharmacophores of neuroligands for different receptors such as D2-like dopaminergic, serotoninergic and other receptors. Nucleophilic, no-carrier-added (n.c.a. 18F-labelling of these ligands in an aromatic position is desirable for studying receptors with in vivo molecular imaging. 1-(4-[18F]Fluorophenylpiperazine was synthesized in two reaction steps starting by 18F-labelling of a iodobenzene-iodonium precursor, followed by Pd-catalyzed N-arylation of the intermediate 4-[18F]fluoro-iodobenzene. Different palladium catalysts and solvents were tested with particular attention to the polar solvents dimethylformamide (DMF and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO. Weak inorganic bases like potassium phosphate or cesium carbonate seem to be essential for the arylation step and lead to conversation rates above 70% in DMF which is comparable to those in typically used toluene. In DMSO even quantitative conversation was observed. Overall radiochemical yields of up to 40% and 60% in DMF and DMSO, respectively, were reached depending on the labelling yield of the first step. The fluorophenylpiperazine obtained was coupled in a third reaction step with 2-formyl-1H-indole-5-carbonitrile to yield the highly selective dopamine D4 ligand [18F]FAUC 316.

  8. Erosion amount build-up of unconformity and its structural significance:Taking Cretaceous T.unconformity in southern Beier Depression as an example%不整合面剥蚀量恢复及其构造意义——以贝南凹陷T22不整合面为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏世强; 刘景彦

    2012-01-01

    文中综合应用声波时差法和地震反射结构外延法对T22不整合面进行剥蚀趋势恢复,进而探讨其构造活动强度及对油气运移和成藏的影响.研究表明,剥蚀厚度沿主干断裂边缘及古隆起斜坡带呈NE-SW向分布,最大剥蚀厚度位于南部苏德尔特断隆东缘,可达900m,紧邻斜坡的低洼处剥蚀较小,约150m.剥蚀量大小和分布形态与区域构造活动密切相关,南屯组末期,由于受来自NW-SE方向挤压应力作用,造成先存的同沉积断裂发生构造反转.反转断裂沟通底部油源向上运移,在断隆高部位,由于剥蚀较大而造成早期油气散失,而斜坡部位则由于反转适度,有利于油气的保存,其中贝8、贝3等5口井出现工业油流,其余4口亦出现良好的油气显示.因此,预测贝南斜坡带是下一步油气勘探的重要区带.

  9. 基于3D CAD MineStar 软件的胶东大尹格庄金矿三维数字实体模型的建立%The Buildup of the 3D Entity Model Based on the Software of 3D CAD MineStar in Dayin’gezhuang Gold Deposit,Jiaodong Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙书彬; 吴洋; 姜新吉; 张瑞忠

    2015-01-01

    Based on analyzing the character of 3D CAD MineStar software,applying AotoCAD software as well as aided design software for 3D mine,according to actual situation of the mine,entity model with 3D digital mock-up for geology and mine system at the Dayin’gezhuang gold mine was established,which had improved the information,production intelligent and automation level,production intelligence information and automation level.Moreover,it is meaningful and can provide significant direction for improving the speed and precision of the prospecting,mining quantity computation,aided design and safety management.%在分析3D CAD MineStar 软件特点的基础上,结合矿山实际情况,应用 AutoCAD 软件和三维矿山辅助设计软件 MineStar,建立了大尹格庄金矿的三维数字地质实体模型和采矿系统实体模型。三维数字实体模型的建立提高了大尹格庄金矿的信息化、生产智能化和自动化水平,对于建设大尹格庄金矿数字矿山平台,提高探矿和矿量计算的速度与精度、辅助设计和安全管理等具有重要的经济价值和指导意义。

  10. The top level policy design for urban cultural renaissance and cultural and creative town buildup based on the perspective of national demonstration zone on public cultural service system%基于国家公共文化服务体系示范区视角探讨城镇文化复兴与文创新城联动的顶层设计要点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐振强; 王文丽; 彭小梅

    2015-01-01

    针对我国快速城镇化过程中存在自然历史文化遗产保护不力、城乡建设缺乏特色等问题,《国家新型城镇化规划(2014-2020年)》提出了人文城市建设的总体要求。这与世界发达国家或地区正在推进文化对于城市复兴的重要战略实践总体一致。本研究结合我国创意产业发展和国家推进的国家公共文化服务体系示范区创建战略,借鉴国外城镇文化复兴经验,以文化创意新城发展为切入点,系统研究两者联动,提出从空间上形成“聚落文化-城镇文化-区域文化-国家文化”承接、关联和活化的总体战略,为城镇文化复兴提供顶层空间战略支撑和操作性强的规划方法,并将智慧、低碳、绿色等核心理念与文化充分融合。%For solving the poor , urban and rural construction and the lack of capacities to natural history cultural heritage protection in the process of rapid urbanization in China , National New Urbanization Plan (2014-2020 ) puts forward the general requirement of humanistic city construction .This action generally matches with the tides of promoting the important strategic practice for the revival of urban culture in developed countries and regions of the world .This study combines China 's development and national creative industries to promote the na-tional demonstration area of public cultural service system , and learns from international experience to urban cultural renaissance , takes the cultural and creative development in new town as the breakthrough point , and studies their linkage .Space formatting the cultural linkage of"settlement-town-regional-national"is proposed.This study provides top space strategic support and feasible planning methods for ur-ban cultural renaissance, and furthermore, the core concepts of smart, low-carbon, and green are suggested to be integrated .

  11. Environmental Degradation of Solar Reflectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouquet, F. L.

    1985-01-01

    Report presents results of study of atmospheric degradation of large solar reflectors for power generators. Three general types of reflective surfaces investigated. Report also describes computer buildup and removal (by rain and dew) of contamination from reflectors. Data used to determine effects of soil buildup and best method and frequency of washing at various geographic locations.

  12. What Role Do Epigenetics and Developmental Epigenetics Play in Health and Disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... switch on or off. The buildup of epigenetic changes is part of normal aging. However, this buildup may also increase the likelihood that certain genes will be changed in a way that leads a person to develop ... of different types of changes in many different genes. Some of these changes ...

  13. Suspension-Firing of Biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shafique Bashir, Muhammad; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Frandsen, Flemming;

    2012-01-01

    This paper is the second of two papers, describing probe measurements of deposit buildup and removal (shedding), conducted in a 350 MWth suspension-fired boiler, firing straw and wood. Investigations of deposit buildup and shedding have been made by use of an advanced online deposit probe and a s...

  14. Mechanical characterization and modeling of curing thermosets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van 't Hof, C.

    2006-01-01

    Chemical shrinkage and simultaneous build-up of mechanical properties in curing thermosets leads to the build-up of residual stresses and strains. Depending on the constraints these may cause interface failure, dimensional inaccuracy or failure in the thermoset or its surrounding structure. The pre

  15. Misfolded proteins, endoplasmic reticulum stress and neurodegeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Rao, Rammohan V.; Bredesen, Dale E.

    2004-01-01

    The accumulation of misfolded proteins (e.g. mutant or damaged proteins) triggers cellular stress responses that protect cells against the toxic buildup of such proteins. However, prolonged stress due to the buildup of these toxic proteins induces specific death pathways. Dissecting these pathways should be valuable in understanding the pathogenesis of, and ultimately in designing therapy for, neurodegenerative diseases that feature misfolded proteins.

  16. Improvement of the gamma-ray transport model the point kernel attenuation method; Amelioration de la modelisation du transport des gamma suivant la methode de l`attenuation en ligne droite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assad, A.

    1995-12-01

    The gamma-ray buildup factor is a multiplicative factor which corrects the response of non-collided photons to include the contribution of the scattered photons. Buildup factors are very important data implemented in Point kernel codes for use in shield design. We propose in this study, a new evaluation of gamma-ray buildup factors which takes into account all the interaction modes of photons with matter, in the energy range of 15 KeV to 10 MeV, for materials of atomic number Z=1 to Z=92. The analytical representation, called Geometric Progression, has been applied to reproduce the buildup factors calculated within a few percent. This formula can be used to interpolate the buildup factors over the full range of distance, energy and atomic number. We tackle also the calculation of buildup factors in stratified shields and propose a new approximate formula to calculate the buildup factors in these complex configurations. (authors). 77 refs., 55 figs., 33 tabs.

  17. Investigation of some radiation shielding parameters in soft tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danial Salehi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The photon interactions with the soft tissue have been discussed mainly in terms of mass attenuation coefficient, mass energy absorption coefficient, kerma relative to air, effective atomic number and energy absorption buildup factor in the energy range 0.01–10 MeV and penetration depth up to 40 mfp (by using GP fitting method. Over past 2 decades, interest has been growing for theoretical and computational works on photon buildup factor in soft tissue. Actually, besides dosimetry, in radiation therapy and imaging the buildup of X- and gamma photons introduces remarkable error.

  18. Ultrafast OH production in clusters containing N2O and HI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionov, P. I.; Ionov, S. I.; Wittig, C.

    1997-12-01

    The geometrical arrangement of reagents is an important factor influencing chemical reactions in condensed phases and molecular clusters. In the present study, OH buildup times have been recorded upon photolysis of (N2O)m(HI)n clusters in order to elucidate the role of the cluster environment on the reaction mechanism. The buildup times were measured for different molecular beam compositions (i.e., degrees of clustering). The buildup time changed from ⩽100 fs at the lowest backing pressures (119 and 132 kPa) to 430 fs at 188 kPa. It is argued that at the lower backing pressures the OH derives primarily from binary N2O-HI complexes. However, regardless of the cluster species involved, the fast OH buildup at the lowest backing pressures suggests a dominant direct oxygen abstraction mechanism rather than reaction via a vibrationally excited intermediate such as HNNO†.

  19. Linking Air Pollution and Heart Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science Matters article about a study finding that exposure to particulate matter and nitrogen oxides can prematurely age blood vessels and contribute to a more rapid buildup of calcium in the coronary artery.

  20. Composition of microfouling on aluminium and fibre glass panels exposed in Agatti waters (Lakshadweep Island)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raveendran, T.V.; Sankaran, P.D.; Wagh, A.B.

    Rate of microfouling build-up was high during the initial periods of exposure of test surfaces but decreased with the increasing duration. Fibre glass surfaces showed higher deposition than those of aluminium. Carbohydrates and lipids were the major...

  1. Advanced Material Studies for Additive Manufacturing in terms of Future Gear Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Bräunig

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Additive manufacturing by laser beam melting is predestined for complex component geometry like integrated cooling channels without enormous posttreatment processing. To investigate the influence of build-up direction in terms of later tooth excitation of gear-wheels, first fundamental material analyses were accomplished in this publication. Therefore, additively produced specimens were used to determine the build-up direction dependent elastic properties of the material in all three spatial directions based on tensile and torsion tests. The anisotropies of elastic limits and breaking points of previous studies were confirmed in this paper. Furthermore, torsion values were also determined depending on build-up direction. Laser beam melted X3NiCoMoTi18-9-5 (hot-work tool steel was shown to exhibit extremely high performance under shear loading in comparison to conventionally processed steel. The influence of build-up direction on torsional strength was also shown.

  2. Hydrocephalus and Shunts

    Science.gov (United States)

    SBA National Resource Center: 800-621-3141 Hydrocephalus and Shunts Approximately 80% of people with SB have Hydrocephalus Hydrocephalus means there is a build-up of cerebrospinal also called CSF, around ...

  3. Hydrocephalus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrocephalus is the buildup of too much cerebrospinal fluid in the brain. Normally, this fluid cushions your ... though, it puts harmful pressure on your brain. Hydrocephalus can be congenital, or present at birth. Causes ...

  4. Radioactivity Calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onega, Ronald J.

    1969-01-01

    Three problems in radioactive buildup and decay are presented and solved. Matrix algebra is used to solve the second problem. The third problem deals with flux depression and is solved by the use of differential equations. (LC)

  5. Genetics Home Reference: cystinuria

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... characterized by the buildup of the amino acid cystine, a building block of most proteins, in the ... As the kidneys filter blood to create urine, cystine is normally absorbed back into the bloodstream. People ...

  6. Bruise

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... syndrome, surgery is often done to relieve the extreme buildup of pressure. ... the bruise with a needle. Do not continue running, playing, or otherwise using the painful, bruised part of your body. Do not ignore the pain or swelling.

  7. Bradycardia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... people, particularly for healthy young adults and trained athletes. For these people, bradycardia isn't considered a ... as rheumatic fever or lupus The buildup of iron in organs (hemochromatosis) Medications, including some drugs for ...

  8. Essentials of PKU for Young Adults with PKU and Their Significant Others

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is converted to tyrosine by an enzyme called phenylalanine hydroxylase. However, in individuals with PKU, this enzyme is not present and results in a damaging build-up of phenylalanine in the body. What is the Diet for ...

  9. Genetics Home Reference: hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an important series of reactions known as the citric acid cycle or Krebs cycle, which allows cells to use ... may interfere with the enzyme's role in the citric acid cycle, resulting in a buildup of fumarate. Researchers believe ...

  10. Piroxicam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piroxicam is also sometimes used to treat gouty arthritis (attacks of severe joint pain and swelling caused by a build-up of certain substances in the joints) and ankylosing spondylitis (arthritis that ...

  11. Jaundice in Healthy Newborns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 25 mg) that is not treated can cause deafness, cerebral palsy , or other forms of brain damage. ... the infant's red blood cells. This creates a sudden buildup of bilirubin in the baby's blood. Incompatibility ...

  12. Primary Biliary Cirrhosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ordinarily removed by the liver, a condition called hepatic encephalopathy Edema and ascites. Liver failure causes fluid buildup ... first evidence that a person has developed cirrhosis. Hepatic encephalopathy. A failing liver cannot remove toxins from the ...

  13. The control of Simuliidae (Diptera, Nematocera) in South African rivers by modification of the water flow volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, C J; Begemann, G J; Muir, R W; Louw, P

    1981-03-01

    It was found that the build-up of simuliid numbers subsequent to the construction of dams in the Vaal and Orange Rivers could be successfully prevented by periodic, artificially controlled reductions in the water-levels in these rivers.

  14. Genetics Home Reference: cystic fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Me Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions cystic fibrosis cystic fibrosis Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Download PDF Open All Close All Description Cystic fibrosis is an inherited disease characterized by the buildup ...

  15. Graves' Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... This condition results from a buildup of certain carbohydrates in the skin — the cause of which also ... lead to heart rhythm disorders, changes in the structure and function of the heart muscles, and the ...

  16. Trace Contaminant Monitor for Air in Spacecraft Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A need exists for analyzers that can measure trace contaminants in air on board spacecraft. Toxic gas buildup can endanger the crew particularly during long...

  17. Pressure transient analysis methods for bounded naturally fractured reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, C-C; Raghavan, R.; Reynolds, A.C.; Serra, K.

    1985-06-01

    New methods for analyzing drawdown and buildup pressure data obtained at a well located in an infinite, naturally fractured reservoir were presented recently. In this work, the analysis of both drawdown and buildup data in a bounded, naturally fractured reservoir is considered. For the bounded case, the authors show that five possible flow regimes may be exhibited by drawdown data. They delineate the conditions under which each of these five flow regimes exists and the information that can be obtained from each possible combination of flow regimes. Conditions under which semilog methods can be used to analyze buildup data are discussed for the bounded fractured reservoir case. New Matthews-Brons-Hazebroek (MBH) functions for computing the average reservoir pressure from buildup data are presented.

  18. What Happens After Treatment for Breast Cancer in Men?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of their cancer coming back, this could happen. Lymphedema Lymphedema, or swelling of the arm due to buildup ... treats them with radiation carries the risk of lymphedema because normal drainage of lymph fluid from the ...

  19. Genetics Home Reference: Hennekam syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or swelling caused by a buildup of fluid ( lymphedema ); and unusual facial features. Lymphangiectasia often impedes the ... covering the heart ( pericardium ), or the skin. The lymphedema in Hennekam syndrome is often noticeable at birth ...

  20. Triage in the greenhouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeling, Ralph F.

    2009-12-01

    The path towards mitigating global warming is going to be tortuous. Capturing carbon dioxide and pumping it directly into the deep ocean to avoid atmospheric build-up is an option that has been dismissed prematurely.

  1. How Can Atherosclerosis Be Prevented or Delayed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Can Atherosclerosis Be Prevented or Delayed? Taking action to control ... Rate This Content: NEXT >> Featured Video What is atherosclerosis? 05/22/2014 Describes how the build-up ...

  2. What Causes Atherosclerosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes Atherosclerosis? The exact cause of atherosclerosis isn't known. ... Rate This Content: NEXT >> Featured Video What is atherosclerosis? 05/22/2014 Describes how the build-up ...

  3. What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Atherosclerosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Twitter. What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Atherosclerosis? Atherosclerosis usually doesn't cause signs and symptoms ... Rate This Content: NEXT >> Featured Video What is atherosclerosis? 05/22/2014 Describes how the build-up ...

  4. How Is Atherosclerosis Treated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Is Atherosclerosis Treated? Treatments for atherosclerosis may include heart-healthy ... Rate This Content: NEXT >> Featured Video What is atherosclerosis? 05/22/2014 Describes how the build-up ...

  5. How Is Atherosclerosis Diagnosed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Is Atherosclerosis Diagnosed? Your doctor will diagnose atherosclerosis based on ... Rate This Content: NEXT >> Featured Video What is atherosclerosis? 05/22/2014 Describes how the build-up ...

  6. Living with Atherosclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With Atherosclerosis Improved treatments have reduced the number of deaths ... Rate This Content: NEXT >> Featured Video What is atherosclerosis? 05/22/2014 Describes how the build-up ...

  7. Development of arctic wind technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holttinen, H.; Marjaniemi, M.; Antikainen, P. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1998-10-01

    The climatic conditions of Lapland set special technical requirements for wind power production. The most difficult problem regarding wind power production in arctic regions is the build-up of hard and rime ice on structures of the machine

  8. What Are Heart Disease and Stroke?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Aortic Aneurysm More What Are Heart Disease and Stroke? Updated:Dec 8,2015 There are many types ... build-up in the lungs, called “pulmonary congestion”. STROKE and TIA happen when a blood vessel that ...

  9. Cellulitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    The health care provider will perform a physical exam. This may reveal: Redness, warmth, and swelling of the skin Possible drainage, if there is a buildup of pus ( abscess ) with the skin infection Swollen glands (lymph nodes) ...

  10. Heart Attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tear in the heart artery (spontaneous coronary artery dissection). Certain factors contribute to the unwanted buildup of ... logo are trademarks of Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. © 1998-2017 Mayo Foundation for Medical ...

  11. Simple Signal Source based Micro Controller

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Using micro controller, DAC and Multi-periods syn-thesis, we can buildup a very simple signal source with precisefrequency, amplitude and waveform. Wave parameters can beprogrammed in advance. The circuit can satisfy some special re-quirements.

  12. Evaluations of HRI (Heat Recovery Incinerators) at NS (Naval Station) Mayport and NAS (Naval Air Station) Jacksonville, Florida-Lessons Learned Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-07-01

    chute or jamming of the chain caused by long items or clinkers falling on top of a drag element . The opening of the residue drop chute from the combustion...PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS IS PROGRAM ELEMENT , PROJECT. TASK AREA & WORK UN IT NUMBERS 245 North Valley Road Z0371-01-421A/B 1I...from transition duct into boiler showing fly ash buildup in the tubes (A) and fly ash buildup in the duct (B) ...... ............................. 77

  13. Shielding efficiency of metal hydrides and borohydrides in fusion reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Vishvanath P.; Badiger, Nagappa M.; Gerward, Leif

    2016-01-01

    Mass attenuation coefficients, mean free paths and exposure buildup factors have been used to characterize the shielding efficiency of metal hydrides and borohydrides, with high density of hydrogen. Gamma ray exposure buildup factors were computed using five-parameter geometric progression fittin...... combination of low-and high-Z elements. The present work should be useful for the selection and design of blankets and shielding, and for dose evaluation for components in fusion reactors....

  14. Relic carbonate deposits along the western margin of India: Sea level and environmental changes during the Late Quaternary

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, V.P.

    of sea level rise and as a consequence sediment material was lost from the marginal areas. Abundant carbonate buildups were developed on some continental margins during times of slow or moderate sea level rise and these buildups now occur as relic... the platform lies off major rivers such as Narmada and Tapi, it contains<10% terrigenous material. The relic deposits on the carbonate platform are largely carbonate sands. Thin section studies indicate that some of these sands are Crustacean faecal...

  15. Shielding efficiency of metal hydrides and borohydrides in fusion reactors

    OpenAIRE

    Singh Vishvanath P.; Badiger Nagappa M.; Gerward Leif

    2016-01-01

    Mass attenuation coefficients, mean free paths and exposure buildup factors have been used to characterize the shielding efficiency of metal hydrides and borohydrides, with high density of hydrogen. Gamma ray exposure buildup factors were computed using five-parameter geometric progression fitting at energies 0.015 MeV to15 MeV, and for penetration depths up to 40 mean free paths. Fast-neutron shielding efficiency has been characterized by the effective neu...

  16. Oil-productive Miocene algal and sea grass carbonate mudbanks, south Sumatra, Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longman, M.W.; Beddoes, L.R. Jr.

    1985-02-01

    Ramba and Tanjung Laban oil fields, located about 70 km northwest of Palembang in southern Sumatra, produce from wackestones and packstones in the lower Miocene Batu Raja Formation. Reservoir rocks are part of relatively small, undolomitized, low-relief carbonate buildups that accumulated on a widespread platform facies. Rocks in the platform facies are dominantly shaly nodular wackestones, whereas rocks in the buildup are dominantly nonshaly wackestones and packstones. The regional setting, the abundance of micrite in the buildups, the absence of both coralline algae and marine cements, and the geometry of the buildups suggest that noncalcareous algae and/or sea grasses were the dominant organisms responsible for forming these mudbanks. The absence of shale in the mudbanks has been important in forming the secondary porosity that yields most of the oil. Vugs and molds form as much as 30% of the rock in the best reservoir zones. Fractures formed by dissolution and collapse greatly enhance reservoir zones quality in many places. Another type of porosity, microintercrystalline, occurs within chalky micrites scattered through the upper part of the buildups. Porosity in these micrites reaches 25%, but permeability is very low. The recent discovery of oil in these low-energy carbonate mudbanks of the Batu Raja Formation has opened a new exploration play in the South Sumatra basin. Many similar buildups will likely be found as exploration continues and the basin's paleogeography becomes better understood.

  17. Consistent seasonal snow cover depth and duration variability over the Western Himalayas (WH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Dan; Juyal, Vikas; Sharma, Vikas

    2016-10-01

    Precipitation in solid form, i.e., snow, during winter season over the Western Himalayas (WH) leads to the build-up of seasonal snow cover. Seasonal snow cover build-up (snow cover depth and duration) largely depends on atmospheric variables such as temperature, precipitation, radiation, wind, etc. Integrated (combined) influence of atmospheric variables on seasonal snow cover gets reflected in terms of spatial and temporal variability in seasonal snow cover build-up pattern. Hence spatial and temporal variability of seasonal snow cover build-up can serve as a good indicator of climate change in high altitude mountainous regions like the WH. Consistent seasonal snow cover depth and duration, delay days and early melt days of consistent seasonal snow cover at 11 stations spread across different mountain ranges over the WH were analyzed. Mean, maximum and percentiles (25th, 50th, 75th, 90th and 95th) of consistent seasonal snow cover depth and duration show decline over the WH in the recent past 2-3 decades. Consistent seasonal snow cover is found to melt early and snow cover build-up pattern is found to show changes over the WH. Decline in consistent seasonal snow cover depth, duration and changing snow cover build-up pattern over the WH in recent decades indicate that WH has undergone considerable climate change and winter weather patterns are changing in the WH.

  18. Consistent seasonal snow cover depth and duration variability over the Western Himalayas (WH)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dan Singh; Vikas Juyal; Vikas Sharma

    2016-10-01

    Precipitation in solid form, i.e., snow, during winter season over theWestern Himalayas (WH) leads to the build-up of seasonal snow cover. Seasonal snow cover build-up (snow cover depth and duration) largely depends on atmospheric variables such as temperature, precipitation, radiation, wind, etc. Integrated(combined) influence of atmospheric variables on seasonal snow cover gets reflected in terms of spatial and temporal variability in seasonal snow cover build-up pattern. Hence spatial and temporal variability of seasonal snow cover build-up can serve as a good indicator of climate change in high altitude mountainousregions like the WH. Consistent seasonal snow cover depth and duration, delay days and early melt days of consistent seasonal snow cover at 11 stations spread across different mountain ranges over the WH were analyzed. Mean, maximum and percentiles (25th, 50th, 75th, 90th and 95th) of consistent seasonal snow cover depth and duration show decline over the WH in the recent past 2–3 decades. Consistent seasonal snow cover is found to melt early and snow cover build-up pattern is found to show changes over the WH. Decline in consistent seasonal snow cover depth, duration and changing snow cover buildup pattern over the WH in recent decades indicate that WH has undergone considerable climate changeand winter weather patterns are changing in the WH.

  19. [Parameter identification and validation of SWMM in simulation of impervious urban land surface runoff].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xin; Du, Peng-fei; Li, Zhi-yi; Wang, Hao-chang

    2008-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is the application of storm water management model (SWMM) in simulating runoff hydrology and water quality. The study chose a roof as the typical impervious urban land surface, and monitored several rainfall-runoff events for parameter identification. We identified and validated hydrological and water quality parameters, using Monte Carlo sampling method and HSY algorithm, which are based on uncertainty analysis. Results show that impervious urban land surface runoff model includes 6 critical parameters, which are depression storage (S-imperv), Manning's n (N-imperv), maximum buildup possible (max buildup), buildup rate constant (rate constant), washoff coefficient (coefficient), and washoff exponent (exponent). Identification of S-imperv and N-imperv could use least square error as objectives, while others could use errors of event pollution load and peak concentration of pollutant as objectives. The identification results of the 6 parameters are N-imperv 0.012-0.025,S-imperv 0-0.7, max buildup 15-30,rate constant 0.2-0.8,coefficient 0.01-0.05, and exponent 1.0-1.2. Regional sensitivities of these parameters in non-ascending order are coefficient, S-imperv, N-imperv, max buildup, exponent, and rate constant. Identified parameters are able to be validated by SWMM model. However, current model structures still have some difficulties in simulating runoff pollutant concentration curves caused by some special rain patterns.

  20. Representatives of the family Actinostromatidae (Stromatoporoidea) in the Devonian of southern Poland and their ecological significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolniewicz, Paweł

    2016-09-01

    Stromatoporoids of the family Actinostromatidae are common constituents of Givetian to Frasnian (Devonian) organic buildups. The species-level structure of actinostromatid assemblages from the Devonian of southern Poland is described in the present paper, with special emphasis on ecological factors that influenced species composition of the communities. Nine species of the genera Actinostroma and Bifariostroma are distinguished. Members of the family Actinostromatidae predominated in stromatoporoid assemblages within lower Frasnian carbonate buildup margins. The most diverse actinostromatid faunas were found within the middle Givetian Stringocephalus Bank, in the upper Givetian-lower Frasnian biostromal complex and in the lower Frasnian organic buildups. Species-level biodiversity was lowest within detrital facies which surrounded the Frasnian carbonate buildups. Species of Actinostroma with well-developed colliculi are commonest within the middle Givetian to early Frasnian coral-stromatoporoid biostromal complexes, whereas species with strongly reduced colliculi predominate early-middle Frasnian organic buildups. The skeletal structure of actinostromatids reflects environmental changes, documenting a transition from species with thin, close-set pillars and widely spaced laminae (common in the middle Givetian) to those with long, thick pillars and megapillars (in Bifariostroma), which were predominant during the early and middle Frasnian. The distribution of growth forms among species reveals a significant intraspecific variation. Species of Actinostroma can be either tabular or low domical, depending on the palaeoenvironmental setting. Thus, the present study confirms that stromatoporoid morphology was influenced by environmental conditions.

  1. Well testing for radially heterogeneous reservoirs under single and multiphase flow conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, L.G.; Reynolds, A.C. [Univ. of Tulsa, OK (United States)

    1997-03-01

    In this work, the authors examine the behavior of pressure-transient data for single and multiphase flow in radially heterogeneous reservoirs. To illustrate multiphase flow behavior in these systems, they focus on heterogeneous gas-condensate reservoirs; however, they also consider other multiphase flow problems. It is well known that in some instances, e.g., water injection/falloff in homogeneous reservoirs, pressure-transient data from buildup (or falloff) tests cannot be obtained by superposition of drawdown (injection) pressure responses. In fact, drawdown and buildup reflect properties in different regions of the reservoir. This behavior is common to most occurrences of multiphase reservoir flow and is exaggerated in the presence of radial heterogeneity. This theoretical work describes the information contained in transient pressure derivative data and explains the fundamental difference in behavior between multiphase drawdown and buildup pressure-transient data in radially heterogeneous reservoirs. The authors show that multiphase buildup data may be treated like single-phase buildup data, but drawdown data is most indicative of properties in that region of the reservoir where mobility is changing most rapidly with time.

  2. Well testing for heterogeneous reservoirs under single and multiphase flow conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, L.G.; Reynolds, A.C. [Univ. of Tulsa, OK (United States)

    1995-12-31

    In this work, we examine the behavior of pressure transient data for single and multiphase flow in heterogeneous reservoirs. In order to illustrate multiphase flow behavior in these systems, we focus on heterogeneous gas condensate reservoirs, however, we also consider other multiphase flow problems. It is well known that in some instances, e. g., water injection/falloff in homogeneous reservoirs, pressure transient data from buildup (or falloff) tests cannot be obtained by superposition of drawdown (injection) pressure responses. In fact, drawdown and buildup reflect properties in different regions of the reservoir. This behavior is common to most occurrences of multiphase reservoir flow, and is exaggerated in the presence of radial heterogeneity. This theoretical work describes the information contained in transient pressure derivative data, and explains the fundamental difference in behavior between multiphase drawdown and buildup pressure transient data in radially heterogeneous reservoirs. We show that whereas multiphase buildup data may be treated like single-phase buildup data, drawdown data is most indicative of properties in that region of the reservoir where mobility is changing most rapidly with time.

  3. Assessment of performance of UV sterilizer for room air bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, P V

    2002-02-01

    Paper presents a technique for performance of UV sterilizer for room air bacteria. Patterns of decay of room air bacteria concentration during sterilization and build-up there after as a function of time is studied. Decay process seems to follow exponential pattern. Half-lives during decay are estimated. For single sterilizer unit with a dose of 16 W the decay half-life is around 8.6 min. For the dose of 32 W (2 sterilizers), half-life is estimated to be 6.18 min. The removal rates of room air bacteria due to sterilizer are compared with the natural decay of aerosols at steady state. The importance of decay half-life in the assessment has been stated. The bacteria concentration buildup process after putting off the sterilizers seems to be sigmoidal in nature. The buildup half-life is estimated to be around 53 min for present experimental conditions.

  4. Seep-carbonate lamination controlled by cyclic particle flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himmler, Tobias; Bayon, Germain; Wangner, David; Enzmann, Frieder; Peckmann, Jörn; Bohrmann, Gerhard

    2016-11-01

    Authigenic carbonate build-ups develop at seafloor methane-seeps, where microbially mediated sulphate-dependent anaerobic oxidation of methane facilitates carbonate precipitation. Despite being valuable recorders of past methane seepage events, their role as archives of atmospheric processes has not been examined. Here we show that cyclic sedimentation pulses related to the Indian monsoon in concert with authigenic precipitation of methane-derived aragonite gave rise to a well-laminated carbonate build-up within the oxygen minimum zone off Pakistan (northern Arabian Sea). U-Th dating indicates that the build-up grew during past ~1,130 years, creating an exceptional high-resolution archive of the Indian monsoon system. Monsoon-controlled formation of seep-carbonates extends the known environmental processes recorded by seep-carbonates, revealing a new relationship between atmospheric and seafloor processes.

  5. Upflow bioreactor with septum and pressure release mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Conly L.; Hansen, Carl S.; Pack, Kevin; Milligan, John; Benefiel, Bradley C.; Tolman, C. Wayne; Tolman, Kenneth W.

    2010-04-20

    An upflow bioreactor includes a vessel having an inlet and an outlet configured for upflow operation. A septum is positioned within the vessel and defines a lower chamber and an upper chamber. The septum includes an aperture that provides fluid communication between the upper chamber and lower chamber. The bioreactor also includes means for releasing pressure buildup in the lower chamber. In one configuration, the septum includes a releasable portion having an open position and a closed position. The releasable portion is configured to move to the open position in response to pressure buildup in the lower chamber. In the open position fluid communication between the lower chamber and the upper chamber is increased. Alternatively the lower chamber can include a pressure release line that is selectively actuated by pressure buildup. The pressure release mechanism can prevent the bioreactor from plugging and/or prevent catastrophic damage to the bioreactor caused by high pressures.

  6. Mitigating fouling in the high temperature paraffinic froth treatment process through science and serendipity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakrabarty, Tapantosh [Imperial Oil Resources (Canada)], email: apan.chakrabarty@esso.ca

    2010-07-01

    This work focuses on the application of high temperature paraffinic froth treatment (HT-PFT); a technique used to clean froth that results from the process of water extraction of oil sands. This technique includes the addition of a paraffinic solvent to the bitumen as a preliminary step in removing froth structures, leading to a possible fouling of the inner walls of the treatment vessels. Therefore, a fouling preventive technique consisting of three novel solutions was investigated in this work. The accumulations of fouling components were constantly monitored during the HT-PFT process using a gamma-ray densitometer. Results showed that buildups mostly consisted of inorganic solid structures held together with asphaltene. It was also shown that fluorocarbon polymer coating (FPC) proved to be the most effective additive in preventing fouling buildups, and by using fouling collectors in the vessels buildups were highly reduced downstream. In general, incorporating this preventive technique with HT-PFT was recommended.

  7. Analysis of finite conductivity fractures intercepting multilayer reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, C.; Raghavan, R.; Reynolds, A.C.

    1982-09-01

    This paper presents the analytical and numerical results of an examination into the response of a fractured well in a multi-layered reservoir. The analytical solutions derived are new and served three functions. First, they enabled the verification of the numerical solutions. Second, they provided information on the structure of the solution, and thus increased physical understanding. Third, they suggested a method whereby the authors were able to correlate multi-layer solutions with the single-layer solutions. The authors show that under certain circumstances the well response of wells draining multilayer reservoirs can be correlated with single-layer reservoirs. They also find that the ratio of the fracture height to the fracture length has an influence on well performance. This influence is discussed. The authors also consider the analysis of buildup data following a short producing time. They show that the multi-layer buildup solutions can be correlated with the single-layer buildup solutions.

  8. Analysis of finite conductivity fractures intercepting multilayer reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, C.O.; Reynolds, A.C.; Raghavan, R.

    1982-01-01

    The response of a fractured well in a multilayered reservoir is the primary subject of this study. Both analytic and numeric results are presented. The analytic solutions derived are new and served 3 important functions. First, they enable verification of the numeric solutions used in this study. Second, they provided information on the structure of the solution, and thus increased physical understanding. Third, they suggested a method for correlating multilayer solutions with the single-layer solutions. The well response of wells draining multilayer reservoirs can be correlated with single-layer reservoirs. It also was found that the ratio of the fracture height to fracture length has an influence on well performance. The analysis of buildup data following a short producing time is considered. It is shown that the multilayer buildup solutions can be correlated with the single-layer buildup solutions. 21 references.

  9. In-line Ultrasonic Array System for Monitoring Dynamic of Coating Forming by Cold Spray Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubrick, M.; Titov, S.; Leshchynsky, V.; Maev, R. Gr.

    This study attempts to test the viability of studying the cold spray process using acoustic methods, specifically testing during the actual spray process itself. Multiple composites studied by flat and multi channel transducers as well as actual online measurements are presented. It is shown that the final thickness as well as the dynamics of buildup can be evaluated (including plotting rates of buildup). Cross sections of the coating thickness are also easy to obtain and show true profiles of the coating. The data can also be used to generate real estimates for nozzle speed and spray diameter. Finally comparisons of real thickness and acoustically estimated thickness show a close linear relationship with the y intercept seeming to depend on the composition. The data clearly shows that online acoustic measurement is a viable method for estimating thickness buildup.

  10. In Situ Monitoring of Particle Consolidation During Low Pressure Cold Spray by Ultrasonic Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maev, R. Gr.; Titov, S.; Leshchynsky, V.; Dzhurinskiy, D.; Lubrick, M.

    2011-06-01

    This study attempts to test the viability of the examination of the cold spray process using acoustic methods, specifically in situ testing during the actual spray process itself. Multiple composites studied by flat and multi-channel transducers as well as the results of actual online measurements are presented. It is shown that the final thickness as well as the dynamics of buildup can be evaluated (including plotting rates of buildup). Cross sections of the coating thickness are also easy to obtain and show true profiles of the coating. The data can also be used to generate real estimates for nozzle speed and spray diameter. Finally, comparisons of real thickness and acoustically estimated thickness show a close linear relationship. The data clearly show that online acoustic measurement is a viable method for estimating thickness buildup.

  11. Validation of Monte Carlo calculated surface doses for megavoltage photon beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Rahman, Wamied; Seuntjens, Jan P; Verhaegen, Frank; Deblois, François; Podgorsak, Ervin B

    2005-01-01

    Recent work has shown that there is significant uncertainty in measuring build-up doses in mega-voltage photon beams especially at high energies. In this present investigation we used a phantom-embedded extrapolation chamber (PEEC) made of Solid Water to validate Monte Carlo (MC)-calculated doses in the dose build-up region for 6 and 18 MV x-ray beams. The study showed that the percentage depth ionizations (PDIs) obtained from measurements are higher than the percentage depth doses (PDDs) obtained with Monte Carlo techniques. To validate the MC-calculated PDDs, the design of the PEEC was incorporated into the simulations. While the MC-calculated and measured PDIs in the dose build-up region agree with one another for the 6 MV beam, a non-negligible difference is observed for the 18 MV x-ray beam. A number of experiments and theoretical studies of various possible effects that could be the source of this discrepancy were performed. The contribution of contaminating neutrons and protons to the build-up dose region in the 18 MV x-ray beam is negligible. Moreover, the MC calculations using the XCOM photon cross-section database and the NIST bremsstrahlung differential cross section do not explain the discrepancy between the MC calculations and measurement in the dose build-up region for the 18 MV. A simple incorporation of triplet production events into the MC dose calculation increases the calculated doses in the build-up region but does not fully account for the discrepancy between measurement and calculations for the 18 MV x-ray beam.

  12. In-vivo dosimetry for field sizes down to 6 × 6 mm2 in shaped beam radiosurgery with microMOSFET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sors, A; Cassol, E; Latorzeff, I; Duthil, P; Sabatier, J; Lotterie, J A; Redon, A; Berry, I; Franceries, X

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate microMOSFET as in-vivo dosimeter in 6 MV shaped-beam radiosurgery for field sizes down to 6 × 6 mm2. A homemade build-up cap was developed and its use with microMOSFET was evaluated down to 6 × 6 mm2. The study with the homemade build-up cap was performed considering its influence on field size over-cover occurring at surface, achievement of the overall process of electronic equilibrium, dose deposition along beam axis and dose attenuation. An optimized calibration method has been validated using MOSFET in shaped-beam radiosurgery for field sizes from 98 × 98 down to 18 × 18 mm2. The method was detailed in a previous study and validated in irregular field shapes series measurements performed on a head phantom. The optimized calibration method was applied to microMOSFET equipped with homemade build-up cap down to 6 × 6 mm2. Using the same irregular field shapes, dose measurements were performed on head phantom. MicroMOSFET results were compared to previous MOSFET ones. Additional irregular field shapes down to 8.8 × 8.8 mm2 were studied with microMOSFET. Isocenter dose attenuation due to the homemade build-up cap over the microMOSFET was near 2% irrespective of field size. Our results suggested that microMOSFET equipped with homemade build-up cap is suitable for in-vivo dosimetry in shaped-beam radiosurgery for field sizes down to 6 × 6 mm2 and therefore that the required build-up cap dimensions to perform entrance in-vivo dosimetry in small-fields have to ensure only partial charge particle equilibrium.

  13. Microfractures due to overpressures caused by thermal cracking in well-sealed Devonian reservoirs, deep Alberta basin, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marquez, X.M. [Dept. de Exploracion, Maraven, S.A., Caracas (Venezuela); Mountjoy, E.W. [McGill Univ., Montreal (Canada)

    1996-08-01

    Microfractures (< 1 mm in width) filled with reservoir bitumen crosscut all diagenetic phases in the upper 200 m of the partially to completely dolomitized Upper Devonian (Leduc Formation) Strachan buildup and other buildups in the deep Alberta basin. They display three patterns: (1) subhorizontal, extending from intraskeletal pores and perpendicular to sub-vertical fractures, (2) random in the matrix, and (3) radial around vugs and fossil molds. Subhorizontal microfracturing is most common and radial is the least common. Overpressuring caused by thermal cracking of crude oil to gas during burial can produce most of the characteristics exhibited by these microfractures: their association with all pore types, bitumen fillings and relatively late diagenetic timing. Microfractures are restricted to isolated buildups below depths of about 3800 m in the Alberta Basin. Thermal cracking of crude oil to gas during burial is also indicated by finely and coarsely deformed lamellar textures of the reservoir bitumen that fill the microfractures in the Strachan buildup. Also, the stress field was modified by tectonic compression during the Late Cretaceous and Early Tertiary Laramide orogeny. Pressures generated during thermal cracking of oil together with tectonic compression probably created the microfractures in the isolated and effectively sealed reservoirs. The increased horizontal stresses resulted in subhorizontal microfractures, whereas rare radial and random microfractures formed under conditions of more uniform stress. The lack of microfractures in adjacent gas-bearing and updip buildups along the Rimbey-Meadowbrook reef trend is likely due to the connection of these buildups to a regional conduit system in the underlying Cooking Lake platform, preventing them from developing sufficient overpressures.

  14. Design of the Advanced Virgo non-degenerate recycling cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granata, M; Barsuglia, M [Laboratoire Astroparticule et Cosmologie (APC) 10 rue Alice Domon et Leonie Duquet, 75013 Paris (France); Flaminio, R [Laboratoire des Materiaux Avances (LMA), IN2P3/CNRS F-69622 Villeurbanne, Lyon (France); Freise, A [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham Birmingham, B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Hild, S [Institute for Gravitational Research, Department of Physics and Astronomy University of Glasgow, Glasgow, G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Marque, J, E-mail: granata@apc.univ-paris7.f [European Gravitational Observatory (EGO) I-56021 Cascina (Italy)

    2010-05-01

    Advanced Virgo is the project to upgrade the interferometric gravitational wave detector Virgo, and it foresees the implementation of power and signal non-degenerate recycling cavities. Such cavities suppress the build-up of high order modes of the resonating sidebands, with some advantage for the commissioning of the detector and the build-up of the gravitational signal. Here we present the baseline design of the Advanced Virgo non-degenerate recycling cavities, giving some preliminary results of simulations about the tolerances of this design to astigmatism, mirror figure errors and thermal lensing.

  15. Damage accumulation in He implanted SiC at different temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbot, Jean Francois; Declemy, Alain; Beaufort, Marie-France [Institut Prime (UPR 3346), Departement Physique et Mecanique des Materiaux, CNRS, Universite de Poitiers, ENSMA, 86962 Futuroscope Chasseneuil (France)

    2013-01-15

    The defect accumulation in helium-implanted 4H-SiC was studied in a large range of temperatures through the elastic strain build-up determined by using X-ray diffraction measurements. The interstitial type defects formation and accumulation result in the strain build-up that was modelled with a multi-step damage accumulation. The gradient of strain imputed to the ion implantation processes leads to the additional step of defect accumulation where the nuclear energy loss is maximal. This phenomenon is enhanced when the formation of bubbles takes place. (Copyright copyright 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  16. Effects of Laser-Induced Heating on the Photoinduced Birefringence in Azobenzene-Side-Chain Copolymer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨军; 明海; 章江英; 王沛; 郎建英; 鲁拥华; 刘剑; 张其锦

    2003-01-01

    The photoinduced birefringence was observed in the polymer poly[2-(4-(4-cyanophenyl) diazenyl phenyloxy) ethoxyl methacrylatel with a cw 532nm laser. The azobenzene polymer character has been studied under the conditions of various illuminating time and light intensities. By analysing the processes of reorientation, the effect of laser-induced heating has been introduced to the buildup of photoinduced birefringence in azobenzene-side-chain copolymer. The curves for the buildup of birefringence were fitted with a modified function, i.e., biexponential curves and Gaussian curves. The relationship among all the parameters has also been presented. With the modified fitting function, we obtain a better fitting result.

  17. Residual Stress Induced by Nitriding and Nitrocarburizing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Somers, Marcel A.J.

    2005-01-01

    The present chapter is devoted to the various mechanisms involved in the buildup and relief of residual stress in nitrided and nitrocarburized cases. The work presented is an overview of model studies on iron and iron-based alloys. Subdivision is made between the compound (or white) layer......, developing at the surfce and consisting of iron-based (carbo)nitrides, and the diffusion zone underneath, consisting of iron and alloying element nitrides dispersed in af ferritic matrix. Microstructural features are related directly to the origins of stress buildup and stres relief....

  18. MIDLINE DIASTEMA: TREATMENT OPTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT : Maxillary midline diastema is a common esthetic problem in mixed and permanent dentition. The space can occur either as a transient malocclusion or created by developmental, pathological or iatrogenic factors. Many innovative therapies are available from restorative procedures such as composite build-up to surgery (fr enectomies and Orthodontics is available. Treatment depends upon the correct diagnosis of its etiology and early intervention relevant to the specific etiology. Presented herewith case report s which were treated by Orthodontic treatment and also composite build-up.

  19. Pebble Delivery for Inside-Out Planet Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, Xiao; Chatterjee, Sourav

    2014-01-01

    Inside-Out Planet Formation (IOPF; Chatterjee & Tan 2014, hereafter CT14) is a scenario for sequential in situ planet formation at the pressure traps of retreating dead zone inner boundaries (DZIBs) motivated to explain the many systems with tightly packed inner planets (STIPs) discovered by Kepler. The scenario involves build-up of a pebble-dominated protoplanetary ring, supplied by radial drift of pebbles from the outer disk. It may also involve further build-up of planetary masses to gap-opening scales via continued pebble accretion. Here we study radial drift & growth of pebbles delivered to the DZIB in fiducial IOPF disk models.

  20. Experimental Validation of a Mathematical Model for Seabed Liquefaction Under Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sumer, B. Mutlu; Kirca, Özgür; Fredsøe, Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of an experimental study directed towards the validation of a mathematical model for the buildup of pore water pressure and resulting liquefaction of marine soils under progressive waves. Experiments were conducted under controlled conditions with silt (d(50) = 0.......070 mm) in a wave flume with a soil pit. Waves with wave heights in the range of 7.7-18 cm, 55-cm water depth and 1.6-s wave period enabled us to study both the liquefaction and no-liquefaction regime pore water pressure buildup. The experimental data were used to validate the model. A numerical example...

  1. Experimental validation of a mathematical model for seabed liquefaction in waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sumer, B. Mutlu; Kirca, Özgür; Fredsøe, Jørgen

    2011-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of an experimental study directed towards the validation of a mathematical model for the buildup of pore water pressure and resulting liquefaction of marine soils under progressive waves. Experiments were conducted under controlled conditions with silt ( d50 = 0.......070 mm) in a wave flume with a soil pit. Waves with wave heights in the range 7.7-18 cm with the water depth 55 cm and the wave period 1.6 s enabled us to study both the liquefaction and no-liquefaction regime pore water pressure buildup. The experimental data was used to validate the model. A numerical...

  2. Surface modifications of stainless steel to minimise contamination in mass spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abda, J.; Douce, D.; Jones, G.; Skeldon, P.; Thompson, G. E.

    2015-12-01

    The effect of electrochemically grown and vapour deposited coatings on the build-up of contamination on stainless steel surfaces in the electrospray ionisation source of a mass spectrometer is investigated, together with their influence on the robustness of the instrument response. Quantification of the contamination build-up on flat samples, using white light interferometry, allowed the identification of the most beneficial treatments. Coating with electrochemically-grown anodic oxide and cathodic oxide films and amorphous carbon films doped with silicon or nitrogen resulted in reduced contamination compared with the uncoated stainless steel surface, and provided improved robustness of the instrument response.

  3. Beam induced electron cloud resonances in dipole magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvey, J. R.; Hartung, W.; Makita, J.; Venturini, M.

    2016-07-01

    The buildup of low energy electrons in an accelerator, known as electron cloud, can be severely detrimental to machine performance. Under certain beam conditions, the beam can become resonant with the cloud dynamics, accelerating the buildup of electrons. This paper will examine two such effects: multipacting resonances, in which the cloud development time is resonant with the bunch spacing, and cyclotron resonances, in which the cyclotron period of electrons in a magnetic field is a multiple of bunch spacing. Both resonances have been studied directly in dipole fields using retarding field analyzers installed in the Cornell Electron Storage Ring. These measurements are supported by both analytical models and computer simulations.

  4. Studies of Beam Induced Electron Cloud Resonances in Dipole Magnetic Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Calvey, J R; Makita, J; Venturini, M

    2016-01-01

    The buildup of low energy electrons in an accelerator, known as electron cloud, can be severely detrimental to machine performance. Under certain beam conditions, the beam can become resonant with the cloud dynamics, accelerating the buildup of electrons. This paper will examine two such effects: multipacting resonances, in which the cloud development time is resonant with the bunch spacing, and cyclotron resonances, in which the cyclotron period of electrons in a magnetic field is a multiple of bunch spacing. Both resonances have been studied directly in dipole fields using retarding field analyzers installed in the Cornell Electron Storage Ring (CESR). These measurements are supported by both analytical models and computer simulations.

  5. The combination of photocatalysis and ozonolysis as a new approach for cleaning 2,4-dichlorophenoxyaceticacid polluted water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, T S; Sun, Z; Kumar, G; Itoh, K; Murabayashi, M

    1998-04-01

    Treatment of 2,4-D polluted waters with photocatalysis leads to the buildup of high concentrations of the long living intermediate 2,4-DCP. A new approach using a combination of ozonolysis and photocatalysis gave better degradation results with lower intermediate concentrations. The advantages of photocatalysis giving a constant decline in TOC and of ozonolysis giving no buildup of high intermediate concentrations were combined. Degradation data of 2,4-D for photocatalysis, ozonolysis and the combination of both for different pH ranges are given. Data on the main intermediate 2,4-DCP are given for the three different approaches.

  6. Subcutaneous Injections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Maria

    This thesis is about visualization and characterization of the tissue-device interaction during subcutaneous injection. The tissue pressure build-up during subcutaneous injections was measured in humans. The insulin pen FlexTouchr (Novo Nordisk A/S) was used for the measurements and the pressure...... build-up was evaluated indirectly from the changes in the flow rate between subcutaneous injections and air injections. This method enabled the tissue counter pressure to be evaluated without a formal clinical study approval. The measurements were coupled to a model for the pressure evolution...

  7. Dynamic space charge behaviour in polymeric DC cables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Claus Nygaard; Holbøll, Joachim; Henriksen, Mogens

    2002-01-01

    The use of extruded insulation for DC cables involves a risk of local electric field enhancement, caused by a space charge build-up within the dielectric. In this work, the theory of charge generation and transport in polymers is applied in a numerical computer model in order to predict the forma......The use of extruded insulation for DC cables involves a risk of local electric field enhancement, caused by a space charge build-up within the dielectric. In this work, the theory of charge generation and transport in polymers is applied in a numerical computer model in order to predict...

  8. Application of the kernel method on ET-RR-1 reactor shield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hathout, A. M.

    1994-07-01

    The kernel method is used to calculate the γ-Dose-Rate (GDR) on the shield surface of the ET-RR-1 reactor. The GDR is obtained in terms of the build-up factor as a function of energy. The build-up factor is calculated for water, cast iron and heavy concrete, as shielding materials, in the energy range 0.5-10.0 MeV. An optimization code was programmed for the main frame VAX to calculate the GDR averaged over the energy range. The results obtained are presented in the tables and discussed.

  9. Application of the kernel method on ET-RR-1 reactor shield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hathout, A.M. [Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt). National Centre of Nuclear Safety and Radiation Control

    1994-07-01

    The kernel method is used to calculate the {gamma}-Dose-Rate (GDR) on the shield surface of the ET-RR-1 reactor. The GDR is obtained in terms of the build-up factor as a function of energy. The build-up factor is calculated for water, cast iron and heavy concrete, as shielding materials, in the energy range 0.5 - 10.0 MeV. An optimization code was programmed for the main frame VAX to calculate the GDR averaged over the energy range. The results obtained are presented in the tables and discussed. (author).

  10. Morphological changes at Godavari delta region due to waves, currents and the associated physical processes

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sastry, J.S.; Vethamony, P.; Swamy, G.N.

    the southwest monsoon season waves reach heights of the order of 2 m. Otherwise they are of the order of 1 m. The fair weather promotes delta build-up. Tides and tidal currents are other important factors which affect the overall gradient of the deltas...

  11. Hydraulic testing of Salado Formation evaporites at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant site: Second interpretive report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beauheim, R.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Roberts, R.M.; Dale, T.F.; Fort, M.D.; Stensrud, W.A. [INTERA, Inc., Austin, TX (United States)

    1993-12-01

    Pressure-pulse, constant-pressure flow, and pressure-buildup tests have been performed in bedded evaporites of the Salado Formation at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site to evaluate the hydraulic properties controlling brine flow through the Salado. Transmissivities have been interpreted from six sequences of tests conducted on five stratigraphic intervals within 15 m of the WIPP underground excavations.

  12. Absolute phase control of spectra effects in a two-level medium driven by two-color ultrashort laser pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia Keyu [State Key Laboratory of High Field Laser Physics, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences (China); Niu Yueping [State Key Laboratory of High Field Laser Physics, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences (China); Li Chunfang [Department of Physics, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200436 (China); Gong Shangqing [CCAST (World Laboratory), PO Box 8730, Beijing 100080 (China) and State Key Laboratory of High Field Laser Physics, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China)]. E-mail: sqgong@siom.ac.cn

    2007-01-22

    Using a {omega}-3{omega} combination scenario, we investigate the absolute phase control of the spectra effects for ultrashort laser pulses propagating in a two-level medium. It is found that the higher spectral components can be controlled by the absolute phases. In particular, different absolute phase combinations can lead to the buildup or split of the even harmonics.

  13. Understanding the formative stage of technological innovation system development: The case of natural gas as an automotive fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suurs, Roald A.A., E-mail: roald.suurs@tno.n [Innovation Studies Group, Copernicus Institute for Sustainable Development and Innovation, Utrecht University, Heidelberglaan 2, 3584 CS Utrecht (Netherlands); TNO Built Environment and Geosciences, Business Unit Innovation and Environment, Van Mourik Broekmanweg 6, 2628 XE Delft (Netherlands); Hekkert, Marko P.; Kieboom, Sander; Smits, Ruud E.H.M. [Innovation Studies Group, Copernicus Institute for Sustainable Development and Innovation, Utrecht University, Heidelberglaan 2, 3584 CS Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2010-01-15

    This study contributes to insights into mechanisms that influence the successes and failures of emerging energy technologies. It is assumed that for an emerging technology to fruitfully develop, it should be fostered by a Technological Innovation System (TIS), which is the network of actors, institutions and technologies in which it is embedded. For an emerging technology a TIS has yet to be built up. This research focuses on the dynamics of this build-up process by mapping the development of seven key activities: so-called system functions. The main contribution revolves around the notion of cumulative causation, or the phenomenon that the build-up of a TIS accelerates due to system functions reinforcing each other over time. As an empirical basis, an analysis is provided of the historical development of the TIS around automotive natural gas technology in the Netherlands (1970-2007). The results show that this TIS undergoes a gradual build-up in the 1970s, followed by a breakdown in the 1980s and, again, a build-up from 2000 to 2007. It is shown that underlying these trends are different forms of cumulative causation, here called motors of innovation. The study provides strategic insights for practitioners that aspire to support such motors of innovation.

  14. Understanding the formative stage of technological innovation system development. The case of natural gas as an automotive fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suurs, Roald A.A. [Innovation Studies Group, Copernicus Institute for Sustainable Development and Innovation, Utrecht University, Heidelberglaan 2, 3584 CS Utrecht (Netherlands); TNO Built Environment and Geosciences, Business Unit Innovation and Environment, Van Mourik Broekmanweg 6, 2628 XE Delft (Netherlands); Hekkert, Marko P.; Kieboom, Sander; Smits, Ruud E.H.M. [Innovation Studies Group, Copernicus Institute for Sustainable Development and Innovation, Utrecht University, Heidelberglaan 2, 3584 CS Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2010-01-15

    This study contributes to insights into mechanisms that influence the successes and failures of emerging energy technologies. It is assumed that for an emerging technology to fruitfully develop, it should be fostered by a Technological Innovation System (TIS), which is the network of actors, institutions and technologies in which it is embedded. For an emerging technology a TIS has yet to be built up. This research focuses on the dynamics of this build-up process by mapping the development of seven key activities: so-called system functions. The main contribution revolves around the notion of cumulative causation, or the phenomenon that the build-up of a TIS accelerates due to system functions reinforcing each other over time. As an empirical basis, an analysis is provided of the historical development of the TIS around automotive natural gas technology in the Netherlands (1970-2007). The results show that this TIS undergoes a gradual build-up in the 1970s, followed by a breakdown in the 1980s and, again, a build-up from 2000 to 2007. It is shown that underlying these trends are different forms of cumulative causation, here called motors of innovation. The study provides strategic insights for practitioners that aspire to support such motors of innovation. (author)

  15. A new conceptual model for the fate of lignin in decomposing plant litter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klotzbücher, T.; Kaiser, K.; Guggenberger, G.; Gatzek, C.; Kalbitz, K.

    2011-01-01

    Lignin is a main component of plant litter. Its degradation is thought to be critical for litter decomposition rates and the build-up of soil organic matter. We studied the relationships between lignin degradation and the production of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and of CO2 during litter decompos

  16. Argon purge gas cooled by chill box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiro, L. W.

    1966-01-01

    Cooling argon purge gas by routing it through a shop-fabricated chill box reduces charring of tungsten inert gas torch head components. The argon gas is in a cooled state as it enters the torch and prevents buildup of char caused by the high concentrations of heat in the weld area during welding operations.

  17. 49 CFR 173.217 - Carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice). 173.217 Section... Class 7 § 173.217 Carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice). (a) Carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice), when offered for... permit the release of carbon dioxide gas to prevent a buildup of pressure that could rupture...

  18. A New Comprehensive Approach for Predicting Injectivity Decline during Waterflooding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, Hao; Nielsen, Sidsel Marie; Shapiro, Alexander

    Injectivity decline during sea waterflooding or produced water re-injection is widely observed in North Sea, Gulf of Mexico and Campos Basin fields. The formation damage occurs mainly due to the deposition of suspended solids around injectors and the build-up the external filter cakes in the well...

  19. Numerical continuum mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Kukudzhanov, Vladimir N

    2013-01-01

    This work focuses on computational methods in continuum thermomechanics. The text is based on the author's lectures, which ensures a didactical and coherent buildup.The main emphasis is put on the presentation of ideas and qualitative considerations, illustrated by specific examples and applications. Conditions and explanations that are essential for the practical application of methods are discussed thoroughly.

  20. Modulating fracture properties of mixed protein systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ersch, C.; Laak, ter I.; Linden, van der E.; Venema, P.; Martin, A.

    2015-01-01

    To design foods with desired textures it is important to understand structure build-up and breakdown. One can obtain a wide range of structures using mixtures of different structuring ingredients such as for example protein mixtures. Mixed soy protein isolate (SPI)/gelatine gels were analyzed for th

  1. Aged forests could still act as carbon sinks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Old-growth forests are traditionally negligible as carbon sinks, but CAS scientists recently reported that the buildup of atmospheric carbon in the top-soils of 400-year-old forests in southern China has increased at an unexpectedly high rate up to nearly 68% from 1979 to 2003.

  2. Release of accumulated arsenic from distribution pipes into tap water after arsenic treatment of source water- presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxic arsenic (As) is known to incorporate from source well water onto the scales of distribution system pipes such as iron, copper, galvanized steel and even plastic containing internal buildup of iron coatings (Lytle et al., 2010, 2004; Schock, 2015; Reiber and Dostal, 2000). W...

  3. Molecular Cabal Contributes to Stroke Damage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ In the neural train wreck that is stroke, the cutoff of oxygen kills brain cells through a buildup of acid, as well as by overexciting receptors on the surface of brain cells. Now, researchers exploring the detailed mechanism of this excitotoxicity and acidotoxicity have discovered how an insidious chain of molecular events contributes to its damage.

  4. Cholecystitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diseases and Conditions Cholecystitis By Mayo Clinic Staff Cholecystitis (ko-luh-sis-TIE-tis) is inflammation of the gallbladder. Your gallbladder is a ... the tube leading out of your gallbladder cause cholecystitis. This results in a bile buildup that can ...

  5. AIR RADIOACTIVITY MONITOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, R.L.; Thomas, J.W.

    1961-04-11

    The monitor is designed to minimize undesirable background buildup. It consists of an elongated column containing peripheral electrodes in a central portion of the column, and conduits directing an axial flow of radioactively contaminated air through the center of the column and pure air through the annular portion of the column about the electrodes. (AEC)

  6. Silicon nanowire field-effect chemical sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Songyue

    2011-01-01

    This thesis describes the work that has been done on the project “Design and optimization of silicon nanowire for chemical sensing”, including Si-NW fabrication, electrical/electrochemical modeling, the application as ISFET, and the build-up of Si- NW/LOC system for automatic sample delivery. A nove

  7. On the normal stress effect in grease-lubricated bearing seals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baart, P.; Lugt, P.M.; Prakash, B.

    2014-01-01

    The film formation in lip seals, due to the non-Newtonian rheology of the lubricant, has been a topic of speculation. Earlier work suggests that normal stresses in grease would be favorable for the film buildup between the seal lip and shaft or bearing ring. In the current article, we evaluate this

  8. John Hardy is the UK's first Breakthrough Prize laureate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Seamus J

    2015-12-01

    John Hardy, Professor of Neuroscience at University College London and Editorial Board member of The FEBS Journal, has been awarded The Breakthrough Prize in Life Sciences in recognition of his work identifying mutations that cause amyloid build-up in the brain--research that has transformed the study of Alzheimer's disease and other major neurodegenerative diseases.

  9. ENGINEERING AND ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF GAS RECOVERY AND UTILIZATION TECHNOLOGIES AT SELECTED U.S. MINES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methane liberated in underground coal mines is a severe safety hazard to miners. It is also a major contributor to the build-up of greenhouse gases in the global atmosphere. This report presents an engineering and economic evaluation of several methane recovery and end-use techno...

  10. Genetics Home Reference: Niemann-Pick disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... causing this fat to accumulate in cells. This fat buildup causes cells to malfunction and eventually die. Over time, cell loss impairs function of tissues and organs including the brain, lungs, spleen, and liver in people with Niemann-Pick disease types A and B. Mutations in either the NPC1 ...

  11. 49 CFR 393.75 - Tires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... is exposed. (b) Any tire on the front wheels of a bus, truck, or truck tractor shall have a tread... pounds) shall not be used on the front wheels of any truck or truck tractor. (f) Tire loading... buildup factor shown in Table 1 from the measured inflation pressure. Table 1—Inflation...

  12. A New Connection Between Greenhouse Warming and Stratospheric Ozone Depletion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salawitch, R.

    1998-01-01

    The direct radiative effects of the build-up of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases have led to a gradual cooling of the stratosphere with largest changes in temperature occurring in the upper stratosphere, well above the region of peak ozone concentration.

  13. Experiment-Based Computational Investigation of Thermomechanical Stresses in Flip Chip BGA Using the ATC4.2 Test Vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burchett, Steven N.; Nguyen, Luu; Peterson, David W.; Sweet, James N.

    1999-08-02

    Stress measurement test chips were flip chip assembled to organic BGA substrates containing micro-vias and epoxy build-up interconnect layers. Mechanical degradation observed during temperature cycling was correlated to a damage theory developed based on 3D finite element method analysis. Degradation included die cracking, edge delamination and radial fillet cracking.

  14. a Topological Extension of General Relativity to Explore the Nature of Quantum Spacetime, Dark Energy and Inflation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaans, M.

    2013-01-01

    General Relativity is extended into the quantum domain. A thought experiment is explored to derive a specific topological build-up for Planckian spacetime. The presented arguments are inspired by Feynman's path integral for superposition and Wheeler's quantum foam of Planck mass mini black holes (BH

  15. A Topological Extension of General Relativity to Explore the Nature of Quantum Spacetime, Dark Energy and Inflation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaans, M.

    2013-01-01

    General Relativity is extended into the quantum domain. A thought experiment is explored to derive a specific topological build-up for Planckian spacetime. The presented arguments are inspired by Feynman's path integral for superposition and Wheeler's quantum foam of Planck mass mini black holes (BH

  16. The effect of an experimentally created mussel bed on bird densities and food intake of the Oystercatcher Haematopus ostralegus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ens, BJ; Alting, D

    1996-01-01

    When an experimental mussel bed was created in 1987 on the mudflats south of Schiermonnikoog, Herring Gulls immediately increased in numbers, consuming starfish and damaged Mussels. The build-up of oyster catcher numbers was more gradual, but persisted for longer. Most Oystercatchers attracted to th

  17. Evaluation of efficacy of restorative dental treatment provided under general anesthesia at hospitalized pediatric dental patients of Isfahan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Eshghi

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: Stainless steel crown restorations had significantly better results vs other posterior restorations. The failure rates of stainless steel crown and anterior composite resin build-up restorations did not correlate with the time of follow-up in comparison of other restorations.

  18. Reliability Based assessment of buildings under earthquakes due to gas extraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenbergen, R.D.J.M.; Vrouwenvelder, A.C.W.M.

    2014-01-01

    In the northern part of the Netherlands over de last decades shallow earthquakes are induced due to large scale gas extraction from the Groningen gas field. Earthquakes occur due to the compaction of the reservoir rock, which leads to subsidence at surface and strain build-up in the reservoir rock a

  19. Experimental Determination and Numerical Modelling of Process Induced Strains and Residual Stresses in Thick Glass/Epoxy Laminate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Michael Wenani; Hattel, Jesper Henri; Løgstrup Andersen, Tom;

    2012-01-01

    In this work, a cure hardening instantaneous linear elastic (CHILE) model and a path dependent (PD) constitutive approach are compared, for the case of modelling strain build-up during curing of a thick composite laminate part. The PD approach is a limiting case of viscoelasticity with path depen...

  20. Solar Eclipse: The rise and "dusk" of the Dutch PV Innovation System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Negro, S.O.; Vasseur, V.; Sark, W.G.J.H.M. van; Hekkert, M.P.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we take the theoretical perspective of innovation system dynamics and apply this to Photovoltaic (PV) solar energy technology in the Netherlands. The history of the development of the PV innovation system is analysed in terms of seven key processes that are essential for the build-up

  1. Clinical implementation of 3D printing in the construction of patient specific bolus for electron beam radiotherapy for non-melanoma skin cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Canters, R.A.M.; Lips, I.M.; Wendling, M.; Kusters, M.; Zeeland, M. van; Gerritsen, R.M.; Poortmans, P.; Verhoef, C.G.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Creating an individualized tissue equivalent material build-up (i.e. bolus) for electron beam radiation therapy is complex and highly labour-intensive. We implemented a new clinical workflow in which 3D printing technology is used to create the bolus. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A

  2. Heat-barrier coatings for combustion chambers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, H. W.

    1970-01-01

    Arc-plasma-sprayed layered coating of graded Inconel and zirconia protects film-coolant ring below injector plate of rocket engine combustion chamber. Interfacial temperature is designed for minimum buildup of stress and to avoid melting of the metal phase in the graded layers.

  3. Coupling of Alcohols over Alkali-Promoted Cobalt-Molybdenum Sulfide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jakob Munkholt; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Schiødt, N.C.

    2010-01-01

    Double or nothing: Higher alcohols are produced by the hydrogenation of CO with a K-promoted Co-MoS2/C catalyst. Ethanol, which is passed over the sulfide catalyst along with CO and H2, is mainly converted into 1-butanol, which indicates that alcohol condensation contributes to the build-up of hi...

  4. Bacteriological Survey of AFD (Meat Packing Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. N. Rawal

    1974-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the manufacturing process of freeze dried mutton from slaughtering to packing and makes an assessment of microbial build-up on equipment, hands of workers and environment in which the mutton comes in contact during processing.

  5. New electrical tomographic method to determine dampness in historical buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rymarczyk Tomasz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new, nondestructive method of testing brick wall dampness in wall structures. The setup was used to determine the moisture in a specially built laboratory model. Topological methods and the gradient technique are used to optimize the approach. A forward model of a wall was constructed to solve the inverse problem resulting in moisture buildup inside the wall.

  6. The Army’s Program Executive Officer (PEO) Concept: Who is in Charge

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-02-24

    Edward Snow, Jr., "Soviet Propaganda and the Neutron Bomb Decision," Political Communication and Persuasion, 1 (No. 3, 1981), 257-68 an---.e i Wasserman...Neutron Bomb Decision." Political Communication and Persuasion No. 3 1981. Talbot, Strobe. "Buildup and Breakdown." Foreign Affairs, America and the

  7. Soviet Reactions to Follow-On-To-Lance (FOTL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-03-26

    Edward Snow, Jr., "Soviet Propaganda and the Neutron Bomb Decision," Political Communication and Persuasion, 1 (No. 3, 1981), 257-68 an---.e i...the Neutron Bomb Decision." Political Communication and Persuasion No. 3 1981. Talbot, Strobe. "Buildup and Breakdown." Foreign Affairs, America and

  8. Modeling delamination due to thermal stress in optical storage media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkansah, M. A.; Evans, K. E.

    1990-04-01

    Finite element analysis is used to calculate the shape of blisters formed in bilayer optical storage media due to the buildup of thermal stresses during laser writing. It is shown that practically usable blisters may be expected to form in a time period of about 15 ns. Such a thermal stress delamination process may also precede melting in conventional pit formation processes.

  9. Wire chamber degradation at the Argonne ZGS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haberichter, W.; Spinka, H.

    1986-01-01

    Experience with multiwire proportional chambers at high rates at the Argonne Zero Gradient Synchrotron is described. A buildup of silicon on the sense wires was observed where the beam passed through the chamber. Analysis of the chamber gas indicated that the density of silicon was probably less than 10 ppM.

  10. LEAF: a computer program to calculate fission product release from a reactor containment building for arbitrary radioactive decay chains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, C.E.; Apperson, C.E. Jr.; Foley, J.E.

    1976-10-01

    The report describes an analytic containment building model that is used for calculating the leakage into the environment of each isotope of an arbitrary radioactive decay chain. The model accounts for the source, the buildup, the decay, the cleanup, and the leakage of isotopes that are gas-borne inside the containment building.

  11. Lance for injecting highly-loaded coal slurries into the blast furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Illuminati, D.

    1991-10-29

    A lance is used to inject fuel oil into a blast furnace. This simple design permits conversion of coal water and coal tar slurries to a fine mist at very low flow rates. This design prevents the build-up of deposits which increases service life and steadies the flow rate.

  12. Exact solutions to the Boltzmann equation by mapping the scattering integral into a differential operator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zabadal, Jorge; Borges, Volnei; Van der Laan, Flavio T., E-mail: jorge.zabadal@ufrgs.br, E-mail: borges@ufrgs.br, E-mail: ftvdl@ufrgs.br [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica. Grupo de Pesquisas Radiologicas; Ribeiro, Vinicius G., E-mail: vinicius_ribeiro@uniritter.edu.br [Centro Universitario Ritter dos Reis (UNIRITTER), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Santos, Marcio G., E-mail: phd.marcio@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Tramandai, RS (Brazil). Departamento Interdisciplinar do Campus Litoral Norte

    2015-07-01

    This work presents a new analytical method for solving the Boltzmann equation. In this formulation, a linear differential operator is applied over the Boltzmann model, in order to produce a partial differential equation in which the scattering term is absent. This auxiliary equation is solved via reduction of order. The exact solution obtained is employed to define a precursor for the buildup factor. (author)

  13. The City as a Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauberg, Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    urbanisation is highly resource demanding and a crucial part of the problem with regard to sustainable development. In developing countries, the situation can be called excessive absolute urbanisation: a simple accumulation or build-up in space of e.g. population. Here density is created through an increasing...

  14. How Should the Department of Defense Approach Environmental Security Implications of Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-11

    input of greenhouse gasses. Major sources include fossil-fuel burning and deforestation . CO2 remains in the troposphere for approximately 500 years...... greenhouse effect is the raising of air temperature that occurs when the lower atmosphere (troposphere) traps and contributes to the buildup of heat

  15. The LTS{sub N} method used for the determination of parameters in heterogeneous shielding for neutrons and photons; O uso do metodo LTS{sub N} na obtencao de parametros de blindagens multiplas para neutrons e fotons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges, Volnei [Rio Grande do Sul Univ., Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Nuclear; Francio, Laci Maria; Brigoni, Justina Ines Fronza [Universidade de Caxias do Sul, RS (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Exatas e da Natureza

    2002-07-01

    In this work the LTS{sub N} methodology is used for determination of the radiation flux distribution into the homogeneous and heterogeneous shielding, using the multigroup model in energy, for photons and neutrons. Numerical results for emergent flux, absorbed dose rates and buildup factor are reported. (author)

  16. Dietary Tools To Modulate Glycogen Storage In Fish Muscle: A Proteomic Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, Tomé S.; Matos, Elisabete; Cordeire, Odete

    Post-mortem flesh deterioration is dependent on the energy reserves present at the time of death. Early depletion of muscle glycogen leads to the buildup of lactate and to the early onset of rigor mortis, resulting in the activation of endogenous proteases and the degradation of myofibrillar prot...

  17. Trapping effects and acoustoelectric current saturation in ZnO single crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosekilde, Erik

    1970-01-01

    Measurements of current-voltage characteristics for ZnO single crystals at temperatures between 77 and 640 °K are reported. Because of the buildup of an intense acoustic flux, a strong current saturation sets in when the trap-controlled electron drift velocity is equal to the velocity of sound...

  18. A Sediment Transport Model for Sewers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mark, Ole; Larsson, Johan; Larsen, Torben

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes a mathematical model for transport processes in sewers. The model consists of three sub models, a surface model for the description of the buildup and the washoff of sediment particles from the surface area, a morphological model and an advection-dispersion model. The model...

  19. CTR plasma engineering studies. Progress report, October 1, 1976--September 30, 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miley, G.H.

    1977-01-01

    Plasma engineering studies at the Fusion Studies Laboratory of the University of Illinois, Urbana IL are described that deal with: fusion-product transport in plasmas and associated effects in tokamaks, neutral-beam injection and plasma build-up in mirrors, and studies of aspects of alternate confinement concepts including field-reversed mirrors, field-reversed pinches, and twin-beam mirrors.

  20. Innovative Coatings Potentially Lower Facility Maintenance Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Through extensive testing at Stennis Space Center, Nanocepts Inc. of Lexington, Kentucky, received key validation of the effectiveness of its photocatalytic coatings. Now a NASA Dual Use Technology partner, the company s commercial coatings offer unique environmental and medical benefits, and their self-cleaning properties help limit grime buildup on buildings.

  1. A model for foam formation, stability, and breakdown in glass-melting furnaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaaf, J. van der; Beerkens, R.G.C.

    2006-01-01

    A dynamic model for describing the build-up and breakdown of a glass-melt foam is presented. The foam height is determined by the gas flux to the glass-melt surface and the drainage rate of the liquid lamellae between the gas bubbles. The drainage rate is determined by the average gas bubble radius

  2. Universal mechanism for air entrainment during liquid impact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendrix, Maurice H.W.; Bouwhuis, Wilco; Meer, van der Devaraj; Lohse, Detlef; Snoeijer, Jacco H.

    2016-01-01

    When a millimetre-sized liquid drop approaches a deep liquid pool, both the interface of the drop and the pool deform before the drop touches the pool. The build-up of air pressure prior to coalescence is responsible for this deformation. Due to this deformation, air can be entrained at the bottom o

  3. Oral Diabetes Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Actos) and generic Pioglitazone •Higher risk of heart failure •Higher risk of heart attack (Avandia only) •Higher risk of bladder cancer (Actos only) • Weight gain of 5 to 10 pounds •Risk of fluid build-up (edema) and low blood iron (anemia) •Rise in bad (LDL) cholesterol 3 •High ...

  4. A large extra-abdominal prevesical pseudo-cyst in a newborn with posterior urethral valves.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Binkhorst, M.; Gier, R.P.E. de

    2010-01-01

    A male newborn is described, in whom a large extra-abdominal prevesical pseudo-cyst as well as prune-belly features were present, both of which were supposedly secondary to posterior urethral valves. It is postulated that the subvesical obstruction caused pressure build-up in the urinary tract, foll

  5. A Topological Extension of General Relativity to Explore the Nature of Quantum Space-Time, Dark Energy and Inflation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaans, M.

    2013-01-01

    General Relativity is extended into the quantum domain. A thought experiment is ex- plored to derive a specific topological build-up for Planckian space-time. The presented arguments are inspired by Feynman’s path integral for superposition andWheeler’s quan- tum foam of Planck mass mini black holes

  6. The effects of updating ability and knowledge of reading strategies on reading comprehesion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muijselaar, M.M.L.; de Jong, P.F.

    2015-01-01

    Updating ability and reading strategies are considered as important factors in the buildup of a mental model of a text. However, only few studies examined the relation of updating and knowledge of reading strategies with reading comprehension. The aim of the current study was to investigate the spec

  7. Polyphenylene Dendrimers with Perylene Diimide as a Luminescent Core

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herrmann, Andreas; Weil, Tanja; Sinigersky, Veselin; Wiesler, Uwe-Martin; Vosch, Tom; Hofkens, Johan; Schryver, Frans C. De; Müllen, Klaus

    2001-01-01

    A novel synthesis is presented of a fourfold ethynyl-substituted perylene diimide dye 4, which acts as a core molecule for the buildup of polyphenylene dendrimers. Around the luminescent core 4, a first-generation (5), a second-generation (6), and a third-generation (7) polyphenylene dendritic envir

  8. Influence of surface topography on friction, film breakdown and running-in in the mixed lubrication regime

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lugt, P.M.; Severt, R.W.M.; Fogelström, J.; Tripp, J.H.

    2001-01-01

    The influence of surface topography on the lubricant film build-up ability and the friction characteristics of potential rolling bearing surfaces has been investigated by experiments on two-disc rigs. Traction-friction torque measurements were made for a variety of surface combinations, together wit

  9. Effects of bedding material on ammonia volatilization in a broiler house

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammonia volatilization from poultry house bedding material is a major production issues because the buildup of ammonia within the facilities is a human health issue and can negatively impact the performance of the birds. Major operational cost is associated with the ventilation of poultry houses to ...

  10. 75 FR 10477 - Draft Report to Congress: Study of Discharges Incidental to Normal Operation of Commercial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-08

    ...-disrupting compounds); and pathogen indicators (i.e., E. coli, enterococci, fecal coliforms). EPA found that... that leachate from antifouling hull coatings used on certain vessels to prevent buildup of organisms... water body. Using the results obtained in this study, EPA used a simple model to evaluate how the...

  11. Exploring the bio-behavioural link between stress, allostatic load & micronutrient status: A cross-sectional study among adolescent boys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Little Flower Augustine

    2016-01-01

    Interpretation & conclusions: Build-up of AL was found in adolescent boys and was positively associated with life event stress. Iron nutrition and stress exhibited a positive association through hepcidin. The study provides a link between iron nutrition, physiological deregulation and stress.

  12. All Charged Up!--Experimenting with Static Electricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2011-01-01

    Build-up of static electricity happens readily when the air is cold and dry and is a common part of life. There are lots of ways to make students aware of static electricity--and many things one can teach them about its applications in today's industry. In this article, the author describes examples and experiments that will bring static…

  13. 75 FR 18134 - Function and Reliability Flight Testing for Turbine-Powered Airplanes Weighing 6,000 Pounds or Less

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-09

    .... FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Victor Powell, Aircraft Certification Service, Aircraft Engineering... carbon build-up on the static vanes; brake problems; and tire problems) while two of the cited problems... period between November 2007 and November 2008. In any case, the pitot/ angle of attack (AOA) issue...

  14. Microwave-gated dynamic nuclear polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bornet, Aurélien; Pinon, Arthur; Jhajharia, Aditya

    2016-01-01

    Dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization (D-DNP) has become a method of choice to enhance signals in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Recently, we have proposed to combine cross-polarization (CP) with D-DNP to provide high polarization P((13)C) in short build-up times. In this paper, we show...

  15. In search of sharp fat contours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Graaf, A.

    2005-01-01

    A heart attack is usually caused by a build-up of fatty deposits in the coronary arteries. In many cases the patient will have noticed early warnings signs such as rapid exhaustion and shortness of breath. A cardiologist can now use an ultrasonic sensor to detect fatty deposits in the coronary arter

  16. Shift designs for freight handling personnel at air cargo terminals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rong, Aiying; Grunow, Martin

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an integrated mixed integer linear programming (MILP) model for determining manpower requirements and related personnel shift designs for the build-up and break-down of the unit load devices (ULDs) at the air cargo terminal to minimize manpower costs. To utilize the manpower...

  17. Recommendations for the Avoidance of Delayed-Onset Muscle Soreness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymanski, David J.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the possible causes of delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS), which include buildup of lactic acid in muscle, increased intracellular calcium concentration, increased intramuscular inflammation, and muscle fiber and connective tissue damage. Proposed methods to reduce DOMS include warming up before exercise and performing repeated bouts…

  18. 40 CFR 63.1160 - Compliance dates and maintenance requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., recirculating pumps, discharge pumps, and other liquid pumps, in addition to exhaust system and scrubber fans and motors associated with those pumps and fans; (iii) Require cleaning of the scrubber internals and mist eliminators at intervals sufficient to prevent buildup of solids or other fouling; (iv) Require...

  19. The effect of a fiber reinforced cavity configuration on load bearing capacity and failure mode of endodontically treated molars restored with CAD/CAM resin composite overlay restorations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rocca, G.T.; Saratti, C.M.; Cattani-Lorente, M.; Feilzer, A.J.; Scherrer, S.; Krecji, I.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the fracture strength and the mode of failure of endodontically treated molars restored with CAD/CAM overlays with fiber reinforced composite build-up of the pulp chamber. Methods 40 Devitalized molars were cut over the CEJ and divided into five groups (n = 8). The pulp chambe

  20. Interstitial water chemistry and nutrients fluxes from tropical intertidal sediment

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ram, A.; Zingde, M.D.

    downwards with chlorinity. A continuous build-up of NH4 +-N in the interstitial waters unlike other nutrients was evident. Markedly high N:P molar ratios in surficial sections suggested the removal of PO4 3--P from interstitial water. The fluxes of all...

  1. Structure and tectonic evolution of the northeastern Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramana, M.V.; Krishna, K.S.; Ramprasad, T.; Desa, M.; Subrahmanyam, V.; Sarma, K.V.L.N.S.

    , (3) identification of the Cretaceous magnetic smooth zone and the boundary of the late Cretaceous crust in the distal part of the Bengal Fan, (4) structure and origin of the 85 degrees E Ridge, seismic stratigraphy, the presence of carbonate buildup...

  2. Automatic phase control in solar power satellite systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, W. C.; Kantak, A. V.

    1978-01-01

    Various approaches to the problem of generating, maintaining and distributing a coherent, reference phase signal over a large area are suggested, mathematically modeled and analyzed with respect to their ability to minimize: phase build-up, beam diffusion and beam steering phase jitter, cable length, and maximize power transfer efficiency. In addition, phase control configurations are suggested which alleviate the need for layout symmetry.

  3. CATEGORIAS ESENCIALES PARA COMPRENDER LA EXISTENCIA DEL SER HUMANO Y SUS TRANSFORMACIONES EN LA PSICOLOGIA HUMANISTA EXISTENCIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Ines Vega Palacio

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The current article appears as an intent to buildup a conceptual, punctual, and deep reflectionin the exercise of an enlightening thought aboutthe human being and his transformations, whatthe Humanistic-Existential psychology considersto be the principles to understand existence;four essential categories are approached beingthe capital elements for the research in theContemporary Transformations group.

  4. The Emerging Mechanisms to Promote Security and Stability in the South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-12

    sources of information are limited to official documents and studies accessed in the Combined Arms Research Library and the internet . Lastly, western...... piracy , smuggling etc.), and (3) power projection (naval build-up and military spending). The Stockholm International Peace Research Institute

  5. On the possible causes of the seasonal phytoplankton blooms along the southwest coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Banse, K.; Sumitra-Vijayaraghavan; Madhupratap, M.

    then can materially increase in numbers, since they are poorly controlled by grazers. It so, the principal role of the high nutrient oncentrations would be to permit the build-up of a large algal biomass and pigment concentrations that, coupled...

  6. Palaeocene-early Eocene inversion of the Phuquoc-Kampot Som Basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fyhn, Michael B. W.; Pedersen, Stig A.S.; Boldreel, Lars Ole

    2010-01-01

    The little explored Cambodian and Vietnamese Phuquoc–Kampot Som Basin is a Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous foreland basin developed in response to the build-up of a palaeo-Pacific magmatic arc. A combination of seismic data, well data and outcrop geology complemented by fission track and U/Pb a...

  7. Measuring the Components of Ecosystem Respiration in the Headwaters of the White River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Courtney

    2006-01-01

    Sediment oxygen demand (SOD) is the rate that dissolved oxygen leaves the water column in a body of water due to the build-up and decomposition of organic carbons in the sediment. The introduction of organic materials changes the chemistry of streams, and many chemical reactions occurring in bodies of water, with the exception of photosynthesis,…

  8. Shielding for beta-gamma radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, J J

    1993-06-01

    The build-up factor, B, for lead was expressed as a polynominal cubic function of the relaxation length, mu x, and incorporated in a "general beta-gamma shielding equation." A computer program was written to determine shielding thickness for polyenergetic beta-gamma sources without resorting to the conventional "add-one-HVL" method.

  9. Processing Strategy and PI Effects in Recognition Memory of Word Lists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, Milton H.; Britton, Bruce K.

    Previous research by A. I. Schulman argued that an observed systematic decline in recognition memory in long word lists was due to the build-up of input and output proactive interference (PI). It also suggested that input PI resulted from process automatization; that is, each list item was processed or encoded in much the same way, producing a set…

  10. Implementation of the concession in developing the Uzbekistan transport infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azamat Zokhidov

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers concession as a potential method of financing the transport infrastructure in Uzbekistan. The concession is suggested as an optimal policy option within public-private partnership (PPP. The paper defines directions targeted to build-up PPP conditions in the country.

  11. Cleansing orthodontic brackets with air-powder polishing: effects on frictional force and degree of debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Brisa dos Santos; Fagundes, Nathalia Carolina Fernandes; Aragón, Mônica Lídia Castro; Dias, Carmen Gilda Barroso Tavares; Normando, David

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: Debris buildup on the bracket-wire interface can influence friction. Cleansing brackets with air-powder polishing can affect this process. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the frictional force and amount of debris remaining on orthodontic brackets subjected to prophylaxis with air-powder polishing. Methods: Frictional force and debris buildup on the surface of 28 premolar brackets were evaluated after orthodontic treatment. In one hemiarch, each bracket was subjected to air-powder polishing (n = 14) for five seconds, while the contralateral hemiarch (n = 14) served as control. Mechanical friction tests were performed and images of the polished bracket surfaces and control surfaces were examined. Wilcoxon test was applied for comparative analysis between hemiarches at p < 0.05. Results: Brackets that had been cleaned with air-powder polishing showed lower friction (median = 1.27 N) when compared to the control surfaces (median = 4.52 N) (p < 0.01). Image analysis showed that the control group exhibited greater debris buildup (median = 2.0) compared with the group that received prophylaxis with air-powder polishing (median = 0.5) (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Cleansing orthodontic brackets with air-powder polishing significantly reduces debris buildup on the bracket surface while decreasing friction levels observed during sliding mechanics. PMID:27653265

  12. Bearing-Mounting Concept Accommodates Thermal Expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nespodzany, Robert; Davis, Toren S.

    1995-01-01

    Pins or splines allow radial expansion without slippage. Design concept for mounting rotary bearing accommodates differential thermal expansion between bearing and any structure(s) to which bearing connected. Prevents buildup of thermal stresses by allowing thermal expansion to occur freely but accommodating expansion in such way not to introduce looseness. Pin-in-slot configuration also maintains concentricity.

  13. Improving IAQ Via Air Filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monk, Brian

    1999-01-01

    Provides tips on using air filtration to control indoor air quality in educational facilities, including dedicated spaces with unique air quality conditions such as in libraries, museums and archival storage areas, kitchens and dining areas, and laboratories. The control of particulate contaminants, gaseous contaminants, and moisture buildup are…

  14. Development of Pore Pressure and Material Damping during Cyclic Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Lars Bo

    1994-01-01

    The behaviour of sand during cyclic loading can be characterized as "stabilization", "instant stabilization". "pore pressure buildup" and "liquefaction". The terminologies can be defined exactly by a simple mathematical formulation based on the existence of a cyclic stable state. By introducing a...

  15. An Ambiguity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Energy is of strategic importance to sus- tainable development. None of the world’s major energy-consuming economies can af- ford to give up regulating the energy market This regulation consists of price controls, buildup of state reserves and monopolized sales. From this perspective, the Chinese Government’s existing energy policy based

  16. Developments in strategic landscape monitoring for the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landscape plays an increasingly relevant and prominent role in the protection and mangement of the Earth's terrestrial environments and ecosystems, including the diverse forested, agricultural, wilderness and build-up landscapes within the Nordic countries. However to be meaningful in the Informa...

  17. Immigrant Languages and the Dilemma of the Welfare State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Helle Lykke

    2008-01-01

    methylglyoxal and glyoxal, in both cytosol and mitochondria. This finding suggests a role of detoxification systems in the age-related build-up of damaged proteins. Moreover, the oxidized protein repair system methionine sulfoxide reductase was more affected in the mitochondria than in the cytosol during...

  18. ASSESSMENT OF YOUNG CHILDREN'S POTENTIAL PESTICIDE EXPOSURE FOLLOWING A RESIDENTIAL PESTICIDE APPLICATION - PART I. STUDY DESIGN: EXPOSURE OF CHILDREN AND TOYS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semi-volatile pesticides such as chlorpyrifos can be dynamic in nature; once applied, they can migrate spatially and concentrations can build-up in and on objects and surfaces. Such pesticides are frequently used in U.S. households. Children within these homes may be exposed ...

  19. State-of-the-art of NORM nuclide determination in samples from oil and gas production : Validation of potential standardization methods through an interlaboratory test programme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knaepen, WAI; Bergwerf, W; Lancee, PJF; vanDijk, W; Jansen, JFW; Janssen, RGC; Kiezenberg, WHT; vanSluijs, R; Tijsmans, MH; Voors, PI

    1995-01-01

    Gas and oil companies frequently encounter build-up of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM) in their production and processing facilities. In the Netherlands NORM is subject to strict national regulations and, consequently, installations have to be screened on a regular basis. The availab

  20. 40 CFR 63.1020 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... unit of equipment, such as a flare, incinerator, process heater, or boiler, used for the combustion of..., condensers, incinerators, flares, boilers, and process heaters. Primary condensers on steam strippers or fuel... thermal conductivity. Polymerizing monomer means a compound which may form polymer buildup in...

  1. «Mud-mounds» en sedimentos lacustres someros del Mioceno medio de la cuenca de Madrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calvo, J. P.

    1985-12-01

    Full Text Available Several non-tuffaceous carbonate buildups have been recognized in middle Miocene sediments of the Madrid Basin. Facies associations lead to conclude that carbonate buildups developed in shallow lacustrine areas, Detailed morphology and internal structure of the buildups are shown. A dense, sometimes discontinuous, rhizolith network is displayed in the mud-mound cores whereas surficial dessicated crusts are commonly observed in the outer parto Small wedge-c1astic breccias from eroded flanks of the buildups have been locally distinguished as well. Mud-mound growth took place through successive stages controlled by lake level oscillations.

    Diversos edificios carbonáticos de carácter no tobáceo han sido reconocidos en sucesiones continentales correspondientes al Mioceno medio de la cuenca de Madrid. La asociación de facies en todos los casos observados conduce a caracterizar dichos edificios como propios de ambientes palustres o lacustres muy someros. Se describe en detalle la morfología y estructura interna de estos cuerpos cuyo núcleo aparece constituido por un espeso entramado de raíces con ciertas peculiaridades en sus rellenos. Distintas subfacies: núcleo, discontinuidades internas, corteza externa, brechas locales en los flancos , han sido distinguidas, sirviendo de base para la propuesta de un modelo de desarrollo en estadios sucesivos de los edificios, integrables bajo el término de "mud-mounds" en ambiente continental.

  2. Recent trends in salinity control for soilless growing systems management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katsoulas, N.; Voogt, W.

    2014-01-01

    The consequences of closed hydroponic systems, the impact of salinity build-up on crop yield and product quality are reviewed. Soilless cultivation, especially in closed-loop systems offers a great option for water saving in greenhouses. Capture and recycling of the drainage will considerably improv

  3. Intumescent coatings under fast heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Kristian Petersen; Dam-Johansen, Kim; Català, Pere

    2012-01-01

    Intumescent coatings are widely used to delay or minimise the destructive effects of fire. They are usually tested under conditions that simulate the relatively slow build-up of heat in a normal fire. Here, the effects of damage during a fire causing sudden heating of the coating were studied....

  4. Apparatus and method for thermal power generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Paul; Redding, Arnold H.

    1978-01-01

    An improved thermal power plant and method of power generation which minimizes thermal stress and chemical impurity buildup in the vaporizing component, particularly beneficial under loss of normal feed fluid and startup conditions. The invention is particularly applicable to a liquid metal fast breeder reactor plant.

  5. On the Presentation of Wave Phenomena of Electrons with the Young-Feynman Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matteucci, Giorgio

    2011-01-01

    The Young-Feynman two-hole interferometer is widely used to present electron wave-particle duality and, in particular, the buildup of interference fringes with single electrons. The teaching approach consists of two steps: (i) electrons come through only one hole but diffraction effects are disregarded and (ii) electrons come through both holes…

  6. Adopt a Four-pronged Approach against Scientific Misconduct

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Scientific misconduct has become a social issue that should not be overlooked,warns CAS President LU Yongxiang. To cope with the problem, he emphasizes that it is far from sufficient to simply call for scientists to exercise self-discipline.Stress must be also placed on the enhancement of ethics education,social supervision and institutional buildup in the S&T community.

  7. Microscopic Strain Mapping in Nanostructured and Microstructured Alumina-Titania Coatings Under 4-point Compressive and Tensile Bending

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    resistance, including resistance to build-up of deposits from sea salts; - Mechanical wear resistance; - Spallation / cracking / chipping resistance...indentation crack resistance, adhesion strength, spallation resistance against bend- and cut test, abrasive wear resistance, sliding wear resistance. XRD...this area are explicitly destructive and involve theoretical modeling of the strain fields accompanying material removal (e.g. hole drilling and

  8. Five years on. The status at Fukushima-Daiichi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalton, David [NucNet, Brussels (Belgium)

    2016-05-15

    Since the March 2011 accident in Japan the authorities and the operator Tepco have been struggling to control the buildup of contaminated water and reduce levels of radiation. What has been done - and what's the work that still remains?.

  9. Deficient CD4+ T cell priming and regression of CD8+ T cell functionality in virus-infected mice lacking a normal B cell compartment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jan Pravsgaard; Kauffmann, Susanne Ørding; Thomsen, Allan Randrup

    2003-01-01

    precedes recrudescence of detectable virus, indicating that the T cell defect is not simply a secondary event due to virus buildup resulting from the failure of B(-/-) mice to produce neutralizing Abs. In contrast with CD8(+) T cells, which initially respond almost as in wild-type mice, the priming...

  10. Mechanisms of nutritional and hormonal regulation of lipogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kersten, S.

    2001-01-01

    Fat build-up is determined by the balance between lipogenesis and lipolysis/fatty acid oxidation. In the past few years, our understanding of the nutritional, hormonal and particularly transcriptional regulation of lipogenesis has expanded greatly. Lipogenesis is stimulated by a high carbohydrate di

  11. Phytoremediation: A green technology to remove environmental pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land, surface water, and ground water worldwide, are increasingly affected by contaminations from industrial, research experiments, military, and agricultural activities either due to ignorance, lack of vision, carelessness, or high cost of waste disposal and treatment. The rapid build-up of toxic p...

  12. 16 CFR 1500.133 - Extremely flammable contact adhesives; labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... household use may be misbranded under the act if the containers fail to bear a warning statement adequate... buildup of vapors—open all windows and doors—use only with cross-ventilation. Keep away from heat, sparks..., electric motors, and other sources of ignition during use and until all vapors are gone. Close...

  13. Emergency Protection from Aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-07-01

    tape), 3. flour in a clean bag (the first test u,.i 5 lb of flour, and the second test used only 1 cup , 18 4. clean bag in the sweeper cannister with...the buildup of spore concentrations inside the house. A sensitive anemometer and a recording wind-direction instrument were erected on a 2-m pole

  14. Florida exotic whitefly invaders from the last decade

    Science.gov (United States)

    The state of Florida hosts a large number of exotic species with many new “invasives” arriving annually. Among invasive insects establishing in Florida over the past decade are three whiteflies (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) that cause highly visible wax and sooty mold buildup in urban plantings as well a...

  15. Biobased chemicals from polyhydroxybutyrate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spekreijse, Jurjen

    2016-01-01

    Currently, most chemicals and materials are obtained from fossil resources. After use, these chemicals and materials are converted to CO2. As discussed in chapter 1, this causes a build-up of CO2 in the atmosphere, the main driving force of global warming. In order to reach a sustai

  16. An examination of the role of colonial Phaeocystis antarctica in the microbial food web of the Ross Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    The extensive buildup of phytoplankton biomass in the Ross Sea conflicts with the view that high rates of herbivory occur in all regions of the Southern Ocean. Nano- and microplanktonic consumers comprise a significant fraction of total plankton biomass; however, the importance o...

  17. Characterization and Testing of Improved Hydrogen Getter Materials - FY16 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubbard, Kevin Mark [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Sandoval, Cynthia Wathen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-11-07

    Organic-based hydrogen getter materials have been in use for many years. These materials are able to prevent the dangerous buildup of hydrogen gas in sealed containers, and are also used to protect surrounding materials from degradation caused by chemical reactions. This document describes these materials.

  18. Dynamics of soil organic matter in primary and secondary forest succession on sandy soils in The Netherlands: An application of the ROMUL model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nadporozhskaya, M.A.; Mohren, G.M.J.; Chertov, O.G.; Komarov, A.S.; Mikhailov, A.V.

    2006-01-01

    We applied the simulation model ROMUL of soil organic matter dynamics in order to analyse and predict forest soil organic matter (SOM) changes following stand growth and also to identify gaps of data and modelling problems. SOM build-up was analysed (a) from bare sand to forest soil during a primary

  19. Tree species traits cause divergence in soil acidification during four decades of postagricultural forest development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrijver, An de; Frenne, Pieter de; Staelens, Jeroen;

    2012-01-01

    retards leaf litter decomposition and, consequently, results in forest-floor build-up and soil acidification. Also nutrient uptake and N2 fixation are causing soil acidification, but were found to be less important. Our results highlight the fact that tree species-specific traits significantly influence...

  20. Characteristics of mobile MOSFET dosimetry system for megavoltage photon beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Sathish Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of a mobile metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (mobile MOSFET detector for standard bias were investigated for megavoltage photon beams. This study was performed with a brass alloy build-up cap for three energies namely Co-60, 6 and 15 MV photon beams. The MOSFETs were calibrated and the performance characteristics were analyzed with respect to dose rate dependence, energy dependence, field size dependence, linearity, build-up factor, and angular dependence for all the three energies. A linear dose-response curve was noted for Co-60, 6 MV, and 15 MV photons. The calibration factors were found to be 1.03, 1, and 0.79 cGy/mV for Co-60, 6 MV, and 15 MV photon energies, respectively. The calibration graph has been obtained to the dose up to 600 cGy, and the dose-response curve was found to be linear. The MOSFETs were found to be energy independent both for measurements performed at depth as well as on the surface with build-up. However, field size dependence was also analyzed for variable field sizes and found to be field size independent. Angular dependence was analyzed by keeping the MOSFET dosimeter in parallel and perpendicular orientation to the angle of incidence of the radiation with and without build-up on the surface of the phantom. The maximum variation for the three energies was found to be within ± 2% for the gantry angles 90° and 270°, the deviations without the build-up for the same gantry angles were found to be 6%, 25%, and 60%, respectively. The MOSFET response was found to be independent of dose rate for all three energies. The dosimetric characteristics of the MOSFET detector make it a suitable in vivo dosimeter for megavoltage photon beams.