WorldWideScience

Sample records for buildings energy consumption

  1. Energy Consumption Forecasting for University Sector Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khuram Pervez Amber

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Reliable energy forecasting helps managers to prepare future budgets for their buildings. Therefore, a simple, easier, less time consuming and reliable forecasting model which could be used for different types of buildings is desired. In this paper, we have presented a forecasting model based on five years of real data sets for one dependent variable (the daily electricity consumption and six explanatory variables (ambient temperature, solar radiation, relative humidity, wind speed, weekday index and building type. A single mathematical equation for forecasting daily electricity usage of university buildings has been developed using the Multiple Regression (MR technique. Data of two such buildings, located at the Southwark Campus of London South Bank University in London, have been used for this study. The predicted test results of MR model are examined and judged against real electricity consumption data of both buildings for year 2011. The results demonstrate that out of six explanatory variables, three variables; surrounding temperature, weekday index and building type have significant influence on buildings energy consumption. The results of this model are associated with a Normalized Root Mean Square Error (NRMSE of 12% for the administrative building and 13% for the academic building. Finally, some limitations of this study have also been discussed.

  2. Nonresidential Building Energy Consumption Survey (NBECS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flanagan, D.M.; Tsao, H.J.; Schmoyer, R.L. Jr.; MacDonald, J.M.

    1990-10-01

    Imputation procedures were designed for the 1983 Nonresidential Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (NBECS) of the Energy Information Administration (EIA) using 1979 NBECS data. The study included methodology development, data analysis, regression analyses, empirical evaluations of the regression models, and imputation procedures. Models considered were engineering models, stepwise regression, weighted regression, nonlinear regression, and log transformation regression. A method for determining the appropriateness of the imputation model for a particular set of independent variables is recommended. Although this study was completed in 1985, this final version of the report is being issued due to continuing requests for information. 32 tabs.

  3. Energy consumption in commercial buildings: A comparison with BEPS budgets

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    Metered energy consumption data were collected on existing commercial buildings to help establish the proposed building energy performance standards (BEPS). The search has identified 84 buildings whose metered energy consumption is equal to or less than that proposed for their BEPS budgets and another 7 buildings whose metered consumption is less than 20 percent above their BEPS budgets. The methodology used to identify the buildings and to collect their metered energy consumption data are described. The data are analyzed and summarized and conclusions are drawn.

  4. Intelligent analysis of energy consumption in school buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raatikainen, Mika; Skön, Jukka-Pekka; Leiviskä, Kauko; Kolehmainen, Mikko

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Electricity and heating energy consumptions of six school buildings were compared. • Complex multivariate data was analysed using modern computational methods. • Variation in electricity consumption cost is considerably low between study schools. • District heating variation is very slight in two new study schools. • District heating cost describes energy efficiency and state of building automation. - Abstract: Even though industry consumes nearly half of total energy production, the relative share of total energy consumption related to heating and operating buildings is growing constantly. The motivation for this study was to reveal the differences in electricity use and district heating consumption in school buildings of various ages during the working day and also during the night when human-based consumption is low. The overall aim of this study is to compare the energy (electricity and heating) consumption of six school buildings in Kuopio, Eastern Finland. The selected school buildings were built in different decades, and their ventilation and building automation systems are also inconsistent. The hourly energy consumption data was received from Kuopion Energia, the local energy supply company. In this paper, the results of data analysis on the energy consumption in these school buildings are presented. Preliminary results show that, generally speaking, new school buildings are more energy-efficient than older ones. However, concerning energy efficiency, two very new schools were exceptional because ventilation was on day and night in order to dry the building materials in the constructions. The novelty of this study is that it makes use of hourly smart metering consumption data on electricity and district heating, using modern computational methods to analyse complex multivariate data in order to increase knowledge of the buildings’ consumption profiles and energy efficiency.

  5. Uncertainty of Energy Consumption Assessment of Domestic Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brohus, Henrik; Heiselberg, Per; Simonsen, A.

    2009-01-01

    In order to assess the influence of energy reduction initiatives, to determine the expected annual cost, to calculate life cycle cost, emission impact, etc. it is crucial to be able to assess the energy consumption reasonably accurate. The present work undertakes a theoretical and empirical study...... of the uncertainty of energy consumption assessment of domestic buildings. The calculated energy consumption of a number of almost identical domestic buildings in Denmark is compared with the measured energy consumption. Furthermore, the uncertainty is determined by means of stochastic modelling based on input...

  6. Quantification of Uncertainty in Predicting Building Energy Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brohus, Henrik; Frier, Christian; Heiselberg, Per

    2012-01-01

    Traditional building energy consumption calculation methods are characterised by rough approaches providing approximate figures with high and unknown levels of uncertainty. Lack of reliable energy resources and increasing concerns about climate change call for improved predictive tools. A new app...... inhabitant behaviour, operation, and maintenance to predict the performance of the systems and the level of certainty for fulfilling design requirements under random conditions.......Traditional building energy consumption calculation methods are characterised by rough approaches providing approximate figures with high and unknown levels of uncertainty. Lack of reliable energy resources and increasing concerns about climate change call for improved predictive tools. A new...... approach for the prediction of building energy consumption is presented. The approach quantifies the uncertainty of building energy consumption by means of stochastic differential equations. The approach is applied to a general heat balance for an arbitrary number of loads and zones in a building...

  7. Energy consumption of electricity end uses in Malaysian historic buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamaruzzaman, Syahrul N.; Edwards, Rodger E.; Zawawi, Emma M.A.

    2007-07-15

    Malaysia has inherited hundreds of heritage buildings from the past including those from the Indian, Chinese and Colonial eras apart from the indigenous traditional buildings. These buildings have the most unique ecstatic value from the viewpoint of architecture, culture, art, etc. Malaysian economy boom in 1980s spurred the need for more buildings especially in large cities. As a result, most of the historic buildings have been converted and transformed into commercial use. As reported by METP, Malaysian buildings energy uses are reflected by the energy consumption in the industrial and commercial sectors. Most of the buildings' energy consumption is electricity, used for running and operating the plants, lighting, lifts and escalators and other equipment in the buildings. These are amongst the factors that have resulted in the high demand for electricity in Malaysia. As outlined in the eighth Malaysia Plan, Malaysia is taking steps in conserving energy and reducing energy consumption on electricity consumption in building. This paper aims to present the breakdown of the major electricity end uses characteristics of historic buildings in Malaysia. The analysis was performed on annual data, allowing comparison with published benchmarks to give an indication of efficiency. Based on data collected a 'normalisation' calculated electricity consumption was established with the intention of improving the comparison between buildings in different climatic regions or with different occupancy patterns. This is useful for identifying where the design needed further attention and helped pinpoint problem areas within a building. It is anticipated that this study would give a good indication on the electricity consumption characteristics of historic buildings in Malaysia. (Author)

  8. Energy consumptions in existing buildings; Les consommations d'energie des batiments existants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuss, St. [Ecole Nationale Superieure des Arts et Industries de Strasbourg, 78 - Saint-Remy-Les-Chevreuse (France)]|[Costic, 78 - Sainte Remy les Chevreuses (France)

    2002-05-01

    This document presents a sectoral analysis of the energy consumptions in existing French buildings: 1) - residential sector: social buildings, private dwellings; 2) - tertiary sector: office buildings, hotels, commercial buildings, school buildings, hospitals; 3) - industry; 4) - general status. (J.S.)

  9. Estimating building energy consumption using extreme learning machine method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naji, Sareh; Keivani, Afram; Shamshirband, Shahaboddin; Alengaram, U. Johnson; Jumaat, Mohd Zamin; Mansor, Zulkefli; Lee, Malrey

    2016-01-01

    The current energy requirements of buildings comprise a large percentage of the total energy consumed around the world. The demand of energy, as well as the construction materials used in buildings, are becoming increasingly problematic for the earth's sustainable future, and thus have led to alarming concern. The energy efficiency of buildings can be improved, and in order to do so, their operational energy usage should be estimated early in the design phase, so that buildings are as sustainable as possible. An early energy estimate can greatly help architects and engineers create sustainable structures. This study proposes a novel method to estimate building energy consumption based on the ELM (Extreme Learning Machine) method. This method is applied to building material thicknesses and their thermal insulation capability (K-value). For this purpose up to 180 simulations are carried out for different material thicknesses and insulation properties, using the EnergyPlus software application. The estimation and prediction obtained by the ELM model are compared with GP (genetic programming) and ANNs (artificial neural network) models for accuracy. The simulation results indicate that an improvement in predictive accuracy is achievable with the ELM approach in comparison with GP and ANN. - Highlights: • Buildings consume huge amounts of energy for operation. • Envelope materials and insulation influence building energy consumption. • Extreme learning machine is used to estimate energy usage of a sample building. • The key effective factors in this study are insulation thickness and K-value.

  10. Modeling Aggregate Hourly Energy Consumption in a Regional Building Stock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kipping

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Sound estimates of future heat and electricity demand with high temporal and spatial resolution are needed for energy system planning, grid design, and evaluating demand-side management options and polices on regional and national levels. In this study, smart meter data on electricity consumption in buildings are combined with cross-sectional building information to model hourly electricity consumption within the household and service sectors on a regional basis in Norway. The same modeling approach is applied to model aggregate hourly district heat consumption in three different consumer groups located in Oslo. A comparison of modeled and metered hourly energy consumption shows that hourly variations and aggregate consumption per county and year are reproduced well by the models. However, for some smaller regions, modeled annual electricity consumption is over- or underestimated by more than 20%. Our results indicate that the presented method is useful for modeling the current and future hourly energy consumption of a regional building stock, but that larger and more detailed training datasets are required to improve the models, and more detailed building stock statistics on regional level are needed to generate useful estimates on aggregate regional energy consumption.

  11. China building energy consumption: Situation, challenges and corresponding measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, W.G.; Wu, Y.; Zhong, Y.; Ren, H.

    2009-01-01

    As one of the biggest parts of total national energy consumption (TNEC), building energy consumption (BEC) catches public eyes and has been regarded as a crucial problem of the current society. For the past 20 years, BEC in china has been increasing at a high speed. To curb the rapid growing of BEC, china has enforced and implemented a series of policies. These include enforcing BEC constraints on new building projects, promoting more environment friendly building designs, establishing a more sophisticated legislation for building energy conservation, and increasing the total budget in the area of BEC control. This article analyzed china BEC situation and the challenges. As the main point, the measures required by China government to improve building energy efficiency were introduced as well.

  12. Occupants Influence on the Energy Consumption of Danish Domestic Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Tine Steen; Knudsen, Henrik Nellemose; Kanstrup, Anne Marie

    This report is one of the results from the project “Occupants influence on the energy consumption of Danish domestic buildings – Phase 1”, which is partly funded by EUDP (Journalnr.: 64009-0248, Programområde: Energieffektivisering) The report provides state-of-the-art reviews within the various...... disciplines represented in the project by the project members, which all represent areas that relate to the title on occupants influence on the energy consumption....

  13. Energy consumption of buildings depends on the daylight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotrowska Ewa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to reduce energy consumption in heated buildings and thus fossil fuels, there is a need for proper modernization of existing buildings and new construction with reduced energy demand. The size and the insulation of windows have a decisive influence on the amount of heat loss. The study looks into the impact of decreased power consumption through optimal use of sunlight through the selection of the size of windows, type of windows, and adjusting the light intensity using an automatic control of lighting according to the amount of sunlight reaching the room. The research related to the differences between the six types of windows in relations to the energy consumption of the building.

  14. Energy consumption in buildings and female thermal demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingma, Boris; van Marken Lichtenbelt, Wouter

    2015-12-01

    Energy consumption of residential buildings and offices adds up to about 30% of total carbon dioxide emissions; and occupant behaviour contributes to 80% of the variation in energy consumption. Indoor climate regulations are based on an empirical thermal comfort model that was developed in the 1960s (ref. ). Standard values for one of its primary variables--metabolic rate--are based on an average male, and may overestimate female metabolic rate by up to 35% (ref. ). This may cause buildings to be intrinsically non-energy-efficient in providing comfort to females. Therefore, we make a case to use actual metabolic rates. Moreover, with a biophysical analysis we illustrate the effect of miscalculating metabolic rate on female thermal demand. The approach is fundamentally different from current empirical thermal comfort models and builds up predictions from the physical and physiological constraints, rather than statistical association to thermal comfort. It provides a substantiation of the thermal comfort standard on the population level and adds flexibility to predict thermal demand of subpopulations and individuals. Ultimately, an accurate representation of thermal demand of all occupants leads to actual energy consumption predictions and real energy savings of buildings that are designed and operated by the buildings services community.

  15. Prediction of residential building energy consumption: A neural network approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biswas, M.A. Rafe; Robinson, Melvin D.; Fumo, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    Some of the challenges to predict energy utilization has gained recognition in the residential sector due to the significant energy consumption in recent decades. However, the modeling of residential building energy consumption is still underdeveloped for optimal and robust solutions while this research area has become of greater relevance with significant advances in computation and simulation. Such advances include the advent of artificial intelligence research in statistical model development. Artificial neural network has emerged as a key method to address the issue of nonlinearity of building energy data and the robust calculation of large and dynamic data. The development and validation of such models on one of the TxAIRE Research houses has been demonstrated in this paper. The TxAIRE houses have been designed to serve as realistic test facilities for demonstrating new technologies. The input variables used from the house data include number of days, outdoor temperature and solar radiation while the output variables are house and heat pump energy consumption. The models based on Levenberg-Marquardt and OWO-Newton algorithms had promising results of coefficients of determination within 0.87–0.91, which is comparable to prior literature. Further work will be explored to develop a robust model for residential building application. - Highlights: • A TxAIRE research house energy consumption data was collected in model development. • Neural network models developed using Levenberg–Marquardt or OWO-Newton algorithms. • Model results match well with data and statistically consistent with literature.

  16. 75 FR 66008 - Fossil Fuel-Generated Energy Consumption Reduction for New Federal Buildings and Major...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-27

    ... Fossil Fuel-Generated Energy Consumption Reduction for New Federal Buildings and Major Renovations of Federal Buildings; Correction AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of... the fossil fuel- generated energy consumption [[Page 66009

  17. Integrated Urban System and Energy Consumption Model: Residential Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocco Papa

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a segment of research conducted within the project PON 04a2_E Smart Energy Master for the energetic government of the territory conducted by the Department of Civil, Architectural and Environment Engineering, University of Naples "Federico II".  In particular, this article is part of the study carried out for the definition of the comprehension/interpretation model that correlates buildings, city’s activities and users’ behaviour in order to promote energy savings. In detail, this segment of the research wants to define the residential variables to be used in the model. For this purpose a knowledge framework at international level has been defined, to estimate the energy requirements of residential buildings and the identification of a set of parameters, whose variation has a significant influence on the energy consumption of residential buildings.

  18. Thermal comfort and building energy consumption implications – A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Liu; Yan, Haiyan; Lam, Joseph C.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We review studies of thermal comfort and discuss building energy use implications. • Adaptive comfort models tend to have a wider comfort temperature range. • Higher indoor temperatures would lead to fewer cooling systems and less energy use. • Socio-economic study and post-occupancy evaluation of built environment is desirable. • Important to consider future climate scenarios in heating, cooling and power schemes. - Abstract: Buildings account for about 40% of the global energy consumption and contribute over 30% of the CO 2 emissions. A large proportion of this energy is used for thermal comfort in buildings. This paper reviews thermal comfort research work and discusses the implications for building energy efficiency. Predicted mean vote works well in air-conditioned spaces but not naturally ventilated buildings, whereas adaptive models tend to have a broader comfort temperature ranges. Higher indoor temperatures in summertime conditions would lead to less prevalence of cooling systems as well as less cooling requirements. Raising summer set point temperature has good energy saving potential, in that it can be applied to both new and existing buildings. Further research and development work conducive to a better understanding of thermal comfort and energy conservation in buildings have been identified and discussed. These include (i) social-economic and cultural studies in general and post-occupancy evaluation of the built environment and the corresponding energy use in particular, and (ii) consideration of future climate scenarios in the analysis of co- and tri-generation schemes for HVAC applications, fuel mix and the associated energy planning/distribution systems in response to the expected changes in heating and cooling requirements due to climate change

  19. Building environment assessment and energy consumption estimation using smart phones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiangli; Zhang, Li; Jia, Yingqi; Wang, Zihan; Jin, Xin; Zhao, Xuefeng

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, an APP for building indoor environment evaluation and energy consumption estimation based on Android platform is proposed and established. While using the APP, the smart phone built-in sensors are called for real-time monitoring of the building environmental information such as temperature, humidity and noise, etc. the built-in algorithm is developed to calculate the heat and power consumption, and questionnaires, grading and other methods are used to feed back to the space heating system. In addition, with the application of the technology of big data and cloud technology, the data collected by users will be uploaded to the cloud. After the statistics of the uploaded data, regional difference can be obtained, thus providing a more accurate basis for macro-control and research of energy, thermal comfort, greenhouse effect.

  20. Building and occupant characteristics as determinants of residential energy consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieves, L.A.; Nieves, A.L.

    1981-10-01

    The major goals of the research are to gain insight into the probable effects of building energy performance standards on energy consumption; to obtain observations of actual residential energy consumption that could affirm or disaffirm comsumption estimates of the DOE 2.0A simulation model; and to investigate home owner's conservation investments and home purchase decisions. The first chapter covers the investigation of determinants of household energy consumption. The presentation begins with the underlying economic theory and its implications, and continues with a description of the data collection procedures, the formulation of variables, and then of data analysis and findings. In the second chapter the assumptions and limitations of the energy use projections generated by the DOE 2.0A model are discussed. Actual electricity data for the houses are then compared with results of the simulation. The third chapter contains information regarding households' willingness to make energy conserving investments and their ranking of various conservation features. In the final chapter conclusions and recommendations are presented with an emphasis on the policy implications of this study. (MCW)

  1. Optimizing Energy Consumption in Building Designs Using Building Information Model (BIM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egwunatum Samuel

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Given the ability of a Building Information Model (BIM to serve as a multi-disciplinary data repository, this paper seeks to explore and exploit the sustainability value of Building Information Modelling/models in delivering buildings that require less energy for their operation, emit less CO2 and at the same time provide a comfortable living environment for their occupants. This objective was achieved by a critical and extensive review of the literature covering: (1 building energy consumption, (2 building energy performance and analysis, and (3 building information modeling and energy assessment. The literature cited in this paper showed that linking an energy analysis tool with a BIM model helped project design teams to predict and create optimized energy consumption. To validate this finding, an in-depth analysis was carried out on a completed BIM integrated construction project using the Arboleda Project in the Dominican Republic. The findings showed that the BIM-based energy analysis helped the design team achieve the world’s first 103% positive energy building. From the research findings, the paper concludes that linking an energy analysis tool with a BIM model helps to expedite the energy analysis process, provide more detailed and accurate results as well as deliver energy-efficient buildings. The study further recommends that the adoption of a level 2 BIM and the integration of BIM in energy optimization analyse should be made compulsory for all projects irrespective of the method of procurement (government-funded or otherwise or its size.

  2. Optimizing Energy Consumption in Building Designs Using Building Information Model (BIM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egwunatum, Samuel; Joseph-Akwara, Esther; Akaigwe, Richard

    2016-09-01

    Given the ability of a Building Information Model (BIM) to serve as a multi-disciplinary data repository, this paper seeks to explore and exploit the sustainability value of Building Information Modelling/models in delivering buildings that require less energy for their operation, emit less CO2 and at the same time provide a comfortable living environment for their occupants. This objective was achieved by a critical and extensive review of the literature covering: (1) building energy consumption, (2) building energy performance and analysis, and (3) building information modeling and energy assessment. The literature cited in this paper showed that linking an energy analysis tool with a BIM model helped project design teams to predict and create optimized energy consumption. To validate this finding, an in-depth analysis was carried out on a completed BIM integrated construction project using the Arboleda Project in the Dominican Republic. The findings showed that the BIM-based energy analysis helped the design team achieve the world's first 103% positive energy building. From the research findings, the paper concludes that linking an energy analysis tool with a BIM model helps to expedite the energy analysis process, provide more detailed and accurate results as well as deliver energy-efficient buildings. The study further recommends that the adoption of a level 2 BIM and the integration of BIM in energy optimization analyse should be made compulsory for all projects irrespective of the method of procurement (government-funded or otherwise) or its size.

  3. DOE2.1D. Building Energy Consumption Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buhl, W.F. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

    1981-05-01

    DOE2 is a set of programs for the analysis of energy consumption in buildings. Programs are included to calculate the heating and cooling loads for each space (zone) in the building for each hour of a year (LOADS), to simulate the operation and response of the equipment and systems that control temperature and humidity and distribute heating and cooling to the space (SYSTEMS), to model primary energy conversion equipment that uses fuel (e.g. oil, gas, or sun) to provide the required heating, cooling, and electricity (PLANT), and to compute the life-cycle cost for building operation based on economic parameters (ECONOMICS). A user-oriented building description language (BDL) facilitates the description of the building geometry, central plant equipment, HVAC systems, occupancy, equipment, and lighting schedules, and the selection of other problem parameters. In addition to the LSPE programs (LOADS, SYSTEMS, PLANT, and ECONOMICS), the system includes the BDL processor, two report generators, a weather data processor, and UPDATE, a code maintenance program. Standard output reports are produced by the RPTGEN program. Only the weather data for Chicago, which are required for execution of the sample problems, are included.

  4. SOME SPECIFIC FEATURES OF ENERGY CONSUMPTION IN MODERN RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Osipov

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past 20 years there have been significant changes in the customer requirements for housing in the countries of the former USSR. Besides, new materials and construction products, such as the ones for sealed windows and balcony doors have appeared in the market. The number of vacant flats with the heating off in the winter significantly increased that may cause condensation on the surfaces of interroom partitions and the formation of mold. Meanwhile, the requirements for lower energy consumption are constantly increasing, that is especially pronouncedly manifested in the growth of normative values of thermal resistance of enclosing structures of buildings and in the increased interest in the use of secondary energy resources extracted from the air and effluent wastewater. The present article describes the method to prevent moisture condensation on the fencing of adjacent premises with different temperatures containing heating systems and the use of waste heat removed from the room exhaust air. For quick emergency switching of in-house systems of heat and gas supply to outdoor mobile sources of heat and gas it is recommended to install special taps with connectors insulated in special niches in the walls or other parts of buildings considering the possibility of placing them close to the outer mobile sources of heat and gas. In the case of heating the building with the aid of a roof gas boiler or by doorto-door heaters fueled by gas, a single pipeline (collector, equipped with an additional device for the connection of emergency gas supply is being put along the wall. In order to reduce specific heat consumption for heating of buildings it is recommended to increase the net enclosure volume of buildings and to improve their form in various ways, including by combining two or more adjacent low-rise buildings in one secondary building with increasing height and with the broadening of either or each side for modernization and reconstruction

  5. Design and optimization of zero-energy-consumption based solar energy residential building systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, D. L.; Yu, L. J.; Tan, H. W.

    2017-11-01

    Energy consumption of residential buildings has grown fast in recent years, thus raising a challenge on zero energy residential building (ZERB) systems, which aim at substantially reducing energy consumption of residential buildings. Thus, how to facilitate ZERB has become a hot but difficult topic. In the paper, we put forward the overall design principle of ZERB based on analysis of the systems’ energy demand. In particular, the architecture for both schematic design and passive technology is optimized and both energy simulation analysis and energy balancing analysis are implemented, followed by committing the selection of high-efficiency appliance and renewable energy sources for ZERB residential building. In addition, Chinese classical residential building has been investigated in the proposed case, in which several critical aspects such as building optimization, passive design, PV panel and HVAC system integrated with solar water heater, Phase change materials, natural ventilation, etc., have been taken into consideration.

  6. Energy Performance Certification of Faculty Buildings in Spain: The gap between estimated and real energy consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrando, María; Cambra, David; Navarro, Marcos; Cruz, Lucio de la; Millán, Gema; Zabalza, Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Most of the Faculty Buildings studied are within the average of CO 2 emissions. • Academic and Research buildings have a similar simulated energy consumption. • Several restrictions found in the official Energy Performance Certification tool. • Average deviation of 30% between estimated and real energy consumption. • Electrical equipment and user behaviour notably increase the energy performance gap. - Abstract: A systematic method has been established to perform and analyse in detail the Energy Performance Certification of 21 Faculty Buildings located at the University of Zaragoza (Spain), according to the transposition of Directive 2010/31/EU. First of all, the problem background and a review of the state-of-the-art of the energy certification in buildings is outlined, regarding both the actual state of the Government regulations and the studies undertaken in several countries to assess the energy performance of different types of buildings, residential and non-residential. A summary of the causes found in other studies for the discrepancies between the estimated (by simulation) and actual energy consumption is shown which is afterwards tested and compared with the results found in the present study. Thereafter, the method followed to undertake the buildings’ Energy Performance Certification is explained, and the main results found together with the discussion are detailed, comparing actual vs. estimated energy consumption in the different case studies and proposing reasons for these deviations. The energy consumption breakdown by uses for several buildings is also analysed, and potential improvements for the simulation software are assessed.

  7. Based on the Hardware Resources Configurable Shanke PLC Building Energy Consumption Detection System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Guanghe

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the actual situation of the comprehensive office building and the functional requirements of the building energy consumption monitoring and management system, the office building energy consumption monitoring and management system is designed by using the hardware resource configurable Shanke PLC(SKPLC as the data collector. The system uses data bus technology and field data acquisition technology to achieve the building energy consumption data acquisition and management. Practice has proved that energy-saving effect is good.

  8. Climate impacts on extreme energy consumption of different types of buildings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingcai Li

    Full Text Available Exploring changes of building energy consumption and its relationships with climate can provide basis for energy-saving and carbon emission reduction. Heating and cooling energy consumption of different types of buildings during 1981-2010 in Tianjin city, was simulated by using TRNSYS software. Daily or hourly extreme energy consumption was determined by percentile methods, and the climate impact on extreme energy consumption was analyzed. The results showed that days of extreme heating consumption showed apparent decrease during the recent 30 years for residential and large venue buildings, whereas days of extreme cooling consumption increased in large venue building. No significant variations were found for the days of extreme energy consumption for commercial building, although a decreasing trend in extreme heating energy consumption. Daily extreme energy consumption for large venue building had no relationship with climate parameters, whereas extreme energy consumption for commercial and residential buildings was related to various climate parameters. Further multiple regression analysis suggested heating energy consumption for commercial building was affected by maximum temperature, dry bulb temperature, solar radiation and minimum temperature, which together can explain 71.5 % of the variation of the daily extreme heating energy consumption. The daily extreme cooling energy consumption for commercial building was only related to the wet bulb temperature (R2= 0.382. The daily extreme heating energy consumption for residential building was affected by 4 climate parameters, but the dry bulb temperature had the main impact. The impacts of climate on hourly extreme heating energy consumption has a 1-3 hour delay in all three types of buildings, but no delay was found in the impacts of climate on hourly extreme cooling energy consumption for the selected buildings.

  9. Climate impacts on extreme energy consumption of different types of buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mingcai; Shi, Jun; Guo, Jun; Cao, Jingfu; Niu, Jide; Xiong, Mingming

    2015-01-01

    Exploring changes of building energy consumption and its relationships with climate can provide basis for energy-saving and carbon emission reduction. Heating and cooling energy consumption of different types of buildings during 1981-2010 in Tianjin city, was simulated by using TRNSYS software. Daily or hourly extreme energy consumption was determined by percentile methods, and the climate impact on extreme energy consumption was analyzed. The results showed that days of extreme heating consumption showed apparent decrease during the recent 30 years for residential and large venue buildings, whereas days of extreme cooling consumption increased in large venue building. No significant variations were found for the days of extreme energy consumption for commercial building, although a decreasing trend in extreme heating energy consumption. Daily extreme energy consumption for large venue building had no relationship with climate parameters, whereas extreme energy consumption for commercial and residential buildings was related to various climate parameters. Further multiple regression analysis suggested heating energy consumption for commercial building was affected by maximum temperature, dry bulb temperature, solar radiation and minimum temperature, which together can explain 71.5 % of the variation of the daily extreme heating energy consumption. The daily extreme cooling energy consumption for commercial building was only related to the wet bulb temperature (R2= 0.382). The daily extreme heating energy consumption for residential building was affected by 4 climate parameters, but the dry bulb temperature had the main impact. The impacts of climate on hourly extreme heating energy consumption has a 1-3 hour delay in all three types of buildings, but no delay was found in the impacts of climate on hourly extreme cooling energy consumption for the selected buildings.

  10. Influence of Occupants’ Behaviour on the Energy Consumption of Domestic Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brohus, Henrik; Heiselberg, Per; Simonsen, A.

    2010-01-01

    The present work undertakes a theoretical and empirical study of the influence of occupants’ behaviour on energy consumption of domestic buildings. The calculated energy consumption of a number of almost identical domestic buildings in Denmark is compared with the measured energy consumption cons...

  11. The analysis of energy consumption of a commercial building in Tianjin, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Jing; Zhu Neng; Wu Yong

    2009-01-01

    According to statistics and field investigation, the energy consumption situation and reality of commercial building is described in this paper. As the first step of large-scale public building energy efficiency supervision system encouraged by central government of China, the energy consumption of several typical commercial buildings and public buildings was analyzed in detail. The main contents of investigation are as follows: basic information of building, operational record of energy consumption equipment, energy consumption of indoor equipments, energy-efficiency assessment of energy consumption systems and equipments, investigation of behavior energy saving, etc. On this basis further analysis and diagnosis including indoor thermal and humid environment, operation state of air-conditioning water system, operation state of air-conditioning duct system and operation management of air-conditioning system were implemented. The results show that the most energy consumption of buildings in this city is commercial buildings, which can reach to about 240 W/m 2 per year. Further analysis tells that air conditioning systems play the major role of building energy consumption, and building energy saving has great potential in this city. In this paper, the ways of diagnosis work for building energy consumption are also described and discussed. Reasonable test, diagnosis and analysis are meaningful for building energy efficiency retrofit and management.

  12. Deep influence of passive low energy consumption multi-storey residential building in cold region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuai, Zhang; Lihua, Zhao; Rong, Jin; Dong, Junyan

    2018-02-01

    The example of passive architecture demonstration building in Jilin Province, China, based on the practical experience of this project, the control index of passive and low energy consumption residential buildings in cold and passive buildings is referenced by reference to the German construction standard and the Chinese residence construction document, “passive ultra-low energy consumption green Building Technology Guide (Trial)”. The requirement of passive low energy residential buildings on the ground heat transfer coefficient limits is determined, and the performance requirements of passive residential buildings are discussed. This paper analyzes the requirement of the passive low energy residential building on the ground heat transfer coefficient limit, and probes into the influence factors of the ground thermal insulation of the passive low energy consumption residential building. The construction method of passive low energy consumption residential building is proposed.

  13. A look at commercial buildings in 1995: Characteristics, energy consumption, and energy expenditures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-10-01

    The commercial sector consists of business establishments and other organizations that provide services. The sector includes service businesses, such as retail and wholesale stores, hotels and motels, restaurants, and hospitals, as well as a wide range of facilities that would not be considered commercial in a traditional economic sense, such as public schools, correctional institutions, and religious and fraternal organizations. Nearly all energy use in the commercial sector takes place in, or is associated with, the buildings that house these commercial activities. Analysis of the structures, activities, and equipment associated with different types of buildings is the clearest way to evaluate commercial sector energy use. The Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) is a national-level sample survey of commercial buildings and their energy suppliers conducted quadrennially (previously triennially) by the Energy Information Administration (EIA). The target population for the 1995 CBECS consisted of all commercial buildings in the US with more than 1,000 square feet of floorspace. Decision makers, businesses, and other organizations that are concerned with the use of energy--building owners and managers, regulators, legislative bodies and executive agencies at all levels of government, utilities and other energy suppliers--are confronted with a buildings sector that is complex. Data on major characteristics (e.g., type of building, size, year constructed, location) collected from the buildings, along with the amount and types of energy the buildings consume, help answer fundamental questions about the use of energy in commercial buildings.

  14. Building Energy Consumption Pattern Analysis of Detached Housing for the Policy Decision Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jiyoun; Lee, Seung-Eon

    2018-03-01

    The Korean government announced its plan to raise the previous reduction goal of greenhouse gas emission from buildings by 26.9% until 2020 on July 2015. Therefore, policies regarding efficiency in the building energy are implemented fast, but the level of building owners and market understanding is low in general, and the government service system which supports decision making for implementing low-energy buildings has not been provided yet. The purpose of this study is to present the design direction for establishing user customized building energy database to perform a role to provide autonomous ecosystem of low-energy buildings. In order to reduce energy consumption in buildings, it is necessary to carry out the energy performance analysis based on the characteristics of target building. By analysing about 20-thousand cases of the amount of housing energy consumption in Korea, this study suggested the real energy consumption pattern by building types. Also, the energy performance of a building could be determined by energy consumption, but previous building energy consumption analysis programs required expert knowledge and experience in program usage, so it was difficult for normal building users to use such programs. Therefore, a measure to provide proper default using the level of data which general users with no expert knowledge regarding building energy could enter easily was suggested in this study.

  15. New Building Principles In Consequence Of Legislative Demands For Reduced Energy Consumption In Danish Housing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Rasmus Zederkof; Brohus, Henrik; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2006-01-01

    demands regarding energy consumption. More often than not sustainable aspects like the need for reduced energy consumption are implemented late in the design process. This paper investigates the affect of incorporating aspects like solar heat gain and energy consumption in the initial concept......The increasing restrictions in coming building codes regarding energy consumption in housing generate a need to rethink the building design as well as the building process. This paper discusses the need to change/challenge the way structures are conceived in order to accommodate new legislative...

  16. Effectiveness of an energy-consumption information system for residential buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueno, Tsuyoshi [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan); Inada, Ryo; Saeki, Osamu; Tsuji, Kiichiro [Osaka University, (Japan). Graduate School of Engineering

    2006-08-15

    The authors have proposed a method of reducing the energy consumption in residential buildings by providing household members with information on energy consumptions in their own houses. An on-line interactive 'energy-consumption information system' that displays power consumptions of, at most, 18 different appliances, power and city-gas consumption of the whole house and room temperature, for the purpose of motivating energy-saving activities has been constructed and the effectiveness of the system investigated by installing it in 10 residential buildings. The experiment showed that energy-saving consciousness was raised and energy consumption was in fact reduced by the energy-saving activities of the household members. In this paper, the system is described in detail and the effectiveness of reducing energy-consumption of the whole house and for space heating will be discussed. Also the energy-saving activities in a certain household are shown by using load duration curves. (author)

  17. The effect of building regulations and energy conservation measures in domestic sector on national energy consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samo, S.R.; Akhund, M.A.; Brohi, K.M.

    2004-01-01

    In England, housing accounts for some 30% of total fuel consumption and a similar proportion of energy-related carbon dioxide (CO/sub 2/) emission. A study has been conducted to analyse the effect of the legislations and UK thermal building regulations on national energy consumption in housing. This research paper presents data on the percentage of dwelling stock, the energy consumption, energy cost and carbon dioxide (CO/sub 2/) emission in different types of dwellings, which comply different building regulations from 1965 to 1995. It was found that. 66% of the dwelling stock, which comply the building Regulations before 1965, consumes 73% of total energy used in housing. This dwelling stock is also responsible for 75% of carbon dioxide (CO/sub 2/) emission. Whereas currently only 4% of the dwelling stock complies the latest building regulations 1995 which consume 2 % of energy and produce a similar percentage of carbon dioxide (CO/sub 2/) emission in housing. Since the large portion of the dwelling stock is comprised of old dwellings, therefore the greatest potential for energy conservation measures can be found in improving these dwellings instead of constructing new dwellings. (author)

  18. Energy efficiency in buildings. Trends in energy consumption and building technique; Energieffektivitet i bygninger. Trender i energibruk og byggeteknikk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blom, Peter; Pettersen, Trine Dyrstad

    1999-08-01

    According to this report, Norway must now import electric power every second or third year, which implies a new trend in the Norwegian energy supply. The increase of the energy consumption in buildings are essentially due to increased heated area. Heating systems based on water heated by new renewable energy sources are very slow to emerge; the number of projects per year are too few to have any impact on the increasing electricity consumption. The report points out a series of technical possibilities for increased energy efficiency. It also focuses on necessary measures within research, technology development and planning. 18 refs., 18 figs., 10 tabs.

  19. Exploring new techniques for displaying complex building energy consumption data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haberl, J. [Energy Systems Lab., Texas Engineering Experiment Station, Texas A and M Univ. System, College Station, TX (United States); Sparks, R. [Energy Systems Lab., Texas Engineering Experiment Station, Texas A and M Univ. System, College Station, TX (United States); Culp, C. [Emerson Electric Advanced Development Center, Copeland Corp., Sydney, OH (United States)

    1996-12-01

    This paper explores advanced data displays which may help building operators better understand complex energy data by enhancing the display of the data with animation (or time-sequencing). Animated displays such as the ones developed in this paper enhance the usefulness of static graphic displays because time and temperature dependent trends can be immediately seen. This is particularly useful for buildings because many of the energy consuming loads are schedule and temperature dependent. There is an increasing need for new display paradigms that can help building operators visually diagnose complex problems that may otherwise not be detected by efficient energy management and control system (EMCS) algorithms. This need becomes even more important during times of a shrinking labor pool as building operators are being asked to perform more complex control and monitoring tasks. In this paper animated displays have been developed specifically for use in viewing building energy data. Several examples are provided from a large engineering center in central Texas where the animated displays make a faulty flow meter easier to diagnose and allow the operator to visually detect simultaneous heating and cooling. (orig.)

  20. Energy consumption of building related energy functions in houses and utility buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Arkel, W.G.; Jeeninga, H.; Menkveld, M.; Ruijg, G.J.

    1999-11-01

    This study investigates the development of the use of electricity and natural gas in houses and buildings until 2010. For the domestic sector it is studied how much energy is used now and will be used in future for heating, for production of hot water, for lighting, for ventilation and for cooling. For different sorts of buildings (shops, hospitals, schools, offices, restaurants) it has been determined how much gas will be used for heating, for hot water production and by humidifiers. It has also been calculated how much electricity will be used for lighting, ventilation, cooling and humidifying. The influence of higher and lower energy prices on the amount of use has been studied. Experts have been asked to give their opinions on trends in the use of buildings and the role of new technologies. The influence of these ideas on the use of energy has been calculated. 44 refs

  1. Estimating Total Energy Consumption and Emissions of China's Commercial and Office Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fridley, David; Fridley, David G.; Zheng, Nina; Zhou, Nan

    2008-03-01

    Buildings represent an increasingly important component of China's total energy consumption mix. However, accurately assessing the total volume of energy consumed in buildings is difficult owing to deficiencies in China's statistical collection system and a lack of national surveys. Official statistics suggest that buildings account for about 19% of China's total energy consumption, while others estimate the proportion at 23%, rising to 30% over the next few years. In addition to operational energy, buildings embody the energy used in the in the mining, extraction, harvesting, processing, manufacturing and transport of building materials as well as the energy used in the construction and decommissioning of buildings. This embodied energy, along with a building's operational energy, constitutes the building's life-cycle energy and emissions footprint. This report first provides a review of international studies on commercial building life-cycle energy use from which data are derived to develop an assessment of Chinese commercial building life-cycle energy use, then examines in detail two cases for the development of office building operational energy consumption to 2020. Finally, the energy and emissions implications of the two cases are presented.

  2. Nonresidential buildings energy consumption survey: 1979 consumption and expenditures. Part 2. Steam, fuel oil, LPG, and all fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patinkin, L.

    1983-12-01

    This report presents data on square footage and on total energy consumption and expenditures for commercial buildings in the contiguous United States. Also included are detailed consumption and expenditures tables for fuel oil or kerosene, liquid petroleum gas (LPG), and purchased steam. Commercial buildings include all nonresidential buildings with the exception of those where industrial activities occupy more of the total square footage than any other type of activity. 7 figures, 23 tables.

  3. Analysis of variables that influence electric energy consumption in commercial buildings in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, M.M.Q. [Technical Drawing Department, Fluminense Federal University, Niteroi, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Energy Planning Program, Alberto Luiz Coimbra Institute for Research and Graduate Studies in Engineering - COPPE, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); La Rovere, E.L. [Energy Planning Program, Alberto Luiz Coimbra Institute for Research and Graduate Studies in Engineering - COPPE, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Goncalves, A.C.M. [Program for Graduate Studies in Architecture, School of Architecture and Urbanism, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2010-12-15

    Air conditioning systems in commercial buildings in Brazil are responsible for about 70% share of their energy consumption. According to BEN 2009 (The Brazilian Energy Balance), energy consumption in the residential, commercial and public sectors, where most buildings are found, represents 9.3% of the final energy consumption in Brazil. This paper aims to examine design factors that could contribute to greater reductions of electric energy consumption in commercial buildings, with emphasis on air conditioning. Simulations were carried out using shades and different types of glass, walls, flooring and roofing. The VisualDOE 2.61 was used as a simulation tool for calculating energy consumption of the analyzed building. This paper shows that the energy performance of the building is considerably influenced by the facade protection and shows, through tables, the impact that decisions related to the top-level and facades have on the energy consumption of the building. The authors concluded that the results confirm the importance of taking energy use into account in the very first design stages of the project, since appropriate choices of types of glass, external shading and envelope materials have a significant impact on energy consumption. (author)

  4. A statistical method to investigate national energy consumption in the residential building sector of China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Shuqin; Li, Nianping; Guan, Jun; Xie, Yanqun; Sun, Fengmei; Ni, Ji [Civil Engineering College, Hunan University, Changsha, Hunan 410082 (China)

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of this research is to found a national statistical system of energy consumption in the residential building sector of China, so as to look into the actuality of residential energy consumption, and to provide data support for building energy efficiency work in China. The frame of a national statistical system of residential energy consumption is presented in this paper, according to current status of the climate, social and historic conditions, and energy consumption characteristics in the five architecture climate divisions in China. The statistical index system of residential energy consumption is constituted which refers to housing unit characteristics, household characteristics, possession and utilization of energy consuming equipment, and residential energy consumption quantities. This index system suits for all the different utilization structures of residential energy consumption in different architecture climate divisions. On this base, a complete set of statistical reports is worked out to measure the energy consumption of cities, provinces and the country stage by stage. Finally the statistical method above is applied to measure residential energy consumption by case studies, in order to validate the feasibility of this method. The research in this paper covers the first step of the elaboration of the statistical method to investigate energy consumption in China, and more work will be done in future to further impel national statistics of residential energy consumption. (author)

  5. The effect of building regulations on energy consumption in single family houses in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærbye, Vibeke; Larsen, Anders; Togeby, Mikael

    This paper explores how changes in regulatory requirements for energy efficiency in buildings (in the US also known as building energy codes) affect household energy consumption. The focus in this paper is on natural gas consumption by Danish single-family owner-occupied houses. Unlike most other...... papers investigating household energy consumption this paper uses a unique panel data set constructed by merging several administrative data bases. The data set describes house and household characteristics, outdoor temperature and actual metered natural gas consumption over 6 years (1998-2003). Applying...

  6. Analyzing energy consumption while heating one-layer building envelopes in conditions of intermittent heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vytchikov Yury

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on energy consumption for heating single layer building envelopes, used in conditions of intermittent heating in different physical and mechanical and thermophysical parameters of construction materials. The authors investigated several variants of single-layer building envelopes, used frequently in building practice, with different density and coefficients of building materials thermal conductivity. For each variant of a building envelope heat leakage and time spent on heating were calculated. Heating time was calculated by both exact and approximate analytical method. Then the researchers draw a graphic dependence of energy consumption on the density of the material taking this computational data as a basis. Further analysis showed that building envelopes made of lightweight aggregate concrete and porous concrete were the most energy efficient.This paper focuses on energy consumption for heating single layer building envelopes, used in conditions of intermittent heating in different physical and mechanical and thermophysical parameters of construction materials. The authors investigated several variants of single-layer building envelopes, used frequently in building practice, with different density and coefficients of building materials thermal conductivity. For each variant of a building envelope heat leakage and time spent on heating were calculated. Heating time was calculated by both exact and approximate analytical method. Then the researchers draw a graphic dependence of energy consumption on the density of the material taking this computational data as a basis. Further analysis showed that building envelopes made of lightweight aggregate concrete and porous concrete were the most energy efficient.

  7. Effect of length of measurement period on accuracy of predicted annual heating energy consumption of buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Sung-Hwan; Kim, Won-Tae; Tae, Choon-Soeb; Zaheeruddin, M.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the temperature dependent regression models of energy consumption as a function of the length of the measurement period. The methodology applied was to construct linear regression models of daily energy consumption from 1 day to 3 months data sets and compare the annual heating energy consumption predicted by these models with actual annual heating energy consumption. A commercial building in Daejon was selected, and the energy consumption was measured over a heating season. The results from the investigation show that the predicted energy consumption based on 1 day of measurements to build the regression model could lead to errors of 100% or more. The prediction error decreased to 30% when 1 week of data was used to build the regression model. Likewise, the regression model based on 3 months of measured data predicted the annual energy consumption within 6% of the measured energy consumption. These analyses show that the length of the measurement period has a significant impact on the accuracy of the predicted annual energy consumption of buildings

  8. Causes and Solutions for High Energy Consumption in Traditional Buildings Located in Hot Climate Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barayan, Olfat Mohammad

    A considerable amount of money for high-energy consumption is spent in traditional buildings located in hot climate regions. High-energy consumption is significantly influenced by several causes, including building materials, orientation, mass, and openings' sizes. This paper aims to identify these causes and find practical solutions to reduce the annual cost of bills. For the purpose of this study, simulation research method has been followed. A comparison between two Revit models has also been created to point out the major cause of high-energy consumption. By analysing different orientations, wall insulation, and window glazing and applying some other high performance building techniques, a conclusion was found to confirm that appropriate building materials play a vital role in affecting energy cost. Therefore, the ability to reduce the energy cost by more than 50% in traditional buildings depends on a careful balance of building materials, mass, orientation, and type of window glazing.

  9. Building and household X-factors and energy consumption at the residential sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estiri, Hossein

    2014-01-01

    Energy use in residential buildings is one of the major sources of greenhouse gas emission production from cities. Using microdata from the 2009 Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS), this study applies structural equation modeling to analyze the direct, indirect, and total impacts of household and building characteristics on residential energy consumption. Results demonstrate that the direct impact of household characteristics on residential energy consumption is significantly smaller than the corresponding impact from the buildings. However, accounting for the indirect impact of household characteristics on energy consumption, through choice of the housing unit characteristics, the total impact of households on energy consumption is just slightly smaller than that of buildings. Outcomes of this paper call for smart policies to incorporate housing choice processes in managing residential energy consumption. - Highlights: • Households indirectly influence residential energy use through housing choice. • Households' total impact on energy use is comparable to that of buildings. • Understanding households' indirect impact will enhance residential energy policy. • Smart energy policies are needed to target both direct and indirect effects

  10. Energy consumption in office buildings. Trends and drivers; Energibruk i kontorbygg. Trender og drivere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langseth, Benedicte

    2013-02-01

    This report focuses on the energy usage of Norwegian office buildings. Historic data on the subject is limited, so qualitative input is gathered through interviews with property owners and contractors for energy solutions. We have looked at what affects the total area of office buildings in Norway, and realized that it more or less follows the inland gross domestic product. The report also includes cross-sectional analyses from various data sources to find what affects the specific energy usage of office buildings. The actual measured consumption deviates from estimated consumption, especially in newer buildings and especially within ventilation and cooling. Additionally, a model has been developed for projective purposes. It is well suited to test the effect of various input parameters and assumptions on the total area of office buildings and their energy consumption. Though as of yet the quality of data is not good enough to make a profound and credible estimate of total energy usage.(eb)

  11. Evaluation of a energy consumption index for commercial buildings in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Jose Eduardo Correa Santana; Hernandez Neto, Alberto [Universidade de Sao Paulo (EP/USP), SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica], Emails: jose.edu@gmail.com, ahneto@usp.br

    2010-07-01

    The present paper proposes a energy consumption index for commercial buildings located in four different Brazilian climates. For such evaluations, the building simulation tool EnergyPlus was used and a sensitivity analysis was made for some of the main parameters of an air-conditioned building. The analysis showed that the electrical power and lighting density as well as the COP of the air conditioning system promotes the higher variations on the proposed energy index. (author)

  12. Energy-efficient Building in Greenland: Investigation of the Energy Consumption and Indoor Climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luc, Katarzyna Marta; Kotol, Martin; Lading, Tove

    2016-01-01

    Recently, a brand new single family home was built in Sisimiut, Greenland. The building was constructed as a wooden house typical for Greenland. However, some non-traditional measures were implemented in order to reduce the energy consumption and improve indoor air quality. Assessment...... was installed in the house. It enables the evaluation of the indoor air quality, as well as building's energy performance. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the performance of the newly constructed house by and compare it with the performance of identical house built in a traditional way by using...... a computer model. The data obtained from the measurements in the new house were used to verify the model. Significant energy savings and improvements of indoor air quality were found in the new house when compared to the traditional one. Moreover, all the extra measures have a feasible payback time despite...

  13. Energy-efficient Building in Greenland: Investigation of the Energy Consumption and Indoor Climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luc, Katarzyna Marta; Kotol, Martin; Lading, Tove

    2015-01-01

    Recently, a brand new single family home was built in Sisimiut, Greenland. The building was constructed as a wooden house typical for Greenland. However, some non-traditional measures were implemented in order to reduce the energy consumption and improve indoor air quality. Assessment...... was installed in the house. It enables the evaluation of the indoor air quality, as well as building's energy performance. The aim of this investigation was to evaluatethe performance of the newly constructed house by and compare it with the performance of identical house built in a traditional way by using...... a computer model. The data obtained from the measurements in the new house were used to verify the model. Significant energy savings and improvements of indoor air quality were found in the new house when compared to the traditional one. Moreover, all the extra measures have a feasible payback time despite...

  14. New Building Principles In Consequence Of Legislative Demands For Reduced Energy Consumption In Danish Housing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Rasmus Zederkof; Brohus, Henrik; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2006-01-01

    , exemplified with a case study. The case study evaluates different types of design principles of a typical Danish house, especially with respect to choices of materials etc. As the conclusion of this paper will show, unconventional thinking can negate this effect and even bring about new ways of working......The increasing restrictions in coming building codes regarding energy consumption in housing generate a need to rethink the building design as well as the building process. This paper discusses the need to change/challenge the way structures are conceived in order to accommodate new legislative...... demands regarding energy consumption. More often than not sustainable aspects like the need for reduced energy consumption are implemented late in the design process. This paper investigates the affect of incorporating aspects like solar heat gain and energy consumption in the initial concept...

  15. End-use energy consumption estimates for US commercial buildings, 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belzer, D.B.; Wrench, L.E.; Marsh, T.L. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1993-11-01

    An accurate picture of how energy is used in the nation`s stock of commercial buildings can serve a variety of program planning and policy needs within the Department of Energy, by utilities, and other groups seeking to improve the efficiency of energy use in the building sector. This report describes an estimation of energy consumption by end use based upon data from the 1989 Commercial Building Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS). The methodology used in the study combines elements of engineering simulations and statistical analysis to estimate end-use intensities for heating, cooling, ventilation, lighting, refrigeration, hot water, cooking, and miscellaneous equipment. Billing data for electricity and natural gas were first decomposed into weather and nonweather dependent loads. Subsequently, Statistical Adjusted Engineering (SAE) models were estimated by building type with annual data. The SAE models used variables such as building size, vintage, climate region, weekly operating hours, and employee density to adjust the engineering model predicted loads to the observed consumption. End-use consumption by fuel was estimated for each of the 5,876 buildings in the 1989 CBECS. The report displays the summary results for eleven separate building types as well as for the total US commercial building stock.

  16. End-use energy consumption estimates for U.S. commercial buildings, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belzer, D.B.; Wrench, L.E.

    1997-03-01

    An accurate picture of how energy is used in the nation`s stock of commercial buildings can serve a variety of program planning and policy needs of the US Department of Energy, utilities, and other groups seeking to improve the efficiency of energy use in the building sector. This report describes an estimation of energy consumption by end use based upon data from the 1992 Commercial Building Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS). The methodology used in the study combines elements of engineering simulations and statistical analysis to estimate end-use intensities for heating, cooling, ventilation, lighting, refrigeration, hot water, cooking, and miscellaneous equipment. Statistical Adjusted Engineering (SAE) models were estimated by building type. The nonlinear SAE models used variables such as building size, vintage, climate region, weekly operating hours, and employee density to adjust the engineering model predicted loads to the observed consumption (based upon utility billing information). End-use consumption by fuel was estimated for each of the 6,751 buildings in the 1992 CBECS. The report displays the summary results for 11 separate building types as well as for the total US commercial building stock. 4 figs., 15 tabs.

  17. Influence of domestic hot water parameters on the energy consumption of large buildings in Senegal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ndoye, Banda; Sarr, Mamadou

    2003-01-01

    This paper investigates the effects of domestic hot water (DHW) parameters on the energy consumption of large buildings in Senegal. Three types of reference buildings have been selected and developed (residence, office and hotel), and for each of them, the standard values of the three studied parameters (distribution temperature, flow rate and heat tank losses) are defined. The DOE-2.1E building energy program has been employed for computer simulations. It has been found that if the magnitude of their positive incremental impact is considered, the DHW parameters can be classified according to the following decreasing order: 1. heat tank losses, 2. flow rate and 3. distribution temperature. Then, for each of the three types of buildings, we established a discrete series of options of electricity consumption reduction by limitation of the DHW parameters values. For further developments, these options can be employed by researchers to build an Energy Efficiency Code applicable to large buildings in West Africa

  18. Experimental verification of an energy consumption signal tool for operational decision support in an office building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavlak, Gregory S.; Henze, Gregor P.; Hirsch, Adam I.; Florita, Anthony R.; Dodier, Robert H.

    2016-12-01

    This paper demonstrates an energy signal tool to assess the system-level and whole-building energy use of an office building in downtown Denver, Colorado. The energy signal tool uses a traffic light visualization to alert a building operator to energy use which is substantially different from expected. The tool selects which light to display for a given energy end-use by comparing measured energy use to expected energy use, accounting for uncertainty. A red light is only displayed when a fault is likely enough, and abnormal operation costly enough, that taking action will yield the lowest cost result. While the theoretical advances and tool development were reported previously, it has only been tested using a basic building model and has not, until now, been experimentally verified. Expected energy use for the field demonstration is provided by a compact reduced-order representation of the Alliance Center, generated from a detailed DOE-2.2 energy model. Actual building energy consumption data is taken from the summer of 2014 for the office building immediately after a significant renovation project. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate a first look at the building following its major renovation compared to the design intent. The tool indicated strong under-consumption in lighting and plug loads and strong over-consumption in HVAC energy consumption, which prompted several focused actions for follow-up investigation. In addition, this paper illustrates the application of Bayesian inference to the estimation of posterior parameter probability distributions to measured data. Practical discussion of the application is provided, along with additional findings from further investigating the significant difference between expected and actual energy consumption.

  19. Impact of Window Films on the Overall Energy Consumption of Existing UK Hotel Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Bahadori-Jahromi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Recently, considerable attention has justifiably been directed towards energy savings in buildings as they account for up to 20–40% of total energy consumption in developed countries. In the United Kingdom, studies have revealed that buildings’ CO2 emissions for account for at least 43% of total emissions. Window panels are a major component of the building fabric with considerable influence on the façade energy performance and are accountable for up to 60% of a building’s overall energy loss. Therefore, the thermal performance of glazing materials is an important issue within the built environment. This work evaluates the impact of solar window films on the overall energy consumption of an existing commercial building via the use of a case study U.K. hotel and TAS dynamic simulation software. The study results demonstrated that the impact of window films on the overall energy consumption of the case study hotel is approximately 2%. However, an evaluation of various overall energy consumption components showed that the window films reduce the annual total cooling energy consumption by up to 35% along with a marginal 2% increase in the annual total heating energy consumption. They can also provide overall cost and CO2 emissions savings of up to 3%.

  20. Our building is smarter than your building: The use of competitive rivalry to reduce energy consumption and linked carbon footprint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn McGibbon

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This research is located within the smart city discourse and explores the linkage between smart buildings and an intelligent community, employing the University of Cape Town as a case study. It is also situated within the research stream of Green Information Systems, which examines the confluence between technology, people, data and processes, in order to achieve environmental objectives such as reduced energy consumption and its associated carbon footprint. Since approximately 80% of a university’s carbon footprint may be attributed to electricity consumption and as the portion of energy used inefficiently by buildings is estimated at 33% an argument may be made for seeing a campus as a “living laboratory” for energy consumption experiments in smart buildings. Integrated analytics were used to measure, monitor and mitigate energy consumption, directly linked to carbon footprinting. This paper examines a pilot project to reduce electricity consumption through a smart building competition. The lens used for this research was the empirical framework provided by the International Sustainable Campus Network/Global University Leadership Forum Charter. Preliminary findings suggest a link between the monitoring of smart buildings and behaviour by a segment of the intelligent community in the pursuit of a Sustainable Development strategy.

  1. Efficient energy consumption and operation management in a smart building with microgrid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Di; Shah, Nilay; Papageorgiou, Lazaros G.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • An MILP model is formulated for energy consumption scheduling in a smart building. • Domestic appliances from multiple smart homes are considered. • Equipment operation and power consumption tasks starting time are scheduled. • Results from two examples indicate cost savings and power peak reduction. • Peak demand charge scheme is adopted to reduce the peak demand from grid. - Abstract: Microgrid works as a local energy provider for domestic buildings to reduce energy expenses and gas emissions by utilising distributed energy resources (DERs). The rapid advances in computing and communication capabilities enable the concept smart buildings become possible. Most energy-consuming household tasks do not need to be performed at specific times but rather within a preferred time. If these types of tasks can be coordinated among multiple homes so that they do not all occur at the same time yet still satisfy customers’ requirement, the energy cost and power peak demand could be reduced. In this paper, the optimal scheduling of smart homes’ energy consumption is studied using a mixed integer linear programming (MILP) approach. In order to minimise a 1-day forecasted energy consumption cost, DER operation and electricity-consumption household tasks are scheduled based on real-time electricity pricing, electricity task time window and forecasted renewable energy output. Peak demand charge scheme is also adopted to reduce the peak demand from grid. Two numerical examples on smart buildings of 30 homes and 90 homes with their own microgrid indicate the possibility of cost savings and electricity consumption scheduling peak reduction through the energy consumption and better management of DER operation

  2. Urbanisation and its impact on building energy consumption and efficiency in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Baizhan [Key Laboratory of the Three Gorges Reservoir Region' s Eco-Environment under the Ministry of Education, Chongqing University (China); Yao, Runming [School of Construction Management and Engineering, The University of Reading (United Kingdom)

    2009-09-15

    The People's Republic of China and its 1.3 billion people have experienced a rapid economic growth in the past two decades. China's urbanisation ratio rose from around 20% in the early 1980s to 45% in 2007 [China Urban Research Committee. Green building. Beijing: Chinese Construction Industrial Publish House; 2008. ISBN 978-7-112-09925-2.]. The large volume and rapid speed of building construction rarely have been seen in global development and cause substantial pressure on resources and the environment. Government policy makers and building professionals, including architects, building engineers, project managers and property developers, should play an important role in enhancing the planning, design, construction, operation and maintenance of the building energy efficiency process in forming the sustainable urban development. This paper addresses the emerging issues relating to building energy consumption and building energy efficiency due to the fast urbanisation development in China. (author)

  3. Performative building envelope design correlated to solar radiation and cooling energy consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacky, Thiodore; Santoni

    2017-11-01

    Climate change as an ongoing anthropogenic environmental challenge is predominantly caused by an amplification in the amount of greenhouse gases (GHGs), notably carbon dioxide (CO2) in building sector. Global CO2 emissions are emitted from HVAC (Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning) occupation to provide thermal comfort in building. In fact, the amount of energy used for cooling or heating building is implication of building envelope design. Building envelope acts as interface layer of heat transfer between outdoor environment and the interior of a building. It appears as wall, window, roof and external shading device. This paper examines performance of various design strategy on building envelope to limit solar radiation and reduce cooling loads in tropical climate. The design strategies are considering orientation, window to wall ratio, material properties, and external shading device. This research applied simulation method using Autodesk Ecotect to investigate simultaneously between variations of wall and window ratio, shading device composition and the implication to the amount of solar radiation, cooling energy consumption. Comparative analysis on the data will determine logical variation between opening and shading device composition and cooling energy consumption. Optimizing the building envelope design is crucial strategy for reducing CO2 emissions and long-term energy reduction in building sector. Simulation technology as feedback loop will lead to better performative building envelope.

  4. Performance gaps in energy consumption : household groups and building characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Brom, P.I.; Meijer, A.; Visscher, H.J.

    2017-01-01

    The difference between actual and calculated energy is called the ‘energy-performance gap’. Possible explanations for this gap are construction mistakes, improper adjusting of equipment, excessive simplification in simulation models and occupant behaviour. Many researchers and governmental

  5. Occupant performance and building energy consumption with different philosophies of determining acceptable thermal conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftum, Jørn; Andersen, Rune Vinther; Jensen, Kasper Lynge

    2009-01-01

    Based on building energy and indoor environment simulations, this study uses a recently developed method relying on Bayesian Network theory to estimate and compare the consequences for occupant performance and energy consumption of applying temperature criteria set according to the adaptive model...... configurations, especially in the tropical climate, the estimated performance differed only modestly between configurations. However, energy consumption was always lower in buildings without mechanical cooling, particularly so in the tropical climate. The findings indicate that determining acceptable indoor...... of thermal comfort and the more conventional PMV model. Simulations were carried out for an example building with two configurations (with and without mechanical cooling) located in tropical, subtropical, and temperate climate regions. Even though indoor temperatures differed significantly between building...

  6. Decreasing of energy consumption for space heating in existing residential buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stamov, S.; Zlateva, M.; Gechkov, N.

    2000-01-01

    An analysis is for the technical possibilities for reducing the energy consumption in existing buildings by means of the heat control and measurement. The basic performances of the heat capacity control methods, of the hierarchy structure of the control and of the heat measurement technologies are presented. This paper also presents the results from the long-term investigation of energy consumption for heating. The results area consist of three typical and uniform buildings in the city of Kazanlak (Bulgaria). The outcome of the investigation provides a valuable basis for future decisions to be made concerning reconstruction of heating installations and enables the results to be transferred. (Authors)

  7. Change-over natural and mechanical ventilation system energy consumption in single-family buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostka, Maria; Szulgowska-Zgrzywa, Małgorzata

    2017-11-01

    The parameters of the outside air in Poland cause that in winter it is reasonable to use a mechanical ventilation equipped with a heat recovery exchanger. The time of spring, autumn, summer evenings and nights are often characterized by the parameters of the air, which allow for a natural ventilation and reduce the electricity consumption. The article presents the possibilities of energy consumption reduction for three energy standards of buildings located in Poland, ventilated by a change-over hybrid system. The analysis was prepared on the assumption that the air-to-water heat pump is the heat source for the buildings.

  8. Reduction of lighting energy consumption in office buildings through improved daylight design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadouri, Maria Violeta Prado

    This study aims to investigate the lighting energy consumption in office buildings and the options for its reduction. One way to reduce lighting energy consumption is by improving the daylight design. A better use of daylight in buildings might be an outcome from the effort made in different directions. Like the improvement of a building's fabric and layout, the materials, even the furniture in a space influences the daylight quality considerably. Also very important role in lighting energy consumption has the development of more efficient lighting technology like the electric lighting control systems, such as photo sensors and occupancy sensors. Both systems are responsible so that the electric light is not used without reason. As the focusing area of this study, is to find ways to improve the daylight use in buildings, a consequent question is which are the methods provided in order to achieve this The accuracy of the methodology used is also an important issue in order to achieve reliable results. The methodology applied in this study includes the analysis of a case study by taking field measurements and computer simulations. The first stage included gathering information about the lighting design of the building and monitoring the light levels, both from natural and from the electric lighting. The second stage involved testing with computer simulations, different parameters that were expected to improve the daylight exploitation of the specific area. The results of the field measurements showed that the main problems of the space were the low natural light levels and the poor daylight distribution. The annual electric lighting energy consumption, as it was calculated with the use of computer simulations, represented the annual energy consumption of a typical air-conditioned prestige office building (energy consumption guide 19, for energy use in offices, 2000). After several computer simulations, the results showed that initial design parameters of the building

  9. EKC Analysis and Decomposition of Influencing Factors in Building Energy Consumption of Three Municipalities in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, X. Y.; Gao, J. X.; Ren, H.; Cai, W. G.

    2018-04-01

    The acceleration of the urbanization process has brought new opportunities for China’s development. With the rapid economic development and people’s living standards improving, building energy consumption also showed a rigid growth trend. With the continuous improvement of the level of industrialization, industrial energy-saving potential declines. The construction industry to bear the task of energy-saving emission reduction will face more severe challenges. As the three municipalities of China, Beijing, Shanghai and Chongqing have significant radiation effects in the economy, urbanization level and construction industry development of the region. Therefore, it is of great significance to study the building energy consumption in the three regions with the change of urbanization level and the key factors. Based on the data of Beijing, Shanghai and Chongqing from 2001 to 2015, this paper attempts to find out whether the EKC curve of building energy consumption exists. At the same time, based on the results of the model, the data of the three regions are divided into three periods. The exponential decomposition method (LMDI) is used to find out the factors that have the greatest impact on the energy consumption of buildings in different stages. Moreover, analyzes the policy background of each stage and puts forward some policy suggestions on this basis.

  10. Moisture buffering phenomenon and its impact on building energy consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Mingjie; Qin, Menghao; Rode, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    Moisture buffering is the ability of surface materials in the indoor environment to moderate the indoor humidity variations through adsorption or desorption. Materials with high moisture buffering capacity could be used to passively control the indoor moisture condition and consequently improve...... the indoor environmental quality and reduce the latent heat load of buildings. In order to characterize the moisture buffering ability of materials, the basic concept of moisture buffer value (MBV) is adopted. The paper first proposes a new mathematical expression of basic MBV, and then introduces...... a theoretical correction factor that could be used together with the MBV to calculate the moisture uptake/release by hygroscopic materials exposed to different types of humidity variations. Secondly, a simplified two-bottle test method is proposed to measure the MBV in the present study. The impact of moisture...

  11. Using ANNS to predict energy consumption of split AC systems in residential buildings and offices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karatasou, S.; Santamouris, M.; Geros, V. [National and Kapodistrian Univ. of Athens., Athens (Greece). Dept. of Physics

    2007-07-01

    Artificial neural networks (ANNs) were used to predict AC power consumption in residential and small office buildings in Greece. The aim of the study was to produce a simple algorithm capable of predicting AC power consumption for a period of 24 hours. The performance of short-term predictors was evaluated. The predictive abilities of single step and 24-step predictors were then compared. Real data from an apartment building and a small office building in Athens were used. Datasets covered the summer period, and input variables were pre-selected among the available environmental and calendar variables. Feed forward ANNs with a single hidden layer of units were used. A single linear output to predict hourly energy consumptions consisted of 3 parts: the identification of all potential relevant inputs; the selection of hidden units for the preliminary set of inputs; and the removal of irrelevant inputs and useless hidden units through a subtractive phase. A Lavenberg Marquardt (LM) algorithm was used to train the networks. The network architecture was determined for both datasets through the selection procedures. Performance of the predictors was evaluated using the considered training and test sets. Results showed that both the single step and the 24-step predictors were accurate in the case of office buildings. However, the apartment building mean bias error (MBE) was approximately 10 per cent. Attempts to predict the residential building's energy consumption over a 24 hour period yielded an MBE of more than 30 per cent. 10 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs.

  12. China Building Energy Consumption: Definitions and Measures from an Operational Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wei

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available China building energy consumption (BEC has been gradually derived and also sparked attention. However, something worth discussing is estimating the BEC based on the definition of life cycle or building operation. In addition, there exists discrepancy in the previous studies and the real status of BEC has not been known well. In order to settle the disputes over the calculation of BEC, this paper establishes an appropriate accounting method of building energy to present the BEC situation in China and lays the foundation for policymakers to develop appropriate energy saving policies. Meanwhile, this study attempts to clarify the BEC to help policymakers assess the effect of environmental policies. Using the method in this document, we find that the energy consumption of buildings just accounts for 15%–16% of the final total energy consumption in China; by contrast, the previous studies usually have double accounting through a top-down approach if central heat supply of buildings was taken into additional consideration.

  13. Energy consumption in buildings within the services sector. 2008; Energibruk i bygninger for tjenesteytende virksomhet. 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrahamsen, Anne Sofie; Bergh, Marius

    2011-05-15

    The population and sample for this survey are based on data from The Ground Parcel, Address and Building Register (GAB) as of 1 January 2008. GAB is a computer register containing information about ground properties and addresses in Norway. Defined by type of building, around 130 000 buildings within the services sector are included in the register. Buildings with an unspecified owner, buildings smaller than 200 m2 and some special types of buildings (garages etc.) were excluded from the population, thus giving a total of just over 60 000 buildings. The gross sample was made up of 8 100 buildings, and questionnaires were sent to the landowners of these buildings. In addition to the Statistics Norway sample, data from Enova and Statsbygg, among others, was used. The net sample included about 5 000 buildings. The relatively low number of usable questionnaires in the Statistics Norway sample was related to both the quality of the data in GAB and in the reported data. The use of energy per square metre between the different types of buildings in the survey varies considerably. This is due to several factors, such as time of use of the buildings, the amount of technical equipment in the buildings, energy efficiency etc. The average for all the buildings in the survey for 2008 was 226 kWh/m2. Total energy consumption in the survey was slightly more than 5 TWh distributed over 22.5 million m2 of heated area. Electric power accounted for 83 per cent of the energy used and was by far the largest energy carrier. District heating was the second largest energy carrier with 11 per cent, while heating oil accounted for about 3 per cent. Wood and pellets made up slightly less than 2 per cent and other energy carriers totalled 0.4 per cent. Schools and kindergartens had by far the lowest use of energy, with an average of 159 kWh/m2. This is related to the relatively low time of use of the buildings and fewer technical installations using energy. On the other hand, hospitals are

  14. Modeling and forecasting energy consumption for heterogeneous buildings using a physical–statistical approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lü, Xiaoshu; Lu, Tao; Kibert, Charles J.; Viljanen, Martti

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • This paper presents a new modeling method to forecast energy demands. • The model is based on physical–statistical approach to improving forecast accuracy. • A new method is proposed to address the heterogeneity challenge. • Comparison with measurements shows accurate forecasts of the model. • The first physical–statistical/heterogeneous building energy modeling approach is proposed and validated. - Abstract: Energy consumption forecasting is a critical and necessary input to planning and controlling energy usage in the building sector which accounts for 40% of the world’s energy use and the world’s greatest fraction of greenhouse gas emissions. However, due to the diversity and complexity of buildings as well as the random nature of weather conditions, energy consumption and loads are stochastic and difficult to predict. This paper presents a new methodology for energy demand forecasting that addresses the heterogeneity challenges in energy modeling of buildings. The new method is based on a physical–statistical approach designed to account for building heterogeneity to improve forecast accuracy. The physical model provides a theoretical input to characterize the underlying physical mechanism of energy flows. Then stochastic parameters are introduced into the physical model and the statistical time series model is formulated to reflect model uncertainties and individual heterogeneity in buildings. A new method of model generalization based on a convex hull technique is further derived to parameterize the individual-level model parameters for consistent model coefficients while maintaining satisfactory modeling accuracy for heterogeneous buildings. The proposed method and its validation are presented in detail for four different sports buildings with field measurements. The results show that the proposed methodology and model can provide a considerable improvement in forecasting accuracy

  15. Urban Heat Island Effect on the Energy Consumption of Institutional Buildings in Rome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calice, Claudia; Clemente, Carola; Salvati, Agnese; Palme, Massimo; Inostroza, Luis

    2017-10-01

    The urban heat island (UHI) effect is constantly increasing the energy consumption of buildings, especially in summer periods. The energy gap between the estimated energy performance - often simulated without considering UHI - and the real operational consumption is especially relevant for institutional buildings, where the cooling needs are in general higher than in other kind of buildings, due to more internal gains (people, appliances) and different architectural design (more transparent façades and light walls). This paper presents a calculation of the energy penalty due to UHI in two institutional buildings in Rome. Urban Weather Generator (UWG) is used to generate a modified weather file, taking into account the UHI phenomenon. Then, two building performance simulations are done for each case: the first simulation uses a standard weather file and the second uses the modified one. Results shows how is it necessary to re-develop mitigation strategies and a new energy retrofit approach, in order to include urbanization ad UHI effect, especially in this kind of buildings, characterized by very poor conditions of comfort during summer, taking into account users and occupant-driven demand.

  16. Analysis on Zero Energy Consumption Strategy for Office Buildings Lighting in Lianyungang Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dongmei

    2018-01-01

    In recent years, the energy-saving environmental protection has aroused the people’s high concern, and set off a new application practice in China. By analyzing the advantages of the illumination condition in Lianyungang area and combining the content and form of office space, the author puts forward a series of ways and means of energy saving in office building lighting, in order to provide a way for reference to the goal of building Zero energy consumption in the office space environment under the background of green architecture.

  17. The impact of state energy programs and other contextual factors on U.S. buildings energy consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofori-Boadu, Andrea N. Y. A.

    High energy consumption in the United States has been influenced by populations, climates, income and other contextual factors. In the past decades, U.S. energy policies have pursued energy efficiency as a national strategy for reducing U.S. environmental degradation and dependence on foreign oils. The quest for improved energy efficiency has led to the development of energy efficient technologies and programs. The implementation of energy programs in the complex U.S. socio-technical environment is believed to promote the diffusion of energy efficiency technologies. However, opponents doubt the fact that these programs have the capacity to significantly reduce U.S. energy consumption. In order to contribute to the ongoing discussion, this quantitative study investigated the relationships existing among electricity consumption/ intensity, energy programs and contextual factors in the U.S. buildings sector. Specifically, this study sought to identify the significant predictors of electricity consumption and intensity, as well as estimate the overall impact of selected energy programs on electricity consumption and intensity. Using state-level secondary data for 51 U.S. states from 2006 to 2009, seven random effects panel data regression models confirmed the existence of significant relationships among some energy programs, contextual factors, and electricity consumption/intensity. The most significant predictors of improved electricity efficiency included the price of electricity, public benefits funds program, building energy codes program, financial and informational incentives program and the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) program. Consistently, the Southern region of the U.S. was associated with high electricity consumption and intensity; while the U.S. commercial sector was the greater benefactor from energy programs. On the average, energy programs were responsible for approximately 7% of the variation observed in electricity consumption

  18. A Comparison of Energy Consumption Prediction Models Based on Neural Networks of a Bioclimatic Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid R. Khosravani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy consumption has been increasing steadily due to globalization and industrialization. Studies have shown that buildings are responsible for the biggest proportion of energy consumption; for example in European Union countries, energy consumption in buildings represents around 40% of the total energy consumption. In order to control energy consumption in buildings, different policies have been proposed, from utilizing bioclimatic architectures to the use of predictive models within control approaches. There are mainly three groups of predictive models including engineering, statistical and artificial intelligence models. Nowadays, artificial intelligence models such as neural networks and support vector machines have also been proposed because of their high potential capabilities of performing accurate nonlinear mappings between inputs and outputs in real environments which are not free of noise. The main objective of this paper is to compare a neural network model which was designed utilizing statistical and analytical methods, with a group of neural network models designed benefiting from a multi objective genetic algorithm. Moreover, the neural network models were compared to a naïve autoregressive baseline model. The models are intended to predict electric power demand at the Solar Energy Research Center (Centro de Investigación en Energía SOLar or CIESOL in Spanish bioclimatic building located at the University of Almeria, Spain. Experimental results show that the models obtained from the multi objective genetic algorithm (MOGA perform comparably to the model obtained through a statistical and analytical approach, but they use only 0.8% of data samples and have lower model complexity.

  19. Integrated Urban System and Energy Consumption Model: Public and Singular Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocco Papa

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The present paper illustrates the results of the first steps of a study on one aspect investigated as the preliminary step of the definition of the analysis - comprehension model of the relation between: city, buildings, and user behavior, for the reduction of energy consumption within the research project “Smart Energy Master” for the energetic governance of the territory (PON_MIUR n. pos. 04a2_00120 CUP Ricerca: E61H12000130005, at the Department of Civil, Building and Environmental Engineering - University of Naples Federico II, principal investigator prof. Carmela Gargiulo.Specifically the literary review aimed at determining if, and in what measure, the presence of public and singular buildings is present in the energy consumption estimate models,  proposed by the scientific community, for the city or neighborhood scale.The difficulties in defining the weight of these singular buildings on the total energy consumption and the impossibility to define mean values that are significant for all subsets and different types as well as for each one, have forced model makers to either ignore them completely or chose a portion of this specific stock to include.

  20. Impacts of Climate Change on Energy Consumption and Peak Demand in Buildings: A Detailed Regional Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dirks, James A.; Gorrissen, Willy J.; Hathaway, John E.; Skorski, Daniel C.; Scott, Michael J.; Pulsipher, Trenton C.; Huang, Maoyi; Liu, Ying; Rice, Jennie S.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the results of numerous commercial and residential building simulations, with the purpose of examining the impact of climate change on peak and annual building energy consumption over the portion of the Eastern Interconnection (EIC) located in the United States. The climate change scenario considered (IPCC A2 scenario as downscaled from the CASCaDE data set) has changes in mean climate characteristics as well as changes in the frequency and duration of intense weather events. This investigation examines building energy demand for three annual periods representative of climate trends in the CASCaDE data set at the beginning, middle, and end of the century--2004, 2052, and 2089. Simulations were performed using the Building ENergy Demand (BEND) model which is a detailed simulation platform built around EnergyPlus. BEND was developed in collaboration with the Platform for Regional Integrated Modeling and Analysis (PRIMA), a modeling framework designed to simulate the complex interactions among climate, energy, water, and land at decision-relevant spatial scales. Over 26,000 building configurations of different types, sizes, vintages, and, characteristics which represent the population of buildings within the EIC, are modeled across the 3 EIC time zones using the future climate from 100 locations within the target region, resulting in nearly 180,000 spatially relevant simulated demand profiles for each of the 3 years. In this study, the building stock characteristics are held constant based on the 2005 building stock in order to isolate and present results that highlight the impact of the climate signal on commercial and residential energy demand. Results of this analysis compare well with other analyses at their finest level of specificity. This approach, however, provides a heretofore unprecedented level of specificity across multiple spectrums including spatial, temporal, and building characteristics. This capability enables the ability to

  1. Energy Consumption and Indoor Environment Predicted by a Combination of Computational Fluid Dynamics and Building Energy Performance Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm

    2003-01-01

    An interconnection between a building energy performance simulation program and a Computational Fluid Dynamics program (CFD) for room air distribution is introduced for improvement of the predictions of both the energy consumption and the indoor environment.The article describes a calculation...

  2. Assessment of infiltration heat recovery and its impact on energy consumption for residential buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solupe, Mikel; Krarti, Moncef

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Five steady-state air infiltration heat recovery or IHR models are described and compared. • IHR models are incorporated within whole-building simulation analysis tool. • IHR can reduce the thermal loads of residential buildings by 5–30%. - Abstract: Infiltration is a major contributor to the energy consumption of buildings, particularly in homes where it accounts for one-third of the heating and cooling loads. Traditionally, infiltration is calculated independent of the building envelope performance, however, it has been established that a thermal coupling exists between the infiltration and conduction heat transfer of the building envelope. This effect is known as infiltration heat recovery (IHR). Experiments have shown that infiltration heat recovery can typically reduce the infiltration thermal load by 10–20%. Currently, whole-building energy simulation tools do not account for the effect of infiltration heat recovery on heating and cooling loads. In this paper, five steady-state IHR models are described to account for the thermal interaction between infiltration air and building envelope components. In particular, inter-model and experimental comparisons are carried out to assess the prediction accuracy of five IHR models. In addition, the results from a series of sensitivity analyses are presented, including an evaluation of the predictions for heating energy use associated with four audited homes obtained from whole-building energy simulation analysis with implemented infiltration heat recovery models. Experimental comparison of the IHR models reveal that the predictions from all the five models are consistent and are within 2% when 1-D flow and heat transfer conditions are considered. When implementing IHR models to a whole-building simulation environment, a reduction of 5–30% in heating consumption is found for four audited residential homes

  3. Energy consumption: energy consumption in mainland Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnussen, Inger Helene; Killingland, Magnus; Spilde, Dag

    2012-07-25

    The purpose of this report is to describe trends in energy consumption in mainland Norway, with an emphasis on key trends within the largest consumer groups. We also explain common terms and concepts in the field of energy consumption. Finally, we look at forecasts for future energy consumption, produced by bodies outside NVE. Total final energy consumption in mainland Norway in 2009 was 207 TWh. The most important end-user groups are households, service industries, manufacturing industry and transport. In addition, the energy sector in mainland Norway consumed 15 TWh. Energy consumed in the energy sector is not considered as final consumption, as the energy is used to produce new energy products. The long-term trend in energy consumption in mainland Norway is that fuel in the transport sector and electricity for the energy sector increases, while energy consumption in other sectors flattens out. The main reason for an increased use of fuel in the transport sector is the rise in the number of motorised machinery and vehicles in mainland Norway. This has caused a rise in gasoline and diesel consumption of 75 per cent since 1976. The petroleum sector is the largest consumer of energy within the energy sector in mainland Norway, and electricity from onshore to platforms in the North Sea and to new shore side installations has led to a rise in electricity consumption from 1 TWh in 1995 to 5 TWh in 2009. The energy consumption in households showed flat trend from 1996 to 2009, after many years of growth. The main reasons are a warmer climate, higher energy prices, the use of heats pumps and more energy-efficient buildings. In the service industries, the growth in energy consumptions has slightly decreased since the late 1990s, for much the same reasons as for households. In manufacturing industries the energy consumption have flatten out mainly due to the closure of energy-intensive businesses and the establishment of new more energy-efficient businesses. Electricity is

  4. European audit project to optimize indoor air quality and energy consumption in office buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bluyssen, P.M.; Oliveira Fernandes, E. de; Fanger, P.O.; Groes, L.; Clausen, G.; Roulet, C.A.; Bernhard, C.A.; Valbjorn, O.

    1995-03-15

    A European project started at the end of 1992, in which current methods as well as a trained panel were used to investigate office buildings all over Europe. The main aim of this EC-Audit was to develop assessment procedures and guidance on ventilation and source control, which help to optimize energy use in office buildings while assuring indoor air quality. Participants from 16 institutes in 11 countries (The Netherlands, Denmark, France, Belgium, United Kingdom, Greece, Switzerland, Finland, Norway, Portugal, Germany) joined. A common agreed Europe-wide method to investigate indoor quality in office buildings, including a common agreed European questionnaire and walk-through survey checklist were developed. In nine countries, six or more office buildings were selected. Measurements were performed at five selected locations in each building. The buildings were studied while normally occupied and ventilated to identify the pollution sources in the spaces and to quantify the total pollution load caused by the occupants and their activities and the ventilation systems. The investigation included physical and chemical measurements, assessment of the perceived air quality in the spaces by a trained sensory panel, and measurement of the outdoor air supply to the spaces. The physical and chemical measurements in the spaces included measurements of noise, concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), carbon monoxide (CO), total volatile organic compounds (TVOC), and the thermal parameters: operative temperature, air temperature, relative humidity and air velocity. The building characteristics were described by use of a check-list. The annual energy consumption of the buildings and the weather conditions were registered. This report presents the results, conclusions and recommendations of the audit performed in 56 buildings in Europe. Furthermore, assessment procedures of indoor air quality and energy performance of office buildings are discussed.

  5. Evaluation of the effects of vegetation and green walls on building thermal performance and energy consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susorova, Irina

    This research explored the use of vegetation in building facades as a potential solution to the problems of urban ecology and the excessive energy consumption in buildings. Vegetated facades substantially reduce building energy use, reduce the urban heat island effect, improve air quality, and increase the biodiversity of plants and animals in cities. The goal of this research was to evaluate the effects of plants on building thermal performance and energy consumption by developing a thermal model of a building facade covered with a layer of plants. The developed mathematical model accounts for thermal physical processes in a vegetated exterior wall including solar radiation, infrared radiative exchange between the facade and sky, the facade and ground, the facade and vegetation layer, convection to and from the facade, evapotranspiration from the plant layer, heat storage in the facade material, and heat conduction through the facade. The model calculates vegetated facade surface temperature and heat flux through the facade for multiple weather conditions, plant physiological characteristics, and facade parameters inputs. The model was validated with the results of a one-week long experiment measuring the thermal properties of bare and vegetated facades on the Illinois Institute of Technology campus. The experiment and subsequent sensitivity analysis demonstrated that a plant layer can effectively reduce the facade exterior surface temperature, daily temperature fluctuations, exterior wall temperature gradient, and, as a result, provide as much additional thermal insulation to the facade as a 2.5 cm layer of expanded polystyrene insulation. The vegetated facade model was also used to analyze the reduction in energy consumption in generic office and residential thermal zones for multiple parameters. The simulations showed that energy reduction could be as high as 6.2% of annual total energy use and 34.6% of cooling energy use in residential thermal zones. Overall

  6. An Experimental Study of Energy Consumption in Buildings Providing Ancillary Services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Yashen [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Afshari, Sina [University of Michigan; Wolfe, John [University of Michigan; Nazir, Md Salman [University of Michigan; Hiskens, Ian A. [University of Michigan; Johnson, Jeremiah X. [University of Michigan; Mathieu, Johanna L. [University of Michigan; Barnes, Arthur K. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Geller, Drew A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Backhaus, Scott N. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2017-10-03

    Heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems in commercial buildings can provide ancillary services (AS) to the power grid, but by providing AS their energy consumption may increase. This inefficiency is evaluated using round-trip efficiency (RTE), which is defined as the ratio between the decrease and the increase in the HVAC system's energy consumption compared to the baseline consumption as a result of providing AS. This paper evaluates the RTE of a 30,000 m2 commercial building providing AS. We propose two methods to estimate the HVAC system's settling time after an AS event based on temperature and the air flow measurements from the building. Experimental data gathered over a 4-month period are used to calculate the RTE for AS signals of various waveforms, magnitudes, durations, and polarities. The results indicate that the settling time estimation algorithm based on the air flow measurements obtains more accurate results compared to the temperature-based algorithm. Further, we study the impact of the AS signal shape parameters on the RTE and discuss the practical implications of our findings.

  7. Optimization of energy consumption and cost effectiveness of modular buildings by using renewable energy sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Tauš

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Problems of the temporary structures are generally dealt with by the use of modular buildings. These actually meet the terms of low costs, as appose to the terms of convenience of use, or energy efficiency in operation. Using the latest technologies in the production of the modular buildings has improved the operation sufficiently; it is now possible to use them entirely for purposes associated with the use of the buildings. Office buildings, warehouses, and conference rooms have become common standard. In Slovakia, we can already see it as a normal part of cities and municipalities: social housing, schools, and kindergartens, which were all built using this technology. During the assessment phase of these buildings, energy efficiency is always the priority. This article is aimed at establishing the economic potential of modular buildings in the field of use of renewable energy sources. For the formulation of the problem and the definition of borders of studied parameters, we proposed a four-dimensional competency decision-making space. This determines the examination process that should identify areas in which it is appropriate to consider and assess the use of renewable energy sources.

  8. Energy consumption in low-energy multi-storey buildings - selected examples; Energieverbrauch in Mehrgeschossbauten in Niedrigenergiebauweise - ausgewaehlte Beispiele

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dittmann, W. [Forschungsgesellschaft fuer Umweltschonende Energieumwandlung und -nutzung mbH, Kiel (Germany)

    1995-09-01

    The present paper deals with the problem of how to lower the thermal energy demand of buildings for the purpose of CO{sub 2} emission abatement. Studies were performed on eight buildings over a term of two heating periods. The chapters are as follows: Calculation of useful thermal energy demand; measured useful thermal energy consumption; resident behaviour; and primary energy consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions. (HW) [Deutsch] Der Aufsatz setzt sich mit der Problematik der Senkung des Energiebedarfs zum Beheizen von Gebaeuden zwecks Reduzierung der CO{sub 2}-Emission auseinander. In den Vorhaben werden 8 Gebaeude ueber 2 Heizperioden untersucht, im einzelnen sind folgende Kapitel dargestellt: - Berechnung des Nutzwaermebedarfs - gemessener Nutzwaermeverbrauch - Bewohnerverhalten - Primaerenergieverbrauch und CO{sub 2}-Emission. (HW)

  9. Investigation and analysis on the energy consumption of starred hotel buildings in Hainan Province, the tropical region of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Shilei; Wei, Shasha; Zhang, Ke; Kong, Xiangfei; Wu, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Normalization energy utilization indicators regression model is established. • Total and subentry normalization energy utilization indicators have been obtained and reported. • Found the key points in influencing hotels’ total and subentry energy consumption. • Discussed the best selection of building envelops to reduce the hotels’ energy consumption. - Abstract: This paper reported a study of energy consumption of 27 starred hotels in Hainan Province. Total and subentry energy consumption indicators were defined to indicate the building energy efficiency after collecting the building basic information and energy consumption of these hotels. Eighteen potential independent significant factors were selected to analyze energy utilization indicators (EUIs) and the climate adjusted energy utilization indicators (EUI clt ) were calculated by using the degree-day method. Then, multiple regression analysis between EUI clt and continuous scale factors was applied to establish the normalization EUI data model and results indicated that the electricity percentage, number of guestrooms and equivalent guestrooms are the key points influencing total energy efficiency of hotels. Lastly, on the basis of multi-factor analysis of variance (ANOVA) between the EUI norm and categorical factors of the sampled hotel buildings, double glazing window is the significant factor that influences the total unit energy consumption greatly

  10. A Real-Time Energy Consumption Simulation and Comparison of Buildings in Different Construction Years in the Olympic Central Area in Beijing

    OpenAIRE

    Chen Xu; Yu Li; Xueting Jin; Liang Yuan; Hao Cheng

    2017-01-01

    Energy consumed the in urban sector accounts for a large proportion of total world delivered energy consumption. Residential building energy consumption is an important part of urban energy consumption. However, there are few studies focused on this issue and that have simulated the energy consumption of residential buildings using questionnaire data. In this research, an eQUEST study was conducted for different residential buildings in the Olympic Central Area in Beijing. Real-time meteorolo...

  11. The effect of building regulations on energy consumption in single-family houses in Denmark. Final version

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen Kjaerbye, V. (Roskilde Univ.. Dept. of Environmental, Social and Spatial Change, Roskilde (Denmark)); AKF (Danish Institute of Governmental Research, Copenhagen (Denmark)); Larsen, Anders E. (Roskilde Univ.. Dept. of Society and Globalisation, Roskilde (Denmark)); Togeby, M (Ea Energy Analyses, Copenhagen (Denmark))

    2010-04-15

    This paper explores how changes in regulatory requirements for energy efficiency in buildings (in the US also known as building energy codes) affect household energy consumption. The focus in this paper is on natural gas consumption by Danish single-family owner-occupied houses. Unlike most other papers investigating household energy consumption this paper uses a unique panel data set constructed by merging several administrative data bases. The data set describes house and household characteristics, outdoor temperature and actual metered natural gas consumption over 6 years (1998-2003). Applying advanced econometric methods we examine differences in heating energy consumption due to different building regulation requirements at the time of house construction. As for the effect of the building regulation, we find that changes in Danish building regulations have led to significant reductions in energy used for heating. The latest revision of the Danish building regulation covered by this paper is that of 1998. This revision has resulted in a 7 percent reduction in natural gas consumption. (Author)

  12. Empirical assessment of the Hellenic non-residential building stock, energy consumption, emissions and potential energy savings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaglia, Athina G.; Balaras, Constantinos A.; Mirasgedis, Sevastianos; Georgopoulou, Elena; Sarafidis, Yiannis; Lalas, Dimitris P.

    2007-01-01

    Comprehensive information and detailed data for the non-residential (NR) building stock is rather limited, although it is the fastest growing energy demand sector. This paper elaborates the approach used to determine the potential energy conservation in the Hellenic NR building stock. A major obstacle that had to be overcome was the need to make suitable assumptions for missing detailed primary data. A qualitative and quantitative assessment of scattered national data resulted in a realistic assessment of the existing NR building stock and energy consumption. Different energy conservation scenarios and their impact on the reduction of CO 2 emissions were evaluated. Accordingly, the most effective energy conservation measures are: addition of thermal insulation of exposed external walls, primarily in hotels and hospitals; installation of energy efficient lamps; installation of solar collectors for sanitary hot water production, primarily in hotels and health care; installation of building management systems in office/commercial and hotel buildings; replacement of old inefficient boilers; and regular maintenance of central heating boilers

  13. A Prediction Mechanism of Energy Consumption in Residential Buildings Using Hidden Markov Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israr Ullah

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Internet of Things (IoT is considered as one of the future disruptive technologies, which has the potential to bring positive change in human lifestyle and uplift living standards. Many IoT-based applications have been designed in various fields, e.g., security, health, education, manufacturing, transportation, etc. IoT has transformed conventional homes into Smart homes. By attaching small IoT devices to various appliances, we cannot only monitor but also control indoor environment as per user demand. Intelligent IoT devices can also be used for optimal energy utilization by operating the associated equipment only when it is needed. In this paper, we have proposed a Hidden Markov Model based algorithm to predict energy consumption in Korean residential buildings using data collected through smart meters. We have used energy consumption data collected from four multi-storied buildings located in Seoul, South Korea for model validation and results analysis. Proposed model prediction results are compared with three well-known prediction algorithms i.e., Support Vector Machine (SVM, Artificial Neural Network (ANN and Classification and Regression Trees (CART. Comparative analysis shows that our proposed model achieves 2.96 % better than ANN results in terms of root mean square error metric, 6.09 % better than SVM and 9.03 % better than CART results. To further establish and validate prediction results of our proposed model, we have performed temporal granularity analysis. For this purpose, we have evaluated our proposed model for hourly, daily and weekly data aggregation. Prediction accuracy in terms of root mean square error metric for hourly, daily and weekly data is 2.62, 1.54 and 0.46, respectively. This shows that our model prediction accuracy improves for coarse grain data. Higher prediction accuracy gives us confidence to further explore its application in building control systems for achieving better energy efficiency.

  14. The influence of human behaviour on the energy consumption in buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rune Vinther; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2010-01-01

    Occupant behaviour influences the amount of energy consumed to sustain a comfortable indoor environment. However, the extent to which occupant behaviour affects building energy consumption is largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the extent of this influence. This paper...... describes two studies using dynamic computer simulations of occupant behaviour in dwellings. The first study included simulations of a naïve and a rational behaving occupant. The naïve occupant controlled the indoor climate using an energy expensive behaviour, while the rational occupant controlled...... behavioural mode were simulated. A reference simulation was made during which the occupant had no control over the environment. The occupant was able to keep the thermal indoor environment close to neutral when he/she had the possibility to manipulate the controls. The indoor environment was similar within...

  15. Interactive energy consumption visualization

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lunga, D

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available in an office building environment. The main goal is to highlight high consumptions patterns, estimate costs and savings, and recommend energy saving strategies. In its useful nature, the dashboard can provide valuable information for further programs tied...

  16. Life comparative analysis of energy consumption and CO₂ emissions of different building structural frame types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sangyong; Moon, Joon-Ho; Shin, Yoonseok; Kim, Gwang-Hee; Seo, Deok-Seok

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this research is to quantitatively measure and compare the environmental load and construction cost of different structural frame types. Construction cost also accounts for the costs of CO₂ emissions of input materials. The choice of structural frame type is a major consideration in construction, as this element represents about 33% of total building construction costs. In this research, four constructed buildings were analyzed, with these having either reinforced concrete (RC) or steel (S) structures. An input-output framework analysis was used to measure energy consumption and CO₂ emissions of input materials for each structural frame type. In addition, the CO₂ emissions cost was measured using the trading price of CO₂ emissions on the International Commodity Exchange. This research revealed that both energy consumption and CO₂ emissions were, on average, 26% lower with the RC structure than with the S structure, and the construction costs (including the CO₂ emissions cost) of the RC structure were about 9.8% lower, compared to the S structure. This research provides insights through which the construction industry will be able to respond to the carbon market, which is expected to continue to grow in the future.

  17. Life Comparative Analysis of Energy Consumption and CO2 Emissions of Different Building Structural Frame Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangyong Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to quantitatively measure and compare the environmental load and construction cost of different structural frame types. Construction cost also accounts for the costs of CO2 emissions of input materials. The choice of structural frame type is a major consideration in construction, as this element represents about 33% of total building construction costs. In this research, four constructed buildings were analyzed, with these having either reinforced concrete (RC or steel (S structures. An input-output framework analysis was used to measure energy consumption and CO2 emissions of input materials for each structural frame type. In addition, the CO2 emissions cost was measured using the trading price of CO2 emissions on the International Commodity Exchange. This research revealed that both energy consumption and CO2 emissions were, on average, 26% lower with the RC structure than with the S structure, and the construction costs (including the CO2 emissions cost of the RC structure were about 9.8% lower, compared to the S structure. This research provides insights through which the construction industry will be able to respond to the carbon market, which is expected to continue to grow in the future.

  18. Energy consumption and indoor climate in a residential building before and after comprehensive energy retrofitting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund; Rose, Jørgen; Christen Mørck, Ove

    2016-01-01

    including new facades, new windows, additional insulation, mechanical ventilation with heat recovery and a photovoltaic installation on the roof. The measured energy consumption for heating and domestic hot water before and after renovation was 139.1 kWh/m2/year and 95.6 kWh/m2/year respectively...... before and after the retrofit. In three of the flats in Traneparken measurements of ventilation conditions were performed using passive tracer gas technique together with continuous registration of the room air temperature, the relative humidity and the CO2-concentration using programmable data loggers....

  19. Energy consumption and control response evaluations of AODV routing in WSANs for building-temperature control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booranawong, Apidet; Teerapabkajorndet, Wiklom; Limsakul, Chusak

    2013-06-27

    The main objective of this paper is to investigate the effects of routing protocols on wireless sensor and actuator networks (WSANs), focusing on the control system response and the energy consumption of nodes in a network. We demonstrate that routing algorithms designed without considering the relationship between communication and control cannot be appropriately used in wireless networked control applications. For this purpose, an ad-hoc on-demand distance vector (AODV) routing, an IEEE 802.15.4, and a building-temperature control system are employed for this exploration. The findings from our scenarios show that the AODV routing can select a path with a high traffic load for data transmission. It takes a long time before deciding to change a new route although it experiences the unsuccessful transmission of packets. As a result, the desirable control target cannot be achieved in time, and nodes consume more energy due to frequent packet collisions and retransmissions. Consequently, we propose a simple routing solution to alleviate these research problems by modifying the original AODV routing protocol. The delay-threshold is considered to avoid any congested connection during routing procedures. The simulation results demonstrate that our solution can be appropriately applied in WSANs. Both the energy consumption and the control system response are improved.

  20. A Real-Time Energy Consumption Simulation and Comparison of Buildings in Different Construction Years in the Olympic Central Area in Beijing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Xu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Energy consumed the in urban sector accounts for a large proportion of total world delivered energy consumption. Residential building energy consumption is an important part of urban energy consumption. However, there are few studies focused on this issue and that have simulated the energy consumption of residential buildings using questionnaire data. In this research, an eQUEST study was conducted for different residential buildings in the Olympic Central Area in Beijing. Real-time meteorological observation data and an actual energy consumption schedule generated by questionnaire data were used to improve the eQUEST model in the absence of actual energy consumption data. The simulated total energy consumption of residential buildings in the case area in 2015 is 21,262.28 tce, and the average annual energy consumption per unit area is 20.09 kgce/(m2·a. Space heating accounted for 45% of the total energy consumption as the highest proportion, and the second highest was household appliances, which accounted for 20%. The results showed that old residential buildings, multi-storey buildings and large-sized apartment buildings consume more energy. The internal units, building height, per capita construction area, the number of occupants and length of power use had significant impact on residential energy consumption. The result of this study will provide practical reference for energy saving reconstruction of residential buildings in Beijing.

  1. The analysis of the hot water consumption and energy performance before and after renovation in multi-apartment buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumanova, K.; Borodinecs, A.; Geikins, A.

    2017-10-01

    The article presents the results of hot water supply system analysis. Taking into account that the current consumption of hot water differs from normative values, real measured data of hot water consumption in multi-apartment buildings from year 2013 until year 2015 have been analyzed. Also, the thermal energy consumption for hot water preparation has been analyzed. Based on aggregated data and taking into account the fact that renovated systems of hot water supply in existing multi-apartment buildings have same pipelines’ diameters, it was analyzed how these systems are economically and energy efficient. For the study, residential buildings in Riga, which have different architectural and engineering solutions for hot water supply systems, were selected. The study was based on thermal energy consumption measurements, which were taken at the individual heating system’s manifolds. This study was done in order to develop database on hot water consumption in civil buildings and define difference in key performance criteria in unclassified buildings. Obtained results allows to reach European Regional Development Fund project “NEARLY ZERO ENERGY SOLUTIONS FOR UNCLASSIFIED BUILDINGS” Nr. 1.1.1.116A048 main targets.

  2. The effect of different transitional spaces on thermal comfort and energy consumption of residential buildings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taleghani, M.; Tenpierik, M.J.; Van den Dobbelsteen, A.A.J.F.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose- This paper focuses on the effect of courtyards, atria and sunspaces on indoor thermal comfort and energy consumption for heating and cooling. One of the most important purposes is to understand if certain transitional spaces can reduce the energy consumption of and improve thermal comfort

  3. Parametrisation of the variety of human behaviour related to building energy consumption in the Town Energy Balance (SURFEX-TEB v. 8.2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Schoetter

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The anthropogenic heat flux can be an important part of the urban surface energy balance. Some of it is due to energy consumption inside buildings, which depends on building use and human behaviour, both of which are very heterogeneous in most urban areas. Urban canopy parametrisations (UCP, such as the Town Energy Balance (TEB, parametrise the effect of the buildings on the urban surface energy balance. They contain a simple building energy model. However, the variety of building use and human behaviour at grid point scale has not yet been represented in state of the art UCPs. In this study, we describe how we enhance the Town Energy Balance in order to take fractional building use and human behaviour into account. We describe how we parametrise different behaviours and initialise the model for applications in France. We evaluate the spatio-temporal variability of the simulated building energy consumption for the city of Toulouse. We show that a more detailed description of building use and human behaviour enhances the simulation results. The model developments lay the groundwork for simulations of coupled urban climate and building energy consumption which are relevant for both the urban climate and the climate change mitigation and adaptation communities.

  4. Parametrisation of the variety of human behaviour related to building energy consumption in the Town Energy Balance (SURFEX-TEB v. 8.2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoetter, Robert; Masson, Valéry; Bourgeois, Alexis; Pellegrino, Margot; Lévy, Jean-Pierre

    2017-07-01

    The anthropogenic heat flux can be an important part of the urban surface energy balance. Some of it is due to energy consumption inside buildings, which depends on building use and human behaviour, both of which are very heterogeneous in most urban areas. Urban canopy parametrisations (UCP), such as the Town Energy Balance (TEB), parametrise the effect of the buildings on the urban surface energy balance. They contain a simple building energy model. However, the variety of building use and human behaviour at grid point scale has not yet been represented in state of the art UCPs. In this study, we describe how we enhance the Town Energy Balance in order to take fractional building use and human behaviour into account. We describe how we parametrise different behaviours and initialise the model for applications in France. We evaluate the spatio-temporal variability of the simulated building energy consumption for the city of Toulouse. We show that a more detailed description of building use and human behaviour enhances the simulation results. The model developments lay the groundwork for simulations of coupled urban climate and building energy consumption which are relevant for both the urban climate and the climate change mitigation and adaptation communities.

  5. Key figures for joint assessment of indoor environmental quality (IEQ) and energy consumption in modern buildings – a literature review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tisov, Ana; Siroky, Jan; Kolarik, Jakub

    2016-01-01

    Energy efficiency in buildings should not be reached on the expense of indoor environmental quality (IEQ). This statement is often used in connection to design and certification of sustainable buildings. The fact that it is also valid during the actual operation seems to be often forgotten. Nodaway......’s energy management and operational diagnostics focus mostly on energy consumption. Consequently also present key figures comprise performance indicators related to energy use. The fact that modern buildings are not spared from IEQ related problems indicates that there is a need for joint assessment...... and indoor environment was mentioned only marginally or was not mentioned at all. We can also conclude that energy related key figures are well established and used for standard energy management as well as in different optimization algorithms involving analysis of measurements and calibrated simulations...

  6. Comparison of Energy Consumption in Wi-Fi and Bluetooth Communication in a Smart Building

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Putra, Guntur; Rizky Pratama, Azkario; Lazovik, Aliaksandr; Aiello, Marco

    2017-01-01

    Modern Smart Buildings will utilize sensor technologies to obtain current information of the occupants and use it to provide automatic services to improve the safety, efficient use, productivity, and comfort. Energy saving is one of the promises of Smart Buildings. This can be achieved by

  7. Effect of Corridor Design on Energy Consumption for School Buildings in the Cold Climate.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, A.; Sun, Y.; Huang, Qiong; Bokel, R.M.J.; van den Dobbelsteen, A.A.J.F.

    2017-01-01

    This paper discusses the energy impact of corridor design for school buildings in the cold climate of China. Local school buildings were classified into three types in terms of the corridor design patterns. Architectural related parameters of corridors which could have a potential impact on the

  8. The influence of multifamily apartment building occupants on energy and water consumption - the preliminary results of monitoring and survey campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandurski, Karol; Hamerla, Miłosz; Szulc, Jowita; Koczyk, Halina

    2017-11-01

    Occupants' attitudes and behavior have a significant influence on energy and water consumption in buildings. To provide more robust solutions, energy efficient applications should consider occupant-building interaction. However, there is a question to be answered: which aspects of lodging and occupant behavior cause the most substantial increase in consumption of these mediums. Thus, the aim of this study is to investigate the influence of household characteristics and occupants' behavior on level and variability in utilities consumption. The study uses the results of a measuring campaign and the questionnaire. The measuring campaign was carried out to monitor the consumption of energy used for space heating and domestic hot water, as well as electricity, gas and water. The questionnaire specifically focused on household characteristics and occupants' behavior. The research was carried out in four apartment buildings, all consisting of more than 100 apartments. Data from approximately 100 households was gathered and analyzed; the survey's respond rate was almost 50%. A quantitative analysis of the results confirms the assumption that both household characteristics and occupants' behavior (e.g. the use of heating control) are important factors for utilities consumption. Further work with the obtained data is planned in terms of including of greater number of apartments, assessment of ventilation effectiveness, as well as analysis of heat transfer between the apartments.

  9. Regional final energy consumptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This report comments the differences observed between the French regions and also between these regions and national data in terms of final energy consumption per inhabitant, per GDP unit, and per sector (housing and office building, transport, industry, agriculture). It also comments the evolutions during the last decades, identifies the most recent trends

  10. Comparative Thermal Analysis of Different Cool Roof Materials for Minimizing Building Energy Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Anand

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The roof and walls in the urban areas contribute to major share in the absorption of solar radiations and also retard the outflow of the absorbed radiation from the building envelope, thereby increasing the global warming by inducing the heat island effect. The impact of using cool roof technologies on the thermal comfort of the office buildings has been estimated. Cool roofs reduce electricity consumption for maintaining the temperature of the air-conditioned buildings in the comfort level and also increase comfort in buildings merely not relying completely on cooling equipment. The cool roofs and cool pavements, however, can mitigate summer urban heat islands by improving indoor air quality and comfort. The thermal analysis of different materials has been carried out to analyze the impact of the rate of heat transfer on the building envelope and the results obtained indicate that different cool roof techniques are beneficial in maintaining the comfort level of the building which purely depends on the ambient temperature conditions.

  11. A hybrid Genetic Algorithm and Monte Carlo simulation approach to predict hourly energy consumption and generation by a cluster of Net Zero Energy Buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garshasbi, Samira; Kurnitski, Jarek; Mohammadi, Yousef

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The energy consumption and renewable generation in a cluster of NZEBs are modeled by a novel hybrid Genetic Algorithm and Monte Carlo simulation approach and used for the prediction of instantaneous and cumulative net energy balances and hourly amount of energy taken from and supplied to the central energy grid. - Highlights: • Hourly energy consumption and generation by a cluster of NZEBs was simulated. • Genetic Algorithm and Monte Carlo simulation approach were employed. • Dampening effect of energy used by a cluster of buildings was demonstrated. • Hourly amount of energy taken from and supplied to the grid was simulated. • Results showed that NZEB cluster was 63.5% grid dependant on annual bases. - Abstract: Employing a hybrid Genetic Algorithm (GA) and Monte Carlo (MC) simulation approach, energy consumption and renewable energy generation in a cluster of Net Zero Energy Buildings (NZEBs) was thoroughly investigated with hourly simulation. Moreover, the cumulative energy consumption and generation of the whole cluster and each individual building within the simulation space were accurately monitored and reported. The results indicate that the developed simulation algorithm is able to predict the total instantaneous and cumulative amount of energy taken from and supplied to the central energy grid over any time period. During the course of simulation, about 60–100% of total daily generated renewable energy was consumed by NZEBs and up to 40% of that was fed back into the central energy grid as surplus energy. The minimum grid dependency of the cluster was observed in June and July where 11.2% and 9.9% of the required electricity was supplied from the central energy grid, respectively. On the other hand, the NZEB cluster was strongly grid dependant in January and December by importing 70.7% and 76.1% of its required energy demand via the central energy grid, in the order given. Simulation results revealed that the cluster was 63

  12. Energy Certificate - Energy Performance Certificate for Buildings as Significant Support to Reducing Consumption Intensity in Croatia by 2050

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vivoda, E.; Kurek, J.

    2006-01-01

    Since Energy Efficiency Certificate, as a certificate of energy efficiency in building, is a part of the DIRECTIVE 2002/91/EC on the energy performance of buildings and can be linked to the DIRECTIVE 2006/32/EG on energy end-use efficiency and energy services and to the Technical regulation of the Republic of Croatia about rational use of heath energy in the buildings, these are shown briefly and their correlation is pointed out. Activities for the joint European energy policy are listed: Green Book of the EU Commission for the joint European energy policy, Sustainable Energy Paths for Europe - Energy Paths Horizon 2050 and the programme Intelligent Energy in Europe (2003-2006). Issues of the Energy Efficiency Certificate are elaborated in detail, while the accent is on certification, not only for buildings, but also for house energy techniques and the class of energy sustainability. The advantages of the introduction of Energy Certificates are shown for the real estate market, as well as for the users. On the example of Austria, one of the EU leaders in introducing of sustainable energy policy, the issues linked to the introduction of Energy Efficiency Certificate are shown.(author)

  13. Structural, geographic, and social factors in urban building energy use: Analysis of aggregated account-level consumption data in a megacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porse, Erik; Derenski, Joshua; Gustafson, Hannah; Elizabeth, Zoe; Pincetl, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    Residential and commercial buildings comprise approximately forty percent of total energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions in the U.S. Yet, while California spends $1.5 billion annually on energy efficiency programs, limited research has explored how building energy consumption varies within cities, including the social and structural factors that influence electricity and natural gas use. We present results from an analysis of aggregated account-level utility billing data for energy consumption across the over two million properties in Los Angeles County. Results show that consumption in L.A. County varies widely with geography, income, building characteristics, and climate. Several higher-income areas have greater total energy use per building even in cooler climates, while many lower-income regions rank higher for energy use per square-foot. Energy consumption also correlates with building age, which varies widely throughout the region. Our results demonstrate the many complex and interrelated factors that influence urban energy use. While billing data is critical for devising energy efficiency programs that actually realize estimated savings and promote more sustainable cities, opening access to such data presents significant challenges for protecting personal privacy. The presented approach is adaptable and scalable to cities seeking to develop data-driven policies to reduce building energy use. - Highlights: •Building energy use varies widely across metropolitan Los Angeles. •Building age, household income, home ownership rates, and land use are all correlated with energy consumption. •High-income areas use more energy per building, while lower-income areas use more energy per square-foot. •Account-level energy use data can help local governments devise conservation strategies. •Energy efficiency programs need evaluated using energy consumption data.

  14. Time series analytics using sliding window metaheuristic optimization-based machine learning system for identifying building energy consumption patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, Jui-Sheng; Ngo, Ngoc-Tri

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • This study develops a novel time-series sliding window forecast system. • The system integrates metaheuristics, machine learning and time-series models. • Site experiment of smart grid infrastructure is installed to retrieve real-time data. • The proposed system accurately predicts energy consumption in residential buildings. • The forecasting system can help users minimize their electricity usage. - Abstract: Smart grids are a promising solution to the rapidly growing power demand because they can considerably increase building energy efficiency. This study developed a novel time-series sliding window metaheuristic optimization-based machine learning system for predicting real-time building energy consumption data collected by a smart grid. The proposed system integrates a seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA) model and metaheuristic firefly algorithm-based least squares support vector regression (MetaFA-LSSVR) model. Specifically, the proposed system fits the SARIMA model to linear data components in the first stage, and the MetaFA-LSSVR model captures nonlinear data components in the second stage. Real-time data retrieved from an experimental smart grid installed in a building were used to evaluate the efficacy and effectiveness of the proposed system. A k-week sliding window approach is proposed for employing historical data as input for the novel time-series forecasting system. The prediction system yielded high and reliable accuracy rates in 1-day-ahead predictions of building energy consumption, with a total error rate of 1.181% and mean absolute error of 0.026 kW h. Notably, the system demonstrates an improved accuracy rate in the range of 36.8–113.2% relative to those of the linear forecasting model (i.e., SARIMA) and nonlinear forecasting models (i.e., LSSVR and MetaFA-LSSVR). Therefore, end users can further apply the forecasted information to enhance efficiency of energy usage in their buildings, especially

  15. An Efficient Approach for Energy Consumption Optimization and Management in Residential Building Using Artificial Bee Colony and Fuzzy Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazli Wahid

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The energy management in residential buildings according to occupant’s requirement and comfort is of vital importance. There are many proposals in the literature addressing the issue of user’s comfort and energy consumption (management with keeping different parameters in consideration. In this paper, we have utilized artificial bee colony (ABC optimization algorithm for maximizing user comfort and minimizing energy consumption simultaneously. We propose a complete user friendly and energy efficient model with different components. The user set parameters and the environmental parameters are inputs of the ABC, and the optimized parameters are the output of the ABC. The error differences between the environmental parameters and the ABC optimized parameters are inputs of fuzzy controllers, which give the required energy as the outputs. The purpose of the optimization algorithm is to maximize the comfort index and minimize the error difference between the user set parameters and the environmental parameters, which ultimately decreases the power consumption. The experimental results show that the proposed model is efficient in achieving high comfort index along with minimized energy consumption.

  16. European audit project to optimise indoor air quality and energy consumption in office buildings. National report of Switzerland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roulet, C.A.; Foradini, F. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale, Lab. d`Energie Solaire et de Physique du Batiment, Lausanne (Switzerland); Bernhard, C.A. [Inst. Universitaire Romand de Sante au Travail, Lausanne (Switzerland); Carlucci, L. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Inst. fuer Hygiene und Arbeitsphysiologie, Zurich (Switzerland)

    1994-12-15

    This report summarises the work performed in Switzerland for the Joule II project `Indoor Air Quality Audit`. Eight office buildings located in three important areas were audited. Minimum commitment is 6 buildings. The two supplementary buildings are the pilot study, and an additional audit supported by the owner of the building. The main results obtained in Switzerland are as follows: the questionnaire is without doubt an important part of the audit. It could however be shortened and its interpretation simplified. Measurements of air flow rates in air handling units (AHU) were not planned in the procedure, but performed in most AHU of the audited buildings. These measurements often showed large discrepancies between measured and planned air flow rates. In some cases, unexpected shortcuts between exhaust and pulsed air were detected. Moreover, they provide a possibility to assess the ventilation performance for the whole building. It is therefore proposed to implement these measurements into the audit procedure. Fresh air flow rates in each room can be estimated by counting the persons in room and measuring the CO{sub 2} concentration in room and in air supply. Ventilation rates in all buildings are high enough to eliminate occupants generated contamination, but large differences were found in indoor air quality as judged by occupants or by chemical analysis. The average number of building related symptoms per occupant (BSI) vary strongly among buildings. AHU were all clean and well maintained. No clear relation was found between BSI and sensory or chemical indoor air quality, ventilation rate or energy consumption. BSI`s are however significantly lower when it is allowed to open the windows. The best building (according to occupant`s health) is also the one with the lowest energy index and the lowest air flow rate, hence a high (1000 ppm) CO{sub 2} concentration. It is partly naturally ventilated. All the buildings with high BSI`s are sealed and air conditioned.

  17. Net positive energy buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero, A.; Barreiro, E.; Sanchez Zabala, V.

    2010-01-01

    Buildings are great consumers of energy, being responsible for almost 36% of CO2 emissions in Europe. Though there are many initiatives towards the reduction of energy consumption and CO2 emissions in buildings, many of the alternatives are diminished due to a lack of a unique and holistic approach to the problem. This paper reports a new innovative concept of Positive Energy Buildings (EB+), as well as an integral methodology that covers the overall design process for achieving them. The methodology evaluates energy efficiency solutions at different scales, from building site to generation systems. An educational building design in Navarra serves as a case study to check the feasibility of the proposed methodology. The study concludes that the key to achieve a Positive Energy Building is a minimized energy demand, complemented by efficient facilities and enhanced by distributed power generation from renewable sources. (Author).

  18. Defining net zero energy buildings

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jonker Klunne, W

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide increasing attention to energy consumption and associated environmental impacts thereof has resulted in a critical attitude towards energy usage of building. Increasing costs of energy and dependence on energy service providers add...

  19. Development of mechanical ventilation system with low energy consumption for renovation of buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Terkildsen, Søren

    the performance of mechanical ventilation systems. The power consumption of mechanical ventilation depends on the flow rate, fan efficiency and pressure loss in the system. This thesis examines the options and develops a concept and components for the design of low-pressure mechanical ventilation. The hypothesis...... is that A new type of low-pressure mechanical ventilation with improved indoor environment and energy performance can be developed, by optimizing and redesigning each constituent element of conventional mechanical ventilation systems with respect to pressure and the development of new low-pressure components...... parts of a mechanical ventilation system and the parts that are critical for the hypothesis were identified. The system proposed consists of electrostatic precipitators for filtration, an “oversized” heat exchanger to reduce pressure loss and improve heat recovery efficiency, diffuse ceiling ventilation...

  20. Forecasting building energy consumption with hybrid genetic algorithm-hierarchical adaptive network-based fuzzy inference system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Kangji [Institute of Cyber-Systems and Control, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); School of Electricity Information Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Su, Hongye [Institute of Cyber-Systems and Control, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2010-11-15

    There are several ways to forecast building energy consumption, varying from simple regression to models based on physical principles. In this paper, a new method, namely, the hybrid genetic algorithm-hierarchical adaptive network-based fuzzy inference system (GA-HANFIS) model is developed. In this model, hierarchical structure decreases the rule base dimension. Both clustering and rule base parameters are optimized by GAs and neural networks (NNs). The model is applied to predict a hotel's daily air conditioning consumption for a period over 3 months. The results obtained by the proposed model are presented and compared with regular method of NNs, which indicates that GA-HANFIS model possesses better performance than NNs in terms of their forecasting accuracy. (author)

  1. Simple tool to evaluate the impact of daylight on building energy consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hviid, Christian Anker; Nielsen, Toke Rammer; Svendsen, Svend

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a simple building simulation tool for integrated daylight and thermal analysis. The tool is capable of importing the thermal and visual properties for different glazings and shading positions from the Window Information System (WIS) program. Radiosity methodology is used...... to derive the daylight levels for different sky conditions on an hourly basis. The daylight levels are fed into an existing simple thermal simulation program capable of calculating energy demand and the indoor environment. Straightforward control systems for general and task lighting systems have been...... implemented together with a shading control strategy that adjusts the shading according to the indoor operative temperature and the profile angle of the sun. The implemented daylight calculation method allows for shades from the window recess and overhang. Comparisons with the raytracing program Radiance show...

  2. Leverage of Behavioural Patterns of Window Opening and Heating Set Point Adjustments on Energy Consumption and Thermal Comfort in Residential Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corgnati, Stefano Paolo; D'Oca, Simona; Fabi, Valentina

    2014-01-01

    The current trend in reduction in energy use in buildings is oriented towards sustainable measures and techniques aimed to energy need restraint. Even so, studies have underlined large differences in energy consumption in similar buildings, suggesting strong influence of occupant behaviour...... through a better and more accurate prediction of energy use; however, they are still unable to replicate the actual dynamics that govern energy uses within buildings. Furthermore, occupant behaviour is currently described by static profiles, based on assumptions and average values of typical behaviour......, considering different behavioural patterns and preferences among indoor environmental quality, is arising. Final goal of this research is to simulate, in a more accurate way, the variation in actual energy consumption due to human interaction within buildings. In this effort, the study has highlighted which...

  3. Energy Innovations for Healthy Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogucz, Edward A. [Syracuse Univ., NY (United States)

    2016-09-23

    Healthy buildings provide high indoor environmental quality for occupants while simultaneously reducing energy consumption. This project advanced the development and marketability of envisioned healthy, energy-efficient buildings through studies that evaluated the use of emerging technologies in commercial and residential buildings. The project also provided resources required for homebuilders to participate in DOE’s Builders Challenge, concomitant with the goal to reduce energy consumption in homes by at least 30% as a first step toward achieving envisioned widespread availability of net-zero energy homes by 2030. In addition, the project included outreach and education concerning energy efficiency in buildings.

  4. Indoor monitoring in Public Buildings: workplace wellbeing and energy consumptions. An example of IoT for smart cities application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Nanni

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the recent years LepidaSpa created Sensornet platform for the control of the Emilia-Romagna territory managing heterogeneous environmental sensor networks distributed all over the region. LepidaSpa decided to integrate into Sensornet a brand-new family of sensors measuring indoor environmental parameters inside public buildings, in order to monitor energy consumption on one hand and workers’ wellbeing on the other. The innovative aspects of the adopted solution (the extreme simplicity of the sensor network architecture, its ease of installation, the real time detection of parameters directly related to power consumption and the availability of environmental parameters measurements (temperature, humidity and light simultaneously providing context information on the power consumption and correlation to working conditions made it a perfect candidate for a seamless integration within the platform and for an intensive monitoring campaign. This paper is presenting the results of such monitoring activity, where an IoT infrastructure acts as an enabler of a Smart City solution, focused on a sustainable wellbeing of the working places.

  5. Potential for the Use of Energy Savings Performance Contracts to Reduce Energy Consumption and Provide Energy and Cost Savings in Non-Building Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Charles; Green, Andrew S.; Dahle, Douglas; Barnett, John; Butler, Pat; Kerner, David

    2013-08-01

    The findings of this study indicate that potential exists in non-building applications to save energy and costs. This potential could save billions of federal dollars, reduce reliance on fossil fuels, increase energy independence and security, and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The Federal Government has nearly twenty years of experience with achieving similar energy cost reductions, and letting the energy costs savings pay for themselves, by applying energy savings performance contracts (ESPC) inits buildings. Currently, the application of ESPCs is limited by statute to federal buildings. This study indicates that ESPCs can be a compatible and effective contracting tool for achieving savings in non-building applications.

  6. Thermal Comfort and Energy Consumption Using Different Radiant Heating/Cooling Systems in a Modern Office Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemethova, Ema; Stutterecker, Werner; Schoberer, Thomas

    2017-06-01

    The aim of the study is to evaluate the potential of enhancing thermal comfort and energy consumption created by three different radiant systems in the newly-built Energetikum office building. A representative office, Simulation room 1/1, was selected from 6 areas equipped with portable sensor groups for the indoor environment monitoring. The presented data obtained from 3 reference weeks; the heating, transition and cooling periods indicate overheating, particularly during the heating and transition period. The values of the indoor air temperature during the heating and transition period could not meet the normative criteria according to standard EN 15251:2007 (cat. II.) for 15-30% of the time intervals evaluated. Consequently, a simulation model of the selected office was created and points to the possibilities of improving the control system, which can lead to an elimination of the problem with overheating. Three different radiant systems - floor heating/ cooling, a thermally active ceiling, and a near-surface thermally active ceiling were implemented in the model. A comparison of their effects on thermal comfort and energy consumption is presented in the paper.

  7. Thermal Comfort and Energy Consumption Using Different Radiant Heating/Cooling Systems in a Modern Office Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nemethova Ema

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to evaluate the potential of enhancing thermal comfort and energy consumption created by three different radiant systems in the newly-built Energetikum office building. A representative office, Simulation room 1/1, was selected from 6 areas equipped with portable sensor groups for the indoor environment monitoring. The presented data obtained from 3 reference weeks; the heating, transition and cooling periods indicate overheating, particularly during the heating and transition period. The values of the indoor air temperature during the heating and transition period could not meet the normative criteria according to standard EN 15251:2007 (cat. II. for 15-30% of the time intervals evaluated. Consequently, a simulation model of the selected office was created and points to the possibilities of improving the control system, which can lead to an elimination of the problem with overheating. Three different radiant systems - floor heating/ cooling, a thermally active ceiling, and a near-surface thermally active ceiling were implemented in the model. A comparison of their effects on thermal comfort and energy consumption is presented in the paper.

  8. Net zero building energy conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadam, Rohit

    This research deals with energy studies performed as part of a net-zero energy study for buildings. Measured data of actual energy utilization by a building for a continuous period of 33 months was collected and studied. The peak design day on which the building consumes maximum energy was found. The averages of the energy consumption for the peak month were determined. The DOE EnergyPlus software was used to simulate the energy requirements for the building and also obtain peak energy requirements for the peak month. Alternative energy sources such as ground source heat pump, solar photovoltaic (PV) panels and day-lighting modifications were applied to redesign the energy consumption for the building towards meeting net-zero energy requirements. The present energy use by the building, DOE Energy software simulations for the building as well as the net-zero model for the building were studied. The extents of the contributions of the individual energy harvesting measures were studied. For meeting Net Zero Energy requirement, it was found that the total energy load for the building can be distributed between alternative energy methods as 5.4% to daylighting modifications, 58% to geothermal and 36.6% to solar photovoltaic panels for electricity supply and thermal energy. Thus the directions to proceed towards achieving complete net-zero energy status were identified.

  9. Modelling of energy consumption at construction of high-rise buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korol, Elena; Korol, Oleg

    2018-03-01

    High-rise building structures in the course of its erection suppose primary use of methods provided for erection, concrete and external finishing works. Erection works do not differ significantly from usual ones: traditional equipment, accessories and techniques are used which are based on erection of structures in project position using a crane. Structures to be assembled in building frame include steel columns and beams, wall panels, form elements of columns, walls and floor structures. We can note heightened attention to operational control for quality of erection, but it is attributable to all works in the course of high-rise construction. During high-rise erection by means of cast in-situ reinforced concrete all formworks to be used do not have any special differences except systems specially designed for high-rise erection using sliding formwork or vertical traveling forms. In these systems special attention is paid to safety of elevated works. Working methods of placement and curing of concrete and structures as a whole remain traditional - the requirements for controlling such operations become toughened. The most evident differences in high-rise erection with regard to equipment, machinery and accessories used are in means provided for load transportation and safety of works at heights. Particularity of internal finishing works which are also obligatory during construction of skyscrapers allows not considering them in as technological differences from usual construction as far as the «height» of its execution is limited by height of particular floor and determined by price and building class.

  10. 75 FR 63404 - Fossil Fuel-Generated Energy Consumption Reduction for New Federal Buildings and Major...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-15

    ... by a Federal agency, and privatized military housing. For the purpose of this rulemaking, DOE would... water heaters, etc.). The sum should be less than or equal to the required fossil fuel-generated energy...

  11. Forecasting energy consumption of multi-family residential buildings using support vector regression: Investigating the impact of temporal and spatial monitoring granularity on performance accuracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, Rishee K.; Smith, Kevin M.; Culligan, Patricia J.; Taylor, John E.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We develop a building energy forecasting model using support vector regression. • Model is applied to data from a multi-family residential building in New York City. • We extend sensor based energy forecasting to multi-family residential buildings. • We examine the impact temporal and spatial granularity has on model accuracy. • Optimal granularity occurs at the by floor in hourly temporal intervals. - Abstract: Buildings are the dominant source of energy consumption and environmental emissions in urban areas. Therefore, the ability to forecast and characterize building energy consumption is vital to implementing urban energy management and efficiency initiatives required to curb emissions. Advances in smart metering technology have enabled researchers to develop “sensor based” approaches to forecast building energy consumption that necessitate less input data than traditional methods. Sensor-based forecasting utilizes machine learning techniques to infer the complex relationships between consumption and influencing variables (e.g., weather, time of day, previous consumption). While sensor-based forecasting has been studied extensively for commercial buildings, there is a paucity of research applying this data-driven approach to the multi-family residential sector. In this paper, we build a sensor-based forecasting model using Support Vector Regression (SVR), a commonly used machine learning technique, and apply it to an empirical data-set from a multi-family residential building in New York City. We expand our study to examine the impact of temporal (i.e., daily, hourly, 10 min intervals) and spatial (i.e., whole building, by floor, by unit) granularity have on the predictive power of our single-step model. Results indicate that sensor based forecasting models can be extended to multi-family residential buildings and that the optimal monitoring granularity occurs at the by floor level in hourly intervals. In addition to implications for

  12. The role of the outdoor space in the containment of the energy consumption of the building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Chella

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In most of the contemporary urban spaces built in recent decades in Italy little attention is evident on the creation of environmental niches that are able to mitigate the microclimate. The following research aims to verify how the physical design of the outer space affects either the immaterial dimension of the space itself (livability, comfort, and the environmental performances of the surrounding buildings. The research supports the definition of the energetic-environmental requalification techniques to be used in the recovery phase of buildings. The analysis of the microclimatic features in the outdoor urban spaces, together with the implications in terms of comfort for those people who use them, opens new possibilities for the development of urban areas for what concerns both the new design and the requalification of the existing built-up area. Because of the complexity in terms of space-time variability of such parameters and of the wide set of activities in which people are committed, there have been so far very few attempts to understand the external comfort conditions, but mainly of how the external climatic effects could have an impact on the internal comfort conditions of the inhabited area.

  13. Energy consumption and energy prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentzen, J.

    1993-01-01

    Data are presented on energy consumption and energy prices related to a number of OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) lands covering the period 1951-1990. The information sources are described and the development of energy consumption and prices in Denmark are illustrated in relation to these other countries. The energy intensity (the relation between energy consumption and the gross national product) is dealt with. Here it is possible to follow development during the whole post-war period. It is generally understood that Denmark saved large amounts of energy after 1973-74 but, taken over the whole post-war period, savings and decline in energy-gross national product relations are less dramatic compared to conditions in other OECD countries. Energy coefficients or elasticities show the relative rise in consumption compared to the relative rise in gross national product (growth rate). This is shown to be typically unstable and an eventual connection with the amount of energy price increase and/or the growth rate of the national economy is considered. Results of Granger causuality tests on energy consumption, national income and energy prices are presented. Effective energy prices were very low in Denmark up to 1970 when they suddenly began to increase. Since the oil crisis Denmark's energy consumption has fallen whereas the other countries have used rather more energy than before. Effective promotion of energy savings must be seen in relation to the fact that the 1970 basis level of energy consumption and intensity was unusually high. The high effective energy prices have also encouraged energy savings in Denmark. (AB)

  14. Simple tool to evaluate the impact of daylight on building energy consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hviid, Christian Anker; Nielsen, Toke Rammer; Svendsen, Svend

    2008-01-01

    and the profile angle of the sun. The implemented daylight calculation method allows for shades from the window recess and overhang, and for distant shades blocking the sky vault. Comparisons with the ray-tracing program Radiance show that the accuracy of this approach is adequate for predicting the energy...

  15. Building energy analysis tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brackney, Larry; Parker, Andrew; Long, Nicholas; Metzger, Ian; Dean, Jesse; Lisell, Lars

    2016-04-12

    A building energy analysis system includes a building component library configured to store a plurality of building components, a modeling tool configured to access the building component library and create a building model of a building under analysis using building spatial data and using selected building components of the plurality of building components stored in the building component library, a building analysis engine configured to operate the building model and generate a baseline energy model of the building under analysis and further configured to apply one or more energy conservation measures to the baseline energy model in order to generate one or more corresponding optimized energy models, and a recommendation tool configured to assess the one or more optimized energy models against the baseline energy model and generate recommendations for substitute building components or modifications.

  16. Consumer Central Energy Flexibility in Office Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Billanes, Joy Dalmacio; Ma, Zheng; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard

    2017-01-01

    Energy flexibility in buildings will play an important role in the smart energy system. Office buildings have more potentials to provide energy flexibility to the grid compared to other types of buildings, due to the existing building management, control systems and large energy consumption....... Consumers in office buildings (building owners/managers and occupants) take a main role for adopting and engaging in building energy flexibility. In this paper provides a systematic review of consumer central energy flexibility in office buildings with the discussion of social, technical and business...... can boost energy flexibility in the office buildings....

  17. Effects of Vernacular Climatic Strategies (VCS on Energy Consumption in Common Residential Buildings in Southern Iran: The Case Study of Bushehr City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Mohammadi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to use the vernacular climatic strategies (VCS of traditional dwellings in Bushehr, in the common residential buildings of this southern Iranian city (which is characterized by its hot and humid climate, and provide answers to the following question: What effects do VCS have in terms of energy consumption in these buildings? This study has been conducted at three levels. At the first level, three context-based climatic solutions including shading, natural ventilation, and insulation of external walls and roofs were identified and selected based on bibliographic study. At the second level, a case study reflecting the current typology of common residential buildings in Bushehr city was selected. A combination of the mentioned climatic solutions was used in the baseline case to create a developed model. Based on the space layout of the developed model and some design criteria, a series of proposed models was also created and modeled. The selected case study building was also used to establish a local weather station at a height of 12 m based on the roof, collecting local climate data which were then used for simulation to improve simulation accuracy. Finally, all models were simulated with the use of Design Builder software under natural ventilation conditions during moderate climatic periods of the year while split air-conditioning systems were used during hot and humid periods. The results showed reductions of 16% in energy consumption and 22% in CO2 emissions for the developed model, and reductions of 24–26% in energy consumption and 32–34% in CO2 emissions for the proposed models, as compared with the baseline model. Furthermore, all proposed models achieved lower annual energy consumption when compared with a selection of international sustainable low energy standards and domestic energy performance references for the Middle East region. Further studies are also recommended, and there is potential for combining VCS with

  18. Flexible Energy Consumption in Smart House's

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Per Printz

    2012-01-01

    the consumer have to use the energy when it is available. The main electrical energy consumer in a modern society is buildings and private homes. The amount of electrical energy used in this sector is about 70% of the total electricity consumption. Because of that buildings and private homes has to play...

  19. Relation between the energy efficiency coefficient (EPC) and actual energy consumption in office buildings; Relatie tussen EPC en werkelijk energiegebruik bij kantoorgebouwen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van den Ham, E.R. [Climatic Design Consult CDC, Nijmegen/Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2004-07-09

    The aim of the study on the title subject is to gain insight into the effectiveness of the policy tool energy efficiency standard (EPN, abbreviated in Dutch). In order to justify the EPN it must be proven that a lower value of the EPC will result in a lower consumption of energy. Based on a regression analysis with a random sample survey of 73 buildings (EPC <= 1.9) the relation between the energy efficiency coefficient (EPC) and the energy consumption has been investigated. [Dutch] Energieprestatienormering (EPN) is ingevoerd als onderdeel van het Bouwbesluit met als doel het beperken van het energiegebruik van nieuw te bouwen woningen en utiliteitsgebouwen. VROM/DGW en Novem hebben een onderzoek geinitieerd om inzicht te kunnen krijgen in de effectiviteit van het instrument EPN voor kantoorgebouwen. Een onderdeel van dit onderzoek bestaat uit het onderzoeken van de relatie tussen de energieprestaticcoefficient (EPC) en het werkelijk gerealiseerde energiegebruik. Om het bestaan van de EPN te kunnen legitimeren dient te worden aangetoond dat een lagere EPC leidt tot een lager energiegebruik. Bij een vorig onderzoek kon dit verband niet met voldoende statistische significantie worden aangetoond vanwege het te kleine aantal gebouwen. Inmiddels is een groot aantal gebouwen onder het regime van de EPN gerealiseerd en is de vereiste EPC van kantoorgebouwen verlaagd van 1,9 naar 1,5. Door middel van een regressieanalyse met een steekproef van 73 gebouwen uit de populatie van recent gerealiseerde kantoorgebouwen met een EPC van 1,9 of lager is de relatie tussen EPC en energiegebruik onderzocht.

  20. Energy catastrophes and energy consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, G.

    1991-01-01

    The possibility of energy catastrophes in the production of energy serves to make estimation of the true social costs of energy production difficult. As a result, there is a distinct possibility that the private marginal cost curve of energy producers lies to the left or right of the true cost curve. If so, social welfare will not be maximized, and underconsumption or overconsumption of fuels will exist. The occurrence of energy catastrophes and observance of the market reaction to these occurrences indicates that overconsumption of energy has been the case in the past. Postulations as to market reactions to further energy catastrophes lead to the presumption that energy consumption levels remain above those that are socially optimal

  1. The effect of energy performance regulations on energy consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guerra-Santin, O.; Itard, L.

    2012-01-01

    Governments have developed energy performance regulations in order to lower energy consumption in the housing stock. Most of these regulations are based on the thermal quality of the buildings. In the Netherlands, the energy efficiency for new buildings is expressed as the EPC (energy performance

  2. A real-time recording model of key indicators for energy consumption and carbon emissions of sustainable buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Weiwei; Yang, Huanjia; Chew, David; Hou, Yanhong; Li, Qiming

    2014-05-14

    Buildings' sustainability is one of the crucial parts for achieving urban sustainability. Applied to buildings, life-cycle assessment encompasses the analysis and assessment of the environmental effects of building materials, components and assemblies throughout the entire life of the building construction, use and demolition. Estimate of carbon emissions is essential and crucial for an accurate and reasonable life-cycle assessment. Addressing the need for more research into integrating analysis of real-time and automatic recording of key indicators for a more accurate calculation and comparison, this paper aims to design a real-time recording model of these crucial indicators concerning the calculation and estimation of energy use and carbon emissions of buildings based on a Radio Frequency Identification (RFID)-based system. The architecture of the RFID-based carbon emission recording/tracking system, which contains four functional layers including data record layer, data collection/update layer, data aggregation layer and data sharing/backup layer, is presented. Each of these layers is formed by RFID or network devices and sub-systems that operate at a specific level. In the end, a proof-of-concept system is developed to illustrate the implementation of the proposed architecture and demonstrate the feasibility of the design. This study would provide the technical solution for real-time recording system of building carbon emissions and thus is of great significance and importance to improve urban sustainability.

  3. A Real-Time Recording Model of Key Indicators for Energy Consumption and Carbon Emissions of Sustainable Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Weiwei; Yang, Huanjia; Chew, David; Hou, Yanhong; Li, Qiming

    2014-01-01

    Buildings' sustainability is one of the crucial parts for achieving urban sustainability. Applied to buildings, life-cycle assessment encompasses the analysis and assessment of the environmental effects of building materials, components and assemblies throughout the entire life of the building construction, use and demolition. Estimate of carbon emissions is essential and crucial for an accurate and reasonable life-cycle assessment. Addressing the need for more research into integrating analysis of real-time and automatic recording of key indicators for a more accurate calculation and comparison, this paper aims to design a real-time recording model of these crucial indicators concerning the calculation and estimation of energy use and carbon emissions of buildings based on a Radio Frequency Identification (RFID)-based system. The architecture of the RFID-based carbon emission recording/tracking system, which contains four functional layers including data record layer, data collection/update layer, data aggregation layer and data sharing/backup layer, is presented. Each of these layers is formed by RFID or network devices and sub-systems that operate at a specific level. In the end, a proof-of-concept system is developed to illustrate the implementation of the proposed architecture and demonstrate the feasibility of the design. This study would provide the technical solution for real-time recording system of building carbon emissions and thus is of great significance and importance to improve urban sustainability. PMID:24831109

  4. Process for optimizing the energy consumption in buildings and device for carrying out the process. Verfahren zum Optimieren des Energieverbrauches in Gebaeuden sowie Anordnung zur Durchfuehrung des Verfahrens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheler, M.; Daab, H.

    1982-04-15

    The invention refers to a process for optimizing the energy consumption in buildings with occupation times changing according to a certain time program, where a preselected temperature is reached by controlled switching on and off of the energy supply for heating and for cooling during the times of occupation. The time of switching is made dependent on certain variables and parameters. The invention is characterized by the fact that the actual switching on and off times are measured, are stored taking the variables into account, and are used to calculate subsequent switching times, again taking into account momentary and variable factors. This process according to the invention is particularly distinguished by the fact that it can be used for buildings with heating and/or cooling, and that the required switching times are optimized by exact measurements. For longer term changes of the building parameters, there is automatic adaptation to the changed situation. A microprocessor is used for calculating the switching times. (HWJ).

  5. A Real-Time Recording Model of Key Indicators for Energy Consumption and Carbon Emissions of Sustainable Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiwei Wu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Buildings’ sustainability is one of the crucial parts for achieving urban sustainability. Applied to buildings, life-cycle assessment encompasses the analysis and assessment of the environmental effects of building materials, components and assemblies throughout the entire life of the building construction, use and demolition. Estimate of carbon emissions is essential and crucial for an accurate and reasonable life-cycle assessment. Addressing the need for more research into integrating analysis of real-time and automatic recording of key indicators for a more accurate calculation and comparison, this paper aims to design a real-time recording model of these crucial indicators concerning the calculation and estimation of energy use and carbon emissions of buildings based on a Radio Frequency Identification (RFID-based system. The architecture of the RFID-based carbon emission recording/tracking system, which contains four functional layers including data record layer, data collection/update layer, data aggregation layer and data sharing/backup layer, is presented. Each of these layers is formed by RFID or network devices and sub-systems that operate at a specific level. In the end, a proof-of-concept system is developed to illustrate the implementation of the proposed architecture and demonstrate the feasibility of the design. This study would provide the technical solution for real-time recording system of building carbon emissions and thus is of great significance and importance to improve urban sustainability.

  6. Energy Flexibility in Retail Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Zheng; Billanes, Joy Dalmacio; Kjærgaard, Mikkel Baun

    2017-01-01

    Retail buildings has an important role for demand side energy flexibility because of their high energy consumption, variety of energy flexibility resources, and centralized control via building control systems. Energy flexibility requires agreements and collaborations among different actors....... However, the stakeholders’ reaction to energy flexibility have not been fully investigated. Therefore, this paper aims to investigate the stakeholder involvement in energy flexibility by applying the business ecosystem concept (including actors, relationships, value alliances, and influential factors......), with the discussion of the stakeholders’ roles and their interrelation in delivering energy flexibility with the influential factors to the actual implementation of energy flexible operation of their buildings. Based on a literature analysis, the results cover stakeholders’ types and roles, perceptions (drivers...

  7. Process for optimising the energy consumption of buildings and device for carrying out the process. Verfahren zum Optimieren des Energieverbrauches in Gebaeuden sowie Anordnung zur Durchfuehrung des Verfahrens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheler, M.; Daab, H.

    1980-06-26

    The invention refers to a process for optimising the energy consumption of buildings with times of occupation which change according to a certain time programme, which will achieve a preselected reference temperature by controlled switching on and off of the energy supply for heating and cooling during the times of occupation, and where the switching time depends on certain variables and parameters. The invention is characterized by the fact that the required switch on and switch off times are measured, stored and used to calculate the next optimum switch-on and switch-off times, taking the instaneous values of the variables into account.

  8. California commercial building energy benchmarking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinney, Satkartar; Piette, Mary Ann

    2003-07-01

    Building energy benchmarking is the comparison of whole-building energy use relative to a set of similar buildings. It provides a useful starting point for individual energy audits and for targeting buildings for energy-saving measures in multiple-site audits. Benchmarking is of interest and practical use to a number of groups. Energy service companies and performance contractors communicate energy savings potential with ''typical'' and ''best-practice'' benchmarks while control companies and utilities can provide direct tracking of energy use and combine data from multiple buildings. Benchmarking is also useful in the design stage of a new building or retrofit to determine if a design is relatively efficient. Energy managers and building owners have an ongoing interest in comparing energy performance to others. Large corporations, schools, and government agencies with numerous facilities also use benchmarking methods to compare their buildings to each other. The primary goal of Task 2.1.1 Web-based Benchmarking was the development of a web-based benchmarking tool, dubbed Cal-Arch, for benchmarking energy use in California commercial buildings. While there were several other benchmarking tools available to California consumers prior to the development of Cal-Arch, there were none that were based solely on California data. Most available benchmarking information, including the Energy Star performance rating, were developed using DOE's Commercial Building Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS), which does not provide state-level data. Each database and tool has advantages as well as limitations, such as the number of buildings and the coverage by type, climate regions and end uses. There is considerable commercial interest in benchmarking because it provides an inexpensive method of screening buildings for tune-ups and retrofits. However, private companies who collect and manage consumption data are concerned that the

  9. Measures for energy efficiency improvement of buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukadinović Ana V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The increase in energy consumption in buildings causes the need to propose energy efficiency improvement measures. Urban planning in accordance with micro location conditions can lead to energy consumption reduction in buildings through the passive solar design. While satisfying the thermal comfort to the user space purpose, energy efficiency can be achieved by optimizing the architectural and construction parameters such as shape of the building, envelope structure and the percentage of glazing. The improvement of the proposed measures, including the use of renewable energy sources, can meet requirements of Directive 2010/31 / EU of 'nearly zero energy buildings'.

  10. Modeling electric load and water consumption impacts from an integrated thermal energy and rainwater storage system for residential buildings in Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upshaw, Charles R.; Rhodes, Joshua D.; Webber, Michael E.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Hydronic integrated rainwater thermal storage (ITHERST) system concept presented. • ITHERST system modeled to assess peak electric load shifting and water savings. • Case study shows 75% peak load reduction and 9% increase in energy consumption. • Potable rainwater collection could provide ∼50–90% of water used for case study. - Abstract: The United States’ built environment is a significant direct and indirect consumer of energy and water. In Texas, and other parts of the Southern and Western US, air conditioning loads, particularly from residential buildings, contribute significantly to the peak electricity load on the grid, straining transmission. In parallel, water resources in these regions are strained by growing populations and shrinking supplies. One potential method to address both of these issues is to develop integrated thermal energy and auxiliary water (e.g. rainwater, greywater, etc.) storage and management systems that reduce peak load and freshwater consumption. This analysis focuses on a proposed integrated thermal energy and rainwater storage (ITHERST) system that is incorporated into a residential air-source chiller/heat pump with hydronic distribution. This paper describes a step-wise hourly thermodynamic model of the thermal storage system to assess on-peak performance, and a daily volume-balance model of auxiliary water collection and consumption to assess water savings potential. While the model is generalized, this analysis uses a case study of a single family home in Austin, Texas to illustrate its capabilities. The results indicate this ITHERST system could reduce on-peak air conditioning electric power demand by over 75%, with increased overall electric energy consumption of approximately 7–9%, when optimally sized. Additionally, the modeled rainwater collection reduced municipal water consumption by approximately 53–89%, depending on the system size.

  11. Energy consumption projection of Nepal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parajuli, Ranjan; Østergaard, Poul Alberg; Dalgaard, Tommy

    2014-01-01

    In energy dependent economies, energy consumption is often linked with the growth in Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Energy intensity, defined herewith, as the ratio of the total primary energy consumption (TPE) to the GDP, is a useful concept for understanding the relation between energy demand...... and economic development. The scope of this article is to assess the future primary energy consumption of Nepal, and the projection is carried out along with the formulation of simple linear logarithmic energy consumption models. This initiates with a hypothesis that energy consumption is dependent...

  12. From Smart-Eco Building to High-Performance Architecture: Optimization of Energy Consumption in Architecture of Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdavinejad, M.; Bitaab, N.

    2017-08-01

    Search for high-performance architecture and dreams of future architecture resulted in attempts towards meeting energy efficient architecture and planning in different aspects. Recent trends as a mean to meet future legacy in architecture are based on the idea of innovative technologies for resource efficient buildings, performative design, bio-inspired technologies etc. while there are meaningful differences between architecture of developed and developing countries. Significance of issue might be understood when the emerging cities are found interested in Dubaization and other related booming development doctrines. This paper is to analyze the level of developing countries’ success to achieve smart-eco buildings’ goals and objectives. Emerging cities of West of Asia are selected as case studies of the paper. The results of the paper show that the concept of high-performance architecture and smart-eco buildings are different in developing countries in comparison with developed countries. The paper is to mention five essential issues in order to improve future architecture of developing countries: 1- Integrated Strategies for Energy Efficiency, 2- Contextual Solutions, 3- Embedded and Initial Energy Assessment, 4- Staff and Occupancy Wellbeing, 5- Life-Cycle Monitoring.

  13. Energy performance in buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dall'O, Giuliano; Galante, Annalisa; Pitera, Luca

    2006-01-01

    The adoption of the building sector regulations strongly oriented to the energy sustainability becomes more effective, also on the economic plan, if placed by one spread of the energetic certification of the buildings [it

  14. Analysis of a Building Energy Efficiency Certification System in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duk Joon Park

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Korean government has established a national plan for the promotion of zero energy buildings to respond to climate change and energy crises. To achieve this plan, several energy efficiency policies for new and existing buildings have been developed. The Building Energy Efficiency Certification System (BEECS aims to promote the spread of high energy-efficient buildings by evaluating and certifying building energy performance. This study discussed Korean building energy efficiency policies and analyzed especially the influence of the BEECS on the actual energy consumption of a residential building and calculated energy performance of non-residential buildings. The BEECS was evaluated to have influence on gas and district heating consumption in residential buildings. For non-residential buildings, a decreasing trend was shown in calculated primary energy consumption in the years since the BEECS has been enacted. Appropriate improvements of the certification system were also discussed by analyzing relationship between building characteristics and their energy consumptions.

  15. Measurement of gross energy consumption in newly constructed buildings corresponding to BR2005 energy requirements. Building system: Face wall cellular concrete panels 2; Maeling af bruttoenergiforbrug i nybyggeri svarende til BR2005 energikrav. Byggesystem: Skalmurede porebetonelementer 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tommerup, H.

    2004-07-01

    This report contains measurements of gross energy consumption in a highly insulated 133 m{sup 2} single-family house built of face wall cellular concrete panels. The gross energy measurements include energy consumption for space heating, hot domestic water, coverage of heat loss from heating installations as well as electricity consumption. The objective has been to document and analyse the measurement results and compare these to future gross energy consumption demands. Furthermore, the objective has been to collect operational experiences on electricity consuming appliances in order to illustrate their importance for heat requirements, including evaluation of to what extend the electricity consumption contributes to space heating and how electricity consumption effects heat consumption in general. (BA)

  16. Measurement of gross energy consumption in newly constructed buildings corresponding to BR2005 energy requirements. Building systems: Face wall cellular concrete panels 1; Maeling af bruttoenergiforbrug i nybyggeri svarende til BR2005 energikrav. Byggesystem: Skalmurede porebetonelementer 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tommerup, H.

    2004-07-01

    This report contains measurements of gross energy consumption in a highly insulated 135 m{sup 2} single-family house constructed built of face wall cellular concrete panels. The gross energy measurements include energy consumption for space heating, hot domestic water, coverage of heat loss from heating installations as well as electricity consumption. The objective has been to document and analyse the measurement results and compare these to future gross energy consumption demands. Furthermore, the objective has been to collect operational experiences on electricity consuming appliances in order to illustrate their importance for heat requirements, including evaluation of to what extend the electricity consumption contributes to space heating and how electricity consumption effects heat consumption in general. (BA)

  17. Selecting the group method of data handling as one of the most perspective algorithmes for building a predictive model of petroleum consumption in the system of energy balance of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trachuk A.R.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with issues of petroleum consumption in Ukraine. The dynamics of consumption of petroleum is analysed and proposed guidelines for the efficient production, consumption and import of petroleum in Ukraine. Constructed and developed predictive models of petroleum consumption in Ukraine through the use of modern software and using the group method of data handling, which allowed building adequate predictive models of petroleum consumption in the system of Ukraine’s energy balance. Researched and forecasted scenarios of petroleum consumption in the Ukraine. The problem of efficient use of energy resources is critical for sustainable economic development against the backdrop of energy saving national economy depends on energy imports, on the one hand, and rising prices for these resources. The basic foundation of the formation energy system of Ukraine is to build forecasting scenarios for different types of energy and different criteria for effective use of energy resources. Solving this problem is not only with ensuring energy security, but also with the level of development of regions of Ukraine and ensuring quality of life. Prediction of petroleum consumption in Ukraine today is an extremely important issue of strategic importance since conducted through analysis and building predictive models will be possible to develop guidelines for the efficient production and consumption of petroleum across Ukraine as a whole.

  18. Effect of energy taxes on energy consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnsen, T.A.

    1991-01-01

    The energy consumption and taxation in Norway is described in addition to some of the consequences of this taxation on the energy market. Modelling of energy demand is dealt with. It is concluded that the influence of energy taxation on energy consumption is dependent on market conditions for individual energy products. This thesis is elaborated. (AB)

  19. Building Energy Codes: Policy Overview and Good Practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, Sadie [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-02-19

    Globally, 32% of total final energy consumption is attributed to the building sector. To reduce energy consumption, energy codes set minimum energy efficiency standards for the building sector. With effective implementation, building energy codes can support energy cost savings and complementary benefits associated with electricity reliability, air quality improvement, greenhouse gas emission reduction, increased comfort, and economic and social development. This policy brief seeks to support building code policymakers and implementers in designing effective building code programs.

  20. Energy consumption declined in 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    On presenting the energy consumption figures for 1993 the Minister for Economic Affairs of Baden-Wuerttemberg Dieter Spoeri (SPD) spoke of the eternal task of saving energy. In his view the slight decline in energy consumption from 1992 to 1993 should not be interpreted as a greater willingness to save energy; its main cause is rather to be seen in the course of the economy. According to estimations, total energy consumption fell 0.5% and electricity consumption 1.0% from 1992 to 1993. The economy on the other hand, still a decisive factor in energy consumption, is estimated to have declined 3% during that period. In the ten years from 1983 to 1993 total energy consumption in the Land rose an average annual 1.8% while electricity consumption kept astride with the economy with an average annual rise 2.7%, he said. (orig./HP) [de

  1. Energy Performance of Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per

    2007-01-01

    programme (ECCP) was established in June 2000 to help identify the most environmentally cost-effective measures enabling the EU to meet its target under the Kyoto Protocol, namely an 8% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions from 1990 levels by 2012. Energy use in buildings accounts for almost half of all CO...... emissions in the coming years. By approving the Energy Performance in Buildings Directive the European Union has taken a strong leadership role in promoting energy efficiency in buildings in Europe, and the Directive will be the most powerful instrument developed to date for the building sector in Europe....... One of the benefits of the directive is that it provides an integrated approach to different aspects of buildings energy use and that all aspects are expressed in simple energy performance indicators. The integrated approach allows flexibility regarding details, giving designers greater choice...

  2. Energy Cloud: Services for Smart Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohamed, Nader; Al-Jaroodi, Jameela; Lazarova-Molnar, Sanja

    2018-01-01

    , and network technologies. Using smart building energy management systems provides intelligent procedures to control buildings’ equipment such as HVAC (heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning) systems, home and office appliances, and lighting systems to reduce energy consumption while maintaining......Energy consumption in buildings is responsible for a significant portion of the total energy use and carbon emissions in large cities. One of the main approaches to reduce energy consumption and its environmental impact is to convert buildings into smart buildings using computer, software, sensor...... the required quality of living in all of the building’s spaces. This chapter discusses and reviews utilizing cloud computing to provide energy-related services to enhance the operations of smart buildings’ energy management systems. Cloud computing can provide many advantages for smart buildings’ energy...

  3. Manufacturing consumption of energy 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-12-01

    This report provides estimates on energy consumption in the manufacturing sector of the US economy. These estimates are based on data from the 1991 Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey (MECS). This survey--administered by the Energy End Use and Integrated Statistics Division, Office of Energy Markets and End Use, Energy Information Administration (EIA)--is the most comprehensive source of national-level data on energy-related information for the manufacturing industries.

  4. ENERGY AUDIT AS TOOL FOR DECREASING OF ENERGY CONSUMPTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tirshu M.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of the energy audit for seven public organizations. Audits were performed in 2013 by the staff of the Institute of Power Engineering of the ASM. The staff is authorized in the field of electricity and thermal energy. Four energy audits were for energy efficiency in buildings; two energy audits were for efficient public lighting system and one for efficient lighting system within the organization. For each organization were highlighted major problems which lead to increased energy consumption and proposed several measures that help reduce energy consumption and reduce CO2 emissions. Also describes methods for the measurements and the equipment used. It presents characteristic problems typified by object class and how to overcome them. Energy consumption is determined for both - baseline energy consumption and after implementing the proposed measures. Also, the necessary investments, the results obtained after investments and the payback periods for each proposed measures as well as a whole are presented.

  5. Energy efficient building design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-03-01

    The fundamental concepts of the building design process, energy codes and standards, and energy budgets are introduced. These tools were combined into Energy Design Guidelines and design contract requirements. The Guidelines were repackaged for a national audience and a videotape for selling the concept to government executives. An effort to test transfer of the Guidelines to outside agencies is described.

  6. Energy consumption and conservation, evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acket, C.

    2006-04-01

    The energy consumption is increasing of more than 1% each year. It is necessary to slow down this growth and much better to inverse it. Observing the main consumption posts, energy saving is possible at short dated for the residential sector and medium and long dated for the transports and the industry. Anyway the individual behaviors are essential. The author presents the situation for each posts, providing data on the energy consumption and saving and recommendations. (A.L.B.)

  7. Building Energy Asset Score for Building Owners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Building Technologies Office

    2015-01-01

    The Building Energy Asset Score is a national standardized tool for evaluating the physical and structural energy efficiency of commercial and multifamily residential buildings. The Asset Score generates a simple energy efficiency rating that enables comparison among buildings, and identifies opportunities for users to invest in energy efficiency upgrades. It is web-based and free to use. This fact sheet discusses the value of the score for building owners.

  8. Buildings Energy Technology; (USA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cason, D.L.; Hicks, S.C. (eds.)

    1991-01-01

    Buildings Energy Technology (BET) announces on a monthly basis the current worldwide information available on the technology required for economic energy conservation in buildings and communities. Each issue of BET also will include an article presenting a program overview or highlighting a current energy conservation technology project of DOE's Office of Building Technologies (OBT) plus a listing of scheduled meetings of interest. This publication contains the abstracts of DOE reports, journal articles, conference papers, patents, theses, and monographs added to the Energy Science and Technology Database (EDB) during the past month. Also included are US information obtained through acquisition programs or interagency agreements and international information obtained through the International Energy Agency's Energy Technology Data Exchange or government-to-government agreements.

  9. Net Zero Energy Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marszal, Anna Joanna; Bourrelle, Julien S.; Musall, Eike

    2010-01-01

    The international cooperation project IEA SHC Task 40 / ECBCS Annex 52 “Towards Net Zero Energy Solar Buildings”, attempts to develop a common understanding and to set up the basis for an international definition framework of Net Zero Energy Buildings (Net ZEBs). The understanding of such buildings...... parameters used in the calculations are discussed and the various renewable supply options considered in the methodologies are summarised graphically. Thus, the paper helps to understand different existing approaches to calculate energy balance in Net ZEBs, highlights the importance of variables selection...... and identify possible renewable energy supply options which may be considered in calculations. Finally, the gap between the methodology proposed by each organisation and their respective national building code is assessed; providing an overview of the possible changes building codes will need to undergo...

  10. Municipal Building Energy Usage

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This data set contains energy use data from 2009-2014 for 139 municipally operated buildings. Metrics include: Site & Source EUI, annual electricity, natural...

  11. BUILDING DESIGN INFLUENCE ON THE ENERGY PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moga Ligia

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Energy efficient design is a high priority in the national energy strategy of European countries considering the latest requirements of the European Directive on the Energy Performance of Buildings. The residential sector is responsible for a significant quantity of energy consumptions from the total amount of consumptions on a worldwide level. In residential building most of the energy consumptions are given mainly by heating, domestic hot water and lighting. Retrofitting the existing building stock offers great opportunities for reducing global energy consumptions and greenhouse gas emissions. The first part of the paper will address the need of thermal and energy retrofit of existing buildings. The second part will provide an overview on how various variables can influence the energy performance of a building that is placed in all four climatic zones from Romania. The paper is useful for specialist and designers from the construction field in understanding that buildings behave differently from the energy point of view in different climatic regions, even if the building characteristic remain the same.

  12. Energy options for residential buildings assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezaie, Behnaz; Dincer, Ibrahim; Esmailzadeh, Ebrahim

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Studying various building energy options. ► Assessing these options from various points. ► Comparing these options for better environment and sustainability. ► Proposing renewable energy options as potential solutions. - Abstract: The building sector, as one of the major energy consumers, demands most of the energy research to assess different energy options from various aspects. In this paper, two similar residential buildings, with either low or high energy consumption patterns, are chosen as case studies. For these case studies, three different renewable energy technology and three different hybrid systems are designed for a specified size. Then, the environmental impact indices, renewable energy indices, and the renewable exergy indices have been estimated for every energy options. Results obtained show that the hybrid systems (without considering the economics factors) are superior and having top indices. The importance of the energy consumption patterns in buildings are proven by the indices. By cutting the energy consumption to about 40% the environment index would increase by more than twice (2.1). Utilization of the non-fossil fuels is one part of the solution to environmental problems while energy conservation being the other. It has been shown that the re-design of the energy consumption model is less complex but more achievable for buildings.

  13. Functional materials for energy-efficient buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, H.-P.

    2015-08-01

    The substantial improving of the energy efficiency is essential to meet the ambitious energy goals of the EU. About 40% of the European energy consumption belongs to the building sector. Therefore the reduction of the energy demand of the existing building stock is one of the key measures to deliver a substantial contribution to reduce CO2-emissions of our society. Buildings of the future have to be efficient in respect to energy consumption for construction and operation. Current research activities are focused on the development of functional materials with outstanding thermal and optical properties to provide, for example, slim thermally superinsulated facades, highly integrated heat storage systems or adaptive building components. In this context it is important to consider buildings as entities which fulfill energy and comfort claims as well as aesthetic aspects of a sustainable architecture.

  14. Functional materials for energy-efficient buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebert H.-P

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The substantial improving of the energy efficiency is essential to meet the ambitious energy goals of the EU. About 40% of the European energy consumption belongs to the building sector. Therefore the reduction of the energy demand of the existing building stock is one of the key measures to deliver a substantial contribution to reduce CO2-emissions of our society. Buildings of the future have to be efficient in respect to energy consumption for construction and operation. Current research activities are focused on the development of functional materials with outstanding thermal and optical properties to provide, for example, slim thermally superinsulated facades, highly integrated heat storage systems or adaptive building components. In this context it is important to consider buildings as entities which fulfill energy and comfort claims as well as aesthetic aspects of a sustainable architecture.

  15. 76 FR 74050 - Measured Building Energy Performance Data Taxonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-30

    ... Cody Taylor, U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building... Survey, the Residential Energy Consumption Survey, University of Dayton, ENERGY STAR, and the General...

  16. Zero Energy Building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marszal, Anna Joanna; Heiselberg, Per; Bourrelle, J.S.

    2011-01-01

    clear and consistent definition and a commonly agreed energy calculation methodology. The most important issues that should be given special attention before developing a new ZEB definition are: (1) the metric of the balance, (2) the balancing period, (3) the type of energy use included in the balance...... on the review of the most of the existing ZEB definitions and the various approaches towards possible ZEB calculation methodologies. It presents and discusses possible answers to the abovementioned issues in order to facilitate the development of a consistent ZEB definition and a robust energy calculation......The concept of Zero Energy Building (ZEB) has gained wide international attention during last few years and is now seen as the future target for the design of buildings. However, before being fully implemented in the national building codes and international standards, the ZEB concept requires...

  17. Computer Profile of School Facilities Energy Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswalt, Felix E.

    This document outlines a computerized management tool designed to enable building managers to identify energy consumption as related to types and uses of school facilities for the purpose of evaluating and managing the operation, maintenance, modification, and planning of new facilities. Specifically, it is expected that the statistics generated…

  18. Openable facade system with low-energy glazing in multi-storey buildings. Evaluation of energy consumption and indoor climate; Rumhoeje, oplukkelige glaspartier i etagebolig. Evaluering af energiforbrug og indeklima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergsoee, N.C.; Engelund Thomsen, K.; Rose, J.

    2009-07-01

    Future highly insulating types of glazing introduce new perspectives for the use of glass in the architectural design of energy-efficient buildings. The project demonstrates how new types of glazing and glass facades can be incorporated in multi-storey buildings. It also demonstrates how to achieve new facade expressions as well as spatial and lighting effects by using highly insulating glass facades while at the same time meeting energy requirements as stated in the Danish Building Regulations (BR). The aim of the project was to demonstrate the expected energy consumption and good indoor climate of a multi-storey building situated in a Copenhagen suburb. The building has 5 storeys with a total of 24 dwellings and a south facade with a multi-openable facade system consisting of folding doors with low-energy glazing. As described in By og Byg Results 030 'Openable glass facades in new multi-storey building' (2003) the energy consumption is expected to be somewhat lower than stated in the current Building Regulations. This is close to the requirements in the BR 2008 and at the same time achieves good architecture, good daylight conditions and a good indoor climate during winter without undesired heat during summer. Measurements were carried out from January 2005 until July 2006 in 6 apartments of 24 and while the building was occupied. The measurements include 1) registrations of the consumption of electricity, heating and water; 2) registrations of indoor temperatures and relative humidity rates; 3) measurements of air change rates during autumn and winter; 4) registrations of luminance conditions; and 5) measurement of U-values. The measurements are supplemented with questionnaires and interviews with the occupants concerning their use of the building, their perception of its qualities and their experience of their first months of occupancy. The average indoor temperatures were around 23-24 deg. C, but high temperatures occurred. The air change rates were

  19. The energy performance of office buildings throughout their building process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Entrop, Alexis Gerardus; Dewulf, Geert P.M.R.; Wamelink, J.W.F.; Geraedts, R.P.; Volker, L.

    2011-01-01

    Many innovative techniques and policy measures have been introduced to reduce energy consumption. Despite the high ambitions and societal pressures, the adoption rate of energy measures in office buildings is still low. Using adoption theories this paper provides a framework to analyse the adoption

  20. IEA EBC Annex 67 Energy Flexible Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marszal, Anna Joanna; Jensen, Søren Østergaard

    2016-01-01

    and load control and thereby demand response based on the requirements of the surrounding grids. Currently there is, however, no overview or insight into how much Energy Flexibility different building types and their usage may be able to offer to future energy systems. Three is thus a need for increasing......, allowing for a larger roll out of renewable technologies. The Energy Flexibility of a building is the ability to manage its energy demand and generation according to local climate conditions, user needs and grid requirements. Energy Flexibility of buildings will thus allow for demand side management......The foreseen large deployment of renewable energy sources may seriously affect the stability of energy grids. It will be necessary to control energy consumption to match instantaneous energy production. The built-in Energy Flexibility in buildings may be utilized for stabilizing the energy grids...

  1. Energy consumption and technological developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okorokov, V.R.

    1990-02-01

    The paper determines an outline of the world energy prospects based on principal trends of the development of energy consumption analysed over the long past period. According to the author's conclusion the development of energy systems will be determined in the nearest future (30 - 40 years) by contemporary energy technologies based on the exploitation of traditional energy resources but in the far future technologies based on the exploitation of thermonuclear and solar energy will play the decisive role. (author)

  2. ENERGY PERFORMANCE OF OFFICE BUILDINGS IN GHANA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    constructed air-conditioned commercial build- ings, especially in the metropolitan areas of. Accra and Kumasi. The supply of energy has however not been able to meet its demand. Ac- cording to the Energy Commission Ghana re- port (ECG, 2007), energy consumption of households increased from 26% in 2000 to 37%.

  3. Net Zero Energy Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marszal, Anna Joanna; Bourrelle, Julien S.; Musall, Eike

    2010-01-01

    The international cooperation project IEA SHC Task 40 / ECBCS Annex 52 “Towards Net Zero Energy Solar Buildings”, attempts to develop a common understanding and to set up the basis for an international definition framework of Net Zero Energy Buildings (Net ZEBs). The understanding of such buildings...... and how the Net ZEB status should be calculated differs in most countries. This paper presents an overview of Net ZEBs energy calculation methodologies proposed by organisations representing eight different countries: Austria, Canada, Denmark, Germany, Italy, Norway, Switzerland and the USA. The different...... parameters used in the calculations are discussed and the various renewable supply options considered in the methodologies are summarised graphically. Thus, the paper helps to understand different existing approaches to calculate energy balance in Net ZEBs, highlights the importance of variables selection...

  4. Improving building energy efficiency in India: State-level analysis of building energy efficiency policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Sha; Tan, Qing; Evans, Meredydd; Kyle, Page; Vu, Linh; Patel, Pralit L.

    2017-11-01

    India is expected to add 40 billion m2 of new buildings till 2050. Buildings are responsible for one third of India’s total energy consumption today and building energy use is expected to continue growing driven by rapid income and population growth. The implementation of the Energy Conservation Building Code (ECBC) is one of the measures to improve building energy efficiency. Using the Global Change Assessment Model, this study assesses growth in the buildings sector and impacts of building energy policies in Gujarat, which would help the state adopt ECBC and expand building energy efficiency programs. Without building energy policies, building energy use in Gujarat would grow by 15 times in commercial buildings and 4 times in urban residential buildings between 2010 and 2050. ECBC improves energy efficiency in commercial buildings and could reduce building electricity use in Gujarat by 20% in 2050, compared to the no policy scenario. Having energy codes for both commercial and residential buildings could result in additional 10% savings in electricity use. To achieve these intended savings, it is critical to build capacity and institution for robust code implementation.

  5. Handbook of energy use for building construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, R. G.; Stein, C.; Buckley, M.; Green, M.

    1980-03-01

    The construction industry accounts for over 11.14% of the total energy consumed in the US annually. This represents the equivalent energy value of 1 1/4 billion barrels of oil. Within the construction industry, new building construction accounts for 5.19% of national annual energy consumption. The remaining 5.95% is distributed among new nonbuilding construction (highways, railroads, dams, bridges, etc.), building maintenance construction, and nonbuilding maintenance construction. Emphasis is given to new building construction; however, some information for the other parts of the construction industry is also included. Building designers are provided with information to determine the energy required for buildings construction and to evaluate the energy required for alternative materials, assemblies, and methods. It is also applicable to large-scale planning and policy determination in that it provides the means to estimate the energy required to carry out major building programs.

  6. Handbook of energy use for building construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stein, R.G.; Stein, C.; Buckley, M.; Green, M.

    1980-03-01

    The construction industry accounts for over 11.14% of the total energy consumed in the US annually. This represents the equivalent energy value of 1 1/4 billion barrels of oil. Within the construction industry, new building construction accounts for 5.19% of national annual energy consumption. The remaining 5.95% is distributed among new nonbuilding construction (highways, ralroads, dams, bridges, etc.), building maintenance construction, and nonbuilding maintenance construction. The handbook focuses on new building construction; however, some information for the other parts of the construction industry is also included. The handbook provides building designers with information to determine the energy required for buildings construction and evaluates the energy required for alternative materials, assemblies, and methods. The handbook is also applicable to large-scale planning and policy determination in that it provides the means to estimate the energy required to carry out major building programs.

  7. Decreasing of energy consumption for space heating in existing residential buildings; Combined geothermal and gas district heating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosca, Marcel

    2000-01-01

    The City of Oradea, Romania, has a population of about 230 000 inhabitants. Almost 70% of the total heat demand, including industrial, is supplied by a classical East European type district heating system. The heat is supplied by two low grade coal fired co-generation power plants. The oldest distribution networks and substitutions, as well as one power plant, are 35 years old and require renovation or even reconstruction. The geothermal reservoir located under the city supplies at present 2,2% of the total heat demand. By generalizing the reinjection, the production can be increased to supply about 8% of the total heat demand, without any significant reservoir pressure or temperature decline over 25 years. Another potential energy source is natural gas, a main transport pipeline running close to the city. Two possible scenarios are envisaged to replace the low grade coal by natural gas and geothermal energy as heat sources for Oradea. In one scenario, the geothermal energy supplies the heat for tap water heating and the base load for space heating in a limited number of substations, with peak load being produced by natural gas fired boilers. In the other scenario, the geothermal energy is only used for tap water heating. In both scenarios, all substations are converted into heat plants, natural gas being the main energy source. The technical, economic, and environmental assessment of the two proposed scenarios are compared with each other, as well as with the existing district heating system. Two other possible options, namely to renovate and convert the existing co-generation power plants to natural gas fired boilers or to gas turbines, are only briefly discussed, being considered unrealistic, at least for the short and medium term future. (Author)

  8. Uncertainty analysis of energy consumption in dwellings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pettersen, Trine Dyrstad

    1997-12-31

    This thesis presents a comprehensive study of an energy estimation model that can be used to examine the uncertainty of predicted energy consumption in a dwelling. The variation and uncertainty of input parameters due to the outdoor climate, the building construction and the inhabitants are studied as a basis for further energy evaluations. The occurring variations of energy consumption in nominal similar dwellings are also investigated due to verification of the simulated energy consumption. The main topics are (1) a study of expected variations and uncertainties in both input parameters used in energy consumption calculations and the energy consumption in the dwelling, (2) the development and evaluation of a simplified energy calculation model that considers uncertainties due to the input parameters, (3) an evaluation of the influence of the uncertain parameters on the total variation so that the most important parameters can be identified, and (4) the recommendation of a simplified procedure for treating uncertainties or possible deviations from average conditions. 90 refs., 182 figs., 73 tabs.

  9. Energy consumption trends in Hawaii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaya, Abidin; Yalcintas, Melek

    2010-01-01

    This study begins with a review of energy consumption by end-use sector in Hawaii. Then, the energy generated from renewable energy sources is analyzed between 1991 and 2006. The results show that while geothermal is a considerable source of renewable energy on the Island of Hawaii (also known as Big Island), fossil fuel is the main energy source in the State of Hawaii. The energy intensity index for the State of Hawaii is then calculated by dividing energy consumption per capita by the income per capita. The calculated energy intensity index reveals that energy consumption is directly controlled by per capita income. The results also indicate that the energy intensity index increases over time despite positive developments in energy efficient technologies. In the second part of the paper, the effect of the tourism industry on energy usage in the State of Hawaii is analyzed. The results show that tourism volume, measured in terms of tourist arrival numbers, does not change the energy consumption directly. However, a change in tourism volume does affect per capita income within a few months to a year. In the last part of the study, the energy efficiency index of Hawaii is compared with consumption averages for the US, California and the most energy efficient country in Europe, Denmark. The comparison shows that Hawaii lags behind California and Denmark in terms of energy efficiency. The comparison also shows that an increase in energy efficiency corresponds to an increase in per capita income across the board, which is in agreement with a recent report published by the American Physical Society.

  10. Application of Partial Safety Factorsin Building Energy Performance Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brohus, Henrik; Heiselberg, Per; Hesselholt, A.

    2009-01-01

    In practise many buildings show significant deviation between the predicted annual energy consumption and the actual energy consumption. One of the main reasons for the discrepancy is the difference between the assumptions made during the calculations and the actual conditions including occupants...... a design energy consumption that can be used for the usual energy calculations....

  11. Energy sustainable development through energy efficient heating devices and buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bojic, M.

    2006-01-01

    Energy devices and buildings are sustainable if, when they operate, they use sustainable (renewable and refuse) energy and generate nega-energy. This paper covers three research examples of this type of sustainability: (1) use of air-to-earth heat exchangers, (2) computer control of heating and cooling of the building (via heat pumps and heat-recovery devices), and (3) design control of energy consumption in a house. (author)

  12. Forecasting of the energy consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, Z.

    1996-01-01

    Urged by earlier continuous failures in forecasting the consumption of energy in the world, essentially characterized by megalomania, the author presents his views on causes of such occurrences. Fundamental cause is considered - logic of a circle - insensitive to social and economic effects on the humanity in general and particularly to the energy consumption. Besides, a lethal influence of voluntarism has been specially studied as well. (author)

  13. Buildings Energy Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cason, D.L.; Emmanuel, L. [eds.

    1996-11-01

    BET announces on a monthly basis current worldwide information available on the technology required for economic energy conservation in buildings and communities. It contains abstracts of DOE reports, journal articles, conference papers,patents,theses, and monographs added to the Energy Science and Technology Database during the past month. Also included are US information obtained through acquisition programs or interagency agreements and international information obtained through IEA`s Energy Technology Data Exchange or government- to-government agreements. The citations are available for online searching and retrieval; current information, added daily, is available to DOE and its contractors.

  14. Effects of Building Occupancy on Indicators of Energy Efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Aapo Huovila; Pekka Tuominen; Miimu Airaksinen

    2017-01-01

    The potential to reduce energy consumption in buildings is high. The design phase of the building is very important. In addition, it is vital to understand how to measure the energy efficiency in the building operation phase in order to encourage the right efficiency efforts. In understanding the building energy efficiency, it is important to comprehend the interplay of building occupancy, space efficiency, and energy efficiency. Recent studies found in the literature concerning energy effici...

  15. The industrial energy consumption in 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2001-01-01

    The Danish industrial energy consumption in 1999 is presented in tables. The tables include: the development in the energy consumption, the amount of employees in each of the main branches, fuel consumption, the fuel and energy consumption in 1999 based on each group of branches and energy category, the energy consumption in 1997 for each group of branches and the percentage distribution on energy category, and the fuel and energy consumption of motor vehicles in 1999 based on each group of branches. (SM)

  16. Energy sustainability: consumption, efficiency, and ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    One of the critical challenges in achieving sustainability is finding a way to meet the energy consumption needs of a growing population in the face of increasing economic prosperity and finite resources. According to ecological footprint computations, the global resource consumption began exceeding planetary supply in 1977 and by 2030, global energy demand, population, and gross domestic product are projected to greatly increase over 1977 levels. With the aim of finding sustainable energy solutions, we present a simple yet rigorous procedure for assessing and counterbalancing the relationship between energy demand, environmental impact, population, GDP, and energy efficiency. Our analyses indicated that infeasible increases in energy efficiency (over 100 %) would be required by 2030 to return to 1977 environmental impact levels and annual reductions (2 and 3 %) in energy demand resulted in physical, yet impractical requirements; hence, a combination of policy and technology approaches is needed to tackle this critical challenge. This work emphasizes the difficulty in moving toward energy sustainability and helps to frame possible solutions useful for policy and management. Based on projected energy consumption, environmental impact, human population, gross domestic product (GDP), and energy efficiency, for this study, we explore the increase in energy-use efficiency and the decrease in energy use intensity required to achieve sustainable environmental impact le

  17. Building Eco-Informatics: Examining the Dynamics of Eco-Feedback Design and Peer Networks to Achieve Sustainable Reductions in Energy Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Rishee K.

    2013-01-01

    The built environment accounts for a substantial portion of energy consumption in the United States and in many parts of the world. Due to concerns over rising energy costs and climate change, researchers and practitioners have started exploring the area of eco-informatics to link information from the human, natural and built environments.…

  18. Greenhouse energy consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric van Steenis

    2009-01-01

    Depending on location and luck, natural gas rates have gone from less that CAN$ 3.00 to more than CAN$ 20.00/gigajoule (Gj). Natural gas rates are currently around CAN$ 13.00/Gj, although industry "analysts" predict an increase. A gigajoule is equivalent to the energy released by the combustion of approximately 30 L (8 gal) of gasoline. It is also equivalent...

  19. Chapter 8: Whole-Building Retrofit with Consumption Data Analysis Evaluation Protocol. The Uniform Methods Project: Methods for Determining Energy Efficiency Savings for Specific Measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurnik, Charles W. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Agnew, Ken [DNV GL, Madison, WI (United States); Goldberg, Mimi [DNV GL, Madison, WI (United States)

    2017-11-01

    Whole-building retrofits involve the installation of multiple measures. Whole-building retrofit programs take many forms. With a focus on overall building performance, these programs usually begin with an energy audit to identify cost-effective energy efficiency measures for the home. Measures are then installed, either at no cost to the homeowner or partially paid for by rebates and/or financing. The methods described here may also be applied to evaluation of single-measure retrofit programs. Related methods exist for replace-on-failure programs and for new construction, but are not the subject of this chapter.

  20. Daylight performance assessment of an innovative energy efficient building envelope

    OpenAIRE

    Casquero Modrego, Núria

    2016-01-01

    Buildings are considered to be one of the primary contributors to the socioeconomic development of a country. However, they use a large portion of energy and available natural resources. With the industrialization leading to an increase in urban population, the number of urban buildings which has major effects on energy consumption, has significantly increased. Even with the implementation of energy efficient policies, energy consumption in buildings has regularly grown over the last decad...

  1. Methods for estimating residential building energy consumption by application of artificial intelligence; Methode d'estimation energetique des batiments d'habitation basee sur l'application de l'intelligence artificielle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kajl, S.; Roberge, M-A. [Quebec Univ., Ecole de technologie superieure, Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    1999-02-01

    A method for estimating energy requirements in buildings five to twenty-five stories in height using artificial intelligence techniques is proposed. In developing this technique, the pre-requisites specified were rapid execution, the ability to generate a wide range of results, including total energy consumption, power demands, heating and cooling consumption, and accuracy comparable to that of a detailed building energy simulation software. The method proposed encompasses (1) the creation of various databases such as classification of the parameters used in the energy simulation, modelling using the Department of Energy (DOE)-2 software and validation of the DOE-2 models; (2) application of the neural networks inclusive of teaching the neural network and validation of the neural network's learning; (3) designing an energy estimate assessment (EEA) system for residential buildings; and (4) validation of the EEA system. The system has been developed in the MATLAB software environment, specifically for the climate in the Ottawa region. For use under different climatic conditions appropriate adjustments need to be made for the heating and cooling consumption. 12 refs., tabs., figs., 2 appendices.

  2. Impacts of city-block-scale countermeasures against urban heat-island phenomena upon a building's energy-consumption for air-conditioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikegawa, Yukihiro [Department of Environmental Systems, Meisei University, 2-1-1 Hodokubo, Hino-shi, Tokyo 191-8506 (Japan); Genchi, Yutaka [Research Center for Life Cycle Assessment, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, 16-1 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8569 (Japan); Kondo, Hiroaki [Institute for Environmental Management Technology, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, 16-1 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8569 (Japan); Hanaki, Keisuke [Department of Urban Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)

    2006-06-15

    This study quantifies the possible impacts of urban heat-island countermeasures upon buildings' energy use during summer in Tokyo metropolis. Considering the dependency of the buildings air temperature upon the local urban canopy structure, Tokyo urban canopies were classified in the city-block-scale using the sky-view factor (svf). Then, a multi-scale model system describing the interaction between buildings' energy use and urban meteorological conditions was applied to each classified canopy. In terms of urban warming alleviation and cooling energy saving, simulations suggested that the reduction in the air-conditioning anthropogenic heat could be the most effective measure in office buildings' canopies, and that vegetative fraction increase on the side walls of buildings in residential canopies. Both measures indicated daily and spatially averaged decreases in near-ground summer air temperature of 0.2-1.2{sup o}C. The simulations also suggested these temperature decreases could result in the buildings' cooling energy-savings of 4-40%, indicating remarkable savings in residential canopies. These temperature drops and energy savings tended to increase with the decrease of the svf of urban canopies. (author)

  3. Modeling energy flexibility of low energy buildings utilizing thermal mass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foteinaki, Kyriaki; Heller, Alfred; Rode, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    to match the production patterns, shifting demand from on-peak hours to off-peak hours. Buildings could act as flexibility suppliers to the energy system, through load shifting potential, provided that the large thermal mass of the building stock could be utilized for energy storage. In the present study......In the future energy system a considerable increase in the penetration of renewable energy is expected, challenging the stability of the system, as both production and consumption will have fluctuating patterns. Hence, the concept of energy flexibility will be necessary in order for the consumption...... the load shifting potential of an apartment of a low energy building in Copenhagen is assessed, utilizing the heat storage capacity of the thermal mass when the heating system is switched off for relieving the energy system. It is shown that when using a 4-hour preheating period before switching off...

  4. Manufacturing consumption of energy 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    This report provides estimates on energy consumption in the manufacturing sector of the U.S. economy based on data from the Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey. The sample used in this report represented about 250,000 of the largest manufacturing establishments which account for approximately 98 percent of U.S. economic output from manufacturing, and an expected similar proportion of manufacturing energy use. The amount of energy use was collected for all operations of each establishment surveyed. Highlights of the report include profiles for the four major energy-consuming industries (petroleum refining, chemical, paper, and primary metal industries), and an analysis of the effects of changes in the natural gas and electricity markets on the manufacturing sector. Seven appendices are included to provide detailed background information. 10 figs., 51 tabs.

  5. Buildings and energy in the 1980`s

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    Many energy programs were put into place during the 1970`s and 1980`s to lessen the dependence upon foreign oil supplies and to improve how all forms of energy are used. A significant percent of total energy consumption occurred in the residential and commercial sectors. This report concentrates on the physical makeup of the residential and commercial buildings sectors and their use of energy, and examines changes that occurred during the 1980`s. Chapter 1 presents a summary of major findings. The following three chapters focus on different aspects of the overarching theme of buildings and energy in the 1980`s. Chapter 2 discusses major characteristics of residential and commercial buildings. Chapter 3 considers the major energy sources and end uses in terms of number of buildings and floorspace. Chapter 4 focuses on energy consumption and expenditures. Chapters 2, 3, and 4 contain tables at the end of each chapter that summarize data from detailed tables that are available separately on diskette or via EIA`s Electronic Publishing System (EPUB). Following the body of the report, appendices and a glossary provide additional information on the methodologies used in this report and on the residential and commercial building consumption surveys on which this report is based. 62 figs., 30 tabs.

  6. Zero energy buildings and mismatch compensation factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Marszal, Anna Joanna; Heiselberg, Per

    2011-01-01

    This paper takes an overall energy system approach to analysing the mismatch problem of zero energy and zero emission buildings (ZEBs). The mismatch arises from hourly differences in energy production and consumption at the building level and results in the need for exchange of electricity via...... the public grid even though the building has an annual net-exchange of zero. This paper argues that, when looked upon from the viewpoint of the overall electricity supply system, a mismatch can be both negative and positive. Moreover, there are often both an element of levelling out mismatches between...... individual buildings and an element of economy of scale. For these three reasons mismatches should be dealt with at the aggregated level and not at the individual level of each building. Instead, this paper suggests to compensate the mismatch of a building by increasing (or decreasing) the capacity...

  7. Energy efficiency evaluation of hospital building office

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitriani, Indah; Sangadji, Senot; Kristiawan, S. A.

    2017-01-01

    One of the strategy employed in building design is reducing energy consumption while maintaining the best comfort zone in building indoor climate. The first step to improve office buildings energy performance by evaluating its existing energy usage using energy consumption intensity (Intensitas Konsumsi Energi, IKE) index. Energy evaluation of office building for hospital dr. Sayidiman at Kabupaten Magetan has been carried out in the initial investigation. The office building is operated with active cooling (air conditioning, AC) and use limited daylighting which consumes 14.61 kWh/m2/month. This IKE value is attributed into a slightly inefficient category. Further investigation was carried out by modeling and simulating thermal energy load and room lighting in every building zone using of Ecotect from Autodesk. Three scenarios of building energy and lighting retrofit have been performed simulating representing energy efficiency using cross ventilation, room openings, and passive cooling. The results of the numerical simulation indicate that the third scenario by employing additional windows, reflector media and skylight exhibit the best result and in accordance with SNI 03-6575-2001 lighting standard. Total thermal load of the existing building which includes fabric gains, indirect solar gains, direct solar gains, ventilation fans, internal gains, inter-zonal gains and cooling load were 162,145.40 kWh. Based on the three scenarios, the thermal load value (kWh) obtained was lowest achieved scenario 2 with the thermal value of 117,539.08 kWh.The final results are interpreted from the total energy emissions evaluated using the Ecotect software, the heating and cooling demand value and specific design of the windows are important factors to determine the energy efficiency of the buildings.

  8. The industrial energy consumption in 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2002-01-01

    The Danish industrial energy consumption in 2001 is presented in tables. The tables include: the development in the energy consumption, the amount of employees in each of the main branches, fuel consumption, the fuel and energy consumption in 2001 based on each group of branches and energy category, and the emission of CO 2 . (LN)

  9. Holistic energy retrofitting of multi-storey building to low energy level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morelli, Martin; Tommerup, Henrik M.; Tafdrup, Morten K.

    2011-01-01

    The European building sector is responsible for about 40% of the total primary energy consumption. New buildings constructed every year represent about 1% of the existing building mass; hence, the energy-saving potential lies in existing buildings. Buildings with facades worth preserving cannot b...

  10. External shading devices for energy efficient building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahdan, M. S.; Ahmad, S. S.; Hussin, M. A.

    2018-02-01

    External shading devices on a building façade is an important passive design strategy as they reduce solar radiation. Although studies have proven the benefits of external shading devices, many are designed solely for aesthetic purposes without fully considering its high potential to reduce solar radiation and glare. Furthermore, explorations into shading devices by the design team are mostly left too late in the design development phases. Hence, the paper looks into the effectiveness of external shading devices on a building towards more energy efficient building. The study aims to analyse the effects of various configurations of external shading devices towards the energy consumption of a case study building based on computer simulations. This study uses Building Information Modelling (BIM) through Autodesk Revit software as simulation tool. The constant variables for the simulation are the orientation of the building, types of glazing used by the building and the internal loads of the building. Whereas, the manipulated variable is the types of shading device used. The data were sorted according to the categories and translated into a chart. Analysis of the findings indicate that shading devices with different configurations show significant results in the energy consumption and the best configuration is the egg-crate shading devices. The study recommends that the consideration for shading device as a passive design strategy needs to be developed at the early stage of the building design.

  11. Sault Tribe Building Efficiency Energy Audits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holt, Jeffrey W.

    2013-09-26

    The Sault Ste. Marie Tribe of Chippewa Indians is working to reduce energy consumption and expense in Tribally-owned governmental buildings. The Sault Ste. Marie Tribe of Chippewa Indians will conduct energy audits of nine Tribally-owned governmental buildings in three counties in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan to provide a basis for evaluating and selecting the technical and economic viability of energy efficiency improvement options. The Sault Ste. Marie Tribe of Chippewa Indians will follow established Tribal procurement policies and procedures to secure the services of a qualified provider to conduct energy audits of nine designated buildings. The contracted provider will be required to provide a progress schedule to the Tribe prior to commencing the project and submit an updated schedule with their monthly billings. Findings and analysis reports will be required for buildings as completed, and a complete Energy Audit Summary Report will be required to be submitted with the provider?s final billing. Conducting energy audits of the nine governmental buildings will disclose building inefficiencies to prioritize and address, resulting in reduced energy consumption and expense. These savings will allow Tribal resources to be reallocated to direct services, which will benefit Tribal members and families.

  12. The building network energy statistics 2004[Norway]; Bygningsnettverkets energistatistikk 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The energy statistics for 2004 is the 8th in a row from the building network. The report presents analysis and statistics for various building energy use and technical installations. There are 1907 building objects included in the statistics situated in 254 of the counties in the country. In all this includes 9.3 mill. square meters heated area. Out of this 2.5 % residences is mainly constituted of department buildings. The rest is non-residential buildings in total 7.6 % of the entire building mass in Norway. The total energy consumption in the selection in 2004 is approx. 2.4 TWh. The climate in Norway in 2004 was the 6th warmest since the measurements started for 138 years ago. The report includes energy gradient figures and energy use from various climatic zones. The report shows the energy consumption distributed on various building types, variations in the energy consumption depending on the type of heating system, cooling, building sizes, ages and other factors. Figures for the energy consumption related to building function are included. Approx. 60 % of the buildings is new since the last yearly report. Those that were included in the 2003 report show a reduction in the temperature corrected specific energy consumption of 4.7 % from 2003 to 2004. The oil consumption has been reduced the most. Several building types have reduced the oil consumption with 50% and the total reduction is about 11 mill. litres of oil. The reasons are partly a switch to electric heating systems and partly a general reduction of the energy consumption. The report also includes statistics regarding technical conditions in the buildings such as heating system types, energy carriers, cooling, ventilation, energy flexibility, utilization and other factors. (tk)

  13. Estimating Solar Energy Potential in Buildings on a Global Level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrichenko, Ksenia

    2015-01-01

    This chapter contributes to the debate around net-zero energy concept from a global perspective. By means of comprehensive modelling, it analyses how much global building energy consumption could be reduced through utilisation of building-integrated solar energy technologies and energy......-efficiency improvements. Valuable insights on the locations and building types, in which it is feasible to achieve a net-zero level of energy performance through solar energy utilisation, are presented in world maps....

  14. Policy Pathways: Energy Performance Certification of Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    Improving energy efficiency is one of the most effective measures to address energy security, climate change and economic objectives. The Policy Pathways series can help countries capture this potential by assisting with the implementation of the 25 energy efficiency policy recommendations that were published by the International Energy Agency (IEA) in 2008. This policy pathway on energy performance certification of buildings is the second in the series. It aims to provide a 'how-to' guide to policy makers and relevant stakeholders on the essential elements in implementing energy performance certification of buildings programmes. Energy performance certification of buildings is a way to rate the energy efficiency of individual buildings -- whether they be residential, commercial or public. It is a key policy instrument that can assist governments in reducing energy consumption in buildings. This policy pathway showcases experiences from countries around the world to show examples of good practice and delivers a pathway of ten critical steps to implement energy performance certification of buildings programmes.

  15. Building Energy Monitoring and Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Tianzhen; Feng, Wei; Lu, Alison; Xia, Jianjun; Yang, Le; Shen, Qi; Im, Piljae; Bhandari, Mahabir

    2013-06-01

    U.S. and China are the world’s top two economics. Together they consumed one-third of the world’s primary energy. It is an unprecedented opportunity and challenge for governments, researchers and industries in both countries to join together to address energy issues and global climate change. Such joint collaboration has huge potential in creating new jobs in energy technologies and services. Buildings in the US and China consumed about 40% and 25% of the primary energy in both countries in 2010 respectively. Worldwide, the building sector is the largest contributor to the greenhouse gas emission. Better understanding and improving the energy performance of buildings is a critical step towards sustainable development and mitigation of global climate change. This project aimed to develop a standard methodology for building energy data definition, collection, presentation, and analysis; apply the developed methods to a standardized energy monitoring platform, including hardware and software, to collect and analyze building energy use data; and compile offline statistical data and online real-time data in both countries for fully understanding the current status of building energy use. This helps decode the driving forces behind the discrepancy of building energy use between the two countries; identify gaps and deficiencies of current building energy monitoring, data collection, and analysis; and create knowledge and tools to collect and analyze good building energy data to provide valuable and actionable information for key stakeholders.

  16. Policy Pathways: Modernising Building Energy Codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-01

    Buildings are the largest consumers of energy worldwide and will continue to be a source of increasing energy demand in the future. Globally, the sector’s final energy consumption doubled between 1971 and 2010 to reach 2 794 million tonnes of oil equivalent (Mtoe), driven primarily by population increase and economic growth. Under current policies, the global energy demand of buildings is projected by the IEA experts to grow by an additional 838 Mtoe by 2035 compared to 2010. The challenges of the projected increase of energy consumption due to the built environment vary by country. In IEA member countries, much of the future buildings stock is already in place, and so the main challenge is to renovate existing buildings stock. In non-IEA countries, more than half of the buildings stock needed by 2050 has yet to be built. The IEA and the UNDP partnered to analyse current practices in the design and implementation of building energy codes. The aim is to consolidate existing efforts and to encourage more attention to the role of the built environment in a low-carbon and climate-resilient world. This joint IEA-UNDP Policy Pathway aims to share lessons learned between IEA member countries and non-IEA countries. The objective is to spread best practices, limit pressures on global energy supply, improve energy security, and contribute to environmental sustainability. Part of the IEA Policy Pathway series, Modernising building energy codes to secure our global energy future sets out key steps in planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation. The Policy Pathway series aims to help policy makers implement the IEA 25 Energy Efficiency Policy Recommendations endorsed by IEA Ministers (2011).

  17. Household vehicles energy consumption 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    Household Vehicles Energy Consumption 1994 reports on the results of the 1994 Residential Transportation Energy Consumption Survey (RTECS). The RTECS is a national sample survey that has been conducted every 3 years since 1985. For the 1994 survey, more than 3,000 households that own or use some 6,000 vehicles provided information to describe vehicle stock, vehicle-miles traveled, energy end-use consumption, and energy expenditures for personal vehicles. The survey results represent the characteristics of the 84.9 million households that used or had access to vehicles in 1994 nationwide. (An additional 12 million households neither owned or had access to vehicles during the survey year.) To be included in then RTECS survey, vehicles must be either owned or used by household members on a regular basis for personal transportation, or owned by a company rather than a household, but kept at home, regularly available for the use of household members. Most vehicles included in the RTECS are classified as {open_quotes}light-duty vehicles{close_quotes} (weighing less than 8,500 pounds). However, the RTECS also includes a very small number of {open_quotes}other{close_quotes} vehicles, such as motor homes and larger trucks that are available for personal use.

  18. Impact of external conditions on energy consumption in industrial halls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żabnieńśka-Góra, Alina

    2017-11-01

    The energy demand for heating the halls buildings is high. The impact on this may have the technology of production, building construction and technology requirements (HVAC systems). The isolation of the external partitions, the location of the object in relation to the surrounding buildings and the degree of the interior insolation (windows and skylights) are important in the context of energy consumption. The article discusses the impact of external conditions, wind and sunlight on energy demand in the industrial hall. The building model was prepared in IDA ICE 4.0 simulation software. Model validation was done based on measurements taken in the analyzed building.

  19. Building Energy Monitoring and Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Tianzhen; Feng, Wei; Lu, Alison; Xia, Jianjun; Yang, Le; Shen, Qi; Im, Piljae; Bhandari, Mahabir

    2013-06-01

    This project aimed to develop a standard methodology for building energy data definition, collection, presentation, and analysis; apply the developed methods to a standardized energy monitoring platform, including hardware and software, to collect and analyze building energy use data; and compile offline statistical data and online real-time data in both countries for fully understanding the current status of building energy use. This helps decode the driving forces behind the discrepancy of building energy use between the two countries; identify gaps and deficiencies of current building energy monitoring, data collection, and analysis; and create knowledge and tools to collect and analyze good building energy data to provide valuable and actionable information for key stakeholders.

  20. Procedure for Measuring and Reporting Commercial Building Energy Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barley, D.; Deru, M.; Pless, S.; Torcellini, P.

    2005-10-01

    This procedure is intended to provide a standard method for measuring and characterizing the energy performance of commercial buildings. The procedure determines the energy consumption, electrical energy demand, and on-site energy production in existing commercial buildings of all types. The performance metrics determined here may be compared against benchmarks to evaluate performance and verify that performance targets have been achieved.

  1. Impact of wind-driven rain on historic brick wall buildings in a moderately cold and humid climate: Numerical analyses of mould growth risk, indoor climate and energy consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Masaru, Abuku; Janssen, Hans; Roels, Staf

    2009-01-01

    This paper gives an onset to whole building hygrothermal modelling in which the interaction between interior and exterior climates via building enclosures is simulated under a moderately cold and humid climate. The focus is particularly on the impact of wind-driven rain (WDR) oil the hygrothermal...... response, mould growth at interior wall surfaces, indoor climate and energy consumption. First the WDR load oil the facades of a 4 m x 4 m x 10 m tower is determined. Then the hygrothermal behaviour of the brick walls is analysed oil a horizontal slice through the tower. The simulations demonstrate...

  2. Energy flow and thermal comfort in buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Dreau, Jerome

    is based on both radiation and convection. Radiant terminals have the advantage of making use of low grade sources (i.e. low temperature heating and high temperature cooling), thus decreasing the primary energy consumption of buildings. But there is a lack of knowledge on the heat transfer from...... the terminal towards the space and on the parameters influencing the effectiveness of terminals. Therefore the comfort conditions and energy consumption of four types of terminals (active chilled beam, radiant floor, wall and ceiling) have been compared for a typical office room, both numerically......), radiant and air-based terminals have similar energy needs. For higher air change rate, the energy consumption of radiant terminals is lower than that of air-based terminals due to the higher air temperature. At 2 ACH, the energy savings of a radiant wall can be estimated to around 10 % compared...

  3. Methodology for Modeling Building Energy Performance across the Commercial Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffith, B.; Long, N.; Torcellini, P.; Judkoff, R.; Crawley, D.; Ryan, J.

    2008-03-01

    This report uses EnergyPlus simulations of each building in the 2003 Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) to document and demonstrate bottom-up methods of modeling the entire U.S. commercial buildings sector (EIA 2006). The ability to use a whole-building simulation tool to model the entire sector is of interest because the energy models enable us to answer subsequent 'what-if' questions that involve technologies and practices related to energy. This report documents how the whole-building models were generated from the building characteristics in 2003 CBECS and compares the simulation results to the survey data for energy use.

  4. Household energy consumption and expenditures, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report, Household Energy Consumption and Expenditures 1990, is based upon data from the 1990 Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS). Focusing on energy end-use consumption and expenditures of households, the 1990 RECS is the eighth in a series conducted since 1978 by the Energy Information Administration (EIA). Over 5,000 households were surveyed, providing information on their housing units, housing characteristics, energy consumption and expenditures, stock of energy-consuming appliances, and energy-related behavior. The information provided represents the characteristics and energy consumption of 94 million households nationwide

  5. Building energy governance in Shanghai

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kung, YiHsiu Michelle

    With Asia's surging economies and urbanization, the region is adding to its built environment at an unprecedented rate, especially those population centers in China and India. With numerous existing buildings, plus a new building boom, construction in these major Asian cities has caused momentous sustainability challenges. This dissertation focuses on China's leading city, Shanghai, to explore and assess its existing commercial building energy policies and practices. Research estimates that Shanghai's commercial buildings might become a key challenge with regard to energy use and CO2 emissions as compared to other major Asian cities. Relevant building energy policy instruments at national and local levels for commercial buildings are reviewed. In addition, two benchmarks are established to further assess building energy policies in Shanghai. The first benchmark is based on the synthesis of relevant criteria and policy instruments as recommended by professional organizations, while the second practical benchmark is drawn from an analysis of three global cities: New York, London and Tokyo. Moreover, two large-scale commercial building sites - Shanghai IKEA and Plaza 66 - are selected for investigation and assessment of their efforts on building energy saving measures. Detailed building energy savings, CO2 reductions, and management cost reductions based on data availability and calculations are presented with the co-benefits approach. The research additionally analyzes different interventions and factors that facilitate or constrain the implementation process of building energy saving measures in each case. Furthermore, a multi-scale analytical framework is employed to investigate relevant stakeholders that shape Shanghai's commercial building energy governance. Research findings and policy recommendations are offered at the close of this dissertation. Findings and policy recommendations are intended to facilitate commercial building energy governance in Shanghai and

  6. State building energy codes status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    This document contains the State Building Energy Codes Status prepared by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract DE-AC06-76RL01830 and dated September 1996. The U.S. Department of Energy`s Office of Codes and Standards has developed this document to provide an information resource for individuals interested in energy efficiency of buildings and the relevant building energy codes in each state and U.S. territory. This is considered to be an evolving document and will be updated twice a year. In addition, special state updates will be issued as warranted.

  7. Urban transport energy consumption: Belgrade case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Miomir M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available More than half of the global population now lives in towns and cities. At the same time, transport has become the highest single energy-consuming human activity. Hence, one of the major topics today is the reduction of urban transport demand and of energy consumption in cities. In this article we focused on the whole package of instruments that can reduce energy consumption and transport demand in Belgrade, a city that is currently at a major crossroad. Belgrade can prevent a dramatic increase in energy consumption and CO2 emissions (and mitigate the negative local environmental effects of traffic congestion, traffic accidents and air pollution, only if it: 1 implements a more decisive strategy to limit private vehicles use while its level of car passenger km (PKT is still relatively low; 2 does not try to solve its transport problems only by trying to build urban road infrastructure (bridges and ring roads; and 3 if it continues to provide priority movement for buses (a dominant form of public transport, while 4 at the same time developing urban rail systems (metro or LRT with exclusive tracks, immune to the traffic congestion on urban streets. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 37010

  8. The world energy consumption in 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapillonne, B.

    2006-01-01

    Based on Enerdata 2005 data, this analysis presents the situation of the world energy consumption in 2005, the electric power consumption per region and production per source, the consumption increase for each energy source and the petroleum and gas consumption increase. (A.L.B.)

  9. Reducing the operational energy demand in buildings using building information modeling tools and sustainability approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Shoubi, Mojtaba Valinejad; Shoubi, Masoud Valinejad; Bagchi, Ashutosh; Barough, Azin Shakiba

    2015-01-01

    A sustainable building is constructed of materials that could decrease environmental impacts, such as energy usage, during the lifecycle of the building. Building Information Modeling (BIM) has been identified as an effective tool for building performance analysis virtually in the design stage. The main aims of this study were to assess various combinations of materials using BIM and identify alternative, sustainable solutions to reduce operational energy consumption. The amount of energy con...

  10. Energy Conservation of the Designated Government Buildings in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wangskarn Prapat

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The designated government buildings have implemented and administered energy program under the energy development and promotion Act 2007 for many years continuously until 2015. Appointment person responsible for energy, performing energy management and implementing the energy conservation work plan and measures are legal requirements for the designated buildings. Therefore, the ministry of Energy has launched the project to support the implementation of energy management. The aim of the project was to create the energy management system in the designated government buildings, and to reduce energy consumption. In this paper, the evaluation of the project has been presented from the achievements of 839 designated government buildings. The energy saving is more than 440 ktoe/year. This is about 3% of energy consumptions of buildings.

  11. Potential reduction of energy consumption in public university library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noranai, Z.; Azman, ADF

    2017-09-01

    Efficient electrical energy usage has been recognized as one of the important factor to reduce cost of electrical energy consumption. Various parties have been emphasized about the importance of using electrical energy efficiently. Inefficient usage of electrical energy usage lead to biggest factor increasing of administration cost in Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia. With this in view, a project the investigate potential reduction electrical energy consumption in Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia was carried out. In this project, a case study involving electrical energy consumption of Perpustakaan Tunku Tun Aminah was conducted. The scopes of this project are to identify energy consumption in selected building and to find the factors that contributing to wastage of electrical energy. The MS1525:2001, Malaysian Standard - Code of practice on energy efficiency and use of renewable energy for non-residential buildings was used as reference. From the result, 4 saving measure had been proposed which is change type of the lamp, install sensor, decrease the number of lamp and improve shading coefficient on glass. This saving measure is suggested to improve the efficiency of electrical energy consumption. Improve of human behaviour toward saving energy measure can reduce 10% from the total of saving cost while on building technical measure can reduce 90% from total saving cost.

  12. Modeling hourly consumption of electricity and district heat in non-residential buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kipping, A.; Trømborg, E.

    2017-01-01

    Models for hourly consumption of heat and electricity in different consumer groups on a regional level can yield important data for energy system planning and management. In this study hourly meter data, combined with cross-sectional data derived from the Norwegian energy label database, is used to model hourly consumption of both district heat and electrical energy in office buildings and schools which either use direct electric heating (DEH) or non-electric hydronic heating (OHH). The results of the study show that modeled hourly total energy consumption in buildings with DEH and in buildings with OHH (supplied by district heat) exhibits differences, e.g. due to differences in heat distribution and control systems. In a normal year, in office buildings with OHH the main part of total modeled energy consumption is used for electric appliances, while in schools with OHH the main part is used for heating. In buildings with OHH the share of modeled annual heating energy is higher than in buildings with DEH. Although based on small samples our regression results indicate that the presented method can be used for modeling hourly energy consumption in non-residential buildings, but also that larger samples and additional cross-sectional information could yield improved models and more reliable results. - Highlights: • Schools with district heating (DH) tend to use less night-setback. • DH in office buildings tends to start earlier than direct electric heating (DEH). • In schools with DH the main part of annual energy consumption is used for heating. • In office buildings with DH the main part is used for electric appliances. • Buildings with DH use a larger share of energy for heating than buildings with DEH.

  13. Establishing a commercial building energy data framework for India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iyer, Maithili [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kumar, Satish [Alliance for an Energy Efficient Economy, New Delhi (India); Mathew, Sangeeta [Alliance for an Energy Efficient Economy, New Delhi (India); Stratton, Hannah [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Mathew, Paul A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Singh, Mohini [Synurja, Inc. (India)

    2018-04-18

    Buildings account for over 40% of the world’s energy consumption and are therefore a key contributor to a country’s energy as well as carbon budget. Understanding how buildings use energy is critical to understanding how related policies may impact energy use. Data enables decision making, and good quality data arms consumers with the tools to compare their energy performance to their peers, allowing them to differentiate their buildings in the real estate market on the basis of their energy footprint. Good quality data are also essential for policy makers to prioritize their energy saving strategies and track implementation. The United States’ Commercial Building Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) is an example of a successful data framework that is highly useful for governmental and nongovernmental initiatives related to benchmarking energy forecasting, rating systems and metrics, and more. The Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE) in India developed the Energy Conservation Building Code (ECBC) and launched the Star Labeling program for a few energy-intensive building segments as a significant first step. However, a data driven policy framework for systematically targeting energy efficiency in both new construction and existing buildings has largely been missing. There is no quantifiable mechanism currently in place to track the impact of code adoption through regular reporting/survey of energy consumption in the commercial building stock. In this paper we present findings from our study that explored use cases and approaches for establishing a commercial buildings data framework for India.

  14. Energy Management of Historic Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokarčík, A.; Rovňák, M.

    2017-10-01

    The paper is focused on solving problems of design of energy management model in the context of historical buildings and monuments. The main goal of the energy management is to find solutions that preserve the historical heritage while not damaging the uniqueness of the buildings in question and their surroundings. The paper proposes a scheme of activities of energy management of historical monuments in the implementation of energy-efficient measures.

  15. State energy data report 1992: Consumption estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-05-01

    This is a report of energy consumption by state for the years 1960 to 1992. The report contains summaries of energy consumption for the US and by state, consumption by source, comparisons to other energy use reports, consumption by energy use sector, and describes the estimation methodologies used in the preparation of the report. Some years are not listed specifically although they are included in the summary of data.

  16. Household energy and consumption and expenditures, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this supplement to the Household Energy Consumption and Expenditures 1990 report is to provide information on the use of energy in residential housing units, specifically at the four Census regions and nine Census division levels. This report includes household energy consumption, expenditures, and prices for natural gas, electricity, fuel oil, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), and kerosene as well as household wood consumption. For national-level data, see the main report, Household Energy Consumption and Expenditures 1990

  17. Commercial building energy use in six cities in Southern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Peng; Huang, Joe; Shen, Pengyuan; Ma, Xiaowen; Gao, Xuefei; Xu, Qiaolin; Jiang, Han; Xiang, Yong

    2013-01-01

    With China’s continuing economic growth, the percentage of government offices and large commercial buildings has increased tremendously; thus, the impact of their energy usage has grown drastically. In this survey, a database with more than 400 buildings was created and analyzed. We researched energy consumption by region, building type, building size and vintage, and we determined the total energy use and performed end use breakdowns of typical buildings in six cities in southern China. The statistical analysis shows that, on average, the annual building electricity use ranged from 50 to 100 kW h/m 2 for office buildings, 120 to 250 kW h/m 2 for shopping malls and hotels, and below 40 kW h/m 2 for education facilities. Building size has no direct correlation with building energy intensity. Although modern commercial buildings built in the 1990s and 2000s did not use more energy on average than buildings built previously, the highest electricity intensive modern buildings used much more energy than those built prior to 1990. Commercial buildings in China used less energy than buildings in equivalent weather locations in the US and about the same amount of energy as buildings in India. However, commercial buildings in China provide comparatively less thermal comfort than buildings in comparable US climates. - Highlights: ► The worst modern buildings use more energy than the worst old buildings. ► Government office buildings did not use more energy than private office buildings. ► Commercial buildings in China use less energy than buildings in the US. ► Modern commercial buildings don't use more energy than old buildings.

  18. Energy consumption 2005 with Danish industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2006-01-01

    The energy consumption in the Danish industries decreased with 4% from 2003 to 2005. The consumption of liquid fuels and district heat decreased with 27% and 21%, respectively. The consumption of solid fuels increased with 13%. The aim of the statistics is to elucidate the industry's energy consumption and its composition. The statistics present the development in the industry from 1973 to 2005, in which period the composition of the energy consumption has changed significantly. Especially, consumption of liquid fuels has decreased and consumption of gas and electricity has increased. (ln)

  19. THE INFLUENCE OF AN APARTMENT POSITIONING ON ENERGY CONSUMPTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela PRADA

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This work is part of the highly topical subject of global warming and energy conservation. The article contains parametric studies of energy consumption and CO² emissions for an apartment located in a block of flats, depending on its location. It was studied the energy consumption of an apartment having different cardinal orientations in the same building and of an apartment with the same position inside the building but located in different climatic zones. The case studies show the difference between the energy consumption of an apartment depending on its position, thus resulting in a few general directions for their heat insulation, so that the specific energy consumption of the apartment is below 100 kWh/m² year.

  20. Computational Fluid Dynamics and Building Energy Performance Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.; Tryggvason, Tryggvi

    An interconnection between a building energy performance simulation program and a Computational Fluid Dynamics program (CFD) for room air distribution will be introduced for improvement of the predictions of both the energy consumption and the indoor environment. The building energy performance...

  1. Computational Fluid Dynamics and Building Energy Performance Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm; Tryggvason, T.

    1998-01-01

    An interconnection between a building energy performance simulation program and a Computational Fluid Dynamics program (CFD) for room air distribution will be introduced for improvement of the predictions of both the energy consumption and the indoor environment. The building energy performance...

  2. Energy conservation in rented buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klingberg, T.; Broechner, J.; Forsman, J.; Gaunt, L.; Holgersson, M.

    1984-08-01

    The bulletin is an anthology of nine essays by different authors addressing the issue of energy conservation in buildings, where there exists a landlord/tenant relationship. After an overview of the rental market and the stock of rental buildings different types of rental contracts and energy charges are described.

  3. Energy consumption of personal computer workstations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szydlowski, R.F.; Chvala, W.D. Jr.

    1994-02-01

    The explosive growth of the information age has had a profound effect on the appearance of today`s office. Although the telephone still remains an important part of the information exchange and processing system within an office, other electronic devices are now considered required equipment within this environment. This office automation equipment includes facsimile machines, photocopiers, personal computers, printers, modems, and other peripherals. A recent estimate of the installed base indicated that 42 million personal computers and 7.3 million printers are in place, consuming 18.2 billion kWh/yr-and this installed base is growing (Luhn 1992). From a productivity standpoint, it can be argued that this equipment greatly improves the efficiency of those working in the office. But of primary concern to energy system designers, building managers, and electric utilities is the fact that this equipment requires electric energy. Although the impact of each incremental piece of equipment is small, installation of thousands of devices per building has resulted in office automation equipment becoming the major contributor to electric consumption and demand growth in commercial buildings. Personal computers and associated equipment are the dominant part of office automation equipment. In some cases, this electric demand growth has caused office buildings electric and cooling systems to overload.

  4. Assessment of energy utilization and leakages in buildings with building information model energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egwunatum I. Samuel

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Given the ability of building information models (BIM to serve as a multidisciplinary data repository, this study attempts to explore and exploit the sustainability value of BIM in delivering buildings that require less energy for operations, emit less carbon dioxide, and provide conducive living environments for occupants. This objective was attained by a critical and extensive literature review that covers the following: (1 building energy consumption, (2 building energy performance and analysis, and (3 BIM and energy assessment. Literature cited in this paper shows that linking an energy analysis tool with a BIM model has helped project design teams to predict and create optimized energy consumption by conducting building energy performance analysis utilizing key performance indicators on average thermal transmitters, resulting heat demand, lighting power, solar heat gains, and ventilation heat losses. An in-depth analysis was conducted on a completed BIM integrated construction project utilizing the Arboleda Project in the Dominican Republic to validate the aforementioned findings. Results show that the BIM-based energy analysis helped the design team attain the world׳s first positive energy building. This study concludes that linking an energy analysis tool with a BIM model helps to expedite the energy analysis process, provide more detailed and accurate results, and deliver energy-efficient buildings. This study further recommends that the adoption of level 2 BIM and BIM integration in energy optimization analysis must be demanded by building regulatory agencies for all projects regardless of procurement method (i.e., government funded or otherwise or size.

  5. Measurement of gross energy consumption in newly constructed buildings corresponding to BR2005 energy requirements. Building system: Brick wall; Maeling af bruttoenergiforbrug i nybyggeri svarende til BR2005 energikrav. Byggesystem: Fuldmuret

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tommerup, H.

    2004-07-01

    This report describes detailed measurements of the energy consumption in a highly insulated 176 m{sup 2} semi-detached house with solid walls. The house has two identical dwellings of 88 m{sup 2}. Based on data analyses the general conclusion is that the measurements show no significant irregularities compared to the expected results. The difference between calculations and measurements is small, when all uncertainties concerning data material have been taken into account. However, the measurements have shown some irregularities as regards the temperature efficiency of the ventilation systems compared to the expected result (80 %), as the measured temperature efficiency is approx. 90 %. The air density of the house is of great importance to the space heating requirements, especially when a ventilation system with heat recovery is used, and the measurements (pressure test) have shown that this performed as expected, corresponding to a yearly infiltration of 0,10 h{sup -1}. Furthermore, preliminary measurements show that the temperature in the floor heating tubes meets all expectations. (BA)

  6. Understanding Net Zero Energy Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salom, Jaume; Widén, Joakim; Candanedo, José

    2011-01-01

    Although several alternative definitions exist, a Net-Zero Energy Building (Net ZEB) can be succinctly described as a grid-connected building that generates as much energy as it uses over a year. The “net-zero” balance is attained by applying energy conservation and efficiency measures...... and by incorporating renewable energy systems. While based on annual balances, a complete description of a Net ZEB requires examining the system at smaller time-scales. This assessment should address: (a) the relationship between power generation and building loads and (b) the resulting interaction with the power grid...

  7. Real-Time Building Energy Simulation Using EnergyPlus and the Building Controls Test Bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pang, Xiufeng; Bhattachayra, Prajesh; O& #x27; Neill, Zheng; Haves, Philip; Wetter, Michael; Bailey, Trevor

    2011-11-01

    Most commercial buildings do not perform as well in practice as intended by the design and their performances often deteriorate over time. Reasons include faulty construction, malfunctioning equipment, incorrectly configured control systems and inappropriate operating procedures (Haves et al., 2001, Lee et al., 2007). To address this problem, the paper presents a simulation-based whole building performance monitoring tool that allows a comparison of building actual performance and expected performance in real time. The tool continuously acquires relevant building model input variables from existing Energy Management and Control System (EMCS). It then reports expected energy consumption as simulated of EnergyPlus. The Building Control Virtual Test Bed (BCVTB) is used as the software platform to provide data linkage between the EMCS, an EnergyPlus model, and a database. This paper describes the integrated real-time simulation environment. A proof-of-concept demonstration is also presented in the paper.

  8. The buildings networks' energy statistics 2003; Bygningsnettverkets energistatistikk 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    The report presents analyses and statistics for the energy consumption in various types of building, mostly commercial buildings. It shows how the energy consumption varies with the type of heating system, cooling, size of building, age etc. Also shown are figures for the energy consumption in relation to function, such as number of students in schools, number of people in nursing homes etc. The climate in Norway was the 6th warmest in 137 years. Energy consumption is given for different climatic zones.

  9. Integrating energy expertise into building design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brambley, M.R.; Stratton, R.C. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA)); Bailey, M.L. (USDOE Assistant Secretary for Conservation and Renewable Energy, Washington, DC (USA). Office of the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Building Technologies)

    1990-08-01

    Most commercial buildings designed to today will use more energy to operate, and cost more to design and construct than necessary. Significant energy savings cold be achieved with little or not increase in first cost if energy-efficient design technologies were used. Research into integration of building systems indicates that by considering energy performance early in the design process, energy savings between 30% and 50% of current energy consumption rates are technically and economically feasible. However, most building design teams do not adequately consider the energy impacts of design decisions to achieve these savings. The US Department of Energy has initiated a project, led by Pacific Northwest Laboratory, to develop advanced computer-based technologies that will help designers take advantage of these large potential energy savings. The objective of this work is to develop automated, intelligent, energy design assistance that can be integrated into computer aided design systems of the future. This paper examines the need for this technology by identifying the impediments to energy-efficient design, identifies essential and desirable features of such systems, presents the concept under development in this effort, illustrates how energy expertise might be incorporated into design, and discusses the importance of an integrated approach. 8 refs., 1 fig.

  10. Household energy consumption and expenditures 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-05

    This presents information about household end-use consumption of energy and expenditures for that energy. These data were collected in the 1993 Residential Energy Consumption Survey; more than 7,000 households were surveyed for information on their housing units, energy consumption and expenditures, stock of energy-consuming appliances, and energy-related behavior. The information represents all households nationwide (97 million). Key findings: National residential energy consumption was 10.0 quadrillion Btu in 1993, a 9% increase over 1990. Weather has a significant effect on energy consumption. Consumption of electricity for appliances is increasing. Houses that use electricity for space heating have lower overall energy expenditures than households that heat with other fuels. RECS collected data for the 4 most populous states: CA, FL, NY, TX.

  11. Electrical appliance energy consumption control methods and electrical energy consumption systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Matthew K [Kennewick, WA; Chassin, David P [Pasco, WA; Dagle, Jeffery E [Richland, WA; Kintner-Meyer, Michael [Richland, WA; Winiarski, David W [Kennewick, WA; Pratt, Robert G [Kennewick, WA; Boberly-Bartis, Anne Marie [Alexandria, VA

    2008-09-02

    Electrical appliance energy consumption control methods and electrical energy consumption systems are described. In one aspect, an electrical appliance energy consumption control method includes providing an electrical appliance coupled with a power distribution system, receiving electrical energy within the appliance from the power distribution system, consuming the received electrical energy using a plurality of loads of the appliance, monitoring electrical energy of the power distribution system, and adjusting an amount of consumption of the received electrical energy via one of the loads of the appliance from an initial level of consumption to an other level of consumption different than the initial level of consumption responsive to the monitoring.

  12. Low Cost Approach to Energy Efficient Buildings in Nigeria: A Review of Passive Design Options

    OpenAIRE

    Ochedi, E. T.; Taki, A. H.; Painter, B.

    2016-01-01

    Energy consumption in buildings accounts for approximately 45% of the world’s total energy consumption, leading to a significant proportion of greenhouse gas emissions. This has led to an increasing effort towards reducing energy consumption. An example of such efforts is energy efficient buildings using passive design options. This paper assesses a low cost energy efficient strategy approach to achieving energy efficiency in buildings using passive design options in Nigeria. A critical revie...

  13. Energy conservation in large buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, A.; Hafemeister, D.

    1985-11-01

    As energy prices rise, newly energy aware designers use better tools and technology to create energy efficient buildings. Thus the U.S. office stock (average age 20 years) uses 250 kBTU/ft2 of resource energy, but the guzzler of 1972 uses 500 (up×2), and the 1986 ASHRAE standards call for 100-125 (less than 25% of their 1972 ancestors). Surprisingly, the first real cost of these efficient buildings has not risen since 1972. Scaling laws are used to calculate heat gains and losses of buildings to obtain the ΔT(free) which can be as large as 15-30 °C (30-60 °F) for large buildings. The net thermal demand and thermal time constants are determined for the Swedish Thermodeck buildings which need essentially no heat in the winter and no chillers in summer. The BECA and other data bases for large buildings are discussed. Off-peak cooling for large buildings is analyzed in terms of saving peak-electrical power. By downsizing chillers and using cheaper, off-peak power, cost-effective thermal storage in new commercial buildings can reduce U.S. peak power demands by 10-20 GW in 15 years. A further potential of about 40 GW is available from adopting partial thermal storage and more efficient air conditioners in existing buildings.

  14. Estimation of energy efficiency of residential buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glushkov Sergey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing energy performance of the residential buildings by means of reducing heat consumption on the heating and ventilation is the last segment in the system of energy resources saving. The first segments in the energy saving process are heat producing and transportation over the main lines and outside distribution networks. In the period from 2006 to 2013. by means of the heat-supply schemes optimization and modernization of the heating systems. using expensive (200–300 $US per 1 m though hugely effective preliminary coated pipes. the economy reached 2.7 mln tons of fuel equivalent. Considering the multi-stage and multifactorial nature (electricity. heat and water supply of the residential sector energy saving. the reasonable estimate of the efficiency of the saving of residential buildings energy should be performed in tons of fuel equivalent per unit of time.

  15. Modeling climate change impact in hospitality sector, using building resources consumption signature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Armando; Bernardino, Mariana; Silva Santos, António; Pimpão Silva, Álvaro; Espírito Santo, Fátima

    2016-04-01

    Hotels are one of building types that consumes more energy and water per person and are vulnerable to climate change because in the occurrence of extreme events (heat waves, water stress) same failures could compromise the hotel services (comfort) and increase energy cost or compromise the landscape and amenities due to water use restrictions. Climate impact assessments and the development of adaptation strategies require the knowledge about critical climatic variables and also the behaviour of building. To study the risk and vulnerability of buildings and hotels to climate change regarding resources consumption (energy and water), previous studies used building energy modelling simulation (BEMS) tools to study the variation in energy and water consumption. In general, the climate change impact in building is evaluated studying the energy and water demand of the building for future climate scenarios. But, hotels are complex buildings, quite different from each other and assumption done in simplified BEMS aren't calibrated and usually neglect some important hotel features leading to projected estimates that do not usually match hotel sector understanding and practice. Taking account all uncertainties, the use of building signature (statistical method) could be helpful to assess, in a more clear way, the impact of Climate Change in the hospitality sector and using a broad sample. Statistical analysis of the global energy consumption obtained from bills shows that the energy consumption may be predicted within 90% confidence interval only with the outdoor temperature. In this article a simplified methodology is presented and applied to identify the climate change impact in hospitality sector using the building energy and water signature. This methodology is applied to sixteen hotels (nine in Lisbon and seven in Algarve) with four and five stars rating. The results show that is expect an increase in water and electricity consumption (manly due to the increase in

  16. Tropical Zero Energy Office Building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reimann, Gregers Peter; Kristensen, Poul Erik

    2006-01-01

    lighting. These measures include the use of high efficient lighting controlled according to demand, high efficiency pumps and fans, a high efficiency chiller, and use of energy efficient office equipment. The buildings PV system is connected to the grid. Solar electricity is exported to the grid during......The new headquarter for Pusat Tenaga Malaysia is designed to be a Zero Emission Office Building (ZEO). A full range of passive and active energy efficiency measures are implemented such that the building will need no more electricity than what can be produced via its own Building Integrated PV...... by daylight, supplemented by electric lighting during very dark and overcast periods. Extensive active energy efficiency measures are implemented in the building in order to reduce the need for electricity to an absolute minimum, without compromising the request for comfortable temperatures and adequate...

  17. A hybrid energy efficient building ventilation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calay, Rajnish Kaur; Wang, Wen Chung

    2013-01-01

    The present paper presents a high performance cooling/heating ventilation system using a rotary heat exchanger (RHE), together with a reverse-cycle heat pump (RCHP) that can be integrated with various heat sources. Energy consumption in the building sector is largely dominated by the energy consumed in maintaining comfortable conditions indoors. For example in many developed countries the building heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems consume up to 50% of the total energy consumed in buildings. Therefore energy efficient HVAC solutions in buildings are critical for realising CO 2 targets at local and global level. There are many heating/cooling concepts that rely upon renewable energy sources and/or use natural low temperature heat sources in the winter and heat sinks in the summer. In the proposed system, waste energy from the exhaust air stream is used to precondition the outdoor air before it is supplied into the building. The hybrid system provides heating in the winter and cooling in the summer without any need for additional heating or cooling devices as required in conventional systems. Its performance is better than a typical reheat or air conditioning system in providing the same indoor air quality (IAQ) levels. It is shown that an energy saving up to 60% (heat energy) is achieved by using the proposed hybrid system in building ventilation applications. -- Highlights: • Hybrid ventilation system: the hybrid ventilation system uses a rotating regenerator and a reversible heat pump. • Heat recovery: heat recovery from exhaust air stream by rotary wheel type heat exchanger. • Reversible cycle heat pump (RCHP): additional heating or cooling of the supply air is provided by the RCHP. • Energy efficiency: energy savings of up to 60% using the proposed system are achievable

  18. Economic energy distribution and consumption in a microgrid Part 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tahersima, Fatemeh; Stoustrup, Jakob; Andersen, Palle

    2014-01-01

    level energy manager is designed to distribute available power resources among the houses or sell the remainder to the electricity grid. Simulation results show the economically optimal energy consumption in the buildings and economically ecient power trading between the houses. Microgrid control...

  19. Implications of life cycle energy assessment of a new school building, regarding the nearly zero Energy Buildings targets in EU: A case of study

    OpenAIRE

    Muñoz, Pedro; Morales, M P (UNIR); Letelier, V; Muñoz, Luis (UNIR); Mora, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Lately EU has promoted several policies with the aim of reducing buildings energy impact. Despite such policies have successfully contributed to reduce residential buildings (RBs) energy consumption, non-residential buildings (NRBs) have shown an increasing of operational energy demand by 15.7%, during last decade. On the one hand, energy impacts are underestimated since only primary energy consumption (PEC) is considered while other energies, such as those related to the construction phase, ...

  20. Quantification model for energy consumption in edification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercader, Mª P.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The research conducted in this paper focuses on the generation of a model for the quantification of energy consumption in building. This is to be done through one of the most relevant environmental impact indicators associated with weight per m2 of construction, as well as the energy consumption resulting from the manufacturing process of materials used in building construction. The practical application of the proposed model on different buildings typologies in Seville, will provide information regarding the building materials, the subsystems and the most relevant construction elements. Hence, we will be able to observe the impact the built surface has on the environment. The results obtained aim to reference the scientific community, providing quantitative data comparable to other types of buildings and geographical areas. Furthermore, it may also allow the analysis and the characterization of feasible solutions to reduce the environmental impact generated by the different materials, subsystems and construction elements commonly used in the different building types defined in this study.

    La investigación realizada en el presente trabajo plantea la generación de un modelo de cuantificación del consumo energético en edificación, a través de uno de los indicadores de impacto ambiental más relevantes asociados al peso por m2 de construcción, el consumo energético derivado del proceso de fabricación de los materiales de construcción empleados en edificación. La aplicación práctica del modelo propuesto sobre diferentes tipologías edificatorias en Sevilla aportará información respecto a los materiales de construcción, subsistemas y elementos constructivos más impactantes, permitiendo visualizar la influencia que presenta la superficie construida en cuanto al impacto ambiental generado. Los resultados obtenidos pretenden servir de referencia a la comunidad científica, aportando datos num

  1. Does trade liberalization effect energy consumption?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghani, Gairuzazmi M.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of trade liberalization on the environment can be directly linked to energy consumption, because energy consumption and production are the underlying cause of most pollutants that harm the environment. The descriptive statistics show that average annual growth of energy consumption per capita after trade liberalization varies among countries; hence it is a possibility that the effect of trade liberalization is conditional on factors other than liberalization per se. The regression results show that trade liberalization per se does not affect the growth of energy consumption of the developing countries analyzed, but its interaction with capital per labor reduces the growth of energy consumption as capital per labor increases. However, the effect is only significant after a certain minimum threshold level capital per labor is reached. On the other hand, economic growth increases energy consumption and its effect is not conditioned on trade liberalization. These two different effects mean that, with regards to energy consumption, countries at a higher level of economic development are more likely to reap the benefit of liberalization relative to less developed countries. - Research highlights: ► This paper examines the effect of trade liberalization on energy consumption. ► Developed countries are more likely to reap the benefit of trade liberalization. ► Growth of energy consumption after trade liberalization varies among countries. ► Interaction of capital per labor with liberalization reduces energy consumption.

  2. Energy Consumption Series: Assessment of energy use in multibuilding facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    This study originally had two primary objectives: (1) to improve EIA`s estimates of district heat consumption for commercial buildings in the CBECS sample that lacked individual metering and (2) to provide a basis for estimating primary fuel consumption by central plants serving commercial buildings. These objectives were expanded to include additional questions relating to these central plants. Background information is provided on the CBECS and on district heating and cooling, which is the most important type of energy-related service provided by multibuilding facilities with central physical plants. Chapters 2 and 3 present data results on multibuilding facilities from the 1989 CBECS and the pilot Facility Survey. Chapter 2 presents the characteristics of multibuilding facilities and the individual buildings located on these facilities. Chapter 3 provides estimates of energy inputs and outputs of multibuilding facilities with central physical plants. Chapter 4 assesses the quality of the pilot Facility Survey and includes recommendations for future work in this area. The appendices provide more detailed information on the Facility Survey itself, in particular the limitations on the use of these results. Appendix B, ``Data Quality``, provides detailed information relating to the limitations of the data and the conclusions presented in this report. As a pilot study, the 1989 Facility Survey has some serious flaws and limitations which are recognized in this report.

  3. Energy Performance of Buildings - The European Approach to Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the European approach to improve sustainability in the building sector, which has a very high potential for considerable reduction of energy consumption in the coming years. By approving the Energy Performance in Buildings Directive the European Union has taken a strong...

  4. Self-energy production applied to buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlo, Fabricio Ramos del; Balestieri, Jose Antonio Perrella [Sao Paulo State University Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: perrella@feg.unesp.br; Holanda, Marcelo Rodrigues de [Sao Paulo Univ. (EEL/USP), Lorena, SP (Brazil). Engineering School], E-mail: marcelo@debas.eel.usp.br

    2010-07-01

    The decentralization of energy production in order to obtain better environmental conditions, reducing greenhouse gas emissions and the cost reduction of electricity and thermal energy consumed in residential buildings has been proposed in the literature. This paper proposes to demonstrate what are the chances of having a microcogeneration system toward the residential application. In this study, we contemplate the technologies involved and their possible inputs that are arranged in a superstructure to be studied. As a first step we obtain the cost of the products generated by the configuration that consists basically of two sources of power generation, and through optimization calculations intended to obtain the best configuration, taking into consideration the selection between four fuels, two equipment generators (Fuel Cell and Internal Combustion Engine)and three levels of energy production for each one. An economic analysis is also presented to evaluate the opportunity of selling the energy generated considering the fluctuations of the residential building consumption needs. (author)

  5. Energy consumption of office buildings and shopping centres - Developments over the last ten years and potential for optimisation; Energieverbrauch von Buerogebaeuden und Grossverteilern. Erhebung des Strom- und Waermeverbrauchs, der Verbrauchsanteile, der Entwicklung in den letzen 10 Jahren und Identifizierung der Optimierungspotentiale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aiulfi, D.; Maschio, I.; Dellsperger, V.; Brunet, L. [Sorane SA, rationalisation energetique, Ecublens (Switzerland); Primas, A.; Hagel, M; Benz-Karlstroem, P. [Basler und Hofmann Ing. und Planer AG, Zuerich (Switzerland); Jakob, M.; Honegger-Ott, A.; Grodofzig Fuerst, B. [Centre for Energy Policy and Economics (CEPE) und TEP Energy GmbH, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2010-01-15

    This comprehensive report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at the results of a study which investigated developments concerning the energy consumption of office buildings and supermarkets over the past ten years and the potential available for optimisation. The aims of the project are discussed as is its implementation. Data collection principles and case studies are discussed, as are terminologies and norms used and recommendations made. Performance figures for space heating and electricity consumption are looked at. In particular, the energy consumption of office buildings and developments in this area are examined. Also, the energy consumption of large-scale consumers such as shopping centres is looked at, including the analysis of energy consumption for lighting, heating, air-conditioning and ventilation. The report is augmented with recommendations and a literature list.

  6. State Energy Data Report, 1991: Consumption estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-01

    The State Energy Data Report (SEDR) provides annual time series estimates of State-level energy consumption by major economic sector. The estimates are developed in the State Energy Data System (SEDS), which is maintained and operated by the Energy Information Administration (EIA). The goal in maintaining SEDS is to create historical time series of energy consumption by State that are defined as consistently as possible over time and across sectors. SEDS exists for two principal reasons: (1) to provide State energy consumption estimates to the Government, policy makers, and the public; and (2) to provide the historical series necessary for EIA`s energy models.

  7. State Energy Data Report, 1991: Consumption estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    The State Energy Data Report (SEDR) provides annual time series estimates of State-level energy consumption by major economic sector. The estimates are developed in the State Energy Data System (SEDS), which is maintained and operated by the Energy Information Administration (EIA). The goal in maintaining SEDS is to create historical time series of energy consumption by State that are defined as consistently as possible over time and across sectors. SEDS exists for two principal reasons: (1) to provide State energy consumption estimates to the Government, policy makers, and the public; and (2) to provide the historical series necessary for EIA's energy models

  8. Energy use in office buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-10-01

    This is the report on Task IB, Familiarization with Additional Data Collection Plans of Annual Survey of BOMA Member and Non-Member Buildings in 20 Cities, of the Energy Use in Office Buildings project. The purpose of the work was to monitor and understand the efforts of the Building Owners and Managers Association International (BOMA) in gathering an energy-use-oriented data base. In order to obtain an improved data base encompassing a broad spectrum of office space and with information suitable for energy analysis in greater detail than is currently available, BOMA undertook a major data-collection effort. Based on a consideration of geographic area, climate, population, and availability of data, BOMA selected twenty cities for data collection. BOMA listed all of the major office space - buildings in excess of 40,000 square feet - in each of the cities. Tax-assessment records, local maps, Chamber of Commerce data, recent industrial-development programs, results of related studies, and local-realtor input were used in an effort to assemble a comprehensive office-building inventory. In order to verify the accuracy and completeness of the building lists, BOMA assembled an Ad-Hoc Review Committee in each city to review the assembled inventory of space. A questionnaire on office-building energy use and building characteristics was developed. In each city BOMA assembled a data collection team operating under the supervision of its regional affiliate to gather the data. For each city a random sample of buildings was selected, and data were gathered. Responses for over 1000 buildings were obtained.

  9. Regulation proposal for voluntary energy efficiency labelling of commercial buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamberts, Roberto; Goulart, Solange; Carlo, Joyce; Westphal, Fernando

    2006-01-01

    Despite of Brazil not being between the major world energy consumers, the consumption of electricity has significantly increased in the late years. The National Energy Balance of 2005, published by the Brazilian Ministry of Energy, showed an increasing of the participation of electricity in the final energy consumption of 15.7% in 2002 to 16.2% in 2004. Initially, a brief review of the initiatives taken by Brazilian Government aiming to limit and control the energy consumption in buildings is presented. Then, the regulation proposal containing the technical requirements to classify the energy efficiency level of buildings is shown. The purpose of this voluntary regulation is to provide conditions to certify the energy efficiency level of Brazilian buildings (commercial and public). It specifies the methods for energy efficiency rating of buildings and includes requirements to attend energy conservation measures in three main issues: lighting system; air conditioning system and envelope. The regulation applies to large buildings (minimum total area of 500 m 2 or when the energy demand is greater than or equal to 2,3 kV, including: Conditioned buildings; Partially conditioned buildings and Naturally ventilated buildings. (author)

  10. Analysis of Energy Consumption and Possibilities of Thermal-Modernization in Residential Buildings in Poland Case Study: The Town of Zielona Góra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsabry, A.; Truszkiewicz, P.; Szymański, K.; Łaskawiec, K.; Rojek, Ł.

    2017-12-01

    The article presents an analysis of buildings belonging the Department of Public Utilities and Housing in Zielona Góra. The research was based on a set of questions for building operators. The questionnaires consisted of 30 questions concerning general and detailed information about the buildings. In order to clearly present the results, this article includes data only about residential and residential-commercial buildings. Forty building built in different periods were selected for analysis.

  11. Model calibration for building energy efficiency simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustafaraj, Giorgio; Marini, Dashamir; Costa, Andrea; Keane, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Developing a 3D model relating to building architecture, occupancy and HVAC operation. • Two calibration stages developed, final model providing accurate results. • Using an onsite weather station for generating the weather data file in EnergyPlus. • Predicting thermal behaviour of underfloor heating, heat pump and natural ventilation. • Monthly energy saving opportunities related to heat pump of 20–27% was identified. - Abstract: This research work deals with an Environmental Research Institute (ERI) building where an underfloor heating system and natural ventilation are the main systems used to maintain comfort condition throughout 80% of the building areas. Firstly, this work involved developing a 3D model relating to building architecture, occupancy and HVAC operation. Secondly, the calibration methodology, which consists of two levels, was then applied in order to insure accuracy and reduce the likelihood of errors. To further improve the accuracy of calibration a historical weather data file related to year 2011, was created from the on-site local weather station of ERI building. After applying the second level of calibration process, the values of Mean bias Error (MBE) and Cumulative Variation of Root Mean Squared Error (CV(RMSE)) on hourly based analysis for heat pump electricity consumption varied within the following ranges: (MBE) hourly from −5.6% to 7.5% and CV(RMSE) hourly from 7.3% to 25.1%. Finally, the building was simulated with EnergyPlus to identify further possibilities of energy savings supplied by a water to water heat pump to underfloor heating system. It found that electricity consumption savings from the heat pump can vary between 20% and 27% on monthly bases

  12. Energy efficiency buildings program, FY 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-05-01

    A separate abstract was prepared on research progress in each group at LBL in the energy efficient buildings program. Two separate abstracts were prepared for the Windows and Lighting Program. Abstracts prepared on other programs are: Energy Performance of Buildings; Building Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality Program; DOE-21 Building Energy Analysis; and Building Energy Data Compilation, Analysis, and Demonstration. (MCW)

  13. Influence of Energy Efficient Elements on Energy Saving in Residential Buildings: Case Study of Three Apartments in Penang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nejad Moghadam M.H.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examined the energy consumption of energy efficient buildings, and ascertained the extent to which these buildings are efficient when compared to normal buildings. For this purpose, the early literature regarding energy efficient buildings and the related elements have been reviewed, then three energy efficient buildings have been chosen and data collected from their occupants through a questionnaire. The data was then analysed by computing the average yearly electricity consumption per square feet, for both energy efficient buildings and normal buildings. A comparison of the results showed that the energy consumption in energy efficient buildings was almost half that of the normal buildings. Finally a few suggestions are proposed for promoting these types of energy efficient buildings which will eventually lead to economic growth and environment protection.

  14. State energy data report 1994: Consumption estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-10-01

    This document provides annual time series estimates of State-level energy consumption by major economic sector. The estimates are developed in the State Energy Data System (SEDS), operated by EIA. SEDS provides State energy consumption estimates to members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, and the general public, and provides the historical series needed for EIA's energy models. Division is made for each energy type and end use sector. Nuclear electric power is included

  15. State energy data report 1994: Consumption estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    This document provides annual time series estimates of State-level energy consumption by major economic sector. The estimates are developed in the State Energy Data System (SEDS), operated by EIA. SEDS provides State energy consumption estimates to members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, and the general public, and provides the historical series needed for EIA`s energy models. Division is made for each energy type and end use sector. Nuclear electric power is included.

  16. Energy savings in the Danish building stock until 2050

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wittchen, Kim Bjarne; Kragh, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    A study has been conducted analysing the energy savings for space heating and domestic hot water in the Danish building stock due to renovation of building components at the end of their service life. The purpose of the study was to estimate the energy savings until 2050 as building components...... are energy upgraded according to the requirements stipulated in the Danish Building Regulations 2010. Furthermore, scenario analyses was made for the potential impact on the energy consumption of introducing different levels of tightening of the energy requirements for existing buildings in the Danish...... Building Regulations. Compliance with the requirements in the Danish Building Regulations will potentially result in energy savings for space heating and domestic hot water around 30 % until 2050. Further tightening of the component insulation level requirements will only result in marginally higher...

  17. State energy data report 1996: Consumption estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-02-01

    The State Energy Data Report (SEDR) provides annual time series estimates of State-level energy consumption by major economic sectors. The estimates are developed in the Combined State Energy Data System (CSEDS), which is maintained and operated by the Energy Information Administration (EIA). The goal in maintaining CSEDS is to create historical time series of energy consumption by State that are defined as consistently as possible over time and across sectors. CSEDS exists for two principal reasons: (1) to provide State energy consumption estimates to Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, and the general public and (2) to provide the historical series necessary for EIA's energy models. To the degree possible, energy consumption has been assigned to five sectors: residential, commercial, industrial, transportation, and electric utility sectors. Fuels covered are coal, natural gas, petroleum, nuclear electric power, hydroelectric power, biomass, and other, defined as electric power generated from geothermal, wind, photovoltaic, and solar thermal energy. 322 tabs

  18. State energy data report 1996: Consumption estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-02-01

    The State Energy Data Report (SEDR) provides annual time series estimates of State-level energy consumption by major economic sectors. The estimates are developed in the Combined State Energy Data System (CSEDS), which is maintained and operated by the Energy Information Administration (EIA). The goal in maintaining CSEDS is to create historical time series of energy consumption by State that are defined as consistently as possible over time and across sectors. CSEDS exists for two principal reasons: (1) to provide State energy consumption estimates to Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, and the general public and (2) to provide the historical series necessary for EIA`s energy models. To the degree possible, energy consumption has been assigned to five sectors: residential, commercial, industrial, transportation, and electric utility sectors. Fuels covered are coal, natural gas, petroleum, nuclear electric power, hydroelectric power, biomass, and other, defined as electric power generated from geothermal, wind, photovoltaic, and solar thermal energy. 322 tabs.

  19. Building Energy Efficiency in India: Compliance Evaluation of Energy Conservation Building Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Sha; Evans, Meredydd; Delgado, Alison

    2014-03-26

    India is experiencing unprecedented construction boom. The country doubled its floorspace between 2001 and 2005 and is expected to add 35 billion m2 of new buildings by 2050. Buildings account for 35% of total final energy consumption in India today, and building energy use is growing at 8% annually. Studies have shown that carbon policies will have little effect on reducing building energy demand. Chaturvedi et al. predicted that, if there is no specific sectoral policies to curb building energy use, final energy demand of the Indian building sector will grow over five times by the end of this century, driven by rapid income and population growth. The growing energy demand in buildings is accompanied by a transition from traditional biomass to commercial fuels, particularly an increase in electricity use. This also leads to a rapid increase in carbon emissions and aggravates power shortage in India. Growth in building energy use poses challenges to the Indian government. To curb energy consumption in buildings, the Indian government issued the Energy Conservation Building Code (ECBC) in 2007, which applies to commercial buildings with a connected load of 100 kW or 120kVA. It is predicted that the implementation of ECBC can help save 25-40% of energy, compared to reference buildings without energy-efficiency measures. However, the impact of ECBC depends on the effectiveness of its enforcement and compliance. Currently, the majority of buildings in India are not ECBC-compliant. The United Nations Development Programme projected that code compliance in India would reach 35% by 2015 and 64% by 2017. Whether the projected targets can be achieved depends on how the code enforcement system is designed and implemented. Although the development of ECBC lies in the hands of the national government – the Bureau of Energy Efficiency under the Ministry of Power, the adoption and implementation of ECBC largely relies on state and local governments. Six years after ECBC

  20. Limiting biomass consumption for heating in 100% renewable energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Lund, Henrik; Connolly, David

    2012-01-01

    -scale solar thermal, large heat pumps, geothermal heat, industrial surplus heat, and waste incineration. Where the energy density in the building stock is not high enough for DH to be economical, geothermal heat pumps can be recommended for individual heating systems, even though biomass consumption is higher......The utilisation of biomass poses large challenges in renewable energy systems while buildings account for a substantial part of the energy supply even in 100% renewable energy systems. In this paper the focus is on how the heating sector can reduce its consumption of biomass, thus leaving biomass...... for other sectors, but while still enabling a 100% renewable energy system. The analyses of heating technologies shows that district heating (DH) systems are important in limiting the dependence on biomass and create cost effective solutions. DH systems are especially important in renewable energy systems...

  1. Energy Efficiency Requirements in Building Codes, Energy Efficiency Policies for New Buildings. IEA Information Paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laustsen, Jens

    2008-03-15

    The aim of this paper is to describe and analyse current approaches to encourage energy efficiency in building codes for new buildings. Based on this analysis the paper enumerates policy recommendations for enhancing how energy efficiency is addressed in building codes and other policies for new buildings. This paper forms part of the IEA work for the G8 Gleneagles Plan of Action. These recommendations reflect the study of different policy options for increasing energy efficiency in new buildings and examination of other energy efficiency requirements in standards or building codes, such as energy efficiency requirements by major renovation or refurbishment. In many countries, energy efficiency of buildings falls under the jurisdiction of the federal states. Different standards cover different regions or climatic conditions and different types of buildings, such as residential or simple buildings, commercial buildings and more complicated high-rise buildings. There are many different building codes in the world and the intention of this paper is not to cover all codes on each level in all countries. Instead, the paper details different regions of the world and different ways of standards. In this paper we also evaluate good practices based on local traditions. This project does not seek to identify one best practice amongst the building codes and standards. Instead, different types of codes and different parts of the regulation have been illustrated together with examples on how they have been successfully addressed. To complement this discussion of efficiency standards, this study illustrates how energy efficiency can be improved through such initiatives as efficiency labelling or certification, very best practice buildings with extremely low- or no-energy consumption and other policies to raise buildings' energy efficiency beyond minimum requirements. When referring to the energy saving potentials for buildings, this study uses the analysis of recent IEA

  2. Analysis of Different Methods for Computing Source Energy in the Context of Zero Energy Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torcellini, Paul A.; Bonnema, Eric; Goldwasser, David; Pless, Shanti

    2016-08-26

    Building energy consumption can only be measured at the site or at the point of utility interconnection with a building. Often, to evaluate the total energy impact, this site-based energy consumption is translated into source energy, that is, the energy at the point of fuel extraction. Consistent with this approach, the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) definition of zero energy buildings uses source energy as the metric to account for energy losses from the extraction, transformation, and delivery of energy. Other organizations, as well, use source energy to characterize the energy impacts. Four methods of making the conversion from site energy to source energy were investigated in the context of the DOE definition of zero energy buildings. These methods were evaluated based on three guiding principles--improve energy efficiency, reduce and stabilize power demand, and use power from nonrenewable energy sources as efficiently as possible. This study examines relative trends between strategies as they are implemented on very low-energy buildings to achieve zero energy. A typical office building was modeled and variations to this model performed. The photovoltaic output that was required to create a zero energy building was calculated. Trends were examined with these variations to study the impacts of the calculation method on the building's ability to achieve zero energy status. The paper will highlight the different methods and give conclusions on the advantages and disadvantages of the methods studied.

  3. The development of preliminary energy bench marking for office buildings in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azah Ahmad; Asfaazam Kasbani

    2006-01-01

    Benchmarking energy consumption in buildings means comparing how much energy is used in a building to an average or theoretical standard relative to a set of similar buildings. Building energy benchmarking is a useful starting point for commercial building owners to target energy saving opportunities. Building owners can determine the energy performance efficiency level of their buildings and compare it to the entire group of office buildings of its class. It is also useful during the design stage of a new building or retrofit to determine if a design is relatively efficient. The energy performance of a building can be assessed using Building Energy Index (BEI) regardless of building's size, height or age. In the development of preliminary energy benchmarking for office buildings in Malaysia, Malaysia Energy Centre (PTM) has taken a step through its involvement with The Energy Efficiency and Conservation Network, via the Association of Southeast Asia Nations (ASEAN) Centre for Energy (ACE) through a project a develop a similar benchmarking system for various ASEAN members. Through data collection of 54 office building throughout Malaysia, preliminary or baseline energy consumption could be determined. This paper discusses the findings of current energy consumption of office buildings. I will also examine the overall trends of energy consumption among office buildings in Malaysia

  4. Analysis on Energy Consumption and Indoor Environment in Kunming, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianchi Hu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this study are to investigate and analyze the actual conditions of the urban residential energy consumption, and hence to ascertain what will be the important factors that influence the annual energy consumption in Kunming, which has a mild climate. The questionnaire surveys reveal building characteristics, housing appliances, household characteristics, indoor thermal environment and aspects of life style, during winter and summer seasons. The questionnaire analyses show that only 5% of the investigated households have air conditioning, and 12% have heating appliances. Most households use solar energy as a water heater energy source because the sunshine hours in Kunming are long. The energy consumption analyses show that the average annual energy consumption of households in Kunming reached 12.2 GJ, and cooking accounted for 5.3 GJ, which is the largest part. Most of the time in summer, the outdoor temperature is lower than living room and bedroom temperatures; thus, natural ventilation is a useful cooling method for households in Kunming. The absolute humidity in summer is about 11 g/kg, while in winter it is about 5 g/kg. The influence factor analyses show that building construction year, water heater type and annual income are important influential factors on annual energy consumption.

  5. Environmental degradation, energy consumption, population growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Based on the result, there is no evidence of unidirectional causality running from CO2 emissions and energy consumption to economic growth and strong unidirectional causality running from CO2 emissions, energy consumption and economic growth to population growth was found. The long run and short run estimates ...

  6. The Relationship Between Energy Consumption and Economic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As evidenced from the study, causality runs from energy consumption to economic growth. Energy consumption in Nigeria is mainly based on the use of fossil fuels which is non-renewable. Therefore, in order to actualize its vision of becoming one of the 20th largest economies in the World by the year 2020, government ...

  7. A Study on the Development of Building Energy Analysis Program and the Establishment of BEPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, S.R.; Kwon, K.J.; Yoo, Y.H.; Cho, Y.K.; Kijm, Y.D.; Han, S.W. [Korea Electric Power Corp. (KEPCO), Taejon (Korea, Republic of). Research Center; Kim, M.H.; Kim, K.W.; Cho, K.H.; Lee, H.W.; Lee, Y.H.; Kim, S.J.; Song, K.S.; Heon, C.T.; Choi, J.M.; Kim, Y.I.; Suk, H.T.; Kang, J.S.; Kim, Y.D.; Kang, K.T.; Lee, J.E.; Kwark, H.S. [Seoul National Univ. (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-12-31

    The amount of energy consumption in building covers the 30% of the total energy consumption and that of electricity is much the same. Because of the improvement of the living quality, energy consumption in building part is increasing and the rate is much higher than that of other parts. So, KEPCO, one of the major domestic energy suppliers and consumers, needs to develop reliable computerized building energy analysis program and to establish building energy performance standards for the reasonable energy management and the efficient execution of energy budget and the improvement of working condition of the corp`s buildings. So the study aims to the development of computerized building energy analysis program, and the establishment energy budget level and building energy performance standards for the corp`s buildings.

  8. Energy impacts of recycling disassembly material in residential buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Weijun; Ariyama, Takahiro; Ojima, Toshio; Meier, Alan

    2000-01-01

    In order to stop the global warmth due to the CO2 concentration, the energy use should be decreased. The investment of building construction industry in Japan is about 20 percent of GDP. This fraction is much higher than in most developed countries. That results the Japanese building construction industry including residential use consumes about one third of all energy and resources of the entire industrial sectors. In order to save energy as well as resource, the recycle of the building materials should be urgent to be carried out. In this paper, we focus on the potential energy savings with a simple calculated method when the building materials or products are manufactured from recycled materials. We examined three kinds of residential buildings with different construction techniques and estimated the decreased amount of energy consumption and resources resulting from use of recycled materials. The results have shown for most building materials, the energy consumption needed to remake housing materials from recycled materials is lower than that to make new housing materials. The energy consumption of building materials in all case-study housing can be saved by at least 10 percent. At the same time, the resource, measured by mass of building materials (kg) can be decreased by over 50 percent

  9. Energy management handbook for building operating engineers student workbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-09-01

    The handbook provides operating engineers with the basic information needed to implement specific energy conservation opportunities, and additional information is presented relative to the formulation and development of the energy management plan. Chapters are entitled: The Need for Energy Management (International Factors, The US Energy Situation, Energy and the Building Owner); The Fundamentals of Energy Consumption in Buildings (Energy Basics, Heat Basics, Heat Flow and the Building Envelope, Air and Comfort, Factors Affecting Energy Use In Buildings); Principles of Energy Conservation (Building Energy Consumption Characteristics); Planning the Energy Management Program (Obtaining Commitment and Support, Establishing the Energy Use Index, Organizing to Develop the Plan, Developing and Implementing the Plan); Conducting a Survey of Facilities and Operations (The Energy Audit, Preparation of Building and Systems Profile, Measurement and Instrumentation); Guidelines for Energy Conservation (Operator ECO's, Owner ECO'S); Developing the Draft Final Plan (Analyze Survey Findings, Putting the Plan on Paper, Review and Submit); Implementing the Program (Developing the Final Plan, Implementing the Plan, Monitoring and Updating the Program). A glossary is included and specific information on degree days and cooling hours for some selected cities and a computer energy study data for the New York Hilton are included in appendices. (MCW)

  10. Zero energy buildings in the logistics warehouse systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajac, Pawel; Kwasniowski, Stanislaw

    2017-11-01

    The article discusses the evaluation of possible reductions of energy consumption in warehouse buildings and the analysis of construction and functioning of modern storage warehouses. For a warehouse the following are presented: operation evaluation measures and indexes, an energy balance, ideas for improvements in terms of energy conservation in particular functioning zones.

  11. Results. Building integrated energy supply; Resultater. Bygningsintegreret energiforsyning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Rasmus L.; Noergaard, J.; Daniels, O.; Justesen, R.O.

    2011-08-15

    In the future, buildings will not only act as consumers of energy but as producers as well. For these ''prosumers'', energy production by use of solar panels, photovoltaics and heat pumps etc will be essential. The objective of this project was to find the most optimal combinations of building insulation and use of renewable energy sources in existing buildings in terms of economics and climate impacts. Five houses were analyzed based on different personal load, consumption profiles, solar orientation and proposed building envelope improvements and use of combinations of renewable energy systems. The analysis was conducted by making a large number of simulations of which the best combinations were selected. The final result takes form of a single top-50 list with the best combinations of energy systems according to CO{sub 2} emission, energy consumption and economics. The present report contains the conclusions of and comments on the project's results. (ln)

  12. Residential Energy Consumption Survey: Quality Profile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    The Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) is a periodic national survey that provides timely information about energy consumption and expenditures of U.S. households and about energy-related characteristics of housing units. The survey was first conducted in 1978 as the National Interim Energy Consumption Survey (NIECS), and the 1979 survey was called the Household Screener Survey. From 1980 through 1982 RECS was conducted annually. The next RECS was fielded in 1984, and since then, the survey has been undertaken at 3-year intervals. The most recent RECS was conducted in 1993.

  13. Life-cycle energy of residential buildings in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Yuan; Ries, Robert J.; Wang, Yaowu

    2013-01-01

    In the context of rapid urbanization and new construction in rural China, residential building energy consumption has the potential to increase with the expected increase in demand. A process-based hybrid life-cycle assessment model is used to quantify the life-cycle energy use for both urban and rural residential buildings in China and determine the energy use characteristics of each life cycle phase. An input–output model for the pre-use phases is based on 2007 Chinese economic benchmark data. A process-based life-cycle assessment model for estimating the operation and demolition phases uses historical energy-intensity data. Results show that operation energy in both urban and rural residential buildings is dominant and varies from 75% to 86% of life cycle energy respectively. Gaps in living standards as well as differences in building structure and materials result in a life-cycle energy intensity of urban residential buildings that is 20% higher than that of rural residential buildings. The life-cycle energy of urban residential buildings is most sensitive to the reduction of operational energy intensity excluding heating energy which depends on both the occupants' energy-saving behavior as well as the performance of the building itself. -- Highlights: •We developed a hybrid LCA model to quantify the life-cycle energy for urban and rural residential buildings in China. •Operation energy in urban and rural residential buildings is dominant, varying from 75% to 86% of life cycle energy respectively. •Compared with rural residential buildings, the life-cycle energy intensity of urban residential buildings is 20% higher. •The life-cycle energy of urban residential buildings is most sensitive to the reduction of daily activity energy

  14. Energy conservation in selected buildings, Gdansk. 1. final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-02-01

    This Final Report marks the end of the implementation stage of the project: `Energy Conservation in Selected Buildings in Gdansk, Poland` supported by the Danish Environment-related Energy Sector Programme for Poland under the Danish Energy Agency. The residential and commercial sectors together with public buildings account for 40-45% of the total energy consumption and are dominated by the use of space heating and hot water. The sector has a significant over-consumption of energy, which first of all is due to the lack of or too weak incentives for the individual tenants to decrease the energy consumption. Bad thermal insulation of buildings and inefficient central heating systems with a widespread lack of measurement and automatic control systems give cause for extensive heat losses. The objective of the project has been to document the effects of energy savings in 18 multi-family houses when different types of energy saving measures are applied. These measures include thermal insulation of buildings, refurbishment of the heating system and introduction of individual billing system for heating and hot tap water. Energy audits of 18 buildings were performed by combination of on-site inspection of all buildings and data collection from the available drawings, technical descriptions, etc. The on-site inspection was carried out by use of an energy audit scheme specially developed for this project. (EG)

  15. A Smart Energy System for Sustainable Buildings : The Case of the Bernoulliborg

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nizamic, Faris

    2016-01-01

    Today's buildings are responsible for more than 40% of the world's total energy consumption. Current systems that manage equipment in buildings fail to reduce unnecessary energy consumption while at the same time maintaining the comfort of those using the buildings. This is usually because the

  16. Actual energy consumption in dwellings. The effect of energy performance regulations and occupant behaviour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerra Santin, O.

    2010-10-19

    Residential buildings have continuously improved in energy efficiency, partly as a consequence of the introduction of energy regulations in many countries. Although better thermal properties and systems efficiency have lowered energy consumption for space heating in recent decades, substantial differences in energy consumption in similar dwellings are still being observed. These differences in consumption are thought to be caused by differences in occupancy patterns, by quality of construction and by rebound effects. This research addresses the effect of energy performance regulations and occupant behavior on energy consumption for space and water heating in dwellings built after the introduction of the energy performance regulations in the Netherlands. The results of this research show that improving the energy efficiency of buildings alone is not enough to decrease that energy consumption. The large differences found in the use of dwellings indicate that, especially in energy efficient houses, occupant behavior provides an opportunity for further reductions in the energy consumption for space heating which could boost the efforts to conserve energy worldwide.

  17. The energy consumption of control systems; Het energiegebruik van regelinstallaties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Gulik, A.R.; De Wildt, M.G. [Grontmij Nederland, Amersfoort (Netherlands)

    2013-07-15

    Control systems for e.g. indoor climate and illumination are essential in modern building services, and useful for comfort or energy conservation. Energy conservation is of course an important aim, but what is the energy consumption of the control systems? Is the consumption higher than the savings? This question was subject of a comprehensive study, with measurements and simulation calculations. It can be concluded that the energy consumption of control installation for spaces is substantial [Dutch] Regelinstallaties voor bijvoorbeeld klimaatregeling, verlichtingsregeling en domotica zijn niet meer weg te denken uit de moderne installatietechniek, of ze nu dienen voor comfort, gemak of energiebesparing. Maar hoeveel energie gebruiken deze installaties eigenlijk? Voor ontwerpers blijkt dit helemaal geen issue te zijn terwijl adviseurs, installateurs en zelfs fabrikanten zeggen hiervan geen idee te hebben. Door metingen en het gebruik van berekeningsmodellen is vastgesteld wat het energiegebruik van regelinstallaties op jaarbasis is. Dit blijkt substantieel te zijn, maar er zijn mogelijkheden om het gebruik te reduceren.

  18. Review of the Application of Green Building and Energy Saving Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Zhineng

    2017-12-01

    The use of energy-saving technologies in green buildings should run through the entire process of building design, construction and use, enabling green energy-saving technologies to maximize their effectiveness in construction. Realize the sustainable development of green building, reduce energy consumption, reduce people’s interference with the natural environment, suitable for people living in “green” building.

  19. Estimates of US biomass energy consumption 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-05-06

    This report is the seventh in a series of publications developed by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to quantify the biomass-derived primary energy used by the US economy. It presents estimates of 1991 and 1992 consumption. The objective of this report is to provide updated estimates of biomass energy consumption for use by Congress, Federal and State agencies, biomass producers and end-use sectors, and the public at large.

  20. Estimates of US biomass energy consumption 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This report is the seventh in a series of publications developed by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to quantify the biomass-derived primary energy used by the US economy. It presents estimates of 1991 and 1992 consumption. The objective of this report is to provide updated estimates of biomass energy consumption for use by Congress, Federal and State agencies, biomass producers and end-use sectors, and the public at large

  1. A review of building energy regulation and policy for energy conservation in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwaro, Joseph; Mwasha, Abraham

    2010-01-01

    The rapid growth of energy use, worldwide, hfs raised concerns over problems of energy supply and exhaustion of energy resources. Most of the developed countries are implementing building energy regulations such as energy standards, codes etc., to reduce building energy consumption. The position of developing countries with respect to energy regulations implementation and enforcement is either poorly documented or not documented at all. In addition, there is a lack of consistent data, which makes it difficult to understand the underlying changes that affect energy regulation implementation in developing countries. In that respect, this paper investigates the progress of building energy regulations in developing countries and its implication for energy conservation and efficiency. The present status of building energy regulations in 60 developing countries around the world was analysed through a survey of building energy regulations using online survey. The study revealed the present progress made on building energy regulations in relation to implementation, development and compliance; at the same time the study recommends possible solutions to the barriers facing building energy regulation implementation in the developing world. - Research Highlights: →Progress and implications of energy regulations in developing countries. →Investigation assessed the progress made on energy regulations using online survey. →Energy regulation activities is progressively increasing in developing countries. →The study identified 25 developing countries without energy regulatory standards. →The study shows relationship between energy regulation and energy consumption.

  2. State energy data report 1995 - consumption estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    The State Energy Data Report (SEDR) provides annual time series estimates of State-level energy consumption by major economic sectors. The estimates are developed in the State Energy Data System (SEDS), which is maintained and operated by the Energy Information Administration (EIA). The goal in maintaining SEDS exists for two principal reasons: (1) to provide State energy consumption estimates to Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, and the general public, and (2) to provide the historical series necessary for EIA`s energy models.

  3. The relationship among energy prices and energy consumption in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Chaoqing; Liu, Sifeng; Wu, Junlong

    2010-01-01

    The pricing mechanism for energy is not in line with the international standards, because the energy prices are controlled by the government partly or completely in China. Chinese government made a lot of efforts to improve the pricing mechanism for energy. The relations between Chinese energy prices and energy consumption are the foundations to reform the mechanism. In this paper, the relations between Chinese energy consumption and energy prices are researched by cointegration equations, impulse response functions, granger causality and variance decomposition. The cointegration relations among energy prices, energy consumption and economic outputs show that higher energy price will decrease energy consumption in Chinese industrial sectors but will not reduce the economic output in the long run. The cointegration relation between energy price and household energy consumption shows that higher energy price will decrease household energy consumption in the long run and increase it in the short run. So Chinese government should deepen the reform of pricing mechanism for energy, and increase the energy prices reasonably to save energy. (author)

  4. Regression Tree-Based Methodology for Customizing Building Energy Benchmarks to Individual Commercial Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaskhedikar, Apoorva Prakash

    According to the U.S. Energy Information Administration, commercial buildings represent about 40% of the United State's energy consumption of which office buildings consume a major portion. Gauging the extent to which an individual building consumes energy in excess of its peers is the first step in initiating energy efficiency improvement. Energy Benchmarking offers initial building energy performance assessment without rigorous evaluation. Energy benchmarking tools based on the Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) database are investigated in this thesis. This study proposes a new benchmarking methodology based on decision trees, where a relationship between the energy use intensities (EUI) and building parameters (continuous and categorical) is developed for different building types. This methodology was applied to medium office and school building types contained in the CBECS database. The Random Forest technique was used to find the most influential parameters that impact building energy use intensities. Subsequently, correlations which were significant were identified between EUIs and CBECS variables. Other than floor area, some of the important variables were number of workers, location, number of PCs and main cooling equipment. The coefficient of variation was used to evaluate the effectiveness of the new model. The customization technique proposed in this thesis was compared with another benchmarking model that is widely used by building owners and designers namely, the ENERGY STAR's Portfolio Manager. This tool relies on the standard Linear Regression methods which is only able to handle continuous variables. The model proposed uses data mining technique and was found to perform slightly better than the Portfolio Manager. The broader impacts of the new benchmarking methodology proposed is that it allows for identifying important categorical variables, and then incorporating them in a local, as against a global, model framework for EUI

  5. Can urban rail transit curb automobile energy consumption?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Boqiang; Du, Zhili

    2017-01-01

    With the rapid development of China's economy and the speed of urbanization, China's automobile sector has experienced rapid development. The rapid development of the automobile sector has increased energy consumption. According to the results of this paper, automobile energy consumption accounted for about 10.73% of total energy consumption in China in 2015, about 3.6 times the proportion a decade ago. With the deterioration of urban traffic conditions, relying on expanding the amount of vehicles and city road network cannot solve the problem. Urban rail transit is energy-saving and less-polluting, uses less space, has large capacity, and secure. Urban rail transit, according to the principle of sustainable development, is a green transportation system and should be especially adopted for large and medium-sized cities. The paper uses the binary choice model (Probit and Logit) to analyze the main factors influencing the development of rail transit in Chinese cities, and whether automobile energy consumption is the reason for the construction of urban rail transit. Secondly, we analyze the influence of urban rail transit on automobile energy consumption using DID model. The results indicate that the construction of urban rail traffic can restrain automobile energy consumption significantly, with continuous impact in the second year. - Highlights: • Investigate the main factors influencing the building of rail transit for Chinese cities. • Analyze the influence of urban rail transit on automobile energy consumption by DID model. • The results indicate that the construction of urban rail traffic can restrain automobile energy consumption significantly.

  6. Energy Consumption and Greenhouse Gas Emission Evaluation Scenarios of Mea Fah Luang University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laingoen Onn

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In Thailand, quantity of the educational institutes building shared one fourth of commercial building. Among the energy consumption and conservation in the building in Thailand are mostly study in typical office and resident building. Mea Fah Luang University (MFU was selected to represent the educational institutes building where located in the northern part of Thailand. The average temperature in the northern is lower than other parts of Thailand. This study was firstly collected the data about quantity and behaviour of energy consumption in MFU based on the energy audit handbook. Although MFU is located in the northern of Thailand. The highest energy consumption is in the part of air condition. When the energy efficiency appliances and energy conservation building are implemented, the cost of energy will be saved around 15,867,960 Baht. Furthermore, the greenhouse gas emission is also reduced about 72.01 kg CO2, equivalent/m2/year.

  7. Optimizing Existing Multistory Building Designs towards Net-Zero Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Y. AbuGrain

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent global developments in awareness and concerns about environmental problems have led to reconsidering built environment approaches and construction techniques. One of the alternatives is the principle of low/zero-energy buildings. This study investigates the potentials of energy savings in an existing multi-story building in the Mediterranean region in order to achieve net-zero energy as a solution to increasing fossil fuel prices. The Colored building at the Faculty of Architecture, Eastern Mediterranean University, Cyprus was chosen as a target of this study to be investigated and analyzed in order to know how energy efficiency strategies could be applied to the building to reduce annual energy consumption. Since this research objective is to develop a strategy to achieve net-zero energy in existing buildings, case study and problem solving methodologies were applied in this research in order to evaluate the building design in a qualitative manner through observations, in addition to a quantitative method through an energy modeling simulation to achieve desirable results which address the problems. After optimizing the building energy performance, an alternative energy simulation was made of the building in order to make an energy comparison analysis, which leads to reliable conclusions. These methodologies and the strategies used in this research can be applied to similar buildings in order to achieve net-zero energy goals.

  8. Energy savings in Polish buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markel, L.C.; Gula, A.; Reeves, G.

    1995-12-31

    A demonstration of low-cost insulation and weatherization techniques was a part of phase 1 of the Krakow Clean Fossil Fuels and Energy Efficient Project. The objectives were to identify a cost-effective set of measures to reduce energy used for space heating, determine how much energy could be saved, and foster widespread implementation of those measures. The demonstration project focused on 4 11-story buildings in a Krakow housing cooperative. Energy savings of over 20% were obtained. Most important, the procedures and materials implemented in the demonstration project have been adapted to Polish conditions and applied to other housing cooperatives, schools, and hospitals. Additional projects are being planned, in Krakow and other cities, under the direction of FEWE-Krakow, the Polish Energie Cities Network, and Biuro Rozwoju Krakowa.

  9. Energy savings in the Danish building stock until 2050

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wittchen, Kim Bjarne; Kragh, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    are energy upgraded according to the requirements stipulated in the Danish Building Regulations 2010. Furthermore, scenario analyses was made for the potential impact on the energy consumption of introducing different levels of tightening of the energy requirements for existing buildings in the Danish...... savings, due to the level of the current requirements. Higher energy savings can, though, be achieved e.g. by setting requirements for balanced mechanical ventilation with heat recovery and use of solar heating for domestic hot water.......A study has been conducted analysing the energy savings for space heating and domestic hot water in the Danish building stock due to renovation of building components at the end of their service life. The purpose of the study was to estimate the energy savings until 2050 as building components...

  10. Reducing the operational energy demand in buildings using building information modeling tools and sustainability approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Valinejad Shoubi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A sustainable building is constructed of materials that could decrease environmental impacts, such as energy usage, during the lifecycle of the building. Building Information Modeling (BIM has been identified as an effective tool for building performance analysis virtually in the design stage. The main aims of this study were to assess various combinations of materials using BIM and identify alternative, sustainable solutions to reduce operational energy consumption. The amount of energy consumed by a double story bungalow house in Johor, Malaysia, and assessments of alternative material configurations to determine the best energy performance were evaluated by using Revit Architecture 2012 and Autodesk Ecotect Analysis software to show which of the materials helped in reducing the operational energy use of the building to the greatest extent throughout its annual life cycle. At the end, some alternative, sustainable designs in terms of energy savings have been suggested.

  11. Energy efficient buildings : a plan for BC : creating a legacy of energy efficient buildings in British Columbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-10-01

    A plan to conserve energy and improve energy efficiency in homes and buildings in British Columbia was presented. Benefits of the plan included savings for consumers throughout BC; an increase in the value of homes and buildings; a return on investment after an average of 5 years; improved comfort and indoor air quality in buildings; creation of equipment manufacturing, building design, development and trades jobs across the province; and reduced environmental impacts, including greenhouse gas (GHG) and smog-creating air emissions. An outline of cost-effective energy efficiency targets was presented to complement ongoing local, provincial and federal programs. A number of market challenges were reviewed, such as the lack of information available to consumers on energy efficiency, the increased initial cost of energy efficient buildings, and the fact that opportunities to reduce energy consumption after construction are limited and expensive. It was suggested that energy consumers are not often aware of the environmental and social costs of over-consumption of energy. Details of existing programs that support energy efficiency were presented, as well as information concerning sales tax exemptions for high efficiency heating equipment and other materials used to conserve energy. Various provincial policies and incentives supporting energy conservation were outlined. Cost-effective targets for energy efficiency for new and existing buildings were presented, as well as details of rebates for homeowners. Capital costs for new construction standards were presented, as well as details of incentives and provincial sales tax exemptions

  12. Environmental and Energy Aspects of Construction Industry and Green Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauskale, L.; Geipele, I.; Zeltins, N.; Lecis, I.

    2017-04-01

    Green building is an important component of sustainable real estate market development, and one of the reasons is that the construction industry consumes a high amount of resources. Energy consumption of construction industry results in greenhouse gas emissions, so green buildings, energy systems, building technologies and other aspects play an important role in sustainable development of real estate market, construction and environmental development. The aim of the research is to analyse environmental aspects of sustainable real estate market development, focusing on importance of green buildings at the industry level and related energy aspects. Literature review, historical, statistical data analysis and logical access methods have been used in the research. The conducted research resulted in high environmental rationale and importance of environment-friendly buildings, and there are many green building benefits during the building life cycle. Future research direction is environmental information process and its models.

  13. Social costs of energy consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hohmeyer, O.

    1988-01-01

    This study systematically compares the external costs and benefits of different electricity generating technologies. It covers environmental and employment effects, the depletion of natural resources, and public subsidies. Electricity production based on fossil fuels and nuclear energy compared with electricity production based on wind energy and photovoltaic systems. The study shows that wind and photovoltaic solar energy induce far less social costs than conventionally generated electricity. The impact of excluding social costs on the competitive position of the different energy technologies is analyzed. It is shown that the allocation process is seriously distorted resulting in sub-optimal investment decisions concerning competing energy technologies. This exclusion of social costs can delay the introduction of renewable energy sources by more than ten years and results in considerable losses to society. (orig./HSCH) With 17 figs., 24 tabs

  14. Energy Resources Consumption Minimization in Housing Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balastov Alexey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the energy savings analysis during operation of buildings, provides the heat balance of residential premises, considers options for energy-efficient solutions for hot water supply systems in buildings. As technical facilities that allow the use of secondary heat sources and solar energy, there are also considered the systems with heat recovery of “gray” wastewater, heat pumps, solar collectors and photoelectric converters.

  15. Electric energy consumption in Norway: The light is on day and night in commercial buildings while households and industries are saving power; Industrien og husholdningene sparer stroem - naeringslivet fyrer for kraaka: lyset brenner hele doegnet i naeringsbygg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    The article discusses some recent trends in the consumption of electric energy in Norway. The price on electric energy has risen strongly and politicians and others have asked the consumers to economize on electricity. Private households have been aiming at economizing and energy-intensive industries have indeed reduced the power consumption. However, other industries and consumers have a considerable potential for saving energy, but are not doing much about it.

  16. Energy Consumption in Cloud Computing Data Centers

    OpenAIRE

    Uchechukwu Awada; Keqiu Li; Yanming Shen

    2014-01-01

    The implementation of cloud computing has attracted computing as a utility and enables penetrative applications from scientific, consumer and business domains. However, this implementation faces tremendous energy consumption, carbon dioxide emission and associated costs concerns. With energy consumption becoming key issue for the operation and maintenance of cloud datacenters, cloud computing providers are becoming profoundly concerned.  In this paper, we present formulations and solutions fo...

  17. A long-term, integrated impact assessment of alternative building energy code scenarios in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Sha; Eom, Jiyong; Evans, Meredydd; Clarke, Leon

    2014-01-01

    China is the second largest building energy user in the world, ranking first and third in residential and commercial energy consumption. Beginning in the early 1980s, the Chinese government has developed a variety of building energy codes to improve building energy efficiency and reduce total energy demand. This paper studies the impact of building energy codes on energy use and CO 2 emissions by using a detailed building energy model that represents four distinct climate zones each with three building types, nested in a long-term integrated assessment framework GCAM. An advanced building stock module, coupled with the building energy model, is developed to reflect the characteristics of future building stock and its interaction with the development of building energy codes in China. This paper also evaluates the impacts of building codes on building energy demand in the presence of economy-wide carbon policy. We find that building energy codes would reduce Chinese building energy use by 13–22% depending on building code scenarios, with a similar effect preserved even under the carbon policy. The impact of building energy codes shows regional and sectoral variation due to regionally differentiated responses of heating and cooling services to shell efficiency improvement. - Highlights: • We assessed long-term impacts of building codes and climate policy using GCAM. • Building energy codes would reduce Chinese building energy use by 13–22%. • The impacts of codes on building energy use vary by climate region and sub-sector

  18. Energy efficiency in public buildings; Eficiencia energetica em predios publicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiperstok, Asher; Garcia, Agenor Gomes Pinto; Vianna, Luis Gustavo; Freitas, Daniela; Oliveira, Braulio; Azevedo, Alexandre; Alves, Igor; Fagundes, Vitor Lacerda [Universidade Federal da Bahia (TECLIM/UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Rede de Tecnologias Limpas

    2010-07-01

    The implementation process of a energy management system in buildings of the Bahia state administration is presented. Completed a first phase, with a prior knowledge of the characteristics of the energy use in buildings and the implementation of a daily consumption monitoring system (the Vianet), a second phase begins with the definition of consumption targets and mobilization actions of the people, both the whole of the users, and more strongly the 'eco team', group which shall be responsible for the management. This paper makes a theoretical consideration on the use of energy in buildings, showing the room for energy management in addition to the simple exchange by efficient equipment, estimates the reduction obtained by the energy efficiency program of the electric utility with the exchange of light fixtures and air conditioners, shows the targeting process and difficulties found and identifies measures that will be implemented to achieve increasingly efficient patterns of energy use. (author)

  19. Energy audit role in building planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipahutar, Riman; Bizzy, Irwin

    2017-11-01

    An energy audit is one way to overcome the excessive use of energy in buildings. The increasing growth of population, economy, and industry will have an impact on energy demand and the formation of greenhouse gas emissions. Indonesian National Standard (SNI) concerning the building has not been implemented optimally due to the socialization process by a government not yet been conducted. An energy audit of buildings has been carried out at offices and public services. Most electrical energy in buildings used for air refresher equipment or air conditioning. Calculation of OTTV has demonstrated the importance of performing since the beginning of the planning of a building to get energy-efficient buildings.

  20. Building concepts for a transition towards energy neutrality in 2050

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Boer, B.J.; Paauw, J. [TNO Built Environment and Geosciences, Delft (Netherlands); Opstelten, I.J.; Bakker, E.J. [Energy research Centre of the Netherlands ECN, Petten (Netherlands)

    2007-03-15

    In this paper building concepts for the near future are described which enable the transition towards a net energy neutral building sector in the Netherlands by the year 2050. With 'net energy neutrality' is meant that, on a yearly basis, the total energy consumption in the built environment is compensated by local renewable energy production e.g. by using solar thermal (T), photovoltaic (PV), PVT and/or wind. A study concerning the feasibility of a 'net energy neutral built environment by 2050' set the energetic ambitions for the building concepts to be developed. This resulted in different concepts for residential buildings and for office-buildings. The building concepts are based on passive house technology to minimise the heating and cooling demand, and make optimal use of active and passive solar energy. Concepts for new to build domestic buildings are in fact energy producing to compensate for the remaining energy demand of existing, renovated dwellings. In all concepts the 'trias energetica' or 'energy pyramid' served as a general guideline, striving for minimisation of energy demand, maximal usage of renewable energy and usage of fossil fuels as efficiently as possible. Different full roof integrated options for using solar energy (PV, T or PVT) with variable storage options have been compared by making simulations with a dynamic simulation programme, to gain insight on their impact on energy, building engineering and economic impact. Also different possibilities for installations to fulfil the heating demand for the space heating and DHW demand are compared. For each concept, the resulting primary energy profiles for space heating and cooling, domestic hot water, electricity consumption for lighting, ventilation and household appliances are given.

  1. Simulations of Innovative Solutions for Energy Efficient Building Facades

    OpenAIRE

    Ahuja, Aashish

    2015-01-01

    The last decade has witnessed a heightened interest in making buildings more sustainable, which has been fueled largely by the relative increase in energy costs and advancements in manufacturing technology. Lighting consumes a substantial amount of the building energy consumption, making it necessary to look for alternative technology that depends more on natural lighting. A structural element for facades called the Translucent Concrete (TC) panel has been developed for capturing and deliveri...

  2. Energy consumption and conservation in food retailing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tassou, S.A.; Ge, Y.; Hadawey, A.; Marriott, D.

    2011-01-01

    The total annual CO 2 emissions associated with the energy consumption of the major retail food outlets in the UK amount to around 4.0 MtCO 2 . The energy consumption and emissions from supermarkets varies widely and can depend on many factors such as the type and size of the store, business and merchandising practices and refrigeration and environmental control systems used. This paper provides energy consumption data of a sample of 2570 retail food stores from a number of major retail food chains in the UK. The sample covers all major store categories from convenience stores to hypermarkets and includes approximately 30% of the total number of stores in the UK having a net sales area more than 280 m 2 . The data show a wide variability of energy intensity even within stores of the same retail chain. A power law can be used to describe the variation of the average electrical energy intensity of the stores in the sample with sales area. If the electrical intensity of the stores above the average is reduced to the average by energy conservation measures, annual energy savings of the order of 10% or 840 GWh can be achieved representing 355,000 tonnes annual reduction in CO 2 emissions. The paper also discusses the major energy consuming processes in retail food stores and identifies opportunities for energy savings. - Research highlights: → Energy consumption by supermarkets in the UK is significant and a wide variability exists between stores of similar size. → Energy conservation measures to reduce energy consumption of individual stores to the average can produce a0% energy savings. → Significant opportunities for energy savings exist from the integration of HVAC and refrigeration equipment.

  3. Energy Consumption of Insulated Material Using Thermal Effect Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadzil M. A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Wall is one of the structures elements that resist direct heat from the atmosphere. Modification on several structures is relevance to reduce filtrate thermal movement on wall. Insulation material seems to be suitable to be implemented since its purpose meets the heat resistance requirement. Insulation material applied as to generate positive impact in energy saving through reduction in total building energy consumption. Fiberglass is one of the insulation materials that can be used to insulate a space from heat and sound. Fiberglass is flammable insulation material with R Value rated of R-2.9 to R-3.8 which meets the requirement in minimizing heat transfer. Finite element software, ABAQUS v6.13 employed for analyze non insulated wall and other insulated wall with different wall thicknesses. The several calculations related to overall heat movement, total energy consumption per unit area of wall, life cycle cost analysis and determination of optimal insulation thickness is calculated due to show the potential of the implementation in minimize heat transfer and generate potential energy saving in building operation. It is hoped that the study can contribute to better understanding on the potential building wall retrofitting works in increasing building serviceability and creating potential benefits for building owner.

  4. Barriers' and policies' analysis of China's building energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yurong; Wang, Yuanfeng

    2013-01-01

    With the rapid economic growth and the improvement of people's living standards, China's building energy consumption has kept rising during the past 15 years. Under the effort of the Chinese government and the society, China's building energy efficiency has made certain achievements. However, the implementation of building energy efficiency in China is still far from its potential. Based on the analysis of the existing policies implemented in China, the article concluded that the most essential and the most effective ways to promote building energy efficiency is the government's involvement as well as economic and financial incentives. In addition, the main barriers in the process of promoting building energy efficiency in China are identified in six aspects. It has been found that the legal system and administrative issues constitute major barriers, and the lack of financial incentives and the mismatching of market mechanism also hamper the promotion of building energy efficiency. Finally, in view of the existing policies and barriers analysis, three corresponding policy proposals are presented. -- Highlights: •The existing policies implemented in China from three aspects are presented and analysed. •The Government's involvement is the most essential effective way to promote building-energy efficiency. •Six aspects of barriers in promoting building energy efficiency in China are identified. •The legal system and administrative issues constitute the major barriers. •Three policy proposals to further promote building energy efficiency in China are proposed

  5. Energy consumption and economic development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tremblay, M.T.

    1994-01-01

    Speaking as an economic planner, the author of this address suggests a scenario that is rather pessimistic for the future of nuclear energy. He emphasizes that technological change will lead to economic growth, but then supposes that improvements in hydrogen energy and solar energy, combined with global competition, may lead to a fall rather than an increase in oil prices early in the next century. The 10 year lead time for bringing a nuclear station from design to commissioning makes it difficult to predict the economics of operation

  6. Quantification of variables that affect energy consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, C.S.

    1993-01-01

    Facility energy consumption is the summation of a number of contributory factors, caused by equipment that uses energy in response to demands placed by the user and according to its particular design. While energy efficiency improvements usually concentrate on individual parts or systems, overall energy consumption is analyzed by examining the use of specific fuels. Because independent variables effect the consumption of these fuels, accurate comparisons of a facility's energy consumption for time-measured periods must include these effects. In many cases, it is possible to determine and quantify the effects of one or more of the independent variables through a statistically valid regression analysis of the data. The regression model can be linear, or be dependent on other functions such as powers, time lead or lag, or exponential. The most common model is linear, but other dependencies are often encountered. Regression analyses are not difficult to accomplish, and are included as one of the tools in most spreadsheet software. The analyses provide the energy manager with a means to better understand the energy consumption of his/her facility

  7. Revisit of Energy Use and Technologies of High Performance Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Cheng; Hong, Tianzhen

    2014-03-30

    Energy consumed by buildings accounts for one third of the world?s total primary energy use. Associated with the conscious of energy savings in buildings, High Performance Buildings (HPBs) has surged across the world, with wide promotion and adoption of various performance rating and certification systems. It is valuable to look into the actual energy performance of HPBs and to understand their influencing factors. To shed some light on this topic, this paper conducted a series of portfolio analysis based on a database of 51 high performance office buildings across the world. Analyses showed that the actual site Energy Use Intensity (EUI) of the 51 buildings varied by a factor of up to 11, indicating a large scale of variation of the actual energy performance of the current HPBs. Further analysis of the correlation between EUI and climate elucidated ubiquitous phenomenon of EUI scatter throughout all climate zones, implying that the weather is not a decisive factor, although important, for the actual energy consumption of an individual building. On the building size via EUI, analysis disclosed that smaller buildings have a tendency to achieving lower energy use. Even so, the correlation is not absolute since some large buildings demonstrated low energy use while some small buildings performed opposite. Concerning the technologies, statistics indicated that the application of some technologies had correlations with some specific building size and climate characteristic. However, it was still hard to pinpoint a set of technologies which was directly correlative with a group of low EUI buildings. It is concluded that no a single factor essentially determines the actual energy performance of HPBs. To deliver energy-efficient buildings, an integrated design taking account of climate, technology, occupant behavior as well as operation and maintenance should be implemented.

  8. NET-ZERO ENERGY BUILDING OPERATOR TRAINING PROGRAM (NZEBOT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brizendine, Anthony; Byars, Nan; Sleiti, Ahmad; Gehrig, Bruce; Lu, Na

    2012-12-31

    The primary objective of the Net-Zero Energy Building Operator Training Program (NZEBOT) was to develop certificate level training programs for commercial building owners, managers and operators, principally in the areas of energy / sustainability management. The expected outcome of the project was a multi-faceted mechanism for developing the skill-based competency of building operators, owners, architects/engineers, construction professionals, tenants, brokers and other interested groups in energy efficient building technologies and best practices. The training program draws heavily on DOE supported and developed materials available in the existing literature, as well as existing, modified, and newly developed curricula from the Department of Engineering Technology & Construction Management (ETCM) at the University of North Carolina at Charlotte (UNC-Charlotte). The project goal is to develop a certificate level training curriculum for commercial energy and sustainability managers and building operators that: 1) Increases the skill-based competency of building professionals in energy efficient building technologies and best practices, and 2) Increases the workforce pool of expertise in energy management and conservation techniques. The curriculum developed in this project can subsequently be used to establish a sustainable energy training program that can contribute to the creation of new “green” job opportunities in North Carolina and throughout the Southeast region, and workforce training that leads to overall reductions in commercial building energy consumption. Three energy training / education programs were developed to achieve the stated goal, namely: 1. Building Energy/Sustainability Management (BESM) Certificate Program for Building Managers and Operators (40 hours); 2. Energy Efficient Building Technologies (EEBT) Certificate Program (16 hours); and 3. Energy Efficent Buildings (EEB) Seminar (4 hours). Training Program 1 incorporates the following

  9. Complex analysis of energy efficiency in operated high-rise residential building: Case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korniyenko Sergey

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy conservation and human thermal comfort enhancement in buildings is a topical issue of modern architecture and construction. The innovative solution of this problem makes it possible to enhance building ecological and maintenance safety, to reduce hydrocarbon fuel consumption, and to improve life standard of people. The requirements to increase of energy efficiency in buildings should be provided at all the stages of building's life cycle that is at the stage of design, construction and maintenance of buildings. The research purpose is complex analysis of energy efficiency in operated high-rise residential building. Many actions for building energy efficiency are realized according to the project; mainly it is the effective building envelope and engineering systems. Based on results of measurements the energy indicators of the building during annual period have been calculated. The main reason of increase in heat losses consists in the raised infiltration of external air in the building through a building envelope owing to the increased air permeability of windows and balcony doors (construction defects. Thermorenovation of the building based on ventilating and infiltration heat losses reduction through a building envelope allows reducing annual energy consumption. Energy efficiency assessment based on the total annual energy consumption of building, including energy indices for heating and a ventilation, hot water supply and electricity supply, in comparison with heating is more complete. The account of various components in building energy balance completely corresponds to modern direction of researches on energy conservation and thermal comfort enhancement in buildings.

  10. Complex analysis of energy efficiency in operated high-rise residential building: Case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korniyenko, Sergey

    2018-03-01

    Energy conservation and human thermal comfort enhancement in buildings is a topical issue of modern architecture and construction. The innovative solution of this problem makes it possible to enhance building ecological and maintenance safety, to reduce hydrocarbon fuel consumption, and to improve life standard of people. The requirements to increase of energy efficiency in buildings should be provided at all the stages of building's life cycle that is at the stage of design, construction and maintenance of buildings. The research purpose is complex analysis of energy efficiency in operated high-rise residential building. Many actions for building energy efficiency are realized according to the project; mainly it is the effective building envelope and engineering systems. Based on results of measurements the energy indicators of the building during annual period have been calculated. The main reason of increase in heat losses consists in the raised infiltration of external air in the building through a building envelope owing to the increased air permeability of windows and balcony doors (construction defects). Thermorenovation of the building based on ventilating and infiltration heat losses reduction through a building envelope allows reducing annual energy consumption. Energy efficiency assessment based on the total annual energy consumption of building, including energy indices for heating and a ventilation, hot water supply and electricity supply, in comparison with heating is more complete. The account of various components in building energy balance completely corresponds to modern direction of researches on energy conservation and thermal comfort enhancement in buildings.

  11. The potential of net zero energy buildings (NZEBs) concept at design stage for healthcare buildings towards sustainable development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazli Abdellah, Roy; Asrul Nasid Masrom, Md; Chen, Goh Kai; Mohamed, Sulzakimin; Omar, Roshartini

    2017-11-01

    The focus on net-zero energy buildings (NZEBs) has been widely analysed and discussed particularly when European Union Parliament are progressively moving towards regulation that promotes the improvement of energy efficiency (EE). Additionally, it also to reduce energy consumption through the recast of the EU Directive on Energy Performance of Buildings (EPBD) in which all new buildings to be “nearly Zero-Energy” Buildings by 2020. Broadly, there is a growing trend to explore the feasibility of net zero energy in healthcare sector as the level energy consumption for healthcare sector is found significantly high. Besides that, healthcare buildings energy consumption also exceeds of many other nondomestic building types, and this shortcoming is still undetermined yet especially for developing countries. This paper aims to review the potential of NZEBs in healthcare buildings by considering its concept in design features. Data are gathered through a comprehensive energy management literature review from previous studies. The review is vital to encourage construction players to increase their awareness, practices, and implementation of NZEBs in healthcare buildings. It suggests that NZEBs concept has a potential to be adapted in healthcare buildings through emphasizing of passive approach as well as the utilization of energy efficiency systems and renewable energy systems in buildings. This paper will provide a basis knowledge for construction key players mainly architects to promote NZEBs concept at design stage for healthcare buildings development.

  12. A cultural model of household energy consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutzenhiser, Loren

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the development of demand-side research, from an early interest in conservation behavior to a later focus on physical, economic, psychological and social models of energy consumption. Unfortunately, none of these models account satisfactorily for measured energy consumption in the residential sector. Growing interest in the end-uses of energy (e.g. in support of load forecasting, demand-side management and least-cost utility planning), increasing international studies of energy use, and continuing work in the energy and lifestyles research tradition now support an emerging cultural perspective on household energy use. The ecological foundations of the cultural model and its applications in energy research are discussed, along with some of the analytic consequences of this approach. (author)

  13. monthly energy consumption forecasting using wavelet analysis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    ABSTRACT. Monthly energy forecasts help heavy consumers of electric power to prepare adequate budget to pay their electricity bills and also draw the attention of management and stakeholders to electric- ity consumption levels so that energy efficiency measures are put in place to reduce cost. In this paper, a wavelet ...

  14. Monthly Energy Consumption Forecasting Using Wavelet Analysis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Monthly energy forecasts help heavy consumers of electric power to prepare adequate budget to pay their electricity bills and also draw the attention of management and stakeholders to electricity consumption levels so that energy efficiency measures are put in place to reduce cost. In this paper, a wavelet transform and ...

  15. Energy consumptions in the industry in 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This paper is a synthesis of the annual survey on energy consumptions by the French industry in 2008. It gives and comments the level and the evolutions of the consumed quantities per type of energy (electricity, vapour, gas, solid fuels, oil products), of their average annual cost. It describes the methodology implemented for this survey, indicates the sources of data and types and categories of surveyed industrial plants, describes how consumption calculations have been performed, and specifies the coefficients of conversion in tonne of equivalent oil with respect to the energy type (all conventional types and other types of fuels like vegetable wastes for example)

  16. ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND REAL GDP IN IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Akbar Naji Meidani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As one of the most important production factors and one of the most urgent final products, energy has a special position in the growth and development of the country. This paper examines the causal relationship between Real GDP and energy consumption in various economic sectors including (household and commercial, industry, transportation and agriculture sectors for Iran during 1967–2010 using the time series technique known as the Toda-Yamamoto method. Moreover, an error correction model is also estimated so that the results of these two methods are compared. We found a strong unidirectional causality from energy consumption in industry sector to real gross domestic product. Energy consumption in industry sector can observably promote the development of economy.

  17. Kyiv institutional buildings sector energy efficiency program: Technical assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Secrest, T.J.; Freeman, S.L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Popelka, A. [Tysak Engineering, Acton, MA (United States); Shestopal, P.A.; Gagurin, E.V. [Agency for Rational Energy Use and Ecology, Kyiv (Ukraine)

    1997-08-01

    The purpose of this assessment is to characterize the economic energy efficiency potential and investment requirements for space heating and hot water provided by district heat in the stock of state and municipal institutional buildings in the city of Kyiv. The assessment involves three activities. The first is a survey of state and municipal institutions to characterize the stock of institutional buildings. The second is to develop an estimate of the cost-effective efficiency potential. The third is to estimate the investment requirements to acquire the efficiency resource. Institutional buildings are defined as nonresidential buildings owned and occupied by state and municipal organizations. General categories of institutional buildings are education, healthcare, and cultural. The characterization activity provides information about the number of buildings, building floorspace, and consumption of space heating and hot water energy provided by the district system.

  18. APPLICATION OF DOE-2 TO RESIDENTIAL BUILDING ENERGY PERFORMANCE STANDARDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lokmanhekim, M.; Goldstein, D. B.; Levine, M. D.; Rosenfield, A. H.

    1980-10-01

    One important requirement emerging from national and international efforts to shift from our present energy-intensive way of life to an energy conservation mode is the development of standards for assessing and regulating energy use and performance in buildings. This paper describes a life-cycle-cost approach to Building Energy Performance Standards (BEPS) calculated by using DOE-2: The Energy Use Analysis of Buildings Computer Program. The procedure outlined raises important questions that must be answered before the energy budgets devised from this approach can be reliably used as a policy tool, The DOE-2 program was used to calculate the energy consumption in prototype buildings and in their modified versions in which energy conservation measures were effected. The energy use of a modified building with lowest life-cycle-cost determines the energy budget for all buildings of that type. These calculations were based on a number of assumptions that may be controversial. These assumptions regard accuracy of the model, comparison of the DOE-2 program with other programs, stability of the energy budget, and sensitivity of the results to variations in the building parameters.

  19. URBAN FEATURES AND ENERGY CONSUMPTION AT LOCAL LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Soltani

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available There has been a growing interest in discovering the human effects on the environment and energy consumption in recent decades. It is estimated that the share of energy consumed in transportation and housing systems are around 20 and 30 percent of total energy consumption respectively. Furthermore, the residential greenhouse emissions depend on urban form and structure. This paper explores the effects of urban features on residential energy consumption at neighborhood level using data collected through household questionnaire (n=140. Two residential districts in metropolitan Shiraz, south of Iran, were selected as case study areas. Different features of two areas were compared including building density, typology, housing location, parcel size, floor area and construction materials. Ordinary linear regression was used to discover the impact of explanatory variables on energy consumption. It was found that some physical variables such as parcel size, setback and number of floors played significant roles in explaining the variances exist in energy use level. The results can be used by governmental agencies to modify land use policies and subdivision rules in hope of saving energy and achieving a sustainable community.

  20. Exploring energy consumption and demand in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Ying; Xia, Yan

    2012-01-01

    China has been experiencing industrialization and urbanization since reform and opening of its economy in 1978. Energy consumption in the country has featured issues such as a coal-dominated energy mix, low energy efficiency and high emissions. Thus, it is of great importance to explore the factors driving the increase in energy consumption in the past two decades and estimate the potential for decreasing energy demands in the future. In this paper a hybrid energy input–output model is used to decompose driving factors to identify how these factors impact changes in energy intensity. A modified RAS approach is applied to project energy requirements in a BAU scenario and an alternative scenario. The results show that energy input mix, industry structure and technology improvements have major influences on energy demand. Energy demand in China will continue to increase at a rapid rate if the economy develops as in the past decades, and is projected to reach 4.7 billion tce in 2020. However, the huge potential for a decrease cannot be neglected, since growth could be better by adjusting the energy mix and industrial structure and enhancing technology improvements. The total energy demand could be less than 4.0 billion tce in 2020. -- Highlights: ► In this paper a hybrid energy input–output model is used to decompose driving factors to China’s energy intensity change. ► A modified RAS approach is applied to project energy requirements in China. ► The results show that energy input mix, industry structure and technology improvements have major influences on energy demand. ► Energy demand in China will reach 4.7 billion ton in 2020 if the economy develops as in the past decades. ► There is a huge potential for a decrease of energy demand by adjusting the energy mix and industrial structure and enhancing technology improvements.

  1. Building energy efficiency in rural China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, Meredydd; Yu, Sha; Song, Bo; Deng, Qinqin; Liu, Jing; Delgado, Alison

    2014-01-01

    Rural buildings in China now account for more than half of China's total building energy use. Forty percent of the floorspace in China is in rural villages and towns. Most of these buildings are very energy inefficient, and may struggle to provide for basic needs. They are cold in the winter, and often experience indoor air pollution from fuel use. The Chinese government plans to adopt a voluntary building energy code, or design standard, for rural homes. The goal is to build on China's success with codes in urban areas to improve efficiency and comfort in rural homes. The Chinese government recognizes rural buildings represent a major opportunity for improving national building energy efficiency. The challenges of rural China are also greater than those of urban areas in many ways because of the limited local capacity and low income levels. The Chinese government wants to expand on new programs to subsidize energy efficiency improvements in rural homes to build capacity for larger-scale improvement. This article summarizes the trends and status of rural building energy use in China. It then provides an overview of the new rural building design standard, and describes options and issues to move forward with implementation. - Highlights: • Building energy use is larger in rural China than in cities. • Rural buildings are very energy intensive, and energy use is growing with incomes. • A new design standard aims to help rural communities build more efficiently. • Important challenges remain with implementation

  2. Investigation of building energy autonomy in the sahelian environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coulibaly, O; Koulidiati, J; Ouedraogo, A; Kuznik, F; Baillis, D

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the energy generation of a set of photovoltaic panels is compared with the energy load of a building in order to analyse its autonomy in the sahelian environment when taking into account, the orientation, the insulation and the energy transfer optimisation of its windows. The Type 56 TRNSYS multizone building model is utilized for the energy load simulation and the Type 94 model of the same code enables the coupling of photovoltaic (PV) panels with the building. Without insulation, the PV energy generation represents 73.52 and 111.79% of the building electric energy load, respectively for poly-crystalline and mono-crystalline panels. For the same PV characteristics and when we insulate the roof and the floor, the energy generation increases to represent successively 121.09 and 184.13%. In the meantime, for building without insulation and with insulate the roof, the floor and 2 cm insulated walls, the energy consumption ratios decrease respectively from 201.13 to 105.20 kWh/m 2 /year. The investigations finally show that it is even possible to generate excess energy (positive energy building) and reduce the number and incident surface area of the PV panels if we conjugate the previous model with building passive architectural design mode (orientation, solar protection ...).

  3. An energy systems engineering approach to the optimal design of energy systems in commercial buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Pei; Pistikopoulos, Efstratios N.; Li Zheng

    2010-01-01

    Energy consumption in commercial buildings accounts for a significant proportion of worldwide energy consumption. Any increase in the energy efficiency of the energy systems for commercial buildings would lead to significant energy savings and emissions reductions. In this work, we introduce an energy systems engineering framework towards the optimal design of such energy systems with improved energy efficiency and environmental performance. The framework features a superstructure representation of the various energy technology alternatives, a mixed-integer optimization formulation of the energy systems design problem, and a multi-objective design optimization solution strategy, where economic and environmental criteria are simultaneously considered and properly traded off. A case study of a supermarket energy systems design is presented to illustrate the key steps and potential of the proposed energy systems engineering approach.

  4. Walmart - Saving Energy, Saving Money Through Comprehensive Retrofits, Commercial Building Energy Efficiency (Fact Sheet); Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-03-01

    Walmart partnered with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in 2009 to develop and demonstrate energy retrofits for existing buildings. The goal was to reduce energy consumption by at least 30% versus ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2007, as part of DOE's Commercial Building Partnerships (CBP) Program. The project presented here, the retrofit of a 213,000 square foot store in Centennial, Colorado, withefficiency measures across multiple building systems, is part of Walmart's ongoing environmental sustainability program, which originated in 2005.

  5. Design of intelligent power consumption optimization and visualization management platform for large buildings based on internet of things

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gong Shulan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The buildings provide a significant contribution to total energy consumption and CO2 emission. It has been estimated that the development of an intelligent power consumption monitor and control system will result in about 30% savings in energy consumption. This design innovatively integrates the advanced technologies such as the internet of things, the internet, intelligent buildings and intelligent electricity which can offer open, efficient, convenient energy consumption detection platform in demand side and visual management demonstration application platform in power enterprises side. The system was created to maximize the effective and efficient the use of energy resource. It was development around sensor networks and intelligent gateway and the monitoring center software. This will realize the highly integration and comprehensive application in energy and information to meet the needs with intelligent buildings

  6. Cities and Energy Consumption: a Critical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmela Gargiulo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between cities and energy consumption has been of great interest for the scientific community for over twenty years. Most of the energy consumption, indeed, occurs in cities because of the high concentration of human activities. Thus, cities are responsible for a big share of carbon dioxide emissions (CO2. However, the debate on this topic is still open, mainly because of the heterogeneity of published studies in the selection, definition and measurement of the urban features influencing energy consumption and CO2 emissions, as well as in the choice of the energy sectors to be considered, in the territorial scale of analysis, and in the geographical distribution of the sample. Therefore, the goal of this research is to systematize and compare the approach, methodology and results of the relevant literature on the relationship between cities and energy consumption over the last twenty years. Furthermore, this critical review identifies the knowledge gap between what is known and what is still under debate and, based on that, it proposes a conceptual framework that will help to outline a new direction for future research and support local policy makers in the definition of strategies and actions that can effectively reduce urban energy use and CO2 emissions.

  7. Energy Threshold Hypothesis for Household Consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortiz, Samira; Castro-Sitiriche, Marcel; Amador, Isamar

    2017-01-01

    A strong positive relationship among quality of life and electricity consumption at impoverished countries is found in many studies. However, previous work has presented that the positive relationship does not hold beyond certain electricity consumption threshold. Consequently, there is a need of exploring the possibility for communities to live with sustainable level of energy consumption without sacrificing their quality of life. The Gallup-Healthways Report measures global citizen’s wellbeing. This paper provides a new outlook using these elements to explore the relationships among actual percentage of population thriving in most countries and their energy consumption. A measurement of efficiency is computed to determine an adjusted relative social value of energy considering the variability in the happy life years as a function of electric power consumption. Adjustment is performed so single components don’t dominate in the measurement. It is interesting to note that the countries with the highest relative social value of energy are in the top 10 countries of the Gallup report.

  8. Energy consumption modeling during dairy sewage pretreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dąbrowski, Wojciech; Żyłka, Radosław; Malinowski, Paweł; Boruszko, Dariusz

    2017-11-01

    The research was conducted in a dairy WWTP located in north-eastern Poland with the average flow of 546 m3d-1 and PE 11500 in 2016. Energy consumption was measured with the help of Lumel 3-phase network parameter transducers installed within the plant. The modeling was conducted based on the quantity and quality of raw sewage, after its screening, averaging and dissolved air flotation. The following parameters were determined: BOD5, COD. N-total and P-total. During the research period. 15 measurement series were carried out. Pollution loads removed in primary treatment varied from 167.0 to 803.5 kgO2d-1 and 1205.9 to 10032 kgO2d-1 for BOD5 and COD respectively. The energy consumption share during dairy pretreatment in relation to the total energy consumption was in the range from 13.8 to 28.5% with the mean value of 18.7% during the research period. Energy consumption indicators relating to removed pollution loads for primary treatment were established with the mean values of 0.74 and 0.83 kWhkg-1d-1 for BOD5 and COD respectively. An attempt was made to determine the influence of raw sewage characteristics and pretreatment efficiency on energy consumption of the object. A model of energy consumption during pretreatment was estimated according to the experimental data obtained in the research period. It was modeled using the linear regression model and principal component analysis.

  9. Energy consumption modeling during dairy sewage pretreatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dąbrowski Wojciech

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted in a dairy WWTP located in north-eastern Poland with the average flow of 546 m3d-1 and PE 11500 in 2016. Energy consumption was measured with the help of Lumel 3-phase network parameter transducers installed within the plant. The modeling was conducted based on the quantity and quality of raw sewage, after its screening, averaging and dissolved air flotation. The following parameters were determined: BOD5, COD. N-total and P-total. During the research period. 15 measurement series were carried out. Pollution loads removed in primary treatment varied from 167.0 to 803.5 kgO2d-1 and 1205.9 to 10032 kgO2d-1 for BOD5 and COD respectively. The energy consumption share during dairy pretreatment in relation to the total energy consumption was in the range from 13.8 to 28.5% with the mean value of 18.7% during the research period. Energy consumption indicators relating to removed pollution loads for primary treatment were established with the mean values of 0.74 and 0.83 kWhkg-1d-1 for BOD5 and COD respectively. An attempt was made to determine the influence of raw sewage characteristics and pretreatment efficiency on energy consumption of the object. A model of energy consumption during pretreatment was estimated according to the experimental data obtained in the research period. It was modeled using the linear regression model and principal component analysis.

  10. Renewable building energy systems and passive human comfort solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omer, Abdeen Mustafa [17 Juniper Court, Forest Road West, Nottingham NG7 4EU (United Kingdom)

    2008-08-15

    With environmental protection posing as the number one global problem, man has no choice but to reduce his energy consumption. One way to accomplish this is to resort to passive and low-energy systems to maintain thermal comfort in buildings. The conventional and modern designs of wind towers can successfully be used in hot arid regions to maintain thermal comfort (with or without the use of ceiling fans) during all hours of the cooling season, or a fraction of it. Climatic design is one of the best approaches to reduce the energy cost in buildings. Proper design is the first step of defence against the stress of the climate. Buildings should be designed according to the climate of the site, reducing the need for mechanical heating or cooling. Hence maximum natural energy can be used for creating a pleasant environment inside the built envelope. Technology and industry progress in the last decade diffused electronic and informatics' devices in many human activities, and also in building construction. The utilisation and operating opportunities components, increase the reduction of heat losses by varying the thermal insulation, optimise the lighting distribution with louver screens and operate mechanical ventilation for coolness in indoor spaces. In addition to these parameters the intelligent envelope can act for security control and became an important part of the building domotic revolution. Application of simple passive cooling measure is effective in reducing the cooling load of buildings in hot and humid climates. Fourty-three percent reductions can be achieved using a combination of well-established technologies such as glazing, shading, insulation, and natural ventilation. More advanced passive cooling techniques such as roof pond, dynamic insulation, and evaporative water jacket need to be considered more closely. The building sector is a major consumer of both energy and materials worldwide, and that consumption is increasing. Most industrialised

  11. Renewable Energy Applications for Existing Buildings: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayter, S. J.; Kandt, A.

    2011-08-01

    This paper introduces technical opportunities, means, and methods for incorporating renewable energy (RE) technologies into building designs and operations. It provides an overview of RE resources and available technologies used successfully to offset building electrical and thermal energy loads. Methods for applying these technologies in buildings and the role of building energy efficiency in successful RE projects are addressed along with tips for implementing successful RE projects.

  12. Application and development of solar energy in building industry and its prospects in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zhisheng; Zhang Guoqiang; Li Dongmei; Zhou Jin; Li Lijuan; Li Lixin

    2007-01-01

    China is the second largest country in energy consumption. More and more energy demand pressures cause the Chinese government to review its economy and energy policies in order to support the sustainable development. In China, the building sector amounts to 27.8% total energy consumption, which is only behind the industry sector. China has abundant solar energy resource, which is extensively applied to buildings. Therefore, solar energy utilization in buildings has become one of the most important issues to help China optimize the energy proportion, increasing energy efficiency and protecting the environment. Solar energy resource and its district distribution in China are introduced in detail in this paper, and the representative solar energy application to the building sector is highlighted as well. The solar energy utilization obstacles, especially policy disadvantages in building sector in China, are reviewed. Moreover, the application prospects of solar energy in building sector are presented in combination with the China economic and household industry growth

  13. Life Cycle Cost optimization of a BOLIG+ Zero Energy Building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marszal, A.J.

    2011-12-15

    Buildings consume approximately 40% of the world's primary energy use. Considering the total energy consumption throughout the whole life cycle of a building, the energy performance and supply is an important issue in the context of climate change, scarcity of energy resources and reduction of global energy consumption. An energy consuming as well as producing building, labelled as the Zero Energy Building (ZEB) concept, is seen as one of the solutions that could change the picture of energy consumption in the building sector, and thus contribute to the reduction of the global energy use. However, before being fully implemented in the national building codes and international standards, the ZEB concept requires a clear understanding and a uniform definition. The ZEB concept is an energy-conservation solution, whose successful adaptation in real life depends significantly on private building owners' approach to it. For this particular target group, the cost is often an obstacle when investing money in environmental or climate friendly products. Therefore, this PhD project took the perspective of a future private ZEB owner to investigate the cost-optimal Net ZEB definition applicable in the Danish context. The review of the various ZEB approaches indicated a general concept of a Zero Energy Building as a building with significantly reduced energy demand that is balanced by an equivalent energy generation from renewable sources. And, with this as a general framework, each ZEB definition should further specify: (1) the connection or the lack of it to the energy infrastructure, (2) the unit of the balance, (3) the period of the balance, (4) the types of energy use included in the balance, (5) the minimum energy performance requirements (6) the renewable energy supply options, and if applicable (7) the requirements of the building-grid interaction. Moreover, the study revealed that the future ZEB definitions applied in Denmark should mostly be focused on grid

  14. Energy savings potential from improved building controls for the US commercial building sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, Nick; Katipamula, Srinivas; Wang, Weimin; Xie, Yulong; Zhao, Mingjie

    2017-09-27

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Building Technologies Office (BTO) sponsored a study to determine the potential national savings achievable in the commercial building sector through widespread deployment of best practice controls, elimination of system and component faults, and use of better sensing. Detailed characterization of potential savings was one source of input to set research, development, and deployment (RD&D) goals in the field of building sensors and controls. DOE’s building energy simulation software, EnergyPlus, was employed to estimate the potential savings from 34 measures in 9 building types and across 16 climates representing almost 57% of commercial building sector energy consumption. In addition to estimating savings from individual measures, three packages of measures were created to estimate savings from the packages. These packages represented an 1) efficient building, 2) typical building, and 3) inefficient building. To scale the results from individual measures or a package to the national scale, building weights by building type and climate locations from the Energy Information Administration’s 2012 Commercial Building Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) were used. The results showed significant potential for energy savings across all building types and climates. The total site potential savings from individual measures by building type and climate location ranged between 0% and 25%. The total site potential savings by building type aggregated across all climates (using the CBECS building weights) for each measure varied between 0% and 16%. The total site potential savings aggregated across all building types and climates for each measure varied between 0% and 11%. Some individual measures had negative savings because correcting underlying operational problems (e.g., inadequate ventilation) resulted in increased energy consumption. When combined into packages, the overall national savings potential is estimated to be 29

  15. Uncertainty assessment in building energy performance with a simplified model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titikpina Fally

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To assess a building energy performance, the consumption being predicted or estimated during the design stage is compared to the measured consumption when the building is operational. When valuing this performance, many buildings show significant differences between the calculated and measured consumption. In order to assess the performance accurately and ensure the thermal efficiency of the building, it is necessary to evaluate the uncertainties involved not only in measurement but also those induced by the propagation of the dynamic and the static input data in the model being used. The evaluation of measurement uncertainty is based on both the knowledge about the measurement process and the input quantities which influence the result of measurement. Measurement uncertainty can be evaluated within the framework of conventional statistics presented in the Guide to the Expression of Measurement Uncertainty (GUM as well as by Bayesian Statistical Theory (BST. Another choice is the use of numerical methods like Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS. In this paper, we proposed to evaluate the uncertainty associated to the use of a simplified model for the estimation of the energy consumption of a given building. A detailed review and discussion of these three approaches (GUM, MCS and BST is given. Therefore, an office building has been monitored and multiple temperature sensors have been mounted on candidate locations to get required data. The monitored zone is composed of six offices and has an overall surface of 102 m2.

  16. Capacity building for sustainable energy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogner, Hans-Holger

    2006-01-01

    Capacity Building for Sustainable Energy Development - Mission: To build capacity in Member States (MS) for comprehensive energy system, economic and environmental analyses to assist in: - making informed policy decisions for sustainable energy development; - assessing the role of nuclear power; - understanding environmental and climate change issues related to energy production and use

  17. A social capital approach to household energy consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMichael, Megan [School of Construction Management and Engineering, The Univ. of Reading (United Kingdom)

    2007-07-01

    This paper examines the concept of social capital in relation to household energy consumption in an effort to further understand social influences on energy use in the United Kingdom. The considerable focus on building science and technology notwithstanding, it is widely recognised that social factors influence energy use at the household level. Much of the research on changing behaviour has focused on influencing individual actions. Whilst promoting changes in individual behaviour is important, social level analysis provides a broader framework for understanding householder energy use. Social capital broadly refers to the social resources available through networks, social norms and associated levels of trust and reciprocity. The literature of energy, in the form of environmental protection and consumption, is investigated here with regards to social capital to determine the utility of any theoretical and empirical relationship. It is argued that insights from the associations of social and energy consumption can assist energy efficiency practitioners and researchers in understanding the broader social framework that underpins household energy use, but that more robust empirical research is necessary.

  18. Energy in buildings: Efficiency, renewables and storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koebel, Matthias M.

    2017-07-01

    This lecture summary provides a short but comprehensive overview on the "energy and buildings" topic. Buildings account for roughly 40% of the global energy demands. Thus, an increased adoption of existing and upcoming materials and solutions for the building sector represents an enormous potential to reduce building related energy demands and greenhouse gas emissions. The central question is how the building envelope (insulation, fenestration, construction style, solar control) affects building energy demands. Compared to conventional insulation materials, superinsulation materials such as vacuum insulation panels and silica aerogel achieve the same thermal performance with significantly thinner insulation layers. With low-emissivity coatings and appropriate filler gasses, double and triple glazing reduce thermal losses by up to an order of magnitude compared to old single pane windows, while vacuum insulation and aerogel filled glazing could reduce these even further. Electrochromic and other switchable glazing solutions maximize solar gains during wintertime and minimize illumination demands whilst avoiding overheating in summer. Upon integration of renewable energy systems into the building energy supply, buildings can become both producers and consumers of energy. Combined with dynamic user behavior, temporal variations in the production of renewable energy require appropriate storage solutions, both thermal and electrical, and the integration of buildings into smart grids and energy district networks. The combination of these measures allows a reduction of the existing building stock by roughly a factor of three —a promising, but cost intensive way, to prepare our buildings for the energy turnaround.

  19. Economic assessment of energy storage for load shifting in Positive Energy Building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dumont, Olivier; Carmo, Carolina; Georges, Emeline

    2016-01-01

    Net Zero Energy Buildings (NZEB) and Positive Energy Buildings (PEB) are gaining more and more interest. In this paper, the impact of the integration of a battery in a positive energy building is assessed in order to increase its self-consumption of electricity. Parametric studies are carried out...... tariff and a 5 kWh battery. Finally, simple correlations (based on the feed-in tariff, the annual electrical consumption and production) to predict the optimal size of battery and the lowest payback period are proposed....... and payback period. It is shown that the battery size leading to the minimum payback period within the input range, is comprised between 2.6 kWh and 6.2 kWh. The lowest payback periods, (~5.6 years), are reached with a well-insulated building envelope, a high lightning and appliance consumption, a low feed-in...

  20. Cool roofs and the influence on the energy consumption under Danish conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Erik; Bunch-Nielsen, Tommy; Juhl, Lasse

    Experience from countries in warm climates has shown that the color of the roofing material has a significant effect on the energy consumption of the building. Especially changing from black to white roofing material provides reduction in energy consumption. The investigated roofs have been with ...

  1. Economic and Environmental Impact of Energy Saving in Healthcare Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justo García-Sanz-Calcedo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to estimate the economic and environmental impacts of energy consumption derived from healthcare buildings and proposes several energy-saving options in the sector. An experimental energy consumption study was development between 2005 and 2013 in 12 hospitals and 70 healthcare centres in Spain, built between 1980 and 2005 through audits carried out between 2005 and 2012, performed by the Extremadura Energy Agency. The study focused on electric energy, HVAC, DWH, lighting systems, renewable energies, maintenance strategy, thermal insulation, and optimal building size. Specifically, the following parameters were evaluated: energy savings, investment emission of CO2, NO2, and SO2 gases, and payback. The results revealed that through an appropriate energy management of healthcare buildings it is possible to save up to 8.60 kWh/m2 per year, for buildings of less than 5000 m2 (with no beds, which represents an expense of 1.55 €/m2. In healthcare buildings larger than 5000 m2 (with beds, it was possible to save up to 6.88 kWh/m2 per year, which represents an expense of 1.25 €/m2.

  2. A Meta Model for Domestic Energy Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.,J SREEKANTH

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Prediction of energy consumption particularly in micro level is of vital importance in terms of energy planning and also implementation of any Clean Development Mechanism (CDM activities that has become the order of the world today. It may be difficult to model household energy consumption using conventional methods such as time series forecasting due to many influencing factors. This paper presents a step wise regression model for forecasting domestic energy consumption based on micro level household survey data collected from Kerala, a state in southern part of India. The analysis of the data reveals significant influence of socio-economic, demographic, geographic, and family attributes upon total household energy requirements. While a wide variation in the pattern of energy requirements across the domestic sector belonging to different expenditure classes, per capita income level can be identified as the most important explanatory variable influencing variation in energy requirements. The models developed also demonstrates the influence of per capita land area, residential area among the higher income group while average age and literacy forms significant variables among the lower income group.

  3. Energy Consumption of Fast Ferries in Danish Domestic Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Morten Steen; Jørgensen, Kaj

    1997-01-01

    Analysis of energy consumption in connection with selected passenger transport trip chains. In particular the publication aims to evaluate the energy consumption of fast ferries in Denmark.......Analysis of energy consumption in connection with selected passenger transport trip chains. In particular the publication aims to evaluate the energy consumption of fast ferries in Denmark....

  4. Analysis of the Chinese Market for Building Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Sha [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Evans, Meredydd [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Shi, Qing [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-03-20

    China will account for about half of the new construction globally in the coming decade. Its floorspace doubled from 1996 to 2011, and Chinese rural buildings alone have as much floorspace as all of U.S. residential buildings. Building energy consumption has also grown, increasing by over 40% since 1990. To curb building energy demand, the Chinese government has launched a series of policies and programs. Combined, this growth in buildings and renovations, along with the policies to promote green buildings, are creating a large market for energy efficiency products and services. This report assesses the impact of China’s policies on building energy efficiency and on the market for energy efficiency in the future. The first chapter of this report introduces the trends in China, drawing on both historical analysis, and detailed modeling of the drivers behind changes in floorspace and building energy demand such as economic and population growth, urbanization, policy. The analysis describes the trends by region, building type and energy service. The second chapter discusses China’s policies to promote green buildings. China began developing building energy codes in the 1980s. Over time, the central government has increased the stringency of the code requirements and the extent of enforcement. The codes are mandatory in all new buildings and major renovations in China’s cities, and they have been a driving force behind the expansion of China’s markets for insulation, efficient windows, and other green building materials. China also has several other important policies to encourage efficient buildings, including the Three-Star Rating System (somewhat akin to LEED), financial incentives tied to efficiency, appliance standards, a phasing out of incandescent bulbs and promotion of efficient lighting, and several policies to encourage retrofits in existing buildings. In the third chapter, we take “deep dives” into the trends affecting key building components

  5. Understanding Net Zero Energy Building Concept Through Precedents from Different Climate Zones

    OpenAIRE

    Roudi, Farshid

    2015-01-01

    The building sector accumulates approximately a third of the final energy consumption. Consequently, the improvement of the energy efficiency in buildings has become an essential instrument in the energy policies to ensure the energy supply in the mid to long term moreover is the most cost effective strategy available for reducing carbon dioxide emissions. The International Energy Agency asserts that `energy efficiency improvements in buildings, appliances, transport, industry ...

  6. Energy Efficiency Building Code for Commercial Buildings in Sri Lanka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busch, John; Greenberg, Steve; Rubinstein, Francis; Denver, Andrea; Rawner, Esther; Franconi, Ellen; Huang, Joe; Neils, Danielle

    2000-09-30

    1.1.1 To encourage energy efficient design or retrofit of commercial buildings so that they may be constructed, operated, and maintained in a manner that reduces the use of energy without constraining the building function, the comfort, health, or the productivity of the occupants and with appropriate regard for economic considerations. 1.1.2 To provide criterion and minimum standards for energy efficiency in the design or retrofit of commercial buildings and provide methods for determining compliance with them. 1.1.3 To encourage energy efficient designs that exceed these criterion and minimum standards.

  7. Monitoring the energy systems of sustainable buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollin, Elmar

    2011-05-01

    The complexity of sustainable energy systems for buildings services calls for more transparency of the processes which provide energy for the buildings heating, cooling and power needs. In the frame of applied scientific research at University of Applied Sciences Offenburg, different systems and even buildings in total have been monitored over years to analyse their performance and to optimize the system installations and operations. New EU regulations like EN 16001 require an effective monitoring and a continuous commissioning of the energy relevant systems to certificate sustainable processes. On the other hand, new operation tools are necessary to handle the volatility of renewable energy sources and the buildings demand. Predictive building automation has shown good results when applied for energy systems with high inertia. Operating large-scale solar thermal systems and sustainable buildings over long-term periods the University of Applied Sciences provided evidence that monitoring is an essential system tool for an energy and cost efficient operation of sustainable buildings.

  8. Energy savings in Danish residential building stock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommerup, Henrik M.; Svendsen, Svend

    2006-01-01

    a short account of the technical energy-saving possibilities that are present in existing dwellings and presents a financial methodology used for assessing energy-saving measures. In order to estimate the total savings potential detailed calculations have been performed in a case with two typical...... buildings representing the residential building stock and based on these calculations an assessment of the energy-saving potential is performed. A profitable savings potential of energy used for space heating of about 80% is identified over 45 years (until 2050) within the residential building stock......A large potential for energy savings exists in the Danish residential building stock due to the fact that 75% of the buildings were constructed before 1979 when the first important demands for energy performance of building were introduced. It is also a fact that many buildings in Denmark face...

  9. Building Energy Asset Score for Architects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Building Technologies Office

    2015-01-01

    The Building Energy Asset Score is a national standardized tool for evaluating the physical and structural energy efficiency of commercial and multifamily residential buildings. The Asset Score generates a simple energy efficiency rating that enables comparison among buildings, and identifies opportunities for users to invest in energy efficiency upgrades. It is web-based and free to use. This fact sheet discusses the value of the score for architects.

  10. Energy consumption in static muscle contraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koerhuis, CL; Hof, AL; van der Heide, F.M.

    Energy consumption during static contraction of the human triceps surae muscles was studied in 11 healthy subjects. The subjects had to stand intermittently on the left and then right foot at different frequencies (for periods of 15 s, 10 s or 5 s), first on the whole foot and then on the forefoot.

  11. Energy in buildings: Efficiency, renewables and storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koebel Matthias M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This lecture summary provides a short but comprehensive overview on the “energy and buildings” topic. Buildings account for roughly 40% of the global energy demands. Thus, an increased adoption of existing and upcoming materials and solutions for the building sector represents an enormous potential to reduce building related energy demands and greenhouse gas emissions. The central question is how the building envelope (insulation, fenestration, construction style, solar control affects building energy demands. Compared to conventional insulation materials, superinsulation materials such as vacuum insulation panels and silica aerogel achieve the same thermal performance with significantly thinner insulation layers. With low-emissivity coatings and appropriate filler gasses, double and triple glazing reduce thermal losses by up to an order of magnitude compared to old single pane windows, while vacuum insulation and aerogel filled glazing could reduce these even further. Electrochromic and other switchable glazing solutions maximize solar gains during wintertime and minimize illumination demands whilst avoiding overheating in summer. Upon integration of renewable energy systems into the building energy supply, buildings can become both producers and consumers of energy. Combined with dynamic user behavior, temporal variations in the production of renewable energy require appropriate storage solutions, both thermal and electrical, and the integration of buildings into smart grids and energy district networks. The combination of these measures allows a reduction of the existing building stock by roughly a factor of three —a promising, but cost intensive way, to prepare our buildings for the energy turnaround.

  12. Building Energy Management Open Source Software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahman, Saifur [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    2017-08-25

    Funded by the U.S. Department of Energy in November 2013, a Building Energy Management Open Source Software (BEMOSS) platform was engineered to improve sensing and control of equipment in small- and medium-sized commercial buildings. According to the Energy Information Administration (EIA), small- (5,000 square feet or smaller) and medium-sized (between 5,001 to 50,000 square feet) commercial buildings constitute about 95% of all commercial buildings in the U.S. These buildings typically do not have Building Automation Systems (BAS) to monitor and control building operation. While commercial BAS solutions exist, including those from Siemens, Honeywell, Johnsons Controls and many more, they are not cost effective in the context of small- and medium-sized commercial buildings, and typically work with specific controller products from the same company. BEMOSS targets small and medium-sized commercial buildings to address this gap.

  13. Energy efficiency supervision strategy selection of Chinese large-scale public buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Zhenxing; Wu Yong; Li Baizhan; Gao Yafeng

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses energy consumption, building development and building energy consumption in China, and points that energy efficiency management and maintenance of large-scale public buildings is the breakthrough point of building energy saving in China. Three obstacles are lack of basic statistics data, lack of service market for building energy saving, and lack of effective management measures account for the necessity of energy efficiency supervision for large-scale public buildings. And then the paper introduces the supervision aims, the supervision system and the five basic systems' role in the supervision system, and analyzes the working mechanism of the five basic systems. The energy efficiency supervision system of large-scale public buildings takes energy consumption statistics as a data basis, Energy auditing as a technical support, energy consumption ration as a benchmark of energy saving and price increase beyond ration as a price lever, and energy efficiency public-noticing as an amplifier. The supervision system promotes energy efficiency operation and maintenance of large-scale public building, and drives a comprehensive building energy saving in China.

  14. Natural ventilation systems to enhance sustainability in buildings: a review towards zero energy buildings in schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Baez, Maite; Barrios-Padura, Ángela; Molina-Huelva, Marta; Chacartegui, Ricardo

    2017-11-01

    European regulations set the condition of Zero Energy Buildings for new buildings since 2020, with an intermediate milestone in 2018 for public buildings, in order to control greenhouse gases emissions control and climate change mitigation. Given that main fraction of energy consumption in buildings operation is due to HVAC systems, advances in its design and operation conditions are required. One key element for energy demand control is passive design of buildings. On this purpose, different recent studies and publications analyse natural ventilation systems potential to provide indoor air quality and comfort conditions minimizing electric power consumption. In these passive systems are of special relevance their capacities as passive cooling systems as well as air renovation systems, especially in high-density occupied spaces. With adequate designs, in warm/mild climates natural ventilation systems can be used along the whole year, maintaining indoor air quality and comfort conditions with small support of other heating/cooling systems. In this paper is analysed the state of the art of natural ventilation systems applied to high density occupied spaces with special focus on school buildings. The paper shows the potential and applicability of these systems for energy savings and discusses main criteria for their adequate integration in school building designs.

  15. Technology Roadmaps: Energy-efficient Buildings: Heating and Cooling Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    Buildings account for almost a third of final energy consumption globally and are an equally important source of CO2 emissions. Currently, both space heating and cooling as well as hot water are estimated to account for roughly half of global energy consumption in buildings. Energy-efficient and low/zero-carbon heating and cooling technologies for buildings have the potential to reduce CO2 emissions by up to 2 gigatonnes (Gt) and save 710 million tonnes oil equivalent (Mtoe) of energy by 2050. Most of these technologies -- which include solar thermal, combined heat and power (CHP), heat pumps and thermal energy storage -- are commercially available today. The Energy-Efficient Buildings: Heating and Cooling Equipment Roadmap sets out a detailed pathway for the evolution and deployment of the key underlying technologies. It finds that urgent action is required if the building stock of the future is to consume less energy and result in lower CO2 emissions. The roadmap concludes with a set of near-term actions that stakeholders will need to take to achieve the roadmap's vision.

  16. Evaluation of different weather files on energy analysis of buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michopoulos, Apostolos; Voulgari, Vassiliki; Papakostas, Konstantinos; Kyriakis, Nikolas [Process Equipment Design Laboratory, Mechanical Engineering Department, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki -- POB 487 -- 541 24 Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2012-07-01

    The building energy demand simulation tools consist the compass of the roadmap towards the energy efficient building. Apart from the software itself, the result of the simulation strongly depends on the degree the data used represent the actual situation, among which the climate data of the area are a key factor. In this work, the energy demand of a large building complex is estimated, using the widely accepted EnergyPlus building simulation software in combination with two, also widely accepted, weather files. The simulation results for heating are compared with the actual fuel consumption of a three-year operation period. The comparison reveals that the weather file and the size of the simulation domain significantly affect the simulation representativeness.

  17. Socio-Demographic Differences in Energy Drink Consumption and Reasons for Consumption among US College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulos, Natalie S.; Pasch, Keryn E.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Energy drink consumption has become increasingly prevalent among US college students, yet little is known about current rates of consumption and reasons for consumption among current energy drink users, particularly differences related to gender and race/ethnicity. Objectives: To better understand energy drink consumption alone and…

  18. Analysis on energy consumption index system of thermal power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, J. B.; Zhang, N.; Li, H. F.

    2017-05-01

    Currently, the increasingly tense situation in the context of resources, energy conservation is a realistic choice to ease the energy constraint contradictions, reduce energy consumption thermal power plants has become an inevitable development direction. And combined with computer network technology to build thermal power “small index” to monitor and optimize the management system, the power plant is the application of information technology and to meet the power requirements of the product market competition. This paper, first described the research status of thermal power saving theory, then attempted to establish the small index system and build “small index” monitoring and optimization management system in thermal power plant. Finally elaborated key issues in the field of small thermal power plant technical and economic indicators to be further studied and resolved.

  19. Energy Efficiency Trends in Residential and Commercial Buildings - August 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2010-08-01

    This report overviews trends in the construction industry, including profiles of buildings and the resulting impacts on energy consumption. It begins with an executive summary of the key findings found in the body of the report, so some of the data and charts are replicated in this section. Its intent is to provide in a concise place key data points and conclusions. The remainder of the report provides a specific profile of the construction industry and patterns of energy use followed by sections providing product and market insights and information on policy efforts, such as taxes and regulations, which are intended to influence building energy use. Information on voluntary programs is also offered.

  20. Energy optimization of office buildings; Energioptimering af kontorbyggeri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wittchen, K.B.; Place Hansen, E.J. de (Statens Byggeforskningsinstitut (SBi), Hoersholm (Denmark)); Radisch, N.H.; Treldal, J. (Ramboell A/S, Koebenhavn (Denmark))

    2011-07-01

    The project analysed two main office building types - high-rises and low-rises - and calculated a number of parameters, using the simulation program BSim. Calculations showed that the overall building design and orientation effect is moderate compared with, for instance, use of daylight control and low-energy lighting, computers, etc. Considerable energy savings can be achieved by use of natural ventilation in the summer, thus only using mechanical ventilation with heat recovery during the day in the winter. Open-plan offices result in a better indoor climate and lower energy consumption than cubicle offices. (LN)

  1. Energy Efficiency, Building Productivity and the Commercial Buildings Market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, D.W.

    2002-05-16

    The energy-efficiency gap literature suggests that building buyers are often short-sighted in their failure to apply life-cycle costing principles to energy efficient building technologies, with the result that under investment in these advanced technology occurs. This study examines the reasons this behavior may occur, by analyzing the pressures that market forces place on purchasers of buildings. Our basic conclusion is that the fundamental manner in which the buildings sector does business creates pressures to reduce initial capital outlays and to hedge against a variety of risks, including the ability of building owners to capture benefits from energy efficiency. Starting from the position that building buyers' willingness to pay drives choices over building attributes, we examine basic market principles, the structure of the buildings market, including the role of lenders, and policies that promote penetration of energy efficient technologies. We conclude that greater attention to buyers, and to the incentives and constraints they face, would promote a better understanding of building investment choices and contribute to better policies to promote the penetration of these technologies into markets.

  2. Solar energy in buildings solved by building information modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudikova, B.; Faltejsek, M.

    2018-03-01

    Building lead us to use renewable energy sources for all types of buildings. The use of solar energy is the alternatives that can be applied in a good ratio of space, price, and resultant benefits. Building Information Modelling is a modern and effective way of dealing with buildings with regard to all aspects of the life cycle. The basis is careful planning and simulation in the pre-investment phase, where it is possible to determine the effective result and influence the lifetime of the building and the cost of its operation. By simulating, analysing and insert a building model into its future environment where climate conditions and surrounding buildings play a role, it is possible to predict the usability of the solar energy and establish an ideal model. Solar systems also very affect the internal layout of buildings. Pre-investment phase analysis, with a view to future aspects, will ensure that the resulting building will be both low-energy and environmentally friendly.

  3. Controlling Energy Consumption in Single Buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-07-01

    refrigeration. Chilled water temperatures are selected for peak design times and, in the absence of strict humidity control requirements, can usually be...perature at conditions other than peak design . To optimize the perfor- mance of the condenser water system, however, these controls can be reset when

  4. Simulation Tool For Energy Consumption and Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nysteen, Michael; Mynderup, Henrik; Poulsen, Bjarne

    2013-01-01

    as a controller unit of the user’s choice. The results of the simulations can be compared using a dynamic reporting window that allows the user to create custom charts of the data. The application has been designed such that it can easily be extended with additional controller units, price and weather data......In order to promote adoption of smart grid with the general public it is necessary to be able to visualize the benefits of a smart home. Software tools that model the effects can help significantly with this. However, only little work has been done in the area of simulating and visualizing...... the energy consumption in smart homes. This paper presents a prototype simulation tool that allows graphical modeling of a home. Based on the modeled homes the user is able to simulate the energy consumptions and compare scenarios. The simulations are based on dynamic weather and energy price data as well...

  5. The European Energy Performance of Buildings Directive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Steffen; Hviid, Christian Anker

    This paper investigates the actual energy use for building operation with the calculated energy use according to the Danish implementation of the European Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD). This is important to various stakeholders in the building industry as the calculated energy...... performance is used for estimating investment security, operating budgets and for policy making. A case study shows that the actual and calculated energy use is practically the same in an average scenario. In the worst-case uncertainty scenario, the actual energy use is 20 % higher than the corrected...... calculated energy use. More buildings should be investigated in the same manner before any sound conclusion can be made regarding whether the implementation of EPBD in a wide context leads to truly energy-efficient buildings....

  6. Energy-efficiency supervision systems for energy management in large public buildings: Necessary choice for China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Yanping; Wu Yong; Liu Changbin

    2009-01-01

    Buildings are important contributors to total energy consumption accounting for around 30% of all energy consumed in China. Of this, around two-fifths are consumed within urban homes, one-fifth within public buildings, and two-fifths within rural area. Government office buildings and large-scale public buildings are the dominant energy consumers in cities but their consumption can be largely cut back through improving efficiency. At present, energy management in the large public sector is a particular priority in China. Firstly, this paper discusses how the large public building is defined, and then energy performance in large public buildings is studied. The paper also describes barriers to improving energy efficiency of large public buildings in China and examines the energy-efficiency policies and programs adopted in United States and European Union. The energy-efficiency supervision (EES) systems developed to improve operation and maintenance practices and promote energy efficiency in large public sector are described. The benefits of the EES systems are finally summarized.

  7. Electrical energy consumption control apparatuses and electrical energy consumption control methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerstrom, Donald J.

    2012-09-04

    Electrical energy consumption control apparatuses and electrical energy consumption control methods are described. According to one aspect, an electrical energy consumption control apparatus includes processing circuitry configured to receive a signal which is indicative of current of electrical energy which is consumed by a plurality of loads at a site, to compare the signal which is indicative of current of electrical energy which is consumed by the plurality of loads at the site with a desired substantially sinusoidal waveform of current of electrical energy which is received at the site from an electrical power system, and to use the comparison to control an amount of the electrical energy which is consumed by at least one of the loads of the site.

  8. Analysis of US commercial building energy use trends, 1972--1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belzer, D.B.; Marsh, T.L.; Sands, R.D.

    1994-08-01

    Over the past two decades energy consumption in commercial buildings has been the fastest growing segment among the major end-use sectors in the US. This paper provides a decomposition of the major factors behind the trends in commercial energy use over this period. It examines the impact on overall commercial sector energy intensity from: (1) new buildings, (2) changes in the composition of buildings by geographic region and building type, (3) the growth in office equipment and computers, and (4) the influence of several common envelope conservation measures. A statistical decomposition of historical monthly electricity and gas consumption data is developed to separate energy use into heating, cooling, and ventilation (HVAC) and other components (non-HVAC). This data is then used in conjunction with historical commercial building floor space estimates to derive end-use intensities for these components of energy consumption. Deterministic analyses are performed to estimate the impacts of other factors. The impact of new buildings is measured by estimating the average improvement in heating efficiencies for buildings built after 1980. The effect of building composition on aggregate commercial building energy intensity is based upon estimates of historical floor space by building type and region and building-specific intensities derived from the 1989 Commercial Building Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS). Stocks of various types of office equipment were constructed from industry statistics and independent surveys. The stocks of selected office equipment were combined with estimates of unit energy consumption to estimate the impact on total commercial electricity consumption. For estimating changes in energy intensity due to the building retrofits, the study utilizes a new energy simulation tool developed as part of the Facility Energy Decision Screening (FEDS) system for the US Department of Energy.

  9. Assessment of the Technical Potential for Achieving Net Zero-Energy Buildings in the Commercial Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffith, B.; Long, N.; Torcellini, P.; Judkoff, R.; Crawley, D.; Ryan, J.

    2007-12-01

    This report summarizes the findings from research conducted at NREL to assess the technical potential for zero-energy building technologies and practices to reduce the impact of commercial buildings on the U.S. energy system. Commercial buildings currently account for 18% of annual U.S. energy consumption, and energy use is growing along with overall floor area. Reducing the energy use of this sector will require aggressive research goals and rapid implementation of the research results.

  10. Renewable energy and conservation measures for non-residential buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Andrew James

    The energy demand in most countries is growing at an alarming rate and identifying economically feasible building retrofit solutions to decrease the need for fossil fuels so as to mitigate their environmental and societal impacts has become imperative. Two approaches are available for identifying feasible retrofit solutions: 1) the implementation of energy conservation measures; and 2) the production of energy from renewable sources. This thesis focuses on the development of retrofit software planning tools for the implementation of solar photovoltaic systems, and lighting system retrofits for mid-Michigan institutional buildings. The solar planning tool exploits the existing blueprint of a building's rooftop, and via image processing, the layouts of the solar photovoltaic arrays are developed based on the building's geographical location and typical weather patterns. The resulting energy generation of a PV system is estimated and is utilized to determine levelized energy costs. The lighting system retrofit analysis starts by a current utilization assessment of a building to determine the amount of energy used by the lighting system. Several LED lighting options are evaluated on the basis of color correlation temperature, color rendering index, energy consumption, and financial feasibility, to determine a retrofit solution. Solar photovoltaic installations in mid-Michigan are not yet financially feasible, but with the anticipated growth and dynamic complexity of the solar photovoltaic market, this solar planning tool is able to assist building proprietors make executive decisions regarding their energy usage. Additionally, a lighting system retrofit is shown to have significant financial and health benefits.

  11. Advanced Energy Retrofit Guide Office Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Guopeng; Liu, Bing; Wang, Weimin; Zhang, Jian; Athalye, Rahul A.; Moser, Dave; Crowe, Eliot; Bengtson, Nick; Effinger, Mark; Webster, Lia; Hatten, Mike

    2011-09-27

    The Advanced Energy Retrofit Guide for Office Buildings is a component of the Department of Energy’s Advanced Energy Retrofit Guides for Existing Buildings series. The aim of the guides is to facilitate a rapid escalation in the number of energy efficiency projects in existing buildings and to enhance the quality and depth of those projects. By presenting general project planning guidance as well as financial payback metrics for the most common energy efficiency measures, these guides provide a practical roadmap to effectively planning and implementing performance improvements for existing buildings.

  12. Advanced Energy Retrofit Guide Retail Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Guopeng; Liu, Bing; Zhang, Jian; Wang, Weimin; Athalye, Rahul A.; Moser, Dave; Crowe, Eliot; Bengtson, Nick; Effinger, Mark; Webster, Lia; Hatten, Mike

    2011-09-19

    The Advanced Energy Retrofit Guide for Retail Buildings is a component of the Department of Energy’s Advanced Energy Retrofit Guides for Existing Buildings series. The aim of the guides is to facilitate a rapid escalation in the number of energy efficiency projects in existing buildings and to enhance the quality and depth of those projects. By presenting general project planning guidance as well as financial payback metrics for the most common energy efficiency measures, these guides provide a practical roadmap to effectively planning and implementing performance improvements for existing buildings.

  13. Energy Awareness Displays - Prototype for personalised energy consumption feedback

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Börner, Dirk; Storm, Jeroen; Kalz, Marco; Specht, Marcus

    2012-01-01

    Börner, D., Storm, J., Kalz, M., & Specht, M. (2012). Energy Awareness Displays - Prototype for personalised energy consumption feedback. In A. Ravencroft, S. Lindstaedt, C. D. Kloos, & D. Hernández-Leo (Eds.), 21st Century Learning for 21st Century Skills - 7th European Conference on Technology

  14. NASA Net Zero Energy Buildings Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pless, S.; Scheib, J.; Torcellini, P.; Hendron, B.; Slovensky, M.

    2014-10-01

    In preparation for the time-phased net zero energy requirement for new federal buildings starting in 2020, set forth in Executive Order 13514, NASA requested that the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to develop a roadmap for NASA's compliance. NASA detailed a Statement of Work that requested information on strategic, organizational, and tactical aspects of net zero energy buildings. In response, this document presents a high-level approach to net zero energy planning, design, construction, and operations, based on NREL's first-hand experience procuring net zero energy construction, and based on NREL and other industry research on net zero energy feasibility. The strategic approach to net zero energy starts with an interpretation of the executive order language relating to net zero energy. Specifically, this roadmap defines a net zero energy acquisition process as one that sets an aggressive energy use intensity goal for the building in project planning, meets the reduced demand goal through energy efficiency strategies and technologies, then adds renewable energy in a prioritized manner, using building-associated, emission- free sources first, to offset the annual energy use required at the building; the net zero energy process extends through the life of the building, requiring a balance of energy use and production in each calendar year.

  15. The effectiveness of energy management system on energy efficiency in the building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julaihi, F.; Ibrahim, S. H.; Baharun, A.; Affendi, R.; Nawi, M. N. M.

    2017-10-01

    Energy plays a key role in achieving the desired economic growth for the country. Worldwide industries use 40 percent energy for material and consumption protection to fulfil human needs which contributes almost 37 percent of global greenhouse gases emissions. One of the approach in order to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases to the environment is by conserving energy. This could be executed by implementing energy management especially in commercial and office buildings as daily electricity consumption is high in this type of building. Energy management can also increase the efficiency of energy in the building. Study has been conducted to investigate the performance on implementation of energy management system in office building. Energy management is one of the contemporary challenges, thus study adopts an exploratory approach by using a tool developed by UNIDO called EnMS or Energy Management System. Findings show that by implementing energy management can reduce electricity consumption up to 30%. However, serious initiatives by the organization are needed to promote the effectiveness of energy management.

  16. Heat Mismatch of future Net Zero Energy Buildings within district heating areas in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Steffen; Möller, Bernd

    systems enables them to send or receive energy from these systems. This is beneficial for NZEBs because even though they have an annual net exchange of zero, there is a temporal mismatch in regard to the energy consumption of buildings and the production from the renewable energy units added to them......The long-term goal for Denmark is to develop an energy system solely based on renewable energy sources (RES) in 2050. To reach this goal energy savings in buildings are essential. Therefore, a focus on energy efficient measures in buildings and net zero energy buildings (NZEBs) have increased....... In other words, situations occur where the renewable energy units produces more energy than the building consumes. If the building was not connected to a grid, the energy produced would have to be either stored or unused. By connecting the building to a grid it is possible to sell the energy to the grid...

  17. Towards Nearly Zero Energy Buildings in Europe: A Focus on Retrofit in Non-Residential Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delia D’Agostino

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Buildings are the focus of European (EU policies aimed at a sustainable and competitive low-carbon economy by 2020. Reducing energy consumption of existing buildings and achieving nearly zero energy buildings (NZEBs are the core of the Energy Efficiency Directive (EED and the recast of the Energy Performance of Building Directive (EPBD. To comply with these requirements, Member States have to adopt actions to exploit energy savings from the building sector. This paper describes the differences between deep, major and NZEB renovation and then it provides an overview of best practice policies and measures to target retrofit and investment related to non-residential buildings. Energy requirements defined by Member States for NZEB levels are reported comparing both new and existing residential and non-residential buildings. The paper shows how the attention given to refurbishment of NZEBs increased over the last decade, but the achievement of a comprehensive implementation of retrofit remains one of main challenges that Europe is facing.

  18. Comparing the Life Cycle Energy Consumption, Global ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Managing the water-energy-nutrient nexus for the built environment requires, in part, a full system analysis of energy consumption, global warming and eutrophication potentials of municipal water services. As an example, we evaluated the life cycle energy use, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and aqueous nutrient releases of the whole anthropogenic municipal water cycle starting from raw water extraction to wastewater treatment and reuse/discharge for five municipal water and wastewater systems. The assessed options included conventional centralized services and four alternative options following the principles of source-separation and water fit-for-purpose. The comparative life cycle assessment identified that centralized drinking water supply coupled with blackwater energy recovery and on-site greywater treatment and reuse was the most energyand carbon-efficient water service system evaluated, while the conventional (drinking water and sewerage) centralized system ranked as the most energy- and carbon-intensive system. The electricity generated from blackwater and food residuals co-digestion was estimated to offset at least 40% of life cycle energy consumption for water/waste services. The dry composting toilet option demonstrated the lowest life cycle eutrophication potential. The nutrients in wastewater effluent are the dominating contributors for the eutrophication potential for the assessed system configurations. Among the parameters for which variability

  19. 2014 Navajo Nation Energy and Water Consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singer, Suzanne L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Woods, Sam [Navajo Transitional Energy Company, Farmington, NM (United States)

    2017-03-31

    The Navajo Nation is the home of the largest land-based Indian reservation in the U.S., covering more than twenty-seven thousand square miles. The land in the southwestern U.S. holds an abundance of natural resources, which are intimately integrated in the history, economy, and growth of the Navajo tribe. This report aims to wholly visualize the Navajo Nation’s resources and energy and water consumption using quantitative data and systems engineering analysis. The energy and water flow chart visualizations provide structured information for tribal leaders, policymakers, and educators around energy and water system discussions, technology development opportunities, and policy decisions. The analysis of both energy and water is a first step to visualizing the interconnectedness and complexities of the energy-water-food nexus of the nation. The goal of this energy analysis was to first estimate coal resource consumption because of the considerable impact coal has on the Navajo economy, recently as much as $26 million per year in coal royalties.

  20. Building exterior retrofit and its impact on energy performance - a case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trovato, Nick [Read Jones Christoffersen Ltd (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    The building envelope plays a vital role in energy performance and the comfort of the building's occupants. The office building of Read Jones Christofferesen Ltd. (RJC) had excessive condensation problems with water and air leakages resulting in high-energy consumption. Hence, it required a building envelope retrofit. This paper presents a description of the existing building, improvements made to the building envelope and the mechanical system and the integration of the two systems and how this impacted the energy performance of the building. The owner had certain requirements for the retrofit, such as optimum climate control, wide window opening space, and maximum lighting. Exterior upgrades included, among others, stopping the air and water leakage, improved thermal resistance and reduced vapor diffusion. The renovation resulted in reduced energy consumption, a more comfortable working environment, better mechanical system control, and around 65% in gas consumption and mechanical cost savings.

  1. Integrated Building Energy Design of a Danish Office Building Based on Monte Carlo Simulation Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mathias Juul; Myhre, Sindre Hammer; Hansen, Kasper Kingo

    2017-01-01

    The focus on reducing buildings energy consumption is gradually increasing, and the optimization of a building’s performance and maximizing its potential leads to great challenges between architects and engineers. In this study, we collaborate with a group of architects on a design project of a new...... office building located in Aarhus, Denmark. Building geometry, floor plans and employee schedules were obtained from the architects which is the basis for this study. This study aims to simplify the iterative design process that is based on the traditional trial and error method in the late design phases...

  2. Data mining, mining data : energy consumption modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dessureault, S. [Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ (United States)

    2007-09-15

    Most modern mining operations are accumulating large amounts of data on production and business processes. Data, however, provides value only if it can be translated into information that appropriate users can utilize. This paper emphasized that a new technological focus should emerge, notably how to concentrate data into information; analyze information sufficiently to become knowledge; and, act on that knowledge. Researchers at the Mining Information Systems and Operations Management (MISOM) laboratory at the University of Arizona have created a method to transform data into action. The data-to-action approach was exercised in the development of an energy consumption model (ECM), in partnership with a major US-based copper mining company, 2 software companies, and the MISOM laboratory. The approach begins by integrating several key data sources using data warehousing techniques, and increasing the existing level of integration and data cleaning. An online analytical processing (OLAP) cube was also created to investigate the data and identify a subset of several million records. Data mining algorithms were applied using the information that was isolated by the OLAP cube. The data mining results showed that traditional cost drivers of energy consumption are poor predictors. A comparison was made between traditional methods of predicting energy consumption and the prediction formed using data mining. Traditionally, in the mines for which data were available, monthly averages of tons and distance are used to predict diesel fuel consumption. However, this article showed that new information technology can be used to incorporate many more variables into the budgeting process, resulting in more accurate predictions. The ECM helped mine planners improve the prediction of energy use through more data integration, measure development, and workflow analysis. 5 refs., 11 figs.

  3. Commercial and Multifamily Building Tenant Energy Usage Aggregation and Privacy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Livingston, Olga V.; Pulsipher, Trenton C.; Wang, Na

    2014-11-17

    In a number of cities and states, building owners are required to disclose and/or benchmark their building energy use. This requires the building owner to possess monthly whole-building energy usage information, which can be challenging for buildings in which individual tenants have their own utility meters and accounts with the utility. Some utilities and utility regulators have turned to aggregation of customer data as a way to give building owners the whole-building energy usage data while protecting customer privacy. However, no utilities or regulators appear to have conducted a concerted statistical, cybersecurity, and privacy analysis to justify the level of aggregation selected. Therefore, the Tennant Data Aggregation Task was established to help utilities address these issues and provide recommendations as well as a theoretical justification of the aggregation threshold. This study is focused on the use case of submitting data for ENERGY STAR Portfolio Manager (ESPM), but it also looks at other potential use cases for monthly energy consumption data.

  4. Discovering unexpected information using a building energy visualization tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, B.; Rodriguez, N.; Puech, W.; Vasques, X.

    2013-03-01

    Building energy consumption is an important problem in construction field, old buildings are gap of energy and they need to be refactored. Energy footprint of buildings needs to be reduced. New buildings are designed to be suitable with energy efficiency paradigm. To improve energy efficiency, Building Management Systems (BMS) are used: BMS are IT (Information Technology) systems composed by a rules engine and a database connected to sensors. Unfortunately, BMS are only monitoring systems: they cannot predict and mine efficiently building information. RIDER project has emerged from this observation. This project is conducted by several French companies and universities, IBM at Montpellier, France, leads the project. The main goal of this project is to create a smart and scalable BMS. This new kind of BMS will be able to dig into data and predict events. This IT system is based on component paradigm and the core can be extended with external components. Some of them are developed during the project: data mining, building generation model and visualization. All of these components will provide new features to improve rules used by the core. In this paper, we will focus on the visualization component. This visualization use a volume rendering method based on sensors data interpolation and a correlation method to create new views. We will present the visualization method used and which rules can be provided by this component.

  5. Managing environmental aspects resulting from energy consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Human health and environmental impacts of fossil fuel energy consumptions are examined and the ongoing effort to align energy management plans with sustainable development strategies and environmental management systems is described. Human health impacts are manifested in mortality rates, hospital admissions, visits to emergency rooms and physicians' offices, reduced physical performance, increase in the use of medications, impaired pulmonary function and a variety of lesser (or less perceptible) effects. Environmental impacts are demonstrated through climatic change, increase in greenhouse gas emissions, increase in smog, acid rain, and soil, groundwater and surface water contamination. The importance of commitment, integrated planning, measurement and evaluation, periodic review and improvement and documentation in aligning energy and environmental management plans are highlighted, along with the need for behavioral and operational changes, the creation of employee awareness and training, and the adoption of green procurement and life cycle costing. Adoption of the ISO 14000 approach to managing energy consumption is also seen as an important step in the direction of integrated energy and environmental management and sustainable development

  6. Oil pipeline energy consumption and efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooker, J.N.

    1981-01-01

    This report describes an investigation of energy consumption and efficiency of oil pipelines in the US in 1978. It is based on a simulation of the actual movement of oil on a very detailed representation of the pipeline network, and it uses engineering equations to calculate the energy that pipeline pumps must have exerted on the oil to move it in this manner. The efficiencies of pumps and drivers are estimated so as to arrive at the amount of energy consumed at pumping stations. The throughput in each pipeline segment is estimated by distributing each pipeline company's reported oil movements over its segments in proportions predicted by regression equations that show typical throughput and throughput capacity as functions of pipe diameter. The form of the equations is justified by a generalized cost-engineering study of pipelining, and their parameters are estimated using new techniques developed for the purpose. A simplified model of flow scheduling is chosen on the basis of actual energy use data obtained from a few companies. The study yields energy consumption and intensiveness estimates for crude oil trunk lines, crude oil gathering lines and oil products lines, for the nation as well as by state and by pipe diameter. It characterizes the efficiency of typical pipelines of various diameters operating at capacity. Ancillary results include estimates of oil movements by state and by diameter and approximate pipeline capacity utilization nationwide.

  7. China. Top Sector Energy. Sustainable Building. Opportunities for Dutch companies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-08-15

    For China, sustainable design is necessary for controlling energy usage in crowded and constantly expanding urban areas. It is well known that China is the world's biggest construction market. Nearly half of the new buildings annually constructed worldwide are located in China by 2015. However, only about 4% of these are built according to energy efficiency standards. China's construction market will by 2020 account for 40% of the country's total energy consumption. While it contributes 15% of the world's GDP, China consumes 30% of the earth's steel and half its concrete. On top of which, buildings in China consume a third of the country's increasingly endangered water supplies. Recent research showed that almost half of the national energy consumption has been used for construction related purposes. Of existing buildings, a huge amount needs sustainable redesign and retrofitting technologies.Chinese government has recognized the urgency of widely implementing sustainable buildings. As a result, a national 3-star China National Green Building rating system has been launched in 2006. Yet the Chinese green building revolution is still in its infancy. Main problems are, amongst others, low level of regulations and standards, problematic implementations at local level, lack of awareness and transparency in related public and private sector, lack of expertise of integrated sustainable building design and construction among engineers, designers and constructors. It is also to be expected that more aggressive energy saving and environmental protection targets will be set by the 12th Five Year Plan. Promote green buildings will be one of the top priorities in China's swift urbanization process with focus on saving land, energy, water and materials. Chinese government has recognized the urgency of widely implementing sustainable buildings. Yet the Chinese green building revolution is still in its infancy. Under this framework, the

  8. A review of benchmarking, rating and labelling concepts within the framework of building energy certification schemes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Lombard, Luis; Gonzalez, Rocio [Grupo de Termotecnia, Escuela Superior de Ingenieros, Universidad de Sevilla, Camino de los Descubrimientos, 41092 Sevilla (Spain); Ortiz, Jose [BRE (Building Research Establishment), Garston, Watford WD25 9XX (United Kingdom); Maestre, Ismael R. [Dpto. de Maquinas y Motores Termicos, Escuela Politecnica Superior de Algeciras, Universidad de Cadiz, Av. Ramon Puyol s/n, Algeciras 11202 Cadiz (Spain)

    2009-03-15

    Energy certification schemes for buildings emerged in the early 1990s as an essential method for improving energy efficiency, minimising energy consumption and enabling greater transparency with regards to the use of energy in buildings. However, from the beginning their definition and implementation process were diffuse and, occasionally, have confused building sector stakeholders. A multiplicity of terms and concepts such as energy performance, energy efficiency, energy ratings, benchmarking, labelling, etc., have emerged with sometimes overlapping meanings. This has frequently led to misleading interpretations by regulatory bodies, energy agencies and final consumers. This paper analyses the origin and the historic development of energy certification schemes in buildings along with the definition and scope of a building energy certificate and critical aspects of its implementation. Concepts such as benchmarking tools, energy ratings and energy labelling are clarified within the wider topic of certification schemes. Finally, a seven steps process is proposed as a guide for implementing building energy certification. (author)

  9. Energy conservation in existing office buildings. Phase III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-08-01

    Phase III deals with the constraints and/or the adverse consequences of possible conservation measures and how to overcome any barriers. Further, it develops realistic energy-consumption budgets, if it is determined that this is the proper approach; if not, it proposes an alternate approach; and it indicates applicability to other building types and geographical regions of the US. This report concerns itself with the findings, and conclusions with respect to these issues are given. Also included in the appendix is a revision of Questionnaire No. 2, a uniform building energy information form. (MCW)

  10. Goodbye Passive House, Hello Energy Flexible Building?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mlecnik, E.; LaRoche, P.; Schiler, M.

    2016-01-01

    The volume uptake of highly energy-efficient buildings is challenged by transformations in the energy system and the introduction of demand response strategies. In the near future buildings will be able to manage their demand and generation according to local climate conditions, user needs and

  11. ImBuild: Impact of building energy efficiency programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, M.J.; Hostick, D.J.; Belzer, D.B.

    1998-04-01

    As part of measuring the impact of government programs on improving the energy efficiency of the Nation`s building stock, the Department of Energy Office of Building Technology, State and Community Programs (BTS) is interested in assessing the economic impacts of its portfolio of programs, specifically the potential impact on national employment and income. The special-purpose version of the IMPLAN model used in this study is called ImBuild. In comparison with simple economic multiplier approaches, such as Department of Commerce RIMS 2 system, ImBuild allows for more complete and automated analysis of the economic impacts of energy efficiency investments in buildings. ImBuild is also easier to use than existing macroeconomic simulation models. The authors conducted an analysis of three sample BTS energy programs: the residential generator-absorber heat exchange gas heat pump (GAX heat pump), the low power sulfur lamp (LPSL) in residential and commercial applications, and the Building America program. The GAX heat pump would address the market for the high-efficiency residential combined heating and cooling systems. The LPSL would replace some highly efficient fluorescent commercial lighting. Building America seeks to improve the energy efficiency of new factory-built, modular, manufactured, and small-volume, site-built homes through use of systems engineering concepts and early incorporation of new products and processes, and by increasing the demand for more energy-efficient homes. The authors analyze a scenario for market penetration of each of these technologies devised for BTS programs reported in the BTS GPRA Metrics Estimates, FY99 Budget Request, December 19, 1997. 46 figs., 4 tabs.

  12. Energy consumption and stocks of energy-converting artefacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bladh, Mats

    2012-01-01

    The development of total energy consumption is important in a world with limited resources. It is the result of two basic tendencies working in opposite directions: growth in number and in use (such as more cars and driving more) and improvements in energy efficiency (such as more fuel-efficient engines). Since the 1970s growth of energy consumption has slowed down in Sweden. This means that increasing supply has been counteracted by measures improving overall energy efficiency to a larger degree than before. How can long-term development in energy consumption be analysed? This paper proposes a focus on stocks of energy-converting artefacts as a tool for such analyses. In order to show the fruitfulness of this approach, historical data on cars, dwellings and lamps in Sweden are used. Results from the cases in this paper show considerable gains of efficiency in fuel consumption in private cars and heating efficiency in multi-dwelling houses. Demographic factors are important for the outcome. The approach seems to promise a way to analyse energy efficiency that captures both promoting and counteracting factors at both the micro and macro level. - Highlights: ► Growth of energy consumption slowed down in the 1970s, a break in the long-run trend. ► Balance between growth and efficiency factors changes over time and areas of use. ► Savings in heating were not taken back, while those for cars were. ► Focus on stocks of artefacts is a promising tool for analyses. ► Incremental changes within existing stocks can be as big as radical changes.

  13. Global energy consumption for direct water use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.; Hejazi, M. I.; Kim, S. H.; Kyle, P.; Davies, E. G.; Miralles, D. G.; Teuling, R.; He, Y.; Niyogi, D.

    2015-12-01

    Despite significant efforts to quantify the mutual inter-dependence of the water and energy sectors, global energy for water (EFW) remains poorly understood, resulting in biases in energy accounting that directly affect water and energy management and policy. We firstly evaluate the global energy consumption for direct water use from 1973 to 2012 with sectoral, regional and process-level details. Over the 40-year period, we detected multiple shifts in EFW by county and region. For example, we find that India, the Middle East and China have surpassed the United States as the three largest consumers of EFW since 2003, mostly because of rapid growth in groundwater-based irrigation, desalination, and industrial and municipal water use, respectively. Globally, EFW accounts for 1-3% of total primary energy consumption in 2010, of which 52% is surface water, 36% is groundwater, and 12% is non-fresh water. The sectoral allocation of EFW includes municipal (45%), industrial (29%), and agricultural use (26%), and process-level contributions are from source/conveyance (41%), water purification (19%), water distribution (13%) and wastewater treatment (22%). Our evaluation suggests that the EFW may increase in importance in the future due to growth in population and income, and depletion of surface and shallow aquifer water resources in water-scarce regions. We are incorporating this element into an integrated assessment model (IAM) and linking it back to energy balance within that IAM. By doing this, we will then explore the impacts of EFW on the global energy market (e.g., changes in the share of groundwater use and desalination), and the uncertainty of future EFW under different shared social pathway (SSP) and representative concentration pathway (RCP) scenarios, and consequences on the emission of greenhouse gases as well. We expect these EFW induced impacts will be considerable, and will then have significant implications for adaptive management and policy making.

  14. Optimization of design parameters of low-energy buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vala, Jiří; Jarošová, Petra

    2017-07-01

    Evaluation of temperature development and related consumption of energy required for heating, air-conditioning, etc. in low-energy buildings requires the proper physical analysis, covering heat conduction, convection and radiation, including beam and diffusive components of solar radiation, on all building parts and interfaces. The system approach and the Fourier multiplicative decomposition together with the finite element technique offers the possibility of inexpensive and robust numerical and computational analysis of corresponding direct problems, as well as of the optimization ones with several design variables, using the Nelder-Mead simplex method. The practical example demonstrates the correlation between such numerical simulations and the time series of measurements of energy consumption on a small family house in Ostrov u Macochy (35 km northern from Brno).

  15. Energy efficiency index to artificially conditioned buildings; Indice de eficiencia energetica para edificios climatizados artificialmente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jota, Patricia Romeiro da Silva; Santos, Carla da Silva; Costa, Kelly Luciene C. [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica de Minas Gerais (CEMIG/CEFET), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisa em Energia Inteligente

    2010-07-01

    Conditioning buildings has been growing in number and are responsible for a significant portion of the energy used worldwide. The building energy use can be measured by the index of energy performance and specific fuel consumption (EC). The specific consumption is an index where the energy is normalized by the factors that affect energy use in order to obtain an index to explain variations in consumption. In this paper, we present a methodology to obtain a specific consumption that takes into account one of the factors that most affect energy use in these buildings, that is, the external temperature. The study is based on analysis of consumption of air conditioning system according to temperature. Through this analysis we obtain a function to facilitate the standardization of energy use, depending on the temperature outside. This methodology was tested in previous work on real buildings without stratification of energy, and this work will be presented a case study of a building whose energy measurement is stratified. The proposed index is the ratio between the energy consumption of air conditioning system corrected by the temperature through the function K(T). It was possible to demonstrate the efficiency of the index to eliminate the effect of temperature and thus to evaluate the evolution of specific consumption over the months analyzed. (author)

  16. Power production and energy consumption in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-03-01

    The main electrical resource of Norway comes from its rivers: 99% of the electric power is produced by hydroelectric power plants. Other sources, like wind and natural gas, are envisaged for the enhancement of Norway's energy production capacity. In this document, the part devoted to power production presents the different electricity production sources and their impact on the Norwegian economy. The energy consumption is detailed in the third part with an historical review of its evolution and a description of the main sectors involved in this consumption. The forth part describes the main actors of the energy sector with their industrial structure, the research institutes and universities performing R and D in this domain, and the energy trades with surrounding countries. The fifth part stresses on the research projects, on the government promoting actions through the Norwegian Research Council, and gives some examples of todays research projects. The sixth part deals with international cooperation in the R and D domain with a particular attention given to the relations between Norway, France and Europe. (J.S.)

  17. Energy access: Revelations from energy consumption patterns in rural India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, Leena; Goswami, Anandajit; Diljun, Gaurang Meher; Chaudhury, Saswata

    2012-01-01

    After decades of research on the subject of energy poverty and access and its impact on human development, the issue has finally gained global attention and commitment through the UN Secretary General's initiative on Sustainable Energy for All. However, the issue of what constitutes energy access and how such access can be supported by efficient subsidies remains a key question that does not have simple answers. At what point along the energy consumption and income spectrum does the energy access problem cease to be one of public policy, thereby letting the market take over? Using data from an extensive survey carried out by the Government of India, this paper highlights the complexities and inadequacies of using a normative consumption based approach to determine the scope and scale of interventions required. Factoring in the environmental and social pillars of sustainable development when defining access to modern energy forms would also significantly inform the level of effort involved in meeting the goal of energy access to all. - Highlights: ► Simple head count measures are inadequate to estimate the energy access challenge. ► The income and energy poor populations in a country need not completely overlap. ► Modern energy service delivery mechanisms, ensuring quality, essential for outcomes. ► Need to create enabling environment that empowers making of desired energy choices.

  18. Energy performance assessment of collective housing buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Fumagalli, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    This project has been carried out for the ALEC (Agence Locale de l'Energie et du Climat) of Grenoble urban area, a French energy and climate agency. It has been composed of several missions, all related to energy management in residential buildings. First, an annual energy use assessment have been conducted for two different building samples:  the eco-district of De Bonne in Grenoble and a sample of about 25 social housing buildings over the region. These two assessments showed that the avera...

  19. Commercial Building Energy Saver: An energy retrofit analysis toolkit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Tianzhen; Piette, Mary Ann; Chen, Yixing; Lee, Sang Hoon; Taylor-Lange, Sarah C.; Zhang, Rongpeng; Sun, Kaiyu; Price, Phillip

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Commercial Building Energy Saver is a powerful toolkit for energy retrofit analysis. • CBES provides benchmarking, load shape analysis, and model-based retrofit assessment. • CBES covers 7 building types, 6 vintages, 16 climates, and 100 energy measures. • CBES includes a web app, API, and a database of energy efficiency performance. • CBES API can be extended and integrated with third party energy software tools. - Abstract: Small commercial buildings in the United States consume 47% of the total primary energy of the buildings sector. Retrofitting small and medium commercial buildings poses a huge challenge for owners because they usually lack the expertise and resources to identify and evaluate cost-effective energy retrofit strategies. This paper presents the Commercial Building Energy Saver (CBES), an energy retrofit analysis toolkit, which calculates the energy use of a building, identifies and evaluates retrofit measures in terms of energy savings, energy cost savings and payback. The CBES Toolkit includes a web app (APP) for end users and the CBES Application Programming Interface (API) for integrating CBES with other energy software tools. The toolkit provides a rich set of features including: (1) Energy Benchmarking providing an Energy Star score, (2) Load Shape Analysis to identify potential building operation improvements, (3) Preliminary Retrofit Analysis which uses a custom developed pre-simulated database and, (4) Detailed Retrofit Analysis which utilizes real-time EnergyPlus simulations. CBES includes 100 configurable energy conservation measures (ECMs) that encompass IAQ, technical performance and cost data, for assessing 7 different prototype buildings in 16 climate zones in California and 6 vintages. A case study of a small office building demonstrates the use of the toolkit for retrofit analysis. The development of CBES provides a new contribution to the field by providing a straightforward and uncomplicated decision

  20. IEA EBC Annex 57 ‘Evaluation of Embodied Energy and CO2eq for Building Construction’

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birgisdottir, Harpa; Moncaster, Alice; Houlihan Wiberg, Aoife

    2017-01-01

    The current regulations to reduce energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) from buildings have focused on operational energy consumption. Thus legislation excludes measurement and reduction of the embodied energy and embodied GHG emissions over the building life cycle. Embodied impac...

  1. Commercial-sector energy-consumption data-base-development project. Volume II. Survey of available energy use data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-04-01

    A compilation of data on energy consumption in the commercial sector that have been published elsewhere is presented. Readily available information was collected on the structural, equipment, and energy use characteristics of the following: store and other mercantile buildings; warehouses; finance, insurance, real estate, and services industries; schools and colleges; hospitals and nursing homes; and government buildings. Energy data are shown in terms of Btu/ft/sup 2/. (MCW)

  2. A Conversation on Zero Net Energy Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torcellini, Paul A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Eley, Charles [Consultant; Gupta, Smita [Itron; McHugh, Jon [McHugh Energy Consultants; Lui, Bing [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; Higgins, Cathy [New Buildings Institute; Iplikci, Jessica [Energy Trust of Oregon; Rosenberg, Michael [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    2017-06-01

    Recently, zero net energy (ZNE) buildings have moved from state-of-the-art small project demonstrations to a more widely adopted approach across the country among various building types and sizes. States such as California set policy goals of all new residential construction to be NZE by 2020 and all commercial buildings to be NZE by 2030. However, the market for designing, constructing, and operating ZNE buildings is still relatively small. We bring together distinguished experts to share their thoughts on making ZNE buildings more widespread and mainstream from a broad perspective, including governments, utilities, energy-efficiency research institutes, and building owners. This conversation also presents the benefits of ZNE and ways to achieve that goal in the design and operation of buildings. The following is a roundtable conducted by ASHRAE Journal and Bing Liu with Charles Eley, Smita Gupta, Cathy Higgins, Jessica Iplikci, Jon McHugh, Michael Rosenberg, and Paul Torcellini.

  3. Survey and Analysis of Weather Data for Building Energy Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhandari, Mahabir S [ORNL; Shrestha, Som S [ORNL; New, Joshua Ryan [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, calibrated energy modeling of residential and commercial buildings has gained importance in a retrofit-dominated market. Accurate weather data plays an important role in this calibration process and projected energy savings. It would be ideal to measure weather data at the building location to capture relevant microclimate variation but this is generally considered cost-prohibitive. There are data sources publicly available with high temporal sampling rates but at relatively poor geospatial sampling locations. To overcome this limitation, there are a growing number of service providers that claim to provide real time and historical weather data for 20-35 km2 grid across the globe. Unfortunately, there is limited documentation from 3rd-party sources attesting to the accuracy of this data. This paper compares provided weather characteristics with data collected from a weather station inaccessible to the service providers. Monthly average dry bulb temperature; relative humidity; direct, diffuse and horizontal solar radiation; and wind speed are statistically compared. Moreover, we ascertain the relative contributions of each weather variable and its impact on building loads. Annual simulations are calculated for three different building types, including a closely monitored and automated energy efficient research building. The comparison shows that the difference for an individual variable can be as high as 90%. In addition, annual building energy consumption can vary by 7% while monthly building loads can vary by 40% as a function of the provided location s weather data.

  4. Motivating sustainable energy consumption in the home

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, H.A.; Greenberg, S. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Dept. of Computer Science

    2009-07-01

    This paper discussed social motivations related to household energy conservation. The aim of the study was to explore how technology can be designed and used in the home to encourage sustainable energy use. The basic techniques used to motivate sustainable energy action included behaviour change techniques; information techniques; positive motivational techniques; and coercive motivational techniques. The psychological theories used in the study included cognitive dissonance as a means of reminding people of the inconsistency of their attitudes towards energy and their behaviour, and utility theory as a means of determining personal motivations for energy conservation. The study showed that people are more motivated to act when presented with personalized information and monetary losses as opposed to monetary gain. Social value orientation and self-reflection motivations were also considered. The study showed that pro-social orientation can be used in the form of ambient displays located in public areas of the home. Self-reflection can be encouraged by allowing family members to annotate visualizations containing a history of their energy consumption data. Results of the study will be used to design actual feedback visualizations of energy use. 18 refs.

  5. Forecasting Renewable Energy Consumption under Zero Assumptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Ma

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy, as an environmentally friendly and sustainable source of energy, is key to realizing the nationally determined contributions of the United States (US to the December 2015 Paris agreement. Policymakers in the US rely on energy forecasts to draft and implement cost-minimizing, efficient and realistic renewable and sustainable energy policies but the inaccuracies in past projections are considerably high. The inaccuracies and inconsistencies in forecasts are due to the numerous factors considered, massive assumptions and modeling flaws in the underlying model. Here, we propose and apply a machine learning forecasting algorithm devoid of massive independent variables and assumptions to model and forecast renewable energy consumption (REC in the US. We employ the forecasting technique to make projections on REC from biomass (REC-BMs and hydroelectric (HE-EC sources for the 2009–2016 period. We find that, relative to reference case projections in Energy Information Administration’s Annual Energy Outlook 2008, projections based on our proposed technique present an enormous improvement up to ~138.26-fold on REC-BMs and ~24.67-fold on HE-EC; and that applying our technique saves the US ~2692.62PJ petajoules(PJ on HE-EC and ~9695.09PJ on REC-BMs for the 8-year forecast period. The achieved high-accuracy is also replicable to other regions.

  6. Calculation steps. Building integrated energy supply; Beregningsgang. Bygningsintegreret energiforsyning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Rasmus L.; Noergaard, J.; Daniels, O.; Justesen, R.O.

    2011-08-15

    In the future, buildings will not only act as consumers of energy but as producers as well. For these ''prosumers'', energy production by use of solar panels, photovoltaics and heat pumps etc will be essential. The objective of this project was to find the most optimal combinations of building insulation and use of renewable energy sources in existing buildings in terms of economics and climate impacts. Five houses were analyzed based on different personal load, consumption profiles, solar orientation and proposed building envelope improvements and use of combinations of renewable energy systems. The analysis was conducted by making a large number of simulations. The present report describes the applied simulation models, and explains the results and computer codes. The parameter variations are described for each house as well as the common calculation steps for each house. The results are presented in case sheets, as performance graphs, and top-50 lists for the best cases regarding CO{sub 2} emission, energy consumption and economics. (ln)

  7. Renewable energy consumption and unemployment in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Moyo, Clement; Dingela, Siyasanga; Kolisi, Nwabisa; Khobai, Hlalefang; Anyikwa, Izunna

    2017-01-01

    The importance of renewable energy consumption has grown to a large extent over the recent years. The benefits of renewable energy consumption ranging from improved environmental quality to higher economic growth are well documented. However, the impact of renewable energy consumption on unemployment has received relatively less attention. This study examines the relationship between renewable energy consumption and unemployment in South Africa over the period 1990-2014. The Autoregressive Di...

  8. Methodological Approach to Determining the Effect of Parallel Energy Consumption on District Heating System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latosov, Eduard; Volkova, Anna; Siirde, Andres; Kurnitski, Jarek; Thalfeldt, Martin

    2017-05-01

    District heating (DH) offers the most effective way to enhance the efficiency of primary energy use, increasing the share of renewable energy in energy consumption and decreasing the amount of CO2 emissions. According to Article 9 section 1 of the Directive 2010/31/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 19 May 2010 on the energy performance of buildings, the Member states of the European Union are obligated to draw up National Plans for increasing the number of nearly zero-energy buildings [1]. Article 2 section 2 of the same Directive states that the energy used in nearly zero-energy buildings should be created covered to a very significant extent by energy from renewable sources, including energy from renewable sources produced on-site or nearby. Thus, the heat distributed by DH systems and produced by manufacturing devices located in close vicinity of the building also have to be taken into account in determining the energy consumption of the building and the share of renewable energy used in the nearly zero-energy buildings. With regard to the spreading of nearly zero-energy and zero-energy houses, the feasibility of on-site energy (heat and/or electricity) production and consumption in DH areas energy (i.e. parallel consumption, when the consumer, connected to DH system, consumes energy for heat production from other sources besides the DH system as well) needs to be examined. In order to do that, it is necessary to implement a versatile methodological approach based on the principles discussed in this article.

  9. A Profile-Based Identification of Standby and Useless Electricity Consumption in Buildings

    OpenAIRE

    De Koster, Rien; Van Roy, Juan; Driesen, Johan

    2013-01-01

    Useless electricity consumption is the electricity consumption of an electric appliance or system that is not performing its primary function or that is performing its primary function without being useful. So, useless electricity consumption does not only consist of standby losses. To identify the useless electricity consumption in a building, a profile-based approach is developed. This approach is used to investigate the useless electricity consumption in five buildings of the University of...

  10. Modelling energy demand in the Norwegian building stock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sartori, Igor

    2008-07-15

    Energy demand in the building stock in Norway represents about 40% of the final energy consumption, of which 22% goes to the residential sector and 18% to the service sector. In Norway there is a strong dependency on electricity for heating purposes, with electricity covering about 80% of the energy demand in buildings. The building sector can play an important role in the achievement of a more sustainable energy system. The work performed in the articles presented in this thesis investigates various aspects related to the energy demand in the building sector, both in singular cases and in the stock as a whole. The work performed in the first part of this thesis on development and survey of case studies provided background knowledge that was then used in the second part, on modelling the entire stock. In the first part, a literature survey of case studies showed that, in a life cycle perspective, the energy used in the operating phase of buildings is the single most important factor. Design of low-energy buildings is then beneficial and should be pursued, even though it implies a somewhat higher embodied energy. A case study was performed on a school building. First, a methodology using a Monte Carlo method in the calibration process was explored. Then, the calibrated model of the school was used to investigate measures for the achievement of high energy efficiency standard through renovation work. In the second part, a model was developed to study the energy demand in a scenario analysis. The results showed the robustness of policies that included conservation measures against the conflicting effects of the other policies. Adopting conservation measures on a large scale showed the potential to reduce both electricity and total energy demand from present day levels while the building stock keeps growing. The results also highlighted the inertia to change of the building stock, due to low activity levels compared to the stock size. It also became clear that a deeper

  11. Predicting energy performance of a net-zero energy building: A statistical approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kneifel, Joshua; Webb, David

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A regression model is applied to actual energy data from a net-zero energy building. • The model is validated through a rigorous statistical analysis. • Comparisons are made between model predictions and those of a physics-based model. • The model is a viable baseline for evaluating future models from the energy data. - Abstract: Performance-based building requirements have become more prevalent because it gives freedom in building design while still maintaining or exceeding the energy performance required by prescriptive-based requirements. In order to determine if building designs reach target energy efficiency improvements, it is necessary to estimate the energy performance of a building using predictive models and different weather conditions. Physics-based whole building energy simulation modeling is the most common approach. However, these physics-based models include underlying assumptions and require significant amounts of information in order to specify the input parameter values. An alternative approach to test the performance of a building is to develop a statistically derived predictive regression model using post-occupancy data that can accurately predict energy consumption and production based on a few common weather-based factors, thus requiring less information than simulation models. A regression model based on measured data should be able to predict energy performance of a building for a given day as long as the weather conditions are similar to those during the data collection time frame. This article uses data from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Net-Zero Energy Residential Test Facility (NZERTF) to develop and validate a regression model to predict the energy performance of the NZERTF using two weather variables aggregated to the daily level, applies the model to estimate the energy performance of hypothetical NZERTFs located in different cities in the Mixed-Humid Climate Zone, and compares these

  12. Pumped hydro energy storage in buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira e Silva, Guilherme de; Hendrick, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Novel analysis of unique building with integrated pumped hydro energy storage system. • Full parameterisation of pumped hydro energy storage in buildings. • Feasibility of pumped hydro energy storage in buildings is studied. • Conditions for a better competitiveness of this technology are discussed. - Abstract: The growing use of variable energy sources is pushing the need for energy storage. With Pumped Hydro Energy Storage (PHES) representing most of the world’s energy storage installed capacity and given its maturity and simplicity, the question stands as to whether this technology could be used on a smaller scale, namely in buildings. In this paper, the feasibility of such an installation is analysed by modelling each one of its components and applying it to several installation scenarios. Proposed and existing installations are also reviewed, including a first-time analysis of an installation in France, which is presumably the only existing building with an integrated PHES system. It was found that the economies of scale that render large PHES installations competitive are not present in small installations. This limitation, associated to other important disadvantages, such as the large volume required, seem to point out PHES as an ill-suited solution for energy storage in buildings, an important finding for building design and energy policy. Nevertheless, if synergies with existing reservoirs could be found (for example for a building on a riverside), costs could be significantly lowered. Further research on possible synergies with other building systems as well as a life-cycle assessment analysis are recommended.

  13. Reduced energy consumption for melting in foundries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skov-Hansen, S.

    2007-09-15

    By improving the gating technology in traditional gating systems it is possible to reduce the amount of metal to be re-melted, and hence reduce the energy consumption for melting in foundries. Traditional gating systems are known for a straight tapered down runner a well base and 90 deg. bends in the runner system. In the streamlined gating systems there are no sharp changes in direction and a large effort is done to confine and control the flow of the molten metal during mould filling. Experiments in real production lines have proven that using streamlined gating systems improves yield by decreasing the poured weight compared to traditional layouts. In a layout for casting of valve housings in a vertically parted mould the weight of the gating system was reduced by 1,1kg which is a 20% weight reduction for the gating system. In a layout for horizontally parted moulds the weight of the gating system has been reduced by 3,7kg which is a weight reduction of 60% for the gating system. The experiments casting valve housings in ductile iron also proved that it is possible to lower the pouring temperature from 1400 deg. C to 1300 deg. C without the risk of cold runs. Glass plate fronted moulds have been used to study the flow of melt during mould filling. These experiments have also been used for studying the flow pattern when ceramic filters are used. The thorough study of the use of filters revealed that the metal passing through the filter is divided into a number of small jets. This proves that filters do not have the claimed positive effect on the flow of metal. The volumes necessary on either side of the filter is not filled till a backpressure is build up and results in formation of pressure shocks when backfilled. These pressure shocks result in more turbulence inside the casting than the same gating system with no filter. Not using filters can mean a reduction in poured weight of 0,6kg. To examine if the experiments using glass plate fronted moulds give

  14. Energy Aspects of Green Buildings - International Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauskale, L.; Geipele, I.; Zeltins, N.; Lecis, I.

    2016-12-01

    At present, reduction of greenhouse gas emissions is one of the main environmental priorities globally, and implementation of sustainability aspects in the construction industry, including energy aspects, is of major importance for long-term environmental development, as buildings have a long life cycle and require many resources both for construction and operation periods. The aim of the research is to analyse energy aspects of green buildings. The results of research show that the construction of green buildings can significantly result in energy savings and has other benefits for different market participants. Future research directions have been identified as well.

  15. Building up of an energy world in 2050

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouneau, S.; David, S.; Meplan, O.

    2009-01-01

    The present work is the result of a reflection regarding the 2050 energy landscape at the world scale. It is not a prospective work but the construction of a 2050 energy mix, based on global data and hypotheses which are fully explained (energy consumption, world allocation, CO 2 emissions). The results allow us to bring out pertinent trends and quantitative information on energy needs and energy sources situated in the different large economic regions of the world in 2050. The goal of the present study is to build a representation of the world energy demand taking into account in a simple but realistic way all the relevant parameters on which it depends: population, total energy consumption, climate constraint, potential of available energy sources, appropriateness of these sources to the needs. The aim of this study is not to predict the evolution of theses parameters from today to 2050, but to choose or define their values in 2050 and then to be able to describe the resulting energy world. The initial assumptions for 2050 are a human population of 9 billions, a total energy consumption limited to 20- Gtoe/y, and a cut by a factor 2 of the CO 2 emissions which requires a fossil fuel consumption with CO 2 emissions limited to 4.2 Gtoe/y. The proposed method to describe the world energy demand in 2050 is based on simple hypotheses, which are detailed and argued. This method leads to a quantitative view on a world energy mix constrained by a total energy production of 20 Gtoe/y and the reduction by half of CO 2 emissions. This work shows that a '20 Gtoe/y' scenario requires a reduction of the energy consumption of the rich populations, without insuring a significant increase of the energy consumption of the poorest. The construction of the energy mix in 2050 demonstrates that it is necessary to deploy all new energy sources at their maximum level of potential: renewable energies, CO 2 mitigation and nuclear power. These results can provide an order of magnitude of

  16. Energy efficiency of high-rise buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhigulina, Anna Yu.; Ponomarenko, Alla M.

    2018-03-01

    The article is devoted to analysis of tendencies and advanced technologies in the field of energy supply and energy efficiency of tall buildings, to the history of the emergence of the concept of "efficiency" and its current interpretation. Also the article show the difference of evaluation criteria of the leading rating systems LEED and BREEAM. Authors reviewed the latest technologies applied in the construction of energy efficient buildings. Methodological approach to the design of tall buildings taking into account energy efficiency needs to include the primary energy saving; to seek the possibility of production and accumulation of alternative electric energy by converting energy from the sun and wind with the help of special technical devices; the application of regenerative technologies.

  17. Energy simulation and optimization for a small commercial building through Modelica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas, Bryan

    Small commercial buildings make up the majority of buildings in the United States. Energy consumed by these buildings is expected to drastically increase in the next few decades, with a large percentage of the energy consumed attributed to cooling systems. This work presents the simulation and optimization of a thermostat schedule to minimize energy consumption in a small commercial building test bed during the cooling season. The simulation occurs through the use of the multi-engineering domain Dymola environment based on the Modelica open source programming language and is optimized with the Java based optimization program GenOpt. The simulation uses both physically based modeling utilizing heat transfer principles for the building and regression analysis for energy consumption. GenOpt is dynamically coupled to Dymola through various interface files. There are very few studies that have coupled GenOpt to a building simulation program and even fewer studies have used Dymola for building simulation as extensively as the work presented here. The work presented proves Dymola as a viable alternative to other building simulation programs such as EnergyPlus and MatLab. The model developed is used to simulate the energy consumption of a test bed, a commissioned real world small commercial building, while maintaining indoor thermal comfort. Potential applications include smart or intelligent building systems, predictive simulation of small commercial buildings, and building diagnostics.

  18. Analysis and Monitoring of Energy Consumption and Indoor Climate in a School Before and After Deep Energy Renovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jørgen; Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund; Bergsøe, Niels Christian

    2015-01-01

    ventilation systems with heat recovery, low-energy lighting, water-saving measures, improved insulation of piping, and improved control using building energy management systems. This paper presents preliminary results of the analysis and monitoring of energy consumption and indoor climate in one public school...... to achieve deep energy retrofits of government/ public buildings, starting with the determination of working bundles of technologies and corresponding business models using combined public and private funding. Denmark will contribute to the project with seven buildings in total -- two schools and five...

  19. Building Energy Assessment and Computer Simulation Applied to Social Housing in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Aranda

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The actual energy consumption and simulated energy performance of a building usually differ. This gap widens in social housing, owing to the characteristics of these buildings and the consumption patterns of economically vulnerable households affected by energy poverty. The aim of this work is to characterise the energy poverty of the households that are representative of those residing in social housing, specifically in blocks of apartments in Southern Europe. The main variables that affect energy consumption and costs are analysed, and the models developed for software energy-performance simulations (which are applied to predict energy consumption in social housing are validated against actual energy-consumption values. The results demonstrate that this type of household usually lives in surroundings at a temperature below the average thermal comfort level. We have taken into account that a standard thermal comfort level may lead to significant differences between computer-aided energy building simulation and actual consumption data (which are 40–140% lower than simulated consumption. This fact is of integral importance, as we use computer simulation to predict building energy performance in social housing.

  20. Energy consumption maps for quaternary distillation sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gomez-Castro, F.I.; Ramírez-Vallejo, N.E.; Segovia-Hernandez, J.G.

    2016-01-01

    be generated for the separation of multicomponent mixtures. This fact is an advantage, since a wide portfolio of alternatives can be used to separate a specific mixture; however, this is also a disadvantage since a lot of alternatives must be explored in order to find the optimal one. The optimal configuration...... of the solutions space. For the separation of ternary mixtures, Tedder and Rudd (1978) presented a composition map for which thermally coupled systems allowed energy savings. However, the scenario is different for quaternary mixtures, since no similar information is available. Therefore, in this work, energy...... consumption data for five feed compositions for a mixture near to ideality are presented. The quaternary sequences studied are: conventional direct (three columns), conventional indirect (three columns), thermally coupled direct (main column and two side rectifiers), and thermally coupled indirect (main...

  1. Energy Efficiency Program Administrators and Building Energy Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Explore how energy efficiency program administrators have helped advance building energy codes at federal, state, and local levels—using technical, institutional, financial, and other resources—and discusses potential next steps.

  2. Forecast and analysis of the ratio of electric energy to terminal energy consumption for global energy internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Zhong, Ming; Cheng, Ling; Jin, Lu; Shen, Si

    2018-02-01

    In the background of building global energy internet, it has both theoretical and realistic significance for forecasting and analysing the ratio of electric energy to terminal energy consumption. This paper firstly analysed the influencing factors of the ratio of electric energy to terminal energy and then used combination method to forecast and analyse the global proportion of electric energy. And then, construct the cointegration model for the proportion of electric energy by using influence factor such as electricity price index, GDP, economic structure, energy use efficiency and total population level. At last, this paper got prediction map of the proportion of electric energy by using the combination-forecasting model based on multiple linear regression method, trend analysis method, and variance-covariance method. This map describes the development trend of the proportion of electric energy in 2017-2050 and the proportion of electric energy in 2050 was analysed in detail using scenario analysis.

  3. Building energy efficiency labeling programme in Singapore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Siew Eang; Rajagopalan, Priyadarsini

    2008-01-01

    The use of electricity in buildings constitutes around 16% of Singapore's energy demand. In view of the fact that Singapore is an urban city with no rural base, which depends heavily on air-conditioning to cool its buildings all year round, the survival as a nation depends on its ability to excel economically. To incorporate energy efficiency measures is one of the key missions to ensure that the economy is sustainable. The recently launched building energy efficiency labelling programme is such an initiative. Buildings whose energy performance are among the nation's top 25% and maintain a healthy and productive indoor environment as well as uphold a minimum performance for different systems can qualify to attain the Energy Smart Office Label. Detailed methodologies of the labelling process as well as the performance standards are elaborated. The main strengths of this system namely a rigorous benchmarking database and an independent audit conducted by a private accredited Energy Service Company (ESCO) are highlighted. A few buildings were awarded the Energy Smart Office Label during the launching of the programme conducted in December 2005. The labeling of other types of buildings like hotels, schools, hospitals, etc. is ongoing

  4. Reduction of firewood consumption by households in south-central Chile associated with energy efficiency programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schueftan, Alejandra; González, Alejandro D.

    2013-01-01

    Cities in the central-southern area of Chile face serious environmental pollution due to extensive use of firewood for heating. Low energy efficiency of constructions and cold climate increase the problem, which also affects native forests. The aims of this study are to characterize energy consumption in dwellings of this region, investigate the reduction potential, and study social and environmental consequences of high consumption of firewood. Actual energy consumption is studied with information from surveys, potential for reduction is modeled with software and other consequences are analyzed from previous studies. Results for the city of Valdivia show high firewood consumption per household, with a media bulk volume near 12 m 3 /year. Thermal regulations are softer compared with other countries. Moreover, around 85% of buildings were built before enforcing codes in 2007, and has almost no thermal protection. The reduction potential due to thermal improvements is found to be very high (62%) if buildings are refurbished to comply with the present Chilean Norm of 2007, but it reaches a 77% reduction if refurbished according to stricter foreign regulations. Therefore, an energy efficiency program strongly addressing existing buildings has the largest potential for reducing firewood use, and therefore mitigate environmental and health impacts. - Highlights: • High firewood consumption and environmental pollution in cities of south-central Chile. • High use of firewood due to inefficient constructions and soft thermal regulations. • Potential reduction of energy consumption up to 77% with more demanding regulations. • Policies should address building stock before thermal regulation, corresponding to 85%

  5. Energy Signal Tool for Decision Support in Building Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henze, G. P.; Pavlak, G. S.; Florita, A. R.; Dodier, R. H.; Hirsch, A. I.

    2014-12-01

    A prototype energy signal tool is demonstrated for operational whole-building and system-level energy use evaluation. The purpose of the tool is to give a summary of building energy use which allows a building operator to quickly distinguish normal and abnormal energy use. Toward that end, energy use status is displayed as a traffic light, which is a visual metaphor for energy use that is either substantially different from expected (red and yellow lights) or approximately the same as expected (green light). Which light to display for a given energy end use is determined by comparing expected to actual energy use. As expected, energy use is necessarily uncertain; we cannot choose the appropriate light with certainty. Instead, the energy signal tool chooses the light by minimizing the expected cost of displaying the wrong light. The expected energy use is represented by a probability distribution. Energy use is modeled by a low-order lumped parameter model. Uncertainty in energy use is quantified by a Monte Carlo exploration of the influence of model parameters on energy use. Distributions over model parameters are updated over time via Bayes' theorem. The simulation study was devised to assess whole-building energy signal accuracy in the presence of uncertainty and faults at the submetered level, which may lead to tradeoffs at the whole-building level that are not detectable without submetering.

  6. Effect of occupant behaviour related influencing factors on final energy end uses in buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabi, Valentina; Corgnati, Stefano P.; Andersen, Rune Vinther

    2011-01-01

    in the performance of buildings, as highlighted by the huge gap between real and predicted energy consumptions depending on actual use of the buildings. Based on a dedicated literature review, the effect of the occupant behaviour on the energy consumptions is here firstly introduced. Then, the influencing parameters...... affecting final energy end uses (heating, cooling, ventilation, lighting) are presented and critically discussed in order to show the importance of a better description of occupant behaviour in energy prediction tools.......Different aspects are investigated in order to highlight the causes of increased energy consumption in buildings: in particular, the ongoing project IEA ECBCS Annex 53 groups the “influencing factors” into seven major categories empathising the role of occupant behaviour on energy consumptions...

  7. Proposed Training Plan to Improve Building Energy Efficiency in Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Sha; Evans, Meredydd

    2013-01-01

    Vietnam has experienced fast growth in energy consumption in the past decade, with annual growth rate of over 12 percent. This is accompanied by the fast increase in commercial energy use, driven by rapid industrialization, expansion of motorized transport, and increasing energy use in residential and commercial buildings. Meanwhile, Vietnam is experiencing rapid urbanization at a rate of 3.4 percent per year; and the majority of the growth centered in and near major cities such as Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City. This has resulted in a construction boom in Vietnam.

  8. The Effects of Utilizing Natural Light to Reduce Energy Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    SHEIKH, Shilla; GHALEHNOVI, Afsane

    2015-01-01

    Abstract.While Iran has the richest energy source, but wastage and improper use of it has imposed irretrievable damages to our annual budget; such that construction division has allocated the most level of energy to itself with more than 40% of total energy produced in Iran and consumption of expenses equal to 30% of earning gained from oil sale. Since electricity energy has the most share of energy consumption in construction division, providing modern ways to reduce the consumption of this ...

  9. Buildings Interaction with Urban Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heller, Alfred; Wyckmans, Annemie; Zucker, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    The goal towards a fossil free energy system is expressed in amongst others European and national targets, and puts pressure on the application of renewable energy sources combined with energy efficiency. Many cities are even more ambitious than their national targets and want to be among the first...... to demonstrate that they can become not only smart fossil-free energy cities but sustainable in a wider sense, including water, waste, transportation and more. In the current paper, the research agenda to support such goals through smart city efforts is presented for a few European cases as examples, focusing...... on the impacts that buildings play in the overall energy system. Here buildings are not only consumers but rather prosumers that are able to produce renewable energy themselves. Buildings moreover offer potential storage capacities that can be utilized in demand shifting, which is necessary to enable increased...

  10. Building Energy Efficiency through Innovative Thermodevices (BEEIT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ju, Y. Sungtaek [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Dunn, Bruce [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Pei, Qibing [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Kim, C. -J. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2012-12-14

    This is the final scientific/technical report for the project "Compact MEMS Electrocaloric Cooling Module" sponsored by ARAPA-E as part of its Building Energy Efficiency through Innovative Thermodevices (BEEIT) program.

  11. Analysis of alternative strategies for energy conservation in new buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, J.M.; Tawil, J.J.

    1980-12-01

    Building Energy Performance Standards (BEPS) were mandated by the Energy Conservation Standards for New Buildings Act of 1976 (Title III of Energy Conservation and Production Act) to promote energy efficiency and the use of renewable resources in new buildings. The report analyzes alternative Federal strategies and their component policy instruments and recommends a strategy for achieving the goals of the Act. The concern is limited to space conditioning (heating, cooling, and lighting) and water heating. The policy instruments considered include greater reliance on market forces; research and development; information, education and demonstration programs; tax incentives and sanctions; mortgage and finance programs; and regulations and standards. The analysis starts with an explanation of the barriers to energy conservation in the residential and commercial sectors. Individual policy instruments are then described and evaluated with respect to energy conservation, economic efficiency, equity, political impacts, and implementation and other transitional impacts. Five possible strategies are identified: (1) increased reliance on the market place; (2) energy consumption tax and supply subsidies; (3) BEPS with no sanctions and no incentives; (4) BEPS with sanctions and incentives (price control); and (5) BEPS with sanctions and incentives (no price controls). A comparative analysis is performed. Elements are proposed for inclusion in a comprehensive strategy for conservation in new buildings. (MCW)

  12. Investigation the Advantages of CPV for Building Integrated PV : 28th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. van der Craats; R.G. Catau; Piet Sonneveld; J.V. Sahedi; A.R. Sparemberger

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this concept is a significant reduction of energy consumption in greenhouses and buildings with large facades and windows by using available solar energy. The scope of this investigation is to study the advantages of a building integrated CPV system. The basic idea is that a larger

  13. Edificio project: A neuro-fuzzy approach to building energy management systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galata, A.; Bakker, L.G.; Morel, N.; Michel, J.B.; Karki, S.; Joergl, H.P.; Franceschini, A.; Martinez, A.

    1998-01-01

    It is well known that building installations for indoor climate control, consume a substantial part of the total energy consumption and that at present these installations use much more energy than required due to inadequate settings and poor control and management strategies. European building

  14. The future 2015 Danish Building Regulations concerning energy performance of multi framed windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hacksen Kampmann, Thomas

    The future Danish Building Regulation BR 2015 will reduce energy consumption within the overall building stock. Regarding the very important field windows, it seems that BR 2015 will be based on the same rules as today, except for a simple reduction of the limits for energy loss. Since a big part...

  15. Low energy building with novel cooling unit using PCM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaber, Samar

    2012-02-13

    This thesis aims to reduce the energy consumption as well as greenhouse gases to the environment without negatively affecting the thermal comfort. In the present work, thermal, energetic and economic impacts of employing passive solar systems combined with energy conservation systems have been investigated. These energy systems have been integrated with a typical residential building located in three different climate zones in Europe and Middle East regions.Hour-by-hour energy computer simulations have been carried out using TRNSYS and INSEL programs to analyze the performance of integrated energy systems. Furthermore, IESU software module has been developed to simulate a novel cooling unit using Phase Change Material (PCM). This unit is named as Indirect Evaporative and Storage Unit (IESU). Thereafter, complete economic equations for the Life Cycle Cost (LCC) criterion have been formulated. Furthermore this criterion has been optimized for different variables as a function of thermal parameters and economic figures from local markets. An optimum design of both residential buildings and energy systems has great impact on energy consumption. In fact, results showed that the energy consumption is reduced by 85.62%, 86.33% and 74.05% in Berlin, Amman and Aqaba, respectively. Moreover, the LCC criterion is reduced by 41.85% in Berlin, 19.21% in Amman and 15.22% in Aqaba.The macro economic analysis shows that once this research is applied in one million typical residential buildings in the selected climate zones, the annual avoided CO{sub 2} emissions are estimated to be about 5.7 million Tons in Berlin. In Aqaba, around 2.96 million Tons CO{sub 2} emissions will be saved annually and in Amman about 2.98 million Tons will be reduced. The payback period from the achieved saving is 18 years, 11 years and 8.6 years in Amman, Aqaba and Berlin, respectively.

  16. Commercial Building Partners Catalyze Energy Efficient Buildings Across the Nation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Energy Efficiency in Buildings, Fueling Our Future with Efficiency, Pacific Grove, CA, August 12,-17, 2012, Government or Federal Purpose Rights License ...could work with local businesses, leasing groups, or franchises to extend this project model and use the funding model. Acknowledgements The

  17. Influences Energy Consumption has on Green GDP Growth in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongxian, Xie

    2018-02-01

    This paper examines the relationship between China’s total energy consumption growth and GGDP growth based on the data of 1997-2016. With path analysis employed, the direct and indirect influence on GGDP growth rate exerted by several energy consumption ratios as well as the relationship among them is explored. Furtherly, the author determines how much each of these ratios contributes to GGDP. This research suggests that proportion of natural gas consumption and that of other energy consumption are the two major drivers of GGDP growth, while coal and oil consumption proportion inhibits GGDP Growth. Specifically, increasing the proportion of natural gas consumption contributes the most to GGDP growth.

  18. Divisia amount and price index for energy consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentzen, J.

    1993-01-01

    In connection with the calculation of total energy consumption related to aggregation of the individual fuel's combustion values, an alternative to Btu aggregation (combustion value measurement), designated the ''Divisia index'', is presented. This represents an economic measure for energy consumption. The Divisia index is demonstrated in relation to total national energy consumption and total energy consumption within the Danish housing sector and also with regard to the estimation of price and income elasticity within energy demand. It is only possible to utilize the Divisia index in relation to the last 20 years, which is the period where energy consumption has stagnated. The question of possible irreversible effects on energy consumption caused by large variations in energy prices is discussed. It is suggested that the reaction to a fall in prices is different and less significant than is the case with price rises. In the long term, results point at a reasonably high price elasticity within energy demand. (AB) (22 refs.)

  19. Analyzing and Forecasting Electrical Load Consumption in Healthcare Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Gordillo-Orquera

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Healthcare buildings exhibit a different electrical load predictability depending on their size and nature. Large hospitals behave similarly to small cities, whereas primary care centers are expected to have different consumption dynamics. In this work, we jointly analyze the electrical load predictability of a large hospital and that of its associated primary care center. An unsupervised load forecasting scheme using combined classic methods of principal component analysis (PCA and autoregressive (AR modeling, as well as a supervised scheme using orthonormal partial least squares (OPLS, are proposed. Both methods reduce the dimensionality of the data to create an efficient and low-complexity data representation and eliminate noise subspaces. Because the former method tended to underestimate the load and the latter tended to overestimate it in the large hospital, we also propose a convex combination of both to further reduce the forecasting error. The analysis of data from 7 years in the hospital and 3 years in the primary care center shows that the proposed low-complexity dynamic models are flexible enough to predict both types of consumption at practical accuracy levels.

  20. Revealing myths about people, energy and buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diamond, R.; Moezzi, M.

    2000-05-01

    In this essay we take a closer look at some energy myths, focusing on the ways energy professionals and the public alike, talk, write and teach about how energy affects the way in which we design, operate, retrofit and inhabit buildings. What myths about people, energy and buildings are current today? Who tells these myths and why do we believe them? How do myths affect our behavior? Myths are a way of understanding the world we live in. They may represent incomplete understanding, or be based on premises that are scientifically not valid, but they help us understand and explain how the world works, and we shape our behavior accordingly.

  1. Analysis of alternative strategies for energy conservation in new buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, J. M.; Tawil, J.

    1980-12-01

    The policy instruments considered include: greater reliance on market forces; research and development; information, education and demonstration programs; tax incentives and sanctions; mortgage and finance programs; and regulations and standards. The analysis starts with an explanation of the barriers to energy conservation in the residential and commercial sectors. Individual policy instruments are described and evaluated with respect to energy conservation, economic efficiency, equity, political impacts, and implementation and other transitional impacts. Five possible strategies are identified: (1) increased reliance on the market place; (2) energy consumption tax and supply subsidies; (3) Building Energy Performance Standards (BEPS) with no sanctions and no incentives; (4) BEPS with sanctions and incentives (price control); and (5) BEPS with sanctions and incentives (no price controls). A comparative analysis is performed. Elements are proposed for inclusion in a comprehensive strategy for conservation in new buildings.

  2. Nuclear energy consumption and economic growth in nine developed countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolde-Rufael, Yemane; Menyah, Kojo

    2010-01-01

    This article attempts to test the causal relationship between nuclear energy consumption and real GDP for nine developed countries for the period 1971-2005 by including capital and labour as additional variables. Using a modified version of the Granger causality test developed by Toda and Yamamoto (1995), we found a unidirectional causality running from nuclear energy consumption to economic growth in Japan, Netherlands and Switzerland; the opposite uni-directional causality running from economic growth to nuclear energy consumption in Canada and Sweden; and a bi-directional causality running between economic growth and nuclear energy consumption in France, Spain, the United Kingdom and the United States. In Spain, the United Kingdom and the USA, increases in nuclear energy consumption caused increases in economic growth implying that conservation measures taken that reduce nuclear energy consumption may negatively affect economic growth. In France, Japan, Netherlands and Switzerland increases in nuclear energy consumption caused decreases in economic growth, suggesting that energy conservation measure taken that reduce nuclear energy consumption may help to mitigate the adverse effects of nuclear energy consumption on economic growth. In Canada and Sweden energy conservation measures affecting nuclear energy consumption may not harm economic growth.

  3. Regulation of heating and air-conditioning systems based on human thermal sensation: impact on the energy consumption in buildings; Regulation des systemes de chauffage et de climatisation basee sur la sensation thermique humaine: impact sur la consommation d'energie dans les batiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Endravadan, M.

    2006-02-15

    This study is based on the adaptive approach. The thermal comfort of an individual depends on indoor conditions that can be controlled. However, changes in activity or clothing adjustments are difficult to control and measure in the field experiments. Behavioural actions undertaken by the occupant to overcome the discomfort could be varying and may have diverse consequences. Sometimes these actions are beneficial to the occupant, although often they lead to disastrous amounts of energy consumption. Hence, it becomes crucial to consider the human behaviour and the thermal inertia of the building. The creation of numerical models is useful to study the coupling between these two components and to evaluate the effects of the behaviour on comfort and the energy. The simulations were conducted using TRNSYS software. A model such as 'Global Behavioural Regulator' (GBR) was created to evaluate the effects of clothing or thermostat adjustments made by the occupant depending on his thermal sensation (PMV). The energy costs of several types of regulators have been compared in various seasons for example, winter and summer using a light and heavy weight building. The heating of a whole-building may not be necessary in temperate climates or during mid-season. However, comfortable working conditions could be assured for the occupants with the use of an individual heating system such as a 'Local Heating System' (LHS). In such a context, it becomes interesting to evaluate the occupant's behaviour in regards to local heating and its effects on comfort and energy consumption. The LHS consists of three radiant panels; therefore, it is important to evaluate the local heat exchanges with precision. Experiments conducted with the manikin were used to validate the infra-red model; whereas experiments with real subjects were studied to understand the occupant behaviour on the LHS as a function of their local thermal sensations. These analyses led to the creation

  4. Commercial Buildings Energy Performance within Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarova-Molnar, Sanja; Kjærgaard, Mikkel Baun; Shaker, Hamid Reza

    2015-01-01

    the context of performance of resident businesses. We examine both business performance and energy performance and how they relate to one another to conclude that building occupants, who are also employees, hold the key to optimizing both metrics in one of the most cost-efficient ways. Finally, the goal...... of our contribution is twofold: 1) to re-scope the concept of building performance to and show the importance to consider, hand- in-hand, both energy performance and performance of resident businesses, and 2) re-state the importance of the potential that lies in the active involvement of building...

  5. Rating the energy performance of buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olofsson, Thomas; Meier, Alan; Lamberts, Roberto

    2004-12-01

    In order to succeed in developing a more sustainable society, buildings will need to be continuously improved. This paper discusses how to rate the energy performance of buildings. A brief review of recent approaches to energy rating is presented. It illustrates that there is no single correct or wrong concept, but one needs to be aware of the relative impact of the strategies. Different strategies of setting energy efficiency standards are discussed and the advantages of the minimum life cycle cost are shown. Indicators for building energy rating based on simulations, aggregated statistics and expert knowledge are discussed and illustrated in order to demonstrate strengths and weaknesses of each approach. In addition, the importance of considering the level of amenities offered is presented. Attributes of a rating procedure based on three elements, flexible enough for recognizing different strategies to achieve energy conservation, is proposed.

  6. Energy consumption in France's industry. Conjuncture note

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-04-01

    Energy consumption in the industry represents today 1/5 of France's end-use energy consumption. Gas and electricity are the most consumed and represent 2/3 of the overall. The 5 most energy consuming industries are the following: paper and cardboard industry, food industry, rubber, plastic and other non-metallic mineral products industry, metallurgy and chemical industry. The reduction of the industry's energy consumption is explained by the decline of production, but above all by the energy efficiency improvement of the sector. Technological innovations in production means have indeed led to reduce energy consumption

  7. Energy consumption and economic growth: A causality analysis for Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsani, Stela Z.

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the causal relationship between aggregated and disaggregated levels of energy consumption and economic growth for Greece for the period 1960-2006 through the application of a later development in the methodology of time series proposed by Toda and Yamamoto (1995). At aggregated levels of energy consumption empirical findings suggest the presence of a uni-directional causal relationship running from total energy consumption to real GDP. At disaggregated levels empirical evidence suggests that there is a bi-directional causal relationship between industrial and residential energy consumption to real GDP but this is not the case for the transport energy consumption with causal relationship being identified in neither direction. The importance of these findings lies on their policy implications and their adoption on structural policies affecting energy consumption in Greece suggesting that in order to address energy import dependence and environmental concerns without hindering economic growth emphasis should be put on the demand side and energy efficiency improvements.

  8. Economic growth and energy consumption in Algeria: a causality analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherfi, S.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to review the causal link in the Granger sense, between energy consumption and economic growth in Algeria, to determine its implications for economic policy. The analysis was done based on Granger static and causality tests using statistical data on per capita primary energy consumption and gross domestic product per inhabitant in Algeria, over the 1965-2008 period. The results of the survey show that there is, in Algeria, a strong link between energy consumption per inhabitant and GDP per inhabitant. The results also suggest the lack of a long term impetus (no co-integration) between energy consumption and economic growth. In addition, there is a one-way causal link between GDP and energy consumption, i.e. the prior GDP data provides a better forecast of energy consumption level, but not the contrary. In other words, GDP explains consumption, not the contrary. (author)

  9. Ensuring constant moisture levels in museum buildings. Pt. 2. Energy consumption of air conditioners - summer season; Einhaltung der Feuchtekonstanz fuer museale Sammlungen. T. 2. Nutzenergiebedarf der thermischen Luftaufbereitung - der Sommerfall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feustel, H.E. [FHTW Berlin (Germany). Technisches Gebaeudemanagement

    2006-07-15

    Museum buildings require constant temperature and moisture, which are difficult to maintain and make high requirements on air conditioners and control systems. The rise in energy cost has made it necessary in many cases to adjust the temperature and moisture control regime,i.e. higher temperatures and moistures are accepted in the summer season, while lower temperatures and moisture are set in winter. (orig.)

  10. Impacts of Model Building Energy Codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Athalye, Rahul A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sivaraman, Deepak [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Elliott, Douglas B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Liu, Bing [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bartlett, Rosemarie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-10-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Building Energy Codes Program (BECP) periodically evaluates national and state-level impacts associated with energy codes in residential and commercial buildings. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), funded by DOE, conducted an assessment of the prospective impacts of national model building energy codes from 2010 through 2040. A previous PNNL study evaluated the impact of the Building Energy Codes Program; this study looked more broadly at overall code impacts. This report describes the methodology used for the assessment and presents the impacts in terms of energy savings, consumer cost savings, and reduced CO2 emissions at the state level and at aggregated levels. This analysis does not represent all potential savings from energy codes in the U.S. because it excludes several states which have codes which are fundamentally different from the national model energy codes or which do not have state-wide codes. Energy codes follow a three-phase cycle that starts with the development of a new model code, proceeds with the adoption of the new code by states and local jurisdictions, and finishes when buildings comply with the code. The development of new model code editions creates the potential for increased energy savings. After a new model code is adopted, potential savings are realized in the field when new buildings (or additions and alterations) are constructed to comply with the new code. Delayed adoption of a model code and incomplete compliance with the code’s requirements erode potential savings. The contributions of all three phases are crucial to the overall impact of codes, and are considered in this assessment.

  11. Toward Net Energy Buildings: Design, Construction, and Performance of the Grand Canyon House

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balcomb, J. D.; Hancock, C. E.; Barker, G.

    1999-06-23

    The Grand Canyon house is a joint project of the DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory and the U.S. National Park Service and is part of the International Energy Agency Solar Heating and Cooling Programme Task 13 (Advanced Solar Low-Energy Buildings). Energy consumption of the house, designed using a whole-building low-energy approach, was reduced by 75% compared to an equivalent house built in accordance with American Building Officials Model Energy Code and the Home Energy Rating System criteria.

  12. The Comfortable Home and Energy Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Line Valdorff

    2017-01-01

    of the home and social practices. This implies focus on “the comfortable home” as made up of homemaking practices that include knowhow, sensations and social norms. The empirical basis comprises interviews and visual data from a field study on detached housing on the outskirts of a Danish city. The paper......This paper investigates relations between notions of comfort and notions of home, aiming at a better understanding of residential comfort and the related energy consumption. Residential comfort is examined through a practice-theoretical lens and as something that appears in between the social...... and material structures of a home. The approach considers different elements of comfort in homemaking practices, such as the body, materials and social meanings. The paper examines how conceptions of comfort and homeliness interrelate through homemaking practices and thereby redefine comfort within a framework...

  13. Energy and environmental quality of buildings and open space. Public administration regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Residential sector is responsible of a third of total energy consumption in Italy and 30-40% of CO 2 emission. An energy efficient buildings reduce cost and save energy and emission. The energy recovery is possible also with bioclimatic architecture that represents a contribution at the economic and environmental balance [it

  14. A framework for characterising energy consumption of machining manufacturing systems

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yufeng; He, Yan; Wang, Yan; Yan, Ping; Liu, Xuehui

    2013-01-01

    Energy consumption in machining manufacturing systems is increasingly of interest due to concern for global climate change and manufacturing sustainability. To utilise energy more effectively, it is paramount to understand and characterise the energy consumption of machining manufacturing systems. To this end, a framework to analyse energy consumption characteristics in machining manufacturing systems from a holistic point of view is proposed in this paper. Taking into account the complexity ...

  15. Revising China's energy consumption and carbon emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Z.

    2015-12-01

    China is the world's largest carbon emitter and takes the lion's share of new increased emission since 2000, China's carbon emissions and mitigation efforts have received global attentions (Liu et al., Nature 500, 143-145)1. Yet China's emission estimates have been approved to be greatly uncertain (Guan et al., Nature Climate Change 2, 672-675)2. Accurate estimation becomes even crucial as China has recently pledged to reach a carbon emission peak by 2030, but no quantitative target has been given, nor is it even possible to assess without a reasonable baseline. Here we produced new estimates of Chinese carbon emissions for 1950-2012 based on a new investigation in energy consumption activities and emission factors using extensively surveyed and experimental data from 4243 mines and 602 coal samples. We reported that the total energy consumption is 10% higher than the nationally published value. The investigated emission factors used in China are significantly (40%) different from the IPCC default values which were used in drawing up several previous emission inventories. The final calculated total carbon emissions from China are 10% different than the amount reported by international data sets. The new estimate provides a revision of 4% of global emissions, which could have important implications for global carbon budgets and burden-sharing of climate change mitigation. 1 Liu, Z. et al. A low-carbon road map for China. Nature 500, 143-145 (2013). 2 Guan, D., Liu, Z., Geng, Y., Lindner, S. & Hubacek, K. The gigatonne gap in China's carbon