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Sample records for buildings control automatizado

  1. Sistema automatizado para el control de las inversiones en las redes eléctricas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maylín Díaz Pardillo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo investigativo abarca las etapas de la automatización del proceso de control en la ejecución de las inversiones que se realizan en las redes del Sistema Electroenergético Nacional, integrado al Sistema Integral de Gestión de Redes de la Unión Eléctrica. Para el desarrollo de la aplicación se llevaron a cabo las etapas del proceso de desarrollo de software, según lo especifica el Proceso Unificado de Desarrollo (RUP, utilizándose como herramienta de modelado para el análisis y diseño: el Enterprise Architect. El software se implementó en Embarcadero RAD Studio 2010 el cual incluye facilidades de desarrollo para aplicaciones Desktop con un diseño de interfaz adecuado a los requerimientos del cliente, se utilizó Object Pascal como lenguaje de programación lo que permitió un código eficiente y para la persistencia de la información se utilizó como Sistema Gestor de Base de Datos: Microsoft SQL Server 2008 R2.

  2. Automated control of electronic equipment in intelligent buildings; Control automatizado de equipo electrico en edificios inteligentes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez Vera, Jorge [Electrica Integral, S. A. de C. V., Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1993-12-31

    This paper pretends to call the attention of the audience and of the readers of it on the great importance that on a national level the programs on primary energy as well as on secondary energy saving and conservation have. Even more if we take into account that in our country by constitutional decree, the public service of electric power is reserved to the nation through the Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) which is a decentralized organization of the federal Mexican government, therefore subjected to, among many others, the Budgeting Law, Accountancy Law and Public Expenditure Law. We who know CFE, know the great difficulty, always raising, of getting resources for infrastructure works, among which we can cite: power plants, substations, transmission lines and distribution lines. Because of this, the energy saving and conservation programs represent for the electric sector the possibility or deferring the required investments to guarantee the energy offer. On the other hand, the users of the electric public service the implementation into its operational policies energy saving and conservation programs, undoubtedly will result into economical benefits and will improve the ratio kWh/Unit of the terminated product. Finally, in a country like ours, where 66% of generated electric power by the national electric sector comes from fossil fuel power plants, the generalized implementation of saving programs will diminish the need of generating kWh, and consequently, the emission of harmful pollutants to the environment such as nitrogen and sulfur oxides, carbon dioxide and suspended particles. [Espanol] En este trabajo se pretende llamar la atencion de la audiencia y de los lectores del mismo, de la gran importancia que a nivel nacional tienen los programas de ahorro y conservacion de energeticos, tanto primarios como secundarios. Maxime si tomamos en cuenta que en nuestro pais, por disposicion constitucional, la prestacion del servicio publico de energia electrica esta reservada a la nacion a traves de Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE). La cual es un organismo descentralizado del Gobierno Federal y por ende, sujeta entre muchas otras a la Ley de Presupuesto, Contabilidad y Gasto Publico. Quienes conocemos CFE sabemos de la gran dificultad, siempre creciente, de allegarse recursos para financiar sus obras de infraestructura, entre las que podemos citar: centrales electricas, subestaciones, lineas de transmision y redes de distribucion. Por lo anterior, los programas de ahorro y conservacion de la energia representan para el sector electrico nacional la posibilidad de diferir las inversiones requeridas para garantizar la oferta de energia. Por otra parte, a los usuarios del servicio publico de energia, el instituir dentro de sus politicas operativas programas de ahorro y conservacion de la energia, indudablemente les redundara en beneficios economicos y se mejorara el indice de kWh/Unidad de producto terminado. Finalmente, en un pais como el nuestro en donde el 66% de la energia generada por el sector electrico nacional proviene de centrales termoelectricas que usan para su operacion combustibles fosiles, la implementacion generalizada de programas de ahorro de energia disminuira la necesidad de generar kWh, y en consecuencia, la emision de contaminantes agresivos al medio ambiente tales como oxidos de nitrogeno y de azufre, bioxido de carbono y particulas suspendidas.

  3. Modelagem de processos automatizados para controle de consistência lógica em banco de dados geográficos : uma aplicação para o Cadastro Territorial Multifinalitário do Distrito Federal

    OpenAIRE

    Araújo, Felipe Santos

    2015-01-01

    O objetivo principal desse estudo foi desenvolver e implementar modelos de processamentos automatizados que garantam a qualidade e a consistência lógica, da base geográfica de escala cadastral, que vai compor a base de dados do cadastro territorial multifinalitário do Distrito Federal – CTM/DF, no ambiente de Banco de Dados Geográficos - BDG. A partir do modelo conceitual definido para o CTM/DF foram elaborados modelos para os fluxos de controle de qualidade, no elemento de consistência lógic...

  4. Controlling the intelligent building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LeBlanc, R.J.

    1985-08-01

    Companies will be able to locate in intelligent buildings that offer access to a variety of sophisticated communications equipment, at the heart of which are building controls that ensure a comfortable and safe working environment for the occupants. Future buildings will include advanced telephones or workstations with built-in building control sensors for temperature, light level, and security. Advanced telecommunication systems may have telephone cabinets with built-in control functions which eliminate the need for discrete control systems. The owners and tenants will both enjoy benefits if the controls are carefully selected and designed so that they integrate into a single building package.

  5. Comfort control in buildings

    CERN Document Server

    Castilla, Maria del Mar; Rodriguez, Francisco de Asis

    2014-01-01

    This book describes both concepts and development of advanced comfort control systems in buildings, with significant energy saving, and attention to thermal, visual and indoor air quality. The concepts are proven through real tests in a bioclimatic building.

  6. Sistema automatizado de aquecimento solar para controle de fitopatógenos da água de irrigação Automatic solar heating system for control of pathogens in irrigation water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. da S. Braga

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available O sistema automatizado de aquecimento solar, baseou-se em um processo misto de aquecimento da água em circuito fechado, através de coletores planos e dois princípios integrados de transmissão de calor, um por convecção natural e o outro por convecção forçada. A automatização foi realizada por monitores termostáticos diferenciais. Os testes normativos abrangeram as temperaturas programadas de 50, 55 e 60 ºC, que contemplam a faixa de temperatura letal para a maioria dos fitopatógenos. Os resultados indicaram rendimentos térmicos da ordem de 63, 55 e 52%, superiores, quando comparados aos rendimentos médios de 50, 47 e 45% dos sistemas convencionais. Os resultados experimentais mostraram que o sistema é eficiente para a eliminação de patógenos da água de irrigação, sendo promissor como uma opção de baixo custo para ser usado em viveiros, casas-de-vegetação e pequenas ou médias propriedades agrícolas.In the system proposed, which uses flat collectors, both natural and forced convection are responsible for the transfer of heat to the circulating water. The automation of the system is performed by thermostats, placed in different places, electrically connected to other components like valves and a water pump. Under identical test conditions and in the range of temperatures considered (50, 55 and 60 ºC, which includes the reference lethal temperature range for pathogens, the thermal efficiencies attained were 63, 55 and 52%, which compare favorably with those obtained in conventional systems, these being 50, 47 and 42% respectively, as reported. The results of the experimental trials show that the system described is a viable option to eliminate pathogens present in irrigation water, while its low cost makes it attractive for use in nurseries, greenhouses and on small farms.

  7. Control of Smart Building Using Advanced SCADA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Vivin Thomas

    For complete control of the building, a proper SCADA implementation and the optimization strategy has to be build. For better communication and efficiency a proper channel between the Communication protocol and SCADA has to be designed. This paper concentrate mainly between the communication protocol, and the SCADA implementation, for a better optimization and energy savings is derived to large scale industrial buildings. The communication channel used in order to completely control the building remotely from a distant place. For an efficient result we consider the temperature values and the power ratings of the equipment so that while controlling the equipment, we are setting a threshold values for FDD technique implementation. Building management system became a vital source for any building to maintain it and for safety purpose. Smart buildings, refers to various distinct features, where the complete automation system, office building controls, data center controls. ELC's are used to communicate the load values of the building to the remote server from a far location with the help of an Ethernet communication channel. Based on the demand fluctuation and the peak voltage, the loads operate differently increasing the consumption rate thus results in the increase in the annual consumption bill. In modern days, saving energy and reducing the consumption bill is most essential for any building for a better and long operation. The equipment - monitored regularly and optimization strategy is implemented for cost reduction automation system. Thus results in the reduction of annual cost reduction and load lifetime increase.

  8. Automatic process control for pipeline: an ally in the quest for excellence in quality; Controle automatizado do processo de revestimento de dutos: um aliado na busca da excelencia em qualidade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Christian E.; Santos, Paulo T.; Nunes, Matheus; Sartori, Marcio [Soco Ril do Brasil S.A., Pindamonhangaba, SP (Brazil); Populin, German [Soco-Ril da Argentina S.A. (Argentina); Ferreira, Joaquim C. [Tenaris Confab, Pindamonhangaba, SP (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    Process is any specific combination of machines, methods, tools and people which aim to obtain products or services with high quality. Any changing in one of these elements may result in another process. The concern in assuring its control totally owe to the necessity of having quickly answers related to the standards deviation. Herewith, it is possible to get as much uniformity as possible from that quality characteristic. Through a thickness automatic controlled system it may be possible to evaluate in real time the process itself, identifying tendencies of sequential or temporal performance. Therefore it is possible to act instantaneously adjusting the process, complying with client's specification. The present paper describes the applicability of a automatic controlled system and shows the advantages of its using. (author)

  9. Controle automatizado de casas de vegetação: variáveis climáticas e fertigação Automatized control in greenhouses: climatic variables and fertigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara J. Teruel

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available A aplicação de técnicas de automação e controle em casas de vegetação teve início nos anos 50, com o controle da temperatura através de termostatos; desde então, as mudanças tecnológicas têm abarcado todos os aspectos que compõem o sistema, do projeto estrutural até aspectos relacionados à sustentabilidade. Dentre os parâmetros que devem ser controlados, a temperatura e umidade relativa do ar, a radiação solar, a concentração de CO2, a ventilação e a fertigação têm tido uma evolução significativa, dos quais se apresenta uma panorâmica através da revisão do estado da arte de trabalhos publicados nessas temáticas, nos últimos anos. Na atualidade, temas relacionados com a redução do impacto ao meio ambiente e a produção eficiente e com qualidade, estão levando as casas de vegetação ao caminho da Agricultura de Precisão.The application of techniques of automation and control in greenhouses began in the years 50, starting with the control of temperature through thermostats. Since then, technological changes have covered all aspects that make up the system, from constructional features up to aspects of sustainability. The control of parameters sulh as, temperature and relative humidity, solar radiation, the concentration of CO2, ventilation and fertigation, had significant development, from which it provides a review of published works about these themes in recent years. Currently, issues related to reducing the impact to the environment and efficient production and quality, are taking the greenhouses towards Precision Agriculture.

  10. Automated system of control of radioactive liquid effluents of patients submitted to therapy in hospitals of nuclear medicine (SACEL); Sistema automatizado de control de efluentes liquidos radiactivos de pacientes sometidos a terapia en hospitales de medicina nuclear (SACEL)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz C, M.A.; Rivero G, T.; Celis del Angel, L.; Sainz M, E.; Molina, G. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail: marc@nuclear.inin.mx

    2006-07-01

    Different hospitals of nuclear medicine require of the technical attendance for the design, construction and instrumentation of an effluents retention system coming from the room dedicated to the medical application of iodine 131, with the one object of giving execution to the normative requirements of radiological protection, settled down in the General Regulation of Radiological Safety (RGSR) emitted by the CNSNS in November, 1988 and in the corresponding official standards. An automatic system of flow measurement, the activity concentration of the effluents to the drainage, the discharges control and the automated report it will allow the execution of the national regulations, also the elimination of unhealthy activities as the taking of samples, analysis of those same and the corresponding paperwork, its will allow that the SACEL is capable of to carry out registrations that are to consult in an automated way. The changes in the demands of the National Commission of Nuclear Safety and Safeguards in relation to the liberation of radioactive material in hospitals by medical treatments, it has created the necessity to develop a system that quantifies and dose the liquid effluents of people under thyroid treatment with iodine-131 to the drainage. The Automated System of Control of radioactive liquids effluents generated in Hospitals of Nuclear Medicine (SACEL) developed in the National Institute of Nuclear Research, it fulfills this regulation, besides improving the work conditions for the medical and technical personnel of the hospital in that are installed, since this system has the advantage of to be totally automated and to require of a minimum of attendance. The SACEL is an electro-hydraulic system of effluents control, based in the alternate operation of two decay deposits of the activity of the material contaminated with iodine-131. The system allows to take a registration of those volumes and liberated dose, besides being able to be monitoring in remote

  11. Reimagining Building Sensing and Control (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polese, L.

    2014-06-01

    Buildings are responsible for 40% of US energy consumption, and sensing and control technologies are an important element in creating a truly sustainable built environment. Motion-based occupancy sensors are often part of these control systems, but are usually altered or disabled in response to occupants' complaints, at the expense of energy savings. Can we leverage commodity hardware developed for other sectors and embedded software to produce more capable sensors for robust building controls? The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) 'Image Processing Occupancy Sensor (IPOS)' is one example of leveraging embedded systems to create smarter, more reliable, multi-function sensors that open the door to new control strategies for building heating, cooling, ventilation, and lighting control. In this keynote, we will discuss how cost-effective embedded systems are changing the state-of-the-art of building sensing and control.

  12. Local flow control for active building facades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaligotla, Srikar; Chen, Wayne; Glauser, Mark

    2010-11-01

    Existing building facade designs are for a passive and an impermeable shell to prevent migration of outdoor air into the building and to control heat transfers between the exterior environment and the building interior. An active facade that can respond in real time to changing environmental conditions like wind speed and direction, pollutant load, temperature, humidity and light can lower energy use and maximize occupant comfort. With an increased awareness of cost and environmental effects of energy use, cross or natural ventilation has become an attractive method to lower energy use. Separated flow regions around such buildings are undesirable due to high concentration of pollutants, especially if the vents or dynamic windows for cross ventilation are situated in these regions. Outside pollutant load redistribution through vents can be regulated via flow separation control to minimize transport of pollutants into the building. Flow separation has been substantially reduced with the application of intelligent flow control tools developed at Syracuse University for flow around "silo" (turret) like structures. Similar flow control models can be introduced into buildings with cross ventilation for local external flow separation control. Initial experiments will be performed for turbulent flow over a rectangular block (scaled to be a mid-rise building) that has been configured with dynamic vents and unsteady suction actuators in a wind tunnel at various wind speeds.

  13. HVAC control system for building automation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J. S.; Song, I. T.; Cho, S. W.; Cho, J. H. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-11-01

    The purpose of the project is to design and construction of the HVAC control system for building automation. The HVAC control system can accomplish the function which are the optimum operation condition and operation time, and the operation pattern analysis. Also, this control system can effectively manage energy saving, building environment control, facilities safety monitoring etc. The HVAC control system consisted of the central control and monitoring system (CCMS) and the direct digital controller (DDC). 1) CCMS: -Main Compute -Graphic Board -Printer -Console Desk -Intercom. 2) DDC : -IMC-M (System Control Unit Main Module) -IMC-1,2,3,4(System Control Unit Module). Following this report will be used important data for the design, construction, operation and maintenance of the HVAC control system. 12 refs., 6 figs., 9 tabs. (Author)

  14. FEEDBACK CONTROL OPTIMIZATION FOR SEISMICALLY EXCITED BUILDINGS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xueping Li; Zuguang Ying

    2007-01-01

    A feedback control optimization method of partially observable linear structures via stationary response is proposed and analyzed with linear building structures equipped with control devices and sensors. First, the partially observable control problem of the structure under horizontal ground acceleration excitation is converted into a completely observable control problem. Then the It(o) stochastic differential equations of the system are derived based on the stochastic averaging method for quasi-integrable Hamiltonian systems and the stationary solution to the Fokker-Plank-Kolmogorov (FPK) equation associated with the It(o) equations is obtained.The performance index in terms of the mean system energy and mean square control force is established and the optimal control force is obtained by minimizing the performance index. Finally, the numerical results for a three-story building structure model under El Centro, Hachinohe,Northridge and Kobe earthquake excitations are given to illustrate the application and the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  15. Active vibration control of nonlinear benchmark buildings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Xing-de; CHEN Dao-zheng

    2007-01-01

    The present nonlinear model reduction methods unfit the nonlinear benchmark buildings as their vibration equations belong to a non-affine system. Meanwhile,the controllers designed directly by the nonlinear control strategy have a high order, and they are difficult to be applied actually. Therefore, a new active vibration control way which fits the nonlinear buildings is proposed. The idea of the proposed way is based on the model identification and structural model linearization, and exerting the control force to the built model according to the force action principle. This proposed way has a better practicability as the built model can be reduced by the balance reduction method based on the empirical Grammian matrix. A three-story benchmark structure is presented and the simulation results illustrate that the proposed method is viable for the civil engineering structures.

  16. Night ventilation control strategies in office buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhaojun; Yi, Lingli; Gao, Fusheng [School of Municipal and Environmental Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090 (China)

    2009-10-15

    In moderate climates night ventilation is an effective and energy-efficient approach to improve the indoor thermal environment for office buildings during the summer months, especially for heavyweight construction. However, is night ventilation a suitable strategy for office buildings with lightweight construction located in cold climates? In order to answer this question, the whole energy-consumption analysis software EnergyPlus was used to simulate the indoor thermal environment and energy consumption in typical office buildings with night mechanical ventilation in three cities in northern China. The summer outdoor climate data was analyzed, and three typical design days were chosen. The most important factors influencing night ventilation performance such as ventilation rates, ventilation duration, building mass and climatic conditions were evaluated. When night ventilation operation time is closer to active cooling time, the efficiency of night ventilation is higher. With night ventilation rate of 10 ach, the mean radiant temperature of the indoor surface decreased by up to 3.9 C. The longer the duration of operation, the more efficient the night ventilation strategy becomes. The control strategies for three locations are given in the paper. Based on the optimized strategies, the operation consumption and fees are calculated. The results show that more energy is saved in office buildings cooled by a night ventilation system in northern China than ones that do not employ this strategy. (author)

  17. Smart building temperature control using occupant feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Santosh K.

    This work was motivated by the problem of computing optimal commonly-agreeable thermal settings in spaces with multiple occupants. In this work we propose algorithms that take into account each occupant's preferences along with the thermal correlations between different zones in a building, to arrive at optimal thermal settings for all zones of the building in a coordinated manner. In the first part of this work we incorporate active occupant feedback to minimize aggregate user discomfort and total energy cost. User feedback is used to estimate the users comfort range, taking into account possible inaccuracies in the feedback. The control algorithm takes the energy cost into account, trading it off optimally with the aggregate user discomfort. A lumped heat transfer model based on thermal resistance and capacitance is used to model a multi-zone building. We provide a stability analysis and establish convergence of the proposed solution to a desired temperature that minimizes the sum of energy cost and aggregate user discomfort. However, for convergence to the optimal, sufficient separation between the user feedback frequency and the dynamics of the system is necessary; otherwise, the user feedback provided do not correctly reflect the effect of current control input value on user discomfort. The algorithm is further extended using singular perturbation theory to determine the minimum time between successive user feedback solicitations. Under sufficient time scale separation, we establish convergence of the proposed solution. Simulation study and experimental runs on the Watervliet based test facility demonstrates performance of the algorithm. In the second part we develop a consensus algorithm for attaining a common temperature set-point that is agreeable to all occupants of a zone in a typical multi-occupant space. The information on the comfort range functions is indeed held privately by each occupant. Using occupant differentiated dynamically adjusted prices as

  18. Building a control sample for galaxy pairs

    CERN Document Server

    Perez, Josefa; Blaizot, Jeremy

    2009-01-01

    Several observational works have attempted to isolate the effects of galaxy interactions by comparing galaxies in pairs with isolated galaxies. However, different authors have proposed different ways to build these so-called control samples (CS). By using mock galaxy catalogues of the SDSS-DR4 built up from the Millennium Simulation, we explore how the way of building a CS might introduce biases which could affect the interpretation of results. We make use of the fact that the physics of interactions is not included in the semianalytic model, to infer that any difference between the mock control and pair samples can be ascribed to selection biases. Thus, we find that galaxies in pairs artificially tend to be older and more bulge-dominated, and to have less cold gas and different metallicities than their isolated counterparts. Also because of a biased selection, galaxies in pairs tend to live in higher density environments, and in haloes of larger masses. We find that imposing constraints on redshift, stellar ...

  19. APLICACIÓN DE UN SISTEMA AUTOMATIZADO PARA LANZADORES DE PENALTY EN FÚTBOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Martínez

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available

     

    RESUMEN

    A pesar de reconocerse como la base del rendimiento de la mayoría de habilidades deportivas, pocos entrenadores reconocen que el funcionamiento de la visión es una habilidad aprendida susceptible de mejora. El objetivo principal de este estudio pretende medir la eficacia en goles y táctica individual de lanzadores expertos de penalty en fútbol utilizando un novedoso sistema automatizado de emisión de estímulos visuales aplicado en la situación habitual de campo. Lanzadores de penalty (n = 9 realizaron una prueba pre-tratamiento de 24 intentos en situación real frente a porteros (n = 3. Posteriormente, completaron un entrenamiento de 10 sesiones utilizando el sistema automatizado sin porteros y, finalmente, repitieron de nuevo la misma prueba inicial consiguiendo entonces significativamente más goles en la medida post-tratamiento. Además, se encontraron diferencias tácticas en base a la dirección de los lanzamientos respecto a la actuación del portero. Los resultados sugieren que el lanzamiento de penalty en fútbol puede plantearse como una habilidad motriz abierta, en función de la actuación del portero, reduciendo el tiempo de procesamiento de la información y de la toma de decisiones.
    PALABRAS CLAVE: Entrenamiento visual, lanzador, penalty, fútbol, expertos, toma de decisiones, control motor.

    ABSTRACT

    Despite recognising like the performance’s base of the majority of sports abilities, few trainers recognise that visual function is a learned ability that can be improved. The main aim of this study tries to measure efficacy in goals and individual tactic of high-skill penalty-kickers in soccer using a new automatic system of emission visual stimulus applied in the

  20. Method for simulating predictive control of building systems operation in the early stages of building design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Steffen; Svendsen, Svend

    2011-01-01

    A method for simulating predictive control of building systems operation in the early stages of building design is presented. The method uses building simulation based on weather forecasts to predict whether there is a future heating or cooling requirement. This information enables the thermal...... control systems of the building to respond proactively to keep the operational temperature within the thermal comfort range with the minimum use of energy. The method is implemented in an existing building simulation tool designed to inform decisions in the early stages of building design through...... parametric analysis. This enables building designers to predict the performance of the method and include it as a part of the solution space. The method furthermore facilitates the task of configuring appropriate building systems control schemes in the tool, and it eliminates time consuming manual...

  1. Evaluating the Maturity of Cybersecurity Programs for Building Control Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glantz, Clifford S.; Somasundaram, Sriram; Mylrea, Michael E.; Underhill, Ronald M.; Nicholls, Andrew K.

    2016-08-29

    The cyber-physical security threat to buildings is complex, non-linear, and rapidly evolving as operational and information technologies converge and connect buildings to cyberspace. Cyberattacks on buildings can exploit smart building controls and breach corporate networks, causing financial and reputational damage. This may result in the loss of sensitive building information or the disruption of, or damage to, the systems necessary for the safe and efficient operation of buildings. For the buildings and facility infrastructure, there is a need for a robust national cybersecurity strategy for buildings, guidance on the selection and implementation of appropriate cybersecurity controls for buildings, an approach to evaluate the maturity and adequacy of the cybersecurity programs. To provide an approach for evaluating the maturity of the cybersecurity programs for building control systems, the US Department of Energy’s widely used Cybersecurity Capability and Maturity Model (C2M2) has been adapted into a building control systems version. The revised model, the Buildings-C2M2 (B-C2M2) provides maturity level indicators for cybersecurity programmatic domains. A “B-C2M2 Lite” version allows facility managers and building control system engineers, or information technology personnel to perform rapid self-assessments of their cybersecurity program. Both tools have been pilot tested on several facilities. This paper outlines the concept of a maturity model, describes the B-C2M2 tools, presents results and observations from the pilot assessments, and lays out plans for future work.

  2. La medida de la eficiencia económica de las inversiones en sistemas automatizados de gestión productiva, SAGP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Parra Restrepo

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta una idea general de los sistemas automatizados de gestión productiva cuya aplicación industrial ha sido una tendencia irreversible en los últimos años. También propone una metodología para la medición de la eficiencia económica aplicable a las inversiones hechas en automatización y sistematización de procesos industriales y administrativos. De manera simple se entiende por eficiencia económica el cálculo de la relación existente entre los costos de producción de cada unidad producida y los beneficios económicos obtenidos. Los sistemas automatizados de gestión productiva SAGP, son estructuras mixtas complejas integradas por el hombre y dispositivos técnicos compuestos por máquinas calculadoras de alta velocidad, conexos con dispositivos de dirección de medios electrónicos y mecánicos adaptados a la planificación, ejecución, medición y control de procesos de producción que se localizan generalmente en las fases de generación de energía, transmisión, manufactura y ensamble de productos.

  3. Co-Simulation of Building Energy and Control Systems with the Building Controls Virtual Test Bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetter, Michael

    2010-08-22

    This article describes the implementation of the Building Controls Virtual Test Bed (BCVTB). The BCVTB is a software environment that allows connecting different simulation programs to exchange data during the time integration, and that allows conducting hardware in the loop simulation. The software architecture is a modular design based on Ptolemy II, a software environment for design and analysis of heterogeneous systems. Ptolemy II provides a graphical model building environment, synchronizes the exchanged data and visualizes the system evolution during run-time. The BCVTB provides additions to Ptolemy II that allow the run-time coupling of different simulation programs for data exchange, including EnergyPlus, MATLAB, Simulink and the Modelica modelling and simulation environment Dymola. The additions also allow executing system commands, such as a script that executes a Radiance simulation. In this article, the software architecture is presented and the mathematical model used to implement the co-simulation is discussed. The simulation program interface that the BCVTB provides is explained. The article concludes by presenting applications in which different state of the art simulation programs are linked for run-time data exchange. This link allows the use of the simulation program that is best suited for the particular problem to model building heat transfer, HVAC system dynamics and control algorithms, and to compute a solution to the coupled problem using co-simulation.

  4. Transactive Control of Commercial Buildings for Demand Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hao, He; Corbin, Charles D.; Kalsi, Karanjit; Pratt, Robert G.

    2017-01-01

    Transactive control is a type of distributed control strategy that uses market mechanism to engage self-interested responsive loads to achieve power balance in the electrical power grid. In this paper, we propose a transactive control approach of commercial building Heating, Ventilation, and Air- Conditioning (HVAC) systems for demand response. We first describe the system models, and identify their model parameters using data collected from Systems Engineering Building (SEB) located on our Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) campus. We next present a transactive control market structure for commercial building HVAC system, and describe its agent bidding and market clearing strategies. Several case studies are performed in a simulation environment using Building Control Virtual Test Bed (BCVTB) and calibrated SEB EnergyPlus model. We show that the proposed transactive control approach is very effective at peak clipping, load shifting, and strategic conservation for commercial building HVAC systems.

  5. Model Predictive Control for the Operation of Building Cooling Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Yudong; Borrelli, Francesco; Hencey, Brandon; Coffey, Brian; Bengea, Sorin; Haves, Philip

    2010-06-29

    A model-based predictive control (MPC) is designed for optimal thermal energy storage in building cooling systems. We focus on buildings equipped with a water tank used for actively storing cold water produced by a series of chillers. Typically the chillers are operated at night to recharge the storage tank in order to meet the building demands on the following day. In this paper, we build on our previous work, improve the building load model, and present experimental results. The experiments show that MPC can achieve reduction in the central plant electricity cost and improvement of its efficiency.

  6. Sistema automatizado de tratamiento de datos hidroquímicos para el chequeo de la calidad de las aguas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reguera, E.

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work is to ilustrate the use of the SAMA automatic system (Water Monitoring Automatic System to aid the water chemical composition control. This system is based in the determination of mathematical relationships between ionic concentration and electric conductivity. The system was developped in Turbo Pascal for IBM compatible microcomputer. The example of application that is presented in this paper correspond with waters from coastal karstic aquifer affected by marine intrusion. This waters are used for citric irrigation.El objetivo de este trabajo es ilustrar el uso del sistema de programas «SAMA» (Sistema Automatizado para el Monitoreo de las Aguas para la ayuda en el control de la composición química de la aguas. El mismo se basa en la determinación de ecuaciones de dependencia matemática entre la concentración iónica y la conductividad eléctrica. Ha sido implementado en lenguaje Turbo Pascal para microcomputadoras IBM compatibles. El ejemplo de aplicación que se presenta corresponde a aguas de un acuífera kárstico litoral afectado por la intrusión marina las cuales se usan en el regadío de cítricos.

  7. Transaction-Based Building Controls Framework, Volume 1: Reference Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somasundaram, Sriram; Pratt, Robert G.; Akyol, Bora A.; Fernandez, Nicholas; Foster, Nikolas AF; Katipamula, Srinivas; Mayhorn, Ebony T.; Somani, Abhishek; Steckley, Andrew C.; Taylor, Zachary T.

    2014-04-28

    This document proposes a framework concept to achieve the objectives of raising buildings’ efficiency and energy savings potential benefitting building owners and operators. We call it a transaction-based framework, wherein mutually-beneficial and cost-effective market-based transactions can be enabled between multiple players across different domains. Transaction-based building controls are one part of the transactional energy framework. While these controls realize benefits by enabling automatic, market-based intra-building efficiency optimizations, the transactional energy framework provides similar benefits using the same market -based structure, yet on a larger scale and beyond just buildings, to the society at large.

  8. Hierarchical Model Predictive Control for Sustainable Building Automation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Mayer

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A hierarchicalmodel predictive controller (HMPC is proposed for flexible and sustainable building automation. The implications of a building automation system for sustainability are defined, and model predictive control is introduced as an ideal tool to cover all requirements. The HMPC is presented as a development suitable for the optimization of modern buildings, as well as retrofitting. The performance and flexibility of the HMPC is demonstrated by simulation studies of a modern office building, and the perfect interaction with future smart grids is shown.

  9. Transaction-Based Building Controls Framework, Volume 1: Reference Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somasundaram, Sriram [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Pratt, Robert G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Akyol, Bora A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fernandez, Nicholas [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Foster, Nikolas AF [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Katipamula, Srinivas [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Mayhorn, Ebony T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Somani, Abhishek [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Steckley, Andrew C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-12-01

    This document proposes a framework concept to achieve the objectives of raising buildings’ efficiency and energy savings potential benefitting building owners and operators. We call it a transaction-based framework, wherein mutually-beneficial and cost-effective market-based transactions can be enabled between multiple players across different domains. Transaction-based building controls are one part of the transactional energy framework. While these controls realize benefits by enabling automatic, market-based intra-building efficiency optimizations, the transactional energy framework provides similar benefits using the same market -based structure, yet on a larger scale and beyond just buildings, to the society at large.

  10. Green building environmental control: A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gottfried, D.A.; Schoichet, E.A. [Gottfried Technology, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States); Hart, M. [McParlane and Associates, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States)

    1997-02-01

    This article presents an overview of the City of San Diego`s Ridgehaven Green Building Demonstration Project. While there is no formal definition of green building, the term implies a structure that is friendlier to its occupants and to the environment and is more resource efficient. What this meant for this project will be brought out in the following discussion. The purpose of this article is to show the numerous successes at Ridgehaven, to provide others with insights on how to approach a green renovation project, and to present some of the difficulties that can be encountered.

  11. Innovations in building regulation and control for advancing sustainability in buildings (I)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meacham, B.; Visscher, H.J.; Meijer, F.M.; Chan, C.; Chan, E.; Laubscher, J.; Neng Kwei Sung, J.; Dodds, B.; Serra, J.; Tenorio, J.A.; Echeverria, J.B.; Sanches-Ostiz, A.

    2014-01-01

    This session brings together policy-makers, government officials, researchers and others to present perspectives on how innovation in building regulation and control, such as performancebased approaches, are currently being used to advance sustainability concepts in buildings, and where and how we m

  12. Automated Deployment of Advanced Controls and Analytics in Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritoni, Marco

    Buildings use 40% of primary energy in the US. Recent studies show that developing energy analytics and enhancing control strategies can significantly improve their energy performance. However, the deployment of advanced control software applications has been mostly limited to academic studies. Larger-scale implementations are prevented by the significant engineering time and customization required, due to significant differences among buildings. This study demonstrates how physics-inspired data-driven models can be used to develop portable analytics and control applications for buildings. Specifically, I demonstrate application of these models in all phases of the deployment of advanced controls and analytics in buildings: in the first phase, "Site Preparation and Interface with Legacy Systems" I used models to discover or map relationships among building components, automatically gathering metadata (information about data points) necessary to run the applications. During the second phase: "Application Deployment and Commissioning", models automatically learn system parameters, used for advanced controls and analytics. In the third phase: "Continuous Monitoring and Verification" I utilized models to automatically measure the energy performance of a building that has implemented advanced control strategies. In the conclusions, I discuss future challenges and suggest potential strategies for these innovative control systems to be widely deployed in the market. This dissertation provides useful new tools in terms of procedures, algorithms, and models to facilitate the automation of deployment of advanced controls and analytics and accelerate their wide adoption in buildings.

  13. Intelligent Controls for Net-Zero Energy Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Haorong; Cho, Yong; Peng, Dongming

    2011-10-30

    The goal of this project is to develop and demonstrate enabling technologies that can empower homeowners to convert their homes into net-zero energy buildings in a cost-effective manner. The project objectives and expected outcomes are as follows: • To develop rapid and scalable building information collection and modeling technologies that can obtain and process “as-built” building information in an automated or semiautomated manner. • To identify low-cost measurements and develop low-cost virtual sensors that can monitor building operations in a plug-n-play and low-cost manner. • To integrate and demonstrate low-cost building information modeling (BIM) technologies. • To develop decision support tools which can empower building owners to perform energy auditing and retrofit analysis. • To develop and demonstrate low-cost automated diagnostics and optimal control technologies which can improve building energy efficiency in a continual manner.

  14. Shape Control of Responsive Building Envelopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, Isak Worre; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Christensen, Jesper Thøger

    2010-01-01

    alternatives. The adaptive structure is a proposal for a responsive building envelope which is an idea of a first level operational framework for present and future investigations towards performance based responsive architectures through a set of responsive typologies. A mock-up concept of a secondary...

  15. Climate control in cultural heritage buildings in Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, Poul Klenz [The National Museum, Copenhagen (Denmark). Dept. of Conservation; Brostroem, Tor [Gotland Univ., Visby (Sweden)

    2011-07-01

    Conservation heating has been used for decades to control the RH in cultural heritage buildings. But if the building is not used for living or working, heating is not needed for human comfort. The chemical decay of organic materials depends mainly on temperature, so it is better for preservation to reduce heating. The air exchange rate is related to the design of the building envelope. With rising energy prices humidity control by dehumidification may be an attractive alternative. The potential for energy efficient RH control was examined for a generic building exposed to the monthly average outside temperature and RH in Denmark. The indoor temperature was allowed to follow the outside average, whereas the indoor RH was controlled to 40 % 50 % 60 % or 70 %. Dehumidification was implemented in three different buildings: A recent museum store, a medieval church, and an 18th century country mansion. The energy consumption depends on the RH set point, the air exchange rate and the source of liquid moisture to the building. The air exchange rate related to the design of the building envelope. Single glazed windows and doors are the most important sources of leakage to buildings. Lack of maintenance may lead to poor performance of the dehumidifier and waste energy. (orig.)

  16. Almacén automatizado de maletas para personas con movilidad reducida

    OpenAIRE

    Toledo Abad, Francisco

    2010-01-01

    El proyecto presente tiene como finalidad mejorar el uso y accesibilidad de los trenes de la compañía SFM (Serveis ferroviaris de Mallorca) para personas de movilidad reducida y personas con limitaciones físicas. Estos trenes los ha fabricado CAF en Castejón (Navarra) y sirven como trenes urbanos que unen la ciudad con el campus universitario. La reforma principal que se le ha dado al tren consiste en la introducción de un almacén automatizado para maletas destinado a personas...

  17. Implementation of Energy Code Controls Requirements in New Commercial Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberg, Michael I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hart, Philip R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hatten, Mike [Solarc Energy Group, LLC, Seattle, WA (United States); Jones, Dennis [Group 14 Engineering, Inc., Denver, CO (United States); Cooper, Matthew [Group 14 Engineering, Inc., Denver, CO (United States)

    2017-03-24

    Most state energy codes in the United States are based on one of two national model codes; ANSI/ASHRAE/IES 90.1 (Standard 90.1) or the International Code Council (ICC) International Energy Conservation Code (IECC). Since 2004, covering the last four cycles of Standard 90.1 updates, about 30% of all new requirements have been related to building controls. These requirements can be difficult to implement and verification is beyond the expertise of most building code officials, yet the assumption in studies that measure the savings from energy codes is that they are implemented and working correctly. The objective of the current research is to evaluate the degree to which high impact controls requirements included in commercial energy codes are properly designed, commissioned and implemented in new buildings. This study also evaluates the degree to which these control requirements are realizing their savings potential. This was done using a three-step process. The first step involved interviewing commissioning agents to get a better understanding of their activities as they relate to energy code required controls measures. The second involved field audits of a sample of commercial buildings to determine whether the code required control measures are being designed, commissioned and correctly implemented and functioning in new buildings. The third step includes compilation and analysis of the information gather during the first two steps. Information gathered during these activities could be valuable to code developers, energy planners, designers, building owners, and building officials.

  18. CONTROL OF INDOOR ENVIRONMENTS VIA THE REGULATION OF BUILDING ENVELOPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitja Košir

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The design of comfortable, healthy and stimulating indoor environments in buildings has a direct impact on the users and on energy consumption, as well as on the wider soci-economic environment of society.The indoor environment of buildings is defined with the formulation of the building envelope, which functions as an interface between the internal and external environments and its users. A properly designed, flexible and adequately controlled building envelope is a starting point in the formulation of a high-quality indoor environment. The systematic treatment of the indoor environment and building envelope from a user’s point of view represents an engineering approach that enables the holistic treatment of buildings, as well as integrated components and systems. The presented division of indoor environment in terms of visual, thermal, olfactory, acoustic and ergonomic sub-environments enables the classification and selection of crucial factors influencing design. This selection and classification can be implemented in the design, as well as in control applications of the building envelope. The implementation of the approach described is demonstrated with an example of an automated control system for the internal environment of an office in the building of the Faculty of Civil and Geodetic Engineering.

  19. Security-Control Systems and Automation in Contemporary Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saadet Aytıs

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available As a result of the developing technology, major renovations related to the security control systems and to building automation applications on contemporary buildings have appeared. The main item of the control systems is the entry system with cards and passwords and this is applied almost in all the large contemporary buildings. The entry and exit to/from the carparking is getting to be as important as the entry and exit to/from the building. Thus, specific measures to stop the security system being already perforated in the parking are needed. Warning systems with a great range of different detectors against various dangers that run connected to the mainframe computers and that turn on the system in case of danger are taken into consideration. The fact of obtaining all comfort conditions desired in the contemporary high space buildings and functioning of the first-aid systems are fully realized by computers with the help of systems that are called “Building Automation System” (BAS. All inspection, energy saving and security controls are achieved through these systems. In the buildings where building automation systems are applied, trained personel is needed to keep the system running; and the training of the residents about the system gains more and more importance.

  20. Demographic and Commercial Environments and Building Control Customer Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hope Peter

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple and cost effective business analytics schema developed in this study provides a basis for observing how demographic and commercial environmental impacts affect building control customer services. In order to overlay environmental impacts onto building control services, schematic mapping of resource distributions and services were plotted according to corporate jurisdiction, corporate virtues and customer type characteristics. Quantitative and qualitative surveys were conducted on corporate staff and material resources, business performance measures and targets, building control service manager observations and demographic and commercial environments. Results from this research provide a single view corporate map of people, material resources, and service performance in relation to customer characteristics, while reaching out to better understand the building control customer experience, general public expectation and market influences. In this regard, this research can provide a foundation for realising corporate virtue aspirations.

  1. Nonlinear Economic Model Predictive Control Strategy for Active Smart Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santos, Rui Mirra; Zong, Yi; Sousa, Joao M. C.;

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, the development of advanced and innovative intelligent control techniques for energy management in buildings is a key issue within the smart grid topic. A nonlinear economic model predictive control (EMPC) scheme, based on the branch-and-bound tree search used as optimization algorithm...... for solving the nonconvex optimization problem is proposed in this paper. A simulation using the nonlinear model-based controller to control the temperature levels of an intelligent office building (PowerFlexHouse) is addressed. Its performance is compared with a linear model-based controller. The nonlinear...

  2. Modeling, Estimation and Control of Indoor Climate in Livestock Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Zhuang

    The main objective of this research is to design an efficient control system for the indoor climate of a large-scale partition-less livestock building, in order to maintain a healthy, comfortable and economically energy consuming indoor environment for the agricultural animals and farmers. In thi...... scale livestock buildings, and could be considered as an alternative solution to the current used decentralized PID controller....

  3. Test report - 241-AN-274 Caustic Pump Control Building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paintner, G.P.

    1995-05-01

    This Acceptance Test Report documents the test results of test procedure WHC-SD-WM-ATP-135 `Acceptance Test Procedure for the 241-AN- 274 Caustic Pump Control Building.` The objective of the test was to verify that the 241-AN-274 Caustic Pump Control Building functions properly based on design specifications per applicable H-2-85573 drawings and associated ECN`s. The objective of the test was met.

  4. Solar shading control strategy for office buildings in cold climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsen, Line Røseth; Heiselberg, Per Kvols; Bryn, Ida;

    2016-01-01

    Highlights •Solar shading control strategy for office buildings in cold climate is developed. •Satisfying energy and indoor environmental performance is confirmed. •Importance of integrated evaluations when selecting shading strategy is illustrated.......Highlights •Solar shading control strategy for office buildings in cold climate is developed. •Satisfying energy and indoor environmental performance is confirmed. •Importance of integrated evaluations when selecting shading strategy is illustrated....

  5. Integral control concept of buildings; Integrales Steuerungskonzept von Gebaeuden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knabben, L.; Schmitz, H.J. [e2 energieberatung GmbH, Essen (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Each existing building is unique in its function, appearance, users and location regarding to local climatic conditions and in case of an existing building also in its history. Therefore a custom-made control-concept is to be prepared in form of requirement specifications compellingly necessarily for each building. The building simulation is a powerful tool for the optimization of a coordinated control processes for heating, cooling and ventilation including the control of solar shading and lighting. Basic conditions for the design of a successful control concept are realistic assumptions of the user behaviour and in the realisation the application of the found results of the simulation. This article shows by example of the reconstruction of the main building of the Dortmund energy and water supply GmbH (DEW21), how important a building and user-specific HVAC control concept is. Only by a consistent application of the integrated concept and the monitoring by the specialized consultants contradictory controls for users and environment can be avoided. The example shows that the successful integrated design process does not only achieve substantial energy conservation, but also substantially improved user comfort. (orig.)

  6. Homeostasis control of building environment using sensor agent robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagahama, Eri; Mita, Akira

    2012-04-01

    A human centered system for building is demanded to meet variety of needs due to the diversification and maturation of society. Smart buildings and smart houses have been studied to satisfy this demand. However, it is difficult for such systems to respond flexibly to unexpected events and needs that are caused by aging and complicate emotion changes. With this regards, we suggest "Biofied Buildings". The goal for this research is to realize buildings that are safer, more comfortable and more energy-efficient by embedding adaptive functions of life into buildings. In this paper, we propose a new control system for building environments, focused on physiological adaptation, particularly homeostasis, endocrine system and immune system. Residents are used as living sensors and controllers in the control loop. A sensor agent robot is used to acquire resident's discomfort feeling, and to output hormone-like signals to activate devices to control the environments. The proposed system could control many devices without establishing complicated scenarios. Results obtained from some simulations and the demonstration experiments using an LED lighting system showed that the proposed system were able to achieve robust and stable control of environments without complicated scenarios.

  7. Power Admission Control with Predictive Thermal Management in Smart Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yao, Jianguo; Costanzo, Giuseppe Tommaso; Zhu, Guchuan

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a control scheme for thermal management in smart buildings based on predictive power admission control. This approach combines model predictive control with budget-schedulability analysis in order to reduce peak power consumption as well as ensure thermal comfort. First...

  8. Passive hygrothermal control of a museum storage building in Vejle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jørgen Erik; Janssen, Hans

    2010-01-01

    and maintenance costs are currently motivating a paradigm change toward passive control. Passive control, via the thermal and hygric inertia of the building, is gaining a foothold in the museum conservation and building physical community. In this report we document the hygrothermal performance optimisation...... of a museum storage building, related to an existing storage centre in Vejle (Denmark). The current building design already incorporates passive control concepts: thermal inertia is provided by the thick walls, the ground floor and its underlying soil volume, while hygric inertia is provided by the thick...... purposes. Reduction of dehumidification load: In an effort to reduce the necessary dehumidification, a number of thermal measures are investigated first. This primarily focuses on the influences of additional insulation in walls, roof and floor. Overall, the effects of extra insulation on the average...

  9. Predictive Solar-Integrated Commercial Building Load Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glasgow, Nathan [EdgePower Inc., Aspen, CO (United States)

    2017-01-31

    This report is the final technical report for the Department of Energy SunShot award number EE0007180 to EdgePower Inc., for the project entitled “Predictive Solar-Integrated Commercial Building Load Control.” The goal of this project was to successfully prove that the integration of solar forecasting and building load control can reduce demand charge costs for commercial building owners with solar PV. This proof of concept Tier 0 project demonstrated its value through a pilot project at a commercial building. This final report contains a summary of the work completed through he duration of the project. Clean Power Research was a sub-recipient on the award.

  10. The growing importance of an accurate system of building control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visscher, H.J.; Meijer, F.M.

    2008-01-01

    Systems of building control have a long history. Technical regulations and control seems to be the subject of an ongoing debate between, on the one hand, those in favour of deregulation and reducing the administrative burden and, on the other hand, new quality demands that require government interve

  11. A 'whole building' path to climate control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durbin, John

    2010-10-01

    With September having seen the end of the registration period for the introductory phase of the Carbon Reduction Commitment (CRC) Energy Efficiency Scheme, healthcare sector participants should already be monitoring their energy usage, and preparing their carbon reduction strategies. John Durbin, engineering department manager at air conditioning equipment specialist Daikin U.K., argues that, to minimise an organisation's legal liabilities and trade successfully in carbon allowances, a holistic view should be taken of climate control systems across health estates--"and that means incorporating the latest heat recovery techniques".

  12. Estacionamiento Automatizado con Tecnología RFID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric León Olivares

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta un proyecto que resuelve el problema del acceso al estacionamiento vehicular del Instituto Tecnológico de Pachuca ya que se realiza de manera manual, presentando un descontrol y bajo nivel de seguridad en el mismo, su automatización brinda las herramientas necesarias, por medio de la tecnología RFID, para mejorar el nivel de seguridad en la entrada/ salida de los automóviles, aumentar el control de los usuarios al tener su información almacenada en una base de datos y con ello poder elaborar reportes, estadísticas y otros materiales que se requieran para ser estudiados.

  13. Recent Developments of the Modelica"Buildings" Library for Building Energy and Control Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetter, Michael; Zuo, Wangda; Nouidui, Thierry Stephane

    2011-04-01

    At the Modelica 2009 conference, we introduced the Buildings library, a freely available Modelica library for building energy and control systems. This paper reports the updates of the library and presents example applications for a range of heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. Over the past two years, the library has been further developed. The number of HVAC components models has been doubled and various components have been revised to increase numerical robustness.The paper starts with an overview of the library architecture and a description of the main packages. To demonstrate the features of the Buildings library, applications that include multizone airflow simulation as well as supervisory and local loop control of a variable air volume (VAV) system are briefly described. The paper closes with a discussion of the current development.

  14. Building America Case Study: Boiler Control Replacement for Hydronically Heated Multifamily Buildings, Cambridge, Massachusetts (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-11-01

    The ARIES Collaborative, a U.S. Department of Energy Building America research team, partnered with NeighborWorks America affiliate Homeowners' Rehab Inc. (HRI) of Cambridge, Massachusetts, to study improvements to the central hydronic heating system in one of the nonprofit's housing developments. The heating controls in the three-building, 42-unit Columbia Cambridge Alliance for Spanish Tenants housing development were upgraded. Fuel use in the development was excessive compared to similar properties. A poorly insulated thermal envelope contributed to high energy bills, but adding wall insulation was not cost-effective or practical. The more cost-effective option was improving heating system efficiency. Efficient operation of the heating system faced several obstacles, including inflexible boiler controls and failed thermostatic radiator valves. Boiler controls were replaced with systems that offer temperature setbacks and one that controls heat based on apartment temperature in addition to outdoor temperature. Utility bill analysis shows that post-retrofit weather-normalized heating energy use was reduced by 10%-31% (average of 19%). Indoor temperature cutoff reduced boiler runtime (and therefore heating fuel consumption) by 28% in the one building in which it was implemented. Nearly all savings were obtained during night which had a lower indoor temperature cut off (68 degrees F) than day (73 degrees F). This implies that the outdoor reset curve was appropriately adjusted for this building for daytime operation. Nighttime setback of heating system supply water temperature had no discernable impact on boiler runtime or gas bills.

  15. Sistema automatizado para la organización racional del proceso cosecha-transporte de cereales (SAORCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanoy Morejón Mesa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available La presente investigacióntrata sobrela organización racional del proceso Cosecha-Transporte-Recepción (CTR de cereales. A partir de la necesidad que tienen las empresas productoras de cereales en Cuba y otros países, así como necesidad de agilizar, centralizar y dinamizar la organización racional de la composición de los medios mecanizados que intervienen en el proceso de forma automatizada, posibilitando reducir las pérdidas de tiempo en el ciclo de transportación, de recursos humanos y materiales propiciando ventajas económicas a través de la reducción de los costos implicados en la cadena productiva, incurriendo de este modo en una acertada toma de decisiones a cargo de los directivos. El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo general: implementar un sistema automatizado que gestione mediante la Teoría de Colas el carácter probabilístico, la composición racional y los parámetros técnicos y de explotación del flujo continuodel proceso de cosecha- transporte-recepción de cereales, asegurando el control, confiabilidad, integridad y disponibilidad de la información, así como una disminución considerable del tiempo de procesamiento de la información. Como principal resultado se puede mencionar la implementación de una aplicación software libre, multiplataforma que gestiona la composición racional del proceso a través del estudio probabilístico que proporciona ventajas considerables a los directivos. También brinda un conjunto de salidas y gráficos que permiten mejorar el análisis y distribución de la información.

  16. Procedimiento automatizado de orientación masiva aptitudinal-vocacional para bachilleres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Boada

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mediante un procedimiento y técnicas educativas, estadísticas y psicométricas, es posible valorar cuantitativamente a nivel nacional, el área aptitudinal (habilidades básicas del estudiante a nivel verbal, numé- rico y lógico-abstracto, y el área vocacional (a través del perfil psicomé- trico de valoración según las fortalezas del carácter del individuo de los bachilleres y estudiantes cursantes del curso introductorio universitario en una institución educativa a nivel superior; esto de forma independien- te a la oferta académica y capacidad logística, a fin de ejecutar un proce- dimiento automatizado de orientación masiva a través del portal web para los futuros estudiantes de carrera de la institución educativa.

  17. DYNAMIC LIGHTING CONTROL INSIDE OF BUILDINGS OVER THE PROFIBUSDP NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cemal YILMAZ

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, dynamic lighting control inside of buildings has been implemented over the Profibus-DP network. Automatically adjustable luminaries were used to adjust lighting level to desired values. The data received from sensors measuring illuminance levels inside building are transferred to central control unit over the Profibus-DP network. These data are evaluated in the control unit and then control signals related to evaluation results are sent to the luminaries over the Profibus-DP network. As a reason of this design, optimum energy usage has been supplied by controlling the lighting remotely. Moreover, a healthy lighting environment has been obtained by means of adjusting the illuminance level related to lighting variations occurred in the various hours of a day.

  18. Stochastic Control of Energy Efficient Buildings: A Semidefinite Programming Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Xiao [ORNL; Dong, Jin [ORNL; Djouadi, Seddik M [ORNL; Nutaro, James J [ORNL; Kuruganti, Teja [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    The key goal in energy efficient buildings is to reduce energy consumption of Heating, Ventilation, and Air- Conditioning (HVAC) systems while maintaining a comfortable temperature and humidity in the building. This paper proposes a novel stochastic control approach for achieving joint performance and power control of HVAC. We employ a constrained Stochastic Linear Quadratic Control (cSLQC) by minimizing a quadratic cost function with a disturbance assumed to be Gaussian. The problem is formulated to minimize the expected cost subject to a linear constraint and a probabilistic constraint. By using cSLQC, the problem is reduced to a semidefinite optimization problem, where the optimal control can be computed efficiently by Semidefinite programming (SDP). Simulation results are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness and power efficiency by utilizing the proposed control approach.

  19. Energy-Efficient Building HVAC Control Using Hybrid System LBMPC

    CERN Document Server

    Aswani, Anil; Taneja, Jay; Krioukov, Andrew; Culler, David; Tomlin, Claire

    2012-01-01

    Improving the energy-efficiency of heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems has the potential to realize large economic and societal benefits. This paper concerns the system identification of a hybrid system model of a building-wide HVAC system and its subsequent control using a hybrid system formulation of learning-based model predictive control (LBMPC). Here, the learning refers to model updates to the hybrid system model that incorporate the heating effects due to occupancy, solar effects, outside air temperature (OAT), and equipment, in addition to integrator dynamics inherently present in low-level control. Though we make significant modeling simplifications, our corresponding controller that uses this model is able to experimentally achieve a large reduction in energy usage without any degradations in occupant comfort. It is in this way that we justify the modeling simplifications that we have made. We conclude by presenting results from experiments on our building HVAC testbed, which s...

  20. An Investigation Into Why Lighting Controls Fail in Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Doyle

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The project began as a post-occupancy evaluation of lighting controls installed in a range of buildings, including a public office building, a shopping centre and a primary school. Actual controlled lighting consumption was to be compared against past billing or simulated energy consumption. However, when the research began it was found that the controls had been removed from two out of the three buildings. Further research proved that it was not unusual for lighting controls to be disconnected following installation. This raised a much bigger research question- why were the controls disconnected and what were the factors governing success or failure of these systems? To answer this new question a new methodology to that first envisaged had to be established. Investigating the reasons for disconnection could only be achieved by discussion with those involved. To find out what people know, or think, it is necessary to ask them. Interviewing was used to address the new research question. It was found that little research exists on long-term performance analysis of lighting controls. A framework was created to determine if there is correlation between past findings and the reasons for failure in the case studies. It should be noted that there were minimal findings into the failure of lighting controls systems in buildings in Ireland, which prompted possible additional reasons for the failure of these systems, e.g. differing usage patterns, availability of useful daylight. The research that followed posed many challenges requiring the use of qualitative data in an engineering environment. In order to answer the research question, a clearly-defined and wellstructured methodology was required. It was concluded from the research that the conceptual framework used was appropriate and that the methods were fit for purpose.Some of the findings included: • Maintenance costs are comparitively high • Misinterpretation of commissioning processes

  1. Airways in Apartment Buildings as a Method of Thermal Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suslova Anna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In general, the majority of modern apartment buildings are rather high. Altitude of such structures attains 50 meters. It is clear that for such high structures every extra meter of elevation costs a lot. For this reason, architects are trying to avoid adding attics above the last floor of the buildings. However, attic is not only an architectural element. It is an important part of the thermal control process of the entire building, especially of the apartments located on the last floor. In this article, construction of airways under the roof is suggested and discussed in detail. Airway acts as an attic, but has a significantly lower construction cost due to the lower height. Application of this technology allows providing comfortable microclimate on the living quarters in an economical way.

  2. CONVERGING REDUNDANT SENSOR NETWORK INFORMATION FOR IMPROVED BUILDING CONTROL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dale K. Tiller; Gregor P. Henze

    2004-11-01

    Knowing how many people occupy a building, and where they are located, is a key component of building energy management and security. Commercial, industrial and residential buildings often incorporate systems used to determine occupancy, however, current sensor technology and control algorithms limit the effectiveness of both energy management and security systems. This topical report describes results from the first phase of a project to design, implement, validate, and prototype new technologies to monitor occupancy, control indoor environment services, and promote security in buildings. Phase I of the project focused on instrumentation and data collection. In this project phase a new occupancy detection system was developed, commissioned and installed in a sample of private offices and open-plan office workstations. Data acquisition systems were developed and deployed to collect data on space occupancy profiles. Analysis tools based on Bayesian probability theory were applied to the occupancy data generated by the sensor network. The inference of primary importance is a probability distribution over the number of occupants and their locations in a building, given past and present sensor measurements. Inferences were computed for occupancy and its temporal persistence in individual offices as well as the persistence of sensor status. The raw sensor data were also used to calibrate the sensor belief network, including the occupancy transition matrix used in the Markov model, sensor sensitivity, and sensor failure models. This study shows that the belief network framework can be applied to the analysis of data streams from sensor networks, offering significant benefits to building operation compared to current practice.

  3. BARRIER DESIGN STRATEGIES TO CONTROL NOISE INGRESS INTO DOMESTIC BUILDINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina E. Mediastika

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Noise source for buildings adjacent to streets is traffic-generated predominantly. Where people are mostly spend their time indoors, it is important for buildings to have screening or blocking to control noise intrusion into living spaces. But this blocking should also permit airflow. This is important for middle to low-cost domestic buildings, which do not employ conditioned ventilation. A common feature of Indonesian buildings, fence, is studied to perform noise barrier. The fence -a barrier to be- should obey three factors: position, dimension, and material. All these three factors were studied to seek compromised design for acoustic performance and natural ventilation purpose. Domestic building situated in the urban area of Yogyakarta was studying to see the most possible design of the barrier to be. There are two calculation methods employed to investigate the proposed design. The study shows that it is possible to gain minimum of 10 dB noise reduction by placing windows within the shadow effect of approximately 1.5 height fence-barrier.

  4. Building HVAC control knowledge data schema – Towards a unified representation of control system knowledge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yan; Treado, Stephen J.; Messner, John I.

    2016-12-01

    Building control systems for Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning (HVAC) play a key role in realizing the functionality and operation of building systems and components. Building Control Knowledge (BCK) is the logic and algorithms embedded throughout building control system. There are different methods to represent the BCK. These methods differ in the selection of BCK representing elements and the format of those elements. There is a lack of standard data schema, for storing, retrieving, and reusing structured BCK. In this study, a modular data schema is created for BCK representation. The data schema contains eleven representing elements, i.e., control module name, operation mode, system schematic, control flow diagram, data point, alarm, parameter, control sequence, function, and programming code. Each element is defined with specific attributes. This data schema is evaluated through a case study demonstration. The demonstration shows a new way to represent the BCK with standard formats.

  5. Control of energy flow in residential buildings; Energieflussregelung in Wohngebaeuden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, Martin

    2011-07-01

    Energy systems in residential buildings are changing from monovalent, combustion based systems to multivalent systems containing technologies such as solar collectors, pellet boilers, heat pumps, CHP and multiple storages. Multivalent heat and electricity generation and additional storages raise the number of possible control signals in the system. This creates additional degrees of freedom regarding the choice of the energy converter and the instant of time for energy conversion. New functionality of controllers such as prioritisation of energy producers, optimization of electric self consumption and control of storages and energy feed-in are required. Within the scope of this thesis, new approaches for demand-driven optimal control of energy flows in multivalent building energy systems are developed and evaluated. The approaches are evaluated by means of system energy costs and operating emissions. For parametrisation of the controllers an easily understandable operating concept is developed. The energy flow controllers are implemented as a multi agent system (MAS) and a nonlinear model predictive controller (MPC). Proper functionality and stability are demonstrated in simulations of two example energy systems. In both example systems the MPC controller achieves less energy costs and operating emissions due to system wide global optimization and the more detailed system model within the controller. The multi agent approach turns out to perform better for systems with a huge number of components, e.g. in home automation and energy management systems. Due to the good performance of the reference control strategies, a significant reduction of energy costs and operating emissions is only possible with limitations. Systems for heat generation show only an especially low potential for optimization because of marginal variation ins heat production costs. The adaptation of the operation mode to user priorities, changing utilization characteristics and dynamic energy

  6. Strategies for Controlled Placement of Nanoscale Building Blocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koh SeongJin

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe capability of placing individual nanoscale building blocks on exact substrate locations in a controlled manner is one of the key requirements to realize future electronic, optical, and magnetic devices and sensors that are composed of such blocks. This article reviews some important advances in the strategies for controlled placement of nanoscale building blocks. In particular, we will overview template assisted placement that utilizes physical, molecular, or electrostatic templates, DNA-programmed assembly, placement using dielectrophoresis, approaches for non-close-packed assembly of spherical particles, and recent development of focused placement schemes including electrostatic funneling, focused placement via molecular gradient patterns, electrodynamic focusing of charged aerosols, and others.

  7. Migración de sistemas automatizados: política y gestión del cambio en bibliotecas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ballester, Josefina

    1995-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to survive, libraries must be able to adapt -flexibly, efficiently and responsively- to user needs. New technological developments serve to help libraries adjust to their new challenges and this is one of the reasons that leads them to migrate from one automated system to another. Implementing a new system is a complex process, owing to the new features being introduced and to the need to migrate data from the first system. This article analyzes why, how and when systems are changed, and includes guidelines for managing the transition: objectives, needs analyses, elaboration of technical specifications, and evaluation. Once the new system is chosen, the management of change begins and involves both the library management and library staff. Finally, the importance of staff participation in the entire process is discussed, including training and channels of communication.

    Las bibliotecas, para poder sobrevivir, han de adaptarse a las demandas de los usuarios, de una manera más flexible, sensible y eficaz. Los nuevos desarrollos tecnológicos ayudan a la biblioteca a adecuarse a sus nuevas necesidades, y es por ello por lo que más frecuentemente se produce el cambio de un sistema automatizado a otro. La implementación de un segundo sistema es un proceso más complejo, debido a las nuevas prestaciones que se incorporan y al tener que migrar los datos ya existentes en el primer sistema. En este artículo se analiza el por qué, el cómo y el cuándo del cambio de sistema, así como las líneas de actuación previas que se han de seguir antes de iniciar el cambio: objetivos, análisis de necesidades, definición de especificaciones técnicas y evaluación. Una vez elegido el producto, se inicia la gestión del cambio que involucra tanto a la dirección para que lo controle, como al personal que actúa como agente del cambio. Por último, se analiza el papel tan importante que juega, en el éxito del nuevo sistema, la participaci

  8. Distributed Control System in Electrical Heaters of the Public Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhua Ren

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Being with many advantages such as environmental protection, controllable, facilitate measurement etc, electric heating has been promoted actively in some places .For public buildings with huge energy consumption, electric heating intelligent controlling may be the key to achieve energy conservation. In this paper, visual distributed control system (DCS was presented in electric heating of the public buildings. In this control system, a PC was used as the host, and RS232/485 interface converter was used as serial interface of mutual conversion .Through industrial standard RS485 bus with high reliability and low cost which was the link between the host and many sets of thermostat, a one-to-many communication network was formed. The MCU of the thermostats was ATMega8 microcontroller. Meanwhile, DS18B20 integrated temperature probe was used in temperature sensor .Through the DCS test online,it met the need of each individual heating unit. Therefore, unnecessary heat waste was reduced, heating costs were saved.

  9. Converging Redundant Sensor Network Information for Improved Building Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dale Tiller; D. Phil; Gregor Henze; Xin Guo

    2007-09-30

    This project investigated the development and application of sensor networks to enhance building energy management and security. Commercial, industrial and residential buildings often incorporate systems used to determine occupancy, but current sensor technology and control algorithms limit the effectiveness of these systems. For example, most of these systems rely on single monitoring points to detect occupancy, when more than one monitoring point could improve system performance. Phase I of the project focused on instrumentation and data collection. During the initial project phase, a new occupancy detection system was developed, commissioned and installed in a sample of private offices and open-plan office workstations. Data acquisition systems were developed and deployed to collect data on space occupancy profiles. Phase II of the project demonstrated that a network of several sensors provides a more accurate measure of occupancy than is possible using systems based on single monitoring points. This phase also established that analysis algorithms could be applied to the sensor network data stream to improve the accuracy of system performance in energy management and security applications. In Phase III of the project, the sensor network from Phase I was complemented by a control strategy developed based on the results from the first two project phases: this controller was implemented in a small sample of work areas, and applied to lighting control. Two additional technologies were developed in the course of completing the project. A prototype web-based display that portrays the current status of each detector in a sensor network monitoring building occupancy was designed and implemented. A new capability that enables occupancy sensors in a sensor network to dynamically set the 'time delay' interval based on ongoing occupant behavior in the space was also designed and implemented.

  10. SAM - Sistema Automatizado del Método MECAP para Especificar Casos de Prueba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenyer Domínguez

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Existen cuatro elementos que son relevantes al momento de definir las pruebas: Confiabilidad, Costo, Tiempo y Calidad. El tiempo de desarrollo y el costo del producto se incrementan cuando se desean pruebas confiables y un software de calidad. Pero ¿qué se puede hacer para que los involucrados comprendan que las pruebas deben ser vistas como una red de seguridad? Si la calidad no se contempla antes de comenzar las pruebas, entonces ella no estará cuando se éstas terminen. El objetivo de este artículo es presentar la herramienta, SAM – Sistema Automatizado del Método MECAP que permite especificar Casos de Prueba a partir de Casos de Uso incorporando elementos que promueven la verificación y validación de la trazabilidad entre la Gestión de Requerimientos, el Análisis y Diseño y las Pruebas. SAM soporta el proceso de pruebas de forma automatizada, mejorando la confiabilidad de las mismas

  11. Advanced Sensors and Controls for Building Applications: Market Assessment and Potential R&D Pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brambley, M. R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Haves, P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); McDonald, S. C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Torcellini, P. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hansen, D. [U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, D.C. (United States); Holmberg, D. R. [National Institute of Science and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Roth, K. W. [TIAX, LLC, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2005-04-01

    This document provides a market assessment of existing building sensors and controls and presents a range of technology pathways (R&D options) for pursuing advanced sensors and building control strategies.

  12. Dynamic solar radiation control in buildings by applying electrochromic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jelle, B.P.; Gustavsen, A.

    2010-07-01

    Full text: Smart windows like electrochromic windows (ECWs) are windows which are able to regulate the solar radiation throughput by application of an external voltage. The ECWs may decrease heating, cooling and electricity loads in buildings by admitting the optimum level of solar energy and daylight into the buildings at any given time, e.g. cold winter climate versus warm summer climate demands. In order to achieve as dynamic and flexible solar radiation control as possible, the ECWs may be characterized by a number of solar radiation glazing factors, i.e. ultraviolet solar transmittance, visible solar transmittance, solar transmittance, solar material protection factor, solar skin protection factor, external visible solar reflectance, internal visible solar reflectance, solar reflectance, solar absorbance, emissivity, solar factor and colour rendering factor. Comparison of these solar quantities for various electrochromic material and window combinations and configurations enables one to select the most appropriate electrochromic materials and ECWs for specific buildings. Measurements and calculations were carried out on two different electrochromic window devices. (Author)

  13. Mission Control Center/Building 30. Historical Documentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    As part of this nation-wide study, in September 2006, historical survey and evaluation of NASA-owned and managed facilities was conducted by NASA's Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (JSC) in Houston, Texas. The results of this study are presented in a report entitled, Survey and Evaluation of NASA-owned Historic Facilities and Properties in the Context of the U.S. Space Shuttle Program, Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas, prepared in November 2007 by NASA JSC s contractor, Archaeological Consultants, Inc. As a result of this survey, the Mission Control Center (Building 30) was determined eligible for listing in the NRHP, with concurrence by the Texas State Historic Preservation Officer (SHPO). The survey concluded that Building 30 is eligible for the NRHP under Criteria A and C in the context of the U.S. Space Shuttle Program (1969-2010). Because it has achieved significance within the past 50 years, Criteria Consideration G applies. It should be noted that the Mission Control Center was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1985 for its role in the Apollo 11 Lunar Landing. At the time of this documentation, Building 30 was still used to support the SSP as an engineering research facility, which is also sometimes used for astronaut training. This documentation package precedes any undertaking as defined by Section 106 of the NHPA, as amended, and implemented in 36 CFR Part 800, as NASA JSC has decided to proactively pursue efforts to mitigate the potential adverse affects of any future modifications to the facility. It includes a historical summary of the Space Shuttle program; the history of JSC in relation to the SSP; a narrative of the history of Building 30 and how it supported the SSP; and a physical description of the structure. In addition, photographs documenting the construction and historical use of Building 30 in support of the SSP, as well as photographs of the facility documenting the existing conditions, special technological features

  14. Economic Model Predictive Control for Building Climate Control in a Smart Grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halvgaard, Rasmus; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad; Madsen, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Model Predictive Control (MPC) can be used to control a system of energy producers and consumers in a Smart Grid. In this paper, we use heat pumps for heating residential buildings with a floor heating system. We use the thermal capacity of the building to shift the electricity consumptions...... to production is crucial. We present a model for a house with a heat pump used for supplying thermal energy to a floor heating system. The model is a linear state space model and the resulting controller is an Economic MPC formulated as a linear program. The model includes forecasts of both weather...

  15. Fotocal, sistema automatizado para la determinación del área y el costo de un modulo fotovoltaico

    OpenAIRE

    Enrique Álvarez Torres; Félix Ponce Ceballo

    2010-01-01

    El Sistema Automatizado FOTOCAL, realiza el cálculo de las dimensiones y la generación de electricidad del modulo fotovoltaico que se necesita para la demanda energética según la situación que se plantea, además establece el precio de la tecnología requerida. Con los resultados obtenidos de este software, es posible establecer los recursos económicos para la implantación tecnológica propuesta. Este programa ha sido utilizado para la determinación del potencial energético solar fotovoltaico de...

  16. Converging Redundant Sensor Network Information for Improved Building Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dale K. Tiller; Gregor P. Henze

    2005-12-01

    This project is investigating the development and application of sensor networks to enhance building energy management and security. Commercial, industrial and residential buildings often incorporate systems used to determine occupancy, but current sensor technology and control algorithms limit the effectiveness of these systems. For example, most of these systems rely on single monitoring points to detect occupancy, when more than one monitoring point would improve system performance. Phase I of the project focused on instrumentation and data collection. In Phase I, a new occupancy detection system was developed, commissioned and installed in a sample of private offices and open-plan office workstations. Data acquisition systems were developed and deployed to collect data on space occupancy profiles. In phase II of the project, described in this report, we demonstrate that a network of several sensors provides a more accurate measure of occupancy than is possible using systems based on single monitoring points. We also establish that analysis algorithms can be applied to the sensor network data stream to improve the accuracy of system performance in energy management and security applications, and show that it may be possible to use sensor network pulse rate to distinguish the number of occupants in a space. Finally, in this phase of the project we also developed a prototype web-based display that portrays the current status of each detector in a sensor network monitoring building occupancy. This basic capability will be extended in the future by applying an algorithm-based inference to the sensor network data stream, so that the web page displays the likelihood that each monitored office or area is occupied, as a supplement to the actual status of each sensor.

  17. Small- and Medium-Sized Commercial Building Monitoring and Controls Needs: A Scoping Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katipamula, Srinivas; Underhill, Ronald M.; Goddard, James K.; Taasevigen, Danny J.; Piette, M. A.; Granderson, J.; Brown, Rich E.; Lanzisera, Steven M.; Kuruganti, T.

    2012-10-31

    Buildings consume over 40% of the total energy consumption in the U.S. A significant portion of the energy consumed in buildings is wasted because of the lack of controls or the inability to use existing building automation systems (BASs) properly. Much of the waste occurs because of our inability to manage and controls buildings efficiently. Over 90% of the buildings are either small-size (<5,000 sf) or medium-size (between 5,000 sf and 50,000 sf); these buildings currently do not use BASs to monitor and control their building systems from a central location. According to Commercial Building Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS), about 10% of the buildings in the U.S. use BASs or central controls to manage their building system operations. Buildings that use BASs are typically large (>100,000 sf). Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) were asked by the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Building Technologies Program (BTP) to identify monitoring and control needs for small- and medium-sized commercial buildings and recommend possible solutions. This study documents the needs and solutions for small- and medium-sized buildings.

  18. Development of controller of acquisition and sample positioner for activation for use in measurements of short half-life radioisotopes; Desenvolvimento de dispositivo movimentador automatizado de amostras com vista a aplicacao em medidas de radioisotopos que possuem curto tempo de meia-vida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Secco, Marcello

    2016-08-01

    High resolution gamma spectroscopy measurements have several applications. Those involving short half-life radioisotope measurements may present low precision problems when the radioactive source is far from detector end cup and in the very high activity situations also can present accuracy loss due to dead time and pile-up effects. A way to overcome these problems is changing the source detector distance as the activity is decreasing, and thereby maximizing the statistical counting. In the present study, the Controller of Acquisition and Sample Positioner for Activation (CASPA) was developed. It is a low cost and weight device, made with low atomic number materials designed to assist gamma spectroscopy measurements, which is able to control the distance between the source and the detector, even allowing that there is a change of this distance during the measurement process. Because it is automated it optimizes the time of the operator, who has complete freedom to program their routine measurements in the device besides minimizing the radiation dose in the operator. An interface that allow the user control the CASPA system and to program the acquisition system was created. Tests aiming to optimize the operation of CASPA system were carried out and the safety of the CASPA operation was verified, it was not presented any failure during their tests. It was applied the repeatability tests by the acquisition {sup 60}Co standard source and was found that the positioning of automated system has reproduced the results of static system with a 95% of confidence level. (author)

  19. SUPERVISORY CONTROL FOR PEAK REDUCTION IN COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS WHILE MAINTAINING COMFORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nutaro, James J [ORNL; Olama, Mohammed M [ORNL; Kuruganti, Teja [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a supervisory control strategy for limiting peak power demand by small and medium commercial buildings while still meeting the business needs of the occupants. This control strategy has two features that make it relevant to new and existing buildings. First, it is designed to operate with building equipment, such as air conditioning and refrigeration systems, as they are presently installed in most small and medium commercial buildings. Because of this, the supervisory control could be realized as a software-only retrofit to existing building management systems. Second, the proposed control acts as a supervisory management layer over existing control systems, rather than replacing them outright. The primary idea of this approach is that the controls for individual building equipment request energy resources for a control action and the supervisory control examines the requests and decides which control actions to allow while satisfying a limit on peak power demand.

  20. Advanced, Integrated Control for Building Operations to Achieve 40% Energy Saving

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Yan; Song, Zhen; Loftness, Vivian; Ji, Kun; Zheng, Sam; Lasternas, Bertrand; Marion, Flore; Yuebin, Yu

    2012-10-15

    We developed and demonstrated a software based integrated advanced building control platform called Smart Energy Box (SEB), which can coordinate building subsystem controls, integrate variety of energy optimization algorithms and provide proactive and collaborative energy management and control for building operations using weather and occupancy information. The integrated control system is a low cost solution and also features: Scalable component based architecture allows to build a solution for different building control system configurations with needed components; Open Architecture with a central data repository for data exchange among runtime components; Extendible to accommodate variety of communication protocols. Optimal building control for central loads, distributed loads and onsite energy resource; uses web server as a loosely coupled way to engage both building operators and building occupants in collaboration for energy conservation. Based on the open platform of SEB, we have investigated and evaluated a variety of operation and energy saving control strategies on Carnegie Mellon University Intelligent Work place which is equipped with alternative cooling/heating/ventilation/lighting methods, including radiant mullions, radiant cooling/heating ceiling panels, cool waves, dedicated ventilation unit, motorized window and blinds, and external louvers. Based on the validation results of these control strategies, they were integrated in SEB in a collaborative and dynamic way. This advanced control system was programmed and computer tested with a model of the Intelligent Workplace's northern section (IWn). The advanced control program was then installed in the IWn control system; the performance was measured and compared with that of the state of the art control system to verify the overall energy savings great than 40%. In addition advanced human machine interfaces (HMI's) were developed to communicate both with building

  1. C-simulation Based Building Controls Implementation with Networked Sensors and Actuators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wen, Y.J.; DiBartolomeo, D.; Rubinstein, F.

    2012-01-01

    Commercial building sector is one of the largest energy consumers inthe U.S., and lighting, heating, ventilating and air conditioning contribute to more than half of the energy consumption and carbon emissions in buildings. Controls are the most effective way of increasing energy efficiency in build

  2. A Building Model Framework for a Genetic Algorithm Multi-objective Model Predictive Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arendt, Krzysztof; Ionesi, Ana; Jradi, Muhyiddine;

    Model Predictive Control (MPC) of building systems is a promising approach to optimize building energy performance. In contrast to traditional control strategies which are reactive in nature, MPC optimizes the utilization of resources based on the predicted effects. It has been shown that energy...... savings potential of this technique can reach up to 40% compared to conventional control strategies depending on the particular building type. However, the effort needed to implement MPC in buildings is significant and often considered prohibitive. That is why until now fully-functional MPC has been...

  3. Fotocal, sistema automatizado para la determinación del área y el costo de un modulo fotovoltaico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Álvarez Torres

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El Sistema Automatizado FOTOCAL, realiza el cálculo de las dimensiones y la generación de electricidad del modulo fotovoltaico que se necesita para la demanda energética según la situación que se plantea, además establece el precio de la tecnología requerida. Con los resultados obtenidos de este software, es posible establecer los recursos económicos para la implantación tecnológica propuesta. Este programa ha sido utilizado para la determinación del potencial energético solar fotovoltaico de instalaciones agropecuarias, proyectos de investigación científica, tesis para la obtención del titulo de Ingeniero Mecanizador, maestría y trabajo de diploma.

  4. Control strategies for managing energy in a building mock-up

    OpenAIRE

    Eynard, Julien; Paris, Benjamin; Grieu, Stéphane; Talbert, Thierry; Thiéry, Frédérik

    2009-01-01

    8 pages; International audience; The present work focuses on investigating ways to enhance the energetic performance of buildings i.e. on proposing control strategies for managing energy in buildings. Therefore, control algorithms were tested using a prototype, composed of a building mock-up, a monitoring system and a data post-treatment software. The data acquisition system allows recording both mock-up indoor/outdoor temperatures and energy consumption. Two resistors serve as renewable and ...

  5. Moisture Control Guidance for Commercial and Public Buildings (EPA 402-F-13053)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document provides guidance to designers, construction mangers, and building operation/maintenance managers to improve IEQ and reduce risks of encountering IEQ problems due to insufficient moisture control. EPA will be producing a document entitled "Moisture Control Guida...

  6. An Extensible Sensing and Control Platform for Building Energy Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowe, Anthony [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Berges, Mario [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Martin, Christopher [Robert Bosch LLC, Anderson, SC (United States)

    2016-04-03

    The goal of this project is to develop Mortar.io, an open-source BAS platform designed to simplify data collection, archiving, event scheduling and coordination of cross-system interactions. Mortar.io is optimized for (1) robustness to network outages, (2) ease of installation using plug-and-play and (3) scalable support for small to large buildings and campuses.

  7. Building Integrated Active Flow Control: Improving the Aerodynamic Performance of Tall Buildings Using Fluid-Based Aerodynamic Modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menicovich, David

    By 2050 an estimated 9 billion people will inhabit planet earth and almost all the growth in the next 40 years will be in urban areas putting tremendous pressure on creating sustainable cities. The rapid increase in population, rise in land value and decrease in plot sizes in cities around the world positions tall or more importantly slender buildings as the best suited building typology to address the increasingly critical demand for space in this pressing urbanization trend. However, the majority of new tall building urban developments have not followed principles of environmental and/or sustainable design and incentives to innovate, both technological and economic, are urgently required. The biggest climatic challenge to the design, construction and performance of tall buildings is wind sensitivity. This challenge is further emphasized seeing two market driven trends: on one hand as urban population grows, land value rises while plot sizes decrease; on the other, more cost effective modular construction techniques are introducing much lighter tall building structures. The combination of the two suggests a potential increase in the slenderness ratio of tall buildings (typically less than 6:1 but stretching to 20:1 in the near future) where not-so-tall but much lighter buildings will be the bulk of new construction in densely populated cities, providing affordable housing in the face of fast urbanization but also introducing wind sensitivity which was previously the problem of a very limited number of super tall buildings to a much larger number of buildings and communities. The proposed research aims to investigate a novel approach to the interaction between tall buildings and their environment. Through this approach the research proposes a new relationship between buildings and the flows around, through and inside them, where buildings could adapt to better control and manage the air flow around them, and consequently produce significant opportunities to reduce

  8. The impact of indoor thermal conditions, system controls and building types on the building energy demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corgnati, Stefano Paolo; Fabrizio, Enrico; Filippi, Marco [Dipartimento di Energetica (DENER), Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino (Italy)

    2008-07-01

    It is possible to evaluate the energy demand as well as the parameters related to indoor thermal comfort through building energy simulation tools. Since energy demand for heating and cooling is directly affected by the required level of thermal comfort, the investigation of the mutual relationship between thermal comfort and energy demand (and therefore operating costs) is of the foremost importance both to define the benchmarks for energy service contracts and to calibrate the energy labelling according to European Directive 2002/92/CE. The connection between indoor thermal comfort conditions and energy demand for both heating and cooling has been analyzed in this work with reference to a set of validation tests (office buildings) derived from a European draft standard. Once a range of required acceptable indoor operative temperatures had been fixed in accordance with Fanger's theory (e.g. -0.5 < PMV < -0.5), the effective hourly comfort conditions and the energy consumptions were estimated through dynamic simulations. The same approach was then used to quantify the energy demand when the range of acceptable indoor operative temperatures was fixed in accordance with de Dear's adaptive comfort theory. (author)

  9. Energy Consumption and Control Response Evaluations of AODV Routing in WSANs for Building-Temperature Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chusak Limsakul

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to investigate the effects of routing protocols on wireless sensor and actuator networks (WSANs, focusing on the control system response and the energy consumption of nodes in a network. We demonstrate that routing algorithms designed without considering the relationship between communication and control cannot be appropriately used in wireless networked control applications. For this purpose, an ad-hoc on-demand distance vector (AODV routing, an IEEE 802.15.4, and a building-temperature control system are employed for this exploration. The findings from our scenarios show that the AODV routing can select a path with a high traffic load for data transmission. It takes a long time before deciding to change a new route although it experiences the unsuccessful transmission of packets. As a result, the desirable control target cannot be achieved in time, and nodes consume more energy due to frequent packet collisions and retransmissions. Consequently, we propose a simple routing solution to alleviate these research problems by modifying the original AODV routing protocol. The delay-threshold is considered to avoid any congested connection during routing procedures. The simulation results demonstrate that our solution can be appropriately applied in WSANs. Both the energy consumption and the control system response are improved.

  10. Energy consumption and control response evaluations of AODV routing in WSANs for building-temperature control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booranawong, Apidet; Teerapabkajorndet, Wiklom; Limsakul, Chusak

    2013-06-27

    The main objective of this paper is to investigate the effects of routing protocols on wireless sensor and actuator networks (WSANs), focusing on the control system response and the energy consumption of nodes in a network. We demonstrate that routing algorithms designed without considering the relationship between communication and control cannot be appropriately used in wireless networked control applications. For this purpose, an ad-hoc on-demand distance vector (AODV) routing, an IEEE 802.15.4, and a building-temperature control system are employed for this exploration. The findings from our scenarios show that the AODV routing can select a path with a high traffic load for data transmission. It takes a long time before deciding to change a new route although it experiences the unsuccessful transmission of packets. As a result, the desirable control target cannot be achieved in time, and nodes consume more energy due to frequent packet collisions and retransmissions. Consequently, we propose a simple routing solution to alleviate these research problems by modifying the original AODV routing protocol. The delay-threshold is considered to avoid any congested connection during routing procedures. The simulation results demonstrate that our solution can be appropriately applied in WSANs. Both the energy consumption and the control system response are improved.

  11. Optimization of time-delayed feedback control of seismically excited building structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue-ping LI; Wei-qiu ZHU; Zu-guang YING

    2008-01-01

    An optimization method for time-delayed feedback control of partially observable linear building structures subjected to seismic excitation is proposed. A time-delayed control problem of partially observable linear building structure under horizontal ground acceleration excitation is formulated and converted into that of completely observable linear structure by using separation principle. The time-delayed control forces are approximately expressed in terms of control forces without time delay. The control system is then governed by Ito stochastic differential equations for the conditional means of system states and then transformed into those for the conditional means of modal energies by using the stochastic averaging method for quasi-Hamiltonian systems. The control law is assumed to be modal velocity feedback control with time delay and the unknown control gains are determined by the modal performance indices. A three-storey building structure is taken as example to illustrate the proposal method and the numerical results are confirmed by using Monte Carlo simulation.

  12. Experimental analysis of simulated reinforcement learning control for active and passive building thermal storage inventory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, S. [Architectural Engineering, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, PKI 243, Omaha, NE (United States); Henze, G. P. [Architectural Engineering, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, PKI 203D, Omaha, NE (United States)

    2006-07-01

    This paper is the second part of a two-part investigation of a novel approach to optimally control commercial building passive and active thermal storage inventory. The proposed building control approach is based on simulated reinforcement learning, which is a hybrid control scheme that combines features of model-based optimal control and model-free learning control. An experimental study was carried out to analyze the performance of a hybrid controller installed in a full-scale laboratory facility. The first paper introduced the theoretical foundation of this investigation including the fundamental theory of reinforcement learning control. This companion paper presents a discussion and analysis of the experimental results. The results confirm the feasibility of the proposed control approach. Operating cost savings were attained with the proposed control approach compared with conventional building control; however, the savings are lower than for the case of model-based predictive optimal control. As for the case of model-based predictive control, the performance of the hybrid controller is largely affected by the quality of the training model, and extensive real-time learning is required for the learning controller to eliminate any false cues it receives during the initial training period. Nevertheless, compared with standard reinforcement learning, the proposed hybrid controller is much more readily implemented in a commercial building. (author)

  13. Controlling Energy-Efficient Buildings in the Context of Smart Grid: A Cyber Physical System Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Maasoumy, Mehdi

    2013-01-01

    The building sector is responsible for about 40% of energy consumption, 40% of greenhouse gas emissions, and 70% of electricity use in the US. Over 50% of the energy consumed in buildings is directly related to space heating, cooling and ventilation. Optimal control of heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems is crucial for reducing energy consumption in buildings. We present a physics-based mathematical model of thermal behavior of buildings, along with a novel Param...

  14. Investigation on Smoke Movement and Smoke Control for Atrium in Green and Sustainable Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fang, Lui; Nielsen, Peter V.; Brohus, Henrik

    The concepts of green buildings and sustainable buildings are promoted actively in the developed countries. Targets are on protecting the environment, using less energy through natural ventilation provisions and daylight utilization, developing better waste management and taking resource conserva......The concepts of green buildings and sustainable buildings are promoted actively in the developed countries. Targets are on protecting the environment, using less energy through natural ventilation provisions and daylight utilization, developing better waste management and taking resource...... conservation into account. Architectural and building design, electrical and mechanical systems, and building management have to be upgraded. However, there are problems in dealing with fire safety, especially in complying with the existing prescriptive fire codes. A hot argument is that smoke control system...

  15. Robust State Feedback Control of Wind-Excited Tall Buildings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The introduction of robust control theory into structure control, as well as design procedure of stabilizing controllers for structures with parameter uncertainty and model error is discussed. A stability bound is derived from the polar decomposition of the nominal system matrix. In addition, our study shows that application of Iow pass filters avoids spillover by eliminating the unconsidered high frequency compo nents. It is demonstrated, via an example, our approach leads to excellent control result and offers far better robustness than previous solutions.

  16. Local geology controlled the feasibility of vitrifying Iron Age buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabian B Wadsworth,; Michael J Heap,; Damby, David; Kai-Uwe Hess,; Jens Najorka,; Jérémie Vasseur,; Dominik Fahrner,; Donald B Dingwell,

    2017-01-01

    During European prehistory, hilltop enclosures made from polydisperse particle-and-block stone walling were exposed to temperatures sufficient to partially melt the constituent stonework, leading to the preservation of glassy walls called ‘vitrified forts’. During vitrification, the granular wall rocks partially melt, sinter viscously and densify, reducing inter-particle porosity. This process is strongly dependent on the solidus temperature, the particle sizes, the temperature-dependence of the viscosity of the evolving liquid phase, as well as the distribution and longevity of heat. Examination of the sintering behaviour of 45 European examples reveals that it is the raw building material that governs the vitrification efficiency. As Iron Age forts were commonly constructed from local stone, we conclude that local geology directly influenced the degree to which buildings were vitrified in the Iron Age. Additionally, we find that vitrification is accompanied by a bulk material strengthening of the aggregates of small sizes, and a partial weakening of larger blocks. We discuss these findings in the context of the debate surrounding the motive of the wall-builders. We conclude that if wall stability by bulk strengthening was the desired effect, then vitrification represents an Iron Age technology that failed to be effective in regions of refractory local geology.

  17. Indoor environmental quality (IEQ) and building energy optimization through model predictive control (MPC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woldekidan, Korbaga

    This dissertation aims at developing a novel and systematic approach to apply Model Predictive Control (MPC) to improve energy efficiency and indoor environmental quality in office buildings. Model predictive control is one of the advanced optimal control approaches that use models to predict the behavior of the process beyond the current time to optimize the system operation at the present time. In building system, MPC helps to exploit buildings' thermal storage capacity and to use the information on future disturbances like weather and internal heat gains to estimate optimal control inputs ahead of time. In this research the major challenges of applying MPC to building systems are addressed. A systematic framework has been developed for ease of implementation. New methods are proposed to develop simple and yet reasonably accurate models that can minimize the MPC development effort as well as computational time. The developed MPC is used to control a detailed building model represented by whole building performance simulation tool, EnergyPlus. A co-simulation strategy is used to communicate the MPC control developed in Matlab platform with the case building model in EnergyPlus. The co-simulation tool used (MLE+) also has the ability to talk to actual building management systems that support the BACnet communication protocol which makes it easy to implement the developed MPC control in actual buildings. A building that features an integrated lighting and window control and HVAC system with a dedicated outdoor air system and ceiling radiant panels was used as a case building. Though this study is specifically focused on the case building, the framework developed can be applied to any building type. The performance of the developed MPC was compared against a baseline control strategy using Proportional Integral and Derivative (PID) control. Various conventional and advanced thermal comfort as well as ventilation strategies were considered for the comparison. These

  18. Building A Flight Control System For A Modelled Aircraft

    OpenAIRE

    Garratt, Paul William; Rushton, Andrew; Yilmaz, Esat

    2004-01-01

    Abstract. We modelled an aircraft based on the Airbus A320 and constructed a synthesisable flight control system. The novel feature was the use of C and VHDL, Very High Speed Inte-grated Circuit Design Language, to allow the flight control system to reside in a Field Pro-grammable Gate Array in a model aircraft or an Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle. The simulator models axial, normal, transverse, pitch, roll and yaw movements. The flight control system has automatic manoeuvre envelope protection a...

  19. Digital building blocks for controlling random waves based on supersymmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Sunkyu; Park, Namkyoo

    2016-01-01

    Harnessing multimode waves allows high information capacity through modal expansions. Although passive multimode devices including waveguides, couplers, and multiplexers have been demonstrated for broadband responses in momentum or frequency domains, collective switching of multimodes remains a challenge, due to the difficulty in imposing consistent dynamics on all eigenmodes. Here we overcome this limitation by realizing digital switching of spatially random waves, based on supersymmetric pairs of multimode potentials. We reveal that supersymmetric transformations of any parity-symmetric potential derive the parity reversal of all eigenmodes, which allows the complete isolation of random waves at the 'off' state. Building blocks for binary and many-valued logics are then demonstrated for random waves: a harmonic pair for binary switching of arbitrary wavefronts and a P\\"oschl-Teller pair for multi-level switching which implements the fuzzy membership function. Our results establishing global phase matching c...

  20. An International Project on Indoor Air Quality Design and Control in Low Energy Residential Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Carsten; Abadie, Marc; Qin, Menghao

    2016-01-01

    comfortable and healthy indoor environments. New paradigms for demand control of ventilation will be investigated, which consider the pollution loads and occupancy in buildings. As well, the thermal and moisture conditions of such advanced building shall be considered because of interactions between...... focal points to limiting energy consumption for thermally conditioning the indoor environment will be to possibly reducing the ventilation rate, or making it in a new way demand controlled. However, this must be done such that it does not have adverse effects on indoor air quality (IAQ). Annex 68...... the hygrothermal parameters, the chemical conditions, ventilation and the wellbeing of occupants. The project is divided into the five subtasks: 1. Defining the metrics. 2. Pollutant loads in residential buildings. 3. Modeling. 4. Strategies for design and control of buildings. 5. Field measurements and case...

  1. Sistema automatizado para la determinación del estado de maduración en fruta bomba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minelkis Machado Molina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El desarrollo de tecnologías digitales y su aplicación en la agricultura brindan nuevas posibilidades de automatización de procesos tecnológicos. La investigación realizada tiene como objetivo desarrollar una herramienta informática para la determinación no destructiva del estado de maduración en fruta bomba (var. Maradol Roja. Para alcanzar dicho objetivo se emplea la metodología para el diseño del software Proceso Unificado de Desarrollo (RUP. Para el procesamiento de imágenes se utilizan técnicas de reconocimiento de patrones y para la con - vención de modos de color de RGB a Lab se entrena una red neuronal Perceptron multicapas. Entre los principales resultados se presentan la elevada dependencia entre el IC* y el estado de maduración alcanzando un R 2 de 0,91. Se establecen rangos de IC* por estado de maduración, además se obtiene el software SADEM (Sistema Automatizado para Determinar Estado de Maduración que mediante una imagen digital establece el estado de maduración de la fruta bomba variedad Maradol Roja.

  2. El Portafolio Digital como estrategia didáctica: la experiencia del curso Servicios de Información Automatizados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ginnette Calvo Guillén

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available En esta investigación se presenta una experiencia de implementación del Portafolio Digital como estrategia didáctica en dos grupos del curso Servicios de Información Automatizados, pertenecientes al segundo año del tronco común de las carreras de Bachillerato de la Escuela de Bibliotecología y Ciencias de la Información de la Universidad de Costa Rica. La estrategia fue desarrollada individualmente y tuvo como objetivos construir un sitio web como espacio de reflexión acerca de los aprendizajes alcanzados durante el curso, así como crear un servicio de información para desarrollar destrezas evaluando y seleccionando fuentes de información confiables en línea. Con la estrategia se logró que el estudiantado concientizara sobre su responsabilidad en el proceso de construcción del c onocimiento y permitió la realimentación recíproca, así como la identificación de fuentes de información confiables en línea.

  3. El Portafolio Digital como estrategia didáctica: la experiencia del curso Servicios de Información Automatizados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ginnette Calvo Guillén

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available En esta investigación se presenta una experiencia de implementación del Portafolio Digital como estrategia didáctica en dos grupos del curso Servicios de Información Automatizados, pertenecientes al segundo año del tronco común de las carreras de Bachillerato de la Escuela de Bibliotecología y Ciencias de la Información de la Universidad de Costa Rica. La estrategia fue desarrollada individualmente y tuvo como objetivos construir un sitio web como espacio de reflexión acerca de los aprendizajes alcanzados durante el curso, así como crear un servicio de información para desarrollar destrezas evaluando y seleccionando fuentes de información confiables en línea. Con la estrategia se logró que el estudiantado concientizara sobre su responsabilidad en el proceso de construcción del conocimiento y permitió la realimentación recíproca, así como la identificación de fuentes de información confiables en línea.

  4. Sistema automatizado para la realización de pruebas funcionales a las protecciones electrónicas CELCOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo García Bermúdez

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Se realiza el diseño e implementación de un sistema automatizado que permite hacer las pruebas funcionales a las protecciones electrónicas por sobrecorriente para equipos de refrigeración producidas en el Laboratorio Científico Productivo perteneciente a la Universidad de Holguín "Oscar Lucero Moya". Para ello se realizó un estudio de las especificaciones funcionales que reclama el fabricante de las protecciones, que hizo posible definir un grupo de pruebas que verifican dichas especificaciones, se emplean módulos de adquisición de datos conectados por medio de una interfaz RS485 a la computadora y se hizo el diseño de la electrónica necesaria para la adaptación de las señales a estos módulos. El sistema informático permite realizar las pruebas a seis protecciones al mismo tiempo, cuyos resultados son almacenados en una base de datos. Adicionalmente puede realizarse la caracterización de los transformadores de corriente utilizados como sensores en las protecciones. El sistema realiza un grupo de pruebas que son imposibles de forma manual, eleva la productividad de los técnicos, disminuye los costos asociados al consumo de electricidad y permite que al 100% de las protecciones que salen al mercado se le verifiquen todas sus especificaciones funcionales.

  5. A Smart Green Building: An Environmental Health Control Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jui-Ting Huang

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes the establishment of an environmental health information management platform providing residential users with a comfortable, healthy indoor environment. Taking the S House as an example, the study: (1 assigned environmental health performance indicators, (2 established constraints to maintain environmental conditions, and (3 provided optimized management control mechanisms and methods. The environmental health information management platform provides an optimized control and solution pathway ensuring the quality of the indoor health environment and equipment energy conservation.

  6. A new data-driven controllability measure with application in intelligent buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaker, Hamid Reza; Lazarova-Molnar, Sanja

    2017-01-01

    and sensors, and information obtained by data processing. This differs from the traditional model-based approaches that are based on mathematical models of systems. We propose and describe a data-driven controllability measure for discrete-time linear systems. The concept is developed within a data-based......Buildings account for ca. 40% of the total energy consumption and ca. 20% of the total CO2 emissions. More effective and advanced control integrated into Building Management Systems (BMS) represents an opportunity to improve energy efficiency. The ease of availability of sensors technology...... and instrumentation within today's intelligent buildings enable collecting high quality data which could be used directly in data-based analysis and control methods. The area of data-based systems analysis and control is concentrating on developing analysis and control methods that rely on data collected from meters...

  7. Fixed-Order Mixed Norm Designs for Building Vibration Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whorton, Mark S.; Calise, Anthony J.

    2000-01-01

    This study investigates the use of H2, mu-synthesis, and mixed H2/mu methods to construct full order controllers and optimized controllers of fixed dimensions. The benchmark problem definition is first extended to include uncertainty within the controller bandwidth in the form of parametric uncertainty representative of uncertainty in the natural frequencies of the design model. The sensitivity of H2 design to unmodeled dynamics and parametric uncertainty is evaluated for a range of controller levels of authority. Next, mu-synthesis methods are applied to design full order compensators that are robust to both unmodeled dynamics and to parametric uncertainty. Finally, a set of mixed H2/mu compensators are designed which are optimized for a fixed compensator dimension. These mixed norm designs recover the H2 design performance levels while providing the same levels of robust stability as the mu designs. It is shown that designing with the mixed norm approach permits higher levels of controller authority for which the H2 designs are destabilizing. The benchmark problem is that of an active tendon system. The controller designs are all based on the use of acceleration feedback.

  8. Thermomechanically-controlled Processing for Producing Ship-building Steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Basu

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The thermomechanically-controlled processing of a newly developed high-strength lowalloy steel has been designed in such a way that the problems, normally faced in producing thequench and tempered steels, have been mitigated and the final product (steel plates are available in as rolled condition rather than quench and tempered steels.A low-carbon, low-alloy steel having nickel, chromium, copper, niobium, boron, has been designed for ease of welding, improved weldability over the conventional steels, and responsiveto the thermomechanically-controlled processing. A number of laboratory-scale batches of the alloy were made with different combinations of thermomechanically-controlled processingparameters. The different thermomechanically-controlled processing parameters studied include (i slab-reheating temperature,~ (ii. def.orm ation above recrvstallisation temperature, (iiideformation below recrystallisation temperature, and (iv finish-rolling temperature. The thermomechanically-processed steel plates, under certain combinations of  thermomechanically-controlled ~rocessi-ne.o arameters. showed excellent combination of imvact and tensile n.r on. erties. In this paper, the microstructure-property correlation has been made to throw light on the type of microstructure required to obtain such superior package of mechanical properties. Further, the optimised laboratory-scale thermomechanically-controlled processing parameters, which were used to process newer hatches of the steel made through industrial route, have delivered encouraging results.

  9. Effect of nonlinearity of connecting dampers on vibration control of connected building structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masatoshi eKasagi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The connection of two building structures with dampers is one of effective vibration control systems. In this vibration control system, both buildings have to possess different vibration properties in order to provide a higher vibration reduction performance. In addition to such condition of different vibration properties of both buildings, the connecting dampers also play an important role in the vibration control mechanism. In this paper, the effect of nonlinearity of connecting dampers on the vibration control of connected building structures is investigated in detail. A high-damping rubber damper and an oil damper with and without relief mechanism are treated. It is shown that, while the high-damping rubber damper is effective in a rather small deformation level, the linear oil damper is effective in a relatively large deformation level. It is further shown that, while the oil dampers reduce the response in the same phase as the case without dampers, the high-damping rubber dampers change the phase. The merit is that the high-damping rubber can reduce the damper deformation and keep the sufficient space between both buildings. This can mitigate the risk of building pounding.

  10. IRT analysis on historic buildings: toward a controlled convection heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosina, Elisabetta; Ludwig, Nicola; Redaelli, Veronica; Della Torre, Stefano; D'Ascola, Simona; Catalano, Michela; Faliva, Chiara

    2005-03-01

    Many applications of IRT on buildings require active approach. The solicitation has to be properly calculated, and the application has to take in account the optical characteristics of the surface and its thermal properties. In fact, non-homogeneities of the surface definitively affect the absorbance and reflectance of materials, as shown in literature. Therefore, in case of different colors like artistic paintings, dark stains and salts deposition a convection heating results more effective for IRT inspection, because it does not stimulate different localized absorption due to the colors. Using fan coil heaters, major difficulty is to obtain an even heating on the wall under inspection. The laboratory tests permitted to verify that the strength of rising warm air is higher than the one due to the heater ventilation. As a consequence, the effects of heating on the wall start from the upper part and decrease in a non-proportional way to the bottom. On the other side, thermal flux from a heater changes direction according to the geometry of the room, ambient conditions (initial temperature of the air, openings, etc), technical characteristics of the heater (power, speed of the fan, shape, etc) and its location (orientation, elevation, distance from the surface under investigation, etc). In addition, the increase of air temperature does not directly correspond to the increase of the surface temperature. The paper shows the characterization of a convective heating source, by laboratory measurements; to map the distribution of heat in time, the 14.000-26.000 kcal/h heater flux was measured following a 3D grid, by anemometers, probes, and IR Thermography.

  11. Design and deployment of a new wireless sensor node platform for building environmental monitoring and control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Essa Jafer

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available It is commonly agreed that a 15–40% reduction of building energy consumption is achievable by efficiently operated buildings when compared with typical practice. Existing research has identified that the level of information available to Building Managers with existing Building Management Systems and Environmental Monitoring Systems is insufficient to perform the required performance-based building assessment. The majority of today’s buildings are insufficiently sensored to obtain an unambiguous understanding of performance. The cost of installing additional sensors and meters is extremely high, primarily due to the estimated cost of wiring and the needed labour. From these perspectives wireless sensors technology proves to have a greater cost-efficiency while maintaining high levels of functionality and reliability. In this paper, a wireless sensor network mote hardware design and implementation are introduced particularly for building deployment application. The core of the mote design is based on the 8-bit AVR microcontroller, Atmega1281 and 2.4 GHz wireless communication chip, CC2420. The sensors were selected carefully to meet both the building monitoring and design requirements. Beside the sensing capability, actuation and interfacing to external meters/sensors are provided to perform different management control and data recording tasks.

  12. Building beauty: the genetic control of floral patterning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohmann, J. U., and Weigel, D.

    2002-02-01

    OAK-B135 Floral organ identity is controlled by combinatorial action of homeotic genes expressed in different territories within the emerging flower. This review discusses recent progress in our understanding of floral homeotic genes, with an emphasis on how their region-specific expression is regulated.

  13. Cost Control Best Practices for Net Zero Energy Building Projects: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leach, M.; Pless, S.; Torcellini, P.

    2014-02-01

    For net zero energy (NZE) buildings to become the norm in commercial construction, it will be necessary to design and construct these buildings cost effectively. While industry leaders have developed workflows (for procurement, design, and construction) to achieve cost-effective NZE buildings for certain cases, the expertise embodied in those workflows has limited penetration within the commercial building sector. Documenting cost control best practices of industry leaders in NZE and packaging those strategies for adoption by the commercial building sector will help make the business case for NZE. Furthermore, it will promote market uptake of the innovative technologies and design approaches needed to achieve NZE. This paper summarizes successful cost control strategies for NZE procurement, design, and construction that key industry users (such as building owners, architects, and designers) can incorporate into their everyday workflows. It will also evaluate the current state of NZE economics and propose a path forward for greater market penetration of NZE buildings. By demonstrating how to combine NZE technologies and design approaches into an overall efficiency package that can be implemented at minimal (zero, in certain cases) incremental capital cost, the domain of NZE design and construction can be expanded from a niche market to the commercial construction mainstream.

  14. Predictive Optimal Control of Active and Passive Building Thermal Storage Inventory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregor P. Henze; Moncef Krarti

    2005-09-30

    Cooling of commercial buildings contributes significantly to the peak demand placed on an electrical utility grid. Time-of-use electricity rates encourage shifting of electrical loads to off-peak periods at night and weekends. Buildings can respond to these pricing signals by shifting cooling-related thermal loads either by precooling the building's massive structure or the use of active thermal energy storage systems such as ice storage. While these two thermal batteries have been engaged separately in the past, this project investigated the merits of harnessing both storage media concurrently in the context of predictive optimal control. To pursue the analysis, modeling, and simulation research of Phase 1, two separate simulation environments were developed. Based on the new dynamic building simulation program EnergyPlus, a utility rate module, two thermal energy storage models were added. Also, a sequential optimization approach to the cost minimization problem using direct search, gradient-based, and dynamic programming methods was incorporated. The objective function was the total utility bill including the cost of reheat and a time-of-use electricity rate either with or without demand charges. An alternative simulation environment based on TRNSYS and Matlab was developed to allow for comparison and cross-validation with EnergyPlus. The initial evaluation of the theoretical potential of the combined optimal control assumed perfect weather prediction and match between the building model and the actual building counterpart. The analysis showed that the combined utilization leads to cost savings that is significantly greater than either storage but less than the sum of the individual savings. The findings reveal that the cooling-related on-peak electrical demand of commercial buildings can be considerably reduced. A subsequent analysis of the impact of forecasting uncertainty in the required short-term weather forecasts determined that it takes only very

  15. Hydronic Heating Retrofits for Low-Rise Multifamily Buildings: Boiler Control Replacement and Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dentz, Jordan [ARIES Collaborative, New York, NY (United States); Henderson, Hugh [ARIES Collaborative, New York, NY (United States); Varshney, Kapil [ARIES Collaborative, New York, NY (United States)

    2013-10-01

    The ARIES Collaborative, a U.S. Department of Energy Building America research team, partnered with NeighborWorks America affiliate Homeowners' Rehab Inc. of Cambridge, Massachusetts, to implement and study improvements to the central hydronic heating system in one of the nonprofit's housing developments. The heating control systems in the three-building, 42-unit Columbia Cambridge Alliance for Spanish Tenants housing development were upgraded.

  16. Identification of Energy Efficiency Opportunities through Building Data Analysis and Achieving Energy Savings through Improved Controls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katipamula, Srinivas; Taasevigen, Danny J.; Koran, Bill

    2014-09-04

    This chapter will highlight analysis techniques to identify energy efficiency opportunities to improve operations and controls. A free tool, Energy Charting and Metrics (ECAM), will be used to assist in the analysis of whole-building, sub-metered, and/or data from the building automation system (BAS). Appendix A describes the features of ECAM in more depth, and also provide instructions for downloading ECAM and all resources pertaining to using ECAM.

  17. A Distributed Multi-agent Control System for Power Consumption in Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kosek, Anna Magdalena; Gehrke, Oliver

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a distributed controller for adjusting the electrical consumption of a residential building in response to an external power setpoint in Watts. The controller is based on a multi-agent system and has been implemented in JCSP. It is modularly built, capable of self...

  18. Transaction-based building controls framework, Volume 2: Platform descriptive model and requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akyol, Bora A. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Haack, Jereme N. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Carpenter, Brandon J. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Katipamula, Srinivas [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lutes, Robert G. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hernandez, George [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-07-31

    Transaction-based Building Controls (TBC) offer a control systems platform that provides an agent execution environment that meets the growing requirements for security, resource utilization, and reliability. This report outlines the requirements for a platform to meet these needs and describes an illustrative/exemplary implementation.

  19. FRF-based structural damage detection of controlled buildings with podium structures: Experimental investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Y. L.; Huang, Q.; Zhan, S.; Su, Z. Q.; Liu, H. J.

    2014-06-01

    How to use control devices to enhance system identification and damage detection in relation to a structure that requires both vibration control and structural health monitoring is an interesting yet practical topic. In this study, the possibility of using the added stiffness provided by control devices and frequency response functions (FRFs) to detect damage in a building complex was explored experimentally. Scale models of a 12-storey main building and a 3-storey podium structure were built to represent a building complex. Given that the connection between the main building and the podium structure is most susceptible to damage, damage to the building complex was experimentally simulated by changing the connection stiffness. To simulate the added stiffness provided by a semi-active friction damper, a steel circular ring was designed and used to add the related stiffness to the building complex. By varying the connection stiffness using an eccentric wheel excitation system and by adding or not adding the circular ring, eight cases were investigated and eight sets of FRFs were measured. The experimental results were used to detect damage (changes in connection stiffness) using a recently proposed FRF-based damage detection method. The experimental results showed that the FRF-based damage detection method could satisfactorily locate and quantify damage.

  20. Energy efficient model based algorithm for control of building HVAC systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirubakaran, V; Sahu, Chinmay; Radhakrishnan, T K; Sivakumaran, N

    2015-11-01

    Energy efficient designs are receiving increasing attention in various fields of engineering. Heating ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) control system designs involve improved energy usage with an acceptable relaxation in thermal comfort. In this paper, real time data from a building HVAC system provided by BuildingLAB is considered. A resistor-capacitor (RC) framework for representing thermal dynamics of the building is estimated using particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm. With objective costs as thermal comfort (deviation of room temperature from required temperature) and energy measure (Ecm) explicit MPC design for this building model is executed based on its state space representation of the supply water temperature (input)/room temperature (output) dynamics. The controllers are subjected to servo tracking and external disturbance (ambient temperature) is provided from the real time data during closed loop control. The control strategies are ported on a PIC32mx series microcontroller platform. The building model is implemented in MATLAB and hardware in loop (HIL) testing of the strategies is executed over a USB port. Results indicate that compared to traditional proportional integral (PI) controllers, the explicit MPC's improve both energy efficiency and thermal comfort significantly.

  1. Experimental analysis of simulated reinforcement learning control for active and passive building thermal storage inventory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, S. [Architectural Engineering, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, PKI 243, Omaha, NE (United States); Henze, G. P. [Architectural Engineering, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, PKI 203D, Omaha, NE (United States)

    2006-07-01

    This paper is the first part of a two-part investigation of a novel approach to optimally control commercial building passive and active thermal storage inventory. The proposed building control approach is based on simulated reinforcement learning, which is a hybrid control scheme that combines features of model-based optimal control and model-free learning control. An experimental study was carried out to analyze the performance of a hybrid controller installed in a full-scale laboratory facility. The first part presents an overview of the project with an emphasis on the theoretical foundation. The motivation of the research will be introduced first, followed by a review of past work. A brief introduction of the theory is provided including classic reinforcement learning and its variation, so-called simulated reinforcement learning, which constitutes the basic architecture of the hybrid learning controller. A detailed discussion of the experimental results will be presented in the companion paper. (author)

  2. An Adaptive Intelligent Integrated Lighting Control Approach for High-Performance Office Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karizi, Nasim

    An acute and crucial societal problem is the energy consumed in existing commercial buildings. There are 1.5 million commercial buildings in the U.S. with only about 3% being built each year. Hence, existing buildings need to be properly operated and maintained for several decades. Application of integrated centralized control systems in buildings could lead to more than 50% energy savings. This research work demonstrates an innovative adaptive integrated lighting control approach which could achieve significant energy savings and increase indoor comfort in high performance office buildings. In the first phase of the study, a predictive algorithm was developed and validated through experiments in an actual test room. The objective was to regulate daylight on a specified work plane by controlling the blind slat angles. Furthermore, a sensor-based integrated adaptive lighting controller was designed in Simulink which included an innovative sensor optimization approach based on genetic algorithm to minimize the number of sensors and efficiently place them in the office. The controller was designed based on simple integral controllers. The objective of developed control algorithm was to improve the illuminance situation in the office through controlling the daylight and electrical lighting. To evaluate the performance of the system, the controller was applied on experimental office model in Lee et al.'s research study in 1998. The result of the developed control approach indicate a significantly improvement in lighting situation and 1-23% and 50-78% monthly electrical energy savings in the office model, compared to two static strategies when the blinds were left open and closed during the whole year respectively.

  3. A Modular Building Controls Virtual Test Bed for the Integrations of Heterogeneous Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetter, Michael; Wetter, Michael; Haves, Philip

    2008-06-30

    This paper describes the Building Controls Virtual Test Bed (BCVTB) that is currently under development at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. An earlier prototype linked EnergyPlus with controls hardware through embedded SPARK models and demonstrated its value in more cost-effective envelope design and improved controls sequences for the San Francisco Federal Building. The BCVTB presented here is a more modular design based on a middleware that we built using Ptolemy II, a modular software environment for design and analysis of heterogeneous systems. Ptolemy II provides a graphical model building environment, synchronizes the exchanged data and visualizes the system evolution during run-time. Our additions to Ptolemy II allow users to couple to Ptolemy II a prototype version of EnergyPlus,MATLAB/Simulink or other simulation programs for data exchange during run-time. In future work we will also implement a BACnet interface that allows coupling BACnet compliant building automation systems to Ptolemy II. We will present the architecture of the BCVTB and explain how users can add their own simulation programs to the BCVTB. We will then present an example application in which the building envelope and the HVAC system was simulated in EnergyPlus, the supervisory control logic was simulated in MATLAB/Simulink and Ptolemy II was used to exchange data during run-time and to provide realtime visualization as the simulation progresses.

  4. Theoretical and practical exploration of vision building in human influenza pandemic prevention & control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PengKong; YanKong; XuJiang; XiaohuaWang

    2010-01-01

    This article introduced the vision building concept about human influenza pandemic prevention and control. Different visions were built by creating different shapes of building blocks which also represented different organizations and physical facilities, respectively. The around-view reflection is required to be developed in the process of building so as to search for the ideal pattern. The correlation of all sectors and systems are established to combine different kinds of things, from one family to another, from communities, towns, counties, cities, rural areas, provinces to the state to handle trivial problems. These training objectives have been successfully accomplished, which has not only enriched the knowledge about prevention and control of influenza pandemic between different departments but also clarified the roles and responsibility. It lays the firm foundation for next cooperation between different departments, and make a bridge for the objective and choice of channel over human influenza pandemic prevention and control.

  5. Estrategias Financieras sobre la Adquisición de Equipos Automatizados para Laboratorios Clínicos en la Zona del Austro

    OpenAIRE

    Trelles Torres, José Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    La necesidad de optimizar y mejorar la calidad de los procesos en los laboratorios de análisis clínico, empuja constantemente a sus propietarios (públicos y privados) a considerar la adquisición de equipos automatizados de análisis; es precisamente esta necesidad la que plantea la pregunta sobre que modalidad de adquisición brindará el mayor beneficio económico: Compra, Arriendo, Comodato o Apoyo Tecnológico. El presente estudio muestra un análisis financiero comparativo de estas modalidades,...

  6. Fuzzy logic control of air-conditioning system in residential buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel-Hamid Attia

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available There has been a rising concern in reducing the energy consumption in building. Heating ventilation and air condition system is the biggest consumer of energy in building. In this study, fuzzy logic control of the air conditioning system of building for efficient energy operation and comfortable environment is investigated. A theoretical model of the fan coil unit (FCU and the heat transfer between air and coolant fluid is derived. The controlled variables are the room temperature and relative humidity and control consequents are the percentage of chilled and hot water flow rates at summer and the percentage of hot water and steam injected flow rates at winter. A computer simulation has been conducted and fuzzy control results are compared with that of conventional Proportional-Integral-Derivative control. It was found that the proposed control strategy satisfies the space load and at the same time to achieve the comfort zone, as defined by the ASHRAE code. Meanwhile PID control fails to adjust the room temperature at part-load operations. It has been demonstrated that fuzzy controller operation is more efficient and consumes less energy than PID control.

  7. Building America Case Study: Control Retrofits for Multifamily Domestic Hot Water Recirculation Systems, Brooklyn, New York

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-12-01

    Domestic hot water (DHW) heating is the second largest energy end use in U.S. buildings, exceeded only by space conditioning. Recirculation systems consisting of a pump and piping loop(s) are commonly used in multifamily buildings to reduce wait time for hot water at faucets; however, constant pumping increases energy consumption by exposing supply and return line piping to continuous heat loss, even during periods when there is no demand for hot water. In this study, ARIES installed and tested two types of recirculation controls in a pair of buildings in order to evaluate their energy savings potential. Demand control, temperature modulation controls, and the simultaneous operation of both were compared to the baseline case of constant recirculation. Additionally, interactive effects between DHW control fuel reductions and space conditioning (heating and cooling) were estimated in order to make more realistic predictions of the payback and financial viability of retrofitting DHW systems with these controls. Results showed that DHW fuel consumption reduced by 7 percent after implementing the demand control technique, 2 percent after implementing temperature modulation, and 15 percent after implementing demand control and temperature modulation techniques simultaneously; recirculation pump runtime was reduced to 14 minutes or less per day. With space heating and cooling interactions included, the estimated annual cost savings were 8 percent, 1 percent, and 14 percent for the respective control techniques. Possible complications in the installation, commissioning and operation of the controls were identified and solutions offered.

  8. A Modelica-based Model Library for Building Energy and Control Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetter, Michael

    2009-04-07

    This paper describes an open-source library with component models for building energy and control systems that is based on Modelica, an equation-based objectoriented language that is well positioned to become the standard for modeling of dynamic systems in various industrial sectors. The library is currently developed to support computational science and engineering for innovative building energy and control systems. Early applications will include controls design and analysis, rapid prototyping to support innovation of new building systems and the use of models during operation for controls, fault detection and diagnostics. This paper discusses the motivation for selecting an equation-based object-oriented language. It presents the architecture of the library and explains how base models can be used to rapidly implement new models. To demonstrate the capability of analyzing novel energy and control systems, the paper closes with an example where we compare the dynamic performance of a conventional hydronic heating system with thermostatic radiator valves to an innovative heating system. In the new system, instead of a centralized circulation pump, each of the 18 radiators has a pump whose speed is controlled using a room temperature feedback loop, and the temperature of the boiler is controlled based on the speed of the radiator pump. All flows are computed by solving for the pressure distribution in the piping network, and the controls include continuous and discrete time controls.

  9. Energy-Efficient and Comfortable Buildings through Multivariate Integrated Control (ECoMIC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birru, Dagnachew [Philips Electronics North America Corporation, Andover, MA (United States); Wen, Yao-Jung [Philips Electronics North America Corporation, Andover, MA (United States); Rubinstein, Francis M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Clear, Robert D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-10-28

    This project aims to develop an integrated control solution for enhanced energy efficiency and user comfort in commercial buildings. The developed technology is a zone-based control framework that minimizes energy usage while maintaining occupants’ visual and thermal comfort through control of electric lights, motorized venetian blinds and thermostats. The control framework is designed following a modular, scalable and flexible architecture to facilitate easy integration with exiting building management systems. The control framework contains two key algorithms: 1) the lighting load balancing algorithm and 2) the thermostat control algorithm. The lighting load balancing algorithm adopts a model-based closed-loop control approach to determine the optimal electric light and venetian blind settings. It is formulated into an optimization problem with minimizing lighting-related energy consumptions as the objective and delivering adequate task light and preventing daylight glare as the constraints. The thermostat control algorithm is based on a well-established thermal comfort model and formulated as a root-finding problem to dynamically determine the optimal thermostat setpoint for both energy savings and improved thermal comfort. To address building-wide scalability, a system architecture was developed for the zone-based control technology. Three levels of services are defined in the architecture: external services, facility level services and zone level services. The zone-level service includes the control algorithms described above as well as the corresponding interfaces, profiles, sensors and actuators to realize the zone controller. The facility level services connect to the zones through a backbone network, handle supervisory level information and controls, and thus facilitate building-wide scalability. The external services provide communication capability to entities outside of the building for grid interaction and remote access. Various aspects of the

  10. Structural control and health monitoring of building structures with unknown ground excitations: Experimental investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jia; Xu, You-Lin; Zhan, Sheng; Huang, Qin

    2017-03-01

    When health monitoring system and vibration control system both are required for a building structure, it will be beneficial and cost-effective to integrate these two systems together for creating a smart building structure. Recently, on the basis of extended Kalman filter (EKF), a time-domain integrated approach was proposed for the identification of structural parameters of the controlled buildings with unknown ground excitations. The identified physical parameters and structural state vectors were then utilized to determine the control force for vibration suppression. In this paper, the possibility of establishing such a smart building structure with the function of simultaneous damage detection and vibration suppression was explored experimentally. A five-story shear building structure equipped with three magneto-rheological (MR) dampers was built. Four additional columns were added to the building model, and several damage scenarios were then simulated by symmetrically cutting off these columns in certain stories. Two sets of earthquakes, i.e. Kobe earthquake and Northridge earthquake, were considered as seismic input and assumed to be unknown during the tests. The structural parameters and the unknown ground excitations were identified during the tests by using the proposed identification method with the measured control forces. Based on the identified structural parameters and system states, a switching control law was employed to adjust the current applied to the MR dampers for the purpose of vibration attenuation. The experimental results show that the presented approach is capable of satisfactorily identifying structural damages and unknown excitations on one hand and significantly mitigating the structural vibration on the other hand.

  11. LQG Control of Along-Wind Response of a Tall Building with an ATMD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki-Pyo You

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern tall buildings use lighter construction materials that have high strength and less stiffness and are more flexible. Although this results in the improvement of structural safety, excessive wind-induced excitations could lead to occupant discomfort. The optimal control law of a linear quadratic Gaussian (LQG controller with an active tuned mass damper (ATMD is used for reducing the along-wind response of a tall building. ATMD consists of a second mass with optimum parameters for tuning frequency and damping ratio of the tuned mass damper (TMD, under the stationary random load, was used. A fluctuating along-wind load, acting on a tall building, was treated as a stationary Gaussian white noise and was simulated numerically, in the time domain, using the along-wind load spectra proposed by G. Solari in 1993. Using this simulated wind load, it was possible to calculate the along-wind responses of a tall building (with and without the ATMD, using an LQG controller. Comparing the RMS (root mean square response revealed that the numerically simulated along-wind responses, without ATMD, are a good approximation to the closed form response, and that the reduced responses with ATMD and LQG controller were estimated by varying the values of control design parameters.

  12. Modelling heat and moisture transfer in buildings. Applications to indoor thermal and moisture control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu Xiaoshu

    2002-07-01

    The objective of this thesis is to firstly develop a mathematical model for predicting heat and moisture transfer in buildings exposed to outdoor climatic conditions presented as temperature, relative humidity, solar radiation and wind velocity. Secondly, the heat and moisture transfer model is used to theoretically study the possibilities of controlling indoor thermal and moisture levels into an allowable range by means of heating indoor air and ventilating outdoor air. Starting from an extensive literature, it is indicated that less attention has been devoted to the topic that is similar to this thesis work. The reviewed literature has been classified into different categories in a consistent and systematic way. In modelling heat and moisture transfer in a building, the building structure is split into two components: building indoor air and building envelopes, most of which are porous media. The heat and moisture transfer equations are based on the fundamental thermodynamic relations. Darcy's law, Fick's law and Fourier's law are used in describing the transfer equations. The resultant nonlinear system of partial differential equations is discretised by using the finite element method or the finite difference method. The time marching scheme, Crank-Nicolson scheme, is adopted to advance the solution in time. The final solution provides transient distributions of thermal, moisture content and gaseous pressure for the envelopes as well as the transient thermal and moisture content for indoor air. The model program, named as HMTB, is validated with the real test houses. HMTB has a highly flexibility: It has been used to simulate the multiphase drying process of a porous medium. It has been adopted to predict transient thermal and moisture contents for buildings, transient indoor moisture generation rates and condensation potential on the wall surfaces. In studying the applications of indoor thermal and moisture control, HMTB has been applied to

  13. Control of wind-induced vibration of long-span bridges and tall buildings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Ming

    2007-01-01

    With the rapid increase in scales of structures,research on controlling wind-induced vibration of large-scale structures,such as long-span bridges and super-tall buildings,has been an issue of great concern.For wind-induced vibration of large-scale structures,vibration frequencies and damping modes vary with wind speed.Passive,semiactive,and active control strategies are developed to improve the windresistance performance of the structures in this paper.The multiple tuned mass damper (MTMD) system is applied to control vertical bending buffeting response.A new semiactive lever-type tuned mass damper (TMD) with an adjustable frequency is proposed to control vertical bending buffeting and torsional buffeting and flutter in the whole velocity range of bridge decks.A control strategy named sinusoidal reference strategy is developed for adaptive control of wind-induced vibration of super-tall buildings.Multiple degrees of freedom general building aeroelastic model with a square cross-section is tested in a wind tunnel.The results demonstrate that the proposed strategies can reduce vibration effectively,and can adapt to wind-induced vibration control of large-scale structures in the uncertain dynamic circumstance.

  14. Hydronic Heating Retrofits for Low-Rise Multifamily Buildings: Boiler Control Replacement and Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dentz, J.; Henderson, H.; Varshney, K.

    2014-09-01

    The ARIES Collaborative, a U.S. Department of Energy Building America research team, partnered with NeighborWorks America affiliate Homeowners' Rehab Inc. (HRI) of Cambridge, Massachusetts, to study improvements to the central hydronic heating system in one of the nonprofit's housing developments. The heating controls in the three-building, 42-unit Columbia Cambridge Alliance for Spanish Tenants housing development were upgraded. Fuel use in the development was excessive compared to similar properties. A poorly insulated thermal envelope contributed to high energy bills, but adding wall insulation was not cost-effective or practical. The more cost-effective option was improving heating system efficiency. Efficient operation of the heating system faced several obstacles, including inflexible boiler controls and failed thermostatic radiator valves. Boiler controls were replaced with systems that offer temperature setbacks and one that controls heat based on apartment temperature in addition to outdoor temperature. Utility bill analysis shows that post-retrofit weather-normalized heating energy use was reduced by 10%-31% (average of 19%). Indoor temperature cutoff reduced boiler runtime (and therefore heating fuel consumption) by 28% in the one building in which it was implemented. Nearly all savings were obtained during night which had a lower indoor temperature cut off (68 degrees F) than day (73 degrees F). This implies that the outdoor reset curve was appropriately adjusted for this building for daytime operation. Nighttime setback of heating system supply water temperature had no discernable impact on boiler runtime or gas bills.

  15. Technology Solutions Case Study: Boiler Control Replacement for Hydronically Heated Multifamily Buildings, Cambridge, Massachusetts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-11-01

    The ARIES Collaborative, a U.S. Department of Energy Building America research team, partnered with NeighborWorks America affiliate Homeowners' Rehab Inc. (HRI) of Cambridge, Massachusetts, to study improvements to the central hydronic heating system in one of the nonprofit's housing developments. The heating controls in the three-building, 42-unit Columbia Cambridge Alliance for Spanish Tenants housing development were upgraded. Fuel use in the development was excessive compared to similar properties. A poorly insulated thermal envelope contributed to high energy bills, but adding wall insulation was not cost-effective or practical. The more cost-effective option was improving heating system efficiency, which faced several obstacles, including inflexible boiler controls and failed thermostatic radiator valves. Boiler controls were replaced with systems that offer temperature setbacks and one that controls heat based on apartment temperature in addition to outdoor temperature. Utility bill analysis shows that post-retrofit weather-normalized heating energy use was reduced by 10%-31% (average of 19%). Indoor temperature cutoff reduced boiler runtime (and therefore heating fuel consumption) by 28% in the one building in which it was implemented. Nearly all savings were obtained during night which had a lower indoor temperature cut off (68°F) than day (73° F). This implies that the outdoor reset curve was appropriately adjusted for this building for daytime operation. Nighttime setback of heating system supply water temperature had no discernable impact on boiler runtime or gas bills.

  16. Predictive Optimal Control of Active and Passive Building Thermal Storage Inventory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregor P. Henze; Moncef Krarti

    2005-09-30

    Cooling of commercial buildings contributes significantly to the peak demand placed on an electrical utility grid. Time-of-use electricity rates encourage shifting of electrical loads to off-peak periods at night and weekends. Buildings can respond to these pricing signals by shifting cooling-related thermal loads either by precooling the building's massive structure or the use of active thermal energy storage systems such as ice storage. While these two thermal batteries have been engaged separately in the past, this project investigated the merits of harnessing both storage media concurrently in the context of predictive optimal control. To pursue the analysis, modeling, and simulation research of Phase 1, two separate simulation environments were developed. Based on the new dynamic building simulation program EnergyPlus, a utility rate module, two thermal energy storage models were added. Also, a sequential optimization approach to the cost minimization problem using direct search, gradient-based, and dynamic programming methods was incorporated. The objective function was the total utility bill including the cost of reheat and a time-of-use electricity rate either with or without demand charges. An alternative simulation environment based on TRNSYS and Matlab was developed to allow for comparison and cross-validation with EnergyPlus. The initial evaluation of the theoretical potential of the combined optimal control assumed perfect weather prediction and match between the building model and the actual building counterpart. The analysis showed that the combined utilization leads to cost savings that is significantly greater than either storage but less than the sum of the individual savings. The findings reveal that the cooling-related on-peak electrical demand of commercial buildings can be considerably reduced. A subsequent analysis of the impact of forecasting uncertainty in the required short-term weather forecasts determined that it takes only very

  17. Modernized build and test infrastructure for control software at ESO: highly flexible building, testing, and automatic quality practices for telescope control software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrin, F.; Jeram, B.; Haucke, J.; Feyrin, S.

    2016-07-01

    The paper describes the introduction of a new automatized build and test infrastructure, based on the open-source software Jenkins1, into the ESO Very Large Telescope control software to replace the preexisting in-house solution. A brief introduction to software quality practices is given, a description of the previous solution, the limitations of it and new upcoming requirements. Modifications required to adapt the new system are described, how these were implemented to current software and the results obtained. An overview on how the new system may be used in future projects is also presented.

  18. Control of City Shallow Buried Tunnel Blasting Hazard to Surface Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Deqiang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Combining with the blasting test of an under-construction tunnel, this paper optimizes the overall blasting construction scheme. The optimized blasting scheme is used in the site construction test and the peak particle vibration velocity is strictly controlled under working conditions through blasting vibration monitoring to ensure the safety of surrounding buildings and structures in the construction process. The corresponding control measures are proposed to reduce the blasting vibration which brings certain guiding significance to the following construction project.

  19. Advanced Sensors and Controls for Building Applications: Market Assessment and Potential R&D Pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brambley, Michael R.; Haves, Philip; McDonald, Sean C.; Torcellini, Paul; Hansen, David G.; Holmberg, David; Roth, Kurt

    2005-04-13

    Significant energy savings can be achieved in commercial building operation, along with increased comfort and control for occupants, through the implementation of advanced technologies. This document provides a market assessment of existing building sensors and controls and presents a range of technology pathways (R&D options) for pursuing advanced sensors and building control strategies. This paper is actually a synthesis of five other white papers: the first describes the market assessment including estimates of market potential and energy savings for sensors and control strategies currently on the market as well as a discussion of market barriers to these technologies. The other four cover technology pathways: (1) current applications and strategies for new applications, (2) sensors and controls, (3) networking, security, and protocols and standards, and (4) automated diagnostics, performance monitoring, commissioning, optimal control and tools. Each technology pathway chapter gives an overview of the technology or application. This is followed by a discussion of needs and the current status of the technology. Finally, a series of research topics is proposed.

  20. Regulation and control of thermally activated building systems; Regelung und Steuerung von thermoaktiven Bauteilsystemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toedtli, Juerg [Consulting Juerg Toedtli, Zuerich (Switzerland); Gwerder, Markus; Renggli, Franz; Guentensperger, Werner [Siemens Building Technologies, Zug (Switzerland); Lehmann, Beat; Dorer, Viktor [EMPA, Duebendorf (Switzerland). Abt. Building Technologies; Hildebrand, Kurt [Hochschule Luzern - Technik und Architektur, Horw (Switzerland)

    2009-11-15

    Thermally activated building systems (TABS) are becoming increasingly important in terms of energy efficient cooling and heating of buildings. In practice, however, regulation and control of such systems often causes problems. Started five years ago with the aim of getting to grips with these problems, the TABS Control research project was completed in early 2009. The project yielded the following results: various models and simulation programs for TABS; performance-bound calculations for regulating zones; a range of zone regulation/control strategies for planners to choose from, including good solutions for automatic switching between heating and cooling, for pulsed operation of the zone pump and for room temperature control; the implementation of a subset of these strategies as standard solutions in a Siemens building automation system; laboratory tests on these strategies; a new procedure for the integrated planning of TABS and their regulation/control (referred to as UBB planning procedure - Unknown But Bounded); an Excel planning tool; guidelines on selecting the hydraulic switching topology; a method for operation optimization; the theoretical basis for the new integrated planning procedure and the new regulation/ control strategies; a patent application.

  1. Comparing Whole Building Energy Implications of Sidelighting Systems with Alternate Manual Blind Control Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Dyke

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Currently, there is no manual blind control guideline used consistently throughout the energy modeling community. This paper identifies and compares five manual blind control algorithms with unique control patterns and reports blind occlusion, rate of change data, and annual building energy consumption. The blind control schemes detailed here represent five reasonable candidates for use in lighting and energy simulation based on difference driving factors. This study was performed on a medium-sized office building using EnergyPlus with the internal daylight harvesting engine. Results show that applying manual blind control algorithms affects the total annual consumption of the building by as much as 12.5% and 11.5% for interior and exterior blinds respectively, compared to the Always Retracted blinds algorithm. Peak demand was also compared showing blind algorithms affected zone load sizing by as much as 9.8%. The alternate algorithms were tested for their impact on American Society of Heating, Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE Guideline 14 calibration metrics and all models were found to differ from the original calibrated baseline by more than the recommended ±15% for coefficient of variance of the mean square error (CVRMSE and ±5% for normalized mean bias error (NMBE. The paper recommends that energy modelers use one or more manual blind control algorithms during design stages when making decisions about energy efficiency and other design alternatives.

  2. Numerical prediction of energy consumption in buildings with controlled interior temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarošová, P.; Št’astník, S. [Brno University of Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering, 602 00 Brno, Veveří 95, Czech Republic, e-mail jarosova.p@fce.vutbr.cz, stastnik.s@fce.vutbr.cz (Czech Republic)

    2015-03-10

    New European directives bring strong requirement to the energy consumption of building objects, supporting the renewable energy sources. Whereas in the case of family and similar houses this can lead up to absurd consequences, for building objects with controlled interior temperature the optimization of energy demand is really needed. The paper demonstrates the system approach to the modelling of thermal insulation and accumulation abilities of such objetcs, incorporating the significant influence of additional physical processes, as surface heat radiation and moisture-driven deterioration of insulation layers. An illustrative example shows the numerical prediction of energy consumption of a freezing plant in one Central European climatic year.

  3. Automated gas-lift satellites; Satelites de gas-lift automatizados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Branco, Carlos Eduardo M. [PETROBRAS, Salvador, BA (Brazil). Exploracao e Producao; Lira, Franklin S. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). SERINF

    1998-12-31

    A gas-lift satellite automation system was developed by E and P-BA, exploration and production PETROBRAS unit in Bahia State. In the past, individual digital controllers were installed in each production well. As they were manufactured specifically for the oil industry their prices were high what resulted in high costs to completely install a satellite besides not permitting to synchronize the injection times of the various wells. PC (programmable controllers) were used what enable that one equipment control various wells simultaneously. That enable additional developments in the technology as using operational research to optimize the injection and inactive times so that the number of simultaneous injections were reduced. After the need to go the satellite in order to alter the times was on obstacle. Further development were done to enable the times to be changed remotely using ratio links through a supervisory system running in a microcomputer in an Operation Central. (author) 3 refs., 2 figs.

  4. Fuzzy logic applied to the control of the energy consumption in intelligent buildings; Logica fuzzy aplicada ao controle do consumo de energia eletrica em edificios inteligentes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Herbert R. do N.

    1998-02-01

    This work shows a study on the using of fuzzy control algorithms for the energy optimization of a standard building. The simulation of this type of control was performed using a central conditioned air model and the fuzzy control architecture already used in various control projects. This situation allowed a comparative study among the the control algorithms normally used in conditioned air installations, and the control performed through the building automation system, using an algorithm based on fuzzy logic.

  5. Dynamics and Control of High-Rise Buildings under Multidirectional Wind Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aly Mousaad Aly

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a procedure for the response prediction and reduction in high-rise buildings under multidirectional wind loads. The procedure is applied to a very slender tall building that is instructive. The structure is exposed to both cross-wind and along-wind loads obtained from pressure measurements on a rigid model (scaled 1 : 100 that was tested in a wind tunnel with two different configurations of the surroundings. In the theoretical formulation, dynamic equations of the structure are introduced by finite element and 3D lumped mass modeling. The lateral responses of the building in the two directions are controlled at the same time using tuned mass dampers (TMDs and active tuned mass dampers (ATMDs commanded by LQR and fuzzy logic controllers, while the effects of the uncontrolled torsional response of the structure are simultaneously considered. Besides their simplicity, fuzzy logic controllers showed similar trend as LQR controllers under multidirectional wind loads. Nevertheless, the procedure presented in this study can help decision makers, involved in the design process, to choose among innovative solutions like structural control, different damping techniques, modifying geometry, or even changing materials.

  6. Spacecraft Cabin Air Quality Control and Its Application to Tight Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, J. L.; Graf, J. C.

    1995-01-01

    Air quality is an important consideration not only for the external environment, but also for the indoor environment. Most people spend a majority of their lives indoors and the air that they breathe is important to their physical and emotional well being. Since most modern building designs have focused on energy efficiency, less fresh air is brought from the outside. As a result, pollutants from building materials, furniture, cleaning, and cooking have no place to go. To make matters worse, most ventilation systems do not include any means for removing pollutants from the recycled air. Unfortunately, pollution at even a small level can result in eye, throat, and lung irritation in addition to chronic headaches, nausea, and fatigue. A spacecraft cabin, which represents the worst case in tight building design, requires special consideration of air quality since any effects pollutants may have on a crewmember can potentially place a mission or other crewmembers at risk. A detailed approach has been developed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to minimize cabin atmosphere pollution and provide the crew with an environment which is as free of pollutants as possible. This approach is a combination of passive and active contamination control concepts involving the evaluation and selection of materials to be used onboard the spacecraft, the establishment of air quality standards to ensure crew health, and the use of active control means onboard the spacecraft to further ensure an acceptable atmosphere. This approach has allowed NASA to prevent illness by providing crewmembers with a cabin atmosphere which contains pollutant concentrations up to 100 times lower than those specified for terrestrial indoor environments. Standard building construction, however, does not take into account the potentially harmful effects of materials used in the construction process on the health of future occupants and relies primarily on remedial rather than

  7. Infrared Thermographic Quality Control For Newly Constructed Office Buildings Prior To Closing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Sharon

    1987-05-01

    The use of infrared thermographic building diagnostics, prior to final closing, is an effective method of quality control. Thermal envelope studies using infrared technology, made prior to contractual release, are a cost effective means of insuring the buyer and builder that the thermal envelope performs to the specifications of the construction contract. Building owners and builders can both benefit. Builders are able to close jobs and avoid costly call backs after occupancy. Building owners gain knowledge as to how the building envelope can be expected to perform in coming seasons. A majority of problems can be avoided during construction when infrared thermographic building diagnostics are introduced at the beginning of a project. Problems may be dealt with during construction, not afterwards. Contractors are alerted to how their job affects the performance of other trades and materials in the structure. To gain the most from infrared thermography during the construction phase, the contractors and thermographer must have an understanding of each other's function. On-site visits during construction can provide contractors with a basic background of thermal imaging and familiarize the thermographer with various construction techniques and materials used.

  8. Unhappy with internal corporate search? : learn tips and tricks for building a controlled vocabulary ontology.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arpin, Bettina Karin Schimanski; Jones, Brian S.; Bemesderfer, Joy; Ralph, Mark E.; Miller, Jennifer L

    2010-06-01

    Are your employees unhappy with internal corporate search? Frequent complaints include: too many results to sift through; results are unrelated/outdated; employees aren't sure which terms to search for. One way to improve intranet search is to implement a controlled vocabulary ontology. Employing this takes the guess work out of searching, makes search efficient and precise, educates employees about the lingo used within the corporation, and allows employees to contribute to the corpus of terms. It promotes internal corporate search to rival its superior sibling, internet search. We will cover our experiences, lessons learned, and conclusions from implementing a controlled vocabulary ontology at Sandia National Laboratories. The work focuses on construction of this ontology from the content perspective and the technical perspective. We'll discuss the following: (1) The tool we used to build a polyhierarchical taxonomy; (2) Examples of two methods of indexing the content: traditional 'back of the book' and folksonomy word-mapping; (3) Tips on how to build future search capabilities while building the basic controlled vocabulary; (4) How to implement the controlled vocabulary as an ontology that mimics Google's search suggestions; (5) Making the user experience more interactive and intuitive; and (6) Sorting suggestions based on preferred, alternate and related terms using SPARQL queries. In summary, future improvements will be presented, including permitting end-users to add, edit and remove terms, and filtering on different subject domains.

  9. Effects of window size and thermal mass on building comfort using an intelligent ventilation controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    La Roche, P. [Universidad del Zulia, Maracaibo (Venezuela). Facultad de Arquitectura y Diseno; Milne, M. [California Univ., Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Architecture

    2004-10-01

    A prototype microcomputer-controlled thermostat was developed that can manage airflow according to cooling the needs in a building and the resources in the environment. This intelligent control system measures both indoor and outdoor temperature and uses decision rules to control a whole-house fan, in addition to the furnace and air conditioner. No such residential thermostat is currently commercially available. This paper presents the controller strategy that optimizes cooling with outdoor air. This paper also quantifies the effects of modifying the amount of thermal mass and the window area on indoor comfort when using this controller. These test confirm that smaller windows and more mass performed better than larger windows and less mass, and that higher volumes of controlled ventilation outperformed fixed ventilation rates. (Author)

  10. Energy-Efficient and Comfortable Buildings through Multivariate Integrated Control (ECoMIC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birru, Dagnachew [Philips Electronics North America Corporation, Andover, MA (United States); Wen, Yao-Jung [Philips Electronics North America Corporation, Andover, MA (United States); Rubinstein, Francis M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Clear, Robert D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-10-28

    This project aims to develop an integrated control solution for enhanced energy efficiency and user comfort in commercial buildings. The developed technology is a zone-based control framework that minimizes energy usage while maintaining occupants’ visual and thermal comfort through control of electric lights, motorized venetian blinds and thermostats. The control framework is designed following a modular, scalable and flexible architecture to facilitate easy integration with exiting building management systems. The control framework contains two key algorithms: 1) the lighting load balancing algorithm and 2) the thermostat control algorithm. The lighting load balancing algorithm adopts a model-based closed-loop control approach to determine the optimal electric light and venetian blind settings. It is formulated into an optimization problem with minimizing lighting-related energy consumptions as the objective and delivering adequate task light and preventing daylight glare as the constraints. The thermostat control algorithm is based on a well-established thermal comfort model and formulated as a root-finding problem to dynamically determine the optimal thermostat setpoint for both energy savings and improved thermal comfort. To address building-wide scalability, a system architecture was developed for the zone-based control technology. Three levels of services are defined in the architecture: external services, facility level services and zone level services. The zone-level service includes the control algorithms described above as well as the corresponding interfaces, profiles, sensors and actuators to realize the zone controller. The facility level services connect to the zones through a backbone network, handle supervisory level information and controls, and thus facilitate building-wide scalability. The external services provide communication capability to entities outside of the building for grid interaction and remote access. Various aspects of the

  11. Improved suboptimal Bang-Bang control of aseismic buildings with variable friction dampers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongnan Li; Jun Li; Gangbing Song

    2007-01-01

    One of the challenges in civil engineering is to find an innovative means of suppressing the struc-tural vibration due to earthquake and wind loadings.This paper presents an approach for effectively sup-pressing vibrations of a structure with variable friction damper using a new Bang-Bang control input. A con-tinuous function of story velocities is used to represent the improved control to reduce chatter, high frequency switching and avoid instability. With a genetic algorithm,the amplitudes of control and preloading friction forces individually prescribed in the controller and damper are optimized for enhancing the seismic performance of buildings. The control strategy for the friction damper is proposed for a three story building with one variable friction damper installed at the first story for seismic reduction. The numerical results indicate that a better reduction of peak response accelerations of floors can be achieved than those of the unmodified controller, and the adaptability of the control system is also improved greatly by comparison with the reduction ratios of the structural response energy excited by different earth-quake intensities.

  12. A Comparison of Model Reduction Approaches for Feedback Control Design of Thermal Flows in Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borggaard, Jeff; Ahuja, Sunil; Burns, John; Cliff, Eugene; Surana, Amit

    2010-11-01

    The application of distributed parameter control to spatiotemporal thermo-fluid systems requires the use of model reduction methods. The form of the optimal feedback control can inform design decisions, such as sensor and actuator selection and placement. A number of model reduction approaches for fluid systems have been put forward that are based on the proper orthogonal decomposition (POD). In this talk, we examine three approaches, the traditional POD-Galerkin model, the POD-Sensitivity model, and the Balanced-POD models. Our work is motivated by the building indoor environment control problem. Energy performance in building cooling and heating systems can be substantially improved by exploiting spatial temperature stratification and buoyancy that are prevalent in passive systems. We consider the control of airflow in a room with a passively cooled radiant ceiling and displacement ventilation provided near the room floor. For this problem, we approximate the full-order solution to compute the control gains, develop reduced-order models and associated controllers, and simulate the full-order closed-loop system for comparison with the reduced-order model-based control design.

  13. Hydronic Heating Retrofits for Low-Rise Multifamily Buildings - Phase 1: Boiler Control Replacement and Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dentz, J.; Henderson, H.

    2012-04-01

    The ARIES Collaborative, a Department of Energy Building America research team, partnered with NeighborWorks America affiliate Homeowners' Rehab Inc. (HRI) of Cambridge, MA to implement and study improvements to the heating system in one of the non-profit's housing developments. The heating control systems in the 42-unit Columbia CAST housing development were upgraded in an effort projected to reduce heating costs by 15 to 25 percent.

  14. Automated System of Area Radiation Measurement (ASARM); Sistema Automatizado de Medicion de Radiacion de Area (SAMRA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez G, J., E-mail: jaime.hernandez@inin.gob.mx [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2013-10-15

    in the moment in that the predetermined shot values are reached. These alarms are located in the control room. (author)

  15. Optimal Scheduling Method of Controllable Loads in DC Smart Apartment Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimoji, Tsubasa; Tahara, Hayato; Matayoshi, Hidehito; Yona, Atsushi; Senjyu, Tomonobu

    2015-12-01

    From the perspective of global warming suppression and the depletion of energy resources, renewable energies, such as the solar collector (SC) and photovoltaic generation (PV), have been gaining attention in worldwide. Houses or buildings with PV and heat pumps (HPs) are recently being used in residential areas widely due to the time of use (TOU) electricity pricing scheme which is essentially inexpensive during middle-night and expensive during day-time. If fixed batteries and electric vehicles (EVs) can be introduced in the premises, the electricity cost would be even more reduced. While, if the occupants arbitrarily use these controllable loads respectively, power demand in residential buildings may fluctuate in the future. Thus, an optimal operation of controllable loads such as HPs, batteries and EV should be scheduled in the buildings in order to prevent power flow from fluctuating rapidly. This paper proposes an optimal scheduling method of controllable loads, and the purpose is not only the minimization of electricity cost for the consumers, but also suppression of fluctuation of power flow on the power supply side. Furthermore, a novel electricity pricing scheme is also suggested in this paper.

  16. Distributed Power Control Network and Green Building Test-Bed for Demand Response in Smart Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaguchi, Kei; Nguyen, Van Ky; Tao, Yu; Tran, Gia Khanh; Araki, Kiyomichi

    It is known that demand and supply power balancing is an essential method to operate power delivery system and prevent blackouts caused by power shortage. In this paper, we focus on the implementation of demand response strategy to save power during peak hours by using Smart Grid. It is obviously impractical with centralized power control network to realize the real-time control performance, where a single central controller measures the huge metering data and sends control command back to all customers. For that purpose, we propose a new architecture of hierarchical distributed power control network which is scalable regardless of the network size. The sub-controllers are introduced to partition the large system into smaller distributed clusters where low-latency local feedback power control loops are conducted to guarantee control stability. Furthermore, sub-controllers are stacked up in an hierarchical manner such that data are fed back layer-by-layer in the inbound while in the outbound control responses are decentralized in each local sub-controller for realizing the global objectives. Numerical simulations in a realistic scenario of up to 5000 consumers show the effectiveness of the proposed scheme to achieve a desired 10% peak power saving by using off-the-shelf wireless devices with IEEE802.15.4g standard. In addition, a small scale power control system for green building test-bed is implemented to demonstrate the potential use of the proposed scheme for power saving in real life.

  17. Study of "3-Step Mining" Subsidence Control in Coal Mining Under Buildings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Guang-li; ZHA Jian-feng; WU Bin; JIA Xin-guo

    2007-01-01

    Mining subsidence damage is the main factor of restricting coal mining under buildings. To control or ease effectively the degree of mining subsidence and deformation is essential to resolve this problem. Through analyzing both advantages and disadvantages of some technologies such as mining with stowing, partial extraction and grouting in separated beds of overburden, we used the principle of load replacement and propose a "3-step mining" method, a new pattern of controlling mining subsidence, which consists of: strip mining, i.e. grouting to fill and consolidate the caving zone and retained strip pillar mining. The mechanism of controlling mining subsidence by using the "3-step mining" pattern is analyzed. The effect of the control is numerically simulated. The preliminary analysis shows that the "3-step mining" can effectively control ground subsidence and deformation. By using this method, the ground subsidence factor can be controlled to a value of about 0.25. Coal recovery can reach 80%-90%. Coal mining without removing surface buildings can be realized and the economic loss resulting from ground subsidence can be greatly reduced.

  18. Challenges of implementing economic model predictive control strategy for buildings interacting with smart energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zong, Yi; Böning, Georg Martin; Santos, Rui Mirra;

    2016-01-01

    ) strategy for energy management in smart buildings, which can act as active users interacting with smart energy systems. The challenges encountered during the implementation of EMPC for active demand side management are investigated in detail in this paper. A pilot testing study shows energy savings......When there is a high penetration of renewables in the energy system, it requires proactive control of large numbers of distributed demand response resources to maintain the system’s reliability and improve its operational economics. This paper presents the Economic Model Predictive Control (EMPC...

  19. IEA Project on Indoor Air Quality Design and Control in Low Energy Residential Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Carsten; Abadie, Marc; Qin, Menghao

    2016-01-01

    performance whilst providing comfortable and healthy indoor environments. New paradigms for demand control of ventilation will be investigated, which consider the pollution loads and occupancy in buildings. The thermal and moisture conditions of such will be considered because of interactions between...... with heat recovery systems, one of the next focal points to limiting energy consumption for thermally conditioning the indoor environment will be to possibly reducing the ventilation rate, or to make it in a new way demand controlled. However, this must be done such that it has no have adverse effects...

  20. Integration of daylight, artificial light and electronic light controls into office buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehling, K.; Knoop, T.; Aydinli, S.; Kaase, H. [Technical Univ. of Berlin, Inst. of Electronics and Lighting Technology (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    From a technical point of view daylight can be used in two different ways. On the one hand the available daylight can be distributed in an optimised way in order to illuminate deep spaces and to prevent from glare and on the other hand the artificial light can be controlled with respect to the daylight penetrating the room in order to save electrical energy. If these systems are adjusted according to the available daylight both strategies require sensors and logic elements which are supplied by electronic light controls on the basis of building management systems. (orig.)

  1. Building tobacco control research in Thailand: meeting the need for innovative change in Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamann Stephen L

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction In low- and middle-income countries (LMICs over the past two decades locally relevant tobacco control research has been scant. Experience shows that tobacco control measures should be based on sound research findings to ensure that measures are appropriate for local conditions and that they are likely to have an impact. Research should also be integrated within tobacco control measures to ensure ongoing learning and the production of knowledge. Thailand, a middle-income country, has a public health community with a record of successful tobacco control and a longstanding commitment to research. Thailand's comprehensive approach includes taxation; bans on tobacco advertising, sponsorship and promotion; smoke-free areas; graphic cigarette pack warnings; social marketing campaigns; cessation counseling; and an established tobacco control research program. The purpose of this study was to document and analyze the development of tobacco control research capacity in Thailand and the impact of research on Thai tobacco control measures. Method We used mixed methods including review of historical documentation and policy reports, qualitative interviews with key members of Thailand's tobacco control community, and an analysis of research productivity. Findings In Thailand, tobacco control research has evolved through three phases: (1 discovery of the value of research in the policymaking arena, (2 development of a structure to support research capacity building through international collaborations supported by foreign funding agencies, and (3 delivery of locally relevant research made possible largely through substantial stable funding from a domestic health promotion foundation. Over two decades, Thai tobacco control advocates have constructed five steppingstones to success: (1 adapting foreign research to inform policymaking and lobbying for more support for domestic research; (2 attracting foreign funding agencies to support small

  2. Influence of advanced room -and building automation and optimized operation control on the energy efficiency of buildings; Einfluss moderner Raum- und Gebaeudeautomation und optimierter Betriebsfuehrung auf die Energieeffizienz von Gebaeuden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knoll, P.; Peters, B.; Becker, M. [Hochschule Biberach (Germany). Fachgebiet Gebaeudeautomation

    2008-07-01

    There is an increasing awareness of using our energy resources more efficiently which also leads to the finding of the importance of energy-efficient building services and operation. Unfortunately, we often restrict ourselves looking only at the costs of the investment itself instead of taking into account also the costs during the long time of building operation. In particular this is an obvious fact to decisions of investments for room and building automation equipment. However, building automation and control systems (BACS) deliver high potentials for energy savings with regard to the ongoing operation of a building. Thus, in accordance with sustainable building design, it is extremely important to understand buildings in their entirety and to look at their building facilities in an integral way. This article discusses the energy potentials of building automation and control and how the potentials can be calculated and increased. Further more, it will be presented which tools are needed for an optimized building operation management. (orig.)

  3. Risk management in architectural design control of uncertainty over building use and maintenance

    CERN Document Server

    Martani, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    This book analyzes the risk management process in relation to building design and operation and on this basis proposes a method and a set of tools that will improve the planning and evaluation of design solutions in order to control risks in the operation and management phase. Particular attention is paid to the relationship between design choices and the long-term performance of buildings in meeting requirements expressing user and client needs. A risk dashboard is presented as a risk measurement framework that identifies and addresses areas of uncertainty surrounding the satisfaction of particularly relevant requirements over time. This risk dashboard will assist both designers and clients. It will support designers by enabling them to improve the maintainability of project performance and will aid clients both in devising a brief that emphasizes the most relevant aspects of maintainability and in evaluating project proposals according to long-term risks. The results of assessment of the proposed method and...

  4. Development of a new controller for simultaneous heating and cooling of office buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maccarini, Alessandro; Afshari, Alireza; Hultmark, Göran;

    2016-01-01

    with a temperature of about 22 °C. Therefore, the same supply water temperature is delivered to all the thermal zones in the building, no matter whether a single zone needs heating or cooling. In previous studies, the supply water temperature varied between 20 °C and 23 °C, according to outdoor air temperature......This paper aims to develop a new controller to regulate the supply water temperature of a room-temperature loop integrated in a novel HVAC for office buildings. The main feature of the room-temperature loop is its ability to provide simultaneous heating and cooling by circulating water...... by signals of actual room air temperatures and return water temperature. Depending on the minimum and maximum air temperatures in the rooms, the supply water temperature was set by adjusting the return water temperature with two offsets, one for heating demand and one for cooling demand. The behaviour...

  5. Performance and robustness of hybrid model predictive control for controllable dampers in building models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Erik A.; Elhaddad, Wael M.; Wojtkiewicz, Steven F.

    2016-04-01

    A variety of strategies have been developed over the past few decades to determine controllable damping device forces to mitigate the response of structures and mechanical systems to natural hazards and other excitations. These "smart" damping devices produce forces through passive means but have properties that can be controlled in real time, based on sensor measurements of response across the structure, to dramatically reduce structural motion by exploiting more than the local "information" that is available to purely passive devices. A common strategy is to design optimal damping forces using active control approaches and then try to reproduce those forces with the smart damper. However, these design forces, for some structures and performance objectives, may achieve high performance by selectively adding energy, which cannot be replicated by a controllable damping device, causing the smart damper performance to fall far short of what an active system would provide. The authors have recently demonstrated that a model predictive control strategy using hybrid system models, which utilize both continuous and binary states (the latter to capture the switching behavior between dissipative and non-dissipative forces), can provide reductions in structural response on the order of 50% relative to the conventional clipped-optimal design strategy. This paper explores the robustness of this newly proposed control strategy through evaluating controllable damper performance when the structure model differs from the nominal one used to design the damping strategy. Results from the application to a two-degree-of-freedom structure model confirms the robustness of the proposed strategy.

  6. Vibration control of building structures using self-organizing and self-learning neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madan, Alok

    2005-11-01

    Past research in artificial intelligence establishes that artificial neural networks (ANN) are effective and efficient computational processors for performing a variety of tasks including pattern recognition, classification, associative recall, combinatorial problem solving, adaptive control, multi-sensor data fusion, noise filtering and data compression, modelling and forecasting. The paper presents a potentially feasible approach for training ANN in active control of earthquake-induced vibrations in building structures without the aid of teacher signals (i.e. target control forces). A counter-propagation neural network is trained to output the control forces that are required to reduce the structural vibrations in the absence of any feedback on the correctness of the output control forces (i.e. without any information on the errors in output activations of the network). The present study shows that, in principle, the counter-propagation network (CPN) can learn from the control environment to compute the required control forces without the supervision of a teacher (unsupervised learning). Simulated case studies are presented to demonstrate the feasibility of implementing the unsupervised learning approach in ANN for effective vibration control of structures under the influence of earthquake ground motions. The proposed learning methodology obviates the need for developing a mathematical model of structural dynamics or training a separate neural network to emulate the structural response for implementation in practice.

  7. Controlling Beryllium Contaminated Material And Equipment For The Building 9201-5 Legacy Material Disposition Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, T. D.; Easterling, S. D.

    2010-10-01

    This position paper addresses the management of beryllium contamination on legacy waste. The goal of the beryllium management program is to protect human health and the environment by preventing the release of beryllium through controlling surface contamination. Studies have shown by controlling beryllium surface contamination, potential airborne contamination is reduced or eliminated. Although there are areas in Building 9201-5 that are contaminated with radioactive materials and mercury, only beryllium contamination is addressed in this management plan. The overall goal of this initiative is the compliant packaging and disposal of beryllium waste from the 9201-5 Legacy Material Removal (LMR) Project to ensure that beryllium surface contamination and any potential airborne release of beryllium is controlled to levels as low as practicable in accordance with 10 CFR 850.25.

  8. The Current State of Poison Control Centers in Pakistan and the Need for Capacity Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadeem Khan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chemical exposure is a major health problem globally. Poison control centers (PCCs play a leading role both in developed and developing countries in the prevention and control of poisonous chemical exposures. In this study, we aimed to assess the current state of PCCs in Pakistan and highlight capacity building needs in these centers. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of the two registered PCCs was done during August – December 2011. Necessary services of the PCCs were evaluated and the data were recorded on a predesigned checklist. Results: Both PCCs are affiliated to a tertiary care hospital. Clinical services to poisoned patients were available 24 hours a day / 7 days a week. Information on common local products was available to poison center staff. Both centers were involved in undergraduate and post graduate teaching. Telephone poison information service was not available in either of centers. There was a limited capacity for qualitative and analytical toxicology. Common antidotes were available. There were limited surveillance activities to capture toxic risks existing in the community and also a deficiency was observed in chemical disaster planning. Conclusion: PCCs in Pakistan need capacity building for specialized training in toxicology, toxicovigilance, chemical disaster planning, analytical laboratory tests and telephone service for consultation in poisoning cases.   How to cite this article: Khan NU, Mir MU, Khan UR, Khan AR, Ara J, Raja K, et al. The Current State of Poison Control Centers in Pakistan and the Need for Capacity Building. Asia Pac J Med Toxicol 2014;3:31-5.

  9. Simplified Building Thermal Model Used for Optimal Control of Radiant Cooling System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei He

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available MPC has the ability to optimize the system operation parameters for energy conservation. Recently, it has been used in HVAC systems for saving energy, but there are very few applications in radiant cooling systems. To implement MPC in buildings with radiant terminals, the predictions of cooling load and thermal environment are indispensable. In this paper, a simplified thermal model is proposed for predicting cooling load and thermal environment in buildings with radiant floor. In this thermal model, the black-box model is introduced to derive the incident solar radiation, while the genetic algorithm is utilized to identify the parameters of the thermal model. In order to further validate this simplified thermal model, simulated results from TRNSYS are compared with those from this model and the deviation is evaluated based on coefficient of variation of root mean square (CV. The results show that the simplified model can predict the operative temperature with a CV lower than 1% and predict cooling loads with a CV lower than 10%. For the purpose of supervisory control in HVAC systems, this simplified RC thermal model has an acceptable accuracy and can be used for further MPC in buildings with radiation terminals.

  10. Development and application of a ZigBee-based building energy monitoring and control system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Changhai; Qian, Kun

    2014-01-01

    Increasing in energy consumption, particularly with the ever-increasing growth and development of urban systems, has become a major concern in most countries. In this paper, the authors propose a cost-effective ZigBee-based building energy monitoring and control system (ZBEMCS), which is composed of a gateway, a base station, and sensors. Specifically, a new hardware platform for power sensor nodes is developed to perform both local/remote power parameter measurement and power on/off switching for electric appliances. The experimental results show that the ZBEMCS can easily monitor energy usage with a high level of accuracy. Two typical applications of ZBEMCS such as subentry metering and household metering of building energy are presented. The former includes lighting socket electricity, HVAC electricity, power electricity and special electricity. The latter includes household metering according to the campus's main function zone and each college or department. Therefore, this system can be used for energy consumption monitoring, long-term energy conservation planning, and the development of automated energy conservation for building applications.

  11. The use of energy management and control systems to monitor the energy performance of commercial buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinemeier, K E [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Architecture

    1994-12-01

    Monitored data play a very important part in the implementation and evaluation of energy conservation technologies and programs. However, these data can be expensive to collect, so there is a need for lower-cost alternatives. In many situations, using the computerized Energy Management and Control Systems (EMCSs)--already installed in many buildings--to collect these commercial building performance data has advantages over more conventional methods. This method provides data without installing incremental hardware, and the large amounts of available operational data can be a very rich resource for understanding building performance. This dissertation addresses several of these issues. One specific objective is to describe a monitoring-project planning process that includes definition of objectives, constraints, resources and approaches for the monitoring. The choice of tools is an important part of this process. The dissertation goes on to demonstrate, through eight case studies, that EMCS monitoring is possible, and to identify and categorize the problems and issues that can be encountered. These issues lead to the creation, use, and testing of a set of methods for evaluation of EMCS monitoring, in the form of guidelines. Finally, EMCS monitoring is demonstrated and compared with conventional monitoring more methodically in a detailed case study.

  12. Design of information-measuring and control systems for intelligent buildings. Trends of development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrova Irina Yur’evna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the modern requirements for integrated management systems of a smart home. The authors propose a hierarchical classification of the levels of house automation, which allows allocating different levels of information transfer. The article considers the trends of development of information-measuring and control systems of intelligent buildings. The generalized scheme of information-measuring and control subsystems of an intelligent building are given. The energy-information model of the knowledge base of physical and technical effects described in the article allows developing a system of automated support of the conceptual stage of elements design in information measuring and control systems. With the help of this knowledge base the system allows dozens of times expanding the scope of knowledge actively used by specialists and two or three times reducing the time of creating new solutions by selecting the most efficient of the options and the underlying calculation of the essential characteristics of their conceptual models, which significantly reduces the number of created prototypes and field tests.

  13. Regulation and control of thermally activated building systems (TABS); Regelung und Steuerung von thermoaktiven Bauteilsystemen (TABS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toedtli, Juerg [Consulting Juerg Toedtli, Zuerich (Switzerland); Gwerder, Markus; Renggli, Franz; Guentensperger, Werner [Siemens Building Technologies, Zug (Switzerland); Lehmann, Beat; Dorer, Viktor [Empa, Abt. Building Technologies, Duebendorf (Switzerland); Hildebrand, Kurt [Hochschule Luzern - Technik and Architektur, Horw (Switzerland)

    2009-10-15

    Thermally activated building systems (TABS) are becoming increasingly important in terms of energy efficient cooling and heating of buildings. In practice, however, regulation and control of such systems often causes problems. Started five years ago with the aim of getting to grips with these problems, the TABS Control research project was completed in early 2009. The project yielded the following results: various models and simulation programs for TABS; performance-bound calculations for regulating zones; a range of zone regulation/control strategies for planners to choose from, including good solutions for automatic switching between heating and cooling, for pulsed operation of the zone pump and for room temperature control; the implementation of a subset of these strategies as standard solutions in a Siemens building automation system; laboratory tests on these strategies; a new procedure for the integrated planning of TABS and their regulation/control (referred to as UBB planning procedure - Unknown But Bounded); an Excel planning tool; guidelines on selecting the hydraulic switching topology; a method for operation optimization; the theoretical basis for the new integrated planning procedure and the new regulation/ control strategies; a patent application. [German] Thermoaktive Bauteilsysteme (TABS) haben eine zunehmende Bedeutung bei der energieeffizienten Kuehlung und Heizung von Gebaeuden, doch ihre Regelung/Steuerung fuehrt in der Praxis oft zu Problemen. Mit dem Ziel, diese Probleme in den Griff zu bekommen, wurde vor fuenf Jahren das Forschungsprojekt TABS-Control gestartet, das zu Beginnd des Jahres 2009 abgeschlossen wurde. Es wurden folgende wesentliche Resultate erarbeitet: Modelle und Simulationsprogramme fuer TABS; Performance-Bound-Berechnungen fuer die Zonenregelung; eine Auswahl von Regel-/ Steuer-Strategien fuer die Zonenregelung, u. a. mit Loesungen fuer das automatische Umschalten zwischen Heizen und Kuehlen, fuer den Taktbetrieb der

  14. Control over Catenation in Metal−Organic Frameworks via Rational Design of the Organic Building Block

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farha, Omar K.; Malliakas, Christos D.; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G.; Hupp, Joseph T. (NWU)

    2010-02-19

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), a hybrid class of materials comprising inorganic nodes and organic struts, have potential application in many areas due to their high surface areas and uniform pores and channels. One of the key challenges to be overcome in MOF synthesis is the strong propensity for catenation (growth of multiple independent networks within a given crystal), as catenation reduces cavity sizes and diminishes porosity. Here we demonstrate that rational design of organic building blocks, which act as strut-impervious scaffolds, can be exploited to generate highly desired noncatenated materials in a controlled fashion.

  15. A survey of ring-building network protocols suitable for command and control group communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobeih, Ahmed; Yurcik, William

    2005-05-01

    Multicasting is the enabling technology for group communication. However, network-layer multicasting (e.g., IP multicast) has not been widely adopted more than 10 years of its invention due to the concerns related to deployment, scalability and network management. Application-layer multicast (ALM) has been proposed as an alternative for IP multicast. In ALM, group communications take place on an overlay network in which each edge corresponds to a direct unicast path between two group members. ALM protocols differ in, among other aspects, the topology of the underlying overlay network (e.g., tree, mesh or ring). Ring-based ALM protocols have the advantages of providing a constant node degree, and enabling the implementation of reliable and totally-ordered message delivery through the use of a ring with a token that contains ordering and flow control information. In addition, a ring overlay network topology is inherently reliable to single node failures. In this paper, we provide a survey and a taxonomy of several ring-building group communication protocols. Investigating the major characteristics of ring-building network protocols is an important step towards understanding which of them are suitable for command and control group communications.

  16. A C/C++ Build System Based On Maven for the LHC Controls System

    CERN Document Server

    Nguyen Xuan, J; Dönszelmann, M

    2011-01-01

    The CERN accelerator controls system, mainly written in Java and C/C++, consists nowadays of 50 projects and 150 active developers. The controls group has decided to unify the development process and standards (e.g. project layout) using Apache Maven and Sonatype Nexus. Maven is the de-facto build tool for Java, it deals with versioning and dependency management, whereas Nexus is a repository manager. C/C++ developers were struggling to keep their dependencies on other CERN projects, as no versioning was applied, the libraries have to be compiled and available for several platforms and architectures, and finally there was no dependency management mechanism. This results in very complex Makefiles which were difficult to maintain. Even if Maven is primarily designed for Java, a plugin (Maven NAR) adapts the build process for native programming languages for different operating systems and platforms. However C/C++ developers were not keen to abandon their current Makefiles. Hence our approach was to combine the ...

  17. STRATA AND SURFACE SUBSIDENCE CONTROL IN STRIP-PARTIAL MINING UNDER BUILDINGS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴立新; 王金庄; 赵学胜; 李邦三

    1994-01-01

    This paper systematically expounds the history and present situation of the research & application of strip-partial mining at home and abroad. The prospect of using strip-partial mining mcthod to mine under buildings (structures) at the present situation of market economy is also expounded here. Strata & surface subsldcnce mechanism of strip-partiai mining, the optimization of the width of unit goal & coal pillar as weal as the calculation method of surface subsidenoc pridiction based on Holding-Plate Control Theory and Coal Pillar Long-term Stability, which are our research achivements in recent years about strata & surface subsidence control in strip-partial mining, are the main points introduced here.

  18. Improving PAQ and comfort conditions in Spanish office buildings with passive climate control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orosa, Jose A.; Baalina, A. [Departamento de Energia y P.M. Escuela Tecnica Superior de N. y M, Universidade da Coruna, Paseo de Ronda 51, P.C.:15011 A Coruna (Spain)

    2009-03-15

    Some researchers have demonstrated that passive moisture transfer between indoor air and hygroscopic structures has the potential to moderate variations of indoor air relative humidity and, thus, to improve comfort and PAQ [Simonson CJ, Salonvaara M, Ojalen T. The effect of structures on indoor humidity-possibility to improve comfort and perceived air quality. Indoor Air 2002; 12: 243-51; Simonson CJ, Salonvaara M, Ojalen T. Improving indoor climate and comfort with wooden structures. Espoo 2001. Technical Research Centre of Finland, VTT Publications 431.200p+app 91p]. The main objective of this study is to show the internal wall coating effect on indoor air conditions and, as a consequence of this, in comfort conditions and PAQ. In a previous paper [Orosa JA, Baalina A. Passive climate control in Spanish office buildings for long periods of time. Building and Environment 2008], we analysed the influence of permeable and impermeable materials on indoor air conditions, during the unoccupied period, in 25 office buildings in different seasons. Results obtained lead us to conclude that real coverings such as permeable, semi-permeable and impermeable types, present different behavioural patterns in indoor air conditions. Furthermore, we concluded that an absorbent structure will moderate relative humidity indoors. In this paper, we study this indoor relative humidity effect on local thermal discomfort, due to decreased respiratory cooling, and indoor ambience acceptability for the early hours of morning applying PD and Acc models [Toftum J, Jorgensen AS, Fanger PO. Upper limits for indoor air humidity to avoid uncomfortably humid skin. Energy and buildings 1998; 28: 1-13; Toftum J, Jorgensen AS, Fanger PO. Upper limits of air humidity for preventing warm respiratory discomfort. Energy and Buildings 1998; 28: 15-23] such as that proposed by Simonson et al. [The effect of structures on indoor humidity-possibility to improve comfort and perceived air quality. Indoor Air

  19. Norms to establish the most elementary environmental control system which ensures summer thermal comfort in office buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruger, W.; Mathews, E.H. (Pretoria Univ. (ZA). Centre for Experimental and Numerical Thermoflow)

    1992-01-01

    Various types of environmental control systems (ECS) such as natural ventilation, mechanical ventilation, evaporative cooling and full air-conditioning can be used to cool buildings in hot climates. It is not always clear which of these would be the most elementary ECS that would still ensure thermal comfort in a thermally efficient building for a specific climate. No method to establish norms describing a minimum acceptable ECS was found. This paper proposes a method and gives the norms for South African buildings. The norms are based on existing thermally efficient reference buildings. The minimum ECS to provide comfort in the reference building for a specific summer climate is established by means of a novel and easy to use thermal simulation procedure. The design must then ensure thermal comfort in new designs by utilizing this minimum ECS. (author).

  20. AUTOMATED SYSTEM OF OPERATIONAL CONTROL HEATING AND AIR CONDITIONING OF BUILDINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PETRENKO A. O.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Statement of the problem. Health and human performance largely determined by the conditions of climate and air quality in residential, administrative and residential and public buildings. At that, in turn, is influenced by the external environment and the climate, and the geometric dimensions of the room, and thermal performance building envelopes, and the location of the premises (Orientation, and many other factors. The result is the formation of complex systems, which control decision-making in conditions of multifactor [1]. In hygienic purposes it is necessary to strive to create the best indoor microclimate conditions, regardless of changes in the factors that affect the climate in residential, administrative and residential and public buildings. Develop systems to ensure the necessary microclimate parameters – it is a complex and important task, which will depend entirely comfortable and cozy environment for the person. The problem of the present time, there is a steady increase in the energy consumption of these systems, due to the rise in price of non-renewable energy sources, and our job is, to simulate the work of software systems necessary microclimate for the changes in the factors that affect it and to minimize the use of non-renewable energy sources. Analysis of recent research and publications. Domestic and foreign hygienists [2, 3, 4] to establish a connection between the climate in the room and in the workplace and the state of human health. Formation of the indoor climate of residential, administrative and residential and public buildings is influenced by many factors that have already noted earlier [5, 6]. Study of the processes of influence of various factors on human health is of great complexity. If we consider each process separately, and in this case they are not currently amenable to theoretical description clearer. To simulate the effect of these factors studies were conducted, which showed that, with sufficient

  1. Real-Time Occupant Based Plug-in Device Control Using ICT in Office Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woo-Bin Bae

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to reduce the unnecessary plug loads used by computers, monitors, and computer peripheral devices, all of which account for more than 95% of the entire plug loads of an office building. To this end, an occupant-based plug-in device control (OBC-P software was developed. The OBC-P software collects real-time information about the presence or absence of occupants who are connected to the access point through the Wifi and controls the power of monitors or computers, while a standby power off device controls computer peripheral devices. To measure the plug load saving of the occupant-based plug-in device control, an experiment was conducted, targeting 10 occupants of three research labs of the graduate school, for two weeks. The experiment results showed that it could save the plug loads of monitors and computer peripheral devices by 15% in the Awake mode, and by 26% in the Sleep mode.

  2. Building virtual 3D bone fragment models to control diaphyseal fracture reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leloup, Thierry; Schuind, Frederic; Lasudry, Nadine; Van Ham, Philippe

    1999-05-01

    Most fractures of the long bones are displaced and need to be surgically reduced. External fixation is often used but the crucial point of this technique is the control of reduction, which is effected with a brilliance amplifier. This system, giving instantly a x-ray image, has many disadvantages. It implies frequent irradiation to the patient and the surgical team, the visual field is limited, the supplied images are distorted and it only gives 2D information. Consequently, the reduction is occasionally imperfect although intraoperatively it appears acceptable. Using the pains inserted in each fragment as markers and an optical tracker, it is possible to build a virtual 3D model for each principal fragment and to follow its movement during the reduction. This system will supply a 3D image of the fracture in real time and without irradiation. The brilliance amplifier could then be replaced by such a virtual reality system to provide the surgeon with an accurate tool facilitating the reduction of the fracture. The purpose of this work is to show how to build the 3D model for each principal bone fragment.

  3. Strategies for Controlling Plug Loads. A Tool for Reducing Plug Loads in Commercial Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torcellini, Paul [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bonnema, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sheppy, Michael [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Pless, Shanti [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Plug loads are often not considered as part of the energy savings measures in Commercial Buildings; however, they can account for up to 50% of the energy used in the building. These loads are numerous and often scattered throughout a building. Some of these loads are purchased by the owner and some designed into the building or the tenant finishes for a space. This document provides a strategy and a tool for minimizing these loads.

  4. Aplicación de un sistema automatizado para el aprendizaje y el entrenamiento del tenis en condiciones de interferencia contextual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruperto Menayo Antúnez

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se presentan los efectos de la aplicación de un sistema automatizado para el aprendizaje del tenis en condiciones de interferencia contextual. Dicho sistema permite el registro de la precisión alcanzada en los golpeos mediante un protocolo de filmación audiovisual. Una vez filmadas las imágenes se aplica un proceso de digitalización para analizar el error variable de los envíos, determinando así la consistencia de los golpeos. Se analizaron los resultados obtenidos por 8 tenistas, tras un periodo de aprendizaje de 3 semanas, valorando el mantenimiento del rendimiento mediante 4 tests de retención, realizados posteriormente a la fase de aprendizaje inicial. Los resultados muestran mejoras en los cuatro golpes practicados tras el periodo de aprendizaje, así como una tendencia poco acusada de pérdida del rendimiento tras los periodos sin práctica.

  5. Demo abstract: Flexhouse-2-an open source building automation platform with a focus on flexible control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gehrke, Oliver; Kosek, Anna Magdalena; Svendsen, Mathias

    2014-01-01

    in or on buildings, and most of these resources will not be communicating directly with the smart grid; in order to allow internal coordination and optimization of resource use at building level, a building automation platform will act as an intermediary. Such a platform must be easy to adapt to the multitude......, an open-source implementation of a building automation system which has been designed with a strong focus on enabling the integration of the building into a smart power system and dedicated support for the requirements of an R&D environment. We will demonstrate the need for such a platform, discuss...

  6. Rising public awareness of energy efficiency of buildings enhanced by “smart” controls of the in-door environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantović Vladan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Buildings consume a significant amount of energy today and are expected to consume even more in the future. This consumption necessitates the use of fossil fuels such as coal and natural gas, both of which have significant environmental impacts. While renewable energy sources remain promising, the most of the energy supply will still use conventional fuels in the near term. Therefore, improving the energy efficiency in buildings is critical, and one of the central visions of “smart buildings” is to reduce their energy use while maintaining the same level of service and comfort. However, to make the buildings meaningfully “smart”, their envelopes must first be made compliant with the current energy efficiency standards. In this paper we first examine how the public awareness of energy efficiency was risen in Serbia through different demonstration projects, funded by the state budget and through implementation of the energy efficiency measures in public buildings, funded by municipal funds and soft loans from the banks. Then, we describe how the energy efficiency in buildings might further be increased by the use of new technologies and smart networks for control of the energy consumption. We finally argue that these controls should take into account the personal variables (activity, clothing along with environmental variables (air temperature, velocity, and humidity for an optimum thermal comfort to be achieved in public and residential buildings.

  7. Controlling indoor climate. Passive cooling of residential buildings in hot-humid climates in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Zhiwu

    1996-10-01

    Overheating is a paramount problem in residential buildings in hot and humid climates in China during summer. This study aims to deal with the overheating problem and the problem of poor air quality in dwellings. The main objective is to improve indoor thermal conditions by passive cooling approaches, climatisation techniques in buildings without auxiliary cooling from air conditioning equipment. This thesis focuses on the study of cross-ventilation in apartments, which is one of the most effective ways of natural cooling in a hot humid climate, but is also one of the least understood parts in controlling indoor climate. The Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) technique is used, which is a new approach, since cross-ventilation studies have been conventionally made by wind tunnel tests. The validations of the CFD technique are examined by a comparison between wind tunnel tests and computer simulations. The factors influencing indoor air movement are investigated for a single room. Cross-ventilation in two apartments is studied, and the air change efficiency in a Chinese kitchen is calculated with CFD techniques. The thermal performance of ventilated roofs, a simple and widely used type of roof in the region, is specially addressed by means of a full-scale measurement, wind tunnel tests and computer simulations. An integrated study of passive cooling approaches and factors affecting indoor thermal comfort is carried out through a case study in a southern Chinese city, Guangzhou. This thesis demonstrates that passive cooling measure have a high potential in significantly improving indoor thermal conditions during summer. This study also gives discussions and conclusions on the evaluation of indoor thermal environment; effects influencing cross-ventilation in apartments; design guidelines for ventilated roofs and an integrated study of passive cooling. 111 refs, 83 figs, 65 tabs

  8. Cost Control Strategies for Zero Energy Buildings: High-Performance Design and Construction on a Budget (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-09-01

    There is mounting evidence that zero energy can, in many cases, be achieved within typical construction budgets. To ensure that the momentum behind zero energy buildings and other low-energy buildings will continue to grow, this guide assembles recommendations for replicating specific successes of early adopters who have met their energy goals while controlling costs. Contents include: discussion of recommended cost control strategies, which are grouped by project phase (acquisition and delivery, design, and construction) and accompanied by industry examples; recommendations for balancing key decision-making factors; and quick reference tables that can help teams apply strategies to specific projects.

  9. General collaboration offer of Johnson Controls regarding the performance of air conditioning automatic control systems and other buildings` automatic control systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gniazdowski, J.

    1995-12-31

    JOHNSON CONTROLS manufactures measuring and control equipment (800 types) and is as well a {open_quotes}turn-key{close_quotes} supplier of complete automatic controls systems for heating, air conditioning, ventilation and refrigerating engineering branches. The Company also supplies Buildings` Computer-Based Supervision and Monitoring Systems that may be applied in both small and large structures. Since 1990 the company has been performing full-range trade and contracting activities on the Polish market. We have our own well-trained technical staff and we collaborate with a series of designing and contracting enterprises that enable us to have our projects carried out all over Poland. The prices of our supplies and services correspond with the level of the Polish market.

  10. Control Limits for Building Energy End Use Based on Engineering Judgment, Frequency Analysis, and Quantile Regression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henze, G. P.; Pless, S.; Petersen, A.; Long, N.; Scambos, A. T.

    2014-02-01

    Approaches are needed to continuously characterize the energy performance of commercial buildings to allow for (1) timely response to excess energy use by building operators; and (2) building occupants to develop energy awareness and to actively engage in reducing energy use. Energy information systems, often involving graphical dashboards, are gaining popularity in presenting energy performance metrics to occupants and operators in a (near) real-time fashion. Such an energy information system, called Building Agent, has been developed at NREL and incorporates a dashboard for public display. Each building is, by virtue of its purpose, location, and construction, unique. Thus, assessing building energy performance is possible only in a relative sense, as comparison of absolute energy use out of context is not meaningful. In some cases, performance can be judged relative to average performance of comparable buildings. However, in cases of high-performance building designs, such as NREL's Research Support Facility (RSF) discussed in this report, relative performance is meaningful only when compared to historical performance of the facility or to a theoretical maximum performance of the facility as estimated through detailed building energy modeling.

  11. Final Scientific Technical Report: INTEGRATED PREDICTIVE DEMAND RESPONSE CONTROLLER FOR COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenzel, Mike

    2013-10-14

    This project provides algorithms to perform demand response using the thermal mass of a building. Using the thermal mass of the building is an attractive method for performing demand response because there is no need for capital expenditure. The algorithms rely on the thermal capacitance inherent in the building?s construction materials. A near-optimal ?day ahead? predictive approach is developed that is meant to keep the building?s electrical demand constant during the high cost periods. This type of approach is appropriate for both time-of-use and critical peak pricing utility rate structures. The approach uses the past days data in order to determine the best temperature setpoints for the building during the high price periods on the next day. A second ?model predictive approach? (MPC) uses a thermal model of the building to determine the best temperature for the next sample period. The approach uses constant feedback from the building and is capable of appropriately handling real time pricing. Both approaches are capable of using weather forecasts to improve performance.

  12. Evaluation of Seismic Performance and Effectiveness of Multiple Slim-Type Damper System for Seismic Response Control of Building Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the evaluation of seismic performance and cost-effectiveness of a multiple slim-type damper system developed for the vibration control of earthquake excited buildings. The multiple slim-type damper (MSD that consists of several small slim-type dampers and linkage units can control damping capacity easily by changing the number of small dampers. To evaluate the performance of the MSD, dynamic loading tests are performed with three slim-type dampers manufactured at a real scale. Numerical simulations are also carried out by nonlinear time history analysis with a ten-story earthquake excited building structure. The seismic performance and cost-effectiveness of the MSD system are investigated according to the various installation configurations of the MSD system. From the results of numerical simulation and cost-effectiveness evaluation, it is shown that combinations of the MSD systems can effectively improve the seismic performance of earthquake excited building structures.

  13. A Study of the Use of Ontologies for Building Computer-Aided Control Engineering Self-Learning Educational Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Isaías; Benavides, Carmen; Alaiz, Héctor; Alonso, Angel

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes research on the use of knowledge models (ontologies) for building computer-aided educational software in the field of control engineering. Ontologies are able to represent in the computer a very rich conceptual model of a given domain. This model can be used later for a number of purposes in different software applications. In…

  14. Evaluation of a Mixed Method Approach for Studying User Interaction with Novel Building Control Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgit Painter

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Energy-efficient building performance requires sophisticated control systems that are based on realistic occupant behaviour models. To provide robust data for the development of these models, research studies in real-world settings are needed. Yet, such studies are challenging and necessitate careful design in terms of data collection methods and procedures. This paper describes and critiques the design of a mixed methods approach for occupant behaviour research. It reviews the methodology developed for a longitudinal study in a real-world office environment where occupants’ experience with a novel facade technology (electrochromic glazing was investigated. The methodology integrates objective physical measurements, observational data and self-reported experience data. Using data from one day of the study, this paper illustrates how the different sources can be combined in order to derive an in-depth understanding of the interplay between external daylight conditions, characteristics of the facade technology, occupant interaction with the technology and the resulting occupant experience. It was found that whilst the individual methods may be affected by practical limitations, these can be partially offset by combining physical measurements and observations with self-reported data. The paper critically evaluates the individual techniques, as well as the benefits of their integration and makes recommendations for the design of future occupant behaviour studies in real-world settings.

  15. Control strategies study of a complete solar assisted air conditioning system in an office building using TRNSYS

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Sébastien; Andre, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    It is now clearly assumed that solar assisted air conditioning is able to minimize environmental impact and CO2 production of buildings operation. How to reach highest energy savings is still a work in progress. In former literature, equipment control has been point out as a critical feature of energy consumption. Control becomes more and more important as system is complex. The complete simulation environment was developed in previous work, it includes the absorption chiller ...

  16. Desarrollo de un sistema de riego automatizado en tiempo real con base en balance hídrico climático, medición de humedad del suelo y lisímetro

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Se desarrollo un sistema de riego automatizado en tiempo real, para determinar y controlar el momento oportuno y la cantidad de riego, monitoreado por medio de las tecnologías de información (TI). El estudio se realizó en los terrenos adjuntos a la estación meteorológica del Colegio de Postgraduados del Campus Montecillo, del 10 de junio al 11 de septiembre del 2006. El sistema se integró de un programa de cómputo en el lenguaje de programación Edlog y un dispositivo de co...

  17. Uso de técnicas de aprendizaje automatizado para predicción de morfología mandibular en clase I, II y III esquelética

    OpenAIRE

    Niño Sandoval, Tania Camila

    2012-01-01

    Las técnicas de aprendizaje automatizado se emplean principalmente para clasificar y predecir datos en diferentes aplicaciones. El objetivo de esta investigación fue predecir a través de estos métodos la morfología mandibular en maloclusiones Clase I, Clase II y Clase III esquelética, empleando medidas craneomaxilares. Se recolectaron 229 radiografías posteroanteriores y de perfil de adultos jóvenes colombianos de ambos sexos. Se emplearon coordenadas de landmarks óseos para fo...

  18. Controlling Capital Costs in High Performance Office Buildings: A Review of Best Practices for Overcoming Cost Barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pless, S.; Torcellini, P.

    2012-05-01

    This paper presents a set of 15 best practices for owners, designers, and construction teams of office buildings to reach high performance goals for energy efficiency, while maintaining a competitive budget. They are based on the recent experiences of the owner and design/build team for the Research Support Facility (RSF) on National Renewable Energy Facility's campus in Golden, CO, which show that achieving this outcome requires each key integrated team member to understand their opportunities to control capital costs.

  19. Supervisory Control of Loads and Energy Storage in Next-Generation Zero Energy Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kung, Feitau [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Frank, Stephen [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Scheib, Jennifer [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bernal Heredia, Willy [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Pless, Shanti [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-09-01

    A zero energy building (ZEB)—also known as a net zero energy or zero net energy building—is a building that exports as much renewable energy as the total energy it imports from other sources on an annual basis (DOE 2015). Large-scale and commercially viable ZEBs are now in the marketplace, and they are expected to become a larger share of the commercial building footprint as government and private sector policies continue to promote the development of buildings that produce more on-site energy than they use. However, the load profiles of ZEBs are currently perceived by electric utilities to be unfavorable and unpredictable. As shown in Figure ES-1, ZEB load profiles can have abrupt changes in magnitude, at times switching rapidly between exporting and importing electricity. This is a challenge for utilities, which are responsible for constantly balancing electricity supply and demand across the grid. Addressing these concerns will require new strategies and tools.

  20. Plug-Load Control and Behavioral Change Research in GSA Office Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metzger, I.; Cutler, D.; Sheppy, M.

    2012-10-01

    The U.S. General Services Administration (GSA) owns and leases over 354 million square feet (ft2) of space in over 9,600 buildings [1]. GSA is a leader among federal agencies in aggressively pursuing energy efficiency (EE) opportunities for its facilities and installing renewable energy (RE) systems to provide heating, cooling, and power to these facilities. According to several energy assessments of GSA's buildings conducted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), plug-loads account for approximately 21% of the total electricity consumed within a standard GSA Region 3 office building. This study aims to provide insight on how to effectively manage plug-load energy consumption and attain higher energy and cost savings for plug-loads. As GSA improves the efficiency of its building stock, plug-loads will become an even greater portion of its energy footprint.

  1. Strategies for energy saving in buildings by means of automatic control; Estrategias de ahorro de energia en inmuebles mediante el control automatico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Trujillo, Oscar [Johnson Controls de Mexico S. A. de C. V., Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    In this paper some of the measures and strategies for energy saving that can be applied in different types of buildings, mainly in hotels and office buildings, are presented. The proposed actions are accomplished with the aid of the automatic control equipment and the operation and/or maintenance personnel that supervises and establishes the control parameters of each one of the strategies than are focused to the appropriate utilization of the electric energy. [Espanol] En este documento se presentan algunas de las medidas y estrategias de ahorro de energia que pueden ser aplicadas en diferentes tipos de inmuebles, principalmente en hoteles y en edificios de oficinas. Las acciones propuestas son realizadas con la ayuda del equipo de control automatico y del personal de operacion y/o mantenimiento quien supervisa y establece los parametros de control de cada una de las estrategias que son destinadas a la buena utilizacion de la energia electrica.

  2. Symbiodinium genotypic and environmental controls on lipids in reef building corals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy F Cooper

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lipids in reef building corals can be divided into two classes; non-polar storage lipids, e.g. wax esters and triglycerides, and polar structural lipids, e.g. phospholipids and cholesterol. Differences among algal endosymbiont types are known to have important influences on processes including growth and the photobiology of scleractinian corals yet very little is known about the role of symbiont types on lipid energy reserves. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The ratio of storage lipid and structural lipid fractions of Scott Reef corals were determined by thin layer chromatography. The lipid fraction ratio varied with depth and depended on symbiont type harboured by two corals (Seriatopora hystrix and Pachyseris speciosa. S. hystrix colonies associated with Symbiodinium C1 or C1/C# at deep depths (>23 m had lower lipid fraction ratios (i.e. approximately equal parts of storage and structural lipids than those with Symbiodinium D1 in shallow depths (<23 m, which had higher lipid fraction ratios (i.e. approximately double amounts of storage relative to structural lipid. Further, there was a non-linear relationship between the lipid fraction ratio and depth for S. hystrix with a modal peak at ∼23 m coinciding with the same depth as the shift from clade D to C types. In contrast, the proportional relationship between the lipid fraction ratio and depth for P. speciosa, which exhibited high specificity for Symbiodinium C3 like across the depth gradient, was indicative of greater amounts of storage lipids contained in the deep colonies. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study has demonstrated that Symbiodinium exert significant controls over the quality of coral energy reserves over a large-scale depth gradient. We conclude that the competitive advantages and metabolic costs that arise from flexible associations with divergent symbiont types are offset by energetic trade-offs for the coral host.

  3. Implementation and testing of a fault detection software tool for improving control system performance in a large commercial building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salsbury, T.I.; Diamond, R.C.

    2000-05-01

    This paper describes a model-based, feedforward control scheme that can detect faults in the controlled process and improve control performance over traditional PID control. The tool uses static simulation models of the system under control to generate feed-forward control action, which acts as a reference of correct operation. Faults that occur in the system cause discrepancies between the feedforward models and the controlled process. The scheme facilitates detection of faults by monitoring the level of these discrepancies. We present results from the first phase of tests on a dual-duct air-handling unit installed in a large office building in San Francisco. We demonstrate the ability of the tool to detect a number of preexisting faults in the system and discuss practical issues related to implementation.

  4. Key Residential Building Equipment Technologies for Control and Grid Support PART I (Residential)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starke, Michael R [ORNL; Onar, Omer C [ORNL; DeVault, Robert C [ORNL

    2011-09-01

    based on the largest electrical energy consumers in the residential sector are space heating and cooling, washer and dryer, water heating, lighting, computers and electronics, dishwasher and range, and refrigeration. As the largest loads, these loads provide the highest potential for delivering demand response and reliability services. Many residential loads have inherent flexibility that is related to the purpose of the load. Depending on the load type, electric power consumption levels can either be ramped, changed in a step-change fashion, or completely removed. Loads with only on-off capability (such as clothes washers and dryers) provide less flexibility than resources that can be ramped or step-changed. Add-on devices may be able to provide extra demand response capabilities. Still, operating residential loads effectively requires awareness of the delicate balance of occupants health and comfort and electrical energy consumption. This report is Phase I of a series of reports aimed at identifying gaps in automated home energy management systems for incorporation of building appliances, vehicles, and renewable adoption into a smart grid, specifically with the intent of examining demand response and load factor control for power system support. The objective is to capture existing gaps in load control, energy management systems, and sensor technology with consideration of PHEV and renewable technologies to establish areas of research for the Department of Energy. In this report, (1) data is collected and examined from state of the art homes to characterize the primary residential loads as well as PHEVs and photovoltaic for potential adoption into energy management control strategies; and (2) demand response rules and requirements across the various demand response programs are examined for potential participation of residential loads. This report will be followed by a Phase II report aimed at identifying the current state of technology of energy management systems

  5. 增强策略控制,构筑智能管道%Enhancing Strategy Control and Building Smart Pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳晶

    2012-01-01

      It discusses how to enhance control architecture of IP resource from the aspects of IP QoS strategy control and dynamic PCC control, to build better IP smart pipeline.%  从固移融合的IP QoS策略控制、动态的PCC控制2个方面讨论如何增强IP资源的控制架构,以打造更好的IP智能管道。

  6. Modelica-based Modeling and Simulation to Support Research and Development in Building Energy and Control Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetter, Michael

    2009-02-12

    Traditional building simulation programs possess attributes that make them difficult to use for the design and analysis of building energy and control systems and for the support of model-based research and development of systems that may not already be implemented in these programs. This article presents characteristic features of such applications, and it shows how equation-based object-oriented modelling can meet requirements that arise in such applications. Next, the implementation of an open-source component model library for building energy systems is presented. The library has been developed using the equation-based object-oriented Modelica modelling language. Technical challenges of modelling and simulating such systems are discussed. Research needs are presented to make this technology accessible to user groups that have more stringent requirements with respect to the numerical robustness of simulation than a research community may have. Two examples are presented in which models from the here described library were used. The first example describes the design of a controller for a nonlinear model of a heating coil using model reduction and frequency domain analysis. The second example describes the tuning of control parameters for a static pressure reset controller of a variable air volume flow system. The tuning has been done by solving a non-convex optimization problem that minimizes fan energy subject to state constraints.

  7. Automated Recognition of Bioacoustic Signals: a Review of Methods and Applications Reconocimiento automatizado de señales bioacústicas: Una revisión de métodos y aplicaciones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Catalina Caycedo-Rosales

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available During the past decade, numerous research studies and applications on automated bioacoustic monitoring have been published; however, such studies are scattered in the literature of engineering and life sciences. This paper presents a review on fundamental concepts of automated acoustic monitoring. Our aim is to compare and categorize —in a taxonomy of techniques DSP/PR— the contributions of published research studies and applications; in order to suggest some directions for future research and highlight challenges and opportunities related to the deployment of this technology in Colombia.Durante la última década se ha publicado una gran cantidad de estudios de investigación y aplicaciones sobre monitoreo bioacústico automatizado. No obstante, tales estudios están dispersos en la literatura de ingeniería y ciencias biológicas. En este artículo se presentan conceptos fundamentales sobre monitoreo bioacústico automatizado; se revisan, comparan y categorizan —en una taxonomía de técnicas de DSP/PR— las contribuciones de las investigaciones y las aplicaciones publicadas; se sugieren algunas direcciones para investigaciones futuras y se resaltan los retos y las oportunidades relacionados con la instalación de esta tecnología en Colombia.

  8. Key Residential Building Equipment Technologies for Control and Grid Support PART I (Residential)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starke, Michael R [ORNL; Onar, Omer C [ORNL; DeVault, Robert C [ORNL

    2011-09-01

    based on the largest electrical energy consumers in the residential sector are space heating and cooling, washer and dryer, water heating, lighting, computers and electronics, dishwasher and range, and refrigeration. As the largest loads, these loads provide the highest potential for delivering demand response and reliability services. Many residential loads have inherent flexibility that is related to the purpose of the load. Depending on the load type, electric power consumption levels can either be ramped, changed in a step-change fashion, or completely removed. Loads with only on-off capability (such as clothes washers and dryers) provide less flexibility than resources that can be ramped or step-changed. Add-on devices may be able to provide extra demand response capabilities. Still, operating residential loads effectively requires awareness of the delicate balance of occupants health and comfort and electrical energy consumption. This report is Phase I of a series of reports aimed at identifying gaps in automated home energy management systems for incorporation of building appliances, vehicles, and renewable adoption into a smart grid, specifically with the intent of examining demand response and load factor control for power system support. The objective is to capture existing gaps in load control, energy management systems, and sensor technology with consideration of PHEV and renewable technologies to establish areas of research for the Department of Energy. In this report, (1) data is collected and examined from state of the art homes to characterize the primary residential loads as well as PHEVs and photovoltaic for potential adoption into energy management control strategies; and (2) demand response rules and requirements across the various demand response programs are examined for potential participation of residential loads. This report will be followed by a Phase II report aimed at identifying the current state of technology of energy management systems

  9. Distribution Locational Real-Time Pricing Based Smart Building Control and Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hao, Jun; Dai, Xiaoxiao; Zhang, Yingchen; Zhang, Jun; Gao, Wenzhong

    2016-11-21

    This paper proposes an real-virtual parallel computing scheme for smart building operations aiming at augmenting overall social welfare. The University of Denver's campus power grid and Ritchie fitness center is used for demonstrating the proposed approach. An artificial virtual system is built in parallel to the real physical system to evaluate the overall social cost of the building operation based on the social science based working productivity model, numerical experiment based building energy consumption model and the power system based real-time pricing mechanism. Through interactive feedback exchanged between the real and virtual system, enlarged social welfare, including monetary cost reduction and energy saving, as well as working productivity improvements, can be achieved.

  10. Statistical Process Control Concerning the Glazed Areas Influence on the Energy Efficiency of Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Lepădatu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present a statistical investigation, for analyzing the buildings characteristics from the energy efficiency point of view. The energy efficiency of buildings may be estimated by their capacity to ensure a healthy and comfortable environment, with low energy consumption during the whole year. The glazed areas have a decisive role in the building energy efficiency having in view the complex functions that they play in the system. A parametric study, based on the method of factorial plan of experience with two levels, allows us to emphasize the measure in which the geometric and energetic characteristics of glazed areas influence the energy efficiency, estimated by the yearly energy needs, to ensure a comfortable and healthy environment.

  11. The control, at the design stage, of risks related to buildings management over time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Martani

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper an apparatus of tools and methods is presented to evaluate, at the design stage, the risks over a set of objectives through buildings lifetime. To this purpose a tool is first presented to relate technological requirements of each technical elements to the pertinent maintenance interventions. Then a process is also proposed to estimate the risks on user requirements runningMonte Carlo simulations. The risk management process proposed in the present work aims to support designers and promoters in making predictions on the outcomes of long, not standardized, multivariable dependent processes – as the building process is – in order to indicate the attitude of a designed building to meet a framework of important objectives through its lifetime.

  12. Demand response-enabled model predictive HVAC load control in buildings using real-time electricity pricing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avci, Mesut

    A practical cost and energy efficient model predictive control (MPC) strategy is proposed for HVAC load control under dynamic real-time electricity pricing. The MPC strategy is built based on a proposed model that jointly minimizes the total energy consumption and hence, cost of electricity for the user, and the deviation of the inside temperature from the consumer's preference. An algorithm that assigns temperature set-points (reference temperatures) to price ranges based on the consumer's discomfort tolerance index is developed. A practical parameter prediction model is also designed for mapping between the HVAC load and the inside temperature. The prediction model and the produced temperature set-points are integrated as inputs into the MPC controller, which is then used to generate signal actions for the AC unit. To investigate and demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach, a simulation based experimental analysis is presented using real-life pricing data. An actual prototype for the proposed HVAC load control strategy is then built and a series of prototype experiments are conducted similar to the simulation studies. The experiments reveal that the MPC strategy can lead to significant reductions in overall energy consumption and cost savings for the consumer. Results suggest that by providing an efficient response strategy for the consumers, the proposed MPC strategy can enable the utility providers to adopt efficient demand management policies using real-time pricing. Finally, a cost-benefit analysis is performed to display the economic feasibility of implementing such a controller as part of a building energy management system, and the payback period is identified considering cost of prototype build and cost savings to help the adoption of this controller in the building HVAC control industry.

  13. ARRA FEMP Technical Assistance -- Federal Aviation Administration Project 209 -- Control Tower and Support Building, Palm Springs, CA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arends, J.; Sandusky, William F.

    2010-03-31

    This report represents findings of a design review team that evaluated construction documents (at the 100% level) and operating specifications for a new control tower and support building that will be built in Palm Springs, California by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). The focus of the review was to identify measures that could be incorporated into the final design and operating specifications that would result in additional energy savings for the FAA that would not have otherwise occurred.

  14. Dynamics of Weight Change and Temperature of Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Colonies in a Wintering Building With Controlled Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalidzans, E; Zacepins, A; Kviesis, A; Brusbardis, V; Meitalovs, J; Paura, L; Bulipopa, N; Liepniece, M

    2017-01-04

    Honey bee wintering in a wintering building (indoors) with controlled microclimate is used in some cold regions to minimize colony losses due to the hard weather conditions. The behavior and possible state of bee colonies in a dark room, isolated from natural environment during winter season, was studied by indirect temperature measurements to analyze the expression of their annual rhythm when it is not affected by ambient temperature, rain, snow, wind, and daylight. Thus, the observed behavior in the wintering building is initiated solely by bee colony internal processes. Experiments were carried out to determine the dynamics of temperature above the upper hive body and weight dynamics of indoors and outdoors wintered honey bee colonies and their brood-rearing performance in spring. We found significantly lower honey consumption-related weight loss of indoor wintered colonies compared with outdoor colonies, while no significant difference in the amount of open or sealed brood was found, suggesting that wintering building saves food and physiological resources without an impact on colony activity in spring. Indoor wintered colonies, with or without thermal insulation, did not have significant differences in food consumption and brood rearing in spring. The thermal behavior and weight dynamics of all experimental groups has changed in the middle of February possibly due to increased brood-rearing activity. Temperature measurement above the upper hive body is a convenient remote monitoring method of wintering process. Predictability of food consumption in a wintering building, with constant temperature, enables wintering without oversupply of wintering honey.

  15. Impact of energy efficiency goals on systems of building regulations and control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visscher, H.J.; Meijer, F.M.

    2014-01-01

    Considerations of climate change, but also other political and economic reasons urge for the reduction of use of fossil fuels and the minimization of environmental impact by the built environment. The energy saving potential of the building stock is large and considered to be the most cost efficient

  16. Munich installs provider-neutral building management and control system; Landeshauptstadt Muenchen realisiert firmenneutrale Gebaeudeleittechnik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmid, W.

    1998-10-01

    Since April 1995, a pilot project is running in Munich for comprehensive energy management of all 1600 city-owned buildings. There will be a central facility management system which communicates with automation nodes in the individual buildings via the urban telephone network (ISDN-HICOM) or the Telekom ISDN network. In order to be independent of suppliers, an open system (FND) was chosen. Connection of about 600 buildings is envisaged as a medium-term goal. 150 buildings were connected in early 1998. [Deutsch] Seit April 1995 laeuft in Muenchen ein Pilotprojekt zum Aufbau eines umfassenden Energiemanagements fuer die rund 1600 staedtischen Gebaeude der bayerischen Metropole. Basis dieser Entwicklung ist ein uebergeordnetes Gebaeudeleitsystem, das aeber das staedtische Telefonnetz (ISDN-HICOM) bzw. das ISDN-Netz der Telekom mit den sogenannten Gebaeude-Automations-Knoten (GA-Knoten) in den jeweiligen Liegenschaften kommuniziert. Aus Gruenden der Firmenneutralitaet waehlten die Muenchner ein offenes System auf der Basis des firmenneutralen Datenuebertragungssystems (FND). Mittelfristiges Ziel ist die Aufschaltung von rund 600 Liegenschaften, wobei Anfang 1998 bereits 150 Gebaeude fixiert waren. (orig.)

  17. Net-zero Building Cluster Simulations and On-line Energy Forecasting for Adaptive and Real-Time Control and Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiwang

    Buildings consume about 41.1% of primary energy and 74% of the electricity in the U.S. Moreover, it is estimated by the National Energy Technology Laboratory that more than 1/4 of the 713 GW of U.S. electricity demand in 2010 could be dispatchable if only buildings could respond to that dispatch through advanced building energy control and operation strategies and smart grid infrastructure. In this study, it is envisioned that neighboring buildings will have the tendency to form a cluster, an open cyber-physical system to exploit the economic opportunities provided by a smart grid, distributed power generation, and storage devices. Through optimized demand management, these building clusters will then reduce overall primary energy consumption and peak time electricity consumption, and be more resilient to power disruptions. Therefore, this project seeks to develop a Net-zero building cluster simulation testbed and high fidelity energy forecasting models for adaptive and real-time control and decision making strategy development that can be used in a Net-zero building cluster. The following research activities are summarized in this thesis: 1) Development of a building cluster emulator for building cluster control and operation strategy assessment. 2) Development of a novel building energy forecasting methodology using active system identification and data fusion techniques. In this methodology, a systematic approach for building energy system characteristic evaluation, system excitation and model adaptation is included. The developed methodology is compared with other literature-reported building energy forecasting methods; 3) Development of the high fidelity on-line building cluster energy forecasting models, which includes energy forecasting models for buildings, PV panels, batteries and ice tank thermal storage systems 4) Small scale real building validation study to verify the performance of the developed building energy forecasting methodology. The outcomes of

  18. Wireless Infrastructure for Performing Monitoring, Diagnostics, and Control HVAC and Other Energy-Using Systems in Small Commercial Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrick O' Neill

    2009-06-30

    This project focused on developing a low-cost wireless infrastructure for monitoring, diagnosing, and controlling building systems and equipment. End users receive information via the Internet and need only a web browser and Internet connection. The system used wireless communications for: (1) collecting data centrally on site from many wireless sensors installed on building equipment, (2) transmitting control signals to actuators and (3) transmitting data to an offsite network operations center where it is processed and made available to clients on the Web (see Figure 1). Although this wireless infrastructure can be applied to any building system, it was tested on two representative applications: (1) monitoring and diagnostics for packaged rooftop HVAC units used widely on small commercial buildings and (2) continuous diagnosis and control of scheduling errors such as lights and equipment left on during unoccupied hours. This project developed a generic infrastructure for performance monitoring, diagnostics, and control, applicable to a broad range of building systems and equipment, but targeted specifically to small to medium commercial buildings (an underserved market segment). The proposed solution is based on two wireless technologies. The first, wireless telemetry, is used for cell phones and paging and is reliable and widely available. This risk proved to be easily managed during the project. The second technology is on-site wireless communication for acquiring data from sensors and transmitting control signals. The technology must enable communication with many nodes, overcome physical obstructions, operate in environments with other electrical equipment, support operation with on-board power (instead of line power) for some applications, operate at low transmission power in license-free radio bands, and be low cost. We proposed wireless mesh networking to meet these needs. This technology is relatively new and has been applied only in research and tests

  19. TECHNIQUES OF 3D COMPONENT DATABASE ESTABLISHING AND QUALITY CONTROL FOR WOODEN BUILDING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Based on the architectural survey project of “the Chi Lin Nunnery Redevelopment "in Hong Kong,this paper attempts to investigate the techniques of building 3D digital document of large_scale timber structure and quality con trol during construction by computer_based 3D simulation for the whole project.T here were several key issues including primary data acquisition,3D modeling and display,pre_assembling the total building and quality examination,etc.In this pa per,some useful experiments,such as the new applications of CCD digital cameras,image and graph processing software packages (CAD,Photoshop,Photomod eler,Vexcel,etc.) to the architectures are also presented.These methods intr oduced in this paper are suitable for image and graph integrated database buildi ng of complicated architectures,and useful for conveniently maintaining and rec onstructing the ancient architectures.

  20. A novel 300 kW arc plasma inverter system based on hierarchical controlled building block structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    To date, the high power arc plasma technology is widely used. A next generation high power arc plasma system based on building block structure is presented. The whole arc plasma inverter system is composed of 12 paralleled units to increase the system output capability. The hierarchical control system is adopted to improve the reliability and flexibility of the high power arc plasma inverter. To ensure the reliable turn on and off of the IGBT module in each building block unit, a special pulse drive circuit is designed by using pulse transformer. The experimental result indicates that the high power arc plasma inverter system can transfer 300 kW arc plasma energy reliably with high efficiency.

  1. Report on design and technical standard planning of vibration controlling structure on the buildings, in the Tokai Reprocessing Facility, Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uryu, Mitsuru; Terada, Shuji; Shinohara, Takaharu; Yamazaki, Toshihiko; Nakayama, Kazuhiko [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Works; Kondo, Toshinari; Hosoya, Hisashi

    1997-10-01

    The Tokai reprocessing facility buildings are constituted by a lower foundation, vibration controlling layers, and upper structure. At the vibration controlling layer, a laminated rubber aiming support of the building load and extension of the eigenfrequency and a damper aiming absorption of earthquake energy are provided. Of course, the facility buildings are directly supported at the arenaceous shale (Taga Layer) of the Miocene in the Neogene confirmed to the stablest ground, as well the buildings with high vibration resistant importance in Japan. This report shows that when the vibration controlling structure is adopted for the reprocessing facility buildings where such high vibration resistance is required, reduction of input acceleration for equipments and pipings can be achieved and the earthquake resistant safety can also be maintained with sufficient tolerance and reliability. (G.K.)

  2. Building the artificial neural network environment : Artificial Neural Networks in plane control

    OpenAIRE

    Naumetc, Daniil

    2017-01-01

    These days Artificial Neural Networks have penetrated into all digital technologies that surround us. Mostly every online service like Facebook, Google, Instagram are using Artificial Intelligence to build better service for their users. Google Self-Driving Car Project that started several years ago already have results as driverless cars already moving on the streets of California. Artificial Intelligence makes a breakthrough in Medicine as well. Such programs already successfully find disea...

  3. Occupant comfort, control, and satisfaction in three California mixed-mode office buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Ring, Erik W; Brager, Gail S.

    2000-01-01

    This report outlines the results from an occupant survey of satisfaction with thermal comfort and air quality in three California mixed-mode office buildings. Mixed-mode refers to the relatively new design strategy of explicitly integrating natural ventilation with mechanical cooling and ventilation services. Each of the research sites includes operable windows along with a complete HVAC system. Survey results indicate that access to operable windows has a significant positive impact on repor...

  4. Study radiolabeling of urea-based PSMA inhibitor with 68-Galliu: Comparative evaluation of automated and not automated methods; Estudo de radiomarcacao com Galio-68 do inibidor de PSMA baseado em ureia: avaliacao comparativa de metodo automatizado e nao automatizado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alcarde, Lais Fernanda

    2016-07-01

    The methods for clinical diagnosis of prostate cancer include rectal examination and the dosage of the prostatic specific antigen (PSA). However, the PSA level is elevated in about 20 to 30% of cases related to benign pathologies, resulting in false positives and leading patients to unnecessary biopsies. The prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA), in contrast, is over expressed in prostate cancer and founded at low levels in healthy organs. As a result, it stimulated the development of small molecule inhibitors of PSMA, which carry imaging agents to the tumor and are not affected by their microvasculature. Recent studies suggest that the HBED-CC chelator intrinsically contributes to the binding of the PSMA inhibitor peptide based on urea (Glu-urea-Lys) to the pharmacophore group. This work describes the optimization of radiolabeling conditions of PSMA-HBED-CC with {sup 68}Ga, using automated system (synthesis module) and no automated method, seeking to establish an appropriate condition to prepare this new radiopharmaceutical, with emphasis on the labeling yield and radiochemical purity of the product. It also aimed to evaluate the stability of the radiolabeled peptide in transport conditions and study the biological distribution of the radiopharmaceutical in healthy mice. The study of radiolabeling parameters enabled to define a non-automated method which resulted in high radiochemical purity (> 95 %) without the need for purification of the labeled peptide. The automated method has been adapted, using a module of synthesis and software already available at IPEN, and also resulted in high synthetic yield (≥ 90%) specially when compared with those described in the literature, with the associated benefit of greater control of the production process in compliance with Good Manufacturing Practices. The study of radiolabeling parameters afforded the PSMA-HBED-CC-{sup 68}Ga with higher specific activity than observed in published clinical studies (≥ 140,0 GBq

  5. Titulador potenciométrico automatizado baseado em sistema de fluxo monossegmentado Automated potentiometric titrator based in monosegmented flow system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgard Moreira Ganzarolli

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available A new automated system for acid-base flow titrations is proposed. In the operation mode, several sample to titrant volumetric ratios are injected in an air segmented plug. Five three way solenoid valves and three acrilic junctions, assembled in a hidrodynamic injection system, were accountable for the monosegmented reagents plug formation. A turbulent flow reactor was used for a perfect mix of reagents in the plug. The detector system employed a glass combined electrode fitted in an acrilic holder. Titrations of hydrochloric, nitric and acetic acids, in several concentrations, were performed with standard sodium hidroxide, for evaluation of the efficiency of the system. The relative standard deviation of the determinations was about ±0,5% and each titration was carried out in 3-4 minutes. A Quick BASIC 4.5® program was developed for the titrator control.

  6. COMPARAÇÃO ENTRE OS SISTEMAS AUTOMATIZADO E CONVENCIONAL DE CRIOPRESERVAÇÃO DE SÊMEN BOVINO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cátia Oliveira Guimarães Abud

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the efficiency of bovine semen cryopreservation using the controlled-rate freezing machine versus the conventional method (uncontrolled curve by the parameters of sperm quality and viability in post-thaw period. Semen from four adult crossbreed bulls was cryopreserved in Tris-yolk-glycerol medium. The computer assisted analysis of thawed semen detected the following results: PM 56.50±22.25%; VAP 34.77±4.25μm/s; VSL 28.17±4.25μm/s; VCL 58.45±6.85μm/s; STR 82.00±2.31%; LIN 49.50±3.32%, to automated system and PM 57.00±13.11%; VAP 25.75±1.66μm/s; VSL 23.32±1.99μm/s; VCL 63.32±1.79μm/s; STR 82.25±3.59μm/s; LIN 50.00±4.97μm/s to conventional cryopreservation system. The results of plasma membrane and acrosome integrity evaluation were 54.7±12.55% and 36.13±22.20% for the automated system and 53.22±13.22% and 47.26±5.74% for the conventional system, respectively. The parameters evaluated demonstrated that there was no statistical difference between the cryopreservation systems. Thus, the choice of the bovine semen cryopreservation method to be used on a farm is a responsibility of the technician, and should be based on the reality of each farm. Therefore, it is always necessary to consider that the conventional system of bovine semen cryopreservation can vary more than the automated system, which, despite the cost of the equipment, can ensure repeatability of the results and consequent quality of cryopreserved bovine semen.

  7. Rocks, Clays, Water, and Salts: Highly Durable, Infinitely Rechargeable, Eminently Controllable Thermal Batteries for Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan W. Rempel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Materials that store the energy of warm days, to return that heat during cool nights, have been fundamental to vernacular building since ancient times. Although building with thermally rechargeable materials became a niche pursuit with the advent of fossil fuel-based heating and cooling, energy and climate change concerns have sparked new enthusiasm for these substances of high heat capacity and moderate thermal conductivity: stone, adobe, rammed earth, brick, water, concrete, and more recently, phase-change materials. While broadly similar, these substances absorb and release heat in unique patterns characteristic of their mineralogies, densities, fluidities, emissivities, and latent heats of fusion. Current architectural practice, however, shows little awareness of these differences and the resulting potential to match materials to desired thermal performance. This investigation explores that potential, illustrating the correspondence between physical parameters and thermal storage-and-release patterns in direct-, indirect-, and isolated-gain passive solar configurations. Focusing on heating applications, results demonstrate the superiority of water walls for daytime warmth, the tunability of granite and concrete for evening warmth, and the exceptional ability of phase-change materials to sustain near-constant heat delivery throughout the night.

  8. The role of unattended ground sensors (UGS) in regional confidence building and arms control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vannoni, M.; Duggan, R.

    1997-03-01

    Although the Cold War has ended, the world has not become more peaceful. Without the stability provided by an international system dominated by two super-powers, local conflicts are more likely to escalate. Agreements to counter destabilizing pressures in regional conflicts can benefit from the use of cooperative monitoring. Cooperative monitoring is the collecting, analyzing, and sharing of information among parties to an agreement. Ground sensor technologies can contribute to the collection of relevant information. If implemented with consideration for local conditions, cooperative monitoring can build confidence, strengthen existing agreements, and set the stage for continued progress. This presentation describes two examples: the Israeli-Egyptian Sinai agreements of the 1970s and a conceptual example for the contemporary Korean Peninsula. The Sinai was a precedent for the successful use of UGS within the context of cooperative monitoring. The Korean Peninsula is the world`s largest military confrontation. Future confidence building measures that address the security needs of both countries could decrease the danger of conflict and help create an environment for a peace agreement.

  9. Quality control for building libraries from electrospray ionization tandem mass spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoyu; Neta, Pedatsur; Stein, Stephen E

    2014-07-01

    Electrospray ionization (ESI) tandem mass spectrometry coupled with liquid chromatography is a routine technique for identifying and quantifying compounds in complex mixtures. The identification step can be aided by matching acquired tandem mass spectra (MS(2)) against reference library spectra as is routine for electron ionization (EI) spectra from gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). However, unlike the latter spectra, ESI MS(2) spectra are likely to originate from various precursor ions for a given target molecule and may be acquired at varying energies and resolutions and have characteristic noise signatures, requiring processing methods very different from EI to obtain complete and high quality reference spectra for individual analytes. This paper presents procedures developed for creating a tandem mass spectral library that addresses these factors. Library building begins by acquiring MS(2) spectra for all major MS(1) peaks in an infusion run, followed by assigning MS(2) spectra to clusters and creating a consensus spectrum for each. Intensity-based constraints for cluster membership were developed, as well as peak testing to recognize and eliminate suspect peaks and reduce noise. Consensus spectra were then examined by a human evaluator using a number of criteria, including a fraction of annotated peaks and consistency of spectra for a given ion at different energies. These methods have been developed and used to build a library from >9000 compounds, yielding 230,000 spectra.

  10. Aportes de los sistemas de última generación para el desarrollo de proyectos viales en el Perú: Diseño geométrico automatizado de carreteras

    OpenAIRE

    Eto Chero, Fanny Beatriz

    2001-01-01

    La presente Investigación se basa en el avance de los Sistemas de Ultima Generación para el Desarrollo de Proyectos Viales en el Perú, sin embargo, éste abarca muchas áreas, habiéndose optado en el presente informe lo referido al Diseño Geométrico Automatizado de Carreteras. Durante el desarrollo mostramos la Evolución y Estado del Arte del Diseño Geométrico, haciendo el análisis entre software existente e identificando el más adecuado a aplicarse en el país, por último se realiza una aplicac...

  11. Diseño de un modelo de esquema director de un sistema de información gubernamental automatizado para paises en vías de desarrollo

    OpenAIRE

    Guillén Sarita, José Felipe

    2013-01-01

    Se plantea la posibilidad de elaborar un modelo de "Esquema Director" para el desarrollo de un Sistema de Información Gubernamental automatizado para países en vías de desarrollo. Así mismo,debido a la diversidad de países en vías de desarrollo se establece la necesidad de su estratificación con el fin de definir modelos para grupos de países con características similares. Con este propósito se selecciona la región de Centroamérica y El Caribe, estratificándose los países del área en...

  12. Proceedings of the workshop on the dynamic response of environmental control processes in buildings, Lafayette, Indiana, March 13-15, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tree, D.R.; McBride, M.F. (eds.)

    1979-01-01

    The purpose of this workshop was to consider how energy use in buildings can be reduced while maintaining the comfort of the occupants. It was postulated that optimization of energy use in buildings can be achieved through the use of operating strategies which consider the dynamic characteristics of comfort, the design and construction of the building, and the environmental control system. Working sessions were presented on equipment, controls, structures, human factors, circulation/distribution, design, operation and use pattern, management and codes, and energy storage. (LCL)

  13. Building oceanographic and atmospheric observation networks by composition: unmanned vehicles, communication networks, and planning and execution control frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, J. T.; Pinto, J.; Martins, R.; Costa, M.; Ferreira, F.; Gomes, R.

    2014-12-01

    The problem of developing mobile oceanographic and atmospheric observation networks (MOAO) with coordinated air and ocean vehicles is discussed in the framework of the communications and control software tool chain developed at Underwater Systems and Technologies Laboratory (LSTS) from Porto University. This is done with reference to field experiments to illustrate key capabilities and to assess future MOAO operations. First, the motivation for building MOAO by "composition" of air and ocean vehicles, communication networks, and planning and execution control frameworks is discussed - in networked vehicle systems information and commands are exchanged among multiple vehicles and operators, and the roles, relative positions, and dependencies of these vehicles and operators change during operations. Second, the planning and execution control framework developed at LSTS for multi-vehicle systems is discussed with reference to key concepts such as autonomy, mixed-initiative interactions, and layered organization. Third, the LSTS tool software tool chain is presented to show how to develop MOAO by composition. The tool chain comprises the Neptus command and control framework for mixed initiative interactions, the underlying IMC messaging protocol, and the DUNE on-board software. Fourth, selected LSTS operational deployments illustrate MOAO capability building. In 2012 we demonstrated the use of UAS to "ferry" data from UUVs located beyond line of sight (BLOS). In 2013 we demonstrated coordinated observations of coastal fronts with small UAS and UUVs, "bent" BLOS through the use of UAS as communication relays, and UAS tracking of juvenile hammer-head sharks. In 2014 we demonstrated UUV adaptive sampling with the closed loop controller of the UUV residing on a UAS; this was done with the help of a Wave Glider ASV with a communications gateway. The results from these experiments provide a background for assessing potential future UAS operations in a compositional MOAO.

  14. Building holarchies for concurrent manufacturing planning and control in EtoPlan

    OpenAIRE

    Giebels, M.M.T.; Kals, H.J.J.; Zijm, W.H.M.

    2001-01-01

    The increasing versatility in order characteristics calls for planning and control systems that are able to evolve in time. Traditional hierarchical systems are usually based on a function-oriented static control structure in which all orders and products are handled similarly. Due to the dynamically changing characteristics of manufacturing environments these static control structures are not suitable anymore. Hence, a concept description and a prototype implementation for concurrent manufac...

  15. Automatized Calculating System for a Ketogenic Diet: CETORAP Sistema automatizado de cálculo de dieta cetogénica: CETORAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amarilis Barbié Rubiera

    cálculo de las recomendaciones en energía y macronutrimentos que conlleva este régimen especial de alimentación. Objetivo: Crear un método rápido y confiable que agilice el engorroso y demorado cálculo de las recomendaciones necesarias para la dieta cetogénica. Métodos: Se creó un listado de alimentos permitidos para este régimen de alimentación con las cantidades de energía y macronutrimentos contenidos por porciones, que se utilizó como base de datos para un sistema automatizado de cálculo de las recomendaciones según la edad y peso del paciente y en un segundo tiempo para el cálculo del patrón, unido a esto se crearon recetas de platos apropiados para los menú cetogénicos. Resultados: Se creó un sistema interactivo de muy fácil manejo que permite realizar todos los cálculos pertinentes para un régimen cetogénico en un paciente dado y en un plazo muy breve de tiempo. Este sistema se ha puesto en práctica en el Instituto Nacional de Neurología y Neurocirugía con ahorro notable de tiempo y confiabilidad de las estimaciones en términos de energía y alimentos. Su sencillez permite su uso por diferentes niveles de técnicos (dietistas y profesionales. Conclusiones: El sistema creado posibilita la confección de dietas cetogénicas que contribuyen a mantener la salud de pacientes epilépticos.

  16. Controlled evaporative cooling on a superhydrophilic surface: building a green wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Suin; Shin, Sangwoo; Meggers, Forrest; Bou-Zeid, Elie; Stone, Howard A.

    2016-11-01

    We propose a way to design of an evaporative cooling device using continuous water flow on a superhydrophilic surface. Continuous flow helps prevent contaminant fouling on the surface of the cooler, which is a major challenge for conventional evaporative (swamp) coolers. A superhydrophilic surface leads to a reduced coolant flow rate, allowing for a maximum ratio of evaporative heat transfer to coolant thermal mass. Also, a staggered structure increases the surface area of the thin film flow of water which results in higher cooling efficiency. We performed both experimental and theoretical studies on the temperature change in the thin film flow of water. By keeping the water film thickness below 100 μm, 5 K of temperature drop in the device was achieved. The cooling device can be manufactured using conventional cost-effective processes, offering practical applications in energy-efficient buildings.

  17. Fuzzy Logic Based Controller for Maintaining Human Comfort within Intelligent Building System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrodin .T. Mustapha, Momoh J. E. Salami, Nazim and M. Nasiri

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an intelligent control approach for air handling unit (AHU which is an integral part of heat, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC system. In the past years various control design for HVAC have been proposed as this system remarkably consumes very high energy. But most of the proposed designs were focused on the control flow of heat-transfer medium such as chilled or heated water while the importance of the efficient mixture of outdoor and indoor enthalpies is sometimes ignored. These enthalpies invariably determine the best strategy to overcome thermal load in a controlled environment to satisfy human comfort, hence a control design strategy must be able to efficiently regulate the flow and mixture of outdoor and indoor enthalpies by a proper control of AHU dampers and fans. This approach requires sensors to measure temperature and relative humidity of both outdoor and indoor environments. However, unpredictable level of disturbances coming from many sources including heat generated by occupants, electrical items and air leaking and the continuous changes of outdoor enthalpy makes it difficult to model the process. Consequently, conventional controllers are not suitable, hence the use of fuzzy logic controller (FLC is proposed in this paper. This proposed controller operates in a master and slave control loop so as to control the AHU dampers and fans with adjustable output membership function whilst at the same time a scaling-factor method is used to drive the master operation. To implement the proposed system, a small scale prototype has been designed and fabricated. This prototype is an AHU model which consists of ductwork, temperature and humidity sensors, dampers, air cooling and heating systems. A small box is used as a conditioning space in which a room temperature is measured. The control algorithm is programmed using National Instrument (NI LabVIEW and executed using NI FieldPoint. Experimental results reveal that

  18. Model Predictive Controller for Active Demand Side Management with PV Self-consumption in an Intelligent Building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zong, Yi; Mihet-Popa, Lucian; Kullmann, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a Model Predictive Controller (MPC) for electrical heaters’ predictive power consumption including maximizing the use of local generation (e.g. solar power) in an intelligent building. The MPC is based on dynamic power price and weather forecast, considering users’ comfort set...... for Active Demand Side Management (ADSM) can dramatically save energy and improve grid reliability, when there is a high penetration of Renewable Energy Sources (RESs) in the power system. © 2012 IEEE...... settings to meet an optimization objective such as minimum cost and minimum reference temperature error. It demonstrates that this MPC strategy can realize load shifting, and maximize the PV self-consumption in the residential sector. With this demand side control study, it is expected that MPC strategy...

  19. Toward Building Hybrid Biological/in silico Neural Networks for Motor Neuroprosthetic Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocaturk, Mehmet; Gulcur, Halil Ozcan; Canbeyli, Resit

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we introduce the Bioinspired Neuroprosthetic Design Environment (BNDE) as a practical platform for the development of novel brain-machine interface (BMI) controllers, which are based on spiking model neurons. We built the BNDE around a hard real-time system so that it is capable of creating simulated synapses from extracellularly recorded neurons to model neurons. In order to evaluate the practicality of the BNDE for neuroprosthetic control experiments, a novel, adaptive BMI controller was developed and tested using real-time closed-loop simulations. The present controller consists of two in silico medium spiny neurons, which receive simulated synaptic inputs from recorded motor cortical neurons. In the closed-loop simulations, the recordings from the cortical neurons were imitated using an external, hardware-based neural signal synthesizer. By implementing a reward-modulated spike timing-dependent plasticity rule, the controller achieved perfect target reach accuracy for a two-target reaching task in one-dimensional space. The BNDE combines the flexibility of software-based spiking neural network (SNN) simulations with powerful online data visualization tools and is a low-cost, PC-based, and all-in-one solution for developing neurally inspired BMI controllers. We believe that the BNDE is the first implementation, which is capable of creating hybrid biological/in silico neural networks for motor neuroprosthetic control and utilizes multiple CPU cores for computationally intensive real-time SNN simulations.

  20. Building a dynamically ASP.NET 2.0 GridView control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalin NACHILA

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Microsoft Visual Studio 2005 (based on ASP.NET 2.0, the successor to Visual Studio .NET 2003 has a lot of new features and goodies designed for Web developers. This article show how a ASP.NET 2.0 control can be dynamically connected to Microsoft Access database. The delete and update operation will be implemented using a GridView control and SQL queries. The connection between the database and the .NET application will be made with OleDb Data provider, the new Access Data Source control. The SQL queries will be implemented with OleDbCommand.

  1. Recommended Changes to Specifications for Demand Controlled Ventilation in California's Title 24 Building Energy Efficiency Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, William J.; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Faulkner, David

    2010-04-08

    In demand-controlled ventilation (DCV), rates of outdoor air ventilation are automatically modulated as occupant density varies. The objective is to keep ventilation rates at or above design specifications and code requirements and also to save energy by avoiding excessive ventilation rates. DCV is most often used in spaces with highly variable and sometime dense occupancy. In almost all cases, carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) sensors installed in buildings provide the signal to the ventilation rate control system. People produce and exhale CO{sub 2} as a consequence of their normal metabolic processes; thus, the concentrations of CO{sub 2} inside occupied buildings are higher than the concentrations of CO{sub 2} in the outdoor air. The magnitude of the indoor-outdoor CO{sub 2} concentration difference decreases as the building's ventilation rate per person increases. The difference between the indoor and outdoor CO{sub 2} concentration is also a proxy for the indoor concentrations of other occupant-generated bioeffluents, such as body odors. Reviews of the research literature on DCV indicate a significant potential for energy savings, particularly in buildings or spaces with a high and variable occupancy. Based on modeling, cooling energy savings from applications of DCV are as high as 20%. With support from the California Energy Commission and the U.S. Department of Energy, the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory has performed research on the performance of CO{sub 2} sensing technologies and optical people counters for DCV. In addition, modeling was performed to evaluate the potential energy savings and cost effectiveness of using DCV in general office spaces within the range of California climates. The above-described research has implications for the specifications pertaining to DCV in section 121 of the California Title 24 Standard. Consequently, this document suggests possible changes in these specifications based on the research findings. The suggested

  2. Sliding mode fault detection and fault-tolerant control of smart dampers in semi-active control of building structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeganeh Fallah, Arash; Taghikhany, Touraj

    2015-12-01

    Recent decades have witnessed much interest in the application of active and semi-active control strategies for seismic protection of civil infrastructures. However, the reliability of these systems is still in doubt as there remains the possibility of malfunctioning of their critical components (i.e. actuators and sensors) during an earthquake. This paper focuses on the application of the sliding mode method due to the inherent robustness of its fault detection observer and fault-tolerant control. The robust sliding mode observer estimates the state of the system and reconstructs the actuators’ faults which are used for calculating a fault distribution matrix. Then the fault-tolerant sliding mode controller reconfigures itself by the fault distribution matrix and accommodates the fault effect on the system. Numerical simulation of a three-story structure with magneto-rheological dampers demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed fault-tolerant control system. It was shown that the fault-tolerant control system maintains the performance of the structure at an acceptable level in the post-fault case.

  3. Control of disturbing loads in residential and commercial buildings via geometric algebra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilla, Manuel-V

    2013-01-01

    Many definitions have been formulated to represent nonactive power for distorted voltages and currents in electronic and electrical systems. Unfortunately, no single universally suitable representation has been accepted as a prototype for this power component. This paper defines a nonactive power multivector from the most advanced multivectorial power theory based on the geometric algebra (GA). The new concept can have more importance on harmonic loads compensation, identification, and metering, between other applications. Likewise, this paper is concerned with a pioneering method for the compensation of disturbing loads. In this way, we propose a multivectorial relative quality index δ(~) associated with the power multivector. It can be assumed as a new index for power quality evaluation, harmonic sources detection, and power factor improvement in residential and commercial buildings. The proposed method consists of a single-point strategy based of a comparison among different relative quality index multivectors, which may be measured at the different loads on the same metering point. The comparison can give pieces of information with magnitude, direction, and sense on the presence of disturbing loads. A numerical example is used to illustrate the clear capabilities of the suggested approach.

  4. Multi-Stakeholder Taskforces in Bangladesh — A Distinctive Approach to Build Sustainable Tobacco Control Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela M. Jackson-Morris

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The MPOWER policy package enables countries to implement effective, evidence-based strategies to address the threat posed to their population by tobacco. All countries have challenges to overcome when implementing tobacco control policy. Some are generic such as tobacco industry efforts to undermine and circumvent legislation; others are specific to national or local context. Various factors influence how successfully challenges are addressed, including the legal-political framework for enforcement, public and administrative attitudes towards the law, and whether policy implementation measures are undertaken. This paper examines District Tobacco Control Taskforces, a flexible policy mechanism developed in Bangladesh to support the implementation of the Smoking and Tobacco Products Usage (Control Act 2005 and its 2013 Amendment. At the time of this study published research and/or data was not available and understanding about these structures, their role, contribution, limitations and potential, was limited. We consider Taskforce characteristics and suggest that the “package” comprises a distinctive tobacco control implementation model. Qualitative data is presented from interviews with key informants in ten districts with activated taskforces (n = 70 to provide insight from the perspectives of taskforce members and non-members. In all ten districts taskforces were seen as a crucial tool for tobacco control implementation. Where taskforces were perceived to be functioning well, current positive impacts were perceived, including reduced smoking in public places and tobacco advertising, and increased public awareness and political profile. In districts with less well established taskforces, interviewees believed in their taskforce’s ‘potential’ to deliver similar benefits once their functioning was improved. Recommendations to improve functioning and enhance impact were made. The distinctive taskforce concept and lessons from their

  5. Active load management in an intelligent building using model predictive control strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zong, Yi; Kullmann, Daniel; Thavlov, Anders

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces PowerFlexHouse, a research facility for exploring the technical potential of active load management in a distributed power system (SYSLAB) with a high penetration of renewable energy and presents in detail on how to implement a thermal model predictive controller for load...... shifting in PowerFlexHouse heaters' power consumption scheme. With this demand side control study, it is expected that this method of demand response can dramatically raise energy efficiencies and improve grid reliability, when there is a high penetration of intermittent energy resources in the power...

  6. Effective Pneumatic Scheme and Control Strategy of a Climbing Robot for Class Wall Cleaning on High-rise Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanghua Zong

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available A new kind of pneumatic climbing robot is presented to meet the requirements of glass-wall cleaning for high-rise buildings, which is totally actuated by pneumatic cylinders and attached to the glass wall with vacuum suckers. Using the pneumatic actuators the climbing robot can be made lightweight and dexterous. At the same time the movement driven by pneumatic actuators has the characteristic of passive compliance. In order to solve the problems of high speed movement for the Y cylinder and precise position control of the X cylinder, the applied pneumatic schemes of X and Y cylinders are employed to drive the high-speed on-off solenoid valves and an ordinary valve to adjust the air-flow and pressure to the cylinders. Furthermore a method of segment and variable bang-bang controller is proposed to implement the accurate control of the position servo system for the X cylinder during the sideways movement. Testing results show that the novel approach can effectively improve the control quality. This cleaning robot can meet the requirements of realization.

  7. Efficacy of an Essential Oil-Based Pesticide for Controlling Bed Bug (Cimex lectularius Infestations in Apartment Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changlu Wang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Bed bugs (Cimex lectularius L. and Cimex hemipterus F. are among the most difficult urban pests to manage. Many essential oil-based bed bug control products that are considered reduced risk to mammals compared to synthetic insect neurotoxins have become commercially available, but their effectiveness as a stand-alone control method is unknown. This study assessed the field efficacy of an essential oil-based bed bug control product (EcoRaider; a.i. 1% geraniol + 1% cedar oil + 2% sodium lauryl sulfate compared to a pyrethroid and neonicotinoid mixture spray (0.075% Temprid SC; a.i. beta-cyfluthrin + imidacloprid. After 12 weeks, the three treatments—EcoRaider, Temprid SC, and EcoRaider + Temprid SC caused 92.5 ± 2.7, 92.9 ± 3.0, and 91.7% ± 2.7% bed bug count reduction, respectively. No significant differences existed in the bed bug reduction among the treatments. Bed bugs were eliminated from only 22% of the treated apartments. Among those still with bed bugs, 76% of the residents did not know bed bugs were present. We documented the residents’ self-control practices and discussed the potential of using essential oil-based insecticides in bed bug management programs to minimize the health risks to building occupants and pets and to slow down the development of insecticide resistance.

  8. Efficacy of an Essential Oil-Based Pesticide for Controlling Bed Bug (Cimex lectularius) Infestations in Apartment Buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Changlu; Singh, Narinderpal; Cooper, Richard

    2014-11-05

    Bed bugs (Cimex lectularius L. and Cimex hemipterus F.) are among the most difficult urban pests to manage. Many essential oil-based bed bug control products that are considered reduced risk to mammals compared to synthetic insect neurotoxins have become commercially available, but their effectiveness as a stand-alone control method is unknown. This study assessed the field efficacy of an essential oil-based bed bug control product (EcoRaider; a.i. 1% geraniol + 1% cedar oil + 2% sodium lauryl sulfate) compared to a pyrethroid and neonicotinoid mixture spray (0.075% Temprid SC; a.i. beta-cyfluthrin + imidacloprid). After 12 weeks, the three treatments-EcoRaider, Temprid SC, and EcoRaider + Temprid SC caused 92.5 ± 2.7, 92.9 ± 3.0, and 91.7% ± 2.7% bed bug count reduction, respectively. No significant differences existed in the bed bug reduction among the treatments. Bed bugs were eliminated from only 22% of the treated apartments. Among those still with bed bugs, 76% of the residents did not know bed bugs were present. We documented the residents' self-control practices and discussed the potential of using essential oil-based insecticides in bed bug management programs to minimize the health risks to building occupants and pets and to slow down the development of insecticide resistance.

  9. Controlled loading of building blocks into temporary self-assembled scaffolds for directed assembly of organic nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banner, L Todd; Danila, Delia C; Sharpe, Katie; Durkin, Melissa; Clayton, Benjamin; Anderson, Ben; Richter, Andrew; Pinkhassik, Eugene

    2008-10-21

    Using temporary self-assembled scaffolds to preorganize building blocks is a potentially powerful method for the synthesis of organic nanostructures with programmed shapes. We examined the underlying phenomena governing the loading of hydrophobic monomers into lipid bilayer interior and demonstrated successful control of the amount and ratio of loaded monomers. When excess styrene derivatives or acrylates were added to the aqueous solution of unilamellar liposomes made from saturated phospholipids, most loading occurs within the first few hours. Dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy revealed no evidence of aggregation caused by monomers. Bilayers appeared to have a certain capacity for accommodating monomers. The total volume of loaded monomers is independent of monomer structure. X-ray scattering showed the increase in bilayer thickness consistent with loading monomers into bilayer interior. Loading kinetics is inversely proportional to the hydrophobicity and size of monomers. Loading and extraction kinetic data suggest that crossing the polar heads region is the rate limiting step. Consideration of loading kinetics and multiple equilibria are important for achieving reproducible monomer loading. The total amount of monomers loaded into the bilayer can be controlled by the loading time or length of hydrophobic lipid tails. The ratio of loaded monomers can be varied by changing the ratio of monomers used for loading or by the time-controlled replacement of a preloaded monomer. Understanding and controlling the loading of monomers into bilayers contributes to the directed assembly of organic nanostructures.

  10. Wireless Infrastructure for Performing Monitoring, Diagnostics, and Control HVAC and Other Energy-Using Systems in Small Commercial Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrick O' Neill

    2009-06-30

    This project focused on developing a low-cost wireless infrastructure for monitoring, diagnosing, and controlling building systems and equipment. End users receive information via the Internet and need only a web browser and Internet connection. The system used wireless communications for: (1) collecting data centrally on site from many wireless sensors installed on building equipment, (2) transmitting control signals to actuators and (3) transmitting data to an offsite network operations center where it is processed and made available to clients on the Web (see Figure 1). Although this wireless infrastructure can be applied to any building system, it was tested on two representative applications: (1) monitoring and diagnostics for packaged rooftop HVAC units used widely on small commercial buildings and (2) continuous diagnosis and control of scheduling errors such as lights and equipment left on during unoccupied hours. This project developed a generic infrastructure for performance monitoring, diagnostics, and control, applicable to a broad range of building systems and equipment, but targeted specifically to small to medium commercial buildings (an underserved market segment). The proposed solution is based on two wireless technologies. The first, wireless telemetry, is used for cell phones and paging and is reliable and widely available. This risk proved to be easily managed during the project. The second technology is on-site wireless communication for acquiring data from sensors and transmitting control signals. The technology must enable communication with many nodes, overcome physical obstructions, operate in environments with other electrical equipment, support operation with on-board power (instead of line power) for some applications, operate at low transmission power in license-free radio bands, and be low cost. We proposed wireless mesh networking to meet these needs. This technology is relatively new and has been applied only in research and tests

  11. The Advantage of Highly Controlled Lighting for Offices and Commercial Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubinstein, Francis; Bolotov, Dmitriy; Levi, Mark; Powell, Kevin; Schwartz, Peter

    2008-08-17

    The paper presents results from pilot studies of new 'workstation-specific' luminaires that are designed to provide highly, efficient, customized lighting for open-office cubicles. Workstation specific luminaires have the following characteristics: (1) they provide separate, dimming control of the cubicle's 'ambient' and 'task' lighting components, (2) occupancy sensors and control photosensors are integrated into the fixture's design and operation, (3) luminaires can be networked using physical cabling, microcontrollers and a PC running control software. The energy savings, demand response capabilities and quality of light from the two WS luminaires were evaluated and compared to the performance of a static, low-ambient lighting system that is uncontrolled. Initial results from weeks of operation provide strong indication that WS luminaires can largely eliminate the unnecessary lighting of unoccupied cubicles while providing IESNA-required light levels when the cubicles are occupied. Because each cubicle's lighting is under occupant sensor control, the WS luminaires can capitalize on the fact cubicles are often unoccupied during normal working hours and reduce their energy use accordingly.

  12. An Overview of Demand Side Management Control Schemes for Buildings in Smart Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kosek, Anna Magdalena; Costanzo, Giuseppe Tommaso; Bindner, Henrik W.

    2013-01-01

    of the power sector in mind and thus can differ significantly in their architecture, their integration into the various markets, their integration into distribution network operation and several other aspects. This paper proposes a classification of load control policies for demand side management in smart...

  13. Building highly available control system applications with Advanced Telecom Computing Architecture and open standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazakov, Artem; Furukawa, Kazuro

    2010-11-01

    Requirements for modern and future control systems for large projects like International Linear Collider demand high availability for control system components. Recently telecom industry came up with a great open hardware specification - Advanced Telecom Computing Architecture (ATCA). This specification is aimed for better reliability, availability and serviceability. Since its first market appearance in 2004, ATCA platform has shown tremendous growth and proved to be stable and well represented by a number of vendors. ATCA is an industry standard for highly available systems. On the other hand Service Availability Forum, a consortium of leading communications and computing companies, describes interaction between hardware and software. SAF defines a set of specifications such as Hardware Platform Interface, Application Interface Specification. SAF specifications provide extensive description of highly available systems, services and their interfaces. Originally aimed for telecom applications, these specifications can be used for accelerator controls software as well. This study describes benefits of using these specifications and their possible adoption to accelerator control systems. It is demonstrated how EPICS Redundant IOC was extended using Hardware Platform Interface specification, which made it possible to utilize benefits of the ATCA platform.

  14. Evaluation of Sabine's formula on the prediction and control of reverberant noise in a modern LEED Platinum certified research building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn-Vawter, Christopher

    The Powerhouse Energy Campus is a LEED Platinum certified research building located in Fort Collins, Colorado and is part of Colorado State University. Completed in 2014, the renovated interior of the Powerhouse consists largely of open floor plans with minimal closed rooms to allow the building's heating and cooling system to function. The open floor plan and use of interior building materials with hard surfaces created problematic noise levels for the office occupants as noise from laboratory spaces or offices could be heard throughout the building. This project provided a unique opportunity to evaluate the method available to most industrial hygienists to measure and predict reverberant noise: Sabine's Formula and the impulse noise method of reverberation measurement. Reverberation times (RT60) in five interior spaces ranging from 76 m3 to 5400 m3 were modeled using a Sabine's Formula model. The RT60 predictions were then compared to the reverberation times measured in each location, and reverberant noise treatments were designed for two rooms using the same models. The RT 60 times were taken again after the installation of the recommended treatments for two rooms. This allowed for the evaluation of both the modeling capabilities of Sabine's Formula and the practical industrial hygiene application of the equation to select effective acoustic treatments to control reverberant noise. The model performed well in room volumes 620 m3 and below, and would have likely performed better in the large volume rooms if they did not have such complex, open acoustic environments. The model was still slightly underestimating reverberation times at 620 m3 indicating that it would perform well in larger volume spaces, though this study was not able to identify the room volume at which Sabine's Formula begins to overestimate reverberation times. The RT60 time reductions in both the first floor classroom and the second floor conference room indicated that the reverberant noise

  15. Desarrollo de un compilador en Java sustitutivo del Teach Pendant para control de entradas y salidas y posicionamiento automatizado empleando robot industrial Fanuc.

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Se realiza una aplicación en Java para su empleo como interfaz de programación de robots industriales de forma fácil y rápida, por parte de personal sin formación en robótica para la realización de partidas de robots mediante un robot industrial Fanuc LRMate200iD con controladora R30iB. El motivo de emplear el sistema diseñado es que, desde el punto de vista del robot, la de una programación de una soldadura aplicada a la construcción naval es la misma que la requerida para la programació...

  16. Passive control experiment of building with spacious first story by magnet-friction energy dissipation device

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Qing-xiang; WANG Wei

    2005-01-01

    Based on the former performance capacity experiments of the magnet-friction energy dissipation devices, including the permanent magnet-friction energy dissipation device (PMF) and electromagnet-friction energy dissipation devices ( EMF), a 5-story steel frame model with spacious first story is designed and made according to a scale of 1/4. The magnet-friction energy dissipation devices can realize continuously varied controlling force, with rapid response and reverse recognition. Therefore, they overcome shortcomings usually found in energy dissipation devices whose force models are invariable. The two kinds of devices were fixed on the flexible first story of the structure model, and the shaking table tests have been carried out, respectively. In these tests,the performance of the devices and their effectiveness in structural control were confirmed. In this paper, the test results and analysis are discussed.

  17. Building psychosocial assets and wellbeing among adolescent girls: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leventhal, Katherine Sachs; Gillham, Jane; DeMaria, Lisa; Andrew, Gracy; Peabody, John; Leventhal, Steve

    2015-12-01

    We conducted a randomized controlled trial of a 5-month resilience-based program (Girls First Resilience Curriculum or RC) among 2308 rural adolescent girls at 57 government schools in Bihar, India. Local women with at least a 10th grade education served as group facilitators. Girls receiving RC improved more (vs. controls) on emotional resilience, self-efficacy, social-emotional assets, psychological wellbeing, and social wellbeing. Effects were not detected on depression. There was a small, statistically significant negative effect on anxiety (though not likely clinically significant). Results suggest psychosocial assets and wellbeing can be improved for girls in high-poverty, rural schools through a brief school-day program. To our knowledge, this is one of the largest developing country trials of a resilience-based school-day curriculum for adolescents.

  18. Building and Strengthening Infection Control Strategies to Prevent Tuberculosis - Nigeria, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dokubo, E Kainne; Odume, Bethrand; Lipke, Virginia; Muianga, Custodio; Onu, Eugene; Olutola, Ayodotun; Ukachukwu, Lucy; Igweike, Patricia; Chukwura, Nneka; Ubochioma, Emperor; Aniaku, Everistus; Ezeudu, Chinyere; Agboeze, Joseph; Iroh, Gabriel; Orji, Elvina; Godwin, Okezue; Raji, Hasiya Bello; Aboje, S A; Osakwe, Chijioke; Debem, Henry; Bello, Mustapha; Onotu, Dennis; Maloney, Susan

    2016-03-18

    Tuberculosis (TB) is the leading cause of infectious disease mortality worldwide, accounting for more than 1.5 million deaths in 2014, and is the leading cause of death among persons living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection (1). Nigeria has the fourth highest annual number of TB cases among countries, with an estimated incidence of 322 per 100,000 population (1), and the second highest prevalence of HIV infection, with 3.4 million infected persons (2). In 2014, 100,000 incident TB cases and 78,000 TB deaths occurred among persons living with HIV infection in Nigeria (1). Nosocomial transmission is a significant source of TB infection in resource-limited settings (3), and persons with HIV infection and health care workers are at increased risk for TB infection because of their routine exposure to patients with TB in health care facilities (3-5). A lack of TB infection control in health care settings has resulted in outbreaks of TB and drug-resistant TB among patients and health care workers, leading to excess morbidity and mortality. In March 2015, in collaboration with the Nigeria Ministry of Health (MoH), CDC implemented a pilot initiative, aimed at increasing health care worker knowledge about TB infection control, assessing infection control measures in health facilities, and developing plans to address identified gaps. The approach resulted in substantial improvements in TB infection control practices at seven selected facilities, and scale-up of these measures across other facilities might lead to a reduction in TB transmission in Nigeria and globally.

  19. Building on the Enriched Hierarchical Model of Achievement Motivation: Autonomous and Controlling Reasons Underlying Mastery Goals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aikaterini Michou

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Two motivational theories – the Achievement Goal Theory and Self-Determination Theory – have recently been combined to explain students’ motivation, making it possible to study the “what” and the “why” of learners’ achievement strivings. The present study built on this approach by (a investigating whether the distinction between autonomous or volitional and controlling or pressuring reasons can be meaningfully applied to the adoption of mastery-avoidance goals, (b investigating the concurrent and prospective relations between mastery-avoidance goals and their underlying reasons and learning strategies when mastery-approach goals and their underlying reasons were also considered, and by (c incorporating psychological need experiences as an explanatory variable in the relation between achievement motives (i.e., the motive to succeed and motive to avoid failure and both mastery goals and their underlying reasons. In two Turkish university students samples ('N' = 226, 'Mage '= 22.36; 'N' = 331, 'Mage '= 19.5, autonomous and controlling reasons appeared applicable to mastery-avoidance goals and regression and path analysis further showed that mastery-avoidance goals and their underlying autonomous reasons fail to predicted learning strategies over and above the pursuit of mastery-approach goals and their underlying reasons. Finally, need experiences were established as mediators between achievement motives and both mastery goals and their underlying reasons.

  20. Development of valence-directed nanoparticle building blocks on the basis of controlled bio/nano-interfacing chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong-Hwan

    The assembly of nanoparticles in controllable and predictable ways would not only aid practical nanoscale assembly, which requires accurate and scalable assembly of large and complex nanoscale structures, but also would increase their utility for many applications, including electronics, optics, sensing and imaging, medical diagnostics, etc. Well-defined and controlled functionality and directionality of the building blocks are essential to actively control the molecular assembly processes at the nanometer scale. Such controls over the functionality and directionality would enable us to construct sophisticated nanostructures to take advantage of the increasing number of available nanocomponents and ultimately to approximate the complexity and the functionality of current microfabrication. We have developed a serial solid-phase placement approach to synthesize anisotropically or symmetrically functionalized gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), in which the functionality and directionality (e.g., numbers, locations, and orientations) of the functional ligands are controlled. Two types of bi-functionalized (bif-) AuNPs were synthesized at a site-specific manner with increased yield and accuracy: (1) homo-bif-AuNPs with two carboxyl groups at ˜180° angle (para-configuration) and (2) hetero-bif-AuNPs with one carboxyl and one amine functional groups at less than 180°, but greater than 90° angle (meta-configuration). With such control, we successfully demonstrated the assembly of intentionally designed one-dimensional (1D) chains with homo-bif-AuNPs and two-dimensional (2D) rings with hetero-bif-AuNPs, confirming the high functional as well as directional selectivity of the functionalized NPs. This study represents an important step towards accurate, reliable, and scaled-up manufacturing of complex nanoscale structures, potentially making 'bottom-up' nanofabrication of practical use. We have further developed the ligand replacement technology to achieve such active controls

  1. Importance of Building Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reshmi Banerjee

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A building code, or building control, is a set of rules that specify the minimum standards for constructed objects such as buildings and non building structures. The main purpose of building codes are to protect public health, safety and general welfare as they relate to the construction and occupancy of buildings and structures. The building code becomes law of a particular jurisdiction when formally enacted by the appropriate governmental or private authority. Building codes are generally intended to be applied by architects, engineers, constructors and regulators but are also used for various purposes by safety inspectors, environmental scientists, real estate developers, subcontractors, manufacturers of building products and materials, insurance companies, facility managers, tenants and others.

  2. Tool coupling for the design and operation of building energy and control systems based on the Functional Mock-up Interface standard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nouidui, Thierry Stephane; Wetter, Michael

    2014-03-01

    This paper describes software tools developed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) that can be coupled through the Functional Mock-up Interface standard in support of the design and operation of building energy and control systems. These tools have been developed to address the gaps and limitations encountered in legacy simulation tools. These tools were originally designed for the analysis of individual domains of buildings, and have been difficult to integrate with other tools for runtime data exchange. The coupling has been realized by use of the Functional Mock-up Interface for co-simulation, which standardizes an application programming interface for simulator interoperability that has been adopted in a variety of industrial domains. As a variety of coupling scenarios are possible, this paper provides users with guidance on what coupling may be best suited for their application. Furthermore, the paper illustrates how tools can be integrated into a building management system to support the operation of buildings. These tools may be a design model that is used for real-time performance monitoring, a fault detection and diagnostics algorithm, or a control sequence, each of which may be exported as a Functional Mock-up Unit and made available in a building management system as an input/output block. We anticipate that this capability can contribute to bridging the observed performance gap between design and operational energy use of buildings.

  3. Eficácia do sistema de contenção (automatizado e mecânico no atordoamento de bovinos Effectiveness of the restraining system (automated and mechanical in the cattle stunning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Bertoloni

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Um total de 800 bovinos machos (nelore/anelorados, com idade entre 28 e 36 meses, foi atordoado com pistola pneumática, com pressão de operação de 11 a 12bar e haste de penetração de 15.9mm de diâmetro, em sistemas de contenção diferentes (mecânico e atomatizado. O box de contenção mecânico tradicional (2,53x0,88x2,20m não permitiu a contenção da cabeça do animal; no segundo tratamento utilizou-se box de contenção automatizado (2,60x0,85x2,30m, com parede lateral e piso móveis, guilhotina e elevador de cabeça. O box automatizado proporcionou menor número de disparos necessários para o atordoamento (1,0625±0,013 em comparação ao mecânico(1,2025±0,026, (P≤0,0001, reduziu a distância em relação ao ponto ideal no primeiro disparo (1,246±0,918 e 2,357±1,246 e no segundo (3,042±0,141 e 4,016±0,101, (P 0,0001, assim como proporcionou ausência de reflexo respiratório comparativamente ao sistema mecânico (0,0275±0,008, (P≤0,001. O box automatizado apresentou maior bem-estar e maior eficácia na contenção e insensibilização dos bovinosA total of 800 male cattle (Nelore, aged 28-36 months, stunned by pneumatic captive bolt pistol (operating pressure 160-175psi 11-12bar , air consumption (per cycle 1.45ft³ 41L , penetrating shaft diameter 0.625 in 15.9mm in different restrainer systems (mechanical and automated. The traditional mechanical restraint (2.53x0.88x2.20m did not allow the containment of the animal's head, the automated restrainer (2.60x0.85x2.30m allowed adjustable sidewall and restraint and elevating the head. The automatic restrainer provided smaller number of shots required for stunning (1.0625±0.013 compared to mechanical (1.2025±0.026 (P≤0.0001, reduced the distance from the ideal point in the first shot (1.246±0.918 and (2.357±1.246 and second (3.042±0.141 and (4.016±0.101 (P 0.0001, and provided no respiratory reflex compared to the mechanical system (0.0275±0.008, (P≤0.001. The

  4. Influence of Development of the Organization of the Operational Accounting and Control on the Enterprises’ Management of Machine-Building in Ukraine

    OpenAIRE

    Starenka, Olga

    2015-01-01

    The article considers the operational management system of machine-building enterprises in Ukraine under the conditions of interpenetration of accounting and control functions and their deep integration due to shift of the control centres with the centres of operational decision-making. It has been proved that control timely influences behaviour and conditions of economic objects using target indicators, norms and regulations, estimates and the data of operational accounting, thus it takes ac...

  5. Dynamic modeling, experimental evaluation, optimal design and control of integrated fuel cell system and hybrid energy systems for building demands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Gia Luong Huu

    obtained experimental data, the research studied the control of airflow to regulate the temperature of reactors within the fuel processor. The dynamic model provided a platform to test the dynamic response for different control gains. With sufficient sensing and appropriate control, a rapid response to maintain the temperature of the reactor despite an increase in power was possible. The third part of the research studied the use of a fuel cell in conjunction with photovoltaic panels, and energy storage to provide electricity for buildings. This research developed an optimization framework to determine the size of each device in the hybrid energy system to satisfy the electrical demands of buildings and yield the lowest cost. The advantage of having the fuel cell with photovoltaic and energy storage was the ability to operate the fuel cell at baseload at night, thus reducing the need for large battery systems to shift the solar power produced in the day to the night. In addition, the dispatchability of the fuel cell provided an extra degree of freedom necessary for unforeseen disturbances. An operation framework based on model predictive control showed that the method is suitable for optimizing the dispatch of the hybrid energy system.

  6. Hierarchical Control Strategy of Heat and Power for Zero Energy Buildings including Hybrid Fuel Cell/Photovoltaic Power Sources and Plug-in Electric Vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghiasi, Mohammad Iman; Aliakbar Golkar, Masoud; Hajizadeh, Amin

    2016-01-01

    complexities and uncertainties in this kind of hybrid system, a hybrid supervisory control with an adaptive fuzzy sliding power control strategy is proposed to regulate the amount of requested fuel from a fuel cell power source to produce the electrical power and heat. Then, simulation results are used......This paper presents a hierarchical control strategy for heat and electric power control of a building integrating hybrid renewable power sources including photovoltaic, fuel cell and battery energy storage with Plug-in Electric Vehicles (PEV) in smart distribution systems. Because...... of the controllability of fuel cell power, this power sources plays the main role for providing heat and electric power to zero emission buildings. First, the power flow structure between hybrid power resources is described. To do so, all necessary electrical and thermal equations are investigated. Next, due to the many...

  7. Introduction to Cost Control Strategies for Zero Energy Buildings: High-Performance Design and Construction on a Budget (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-09-01

    Momentum behind zero energy building design and construction is increasing, presenting a tremendous opportunity for advancing energy performance in the commercial building industry. At the same time, there is a lingering perception that zero energy buildings must be cost prohibitive or limited to showcase projects. Fortunately, an increasing number of projects are demonstrating that high performance can be achieved within typical budgets. This factsheet highlights replicable, recommended strategies for achieving high performance on a budget, based on experiences from past projects.

  8. Internet-based reservation system (Internet-based control of timers for building technical services) - Final report; Internetbasiertes Reservationssystem (Internetbasierte Einstellung von Zeitsteuerungen haustechnischer Anlagen) - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, A.; Woodtli, M.

    2008-07-01

    A common measure to save energy in buildings is the adjustment of the operating time of the building service facilities to the busy time of the building (i.e. lowering period). For lack of better resources, the general lowering periods in irregularly occupied buildings often are reduced to a minimum or the adjustment of the operating time is completely missing. In order to adjust the operating time optimally to the actual busy time, an internet-based booking system has been developed, which allows users to register a room assignment online. This booking system is linked with the building service facilities. This ensure the optimal setting of the lowering periods and therefore allows saving energy. The technical implementation resulted from a programmable logic controller (PLC) that can be accessed via a web browser. Temperature offset boxes have been added as interface between the PLC and the existing facilities in order that the system is applicable in existing buildings too. The booking system has been installed in two test objects and has also been successfully tested with the responsible staff (caretaker, real estate management). The booking system may be contemplated online: http://www.hetag.ch. (author)

  9. Supermarket Healthy Eating for Life (SHELf: protocol of a randomised controlled trial promoting healthy food and beverage consumption through price reduction and skill-building strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Ha ND

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the context of rising food prices, there is a need for evidence on the most effective approaches for promoting healthy eating. Individually-targeted behavioural interventions for increasing food-related skills show promise, but are unlikely to be effective in the absence of structural supports. Fiscal policies have been advocated as a means of promoting healthy eating and reducing obesity and nutrition-related disease, but there is little empirical evidence of their effectiveness. This paper describes the Supermarket Healthy Eating for LiFe (SHELf study, a randomised controlled trial to investigate effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a tailored skill-building intervention and a price reduction intervention, separately and in combination, against a control condition for promoting purchase and consumption of healthy foods and beverages in women from high and low socioeconomic groups. Methods/design SHELf comprises a randomised controlled trial design, with participants randomised to receive either (1 a skill-building intervention; (2 price reductions on fruits, vegetables and low-joule soft drink beverages and water; (3 a combination of skill-building and price reductions; or (4 a control condition. Five hundred women from high and low socioeconomic areas will be recruited through a store loyalty card program and local media. Randomisation will occur on receipt of informed consent and baseline questionnaire. An economic evaluation from a societal perspective using a cost-consequences approach will compare the costs and outcomes between intervention and control groups. Discussion This study will build on a pivotal partnership with a major national supermarket chain and the Heart Foundation to investigate the effectiveness of intervention strategies aimed at increasing women's purchasing and consumption of fruits and vegetables and decreased purchasing and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages. It will be among the

  10. Supermarket Healthy Eating for Life (SHELf): protocol of a randomised controlled trial promoting healthy food and beverage consumption through price reduction and skill-building strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background In the context of rising food prices, there is a need for evidence on the most effective approaches for promoting healthy eating. Individually-targeted behavioural interventions for increasing food-related skills show promise, but are unlikely to be effective in the absence of structural supports. Fiscal policies have been advocated as a means of promoting healthy eating and reducing obesity and nutrition-related disease, but there is little empirical evidence of their effectiveness. This paper describes the Supermarket Healthy Eating for LiFe (SHELf) study, a randomised controlled trial to investigate effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a tailored skill-building intervention and a price reduction intervention, separately and in combination, against a control condition for promoting purchase and consumption of healthy foods and beverages in women from high and low socioeconomic groups. Methods/design SHELf comprises a randomised controlled trial design, with participants randomised to receive either (1) a skill-building intervention; (2) price reductions on fruits, vegetables and low-joule soft drink beverages and water; (3) a combination of skill-building and price reductions; or (4) a control condition. Five hundred women from high and low socioeconomic areas will be recruited through a store loyalty card program and local media. Randomisation will occur on receipt of informed consent and baseline questionnaire. An economic evaluation from a societal perspective using a cost-consequences approach will compare the costs and outcomes between intervention and control groups. Discussion This study will build on a pivotal partnership with a major national supermarket chain and the Heart Foundation to investigate the effectiveness of intervention strategies aimed at increasing women's purchasing and consumption of fruits and vegetables and decreased purchasing and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages. It will be among the first internationally to

  11. CONSTRUCTION QUALITY SUPERVISION AND CONTROL OF BUILDING ENERGY-SAVING ENGINEERING%建筑节能工程施工质量监控

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈振岳; 脱红勇; 罗星

    2011-01-01

    建筑节能工程是贯彻我国可持续发展战略的重要举措,为尽快实现我国建筑节能目标,应按照国家有关法律、法规的规定,采用节能型的建筑材料、产品和设备,提高建筑物围护结构的保温隔热性能.减少建筑使用过程中的采暖、制冷、照明能耗,合理有效地利用能源.在建筑节能工程中,加强事前控制、过程控制和建筑节能工程验收,从而保证建筑节能工程质量.%Building energy-saving engineering is an important measure for implementation of the sustainable development strategy of China. In order to reach the domestic building energy-saving target as soon as possible,energy-saving building materials, products and equipments shall be adopted according to relevant national laws and regulations, to improve the thermal insulation and heat retardation performances of building enclosure structure, to reduce the energy consumption in heating, refrigeration and illumination of building, and to use the energy reasonably and effectively. In building energy-saving engineering, precontrol, process control and acceptance of building energy-saving engineering are strengthened to ensure the building energy-saving engineering quality.

  12. Building Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Building Materials Sub-council of CCPIT is the other sub-council in construction field. CCPIT Building Materials Sub-council (CCPITBM), as well as CCOIC Build-ing Materials Chamber of Commerce, is au-thorized by CCPIT and state administration of building materials industry in 1992. CCPITBM is a sub-organization of CCPIT and CCOIC.

  13. A Study on the Effectiveness of the Horizontal Shading Device Installation for Passive Control of Buildings in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seok-Hyun Kim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In South Korea, the evaluation criteria for installing shading devices are defined by regulations, but the standards of design methods are not clearly established. The installation of shading devices has become mandatory for some public buildings due to revised regulations. Therefore, a design of horizontal shading device is required, and indoor environmental problems which may occur due to their installation should also be taken into consideration. This research aimed to propose a design which takes into account the energy consumption which may occur if the horizontal shading device is installed and suggests an improved design method of horizontal shading devices when they are installed. Consequently, it was confirmed that as the protrusion of the horizontal shading device becomes longer, the incoming daylight is reduced and the indoor intensity of illumination becomes lower, and thus more lighting energy may be consumed in a room where the shading device is installed than in the one where it is not. Therefore, annual energy consumption was calculated by applying the lighting control and it was found that the total energy consumption decreased by the reduction of air-conditioning and fans and lighting energy consumption.

  14. International network for capacity building for the control of emerging viral vector-borne zoonotic diseases: ARBO-ZOONET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, J; Bouloy, M; Ergonul, O; Fooks, Ar; Paweska, J; Chevalier, V; Drosten, C; Moormann, R; Tordo, N; Vatansever, Z; Calistri, P; Estrada-Pena, A; Mirazimi, A; Unger, H; Yin, H; Seitzer, U

    2009-03-26

    Arboviruses are arthropod-borne viruses, which include West Nile fever virus (WNFV), a mosquito-borne virus, Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), a mosquito-borne virus, and Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), a tick-borne virus. These arthropod-borne viruses can cause disease in different domestic and wild animals and in humans, posing a threat to public health because of their epidemic and zoonotic potential. In recent decades, the geographical distribution of these diseases has expanded. Outbreaks of WNF have already occurred in Europe, especially in the Mediterranean basin. Moreover, CCHF is endemic in many European countries and serious outbreaks have occurred, particularly in the Balkans, Turkey and Southern Federal Districts of Russia. In 2000, RVF was reported for the first time outside the African continent, with cases being confirmed in Saudi Arabia and Yemen. This spread was probably caused by ruminant trade and highlights that there is a threat of expansion of the virus into other parts of Asia and Europe. In the light of global warming and globalisation of trade and travel, public interest in emerging zoonotic diseases has increased. This is especially evident regarding the geographical spread of vector-borne diseases. A multi-disciplinary approach is now imperative, and groups need to collaborate in an integrated manner that includes vector control, vaccination programmes, improved therapy strategies, diagnostic tools and surveillance, public awareness, capacity building and improvement of infrastructure in endemic regions.

  15. ABBi-bus智能建筑控制系统恒照度方案浅析%Analysis on the Constant Lighting Control Solution of ABB i-bus Intelligent Building Control System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文信

    2011-01-01

    This paper mainly introduces the solution and application of the constant lighting control of ABB i-bus intelligent building control system.%本文主要阐述了ABBi-bus。智能建筑控制系统恒照度方案的原理及应用。

  16. Efecto de la aplicación de un sistema automatizado de proyección de preíndices para la mejora de la capacidad de anticipación en jugadoras de voleibol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Hern\\u00E1ndez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El propósito del estudio fue conocer la efectividad del sistema presentado, y comprobar si el entrenamiento aplicado contribuye a la mejora de la capacidad de anticipación en ocho jugadoras de voleibol. Se llevó a cabo un diseño cuasi-experimental intragrupo con un pre-test, dos semanas de tratamiento, un post-test y un re-test. La variable independiente consistió en la aplicación de un entrenamiento basado en el aporte de información inicial en forma de preíndices de la colocadora oponente. La variable dependiente consistió en el registro del tiempo de respuesta de las participantes en una situación de elección en bloqueo. Los resultados muestran que bajo las condiciones experimentales utilizadas, todas las jugadoras participantes mejoraron los tiempos de respuesta a partir del inicio del tratamiento, con un alto porcentaje de efectividad de la tasa total de aciertos. Las jugadoras anticiparon mejor los tiempos de ataque colocados por detrás de la colocadora. Los resultados mostrados permiten considerar el sistema automatizado descrito como una herramienta útil en la investigación de situaciones deportivas.

  17. A research agenda for helminth diseases of humans: health research and capacity building in disease-endemic countries for helminthiases control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Y Osei-Atweneboana

    Full Text Available Capacity building in health research generally, and helminthiasis research particularly, is pivotal to the implementation of the research and development agenda for the control and elimination of human helminthiases that has been proposed thematically in the preceding reviews of this collection. Since helminth infections affect human populations particularly in marginalised and low-income regions of the world, they belong to the group of poverty-related infectious diseases, and their alleviation through research, policy, and practice is a sine qua non condition for the achievement of the United Nations Millennium Development Goals. Current efforts supporting research capacity building specifically for the control of helminthiases have been devised and funded, almost in their entirety, by international donor agencies, major funding bodies, and academic institutions from the developed world, contributing to the creation of (not always equitable North-South "partnerships". There is an urgent need to shift this paradigm in disease-endemic countries (DECs by refocusing political will, and harnessing unshakeable commitment by the countries' governments, towards health research and capacity building policies to ensure long-term investment in combating and sustaining the control and eventual elimination of infectious diseases of poverty. The Disease Reference Group on Helminth Infections (DRG4, established in 2009 by the Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR, was given the mandate to review helminthiases research and identify research priorities and gaps. This paper discusses the challenges confronting capacity building for parasitic disease research in DECs, describes current capacity building strategies with particular reference to neglected tropical diseases and human helminthiases, and outlines recommendations to redress the balance of alliances and partnerships for health research between the developed countries of

  18. Discuss the High-rise Building Smoke Control Design%高层建筑防排烟设计探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋丹辉

    2014-01-01

    With the speeding up of urbanization in China, high-rise buildings are increasing and the building internal functions tend to be more comprehensive and complicated with higher fire prevention requirements. Smoke control, as an important measure of building fire protection, has a very important role to the fire escape and rescue.%随着我国城市化进程的加快,高层建筑逐渐增多,建筑内部功能趋于综合化、复杂化,在防火方面的要求更高。防排烟作为建筑防火的一项重要措施,对火灾逃生及救援有着极为重要的作用。

  19. 建筑安装工程造价的影响因素和控制措施%Building installation engineering cost influencing factors and control measures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王爱云

    2014-01-01

    Through analyzing current building installation engineering project cost problems,the paper studies effective methods of controlling building installation engineering project cost from aspects of project design,tender,completion settlement and personnel management,with a view to effectively solving building engineering project installation cost problem.%通过分析当前建筑安装工程项目造价出现的问题,从项目设计、招投标、竣工结算、人员管理等环节研究了有效控制管理建筑安装工程项目造价的手段,以期有效解决建筑工程项目安装造价的问题。

  20. Development of a simplified method for intelligent glazed façade design under different control strategies and verified by building simulation tool BSim

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Mingzhe; Wittchen, Kim Bjarne; Heiselberg, Per

    2014-01-01

    The research aims to develop a simplified calculation method for intelligent glazed facade under different control conditions (night shutter, solar shading and natural ventilation) to simulate the energy performance and indoor environment of an office room installed with the intelligent facade....... The method took the angle dependence of the solar characteristic into account, including the simplified hourly building model developed according to EN 13790 to evaluate the influence of the controlled façade on both the indoor environment (indoor air temperature, solar transmittance through the façade......, it is possible to calculate the whole year performance of a room or building with intelligent glazed façade, which makes it a less time consuming tool to investigate the performance of the intelligent façade under different control strategies in the design stage with acceptable accuracy. Results showed good...

  1. 智能建筑机电安装质量控制研究%Research on the Quality Control of Intelligent Building Electrical Installation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑伟

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the intelligent building with the development of economy, also obtained the comprehensive promotion, intelligent building with high efifciency and energy saving, comfort, fashion and other advantages more and more attention by the society and all. Effective control of quality in the intelligent building mechanical and electrical installation technology is the most important link, this link is the intelligent building can completely show signs of intelligent life. But the quality of mechanical and electrical installation of effective control in the construction process, rely on the existence of a large number of problems, such as safety hazard prevention and mechanical and electrical installation quality monitoring and so on, the author have carried out research and Analysis on certain.%近年来,智能建筑随着经济的发展,也得到了全面的推广,智能建筑的高效、节能、舒适、时尚等优势越来越受社会的关注以及青睐。在智能建筑机电安装的质量有效控制是最重要的技术环节,这一环节是智能建筑是否可以完全展现智能化生活的标志。

  2. 教学楼宇智能照明控制管理系统的设计%Design of intelligent lighting control system of teaching building

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王靓; 朱瑞华

    2015-01-01

    Aiming at the serious waste problem existing in illuminating system management of teaching building in col⁃lege,the intelligent lighting hierarchical control system based on the pyroelectricity infrared devices and wireless transmission technology was constructed from the classrooms to the whole teaching building. The system has the automatic turn⁃off function, and can transmit the real⁃time lighting status of each classroom to the master control roomof the teaching building. It has imple⁃mented the remote monitoring and unified management,reduced the energy consumption of lighting system of college teaching building effectively.%针对目前高校教学楼照明系统管理方式存在的用电浪费比较严重的现象,利用热释电红外装置和无线传输技术构建了从教室分区到整个教学楼的层次化智能照明控制管理系统。系统能够实现无人自动关灯,并能将每个教室的实时照明情况传输到教学楼总控制室,实现了远程监控、统一管理,有效降低了高校教学楼照明运行能耗。

  3. 楼宇自控系统方案设计与节能%Building Control System Design and Energy Saving

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯天海; 孙峰

    2015-01-01

    论文结合工程实际,通过具体的案例讲解楼宇自控系统的设计方案、控制对象和节能。目前,更多的业主在新建和改造大楼时,遵守国家的节能法规,选择楼宇自控系统,达到节能减排、降低大楼的运营费用的目的。我国建筑业将会从高能耗、高物耗、高污染过渡到绿色可持续发展的道路上。%Combining with engineering practice, through the the case the paper explain the building control system, the control object and energy saving. At present, in the construction and transformation of the building, more owners comply with the national energy saving method, choose the building automation system to achieve energy saving and emission reduction, and the operating expenses of the lower end of the building. Soon the construction industry in our country will go from the way of high energy consumption, high material consumption and high pollution to the road of green sustainable development.

  4. 建筑结构基于LMI的鲁棒非脆弱H∞控制%ROBUST AND NON-FRAGILE H∞ CONTROL FOR BUILDINGS VIA LMI APPROACH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李志军; 王社良

    2013-01-01

    考虑一维地震动作用和结构参数不确定性影响,提出一种基于线性矩阵不等式(Linear Matrix Inequalities,LMI)的鲁棒非脆弱H∞控制方法.引入工程中常用的二次型最优指标,并应用线性矩阵不等式减小求解的复杂度,使得控制器的性能指标容易衡量,设计相对简单,便于工程应用.以一个三层剪切型结构模型为例进行数值分析,并与传统H∞控制方法进行对比,仿真结果初步表明:1)所提方法具有很好的控制效果和鲁棒性;2)合理地计算结构参数值,可使控制系统在具有最优反应品质的前提下,获得相对更好的鲁棒性和非脆弱性.%The behavior of building structures is naturally uncertain because of the numerous uncertainties of seismic disturbances and structural parameters. In this paper, we present a new robust and non-fragile H∞ control approach that can provide a convenient design procedure for active controllers to facilitate practical implementations of control systems through the use of a quadratic performance index and the use of an efficient solution procedure based on linear matrix inequalities (LMI). Such a new robust and non-fragile H∞, controller for buildings can be designed to guarantee the robust stability and performance of the closed-loop system in the presence of parameter uncertainties. In view of the uncertainty of seismic disturbance and the model errors of the building structure, a three-storey shear building model containing active brace systems is analyzed. The simulation results obtained from the proposed control method are compared with those obtained from traditional H∞ control method, which shows preliminarily that the performance of robust and non-fragile H∞ controllers is remarkable and robust. Considering reasonable parameter values, the controller can acquire considerably better performance of robust and non-fragile than traditional H∞ controller under the optimal response quantities

  5. Influencia de las mezclas de gases Ar-He y Ar-He-O2 en la soldabilidad de la aleación de aluminio AA5083-O usando Proceso GMAW-P automatizado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Esteban Niebles Nuñez

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available La problemática en las empresas fabricantes de estructuras y construcciones soldadas en aluminio se centra en la disminución de las propiedades mecánicas de las uniones soldadas influenciada por el aporte térmico en las regiones de soldadura; así como, en los efectos de las discontinuidades y defectos, los altos costos de reparación de soldaduras y la baja productividad. El objetivo de este trabajo es evaluar la influencia de las mezclas de gases 80Ar20He (MG1, 60Ar40He (MG2, 80Ar19He1O2 (MG3, 60Ar39He1O2 (MG4, sobre la soldabilidad de la aleación de aluminio AA5083-O utilizando un material de aporte ER5183 y el proceso GMAW-P automatizado. La metodología incluyó una fase de parametrización de soldaduras, la caracterización del metal base y las regiones de soldadura. El análisis de resultados se llevó a cabo en términos de la evolución microestructural en las regiones de soldadura y evaluación de las propiedades como dureza, resistencia y elongación, así como la evaluación de discontinuidades y defectos de la unión, costos y velocidad de soldadura. Los resultados muestran que las mezclas de gas que contienen O2 favorecen significativamente la soldabilidad de la aleación en estudio.

  6. Building America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brad Oberg

    2010-12-31

    IBACOS researched the constructability and viability issues of using high performance windows as one component of a larger approach to building houses that achieve the Building America 70% energy savings target.

  7. Solar building

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Luxin

    2014-01-01

    In my thesis I describe the utilization of solar energy and solar energy with building integration. In introduction it is also mentioned how the solar building works, trying to make more people understand and accept the solar building. The thesis introduces different types of solar heat collectors. I compared the difference two operation modes of solar water heating system and created examples of solar water system selection. I also introduced other solar building applications. It is conv...

  8. Technical Management for Buildings

    CERN Document Server

    Vairo, Antonio

    1999-01-01

    This paper is a presentation of an 'instrument' for the optimization of the functionality and conservation of tertiary buildings. This technique has several different names: Building Automation Systems (BAS), Central Control and Monitoring System (CCMS) in English, and Gestion Technique du Bâtiment' (GTB) or Gestion Technique Centralisée (GTC) in French. With this technique it is possible to manage all the functions of a building, it is a modern instrument that introduces the concept of 'automation' in the operation of buildings using computerized procedures, earlier reserved for industrial processes. The system is structured with different automation levels with a distributed intelligence, each level characterized by a communication system (Fieldbus for the lowest and Ethernet for the highest level). In order to apply the BAS to CERN buildings it is necessary to evaluate the advantages, the CERN requirements and the integration with the several existing control and automation systems.

  9. Optimum Application of Thermal Factors to Artificial Neural Network Models for Improvement of Control Performance in Double Skin-Enveloped Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung-Il Chin

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes an artificial neural network (ANN-based thermal control method for buildings with double skin envelopes that has rational relationships between the ANN model input and output. The relationship between the indoor air temperature and surrounding environmental factors was investigated based on field measurement data from an actual building. The results imply that the indoor temperature was not significantly influenced by vertical solar irradiance, but by the outdoor and cavity temperature. Accordingly, a new ANN model developed in this study excluded solar irradiance as an input variable for predicting the future indoor temperature. The structure and learning method of this new ANN model was optimized, followed by the performance tests of a variety of internal and external envelope opening strategies for the heating and cooling seasons. The performance tests revealed that the optimized ANN-based logic yielded better temperature conditions than the non-ANN based logic. This ANN-based logic increased overall comfortable periods and decreased the frequency of overshoots and undershoots out of the thermal comfort range. The ANN model proved that it has the potential to be successfully applied in the temperature control logic for double skin-enveloped buildings. The ANN model, which was proposed in this study, effectively predicted future indoor temperatures for the diverse opening strategies. The ANN-based logic optimally determined the operation of heating and cooling systems as well as opening conditions for the double skin envelopes.

  10. 公共建筑照明、控制与节能概论%Generality of Lighting, Controlling and Energy Saving for Public Buildings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玉卿; 王浩然

    2012-01-01

    This paper briefly analyzed the building energy consumption, the common lighting source and lighting control mode. During the lighting design for public buildings for the future, it ought to select energy-saving and efficient lightings, to use economic and reasonable intelligent control mode and to adapt practical and effective measures in order to reduce the energy consumption of public building lighting to a more reasonable level.%本文对建筑能耗、常用照明光源和照明控制方式进行了简单的分析,并提出了在今后的公共建筑照明的设计和使用过程中,应尽量选用高效节能的照明光源和高效的灯具,选用经济合理的智能控制方式,采取切实有效的措施,争取把公共建筑照明能耗降低到更合理水平。

  11. AUTOMATIZACIÓN EN NIVEL DE CONTROL DE PLANTA MEDIANTE EL USO DE HERRAMIENTAS LIBRES Y COMPUTACIÓN EN LA NUBE

    OpenAIRE

    Leonardo Emiro Contreras Bravo; Julián Alfonso Tristancho Ortiz; Luis Fernando Vargas Tamayo

    2015-01-01

    El control del proceso de fabricación ofrece muchas herramientas para la optimización productiva de una empresa. Existen aplicaciones especializadas para integrar la información a nivel de planta con el de control de empresa, estos software están basados generalmente en sistemas altamente automatizados en los niveles de campo. La industria de muebles para oficina en Colombia está conformada por pequeñas y medianas empresas, con máquinas con un alto contenido de operación humana y baja automat...

  12. 建筑工程施工进度的控制及管理%Building engineering construction schedule control and management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛章红

    2016-01-01

    从施工人员、材料设备、施工环境等方面,分析了影响建筑工程施工进度的主要因素,并根据建筑工程施工进度的控制原理,阐述了实际工程进度的编制措施,从而确保项目的顺利完工。%Starting from aspects of construction staff,material equipment and construction environment,the paper analyzes major factors influen-cing building engineering construction schedule. According to building engineering construction schedule controlling principles,it describes actu-al engineering schedule compiling measures,so as to guarantee the smooth completion of the project.

  13. Analysis of variability in kinematic parameters during the execution of a succession of pirouettes in dance through an experimental protocol Análisis de la variabilidad de parámetros cinemáticos durante la ejecución de una sucesión de piruetas en danza a través de un protocolo automatizado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. J. Moreno

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Envejecer de manera sedentaria puede evolucionar hacia una depresión afectándose la calidad de vida de las personas mayores. El presente estudio comparó la calidad de vida y los niveles de depresión entre ancianas sedentarias y activas. Para esto, un estudio ex post facto fue aplicado, la muestra fue dividida en cuatro grupos: grupo de danza o aerobic; grupo de entrenamiento de musculación o con resistencias; grupo de meditación  y grupo control. Los protocolos empleados en las evaluaciones fueron el cuestionario de calidad de vida “World Health Organization Quality of Life Group-old” y el de determinación de depresión denominado “Beck Depression Inventory”. En comparaciones múltiples los resultados fueron satisfactorios (p<0.05 en las variables dom2, dom3, QVG, dom1  y  dom4. Al respecto de la depresión también se obtuvieron resultados satisfactorios: DGxCG (IC=-48.00,-8.86, RGxCG (IC=-53.55,-7.95 and MGxCG (IC=-61.71,-16.11. Estos resultados indican que los programas de ejercicio físico provocaron resultados satisfactorios que contribuían a una mejor calidad de vida y niveles de depresión en comparación con ancianas sedentarias.

    Key Words: Experimental protocol, variability, pirouettes in dance, temporal precision, experience level.

     

    El rol que juega la variabilidad en la coordinación y control del sistema sensorio- motor es un elemento central para el estudio del Control Motor. Nuestro propósito ha sido elaborar un protocolo experimental que nos permitiera medir la variabilidad de los parámetros cinemáticos de una sucesión de piruetas en-dehors desde 4ª posición de pies, sujetas a diferentes ritmos de ejecución, en 10 bailarinas clasificadas en dos grupos en función del nivel de experiencia. Se utilizó un electrogoniómetro para la medición de las posiciones angulares de la rodilla de la pierna libre y una plataforma de contacto para registrar el tiempo de giro de la

  14. Scalable Deployment of Advanced Building Energy Management Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Building Automation and Control Network BDAS Building Data Acquisition System BEM building energy model BIM building information modeling BMS...A prototype toolkit to seamlessly and automatically transfer a Building Information Model ( BIM ) to a Building Energy Model (BEM) has been...circumvent the need to manually construct and maintain a detailed building energy simulation model . This detailed

  15. 建筑电气安装中的质量控制与监理%The Quality Control and Supervision of Building Electrical Installation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冷静

    2013-01-01

      建筑电气安装工程作为建筑工程项目实施的一个重要环节,监理工作的好坏成了影响建筑电气安装质量的关键。做好建筑电气安装监理工作是建筑电气安装质量的重要保证,因此为了保证安装质量,看清并执行好质量控制与监理工作是十分重要。%The building electrical instal ation engineering as an important part of construction project implementation, and the good or bad of the supervision work will impact on the quality of the building electrical instal ation. Do a good job of building electrical instal ation supervision is an important gua-rantee for the quality. So in order to ensure the quality of the instal ation, it’s very important to see and perform the quality control and supervision work.

  16. 绿色建筑增量成本全过程控制研究%Lifecycle Incremental Cost Control of Green Building

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑晓云; 杨婷

    2014-01-01

    In recent years,the number of green buildings in China is growing fast while the overall size is still small. The vague understanding of green building incremental cost and the short-sighted idea of cost control are key factors affecting the implementation and promotion of green building. Definitions of green building and its incremental cost are given. On this basis,the lifecycle incremental costs of green building are classified according to the different phases of a project. what's more,main points of the lifecycle incremental cost in different phases like the decision making and designing phase,constructing phase,maintenance phase and recycling phase are proposed in the light of the main factors affecting it. This may have great practical significance on the gradual improvement of relevant theories and the acceleration of marketization of green building.%近年来,我国绿色建筑发展迅速,但总体规模仍较小。对绿色建筑增量成本认识的模糊及对成本控制的短视思想是影响其实施和推广的关键因素。在明确绿色建筑及其增量成本具体内涵的基础上,将绿色建筑全生命周期增量成本按照项目实施阶段的不同进行了分类,并针对影响增量成本控制的主要因素,提出了项目前期决策与设计、施工、使用与维护以及回收利用阶段增量成本全过程控制的要点,对绿色建筑相关理论的逐步完善及绿色建筑市场化的加速具有重要的现实意义。

  17. On The Supervision and Control of Energy Saving in Building Engineering%浅谈建筑工程节能质量监督与控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯博瀚

    2015-01-01

    The society paid more attention to the sustainable development strategy of energy conservation, the energy saving measures of building engineering and energy saving quality control are paid more and more attention by engineers. This paper expounded the common energy saving control points,construction steps and details of the construction of building engineering. Through the summary and sublimation of business knowledge to do such daily quality control and management work,do a job with skill and ease know the score.%建筑工程的节能措施与节能质量控制被越来越多的工程人员所重视。论文阐述了建筑工程常见的节能控制要点、施工步骤及细部节点构造。通过业务知识的总结与升华做到对日常节能质量控制和管理工作的心中有数、游刃有余。

  18. 27 May 2010 - UCLA Chancellor G. Block signing the guest book with Coordinator for External Relations F. Pauss and visiting CMS control centre at building 354 with Collaboration Former Deputy Spokesperson B. Cousins and Deputy Spokesperson J. Incandela.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2010-01-01

    27 May 2010 - UCLA Chancellor G. Block signing the guest book with Coordinator for External Relations F. Pauss and visiting CMS control centre at building 354 with Collaboration Former Deputy Spokesperson B. Cousins and Deputy Spokesperson J. Incandela.

  19. 中央企业战略管控体系构建研究%Research on Building Strategic Management and Control System for Central Enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马力

    2012-01-01

    研究目的:战略管控体系建设是央企的当务之急,深受中央企业重视.本文根据中央企业的特点,从战略管控的本质、内涵和特点人手,分析了中央企业战略管控中存在的问题,提出了构建战略管控体系的原则和构建内容,建立了一套中央企业战略管控体系,为中央企业战略管控体系建设提供了理论依据和重要参考.研究结论:建立中央企业战略管控体系对提高战略管控能力、降低企业风险具有重要意义.中央企业应把握科学规律,根据企业集团战略管控特点,遵循系统论设计原理,综合考虑各要素、各层级和各主体之间的关系,构建一套适合企业发展的战略管控体系.中央企业应按照PDCA循环执行,通过实施反馈和效果评价,持续改进,不断完善,提高管控体系的适应性.%Research purposes: Building the strategic management and control system is an urgent work for the central enterprise and more attention is paid by the central enterprises. According to the characteristics of the central enterprises, and starting with the nature, the intension and features of the strategic management and control, this paper analyses the problems in the strategic management and control of the central enterprise and points out the principles and contents of building strategic management and control system to set up a set of strategic management and control system for central enterprises for providing the theoretic basis and important reference to building strategic management and control system for central enterprise.Research conclusions; To build the strategic management and control system for central enterprise is crucial to improving the enterprise ability in the strategic management and control and reducing the enterprise risk. According to the strategic management and control characteristics of the enterprise, the central enterprises should master the scientific rules, follow the systemic design

  20. Laboratory Building.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrera, Joshua M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-03-01

    This report is an analysis of the means of egress and life safety requirements for the laboratory building. The building is located at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) in Albuquerque, NM. The report includes a prescriptive-based analysis as well as a performance-based analysis. Following the analysis are appendices which contain maps of the laboratory building used throughout the analysis. The top of all the maps is assumed to be north.

  1. Laboratory Building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrera, Joshua M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-03-01

    This report is an analysis of the means of egress and life safety requirements for the laboratory building. The building is located at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) in Albuquerque, NM. The report includes a prescriptive-based analysis as well as a performance-based analysis. Following the analysis are appendices which contain maps of the laboratory building used throughout the analysis. The top of all the maps is assumed to be north.

  2. Numerical methods for optimizing the performance of buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Frank

    2008-01-01

    The many different parties that influence design and control decisions for buildings, such as building owners, users, architects, consulting engineers, contractors, etx. may have different and to some extent conradicting requirements to buildings. Furthermore, national building regulations specif...

  3. A decade of work on organized labor and tobacco control: reflections on research and coalition building in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbeau, Elizabeth M; Delaurier, Gregory; Kelder, Graham; McLellan, Deborah; Sorensen, Glorian; Balbach, Edith D; Levenstein, Charles

    2007-01-01

    Labor unions can and should make strong allies in tobacco control efforts. Through much of the 1980s and 1990s, however, the organized labor and tobacco control communities rarely formed coalitions to achieve mutual gains. Recently, labor unions and tobacco control organizations have begun to work together on smoking cessation programs, smoke-free worksite policies, and increased insurance coverage for cessation treatments. This paper explores the historic and present-day intersections among organized labor and tobacco control advocates. We summarize research in this area and report on our recent programmatic efforts to promote collaboration between the labor and tobacco control communities. We discuss lessons learned with the aims of promoting deeper understanding among tobacco control and labor advocates of how each views tobacco control issues, and most importantly, stimulating further collaboration toward mutual gains in protecting workers' health.

  4. Comparative growth of trichoderma strains in different nutritional sources, using bioscreen c automated system Crescimento de linhagens de Trichoderma em diferentes fontes nutricionais, empregando o sistema automatizado Bioscreen C.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Caroline Rossi-Rodrigues

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Trichoderma is one of the fungi genera that produce important metabolites for industry. The growth of these organisms is a consequence of the nutritional sources used as also of the physical conditions employed to cultivate them. In this work, the automated Bioscreen C system was used to evaluate the influence of different nutritional sources on the growth of Trichoderma strains (T. hamatum, T. harzianum, T. viride, and T. longibrachiatum isolated from the soil in the Juréia-Itatins Ecological Station (JIES, São Paulo State - Brazil.The cultures were grown in liquid culture media containing different carbon- (2%; w/v and nitrogen (1%; w/v sources at 28ºC, pH 6.5, and agitated at 150 rpm for 72 h. The results showed, as expected, that glucose is superior to sucrose as a growth-stimulating carbon source in the Trichoderma strains studied, while yeast extract and tryptone were good growth-stimulating nitrogen sources in the cultivation of T. hamatum and T. harzianum.Trichoderma é um dos gêneros de fungos produtores de metabólitos de interesse industrial. O crescimento destes organismos é conseqüência das fontes nutricionais utilizadas, juntamente com as condições físicas de cultivo. Neste trabalho, o sistema automatizado Bioscreen C foi utilizado para avaliar a influência de diferentes fontes nutricionais sobre o crescimento de linhagens de Trichoderma (T. hamatum, T. harzianum, T. viride e T. longibrachiatum isoladas do solo da Estação Ecológica da Juréia-Itatins (JIES, São Paulo - Brasil. Os cultivos foram feitos em meios líquidos de cultura contendo diferentes fontes de carbono (2%; w / v e nitrogênio (1%; w / v a 28ºC, pH 6,5 e agitados a 150 rpm durante 72 h. Os resultados mostraram, conforme esperado, que a glicose é melhor do que a sacarose como fonte de carbono indutora de crescimento das linhagens de Trichoderma testadas, enquanto que, o extrato de leveduras e a triptona foram boas fontes de nitrogênio indutoras de

  5. Modelo geoespacial automatizado para la regionalización operativa en planeación de redes de servicios de salud Automated geospatial model for health services strategic planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Eugenio Hernández-Ávila

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Desarrollar un modelo automatizado de regionalización operativa para la planeación de las redes de servicios de salud propuestas en el Modelo Integrador de Atención a la Salud (MIDAS. Material y métodos. Con información disponible para México en 2005 y 2007 se realizó un modelo geoespacial para estimar el área potencial de influencia alrededor de cada unidad de atención médica, con base en el menor tiempo de viaje. Los resultados se compararon con un Estudio de Regionalización Operativa (ERO para Oaxaca llevado a cabo en 2005. Resultados. Comparado con el modelo geoespacial, el ERO asignó 48% de las localidades a centros de salud más lejanos y 23% de los centros de salud a hospitales más lejanos. Conclusiones. El modelo calculado en este estudio generó una regionalización más eficiente que el ERO de Oaxaca, minimizando el tiempo de viaje para el acceso a los servicios de salud. Este modelo ha sido adoptado por la Dirección General de Planeación y Desarrollo en Salud para la instrumentación del Plan Maestro Sectorial de Recursos para la Atención de la Salud.Objective. To develop an automated model for the operational regionalization needed in the planning of the health service networks proposed by the new Mexican health care model (Modelo Integrador de Servicios de Salud MIDAS. Material and Methods. Using available data for México during 2005 and 2007, a geospatial model was developed to estimate potential catchment areas around health facilities based on access travel time. The results were compared with an operational regionalization (ERO study manually carried out in Oaxaca with 2005 data. Results. The ERO assigned 48% of villages to health care centers further away than those assigned by the geospatial model, and 23% of these health centers referred patients to more distant hospitals. Conclusions. The model calculated by this study generated a more efficient regionalization than the ERO model, minimizing travel

  6. Sistema automatizado para aquisição de dados de umidade relativa do ar Automated system for relative humidity data acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Késia O. da Silva

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Devido à importância do ambiente na produção animal e vegetal e, portanto, controle ambiental adequado, o trabalho propõe como objetivo a construção de um sistema de aquisição automatizada de dados de umidade relativa do ar, utilizando-se de microcontrolador de dimensões reduzidas e de baixo custo. A calibração do sensor de umidade relativa foi realizada em três etapas de simulação desenvolvidas em laboratório: caixas perfuradas, dessecador sem tampa contendo sílica-gel em seu fundo e psicrometria. As etapas de calibração, utilizando situações naturais e artificiais, bem como as metodologias desenvolvidas, apresentaram resultados que permitem concluir que o sistema pode ser utilizado com segurança no monitoramento dessa variável.Due the importance of the environment in animal and crop production and therefore an appropriate environmental control, the main objective of this work is the construction of an automated system for relative humidity data acquisition, using a controller with reduced dimensions and low cost. Calibration was performed under natural and artificial conditions. The methodology showed results that the system can be used for monitoring this environmental factor.

  7. Automatización del control del cálculo de extracciones en la mina de la empresa niquelera Ernesto Che Guevara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arístides A. Legrá-Lobaina

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available En el artículo se muestran los elementos fundamentales de un algoritmo cuyo objetivo es establecer el contenido y el orden de los procedimientos necesarios para realizar el control del cálculo de extracciones en la mina de la empresa Ernesto Che Guevara que explota, a cielo abierto, yacimientos lateríticos ferroniquelíferos en la región de Moa, Cuba. Asimismo se presenta el diseño de los diálogos informáticos que han automatizado el algoritmo en la aplicación informática Tierra.

  8. Building America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brad Oberg

    2010-12-31

    Builders generally use a 'spec and purchase' business management system (BMS) when implementing energy efficiency. A BMS is the overall operational and organizational systems and strategies that a builder uses to set up and run its company. This type of BMS treats building performance as a simple technology swap (e.g. a tank water heater to a tankless water heater) and typically compartmentalizes energy efficiency within one or two groups in the organization (e.g. purchasing and construction). While certain tools, such as details, checklists, and scopes of work, can assist builders in managing the quality of the construction of higher performance homes, they do nothing to address the underlying operational strategies and issues related to change management that builders face when they make high performance homes a core part of their mission. To achieve the systems integration necessary for attaining 40% + levels of energy efficiency, while capturing the cost tradeoffs, builders must use a 'systems approach' BMS, rather than a 'spec and purchase' BMS. The following attributes are inherent in a systems approach BMS; they are also generally seen in quality management systems (QMS), such as the National Housing Quality Certification program: Cultural and corporate alignment, Clear intent for quality and performance, Increased collaboration across internal and external teams, Better communication practices and systems, Disciplined approach to quality control, Measurement and verification of performance, Continuous feedback and improvement, and Whole house integrated design and specification.

  9. Building Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Training Manually Coded English (MCE) Natural Gestures Speech Speech Reading (Lip Reading) Even though American Sign Language (ASL) is not a building block, it is sometimes used together with one or more building blocks. Close Information For... Media Policy Makers File Formats Help: How do I view ...

  10. 解析智能楼宇用电的节能控制措施%Analytical of Intelligent Building Power Energy Control Measures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵麟

    2015-01-01

    Energy efficient buildings intelligent power control measures can not be separated, so many companies have chosen to establish an integrated intelligent power management system that provides a practical and efficient and convenient solution for enterprise energy management and control. In addition, the integrated management system for building energy-efficient intelligent power management information systems, but also to ensure a reliable platform on which to run the operation and maintenance management.%楼宇的节能控制离不开智能用电措施,因此,很多企业选择建立智能用电综合管理系统,为企业的节能管控提供切实可行而又高效便捷的解决办法。另外,智能用电的综合管理系统对楼宇节能管理信息系统来说,也是保证其运行操作和维护管理的可靠平台。

  11. Building the Brain's "Air Traffic Control" System: How Early Experiences Shape the Development of Executive Function. Working Paper 11

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Scientific Council on the Developing Child, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Being able to focus, hold, and work with information in mind, filter distractions, and switch gears is like having an air traffic control system at a busy airport to manage the arrivals and departures of dozens of planes on multiple runways. In the brain, this air traffic control mechanism is called executive functioning, a group of skills that…

  12. 建筑消防工程竣工验收综合评定体系%Multiple evaluation system of building fire control acceptance check

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马磊

    2012-01-01

    Based on the related research results and actual work, project management maturity model and fuzzy analytical hierarchy process has been integrated in one, to develop a new method, and build the evaluation system of fire control acceptance check, which can help guide the actual fire control acceptance check work.%在前人研究的基础上并结合实际工作,将项目管理成熟度模型与模糊层次分析法整合到一起,发展出新的综合性方法,建立新的建筑消防工程竣工验收综合评价体系,指导消防验收实际工作.

  13. Propuesta metodológica para construir sistemas automatizados de inspección visual industriales, con base en productos comerciales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Diego Murillo

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Las compañías industriales que desean automatizar sus procesos de control de calidad, no deben arriesgar sus recursos en investigación y desarrollo para sus propios sistemas de visión industrial, debido a que esto implica invertir gran cantidad de tiempo y dinero para obtener los resultados deseados. En los últimos años, han surgido sistemas comerciales de inspección visual, los cuales se han convertido en una verdadera opción para quienes desean solucionar sus problemasconcernientes al aseguramiento de atributos de los productos. El presente artículo propone unametodología de 12 pasos, para construir un sistema de inspección visual automatizada (avi a partir de la selección e integración de distintos componentes comerciales.

  14. Building an internal model of a myoelectric prosthesis via closed-loop control for consistent and routine grasping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dosen, Strahinja; Markovic, Marko; Wille, Nicola; Henkel, Markus; Koppe, Mario; Ninu, Andrei; Frömmel, Cornelius; Farina, Dario

    2015-06-01

    Prosthesis users usually agree that myoelectric prostheses should be equipped with somatosensory feedback. However, the exact role of feedback and potential benefits are still elusive. The current study investigates the nature of human control processes within a specific context of routine grasping. Although the latter includes a fast feedforward control of the grasping force, the assumption was that the feedback would still be useful; it would communicate the outcome of the grasping trial, which the subjects could use to learn an internal model of feedforward control. Nine able-bodied subjects produced repeatedly a desired level of grasping force using different control configurations: feedback versus no-feedback, virtual versus real prosthetic hand, and joystick versus myocontrol. The outcome measures were the median and dispersion of the relative force errors. The results demonstrated that the feedback was successful in limiting the variability of the routine grasping due to uncertainties in the system and/or the command interface. The internal models of feedforward control could be employed by the subjects to control the prosthesis without the loss of performance even after the force feedback was removed. The models were, however, unstable over time, especially with myocontrol. Overall, the study demonstrates that the prosthesis system can be learned by the subjects using feedback. The feedback is also essential to maintain the model, and it could be delivered intermittently. This approach has practical advantages, but the level to which this mechanism can be truly exploited in practice depends directly on the consistency of the prosthesis control interface.

  15. 绿色保温建筑的博弈平衡造价控制仿真%Simulation of Game Equilibrium Cost Control of Green Building

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡晓娟

    2016-01-01

    传统方法中对建筑的造价控制模型采用静态层次融合方法进行数学建模,随着建筑规模的扩大和用料成本的市场变动,导致对建筑工程造价的预估性能不好.提出一种基于博弈平衡控制的绿色保温建筑造价预测算法,实现对工程造价的成本控制.分析了绿色保温建筑的材料结构模型,对绿色保温建筑的混凝土墙面进行柔性造价与热应力梯度边界数值模拟,得到成本造价与绿色保温建筑生产效率约束关系函数.采用博弈平衡控制算法实现造价准确预测和评估.仿真结果表明,采用该模型能有效实现对建筑工程造价的预测和控制,精度较高,性能较好.%In the traditional method, the cost control model of the building uses the static level fusion method to carry on the mathematical modeling, with the construction scale and the cost of the market, the forecast performance is not good. This paper presents a new method of cost prediction of green building, which is based on the equilibrium of the game, and realizes the cost control of the project cost. The material structure model of green building is analyzed, and the thermal stress gradient boundary value of the concrete wall is simulated, and the relationship function of the cost and the production efficiency is obtained. Using the game balance control algorithm to realize the cost prediction and evaluation. The simulation results show that the model can effectively achieve the prediction and control of the construction cost, and the precision is high, and the performance is good.

  16. A Reduced-Order Controller Considering High-Order Modal Information of High-Rise Buildings for AMD Control System with Time-Delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuo-Hua Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Time-delays of control force calculation, data acquisition, and actuator response will degrade the performance of Active Mass Damper (AMD control systems. To reduce the influence, model reduction method is used to deal with the original controlled structure. However, during the procedure, the related hierarchy information of small eigenvalues will be directly discorded. As a result, the reduced-order model ignores the information of high-order mode, which will reduce the design accuracy of an AMD control system. In this paper, a new reduced-order controller based on the improved Balanced Truncation (BT method is designed to reduce the calculation time and to retain the abandoned high-order modal information. It includes high-order natural frequency, damping ratio, and vibration modal information of the original structure. Then, a control gain design method based on Guaranteed Cost Control (GCC algorithm is presented to eliminate the adverse effects of data acquisition and actuator response time-delays in the design process of the reduced-order controller. To verify its effectiveness, the proposed methodology is applied to a numerical example of a ten-storey frame and an experiment of a single-span four-storey steel frame. Both numerical and experimental results demonstrate that the reduced-order controller with GCC algorithm has an excellent control effect; meanwhile it can compensate time-delays effectively.

  17. 某住宅楼蟑螂防治效果观察%Observation on the control efficiency against cockroaches in a residential building

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹广庆; 王治; 李平; 文瑜; 周光智

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate cockroach damage and control efficiency of a residential building. Methods Kill cockroach through the methods of remained spray and gel bait, and evaluate the efficacy by damage rate and density descent rate of cockroach. Results The damage rate of cockroach was 87. 50% and 12.50% before and after controlling for 3 days, respectively. The density descent rate was 86.67% ~ 100. 00% , and there was no statistically significant difference before and after control (P < 0. 05 ) . Conclusions The blattella gremanica damage was serious in the residential building, and the methods of remained spray and gel bait had high efficiency against cockroach.%目的 观察某部住宅楼蟑螂侵害情况和防治效果.方法 采用滞留喷洒和胶饵杀灭蟑螂,用蟑螂侵害率和密度下降率评价灭蟑效果.结果 蟑螂侵害率防治前为87.50%,防治后3d为12.50%(3/24),密度下降率为86.67%~100.00%,防治前后差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 该住宅楼德国小蠊侵害严重,滞留喷洒结合灭蟑胶饵杀灭蟑螂效果显著.

  18. Building Inclusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeanet Kullberg; Isik Kulu-Glasgow

    2009-01-01

    The social inclusion of immigrants and ethnic minorities is a central issue in many European countries. Governments face challenges in ensuring housing for immigrants, delivering public services, promoting neighbourhood coexistence and addressing residential segregation. The Building Inclusion proje

  19. Effects of resource-building group intervention on career management and mental health in work organizations: randomized controlled field trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuori, Jukka; Toppinen-Tanner, Salla; Mutanen, Pertti

    2012-03-01

    A resource-building group intervention was developed to enhance career management, mental health, and job retention in work organizations. The in-company training program provided employees with better preparedness to manage their own careers. The program activities were universally implemented using an organization-level, 2-trainer model with trainers from the human resources management and occupational health services. The study was a within-organizations, randomly assigned field experimental study; it investigated the impacts of the intervention on immediate career management preparedness and later mental health and intentions to retire early. A total of 718 eligible individuals returned a questionnaire in 17 organizations and became voluntary participants. The respondents were randomly assigned to either an intervention (N = 369) or a comparison group (N = 349). Those in the intervention group were invited to group intervention workshops, whereas those in the comparison group received printed information about career and health-related issues. The 7-month follow-up results showed that the program significantly decreased depressive symptoms and intentions to retire early and increased mental resources among the group participants compared to the others. The mediation analyses demonstrated that the increase in career management preparedness as a proximal impact of the intervention mediated the longer term mental health effects. Those who benefited most from the intervention as regards their mental health were employees with elevated levels of depression or exhaustion and younger employees, implying additional benefits of a more targeted use of the intervention. The results demonstrated the benefits of the enhancement of individual-level career management and resilience resources as career and health promotion practice in work organizations.

  20. 浅埋大断面隧道下穿楼群施工爆破控制%Blasting control technology for shallow tunnel crossing existing buildings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王云龙; 谭忠盛

    2012-01-01

    Based on Jiaozhou bay subsea tunnel in Qingdao city, the blasting control technology that Jiaozhou bay subsea tunnel crosses existing buildings is studied by combining the experimental equation of charge establishment with coherent code. According to a large number of tunnel construction field test data, the laws of vibration wave propagation and the calculation parameters of charge are obtained, and then the maximum allowable amount of primary explosive segment is calculated. Based on the above methods, the. Blasting program is optimized and house maximum blasting velocity is controlled under 2 cm/s. The test results of building blasting vibration velocity in different floors show the velocity of the first floor is greater than the velocity on each floor. So the velocity of the first floor is recommended to be a control velocity while the maximum charge is calculated. This study is not only useful to ensure building's stabilization when blasting in Jiaozbou bay subsea tunnel but also offers theoretical and methodological experiences to the similar engineering.%以青岛胶州湾海底隧道陆域段工程为背景,结合萨氏装药量计算经验公式及相关规范,对胶州湾海底隧道下穿群楼时的爆破控制技术进行研究,基于隧道施工爆破的大量现场测试数据,回归分析得出了依托工程的振动波传播规律和装药量计算参数,由此计算出允许最大段起爆药量,进而优化大断面隧道爆破方案,实现了房屋最大振速控制在2 cm/s以下根据建筑物不同楼层的爆破振速的测试结果,底层振速大于各楼层振速是普遍规律,因此在计算最大段起爆药量时,应以建筑物底层的爆破振速作为控制基准.研究成果保证了胶州湾海底隧道下穿群楼爆破时建筑物的稳定,并对类似工程有借鉴意义.

  1. Sustainable Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommerup, Henrik M.; Elle, Morten

    The scientific community agrees that: all countries must drastically and rapidly reduce their CO2 emissions and that energy efficient houses play a decisive role in this. The general attitude at the workshop on Sustainable Buildings was that we face large and serious climate change problems...... that need urgent action. The built environment is an obvious area to put effort into because of the large and cost-effective energy saving potential and potential for Renewable Energy-based supply systems for buildings....

  2. 建筑结构振动智能化最优控制设计%Optimal Design of Intelligent Control of Building Structure Vibration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁博

    2016-01-01

    高层建筑结构在风、浪、地震等动载荷影响下易产生动态响应,此过程中易出现较大的位移响应,从而对高层建筑结构安全造成巨大威胁。为了对建筑结构动态响应进行有效控制,基于稳定逆理论提出了一种最优迭代学习控制方法,对算法收敛性进行分析。仿真结果表明,该方法能有对Benchmark模型的地震位移响应进行有效控制,使得控制效果得到一定的改善。%High-rise buliding is easy to produce the dynamic response, big displacement response under the influence of wind,wave,earthquake and other dynamic loads,which is a great threat against the safety of the high-rise building structure. In order to control its dynamic response a control method based on the stable inverse of the optimal iterative learning algorithm is proposed,and the convergence of the algorithm is analyzed. The simulation results show that the new control strategy can be used to effectively control earthquake displacement response.

  3. 房屋建筑混凝土施工技术管控要点论述%Building Concrete Construction Technology Control Key Points

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨晓楠

    2013-01-01

    随着我国市场经济的不断调整与深化改进,房屋建筑企业迎来其高速发展的黄金时期,人们对房屋安全问题的关注度越来越高,混凝土施工技术的控制也日益受到建筑企业的重视。本文通过对当前房屋建筑现状的全面了解,现从施工规划、实际技术控制以及全局管控三个方面来对混凝土施工技术的管控要点做出浅要论述。%With the continuous adjustment and the deepening improvement of China's market economy, housing construction enterprises ushered in the golden period of high speed develop-pment, people on the housing security problem has been paid more and more at ention, the control of concrete construction technology has also been building enterprises. This paper thro-ugh a comprehensive understanding of the current housing sit-uation makes a shal ow discussion on the control points of co-ncrete construction technology from three aspects of the cons-truction planning, actual technical control and global control.

  4. Research-to-policy translation for prevention of disordered weight and shape control behaviors: A case example targeting dietary supplements sold for weight loss and muscle building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, S Bryn; Yu, Kimberly; Tran, Alvin; Mayer, Beth

    2016-04-06

    New approaches to universal eating disorders prevention and interventions targeting macro-environmental change are greatly needed, and research-to-policy translation efforts hold promise for advancing both of these goals. This paper describes as a policy-translation case example an academic-community-government partnership of the Strategic Training Initiative for the Prevention of Eating Disorders, Multi-Service Eating Disorders Association, and the office of Massachusetts Representative Kay Khan, all based in Massachusetts, USA. The partnership's research-to-policy translation project focused on dietary supplements sold for weight loss and muscle building, which have been linked with serious injury and death in consumers. Youth and people of all ages with eating disorders and body dysmorphic disorder may be especially vulnerable to use these products due to deceptive promises of fast and safe weight loss and muscle gain. The research-to-policy translation project was informed by a triggers-to-action framework to establish the evidentiary base of harm to consumers, operationalize policy solutions to mitigate harm through legislation, and generate political will to support action through legislation introduced in the Massachusetts legislature to restrict sales of weight-loss and muscle-building dietary supplements. The paper concludes with lessons learned from this unique policy translation effort for the prevention of disordered weight and shape control behaviors and offers recommendations for next steps for the field to advance research and practice for universal, macro-environmentally targeted prevention.

  5. 75 FR 56140 - Comment Request for Information Collection for the YouthBuild (YB) Reporting System (OMB Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-15

    ...) Reporting System (OMB Control No. 1205-0464), Extension Without Revisions AGENCY: Employment and Training... comments concerning the collection of data about the YB Reporting System which expires on October 31, 2010... collection for program participants and quarterly progress and Management Information System (MIS)...

  6. Our Buildings, Ourselves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roodman, David Malin; Lenssen, Nicholas

    1994-01-01

    Reviews in detail environmental impacts associated with buildings. Discusses building construction, internal environments, building life spans, building materials, protection from climate, and amenities. (LZ)

  7. Investigation of the contribution possibilities of non-destructive methods of testing for the diagnosis and quality control of building materials with emphasis given on sustainable construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsiotis, Nikolaos S.; Matikas, Theodoros E.; Moropoulou, Antonia

    2012-04-01

    In this work, the contribution potential of non-destructive methods of testing is studied in order to assess, diagnose and assert building materials' diagnosis & quality control, with emphasis given on Sustainable Construction. To this end, the following techniques are implemented: fiber-optics microscopy, digital image processing, scanning electron microscopy, pulse/lock-in thermography, acoustic emission as well as ultrasounds. Furthermore, in addition to the above, the maturity method for measurement of compressive strength is applied and correlated to the array of full field non-destructive methods of testing. The results of the study clearly demonstrate how effective non-destructive methods of testing can be, in revealing and determining highly applicable data in a real-time, in situ and efficient manner.

  8. 谈绿色可持续建筑项目成本管控%Discussion on cost control of green sustainable building project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏高峰

    2015-01-01

    分析了绿色可持续建筑项目成本管理的难点,通过对风险源的识别,建立了相应的风险预案,主要对工程中成本控制的组织与实施方案作了探讨,以取得良好的经济效益。%The thesis analyzes cost management difficulties of green sustainable building project. Through identifying risk sources,it establishes corresponding risk pre-arranged plan,and mainly explores engineering cost control organization and implementation scheme,with a view to a-chieve great economic benefits.

  9. 论高速公路BOT建设模式的造价确定与控制%Discussing the construction cost and control of BOT building model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周芸芸

    2012-01-01

    本文通过论述招银高速公路BOT建设模式各阶段的造价确定与控制,提出当前高速公路BOT建设模式下造价管理工作存在的问题和几点建议。希望给高速公路BOT建设模式的造价管理工作提供一定的借鉴作用。%Through discussing the construction cost and control of all stages of Zhaoyin expressway BOT building model. This thesis put forward the existing problems and suggestion for expressway cost management under BOT construction model. It aims to draw some reference to the cost man- agement of expressway BOT construction model.

  10. Construction Quality Control Method of Building Mechanical and Electrical Installation%建筑机电安装施工质量的控制方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈忠伟

    2014-01-01

    This paper first of al introduces the construction machinery instal ation, and points out some problems existing in the construction, meanwhile the corresponding solution and countermeasures are discussed. This paper also introduces the construction quality control method of building mechanical and electrical instal ation by stages, in order to ensure cons-truction quality and safety.%本文首先对建筑机电安装进行了简单地介绍,指出了建筑机电工程施工过程中存在的一些问题,同时探讨了解决的办法以及应对措施。并分阶段对机电安装施工质量的控制方法进行了介绍,以确保施工过程质量有保证、安全有保障。

  11. Serum beta2-microglobulin values among healthy Brazilians using a DPC IMMULITE® assay Valores de beta2-microglobulina em brasileiros saudáveis usando o sistema automatizado DPC IMMULITE®

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabíola Branco Filippin

    2005-02-01

    éias. MÉTODOS: Noventa e seis doadores de sangue saudáveis foram avaliados e os valores de Sb2M foram medidos por método enzima imunoensaio quimiluminescente usando analisador automatizado IMMULITE®. RESULTADOS: Os valores de Sb2M, estabelecidos por método estatístico não paramétrico, apresentaram-se entre 1.05 e 3.9 mg/ml, sendo que o limite superior obtido foi maior que o relatado em outros trabalhos. CONCLUSÃO: Este estudo apresentou novos valores, indicando que existe uma diferença significante entre os limites de referência de Sb2M disponibilizados para o IMMULITE® e os encontrados no presente trabalho, evidenciando a ocorrência de variações importantes entre diferentes populações e que novos valores devem ser considerados para brasileiros.

  12. Efeitos quantitativos da estocagem de sangue periférico nas determinações do hemograma automatizado Storage effects on peripheral blood samples as identified from automated hemograms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Dalanhol

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho avaliou as possíveis alterações em vários parâmetros do hemograma (contagem de eritrócitos totais, hematócrito, concentração de hemoglobina, volume corpuscular médio (VCM, hemoglobina corpuscular média (HCM, concentração da hemoglobina corpuscular média (CHCM, contagem total de leucócitos e contagem de plaquetas, frente a diferentes tempos de armazenamento da amostra em ambiente refrigerado a 4ºC e temperatura ambiente. As determinações foram realizadas através do contador automatizado Sysmex® XT2000i. As amostras sanguíneas foram obtidas de indivíduos sem alterações hematológicas diagnosticadas, sem clínica de doença, sendo considerados indivíduos com valores de referências hematológicos normais. Os resultados foram avaliados através de análise estatística descritiva e comparação de médias através da análise de variância (ANOVA. Os resultados dos parâmetros CHCM e contagem de plaquetas mostraram diferenças estatisticamente significativas para ambas as temperaturas de estocagem. Na temperatura ambiente, os parâmetros que também apresentaram diferença estatística significante foram para o hematócrito, VCM e índice de variação do tamanho dos eritrócitos ( RDW. Conclui-se, portanto, que os resultados dos hemogramas liberados pelo aparelho analisado podem ser satisfatórios quando realizados entre 12 a 24 horas após a coleta da amostra para a maioria dos parâmetros avaliados.This study evaluated possible alterations in different hematologic parameters [total erythrocyte count, hematocrit, hemoglobin concentration, mean corpuscular volume (MCV, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MHCM, total leukocyte count and platelet count], of blood samples submitted to varied storage times at both 4ºC and at room temperature. The analyses were performed using a Sysmex XT2000i automated hematology analyzer. Written consent was obtained from donors

  13. Ellipsoidal Colloids with a Controlled Surface Roughness via Bioinspired Surface Engineering: Building Blocks for Liquid Marbles and Superhydrophobic Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pengjiao; Yang, Lu; Li, Qiang; Wu, Songhai; Jia, Shaoyi; Li, Zhanyong; Zhang, Zhenkun; Shi, Linqi

    2017-03-01

    Understanding the important role of the surface roughness of nano/colloidal particles and harnessing them for practical applications need novel strategies to control the particles' surface topology. Although there are many examples of spherical particles with a specific surface roughness, nonspherical ones with similar surface features are rare. The current work reports a one-step, straightforward, and bioinspired surface engineering strategy to prepare ellipsoidal particles with a controlled surface roughness. By manipulating the unique chemistry inherent to the oxidation-induced self-polymerization of dopamine into polydopamine (PDA), PDA coating of polymeric ellipsoids leads to a library of hybrid ellipsoidal particles (PS@PDA) with a surface that decorates with nanoscale PDA protrusions of various densities and sizes. Together with the advantages originated from the anisotropy of ellipsoids and rich chemistry of PDA, such a surface feature endows these particles with some unique properties. Evaporative drying of fluorinated PS@PDA particles produces a homogeneous coating with superhydrophobicity that arises from the two-scale hierarchal structure of microscale interparticle packing and nanoscale roughness of the constituent ellipsoids. Instead of water repelling that occurs for most of the lotus leaf-like superhydrophobic surfaces, such coating exhibits strong water adhesion that is observed with certain species of rose pedals. In addition, the as-prepared hybrid ellipsoids are very efficient in preparing liquid marble-isolated droplets covered with solid particles. Such liquid marbles can be placed onto many surfaces and might be useful for the controllable transport and manipulation of small volumes of liquids.

  14. Evaluation of building envelopes from the viewpoint of capability of controlling thermal environment; Onnetsu kankyo chosei noryoku ni yoru kenchiku gaihi no hyoka no kokoromi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umeda, K.; Ono, S. [Taisei Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Shukuya, M. [Musashi Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    The ability that architectural space improves the thermal environment in comparison with outdoor environment is called the `capability of controlling thermal environment.` As the value becomes higher, the indoor thermal environment is more improved. In this paper, the controlling capability of six building envelopes with different window systems was compared. The heat transfer in the wall and window system is approximated using a lumped mass model of heat capacity to obtain a heat balance equation and combined with the heat balance equation in indoor air for backward difference. The wall surface temperature and indoor air temperature in a calculation model are then calculated. A radiation absorption coefficient is used for mutual radiation on each wall. In the model, the adjoining room or first- and second-floor rooms were made the same in conditions as the model on the assumption that the one-side lighted office in an RC reference floor is in the non-illumination and non-airconditioning state. In summer, the controlling capability remarkably varies depending on the window system. For the window facing the south, the annual capability is more advanced than in other directions and the indoor thermal environment is improved on the average. 7 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Integrated Building Management System (IBMS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anita Lewis

    2012-07-01

    This project provides a combination of software and services that more easily and cost-effectively help to achieve optimized building performance and energy efficiency. Featuring an open-platform, cloud- hosted application suite and an intuitive user experience, this solution simplifies a traditionally very complex process by collecting data from disparate building systems and creating a single, integrated view of building and system performance. The Fault Detection and Diagnostics algorithms developed within the IBMS have been designed and tested as an integrated component of the control algorithms running the equipment being monitored. The algorithms identify the normal control behaviors of the equipment without interfering with the equipment control sequences. The algorithms also work without interfering with any cooperative control sequences operating between different pieces of equipment or building systems. In this manner the FDD algorithms create an integrated building management system.

  16. Tropical Zero Energy Office Building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reimann, Gregers Peter; Kristensen, Poul Erik

    2006-01-01

    of the building, so that windows are only towards the north and south, in order to reduce the solar heat gains. In order to reduce the loss of cooling through the building envelope, the walls and the roofs are heavily insulated, and the windows have double low energy glazing. The building will be lit primarily...... lighting. These measures include the use of high efficient lighting controlled according to demand, high efficiency pumps and fans, a high efficiency chiller, and use of energy efficient office equipment. The buildings PV system is connected to the grid. Solar electricity is exported to the grid during......The new headquarter for Pusat Tenaga Malaysia is designed to be a Zero Emission Office Building (ZEO). A full range of passive and active energy efficiency measures are implemented such that the building will need no more electricity than what can be produced via its own Building Integrated PV...

  17. 23rd June 2011 . US NASA Administrator General C. Bolden visiting the AMS control room with Collaboration Spokesperson S. Ting and CERN Director-General R. Heuer; Tree planting ceremony in front of building 946, Prevessin site, hosting the AMS control room (CERN-HI-1106159 01 -87)

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2011-01-01

    88-115: visiting CMS control centre in Meyrin with Collaboration Spokesperson-elect J. Incandela and on-shift scientists accompanied by Head of International Relations F. Pauss; 116-119: signature of photographs at the main building steps 120-136: with First Swiss Astronaut C. Nicollier at the main building steps.

  18. Temperature and Humidity Control in Air-Conditioned Buildings with lower Energy Demand and increased Indoor Air Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paul, Joachim; Martos, E. T.

    2003-01-01

    %. For indoor air temperature and humidity control, the use of an ice slurry (´Binary Ice´)was compared to conventional chilled water. The use of Binary Ice instead of chilled water makes the air handling and air distribution installation much simpler, recirculation of air becomes obsolete, and a higher portion....... Binary Ice as secondary refrigerant for air-conditioning purposes is an economical and technically feasible solution in any climate. Whatever chilled water can do in an air-conditioning installation ? Binary Ice can do it better....... of ambient air can be supplied, thus improving the indoor air quality still further. Reheating of air is not necessary when using Binary Ice. The introduction of chilled air into a room requires a different type of air outlet, however. When using Binary Ice, energy savings are high for climates with low...

  19. Notch signalling and proneural genes work together to control the neural building blocks for the initial scaffold in the hypothalamus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle eWare

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The vertebrate embryonic prosencephalon gives rise to the hypothalamus, which plays essential roles in sensory information processing as well as control of physiological homeostasis and behaviour. While patterning of the hypothalamus has received much attention, initial neurogenesis in the developing hypothalamus has mostly been neglected. The first differentiating progenitor cells of the hypothalamus will give rise to neurons that form the nucleus of the tract of the postoptic commissure and the nucleus of the mammillotegmental tract. The formation of these neuronal populations has to be highly controlled both spatially and temporally as these tracts will form part of the ventral longitudinal tract and act as a scaffold for later, follower axons. This review will cumulate and summarise the existing data available describing initial neurogenesis in the vertebrate hypothalamus. It has only recently been proposed that loss of Notch signalling in the developing chick embryo causes an increase in the number of neurons in the hypothalamus, highlighting an early function of the Notch pathway during hypothalamus formation. It is well known that the Notch signalling pathway through the inhibition of proneural genes is a key regulator of neurogenesis in the vertebrate central nervous system. Scarce studies have shown genes such as Ascl1 and Hes5 are expressed in the hypothalamus earlier than when the first mature neurons appear. The timing of the transcriptional repressors of the Notch signalling pathway and proneural activators will be analysed. We will discuss novel targets that start to unravel the mechanisms behind neurogenesis in the hypothalamus. Given the critical role that hypothalamic neural circuitry plays in maintaining homeostasis, it is particularly important to establish the targets downstream of this Notch/proneural network.

  20. Competence Building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borrás, Susana; Edquist, Charles

    on the one hand, and the real world of innovation policy-making on the other, typically not speaking to each other. With this purpose in mind, this paper discusses the role of competences and competence-building in the innovation process from a perspective of innovation systems; it examines how governments...... and public agencies in different countries and different times have actually approached the issue of building, maintaining and using competences in their innovation systems; it examines what are the critical and most important issues at stake from the point of view of innovation policy, looking particularly...

  1. Caracterización de un proceso operativo de análisis de calidad higiénica y sanitaria de la leche bovina cruda, con equipos automatizados BactoScan FC 50 y CombiFoss FT+ 200, en un laboratorio de calidad de leche (Characterization of the operative process for the analysis the hygienic and sanitary quality the raw bovine milk, with automated equipment BactoScan FC 50 and CombiFoss FT+ 200, in a quality milk laboratory ).

    OpenAIRE

    Gaona Yira; Olivera Martha

    2011-01-01

    ResumenLa caracterización del proceso operativo de análisis de calidad higiénica y sanitaria de la leche bovina cruda con los equipos automatizados BactoScanFC50 y CombiFossFT+200, se realizó de forma separada para las fase preanalítica, analítica y postanalítica del proceso, para cada una de ellas se presentan las condiciones y especificaciones requeridas en equipos, personal, documentación , procedimientos, infraestructura y ambiente de trabajo que permiten la transformación de las muestras...

  2. Building a World-Class Safety Culture: The National Ignition Facility and the Control of Human and Organizational Error

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, C T; Stalnaker, G

    2002-12-06

    Accidents in complex systems send us signals. They may be harbingers of a catastrophe. Some even argue that a ''normal'' consequence of operations in a complex organization may not only be the goods it produces, but also accidents and--inevitably--catastrophes. We would like to tell you the story of a large, complex organization, whose history questions the argument ''that accidents just happen.'' Starting from a less than enviable safety record, the National Ignition Facility (NIF) has accumulated over 2.5 million safe hours. The story of NIF is still unfolding. The facility is still being constructed and commissioned. But the steps NIF has taken in achieving its safety record provide a principled blueprint that may be of value to others. Describing that principled blueprint is the purpose of this paper. The first part of this paper is a case study of NIF and its effort to achieve a world-class safety record. This case study will include a description of (1) NIF's complex systems, (2) NIF's early safety history, (3) factors that may have initiated its safety culture change, and (4) the evolution of its safety blueprint. In the last part of the paper, we will compare NIF's safety culture to what safety industry experts, psychologists, and sociologists say about how to shape a culture and control organizational error.

  3. The controllability of climate ceilings in insulated buildings. A chaotic measurement and control illusion; Een chaotische meet- en regelillusie. Klimaatplafonds in geisoleerde gebouwen nauwelijks regelbaar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitz, H.

    2012-01-15

    Dimensioning traditional climate ceilings is not an easy task. Various parameters need to be calculated according to various different methods. This is the second article on climate ceilings, addressing the chaotic measurement and control illusion in more detail. [Dutch] Dimensioneren van traditionele klimaatplafonds is geen sinecure. Verschillende parameters moeten volgens evenzoveel verschillende methoden worden berekend. Dit tweede deel over klimaatplafonds gaat dan ook dieper in op de 'chaotische meet- en regelillusie'.

  4. Analysis on the seismic isolation and shock absorption and vibration control of building structure%建筑结构的隔震减振和振动控制分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宇彤

    2012-01-01

    分析了建筑结构隔震与消能减振的原理,结合实际应用情况,对建筑结构振动控制技术进行了研究,以解决建筑结构抗震设计中出现的一系列问题,确保建筑物安全。%The paper analyzes the seismic isolation and energy-saving and shock absorption principles of building structure.Combining with the actual application conditions,it studies the vibration control techniques of building structures,with a view to solve a series of problems occurring in seismic isolation design of building structures and to guarantee the building security.

  5. Building Procurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Niclas

    2007-01-01

    despite this excellent book, the knowledge, expertise, well-articulated argument and collection of recent research efforts that are provided by the three authors will help to make project success less elusive. The book constitutes a thorough and comprehensive investigation of building procurement, which......, which gives the book a challenging contribution to the existing body of knowledge....

  6. Building Sandcastles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Steffen Moltrup Ernø; Korsgaard, Steffen; Shumar, Wes

    of entrepreneurship education. Our theoretical and methodological approach builds on Actor-Network Theory. The empirical settings of our study consist of two entrepreneurship courses which differ in terms of temporal extension and physical setting. Data is collected using observation and interview techniques. Our...

  7. Building Partnerships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisner, Mary J.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Defines school-business partnerships and reviews changes in such partnerships over the past 25 years. Provides steps to building effective partnerships for school-to-work activities: review the school's mission; select partners that will bring strength to the relationship; set clearly defined, realistic goals; maintain the partnership; and…

  8. Building Letters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Cabinet是种十分吸引人却很简单的衬线字体,是由一名匿名字体设计师专门为Building Letters最新的资金筹集活动所设计的。这个Building Letters包中包含一个CDROM,有32种字体,以及一本专门设计的杂志和两张由Eboy和Emigre所设计的海报。字体光盘样例是由世界顶级的字体设计师们设计的.

  9. Building Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The report Building Bridges adresses the questions why, how and for whom academic audience research has public value, from the different points of view of the four working groups in the COST Action IS0906 Transforming Audiences, Transforming Societies – “New Media Genres, Media Literacy and Trust...... in the Media”, “Audience Interactivity and Participation”, “The Role of Media and ICT Use for Evolving Social Relationships” and “Audience Transformations and Social Integration”. Building Bridges is the result of an ongoing dialogue between the Action and non-academic stakeholders in the field of audience...... Belgrade), Leo Pekkala (Finnish Centre for Media Education and Audiovisual Media/MEKU), Julie Uldam (Network on Civic Engagement and Social Innovation) and Gabriella Velics (Community Media Forum Europe)....

  10. Building economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, D.O.(red.)

    Publikationen er på engelsk. Den omfatter alle indlæg på det fjerde internationale symposium om byggeøkonomi, der blev arrangeret af SBI for det internationale byggeforskningsråd CIB. De fem bind omhandler: Methods of Economic Evaluation, Design Optimization, Ressource Utilization, The Building...... Market og Economics and Technological Forecasting in Construction. Et indledende bind bringer statusrapporter for de fem forskningsområder, og det sidste bind sammenfatter debatten på symposiet....

  11. Specifying a green building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cousins, F.; McGregor, A. [Ove Arup and Partners, (United States)

    1998-11-01

    The concept of a `green` building is defined as a building that works with, rather than in spite of, the local climate to minimize fossil fuel consumption. It minimizes water consumption and waste. It uses construction materials that have a long life, are non-toxic, and which require minimum energy to produce, deliver to the building site and install. It is sufficiently flexible to permit successive changes without major construction work. With this definition as the background, this paper concentrates on the reduction of fossil fuel energy consumption in commercial buildings, and the various means available to achieve it, such as natural ventilation, thermal storage, control of solar gain, maximizing the use of daylight for illumination, and passive and active solar energy collection. Also discussed are some of the reasons why some buildings fail to satisfy owners and occupants. A strategy involving performance-based contracting, elements of value engineering and occupant education to assure energy efficiency and owner/occupants satisfaction is presented. 15 refs.

  12. Analysis and Control of the High-rise Building Project Cost%浅析高层建筑工程造价的分析与控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖男

    2013-01-01

      本文分析了当前我国高层建筑工程造价的现状,结合现行体制的弊端和工程造价领域存在的突出问题,主要针对设计阶段提出相应的改革措施以降低项目成本,控制工程造价,为我国的建筑工程造价管理提供理论参考。%This paper analyzes the present situation of the cur-rent cost of high-rise building projects in China, combined with the outstanding problems existing in the present system and the malpractice of the engineering, mainly aims at the des-ign stage and puts forward the corresponding measures to red-uce the project cost, control project cost, to provide theoretical reference for China's construction project cost management.

  13. Data management for biofied building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Kohta; Mita, Akira

    2015-03-01

    Recently, Smart houses have been studied by many researchers to satisfy individual demands of residents. However, they are not feasible yet as they are very costly and require many sensors to be embedded into houses. Therefore, we suggest "Biofied Building". In Biofied Building, sensor agent robots conduct sensing, actuation, and control in their house. The robots monitor many parameters of human lives such as walking postures and emotion continuously. In this paper, a prototype network system and a data model for practical application for Biofied Building is pro-posed. In the system, functions of robots and servers are divided according to service flows in Biofield Buildings. The data model is designed to accumulate both the building data and the residents' data. Data sent from the robots and data analyzed in the servers are automatically registered into the database. Lastly, feasibility of this system is verified through lighting control simulation performed in an office space.

  14. Systems for controlled ventilation of new or modernized buildings. Energy-saving blowers; Kontrollierte Wohnungslueftung fuer Neubau und Sanierung. Energie sparende Ventilatoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salig, Andreas [ebm-papst, Mulfingen (Germany). Verkauf Inland; Reiff, Ellen-Christine [Redaktionsbuero Stutensee (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    In its Energy Conservation Ordinance of 2009 (EnEV), the German government reduced the maximum energy consumption of a new building by 30 percent as compared to the EnEV 2007. From 2012, another 30 percent reduction is envisaged. This applies also to modernized buildings. (orig.)

  15. The incredible years therapeutic dinosaur programme to build social and emotional competence in welsh primary schools: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evans Ceri

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background School interventions such as the Incredible Years Classroom Dinosaur Programme targets pupil behaviour across whole classrooms, yet for some children a more intense approach is needed. The Incredible Years Therapeutic Dinosaur Programme is effective for clinically referred children by enhancing social, problem-solving skills, and peer relationship-building skills when delivered in a clinical setting in small groups. The aim of this trial is to evaluate the effectiveness of the Therapeutic Programme, delivered with small groups of children at high-risk of developing conduct disorder, delivered in schools already implementing the Classroom Programme. Methods/Design This is a pragmatic, parallel, randomised controlled trial. Two hundred and forty children (aged 4-8 years rated by their teacher as above the 'borderline cut-off' for concern on the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, and their parents, will be recruited. Randomisation is by individual within blocks (schools; 1:1 ratio, intervention to waiting list control. Twenty schools will participate in two phases. Two teachers per school will deliver the programme to six intervention children for 2-hours/week for 18 weeks between baseline and first follow-up. The control children will receive the intervention after first follow up. Phase 1 comprises three data collection points - baseline and two follow-ups eight months apart. Phase 2 includes baseline and first follow-up. The Therapeutic Programme includes elements on; Learning school rules; understanding, identifying, and articulating feelings; problem solving; anger management; how to be friendly; how to do your best in school. Primary outcomes are; change in child social, emotional and behavioural difficulties. Secondary outcomes are; teacher and parent mental wellbeing, child academic attainment, child and teacher school attendance. Intervention delivery will be assessed for fidelity. Intention to treat analyses

  16. MYCELIUM BUILDING

    OpenAIRE

    Jondelius, Olof

    2015-01-01

    This work is looking in to what possibilites and restrictions comes with using mycelium as a building material for a small house. It includes reasoning around solutions for some of the problems and presenting some ideas of how to use some of the materials properties in your favor. A general background of why we need to start look in to alternative materials for all petroleum materials are presented. Det här arbetet har varit inriktat på att se vilka möjligheter samt begränsningar det skul...

  17. 搭设障蔽控制樟子松风蚀沙埋危害的效果%Control Effect on Wind Erosion and Sand Cover by Building Sand-Barrier for Pinus sylvestris var.mongolica Plantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    屈升银; 叶竹林

    2011-01-01

    The control effect on wind erosion and sand cover by building sand-barrier was studied by taking Pinus sylvestris var. Mongolica as planting tree species. The results showed that building sand-barrier could promote the survival rate of the plantation up to 100% , which was significantly higher than that of the control. There were also significant differences in the growth rate of the Pinus sylvestris var. Mongolica plantation between building the sand-barrier and the control. The experiment showed that building the sand-barrier could promote the average sapling height, basal diameter and crown growth by 55.4% , 66. 6% and 60.1% respectively compared to the control. Sand-barrier building provided the morphology construction of the Pinus sylvestris var. Mongolica saplings with much better environment that significantly reduced the phenomena such as trunk bending, wind throw and drying up of the brnaches and turning yellow of the leaves due to the wind damage.%以樟子松为对象探讨搭设沙障控制风蚀沙埋危害的效果.结果表明:搭设与未搭设沙障的造林保存率存在显著差异,搭设沙障可使造林保存率高达100%;搭设与未搭设沙障的生长量也存在显著差异,搭设沙障可使树高、地径、树冠生长量分别提高55.4%、66.6%和60.7%;搭设沙障为樟子松的形态建成创造了良好的环境条件,树干弯曲、风倒及枯黄现象明显减少.

  18. Existing buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram-Hanssen, Kirsten

    2014-01-01

    their homes. These policy measures include building regulations, energy tax and different types of incentives and information dissemination. The conclusion calls for new and innovative policy measures to cope with the realities of renovations of owner-occupied houses and how energy efficiency improvement......This paper deals with the energy consumption of existing owner-occupied detached houses and the question of how they can be energy renovated. Data on the age of the Danish housing stock, and its energy consumption is presented. Research on the potential for energy reductions in the Danish housing...... sector is discussed, and it is shown that there is a huge potential for reductions. It is a well-known problem that even if there are relevant technical means and even if it is economically feasible, the majority of house owners do not energy renovate their homes. This paper intends to address what can...

  19. Apartment building with controlled ventilation. East Germany: High-efficiency blowers provide fresh air for the heat recovery system of a new apartment building; Miethaus mit kontrollierter Wohnungslueftung. Beim Neubau einer ostdeutschen Wohnanlage erfolgt die Frischluftzufuhr der Waermerueckgewinnungsanlage ueber Hochleistungsluefter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2000-11-01

    The Energy Conservation Ordinance contains specifications for energy conservation in the construction of new buildings and the modernisation of old ones. Ventilation is a crucial point. A wholesome room climate and fresh air are important factors in keeping the inhabitants healthy and well. [German] Bei Erstellung von Neubauten und der Sanierung von Altbauten sollten schon heute die Inhalte der aktuell gueltigen Energiesparverordnung beachtet werden. Sie soll bei der Einsparung von Energie sorgen. Doch besonders in Gebaeuden mit guter Waermedaemmung, insbesondere bei Niedrigenergiehaeusern, muss richtig be- und entlueftet werden. Ein wohliges Klima und gute Luft in Wohnraeumen sind wichtig fuer die Gesundheit der Bewohner. (orig.)

  20. Integrating Responsive Building Elements in Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haase, Matthias; Amato, Alex; Heiselberg, Per

    2006-01-01

    There is a global need for a more sustainable building development. About 50% of energy is used in buildings indicating that buildings provide a considerable potential for operational energy savings. Studies were conducted with the following objectives: to perform a state-of-the-art review...... energy strategies to develop guidelines and procedures for estimation of environmental performance of responsive building elements and integrated building concepts This paper introduces the ideas of this collaborative work and discusses its usefulness for Hong Kong and China. Special focus was put...... of responsive building elements, of integrated building concepts and of environmental performance assessment methods to improve and optimize responsive building elements to develop and optimize new building concepts with integration of responsive building elements, HVAC-systems as well as natural and renewable...

  1. 21 June 2010 - TUBITAK Vice President A. Adli signing the guest book with CERN Director-General R. Heuer, visiting the ATLAS control room at Point 1 with Former Collaboration Spokesperson P. Jenni and CMS Control Centre, building 354, with Collaboration Spokesperson G. Tonelli. Throughout accompanied by Adviser J. Ellis.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2010-01-01

    21 June 2010 - TUBITAK Vice President A. Adli signing the guest book with CERN Director-General R. Heuer, visiting the ATLAS control room at Point 1 with Former Collaboration Spokesperson P. Jenni and CMS Control Centre, building 354, with Collaboration Spokesperson G. Tonelli. Throughout accompanied by Adviser J. Ellis.

  2. Building America Expert Meeting Report: Hydronic Heating in Multifamily Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dentz, J.

    2011-10-01

    The topic of this expert meeting was cost-effective controls and distribution retrofit options for hot water and steam space heating systems in multi-family buildings with the goals of reducing energy waste and improving occupant comfort. The U.S. Department of Energy's Building America program develops technologies with the goal of reducing energy use by 30% to 50% in residential buildings. Toward this goal, the program sponsors 'Expert Meetings' focused on specific building technology topics. The meetings are intended to sharpen Building America research priorities, create a forum for sharing information among industry leaders and build partnerships with professionals and others that can help support the program's research needs and objectives. The topic of this expert meeting was cost-effective controls and distribution retrofit options for hot water and steam space heating systems in multifamily buildings with the goals of reducing energy waste and improving occupant comfort. The objectives of the meeting were to: (1) Share knowledge and experience on new and existing solutions: what works, what doesn't and why, and what's new; (2) Understand the market barriers to currently offered solutions: what disconnects exist in the market and what is needed to overcome or bridge these gaps; and (3) Identify research needs.

  3. 智能建筑区门禁系统自动化识别技术分析%Analysis on Automatic Identification Technology of Intelligent Building Access Control System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张卉

    2015-01-01

    门禁系统是智能建筑区必备设施,可对建筑区提供安全防护、自动调控等多方面功能.指纹识别系统是人工智能改造的新系统,为门禁系统自动识别提供了科技化措施.本文分析了智能建筑发展趋势及指纹识别系统的基本构成,介绍了智能建筑门禁系统自动化识别技术的应用方法.%The access control system of intelligent building is a necessary facility, which provides security protection, automatic control and so on. Fingerprint identification system is a new artificial intelligence system, providing technological measures for the automatic identification of access control system. This paper analyzes the development trend of intelligent building and the basic structure of fingerprint identification system, introduces the application of automatic recognition technology in intelligent building access control system.

  4. Capacity building and human resource development for tobacco control in Latin America Capacitación y desarrollo de recursos humanos para el control del tabaco en América Latina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frances A Stillman

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess capacity and human resources in Latin America countries and compare with other countries. Material and Methods. Data were gathered through needs assessments that were conducted at the 2009 World Conference on Tobacco or Health, and the 2nd Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco-International American Heart Foundation, Latin America Tobacco Control Conference held in Mexico City in 2009. Results. In comparing Latin America respondents to respondents from other countries, we found that the average number of years in tobacco control was higher and the majority of respondents reported higher levels of educational attainment. Respondents reported lack of funding and other resources as their number one challenge, as well as, tobacco industry interference and lack of political will to implement tobacco control policies. Conclusions. In Latin America there are some countries that have made significant progress in building their capacity and human resources to address their tobacco epidemics, but much still needs to be done.Objetivo. Realizar un diagnóstico sobre la capacitación y los recursos humanos en América Latina y comparar con otros países. Material y métodos. Los datos se obtuvieron a través de una encuesta realizada durante la Conferencia Mundial Tabaco o Salud de 2009 y la segunda Conferencia de Control del Tabaco para América Latina de la Sociedad de Investigación sobre Nicotina y Tabaco (Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco y de la Fundación Interamericana del Corazón llevada a cabo en la ciudad de México en 2009. Resultados. Al comparar las respuestas de América Latina con las de otros países, observamos que el promedio de años trabajando en control del tabaco era mayor y que la mayoría reportó un mayor nivel de estudios. Los encuestados identificaron la falta de recursos y de financiamiento como su mayor desafío así como la interferencia de la industria y la falta de voluntad pol

  5. Building energy analysis tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brackney, Larry; Parker, Andrew; Long, Nicholas; Metzger, Ian; Dean, Jesse; Lisell, Lars

    2016-04-12

    A building energy analysis system includes a building component library configured to store a plurality of building components, a modeling tool configured to access the building component library and create a building model of a building under analysis using building spatial data and using selected building components of the plurality of building components stored in the building component library, a building analysis engine configured to operate the building model and generate a baseline energy model of the building under analysis and further configured to apply one or more energy conservation measures to the baseline energy model in order to generate one or more corresponding optimized energy models, and a recommendation tool configured to assess the one or more optimized energy models against the baseline energy model and generate recommendations for substitute building components or modifications.

  6. Building Automation Using Wired Communication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ms. Supriya Gund*,

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present the design and implementation of a building automation system where communication technology LAN has been used. This paper mainly focuses on the controlling of home appliances remotely and providing security when the user is away from the place. This system provides ideal solution to the problems faced by home owners in daily life. This system provides security against intrusion as well as automates various home appliances using LAN. To demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed system, the device such as fire sensor, gas sensor, panic switch, intruder switch along with the smartcard have been developed and evaluated with the building automation system. These techniques are successfully merged in a single building automation system. This system offers a complete, low cost powerful and user friendly way of real-time monitoring and remote control of a building.

  7. 基于物联网的楼宇亮化联动控制系统的设计%DESIGN OF BUILDING LIGHTING LINKAGE CONTROL SYSTEM BASED ON INTERNET OF THINGS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周杰; 王宜怀; 陈爱兵; 李翠霞

    2012-01-01

    In view of the deficiencies of traditional building lighting such as manual powering and inspection, extensive management and single effect, etc. , a solution of building lighting linkage control is put forward in this paper. It is based on IOT technologies including the fused sensor network, 2. 5G/3G communications and WEB design, etc. The system is designed with Freescale 32-bit MCF52223 and 8 bit ZIGBEE-MC13211 chips, it realises the intelligentisation, diversification and automation of the building lighting control, provides a technical platform to energy conservation and automatic inspection, so is an effective solution to modern building lighting intelligent control. The paper elaborates the key issues concerning systems architecture, hardware design, software design, synchronised and linkage control, and makes a detailed analysis on relevant implementation methodology.%针对传统楼宇亮化人工上电、人工巡检、管理粗放、效果单一等方面的不足,提出融合传感网、2.5G/3G通信、Web设计等技术的物联网楼宇亮化联动控制解决方案.系统以飞思卡尔32位MCF52223及8位ZIGBEE-MC13211芯片为核心进行设计,实现楼宇亮化控制的智能化、多样化与自动化,为节能与自动巡查提供了技术平台,是现代楼宇亮化智能控制的有效解决方案.着重阐述系统的架构、硬件设计、软件设计、同步与联动控制涉及的关键问题,并对有关实现方法进行了细致分析.

  8. Research on BACnet Building Controller Based on ARM9 and Embedded Linux%基于ARM9和嵌入式Linux的BACnet楼宇控制器的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄健仓

    2012-01-01

    Application of BACnet/IP technology building controller, building control center via high-speed Ethernet connections in different floors, the application of different functional controller. In hardware, from the cost, performance and other aspects identified ARM9 hardware platform, according to the system need to design the various functional modules of hardware circuit; in software, embedded Linux system by transplantation, the controller provides a stable operating environment software and network environment. This paper focuses on the completion of the use of C language realization BACnet protocol stack, through the protocol stack, the controller with other BACnet devices for data exchange functions, proposes the application methods of controller in practical projects.%应用BACnet/IP技术的楼宇控制器,楼宇控制中心通过以太网高速连接位于不同楼层、不同功能的应用控制器.通过ARM9的硬件平台设计出硬件的各个功能模块电路,通过移植嵌入式Linux系统,为控制器提供了软件的稳定运行环境、网络环境.重点完成了BACnet协议栈,通过协议栈,控制器与其他BACnet设备进行数据交换.提出了控制器在具体工程中的应用方法.

  9. Impact of tall buildings in environmental pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Hayati

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Today, tall building is a phenomenon that the world particularly large cities are facing. The tall buildings in order to exploit the land with having the negative affects in the environment create new problems including increasing congestion population, environmental pollution, reduce citizen access to fresh air and sunlight. However, regarding to population increasing and land shortage, tall buildings could not be avoided. This paper investigates the relationship of tall buildings with urban air pollution as well as the possible reducing of negative affects of tall building on environmental pollution with respect to geographical position, technicalrules, immunization, green space, direct of wind, appropriate distance to other buildings, design in terms of visibility and landscape and urban appearance were reviewed. The study showed that the tall buildings cause increasing the air pollution in large urban area due to changing in wind and its direction and also congestion of tall buildings as a pollution sources. Therefore some techniques to design the tall building must be considered to reduce the negative affects of the tall buildings on environmental pollution. Unfortunately the lack of the construction roles in term of environmental protection and also control of the rules in construction process causing the environmental pollution particularly air pollution. It is suggested that the re-evaluate of the rules with restricted control can improve the air quality in the large cities and also utilization of green spaces in floors and roofs of buildings as environmentally friendly buildings which are attempt to reduce environmental problems.

  10. Analysis of passive systems as a tool for energy saving in buildings: solar control; Analisis de sistemas pasivos como herramienta para el ahorro de energia en edificaciones: Control solar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saravia, Maricela; Morillon Galvez, David [Instituto de Ingenieria, UNAM, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    A bioclimatic study of El Salvador is presented, with the purpose of using window eaves as elements of passive solar control and to determine the optimal angles of orientation, in order to diminish the thermal gains by direct solar radiation and to manage to get close to the comfort conditions. The former with the intention of integrating measures that help to obtain energy efficiency and comfortable buildings, for the conditions of warm humid climate, characteristic of a Central American country like El Salvador. Besides offering a document of consultation among the professionals dedicated to the design and as base of bioclimatic considerations that must have the construction regulations. As a conclusion the optimal angles of eaves for each orientation are presented and a quantitative estimation of the savings that would imply not to consume electrical energy in cooling systems using these elements as a protection to the direct solar radiation. [Spanish] Se presenta un estudio del bioclima de El Salvador, con el fin de utilizar aleros de ventana como elementos de control solar pasivo y determinar los angulos optimos por orientacion, para disminuir las ganancias termicas por radiacion solar directa y lograr acercar a las condiciones de confort. Lo anterior con el objeto de integrar medidas que coadyuven a lograr edificios energeticamente eficientes y confortables, para las condiciones de clima calido humedo, caracteristico de un pais centroamericano como El Salvador. Ademas de brindar un documento de consulta entre los profesionales dedicados al dise y como base de consideraciones bioclimaticas que debe tener el reglamento de construcciones. Como conclusion se presentan los angulos optimos de alero por cada orientacion y una estimacion cuantitativa del ahorro que implicaria el no consumir energia electrica en sistemas de enfriamiento utilizando estos elementos como una proteccion a la radiacion solar directa.

  11. A model predictive control strategy for the space heating of a smart building including cogeneration of a fuel cell-electrolyzer system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sossan, Fabrizio; Bindner, Henrik W.; Madsen, Henrik;

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to analyze the value of energy replacement in the context of demand response. Energy replacement is dened as the possibility of the consumer to choose the most convenient source for providing space heating to a smart building according to a dynamic electricity price...

  12. Non-linear model predictive supervisory controller for building, air handling unit with recuperator and refrigeration system with heat waste recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minko, Tomasz; Wisniewski, Rafal; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we examine a supermarket system. In order to grasp the most important dynamics we present a model that includes the single zone building thermal envelope with its heating, cooling and ventilation. Moreover we include heat waste recovery from the refrigeration high pressure side. The...

  13. BUILDING 341 Seismic Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halle, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    The Seismic Evaluation of Building 341 located at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in Livermore, California has been completed. The subject building consists of a main building, Increment 1, and two smaller additions; Increments 2 and 3.

  14. Tribal Green Building Toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Tribal Green Building Toolkit (Toolkit) is designed to help tribal officials, community members, planners, developers, and architects develop and adopt building codes to support green building practices. Anyone can use this toolkit!

  15. Building 774: open for business

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2015-01-01

    In July 2012, the demolition of Building 936 on the Prévessin site marked the start of the Building 774 project. On 23 February, less than three years later, the new 3900 m2 building was handed over to the BE department.   The brand new Building 774. (Credits: Francesco Soppelsa) Located near to the CERN Control Centre, Building 774 contains offices, laboratories and meeting rooms, as well as a huge public area consisting of a 104-seat auditorium, a changing room/shower area in the basement and a pleasant cafeteria open from 8 a.m. to 5 p.m., offering a wide range of refreshments including hot meals at lunchtime. “There were a few twists and turns during the construction of this building, but it all turned out well in the end!" says Michael Poehler, a member of the GS-SE group and the technical coordinator of the project. (Credits: Francesco Soppelsa) The 120 occupants of the building have just moved into their brand new home, bringing all the members of the...

  16. Application of i-bus Intelligent Building Control System in Xianyang International Airport%i-bus智能建筑控制系统在咸阳国际机场的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘洁; 尚东卫

    2013-01-01

    简要介绍ABB i-bus®智能建筑控制系统的结构及特点,并通过该系统在西安咸阳国际机场T3航站楼项目的应用,阐述系统现场智能面板控制、中文触摸屏控制、光照度自动感应控制、中央图形化控制,以及与其他系统的集成。%A brief intro duction to the structure and characteristics of ABB i-bus®intelligent building control system is provided. The integrated functions of intelligent panel control, Chinese touch screen control, light illuminance automatic induction control and central graphical control integration with other systems are described through the application of the system in terminal building T3 of Xianyang international airport in Xi’ an.

  17. Green building: sustainable building quality; Green Building: nachhaltige Gebaeudequalitaet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staub, R.

    2010-07-01

    This article takes a look at the 'Portikon' office building near Zurich, Switzerland, that meets the 'Minergie-P' very low energy consumption requirements. The author is of the opinion that the project can be seen as a reference project for sustainable building technology. The structure of the seven-storey building with a central atrium is described and discussed. The 'Minergie-P' energy concept is discussed, as are the 1,100 square meters of photovoltaic panels on the roof of the building. Heating energy is provided by Zurich's waste incineration plant nearby. Electro-biological aspects in the building are taken care of by appropriate earthing and shielding of cables. The building's facility management system and the installations used are briefly discussed.

  18. Management Control of High-rise Building Construction in China%对我国高层建筑施工管理控制重点的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王联恩

    2011-01-01

    With China's rapid economic development, the construction industry has also got rapid development.Especially China's cities, because of the finiteness and tension of the land resources and the growing urban population, we must take the high-rise building as the main body of urban construction.The time of high-rise building construction is long, and the structure is relatively complex, so this paper describes the three key factors of the intensity control, three-wire control and safety management of high-rise building according to the above characteristics.%随着我国经济的迅速发展,建筑行业也有了较快的发展.尤其在我国的城市,由于土地资源的有限性、紧张性,以及城市人口的日益增加,必须将高层建筑作为城市建设的主体.高层建筑施工时间较长,而且结构相对比较复杂,本文根据以上特点,阐述了高层建筑的强度控制、三线控制以及安全管理这三项重点因素.

  19. Design and Implementation of Intelligent Building Control System Based on SIP%基于 SIP的智能楼宇监控系统设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨怀德; 朴希南; 李勇

    2013-01-01

    With the rapid development of technology of computer ,networking ,electronics and communications ,image processing ,intelligent building control technology is moving integrated ,comprehensive digitization ,networking ,system integration in the direction of development .Therefore ,research and development of an intelligent building control system has important practical significance .Embedded system technology and network communication technology ,video process-ing technology combined to design a visual building intercom system based on SIP protocol and embedded Linux solutions .%随着计算机、网络、电子与通信、图像处理等技术的飞速发展,智能楼宇监控技术正朝着一体化、全面数字化、网络化、系统集成化的方向发展。研究并开发一种智能楼宇监控系统具有重要的实际意义。将嵌入式系统开发技术与网络通信技术、视频处理技术相结合,设计了一种基于SIP协议和嵌入式Linux的可视化楼宇对讲系统解决方案。

  20. Danish building typologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wittchen, Kim Bjarne; Kragh, Jesper

    The objective of TABULA is to develop a harmonised building typology for European countries. Each national building typology will consist of a set of residential model buildings with characteristic energy-related properties (element areas of the thermal building envelope, U-values, supply system...... efficiencies). The model buildings will each represent a specific construction period of the country in question and a specific building size. Furthermore the number of buildings, flats and the overall floor areas will be given, which are represented by the different building types of the national typologies....

  1. Guidelines on Building Regulations 2008

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thse guidelines clarify and intepret the provisions of the Building Regulations of 2008 (BR08). The Guidelines, which match BR08 in terms of organisation into Parts, are accompanied by the full text of the regulations and the explanatory notes issued by the Danish Enterprise and Construction...... Authority. The Guidelines refer the reader to sources such as relevant standards, instructions and other background material which provides more detailed information. The Guidelines cover the same ground as BR08, including building control regulations, layout, fitting out, structures, fire safety, indoor...... climate, energy consumotion and services. The Guidelines are aimed at all professionals involved in building projects, particularly building design consultants, contractors and municipal application officers....

  2. Danish building typologies and building stock analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wittchen, Kim Bjarne; Kragh, Jesper

    enough to meet the government’s plan to make Danish buildings free from use of fossil fuels by 2035. This will probably require around 50 % energy savings in the Danish building stock as a whole. However, the project has proven that dedicated engagement of locals can speed up market penetration...... energy savings in residential buildings. The intension with this analysis was to investigate the possible energy reduction in Denmark if the same approach had been taken for the entire Danish building stock. The report concludes that the ZeroHome initiative clearly results in energy savings, but far from...... for energy savings in the existing Building stock....

  3. 超高层钢结构建筑施工工艺控制要点%The construction technology control key points of super high-rise steel structure buildings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭锐; 刘刚彬

    2012-01-01

    This paper briefly introduced the present situation of super high-rise steel structure building,and elaborated in detail its construction technology,and combining with specific project example,this paper described the quality control key points of some key process in steel structure construction process,had significance to facilitate the construction level of future super high-rise steel structure buildings.%简要介绍了超高层钢结构建筑现状,对其施工工艺作了具体阐述,并结合具体工程实例,对钢结构工程施工过程中一些关键工序的质量控制要点进行了说明,对促进今后超高层建筑钢结构施工水平具有指导意义。

  4. The incredible years therapeutic dinosaur programme to build social and emotional competence in welsh primary schools: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Evans Ceri; Whitaker Christopher; Hutchings Judy; Bywater Tracey; Parry Laura

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background School interventions such as the Incredible Years Classroom Dinosaur Programme targets pupil behaviour across whole classrooms, yet for some children a more intense approach is needed. The Incredible Years Therapeutic Dinosaur Programme is effective for clinically referred children by enhancing social, problem-solving skills, and peer relationship-building skills when delivered in a clinical setting in small groups. The aim of this trial is to evaluate the effectiveness of...

  5. Finding of No Significant Impact: Repair and Renovate Airborne Warning and Control System Maintenance Group Complex, Building 230 Tinker Air Force Base Oklahoma City, Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    automatic fire protection sprinkler systems installed, as required by NFPA 13 1-6.1. • The sprinkler alarm valve...replaced with an automatic wet-pipe fire sprinkler system capable of suppressing potential fire spread throughout the building; the new fire suppression... fire suppression system does not meet code. • The wet-pipe fire suppression sprinkler heads installed in the 1950s also no longer meet

  6. Fire under control, operating cost too. Wood pellets heating system for the fire brigade building at Gaienhofen on Lake Constance; Feuer unter Kontrolle, Betriebskosten im Griff. Die Feuerwehr in Gaienhofen/Bodensee heizt mit Holzpellets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenig, Klaus W.

    2008-11-15

    The fire equipment building of Gaienhofen is a new building on the edge of town, neighbouring the buildings of the local soccer and tennis clubs. All three buildings are serviced by a heating station in the basement of the fire brigade building. A solar system for water heating reduces fuel consumption and minimizes the operating cost. (orig.)

  7. Towards Collaborative Data Analytics for Smart Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarova-Molnar, Sanja; Mohamed, Nader

    2017-01-01

    Smart buildings are buildings equipped with the latest technological and architectural solutions, controlled by Building Management Systems (BMS), operating in fulfillment of the typical goals of increasing occupants’ comfort and reducing buildings’ energy consumption. We witness a slow......, but steadily increasing trend in the number of buildings that become smart. The increase in availability and the decrease in prices of sensors and meters, have made them almost standard elements in buildings; both in newly built and existing ones. Sensors and meters enable growing collections of data from...... buildings that is available for further analytics to support meeting BMS’ performance goals. For a single building to benefit from this data-based analytics, it will take a long time. Collaboration of BMS in their data analytics processes can significantly shorten this time period. This paper makes two...

  8. Building America Expert Meeting Report. Hydronic Heating in Multifamily Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dentz, Jordan [Levy Partnership, Inc., New York, NY (United States)

    2011-10-01

    This expert meeting was presented by the ARIES Collaborative, and discussed cost-effective controls and distribution retrofit options for hot water and steam space heating systems in multi-family buildings with the goals of reducing energy waste and improving occupant comfort.

  9. Avaliação da exeqüibilidade, eficácia e segurança do transplante lamelar semi-automatizado de córnea Evaluation of performance, efficacy and safety of semi-automated lamellar keratoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Núbia Cristina de Freitas Maia

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a exeqüibilidade, eficácia e segurança do uso de microcerátomo e câmara anterior artificial para o transplante lamelar (sistema ALTK®. MÉTODOS: 21 olhos com opacidades corneanas superficiais foram submetidos ao transplante lamelar semi-automatizado de córnea. Nos olhos receptores a ceratectomia foi realizada de modo semelhante a uma cirurgia refrativa. As lamelas doadoras foram obtidas a partir de botões esclero-corneanos utilizando o mesmo microcerátomo e uma câmara anterior artificial. As medidas das espessuras corneanas foram feitas através da biomicroscopia ultra-sônica. RESULTADOS: As cirurgias obtiveram êxito em 19 olhos. Em 80% das lamelas obtidas em córneas doadoras e em 84,2% das lamelas em olhos receptores houve uma variação de até 0,5 mm do diâmetro desejado. Verificou-se alta semelhança entre as espessuras das lamelas obtidas nos olhos receptores e lamelas doadoras. Obteve-se acuidade visual corrigida pós-operatória igual ou superior a 20/40 em 52,6% dos olhos. Foram observadas complicações como diâmetro inadequado da lamela, perfuração intra-operatória no olho receptor e ectasia corneana pós-operatória (um caso. CONCLUSÕES: O transplante lamelar semi-automatizado de córnea mostrou-se exequível pela reprodutibilidade das espessuras e diâmetros das lamelas; eficaz pela melhora da acuidade visual pós-operatória e seguro, devido ao baixo índice de complicações cirúrgicas.PURPOSE: To evaluate the feasibility, efficacy and safety of a manual microkeratome and an artificial anterior chamber for lamellar keratoplasty (ALTK® system. METHODS: Twenty-one eyes with superficial corneal opacities were submitted to semi-automated lamellar keratectomy. In recipient eyes keratectomy was performed as in refractive surgery. The donor flap was removed from the preserved corneal shell using the same microkeratome and an artificial anterior chamber. Lamella thickness was measured through

  10. Global building physics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    High ambitions are set for the building physics performance of buildings today. No single technology can achieve fulfilment of these ambitions alone. Integrated, multi-facetted solutions and optimization are necessary. A holistic, or ‘global’, technological perspective is needed, which includes all...... aspects of the building as defined in building engineering. We live in an international society and building solutions are developed across country borders. Building physics is a global theme. The International Association of Building Physics has global appeal. This brief article reports the keynote...... lecture and illustrates global relations to highlight some of the challenges that we see today....

  11. Global Building Physics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    aspects of the building as defined in building engineering. We live in an international society and building solutions are developed across country borders. Building physics is a global theme. The International Association of Building Physics has global appeal. The keynote lecture and this brief paper......High ambitions are set for the building physics performance of buildings today. No single technology can achieve fulfilment of these ambitions alone. Integrated, multi-facetted solutions and optimization are necessary. A holistic, or “global”, technological perspective is needed, which includes all...

  12. ICT Enhanced Buildings Potentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansson, Per

    2007-01-01

    The paper describes and gives example on how Information and Communication, ICT, can and will enhance and support the building functional systems defined from client and end-user needs and requirements. The building systems may be derived from functional requirements on buildings such as usability...... and security on highest level with sub-systems definitions on lever levels. Building functional sub-systems may be defined for user comfort, indoor-climate, evacuation, space configuration, aesthetics, O&M etc. These building systems are supported by Information and Communication Technology, ICT, and building...... component systems that are accessed and integrated in the real world of building use in different contexts. The ICT systems may be physically or virtually embedded in the building. Already in 1982 AT&T established the 'intelligent buildings', IB, concept due to marketing reasons and the Informart building...

  13. Titanocene(III)-catalyzed 6-exo versus 7-endo cyclizations of epoxypolyprenes: efficient control and synthesis of versatile terpenic building blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justicia, José; Jiménez, Tania; Miguel, Delia; Contreras-Montoya, Rafael; Chahboun, Rachid; Alvarez-Manzaneda, Enrique; Collado-Sanz, Daniel; Cárdenas, Diego J; Cuerva, Juan M

    2013-10-18

    In this article, a complete study on the selectivity of titanocene(III) cyclization of epoxypolyprenes is presented. The requirements for the formation of six- or seven-membered rings during these cyclizations are determined, taking into account the different substitution pattern in the epoxypolyprene precursor. Thus, a complete selectivity to 6-exo or 7-endo cyclization process has been achieved, yielding mono-, bi-, and even tricyclic compounds, constituting a new and efficient access to this type of derivative. Additionally, this procedure opens the possibility to prepare excellent building blocks for the synthesis of polycyclic compounds with a trisubstituted oxygenated function, which is present in several natural terpenes.

  14. Retrofitting Listed Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents a case study where the energy demand for a listed building constructed in 1900 is reduced. Many older buildings are listed and have restrictions that include the entire building or that include only its exterior. For the building presented, only its exterior facade is listed...... of the local urban environment and therefore listed. The reduced energy demand, related to individual measures, is estimated and building physics requirements are addressed together with the economic options for evaluating the profitability....

  15. The Control of Ground Surface Settlement in the Design of Foundation Pit Supporting around Shallow Foundation Buildings%浅基础建筑物相邻的基坑支护设计中地表变形控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘立东

    2012-01-01

    Through analyzing the effect of the design of one deep foundation pit supporting project on peripheral six-layer shallow foundation building in Yancheng city, in the accordance with the relevant existing national engineering codes, this paper considered the deformation of both soil and buildings a- round the foundation pit, and explored how to calculate and control the ground surface settlement around the foundation pit in order to ensure the safety of the surrounding buildings and meanwhile achieve opti- mal economic results.%通过对盐城一深基坑支护设计对周边六层浅基础建筑的影响分析,结合现有相关的国家规范,从基坑周边土体和建筑物变形两个方面综合分析,阐述了深基坑设计过程中,如何对支护周边地表沉降进行计算控制,以保证周边建筑物的安全,同时取得最优经济效益。

  16. 高层建筑防烟楼梯间前室送风联动控制可靠性研究%Reliability of air supply linkage control systems in smoke resistance lobby of high-rise building

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈继斌; 张贵林

    2011-01-01

    Based on the fire risk of high-rise building and importance of smoke resistance lobby, the reliability of air supply linkage control system in smoke resistance lobby or combination lobby was analysed, as well as the influencing factors.%根据高层建筑的火灾危险性及防烟楼梯间前室的重要性,研究了高层建筑防烟楼梯间前室或合用前室防烟送风系统的联动控制可靠性,分析了影响可靠性的因素.

  17. Sustainable Buildings in Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elle, Morten

    2007-01-01

    The first attempts to build sustainable buildings in Denmark were typically located on the countryside. The basic idea was to create buildings that were independent of the technical infrastructure. District heating has, however, been the dominating solution to heating in buildings in Denmark......, and the focus on sustainable building have gradually turned from special houses on the countryside to normally looking houses in the urban fabric, integrated in the technical infrastructure. Some new built urban areas in Denmark will, however, not have to be supplied with district heating – these developments...... are going to consist of passive houses. The first sustainable buildings were built by their users, and the user – building interaction still play a decisive role for the performance of the present sustainable buildings. The users have to understand how the building functions. Urban design is essential...

  18. Preoperational test report, vent building ventilation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifton, F.T.

    1997-11-04

    This represents a preoperational test report for Vent Building Ventilation Systems, Project W-030. Project W-030 provides a ventilation upgrade for the four Aging Waste Facility tanks. The system provides Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning (HVAC) for the W-030 Ventilation Building. The tests verify correct system operation and correct indications displayed by the central Monitor and Control System.

  19. Automated Continuous Commissioning of Commercial Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    Acronyms AHU: Air Handling Unit ANSI: American National Standards Institute API: Application Programming Interface ASHRAE : American Society of Heating... Refrigerating , and Air-Conditioning Engineers BACnet: Building Automation and Control Networks BMS: Building Management System CFM: Cubic Feet per Minute...from the database, performs computations, and archives the results back in the database. The visualization module is implemented as a stand The user

  20. Moisture dynamics in building envelopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peuhkuri, R.

    2003-07-01

    The overall scope of this Thesis 'Moisture dynamics in building envelopes' has been to characterise how the various porous insulation materials investigated performed hygro thermally under conditions similar to those in a typical building envelope. As a result of the changing temperature and moisture conditions in the exterior weather and indoor climate the materials dynamically absorb and release moisture. The complexity of the impact of these conditions on the resulting moisture transport and content of the materials has been studied in this Thesis with controlled laboratory tests. (au)

  1. Applied building physics

    CERN Document Server

    Hens, Hugo S L C

    2012-01-01

    The energy crises of the 1970s, persisting moisture problems, complaints about sick buildings, thermal, visual and olfactory discomfort, and the move towards more sustainability in building construction have pushed Building Physics to the forefront of building innovation. The societal pressure to diminish energy consumption in buildings without impairing usability acted as a trigger to activate the whole notion of performance based design and construction. As with all engineering sciences, Building Physics is oriented towards application, which is why, after a first book on fundamentals this s

  2. Masonry building envelope analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullan, Phillip C.

    1993-04-01

    Over the past five years, infrared thermography has proven an effective tool to assist in required inspections on new masonry construction. However, with more thermographers providing this inspection service, establishing a standard for conducting these inspections is imperative. To attempt to standardize these inspections, it is important to understand the nature of the inspection as well as the context in which the inspection is typically conducted. The inspection focuses on evaluating masonry construction for compliance with the design specifications with regard to structural components and thermal performance of the building envelope. The thermal performance of the building includes both the thermal resistance of the material as well as infiltration/exfiltration characteristics. Given that the inspections occur in the 'field' rather than the controlled environment of a laboratory, there are numerous variables to be considered when undertaking this type of inspection. Both weather and site conditions at the time of the inspection can vary greatly. In this paper we will look at the variables encountered during recent inspections. Additionally, the author will present the standard which was employed in collecting this field data. This method is being incorporated into a new standard to be included in the revised version of 'Guidelines for Specifying and Performing Infrared Inspections' developed by the Infraspection Institute.

  3. 基于AHP的建筑施工安全管理风险控制策略%Safety Management Risk Control Strategy Based on AHP for Building Construction lndustry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李松晨; 杨高升

    2014-01-01

    Along with the vigorous development of the building construction industry in our country, the current status of safety management in this area is not perfect. The hidden dangers and potential risks in building construction are presented, and the control strategy based on analytic hierachy process( AHP) is proposed. With this strategy, the qualitative issues are quantified, in accordance with the determined evaluation objects, the hierarchy is established, and the judgment matrix is structured, thus the risk assessment is elaborated specifically. By combining the quantitative evaluation and qualitative evaluation, the determination method of the evaluation value is given. This risk control strategy greatly enhances the security of building construction.%随着我国建筑工程行业的蓬勃发展,建筑施工的安全管理现状存在安全问题。介绍了建筑施工行业存在的安全隐患和潜在风险,提出了基于层次分析法( AHP)的建筑施工风险控制策略。将定性问题定量化,按照确定评价目标、建立递阶层次、构造判断矩阵等步骤对风险评价进行了具体的阐述;将定量评价与定性评价相结合,给出了评价值判定方法。结合建筑施工安全管理办法,该风险控制策略大大提升了建筑施工过程中的安全性。

  4. Field test building design for controlled aquaculture based on renewable energy heating system%基于可再生能源供热的设施水产养殖试验温室设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑荣进; 孙文君; 张建高; 尹凡; 张安来; 陶卫平; 傅莉霞

    2011-01-01

    养殖温室是设施水产养殖的关键装备,对养殖环境调控和系统运行能耗有极大的影响.在浙江大学的校园内,设计建造了一个设施水产养殖试验温室,用于研究基于可再生能源的供热系统和养殖温室围护结构保温特性.试验温室长13.46 m,宽4.96 m,南墙高0.8 m,北墙高2.5 m.北墙和屋顶各设置有4个独立的洞口,尺寸分别为2.2 m×2.2 m和2.2 mx4.8 m,用于研究各种墙体和屋顶保温构造的湿热性能.太阳能集热器面积可在10~50 m2之间变化,试验温室冬季室内空气温度可控制在15~35℃.可用于测试养殖温室的太阳能-热泵联合集热、围护结构的湿热传递、废水余热回收、养殖新水增温和温室室内采暖等性能.%For controlled aquaculture systems, building is a key facility affecting the stability of indoor environment and energy consumption. A field test building was constructed for evaluating the performance of building envelopes and heating systems at the campus of Zhejiang University, China. The dimensions of the test building were 13.46 mx4.96 m. A total of eight independent units were designed for evaluating hygrothermal performance of envelope in the test building, four units for wall experiment with a dimension of 2.2 mx2.2 m, the other four for roof experiment with a dimension of 2.2 mx4.8 m. The area of solar collector for heating could be changed from 10 to 50 m2, and the indoor temperature of the building could be controlled between 15 to 35 °C. This paper describes the field test facility which can be applied to tests of solar energy and/or heat pump, hygrothermal performance of building envelope, wastewater heat recovery, freshwater heating, and air heating.

  5. 房屋安装工程项目的造价管理与控制解析%Analysis of Cost Management and Control of Building Installation Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯述祥

    2014-01-01

    在建筑施工过程中,造价管理是一项十分重要的管理工作,造价管理应该贯穿整个工程始终,这样才能对工程的造价进行很好的控制。以下是针对房屋安装工程中的造价管理与控制问题展开论述。%The cost management is an important work in the process of construction. The cost management should be thr-oughout the course of the whole project. Only in this way the project cost can be control ed wel . The paper is aimed at cost management and control of building instal ation project as fo-l owing.

  6. Analysis on inroads situation and control effect of cockroach at a residential building%某居民楼蟑螂侵害及防治效果调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹广庆; 周光智; 王治; 李平; 文瑜; 程绪浩

    2013-01-01

    目的 调查某部居民楼蟑螂侵害情况和防治效果.方法 用药激法调查蟑螂密度,化学防治采用奋斗呐滞留喷洒和优士灭蟑胶饵.结果 德国小蠊为绝对优势种,防治前不同房间平均密度为2.3 ~16.8只/间,施药后3d密度为0.1~1.3只/间,杀灭率为91.07%~ 97.67%,15 d后为0只/间,杀灭率为100%.结论 该住宅楼蟑螂侵害严重,滞留喷洒结合灭蟑胶饵、颗粒饵杀灭蟑螂效果显著,值得推广.%Objective To investigate cockroach invasion in room of a residential building, and observe the preventive and control effect. Methods Medication excite killing method was used for density investigation, 5 % alpha - cypermethrin( Fendona) wettable powder and gel bait for chemical control. Results Blattella germanica was the dominant species. The density was 2.3- 16. 8 pieces per room in different apartment before control,after using control method , the density was 0. 1-1. 3 pieces per room with the mortality rate of 91. 07% -91.61% three days later, and the density was 0 pieces per room with the mortality rate of 100% fifteen days later. Conclusion The cockroach invasion is serious at this residential building. The method of using remained spray and gel bait has high efficacy a-gainst cockroach and deserves to be recommended.

  7. Technologies used for research in intelligent buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolková, Zuzana; Matušov, Jozef; Mokrý, Marián

    2016-06-01

    The efficient use of primary energy and their impact on the environment is influenced in several ways. The key is implementation of modern low-energy structures and technologies in building construction, the use of high energy sources such fossil fuels and renewable energy, the optimal management, appropriate choice of sources of heat and cold. Optimal control of energy consumption in buildings and premises may be an appropriate choice of sources of heat and cold. Energy sources should be in addition to high efficiency and meet the requirement of minimizing the emission load environment. All this can be achieved by implementing the construction of intelligent buildings. University of Žilina in the project Research Centre of the University of Žilina decided to build such building. Use of this building will be addressing many research activities at the university with links to industry.

  8. Building Design & Construction - Sustainability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2003-11-01

    Offers a brief history of green building; presents the results of a specially commissioned survey; and analyzes the chief trends, issues, and published research, based on interviews with dozens of experts and participants in green building.

  9. Better Buildings Challenge Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2011-06-01

    The Better Buildings Challenge is a national leadership initiative calling on corporate chief executive officers, university presidents, and state and local leaders to make a significant commitment to building energy efficiency.

  10. Environmental indicators for buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dammann, Sven

    Environmental Indicators for Buildings are studied using two different perspectives: with a technological, environmental scientific departing point and with a social scientific departing point. Different relevant groups in the building sector are identified and analysed, using the Social...

  11. Integrated Building Health Management

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Abstract: Building health management is an important part in running an efficient and cost-effective building. Many problems in a building’s system can go undetected...

  12. Building Services Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zinzi, Michele; Romeo, Carlo; Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund

    2015-01-01

    This guideline on Building Services Systems is one of four guidelines produced by the School of the Future project. The other three guidelines cover: Building Construction Elements, Improved Indoor Environmental Quality and Concepts for Zero Emission Schools. This guideline consists...

  13. Robotic buildings(s)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bier, H.H.

    2014-01-01

    Technological and conceptual advances in fields such as artificial intelligence, robotics, and material science have enabled robotic building to be in the last decade prototypically implemented. In this context, robotic building implies both physically built robotic environments and robotically supp

  14. State Capitol Buildings

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This shapefile will display the locations of the fifty state capitol buildings as well as the territorial capitol buildings for the US Virgin Islands, Guam, Northern...

  15. Requirements for existing buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund; Wittchen, Kim Bjarne

    2012-01-01

    This report collects energy performance requirements for existing buildings in European member states by June 2012.......This report collects energy performance requirements for existing buildings in European member states by June 2012....

  16. Buildings interoperability landscape - Draft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardin, Dave B. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stephan, Eric G. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wang, Weimin [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Corbin, Charles D. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Widergren, Steven E. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Buildings are an integral part of our nation’s energy economy. The advancement in information and communications technology (ICT) has revolutionized energy management in industrial facilities and large commercial buildings. As ICT costs decrease and capabilities increase, buildings automation and energy management features are transforming the small-medium commercial and residential buildings sectors. A vision of a connected world in which equipment and systems within buildings coordinate with each other to efficiently meet their owners’ and occupants’ needs, and where buildings regularly transact business with other buildings and service providers (such as gas and electric service providers) is emerging. However, while the technology to support this collaboration has been demonstrated at various degrees of maturity, the integration frameworks and ecosystems of products that support the ability to easily install, maintain, and evolve building systems and their equipment components are struggling to nurture the fledging business propositions of their proponents.

  17. Private sector joins Federal Building Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Endemann, C. [Public Works and Government Services Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    1998-09-01

    The Federal Buildings Initiative (FBI), aiming at making federally occupied buildings more energy efficient, was introduced in 1992. With the completion of the retrofit of the Place Vincent Massey Building in Hull, PQ, a new milestone has been achieved as retrofitting Place Vincent Massey was the first project in the FBI series involving a privately owned building. The mechanics of the process are simple. FBI encourages the owners of government-leased buildings to perform energy-wise upgrades and the work is financed through the savings achieved. By supporting innovative partnerships with the private sector, the government and Canadian taxpayers achieve significant savings and also help stimulate job creation in the area. At present, annual savings through the FBI program are estimated at about $20 million and more than 4,000 federal buildings have been retrofitted since 1992. When fully completed throughout all applicable federal buildings, FBI will have created a total of 20,000 person-years of employment, will have achieved $160 million in savings annually, and will have stimulated investment in the order of one billion dollars. The improvements in Place Vincent Massey encompass a new lighting system, and a new computerized control system to regulate the building`s ventilation system and peripheral air conditioning units. Flexibility of the systems will be enhanced by installing new variable speed motors. The results are reduced maintenance costs, a high standard of indoor air quality and improved comfort for building occupants.

  18. 沿海消毒供应中心建筑设计与感染控制的探讨%Design and building of coastal central sterile supply department and study on infection control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙雪莹; 王岩; 邱素红; 高玉华

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨沿海医院消毒供应中心的建筑设计与感染控制.方法 遵循医院感染预防与控制的原则及国家法律、法规对医院建筑和职业防护的相关要求,进行充分论证,并结合国内外消毒供应中心建筑布局的优点,依照《医院消毒供应室验收标准》及《综合医院建筑规范》等国家相关标准,进行专业设计和施工;引进先进的消毒灭菌、空气层流净化设备;物品实行ERP系统信息化管理;分区以双扉式全自动清洗消毒器、灭菌器作隔离屏障;严格的人流、物流、气流管理.结果 拥有现代化、标准化、科学化及专业化的建筑设计,使整个操作流程形成相对封闭的不可逆的运行过程,控制了再次污染的机会,有效地控制医院感染,为医院各个临床科室的医疗安全提供了重要保证;各项质量监测指标均符合建筑设计标准与感染控制要求.结论 建筑设计符合现代化消毒供应中心标准要求,制定出合理的流程管理制度及质控措施,能有效控制医院感染.%OBJECTIVE To explore the design and building of central sterile supply department and the infection control. METHODS By following the hospital infection prevention and control and the principle of state laws and regulations on hospital buildings and the relevant requirement of occupational protection, the professional design and building were carried out through the complete demonstration and combining domestic and foreign architectural layout of the center of sterilization supply advantages in accordance with the national standards ' hospital sterilization supply& distribution acceptance standard' and the general hospital building codes; the advanced disinfection and laminar air purification equipments were introduced; the management of the items was performed by ERP information system; the partition was conducted by double hired type automatic washer disinfector, sterilizer was used as isolated

  19. Discussion on the Method of Building Urban GPS Control Network Based on GPS Technology%利用GPS技术建立城市GPS控制网的方法探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔丽华; 冯军

    2012-01-01

    Based on years of production experience of the author, this paper introduces the solution to the usual problems we will meet with when building city GPS control network using GPS technique, taking the GPS control network of Ledong County in Hainan as an example. It ensures through total quality control that the survey result of the city four - level GPS control network is in accordance with the current survey standard. It also discusses the accuracy of GPS control surveying.%笔者结合多年生产经验,以海南省乐东县GPS控制网为例,介绍了利用GPS技术建立城市GPS控制网时一些常见的问题及处理办法。通过全面的质量控制以确保城市D级GPS控制网测量成果符合现行测量规范的要求,讨论了GPS控制测量的精度等问题。

  20. Building a case for building performance

    OpenAIRE

    Lehrer, David

    2001-01-01

    You have seen the facts before. Americans make up less than 5% of the world’s population, yet consume 25% of the earth’s resources and create 25% of the world’s greenhouse gases. We are also told that the construction and operation of buildings are major contributors to this problem, and that as building industry professionals we have a major responsibility to improve the performance of the buildings and environments that we create. Although a growing number of states and municipalit...

  1. Green Building Research Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sailor, David Jean [Portland State Univ., Portland, OR (United States)

    2013-12-29

    This project provided support to the Green Building Research Laboratory at Portland State University (PSU) so it could work with researchers and industry to solve technical problems for the benefit of the green building industry. It also helped to facilitate the development of PSU’s undergraduate and graduate-level training in building science across the curriculum.

  2. Future Green Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Drysdale, David; Lund, Henrik

    Efficient buildings are essential for an affordable Danish energy supply in 2050. The purpose of this report is to describe the contribution and role of the building sector in a 100% renewable energy future, as well as the transitions that are necessary in the building sector to support this chan...

  3. Building the ISS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石继忠; 李秀霞

    2007-01-01

    Have you seen people building houses?To build a house,you need workers.They use their hands,tools and machines to put everything together. Building the ISS is almost the same.The difference is that the workers are astronauts.They

  4. Building with Straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Santo, Gilbert

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the early use of straw in Africa and Europe as a building material. Provides background information and a basic framework for the straw bale project, and recommends supervision for young students. Lists objectives for building a straw bale bench and provides the building instructions which consist of three sessions. Includes four…

  5. Making Smart Building Decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coburn, Janet

    1999-01-01

    Discusses how a positive partnership with the architect can help one who is inexperienced in building design and construction make smart building decisions. Tips address how to prevent change orders, what red flags to look for in a building project, what the administrator should expect from the architect to make the project run smoothly, and what…

  6. Smart Buildings: Business Case and Action Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehrlich, Paul; Diamond, Rick

    2009-04-01

    General Services Administration (GSA) has been a pioneer in using Smart Building technologies but it has yet to achieve the full benefits of an integrated, enterprise-wide Smart Building strategy. In July 2008, GSA developed an initial briefing memorandum that identified five actions for a Smart Buildings feasibility study: (1) Identify and cluster the major building systems under consideration for a Smart Buildings initiative; (2) Identify GSA priorities for these clusters; (3) Plan for future adoption of Smart Building strategies by identifying compatible hardware; (4) Develop a framework for implementing and testing Smart Building strategies and converged networks; and (5) Document relevant GSA and industry initiatives in this arena. Based on this briefing memorandum, PBS and FAS retained consultants from Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Noblis, and the Building Intelligence Group to evaluate the potential for Smart Buildings within GSA, and to develop this report. The project has included extensive interviews with GSA staff (See Appendix A), a review of existing GSA standards and documents, and an examination of relevant GSA and industry initiatives. Based on interviews with GSA staff and a review of GSA standards and documents, the project team focused on four goals for evaluating how Smart Building technology can benefit GSA: (1) Achieve Energy Efficiency Mandates--Use Smart Building technology as a tool to meet EISA 2007 and EO 13423 goals for energy efficiency. (2) Enhance Property Management--Deploy enterprise tools for improved Operations and Maintenance (O&M) performance and verification. (3) Implement Network as the Fourth Utility--Utilize a converged broadband network to support Smart Building systems and provide GSA clients with connectivity for voice, data and video. (4) Enhance Safety and Security--Harmonize Physical Access Control Systems (PACS) with Smart Building Systems.

  7. 高层建筑电梯井内增压效应及防排烟措施%Study on Pressure Distribution in Elevator Shaft of a High-rise Building and Smoke Control Measures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李镇裕; 梁栋; 褚燕燕

    2016-01-01

    Based on smoke-control theory in high-rise buildings, principles of air-supply pressure design are proposed to improve smoke control system to prevent the coupling impact on smoke propagation of piston effect and wind effect, etc. Through the analysis of simulating cases on air movement in shafts with elevator operation, the relationship between poison effect and pressurization has been verified to make sure of the law of some pressurizations, including impetus pressurization pin, traction pressurization pout and static pressure difference p1-p2 and p3-p4. Through the analysis of pressure fluctuation in elevator shafts, pressure characteristic model of vertical flow in the shafts has been established, which could be applied to optimize pressure design of smoke prevention and control system in modern buildings and provide theoretical basements for the development of elevator evacuation strategies.%根据高层建筑烟控理论,提出了耦合“活塞风效应”的防排烟系统送风压力设计原则。通过模拟电梯运动的活塞效应对火灾烟气流动的影响,分析推动力增压pin、牵引力增压pout,及各流段之间的静压差p1-p2,p3-p4的变化规律,并根据压差波动,划分电梯井内纵向气流压力特性,建立电梯井内压力分布模型,研究结果为优化现代建筑的防排烟系统压力设计和制定电梯协同疏散策略提供了理论基础。

  8. 建筑企业财务成本控制问题研究%Study on the Financial Cost Control of Building Enterprise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马汶汐

    2014-01-01

    Financial cost control is one of the core contents of construction enterprise. The effect of financial cost control is directly related to the economic benefits of enterprises. Through financial cost control, waste phenomenon in the enterprise can be reduced and prohibited, so as to establish a conservation-minded society.%财务成本控制是建筑企业核心内容之一,财务成本控制的效果直接关系到企业的经济效益,通过财务成本控制可以减少和禁止企业中的浪费现象,建立节约型社会。

  9. Green Buildings and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Joseph G; MacNaughton, Piers; Laurent, Jose Guillermo Cedeno; Flanigan, Skye S; Eitland, Erika Sita; Spengler, John D

    2015-09-01

    Green building design is becoming broadly adopted, with one green building standard reporting over 3.5 billion square feet certified to date. By definition, green buildings focus on minimizing impacts to the environment through reductions in energy usage, water usage, and minimizing environmental disturbances from the building site. Also by definition, but perhaps less widely recognized, green buildings aim to improve human health through design of healthy indoor environments. The benefits related to reduced energy and water consumption are well-documented, but the potential human health benefits of green buildings are only recently being investigated. The objective of our review was to examine the state of evidence on green building design as it specifically relates to indoor environmental quality and human health. Overall, the initial scientific evidence indicates better indoor environmental quality in green buildings versus non-green buildings, with direct benefits to human health for occupants of those buildings. A limitation of much of the research to date is the reliance on indirect, lagging and subjective measures of health. To address this, we propose a framework for identifying direct, objective and leading "Health Performance Indicators" for use in future studies of buildings and health.

  10. Commercial Buildings Characteristics, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-29

    Commercial Buildings Characteristics 1992 presents statistics about the number, type, and size of commercial buildings in the United States as well as their energy-related characteristics. These data are collected in the Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS), a national survey of buildings in the commercial sector. The 1992 CBECS is the fifth in a series conducted since 1979 by the Energy Information Administration. Approximately 6,600 commercial buildings were surveyed, representing the characteristics and energy consumption of 4.8 million commercial buildings and 67.9 billion square feet of commercial floorspace nationwide. Overall, the amount of commercial floorspace in the United States increased an average of 2.4 percent annually between 1989 and 1992, while the number of commercial buildings increased an average of 2.0 percent annually.

  11. Avaliação da microestrutura e propriedades mecânicas de metais de solda obtidos por processos de soldagem manual e automatizado utilizado na soldagem de aço API 5L X80 Evaluation of microstructure and mechanical properties of weld metals obtained by manual and automated welding process used in the welding of API 5L X80 steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siderley Fernandes Albuquerque

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar as características da zona termicamente afetada (ZTA e a microestrutura e propriedades mecânicas de metais de solda de juntas soldadas do aço API 5L X80, obtidos para quatro diferentes procedimentos de soldagem utilizando processos manuais e automatizados. Para isto, chapas do referido aço foram soldadas por processo manual ao Arco Elétrico com Eletrodo Revestido (SMAW, utilizando 473 e 673 K como temperaturas de interpasses e o eletrodo celulósico AWS E8010-G como consumível; por processo ao Arco Elétrico com Arame Tubular (FCAW robotizado, utilizando o arame AWS E71T- 1C como metal de adição e argônio com 25%CO2 como gás de proteção; por processo a Arco Elétrico com Eletrodo de Tungstênio (GTAW mecanizado na raiz da solda, usando o arame ER70S-3 e argônio como gás de proteção. As análises microestruturais foram relacionadas com os resultados de ensaios de impacto Charpy nos metais de solda e com os perfis de microdureza Vickers ao longo da junta soldada. Os resultados indicaram maiores percentuais de Ferrita Acicular e maiores valores de resistência ao impacto nos metais de solda e uma menor extensão e granulometria da ZTA, associado ao procedimento de soldagem utilizando processo automatizado com maior velocidade de soldagem.The objective of this work was to evaluate the heat affected zone characteristics and weld metals microstructure and mechanical properties of API 5L X80 steel welded joints, obtained for four different welding procedures using manual and automated processes. For this, plates of this steel were welded by manual Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW process with interpasses temperatures of 473 e 673 K, and using AWS E8010-G electrode as filler metals; robotized Flux Cored Arc Welding (FCAW process, using AWS E71T-1C wire and Ar25%CO2 as consumable and mechanized Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW process, for the root pass using AWS ER70S-3 and Ar as consumable .The

  12. Application of an automated protocol for the analysis of the temporal parameters of the response of reaction tennis players during the execution of split-step and volley Aplicación de un protocolo automatizado para el análisis de los parámetros temporales de la respuesta de reacción en jugadores de tenis durante la ejecución de split-step y volea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Luis

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available

    This study is aimed to show the design and application process of an automated system to recording in real time the temporary parameters of tennis players reaction response during the execution of the technical-tactical movement called “split-step and second volley”. The knowledge about temporary characteristics of the action will be make used of identify the variables to cause in that and also to design an investigation to permit an improvement of the tennis players efficiency in this sequence of the play. In this way, the use of the technological system will allow a precise analysis of player’s motor response and the eminent information about the defined action
    KEY WORDS: Tennis, split-step and volley, automated system of measure, reaction response

    El propósito de este trabajo consiste en mostrar el proceso de diseño y la aplicación de un sistema automatizado de medida para el registro en tiempo real de los parámetros temporales de la respuesta de reacción en jugadores de tenis durante la ejecución de una acción técnico-táctica denominada “split-step y segunda volea”. El conocimiento generado en cuanto a las características temporales de la acción se empleará para identificar las variables que determinan la eficacia en la misma y diseñar una investigación que permita optimizar el rendimiento de los tenistas en esta secuencia del juego. Así, el empleo de este sistema tecnológico permitirá un análisis preciso de la respuesta motriz de los jugadores y la extracción de información relevante acerca de la acción definida.
    PALABRAS CLAVE: Tenis, split-step y volea, sistema automatizado de medida, respuesta de reacción.

  13. Modeling and Simulation of Multi-Room Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.W.U. Perera

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Buildings are one of the largest energy consumers in the world which accounts for nearly 40% of the total global energy consumption. In the countries where cold climate conditions predominate, space heating is the key contributor to the increased energy consumption. Today there is a growing trend to use Building Energy Management Systems (BEMS to control the energy consumption of buildings in an efficient manner. BEMS require a good heating model of the building to be integrated for better control purposes. This article refers to the development of different types of physics based buillding heating models, regarding single-zone, multi-floor and multi-room buildings. They address the propriety of each model in building heating control concerning the prediction accuracy and the prediction time. These models are verified for a residential building having three floors. According to the results, the multi-floor model is recognized to have the best qualifications obliged as a model for control.

  14. Analysis of Theoretical Calculation Method of Blasting Cut Height in Demolishing Building by Controlled Blasting%楼房爆破缺口高度理论计算方法分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林大能; 邓新文

    2001-01-01

    In this paper,the development of study on blasting cut hight calculation in demolishing building by controlled blasting is introduced.Based on energy conversion theory,the criteria determing minimum blasting cut height are given.The criteria are simplfied in terms of theory of progression.The practica lmethod of calculating blasting cut hei ght is given.The analysis of practical examplesi llustrated that the practicalc alulation method is of practical signifi cance for demolishing building by contro lled blasting.%介绍了爆破缺口高度的研究现状,以能量转化理论为基础给出了确定爆破缺口最小范围的判据,借助级数理论对判据进行了简化,得出了爆破缺口高度实用理论计算方法。通过实例计算分析,证明了文中的实用理论计算方法对工程实践有指导意义。

  15. 浅谈监理在建筑防水工程中的主要监控措施%The Main Control Measures of the Supervision of Building Waterproofing Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭兵

    2014-01-01

    Building waterproof technology plays a functional role in protection of housing construction, That the housing construction can ensure al parts to be not subjected to various water leakage is directly related to the use of housing function, quality of life of owners and living environment. This paper di-scussed some supervision measures of quality control of wate-rproof engineering including basement waterproof, floor wat-erproof and building surface waterproof.%建筑防水技术在房屋建筑中发挥功能保障作用,房屋建筑所有部位能否保证免受各种水的侵入而不渗漏,直接关系到房屋的使用功能、生活质量和人居环境。本文着重谈了监理对地下室防水工程、屋面防水和楼面防水质量控制的一些监理措施。

  16. 公立医院如何进行内部控制体系建设%Discussion on internal control system building in public hospital

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王爱青; 费才华; 董欣; 肖俏

    2015-01-01

    With the deepening development of healthcare reform and the implementation of internal control regulation of administrative institute, stricter requirement has been put forward for public hospital internal control. According to the internal control regulation of administrative institute and based on the situations of public hospital, the existing internal control system needs to be completed. Taking Peking Union Medical College Hospital budget management system as an example, how to complete the existing institution has been discussed. And taking continuous education training as an example, how to complete internal control by flow diagram and form an integrated internal control system which can combine with institution and flow diagram has been presented. Key points on establishing internal control system in public hospital also have been analyzed.%随着医改的深入和2014年《行政事业单位内部控制规范》(以下简称《规范》)的实行给公立医院提出了更高的要求,公立医院必须按照新的《规范》进行内部控制体系的建设,在进行内部控制制度体系建设时,需结合本医院内部控制的特点,参照《规范》的要求,与原有的内部控制制度对比后进行补充和完善。文章以“北京协和医院预算管理办法”为例进行说明和阐述,应如何参照《规范》对原有制度进行修订。并且以北京协和医院继续教育项目为例进行说明,如何通过流程图的建立加以内部控制,形成制度和流程图相互补充的完整的内部控制体系。同时笔者还提出建立公立医院内部控制体系需重点注意的几方面问题。

  17. Evaluación comparativa del método automatizado BACTEC MGIT 960 con el método de las proporciones para determinar susceptibilidad a drogas antituberculosas en Chile Comparative evaluation of automated BACTEC MGIT 960 for testing susceptibility of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to antituberculous drugs in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Piffardi F.

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Se comparó el método automatizado BACTEC MGIT 960 con el método de las proporciones (MP para la determinación de la susceptibilidad a drogas anti tuberculosas de 275 cepas de Mycobacterium tuberculosis aisladas de 270 pacientes en Chile entre 2001 y 2003. La concordancia del BACTEC MGIT 960 con el MP según las drogas estudiadas fue de: 97,0% para estreptomicina, 98,9% para rifampicina, 97,4% para isoniazida y 98,1% para etambutol. Los porcentajes globales de resistencia a drogas anti-TBC de las 275 cepas de M. tuberculosis estudiadas, determinados por el BACTEC MGIT960 y el MP fueron de 25,1% y 20,4% respectivamente. Esta diferencia no fue estadísticamente significativa. El BACTEC MGIT 960 dió como resistentes 17 cepas que fueron sensibles por el MP, sobrestimándose por este método la información de cepas resistentes. El BACTEC MGIT 960 en nuestra experiencia presentó una muy buena concordancia con el MP permitiendo un notable acortamiento en el tiempo de obtención de los resultados. Sin embargo, la mayor determinación de cepas resistentes por parte de este método requiere de nuevos análisis que permitan conocer los factores que inciden en este fenómenoThe automated BACTEC MGIT 960 system was compared with the method of proportion (MP for testing susceptibility of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to antituberculous drugs. 275 strains of M. tuberculosis isolated in Chile from 270 patients between 2001 and 2003 were tested. Concordance of BACTEC MGIT 960 with MP depending on the antituberculous drug tested was the following: 97.0% for streptomycin, 98,9% for rifampicin, 97,4% for isoniazid and 98,1% for ethambutol. Total resistance to antituberculous drugs of the 275 strains of M. tuberculosis tested varied from 20.4 % assessed by MP to 25.1% evaluated by BACTEC MGIT 960. These differences were not significant (p: ns; t test. BACTEC MGIT 960 yielded 17 strains as resistant. These same 17 strains were detected as sensitives by MP

  18. Building-to-Grid Integration through Commercial Building Portfolios Participating in Energy and Frequency Regulation Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlak, Gregory S.

    Building energy use is a significant contributing factor to growing worldwide energy demands. In pursuit of a sustainable energy future, commercial building operations must be intelligently integrated with the electric system to increase efficiency and enable renewable generation. Toward this end, a model-based methodology was developed to estimate the capability of commercial buildings to participate in frequency regulation ancillary service markets. This methodology was integrated into a supervisory model predictive controller to optimize building operation in consideration of energy prices, demand charges, and ancillary service revenue. The supervisory control problem was extended to building portfolios to evaluate opportunities for synergistic effect among multiple, centrally-optimized buildings. Simulation studies performed showed that the multi-market optimization was able to determine appropriate opportunities for buildings to provide frequency regulation. Total savings were increased by up to thirteen percentage points, depending on the simulation case. Furthermore, optimizing buildings as a portfolio achieved up to seven additional percentage points of savings, depending on the case. Enhanced energy and cost savings opportunities were observed by taking the novel perspective of optimizing building portfolios in multiple grid markets, motivating future pursuits of advanced control paradigms that enable a more intelligent electric grid.

  19. Automated microscopic characterization of metallic ores with image analysis: a key to improve ore processing. I: test of the methodology; Reconocimiento automatizado de menas metalicas mediante analisis digital de imagen: un apoyo al proceso mineralurgico. I: ensayo metodologico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berrezueta, E.; Castroviejo, R.

    2007-07-01

    Ore microscopy has traditionally been an important support to control ore processing, but the volume of present day processes is beyond the reach of human operators. Automation is therefore compulsory, but its development through digital image analysis, DIA, is limited by various problems, such as the similarity in reflectance values of some important ores, their anisotropism, and the performance of instruments and methods. The results presented show that automated identification and quantification by DIA are possible through multiband (RGB) determinations with a research 3CCD video camera on reflected light microscope. These results were obtained by systematic measurement of selected ores accounting for most of the industrial applications. Polarized light is avoided, so the effects of anisotropism can be neglected. Quality control at various stages and statistical analysis are important, as is the application of complementary criteria (e.g. metallogenetic). The sequential methodology is described and shown through practical examples. (Author)

  20. The elusive challenge of daylighted buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selkowitz, Steve

    1998-02-01

    As we approach the end of the decade of the 1990s, daylighting is increasingly promoted as a design strategy and building solution that can save energy and improve human performance and satisfaction in indoor spaces. Similar claims were made in the 1970s in the aftermath of the oil embargo. Twenty-five years later, in a world newly concerned about carbon emissions, global warming, and sustainable design, daylighted buildings are again proposed as a ''solution.'' While it is possible to find some examples of well daylighted buildings that have been built in the last 25 years, the fact that there are so few suggests that the optimistic outlook for daylighting needs to be critically (re)examined. In 1978 and again in 1986 the author examined [Selkowitz 1979, Selkowitz 1986] the gap between the potential benefits claimed for daylighted buildings and the actual achievements in building practice. That gap remains in 1998. The first challenge is to define performance expectations for a daylighted space. Many definitions of daylighted buildings and the associated performance expectations are used interchangeably: Architectural definition: the interplay of natural light and building form to provide a visually stimulating, healthful, and productive interior environment; Lighting Energy Savings definition: the replacement of indoor electric illumination needs by daylight, resulting in reduced annual energy consumption for lighting; Building Energy Consumption definition: the use of fenestration systems and responsive electric lighting controls to reduce overall building energy requirements (heating, cooling, lighting); Load Management definition: dynamic control of fenestration and lighting to manage and control building peak electric demand and load shape; Cost definition: the use of daylighting strategies to minimize operating costs and maximize output, sales, or productivity. Each of these (and others) is a legitimate perspective, but it is important to

  1. A participatory and capacity-building approach to healthy eating and physical activity – SCIP-school: a 2-year controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elinder Liselotte Schäfer

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Schools can be effective settings for improving eating habits and physical activity, whereas it is more difficult to prevent obesity. A key challenge is the “implementation gap”. Trade-off must be made between expert-driven programmes on the one hand and contextual relevance, flexibility, participation and capacity building on the other. The aim of the Stockholm County Implementation Programme was to improve eating habits, physical activity, self-esteem, and promote a healthy body weight in children aged 6–16 years. We describe the programme, intervention fidelity, impacts and outcomes after two years of intervention. Methods Nine out of 18 schools in a middle-class municipality in Sweden agreed to participate whereas the other nine schools served as the comparison group (quasi-experimental study. Tailored action plans were developed by school health teams on the basis of a self-assessment questionnaire called KEY assessing strengths and weaknesses of each school’s health practices and environments. Process evaluation was carried out by the research staff. Impacts at school level were assessed yearly by the KEY. Outcome measures at student level were anthropometry (measured, and health behaviours assessed by a questionnaire, at baseline and after 2 years. All children in grade 2, 4 and 7 were invited to participate (n=1359 of which 59.8% consented. The effect of the intervention on health behaviours, self-esteem, weight status and BMIsds was evaluated by unilevel and multilevel regression analysis adjusted for gender and baseline values. Results Programme fidelity was high demonstrating feasibility, but fidelity to school action plans was only 48% after two years. Positive and significant (p Conclusions School staff has the capacity to create their own solutions and make changes at school level on the basis of self-assessment and facilitation by external agents. However these changes were challenging to sustain over

  2. WASTE TREATMENT BUILDING SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    F. Habashi

    2000-06-22

    The Waste Treatment Building System provides the space, layout, structures, and embedded subsystems that support the processing of low-level liquid and solid radioactive waste generated within the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). The activities conducted in the Waste Treatment Building include sorting, volume reduction, and packaging of dry waste, and collecting, processing, solidification, and packaging of liquid waste. The Waste Treatment Building System is located on the surface within the protected area of the MGR. The Waste Treatment Building System helps maintain a suitable environment for the waste processing and protects the systems within the Waste Treatment Building (WTB) from most of the natural and induced environments. The WTB also confines contaminants and provides radiological protection to personnel. In addition to the waste processing operations, the Waste Treatment Building System provides space and layout for staging of packaged waste for shipment, industrial and radiological safety systems, control and monitoring of operations, safeguards and security systems, and fire protection, ventilation and utilities systems. The Waste Treatment Building System also provides the required space and layout for maintenance activities, tool storage, and administrative facilities. The Waste Treatment Building System integrates waste processing systems within its protective structure to support the throughput rates established for the MGR. The Waste Treatment Building System also provides shielding, layout, and other design features to help limit personnel radiation exposures to levels which are as low as is reasonably achievable (ALARA). The Waste Treatment Building System interfaces with the Site Generated Radiological Waste Handling System, and with other MGR systems that support the waste processing operations. The Waste Treatment Building System interfaces with the General Site Transportation System, Site Communications System, Site Water System, MGR

  3. Green building performance assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsson, N. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    1997-12-31

    A system for labelling buildings in a manner similar to product labelling already well established with respect to goods and materials in general, was proposed. The system envisaged would differ from existing labelling systems in that it would follow the principles incorporated into `Green Building Challenge `98`, (GBC`98) The GBC`98 is a two-year process of international building performance assessment, whose goal is to inform the international community of scientists, designers and builders about advances in green building performance. GBC`98 also aims to test and demonstrate an improved method for measuring building performance, establish international benchmarks for building performance while respecting regional and technical diversity, showcase `best-practice` examples of green buildings around the world, document successful elements in individual green buildings and offer direction to participating countries in the development of regionally sensitive assessment models. The genesis of GBC`98, its potential applications as a second generation tool for eco-labeling of buildings was summarized, along with a review of existing building performance assessment systems. 4 refs.

  4. Energy intelligent buildings based on user activity : A survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, Tuan Anh; Aiello, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Occupant presence and behaviour in buildings has been shown to have large impact on heating, cooling and ventilation demand, energy consumption of lighting and appliances, and building controls. Energy-unaware behaviour can add one-third to a building's designed energy performance. Consequently, use

  5. The Application of Intelligent Building Technologies to Space Hotels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawkes, S.

    This paper reports that over the last few years Intelligent Building technologies have matured and standardised. It compares the functions of command and control systems in future large space facilities such as space hotels to those commonly found in Intelligent Buildings and looks at how Intelligent Building technologies may be applied to space hotels. Many of the functions required in space hotels are the same as those needed in terrestrial buildings. The adaptation of standardised, low cost, Intelligent Building technologies would reduce capital costs and ease development of future space hotels. Other aspects of Intelligent Buildings may also provide useful models for the development and operation of space hotels.

  6. 基于物联网技术的楼宇节能控制系统设计%Energy-saving Control System Design Based on Internet of Things for Building

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙田雨; 马倩; 黄杰; 赵豪; 万博涵

    2015-01-01

    随着我国城市化的建设,高耗能建筑引起的能源与环境问题日益突出,利用物联网技术对建筑进行节能系统设计已经刻不容缓。文章提出了一种基于物联网多传感器技术的嵌入式楼宇节能控制系统,详细的叙述了系统的结构及控制理论。该系统利用STC89C52芯片结合热释电红外微波双鉴传感器、温度传感器、光强传感器的监测数据对照明+窗帘光控系统、空调+风扇温控系统、防盗+防火安保系统进行实时节能控制。文中还对该系统进行了节能测试,试验的中型多媒体教室每年可省电45.4%,节省3042度电,节能效果显著。文章最后对系统进行了可行性分析,证明该系统具有成本低,收益高,易操作的特点,值得推广应用。%With the urbanization and the depletion of energy in China, the issues about environment and energy of building attach more and more attention in society. So it is necessary for us to take measurements of energy-saving control system design based on internet of things and multi-sensor technology for building. The passage combines the predecessors' theories with our ideas to propose a system based on internet of things and embedded energy-saving building control. It is about to elaborate the structure and control theory in four aspects such as lighting and curtain system based on light control, air-condition and fan system based on temperature control, security system for preventing theft and fire and software control. The passage also test the system's ability in energy-saving, the result that multi-media classrooms can save energy in the degree of 45.5 percent each year, up to 3042kW·h, is impressive. In the last part, a feasibility analysis had been taken to prove the proposed system which is worth to popularize has great features like cheap price, high profit and simple control.

  7. 建筑工程施工项目成本控制的措施研究%Study on construction project cost control measures of building engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴耀兴; 陈政辉

    2009-01-01

    Combined with the survival situations of construction enterprises at present, the questions existed in cast control of construction projeers in our country are analyzed and discussed, at the same time tram two aspects: whole procedure management and main management controt, quality cost and time cost practical project cost control measures are elaborated, in order to cost control work well to broaden sources of income and reduce expenditure.%结合当前建筑施工企业生存现状,对我国施工项目成本控制中存在的问题进行了分析和探讨,并从项目全过程管理及管理主体、质量成本与工期成本两方面阐述了具体的工程项目成本控制措施,以期搞好成本控制,达到增收节支的目的.

  8. 某地铁控制中心复杂高层建筑结构设计%Structural Design of A Subway Control Center Complex High-rise Building

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵伟; 田予东; 戴玉买; 叶飞

    2015-01-01

    某地铁控制中心高度为158m,地下3层,地上主体结构39层,裙楼5层,属于超高层建筑,控制大厅设置在裙楼一楼,局部抽柱转换做梁上转换;主楼35、36层外框架柱缩进2.1m,37、38层外框架柱缩进1.8m,主楼外框柱在此处做了两次转换。本工程采用混合结构体系,结构形式为框架-混凝土核心筒体系,主楼外框架采用钢管混凝土柱,裙楼柱采用型钢混凝土柱,针对本工程的设计难点,采用PKPM-PMSAP和ETABS两种空间有限元软件进行计算分析,对基础设计、裙楼设计、主塔楼设计、加强层、转换层设计等方面的设计思路和措施进行了阐述和分析。通过研究分析,本工程采取了合理的设计方法和构造措施,解决了本工程中的设计难点,达到了技术先进、经济合理、安全适用的设计目标。%The height of a subway’s control center is 158m, with underground 3 floors, above-ground main structure 39 floors and a podium building of 5 floors, which belongs to an ultra high-rise building. The control hall is on the first floor of the podium building and partial removal column transformation is beam transformation. The external frame column of the main building’s 35 and 36 floors indents 2.1m, while 1.8m indentation for 37 and 38 floors, two transformations at here. The Project uses a hybrid structure, that is, frame-concrete core structure. The concrete-filled steel tube column is used for the main building’s external frame, steel-concrete column for the podium. For the design difficulties, PKPM-PMSAP and ETABS, two kinds of space finite element softwares, are applied to calculate. And this paper analyzes the design ideas and measures of foundation design, podium building design, main tower building design, reinforcement layer, transformation layer, etc.. By studying, this project uses reasonable design methods and structural measures, resolves design difficulties of the

  9. How to build and evaluate an integrated health care system for chronic patients: study design of a clustered randomised controlled trial in rural China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenxi Tang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: While integrated health care system has been proved an effective way to help improving patient health and system efficiency, the exact behaviour model and motivation approach are not so clear in poor rural areas where health human resources and continuous service provision are urgently needed. To gather solid evidence, we initiated a comprehensive intervention project in Qianjiang District, southwest part of rural China in 2012. And after one-year's pilot, we developed an intervention package of team service, comprehensive pathway and prospective- and performance-based payment system. Methods: To testify the potential influence of payment interventions, we use clustered randomised controlled trial, 60 clusters are grouped into two treatment groups and one control group to compare the time and group differences. Difference-in-differences model and structural equation modelling will be used to analyse the intervention effects and pathway. The outcomes are: quality of care, disease burden, supplier cooperative behaviour and patient utilisation behaviour and system efficiency. Repeated multivariate variance analysis will be used to statistically examine the outcome differences. Discussion: This is the first trial of its kind to prove the effects and efficiency of integrated care. Though we adopted randomised controlled trial to gather the highest rank of evidence, still the fully randomisation was hard to realise in health policy reform experiment. To compensate, the designer should take efforts on control for the potential confounders as much as possible. With this trial, we assume the effects will come from: (1 improvement on the quality of life through risk factors control and lifestyles change on patient's behaviours; (2 improvement on quality of care through continuous care and coordinated supplier behaviours; (3 improvement on the system efficiency through active interaction between suppliers and patients. Conclusion

  10. How to build and evaluate an integrated health care system for chronic patients: study design of a clustered randomised controlled trial in rural China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenxi Tang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: While integrated health care system has been proved an effective way to help improving patient health and system efficiency, the exact behaviour model and motivation approach are not so clear in poor rural areas where health human resources and continuous service provision are urgently needed. To gather solid evidence, we initiated a comprehensive intervention project in Qianjiang District, southwest part of rural China in 2012. And after one-year's pilot, we developed an intervention package of team service, comprehensive pathway and prospective- and performance-based payment system.Methods: To testify the potential influence of payment interventions, we use clustered randomised controlled trial, 60 clusters are grouped into two treatment groups and one control group to compare the time and group differences. Difference-in-differences model and structural equation modelling will be used to analyse the intervention effects and pathway. The outcomes are: quality of care, disease burden, supplier cooperative behaviour and patient utilisation behaviour and system efficiency. Repeated multivariate variance analysis will be used to statistically examine the outcome differences.Discussion: This is the first trial of its kind to prove the effects and efficiency of integrated care. Though we adopted randomised controlled trial to gather the highest rank of evidence, still the fully randomisation was hard to realise in health policy reform experiment. To compensate, the designer should take efforts on control for the potential confounders as much as possible. With this trial, we assume the effects will come from: (1 improvement on the quality of life through risk factors control and lifestyles change on patient's behaviours; (2 improvement on quality of care through continuous care and coordinated supplier behaviours; (3 improvement on the system efficiency through active interaction between suppliers and patients

  11. Experiments and Data for Building Energy Performance Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bacher, Peder; Madsen, Henrik

    in each room, and implement control of the installed electrical heaters. Furthermore a climate station is located right next to the building. The objective of the experiments is to provide data for models of the thermal dynamics of the building. The designs of the experiments is such that the conditions...... with PRBS signals controlling the heaters, and three with thermostatic control....

  12. SEISMIC RESPONSE REDUCTION OF REINFORCED CONCRETE BUILDINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.M.KHOBRAGADE

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Buildings in modern city are often built closely to each other due limited land available. These building in most cases, are separated without any structural connection. Hence earthquake resistant capacity of each building mainly depends on itself. To improve the earthquake resistance of these building, the concept of coupledbuilding control has been taken in to consideration. Coupled building control is shown to be a viable method to protect tall building from seismic excitation. The philosophy is to allow the structures, vibrating at different frequencies, to exert control forces upon one another. In this paper, a comparative study is performed on uncoupled and coupled buildings with beam/beams as a flexible links with different configurations in zone V. The characteristics performance such as shear force, axial force, displacements, storey drift and bending moments are found out. The study is carried out on coupledbuildings with the help of different mathematical models, considering provision of coupling to improve seismic resistance using finite element structural engineering software SAP 2000.

  13. Design and Realization of Internet-Based Power Centralized Controller for Buildings%基于网络的楼宇用电集中控制器的设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚放吾; 王旭涛

    2011-01-01

    随着嵌入式技术的快速发展,各种嵌入式技术已经应用于人们日常生活当中,基于网络的楼宇集中控制器就是将嵌人式技术应用到楼字用电管理当中,为用户用电管理提供了有效、便捷的途径.基于网络的楼宇集中控制器构建于高性能的ARM9硬件环境和开源、稳定、安全的嵌入式Linux软件系统平台,同时系统服务程序采用多线程系统架构,实现系统服务高效性.该嵌入式系统通过BS485和基于TCP/IP的网络通信实现信息的收集、管理与上传,构成智能用电管理系统的核心.%Along with rapid development of cmbedded technology,various embedded techmology has been used in our daily life,Through the internet-based centralized controller for buildings embedded techmology is applied to electricity management for buildings.Thus,it provides and effective and convenient way for users'electricity management.The construction of the centralized controller for buildings is based on creating a high-performance ARM9 hardware environment and an enbedded linux software platform which is open-source,stable and secure,and meanwhile the program of system services utilizes the multi-thread system architecture to achitecture to achieve the high efficiency.This embedded system can collect,manage and upload information to constitute the core of internet-based intelligent power management system via RS485 and TCP/IP communications.

  14. Reconocimiento automatizado de menas metálicas mediante análisis digital de imagen: un apoyo al proceso mineralúrgico. I: ensayo metodológico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berrezueta, E.

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Ore microscopy has traditionally been an important support to control ore processing, but the volume of present day processes is beyond the reach of human operators. Automation is therefore compulsory, but its development through digital image analysis, DIA, is limited by various problems, such as the similarity in reflectance values of some important ores, their anisotropism, and the performance of instruments and methods. The results presented show that automated identification and quantification by DIA are possible through multiband (RGB determinations with a research 3CCD video camera on a reflected light microscope. These results were obtained by systematic measurement of selected ores accounting for most of the industrial applications. Polarized light is avoided, so the effects of anisotropism can be neglected. Quality control at various stages and statistical analysis are important, as is the application of complementary criteria (e.g., metallogenetic. The sequential methodology is described and shown through practical examples.

    La investigación microscópica de menas metálicas ha sido, desde sus inicios, una importante herramienta para el control del proceso mineralúrgico. El volumen de las operaciones actuales es tal que este control es imposible por los métodos clásicos, pero la automatización del proceso por análisis digital de imagen, ADI, se ha visto retrasada, entre otras cosas, por la similar reflectancia, R, de menas importantes, por limitaciones instrumentales y metodológicas y por las dificultades que implica el anisotropismo, las cuales desaparecen evitando la polarización. Los resultados obtenidos muestran la viabilidad de la identificación y cuantificación automatizadas mediante ADI, a partir de medidas R con cámara vídeo 3CCD sobre microscopio de reflexión. Así lo corrobora el ensayo sistemático sobre las principales menas. Se describe la metodología secuenciada. Implica una puesta a punto rigurosa

  15. Abating Earthquake Effects on Buildings by Active Slip Brace Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zekai Akbay

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available A hybrid control system for reducing building vibration under a spectrum of earthquake load amplitudes is presented. The hybrid control is accomplished by an energy dissipation device called the active slip brace device (ASBD. The hybrid control system uses the ASBD to regulate the energy dissipation characteristics of the building during its response to earthquakes by utilizing active control principles. The ASBD consists of a Coulomb friction interface with a clamping mechanism on the interface. The clamping force on the friction interface is altered at short time intervals during building vibration. Computer simulations of building response with and without ASBD are compared.

  16. Sustainable Building Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Ole

    2009-01-01

    Energy-savings in the existing building stock have becomes a main goal in national and international policies. Often focus is on building-renovations, whereas the potential of sustainable building operation to a large extent has been neglected. Nevertheless, international research as well...... as practical experiences from Danish housing estates indicates that there are large potentials for energy savings by focusing on the operation of the buildings. We suggest that in order to achieve sustainability in the existing housing, renovation and operations should be seen as integrated parts...... building operation as an 'umbrella' for various ways of reducing flows of energy, water and waste in the daily operation of the buildings, for instance by regular monitoring the consumption, by using 'green accounting', by applying policies for sustainability etc. The paper is based on case studies...

  17. Design and build of fieldbus-based control systems for ENEL thermoelectric plants; Sistemi di controllo con bus di campo. Applicazioni in impianti termoelettrici

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazzola, G. [Automazione e Robotica, Cesi (Italy); Prandoni, W. [Business Unit Processi per la Generazione, Milan (Italy)

    2000-06-01

    The intention to start first plant-wide control applications based on fieldbus in ENEL (Electric Power Production Company) combined cycle plants demands to define appropriate requirements for design, planning, implementation, technical management and maintenance of control systems. One of the first needs is to express, in the bid specifications for Dc san other plant components, those requirements necessary on one side to guarantee the same levels of performance and reliability of traditional systems, and on the other side to ensure the improvement of the operations of installation and commissioning and of management of normal and abnormal plant behaviour, which are among the main benefits expected from this new technology. The definition of such requirements appears to be complex due to the variety and lack of a homogenous approach of the different market solutions, and also because a real experience of systems of considerable size is still missing. The memory introduces the results and problems met in the requirement specification phase, and the activity of definition of a pilot control system for demineralized water production of Fusina power plant. [Italian] In vista delle prime applicazioni negli impianti ENEL a ciclo combinato della tecnologia a bus di campo si presenta la necessita' di esprimere, nelle specifiche di acquisizione del Dcs e dei componenti, i requisiti necessari da un lato a garantire i medesimi livelli di prestazione e sicurezza dei sistemi tradizionali, dall'altro ad assicurare il miglioramento delle operazioni di installazione e delle strategie di conduzione e manutenzione dell'impianto, che sono come i ritorni piu' promettenti di questa nuova tecnologia. L'articolo presenta le principali problematiche emerse e l'attivita' di definizione di un'esperienza pilota su un impianto in esercizio nella centrale termoelettrica di Fusina.

  18. Method for reducing excess heat supply experienced in typical Chinese district heating systems by achieving hydraulic balance and improving indoor air temperature control at the building level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Lipeng; Gudmundsson, Oddgeir; Thorsen, Jan Eric;

    2016-01-01

    that once the hydraulic balance is achieved and indoor temperatures are controlled with this integrated approach, 17% heat savings and 42.8% pump electricity savings can be achieved. The energy savings will also have a positive environmental effect with seasonal reductions of 11 kg CO2, 0.1 kg SO2, and 0...... with the actual heat demand. This results in 15-30% of the total supplied heat being lost. This paper proposes an integrated approach that aims to reduce the excess heat loss by introducing pre-set thermostatic radiator valves combined with automatic balancing valves. Those devices establish hydraulic balance...

  19. Multifunctional camping building full of sustainable technology. All installations controlled through the internet; Multifunctioneel kampeergebouw vol duurzame techniek. Alle installaties zijn via internet te beheren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoemaker, E.

    2011-06-15

    A fully integrated, computerized control system is not just suitable for large companies; it can also be realized by smaller organizations as part of their sustainability policy. Eventually, the investment can result in a significant saving. This article discussed the example of scouting and camping site St. Walrick in Overasselt (the Netherlands) [Dutch] Een volledig geintegreerd, computergestuurd beheersysteem is niet alleen geschikt voor grote bedrijven. Het is ook bereikbaar voor kleinere organisaties en past vaak heel goed in hun duurzaamheidbeleid. Uiteindelijk kan de investering een behoorlijke besparing opleveren. In dit artikel wordt het voorbeeld van scouting- en kampeerterrein St. Walrick in Overasselt (Gelderland) besproken.

  20. Development of energy-efficient comfortable ventilation systems with air quality guided volume flow control and continuous monitoring of the window opening status. Part 1. Use of the LuQaS triple sensor for air quality guided volume flow control of mechanical ventilation systems in domestic buildings. Research project; Entwicklung energieeffizienter Komfortlueftungsanlagen mit luftqualitaetsgefuehrter Volumenstromregelung und kontinuierlicher Erfassung des Fensteroeffnungszustandes. Teilbericht 1. Einsatz des LuQaS-Triple-Sensors zur luftqualitaetsgefuehrten Volumenstromregelung von mechanischen Lueftungsanlagen in Wohngebaeuden. Forschungsprojekt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grossklos, Marc; Ebel, Witta; Knissel, Jens

    2011-05-15

    The report presents the preparatory work on the research project of the above title. The first chapter presents a status report on air quality monitoring inside rooms and evaluates the projects so far in which the LuQaS air quality sensor was used. The second chapter is a documentation of preliminary measurements using the LuQaS sensor in two passive residential buildings and several individual measurements for sensor calibration. It was found that in apartments with mechanical ventilation, the sensor reflects the user activities; further, the measured values indicate signal changes also in the off-air of the building, so that control via central sensors in the ventilation and off-air systems appears feasible. The third chapter discusses control strategies for air quality control. Apart from a discussion of control unit types, operating regimes, methods to determine rated values, and additional control functions, the effects of threshold value control with different threshold limit values and volume flow changes on the air quality of a model building was simulated. The results prove the expectation that the air quality inside a building will be influenced positively by air quality control. Theoretical investigations of the DrD method will be presented in another part-report of the project.

  1. Development of Ecological Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrius Keizikas

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The article presents research on ecological buildings and their influence on the constructional sphere. The aim of the paper is to reveal the essence of ecological architecture showing substantial progress and its potential to stimulate architectural and technological growth. The article also describes relations between the ideas of ecological buildings and the ‘passive house’ concepts and aspects of development as well as describes the possibilities of improving building sustainability and energy efficiency. Article in Lithuanian

  2. Capacity Building in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Adam McCarty

    2001-01-01

    This report is the outcome of a study commissioned to examine the capacity building needs in Vietnam, and is a supplementary document to the Asian Development Bank's Country Operational Strategy for Vietnam. Vietnam's needs in terms of capacity building are particularly important given that is it a transitional economy and also one with little institutional experience in dealing with the international donor community. This paper examines the international awareness of capacity building and ca...

  3. Sustainable Non-Metallic Building Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Tretsiakova-McNally

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Buildings are the largest energy consumers and greenhouse gases emitters, both in the developed and developing countries. In continental Europe, the energy use in buildings alone is responsible for up to 50% of carbon dioxide emission. Urgent changes are, therefore, required relating to energy saving, emissions control, production and application of materials, use of renewable resources, and to recycling and reuse of building materials. In addition, the development of new eco-friendly building materials and practices is of prime importance owing to the growing environmental concerns. This review reflects the key tendencies in the sector of sustainable building materials of a non-metallic nature that have occurred over the past decade or so.

  4. Sick building syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjandra Y. Aditama

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Sick building syndrome describes a number of mostly unspesific complaints of some occupants of the building. The exact pathophysiological mechanism remains elusive. It is a multi factorial event which may include physical, chemical, biological as well as psycological factors. In many cases it is due to insufficient maintenance of the HVAC (heating, ventilation, air conditioning system in the building. Sign and symptoms can be uncomfortable and even disabling, which may include mucus membrane irritation, neurotoxic symptoms, asthma like symptoms, skin complaints, gastrointestinal symptoms and other related symptoms. There are various investigation methods to diagnose sick building syndrome, and on site assessment of the building is extremely useful. Prevention through a proactive air quality monitoring program is far more desirable than dealing with an actual sick building. Indoor air and the sick building symdrome serves as a paradigm of modern occupational and environmental medicine. (Med J Indones 2002; 11:124-31Keywords: indoor air pollution, sick building syndrome, building related illness

  5. Building valve amplifiers

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Morgan

    2013-01-01

    Building Valve Amplifiers is a unique hands-on guide for anyone working with tube audio equipment--as an electronics hobbyist, audiophile or audio engineer. This 2nd Edition builds on the success of the first with technology and technique revisions throughout and, significantly, a major new self-build project, worked through step-by-step, which puts into practice the principles and techniques introduced throughout the book. Particular attention has been paid to answering questions commonly asked by newcomers to the world of the valve, whether audio enthusiasts tackling their first build or

  6. Building bridges: a partnership between professional nursing and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to reduce the burden of heart disease and stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, Sandra B; Mensah, George A; Labarthe, Darwin R

    2005-12-01

    The escalating burden of heart disease and stroke in the United States, coupled with the complexity of public health goals to prevent and control chronic diseases, warrant new strategies and partners. The 2.7 million nurses in the United States represent the nation's largest healthcare profession and, through their professional organizations, constitute a strategic partner for the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Heart Disease and Stroke Programs. In addition, because heart disease and stroke rank first and third among leading causes of death in women in the United States, and 95% of nurses are women, nurses represent an important population to target with preventive cardiovascular health approaches. The authors describe a proposed CDC strategic partnership with professional nursing organizations, including goals aimed at improving the capacity of nurses as change agents in the area of heart disease and stroke, as well as promoting change among the change agents to reduce nurses' risk for cardiovascular disease. The primary goals of the partnership between key professional nursing organizations and the CDC Cardiovascular Health (CVH) Programs follow: (1) share information and develop effective communication; (2) link with key professional and community organizations; (3) assess capabilities and expertise that nursing organizations can add to CDC's internal and external partnerships, including the Public Health Action Plan; (4) explore possible linkages with the CDC-funded state-level heart disease and stroke prevention programs and emerging CDC stroke networks; (5) develop, disseminate, and apply evidence-based guidelines to improve outcomes of care; and (6) develop policy and environment strategies in work-site settings to prevent heart disease and stroke in women and among the membership of professional nursing organizations. The development and implementation of a CDC CVH Program Professional Nurse Partnership have strong potential for enhancing

  7. Caracterización de un proceso operativo de análisis de calidad higiénica y sanitaria de la leche bovina cruda, con equipos automatizados BactoScan FC 50 y CombiFoss FT+ 200, en un laboratorio de calidad de leche (Characterization of the operative process for the analysis the hygienic and sanitary quality the raw bovine milk, with automated equipment BactoScan FC 50 and CombiFoss FT+ 200, in a quality milk laboratory .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaona Yira

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available ResumenLa caracterización del proceso operativo de análisis de calidad higiénica y sanitaria de la leche bovina cruda con los equipos automatizados BactoScanFC50 y CombiFossFT+200, se realizó de forma separada para las fase preanalítica, analítica y postanalítica del proceso, para cada una de ellas se presentan las condiciones y especificaciones requeridas en equipos, personal, documentación , procedimientos, infraestructura y ambiente de trabajo que permiten la transformación de las muestras de leche bovina cruda desde su ingreso al laboratorio de calidad de leche, hasta la emisión de un resultado final de calidad para el usuario solicitante del servicio de análisis de calidad higiénica y sanitaria de la leche.SummaryThe characterization the operative process analysis the hygienic and sanitary quality the raw bovine milk with the automated equipment BactoScanFC50 and CombiFossFT+200, was carried out separate form for the phase preanalytic, analytic and postanalytic the process, for each one them the conditions and specifications are presented equired in equipments, personal, documentation, procedures, infrastructure and atmosphere work that allow the transformation the samples raw bovine milk from its entrance to the laboratory quality milk, until the emission final result quality for the userapplicant the service analysis the hygienic and sanitary quality milk.

  8. SmartBuildings. Implementation of demand-side-management systems; SmartBuildings. Implementierung von Lastmanagementsystemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jungwirth, Johannes; Saenger, Florian; Grahovac, Milica [TU Muenchen (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Energiewirtschaft und Anwendungstechnik; Roessel, Timm; Schneegans, Jakob; Herzog, Simon [TU Muenchen (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Bauklimatik und Haustechnik; Mikulovic, Vesna [Siemens Building Technologies Headquarters, Zug (Switzerland)

    2012-07-01

    A transition to flexible consumer load can contribute significantly to the integration of renewable energies. Precisely controllable electrical consumers from the building sector (heating, ventilation, air conditioning) are applicable for demand-side-management by using the thermal inertia of the building. In order to incentivize a load shift scenarios of flexible electricity rates are developed. Flexible users can shift their operation to times of lower prices and therefore minimize their electricity costs. Within a simulation of the building and the building services the impact of modified operation mode on thermal comfort of the room is analyzed and times of operation are optimized. The implementation of resulting theoretical potential of a load shift in a real building necessitates a simulation model of the building. Since the creation of these models is very complex, universally applicable adaptive models of the buildings are developed. After a training process those adaptive models have acquired the skill to predict the building behaviour. Now they are able to forecast effects of various modes of operation and provide a cost-optimized operation schedule for building technology. Neural networks used to build adaptive models deliver promising results. However, initial measurements and training periods are to be optimized. (orig.)

  9. Study of the production of the radiopharmaceutical {sup 18}F-FLT in automated system: contribution for process validation; Estudo da producao do radiofarmaco FLT-{sup 18}F em sistema automatizado: contribuicao para a validacao do processo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanette, Camila

    2013-07-01

    Radiopharmaceutical {sup 18}F-FLT is a thymidine nucleoside analogue and a promising tumor proliferation marker for PET images. The synthesis of this radiopharmaceutical is not simple, and often has low yields. This radiopharmaceutical has already been studied for some years; however, there is no production, nor are there clinical studies in Brazil. The study of the production process and its compliance with the guidelines of Good Manufacturing Practices (ANVISA) are of extreme importance. This study aimed to investigate the synthesis of this radiopharmaceutical, evaluate methods of quality control that will be used in future production routines, perform cytotoxicity studies, biodistribution studies and PET imaging in animals, thereby contributing to the development and elaboration of the process validation protocol and to the establishment of analytical methods to be used during production routines. Initially, we studied the synthesis and production of {sup 18}F-FLT, with the evaluation of three different temperatures of radiolabeling to check the behavior of the radiochemical yield and stability of the nal product. Studies of analytical methodology comprised the analysis of radionuclide identification, determination of chromatographic profiles, radiochemical purity, residual solvents, and pH. In vitro studies of internalization and cytotoxicity were also carried out. In in vivo studies, we evaluated the pharmacokinetics, biodistribution in healthy animals and in animals with tumor models, in addition to PET/CT images in animals with melanomas. The final product had high radiochemical purity and was stable for up to 10 hours after the synthesis, but got a relatively low radiochemical yield, as described in the literature. The tested analytical methods proved suitable for use in the quality control of {sup 18}F-FLT. In in vitro studies, {sup 18}F-FLT showed a significant percentage of binding to tumor cells, and the nonradiolabeled molecule was not considered toxic

  10. Control of Angra 1' PZR by a fuzzy rule base build through genetic programming; Controle do PZR de Angra 1 por meio de uma base de regras nebulosas construidas atraves de programacao genetica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldas, Gustavo Henrique Flores; Schirru, Roberto [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Engenharia Nuclear

    2002-07-01

    There is an optimum pressure for the normal operation of nuclear power plant reactors and thresholds that must be respected during transients, what make the pressurizer an important control mechanism. Inside a pressurizer there are heaters and a shower. From their actuation levels, they control the vapor pressure inside the pressurizer and, consequently, inside the primary circuit. Therefore, the control of the pressurizer consists in controlling the actuation levels of the heaters and of the shower. In the present work this function is implemented through a fuzzy controller. Besides the efficient way of exerting control, this approach presents the possibility of extracting knowledge of how this control is been made. A fuzzy controller consists basically in an inference machine and a rule base, the later been constructed with specialized knowledge. In some circumstances, however, this knowledge is not accurate, and may lead to non-efficient results. With the development of artificial intelligence techniques, there wore found methods to substitute specialists, simulating its knowledge. Genetic programming is an evolutionary algorithm particularly efficient in manipulating rule base structures. In this work genetic programming was used as a substitute for the specialist. The goal is to test if an irrational object, a computer, is capable, by it self, to find out a rule base reproducing a pre-established actuation levels profile. The result is positive, with the discovery of a fuzzy rule base presenting an insignificant error. A remarkable result that proves the efficiency of the approach. (author)

  11. Automated system for the management of the radiological safety in a radiopharmaceutical and labelled compounds production center; Sistema automatizado para la gestion de la seguridad radiologica un centro de produccion de radiofarmacos y compuestos marcados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amador B, Z.H. [Centro de Isotopos, Ave. Monumental y Carretera La Rada, Km. 3, Guanabacoa, Apartado 3415, Ciudad de La Habana (Cuba); Alvarez Builla de Sologuren, E. [Centro de Gestion de Informacion y Desarrollo de la Energia, Cale 20 No. 4111 e/47y 18A, Playa, Ciudad de La Habana (Cuba)]. e-mail: zabalbona@centis.edu.cu

    2006-07-01

    The establishment in the Center of Isotopes of Cuba of a managerial quality system in matter of radiological safety Y the accumulated operational experience, its constitute the foundations for the development of a system of management of the radiological safety organically structured, with the application of evaluative techniques of it management Y it integration in an automated system. The Visual Basic 5 platform for the programming of the 'SASR' system is used. The functions of each one of the 11 modules that integrate it are described. With this it can be carried out the registration of the data of the training Y the personnel's authorization, the checkup of the radioactive inventory of the installation, the annual upgrade of the registrations of the individual doses of those workers, the analysis of the state of the available equipment for magnitude to control, the radiological situation of the work positions, the public exposure by the gassy discharges, the experiences of the radiological events, the annual consolidation of the costs of the safety Y the evaluation of indicators Y of tendencies. A computer tool that facilitates the effective management of the radiological safety in a radioactive installation is obtained. (Author)

  12. ANALYSES AND INFLUENCES OF GLAZED BUILDING ENVELOPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Jordan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of an analytical study of the functioning of glazing at two different yet interacting levels: at the level of the building as a whole, and at that of glazing as a building element. At the building level, analyses were performed on a sample of high-rise business buildings in Slovenia, where the glazing"s share of the building envelope was calculated, and estimates of the proportion of shade provided by external blinds were made. It is shown that, especially in the case of modern buildings with large proportions of glazing and buildings with no shading devices, careful glazing design is needed, together with a sound knowledge of energy performance. In the second part of the article, the energy balance values relating to selected types of glazing are presented, including solar control glazing. The paper demonstrates the need for a holistic energy approach to glazing problems, as well as how different types of glazing can be methodically compared, thus improving the design of sustainability-orientated buildings.

  13. Code Compliant School Buildings Boost Student Achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald B. Lumpkin

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Much of the focus in the literature in raising student achievement has included parental involvement, principal leadership, quality of instruction, students’ socioeconomic status, curriculum, and use of technology. Limited empirical research relates the condition of the school building as a variable that affects student achievement. Furthermore, there is no research that has examined the impact of building codes on achievement outcomes in the state of Florida. This research determined whether academic achievement of 4th-, 8th-, 9th-, and 10th-grade students as measured by the mathematics and reading subtests of the Florida Comprehensive Achievement Test (FCAT increased in new school buildings compliant to the 2000 Florida State Requirements for Educational Facilities. A causal-comparative design determined whether the independent variables, old and new school building influenced student achievement as measured by students’ FCAT mathematics and reading subtest scores. The control group was two cohorts of 4th-, 8th-, 9th-, and 10th-grade students who attended school in old buildings. The experimental group was two cohorts of 4th-, 8th-, 9th-, and 10th-grade students who attended school in new buildings. Transition from an old school into a new school was the treatment. Two hypotheses were formulated for testing and the research question for the inquiry was whether the percentage of students passing the FCAT mathematics and reading subtests increases after transitioning from an old school building into a new 2000 UBC (Uniform Building Code compliant facility.

  14. Balancing Hydronic Systems in Multifamily Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruch, Russell [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, Chicago, IL (United States); Ludwig, Peter [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, Chicago, IL (United States); Maurer, Tessa [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2014-07-01

    In multifamily hydronic systems, temperature imbalance may be caused by undersized piping, improperly adjusted balancing valves, inefficient water temperature and flow levels, and owner/occupant interaction with the boilers, distribution, and controls. The imbalance leads to tenant discomfort, higher energy use intensity, and inefficient building operation. This research, conducted by Building America team Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, explores cost-effective distribution upgrades and balancing measures in multifamily hydronic systems, providing a resource to contractors, auditors, and building owners on best practices to improve tenant comfort and lower operating costs. The team surveyed existing knowledge on cost-effective retrofits for optimizing distribution in typical multifamily hydronic systems, with the aim of identifying common situations and solutions, and then conducted case studies on two Chicago area buildings with known balancing issues in order to quantify the extent of temperature imbalance. At one of these buildings a booster pump was installed on a loop to an underheated wing of the building. This study found that unit temperature in a multifamily hydronic building can vary as much as 61°F, particularly if windows are opened or tenants use intermittent supplemental heating sources like oven ranges. Average temperature spread at the building as a result of this retrofit decreased from 22.1°F to 15.5°F.

  15. IEA EBC Annex 67 Energy Flexible Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marszal, Anna Joanna; Jensen, Søren Østergaard

    2016-01-01

    The foreseen large deployment of renewable energy sources may seriously affect the stability of energy grids. It will be necessary to control energy consumption to match instantaneous energy production. The built-in Energy Flexibility in buildings may be utilized for stabilizing the energy grids......, allowing for a larger roll out of renewable technologies. The Energy Flexibility of a building is the ability to manage its energy demand and generation according to local climate conditions, user needs and grid requirements. Energy Flexibility of buildings will thus allow for demand side management...... and load control and thereby demand response based on the requirements of the surrounding grids. Currently there is, however, no overview or insight into how much Energy Flexibility different building types and their usage may be able to offer to future energy systems. Three is thus a need for increasing...

  16. Large-scale horizontally aligned ZnO microrod arrays with controlled orientation, periodic distribution as building blocks for chip-in piezo-phototronic LEDs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhen; Li, Haiwen; Zhou, Lianqun; Zhao, Dongxu; Wu, Yihui; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Wei; Li, Chuanyu; Yao, Jia

    2015-01-27

    A novel method of fabricating large-scale horizontally aligned ZnO microrod arrays with controlled orientation and periodic distribution via combing technology is introduced. Horizontally aligned ZnO microrod arrays with uniform orientation and periodic distribution can be realized based on the conventional bottom-up method prepared vertically aligned ZnO microrod matrix via the combing method. When the combing parameters are changed, the orientation of horizontally aligned ZnO microrod arrays can be adjusted (θ = 90° or 45°) in a plane and a misalignment angle of the microrods (0.3° to 2.3°) with low-growth density can be obtained. To explore the potential applications based on the vertically and horizontally aligned ZnO microrods on p-GaN layer, piezo-phototronic devices such as heterojunction LEDs are built. Electroluminescence (EL) emission patterns can be adjusted for the vertically and horizontally aligned ZnO microrods/p-GaN heterojunction LEDs by applying forward bias. Moreover, the emission color from UV-blue to yellow-green can be tuned by investigating the piezoelectric properties of the materials. The EL emission mechanisms of the LEDs are discussed in terms of band diagrams of the heterojunctions and carrier recombination processes.

  17. Buildings behaving badly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Student, Jillian; Papyrakis, Elissaios; Beukering, van Pieter

    2017-01-01

    Heating buildings contributes to approximately 36 % of Europe’s energy demand and several EU member states have adopted mandatory energy labels to improve energy efficiency by promoting home weatherization investments. This paper focuses on the perception of the energy label for residential building

  18. Heat loss from Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Kenneth; Næraa, Rikke

    1997-01-01

    Determination of heat loss coefficients for buildings in Denmark. The coefficient are determined for 15 building groups and 3 year intervals. They are based on the BBR-registre and assumptions of U-values(W/K*m2)and computed in a simple spreed sheet model.The results are used in the REVEILLE...... project for calculations in the SESAM model....

  19. Reusing Old Manufacturing Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2014-01-01

    This article presents an interesting design challenge for students, one that will certainly let them integrate subject matter and get a sense of pride for doing something useful in their own community. The author would be willing to bet that the average town or city has some old red brick manufacturing building(s) that have seen much better days.…

  20. Dancing building prevents collapse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visscher, R.

    2007-01-01

    In future, anybody caught inside a building during an earthquake need no longer fear the roof collapsing on them. Thanks to the use of composite materials, all the building will do is dance along, riding the waves of the earthquake. At least, according to Professor Ir. Adriaan Beukers of the Aerospa

  1. Building Numbers from Primes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhart, Jerry

    2009-01-01

    Prime numbers are often described as the "building blocks" of natural numbers. This article shows how the author and his students took this idea literally by using prime factorizations to build numbers with blocks. In this activity, students explore many concepts of number theory, including the relationship between greatest common factors and…

  2. Behavioral Strategies: Building Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoz, Charles J.

    Using a construction building analogy, this guide provides a plan for building a system of behavior strategies. These strategies are designed to assist behavior analysts of contracted provider agencies in the construction and maintenance of procedures which will help monitor and reduce the frequency of problematic behaviors in individuals with…

  3. Building: Food for thought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efraïm Rodríguez

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The sculpture presented by Efraïm Rodríguez for the conference is titled “pequeño arquitecto” (The Little Architect, a figure which represents a child building a tower with pieces of classical children’s block building toys; the child itself is built out of the same sculpted materials.

  4. Building a Better Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navah, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Kids love to build robots, letting their imaginations run wild with thoughts of what they might look like and what they could be programmed to do. Yet when students use cereal boxes and found objects to make robots, often the projects look too similar and tend to fall apart. This alternative allows students to "build" robots in a different way,…

  5. LARGE BUILDING RADON MANUAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report summarizes information on how bilding systems -- especially the heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system -- inclurence radon entry into large buildings and can be used to mitigate radon problems. It addresses the fundamentals of large building HVAC syst...

  6. Buildings behaving badly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Student, Jillian; Papyrakis, Elissaios; Beukering, van Pieter

    2016-01-01

    Heating buildings contributes to approximately 36 % of Europe’s energy demand and several EU member states have adopted mandatory energy labels to improve energy efficiency by promoting home weatherization investments. This paper focuses on the perception of the energy label for residential building

  7. Whole Building Efficiency for Whole Foods: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deru, M.; Doebber, I.; Hirsch, A.

    2013-02-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory partnered with Whole Foods Market under the Commercial Building Partnership (CBP) program to design and implement a new store in Raleigh, North Carolina. The result was a design with a predicted energy savings of 40% over ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2004, and 25% energy savings over their standard design. Measured performance of the as-built building showed that the building did not achieve the predicted performance. A detailed review of the project several months after opening revealed a series of several items in construction and controls items that were not implemented properly and were not fully corrected in the commissioning process.

  8. CERN's newest building

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Vernède

    2011-01-01

    With a growing number of users looking for offices, the shortage of space has become acute, particularly for physicists. Building 42, inaugurated on Friday 11 February, offers almost 300 new work-spaces and a particularly pleasant working environment.   Mauro Dell’Ambrogio, the Swiss State Secretary for Education and Research (left), Rolf Heuer , CERN Director-General (centre), and Mark Muller, President of the Government of the Republic and Canton of Geneva and Head of the Department of Construction and Information Technology (right) at the opening of Building 42 on 11 February, 2011.   Construction work for the new Building 42 began in January 2009, thanks to support from the Swiss foundation FIPOI (Fondation des immeubles pour les organisations internationales). After two years of work, the building, an extension of Building 40, is ready to accommodate physicists from around the world who have come to work on the LHC. "We had more than 25 external contractors working...

  9. Building-block selectivity of polyketide synthases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Grace F; Khosla, Chaitan

    2003-04-01

    For the past decade, polyketide synthases have presented an exciting paradigm for the controlled manipulation of complex natural product structure. These multifunctional enzymes catalyze the biosynthesis of polyketide natural products by stepwise condensation and modification of metabolically derived building blocks. In particular, regioselective modification of polyketide structure is possible by alterations in either intracellular acyl-CoA pools or, more commonly, by manipulation of acyl transferases that act as the primary gatekeepers for building blocks.

  10. Control analysis of GPS location in high-rise building construction%高层及超高层建筑工程的GPS定位控制分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩漪

    2014-01-01

    GPS positioning control technology now has more and more application in the design and construction of high-rise building project of the scope of application,so on and GPS positioning technology is more extensive,the past should be used for GPS mapping the military industrial control,now converted to civilian technology,it has become an important symbol of electrons across the technology of our country into the high-tech field.%GPS定位控制技术现在已经越来越多的应用在高层及超高层建筑工程的设计及施工当中了,因此对与GPS定位技术的应用范畴就广泛的多了,以往应用于军工产业的GPS定位控制,现在转变为民用技术,这种跨越已成为我国电子技术进入高科技领域的重要标志。

  11. 地铁列车运行引起建筑物二次辐射噪声执行标准探讨%Implementation of Standards to Control Secondary Radiation Noise on Buildings Caused by Metro Train Operation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    辜小安; 谢咏梅; 刘扬

    2012-01-01

    The paper analyzes the China's urban rail transit environmental impact assessment, especially the suitability of reference standard for control of building secondary radiation noise caused by train operation. According to the principles and definitions of secondary radiation noise, it discusses relevant standards and evaluation of the amount for proper control of the secondary radiation noise caused by the operation of urban train.%分析我国城市轨道交通环境影响评价中,关于列车运行引起的建筑物二次辐射噪声参考标准的适宜性,并根据二次辐射噪声原理和定义,探讨了城市轨道交通列车运行引起的建筑物二次辐射噪声宜执行的相关标准及评价量。

  12. Moisture Dynamics in Building Envelopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peuhkuri, Ruut Hannele

    2003-01-01

    The overall scope of this Thesis "Moisture dynamics in building envelopes" has been to characterise how the various porous insulation materials investigated performed hygrothermally under conditions similar to those in a typical building envelope. As a result of the changing temperature...... and moisture conditions in the exterior weather and indoor climate the materials dynamically absorb and release moisture. The complexity of the impact of these conditions on the resulting moisture transport and content of the materials has been studied in this Thesis with controlled laboratory tests. The first......, results, and analysis are presented (Chapters 5-7). The major findings are discussed (Chapter 8), before the final conclusion (Chapter 9). The Appendices include the material parameters used, some additional results and the description of the simulation models....

  13. Building the green way.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, Charles

    2006-06-01

    Just five or six years ago, the term "green building" evoked visions of barefoot, tie-dyed, granola-munching denizens. There's been a large shift in perception. Of course, green buildings are still known for conserving natural resources by, for example, minimizing on-site grading, using alternative materials, and recycling construction waste. But people now see the financial advantages as well. Well-designed green buildings yield lower utility costs, greater employee productivity, less absenteeism, and stronger attraction and retention of workers than standard buildings do. Green materials, mechanical systems, and furnishings have become more widely available and considerably less expensive than they used to be-often cheaper than their standard counterparts. So building green is no longer a pricey experiment; just about any company can do it on a standard budget by following the ten rules outlined by the author. Reliable building-rating systems like the U.S. Green Building Council's rigorous Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) program have done much to underscore the benefits of green construction. LEED evaluates buildings and awards points in several areas, such as water efficiency and indoor environmental quality. Other rating programs include the UK's BREEAM (Building Research Establishment's Environmental Assessment Method) and Australia's Green Star. Green construction is not simply getting more respect; it is rapidly becoming a necessity as corporations push it fully into the mainstream over the next five to ten years. In fact, the author says, the owners of standard buildings face massive obsolescence. To avoid this problem, they should carry out green renovations. Corporations no longer have an excuse for eschewing environmental and economic sustainability. They have at their disposal tools proven to lower overhead costs, improve productivity, and strengthen the bottom line.

  14. Hybrid ventilation systems and high performance buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Utzinger, D.M. [Wisconsin Univ., Milwaukee, WI (United States). School of Architecture and Urban Planning

    2009-07-01

    This paper described hybrid ventilation design strategies and their impact on 3 high performance buildings located in southern Wisconsin. The Hybrid ventilation systems combined occupant controlled natural ventilation with mechanical ventilation systems. Natural ventilation was shown to provide adequate ventilation when appropriately designed. Proper control integration of natural ventilation into hybrid systems was shown to reduce energy consumption in high performance buildings. This paper also described the lessons learned from the 3 buildings. The author served as energy consultant on all three projects and had the responsibility of designing and integrating the natural ventilation systems into the HVAC control strategy. A post occupancy evaluation of building energy performance has provided learning material for architecture students. The 3 buildings included the Schlitz Audubon Nature Center completed in 2003; the Urban Ecology Center completed in 2004; and the Aldo Leopold Legacy Center completed in 2007. This paper included the size, measured energy utilization intensity and percentage of energy supplied by renewable solar power and bio-fuels on site for each building. 6 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs.

  15. Knowledge formalization of intelligent building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žáček, Martin

    2016-06-01

    This article aim is understanding the basic knowledge about an intelligent building. The notion of the intelligent building can be called any building equipped with computer and communication technology, which can automatically respond to internal or external stimuli. The result of the intelligent building is an automated and foreseeing of activities that enable to reduce operating costs and increase comfort. The best way to use the intelligent building is for a low-energy building, a passive building, or for building with high savings. The output of this article is the formalization of basic knowledge of the intelligent building by RDF graph.

  16. Better Buildings NW Ohio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moyer, Kevin [Toledo-Lucas County Port Authority, Toledo, OH (United States)

    2015-03-04

    When the Toledo Lucas County Port Authority (TLCPA) filed for the Department of Energy EECBG grant in late 2009, it was part of a strategic and Board backed objective to expand the organization’s economic development and financing programs into alternative energy and energy efficiency. This plan was filed with the knowledge and support of the areas key economic development agencies. The City of Toledo was also a key partner with the Mayor designating a committee to develop a Strategic Energy Policy for the City. This would later give rise to a Community Sustainability Strategic Plan for Toledo, Lucas County and the surrounding region with energy efficiency as a key pillar. When the TLCPA signed the grant documents with the DOE in June of 2010, the geographic area was severely distressed economically, in the early stages of a recovery from over a 30% drop in business activity and high unemployment. The TLCPA and its partners began identifying potential project areas well before the filing of the application, continuing to work diligently before the formal award and signing of the grant documents. Strong implementation and actions plans and business and financing models were developed and revised throughout the 3 year grant period with the long term goal of creating a sustainable program. The TLCPA and the City of Toledo demonstrated early leadership by forming the energy improvement district and evaluating buildings under their control including transportation infrastructure and logistics, government services buildings and buildings which housed several for profit and not for profit tenants while completing significant energy efficiency projects that created public awareness and confidence and solid examples of various technologies and energy savings. As was stated in the DOE Award Summary, the undertaking was focused as a commercial program delving into Alternative Energy Utility Districts; what are referred to in Ohio Statute as Energy Special Improvement

  17. Building Software with Gradle

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva; Studer, Etienne

    2014-01-01

    In this presentation, we will give an overview of the key concepts and main features of Gradle, the innovative build system that has become the de-facto standard in the enterprise. We will cover task declaration and task graph execution, incremental builds, multi-project builds, dependency management, applying plugins, extracting reusable build logic, bootstrapping a build, and using the Gradle daemon. By the end of this talk, you will have a good understanding of what makes Gradle so powerful yet easy to use. You will also understand why companies like Pivotal, LinkedIn, Google, and other giants with complex builds count on Gradle. About the speakers Etienne is leading the Tooling Team at Gradleware. He has been working as a developer, architect, project manager, and CTO over the past 15 years. He has spent most of his time building software products from the ground up and successfully shipping them to happy customers. He had ...

  18. Building Sustainability Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heli Koukkari

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Although social, economic, and cultural indicators are of substantial importance to the concept of sustainable building, this concept is usually related to environmental characteristics. Any building level assessment method is complex and involves contradictory aspects. Moreover, emphasizing qualitative criteria only increases confusion. R&D and standardization are thus concentrated to transparency and usability of the environmental methods. Other directions of research aim at performance-based design and methods to take regional and cultural aspects into account. In this paper, the perspectives of the sustainability assessment of a whole building are presented, based on a state of the art, feasibility study on performance analysis and the development of an extended life-cycle assessment for buildings. Using various tools, and based on the case studies of building sustainability assessment, environmental indicators were often shown to be of lesser importance than the other, soft ones. The first steps in the development of a building sustainability assessment method for Portuguese residential buildings will be presented and discussed in the end.

  19. Buildings Interoperability Landscape

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardin, Dave [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stephan, Eric G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wang, Weimin [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Corbin, Charles D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Widergren, Steven E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-12-31

    Through its Building Technologies Office (BTO), the United States Department of Energy’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (DOE-EERE) is sponsoring an effort to advance interoperability for the integration of intelligent buildings equipment and automation systems, understanding the importance of integration frameworks and product ecosystems to this cause. This is important to BTO’s mission to enhance energy efficiency and save energy for economic and environmental purposes. For connected buildings ecosystems of products and services from various manufacturers to flourish, the ICT aspects of the equipment need to integrate and operate simply and reliably. Within the concepts of interoperability lie the specification, development, and certification of equipment with standards-based interfaces that connect and work. Beyond this, a healthy community of stakeholders that contribute to and use interoperability work products must be developed. On May 1, 2014, the DOE convened a technical meeting to take stock of the current state of interoperability of connected equipment and systems in buildings. Several insights from that meeting helped facilitate a draft description of the landscape of interoperability for connected buildings, which focuses mainly on small and medium commercial buildings. This document revises the February 2015 landscape document to address reviewer comments, incorporate important insights from the Buildings Interoperability Vision technical meeting, and capture thoughts from that meeting about the topics to be addressed in a buildings interoperability vision. In particular, greater attention is paid to the state of information modeling in buildings and the great potential for near-term benefits in this area from progress and community alignment.

  20. Building Social Web Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Bell, Gavin

    2009-01-01

    Building a web application that attracts and retains regular visitors is tricky enough, but creating a social application that encourages visitors to interact with one another requires careful planning. This book provides practical solutions to the tough questions you'll face when building an effective community site -- one that makes visitors feel like they've found a new home on the Web. If your company is ready to take part in the social web, this book will help you get started. Whether you're creating a new site from scratch or reworking an existing site, Building Social Web Applications