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Sample records for buildings control automatizado

  1. Sistema automatizado para el control de las inversiones en las redes eléctricas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maylín Díaz Pardillo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo investigativo abarca las etapas de la automatización del proceso de control en la ejecución de las inversiones que se realizan en las redes del Sistema Electroenergético Nacional, integrado al Sistema Integral de Gestión de Redes de la Unión Eléctrica. Para el desarrollo de la aplicación se llevaron a cabo las etapas del proceso de desarrollo de software, según lo especifica el Proceso Unificado de Desarrollo (RUP, utilizándose como herramienta de modelado para el análisis y diseño: el Enterprise Architect. El software se implementó en Embarcadero RAD Studio 2010 el cual incluye facilidades de desarrollo para aplicaciones Desktop con un diseño de interfaz adecuado a los requerimientos del cliente, se utilizó Object Pascal como lenguaje de programación lo que permitió un código eficiente y para la persistencia de la información se utilizó como Sistema Gestor de Base de Datos: Microsoft SQL Server 2008 R2.

  2. Automated control of electronic equipment in intelligent buildings; Control automatizado de equipo electrico en edificios inteligentes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez Vera, Jorge [Electrica Integral, S. A. de C. V., Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1993-12-31

    This paper pretends to call the attention of the audience and of the readers of it on the great importance that on a national level the programs on primary energy as well as on secondary energy saving and conservation have. Even more if we take into account that in our country by constitutional decree, the public service of electric power is reserved to the nation through the Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) which is a decentralized organization of the federal Mexican government, therefore subjected to, among many others, the Budgeting Law, Accountancy Law and Public Expenditure Law. We who know CFE, know the great difficulty, always raising, of getting resources for infrastructure works, among which we can cite: power plants, substations, transmission lines and distribution lines. Because of this, the energy saving and conservation programs represent for the electric sector the possibility or deferring the required investments to guarantee the energy offer. On the other hand, the users of the electric public service the implementation into its operational policies energy saving and conservation programs, undoubtedly will result into economical benefits and will improve the ratio kWh/Unit of the terminated product. Finally, in a country like ours, where 66% of generated electric power by the national electric sector comes from fossil fuel power plants, the generalized implementation of saving programs will diminish the need of generating kWh, and consequently, the emission of harmful pollutants to the environment such as nitrogen and sulfur oxides, carbon dioxide and suspended particles. [Espanol] En este trabajo se pretende llamar la atencion de la audiencia y de los lectores del mismo, de la gran importancia que a nivel nacional tienen los programas de ahorro y conservacion de energeticos, tanto primarios como secundarios. Maxime si tomamos en cuenta que en nuestro pais, por disposicion constitucional, la prestacion del servicio publico de energia electrica esta reservada a la nacion a traves de Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE). La cual es un organismo descentralizado del Gobierno Federal y por ende, sujeta entre muchas otras a la Ley de Presupuesto, Contabilidad y Gasto Publico. Quienes conocemos CFE sabemos de la gran dificultad, siempre creciente, de allegarse recursos para financiar sus obras de infraestructura, entre las que podemos citar: centrales electricas, subestaciones, lineas de transmision y redes de distribucion. Por lo anterior, los programas de ahorro y conservacion de la energia representan para el sector electrico nacional la posibilidad de diferir las inversiones requeridas para garantizar la oferta de energia. Por otra parte, a los usuarios del servicio publico de energia, el instituir dentro de sus politicas operativas programas de ahorro y conservacion de la energia, indudablemente les redundara en beneficios economicos y se mejorara el indice de kWh/Unidad de producto terminado. Finalmente, en un pais como el nuestro en donde el 66% de la energia generada por el sector electrico nacional proviene de centrales termoelectricas que usan para su operacion combustibles fosiles, la implementacion generalizada de programas de ahorro de energia disminuira la necesidad de generar kWh, y en consecuencia, la emision de contaminantes agresivos al medio ambiente tales como oxidos de nitrogeno y de azufre, bioxido de carbono y particulas suspendidas.

  3. Sistema de gestión de citas y colas para dispositivos móviles : diseño para la gestión y control automatizado de tiempos de espera

    OpenAIRE

    Encinas Martín, Adolfo

    2012-01-01

    El objetivo de este proyecto es desarrollar un sistema capaz de proporcionar una solución completa e integral para el control de colas de citas en servicios que requieren de una reserva previa como pueden ser la seguridad social, un punto de información o la declaración de la renta, donde es frecuente que sus usuarios soporten largas esperas sin necesidad alguna. Así pues, este proyecto propone un sistema automatizado de avisos a dispositivos móviles de usuarios con cita reservada, mediante u...

  4. Controlling the intelligent building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LeBlanc, R.J.

    1985-08-01

    Companies will be able to locate in intelligent buildings that offer access to a variety of sophisticated communications equipment, at the heart of which are building controls that ensure a comfortable and safe working environment for the occupants. Future buildings will include advanced telephones or workstations with built-in building control sensors for temperature, light level, and security. Advanced telecommunication systems may have telephone cabinets with built-in control functions which eliminate the need for discrete control systems. The owners and tenants will both enjoy benefits if the controls are carefully selected and designed so that they integrate into a single building package.

  5. Comfort control in buildings

    CERN Document Server

    Castilla, Maria del Mar; Rodriguez, Francisco de Asis

    2014-01-01

    This book describes both concepts and development of advanced comfort control systems in buildings, with significant energy saving, and attention to thermal, visual and indoor air quality. The concepts are proven through real tests in a bioclimatic building.

  6. Sistema automatizado de aquecimento solar para controle de fitopatógenos da água de irrigação Automatic solar heating system for control of pathogens in irrigation water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. da S. Braga

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available O sistema automatizado de aquecimento solar, baseou-se em um processo misto de aquecimento da água em circuito fechado, através de coletores planos e dois princípios integrados de transmissão de calor, um por convecção natural e o outro por convecção forçada. A automatização foi realizada por monitores termostáticos diferenciais. Os testes normativos abrangeram as temperaturas programadas de 50, 55 e 60 ºC, que contemplam a faixa de temperatura letal para a maioria dos fitopatógenos. Os resultados indicaram rendimentos térmicos da ordem de 63, 55 e 52%, superiores, quando comparados aos rendimentos médios de 50, 47 e 45% dos sistemas convencionais. Os resultados experimentais mostraram que o sistema é eficiente para a eliminação de patógenos da água de irrigação, sendo promissor como uma opção de baixo custo para ser usado em viveiros, casas-de-vegetação e pequenas ou médias propriedades agrícolas.In the system proposed, which uses flat collectors, both natural and forced convection are responsible for the transfer of heat to the circulating water. The automation of the system is performed by thermostats, placed in different places, electrically connected to other components like valves and a water pump. Under identical test conditions and in the range of temperatures considered (50, 55 and 60 ºC, which includes the reference lethal temperature range for pathogens, the thermal efficiencies attained were 63, 55 and 52%, which compare favorably with those obtained in conventional systems, these being 50, 47 and 42% respectively, as reported. The results of the experimental trials show that the system described is a viable option to eliminate pathogens present in irrigation water, while its low cost makes it attractive for use in nurseries, greenhouses and on small farms.

  7. Sistema automatizado de medición de campo lejano

    OpenAIRE

    Morras, Cecilia Andrea; Bertone, Rodolfo Alfredo; De Vito, María Cecilia; Sanz, Juan Aurelio; Bria, Oscar N.

    2004-01-01

    El trabajo presenta y describe una propuesta para la definición de un sistema automatizado que permita generar mediciones de un campo lejano. Se entiende por campo lejano a la región del campo de una antena en la cual la distribución angular del campo es sensiblemente independiente de la distancia de la antena [12]. El problema en cuestión consiste en medir las polarizaciones de una antena en una banda de frecuencia. Dicha medición era realizada en forma manual, pudiéndose obtener un Diagr...

  8. Sistema Automatizado de Lectura Visual de Datos de Medida

    OpenAIRE

    ESTEBAN AVIVAR, ÁNGEL EUGENIO

    2013-01-01

    Adquisición de imágenes de un instrumento de medida con una webcam. Procesado y segmentación de esas imágenes para realizar una clasificación y obtener el dato medido. Image acquisition of a measuring instrument with a webcam. Processing and segmentation of these images for classifying and obtaining the measured data. Esteban Avivar, ÁE. (2013). Sistema Automatizado de Lectura Visual de Datos de Medida. http://hdl.handle.net/10251/33592. Archivo delegado

  9. Automatic process control for pipeline: an ally in the quest for excellence in quality; Controle automatizado do processo de revestimento de dutos: um aliado na busca da excelencia em qualidade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Christian E.; Santos, Paulo T.; Nunes, Matheus; Sartori, Marcio [Soco Ril do Brasil S.A., Pindamonhangaba, SP (Brazil); Populin, German [Soco-Ril da Argentina S.A. (Argentina); Ferreira, Joaquim C. [Tenaris Confab, Pindamonhangaba, SP (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    Process is any specific combination of machines, methods, tools and people which aim to obtain products or services with high quality. Any changing in one of these elements may result in another process. The concern in assuring its control totally owe to the necessity of having quickly answers related to the standards deviation. Herewith, it is possible to get as much uniformity as possible from that quality characteristic. Through a thickness automatic controlled system it may be possible to evaluate in real time the process itself, identifying tendencies of sequential or temporal performance. Therefore it is possible to act instantaneously adjusting the process, complying with client's specification. The present paper describes the applicability of a automatic controlled system and shows the advantages of its using. (author)

  10. Automated system of control of radioactive liquid effluents of patients submitted to therapy in hospitals of nuclear medicine (SACEL); Sistema automatizado de control de efluentes liquidos radiactivos de pacientes sometidos a terapia en hospitales de medicina nuclear (SACEL)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz C, M.A.; Rivero G, T.; Celis del Angel, L.; Sainz M, E.; Molina, G. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail: marc@nuclear.inin.mx

    2006-07-01

    Different hospitals of nuclear medicine require of the technical attendance for the design, construction and instrumentation of an effluents retention system coming from the room dedicated to the medical application of iodine 131, with the one object of giving execution to the normative requirements of radiological protection, settled down in the General Regulation of Radiological Safety (RGSR) emitted by the CNSNS in November, 1988 and in the corresponding official standards. An automatic system of flow measurement, the activity concentration of the effluents to the drainage, the discharges control and the automated report it will allow the execution of the national regulations, also the elimination of unhealthy activities as the taking of samples, analysis of those same and the corresponding paperwork, its will allow that the SACEL is capable of to carry out registrations that are to consult in an automated way. The changes in the demands of the National Commission of Nuclear Safety and Safeguards in relation to the liberation of radioactive material in hospitals by medical treatments, it has created the necessity to develop a system that quantifies and dose the liquid effluents of people under thyroid treatment with iodine-131 to the drainage. The Automated System of Control of radioactive liquids effluents generated in Hospitals of Nuclear Medicine (SACEL) developed in the National Institute of Nuclear Research, it fulfills this regulation, besides improving the work conditions for the medical and technical personnel of the hospital in that are installed, since this system has the advantage of to be totally automated and to require of a minimum of attendance. The SACEL is an electro-hydraulic system of effluents control, based in the alternate operation of two decay deposits of the activity of the material contaminated with iodine-131. The system allows to take a registration of those volumes and liberated dose, besides being able to be monitoring in remote

  11. Automatic system for blood donors control with seropositive results in epidemiological tests. Sistema automatizado para el control de donantes de sangre con resultados positivos a exámenes seroepidemiológicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Piloto

    Full Text Available Background: Prevention of infectious diseases transmission through blood transfusion is one of the biggest challenges in the transfusion field of medicine. Objective: to design a computerized system for blood donors control with seropositive results in epidemiological tests. Methods: A system designed by the Provincial Blood Bank using Microsoft Access as a data base system and DELFHI 7 as associated language. It runs under Windows 2000 or any other superior system with 64 RAM and do not need special requirements of software or hardware. It includes the following data: Full name, age, sex, race, Id number, home address, number of the clinical record in the blood bank, date when the trial took place in each patient, kind of disease diagnosed, technical data of the trial such as: fluorescence, sectional level of the 1st trial as well as the repetition, name of the technician who performed it. Results: It permits to consult general data of donors as well as the disease diagnosed. It also permits to elaborate reports of these patients from any PC of the blood bank acceding with the security password of the program. Conclusions: It constitutes a beneficial tool which permits to improve the notification system established in the program of the web about sexually transmitted diseases from the Minister of Public Health in Cuba.

    Fundamento: La prevención de la transmisión de enfermedades infecciosas mediante la transfusión de sangre presenta uno de los desafíos más grandes para la medicina transfusional. Objetivo: Diseñar un sistema computarizado para el control de los donantes de sangre con resultados positivos a exámenes seroepidemiológicos. Métodos: Sistema diseñado en el banco Provincial de Sangre de Cienfuegos, con Microsoft Access como gestor de bases de datos y DELFHI 7 como lenguaje asociado; corre

  12. Adaptive fuzzy logic control for solar buildings

    OpenAIRE

    El-Deen, M. M. G. Naser

    2002-01-01

    Significant progress has been made on maximising passive solar heating loads through the careful selection of glazing, orientation and internal mass within building spaces. Control of space heating in buildings of this type has become a complex problem. Additionally, and in common with most building control applications, there is a need to develop control solutions that permit simple and transparent set up and commissioning procedures. This work concerns the development and testing of an adap...

  13. Control of Smart Building Using Advanced SCADA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Vivin Thomas

    For complete control of the building, a proper SCADA implementation and the optimization strategy has to be build. For better communication and efficiency a proper channel between the Communication protocol and SCADA has to be designed. This paper concentrate mainly between the communication protocol, and the SCADA implementation, for a better optimization and energy savings is derived to large scale industrial buildings. The communication channel used in order to completely control the building remotely from a distant place. For an efficient result we consider the temperature values and the power ratings of the equipment so that while controlling the equipment, we are setting a threshold values for FDD technique implementation. Building management system became a vital source for any building to maintain it and for safety purpose. Smart buildings, refers to various distinct features, where the complete automation system, office building controls, data center controls. ELC's are used to communicate the load values of the building to the remote server from a far location with the help of an Ethernet communication channel. Based on the demand fluctuation and the peak voltage, the loads operate differently increasing the consumption rate thus results in the increase in the annual consumption bill. In modern days, saving energy and reducing the consumption bill is most essential for any building for a better and long operation. The equipment - monitored regularly and optimization strategy is implemented for cost reduction automation system. Thus results in the reduction of annual cost reduction and load lifetime increase.

  14. Building low-cost music controllers

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents our work on building low-cost music controllers intended for educational and creative use. The main idea was to build an electronic music controller, including sensors and a sensor interface, on a "10 euro" budget. We have experimented with turning commercially available USB game controllers into generic sensor interfaces, and making sensors from cheap conductive materials such as latex, ink, porous materials, and video tape. Our prototype controller, the CheapStick, is co...

  15. Reimagining Building Sensing and Control (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polese, L.

    2014-06-01

    Buildings are responsible for 40% of US energy consumption, and sensing and control technologies are an important element in creating a truly sustainable built environment. Motion-based occupancy sensors are often part of these control systems, but are usually altered or disabled in response to occupants' complaints, at the expense of energy savings. Can we leverage commodity hardware developed for other sectors and embedded software to produce more capable sensors for robust building controls? The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) 'Image Processing Occupancy Sensor (IPOS)' is one example of leveraging embedded systems to create smarter, more reliable, multi-function sensors that open the door to new control strategies for building heating, cooling, ventilation, and lighting control. In this keynote, we will discuss how cost-effective embedded systems are changing the state-of-the-art of building sensing and control.

  16. Local flow control for active building facades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaligotla, Srikar; Chen, Wayne; Glauser, Mark

    2010-11-01

    Existing building facade designs are for a passive and an impermeable shell to prevent migration of outdoor air into the building and to control heat transfers between the exterior environment and the building interior. An active facade that can respond in real time to changing environmental conditions like wind speed and direction, pollutant load, temperature, humidity and light can lower energy use and maximize occupant comfort. With an increased awareness of cost and environmental effects of energy use, cross or natural ventilation has become an attractive method to lower energy use. Separated flow regions around such buildings are undesirable due to high concentration of pollutants, especially if the vents or dynamic windows for cross ventilation are situated in these regions. Outside pollutant load redistribution through vents can be regulated via flow separation control to minimize transport of pollutants into the building. Flow separation has been substantially reduced with the application of intelligent flow control tools developed at Syracuse University for flow around "silo" (turret) like structures. Similar flow control models can be introduced into buildings with cross ventilation for local external flow separation control. Initial experiments will be performed for turbulent flow over a rectangular block (scaled to be a mid-rise building) that has been configured with dynamic vents and unsteady suction actuators in a wind tunnel at various wind speeds.

  17. Building Blocks for Control System Software

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broenink, J.F.; Hilderink, G.H.; Amerongen van, J.; Jonker, B.; Regtien, P.P.L.

    2001-01-01

    Software implementation of control laws for industrial systems seem straightforward, but is not. The computer code stemming from the control laws is mostly not more than 10 to 30% of the total. A building-block approach for embedded control system development is advocated to enable a fast and effici

  18. FEEDBACK CONTROL OPTIMIZATION FOR SEISMICALLY EXCITED BUILDINGS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xueping Li; Zuguang Ying

    2007-01-01

    A feedback control optimization method of partially observable linear structures via stationary response is proposed and analyzed with linear building structures equipped with control devices and sensors. First, the partially observable control problem of the structure under horizontal ground acceleration excitation is converted into a completely observable control problem. Then the It(o) stochastic differential equations of the system are derived based on the stochastic averaging method for quasi-integrable Hamiltonian systems and the stationary solution to the Fokker-Plank-Kolmogorov (FPK) equation associated with the It(o) equations is obtained.The performance index in terms of the mean system energy and mean square control force is established and the optimal control force is obtained by minimizing the performance index. Finally, the numerical results for a three-story building structure model under El Centro, Hachinohe,Northridge and Kobe earthquake excitations are given to illustrate the application and the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  19. Building blocks for embedded control systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broenink, Jan F.; Hilderink, Gerald H.; Bakkers, André W.P.; Veen, Jean Pierre

    2000-01-01

    Developing embedded control systems using a building-block approach at all the parts enables an efficient and fast design process. Main reasons are the real plug-and-play capabilities of the blocks. Furthermore, due the simulatability of the designs, parts of the system can already be tested before

  20. Active vibration control of nonlinear benchmark buildings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Xing-de; CHEN Dao-zheng

    2007-01-01

    The present nonlinear model reduction methods unfit the nonlinear benchmark buildings as their vibration equations belong to a non-affine system. Meanwhile,the controllers designed directly by the nonlinear control strategy have a high order, and they are difficult to be applied actually. Therefore, a new active vibration control way which fits the nonlinear buildings is proposed. The idea of the proposed way is based on the model identification and structural model linearization, and exerting the control force to the built model according to the force action principle. This proposed way has a better practicability as the built model can be reduced by the balance reduction method based on the empirical Grammian matrix. A three-story benchmark structure is presented and the simulation results illustrate that the proposed method is viable for the civil engineering structures.

  1. APLICACIÓN DE UN SISTEMA AUTOMATIZADO PARA LANZADORES DE PENALTY EN FÚTBOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Martínez

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available

     

    RESUMEN

    A pesar de reconocerse como la base del rendimiento de la mayoría de habilidades deportivas, pocos entrenadores reconocen que el funcionamiento de la visión es una habilidad aprendida susceptible de mejora. El objetivo principal de este estudio pretende medir la eficacia en goles y táctica individual de lanzadores expertos de penalty en fútbol utilizando un novedoso sistema automatizado de emisión de estímulos visuales aplicado en la situación habitual de campo. Lanzadores de penalty (n = 9 realizaron una prueba pre-tratamiento de 24 intentos en situación real frente a porteros (n = 3. Posteriormente, completaron un entrenamiento de 10 sesiones utilizando el sistema automatizado sin porteros y, finalmente, repitieron de nuevo la misma prueba inicial consiguiendo entonces significativamente más goles en la medida post-tratamiento. Además, se encontraron diferencias tácticas en base a la dirección de los lanzamientos respecto a la actuación del portero. Los resultados sugieren que el lanzamiento de penalty en fútbol puede plantearse como una habilidad motriz abierta, en función de la actuación del portero, reduciendo el tiempo de procesamiento de la información y de la toma de decisiones.
    PALABRAS CLAVE: Entrenamiento visual, lanzador, penalty, fútbol, expertos, toma de decisiones, control motor.

    ABSTRACT

    Despite recognising like the performance’s base of the majority of sports abilities, few trainers recognise that visual function is a learned ability that can be improved. The main aim of this study tries to measure efficacy in goals and individual tactic of high-skill penalty-kickers in soccer using a new automatic system of emission visual stimulus applied in the

  2. Night ventilation control strategies in office buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhaojun; Yi, Lingli; Gao, Fusheng [School of Municipal and Environmental Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090 (China)

    2009-10-15

    In moderate climates night ventilation is an effective and energy-efficient approach to improve the indoor thermal environment for office buildings during the summer months, especially for heavyweight construction. However, is night ventilation a suitable strategy for office buildings with lightweight construction located in cold climates? In order to answer this question, the whole energy-consumption analysis software EnergyPlus was used to simulate the indoor thermal environment and energy consumption in typical office buildings with night mechanical ventilation in three cities in northern China. The summer outdoor climate data was analyzed, and three typical design days were chosen. The most important factors influencing night ventilation performance such as ventilation rates, ventilation duration, building mass and climatic conditions were evaluated. When night ventilation operation time is closer to active cooling time, the efficiency of night ventilation is higher. With night ventilation rate of 10 ach, the mean radiant temperature of the indoor surface decreased by up to 3.9 C. The longer the duration of operation, the more efficient the night ventilation strategy becomes. The control strategies for three locations are given in the paper. Based on the optimized strategies, the operation consumption and fees are calculated. The results show that more energy is saved in office buildings cooled by a night ventilation system in northern China than ones that do not employ this strategy. (author)

  3. La medida de la eficiencia económica de las inversiones en sistemas automatizados de gestión productiva, SAGP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Parra Restrepo

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta una idea general de los sistemas automatizados de gestión productiva cuya aplicación industrial ha sido una tendencia irreversible en los últimos años. También propone una metodología para la medición de la eficiencia económica aplicable a las inversiones hechas en automatización y sistematización de procesos industriales y administrativos. De manera simple se entiende por eficiencia económica el cálculo de la relación existente entre los costos de producción de cada unidad producida y los beneficios económicos obtenidos. Los sistemas automatizados de gestión productiva SAGP, son estructuras mixtas complejas integradas por el hombre y dispositivos técnicos compuestos por máquinas calculadoras de alta velocidad, conexos con dispositivos de dirección de medios electrónicos y mecánicos adaptados a la planificación, ejecución, medición y control de procesos de producción que se localizan generalmente en las fases de generación de energía, transmisión, manufactura y ensamble de productos.

  4. Shape Control of Responsive Building Envelopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Worre Foged, Isak; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Christensen, Jesper Thøger;

    2010-01-01

    of the paper are to develop a new adaptive kinetic architectural structure, particularly a reconfigurable architectural structure which can transform body shape from planar geometries to hyper-surfaces using different control strategies, i.e. a transformation into more than one or two different shape...... alternatives. The adaptive structure is a proposal for a responsive building envelope which is an idea of a first level operational framework for present and future investigations towards performance based responsive architectures through a set of responsive typologies. A mock-up concept of a secondary...

  5. Active control of transmitted sound in buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompsett, Russell Harvey George

    The problem of noise from neighbours has increased dramatically over the last few years. Many of the noise complaints are due to the high level, low frequency noise from modern stereo equipment, and are often described in terms of the low frequency characteristics of the music; the repetitive, booming, bass beat. The objective of this research was to establish the feasibility of applying active noise control to alleviate this problem. The initial approach was to evaluate the possibility of exploiting the dominance of individual modes in the response of rooms at low frequency to effect global control. However, initial investigations using a modal model of the sound field revealed that this would be difficult due to the contribution of many acoustic modes excited off resonance. This conclusion was supported by measurements of acoustic room responses in typical buildings, illustrating a non-resonant characteristic. Consequently, attention was turned to the feasibility of using local active control systems to create zones of quiet by concentrating control at a specific location near the observers ears, for example in a seat headrest, or near the pillows of a bed. The lack of a reference signal in either approach requires the use of a feedback control strategy. With a typically non-resonant system, the predictability in the disturbance necessary for successful feedback control must be contained in the primary excitation, namely the music. Examples of different music styles were investigated and of those with the potential to be a nuisance surprisingly few were significantly more predictable than a random disturbance. As expected the most encouraging control performance simulations were found for modern dance music, with a strong repetitive beat. A real-time, local controller was demonstrated in the laboratory with such a disturbance signal and the properties of the quiet zone were measured. The subjective response when hearing the controller in operation was found to be

  6. Building a control sample for galaxy pairs

    CERN Document Server

    Perez, Josefa; Blaizot, Jeremy

    2009-01-01

    Several observational works have attempted to isolate the effects of galaxy interactions by comparing galaxies in pairs with isolated galaxies. However, different authors have proposed different ways to build these so-called control samples (CS). By using mock galaxy catalogues of the SDSS-DR4 built up from the Millennium Simulation, we explore how the way of building a CS might introduce biases which could affect the interpretation of results. We make use of the fact that the physics of interactions is not included in the semianalytic model, to infer that any difference between the mock control and pair samples can be ascribed to selection biases. Thus, we find that galaxies in pairs artificially tend to be older and more bulge-dominated, and to have less cold gas and different metallicities than their isolated counterparts. Also because of a biased selection, galaxies in pairs tend to live in higher density environments, and in haloes of larger masses. We find that imposing constraints on redshift, stellar ...

  7. Smart building temperature control using occupant feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Santosh K.

    This work was motivated by the problem of computing optimal commonly-agreeable thermal settings in spaces with multiple occupants. In this work we propose algorithms that take into account each occupant's preferences along with the thermal correlations between different zones in a building, to arrive at optimal thermal settings for all zones of the building in a coordinated manner. In the first part of this work we incorporate active occupant feedback to minimize aggregate user discomfort and total energy cost. User feedback is used to estimate the users comfort range, taking into account possible inaccuracies in the feedback. The control algorithm takes the energy cost into account, trading it off optimally with the aggregate user discomfort. A lumped heat transfer model based on thermal resistance and capacitance is used to model a multi-zone building. We provide a stability analysis and establish convergence of the proposed solution to a desired temperature that minimizes the sum of energy cost and aggregate user discomfort. However, for convergence to the optimal, sufficient separation between the user feedback frequency and the dynamics of the system is necessary; otherwise, the user feedback provided do not correctly reflect the effect of current control input value on user discomfort. The algorithm is further extended using singular perturbation theory to determine the minimum time between successive user feedback solicitations. Under sufficient time scale separation, we establish convergence of the proposed solution. Simulation study and experimental runs on the Watervliet based test facility demonstrates performance of the algorithm. In the second part we develop a consensus algorithm for attaining a common temperature set-point that is agreeable to all occupants of a zone in a typical multi-occupant space. The information on the comfort range functions is indeed held privately by each occupant. Using occupant differentiated dynamically adjusted prices as

  8. Smoke control in buildings: An overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Twilt, L.; Oerle, N.J. van; Leur, P.H.E. van de

    1996-01-01

    Smoke poses a major hazard to people in a building involved in fire, being directly responsible for the majority of all deaths in building fires. Whereas the fire itself generally spreads through the building at a relatively slow rate, smoke takes only minutes to fill the building, if no actions are

  9. Sistema automatizado de tratamiento de datos hidroquímicos para el chequeo de la calidad de las aguas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reguera, E.

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work is to ilustrate the use of the SAMA automatic system (Water Monitoring Automatic System to aid the water chemical composition control. This system is based in the determination of mathematical relationships between ionic concentration and electric conductivity. The system was developped in Turbo Pascal for IBM compatible microcomputer. The example of application that is presented in this paper correspond with waters from coastal karstic aquifer affected by marine intrusion. This waters are used for citric irrigation.El objetivo de este trabajo es ilustrar el uso del sistema de programas «SAMA» (Sistema Automatizado para el Monitoreo de las Aguas para la ayuda en el control de la composición química de la aguas. El mismo se basa en la determinación de ecuaciones de dependencia matemática entre la concentración iónica y la conductividad eléctrica. Ha sido implementado en lenguaje Turbo Pascal para microcomputadoras IBM compatibles. El ejemplo de aplicación que se presenta corresponde a aguas de un acuífera kárstico litoral afectado por la intrusión marina las cuales se usan en el regadío de cítricos.

  10. Building and HVAC optimal control simulation. Application to an office building.

    OpenAIRE

    Kummert, Michaël; Andre, Philippe; Nicolas, Jacques

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the methodology to apply discrete-time optimal control to a building and its HVAC installation. Simulation-based results concerning a passive solar commercial building are presented and discussed. The simulation environment includes the TRNSYS TYPE 56 as reference building model and HVAC detailed models to test the controller with realistic control signals. The optimal controller's sensitivity to meteorological forecasting quality and to other factors is analy...

  11. Advanced human-machine interface for collaborative building control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xianjun S.; Song, Zhen; Chen, Yanzi; Zhang, Shaopeng; Lu, Yan

    2015-08-11

    A system for collaborative energy management and control in a building, including an energy management controller, one or more occupant HMIs that supports two-way communication between building occupants and a facility manager, and between building occupants and the energy management controller, and a facility manager HMI that supports two-way communication between the facility manager and the building occupants, and between the facility manager and the energy management controller, in which the occupant HMI allows building occupants to provide temperature preferences to the facility manager and the energy management controller, and the facility manager HMI allows the facility manager to configure an energy policy for the building as a set of rules and to view occupants' aggregated temperature preferences, and the energy management controller determines an optimum temperature range that resolves conflicting occupant temperature preferences and occupant temperature preferences that conflict with the facility manager's energy policy for the building.

  12. Method for simulating predictive control of building systems operation in the early stages of building design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Steffen; Svendsen, Svend

    2011-01-01

    A method for simulating predictive control of building systems operation in the early stages of building design is presented. The method uses building simulation based on weather forecasts to predict whether there is a future heating or cooling requirement. This information enables the thermal...... control systems of the building to respond proactively to keep the operational temperature within the thermal comfort range with the minimum use of energy. The method is implemented in an existing building simulation tool designed to inform decisions in the early stages of building design through...... parametric analysis. This enables building designers to predict the performance of the method and include it as a part of the solution space. The method furthermore facilitates the task of configuring appropriate building systems control schemes in the tool, and it eliminates time consuming manual...

  13. Large tenant : Controlling building operating costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowles, P.

    2001-07-01

    This Power Point presentation deals with the topic of controlling building operating costs and the benefits that can be derived from such an approach. Energy Advantage provides to commercial, institutional and industrial end-users, an independent total energy management outsource. Environmentally acceptable energy is influenced by factors such as commodity prices, deregulation, technology and the environment. The author then displayed a diagram about short term gas price volatility during the winter of 2001, which was followed by a diagram showing the daily and hourly prices in Alberta in 2001. A map displayed the electricity deregulation status in the United States. The author discussed changes in energy technology and how they are affected by the Internet and wireless communications, smart metering and smart devices, new and improved heating, ventilation and air conditioning equipment, cogeneration, fuel cells, and renewable energy. Climate change and global warming also play a role. The reasons for effecting change in the energy sector are many: the owners get a better return on their investment, the property managers gain higher revenues and lower costs, the employees enjoy job security and job satisfaction, the tenants have lower costs, and the local community benefits from lower infrastructure costs. Finally we conserve energy for our children. A total energy management approach is required to attain these objectives. BP Amoco promises a reduction of greenhouse gas emissions to 10 per cent below 1990 levels. figs.

  14. Co-Simulation of Building Energy and Control Systems with the Building Controls Virtual Test Bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetter, Michael

    2010-08-22

    This article describes the implementation of the Building Controls Virtual Test Bed (BCVTB). The BCVTB is a software environment that allows connecting different simulation programs to exchange data during the time integration, and that allows conducting hardware in the loop simulation. The software architecture is a modular design based on Ptolemy II, a software environment for design and analysis of heterogeneous systems. Ptolemy II provides a graphical model building environment, synchronizes the exchanged data and visualizes the system evolution during run-time. The BCVTB provides additions to Ptolemy II that allow the run-time coupling of different simulation programs for data exchange, including EnergyPlus, MATLAB, Simulink and the Modelica modelling and simulation environment Dymola. The additions also allow executing system commands, such as a script that executes a Radiance simulation. In this article, the software architecture is presented and the mathematical model used to implement the co-simulation is discussed. The simulation program interface that the BCVTB provides is explained. The article concludes by presenting applications in which different state of the art simulation programs are linked for run-time data exchange. This link allows the use of the simulation program that is best suited for the particular problem to model building heat transfer, HVAC system dynamics and control algorithms, and to compute a solution to the coupled problem using co-simulation.

  15. Optically controlled three-dimensional assembly of microfabricated building blocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodrigo, Peter John; Kelemen, Lorand; Palima, Darwin;

    2009-01-01

    . This demonstrates utilization of controllable 3D optical traps for building hierarchical structures from microfabricated building blocks. Optical microassembly with translational and tip-tilt control in 3D achieved by dynamic multiple CB traps can potentially facilitate the construction of functional microdevices...... and may also lead to the future realization of optically actuated micromachines. Fabricating morphologically complex microstructures and then optically manipulating these archetypal building blocks can also be used to construct reconfigurable microenvironments that can aid in understanding cellular...... development processes....

  16. Power Admission Control with Predictive Thermal Management in Smart Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yao, Jianguo; Costanzo, Giuseppe Tommaso; Zhu, Guchuan;

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a control scheme for thermal management in smart buildings based on predictive power admission control. This approach combines model predictive control with budget-schedulability analysis in order to reduce peak power consumption as well as ensure thermal comfort. First...... appliances. The performance of the proposed control scheme is assessed by simulation based on the thermal dynamics of a real eight-room office building located at Danish Technical University....

  17. Model Predictive Control for the Operation of Building Cooling Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Yudong; Borrelli, Francesco; Hencey, Brandon; Coffey, Brian; Bengea, Sorin; Haves, Philip

    2010-06-29

    A model-based predictive control (MPC) is designed for optimal thermal energy storage in building cooling systems. We focus on buildings equipped with a water tank used for actively storing cold water produced by a series of chillers. Typically the chillers are operated at night to recharge the storage tank in order to meet the building demands on the following day. In this paper, we build on our previous work, improve the building load model, and present experimental results. The experiments show that MPC can achieve reduction in the central plant electricity cost and improvement of its efficiency.

  18. Transaction-Based Building Controls Framework, Volume 1: Reference Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somasundaram, Sriram; Pratt, Robert G.; Akyol, Bora A.; Fernandez, Nicholas; Foster, Nikolas AF; Katipamula, Srinivas; Mayhorn, Ebony T.; Somani, Abhishek; Steckley, Andrew C.; Taylor, Zachary T.

    2014-04-28

    This document proposes a framework concept to achieve the objectives of raising buildings’ efficiency and energy savings potential benefitting building owners and operators. We call it a transaction-based framework, wherein mutually-beneficial and cost-effective market-based transactions can be enabled between multiple players across different domains. Transaction-based building controls are one part of the transactional energy framework. While these controls realize benefits by enabling automatic, market-based intra-building efficiency optimizations, the transactional energy framework provides similar benefits using the same market -based structure, yet on a larger scale and beyond just buildings, to the society at large.

  19. Transaction-Based Building Controls Framework, Volume 1: Reference Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somasundaram, Sriram [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Pratt, Robert G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Akyol, Bora A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fernandez, Nicholas [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Foster, Nikolas AF [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Katipamula, Srinivas [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Mayhorn, Ebony T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Somani, Abhishek [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Steckley, Andrew C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-12-01

    This document proposes a framework concept to achieve the objectives of raising buildings’ efficiency and energy savings potential benefitting building owners and operators. We call it a transaction-based framework, wherein mutually-beneficial and cost-effective market-based transactions can be enabled between multiple players across different domains. Transaction-based building controls are one part of the transactional energy framework. While these controls realize benefits by enabling automatic, market-based intra-building efficiency optimizations, the transactional energy framework provides similar benefits using the same market -based structure, yet on a larger scale and beyond just buildings, to the society at large.

  20. Intelligent Controls for Net-Zero Energy Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Haorong; Cho, Yong; Peng, Dongming

    2011-10-30

    The goal of this project is to develop and demonstrate enabling technologies that can empower homeowners to convert their homes into net-zero energy buildings in a cost-effective manner. The project objectives and expected outcomes are as follows: • To develop rapid and scalable building information collection and modeling technologies that can obtain and process “as-built” building information in an automated or semiautomated manner. • To identify low-cost measurements and develop low-cost virtual sensors that can monitor building operations in a plug-n-play and low-cost manner. • To integrate and demonstrate low-cost building information modeling (BIM) technologies. • To develop decision support tools which can empower building owners to perform energy auditing and retrofit analysis. • To develop and demonstrate low-cost automated diagnostics and optimal control technologies which can improve building energy efficiency in a continual manner.

  1. Estacionamiento Automatizado con Tecnología RFID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric León Olivares

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta un proyecto que resuelve el problema del acceso al estacionamiento vehicular del Instituto Tecnológico de Pachuca ya que se realiza de manera manual, presentando un descontrol y bajo nivel de seguridad en el mismo, su automatización brinda las herramientas necesarias, por medio de la tecnología RFID, para mejorar el nivel de seguridad en la entrada/ salida de los automóviles, aumentar el control de los usuarios al tener su información almacenada en una base de datos y con ello poder elaborar reportes, estadísticas y otros materiales que se requieran para ser estudiados.

  2. Sistema automatizado para la organización racional del proceso cosecha-transporte de cereales (SAORCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanoy Morejón Mesa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available La presente investigacióntrata sobrela organización racional del proceso Cosecha-Transporte-Recepción (CTR de cereales. A partir de la necesidad que tienen las empresas productoras de cereales en Cuba y otros países, así como necesidad de agilizar, centralizar y dinamizar la organización racional de la composición de los medios mecanizados que intervienen en el proceso de forma automatizada, posibilitando reducir las pérdidas de tiempo en el ciclo de transportación, de recursos humanos y materiales propiciando ventajas económicas a través de la reducción de los costos implicados en la cadena productiva, incurriendo de este modo en una acertada toma de decisiones a cargo de los directivos. El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo general: implementar un sistema automatizado que gestione mediante la Teoría de Colas el carácter probabilístico, la composición racional y los parámetros técnicos y de explotación del flujo continuodel proceso de cosecha- transporte-recepción de cereales, asegurando el control, confiabilidad, integridad y disponibilidad de la información, así como una disminución considerable del tiempo de procesamiento de la información. Como principal resultado se puede mencionar la implementación de una aplicación software libre, multiplataforma que gestiona la composición racional del proceso a través del estudio probabilístico que proporciona ventajas considerables a los directivos. También brinda un conjunto de salidas y gráficos que permiten mejorar el análisis y distribución de la información.

  3. Climate control in cultural heritage buildings in Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, Poul Klenz [The National Museum, Copenhagen (Denmark). Dept. of Conservation; Brostroem, Tor [Gotland Univ., Visby (Sweden)

    2011-07-01

    Conservation heating has been used for decades to control the RH in cultural heritage buildings. But if the building is not used for living or working, heating is not needed for human comfort. The chemical decay of organic materials depends mainly on temperature, so it is better for preservation to reduce heating. The air exchange rate is related to the design of the building envelope. With rising energy prices humidity control by dehumidification may be an attractive alternative. The potential for energy efficient RH control was examined for a generic building exposed to the monthly average outside temperature and RH in Denmark. The indoor temperature was allowed to follow the outside average, whereas the indoor RH was controlled to 40 % 50 % 60 % or 70 %. Dehumidification was implemented in three different buildings: A recent museum store, a medieval church, and an 18th century country mansion. The energy consumption depends on the RH set point, the air exchange rate and the source of liquid moisture to the building. The air exchange rate related to the design of the building envelope. Single glazed windows and doors are the most important sources of leakage to buildings. Lack of maintenance may lead to poor performance of the dehumidifier and waste energy. (orig.)

  4. Procedimiento automatizado de orientación masiva aptitudinal-vocacional para bachilleres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Boada

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mediante un procedimiento y técnicas educativas, estadísticas y psicométricas, es posible valorar cuantitativamente a nivel nacional, el área aptitudinal (habilidades básicas del estudiante a nivel verbal, numé- rico y lógico-abstracto, y el área vocacional (a través del perfil psicomé- trico de valoración según las fortalezas del carácter del individuo de los bachilleres y estudiantes cursantes del curso introductorio universitario en una institución educativa a nivel superior; esto de forma independien- te a la oferta académica y capacidad logística, a fin de ejecutar un proce- dimiento automatizado de orientación masiva a través del portal web para los futuros estudiantes de carrera de la institución educativa.

  5. Nonlinear Economic Model Predictive Control Strategy for Active Smart Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santos, Rui Mirra; Zong, Yi; Sousa, Joao M. C.;

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, the development of advanced and innovative intelligent control techniques for energy management in buildings is a key issue within the smart grid topic. A nonlinear economic model predictive control (EMPC) scheme, based on the branch-and-bound tree search used as optimization algorithm...... for solving the nonconvex optimization problem is proposed in this paper. A simulation using the nonlinear model-based controller to control the temperature levels of an intelligent office building (PowerFlexHouse) is addressed. Its performance is compared with a linear model-based controller. The nonlinear...

  6. Security-Control Systems and Automation in Contemporary Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saadet Aytıs

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available As a result of the developing technology, major renovations related to the security control systems and to building automation applications on contemporary buildings have appeared. The main item of the control systems is the entry system with cards and passwords and this is applied almost in all the large contemporary buildings. The entry and exit to/from the carparking is getting to be as important as the entry and exit to/from the building. Thus, specific measures to stop the security system being already perforated in the parking are needed. Warning systems with a great range of different detectors against various dangers that run connected to the mainframe computers and that turn on the system in case of danger are taken into consideration. The fact of obtaining all comfort conditions desired in the contemporary high space buildings and functioning of the first-aid systems are fully realized by computers with the help of systems that are called “Building Automation System” (BAS. All inspection, energy saving and security controls are achieved through these systems. In the buildings where building automation systems are applied, trained personel is needed to keep the system running; and the training of the residents about the system gains more and more importance.

  7. Test report - 241-AN-274 Caustic Pump Control Building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paintner, G.P.

    1995-05-01

    This Acceptance Test Report documents the test results of test procedure WHC-SD-WM-ATP-135 `Acceptance Test Procedure for the 241-AN- 274 Caustic Pump Control Building.` The objective of the test was to verify that the 241-AN-274 Caustic Pump Control Building functions properly based on design specifications per applicable H-2-85573 drawings and associated ECN`s. The objective of the test was met.

  8. Integral control concept of buildings; Integrales Steuerungskonzept von Gebaeuden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knabben, L.; Schmitz, H.J. [e2 energieberatung GmbH, Essen (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Each existing building is unique in its function, appearance, users and location regarding to local climatic conditions and in case of an existing building also in its history. Therefore a custom-made control-concept is to be prepared in form of requirement specifications compellingly necessarily for each building. The building simulation is a powerful tool for the optimization of a coordinated control processes for heating, cooling and ventilation including the control of solar shading and lighting. Basic conditions for the design of a successful control concept are realistic assumptions of the user behaviour and in the realisation the application of the found results of the simulation. This article shows by example of the reconstruction of the main building of the Dortmund energy and water supply GmbH (DEW21), how important a building and user-specific HVAC control concept is. Only by a consistent application of the integrated concept and the monitoring by the specialized consultants contradictory controls for users and environment can be avoided. The example shows that the successful integrated design process does not only achieve substantial energy conservation, but also substantially improved user comfort. (orig.)

  9. Homeostasis control of building environment using sensor agent robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagahama, Eri; Mita, Akira

    2012-04-01

    A human centered system for building is demanded to meet variety of needs due to the diversification and maturation of society. Smart buildings and smart houses have been studied to satisfy this demand. However, it is difficult for such systems to respond flexibly to unexpected events and needs that are caused by aging and complicate emotion changes. With this regards, we suggest "Biofied Buildings". The goal for this research is to realize buildings that are safer, more comfortable and more energy-efficient by embedding adaptive functions of life into buildings. In this paper, we propose a new control system for building environments, focused on physiological adaptation, particularly homeostasis, endocrine system and immune system. Residents are used as living sensors and controllers in the control loop. A sensor agent robot is used to acquire resident's discomfort feeling, and to output hormone-like signals to activate devices to control the environments. The proposed system could control many devices without establishing complicated scenarios. Results obtained from some simulations and the demonstration experiments using an LED lighting system showed that the proposed system were able to achieve robust and stable control of environments without complicated scenarios.

  10. Reinforcement learning for optimal control of low exergy buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Implementation of reinforcement learning control for LowEx Building systems. • Learning allows adaptation to local environment without prior knowledge. • Presentation of reinforcement learning control for real-life applications. • Discussion of the applicability for real-life situations. - Abstract: Over a third of the anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions stem from cooling and heating buildings, due to their fossil fuel based operation. Low exergy building systems are a promising approach to reduce energy consumption as well as GHG emissions. They consists of renewable energy technologies, such as PV, PV/T and heat pumps. Since careful tuning of parameters is required, a manual setup may result in sub-optimal operation. A model predictive control approach is unnecessarily complex due to the required model identification. Therefore, in this work we present a reinforcement learning control (RLC) approach. The studied building consists of a PV/T array for solar heat and electricity generation, as well as geothermal heat pumps. We present RLC for the PV/T array, and the full building model. Two methods, Tabular Q-learning and Batch Q-learning with Memory Replay, are implemented with real building settings and actual weather conditions in a Matlab/Simulink framework. The performance is evaluated against standard rule-based control (RBC). We investigated different neural network structures and find that some outperformed RBC already during the learning phase. Overall, every RLC strategy for PV/T outperformed RBC by over 10% after the third year. Likewise, for the full building, RLC outperforms RBC in terms of meeting the heating demand, maintaining the optimal operation temperature and compensating more effectively for ground heat. This allows to reduce engineering costs associated with the setup of these systems, as well as decrease the return-of-invest period, both of which are necessary to create a sustainable, zero-emission building

  11. Recent Developments of the Modelica"Buildings" Library for Building Energy and Control Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetter, Michael; Zuo, Wangda; Nouidui, Thierry Stephane

    2011-04-01

    At the Modelica 2009 conference, we introduced the Buildings library, a freely available Modelica library for building energy and control systems. This paper reports the updates of the library and presents example applications for a range of heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. Over the past two years, the library has been further developed. The number of HVAC components models has been doubled and various components have been revised to increase numerical robustness.The paper starts with an overview of the library architecture and a description of the main packages. To demonstrate the features of the Buildings library, applications that include multizone airflow simulation as well as supervisory and local loop control of a variable air volume (VAV) system are briefly described. The paper closes with a discussion of the current development.

  12. Stochastic Control of Energy Efficient Buildings: A Semidefinite Programming Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Xiao [ORNL; Dong, Jin [ORNL; Djouadi, Seddik M [ORNL; Nutaro, James J [ORNL; Kuruganti, Teja [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    The key goal in energy efficient buildings is to reduce energy consumption of Heating, Ventilation, and Air- Conditioning (HVAC) systems while maintaining a comfortable temperature and humidity in the building. This paper proposes a novel stochastic control approach for achieving joint performance and power control of HVAC. We employ a constrained Stochastic Linear Quadratic Control (cSLQC) by minimizing a quadratic cost function with a disturbance assumed to be Gaussian. The problem is formulated to minimize the expected cost subject to a linear constraint and a probabilistic constraint. By using cSLQC, the problem is reduced to a semidefinite optimization problem, where the optimal control can be computed efficiently by Semidefinite programming (SDP). Simulation results are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness and power efficiency by utilizing the proposed control approach.

  13. Building control. Technical systems in buildings: Automation and management; 2. ed.; Building control. Technische Gebaeudesysteme: Automation und Bewirtschaftung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kranz, H.R. [Siemens AG, Karlsruhe (Germany). Gebaeudetechnik - Automation; Baenninger, M. [Schweizerische Bankgesellschaft, Zurich (Switzerland); Bieler, P. [ROM (Rud. Otto Meyer), Duesseldorf (Germany); Brettschneider, J.P. [PIA, Hanau (Germany); Damnig, A. [IBM Deutschland GmbH, Boeblingen (Germany); Fassbender, H.W. [Honeywell GmbH, Maintal (Germany); Friedrichs, K. [Karlsruhe Univ. (T.H.) (Germany). Fakultaet fuer Architektur; Gauchel, J. [WIBc Objektorientierte Systeme fuer Gebaeudeplanung und -management, Karlsruhe (Germany); Hegewald, B. [Zentralverband Elektrotechnik- und Elektronikindustrie e.V. (ZVEI), Frankfurt am Main (Germany)]|[Siemens AG, Muenchen (Germany); Kaelin, W. [Ingenieurbuero Werner Kaelin, Schwyz (Switzerland); Lezius, A. [Staefa Control System GmbH, Stuttgart (Germany); Markert, H. [MW Software GmbH, Koeln (Germany); Oehler, A. [Fachhochschule Reutlingen (Germany); Otto, J. [IEP Ingenieurbuero Dr. Ellrich und Partner, Muenchen (Germany); Puettmer, M. Jr. [Goetz GmbH, Fellbach (Germany); Rohrbacher, H. [ABB Stotz Kontakt, Heidelberg (Germany); Schuerdt, K. [Siemens AG, Erlangen (Germany). Gebaeudetechnik; Vogt, D. [RWE Energie AG, Essen (Germany); Wittling, J. [Canzler Ingenieure GmbH, Muelheim an der Ruhr (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    Cost-optimized management, business management and maintenance of buildings all rely on electronic data processing. Technical and administrative systems must be projected for `lean buildings`, i.e. with easy operability and high economic efficiency. This book presents an easy-to-read, interdisciplinary and practical introduction to the following issues: Data processing in projecting and operation - ecological concepts for refrigeration and external walls - facility management, alarm systems and automation - communication technology, open communication and networks - building systems engineering and installation bus - energy management - operators` experience - standards and regulations (European standards, the new VDI 3814 information list) - construction law and legal regulations (e.g. building products, CE certificates, electromagnetic compatibility, environmental liability, software licensing legislation). (orig.) 260 figs., 161 refs. [Deutsch] Kostenoptimiertes Management, Betriebswirtschaft und Instandhaltung von Gebaeuden ist ohne EDV nicht mehr denkbar. Technische und administrative Systeme muessen im Hinblick auf Bedienbarkeit und Wirtschaftlichkeit geplant werden. Ziel sind `Lean-Buildings`. Dieses Buch behandelt kurzweilig, interdisziplinaer und praxisnah - EDV-Einsatz beim Planen und Betreiben - oekologische Kuehl- und Fassadenkonzepte - Facility Management, Gefahrenmeldetechnik, Gebaeudeautomation - Kommunikationstechnik, offene Kommunikation und Netzwerke - Gebaeudesystemtechnik und Installationsbus - Energiemanagement - Betreiber-Erfahrungen - Normen und Richtlinien (Stand der Europa-Normung, neue VDI 3814 Informationsliste) - Baurecht und Gesetz (z.B.: Bauprodukte, CE-Zeichen, elektromagnetische Vertraeglichkeit, Umwelt-Haftungsgesetz, Software-Lizenzrecht). (orig.)

  14. Automated Demand Response Strategies and Commissioning CommercialBuilding Controls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piette, Mary Ann; Watson, David; Motegi, Naoya; Kiliccote, Sila; Linkugel, Eric

    2006-05-01

    California electric utilities have been exploring the use of dynamic critical peak pricing (CPP) and other demand response programs to help reduce peaks in customer electric loads. CPP is a new electricity tariff design to promote demand response. This paper begins with a brief review of terminology regarding energy management and demand response, followed by a discussion of DR control strategies and a preliminary overview of a forthcoming guide on DR strategies. The final section discusses experience to date with these strategies, followed by a discussion of the peak electric demand savings from the 2005 Automated CPP program. An important concept identified in the automated DR field tests is that automated DR will be most successful if the building commissioning industry improves the operational effectiveness of building controls. Critical peak pricing and even real time pricing are important trends in electricity pricing that will require new functional tests for building commissioning.

  15. SAM - Sistema Automatizado del Método MECAP para Especificar Casos de Prueba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenyer Domínguez

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Existen cuatro elementos que son relevantes al momento de definir las pruebas: Confiabilidad, Costo, Tiempo y Calidad. El tiempo de desarrollo y el costo del producto se incrementan cuando se desean pruebas confiables y un software de calidad. Pero ¿qué se puede hacer para que los involucrados comprendan que las pruebas deben ser vistas como una red de seguridad? Si la calidad no se contempla antes de comenzar las pruebas, entonces ella no estará cuando se éstas terminen. El objetivo de este artículo es presentar la herramienta, SAM – Sistema Automatizado del Método MECAP que permite especificar Casos de Prueba a partir de Casos de Uso incorporando elementos que promueven la verificación y validación de la trazabilidad entre la Gestión de Requerimientos, el Análisis y Diseño y las Pruebas. SAM soporta el proceso de pruebas de forma automatizada, mejorando la confiabilidad de las mismas

  16. Energy-Efficient Building HVAC Control Using Hybrid System LBMPC

    CERN Document Server

    Aswani, Anil; Taneja, Jay; Krioukov, Andrew; Culler, David; Tomlin, Claire

    2012-01-01

    Improving the energy-efficiency of heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems has the potential to realize large economic and societal benefits. This paper concerns the system identification of a hybrid system model of a building-wide HVAC system and its subsequent control using a hybrid system formulation of learning-based model predictive control (LBMPC). Here, the learning refers to model updates to the hybrid system model that incorporate the heating effects due to occupancy, solar effects, outside air temperature (OAT), and equipment, in addition to integrator dynamics inherently present in low-level control. Though we make significant modeling simplifications, our corresponding controller that uses this model is able to experimentally achieve a large reduction in energy usage without any degradations in occupant comfort. It is in this way that we justify the modeling simplifications that we have made. We conclude by presenting results from experiments on our building HVAC testbed, which s...

  17. An Investigation Into Why Lighting Controls Fail in Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Doyle

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The project began as a post-occupancy evaluation of lighting controls installed in a range of buildings, including a public office building, a shopping centre and a primary school. Actual controlled lighting consumption was to be compared against past billing or simulated energy consumption. However, when the research began it was found that the controls had been removed from two out of the three buildings. Further research proved that it was not unusual for lighting controls to be disconnected following installation. This raised a much bigger research question- why were the controls disconnected and what were the factors governing success or failure of these systems? To answer this new question a new methodology to that first envisaged had to be established. Investigating the reasons for disconnection could only be achieved by discussion with those involved. To find out what people know, or think, it is necessary to ask them. Interviewing was used to address the new research question. It was found that little research exists on long-term performance analysis of lighting controls. A framework was created to determine if there is correlation between past findings and the reasons for failure in the case studies. It should be noted that there were minimal findings into the failure of lighting controls systems in buildings in Ireland, which prompted possible additional reasons for the failure of these systems, e.g. differing usage patterns, availability of useful daylight. The research that followed posed many challenges requiring the use of qualitative data in an engineering environment. In order to answer the research question, a clearly-defined and wellstructured methodology was required. It was concluded from the research that the conceptual framework used was appropriate and that the methods were fit for purpose.Some of the findings included: • Maintenance costs are comparitively high • Misinterpretation of commissioning processes

  18. Innovation in the U.S. building sector: An assessment of patent citations in building energy control technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buildings are crucial to addressing energy problems because they are large consumers of end-use energy, and potential exists to dramatically improve their efficiencies. However, the pace of innovation in buildings is generally characterized as inadequate, despite the implementation of an array of policy instruments aimed at promoting efficiency. The literature on innovation in the building industry provides several explanations including: fragmented decision-making, principal agent problems, inadequate information, and limited learning across heterogeneous projects. We investigate the innovation process for buildings in the U.S. with a case study of patenting in energy management control systems (EMCS) for commercial buildings and programmable thermostats (PT) for residential buildings. Using U.S. patent data, we find that: (1) patenting activity peaked around 1980, subsequently declined, and then increased considerably in the past decade; (2) commercial, rather than residential, buildings account for the recent increase; and (3) building control technologies have benefitted from inventions originating outside the industry, notably from electronics and computers, with a shift toward the latter in recent years. - Highlights: ► We investigate the innovation process for buildings in the U.S. using patents. ► We use commercial and residential building controls technology as a case study. ► Patenting peaked around 1980, declined, and then increased in the past decade. ► Commercial building control patents account for most of the recent increase. ► Inventions in electronics and computers have led to innovation in building controls.

  19. Modeling, Estimation and Control of Indoor Climate in Livestock Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Zhuang

    The main objective of this research is to design an efficient control system for the indoor climate of a large-scale partition-less livestock building, in order to maintain a healthy, comfortable and economically energy consuming indoor environment for the agricultural animals and farmers....... In this thesis, a conceptual multi-zone climate model is proposed according to the knowledge about the hybrid ventilation theory. The method is to compartmentalize the building into some well-mixed macroscopic homogeneous zones, with the major emphasizes on the occupied spaces where the animals confined in...... the resilience of the control system to disturbances beyond its bandwidth, increases the manipulators utilization efficiency, and reduces energy consumption by solving a constrained convex optimization. Through comparative simulation results analysis, the proposed modeling and control technique is proved...

  20. CONVERGING REDUNDANT SENSOR NETWORK INFORMATION FOR IMPROVED BUILDING CONTROL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dale K. Tiller; Gregor P. Henze

    2004-11-01

    Knowing how many people occupy a building, and where they are located, is a key component of building energy management and security. Commercial, industrial and residential buildings often incorporate systems used to determine occupancy, however, current sensor technology and control algorithms limit the effectiveness of both energy management and security systems. This topical report describes results from the first phase of a project to design, implement, validate, and prototype new technologies to monitor occupancy, control indoor environment services, and promote security in buildings. Phase I of the project focused on instrumentation and data collection. In this project phase a new occupancy detection system was developed, commissioned and installed in a sample of private offices and open-plan office workstations. Data acquisition systems were developed and deployed to collect data on space occupancy profiles. Analysis tools based on Bayesian probability theory were applied to the occupancy data generated by the sensor network. The inference of primary importance is a probability distribution over the number of occupants and their locations in a building, given past and present sensor measurements. Inferences were computed for occupancy and its temporal persistence in individual offices as well as the persistence of sensor status. The raw sensor data were also used to calibrate the sensor belief network, including the occupancy transition matrix used in the Markov model, sensor sensitivity, and sensor failure models. This study shows that the belief network framework can be applied to the analysis of data streams from sensor networks, offering significant benefits to building operation compared to current practice.

  1. Passive hygrothermal control of a museum storage building in Vejle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jørgen Erik; Janssen, Hans

    2010-01-01

    of a museum storage building, related to an existing storage centre in Vejle (Denmark). The current building design already incorporates passive control concepts: thermal inertia is provided by the thick walls, the ground floor and its underlying soil volume, while hygric inertia is provided by the thick...... walls of light-weight concrete. The design promise stated that a few years of dehumidification would bring down the moisture contained in the fresh constructions to a level corresponding with the desired interior climate. After this initial stage, the passive control would eliminate all further need...... purposes. Reduction of dehumidification load: In an effort to reduce the necessary dehumidification, a number of thermal measures are investigated first. This primarily focuses on the influences of additional insulation in walls, roof and floor. Overall, the effects of extra insulation on the average...

  2. Strategies for Controlled Placement of Nanoscale Building Blocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koh SeongJin

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe capability of placing individual nanoscale building blocks on exact substrate locations in a controlled manner is one of the key requirements to realize future electronic, optical, and magnetic devices and sensors that are composed of such blocks. This article reviews some important advances in the strategies for controlled placement of nanoscale building blocks. In particular, we will overview template assisted placement that utilizes physical, molecular, or electrostatic templates, DNA-programmed assembly, placement using dielectrophoresis, approaches for non-close-packed assembly of spherical particles, and recent development of focused placement schemes including electrostatic funneling, focused placement via molecular gradient patterns, electrodynamic focusing of charged aerosols, and others.

  3. Containment building hydrogen control methods related to degraded core accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degraded core accident-related release of hydrogen under some circumstances may threaten the integrity of pressurized water reactor containment buildings. This report provides a preliminary survey of a spectrum of possible approaches which could be adopted to maintain containment building integrity under accident conditions which lead to the release of hydrogen. Particular attention is directed to large, dry containment of the Zion and Indian Point designs. For any such possible accident, there exists a sequence of time intervals characterizing the accident scenario. This report considers the generic features of these intervals and discusses the suitability of various approaches to hydrogen accident control as related to the characteristics of the interval during which they are applied. It was found that various options exist for hydrogen control strategies and that their usefulness depends on the particular accident scenarios to be considered. Of all the hydrogen control approaches considered, a strategy of continuous inerting of the containment building is the only one which clearly eliminates the combustion hazard, does not involve adverse environmental effects, and succeeds in a way that is independent of the accident scenario

  4. Demonstration of Smart Building Controls to Manage Building Peak Loads: Innovative Non-Wires Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katipamula, Srinivas; Hatley, Darrel D.

    2004-12-22

    As a part of the non-wires solutions effort, BPA in partnership with Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is exploring the use of two distributed energy resources (DER) technologies in the City of Richland. In addition to demonstrating the usefulness of the two DER technologies in providing peak demand relief, evaluation of remote direct load control (DLC) is also one of the primary objectives of this demonstration. The concept of DLC, which is used to change the energy use profile during peak hours of the day, is not new. Many utilities have had success in reducing demand at peak times to avoid building new generation. It is not the need for increased generation that is driving the use of direct load control in the Northwest, but the desire to avoid building additional transmission capacity. The peak times at issue total between 50 and 100 hours a year. A transmission solution to the problem would cost tens of millions of dollars . And since a ?non wires? solution is just as effective and yet costs much less, the capital dollars for construction can be used elsewhere on the grid where building new transmission is the only alternative. If by using DLC, the electricity use can be curtailed, shifted to lower use time periods or supplemented through local generation, the existing system can be made more reliable and cost effective.

  5. Development of controller of acquisition and sample positioner for activation for use in measurements of short half-life radioisotopes; Desenvolvimento de dispositivo movimentador automatizado de amostras com vista a aplicacao em medidas de radioisotopos que possuem curto tempo de meia-vida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Secco, Marcello

    2016-08-01

    High resolution gamma spectroscopy measurements have several applications. Those involving short half-life radioisotope measurements may present low precision problems when the radioactive source is far from detector end cup and in the very high activity situations also can present accuracy loss due to dead time and pile-up effects. A way to overcome these problems is changing the source detector distance as the activity is decreasing, and thereby maximizing the statistical counting. In the present study, the Controller of Acquisition and Sample Positioner for Activation (CASPA) was developed. It is a low cost and weight device, made with low atomic number materials designed to assist gamma spectroscopy measurements, which is able to control the distance between the source and the detector, even allowing that there is a change of this distance during the measurement process. Because it is automated it optimizes the time of the operator, who has complete freedom to program their routine measurements in the device besides minimizing the radiation dose in the operator. An interface that allow the user control the CASPA system and to program the acquisition system was created. Tests aiming to optimize the operation of CASPA system were carried out and the safety of the CASPA operation was verified, it was not presented any failure during their tests. It was applied the repeatability tests by the acquisition {sup 60}Co standard source and was found that the positioning of automated system has reproduced the results of static system with a 95% of confidence level. (author)

  6. Hierarchical fuzzy control of low-energy building systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Zhen; Dexter, Arthur [Department of Engineering Science, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PJ (United Kingdom)

    2010-04-15

    A hierarchical fuzzy supervisory controller is described that is capable of optimizing the operation of a low-energy building, which uses solar energy to heat and cool its interior spaces. The highest level fuzzy rules choose the most appropriate set of lower level rules according to the weather and occupancy information; the second level fuzzy rules determine an optimal energy profile and the overall modes of operation of the heating, ventilating and air-conditioning system (HVAC); the third level fuzzy rules select the mode of operation of specific equipment, and assign schedules to the local controllers so that the optimal energy profile can be achieved in the most efficient way. Computer simulation is used to compare the hierarchical fuzzy control scheme with a supervisory control scheme based on expert rules. The performance is evaluated by comparing the energy consumption and thermal comfort. (author)

  7. Distributed Control System in Electrical Heaters of the Public Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhua Ren

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Being with many advantages such as environmental protection, controllable, facilitate measurement etc, electric heating has been promoted actively in some places .For public buildings with huge energy consumption, electric heating intelligent controlling may be the key to achieve energy conservation. In this paper, visual distributed control system (DCS was presented in electric heating of the public buildings. In this control system, a PC was used as the host, and RS232/485 interface converter was used as serial interface of mutual conversion .Through industrial standard RS485 bus with high reliability and low cost which was the link between the host and many sets of thermostat, a one-to-many communication network was formed. The MCU of the thermostats was ATMega8 microcontroller. Meanwhile, DS18B20 integrated temperature probe was used in temperature sensor .Through the DCS test online,it met the need of each individual heating unit. Therefore, unnecessary heat waste was reduced, heating costs were saved.

  8. Converging Redundant Sensor Network Information for Improved Building Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dale Tiller; D. Phil; Gregor Henze; Xin Guo

    2007-09-30

    This project investigated the development and application of sensor networks to enhance building energy management and security. Commercial, industrial and residential buildings often incorporate systems used to determine occupancy, but current sensor technology and control algorithms limit the effectiveness of these systems. For example, most of these systems rely on single monitoring points to detect occupancy, when more than one monitoring point could improve system performance. Phase I of the project focused on instrumentation and data collection. During the initial project phase, a new occupancy detection system was developed, commissioned and installed in a sample of private offices and open-plan office workstations. Data acquisition systems were developed and deployed to collect data on space occupancy profiles. Phase II of the project demonstrated that a network of several sensors provides a more accurate measure of occupancy than is possible using systems based on single monitoring points. This phase also established that analysis algorithms could be applied to the sensor network data stream to improve the accuracy of system performance in energy management and security applications. In Phase III of the project, the sensor network from Phase I was complemented by a control strategy developed based on the results from the first two project phases: this controller was implemented in a small sample of work areas, and applied to lighting control. Two additional technologies were developed in the course of completing the project. A prototype web-based display that portrays the current status of each detector in a sensor network monitoring building occupancy was designed and implemented. A new capability that enables occupancy sensors in a sensor network to dynamically set the 'time delay' interval based on ongoing occupant behavior in the space was also designed and implemented.

  9. Advanced Sensors and Controls for Building Applications: Market Assessment and Potential R&D Pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brambley, M. R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Haves, P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); McDonald, S. C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Torcellini, P. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hansen, D. [U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, D.C. (United States); Holmberg, D. R. [National Institute of Science and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Roth, K. W. [TIAX, LLC, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2005-04-01

    This document provides a market assessment of existing building sensors and controls and presents a range of technology pathways (R&D options) for pursuing advanced sensors and building control strategies.

  10. Building the evaluation capacity of California's local tobacco control programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treiber, Jeanette; Cassady, Diana; Kipke, Robin; Kwon, Nicole; Satterlund, Travis

    2011-11-01

    Successful evaluation capacity building requires a dynamic balance between responding to local agency needs and ensuring that local staff have appropriate skills to conduct rigorous evaluations. In 2004, the California Tobacco Control Program established the Tobacco Control Evaluation Center (TCEC), based at a public research university, to provide evaluation technical assistance to approximately 100 local agencies implementing tobacco control programs. TCEC has been responsive to local needs, for instance, by answering 512 technical assistance requests in the first 5 years of operation and by tailoring training according to needs assessment results. About 50% of the technical assistance requests were for new data collection instruments (n = 255). TCEC has sought proactively to improve local evaluation skills, most recently in a data analysis and report writing skill building campaign that included a webinar, newsletter, and seven regional training meetings. Preliminary analysis suggests a 20% improvement in scores for the local final evaluation reports as a result of this campaign. It is concluded that evaluation technical assistance can be provided effectively by a university as long as the local context is kept in mind, and a balance of responsive and proactive technical assistance is provided. PMID:22068574

  11. Dynamic solar radiation control in buildings by applying electrochromic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jelle, B.P.; Gustavsen, A.

    2010-07-01

    Full text: Smart windows like electrochromic windows (ECWs) are windows which are able to regulate the solar radiation throughput by application of an external voltage. The ECWs may decrease heating, cooling and electricity loads in buildings by admitting the optimum level of solar energy and daylight into the buildings at any given time, e.g. cold winter climate versus warm summer climate demands. In order to achieve as dynamic and flexible solar radiation control as possible, the ECWs may be characterized by a number of solar radiation glazing factors, i.e. ultraviolet solar transmittance, visible solar transmittance, solar transmittance, solar material protection factor, solar skin protection factor, external visible solar reflectance, internal visible solar reflectance, solar reflectance, solar absorbance, emissivity, solar factor and colour rendering factor. Comparison of these solar quantities for various electrochromic material and window combinations and configurations enables one to select the most appropriate electrochromic materials and ECWs for specific buildings. Measurements and calculations were carried out on two different electrochromic window devices. (Author)

  12. Mission Control Center/Building 30. Historical Documentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    As part of this nation-wide study, in September 2006, historical survey and evaluation of NASA-owned and managed facilities was conducted by NASA's Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (JSC) in Houston, Texas. The results of this study are presented in a report entitled, Survey and Evaluation of NASA-owned Historic Facilities and Properties in the Context of the U.S. Space Shuttle Program, Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas, prepared in November 2007 by NASA JSC s contractor, Archaeological Consultants, Inc. As a result of this survey, the Mission Control Center (Building 30) was determined eligible for listing in the NRHP, with concurrence by the Texas State Historic Preservation Officer (SHPO). The survey concluded that Building 30 is eligible for the NRHP under Criteria A and C in the context of the U.S. Space Shuttle Program (1969-2010). Because it has achieved significance within the past 50 years, Criteria Consideration G applies. It should be noted that the Mission Control Center was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1985 for its role in the Apollo 11 Lunar Landing. At the time of this documentation, Building 30 was still used to support the SSP as an engineering research facility, which is also sometimes used for astronaut training. This documentation package precedes any undertaking as defined by Section 106 of the NHPA, as amended, and implemented in 36 CFR Part 800, as NASA JSC has decided to proactively pursue efforts to mitigate the potential adverse affects of any future modifications to the facility. It includes a historical summary of the Space Shuttle program; the history of JSC in relation to the SSP; a narrative of the history of Building 30 and how it supported the SSP; and a physical description of the structure. In addition, photographs documenting the construction and historical use of Building 30 in support of the SSP, as well as photographs of the facility documenting the existing conditions, special technological features

  13. Simulación y control de procesos automatizados con PLCs OMRON y LabVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Owono Marti, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Con los nuevos grados instaurados por el nuevo plan universitario, hemos creado unas prácticas de automatización industrial gestionadas con los autómatas de OMRON que la facultad acaba de adquirir. Estos PLCs permiten trabajar con nuevas técnicas de programación y, además tienen incorporado más módulos que permite un aprendizaje más amplio sobre la materia. Para ello, he realizado unas prácticas diseñadas bajo el programa de LabVIEW, con el propósito de simular unas plantas ...

  14. Converging Redundant Sensor Network Information for Improved Building Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dale K. Tiller; Gregor P. Henze

    2005-12-01

    This project is investigating the development and application of sensor networks to enhance building energy management and security. Commercial, industrial and residential buildings often incorporate systems used to determine occupancy, but current sensor technology and control algorithms limit the effectiveness of these systems. For example, most of these systems rely on single monitoring points to detect occupancy, when more than one monitoring point would improve system performance. Phase I of the project focused on instrumentation and data collection. In Phase I, a new occupancy detection system was developed, commissioned and installed in a sample of private offices and open-plan office workstations. Data acquisition systems were developed and deployed to collect data on space occupancy profiles. In phase II of the project, described in this report, we demonstrate that a network of several sensors provides a more accurate measure of occupancy than is possible using systems based on single monitoring points. We also establish that analysis algorithms can be applied to the sensor network data stream to improve the accuracy of system performance in energy management and security applications, and show that it may be possible to use sensor network pulse rate to distinguish the number of occupants in a space. Finally, in this phase of the project we also developed a prototype web-based display that portrays the current status of each detector in a sensor network monitoring building occupancy. This basic capability will be extended in the future by applying an algorithm-based inference to the sensor network data stream, so that the web page displays the likelihood that each monitored office or area is occupied, as a supplement to the actual status of each sensor.

  15. Complicações iniciais do uso de dois microceratótomos automatizados Initial complications of two automated microkeratomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica do Carmo Passos

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Descrever as complicações per e pós-operatórias ocorridas durante o uso inicial de dois microceratótomos automatizados na realização de LASIK. Métodos: Estudo retrospectivo das primeiras cirurgias realizadas com dois microceratótomos automatizados, sendo 70 olhos de 54 pacientes utilizando o microceratótomo da Chiron® modelo Automated Corneal Shaper (ACS, no período de abril de 1997 a abril de 1998 e 100 olhos de 82 pacientes com o microceratótomo automatizado Moria® Carriazo-Barraquer (CB, durante o período de fevereiro de 1999 a junho de 1999. A fotoablação foi realizada com excimer laser de fluoreto de argônio de 193 nm da Summit modelo Apex Plus®. Foram avaliadas as complicações per e pós-operatórias até um mês de seguimento. Resultados: A fotoablação não foi realizada em 3 casos (4,3% usando-se o microceratótomo ACS e em 1 caso (1% usando o microceratótomo CB. As complicações mais freqüentemente encontradas com o ACS foram: falha no retorno automatizado do microceratótomo (7,1%, ceratectomia parcial ("flap" incompleto: 4,3%, presença de dobras estromais (14,3%, desepitelização central (4,3% e crescimento epitelial na interface (4,3%. Já com o CB, foram encontrados: "flap" descentralizado (3%, desepitelização central (5%, dobras estromais (28% e síndrome das Areias de Sahara (6%. Conclusões: O uso inicial de ambos microceratótomos foi relacionado a considerável índice de complicações per e pós-operatórias, não levando necessariamente à perda de visão. Maior conhecimento clínico das alterações ocorridas com o uso destes instrumentos, bem como maior experiência na sua utilização podem diminuir a ocorrência de complicações.Purpose: To describe per- and postoperative complications which occurred with the first use of two automated microkeratomes for the performance of LASIK. Methods: Retrospective study of first surgeries performed with two automated microkeratomes. Seventy

  16. Small- and Medium-Sized Commercial Building Monitoring and Controls Needs: A Scoping Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katipamula, Srinivas; Underhill, Ronald M.; Goddard, James K.; Taasevigen, Danny J.; Piette, M. A.; Granderson, J.; Brown, Rich E.; Lanzisera, Steven M.; Kuruganti, T.

    2012-10-31

    Buildings consume over 40% of the total energy consumption in the U.S. A significant portion of the energy consumed in buildings is wasted because of the lack of controls or the inability to use existing building automation systems (BASs) properly. Much of the waste occurs because of our inability to manage and controls buildings efficiently. Over 90% of the buildings are either small-size (<5,000 sf) or medium-size (between 5,000 sf and 50,000 sf); these buildings currently do not use BASs to monitor and control their building systems from a central location. According to Commercial Building Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS), about 10% of the buildings in the U.S. use BASs or central controls to manage their building system operations. Buildings that use BASs are typically large (>100,000 sf). Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) were asked by the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Building Technologies Program (BTP) to identify monitoring and control needs for small- and medium-sized commercial buildings and recommend possible solutions. This study documents the needs and solutions for small- and medium-sized buildings.

  17. SUPERVISORY CONTROL FOR PEAK REDUCTION IN COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS WHILE MAINTAINING COMFORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nutaro, James J [ORNL; Olama, Mohammed M [ORNL; Kuruganti, Teja [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a supervisory control strategy for limiting peak power demand by small and medium commercial buildings while still meeting the business needs of the occupants. This control strategy has two features that make it relevant to new and existing buildings. First, it is designed to operate with building equipment, such as air conditioning and refrigeration systems, as they are presently installed in most small and medium commercial buildings. Because of this, the supervisory control could be realized as a software-only retrofit to existing building management systems. Second, the proposed control acts as a supervisory management layer over existing control systems, rather than replacing them outright. The primary idea of this approach is that the controls for individual building equipment request energy resources for a control action and the supervisory control examines the requests and decides which control actions to allow while satisfying a limit on peak power demand.

  18. Design and building of home made 8051 micro controller emulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research targeted design and build of a simple lab made emulator for the 8051 micro controller to assist student and researcher in their projects. This will be achieved by thorough understanding of the software and the hardware of the development tool which will enhance the user knowledge rather than considering them as black boxes and unaware of their capabilities and their limitations. Regarding the hardware this work preferred to use the same central processing unit the developer wanted to build with little modification. While the software is a program loaded in the micro controller itself responsible (making use of flash micro controllers) for communication with the host computer terminal, and monitoring the user program which is loaded in external memory by the program. Any terminal program on the host computer can be used to carry out communication with monitor program provided that a carriage return should be pressed after monitor power up to let the monitor adjust its baud rate accordingly. This feature makes the monitor program so simple and familiar to the user. For simplicity the software is enhanced with flash programming and erasing subroutine which can allow the user to store his program there if he put a flash ROM in his hardware and he can make it as start up program which will run automatically after start up. Also many programs can be loaded in the flash as long as its capacity is capable. Definitely this requires configuring flash start and end in the source before compiling it. This flash feature allows the development hardware to be as final board and hence a debugable one as long as monitor program resides inside the micro controller. Considering the debugging stage as the most crucial step in the development cycle, this work tried to find some suitable and simple solutions that can enhance knowledge. As a result some commands on the user program like uploading, displaying, jumping, selecting among others, running, editing, clearing and

  19. Advanced, Integrated Control for Building Operations to Achieve 40% Energy Saving

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Yan; Song, Zhen; Loftness, Vivian; Ji, Kun; Zheng, Sam; Lasternas, Bertrand; Marion, Flore; Yuebin, Yu

    2012-10-15

    We developed and demonstrated a software based integrated advanced building control platform called Smart Energy Box (SEB), which can coordinate building subsystem controls, integrate variety of energy optimization algorithms and provide proactive and collaborative energy management and control for building operations using weather and occupancy information. The integrated control system is a low cost solution and also features: Scalable component based architecture allows to build a solution for different building control system configurations with needed components; Open Architecture with a central data repository for data exchange among runtime components; Extendible to accommodate variety of communication protocols. Optimal building control for central loads, distributed loads and onsite energy resource; uses web server as a loosely coupled way to engage both building operators and building occupants in collaboration for energy conservation. Based on the open platform of SEB, we have investigated and evaluated a variety of operation and energy saving control strategies on Carnegie Mellon University Intelligent Work place which is equipped with alternative cooling/heating/ventilation/lighting methods, including radiant mullions, radiant cooling/heating ceiling panels, cool waves, dedicated ventilation unit, motorized window and blinds, and external louvers. Based on the validation results of these control strategies, they were integrated in SEB in a collaborative and dynamic way. This advanced control system was programmed and computer tested with a model of the Intelligent Workplace's northern section (IWn). The advanced control program was then installed in the IWn control system; the performance was measured and compared with that of the state of the art control system to verify the overall energy savings great than 40%. In addition advanced human machine interfaces (HMI's) were developed to communicate both with building

  20. CO2 MONITORING FOR DEMAND CONTROLLED VENTILATION IN COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, William J.; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Faulkner, David; Eliseeva, Ekaterina

    2010-03-17

    Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) sensors are often deployed in commercial buildings to obtain CO{sub 2} data that are used, in a process called demand-controlled ventilation, to automatically modulate rates of outdoor air ventilation. The objective is to keep ventilation rates at or above design specifications and code requirements and also to save energy by avoiding excessive ventilation rates. Demand controlled ventilation is most often used in spaces with highly variable and sometime dense occupancy. Reasonably accurate CO{sub 2} measurements are needed for successful demand controlled ventilation; however, prior research has suggested substantial measurement errors. Accordingly, this study evaluated: (a) the accuracy of 208 CO{sub 2} single-location sensors located in 34 commercial buildings, (b) the accuracy of four multi-location CO{sub 2} measurement systems that utilize tubing, valves, and pumps to measure at multiple locations with single CO{sub 2} sensors, and (c) the spatial variability of CO{sub 2} concentrations within meeting rooms. The field studies of the accuracy of single-location CO{sub 2} sensors included multi-concentration calibration checks of 90 sensors in which sensor accuracy was checked at multiple CO{sub 2} concentrations using primary standard calibration gases. From these evaluations, average errors were small, -26 ppm and -9 ppm at 760 and 1010 ppm, respectively; however, the averages of the absolute values of error were 118 ppm (16%) and 138 ppm (14%), at concentrations of 760 and 1010 ppm, respectively. The calibration data are generally well fit by a straight line as indicated by high values of R{sup 2}. The Title 24 standard specifies that sensor error must be certified as no greater than 75 ppm for a period of five years after sensor installation. At 1010 ppm, 40% of sensors had errors greater than {+-}75 ppm and 31% of sensors has errors greater than {+-}100 ppm. At 760 ppm, 47% of sensors had errors greater than {+-}75 ppm and 37% of

  1. Thermally activated building systems in office buildings: impact of control strategy on energy performance and thermal comfort

    OpenAIRE

    Sourbron, Maarten; Helsen, Lieve

    2010-01-01

    At the Science Park Arenberg site in Leuven (Belgium) two new office buildings equipped with thermally activated building systems (TABS) to cover the cooling load and the base heating load, are constructed. A ground coupled heat pump/direct cooling (HP/DC) system supplies heat and cold to the TABS, while a gas boiler/chiller combination feeds the air handling units. This paper evaluates the impact of the TABS control strategy on both energy consumption and thermal comfort. Furthermore, con...

  2. Building control automation for retirement homes :a therapeutic opportunity for the elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Avila, Melinda Plaza

    1993-01-01

    The therapeutic opportunity for the elderly due to building control automation use in a retirement home was investigated. Previous research suggests that a basic understanding of elderly functional needs and building control automation capabilities is required Ifn order to secure the opportunity for maintaining existing elderly functional abilities. This study explores the extent to which building control automation can be applied in retirement homes. The research questions gen...

  3. C-simulation Based Building Controls Implementation with Networked Sensors and Actuators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wen, Y.J.; DiBartolomeo, D.; Rubinstein, F.

    2012-01-01

    Commercial building sector is one of the largest energy consumers inthe U.S., and lighting, heating, ventilating and air conditioning contribute to more than half of the energy consumption and carbon emissions in buildings. Controls are the most effective way of increasing energy efficiency in build

  4. Comparison of sensorless dimming control based on building modeling and solar power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artificial lighting in office buildings accounts for about 30% of the total building energy consumption. Lighting energy is important to reduce building energy consumption since artificial lighting typically has a relatively large energy conversion factor. Therefore, previous studies have proposed a dimming control using daylight. When applied dimming control, method based on building modeling does not need illuminance sensors. Thus, it can be applied to existing buildings that do not have illuminance sensors. However, this method does not accurately reflect real-time weather conditions. On the other hand, solar power generation from a PV (photovoltaic) panel reflects real-time weather conditions. The PV panel as the sensor improves the accuracy of dimming control by reflecting disturbance. Therefore, we compared and analyzed two types of sensorless dimming controls: those based on the building modeling and those that based on solar power generation using PV panels. In terms of energy savings, we found that a dimming control based on building modeling is more effective than that based on solar power generation by about 6%. However, dimming control based on solar power generation minimizes the inconvenience to occupants and can also react to changes in solar radiation entering the building caused by dirty window. - Highlights: • We conducted sensorless dimming control based on solar power generation. • Dimming controls using building modeling and solar power generation were compared. • The real time weather conditions can be considered by using solar power generation. • Dimming control using solar power generation minimizes inconvenience to occupants

  5. Building America Top Innovations 2012: Outside Air Ventilation Controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2013-01-01

    venThis Building America Top Innovations profile describes Building America research showing how automated night ventilation can reduce cooling energy costs up to 40% and peak demand up to 50% in California’s hot-dry central valley climates and can eliminate the need for air conditioning altogether in the coastal marine climate.

  6. Passive hygrothermal control of a museum storage building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jørgen Erik; Janssen, Hans

    2011-01-01

    For optimal conservation of the stored objects, museum storage buildings require a very stable interior climate, with only minimal and slow variations in temperature and relative humidity. Often extensive HVAC is installed to provide such stable indoor conditions, which results in a great amout...... of C02 emission. The purpose for this paper is to show that it is possible to reach the goal of using renewable energy for museum storage buildings by rethinking the strategy for the dehumidification design and in this way contribute to a C02 neutral environment. The solution is to construct a very...... airtight building and use concentrated dehumidification....

  7. A Building Model Framework for a Genetic Algorithm Multi-objective Model Predictive Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arendt, Krzysztof; Ionesi, Ana; Jradi, Muhyiddine;

    Model Predictive Control (MPC) of building systems is a promising approach to optimize building energy performance. In contrast to traditional control strategies which are reactive in nature, MPC optimizes the utilization of resources based on the predicted effects. It has been shown that energy...... savings potential of this technique can reach up to 40% compared to conventional control strategies depending on the particular building type. However, the effort needed to implement MPC in buildings is significant and often considered prohibitive. That is why until now fully-functional MPC has been...

  8. Behavior of response controlled and seismically isolated buildings during severe earthquakes in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passive control techniques have been widely used in Japan since the 1995 Kobe earthquake. Until the end of 2011, nearly 3000 buildings and 4000 private houses are seismically isolated. The 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake, which caused casualties more than 18300 people and collapse of 127830 building, allowed testing the effective seismic performance of several base isolated buildings. This is quite important for further dissemination of response control and seismic isolation technologies and to prove their effectiveness

  9. The School Building Principal and Inventory Control: A Case for Computerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stronge, James

    1987-01-01

    General and special purpose database programs are appropriate for inventory control at the school building level. A fixed asset equipment inventory example illustrates the feasibility of computerized inventory control. (MLF)

  10. El Portafolio Digital como estrategia didáctica: la experiencia del curso Servicios de Información Automatizados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ginnette Calvo Guillén

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available En esta investigación se presenta una experiencia de implementación del Portafolio Digital como estrategia didáctica en dos grupos del curso Servicios de Información Automatizados, pertenecientes al segundo año del tronco común de las carreras de Bachillerato de la Escuela de Bibliotecología y Ciencias de la Información de la Universidad de Costa Rica. La estrategia fue desarrollada individualmente y tuvo como objetivos construir un sitio web como espacio de reflexión acerca de los aprendizajes alcanzados durante el curso, así como crear un servicio de información para desarrollar destrezas evaluando y seleccionando fuentes de información confiables en línea. Con la estrategia se logró que el estudiantado concientizara sobre su responsabilidad en el proceso de construcción del conocimiento y permitió la realimentación recíproca, así como la identificación de fuentes de información confiables en línea.

  11. Sistema automatizado para la realización de pruebas funcionales a las protecciones electrónicas CELCOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo García Bermúdez

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Se realiza el diseño e implementación de un sistema automatizado que permite hacer las pruebas funcionales a las protecciones electrónicas por sobrecorriente para equipos de refrigeración producidas en el Laboratorio Científico Productivo perteneciente a la Universidad de Holguín "Oscar Lucero Moya". Para ello se realizó un estudio de las especificaciones funcionales que reclama el fabricante de las protecciones, que hizo posible definir un grupo de pruebas que verifican dichas especificaciones, se emplean módulos de adquisición de datos conectados por medio de una interfaz RS485 a la computadora y se hizo el diseño de la electrónica necesaria para la adaptación de las señales a estos módulos. El sistema informático permite realizar las pruebas a seis protecciones al mismo tiempo, cuyos resultados son almacenados en una base de datos. Adicionalmente puede realizarse la caracterización de los transformadores de corriente utilizados como sensores en las protecciones. El sistema realiza un grupo de pruebas que son imposibles de forma manual, eleva la productividad de los técnicos, disminuye los costos asociados al consumo de electricidad y permite que al 100% de las protecciones que salen al mercado se le verifiquen todas sus especificaciones funcionales.

  12. Sistema automatizado para la determinación del estado de maduración en fruta bomba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minelkis Machado Molina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El desarrollo de tecnologías digitales y su aplicación en la agricultura brindan nuevas posibilidades de automatización de procesos tecnológicos. La investigación realizada tiene como objetivo desarrollar una herramienta informática para la determinación no destructiva del estado de maduración en fruta bomba (var. Maradol Roja. Para alcanzar dicho objetivo se emplea la metodología para el diseño del software Proceso Unificado de Desarrollo (RUP. Para el procesamiento de imágenes se utilizan técnicas de reconocimiento de patrones y para la con - vención de modos de color de RGB a Lab se entrena una red neuronal Perceptron multicapas. Entre los principales resultados se presentan la elevada dependencia entre el IC* y el estado de maduración alcanzando un R 2 de 0,91. Se establecen rangos de IC* por estado de maduración, además se obtiene el software SADEM (Sistema Automatizado para Determinar Estado de Maduración que mediante una imagen digital establece el estado de maduración de la fruta bomba variedad Maradol Roja.

  13. Building Self-Control Strength: Practicing Self-Control Leads to Improved Self-Control Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Muraven, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Self-control performance may be improved by the regular practice of small acts of self-control. Ninety-two adults’ self-control capacity was assessed using the stop signal paradigm before they started practicing self-control and again at the end of two weeks. Participants who practiced self-control by cutting back on sweets or squeezing a handgrip exhibited significant improvement in stop signal performance relative to those who practiced tasks that did not require self-control. Participants ...

  14. An Extensible Sensing and Control Platform for Building Energy Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowe, Anthony [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Berges, Mario [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Martin, Christopher [Robert Bosch LLC, Anderson, SC (United States)

    2016-04-03

    The goal of this project is to develop Mortar.io, an open-source BAS platform designed to simplify data collection, archiving, event scheduling and coordination of cross-system interactions. Mortar.io is optimized for (1) robustness to network outages, (2) ease of installation using plug-and-play and (3) scalable support for small to large buildings and campuses.

  15. Optimal, sub-optimal and adaptive control methods for the design of temperature controllers for intelligent buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaheer-Uddin, M. (Concordia Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada). Centre for Building Studies)

    1993-07-01

    The application of modern control theory to design control systems for buildings are explored. Example problems dealing with HVAC systems and indoor environment control are considered. Linear models of the systems are used to design controllers based on (i) pole-placement technique, (ii) optimal regulator theory and (iii) adaptive control. The responses of the systems subject to disturbances are investigated. The results illustrate the advantage of one method over the other and emphasize the importance of the use of improved methods to design control systems for intelligent buildings. (Author)

  16. Energy consumption and control response evaluations of AODV routing in WSANs for building-temperature control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booranawong, Apidet; Teerapabkajorndet, Wiklom; Limsakul, Chusak

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to investigate the effects of routing protocols on wireless sensor and actuator networks (WSANs), focusing on the control system response and the energy consumption of nodes in a network. We demonstrate that routing algorithms designed without considering the relationship between communication and control cannot be appropriately used in wireless networked control applications. For this purpose, an ad-hoc on-demand distance vector (AODV) routing, an IEEE 802.15.4, and a building-temperature control system are employed for this exploration. The findings from our scenarios show that the AODV routing can select a path with a high traffic load for data transmission. It takes a long time before deciding to change a new route although it experiences the unsuccessful transmission of packets. As a result, the desirable control target cannot be achieved in time, and nodes consume more energy due to frequent packet collisions and retransmissions. Consequently, we propose a simple routing solution to alleviate these research problems by modifying the original AODV routing protocol. The delay-threshold is considered to avoid any congested connection during routing procedures. The simulation results demonstrate that our solution can be appropriately applied in WSANs. Both the energy consumption and the control system response are improved. PMID:23807689

  17. Energy Consumption and Control Response Evaluations of AODV Routing in WSANs for Building-Temperature Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chusak Limsakul

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to investigate the effects of routing protocols on wireless sensor and actuator networks (WSANs, focusing on the control system response and the energy consumption of nodes in a network. We demonstrate that routing algorithms designed without considering the relationship between communication and control cannot be appropriately used in wireless networked control applications. For this purpose, an ad-hoc on-demand distance vector (AODV routing, an IEEE 802.15.4, and a building-temperature control system are employed for this exploration. The findings from our scenarios show that the AODV routing can select a path with a high traffic load for data transmission. It takes a long time before deciding to change a new route although it experiences the unsuccessful transmission of packets. As a result, the desirable control target cannot be achieved in time, and nodes consume more energy due to frequent packet collisions and retransmissions. Consequently, we propose a simple routing solution to alleviate these research problems by modifying the original AODV routing protocol. The delay-threshold is considered to avoid any congested connection during routing procedures. The simulation results demonstrate that our solution can be appropriately applied in WSANs. Both the energy consumption and the control system response are improved.

  18. The Power of Diversity: Data-Driven Robust Predictive Control for Energy Efficient Buildings and Districts

    OpenAIRE

    Darivianakis, Georgios; Georghiou, Angelos; Smith, Roy S; Lygeros, John

    2016-01-01

    The cooperative energy management of aggregated buildings has recently received a great deal of interest due to substantial potential energy savings. These gains are mainly obtained in two ways: (i) Exploiting the load shifting capabilities of the cooperative buildings; (ii) Utilizing the expensive but energy efficient equipment that is commonly shared by the building community (e.g., heat pumps, batteries and photovoltaics). Several deterministic and stochastic control schemes that strive to...

  19. Building Integrated Active Flow Control: Improving the Aerodynamic Performance of Tall Buildings Using Fluid-Based Aerodynamic Modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menicovich, David

    By 2050 an estimated 9 billion people will inhabit planet earth and almost all the growth in the next 40 years will be in urban areas putting tremendous pressure on creating sustainable cities. The rapid increase in population, rise in land value and decrease in plot sizes in cities around the world positions tall or more importantly slender buildings as the best suited building typology to address the increasingly critical demand for space in this pressing urbanization trend. However, the majority of new tall building urban developments have not followed principles of environmental and/or sustainable design and incentives to innovate, both technological and economic, are urgently required. The biggest climatic challenge to the design, construction and performance of tall buildings is wind sensitivity. This challenge is further emphasized seeing two market driven trends: on one hand as urban population grows, land value rises while plot sizes decrease; on the other, more cost effective modular construction techniques are introducing much lighter tall building structures. The combination of the two suggests a potential increase in the slenderness ratio of tall buildings (typically less than 6:1 but stretching to 20:1 in the near future) where not-so-tall but much lighter buildings will be the bulk of new construction in densely populated cities, providing affordable housing in the face of fast urbanization but also introducing wind sensitivity which was previously the problem of a very limited number of super tall buildings to a much larger number of buildings and communities. The proposed research aims to investigate a novel approach to the interaction between tall buildings and their environment. Through this approach the research proposes a new relationship between buildings and the flows around, through and inside them, where buildings could adapt to better control and manage the air flow around them, and consequently produce significant opportunities to reduce

  20. Optimization of time-delayed feedback control of seismically excited building structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue-ping LI; Wei-qiu ZHU; Zu-guang YING

    2008-01-01

    An optimization method for time-delayed feedback control of partially observable linear building structures subjected to seismic excitation is proposed. A time-delayed control problem of partially observable linear building structure under horizontal ground acceleration excitation is formulated and converted into that of completely observable linear structure by using separation principle. The time-delayed control forces are approximately expressed in terms of control forces without time delay. The control system is then governed by Ito stochastic differential equations for the conditional means of system states and then transformed into those for the conditional means of modal energies by using the stochastic averaging method for quasi-Hamiltonian systems. The control law is assumed to be modal velocity feedback control with time delay and the unknown control gains are determined by the modal performance indices. A three-storey building structure is taken as example to illustrate the proposal method and the numerical results are confirmed by using Monte Carlo simulation.

  1. The impact of indoor thermal conditions, system controls and building types on the building energy demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corgnati, Stefano Paolo; Fabrizio, Enrico; Filippi, Marco [Dipartimento di Energetica (DENER), Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino (Italy)

    2008-07-01

    It is possible to evaluate the energy demand as well as the parameters related to indoor thermal comfort through building energy simulation tools. Since energy demand for heating and cooling is directly affected by the required level of thermal comfort, the investigation of the mutual relationship between thermal comfort and energy demand (and therefore operating costs) is of the foremost importance both to define the benchmarks for energy service contracts and to calibrate the energy labelling according to European Directive 2002/92/CE. The connection between indoor thermal comfort conditions and energy demand for both heating and cooling has been analyzed in this work with reference to a set of validation tests (office buildings) derived from a European draft standard. Once a range of required acceptable indoor operative temperatures had been fixed in accordance with Fanger's theory (e.g. -0.5 < PMV < -0.5), the effective hourly comfort conditions and the energy consumptions were estimated through dynamic simulations. The same approach was then used to quantify the energy demand when the range of acceptable indoor operative temperatures was fixed in accordance with de Dear's adaptive comfort theory. (author)

  2. Robust State Feedback Control of Wind-Excited Tall Buildings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The introduction of robust control theory into structure control, as well as design procedure of stabilizing controllers for structures with parameter uncertainty and model error is discussed. A stability bound is derived from the polar decomposition of the nominal system matrix. In addition, our study shows that application of Iow pass filters avoids spillover by eliminating the unconsidered high frequency compo nents. It is demonstrated, via an example, our approach leads to excellent control result and offers far better robustness than previous solutions.

  3. Predictive Optimal Control of Active and Passive Building Thermal Storage Inventory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregor P. Henze; Moncef Krarti

    2003-12-17

    Cooling of commercial buildings contributes significantly to the peak demand placed on an electrical utility grid. Time-of-use electricity rates encourage shifting of electrical loads to off-peak periods at night and weekends. Buildings can respond to these pricing signals by shifting cooling-related thermal loads either by precooling the building's massive structure or the use of active thermal energy storage systems such as ice storage. While these two thermal batteries have been engaged separately in the past, this project investigates the merits of harnessing both storage media concurrently in the context of predictive optimal control. This topical report describes the demonstration of the model-based predictive optimal control for active and passive building thermal storage inventory in a test facility in real-time using time-of-use differentiated electricity prices without demand charges. The laboratory testing findings presented in this topical report cover the second of three project phases. The novel supervisory controller successfully executed a three-step procedure consisting of (1) short-term weather prediction, (2) optimization of control strategy over the next planning horizon using a calibrated building model, and (3) post-processing of the optimal strategy to yield a control command for the current time step that can be executed in the test facility. The primary and secondary building mechanical systems were effectively orchestrated by the model-based predictive optimal controller in real-time while observing comfort and operational constraints. The findings reveal that when the optimal controller is given imperfect weather fore-casts and when the building model used for planning control strategies does not match the actual building perfectly, measured utility costs savings relative to conventional building operation can be substantial. This requires that the facility under control lends itself to passive storage utilization and the building

  4. Are Our Buildings Safe Enough for Controlling Earthquake Mortality Risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Hing-Ho; Wenzel, Friedemann; Daniell, James

    2016-04-01

    Structural engineers design buildings strictly according to the earthquake actions (demand) specified in code of practice, whilst the rationale behind such requirement is commonly untold. In fact, even if a structure is designed strictly in accordance to the best standard and practice in the world, there is still a (small) chance of failure or collapse in an extreme earthquake event, due to the uncertainties in material properties and actual ground motion characteristics. This is called the residual risk, which is unavoidable, and should be taken as a governing parameter for determining the performance goals of seismic design. Eurocode 8 is not a risk targeted code as its design requirements refer to return periods of ground motion rather than to collapse probabilities and/or probability of fatalities. The US International Building Code (IBC 2012) and the 2010 structural design standards of ASCE 7-10 target collapse probabilities for all levels of ground motion and accept a 1% collapse probability in 50 years as acceptable for design. Consequently, the input ground motion to design is no longer a hazard map for a uniform return period. However, we show that this risk target is not generally compatible with the intention to keep the fatality risk below the 10-6 per year threshold in code-compliant buildings. Moreover, the metric of individual fatality risk may not be appropriate as for (technological) incidents many regulations define requirements for the F-N curve so that loss events with, for instance, 100 fatalities in one event should occur much less frequently than events with 10 or more fatalities.

  5. Improving existing "reaching law" for better discrete control of seismically-excited building structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhijun LI; Zichen DENG

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, a novel "composite reaching law" was explained in details: 1) the equation of discrete motion for a control system; 2) the design of discrete-time variable structure control. In addition, the model of a three-storey shear-type building structure was used to verify the effectiveness of the discrete variable structure control method. The results of numerical example analysis of the model show that the control law can effectively reduce the peak value of seismic response of the building structure and the chattering effect of the control system.

  6. Intelligent buildings, automatic fire alarm and fire-protection control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author describes in brief the intelligent buildings, and the automatic fire alarm and fire-protection control system. On the basis of the four-bus, three-bus and two-bus, a new transfer technique was developed

  7. How Easy is it to Learn a Controlled Natural Language for Building a Knowledge Base?

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Sandra; Power, Richard; Third, Allan

    2014-01-01

    Recent developments in controlled natural language editors for knowledge engineering (KE) have given rise to expectations that they will make KE tasks more accessible and perhaps even enable non-engineers to build knowledge bases. This exploratory research focussed on novices and experts in knowledge engineering during their attempts to learn a controlled natural language (CNL) known as OWL Simplified English and use it to build a small knowledge base. Participants' behaviours during the task...

  8. A Remote Monitoring and Control System for Cultural Heritage Buildings Utilizing Wireless Sensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Jingcheng

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation presents the study of a wireless remote monitoring and control system utilized for cultural heritage preservation purpose. The system uses wireless sensor networks to remotely monitor and control the indoor climate, i.e., temperature and relative humidity of the cultural buildings. The system mainly consists of three parts, i.e., the wireless sensor network part, the gateway part and the web service part. Wireless sensor networks are deployed in different cultural buildings....

  9. Development of work safety and quality control on a building site

    OpenAIRE

    Kotov, Denis

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the investigation was to define work safety and quality control procedures on building site in the earliest stages of housing construction. Also the aim was to find out the problems, which interfere proper realization of work safety and quality control and give suggestions on what improvement measures should be taken. The Thesis was written for the company NCC Construction in Russia. To get right results it was necessary to study state building norms and regulations and oth...

  10. Indoor environmental quality (IEQ) and building energy optimization through model predictive control (MPC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woldekidan, Korbaga

    This dissertation aims at developing a novel and systematic approach to apply Model Predictive Control (MPC) to improve energy efficiency and indoor environmental quality in office buildings. Model predictive control is one of the advanced optimal control approaches that use models to predict the behavior of the process beyond the current time to optimize the system operation at the present time. In building system, MPC helps to exploit buildings' thermal storage capacity and to use the information on future disturbances like weather and internal heat gains to estimate optimal control inputs ahead of time. In this research the major challenges of applying MPC to building systems are addressed. A systematic framework has been developed for ease of implementation. New methods are proposed to develop simple and yet reasonably accurate models that can minimize the MPC development effort as well as computational time. The developed MPC is used to control a detailed building model represented by whole building performance simulation tool, EnergyPlus. A co-simulation strategy is used to communicate the MPC control developed in Matlab platform with the case building model in EnergyPlus. The co-simulation tool used (MLE+) also has the ability to talk to actual building management systems that support the BACnet communication protocol which makes it easy to implement the developed MPC control in actual buildings. A building that features an integrated lighting and window control and HVAC system with a dedicated outdoor air system and ceiling radiant panels was used as a case building. Though this study is specifically focused on the case building, the framework developed can be applied to any building type. The performance of the developed MPC was compared against a baseline control strategy using Proportional Integral and Derivative (PID) control. Various conventional and advanced thermal comfort as well as ventilation strategies were considered for the comparison. These

  11. Model-based and model-free “plug-and-play” building energy efficient control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • “Plug-and-play” Building Optimization and Control (BOC) driven by building data. • Ability to handle the large-scale and complex nature of the BOC problem. • Adaptation to learn the optimal BOC policy when no building model is available. • Comparisons with rule-based and advanced BOC strategies. • Simulation and real-life experiments in a ten-office building. - Abstract: Considerable research efforts in Building Optimization and Control (BOC) have been directed toward the development of “plug-and-play” BOC systems that can achieve energy efficiency without compromising thermal comfort and without the need of qualified personnel engaged in a tedious and time-consuming manual fine-tuning phase. In this paper, we report on how a recently introduced Parametrized Cognitive Adaptive Optimization – abbreviated as PCAO – can be used toward the design of both model-based and model-free “plug-and-play” BOC systems, with minimum human effort required to accomplish the design. In the model-based case, PCAO assesses the performance of its control strategy via a simulation model of the building dynamics; in the model-free case, PCAO optimizes its control strategy without relying on any model of the building dynamics. Extensive simulation and real-life experiments performed on a 10-office building demonstrate the effectiveness of the PCAO–BOC system in providing significant energy efficiency and improved thermal comfort. The mechanisms embedded within PCAO render it capable of automatically and quickly learning an efficient BOC strategy either in the presence of complex nonlinear simulation models of the building dynamics (model-based) or when no model for the building dynamics is available (model-free). Comparative studies with alternative state-of-the-art BOC systems show the effectiveness of the PCAO–BOC solution

  12. Design criteria for lighting and controls modifications OSW, CTF, COS buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-08-01

    This project will retrofit the lighting systems in three (3) buildings at the Mound Plant. The buildings are Central Operational Support (COS), Component Test Facility (CTF) and operational Support West (OSW). This project consists of the installation of occupancy sensors in private offices, break areas and laboratories, automatic control lighting, (occupied/unoccupied) with the existing DDC system, removing selected light fixtures, replacing incandescent lighting and reprogramming some of the software controlling the operation of the air handling units in the a forementioned buildings.

  13. Accounting for control and trust building in interfirm transactional relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vosselman, E.G.J.; van der Meer-Kooistra, J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper theorises the accounting-control-trust nexus in interfirm transactional relationships. In the context of such relationships, accounting has predominantly been conceptualised as a control technology. However, in our paper we analyse stable and durable relationships as being the results of

  14. Fixed-Order Mixed Norm Designs for Building Vibration Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whorton, Mark S.; Calise, Anthony J.

    2000-01-01

    This study investigates the use of H2, mu-synthesis, and mixed H2/mu methods to construct full order controllers and optimized controllers of fixed dimensions. The benchmark problem definition is first extended to include uncertainty within the controller bandwidth in the form of parametric uncertainty representative of uncertainty in the natural frequencies of the design model. The sensitivity of H2 design to unmodeled dynamics and parametric uncertainty is evaluated for a range of controller levels of authority. Next, mu-synthesis methods are applied to design full order compensators that are robust to both unmodeled dynamics and to parametric uncertainty. Finally, a set of mixed H2/mu compensators are designed which are optimized for a fixed compensator dimension. These mixed norm designs recover the H2 design performance levels while providing the same levels of robust stability as the mu designs. It is shown that designing with the mixed norm approach permits higher levels of controller authority for which the H2 designs are destabilizing. The benchmark problem is that of an active tendon system. The controller designs are all based on the use of acceleration feedback.

  15. Thermomechanically-controlled Processing for Producing Ship-building Steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Basu

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The thermomechanically-controlled processing of a newly developed high-strength lowalloy steel has been designed in such a way that the problems, normally faced in producing thequench and tempered steels, have been mitigated and the final product (steel plates are available in as rolled condition rather than quench and tempered steels.A low-carbon, low-alloy steel having nickel, chromium, copper, niobium, boron, has been designed for ease of welding, improved weldability over the conventional steels, and responsiveto the thermomechanically-controlled processing. A number of laboratory-scale batches of the alloy were made with different combinations of thermomechanically-controlled processingparameters. The different thermomechanically-controlled processing parameters studied include (i slab-reheating temperature,~ (ii. def.orm ation above recrvstallisation temperature, (iiideformation below recrystallisation temperature, and (iv finish-rolling temperature. The thermomechanically-processed steel plates, under certain combinations of  thermomechanically-controlled ~rocessi-ne.o arameters. showed excellent combination of imvact and tensile n.r on. erties. In this paper, the microstructure-property correlation has been made to throw light on the type of microstructure required to obtain such superior package of mechanical properties. Further, the optimised laboratory-scale thermomechanically-controlled processing parameters, which were used to process newer hatches of the steel made through industrial route, have delivered encouraging results.

  16. A neural network controller for hydronic heating systems of solar buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argiriou, Athanassios A; Bellas-Velidis, Ioannis; Kummert, Michaël; André, Philippe

    2004-04-01

    An artificial neural network (ANN)-based controller for hydronic heating plants of buildings is presented. The controller has forecasting capabilities: it includes a meteorological module, forecasting the ambient temperature and solar irradiance, an indoor temperature predictor module, a supply temperature predictor module and an optimizing module for the water supply temperature. All ANN modules are based on the Feed Forward Back Propagation (FFBP) model. The operation of the controller has been tested experimentally, on a real-scale office building during real operating conditions. The operation results were compared to those of a conventional controller. The performance was also assessed via numerical simulation. The detailed thermal simulation tool for solar systems and buildings TRNSYS was used. Both experimental and numerical results showed that the expected percentage of energy savings with respect to a conventional controller is of about 15% under North European weather conditions. PMID:15037359

  17. Application of modern control theory for building structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basharkhah, M. A.; Yao, J. T. P.

    The design of feedback compensators is considered for linear and constant-coefficient multivariable systems and an attempt is made to find a suitable gain matrix for active control of structures. The application of the pole-assignment method is discussed. It is based on the shifting of open-loop poles to the left side of the s-plane, and is applicable to mechanical and electrical systems. The second method developed in this study provides a physical understanding of the active control of civil engineering structures because it allows control of several modes of the system. The K matrix of the control law can be found so that the first few modes of the system have smaller displacements than the corresponding displacements of the original system. Therefore, more modes of higher gain can be used to substantially reduce system displacements. Because the pole-assignment method will not always significantly reduce displacements, the second method is found to be better for the control of civil engineering structures.

  18. Building beauty: the genetic control of floral patterning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohmann, J. U., and Weigel, D.

    2002-02-01

    OAK-B135 Floral organ identity is controlled by combinatorial action of homeotic genes expressed in different territories within the emerging flower. This review discusses recent progress in our understanding of floral homeotic genes, with an emphasis on how their region-specific expression is regulated.

  19. Cost Control Best Practices for Net Zero Energy Building Projects: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leach, M.; Pless, S.; Torcellini, P.

    2014-02-01

    For net zero energy (NZE) buildings to become the norm in commercial construction, it will be necessary to design and construct these buildings cost effectively. While industry leaders have developed workflows (for procurement, design, and construction) to achieve cost-effective NZE buildings for certain cases, the expertise embodied in those workflows has limited penetration within the commercial building sector. Documenting cost control best practices of industry leaders in NZE and packaging those strategies for adoption by the commercial building sector will help make the business case for NZE. Furthermore, it will promote market uptake of the innovative technologies and design approaches needed to achieve NZE. This paper summarizes successful cost control strategies for NZE procurement, design, and construction that key industry users (such as building owners, architects, and designers) can incorporate into their everyday workflows. It will also evaluate the current state of NZE economics and propose a path forward for greater market penetration of NZE buildings. By demonstrating how to combine NZE technologies and design approaches into an overall efficiency package that can be implemented at minimal (zero, in certain cases) incremental capital cost, the domain of NZE design and construction can be expanded from a niche market to the commercial construction mainstream.

  20. Control, Communication, and Knowledge-Building in Asian Call Centers

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Lombard

    2015-01-01

    Communication within international call centers can be significantly complicated by breakdowns that result from multiple layers of corporate language.  This case study explores training sessions and documentation developed and delivered by an American team responsible for training international call center workers located in the Philippines.  Findings show that attempts to standardize and control workplace language can limit meaningful two-way communication, leaving workers to both question w...

  1. Proactive control for solar energy exploitation: A german high-inertia building case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Solar gains exploitation by utilizing large glass facades and concrete core thermal energy storing capacity. • Efficient Building Energy Management in a well-insulated modern building construction. • Energy consumption reduction by maintaining user comfort. • High inertia large scale office building test case, located in Germany. - Abstract: Energy efficient passive designs and constructions have been extensively studied in the last decades as a way to improve the ability of a building to store thermal energy, increase its thermal mass, increase passive insulation and reduce heat losses. However, many studies show that passive thermal designs alone are not enough to fully exploit the potential for energy efficiency in buildings: in fact, harmonizing the active elements for indoor thermal comfort with the passive design of the building can lead to further improvements in both energy efficiency and comfort. These improvements can be achieved via the design of appropriate Building Optimization and Control (BOC) systems, a task which is more complex in high-inertia buildings than in conventional ones. This is because high thermal mass implies a high memory, so that wrong control decisions will have negative repercussions over long time horizons. The design of proactive control strategies with the capability of acting in advance of a future situation, rather than just reacting to current conditions, is of crucial importance for a full exploitation of the capabilities of a high-inertia building. This paper applies a simulation-assisted control methodology to a high-inertia building in Kassel, Germany. A simulation model of the building is used to proactively optimize, using both current and future information about the external weather condition and the building state, a combined criterion composed of the energy consumption and the thermal comfort index. Both extensive simulation as well as real-life experiments performed during the unstable German

  2. A Distributed Multi-agent Control System for Power Consumption in Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kosek, Anna Magdalena; Gehrke, Oliver

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a distributed controller for adjusting the electrical consumption of a residential building in response to an external power setpoint in Watts. The controller is based on a multi-agent system and has been implemented in JCSP. It is modularly built, capable of self-configuratio...

  3. Transaction-based building controls framework, Volume 2: Platform descriptive model and requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akyol, Bora A. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Haack, Jereme N. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Carpenter, Brandon J. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Katipamula, Srinivas [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lutes, Robert G. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hernandez, George [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-07-31

    Transaction-based Building Controls (TBC) offer a control systems platform that provides an agent execution environment that meets the growing requirements for security, resource utilization, and reliability. This report outlines the requirements for a platform to meet these needs and describes an illustrative/exemplary implementation.

  4. Hydronic Heating Retrofits for Low-Rise Multifamily Buildings: Boiler Control Replacement and Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dentz, Jordan [ARIES Collaborative, New York, NY (United States); Henderson, Hugh [ARIES Collaborative, New York, NY (United States); Varshney, Kapil [ARIES Collaborative, New York, NY (United States)

    2013-10-01

    The ARIES Collaborative, a U.S. Department of Energy Building America research team, partnered with NeighborWorks America affiliate Homeowners' Rehab Inc. of Cambridge, Massachusetts, to implement and study improvements to the central hydronic heating system in one of the nonprofit's housing developments. The heating control systems in the three-building, 42-unit Columbia Cambridge Alliance for Spanish Tenants housing development were upgraded.

  5. Identification of Energy Efficiency Opportunities through Building Data Analysis and Achieving Energy Savings through Improved Controls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katipamula, Srinivas; Taasevigen, Danny J.; Koran, Bill

    2014-09-04

    This chapter will highlight analysis techniques to identify energy efficiency opportunities to improve operations and controls. A free tool, Energy Charting and Metrics (ECAM), will be used to assist in the analysis of whole-building, sub-metered, and/or data from the building automation system (BAS). Appendix A describes the features of ECAM in more depth, and also provide instructions for downloading ECAM and all resources pertaining to using ECAM.

  6. Energy efficient model based algorithm for control of building HVAC systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirubakaran, V; Sahu, Chinmay; Radhakrishnan, T K; Sivakumaran, N

    2015-11-01

    Energy efficient designs are receiving increasing attention in various fields of engineering. Heating ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) control system designs involve improved energy usage with an acceptable relaxation in thermal comfort. In this paper, real time data from a building HVAC system provided by BuildingLAB is considered. A resistor-capacitor (RC) framework for representing thermal dynamics of the building is estimated using particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm. With objective costs as thermal comfort (deviation of room temperature from required temperature) and energy measure (Ecm) explicit MPC design for this building model is executed based on its state space representation of the supply water temperature (input)/room temperature (output) dynamics. The controllers are subjected to servo tracking and external disturbance (ambient temperature) is provided from the real time data during closed loop control. The control strategies are ported on a PIC32mx series microcontroller platform. The building model is implemented in MATLAB and hardware in loop (HIL) testing of the strategies is executed over a USB port. Results indicate that compared to traditional proportional integral (PI) controllers, the explicit MPC's improve both energy efficiency and thermal comfort significantly.

  7. Energy efficient model based algorithm for control of building HVAC systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirubakaran, V; Sahu, Chinmay; Radhakrishnan, T K; Sivakumaran, N

    2015-11-01

    Energy efficient designs are receiving increasing attention in various fields of engineering. Heating ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) control system designs involve improved energy usage with an acceptable relaxation in thermal comfort. In this paper, real time data from a building HVAC system provided by BuildingLAB is considered. A resistor-capacitor (RC) framework for representing thermal dynamics of the building is estimated using particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm. With objective costs as thermal comfort (deviation of room temperature from required temperature) and energy measure (Ecm) explicit MPC design for this building model is executed based on its state space representation of the supply water temperature (input)/room temperature (output) dynamics. The controllers are subjected to servo tracking and external disturbance (ambient temperature) is provided from the real time data during closed loop control. The control strategies are ported on a PIC32mx series microcontroller platform. The building model is implemented in MATLAB and hardware in loop (HIL) testing of the strategies is executed over a USB port. Results indicate that compared to traditional proportional integral (PI) controllers, the explicit MPC's improve both energy efficiency and thermal comfort significantly. PMID:25869418

  8. FRF-based structural damage detection of controlled buildings with podium structures: Experimental investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Y. L.; Huang, Q.; Zhan, S.; Su, Z. Q.; Liu, H. J.

    2014-06-01

    How to use control devices to enhance system identification and damage detection in relation to a structure that requires both vibration control and structural health monitoring is an interesting yet practical topic. In this study, the possibility of using the added stiffness provided by control devices and frequency response functions (FRFs) to detect damage in a building complex was explored experimentally. Scale models of a 12-storey main building and a 3-storey podium structure were built to represent a building complex. Given that the connection between the main building and the podium structure is most susceptible to damage, damage to the building complex was experimentally simulated by changing the connection stiffness. To simulate the added stiffness provided by a semi-active friction damper, a steel circular ring was designed and used to add the related stiffness to the building complex. By varying the connection stiffness using an eccentric wheel excitation system and by adding or not adding the circular ring, eight cases were investigated and eight sets of FRFs were measured. The experimental results were used to detect damage (changes in connection stiffness) using a recently proposed FRF-based damage detection method. The experimental results showed that the FRF-based damage detection method could satisfactorily locate and quantify damage.

  9. Control, Communication, and Knowledge-Building in Asian Call Centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lombard

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Communication within international call centers can be significantly complicated by breakdowns that result from multiple layers of corporate language.  This case study explores training sessions and documentation developed and delivered by an American team responsible for training international call center workers located in the Philippines.  Findings show that attempts to standardize and control workplace language can limit meaningful two-way communication, leaving workers to both question what they are told and invent new ways of communicating.  Recommendations are presented in this study for a workplace writing model that can overcome language differences through authentic interaction.

  10. Theoretical and practical exploration of vision building in human influenza pandemic prevention & control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PengKong; YanKong; XuJiang; XiaohuaWang

    2010-01-01

    This article introduced the vision building concept about human influenza pandemic prevention and control. Different visions were built by creating different shapes of building blocks which also represented different organizations and physical facilities, respectively. The around-view reflection is required to be developed in the process of building so as to search for the ideal pattern. The correlation of all sectors and systems are established to combine different kinds of things, from one family to another, from communities, towns, counties, cities, rural areas, provinces to the state to handle trivial problems. These training objectives have been successfully accomplished, which has not only enriched the knowledge about prevention and control of influenza pandemic between different departments but also clarified the roles and responsibility. It lays the firm foundation for next cooperation between different departments, and make a bridge for the objective and choice of channel over human influenza pandemic prevention and control.

  11. A Modular Building Controls Virtual Test Bed for the Integrations of Heterogeneous Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetter, Michael; Wetter, Michael; Haves, Philip

    2008-06-30

    This paper describes the Building Controls Virtual Test Bed (BCVTB) that is currently under development at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. An earlier prototype linked EnergyPlus with controls hardware through embedded SPARK models and demonstrated its value in more cost-effective envelope design and improved controls sequences for the San Francisco Federal Building. The BCVTB presented here is a more modular design based on a middleware that we built using Ptolemy II, a modular software environment for design and analysis of heterogeneous systems. Ptolemy II provides a graphical model building environment, synchronizes the exchanged data and visualizes the system evolution during run-time. Our additions to Ptolemy II allow users to couple to Ptolemy II a prototype version of EnergyPlus,MATLAB/Simulink or other simulation programs for data exchange during run-time. In future work we will also implement a BACnet interface that allows coupling BACnet compliant building automation systems to Ptolemy II. We will present the architecture of the BCVTB and explain how users can add their own simulation programs to the BCVTB. We will then present an example application in which the building envelope and the HVAC system was simulated in EnergyPlus, the supervisory control logic was simulated in MATLAB/Simulink and Ptolemy II was used to exchange data during run-time and to provide realtime visualization as the simulation progresses.

  12. Energy-Efficient and Comfortable Buildings through Multivariate Integrated Control (ECoMIC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birru, Dagnachew [Philips Electronics North America Corporation, Andover, MA (United States); Wen, Yao-Jung [Philips Electronics North America Corporation, Andover, MA (United States); Rubinstein, Francis M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Clear, Robert D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-10-28

    This project aims to develop an integrated control solution for enhanced energy efficiency and user comfort in commercial buildings. The developed technology is a zone-based control framework that minimizes energy usage while maintaining occupants’ visual and thermal comfort through control of electric lights, motorized venetian blinds and thermostats. The control framework is designed following a modular, scalable and flexible architecture to facilitate easy integration with exiting building management systems. The control framework contains two key algorithms: 1) the lighting load balancing algorithm and 2) the thermostat control algorithm. The lighting load balancing algorithm adopts a model-based closed-loop control approach to determine the optimal electric light and venetian blind settings. It is formulated into an optimization problem with minimizing lighting-related energy consumptions as the objective and delivering adequate task light and preventing daylight glare as the constraints. The thermostat control algorithm is based on a well-established thermal comfort model and formulated as a root-finding problem to dynamically determine the optimal thermostat setpoint for both energy savings and improved thermal comfort. To address building-wide scalability, a system architecture was developed for the zone-based control technology. Three levels of services are defined in the architecture: external services, facility level services and zone level services. The zone-level service includes the control algorithms described above as well as the corresponding interfaces, profiles, sensors and actuators to realize the zone controller. The facility level services connect to the zones through a backbone network, handle supervisory level information and controls, and thus facilitate building-wide scalability. The external services provide communication capability to entities outside of the building for grid interaction and remote access. Various aspects of the

  13. Automated System of Area Radiation Measurement (ASARM); Sistema Automatizado de Medicion de Radiacion de Area (SAMRA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez G, J., E-mail: jaime.hernandez@inin.gob.mx [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2013-10-15

    in the moment in that the predetermined shot values are reached. These alarms are located in the control room. (author)

  14. LQG Control of Along-Wind Response of a Tall Building with an ATMD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki-Pyo You

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern tall buildings use lighter construction materials that have high strength and less stiffness and are more flexible. Although this results in the improvement of structural safety, excessive wind-induced excitations could lead to occupant discomfort. The optimal control law of a linear quadratic Gaussian (LQG controller with an active tuned mass damper (ATMD is used for reducing the along-wind response of a tall building. ATMD consists of a second mass with optimum parameters for tuning frequency and damping ratio of the tuned mass damper (TMD, under the stationary random load, was used. A fluctuating along-wind load, acting on a tall building, was treated as a stationary Gaussian white noise and was simulated numerically, in the time domain, using the along-wind load spectra proposed by G. Solari in 1993. Using this simulated wind load, it was possible to calculate the along-wind responses of a tall building (with and without the ATMD, using an LQG controller. Comparing the RMS (root mean square response revealed that the numerically simulated along-wind responses, without ATMD, are a good approximation to the closed form response, and that the reduced responses with ATMD and LQG controller were estimated by varying the values of control design parameters.

  15. Building-Related Symptoms, Energy, and Thermal Control in the Workplace: Personal and Open Plan Offices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sally S. Shahzad

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study compared building-related symptoms in personal and open plan offices, where high and low levels of control over the thermal environment were provided, respectively. The individualized approach in Norway provided every user with a personal office, where they had control over an openable window, door, blinds, and thermostat. In contrast, the open plan case studies in the United Kingdom provided control over openable windows and blinds only for limited occupants seated around the perimeter of the building, with users seated away from the windows having no means of environmental control. Air conditioning was deployed in the Norwegian case study buildings, while displacement ventilation and natural ventilation were utilized in the British examples. Field studies of thermal comfort were applied with questionnaires, environmental measurements, and interviews. Users’ health was better in the Norwegian model (28%, while the British model was much more energy efficient (up to 10 times. The follow-up interviews confirmed the effect of lack of thermal control on users’ health. A balanced appraisal was made of energy performance and users’ health between the two buildings.

  16. Preliminary evaluation of radiation control coatings for energy conservation in buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, R.W. [Anderson (Robert W.) and Associates, Inc., Boulder City, NV (United States)

    1992-02-01

    Radiation Control Coatings (RCCs) applied to external building surfaces can reflect about 85 percent of the solar heating from the surfaces of buildings. Since in warm climates, solar heating is the primary source of heat gain through walls and roofs, RCC technology represents an alternative or adjunct to conventional thermal control methods (e.g., thermal insulation) for opaque building components. The primary objectives of this project were to: (1) obtain solar and infrared reflectance data for representative RCC products, (2) evaluate test methods for measurement of the radiative properties of RCCs, (3) calculate the changes in heat flow attributed to RCCs in flat roof applications in several geographic locations, and (4) compare field tests and calculated thermal performance of an RCC in a flat roof configuration. Data are presented for the radiative properties of five commercially available RCC products as determined by several test methods. The potential energy benefits of RCCs are presented for flat roofs in both warm and cold climates.

  17. Control of wind-induced vibration of long-span bridges and tall buildings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Ming

    2007-01-01

    With the rapid increase in scales of structures,research on controlling wind-induced vibration of large-scale structures,such as long-span bridges and super-tall buildings,has been an issue of great concern.For wind-induced vibration of large-scale structures,vibration frequencies and damping modes vary with wind speed.Passive,semiactive,and active control strategies are developed to improve the windresistance performance of the structures in this paper.The multiple tuned mass damper (MTMD) system is applied to control vertical bending buffeting response.A new semiactive lever-type tuned mass damper (TMD) with an adjustable frequency is proposed to control vertical bending buffeting and torsional buffeting and flutter in the whole velocity range of bridge decks.A control strategy named sinusoidal reference strategy is developed for adaptive control of wind-induced vibration of super-tall buildings.Multiple degrees of freedom general building aeroelastic model with a square cross-section is tested in a wind tunnel.The results demonstrate that the proposed strategies can reduce vibration effectively,and can adapt to wind-induced vibration control of large-scale structures in the uncertain dynamic circumstance.

  18. Automatic slope monitoring systems at As Pontes mine. Sistema de control automatizado de taludes de la mina de As Pontes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arias, G.; de Pozo, D. (ENDESA, Madrid (Spain))

    1992-04-01

    As Pontes mine belonging to ENDESA is situated in the north-west of the province of La Coruna. The deposit is brown lignite with an average annual production of 12 mt of mineral and 40 million cubic metres of dirt. The surface area is approximately 9 square kilometres and its depth 200 m at level 1. The structure and geology of the deposit means that the layout of the workings (selected according to geotechnical considerations, methods of working and profitability) calls for accurately-designed slopes which require stringent geotechnical monitoring in order to prevent deformation. 8 figs.

  19. Technology Solutions Case Study: Boiler Control Replacement for Hydronically Heated Multifamily Buildings, Cambridge, Massachusetts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-11-01

    The ARIES Collaborative, a U.S. Department of Energy Building America research team, partnered with NeighborWorks America affiliate Homeowners' Rehab Inc. (HRI) of Cambridge, Massachusetts, to study improvements to the central hydronic heating system in one of the nonprofit's housing developments. The heating controls in the three-building, 42-unit Columbia Cambridge Alliance for Spanish Tenants housing development were upgraded. Fuel use in the development was excessive compared to similar properties. A poorly insulated thermal envelope contributed to high energy bills, but adding wall insulation was not cost-effective or practical. The more cost-effective option was improving heating system efficiency, which faced several obstacles, including inflexible boiler controls and failed thermostatic radiator valves. Boiler controls were replaced with systems that offer temperature setbacks and one that controls heat based on apartment temperature in addition to outdoor temperature. Utility bill analysis shows that post-retrofit weather-normalized heating energy use was reduced by 10%-31% (average of 19%). Indoor temperature cutoff reduced boiler runtime (and therefore heating fuel consumption) by 28% in the one building in which it was implemented. Nearly all savings were obtained during night which had a lower indoor temperature cut off (68°F) than day (73° F). This implies that the outdoor reset curve was appropriately adjusted for this building for daytime operation. Nighttime setback of heating system supply water temperature had no discernable impact on boiler runtime or gas bills.

  20. Hydronic Heating Retrofits for Low-Rise Multifamily Buildings: Boiler Control Replacement and Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dentz, J.; Henderson, H.; Varshney, K.

    2014-09-01

    The ARIES Collaborative, a U.S. Department of Energy Building America research team, partnered with NeighborWorks America affiliate Homeowners' Rehab Inc. (HRI) of Cambridge, Massachusetts, to study improvements to the central hydronic heating system in one of the nonprofit's housing developments. The heating controls in the three-building, 42-unit Columbia Cambridge Alliance for Spanish Tenants housing development were upgraded. Fuel use in the development was excessive compared to similar properties. A poorly insulated thermal envelope contributed to high energy bills, but adding wall insulation was not cost-effective or practical. The more cost-effective option was improving heating system efficiency. Efficient operation of the heating system faced several obstacles, including inflexible boiler controls and failed thermostatic radiator valves. Boiler controls were replaced with systems that offer temperature setbacks and one that controls heat based on apartment temperature in addition to outdoor temperature. Utility bill analysis shows that post-retrofit weather-normalized heating energy use was reduced by 10%-31% (average of 19%). Indoor temperature cutoff reduced boiler runtime (and therefore heating fuel consumption) by 28% in the one building in which it was implemented. Nearly all savings were obtained during night which had a lower indoor temperature cut off (68 degrees F) than day (73 degrees F). This implies that the outdoor reset curve was appropriately adjusted for this building for daytime operation. Nighttime setback of heating system supply water temperature had no discernable impact on boiler runtime or gas bills.

  1. Predictive Optimal Control of Active and Passive Building Thermal Storage Inventory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregor P. Henze; Moncef Krarti

    2005-09-30

    Cooling of commercial buildings contributes significantly to the peak demand placed on an electrical utility grid. Time-of-use electricity rates encourage shifting of electrical loads to off-peak periods at night and weekends. Buildings can respond to these pricing signals by shifting cooling-related thermal loads either by precooling the building's massive structure or the use of active thermal energy storage systems such as ice storage. While these two thermal batteries have been engaged separately in the past, this project investigated the merits of harnessing both storage media concurrently in the context of predictive optimal control. To pursue the analysis, modeling, and simulation research of Phase 1, two separate simulation environments were developed. Based on the new dynamic building simulation program EnergyPlus, a utility rate module, two thermal energy storage models were added. Also, a sequential optimization approach to the cost minimization problem using direct search, gradient-based, and dynamic programming methods was incorporated. The objective function was the total utility bill including the cost of reheat and a time-of-use electricity rate either with or without demand charges. An alternative simulation environment based on TRNSYS and Matlab was developed to allow for comparison and cross-validation with EnergyPlus. The initial evaluation of the theoretical potential of the combined optimal control assumed perfect weather prediction and match between the building model and the actual building counterpart. The analysis showed that the combined utilization leads to cost savings that is significantly greater than either storage but less than the sum of the individual savings. The findings reveal that the cooling-related on-peak electrical demand of commercial buildings can be considerably reduced. A subsequent analysis of the impact of forecasting uncertainty in the required short-term weather forecasts determined that it takes only very

  2. Control of City Shallow Buried Tunnel Blasting Hazard to Surface Buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Yang Deqiang; Chi Enan; Ji Yucheng; Liu Jia; Wang Xuguang; Zhao Mingsheng; Tao Tiejun; Wang Yang

    2015-01-01

    Combining with the blasting test of an under-construction tunnel, this paper optimizes the overall blasting construction scheme. The optimized blasting scheme is used in the site construction test and the peak particle vibration velocity is strictly controlled under working conditions through blasting vibration monitoring to ensure the safety of surrounding buildings and structures in the construction process. The corresponding control measures are proposed to reduce the blasting vibration wh...

  3. Control of City Shallow Buried Tunnel Blasting Hazard to Surface Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Deqiang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Combining with the blasting test of an under-construction tunnel, this paper optimizes the overall blasting construction scheme. The optimized blasting scheme is used in the site construction test and the peak particle vibration velocity is strictly controlled under working conditions through blasting vibration monitoring to ensure the safety of surrounding buildings and structures in the construction process. The corresponding control measures are proposed to reduce the blasting vibration which brings certain guiding significance to the following construction project.

  4. Regulation and control of thermally activated building systems; Regelung und Steuerung von thermoaktiven Bauteilsystemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toedtli, Juerg [Consulting Juerg Toedtli, Zuerich (Switzerland); Gwerder, Markus; Renggli, Franz; Guentensperger, Werner [Siemens Building Technologies, Zug (Switzerland); Lehmann, Beat; Dorer, Viktor [EMPA, Duebendorf (Switzerland). Abt. Building Technologies; Hildebrand, Kurt [Hochschule Luzern - Technik und Architektur, Horw (Switzerland)

    2009-11-15

    Thermally activated building systems (TABS) are becoming increasingly important in terms of energy efficient cooling and heating of buildings. In practice, however, regulation and control of such systems often causes problems. Started five years ago with the aim of getting to grips with these problems, the TABS Control research project was completed in early 2009. The project yielded the following results: various models and simulation programs for TABS; performance-bound calculations for regulating zones; a range of zone regulation/control strategies for planners to choose from, including good solutions for automatic switching between heating and cooling, for pulsed operation of the zone pump and for room temperature control; the implementation of a subset of these strategies as standard solutions in a Siemens building automation system; laboratory tests on these strategies; a new procedure for the integrated planning of TABS and their regulation/control (referred to as UBB planning procedure - Unknown But Bounded); an Excel planning tool; guidelines on selecting the hydraulic switching topology; a method for operation optimization; the theoretical basis for the new integrated planning procedure and the new regulation/ control strategies; a patent application.

  5. Comparing Whole Building Energy Implications of Sidelighting Systems with Alternate Manual Blind Control Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Dyke

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Currently, there is no manual blind control guideline used consistently throughout the energy modeling community. This paper identifies and compares five manual blind control algorithms with unique control patterns and reports blind occlusion, rate of change data, and annual building energy consumption. The blind control schemes detailed here represent five reasonable candidates for use in lighting and energy simulation based on difference driving factors. This study was performed on a medium-sized office building using EnergyPlus with the internal daylight harvesting engine. Results show that applying manual blind control algorithms affects the total annual consumption of the building by as much as 12.5% and 11.5% for interior and exterior blinds respectively, compared to the Always Retracted blinds algorithm. Peak demand was also compared showing blind algorithms affected zone load sizing by as much as 9.8%. The alternate algorithms were tested for their impact on American Society of Heating, Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE Guideline 14 calibration metrics and all models were found to differ from the original calibrated baseline by more than the recommended ±15% for coefficient of variance of the mean square error (CVRMSE and ±5% for normalized mean bias error (NMBE. The paper recommends that energy modelers use one or more manual blind control algorithms during design stages when making decisions about energy efficiency and other design alternatives.

  6. Advanced Sensors and Controls for Building Applications: Market Assessment and Potential R&D Pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brambley, Michael R.; Haves, Philip; McDonald, Sean C.; Torcellini, Paul; Hansen, David G.; Holmberg, David; Roth, Kurt

    2005-04-13

    Significant energy savings can be achieved in commercial building operation, along with increased comfort and control for occupants, through the implementation of advanced technologies. This document provides a market assessment of existing building sensors and controls and presents a range of technology pathways (R&D options) for pursuing advanced sensors and building control strategies. This paper is actually a synthesis of five other white papers: the first describes the market assessment including estimates of market potential and energy savings for sensors and control strategies currently on the market as well as a discussion of market barriers to these technologies. The other four cover technology pathways: (1) current applications and strategies for new applications, (2) sensors and controls, (3) networking, security, and protocols and standards, and (4) automated diagnostics, performance monitoring, commissioning, optimal control and tools. Each technology pathway chapter gives an overview of the technology or application. This is followed by a discussion of needs and the current status of the technology. Finally, a series of research topics is proposed.

  7. Demand management through centralized control system using power line communication for existing buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A pilot system was developed for demand management of equipment in buildings. • The networking was based on LonWorks platform and power line communication. • Demand strategies led to load reductions up to 74% and energy savings up to 25%. • The peak load reduction is expected to reach 3.44 GW by the year 2030. - Abstract: Managing peak demand efficiently is vital for maintaining uninterrupted supply of electrical power by utility providers. In this work, a pilot system was developed for managing and controlling the demand of major power consuming equipment in buildings from a central server, while relying mostly on existing infrastructure and maintaining consumer comfort. The system was successfully demonstrated on a selected group of buildings using the LonWorks networking platform. At the building level, the system utilized power line and twisted pair communication to control the thermostats of air-conditioning (A/C) units. The higher level communication was executed through extensible markup language (XML) and simple object access protocol (SOAP). The system provided control capabilities based on A/C unit priority, thermostat temperature, building type and geographic location. The development and execution of demand management strategies for selected buildings led to peak load reductions up to 74%, in addition to energy savings up to 25%. Implementing such a system at a national level in Kuwait is estimated to reduce peak demand by 3.44 GW, amounting to capital savings of $4.13 billion. The use of existing infrastructure reduced the cost and installation time of the system. Based on the successful testing of this pilot system, a larger-scale system is being developed

  8. Dynamics and Control of High-Rise Buildings under Multidirectional Wind Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aly Mousaad Aly

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a procedure for the response prediction and reduction in high-rise buildings under multidirectional wind loads. The procedure is applied to a very slender tall building that is instructive. The structure is exposed to both cross-wind and along-wind loads obtained from pressure measurements on a rigid model (scaled 1 : 100 that was tested in a wind tunnel with two different configurations of the surroundings. In the theoretical formulation, dynamic equations of the structure are introduced by finite element and 3D lumped mass modeling. The lateral responses of the building in the two directions are controlled at the same time using tuned mass dampers (TMDs and active tuned mass dampers (ATMDs commanded by LQR and fuzzy logic controllers, while the effects of the uncontrolled torsional response of the structure are simultaneously considered. Besides their simplicity, fuzzy logic controllers showed similar trend as LQR controllers under multidirectional wind loads. Nevertheless, the procedure presented in this study can help decision makers, involved in the design process, to choose among innovative solutions like structural control, different damping techniques, modifying geometry, or even changing materials.

  9. Spacecraft Cabin Air Quality Control and Its Application to Tight Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, J. L.; Graf, J. C.

    1995-01-01

    Air quality is an important consideration not only for the external environment, but also for the indoor environment. Most people spend a majority of their lives indoors and the air that they breathe is important to their physical and emotional well being. Since most modern building designs have focused on energy efficiency, less fresh air is brought from the outside. As a result, pollutants from building materials, furniture, cleaning, and cooking have no place to go. To make matters worse, most ventilation systems do not include any means for removing pollutants from the recycled air. Unfortunately, pollution at even a small level can result in eye, throat, and lung irritation in addition to chronic headaches, nausea, and fatigue. A spacecraft cabin, which represents the worst case in tight building design, requires special consideration of air quality since any effects pollutants may have on a crewmember can potentially place a mission or other crewmembers at risk. A detailed approach has been developed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to minimize cabin atmosphere pollution and provide the crew with an environment which is as free of pollutants as possible. This approach is a combination of passive and active contamination control concepts involving the evaluation and selection of materials to be used onboard the spacecraft, the establishment of air quality standards to ensure crew health, and the use of active control means onboard the spacecraft to further ensure an acceptable atmosphere. This approach has allowed NASA to prevent illness by providing crewmembers with a cabin atmosphere which contains pollutant concentrations up to 100 times lower than those specified for terrestrial indoor environments. Standard building construction, however, does not take into account the potentially harmful effects of materials used in the construction process on the health of future occupants and relies primarily on remedial rather than

  10. Diseño de un sistema de información automatizado para el mantenimiento preventivo total de la flota de vehículos de carga pesada. Caso: Sonidos Guayana, C. A.

    OpenAIRE

    Bossio Pittini, Lino Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Se presenta el diseño de un sistema de información automatizado para evaluación de los motores de la flota de camiones de Sonidos Guayana C.A. Con el fin de demostrar el correcto funcionamiento del sistema, se presentan las pruebas de adquisición, almacenamiento y análisis realizadas con éxito. Como mejoras futuras, se mencionan las recomendaciones que permiten la expansión del sistema.

  11. Features of the control of object 'UKRYTTYA' nuclear safety, during the new safe confinement building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basic factors influencing on efficiency of nuclear safety control of object 'Ukryttya' in the period of building of the new safe confinement are pointed out. It is shown that the existing regulation monitoring systems and the new IASC system does not provide the required effectiveness of nuclear safety control. It is offered, along with regulation control, to use, as a backup, research system, that allows to identify operatively causes of abnormal readings in channels of neutron activity control. It is given the basis, that placing of neutron detectors directly in nuclear-hazardons clasters zone is necessary. Systematization control of dynamics of temperature fields in fuel material accumulations areas and optimization of threshold levels in control systems are have to be conducted.

  12. A Comparison of Model Reduction Approaches for Feedback Control Design of Thermal Flows in Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borggaard, Jeff; Ahuja, Sunil; Burns, John; Cliff, Eugene; Surana, Amit

    2010-11-01

    The application of distributed parameter control to spatiotemporal thermo-fluid systems requires the use of model reduction methods. The form of the optimal feedback control can inform design decisions, such as sensor and actuator selection and placement. A number of model reduction approaches for fluid systems have been put forward that are based on the proper orthogonal decomposition (POD). In this talk, we examine three approaches, the traditional POD-Galerkin model, the POD-Sensitivity model, and the Balanced-POD models. Our work is motivated by the building indoor environment control problem. Energy performance in building cooling and heating systems can be substantially improved by exploiting spatial temperature stratification and buoyancy that are prevalent in passive systems. We consider the control of airflow in a room with a passively cooled radiant ceiling and displacement ventilation provided near the room floor. For this problem, we approximate the full-order solution to compute the control gains, develop reduced-order models and associated controllers, and simulate the full-order closed-loop system for comparison with the reduced-order model-based control design.

  13. Improved suboptimal Bang-Bang control of aseismic buildings with variable friction dampers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongnan Li; Jun Li; Gangbing Song

    2007-01-01

    One of the challenges in civil engineering is to find an innovative means of suppressing the struc-tural vibration due to earthquake and wind loadings.This paper presents an approach for effectively sup-pressing vibrations of a structure with variable friction damper using a new Bang-Bang control input. A con-tinuous function of story velocities is used to represent the improved control to reduce chatter, high frequency switching and avoid instability. With a genetic algorithm,the amplitudes of control and preloading friction forces individually prescribed in the controller and damper are optimized for enhancing the seismic performance of buildings. The control strategy for the friction damper is proposed for a three story building with one variable friction damper installed at the first story for seismic reduction. The numerical results indicate that a better reduction of peak response accelerations of floors can be achieved than those of the unmodified controller, and the adaptability of the control system is also improved greatly by comparison with the reduction ratios of the structural response energy excited by different earth-quake intensities.

  14. Energy-Efficient and Comfortable Buildings through Multivariate Integrated Control (ECoMIC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birru, Dagnachew [Philips Electronics North America Corporation, Andover, MA (United States); Wen, Yao-Jung [Philips Electronics North America Corporation, Andover, MA (United States); Rubinstein, Francis M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Clear, Robert D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-10-28

    This project aims to develop an integrated control solution for enhanced energy efficiency and user comfort in commercial buildings. The developed technology is a zone-based control framework that minimizes energy usage while maintaining occupants’ visual and thermal comfort through control of electric lights, motorized venetian blinds and thermostats. The control framework is designed following a modular, scalable and flexible architecture to facilitate easy integration with exiting building management systems. The control framework contains two key algorithms: 1) the lighting load balancing algorithm and 2) the thermostat control algorithm. The lighting load balancing algorithm adopts a model-based closed-loop control approach to determine the optimal electric light and venetian blind settings. It is formulated into an optimization problem with minimizing lighting-related energy consumptions as the objective and delivering adequate task light and preventing daylight glare as the constraints. The thermostat control algorithm is based on a well-established thermal comfort model and formulated as a root-finding problem to dynamically determine the optimal thermostat setpoint for both energy savings and improved thermal comfort. To address building-wide scalability, a system architecture was developed for the zone-based control technology. Three levels of services are defined in the architecture: external services, facility level services and zone level services. The zone-level service includes the control algorithms described above as well as the corresponding interfaces, profiles, sensors and actuators to realize the zone controller. The facility level services connect to the zones through a backbone network, handle supervisory level information and controls, and thus facilitate building-wide scalability. The external services provide communication capability to entities outside of the building for grid interaction and remote access. Various aspects of the

  15. Hydronic Heating Retrofits for Low-Rise Multifamily Buildings - Phase 1: Boiler Control Replacement and Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dentz, J.; Henderson, H.

    2012-04-01

    The ARIES Collaborative, a Department of Energy Building America research team, partnered with NeighborWorks America affiliate Homeowners' Rehab Inc. (HRI) of Cambridge, MA to implement and study improvements to the heating system in one of the non-profit's housing developments. The heating control systems in the 42-unit Columbia CAST housing development were upgraded in an effort projected to reduce heating costs by 15 to 25 percent.

  16. Building research capacity for evidence-informed tobacco control in Canada: a case description

    OpenAIRE

    Leatherdale Scott T; Robinson Sarah J; Viehbeck Sarah; McDonald Paul W; Nykiforuk Candace IJ; Jolin Mari

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Tobacco use remains the leading cause of death and disability in Canada. Insufficient research capacity can inhibit evidence-informed decision making for tobacco control. This paper outlines a Canadian project to build research capacity, defined as a community's ability to produce research that adequately informs practice, policy, and future research in a timely, practical manner. A key component is that individuals and teams within the community must mutually engage around common, c...

  17. Supervisory control for energy savings and thermal comfort in commercial building HVAC systems.

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Rodney A; Federspiel, Clifford C Ph.D.; Auslander, David M Ph.D.

    2002-01-01

    The operation and maintenance of commercial building HVAC (heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning) systems is illustrative of an industry that can benefit from the insightful use of all available information sources. Modern HVAC systems using direct digital control can potentially provide useful performance data. Occupant feedback complaint data and HVAC system trend data are stored within modern maintenance management databases. This paper will address the specific issue of integration a...

  18. Research and development of high-damping rubber damper for vibration control of tall buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita, Satoshi; Furuya, Osamu [Tokyo Denki Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Fujita, Takafumi [Univ. of Tokyo (Japan). Inst. of Industrial Science; Kasahara, Yasuhiro; Suizu, Yoji; Morikawa, Shoichi [Bridgestone Corp., Tokyo (Japan). Research and Development Dept.; Teramoto, Takayuki; Kitamura, Haruyuki [Nikken Sekkei, Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-12-01

    This paper summarizes the results of research and development of high-damping rubber damper for vibration control of tall buildings. A series of dynamic tests has been carried out to establish the design formula that the effects due to environmental temperature, shear deformation and forcing frequency have been taken into account. Moreover the full-size dampers for practical use have been manufactured by using this design formula, and the experimental results met good agreement with the design rules.

  19. Modeling Diffusion-Controlled Emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds from Building Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Cox, Steven Scott

    2001-01-01

    The adverse effects of contaminated outdoor air have been recognized and subject to control for many years. More recently environmental engineers and health professionals have become cognizant of the hazards associated with contaminated indoor air. It is now understood that contaminated indoor air negatively impacts human health, worker productivity, and physical property. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are a common class of indoor air pollutants. Building materials such as treated w...

  20. Study of "3-Step Mining" Subsidence Control in Coal Mining Under Buildings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Guang-li; ZHA Jian-feng; WU Bin; JIA Xin-guo

    2007-01-01

    Mining subsidence damage is the main factor of restricting coal mining under buildings. To control or ease effectively the degree of mining subsidence and deformation is essential to resolve this problem. Through analyzing both advantages and disadvantages of some technologies such as mining with stowing, partial extraction and grouting in separated beds of overburden, we used the principle of load replacement and propose a "3-step mining" method, a new pattern of controlling mining subsidence, which consists of: strip mining, i.e. grouting to fill and consolidate the caving zone and retained strip pillar mining. The mechanism of controlling mining subsidence by using the "3-step mining" pattern is analyzed. The effect of the control is numerically simulated. The preliminary analysis shows that the "3-step mining" can effectively control ground subsidence and deformation. By using this method, the ground subsidence factor can be controlled to a value of about 0.25. Coal recovery can reach 80%-90%. Coal mining without removing surface buildings can be realized and the economic loss resulting from ground subsidence can be greatly reduced.

  1. MATRIX/sub x/: control design and model building CAE capability for utility systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Automatic control of powerplants, transmission systems, and electric networks has been used as long as such systems have existed. In general terms, the problem of plant control is one of manipulating a set of inputs such that sufficient power will be generated and transmitted to meet demand, while many plant parameters remain within specified limits. Earlier, the emphasis of automatic control had been safe operation of power plants and good regulation of desired parameters. More emphasis is now being placed on economic operation, robustness and an extremely high fault tolerance. A good example is the operation of a Boiling Water Reactor (BWR). ISI has developed a computer-aided-engineering (CAE) system MATRIX/sub x/ for the design, analysis and verification of multivariable as well as nonlinear control systems. MATRIX/sub x/ and an associated capability System Build are unique in that they provide modeling, simulation, optimization and control design facilities in an integrated environment with a common data base. MATRIX/sub x/ is the leading CAE control system design package. The capabilities of Version 4.0 of MATRIX/sub x/ and SYSTEM BUILD are discussed and an approach to integrate Modular Modeling System (MMS) features into MATRIX/sub x/ is proposed

  2. Optimal Scheduling Method of Controllable Loads in DC Smart Apartment Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimoji, Tsubasa; Tahara, Hayato; Matayoshi, Hidehito; Yona, Atsushi; Senjyu, Tomonobu

    2015-12-01

    From the perspective of global warming suppression and the depletion of energy resources, renewable energies, such as the solar collector (SC) and photovoltaic generation (PV), have been gaining attention in worldwide. Houses or buildings with PV and heat pumps (HPs) are recently being used in residential areas widely due to the time of use (TOU) electricity pricing scheme which is essentially inexpensive during middle-night and expensive during day-time. If fixed batteries and electric vehicles (EVs) can be introduced in the premises, the electricity cost would be even more reduced. While, if the occupants arbitrarily use these controllable loads respectively, power demand in residential buildings may fluctuate in the future. Thus, an optimal operation of controllable loads such as HPs, batteries and EV should be scheduled in the buildings in order to prevent power flow from fluctuating rapidly. This paper proposes an optimal scheduling method of controllable loads, and the purpose is not only the minimization of electricity cost for the consumers, but also suppression of fluctuation of power flow on the power supply side. Furthermore, a novel electricity pricing scheme is also suggested in this paper.

  3. Building tobacco control research in Thailand: meeting the need for innovative change in Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamann Stephen L

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction In low- and middle-income countries (LMICs over the past two decades locally relevant tobacco control research has been scant. Experience shows that tobacco control measures should be based on sound research findings to ensure that measures are appropriate for local conditions and that they are likely to have an impact. Research should also be integrated within tobacco control measures to ensure ongoing learning and the production of knowledge. Thailand, a middle-income country, has a public health community with a record of successful tobacco control and a longstanding commitment to research. Thailand's comprehensive approach includes taxation; bans on tobacco advertising, sponsorship and promotion; smoke-free areas; graphic cigarette pack warnings; social marketing campaigns; cessation counseling; and an established tobacco control research program. The purpose of this study was to document and analyze the development of tobacco control research capacity in Thailand and the impact of research on Thai tobacco control measures. Method We used mixed methods including review of historical documentation and policy reports, qualitative interviews with key members of Thailand's tobacco control community, and an analysis of research productivity. Findings In Thailand, tobacco control research has evolved through three phases: (1 discovery of the value of research in the policymaking arena, (2 development of a structure to support research capacity building through international collaborations supported by foreign funding agencies, and (3 delivery of locally relevant research made possible largely through substantial stable funding from a domestic health promotion foundation. Over two decades, Thai tobacco control advocates have constructed five steppingstones to success: (1 adapting foreign research to inform policymaking and lobbying for more support for domestic research; (2 attracting foreign funding agencies to support small

  4. Radiation Control Coatings Installed on Federal Buildings at Tyndall Air Force Base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaba, R.L.; Petrie, T.W.

    1999-03-16

    The technical objectives of this CRADA comprise technology deployment and energy conservation efforts with the radiation control coatings industry and the utility sector. The results of this collaboration include a high-level data reporting, analysis and management system to support the deployment efforts. The technical objectives include successfully install, commission, operate, maintain and document the performance of radiation control coatings on roofs at Tyndall AFB and the Buildings Technology Center at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory; determine the life cycle savings that can be achieved by using radiation control coatings on entire roofs at Tyndall AFB, based on documented installed cost and operating maintenance costs with and without the coatings; determine if any specific improvements are required in the coatings before they can be successfully deployed in the federal sector; determine the most effective way to facilitate the widespread and rapid deployment of radiation control coatings in the federal sector; and clearly define any barriers to deployment.

  5. Risk management in architectural design control of uncertainty over building use and maintenance

    CERN Document Server

    Martani, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    This book analyzes the risk management process in relation to building design and operation and on this basis proposes a method and a set of tools that will improve the planning and evaluation of design solutions in order to control risks in the operation and management phase. Particular attention is paid to the relationship between design choices and the long-term performance of buildings in meeting requirements expressing user and client needs. A risk dashboard is presented as a risk measurement framework that identifies and addresses areas of uncertainty surrounding the satisfaction of particularly relevant requirements over time. This risk dashboard will assist both designers and clients. It will support designers by enabling them to improve the maintainability of project performance and will aid clients both in devising a brief that emphasizes the most relevant aspects of maintainability and in evaluating project proposals according to long-term risks. The results of assessment of the proposed method and...

  6. Building research capacity for evidence-informed tobacco control in Canada: a case description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Paul W; Viehbeck, Sarah; Robinson, Sarah J; Leatherdale, Scott T; Nykiforuk, Candace Ij; Jolin, Mari Alice

    2009-01-01

    Tobacco use remains the leading cause of death and disability in Canada. Insufficient research capacity can inhibit evidence-informed decision making for tobacco control. This paper outlines a Canadian project to build research capacity, defined as a community's ability to produce research that adequately informs practice, policy, and future research in a timely, practical manner. A key component is that individuals and teams within the community must mutually engage around common, collectively negotiated goals to address specific practices, policies or programs of research. An organizing framework, a set of activities to build strategic recruitment, productivity tools, and procedures for enhancing social capital are described. Actions are intended to facilitate better alignment between research and the priorities of policy developers and service providers, enhance the external validity of the work performed, and reduce the time required to inform policy and practice. PMID:19664224

  7. Building research capacity for evidence-informed tobacco control in Canada: a case description

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leatherdale Scott T

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Tobacco use remains the leading cause of death and disability in Canada. Insufficient research capacity can inhibit evidence-informed decision making for tobacco control. This paper outlines a Canadian project to build research capacity, defined as a community's ability to produce research that adequately informs practice, policy, and future research in a timely, practical manner. A key component is that individuals and teams within the community must mutually engage around common, collectively negotiated goals to address specific practices, policies or programs of research. An organizing framework, a set of activities to build strategic recruitment, productivity tools, and procedures for enhancing social capital are described. Actions are intended to facilitate better alignment between research and the priorities of policy developers and service providers, enhance the external validity of the work performed, and reduce the time required to inform policy and practice.

  8. Issues in Developing Open Source Licensing Tool for Controllers in the Context of BA (Building Automation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah Ujval

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Over the past ten years building owners, Managers and consulting engineers from the different Manufacturers/Vendors have become the increasingly frustrated by incompatibilities and limited Mechanism for the integration of building automation and control systems(BAS[1] because a site may have BAS equipment from multiple manufacturers in the field . A controller comes with different functionalities. Some of the functionalities will be locked down by the manufactures. There are times when site engineer need to lock or unlock the particular functionality of the controllers, called licensing. As Controllers are part of BAS, there are at present three issues in Developing open source licensing tool, and they mainly concentrate on BAS integration. They are Integration between BAS and existing Enterprise applications, integration of widely used open protocol standards (e.g. BACnet or LonTalk, and integration of subsystems (HVAC systems, fire safety systems, life safety, lighting systems [11] of BAS [14]. Though today many solutions are available, Integration of diverse and heterogeneous BAS systems is a challenge. The paper describes the issues in developing open source licensing tool and how to overcome these issues

  9. Economic Model Predictive Control for Building Climate Control in a Smart Grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halvgaard, Rasmus; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad; Madsen, Henrik;

    2012-01-01

    to production is crucial. We present a model for a house with a heat pump used for supplying thermal energy to a floor heating system. The model is a linear state space model and the resulting controller is an Economic MPC formulated as a linear program. The model includes forecasts of both weather...

  10. Controlling Beryllium Contaminated Material And Equipment For The Building 9201-5 Legacy Material Disposition Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, T. D.; Easterling, S. D.

    2010-10-01

    This position paper addresses the management of beryllium contamination on legacy waste. The goal of the beryllium management program is to protect human health and the environment by preventing the release of beryllium through controlling surface contamination. Studies have shown by controlling beryllium surface contamination, potential airborne contamination is reduced or eliminated. Although there are areas in Building 9201-5 that are contaminated with radioactive materials and mercury, only beryllium contamination is addressed in this management plan. The overall goal of this initiative is the compliant packaging and disposal of beryllium waste from the 9201-5 Legacy Material Removal (LMR) Project to ensure that beryllium surface contamination and any potential airborne release of beryllium is controlled to levels as low as practicable in accordance with 10 CFR 850.25.

  11. Aplicación de un sistema automatizado para el aprendizaje y el entrenamiento del tenis en condiciones de interferencia contextual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruperto Menayo Antúnez

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se presentan los efectos de la aplicación de un sistema automatizado para el aprendizaje del tenis en condiciones de interferencia contextual. Dicho sistema permite el registro de la precisión alcanzada en los golpeos mediante un protocolo de filmación audiovisual. Una vez filmadas las imágenes se aplica un proceso de digitalización para analizar el error variable de los envíos, determinando así la consistencia de los golpeos. Se analizaron los resultados obtenidos por 8 tenistas, tras un periodo de aprendizaje de 3 semanas, valorando el mantenimiento del rendimiento mediante 4 tests de retención, realizados posteriormente a la fase de aprendizaje inicial. Los resultados muestran mejoras en los cuatro golpes practicados tras el periodo de aprendizaje, así como una tendencia poco acusada de pérdida del rendimiento tras los periodos sin práctica.

  12. The Current State of Poison Control Centers in Pakistan and the Need for Capacity Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadeem Khan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chemical exposure is a major health problem globally. Poison control centers (PCCs play a leading role both in developed and developing countries in the prevention and control of poisonous chemical exposures. In this study, we aimed to assess the current state of PCCs in Pakistan and highlight capacity building needs in these centers. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of the two registered PCCs was done during August – December 2011. Necessary services of the PCCs were evaluated and the data were recorded on a predesigned checklist. Results: Both PCCs are affiliated to a tertiary care hospital. Clinical services to poisoned patients were available 24 hours a day / 7 days a week. Information on common local products was available to poison center staff. Both centers were involved in undergraduate and post graduate teaching. Telephone poison information service was not available in either of centers. There was a limited capacity for qualitative and analytical toxicology. Common antidotes were available. There were limited surveillance activities to capture toxic risks existing in the community and also a deficiency was observed in chemical disaster planning. Conclusion: PCCs in Pakistan need capacity building for specialized training in toxicology, toxicovigilance, chemical disaster planning, analytical laboratory tests and telephone service for consultation in poisoning cases.   How to cite this article: Khan NU, Mir MU, Khan UR, Khan AR, Ara J, Raja K, et al. The Current State of Poison Control Centers in Pakistan and the Need for Capacity Building. Asia Pac J Med Toxicol 2014;3:31-5.

  13. A C/C++ build system based on Maven for the LHC control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CERN accelerator control system, mainly written in Java and C/C++, consists nowadays of 50 projects and 150 active developers. The controls group has decided to unify the development process and standards (e.g. project layout) using Apache Maven and Sonatype Nexus. Maven is de-facto a build tool for Java, it deals with versioning and dependency management, whereas Nexus is a repository manager. C/C++ developers were struggling to keep their dependencies on other CERN projects, as no versioning was applied, the libraries have to be compiled and available for several platforms and architectures, and finally there was no dependency management mechanism. This results in very complex Make-files which were difficult to maintain. Even if Maven is primarily designed for Java, a plug-in (Maven NAR) adapts the build process for native programming languages for different operating systems and platforms. However C/C++ developers were not keen to abandon their current Make-files. Hence our approach was to combine the best of the 2 worlds: NAR/Nexus and Make-files. Maven NAR manages the dependencies, the versioning and creates a file with the linker and compiler options to include the dependencies. The Make-files carry the build process to generate the binaries. Finally the resulting artifacts (binaries, header files, metadata) are versioned and stored in a central Nexus repository. Early experiments were conducted in the scope of the control group's Testbed. Some existing projects have been successfully converted to this solution and some starting projects use this implementation. (authors)

  14. A Path toward Safer Heritage Buildings through Excellent Fire Prevention and Control System in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Azree Othuman Mydin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Fire prevention & control system by Fire Rescue Department Malaysia states that protection in the aspects of fire prevention, control and extinguishment for a certain area based on the availability of risks in that area. It is a practice of mitigating the unwanted effects of fires. Besides that, a fire safety system also includes the study of the behaviour, compartmentalisation, suppression and investigation of fire and its related emergencies. In protecting and preserving the historic fabric of the heritage structure there are some major differences which is a challenge for the architect and fire protection engineer in the application of general fire protection principles. The challenge in protecting heritage structure is to maintain their historical fabric while providing a reasonable level of safety for their occupants and contents. In order to avoid harming the building’s historic character, the architect and engineer will need to have the sensitivity and ingenuity approaches to provide fire prevention and protection measures that do not damage the historic fabric of the building. This paper focuses on path toward safer heritage buildings through excellent fire prevention and control system in Malaysia.

  15. Design of information-measuring and control systems for intelligent buildings. Trends of development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrova Irina Yur’evna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the modern requirements for integrated management systems of a smart home. The authors propose a hierarchical classification of the levels of house automation, which allows allocating different levels of information transfer. The article considers the trends of development of information-measuring and control systems of intelligent buildings. The generalized scheme of information-measuring and control subsystems of an intelligent building are given. The energy-information model of the knowledge base of physical and technical effects described in the article allows developing a system of automated support of the conceptual stage of elements design in information measuring and control systems. With the help of this knowledge base the system allows dozens of times expanding the scope of knowledge actively used by specialists and two or three times reducing the time of creating new solutions by selecting the most efficient of the options and the underlying calculation of the essential characteristics of their conceptual models, which significantly reduces the number of created prototypes and field tests.

  16. Regulation and control of thermally activated building systems (TABS); Regelung und Steuerung von thermoaktiven Bauteilsystemen (TABS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toedtli, Juerg [Consulting Juerg Toedtli, Zuerich (Switzerland); Gwerder, Markus; Renggli, Franz; Guentensperger, Werner [Siemens Building Technologies, Zug (Switzerland); Lehmann, Beat; Dorer, Viktor [Empa, Abt. Building Technologies, Duebendorf (Switzerland); Hildebrand, Kurt [Hochschule Luzern - Technik and Architektur, Horw (Switzerland)

    2009-10-15

    Thermally activated building systems (TABS) are becoming increasingly important in terms of energy efficient cooling and heating of buildings. In practice, however, regulation and control of such systems often causes problems. Started five years ago with the aim of getting to grips with these problems, the TABS Control research project was completed in early 2009. The project yielded the following results: various models and simulation programs for TABS; performance-bound calculations for regulating zones; a range of zone regulation/control strategies for planners to choose from, including good solutions for automatic switching between heating and cooling, for pulsed operation of the zone pump and for room temperature control; the implementation of a subset of these strategies as standard solutions in a Siemens building automation system; laboratory tests on these strategies; a new procedure for the integrated planning of TABS and their regulation/control (referred to as UBB planning procedure - Unknown But Bounded); an Excel planning tool; guidelines on selecting the hydraulic switching topology; a method for operation optimization; the theoretical basis for the new integrated planning procedure and the new regulation/ control strategies; a patent application. [German] Thermoaktive Bauteilsysteme (TABS) haben eine zunehmende Bedeutung bei der energieeffizienten Kuehlung und Heizung von Gebaeuden, doch ihre Regelung/Steuerung fuehrt in der Praxis oft zu Problemen. Mit dem Ziel, diese Probleme in den Griff zu bekommen, wurde vor fuenf Jahren das Forschungsprojekt TABS-Control gestartet, das zu Beginnd des Jahres 2009 abgeschlossen wurde. Es wurden folgende wesentliche Resultate erarbeitet: Modelle und Simulationsprogramme fuer TABS; Performance-Bound-Berechnungen fuer die Zonenregelung; eine Auswahl von Regel-/ Steuer-Strategien fuer die Zonenregelung, u. a. mit Loesungen fuer das automatische Umschalten zwischen Heizen und Kuehlen, fuer den Taktbetrieb der

  17. Automated blind control to maximize the benefits of daylight in buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koo, So Young; Yeo, Myoung Souk; Kim, Kwang Woo [Department of Architecture, Seoul National University, San 56-1, Shillim-dong, Kwanak-gu, Seoul 151-744 (Korea)

    2010-06-15

    Venetian blinds are a common type of shading device and are increasingly operated automatically to overcome the limitations of manual operation. Automated blinds need to be controlled to maximize benefits of daylight in the point of occupant comfort and energy consumption. However, the previous control methods are focused on minimizing negative impacts of daylight, so they might fail to maximize positive impacts of daylight. They may often overpredict a blind's position, resulting in the undesirable blockage of daylight. In this paper, we propose a new control method for automated venetian blinds to maximize occupant comfort. The proposed control method can not only protect occupants from direct solar glare but also maximize daylight penetration into buildings based on occupants' preferences on daylight. The proposed control method is designed to allow the occupants to define the zone they want protected from direct sunlight. It can control the blinds to protect only the defined zone; therefore, more daylight can be introduced to the other areas, excluding the predetermined zone. A control method for the case of one blind with one zone was developed and then extended for the case of multiple blinds with multiple zones. (author)

  18. The use of energy management and control systems to monitor the energy performance of commercial buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinemeier, K E [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Architecture

    1994-12-01

    Monitored data play a very important part in the implementation and evaluation of energy conservation technologies and programs. However, these data can be expensive to collect, so there is a need for lower-cost alternatives. In many situations, using the computerized Energy Management and Control Systems (EMCSs)--already installed in many buildings--to collect these commercial building performance data has advantages over more conventional methods. This method provides data without installing incremental hardware, and the large amounts of available operational data can be a very rich resource for understanding building performance. This dissertation addresses several of these issues. One specific objective is to describe a monitoring-project planning process that includes definition of objectives, constraints, resources and approaches for the monitoring. The choice of tools is an important part of this process. The dissertation goes on to demonstrate, through eight case studies, that EMCS monitoring is possible, and to identify and categorize the problems and issues that can be encountered. These issues lead to the creation, use, and testing of a set of methods for evaluation of EMCS monitoring, in the form of guidelines. Finally, EMCS monitoring is demonstrated and compared with conventional monitoring more methodically in a detailed case study.

  19. Simplified Building Thermal Model Used for Optimal Control of Radiant Cooling System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei He

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available MPC has the ability to optimize the system operation parameters for energy conservation. Recently, it has been used in HVAC systems for saving energy, but there are very few applications in radiant cooling systems. To implement MPC in buildings with radiant terminals, the predictions of cooling load and thermal environment are indispensable. In this paper, a simplified thermal model is proposed for predicting cooling load and thermal environment in buildings with radiant floor. In this thermal model, the black-box model is introduced to derive the incident solar radiation, while the genetic algorithm is utilized to identify the parameters of the thermal model. In order to further validate this simplified thermal model, simulated results from TRNSYS are compared with those from this model and the deviation is evaluated based on coefficient of variation of root mean square (CV. The results show that the simplified model can predict the operative temperature with a CV lower than 1% and predict cooling loads with a CV lower than 10%. For the purpose of supervisory control in HVAC systems, this simplified RC thermal model has an acceptable accuracy and can be used for further MPC in buildings with radiation terminals.

  20. Control over Catenation in Metal−Organic Frameworks via Rational Design of the Organic Building Block

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farha, Omar K.; Malliakas, Christos D.; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G.; Hupp, Joseph T. (NWU)

    2010-02-19

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), a hybrid class of materials comprising inorganic nodes and organic struts, have potential application in many areas due to their high surface areas and uniform pores and channels. One of the key challenges to be overcome in MOF synthesis is the strong propensity for catenation (growth of multiple independent networks within a given crystal), as catenation reduces cavity sizes and diminishes porosity. Here we demonstrate that rational design of organic building blocks, which act as strut-impervious scaffolds, can be exploited to generate highly desired noncatenated materials in a controlled fashion.

  1. Control technologies for quadruped walking robot to facilitate carrying operations in reactor buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station of Tokyo Electric Power Co., Inc., which was seriously damaged by the Great East Japan Earthquake of March 11, 2011, it has been difficult for workers to approach the reactor buildings due to the hazardous surrounding environment. The need has therefore arsen for remote-controlled robots to facilitate inspection and restoration work on behalf of workers in such a high-level radiation environment. Toshiba has developed a quadruped walking robot that can carry various tools for decommissioning work. This robot is capable of maintaining its balance while walking on uneven surfaces, slopes, and stairs due to the adoption of control technologies to not only autonomously determine the leg trajectories and center of gravity, but also to correct the leg landing positions and posture with operator intervention according to the walking situation. It also offers high mobility and workability through a manipulation function that allows it to unload tools carried on its back storage area by using two of its legs like arms. This quadruped walking robot was applied to the investigation of suspected water leakage areas in the reactor building of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station Unit 2 in December 2012. (author)

  2. A C/C++ Build System Based On Maven for the LHC Controls System

    CERN Document Server

    Nguyen Xuan, J; Dönszelmann, M

    2011-01-01

    The CERN accelerator controls system, mainly written in Java and C/C++, consists nowadays of 50 projects and 150 active developers. The controls group has decided to unify the development process and standards (e.g. project layout) using Apache Maven and Sonatype Nexus. Maven is the de-facto build tool for Java, it deals with versioning and dependency management, whereas Nexus is a repository manager. C/C++ developers were struggling to keep their dependencies on other CERN projects, as no versioning was applied, the libraries have to be compiled and available for several platforms and architectures, and finally there was no dependency management mechanism. This results in very complex Makefiles which were difficult to maintain. Even if Maven is primarily designed for Java, a plugin (Maven NAR) adapts the build process for native programming languages for different operating systems and platforms. However C/C++ developers were not keen to abandon their current Makefiles. Hence our approach was to combine the ...

  3. Improving PAQ and comfort conditions in Spanish office buildings with passive climate control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orosa, Jose A.; Baalina, A. [Departamento de Energia y P.M. Escuela Tecnica Superior de N. y M, Universidade da Coruna, Paseo de Ronda 51, P.C.:15011 A Coruna (Spain)

    2009-03-15

    Some researchers have demonstrated that passive moisture transfer between indoor air and hygroscopic structures has the potential to moderate variations of indoor air relative humidity and, thus, to improve comfort and PAQ [Simonson CJ, Salonvaara M, Ojalen T. The effect of structures on indoor humidity-possibility to improve comfort and perceived air quality. Indoor Air 2002; 12: 243-51; Simonson CJ, Salonvaara M, Ojalen T. Improving indoor climate and comfort with wooden structures. Espoo 2001. Technical Research Centre of Finland, VTT Publications 431.200p+app 91p]. The main objective of this study is to show the internal wall coating effect on indoor air conditions and, as a consequence of this, in comfort conditions and PAQ. In a previous paper [Orosa JA, Baalina A. Passive climate control in Spanish office buildings for long periods of time. Building and Environment 2008], we analysed the influence of permeable and impermeable materials on indoor air conditions, during the unoccupied period, in 25 office buildings in different seasons. Results obtained lead us to conclude that real coverings such as permeable, semi-permeable and impermeable types, present different behavioural patterns in indoor air conditions. Furthermore, we concluded that an absorbent structure will moderate relative humidity indoors. In this paper, we study this indoor relative humidity effect on local thermal discomfort, due to decreased respiratory cooling, and indoor ambience acceptability for the early hours of morning applying PD and Acc models [Toftum J, Jorgensen AS, Fanger PO. Upper limits for indoor air humidity to avoid uncomfortably humid skin. Energy and buildings 1998; 28: 1-13; Toftum J, Jorgensen AS, Fanger PO. Upper limits of air humidity for preventing warm respiratory discomfort. Energy and Buildings 1998; 28: 15-23] such as that proposed by Simonson et al. [The effect of structures on indoor humidity-possibility to improve comfort and perceived air quality. Indoor Air

  4. Actuator Saturation and Control Design for Buildings Structural Systems with Improved Uncertainty Description

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.C. Ding

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of robustly active vibration control for a class of earthquake-excited structural systems with time-delay and saturation in the control input channel and parameter uncertainties appearing in all the mass, damping and stiffness matrices is concerned in this paper. The objective of the designing controllers is to guarantee the robust stability of the closed-loop system and attenuate the disturbance from earthquake excitation. Firstly, by using the linear combination of some matrices to deal with the system's uncertainties, a new system uncertainties description, namely rank-1 uncertainty description, is presented. Then, by introducing a linear varying parameter, the input saturation model is described as a linear parameter varying model. Furthermore, based on parameter-dependent Lyapunov theory and linear matrix inequality (LMI technique, the LMIs-based conditions for the closed-loop system to be stable are deduced. By solving those conditions, the controller, considering the actuator saturation, input delay and parameters uncertainties, is obtained. Finally, a three-storey linear building structure under earthquake excitation is considered and simulation results are given to show the effectiveness of the proposed controllers.

  5. Impact of Machine Learning on Elevator Control Strategies : A comparison of time efficiency for machine learning elevator control strategies and static elevator control strategies in an office building

    OpenAIRE

    Löf, Marcus; Andersson, Elias

    2015-01-01

    Elevators are used in a large amount of buildings all over the world for fast and comfortable transportation. Today it is becoming increasingly important for people and products to be time efficient, and with technological development new solutions are created to answer this rising demand. To do this in an elevator context, elevator control strategies are implementedas optimal as possible. Machine learning is a relatively new concept, but it is already used in attempts to improve the performa...

  6. Desarrollo de un sistema de riego automatizado en tiempo real con base en balance hídrico climático, medición de humedad del suelo y lisímetro

    OpenAIRE

    Castro Popoca, Martiniano

    2012-01-01

    Se desarrollo un sistema de riego automatizado en tiempo real, para determinar y controlar el momento oportuno y la cantidad de riego, monitoreado por medio de las tecnologías de información (TI). El estudio se realizó en los terrenos adjuntos a la estación meteorológica del Colegio de Postgraduados del Campus Montecillo, del 10 de junio al 11 de septiembre del 2006. El sistema se integró de un programa de cómputo en el lenguaje de programación Edlog y un dispositivo de co...

  7. Real-Time Occupant Based Plug-in Device Control Using ICT in Office Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woo-Bin Bae

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to reduce the unnecessary plug loads used by computers, monitors, and computer peripheral devices, all of which account for more than 95% of the entire plug loads of an office building. To this end, an occupant-based plug-in device control (OBC-P software was developed. The OBC-P software collects real-time information about the presence or absence of occupants who are connected to the access point through the Wifi and controls the power of monitors or computers, while a standby power off device controls computer peripheral devices. To measure the plug load saving of the occupant-based plug-in device control, an experiment was conducted, targeting 10 occupants of three research labs of the graduate school, for two weeks. The experiment results showed that it could save the plug loads of monitors and computer peripheral devices by 15% in the Awake mode, and by 26% in the Sleep mode.

  8. TLCD Parametric Optimization for the Vibration Control of Building Structures Based on Linear Matrix Inequality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linsheng Huo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Passive liquid dampers have been used to effectively reduce the dynamic response of civil infrastructures subjected to earthquakes or strong winds. The design of liquid dampers for structural vibration control involves the determination of the optimal parameters. This paper presents an optimal design methodology for tuned liquid column dampers (TLCDs based on the H∞ control theory. A practical structure, Dalian Xinghai Financial Business Building, is used to illustrate the feasibility of the optimal procedure. The model of structure is built by the finite element method and simplified to the lumped mass model. To facilitate the design of TLCDs, the TLCD parametric optimization problem is transferred to the feedback controller design problem. Through the bounded real lemma, an optimization problem with bilinear matrix inequality (BMI constraints is constructed to design a static output feedback H∞ controller. Iterative linear matrix inequality method is employed and it added some value range constraints to solve the BMI problem. After the TLCD parameters are optimized, the responses of displacement and acceleration in frequency domain and time domain are compared for the structure with and without TLCD. It is validated that the TLCD with the optimized parameters can make the structure satisfy the need for safety and comfort.

  9. Chaotic behaviour in the non-linear optimal control of unilaterally contacting building systems during earthquakes

    CERN Document Server

    Liolios, A

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents a new numerical approach for a non-linear optimal control problem arising in earthquake civil engineering. This problem concerns the elastoplastic softening-fracturing unilateral contact between neighbouring buildings during earthquakes when Coulomb friction is taken into account under second-order instabilizing effects. So, the earthquake response of the adjacent structures can appear instabilities and chaotic behaviour. The problem formulation presented here leads to a set of equations and inequalities, which is equivalent to a dynamic hemivariational inequality in the way introduced by Panagiotopoulos [Hemivariational Inequalities. Applications in Mechanics and Engineering, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1993]. The numerical procedure is based on an incremental problem formulation and on a double discretization, in space by the finite element method and in time by the Wilson-theta method. The generally non-convex constitutive contact laws are piecewise linearized, and in each time-step a non-c...

  10. SCIENTIFIC METHODOLOGICAL APPROACHES TO CREATION OF COMPLEX CONTROL SYSTEM MODEL FOR THE STREAMS OF BUILDING WASTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tskhovrebov Eduard Stanislavovich

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In 2011 in Russia a Strategy of Production Development of Construction Materials and Industrial Housing Construction for the period up to 2020 was approved as one of strategic documents in the sphere of construction. In the process of this strategy development all the needs of construction complex were taken into account in all the spheres of economy, including transport system. The strategy also underlined, that the construction industry is a great basis for use and application in secondary economic turnover of dangerous waste from different production branches. This gives possibility to produce construction products of recycled materials and at the same time to solve the problem of environmental protection. The article considers and analyzes scientific methodological approaches to creation of a model of a complex control system for the streams of building waste in frames of organizing uniform ecologically safe and economically effective complex system of waste treatment in country regions.

  11. Strategies for Controlling Plug Loads. A Tool for Reducing Plug Loads in Commercial Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torcellini, Paul [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bonnema, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sheppy, Michael [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Pless, Shanti [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Plug loads are often not considered as part of the energy savings measures in Commercial Buildings; however, they can account for up to 50% of the energy used in the building. These loads are numerous and often scattered throughout a building. Some of these loads are purchased by the owner and some designed into the building or the tenant finishes for a space. This document provides a strategy and a tool for minimizing these loads.

  12. General collaboration offer of Johnson Controls regarding the performance of air conditioning automatic control systems and other buildings` automatic control systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gniazdowski, J.

    1995-12-31

    JOHNSON CONTROLS manufactures measuring and control equipment (800 types) and is as well a {open_quotes}turn-key{close_quotes} supplier of complete automatic controls systems for heating, air conditioning, ventilation and refrigerating engineering branches. The Company also supplies Buildings` Computer-Based Supervision and Monitoring Systems that may be applied in both small and large structures. Since 1990 the company has been performing full-range trade and contracting activities on the Polish market. We have our own well-trained technical staff and we collaborate with a series of designing and contracting enterprises that enable us to have our projects carried out all over Poland. The prices of our supplies and services correspond with the level of the Polish market.

  13. Development of Temperature-Humidity Independent Control Air-Conditioning Unit for Residential Buildings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Xing; ZHANG Xu; LIU Jin-tao; GA Si-yun; KANG yue

    2009-01-01

    Cooling panels are increasingly used in domestic residential buildings.To provide medium temper-ature cold water for the cooling panel,and dehumidify the indoor air simultaneously,a new kind of temperature-humidity independent control air-conditioning unit was developed for single residential house by utilizing multi-variable technology.First,the supply air temperature was studied to determine the proper supply air flow rate for the humidity control.Then,the energy consumption of different temperature-humidity independent eontrol systems was studied.The analysis indicates that unity evaporating temperature can be used to handle the mois-ture load and sensible heat load in two evaporators.So the unit scheme was put forward.Two evaporators were used to produce medium temperature water and dry air separately,and electric expansion valves were used to control the refrigerant distribution between the two evaporators.Then, experimental work was carried out to in-vestigate the influence of compressor frequency,refrigerant distribution on the dehumidification capacity,energy efficiency and refrigeration capacity.In the end,the paper concludes that both compressor frequency and refrig-erant distribution can control the dehumidification capacity,but the former influences the EER more than the latter.while the latter influences the refrigeration capacity more than the former.We can find a proper running point at certain sensible and latent cooling load by adjusting both compressor frequency and electric expansion.valve.The energy consumption of this kind of unit was estimated and compared with present room air condition-ers,which shows that it can save about 41% cooling energy consumption.

  14. Controlling indoor climate. Passive cooling of residential buildings in hot-humid climates in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Zhiwu

    1996-10-01

    Overheating is a paramount problem in residential buildings in hot and humid climates in China during summer. This study aims to deal with the overheating problem and the problem of poor air quality in dwellings. The main objective is to improve indoor thermal conditions by passive cooling approaches, climatisation techniques in buildings without auxiliary cooling from air conditioning equipment. This thesis focuses on the study of cross-ventilation in apartments, which is one of the most effective ways of natural cooling in a hot humid climate, but is also one of the least understood parts in controlling indoor climate. The Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) technique is used, which is a new approach, since cross-ventilation studies have been conventionally made by wind tunnel tests. The validations of the CFD technique are examined by a comparison between wind tunnel tests and computer simulations. The factors influencing indoor air movement are investigated for a single room. Cross-ventilation in two apartments is studied, and the air change efficiency in a Chinese kitchen is calculated with CFD techniques. The thermal performance of ventilated roofs, a simple and widely used type of roof in the region, is specially addressed by means of a full-scale measurement, wind tunnel tests and computer simulations. An integrated study of passive cooling approaches and factors affecting indoor thermal comfort is carried out through a case study in a southern Chinese city, Guangzhou. This thesis demonstrates that passive cooling measure have a high potential in significantly improving indoor thermal conditions during summer. This study also gives discussions and conclusions on the evaluation of indoor thermal environment; effects influencing cross-ventilation in apartments; design guidelines for ventilated roofs and an integrated study of passive cooling. 111 refs, 83 figs, 65 tabs

  15. Cost Control Strategies for Zero Energy Buildings: High-Performance Design and Construction on a Budget (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-09-01

    There is mounting evidence that zero energy can, in many cases, be achieved within typical construction budgets. To ensure that the momentum behind zero energy buildings and other low-energy buildings will continue to grow, this guide assembles recommendations for replicating specific successes of early adopters who have met their energy goals while controlling costs. Contents include: discussion of recommended cost control strategies, which are grouped by project phase (acquisition and delivery, design, and construction) and accompanied by industry examples; recommendations for balancing key decision-making factors; and quick reference tables that can help teams apply strategies to specific projects.

  16. Impact of controlled ventilation systems on energy consumption in mediterranean school buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandez-Aguera Escudero, Jessica; Domínguez Amarillo, Samuel; Campano Laborda, Miguel Ángel

    2012-01-01

    Current standards for indoor air quality (IAQ) in non-residential buildings demand high air renewal rates with different filtration stages and constant flow. Currently, new school buildings must incorporate mechanical ventilation systems which modify traditional heating installations in order to comply with the requirements for indoor air quality and energy efficiency. This study analyses the technical and energy outcomes involved in a school building when changing from a traditio...

  17. Control Limits for Building Energy End Use Based on Engineering Judgment, Frequency Analysis, and Quantile Regression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henze, G. P.; Pless, S.; Petersen, A.; Long, N.; Scambos, A. T.

    2014-02-01

    Approaches are needed to continuously characterize the energy performance of commercial buildings to allow for (1) timely response to excess energy use by building operators; and (2) building occupants to develop energy awareness and to actively engage in reducing energy use. Energy information systems, often involving graphical dashboards, are gaining popularity in presenting energy performance metrics to occupants and operators in a (near) real-time fashion. Such an energy information system, called Building Agent, has been developed at NREL and incorporates a dashboard for public display. Each building is, by virtue of its purpose, location, and construction, unique. Thus, assessing building energy performance is possible only in a relative sense, as comparison of absolute energy use out of context is not meaningful. In some cases, performance can be judged relative to average performance of comparable buildings. However, in cases of high-performance building designs, such as NREL's Research Support Facility (RSF) discussed in this report, relative performance is meaningful only when compared to historical performance of the facility or to a theoretical maximum performance of the facility as estimated through detailed building energy modeling.

  18. Final Scientific Technical Report: INTEGRATED PREDICTIVE DEMAND RESPONSE CONTROLLER FOR COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenzel, Mike

    2013-10-14

    This project provides algorithms to perform demand response using the thermal mass of a building. Using the thermal mass of the building is an attractive method for performing demand response because there is no need for capital expenditure. The algorithms rely on the thermal capacitance inherent in the building?s construction materials. A near-optimal ?day ahead? predictive approach is developed that is meant to keep the building?s electrical demand constant during the high cost periods. This type of approach is appropriate for both time-of-use and critical peak pricing utility rate structures. The approach uses the past days data in order to determine the best temperature setpoints for the building during the high price periods on the next day. A second ?model predictive approach? (MPC) uses a thermal model of the building to determine the best temperature for the next sample period. The approach uses constant feedback from the building and is capable of appropriately handling real time pricing. Both approaches are capable of using weather forecasts to improve performance.

  19. A Study of the Use of Ontologies for Building Computer-Aided Control Engineering Self-Learning Educational Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Isaías; Benavides, Carmen; Alaiz, Héctor; Alonso, Angel

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes research on the use of knowledge models (ontologies) for building computer-aided educational software in the field of control engineering. Ontologies are able to represent in the computer a very rich conceptual model of a given domain. This model can be used later for a number of purposes in different software applications. In…

  20. Model Predictive Controller for Active Demand Side Management with PV Self-consumption in an Intelligent Building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zong, Yi; Mihet-Popa, Lucian; Kullmann, Daniel;

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a Model Predictive Controller (MPC) for electrical heaters’ predictive power consumption including maximizing the use of local generation (e.g. solar power) in an intelligent building. The MPC is based on dynamic power price and weather forecast, considering users’ comfort...

  1. Evaluation of a Mixed Method Approach for Studying User Interaction with Novel Building Control Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgit Painter

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Energy-efficient building performance requires sophisticated control systems that are based on realistic occupant behaviour models. To provide robust data for the development of these models, research studies in real-world settings are needed. Yet, such studies are challenging and necessitate careful design in terms of data collection methods and procedures. This paper describes and critiques the design of a mixed methods approach for occupant behaviour research. It reviews the methodology developed for a longitudinal study in a real-world office environment where occupants’ experience with a novel facade technology (electrochromic glazing was investigated. The methodology integrates objective physical measurements, observational data and self-reported experience data. Using data from one day of the study, this paper illustrates how the different sources can be combined in order to derive an in-depth understanding of the interplay between external daylight conditions, characteristics of the facade technology, occupant interaction with the technology and the resulting occupant experience. It was found that whilst the individual methods may be affected by practical limitations, these can be partially offset by combining physical measurements and observations with self-reported data. The paper critically evaluates the individual techniques, as well as the benefits of their integration and makes recommendations for the design of future occupant behaviour studies in real-world settings.

  2. Building regulations and control in the face of climate change: overview of the Portuguese situation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Costa Branco De Oliveira Pedro, J.A.; dos Santos, C.P.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the main initiatives implemented in Portugal aimed at improving the environmental performance of buildings. The study is focused on the building regulatory system. However, to describe its framework a wider context is analysed for the following reasons: a) strategi

  3. Control strategies study of a complete solar assisted air conditioning system in an office building using TRNSYS

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Sébastien; Andre, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    It is now clearly assumed that solar assisted air conditioning is able to minimize environmental impact and CO2 production of buildings operation. How to reach highest energy savings is still a work in progress. In former literature, equipment control has been point out as a critical feature of energy consumption. Control becomes more and more important as system is complex. The complete simulation environment was developed in previous work, it includes the absorption chiller ...

  4. Investigation on Smoke Movement and Smoke Control for Atrium in Green and Sustainable Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fang, Lui; Nielsen, Peter V.; Brohus, Henrik

    The concepts of green buildings and sustainable buildings are promoted actively in the developed countries. Targets are on protecting the environment, using less energy through natural ventilation provisions and daylight utilization, developing better waste management and taking resource conserva......The concepts of green buildings and sustainable buildings are promoted actively in the developed countries. Targets are on protecting the environment, using less energy through natural ventilation provisions and daylight utilization, developing better waste management and taking resource...... design in the green or sustainable buildings with an atrium. Since the physics of air entrainment is not yet clearly understood, most of the fire plume expressions reported in the literature was derived empirically. Experiments and CFD simulation were used to study the different types of thermal plumes...... University from January 2007 to June 2007. As the time limitation the further analysis of the result is needed when I go back to Chongqing University....

  5. Controlling Capital Costs in High Performance Office Buildings: A Review of Best Practices for Overcoming Cost Barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pless, S.; Torcellini, P.

    2012-05-01

    This paper presents a set of 15 best practices for owners, designers, and construction teams of office buildings to reach high performance goals for energy efficiency, while maintaining a competitive budget. They are based on the recent experiences of the owner and design/build team for the Research Support Facility (RSF) on National Renewable Energy Facility's campus in Golden, CO, which show that achieving this outcome requires each key integrated team member to understand their opportunities to control capital costs.

  6. Simulating control strategies of electrochromic windows : Impacts on indoor climate and energy use in an office building.

    OpenAIRE

    Mäkitalo, Jonatan

    2013-01-01

    The building sector is a one of modern society’s biggest users of energy. In turn, a building’s windows have a significant impact on its energy usage. Electrochromic windows have a thin film on one of the panes, designed to variably change the tint of the window. Thereby the solar heat gain, needed internal lighting and building energy utilization are varied. This thesis uses the simulation software IDA ICE 4.5 to simulate control scenarios for electrochromic windows. The goal is to examine h...

  7. Strategies for energy saving in buildings by means of automatic control; Estrategias de ahorro de energia en inmuebles mediante el control automatico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Trujillo, Oscar [Johnson Controls de Mexico S. A. de C. V., Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    In this paper some of the measures and strategies for energy saving that can be applied in different types of buildings, mainly in hotels and office buildings, are presented. The proposed actions are accomplished with the aid of the automatic control equipment and the operation and/or maintenance personnel that supervises and establishes the control parameters of each one of the strategies than are focused to the appropriate utilization of the electric energy. [Espanol] En este documento se presentan algunas de las medidas y estrategias de ahorro de energia que pueden ser aplicadas en diferentes tipos de inmuebles, principalmente en hoteles y en edificios de oficinas. Las acciones propuestas son realizadas con la ayuda del equipo de control automatico y del personal de operacion y/o mantenimiento quien supervisa y establece los parametros de control de cada una de las estrategias que son destinadas a la buena utilizacion de la energia electrica.

  8. Passive climate control in Spanish office buildings for long periods of time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orosa, J.A.; Baalina, A. [Departamento de Energia y P, Escuela Tecnica Superior de N. y M., Universidade da Coruna, Paseo de Ronda 51, P.C.: 1501 A Coruna (Spain)

    2008-12-15

    Recent studies have shown that the effect of the internal wall coating on an indoor thermal environment can be seen for short periods of time [Hameury S. Moisture buffering capacity of heavy timber structures directly exposed to an indoor climate: a numerical study. Building and Environment 2005;40(10):1400-12]. However, for long periods of time this effect is hidden by the air renovation and vapour release. These passive methods are gaining popularity because they are energy conscious and environmentally friendly. However, there is little published data on mass transfer between building envelopes and indoor air [Simonson CJ, Salonvaara MH. Mass transfer between indoor air and a porous building envelope: part I - field measurements. In: Proceedings of healthy buildings, vol. 3, 2000; Simonson CJ, Tuomo O. Moisture performance of buildings envelopes with no plastic vapour retarders in cold climates. In: Proceedings of healthy buildings, vol. 3, 2000]. The main objective of this study is to show the internal wall coating effect on indoor air conditions by means of the indoor air parameters. These measurements were taken in 25 office buildings during different seasons. Our results will allow us to understand the internal coating effect for long and short periods of time and, therefore, the thermal comfort and indoor air quality conditions. (author)

  9. Titulador potenciométrico automatizado baseado em sistema de fluxo monossegmentado Automated potentiometric titrator based in monosegmented flow system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgard Moreira Ganzarolli

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available A new automated system for acid-base flow titrations is proposed. In the operation mode, several sample to titrant volumetric ratios are injected in an air segmented plug. Five three way solenoid valves and three acrilic junctions, assembled in a hidrodynamic injection system, were accountable for the monosegmented reagents plug formation. A turbulent flow reactor was used for a perfect mix of reagents in the plug. The detector system employed a glass combined electrode fitted in an acrilic holder. Titrations of hydrochloric, nitric and acetic acids, in several concentrations, were performed with standard sodium hidroxide, for evaluation of the efficiency of the system. The relative standard deviation of the determinations was about ±0,5% and each titration was carried out in 3-4 minutes. A Quick BASIC 4.5® program was developed for the titrator control.

  10. Demo abstract: Flexhouse-2-an open source building automation platform with a focus on flexible control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gehrke, Oliver; Kosek, Anna Magdalena; Svendsen, Mathias

    2014-01-01

    distributed energy resources (DER) has been a strong focus of smart grid research in recent years. These resources include building-integrated generation such as photovoltaics, loads capable of demand response (DR) and local energy storage. A large portion of these resources will be installed......, an open-source implementation of a building automation system which has been designed with a strong focus on enabling the integration of the building into a smart power system and dedicated support for the requirements of an R&D environment. We will demonstrate the need for such a platform, discuss...

  11. Symbiodinium genotypic and environmental controls on lipids in reef building corals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy F Cooper

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lipids in reef building corals can be divided into two classes; non-polar storage lipids, e.g. wax esters and triglycerides, and polar structural lipids, e.g. phospholipids and cholesterol. Differences among algal endosymbiont types are known to have important influences on processes including growth and the photobiology of scleractinian corals yet very little is known about the role of symbiont types on lipid energy reserves. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The ratio of storage lipid and structural lipid fractions of Scott Reef corals were determined by thin layer chromatography. The lipid fraction ratio varied with depth and depended on symbiont type harboured by two corals (Seriatopora hystrix and Pachyseris speciosa. S. hystrix colonies associated with Symbiodinium C1 or C1/C# at deep depths (>23 m had lower lipid fraction ratios (i.e. approximately equal parts of storage and structural lipids than those with Symbiodinium D1 in shallow depths (<23 m, which had higher lipid fraction ratios (i.e. approximately double amounts of storage relative to structural lipid. Further, there was a non-linear relationship between the lipid fraction ratio and depth for S. hystrix with a modal peak at ∼23 m coinciding with the same depth as the shift from clade D to C types. In contrast, the proportional relationship between the lipid fraction ratio and depth for P. speciosa, which exhibited high specificity for Symbiodinium C3 like across the depth gradient, was indicative of greater amounts of storage lipids contained in the deep colonies. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study has demonstrated that Symbiodinium exert significant controls over the quality of coral energy reserves over a large-scale depth gradient. We conclude that the competitive advantages and metabolic costs that arise from flexible associations with divergent symbiont types are offset by energetic trade-offs for the coral host.

  12. Plug-Load Control and Behavioral Change Research in GSA Office Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metzger, I.; Cutler, D.; Sheppy, M.

    2012-10-01

    The U.S. General Services Administration (GSA) owns and leases over 354 million square feet (ft2) of space in over 9,600 buildings [1]. GSA is a leader among federal agencies in aggressively pursuing energy efficiency (EE) opportunities for its facilities and installing renewable energy (RE) systems to provide heating, cooling, and power to these facilities. According to several energy assessments of GSA's buildings conducted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), plug-loads account for approximately 21% of the total electricity consumed within a standard GSA Region 3 office building. This study aims to provide insight on how to effectively manage plug-load energy consumption and attain higher energy and cost savings for plug-loads. As GSA improves the efficiency of its building stock, plug-loads will become an even greater portion of its energy footprint.

  13. Addressing NCDs through research and capacity building in LMICs: lessons learned from tobacco control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturke, Rachel; Vorkoper, Susan; Duncan, Kalina; Levintova, Marya; Parascondola, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Confronting the global non-communicable diseases (NCDs) crisis requires a critical mass of scientists who are well versed in regional health problems and understand the cultural, social, economic, and political contexts that influence the effectiveness of interventions. Investments in global NCD research must be accompanied by contributions to local research capacity. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) and the Fogarty International Center have a long-standing commitment to supporting research capacity building and addressing the growing burden of NCDs in low- and middle-income countries. One program in particular, the NIH International Tobacco and Health Research and Capacity Building Program (TOBAC program), offers an important model for conducting research and building research capacity simultaneously. This article describes the lessons learned from this unique funding model and demonstrates how a relatively modest investment can make important contributions to scientific evidence and capacity building that could inform ongoing and future efforts to tackle the global burden of NCDs. PMID:27545455

  14. Supervisory Control of Loads and Energy Storage in Next-Generation Zero Energy Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kung, Feitau [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Frank, Stephen [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Scheib, Jennifer [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bernal Heredia, Willy [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Pless, Shanti [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-09-01

    A zero energy building (ZEB)—also known as a net zero energy or zero net energy building—is a building that exports as much renewable energy as the total energy it imports from other sources on an annual basis (DOE 2015). Large-scale and commercially viable ZEBs are now in the marketplace, and they are expected to become a larger share of the commercial building footprint as government and private sector policies continue to promote the development of buildings that produce more on-site energy than they use. However, the load profiles of ZEBs are currently perceived by electric utilities to be unfavorable and unpredictable. As shown in Figure ES-1, ZEB load profiles can have abrupt changes in magnitude, at times switching rapidly between exporting and importing electricity. This is a challenge for utilities, which are responsible for constantly balancing electricity supply and demand across the grid. Addressing these concerns will require new strategies and tools.

  15. Key Residential Building Equipment Technologies for Control and Grid Support PART I (Residential)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starke, Michael R [ORNL; Onar, Omer C [ORNL; DeVault, Robert C [ORNL

    2011-09-01

    based on the largest electrical energy consumers in the residential sector are space heating and cooling, washer and dryer, water heating, lighting, computers and electronics, dishwasher and range, and refrigeration. As the largest loads, these loads provide the highest potential for delivering demand response and reliability services. Many residential loads have inherent flexibility that is related to the purpose of the load. Depending on the load type, electric power consumption levels can either be ramped, changed in a step-change fashion, or completely removed. Loads with only on-off capability (such as clothes washers and dryers) provide less flexibility than resources that can be ramped or step-changed. Add-on devices may be able to provide extra demand response capabilities. Still, operating residential loads effectively requires awareness of the delicate balance of occupants health and comfort and electrical energy consumption. This report is Phase I of a series of reports aimed at identifying gaps in automated home energy management systems for incorporation of building appliances, vehicles, and renewable adoption into a smart grid, specifically with the intent of examining demand response and load factor control for power system support. The objective is to capture existing gaps in load control, energy management systems, and sensor technology with consideration of PHEV and renewable technologies to establish areas of research for the Department of Energy. In this report, (1) data is collected and examined from state of the art homes to characterize the primary residential loads as well as PHEVs and photovoltaic for potential adoption into energy management control strategies; and (2) demand response rules and requirements across the various demand response programs are examined for potential participation of residential loads. This report will be followed by a Phase II report aimed at identifying the current state of technology of energy management systems

  16. Modeling And Predictive Control Of High Performance Buildings With Distributed Energy Generation And Thermal Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Siwei; Karava, Panagiota

    2014-01-01

    Building-integrated photovoltaic-thermal (BIPV/T) systems replace conventional building cladding with solar technology that generates electricity and heat. For example, unglazed transpired solar collectors, known as UTCs, can be integrated with open-loop photovoltaic thermal (PV/T) systems to preheat ventilation air and/or to feed hot air into an air source heat pump, thus satisfying a significant part of the building’s heating and/or hot water requirements while also generating electricity. ...

  17. COMPARAÇÃO ENTRE OS SISTEMAS AUTOMATIZADO E CONVENCIONAL DE CRIOPRESERVAÇÃO DE SÊMEN BOVINO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cátia Oliveira Guimarães Abud

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the efficiency of bovine semen cryopreservation using the controlled-rate freezing machine versus the conventional method (uncontrolled curve by the parameters of sperm quality and viability in post-thaw period. Semen from four adult crossbreed bulls was cryopreserved in Tris-yolk-glycerol medium. The computer assisted analysis of thawed semen detected the following results: PM 56.50±22.25%; VAP 34.77±4.25μm/s; VSL 28.17±4.25μm/s; VCL 58.45±6.85μm/s; STR 82.00±2.31%; LIN 49.50±3.32%, to automated system and PM 57.00±13.11%; VAP 25.75±1.66μm/s; VSL 23.32±1.99μm/s; VCL 63.32±1.79μm/s; STR 82.25±3.59μm/s; LIN 50.00±4.97μm/s to conventional cryopreservation system. The results of plasma membrane and acrosome integrity evaluation were 54.7±12.55% and 36.13±22.20% for the automated system and 53.22±13.22% and 47.26±5.74% for the conventional system, respectively. The parameters evaluated demonstrated that there was no statistical difference between the cryopreservation systems. Thus, the choice of the bovine semen cryopreservation method to be used on a farm is a responsibility of the technician, and should be based on the reality of each farm. Therefore, it is always necessary to consider that the conventional system of bovine semen cryopreservation can vary more than the automated system, which, despite the cost of the equipment, can ensure repeatability of the results and consequent quality of cryopreserved bovine semen.

  18. Modelica-based Modeling and Simulation to Support Research and Development in Building Energy and Control Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetter, Michael

    2009-02-12

    Traditional building simulation programs possess attributes that make them difficult to use for the design and analysis of building energy and control systems and for the support of model-based research and development of systems that may not already be implemented in these programs. This article presents characteristic features of such applications, and it shows how equation-based object-oriented modelling can meet requirements that arise in such applications. Next, the implementation of an open-source component model library for building energy systems is presented. The library has been developed using the equation-based object-oriented Modelica modelling language. Technical challenges of modelling and simulating such systems are discussed. Research needs are presented to make this technology accessible to user groups that have more stringent requirements with respect to the numerical robustness of simulation than a research community may have. Two examples are presented in which models from the here described library were used. The first example describes the design of a controller for a nonlinear model of a heating coil using model reduction and frequency domain analysis. The second example describes the tuning of control parameters for a static pressure reset controller of a variable air volume flow system. The tuning has been done by solving a non-convex optimization problem that minimizes fan energy subject to state constraints.

  19. Key Residential Building Equipment Technologies for Control and Grid Support PART I (Residential)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starke, Michael R [ORNL; Onar, Omer C [ORNL; DeVault, Robert C [ORNL

    2011-09-01

    based on the largest electrical energy consumers in the residential sector are space heating and cooling, washer and dryer, water heating, lighting, computers and electronics, dishwasher and range, and refrigeration. As the largest loads, these loads provide the highest potential for delivering demand response and reliability services. Many residential loads have inherent flexibility that is related to the purpose of the load. Depending on the load type, electric power consumption levels can either be ramped, changed in a step-change fashion, or completely removed. Loads with only on-off capability (such as clothes washers and dryers) provide less flexibility than resources that can be ramped or step-changed. Add-on devices may be able to provide extra demand response capabilities. Still, operating residential loads effectively requires awareness of the delicate balance of occupants health and comfort and electrical energy consumption. This report is Phase I of a series of reports aimed at identifying gaps in automated home energy management systems for incorporation of building appliances, vehicles, and renewable adoption into a smart grid, specifically with the intent of examining demand response and load factor control for power system support. The objective is to capture existing gaps in load control, energy management systems, and sensor technology with consideration of PHEV and renewable technologies to establish areas of research for the Department of Energy. In this report, (1) data is collected and examined from state of the art homes to characterize the primary residential loads as well as PHEVs and photovoltaic for potential adoption into energy management control strategies; and (2) demand response rules and requirements across the various demand response programs are examined for potential participation of residential loads. This report will be followed by a Phase II report aimed at identifying the current state of technology of energy management systems

  20. Diseño de un modelo de esquema director de un sistema de información gubernamental automatizado para paises en vías de desarrollo

    OpenAIRE

    Guillén Sarita, José Felipe

    1990-01-01

    Se plantea la posibilidad de elaborar un modelo de "Esquema Director" para el desarrollo de un Sistema de Información Gubernamental automatizado para países en vías de desarrollo. Así mismo,debido a la diversidad de países en vías de desarrollo se establece la necesidad de su estratificación con el fin de definir modelos para grupos de países con características similares. Con este propósito se selecciona la región de Centroamérica y El Caribe, estratificándose los países del área en...

  1. Eficácia do sistema de contenção (automatizado e mecânico) no atordoamento de bovinos Effectiveness of the restraining system (automated and mechanical) in the cattle stunning

    OpenAIRE

    William Bertoloni; Douglas Andreolla

    2010-01-01

    Um total de 800 bovinos machos (nelore/anelorados), com idade entre 28 e 36 meses, foi atordoado com pistola pneumática, com pressão de operação de 11 a 12bar e haste de penetração de 15.9mm de diâmetro, em sistemas de contenção diferentes (mecânico e atomatizado). O box de contenção mecânico tradicional (2,53x0,88x2,20m) não permitiu a contenção da cabeça do animal; no segundo tratamento utilizou-se box de contenção automatizado (2,60x0,85x2,30m), com parede lateral e piso móveis, guilhotina...

  2. Demand response-enabled model predictive HVAC load control in buildings using real-time electricity pricing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avci, Mesut

    A practical cost and energy efficient model predictive control (MPC) strategy is proposed for HVAC load control under dynamic real-time electricity pricing. The MPC strategy is built based on a proposed model that jointly minimizes the total energy consumption and hence, cost of electricity for the user, and the deviation of the inside temperature from the consumer's preference. An algorithm that assigns temperature set-points (reference temperatures) to price ranges based on the consumer's discomfort tolerance index is developed. A practical parameter prediction model is also designed for mapping between the HVAC load and the inside temperature. The prediction model and the produced temperature set-points are integrated as inputs into the MPC controller, which is then used to generate signal actions for the AC unit. To investigate and demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach, a simulation based experimental analysis is presented using real-life pricing data. An actual prototype for the proposed HVAC load control strategy is then built and a series of prototype experiments are conducted similar to the simulation studies. The experiments reveal that the MPC strategy can lead to significant reductions in overall energy consumption and cost savings for the consumer. Results suggest that by providing an efficient response strategy for the consumers, the proposed MPC strategy can enable the utility providers to adopt efficient demand management policies using real-time pricing. Finally, a cost-benefit analysis is performed to display the economic feasibility of implementing such a controller as part of a building energy management system, and the payback period is identified considering cost of prototype build and cost savings to help the adoption of this controller in the building HVAC control industry.

  3. The control, at the design stage, of risks related to buildings management over time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Martani

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper an apparatus of tools and methods is presented to evaluate, at the design stage, the risks over a set of objectives through buildings lifetime. To this purpose a tool is first presented to relate technological requirements of each technical elements to the pertinent maintenance interventions. Then a process is also proposed to estimate the risks on user requirements runningMonte Carlo simulations. The risk management process proposed in the present work aims to support designers and promoters in making predictions on the outcomes of long, not standardized, multivariable dependent processes – as the building process is – in order to indicate the attitude of a designed building to meet a framework of important objectives through its lifetime.

  4. Statistical Process Control Concerning the Glazed Areas Influence on the Energy Efficiency of Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Lepădatu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present a statistical investigation, for analyzing the buildings characteristics from the energy efficiency point of view. The energy efficiency of buildings may be estimated by their capacity to ensure a healthy and comfortable environment, with low energy consumption during the whole year. The glazed areas have a decisive role in the building energy efficiency having in view the complex functions that they play in the system. A parametric study, based on the method of factorial plan of experience with two levels, allows us to emphasize the measure in which the geometric and energetic characteristics of glazed areas influence the energy efficiency, estimated by the yearly energy needs, to ensure a comfortable and healthy environment.

  5. A semi-active H∞ control strategy with application to the vibration suppression of nonlinear high-rise building under earthquake excitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Guiyun; Chen, Fuquan; Wu, Yingxiong

    2016-01-01

    Different from previous researches which mostly focused on linear response control of seismically excited high-rise buildings, this study aims to control nonlinear seismic response of high-rise buildings. To this end, a semi-active control strategy, in which H∞ control algorithm is used and magneto-rheological dampers are employed for an actuator, is presented to suppress the nonlinear vibration. In this strategy, a modified Kalman-Bucy observer which is suitable for the proposed semi-active strategy is developed to obtain the state vector from the measured semi-active control force and acceleration feedback, taking into account of the effects of nonlinearity, disturbance and uncertainty of controlled system parameters by the observed nonlinear accelerations. Then, the proposed semi-active H∞ control strategy is applied to the ASCE 20-story benchmark building when subjected to earthquake excitation and compared with the other control approaches by some control criteria. It is indicated that the proposed semi-active H∞ control strategy provides much better control performances by comparison with the semi-active MPC and Clipped-LQG control approaches, and can reduce nonlinear seismic response and minimize the damage in the buildings. Besides, it enhances the reliability of the control performance when compared with the active control strategy. Thus, the proposed semi-active H∞ control strategy is suitable for suppressing the nonlinear vibration of high-rise buildings.

  6. Application of the Software as a Service Model to the Control of Complex Building Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stadler, Michael; Donadee, Jonathan; Marnay, Chris; Mendes, Goncalo; Appen, Jan von; Megel, Oliver; Bhattacharya, Prajesh; DeForest, Nicholas; Lai, Judy

    2011-03-17

    In an effort to create broad access to its optimization software, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), in collaboration with the University of California at Davis (UC Davis) and OSISoft, has recently developed a Software as a Service (SaaS) Model for reducing energy costs, cutting peak power demand, and reducing carbon emissions for multipurpose buildings. UC Davis currently collects and stores energy usage data from buildings on its campus. Researchers at LBNL sought to demonstrate that a SaaS application architecture could be built on top of this data system to optimize the scheduling of electricity and heat delivery in the building. The SaaS interface, known as WebOpt, consists of two major parts: a) the investment& planning and b) the operations module, which builds on the investment& planning module. The operational scheduling and load shifting optimization models within the operations module use data from load prediction and electrical grid emissions models to create an optimal operating schedule for the next week, reducing peak electricity consumption while maintaining quality of energy services. LBNL's application also provides facility managers with suggested energy infrastructure investments for achieving their energy cost and emission goals based on historical data collected with OSISoft's system. This paper describes these models as well as the SaaS architecture employed by LBNL researchers to provide asset scheduling services to UC Davis. The peak demand, emissions, and cost implications of the asset operation schedule and investments suggested by this optimization model are analysed.

  7. Application of the Software as a Service Model to the Control of Complex Building Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stadler, Michael; Donadee, Jon; Marnay, Chris; Lai, Judy; Mendes, Goncalo; Appen, Jan von; M& #233; gel, Oliver; Bhattacharya, Prajesh; DeForest, Nicholas; Lai, Judy

    2011-03-18

    In an effort to create broad access to its optimization software, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), in collaboration with the University of California at Davis (UC Davis) and OSISoft, has recently developed a Software as a Service (SaaS) Model for reducing energy costs, cutting peak power demand, and reducing carbon emissions for multipurpose buildings. UC Davis currently collects and stores energy usage data from buildings on its campus. Researchers at LBNL sought to demonstrate that a SaaS application architecture could be built on top of this data system to optimize the scheduling of electricity and heat delivery in the building. The SaaS interface, known as WebOpt, consists of two major parts: a) the investment& planning and b) the operations module, which builds on the investment& planning module. The operational scheduling and load shifting optimization models within the operations module use data from load prediction and electrical grid emissions models to create an optimal operating schedule for the next week, reducing peak electricity consumption while maintaining quality of energy services. LBNL's application also provides facility managers with suggested energy infrastructure investments for achieving their energy cost and emission goals based on historical data collected with OSISoft's system. This paper describes these models as well as the SaaS architecture employed by LBNL researchers to provide asset scheduling services to UC Davis. The peak demand, emissions, and cost implications of the asset operation schedule and investments suggested by this optimization model are analyzed.

  8. Munich installs provider-neutral building management and control system; Landeshauptstadt Muenchen realisiert firmenneutrale Gebaeudeleittechnik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmid, W.

    1998-10-01

    Since April 1995, a pilot project is running in Munich for comprehensive energy management of all 1600 city-owned buildings. There will be a central facility management system which communicates with automation nodes in the individual buildings via the urban telephone network (ISDN-HICOM) or the Telekom ISDN network. In order to be independent of suppliers, an open system (FND) was chosen. Connection of about 600 buildings is envisaged as a medium-term goal. 150 buildings were connected in early 1998. [Deutsch] Seit April 1995 laeuft in Muenchen ein Pilotprojekt zum Aufbau eines umfassenden Energiemanagements fuer die rund 1600 staedtischen Gebaeude der bayerischen Metropole. Basis dieser Entwicklung ist ein uebergeordnetes Gebaeudeleitsystem, das aeber das staedtische Telefonnetz (ISDN-HICOM) bzw. das ISDN-Netz der Telekom mit den sogenannten Gebaeude-Automations-Knoten (GA-Knoten) in den jeweiligen Liegenschaften kommuniziert. Aus Gruenden der Firmenneutralitaet waehlten die Muenchner ein offenes System auf der Basis des firmenneutralen Datenuebertragungssystems (FND). Mittelfristiges Ziel ist die Aufschaltung von rund 600 Liegenschaften, wobei Anfang 1998 bereits 150 Gebaeude fixiert waren. (orig.)

  9. Impact of energy efficiency goals on systems of building regulations and control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visscher, H.J.; Meijer, F.M.

    2014-01-01

    Considerations of climate change, but also other political and economic reasons urge for the reduction of use of fossil fuels and the minimization of environmental impact by the built environment. The energy saving potential of the building stock is large and considered to be the most cost efficient

  10. Wireless Infrastructure for Performing Monitoring, Diagnostics, and Control HVAC and Other Energy-Using Systems in Small Commercial Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrick O' Neill

    2009-06-30

    This project focused on developing a low-cost wireless infrastructure for monitoring, diagnosing, and controlling building systems and equipment. End users receive information via the Internet and need only a web browser and Internet connection. The system used wireless communications for: (1) collecting data centrally on site from many wireless sensors installed on building equipment, (2) transmitting control signals to actuators and (3) transmitting data to an offsite network operations center where it is processed and made available to clients on the Web (see Figure 1). Although this wireless infrastructure can be applied to any building system, it was tested on two representative applications: (1) monitoring and diagnostics for packaged rooftop HVAC units used widely on small commercial buildings and (2) continuous diagnosis and control of scheduling errors such as lights and equipment left on during unoccupied hours. This project developed a generic infrastructure for performance monitoring, diagnostics, and control, applicable to a broad range of building systems and equipment, but targeted specifically to small to medium commercial buildings (an underserved market segment). The proposed solution is based on two wireless technologies. The first, wireless telemetry, is used for cell phones and paging and is reliable and widely available. This risk proved to be easily managed during the project. The second technology is on-site wireless communication for acquiring data from sensors and transmitting control signals. The technology must enable communication with many nodes, overcome physical obstructions, operate in environments with other electrical equipment, support operation with on-board power (instead of line power) for some applications, operate at low transmission power in license-free radio bands, and be low cost. We proposed wireless mesh networking to meet these needs. This technology is relatively new and has been applied only in research and tests

  11. TECHNIQUES OF 3D COMPONENT DATABASE ESTABLISHING AND QUALITY CONTROL FOR WOODEN BUILDING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Based on the architectural survey project of “the Chi Lin Nunnery Redevelopment "in Hong Kong,this paper attempts to investigate the techniques of building 3D digital document of large_scale timber structure and quality con trol during construction by computer_based 3D simulation for the whole project.T here were several key issues including primary data acquisition,3D modeling and display,pre_assembling the total building and quality examination,etc.In this pa per,some useful experiments,such as the new applications of CCD digital cameras,image and graph processing software packages (CAD,Photoshop,Photomod eler,Vexcel,etc.) to the architectures are also presented.These methods intr oduced in this paper are suitable for image and graph integrated database buildi ng of complicated architectures,and useful for conveniently maintaining and rec onstructing the ancient architectures.

  12. A novel 300 kW arc plasma inverter system based on hierarchical controlled building block structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    To date, the high power arc plasma technology is widely used. A next generation high power arc plasma system based on building block structure is presented. The whole arc plasma inverter system is composed of 12 paralleled units to increase the system output capability. The hierarchical control system is adopted to improve the reliability and flexibility of the high power arc plasma inverter. To ensure the reliable turn on and off of the IGBT module in each building block unit, a special pulse drive circuit is designed by using pulse transformer. The experimental result indicates that the high power arc plasma inverter system can transfer 300 kW arc plasma energy reliably with high efficiency.

  13. Control and energy optimization of ground source heat pump systems for heating and cooling in buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Cervera Vázquez, Javier

    2016-01-01

    [EN] In a context of global warming concern and global energy policies, in which heating and cooling systems in buildings account for a significant amount of the global energy consumption, ground source heat pump (GSHP) systems are widely considered as being among the most efficient and comfortable heating and cooling renewable technologies currently available. Nevertheless, both an optimal design of components and an optimal operation of the system as a whole become crucial so that these ...

  14. Report on design and technical standard planning of vibration controlling structure on the buildings, in the Tokai Reprocessing Facility, Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uryu, Mitsuru; Terada, Shuji; Shinohara, Takaharu; Yamazaki, Toshihiko; Nakayama, Kazuhiko [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Works; Kondo, Toshinari; Hosoya, Hisashi

    1997-10-01

    The Tokai reprocessing facility buildings are constituted by a lower foundation, vibration controlling layers, and upper structure. At the vibration controlling layer, a laminated rubber aiming support of the building load and extension of the eigenfrequency and a damper aiming absorption of earthquake energy are provided. Of course, the facility buildings are directly supported at the arenaceous shale (Taga Layer) of the Miocene in the Neogene confirmed to the stablest ground, as well the buildings with high vibration resistant importance in Japan. This report shows that when the vibration controlling structure is adopted for the reprocessing facility buildings where such high vibration resistance is required, reduction of input acceleration for equipments and pipings can be achieved and the earthquake resistant safety can also be maintained with sufficient tolerance and reliability. (G.K.)

  15. Intelligent Voice-Based Door Access Control System Using Adaptive-Network-based Fuzzy Inference Systems (ANFIS for Building Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyudi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Secure buildings are currently protected from unauthorized access by a variety of devices. Even though there are many kinds of devices to guarantee the system safety such as PIN pads, keys both conventional and electronic, identity cards, cryptographic and dual control procedures, the people voice can also be used. The ability to verify the identity of a speaker by analyzing speech, or speaker verification, is an attractive and relatively unobtrusive means of providing security for admission into an important or secured place. An individual’s voice cannot be stolen, lost, forgotten, guessed, or impersonated with accuracy. Due to these advantages, this paper describes design and prototyping a voice-based door access control system for building security. In the proposed system, the access may be authorized simply by means of an enrolled user speaking into a microphone attached to the system. The proposed system then will decide whether to accept or reject the user’s identity claim or possibly to report insufficient confidence and request additional input before making the decision. Furthermore, intelligent system approach is used to develop authorized person models based on theirs voice. Particularly Adaptive-Network-based Fuzzy Inference Systems is used in the proposed system to identify the authorized and unauthorized people. Experimental result confirms the effectiveness of the proposed intelligent voice-based door access control system based on the false acceptance rate and false rejection rate.

  16. Use of predictions in temperature control in buildings: A passive climate system application. Doctoral thesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lute, P.J.

    1992-01-01

    The thesis consists of two parts. The first part is a general part about predictive control in the indoor climate field. The second part deals with the control system implementation in the passive indoor climate system. The fundamentals, general principles and mechanisms of the class of predictive controllers and control strategies with a linear objective function are described in chapter 2. Chapter 3 deals with the typical characteristics of the indoor and outdoor climate, that have to be incorporated in a predictive control system to make it a successful and robust predictive indoor climate control system. A general scheme for a predictive indoor climate system, that has self-learning features, is described in Chapter 4. Chapter 5 introduces the passive indoor climate system to which a predictive control strategy is applied. Finally, in Chapter 6, a test facility for passive climate systems, referred to as the TU Delft test cell, is described.

  17. RNA as a stable polymer to build controllable and defined nanostructures for material and biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Lee, Taek; Dziubla, Thomas; Pi, Fengmei; Guo, Sijin; Xu, Jing; Li, Chan; Haque, Farzin; Liang, Xing-Jie; Guo, Peixuan

    2015-01-01

    Summary The value of polymers is manifested in their vital use as building blocks in material and life sciences. Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a polynucleic acid, but its polymeric nature in materials and technological applications is often overlooked due to an impression that RNA is seemingly unstable. Recent findings that certain modifications can make RNA resistant to RNase degradation while retaining its authentic folding property and biological function, and the discovery of ultra-thermostable RNA motifs have adequately addressed the concerns of RNA unstability. RNA can serve as a unique polymeric material to build varieties of nanostructures including nanoparticles, polygons, arrays, bundles, membrane, and microsponges that have potential applications in biomedical and material sciences. Since 2005, more than a thousand publications on RNA nanostructures have been published in diverse fields, indicating a remarkable increase of interest in the emerging field of RNA nanotechnology. In this review, we aim to: delineate the physical and chemical properties of polymers that can be applied to RNA; introduce the unique properties of RNA as a polymer; review the current methods for the construction of RNA nanostructures; describe its applications in material, biomedical and computer sciences; and, discuss the challenges and future prospects in this field. PMID:26770259

  18. The role of unattended ground sensors (UGS) in regional confidence building and arms control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vannoni, M.; Duggan, R.

    1997-03-01

    Although the Cold War has ended, the world has not become more peaceful. Without the stability provided by an international system dominated by two super-powers, local conflicts are more likely to escalate. Agreements to counter destabilizing pressures in regional conflicts can benefit from the use of cooperative monitoring. Cooperative monitoring is the collecting, analyzing, and sharing of information among parties to an agreement. Ground sensor technologies can contribute to the collection of relevant information. If implemented with consideration for local conditions, cooperative monitoring can build confidence, strengthen existing agreements, and set the stage for continued progress. This presentation describes two examples: the Israeli-Egyptian Sinai agreements of the 1970s and a conceptual example for the contemporary Korean Peninsula. The Sinai was a precedent for the successful use of UGS within the context of cooperative monitoring. The Korean Peninsula is the world`s largest military confrontation. Future confidence building measures that address the security needs of both countries could decrease the danger of conflict and help create an environment for a peace agreement.

  19. Rocks, Clays, Water, and Salts: Highly Durable, Infinitely Rechargeable, Eminently Controllable Thermal Batteries for Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan W. Rempel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Materials that store the energy of warm days, to return that heat during cool nights, have been fundamental to vernacular building since ancient times. Although building with thermally rechargeable materials became a niche pursuit with the advent of fossil fuel-based heating and cooling, energy and climate change concerns have sparked new enthusiasm for these substances of high heat capacity and moderate thermal conductivity: stone, adobe, rammed earth, brick, water, concrete, and more recently, phase-change materials. While broadly similar, these substances absorb and release heat in unique patterns characteristic of their mineralogies, densities, fluidities, emissivities, and latent heats of fusion. Current architectural practice, however, shows little awareness of these differences and the resulting potential to match materials to desired thermal performance. This investigation explores that potential, illustrating the correspondence between physical parameters and thermal storage-and-release patterns in direct-, indirect-, and isolated-gain passive solar configurations. Focusing on heating applications, results demonstrate the superiority of water walls for daytime warmth, the tunability of granite and concrete for evening warmth, and the exceptional ability of phase-change materials to sustain near-constant heat delivery throughout the night.

  20. Control of occupational exposure when working within a reactor containment building at power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lunn, M.P. [British Energy Generation Ltd., Sizewell B Power Station, Leiston, Suffolk (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-01

    Sizewell B is a 1200 MW, 4 Loop Westinghouse-designed Pressurised Water Reactor, owned and operated by the private utility, British Energy. In the extremely competitive UK electricity market, where wholesale electricity prices have fallen as low as EURO 11 per MWh, generators are under intense pressure to reduce their costs. Sizewell B has attempted to reduce costs by achieving shorter refuelling outage durations. One technique has been to maximize the scope of work performed whilst at power, including work inside the reactor containment building. This paper describes the radiological challenges presented by a routine containment entry programme and the techniques used to manage doses. This work has shown that a wide range of tasks can be performed inside a containment building at power, for comparatively low individual and collective doses (although these represent significant proportions of the normal operation dose). However, to achieve these outcomes, an extensive input from RP engineers and technicians was required. For certain tasks, such as scaffolding and lagging on the RHR system, doses are clearly optimised by working in containment at power. However, the doses received on some other tasks, may not have been ALARA, especially during 2003. This paper recommends that further refinement of the justification arguments is necessary and that annual dose constraints of 1.5 mSv and 15 man.mSv are implemented for routine containment entry programmes at Sizewell B.

  1. Building tobacco control research in Thailand: meeting the need for innovative change in Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Hamann Stephen L; Mock Jeremiah; Hense Sibasis; Charoenca Naowarut; Kungskulniti Nipapun

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Introduction In low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) over the past two decades locally relevant tobacco control research has been scant. Experience shows that tobacco control measures should be based on sound research findings to ensure that measures are appropriate for local conditions and that they are likely to have an impact. Research should also be integrated within tobacco control measures to ensure ongoing learning and the production of knowledge. Thailand, a middle-income...

  2. Building oceanographic and atmospheric observation networks by composition: unmanned vehicles, communication networks, and planning and execution control frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, J. T.; Pinto, J.; Martins, R.; Costa, M.; Ferreira, F.; Gomes, R.

    2014-12-01

    The problem of developing mobile oceanographic and atmospheric observation networks (MOAO) with coordinated air and ocean vehicles is discussed in the framework of the communications and control software tool chain developed at Underwater Systems and Technologies Laboratory (LSTS) from Porto University. This is done with reference to field experiments to illustrate key capabilities and to assess future MOAO operations. First, the motivation for building MOAO by "composition" of air and ocean vehicles, communication networks, and planning and execution control frameworks is discussed - in networked vehicle systems information and commands are exchanged among multiple vehicles and operators, and the roles, relative positions, and dependencies of these vehicles and operators change during operations. Second, the planning and execution control framework developed at LSTS for multi-vehicle systems is discussed with reference to key concepts such as autonomy, mixed-initiative interactions, and layered organization. Third, the LSTS tool software tool chain is presented to show how to develop MOAO by composition. The tool chain comprises the Neptus command and control framework for mixed initiative interactions, the underlying IMC messaging protocol, and the DUNE on-board software. Fourth, selected LSTS operational deployments illustrate MOAO capability building. In 2012 we demonstrated the use of UAS to "ferry" data from UUVs located beyond line of sight (BLOS). In 2013 we demonstrated coordinated observations of coastal fronts with small UAS and UUVs, "bent" BLOS through the use of UAS as communication relays, and UAS tracking of juvenile hammer-head sharks. In 2014 we demonstrated UUV adaptive sampling with the closed loop controller of the UUV residing on a UAS; this was done with the help of a Wave Glider ASV with a communications gateway. The results from these experiments provide a background for assessing potential future UAS operations in a compositional MOAO.

  3. Eficácia do sistema de contenção (automatizado e mecânico no atordoamento de bovinos Effectiveness of the restraining system (automated and mechanical in the cattle stunning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Bertoloni

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Um total de 800 bovinos machos (nelore/anelorados, com idade entre 28 e 36 meses, foi atordoado com pistola pneumática, com pressão de operação de 11 a 12bar e haste de penetração de 15.9mm de diâmetro, em sistemas de contenção diferentes (mecânico e atomatizado. O box de contenção mecânico tradicional (2,53x0,88x2,20m não permitiu a contenção da cabeça do animal; no segundo tratamento utilizou-se box de contenção automatizado (2,60x0,85x2,30m, com parede lateral e piso móveis, guilhotina e elevador de cabeça. O box automatizado proporcionou menor número de disparos necessários para o atordoamento (1,0625±0,013 em comparação ao mecânico(1,2025±0,026, (P≤0,0001, reduziu a distância em relação ao ponto ideal no primeiro disparo (1,246±0,918 e 2,357±1,246 e no segundo (3,042±0,141 e 4,016±0,101, (P 0,0001, assim como proporcionou ausência de reflexo respiratório comparativamente ao sistema mecânico (0,0275±0,008, (P≤0,001. O box automatizado apresentou maior bem-estar e maior eficácia na contenção e insensibilização dos bovinosA total of 800 male cattle (Nelore, aged 28-36 months, stunned by pneumatic captive bolt pistol (operating pressure 160-175psi 11-12bar , air consumption (per cycle 1.45ft³ 41L , penetrating shaft diameter 0.625 in 15.9mm in different restrainer systems (mechanical and automated. The traditional mechanical restraint (2.53x0.88x2.20m did not allow the containment of the animal's head, the automated restrainer (2.60x0.85x2.30m allowed adjustable sidewall and restraint and elevating the head. The automatic restrainer provided smaller number of shots required for stunning (1.0625±0.013 compared to mechanical (1.2025±0.026 (P≤0.0001, reduced the distance from the ideal point in the first shot (1.246±0.918 and (2.357±1.246 and second (3.042±0.141 and (4.016±0.101 (P 0.0001, and provided no respiratory reflex compared to the mechanical system (0.0275±0.008, (P≤0.001. The

  4. Proceedings of the workshop on the dynamic response of environmental control processes in buildings, Lafayette, Indiana, March 13-15, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tree, D.R.; McBride, M.F. (eds.)

    1979-01-01

    The purpose of this workshop was to consider how energy use in buildings can be reduced while maintaining the comfort of the occupants. It was postulated that optimization of energy use in buildings can be achieved through the use of operating strategies which consider the dynamic characteristics of comfort, the design and construction of the building, and the environmental control system. Working sessions were presented on equipment, controls, structures, human factors, circulation/distribution, design, operation and use pattern, management and codes, and energy storage. (LCL)

  5. Building the evidence base for effective tobacco control policies: the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Project (the ITC Project).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, G T; Cummings, K M; Shopland, D R

    2006-06-01

    The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) is a seminal event in tobacco control and in global health. Scientific evidence guided the creation of the FCTC, and as the treaty moves into its implementation phase, scientific evidence can be used to guide the formulation of evidence-based tobacco control policies. The International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Project (ITC Project) is a transdisciplinary international collaboration of tobacco control researchers who have created research studies to evaluate and understand the psychosocial and behavioural impact of FCTC policies as they are implemented in participating ITC countries, which together are inhabited by over 45% of the world's smokers. This introduction to the ITC Project supplement of Tobacco Control presents a brief outline of the ITC Project, including a summary of key findings to date. The overall conceptual model and methodology of the ITC Project--involving representative national cohort surveys created from a common conceptual model, with common methods and measures across countries--may hold promise as a useful paradigm in efforts to evaluate and understand the impact of population-based interventions in other important domains of health, such as obesity. PMID:16754940

  6. Fuzzy Logic Based Controller for Maintaining Human Comfort within Intelligent Building System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrodin .T. Mustapha, Momoh J. E. Salami, Nazim and M. Nasiri

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an intelligent control approach for air handling unit (AHU which is an integral part of heat, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC system. In the past years various control design for HVAC have been proposed as this system remarkably consumes very high energy. But most of the proposed designs were focused on the control flow of heat-transfer medium such as chilled or heated water while the importance of the efficient mixture of outdoor and indoor enthalpies is sometimes ignored. These enthalpies invariably determine the best strategy to overcome thermal load in a controlled environment to satisfy human comfort, hence a control design strategy must be able to efficiently regulate the flow and mixture of outdoor and indoor enthalpies by a proper control of AHU dampers and fans. This approach requires sensors to measure temperature and relative humidity of both outdoor and indoor environments. However, unpredictable level of disturbances coming from many sources including heat generated by occupants, electrical items and air leaking and the continuous changes of outdoor enthalpy makes it difficult to model the process. Consequently, conventional controllers are not suitable, hence the use of fuzzy logic controller (FLC is proposed in this paper. This proposed controller operates in a master and slave control loop so as to control the AHU dampers and fans with adjustable output membership function whilst at the same time a scaling-factor method is used to drive the master operation. To implement the proposed system, a small scale prototype has been designed and fabricated. This prototype is an AHU model which consists of ductwork, temperature and humidity sensors, dampers, air cooling and heating systems. A small box is used as a conditioning space in which a room temperature is measured. The control algorithm is programmed using National Instrument (NI LabVIEW and executed using NI FieldPoint. Experimental results reveal that

  7. Control of Angra 1' PZR by a fuzzy rule base build through genetic programming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is an optimum pressure for the normal operation of nuclear power plant reactors and thresholds that must be respected during transients, what make the pressurizer an important control mechanism. Inside a pressurizer there are heaters and a shower. From their actuation levels, they control the vapor pressure inside the pressurizer and, consequently, inside the primary circuit. Therefore, the control of the pressurizer consists in controlling the actuation levels of the heaters and of the shower. In the present work this function is implemented through a fuzzy controller. Besides the efficient way of exerting control, this approach presents the possibility of extracting knowledge of how this control is been made. A fuzzy controller consists basically in an inference machine and a rule base, the later been constructed with specialized knowledge. In some circumstances, however, this knowledge is not accurate, and may lead to non-efficient results. With the development of artificial intelligence techniques, there wore found methods to substitute specialists, simulating its knowledge. Genetic programming is an evolutionary algorithm particularly efficient in manipulating rule base structures. In this work genetic programming was used as a substitute for the specialist. The goal is to test if an irrational object, a computer, is capable, by it self, to find out a rule base reproducing a pre-established actuation levels profile. The result is positive, with the discovery of a fuzzy rule base presenting an insignificant error. A remarkable result that proves the efficiency of the approach. (author)

  8. Intelligent Model Building and GPC-PID Based Temperature Curve Control Strategy for Metallurgical Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuanghong Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Laminar cooling process is a large-scale, nonlinear system, so the temperature control of such system is a difficult and complex problem. In this paper, a novel modeling method and a GPC-PID based control strategy for laminar cooling process are proposed to control the global temperature curve to produce high quality steel. First, based on the analysis of the cooling process of laminar flow, a new TS fuzzy model which possesses intelligence and self-learning ability is established to improve the temperature prediction accuracy. Second, the target temperature curve can be divided into several subgoals and each subgoal can be described by a CARIMA type of model. Then, by the decentralized predictive control method, GPC-PID based control strategy is introduced to guarantee the laminar cooling process to achieve subtargets, respectively; in that way the steel plate temperature will drop along the optimal temperature curve. Moreover, by employing the dSPACE control board into the process control system, the matrix process ability is added to the production line without large-scale reconstruction. Finally, the effectiveness and performance of the proposed modeling and control strategy are demonstrated by the industrial data and metallography detection in one steel company.

  9. Expert methods in control systems of deep oil and gas holes building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sementsov, G.; Fadeeva, I.; Chigur, I. [State Technical Univ. of Oil and Gas, Ivano-Frankivsk (Ukraine)

    2000-07-01

    Attempts to provide self-control of process of long holing on oil and gas have not given due effect owing to complication of object, it fuzzy and equivocation of the information. In this connection it is offered to use for management of drilling expert systems, which one use fuzzy models and methods of the theory of fuzzy control systems. (orig.)

  10. Control Centre operations as the focus for building station teamwork - issues and resource impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effective teamwork among station work groups is essential for plant production and safety in all phases of plant operation. To achieve effective teamwork, all contributing work groups must have ongoing access to and share a common perspective on station work priorities, and recognize how their individual contributions fit with and support the contributions of other groups in support of the larger station goals. Achieving and maintaining this alignment in perspective across all workgroups can be a challenge in large organizations. This paper discusses the experience at Darlington in building and maintaining station teamwork among the station workgroups in support of day-to-day plant operations. The issues encountered and the resource impacts of specific teamwork supporting practices adopted are outlined. (author)

  11. Building a dynamically ASP.NET 2.0 GridView control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalin NACHILA

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Microsoft Visual Studio 2005 (based on ASP.NET 2.0, the successor to Visual Studio .NET 2003 has a lot of new features and goodies designed for Web developers. This article show how a ASP.NET 2.0 control can be dynamically connected to Microsoft Access database. The delete and update operation will be implemented using a GridView control and SQL queries. The connection between the database and the .NET application will be made with OleDb Data provider, the new Access Data Source control. The SQL queries will be implemented with OleDbCommand.

  12. An Overview of Demand Side Management Control Schemes for Buildings in Smart Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kosek, Anna Magdalena; Costanzo, Giuseppe Tommaso; Bindner, Henrik W.;

    2013-01-01

    demand is needed. The research area of demand side management is still very much in flux and several options are being presented which can all be used to manage loads in order to achieve a flexible and more responsive demand. These different control schemes are developed with different organization...... of the power sector in mind and thus can differ significantly in their architecture, their integration into the various markets, their integration into distribution network operation and several other aspects. This paper proposes a classification of load control policies for demand side management in smart......The increasing share of distributed energy resources and renewable energy in power systems results in a highly variable and less controllable energy production. Therefore, in order to ensure stability and to reduce the infrastructure and operation cost of the power grid, flexible and controllable...

  13. Building a test platform for agents in power system control: Experience from SYSLAB

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gehrke, Oliver; Bindner, Henrik W.

    2007-01-01

    to be as flexible as possible. Software agents promise to be a programming paradigm in support of flexible, distributed applications. This paper describes their application in SYSLAB, an experimental facility for distributed power systems, and discusses experience gained in the implementation process.......A tighter integration of information and communication technologies into power grids and a gradual decentralization of control are widely regarded as key responses to the transformation of power systems, even though many different approaches are investigated to achieve this. Lack of system......-level simulation tools and the high risk of tests on a real-world power grid create a need for small, experimental grids on which new control concepts can be safely tested and demonstrated. In order to accommodate a wide range of possible control structures, the controller platform on such grids needs...

  14. A Path toward Safer Heritage Buildings through Excellent Fire Prevention and Control System in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Md Azree Othuman Mydin; Khaw Yen Yen

    2014-01-01

    Fire prevention & control system by Fire Rescue Department Malaysia states that protection in the aspects of fire prevention, control and extinguishment for a certain area based on the availability of risks in that area. It is a practice of mitigating the unwanted effects of fires. Besides that, a fire safety system also includes the study of the behaviour, compartmentalisation, suppression and investigation of fire and its related emergencies. In protecting and preserving t...

  15. Building a Software-Defined Networking System with OpenDaylight Controller

    OpenAIRE

    Sisov, Maksim

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this project was to create a working and redundant software defined networking system in an isolated networking laboratory. In addition, another goal was to gain experience with the technology and produce well-defined and clear instructions describing how to create the same system. The project was carried out in a networking laboratory on an ESXi server with virtual machines installed on it. The OpenDaylight controller was chosen as a main controller and Mininet was used as a ...

  16. A velocity-based seismic control for base-isolated building structures

    OpenAIRE

    Pozo Montero, Francesc; Acho Zuppa, Leonardo; Rodellar Benedé, José; Rossell Garriga, Josep Maria

    2009-01-01

    Passive, active and semi-active control have been extensively considered to improve the protection of base-isolated structures against earthquakes. This paper presents a strategy to apply control forces to the base of an isolated structure to enhance the performance of purely passive devices. The main feature is the simplicity in formulation, design and implementation. It is formulated as a static nonlinear function depending only on the base velocity. This function ensures energy dissi...

  17. Recommended Changes to Specifications for Demand Controlled Ventilation in California's Title 24 Building Energy Efficiency Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, William J.; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Faulkner, David

    2010-04-08

    In demand-controlled ventilation (DCV), rates of outdoor air ventilation are automatically modulated as occupant density varies. The objective is to keep ventilation rates at or above design specifications and code requirements and also to save energy by avoiding excessive ventilation rates. DCV is most often used in spaces with highly variable and sometime dense occupancy. In almost all cases, carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) sensors installed in buildings provide the signal to the ventilation rate control system. People produce and exhale CO{sub 2} as a consequence of their normal metabolic processes; thus, the concentrations of CO{sub 2} inside occupied buildings are higher than the concentrations of CO{sub 2} in the outdoor air. The magnitude of the indoor-outdoor CO{sub 2} concentration difference decreases as the building's ventilation rate per person increases. The difference between the indoor and outdoor CO{sub 2} concentration is also a proxy for the indoor concentrations of other occupant-generated bioeffluents, such as body odors. Reviews of the research literature on DCV indicate a significant potential for energy savings, particularly in buildings or spaces with a high and variable occupancy. Based on modeling, cooling energy savings from applications of DCV are as high as 20%. With support from the California Energy Commission and the U.S. Department of Energy, the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory has performed research on the performance of CO{sub 2} sensing technologies and optical people counters for DCV. In addition, modeling was performed to evaluate the potential energy savings and cost effectiveness of using DCV in general office spaces within the range of California climates. The above-described research has implications for the specifications pertaining to DCV in section 121 of the California Title 24 Standard. Consequently, this document suggests possible changes in these specifications based on the research findings. The suggested

  18. Control of disturbing loads in residential and commercial buildings via geometric algebra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilla, Manuel-V

    2013-01-01

    Many definitions have been formulated to represent nonactive power for distorted voltages and currents in electronic and electrical systems. Unfortunately, no single universally suitable representation has been accepted as a prototype for this power component. This paper defines a nonactive power multivector from the most advanced multivectorial power theory based on the geometric algebra (GA). The new concept can have more importance on harmonic loads compensation, identification, and metering, between other applications. Likewise, this paper is concerned with a pioneering method for the compensation of disturbing loads. In this way, we propose a multivectorial relative quality index δ(~) associated with the power multivector. It can be assumed as a new index for power quality evaluation, harmonic sources detection, and power factor improvement in residential and commercial buildings. The proposed method consists of a single-point strategy based of a comparison among different relative quality index multivectors, which may be measured at the different loads on the same metering point. The comparison can give pieces of information with magnitude, direction, and sense on the presence of disturbing loads. A numerical example is used to illustrate the clear capabilities of the suggested approach.

  19. Multi-Stakeholder Taskforces in Bangladesh — A Distinctive Approach to Build Sustainable Tobacco Control Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela M. Jackson-Morris

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The MPOWER policy package enables countries to implement effective, evidence-based strategies to address the threat posed to their population by tobacco. All countries have challenges to overcome when implementing tobacco control policy. Some are generic such as tobacco industry efforts to undermine and circumvent legislation; others are specific to national or local context. Various factors influence how successfully challenges are addressed, including the legal-political framework for enforcement, public and administrative attitudes towards the law, and whether policy implementation measures are undertaken. This paper examines District Tobacco Control Taskforces, a flexible policy mechanism developed in Bangladesh to support the implementation of the Smoking and Tobacco Products Usage (Control Act 2005 and its 2013 Amendment. At the time of this study published research and/or data was not available and understanding about these structures, their role, contribution, limitations and potential, was limited. We consider Taskforce characteristics and suggest that the “package” comprises a distinctive tobacco control implementation model. Qualitative data is presented from interviews with key informants in ten districts with activated taskforces (n = 70 to provide insight from the perspectives of taskforce members and non-members. In all ten districts taskforces were seen as a crucial tool for tobacco control implementation. Where taskforces were perceived to be functioning well, current positive impacts were perceived, including reduced smoking in public places and tobacco advertising, and increased public awareness and political profile. In districts with less well established taskforces, interviewees believed in their taskforce’s ‘potential’ to deliver similar benefits once their functioning was improved. Recommendations to improve functioning and enhance impact were made. The distinctive taskforce concept and lessons from their

  20. Active load management in an intelligent building using model predictive control strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zong, Yi; Kullmann, Daniel; Thavlov, Anders;

    2011-01-01

    shifting in PowerFlexHouse heaters' power consumption scheme. With this demand side control study, it is expected that this method of demand response can dramatically raise energy efficiencies and improve grid reliability, when there is a high penetration of intermittent energy resources in the power......This paper introduces PowerFlexHouse, a research facility for exploring the technical potential of active load management in a distributed power system (SYSLAB) with a high penetration of renewable energy and presents in detail on how to implement a thermal model predictive controller for load...

  1. Controlled loading of building blocks into temporary self-assembled scaffolds for directed assembly of organic nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banner, L Todd; Danila, Delia C; Sharpe, Katie; Durkin, Melissa; Clayton, Benjamin; Anderson, Ben; Richter, Andrew; Pinkhassik, Eugene

    2008-10-21

    Using temporary self-assembled scaffolds to preorganize building blocks is a potentially powerful method for the synthesis of organic nanostructures with programmed shapes. We examined the underlying phenomena governing the loading of hydrophobic monomers into lipid bilayer interior and demonstrated successful control of the amount and ratio of loaded monomers. When excess styrene derivatives or acrylates were added to the aqueous solution of unilamellar liposomes made from saturated phospholipids, most loading occurs within the first few hours. Dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy revealed no evidence of aggregation caused by monomers. Bilayers appeared to have a certain capacity for accommodating monomers. The total volume of loaded monomers is independent of monomer structure. X-ray scattering showed the increase in bilayer thickness consistent with loading monomers into bilayer interior. Loading kinetics is inversely proportional to the hydrophobicity and size of monomers. Loading and extraction kinetic data suggest that crossing the polar heads region is the rate limiting step. Consideration of loading kinetics and multiple equilibria are important for achieving reproducible monomer loading. The total amount of monomers loaded into the bilayer can be controlled by the loading time or length of hydrophobic lipid tails. The ratio of loaded monomers can be varied by changing the ratio of monomers used for loading or by the time-controlled replacement of a preloaded monomer. Understanding and controlling the loading of monomers into bilayers contributes to the directed assembly of organic nanostructures.

  2. Efficacy of an Essential Oil-Based Pesticide for Controlling Bed Bug (Cimex lectularius) Infestations in Apartment Buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Changlu; Singh, Narinderpal; Cooper, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Bed bugs (Cimex lectularius L. and Cimex hemipterus F.) are among the most difficult urban pests to manage. Many essential oil-based bed bug control products that are considered reduced risk to mammals compared to synthetic insect neurotoxins have become commercially available, but their effectiveness as a stand-alone control method is unknown. This study assessed the field efficacy of an essential oil-based bed bug control product (EcoRaider; a.i. 1% geraniol + 1% cedar oil + 2% sodium lauryl sulfate) compared to a pyrethroid and neonicotinoid mixture spray (0.075% Temprid SC; a.i. beta-cyfluthrin + imidacloprid). After 12 weeks, the three treatments-EcoRaider, Temprid SC, and EcoRaider + Temprid SC caused 92.5 ± 2.7, 92.9 ± 3.0, and 91.7% ± 2.7% bed bug count reduction, respectively. No significant differences existed in the bed bug reduction among the treatments. Bed bugs were eliminated from only 22% of the treated apartments. Among those still with bed bugs, 76% of the residents did not know bed bugs were present. We documented the residents' self-control practices and discussed the potential of using essential oil-based insecticides in bed bug management programs to minimize the health risks to building occupants and pets and to slow down the development of insecticide resistance. PMID:26462944

  3. Effective Pneumatic Scheme and Control Strategy of a Climbing Robot for Class Wall Cleaning on High-rise Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanghua Zong

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available A new kind of pneumatic climbing robot is presented to meet the requirements of glass-wall cleaning for high-rise buildings, which is totally actuated by pneumatic cylinders and attached to the glass wall with vacuum suckers. Using the pneumatic actuators the climbing robot can be made lightweight and dexterous. At the same time the movement driven by pneumatic actuators has the characteristic of passive compliance. In order to solve the problems of high speed movement for the Y cylinder and precise position control of the X cylinder, the applied pneumatic schemes of X and Y cylinders are employed to drive the high-speed on-off solenoid valves and an ordinary valve to adjust the air-flow and pressure to the cylinders. Furthermore a method of segment and variable bang-bang controller is proposed to implement the accurate control of the position servo system for the X cylinder during the sideways movement. Testing results show that the novel approach can effectively improve the control quality. This cleaning robot can meet the requirements of realization.

  4. Efficacy of an Essential Oil-Based Pesticide for Controlling Bed Bug (Cimex lectularius Infestations in Apartment Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changlu Wang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Bed bugs (Cimex lectularius L. and Cimex hemipterus F. are among the most difficult urban pests to manage. Many essential oil-based bed bug control products that are considered reduced risk to mammals compared to synthetic insect neurotoxins have become commercially available, but their effectiveness as a stand-alone control method is unknown. This study assessed the field efficacy of an essential oil-based bed bug control product (EcoRaider; a.i. 1% geraniol + 1% cedar oil + 2% sodium lauryl sulfate compared to a pyrethroid and neonicotinoid mixture spray (0.075% Temprid SC; a.i. beta-cyfluthrin + imidacloprid. After 12 weeks, the three treatments—EcoRaider, Temprid SC, and EcoRaider + Temprid SC caused 92.5 ± 2.7, 92.9 ± 3.0, and 91.7% ± 2.7% bed bug count reduction, respectively. No significant differences existed in the bed bug reduction among the treatments. Bed bugs were eliminated from only 22% of the treated apartments. Among those still with bed bugs, 76% of the residents did not know bed bugs were present. We documented the residents’ self-control practices and discussed the potential of using essential oil-based insecticides in bed bug management programs to minimize the health risks to building occupants and pets and to slow down the development of insecticide resistance.

  5. Building highly available control system applications with Advanced Telecom Computing Architecture and open standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Requirements for modern and future control systems for large projects like International Linear Collider demand high availability for control system components. Recently telecom industry came up with a great open hardware specification - Advanced Telecom Computing Architecture (ATCA). This specification is aimed for better reliability, availability and serviceability. Since its first market appearance in 2004, ATCA platform has shown tremendous growth and proved to be stable and well represented by a number of vendors. ATCA is an industry standard for highly available systems. On the other hand Service Availability Forum, a consortium of leading communications and computing companies, describes interaction between hardware and software. SAF defines a set of specifications such as Hardware Platform Interface, Application Interface Specification. SAF specifications provide extensive description of highly available systems, services and their interfaces. Originally aimed for telecom applications, these specifications can be used for accelerator controls software as well. This study describes benefits of using these specifications and their possible adoption to accelerator control systems. It is demonstrated how EPICS Redundant IOC was extended using Hardware Platform Interface specification, which made it possible to utilize benefits of the ATCA platform.

  6. Deconstructing myths, building alliances: a networking model to enhance tobacco control in hospital mental health settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballbè, Montse; Gual, Antoni; Nieva, Gemma; Saltó, Esteve; Fernández, Esteve

    2016-01-01

    Life expectancy for people with severe mental disorders is up to 25 years less in comparison to the general population, mainly due to diseases caused or worsened by smoking. However, smoking is usually a neglected issue in mental healthcare settings. The aim of this article is to describe a strategy to improve tobacco control in the hospital mental healthcare services of Catalonia (Spain). To bridge this gap, the Catalan Network of Smoke-free Hospitals launched a nationwide bottom-up strategy in Catalonia in 2007. The strategy relied on the creation of a working group of key professionals from various hospitals -the early adopters- based on Rogers' theory of the Diffusion of Innovations. In 2016, the working group is composed of professionals from 17 hospitals (70.8% of all hospitals in the region with mental health inpatient units). Since 2007, tobacco control has improved in different areas such as increasing mental health professionals' awareness of smoking, training professionals on smoking cessation interventions and achieving good compliance with the national smoking ban. The working group has produced and disseminated various materials, including clinical practice and best practice guidelines, implemented smoking cessation programmes and organised seminars and training sessions on smoking cessation measures in patients with mental illnesses. The next challenge is to ensure effective follow-up for smoking cessation after discharge. While some areas of tobacco control within these services still require significant improvement, the aforementioned initiative promotes successful tobacco control in these settings. PMID:27325123

  7. Controlling and optimizing of energy streams in local buildings in a field test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, Vincent; Molderink, Albert; Hurink, Johann; Smit, Gerard; Nykamp, Stefan; Reinelt, Jens

    2013-01-01

    Demand side management is one of the novel techniques enabled by introducing ICT in the distribution grid. Controllable assets and energy buffers make it possible to maintain a properly functioning grid, improve the efficiency of the grid and prolong the current grid infrastructure. This work descri

  8. Single-layer model to predict the source/sink behavior of diffusion-controlled building materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Deept; Little, John C

    2003-09-01

    Building materials may act as both sources of and sinks forvolatile organic compounds (VOCs) in indoor air. A strategy to characterize the rate of absorption and desorption of VOCs by diffusion-controlled building materials is validated. A previously developed model that predicts mass transfer between a flat slab of material and the well-mixed air within a chamber or room is extended. The generalized model allows a nonuniform initial material-phase concentration and a transient influent gas-phase concentration to be simultaneously considered. An analytical solution to the more general model is developed. Experimental data are obtained by placing samples of vinyl flooring inside a small stainless steel chamber and exposing them to absorption/desorption cycles of n-dodecane and phenol. Measured values for the material-air partition coefficient and the material-phase diffusion coefficient were obtained previously in a series of completely independent experiments. The a priori model predictions are in close agreement with the observed experimental data. PMID:12967101

  9. Building social resilience in soldiers: A double dissociative randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacioppo, John T; Adler, Amy B; Lester, Paul B; McGurk, Dennis; Thomas, Jeffrey L; Chen, Hsi-Yuan; Cacioppo, Stephanie

    2015-07-01

    Can social resilience be trained? We report results of a double-dissociative randomized controlled study in which 48 Army platoons were randomly assigned to social resilience training (intervention condition) or cultural awareness training (active control group). The same surveys were administered to all platoons at baseline and after the completion of training to determine the short-term training effects, generalization effects beyond training, and possible adverse effects. Multilevel modeling analyses indicated that social resilience, compared with cultural awareness, training produced small but significant improvements in social cognition (e.g., increased empathy, perspective taking, & military hardiness) and decreased loneliness, but no evidence was found for social resilience training to generalize beyond these training foci nor to have adverse effects. Moreover, as predicted, cultural awareness, compared with social resilience, training produced increases in knowledge about and decreases in prejudice toward Afghans. Additional research is warranted to determine the long-term durability, safety, and generalizability of social resilience training. PMID:26098588

  10. Passive control experiment of building with spacious first story by magnet-friction energy dissipation device

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Qing-xiang; WANG Wei

    2005-01-01

    Based on the former performance capacity experiments of the magnet-friction energy dissipation devices, including the permanent magnet-friction energy dissipation device (PMF) and electromagnet-friction energy dissipation devices ( EMF), a 5-story steel frame model with spacious first story is designed and made according to a scale of 1/4. The magnet-friction energy dissipation devices can realize continuously varied controlling force, with rapid response and reverse recognition. Therefore, they overcome shortcomings usually found in energy dissipation devices whose force models are invariable. The two kinds of devices were fixed on the flexible first story of the structure model, and the shaking table tests have been carried out, respectively. In these tests,the performance of the devices and their effectiveness in structural control were confirmed. In this paper, the test results and analysis are discussed.

  11. Building psychosocial assets and wellbeing among adolescent girls: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leventhal, Katherine Sachs; Gillham, Jane; DeMaria, Lisa; Andrew, Gracy; Peabody, John; Leventhal, Steve

    2015-12-01

    We conducted a randomized controlled trial of a 5-month resilience-based program (Girls First Resilience Curriculum or RC) among 2308 rural adolescent girls at 57 government schools in Bihar, India. Local women with at least a 10th grade education served as group facilitators. Girls receiving RC improved more (vs. controls) on emotional resilience, self-efficacy, social-emotional assets, psychological wellbeing, and social wellbeing. Effects were not detected on depression. There was a small, statistically significant negative effect on anxiety (though not likely clinically significant). Results suggest psychosocial assets and wellbeing can be improved for girls in high-poverty, rural schools through a brief school-day program. To our knowledge, this is one of the largest developing country trials of a resilience-based school-day curriculum for adolescents. PMID:26547145

  12. Controlling vortex chirality in hexagonal building blocks of artificial spin ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopdekar, R. V.; Duff, G.; Hügli, R. V.; Mengotti, E.; Zanin, D. A.; Heyderman, L. J.; Braun, H. B.

    2013-12-01

    We exploit dipolar coupling to control the magnetic states in assemblies of single-domain magnetic nanoislands, arranged in one, two and three adjacent hexagonal rings. On tailoring the shape anisotropy of specific islands, and thus their switching fields, we achieve particular target states with near perfect reliability, and are able to control the chirality of the vortex target states. The magnetic states are observed during magnetization reversal with x-ray photoemission electron microscopy and our results are generally in excellent agreement with a numerical model based on point dipoles and realistic values of disorder. We conclude with a quantitative discussion of how our results depend on disorder and the chosen bias in shape anisotropy.

  13. Building psychosocial assets and wellbeing among adolescent girls: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leventhal, Katherine Sachs; Gillham, Jane; DeMaria, Lisa; Andrew, Gracy; Peabody, John; Leventhal, Steve

    2015-12-01

    We conducted a randomized controlled trial of a 5-month resilience-based program (Girls First Resilience Curriculum or RC) among 2308 rural adolescent girls at 57 government schools in Bihar, India. Local women with at least a 10th grade education served as group facilitators. Girls receiving RC improved more (vs. controls) on emotional resilience, self-efficacy, social-emotional assets, psychological wellbeing, and social wellbeing. Effects were not detected on depression. There was a small, statistically significant negative effect on anxiety (though not likely clinically significant). Results suggest psychosocial assets and wellbeing can be improved for girls in high-poverty, rural schools through a brief school-day program. To our knowledge, this is one of the largest developing country trials of a resilience-based school-day curriculum for adolescents.

  14. Building and Strengthening Infection Control Strategies to Prevent Tuberculosis - Nigeria, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dokubo, E Kainne; Odume, Bethrand; Lipke, Virginia; Muianga, Custodio; Onu, Eugene; Olutola, Ayodotun; Ukachukwu, Lucy; Igweike, Patricia; Chukwura, Nneka; Ubochioma, Emperor; Aniaku, Everistus; Ezeudu, Chinyere; Agboeze, Joseph; Iroh, Gabriel; Orji, Elvina; Godwin, Okezue; Raji, Hasiya Bello; Aboje, S A; Osakwe, Chijioke; Debem, Henry; Bello, Mustapha; Onotu, Dennis; Maloney, Susan

    2016-03-18

    Tuberculosis (TB) is the leading cause of infectious disease mortality worldwide, accounting for more than 1.5 million deaths in 2014, and is the leading cause of death among persons living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection (1). Nigeria has the fourth highest annual number of TB cases among countries, with an estimated incidence of 322 per 100,000 population (1), and the second highest prevalence of HIV infection, with 3.4 million infected persons (2). In 2014, 100,000 incident TB cases and 78,000 TB deaths occurred among persons living with HIV infection in Nigeria (1). Nosocomial transmission is a significant source of TB infection in resource-limited settings (3), and persons with HIV infection and health care workers are at increased risk for TB infection because of their routine exposure to patients with TB in health care facilities (3-5). A lack of TB infection control in health care settings has resulted in outbreaks of TB and drug-resistant TB among patients and health care workers, leading to excess morbidity and mortality. In March 2015, in collaboration with the Nigeria Ministry of Health (MoH), CDC implemented a pilot initiative, aimed at increasing health care worker knowledge about TB infection control, assessing infection control measures in health facilities, and developing plans to address identified gaps. The approach resulted in substantial improvements in TB infection control practices at seven selected facilities, and scale-up of these measures across other facilities might lead to a reduction in TB transmission in Nigeria and globally.

  15. Building and Strengthening Infection Control Strategies to Prevent Tuberculosis - Nigeria, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dokubo, E Kainne; Odume, Bethrand; Lipke, Virginia; Muianga, Custodio; Onu, Eugene; Olutola, Ayodotun; Ukachukwu, Lucy; Igweike, Patricia; Chukwura, Nneka; Ubochioma, Emperor; Aniaku, Everistus; Ezeudu, Chinyere; Agboeze, Joseph; Iroh, Gabriel; Orji, Elvina; Godwin, Okezue; Raji, Hasiya Bello; Aboje, S A; Osakwe, Chijioke; Debem, Henry; Bello, Mustapha; Onotu, Dennis; Maloney, Susan

    2016-03-18

    Tuberculosis (TB) is the leading cause of infectious disease mortality worldwide, accounting for more than 1.5 million deaths in 2014, and is the leading cause of death among persons living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection (1). Nigeria has the fourth highest annual number of TB cases among countries, with an estimated incidence of 322 per 100,000 population (1), and the second highest prevalence of HIV infection, with 3.4 million infected persons (2). In 2014, 100,000 incident TB cases and 78,000 TB deaths occurred among persons living with HIV infection in Nigeria (1). Nosocomial transmission is a significant source of TB infection in resource-limited settings (3), and persons with HIV infection and health care workers are at increased risk for TB infection because of their routine exposure to patients with TB in health care facilities (3-5). A lack of TB infection control in health care settings has resulted in outbreaks of TB and drug-resistant TB among patients and health care workers, leading to excess morbidity and mortality. In March 2015, in collaboration with the Nigeria Ministry of Health (MoH), CDC implemented a pilot initiative, aimed at increasing health care worker knowledge about TB infection control, assessing infection control measures in health facilities, and developing plans to address identified gaps. The approach resulted in substantial improvements in TB infection control practices at seven selected facilities, and scale-up of these measures across other facilities might lead to a reduction in TB transmission in Nigeria and globally. PMID:26985766

  16. Building spatially-structured biofilms with single-cell control using laser trapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodesney, Christopher; Hutchison, Jaime; Kaushik, Karishma; Le, Henry; Hurwitz, Daniel; Irie, Yasuhiko; Gordon, Vernita

    2015-03-01

    Biofilms are sessile communities of microbes adhered to each other and to an interface. Biofilm infections are notoriously difficult to eradicate, and this arises in part from phenotypic changes due to the spatial structure of the biofilm. Spatial structure controls the microenvironment and intercellular associations, which in turn controls gene expression, virulence, and antibiotic resistance. There are few tools available for elucidating the role of spatial structure in biofilms. We present a method for controlling the positions of bacteria on a surface using optical trapping without impinging cell viability. Initial positions propagate into the developing biofilm, creating spatial structure. The native growth, motility, and surface adhesion of positioned cells are preserved, as shown for model organisms Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. We demonstrate statistically-significant effects of spatial structure on the growth of monoculture P. aeruginosa biofilms and for co-culture biofilms of P. aeruginosa and S. aureus. Because the laser trap we use is very basic and the other equipment required is inexpensive and standard, we believe that our technique will be a widely-usable tool for biological and physical collaborators at many types of institutions.

  17. Control and prevention of canine rabies: the need for building laboratory-based surveillance capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banyard, Ashley C; Horton, Daniel L; Freuling, Conrad; Müller, Thomas; Fooks, Anthony R

    2013-06-01

    Dogs are the source of more than 99% of human rabies virus infections in endemic regions. Without postexposure prophylaxis, almost all cases are fatal, making rabies the most lethal infectious disease. Tens of thousands of deaths are reported annually, but the official figures are believed to be gross underestimates. Controlling canine rabies, especially in free-ranging dogs, is the first priority to reduce the burden of human disease. Because of their limited medical infrastructure, most endemic countries lack the laboratory facilities needed to diagnose human cases of viral encephalitis. Moreover, the veterinary sectors are often unable to undertake systematic surveillance and reporting of rabies in animals. Without an adequate and functioning risk assessment system that is primed for use, rabies will remain a 'neglected' and omnipresent disease, especially in poverty-stricken regions of the world. Fortunately, experience with the elimination of canine rabies from many industrialized countries has shown that these barriers are not insurmountable. Successful rabies prevention and control strategies that prove the absence of the disease depend on laboratory-based surveillance, rapid data reporting and an adequate system of risk assessment. Future control and prevention programmes should therefore coordinate the development of these key factors, creating synergies to eliminate rabies at its animal source. This article forms part of a symposium in Antiviral Research on the global elimination of canine rabies. PMID:23603498

  18. Building Materials Property Table

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-04-16

    This information sheet describes a table of some of the key technical properties of many of the most common building materials taken from ASHRAE Fundamentals - 2001, Moisture Control in Buildings, CMHC, NRC/IRC, IEA Annex 24, and manufacturer data.

  19. Pulse method of watchdog device building for subscriber telephone lines control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myroslav Y. Mykytyuk

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The problems of information security in modern world are becoming increasingly important. One of the main sources of threats is the contact connections to the subscriber telephone lines (STL in the telephone networks of technical intelligence communication devices. Aim: The aim of this work is the presentation of the new pulse method of unauthorized connections identification to the STL, description of implementation and principle of operation of the watchdog control device. Materials and Methods: The method consists in analysis of response to pulse excitation of two second-order oscillating systems. The connection of telephone wiretap causes unbalancing of signals in oscillatory circuits and this certifies the existence of the bug. Results: The structure and functions of the watchdog based on presented method is described. This device consists of two parts – analyzer and blocker allocated at the opposite sides of the controlled STL. The variant of implementation of the pulse linear analyzer and channel of signals processing is considered in details.

  20. Building on the Enriched Hierarchical Model of Achievement Motivation: Autonomous and Controlling Reasons Underlying Mastery Goals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aikaterini Michou

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Two motivational theories – the Achievement Goal Theory and Self-Determination Theory – have recently been combined to explain students’ motivation, making it possible to study the “what” and the “why” of learners’ achievement strivings. The present study built on this approach by (a investigating whether the distinction between autonomous or volitional and controlling or pressuring reasons can be meaningfully applied to the adoption of mastery-avoidance goals, (b investigating the concurrent and prospective relations between mastery-avoidance goals and their underlying reasons and learning strategies when mastery-approach goals and their underlying reasons were also considered, and by (c incorporating psychological need experiences as an explanatory variable in the relation between achievement motives (i.e., the motive to succeed and motive to avoid failure and both mastery goals and their underlying reasons. In two Turkish university students samples ('N' = 226, 'Mage '= 22.36; 'N' = 331, 'Mage '= 19.5, autonomous and controlling reasons appeared applicable to mastery-avoidance goals and regression and path analysis further showed that mastery-avoidance goals and their underlying autonomous reasons fail to predicted learning strategies over and above the pursuit of mastery-approach goals and their underlying reasons. Finally, need experiences were established as mediators between achievement motives and both mastery goals and their underlying reasons.

  1. Development of valence-directed nanoparticle building blocks on the basis of controlled bio/nano-interfacing chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong-Hwan

    The assembly of nanoparticles in controllable and predictable ways would not only aid practical nanoscale assembly, which requires accurate and scalable assembly of large and complex nanoscale structures, but also would increase their utility for many applications, including electronics, optics, sensing and imaging, medical diagnostics, etc. Well-defined and controlled functionality and directionality of the building blocks are essential to actively control the molecular assembly processes at the nanometer scale. Such controls over the functionality and directionality would enable us to construct sophisticated nanostructures to take advantage of the increasing number of available nanocomponents and ultimately to approximate the complexity and the functionality of current microfabrication. We have developed a serial solid-phase placement approach to synthesize anisotropically or symmetrically functionalized gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), in which the functionality and directionality (e.g., numbers, locations, and orientations) of the functional ligands are controlled. Two types of bi-functionalized (bif-) AuNPs were synthesized at a site-specific manner with increased yield and accuracy: (1) homo-bif-AuNPs with two carboxyl groups at ˜180° angle (para-configuration) and (2) hetero-bif-AuNPs with one carboxyl and one amine functional groups at less than 180°, but greater than 90° angle (meta-configuration). With such control, we successfully demonstrated the assembly of intentionally designed one-dimensional (1D) chains with homo-bif-AuNPs and two-dimensional (2D) rings with hetero-bif-AuNPs, confirming the high functional as well as directional selectivity of the functionalized NPs. This study represents an important step towards accurate, reliable, and scaled-up manufacturing of complex nanoscale structures, potentially making 'bottom-up' nanofabrication of practical use. We have further developed the ligand replacement technology to achieve such active controls

  2. Energy management systems in buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lush, D.M.

    1979-07-01

    An investigation is made of the range of possibilities available from three types of systems (automatic control devices, building envelope, and the occupants) in buildings. The following subjects are discussed: general (buildings, design and personnel); new buildings (envelope, designers, energy and load calculations, plant design, general design parameters); existing buildings (conservation measures, general energy management, air conditioned buildings, industrial buildings); man and motivation (general, energy management and documentation, maintenance, motivation); automatic energy management systems (thermostatic controls, optimized plant start up, air conditioned and industrial buildings, building automatic systems). (MCW)

  3. 建筑施工成本控制的必要性及策略%Necessity and Building Construction Cost control Strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王勇

    2014-01-01

    In the course of construction, building materials and construction costs increase, resulting in increased overall project budget, how to do building construction cost control has become an important part of the current construction financial management. From the definition of building construction cost control, combined with the status quo of China’s building construction cost control, discusses the necessity and cost of building construction control points.%在建筑施工过程中,建材和建筑费用的提高,导致整体工程预算的增加,如何做好建筑施工成本控制成为当前建筑财务管理工作的重要内容。从建筑施工成本控制的定义出发,结合我国建筑施工成本控制的现状,论述建筑施工成本控制的必要性和要点。

  4. Influence of Development of the Organization of the Operational Accounting and Control on the Enterprises’ Management of Machine-Building in Ukraine

    OpenAIRE

    Starenka, Olga

    2015-01-01

    The article considers the operational management system of machine-building enterprises in Ukraine under the conditions of interpenetration of accounting and control functions and their deep integration due to shift of the control centres with the centres of operational decision-making. It has been proved that control timely influences behaviour and conditions of economic objects using target indicators, norms and regulations, estimates and the data of operational accounting, thus it takes ac...

  5. Dynamic modeling, experimental evaluation, optimal design and control of integrated fuel cell system and hybrid energy systems for building demands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Gia Luong Huu

    obtained experimental data, the research studied the control of airflow to regulate the temperature of reactors within the fuel processor. The dynamic model provided a platform to test the dynamic response for different control gains. With sufficient sensing and appropriate control, a rapid response to maintain the temperature of the reactor despite an increase in power was possible. The third part of the research studied the use of a fuel cell in conjunction with photovoltaic panels, and energy storage to provide electricity for buildings. This research developed an optimization framework to determine the size of each device in the hybrid energy system to satisfy the electrical demands of buildings and yield the lowest cost. The advantage of having the fuel cell with photovoltaic and energy storage was the ability to operate the fuel cell at baseload at night, thus reducing the need for large battery systems to shift the solar power produced in the day to the night. In addition, the dispatchability of the fuel cell provided an extra degree of freedom necessary for unforeseen disturbances. An operation framework based on model predictive control showed that the method is suitable for optimizing the dispatch of the hybrid energy system.

  6. Tool coupling for the design and operation of building energy and control systems based on the Functional Mock-up Interface standard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nouidui, Thierry Stephane; Wetter, Michael

    2014-03-01

    This paper describes software tools developed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) that can be coupled through the Functional Mock-up Interface standard in support of the design and operation of building energy and control systems. These tools have been developed to address the gaps and limitations encountered in legacy simulation tools. These tools were originally designed for the analysis of individual domains of buildings, and have been difficult to integrate with other tools for runtime data exchange. The coupling has been realized by use of the Functional Mock-up Interface for co-simulation, which standardizes an application programming interface for simulator interoperability that has been adopted in a variety of industrial domains. As a variety of coupling scenarios are possible, this paper provides users with guidance on what coupling may be best suited for their application. Furthermore, the paper illustrates how tools can be integrated into a building management system to support the operation of buildings. These tools may be a design model that is used for real-time performance monitoring, a fault detection and diagnostics algorithm, or a control sequence, each of which may be exported as a Functional Mock-up Unit and made available in a building management system as an input/output block. We anticipate that this capability can contribute to bridging the observed performance gap between design and operational energy use of buildings.

  7. Introduction to Cost Control Strategies for Zero Energy Buildings: High-Performance Design and Construction on a Budget (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-09-01

    Momentum behind zero energy building design and construction is increasing, presenting a tremendous opportunity for advancing energy performance in the commercial building industry. At the same time, there is a lingering perception that zero energy buildings must be cost prohibitive or limited to showcase projects. Fortunately, an increasing number of projects are demonstrating that high performance can be achieved within typical budgets. This factsheet highlights replicable, recommended strategies for achieving high performance on a budget, based on experiences from past projects.

  8. Influencia de las mezclas de gases Ar-He y Ar-He-O2 en la soldabilidad de la aleación de aluminio AA5083-O usando Proceso GMAW-P automatizado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Esteban Niebles Nuñez

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available La problemática en las empresas fabricantes de estructuras y construcciones soldadas en aluminio se centra en la disminución de las propiedades mecánicas de las uniones soldadas influenciada por el aporte térmico en las regiones de soldadura; así como, en los efectos de las discontinuidades y defectos, los altos costos de reparación de soldaduras y la baja productividad. El objetivo de este trabajo es evaluar la influencia de las mezclas de gases 80Ar20He (MG1, 60Ar40He (MG2, 80Ar19He1O2 (MG3, 60Ar39He1O2 (MG4, sobre la soldabilidad de la aleación de aluminio AA5083-O utilizando un material de aporte ER5183 y el proceso GMAW-P automatizado. La metodología incluyó una fase de parametrización de soldaduras, la caracterización del metal base y las regiones de soldadura. El análisis de resultados se llevó a cabo en términos de la evolución microestructural en las regiones de soldadura y evaluación de las propiedades como dureza, resistencia y elongación, así como la evaluación de discontinuidades y defectos de la unión, costos y velocidad de soldadura. Los resultados muestran que las mezclas de gas que contienen O2 favorecen significativamente la soldabilidad de la aleación en estudio.

  9. ABBi-bus智能建筑控制系统恒照度方案浅析%Analysis on the Constant Lighting Control Solution of ABB i-bus Intelligent Building Control System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文信

    2011-01-01

    This paper mainly introduces the solution and application of the constant lighting control of ABB i-bus intelligent building control system.%本文主要阐述了ABBi-bus。智能建筑控制系统恒照度方案的原理及应用。

  10. Supermarket Healthy Eating for Life (SHELf: protocol of a randomised controlled trial promoting healthy food and beverage consumption through price reduction and skill-building strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Ha ND

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the context of rising food prices, there is a need for evidence on the most effective approaches for promoting healthy eating. Individually-targeted behavioural interventions for increasing food-related skills show promise, but are unlikely to be effective in the absence of structural supports. Fiscal policies have been advocated as a means of promoting healthy eating and reducing obesity and nutrition-related disease, but there is little empirical evidence of their effectiveness. This paper describes the Supermarket Healthy Eating for LiFe (SHELf study, a randomised controlled trial to investigate effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a tailored skill-building intervention and a price reduction intervention, separately and in combination, against a control condition for promoting purchase and consumption of healthy foods and beverages in women from high and low socioeconomic groups. Methods/design SHELf comprises a randomised controlled trial design, with participants randomised to receive either (1 a skill-building intervention; (2 price reductions on fruits, vegetables and low-joule soft drink beverages and water; (3 a combination of skill-building and price reductions; or (4 a control condition. Five hundred women from high and low socioeconomic areas will be recruited through a store loyalty card program and local media. Randomisation will occur on receipt of informed consent and baseline questionnaire. An economic evaluation from a societal perspective using a cost-consequences approach will compare the costs and outcomes between intervention and control groups. Discussion This study will build on a pivotal partnership with a major national supermarket chain and the Heart Foundation to investigate the effectiveness of intervention strategies aimed at increasing women's purchasing and consumption of fruits and vegetables and decreased purchasing and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages. It will be among the

  11. Supermarket Healthy Eating for Life (SHELf): protocol of a randomised controlled trial promoting healthy food and beverage consumption through price reduction and skill-building strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background In the context of rising food prices, there is a need for evidence on the most effective approaches for promoting healthy eating. Individually-targeted behavioural interventions for increasing food-related skills show promise, but are unlikely to be effective in the absence of structural supports. Fiscal policies have been advocated as a means of promoting healthy eating and reducing obesity and nutrition-related disease, but there is little empirical evidence of their effectiveness. This paper describes the Supermarket Healthy Eating for LiFe (SHELf) study, a randomised controlled trial to investigate effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a tailored skill-building intervention and a price reduction intervention, separately and in combination, against a control condition for promoting purchase and consumption of healthy foods and beverages in women from high and low socioeconomic groups. Methods/design SHELf comprises a randomised controlled trial design, with participants randomised to receive either (1) a skill-building intervention; (2) price reductions on fruits, vegetables and low-joule soft drink beverages and water; (3) a combination of skill-building and price reductions; or (4) a control condition. Five hundred women from high and low socioeconomic areas will be recruited through a store loyalty card program and local media. Randomisation will occur on receipt of informed consent and baseline questionnaire. An economic evaluation from a societal perspective using a cost-consequences approach will compare the costs and outcomes between intervention and control groups. Discussion This study will build on a pivotal partnership with a major national supermarket chain and the Heart Foundation to investigate the effectiveness of intervention strategies aimed at increasing women's purchasing and consumption of fruits and vegetables and decreased purchasing and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages. It will be among the first internationally to

  12. Internet-based reservation system (Internet-based control of timers for building technical services) - Final report; Internetbasiertes Reservationssystem (Internetbasierte Einstellung von Zeitsteuerungen haustechnischer Anlagen) - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, A.; Woodtli, M.

    2008-07-01

    A common measure to save energy in buildings is the adjustment of the operating time of the building service facilities to the busy time of the building (i.e. lowering period). For lack of better resources, the general lowering periods in irregularly occupied buildings often are reduced to a minimum or the adjustment of the operating time is completely missing. In order to adjust the operating time optimally to the actual busy time, an internet-based booking system has been developed, which allows users to register a room assignment online. This booking system is linked with the building service facilities. This ensure the optimal setting of the lowering periods and therefore allows saving energy. The technical implementation resulted from a programmable logic controller (PLC) that can be accessed via a web browser. Temperature offset boxes have been added as interface between the PLC and the existing facilities in order that the system is applicable in existing buildings too. The booking system has been installed in two test objects and has also been successfully tested with the responsible staff (caretaker, real estate management). The booking system may be contemplated online: http://www.hetag.ch. (author)

  13. International network for capacity building for the control of emerging viral vector-borne zoonotic diseases: ARBO-ZOONET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, J; Bouloy, M; Ergonul, O; Fooks, Ar; Paweska, J; Chevalier, V; Drosten, C; Moormann, R; Tordo, N; Vatansever, Z; Calistri, P; Estrada-Pena, A; Mirazimi, A; Unger, H; Yin, H; Seitzer, U

    2009-03-26

    Arboviruses are arthropod-borne viruses, which include West Nile fever virus (WNFV), a mosquito-borne virus, Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), a mosquito-borne virus, and Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), a tick-borne virus. These arthropod-borne viruses can cause disease in different domestic and wild animals and in humans, posing a threat to public health because of their epidemic and zoonotic potential. In recent decades, the geographical distribution of these diseases has expanded. Outbreaks of WNF have already occurred in Europe, especially in the Mediterranean basin. Moreover, CCHF is endemic in many European countries and serious outbreaks have occurred, particularly in the Balkans, Turkey and Southern Federal Districts of Russia. In 2000, RVF was reported for the first time outside the African continent, with cases being confirmed in Saudi Arabia and Yemen. This spread was probably caused by ruminant trade and highlights that there is a threat of expansion of the virus into other parts of Asia and Europe. In the light of global warming and globalisation of trade and travel, public interest in emerging zoonotic diseases has increased. This is especially evident regarding the geographical spread of vector-borne diseases. A multi-disciplinary approach is now imperative, and groups need to collaborate in an integrated manner that includes vector control, vaccination programmes, improved therapy strategies, diagnostic tools and surveillance, public awareness, capacity building and improvement of infrastructure in endemic regions. PMID:19341603

  14. International network for capacity building for the control of emerging viral vector-borne zoonotic diseases: ARBO-ZOONET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, J; Bouloy, M; Ergonul, O; Fooks, Ar; Paweska, J; Chevalier, V; Drosten, C; Moormann, R; Tordo, N; Vatansever, Z; Calistri, P; Estrada-Pena, A; Mirazimi, A; Unger, H; Yin, H; Seitzer, U

    2009-03-26

    Arboviruses are arthropod-borne viruses, which include West Nile fever virus (WNFV), a mosquito-borne virus, Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), a mosquito-borne virus, and Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), a tick-borne virus. These arthropod-borne viruses can cause disease in different domestic and wild animals and in humans, posing a threat to public health because of their epidemic and zoonotic potential. In recent decades, the geographical distribution of these diseases has expanded. Outbreaks of WNF have already occurred in Europe, especially in the Mediterranean basin. Moreover, CCHF is endemic in many European countries and serious outbreaks have occurred, particularly in the Balkans, Turkey and Southern Federal Districts of Russia. In 2000, RVF was reported for the first time outside the African continent, with cases being confirmed in Saudi Arabia and Yemen. This spread was probably caused by ruminant trade and highlights that there is a threat of expansion of the virus into other parts of Asia and Europe. In the light of global warming and globalisation of trade and travel, public interest in emerging zoonotic diseases has increased. This is especially evident regarding the geographical spread of vector-borne diseases. A multi-disciplinary approach is now imperative, and groups need to collaborate in an integrated manner that includes vector control, vaccination programmes, improved therapy strategies, diagnostic tools and surveillance, public awareness, capacity building and improvement of infrastructure in endemic regions.

  15. Discussion on the construction management and control of building energy conservation engineering%刍议建筑节能工程施工管理与控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宇; 荀毅

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzed the development situation of building energy conservation engineering construction and the key nodes of building energy conservation construction management control,and analyzed the existed some problems in building energy conservation construction on this basis,put forward energy conservation construction quality control measures from qualification examination,process monitoring,acceptance and energy conservation standard and marking and other aspects,so as to provide academic reference for the quality management and control of building energy conservation construction.%着重分析了建筑节能工程建设的发展现状以及建筑节能施工管理控制的关键节点,并以此为基础对建筑节能施工中出现的各种问题进行了梳理,提出了从资质审查、过程监控、竣工验收以及节能标准和标识建设等方面入手的节能施工质量控制措施,从而为建筑节能施工质量管理与控制提供了理论参考。

  16. A research agenda for helminth diseases of humans: health research and capacity building in disease-endemic countries for helminthiases control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osei-Atweneboana, Mike Y; Lustigman, Sara; Prichard, Roger K; Boatin, Boakye A; Basáñez, María-Gloria

    2012-01-01

    Capacity building in health research generally, and helminthiasis research particularly, is pivotal to the implementation of the research and development agenda for the control and elimination of human helminthiases that has been proposed thematically in the preceding reviews of this collection. Since helminth infections affect human populations particularly in marginalised and low-income regions of the world, they belong to the group of poverty-related infectious diseases, and their alleviation through research, policy, and practice is a sine qua non condition for the achievement of the United Nations Millennium Development Goals. Current efforts supporting research capacity building specifically for the control of helminthiases have been devised and funded, almost in their entirety, by international donor agencies, major funding bodies, and academic institutions from the developed world, contributing to the creation of (not always equitable) North-South "partnerships". There is an urgent need to shift this paradigm in disease-endemic countries (DECs) by refocusing political will, and harnessing unshakeable commitment by the countries' governments, towards health research and capacity building policies to ensure long-term investment in combating and sustaining the control and eventual elimination of infectious diseases of poverty. The Disease Reference Group on Helminth Infections (DRG4), established in 2009 by the Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR), was given the mandate to review helminthiases research and identify research priorities and gaps. This paper discusses the challenges confronting capacity building for parasitic disease research in DECs, describes current capacity building strategies with particular reference to neglected tropical diseases and human helminthiases, and outlines recommendations to redress the balance of alliances and partnerships for health research between the developed countries of the "North" and

  17. Analysis of variability in kinematic parameters during the execution of a succession of pirouettes in dance through an experimental protocol Análisis de la variabilidad de parámetros cinemáticos durante la ejecución de una sucesión de piruetas en danza a través de un protocolo automatizado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. J. Moreno

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Envejecer de manera sedentaria puede evolucionar hacia una depresión afectándose la calidad de vida de las personas mayores. El presente estudio comparó la calidad de vida y los niveles de depresión entre ancianas sedentarias y activas. Para esto, un estudio ex post facto fue aplicado, la muestra fue dividida en cuatro grupos: grupo de danza o aerobic; grupo de entrenamiento de musculación o con resistencias; grupo de meditación  y grupo control. Los protocolos empleados en las evaluaciones fueron el cuestionario de calidad de vida “World Health Organization Quality of Life Group-old” y el de determinación de depresión denominado “Beck Depression Inventory”. En comparaciones múltiples los resultados fueron satisfactorios (p<0.05 en las variables dom2, dom3, QVG, dom1  y  dom4. Al respecto de la depresión también se obtuvieron resultados satisfactorios: DGxCG (IC=-48.00,-8.86, RGxCG (IC=-53.55,-7.95 and MGxCG (IC=-61.71,-16.11. Estos resultados indican que los programas de ejercicio físico provocaron resultados satisfactorios que contribuían a una mejor calidad de vida y niveles de depresión en comparación con ancianas sedentarias.

    Key Words: Experimental protocol, variability, pirouettes in dance, temporal precision, experience level.

     

    El rol que juega la variabilidad en la coordinación y control del sistema sensorio- motor es un elemento central para el estudio del Control Motor. Nuestro propósito ha sido elaborar un protocolo experimental que nos permitiera medir la variabilidad de los parámetros cinemáticos de una sucesión de piruetas en-dehors desde 4ª posición de pies, sujetas a diferentes ritmos de ejecución, en 10 bailarinas clasificadas en dos grupos en función del nivel de experiencia. Se utilizó un electrogoniómetro para la medición de las posiciones angulares de la rodilla de la pierna libre y una plataforma de contacto para registrar el tiempo de giro de la

  18. Discuss the High-rise Building Smoke Control Design%高层建筑防排烟设计探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋丹辉

    2014-01-01

    With the speeding up of urbanization in China, high-rise buildings are increasing and the building internal functions tend to be more comprehensive and complicated with higher fire prevention requirements. Smoke control, as an important measure of building fire protection, has a very important role to the fire escape and rescue.%随着我国城市化进程的加快,高层建筑逐渐增多,建筑内部功能趋于综合化、复杂化,在防火方面的要求更高。防排烟作为建筑防火的一项重要措施,对火灾逃生及救援有着极为重要的作用。

  19. Design, construction, monitoring & control of a mock-up building module for testing new components and systems

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Labrador, Raúl

    2011-01-01

    In view of the difficulties with implementing the innovative components and systems conceived in the I3CON project on a dwelled building (because of their early stage of development), one of the main demonstration activities was building a Mock-up module to test the feasibility (in terms of physical integration and logical interoperability) of these components and systems, and evaluate their overall performance. The design of all the systems involved in the Mock-up has the aim to develop new ...

  20. A quasi-steady state mathematical model of an integrated ground source heat pump for building space control

    OpenAIRE

    Corberán, José M.; Finn, D. P.; Montagud, C.; Murphy, F. T.; Edwards, K.C.

    2011-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the development of a mathematical model, capable of describing the quasisteady state performance of an integrated ground source heat pump, which is used for heating and cooling of an institutional building located in a Mediterranean climate. The model is structured on functional basis according to the heat pump vapour compression or primary circuit, a secondary ground loop circuit and a secondary building loop circuit. Heat pump heating and cooling cap...

  1. 教学楼宇智能照明控制管理系统的设计%Design of intelligent lighting control system of teaching building

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王靓; 朱瑞华

    2015-01-01

    Aiming at the serious waste problem existing in illuminating system management of teaching building in col⁃lege,the intelligent lighting hierarchical control system based on the pyroelectricity infrared devices and wireless transmission technology was constructed from the classrooms to the whole teaching building. The system has the automatic turn⁃off function, and can transmit the real⁃time lighting status of each classroom to the master control roomof the teaching building. It has imple⁃mented the remote monitoring and unified management,reduced the energy consumption of lighting system of college teaching building effectively.%针对目前高校教学楼照明系统管理方式存在的用电浪费比较严重的现象,利用热释电红外装置和无线传输技术构建了从教室分区到整个教学楼的层次化智能照明控制管理系统。系统能够实现无人自动关灯,并能将每个教室的实时照明情况传输到教学楼总控制室,实现了远程监控、统一管理,有效降低了高校教学楼照明运行能耗。

  2. Development of a simplified method for intelligent glazed façade design under different control strategies and verified by building simulation tool BSim

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Mingzhe; Wittchen, Kim Bjarne; Heiselberg, Per

    2014-01-01

    The research aims to develop a simplified calculation method for intelligent glazed facade under different control conditions (night shutter, solar shading and natural ventilation) to simulate the energy performance and indoor environment of an office room installed with the intelligent facade...... and the illuminance level on a chosen point) and the energy performance of the room. The parameters calculated by the simplified method were compared with the Danish building simulation tool BSim in an hourly calculation with the weather data of the Danish reference year. By using the simplified method......, it is possible to calculate the whole year performance of a room or building with intelligent glazed façade, which makes it a less time consuming tool to investigate the performance of the intelligent façade under different control strategies in the design stage with acceptable accuracy. Results showed good...

  3. Modelo geoespacial automatizado para la regionalización operativa en planeación de redes de servicios de salud Automated geospatial model for health services strategic planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Eugenio Hernández-Ávila

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Desarrollar un modelo automatizado de regionalización operativa para la planeación de las redes de servicios de salud propuestas en el Modelo Integrador de Atención a la Salud (MIDAS. Material y métodos. Con información disponible para México en 2005 y 2007 se realizó un modelo geoespacial para estimar el área potencial de influencia alrededor de cada unidad de atención médica, con base en el menor tiempo de viaje. Los resultados se compararon con un Estudio de Regionalización Operativa (ERO para Oaxaca llevado a cabo en 2005. Resultados. Comparado con el modelo geoespacial, el ERO asignó 48% de las localidades a centros de salud más lejanos y 23% de los centros de salud a hospitales más lejanos. Conclusiones. El modelo calculado en este estudio generó una regionalización más eficiente que el ERO de Oaxaca, minimizando el tiempo de viaje para el acceso a los servicios de salud. Este modelo ha sido adoptado por la Dirección General de Planeación y Desarrollo en Salud para la instrumentación del Plan Maestro Sectorial de Recursos para la Atención de la Salud.Objective. To develop an automated model for the operational regionalization needed in the planning of the health service networks proposed by the new Mexican health care model (Modelo Integrador de Servicios de Salud MIDAS. Material and Methods. Using available data for México during 2005 and 2007, a geospatial model was developed to estimate potential catchment areas around health facilities based on access travel time. The results were compared with an operational regionalization (ERO study manually carried out in Oaxaca with 2005 data. Results. The ERO assigned 48% of villages to health care centers further away than those assigned by the geospatial model, and 23% of these health centers referred patients to more distant hospitals. Conclusions. The model calculated by this study generated a more efficient regionalization than the ERO model, minimizing travel

  4. Comparative growth of trichoderma strains in different nutritional sources, using bioscreen c automated system Crescimento de linhagens de Trichoderma em diferentes fontes nutricionais, empregando o sistema automatizado Bioscreen C.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Caroline Rossi-Rodrigues

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Trichoderma is one of the fungi genera that produce important metabolites for industry. The growth of these organisms is a consequence of the nutritional sources used as also of the physical conditions employed to cultivate them. In this work, the automated Bioscreen C system was used to evaluate the influence of different nutritional sources on the growth of Trichoderma strains (T. hamatum, T. harzianum, T. viride, and T. longibrachiatum isolated from the soil in the Juréia-Itatins Ecological Station (JIES, São Paulo State - Brazil.The cultures were grown in liquid culture media containing different carbon- (2%; w/v and nitrogen (1%; w/v sources at 28ºC, pH 6.5, and agitated at 150 rpm for 72 h. The results showed, as expected, that glucose is superior to sucrose as a growth-stimulating carbon source in the Trichoderma strains studied, while yeast extract and tryptone were good growth-stimulating nitrogen sources in the cultivation of T. hamatum and T. harzianum.Trichoderma é um dos gêneros de fungos produtores de metabólitos de interesse industrial. O crescimento destes organismos é conseqüência das fontes nutricionais utilizadas, juntamente com as condições físicas de cultivo. Neste trabalho, o sistema automatizado Bioscreen C foi utilizado para avaliar a influência de diferentes fontes nutricionais sobre o crescimento de linhagens de Trichoderma (T. hamatum, T. harzianum, T. viride e T. longibrachiatum isoladas do solo da Estação Ecológica da Juréia-Itatins (JIES, São Paulo - Brasil. Os cultivos foram feitos em meios líquidos de cultura contendo diferentes fontes de carbono (2%; w / v e nitrogênio (1%; w / v a 28ºC, pH 6,5 e agitados a 150 rpm durante 72 h. Os resultados mostraram, conforme esperado, que a glicose é melhor do que a sacarose como fonte de carbono indutora de crescimento das linhagens de Trichoderma testadas, enquanto que, o extrato de leveduras e a triptona foram boas fontes de nitrogênio indutoras de

  5. Automatización del control del cálculo de extracciones en la mina de la empresa niquelera Ernesto Che Guevara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arístides A. Legrá-Lobaina

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available En el artículo se muestran los elementos fundamentales de un algoritmo cuyo objetivo es establecer el contenido y el orden de los procedimientos necesarios para realizar el control del cálculo de extracciones en la mina de la empresa Ernesto Che Guevara que explota, a cielo abierto, yacimientos lateríticos ferroniquelíferos en la región de Moa, Cuba. Asimismo se presenta el diseño de los diálogos informáticos que han automatizado el algoritmo en la aplicación informática Tierra.

  6. Sistema automatizado para aquisição de dados de umidade relativa do ar Automated system for relative humidity data acquisition

    OpenAIRE

    Késia O. da Silva; Sergio O. Moraes; Jarbas H. de Miranda; Anderson M. Palmieri

    2007-01-01

    Devido à importância do ambiente na produção animal e vegetal e, portanto, controle ambiental adequado, o trabalho propõe como objetivo a construção de um sistema de aquisição automatizada de dados de umidade relativa do ar, utilizando-se de microcontrolador de dimensões reduzidas e de baixo custo. A calibração do sensor de umidade relativa foi realizada em três etapas de simulação desenvolvidas em laboratório: caixas perfuradas, dessecador sem tampa contendo sílica-gel em seu fundo e psicrom...

  7. Variable stiffness control algorithm for high-rising buildings of closely spaced frequencies based on wavelet transforms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TENG Jun; LU Zhi-xiong; YAN An-zhi

    2010-01-01

    To establish the algorithm of SAT-TMD system with the wavelet transform(WT),the modal mass participation ratio is proposed to distinguish if the high-rising structure has the characteristic of closely distributed frequencies.A time varying analytical model of high-rising structure such as TV-tower with the SAT-TMD is developed.The proposed new idea is to use WT to identify the dominant frequency of structural response in a segment time,and track its variation as a function of time to retune the SAT-TMD.The effectiveness of SAT-TMD is investigated and it is more robust to change in building stiffness and damping than that of the TMD with a fixed frequency corresponding to a fixed mode frequency of the building.It is proved that SAT-TMD is particularly effective in reducing the response even when the building stiffness is changed by ± 15% ; whereas the TMD loses its effectiveness under such building stiffness variations.

  8. Hybrid clustering based fuzzy structure for vibration control - Part 1: A novel algorithm for building neuro-fuzzy system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Sy Dzung; Nguyen, Quoc Hung; Choi, Seung-Bok

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a new algorithm for building an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) from a training data set called B-ANFIS. In order to increase accuracy of the model, the following issues are executed. Firstly, a data merging rule is proposed to build and perform a data-clustering strategy. Subsequently, a combination of clustering processes in the input data space and in the joint input-output data space is presented. Crucial reason of this task is to overcome problems related to initialization and contradictory fuzzy rules, which usually happen when building ANFIS. The clustering process in the input data space is accomplished based on a proposed merging-possibilistic clustering (MPC) algorithm. The effectiveness of this process is evaluated to resume a clustering process in the joint input-output data space. The optimal parameters obtained after completion of the clustering process are used to build ANFIS. Simulations based on a numerical data, 'Daily Data of Stock A', and measured data sets of a smart damper are performed to analyze and estimate accuracy. In addition, convergence and robustness of the proposed algorithm are investigated based on both theoretical and testing approaches.

  9. Propuesta metodológica para construir sistemas automatizados de inspección visual industriales, con base en productos comerciales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Diego Murillo

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Las compañías industriales que desean automatizar sus procesos de control de calidad, no deben arriesgar sus recursos en investigación y desarrollo para sus propios sistemas de visión industrial, debido a que esto implica invertir gran cantidad de tiempo y dinero para obtener los resultados deseados. En los últimos años, han surgido sistemas comerciales de inspección visual, los cuales se han convertido en una verdadera opción para quienes desean solucionar sus problemasconcernientes al aseguramiento de atributos de los productos. El presente artículo propone unametodología de 12 pasos, para construir un sistema de inspección visual automatizada (avi a partir de la selección e integración de distintos componentes comerciales.

  10. Optimum Application of Thermal Factors to Artificial Neural Network Models for Improvement of Control Performance in Double Skin-Enveloped Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung-Il Chin

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes an artificial neural network (ANN-based thermal control method for buildings with double skin envelopes that has rational relationships between the ANN model input and output. The relationship between the indoor air temperature and surrounding environmental factors was investigated based on field measurement data from an actual building. The results imply that the indoor temperature was not significantly influenced by vertical solar irradiance, but by the outdoor and cavity temperature. Accordingly, a new ANN model developed in this study excluded solar irradiance as an input variable for predicting the future indoor temperature. The structure and learning method of this new ANN model was optimized, followed by the performance tests of a variety of internal and external envelope opening strategies for the heating and cooling seasons. The performance tests revealed that the optimized ANN-based logic yielded better temperature conditions than the non-ANN based logic. This ANN-based logic increased overall comfortable periods and decreased the frequency of overshoots and undershoots out of the thermal comfort range. The ANN model proved that it has the potential to be successfully applied in the temperature control logic for double skin-enveloped buildings. The ANN model, which was proposed in this study, effectively predicted future indoor temperatures for the diverse opening strategies. The ANN-based logic optimally determined the operation of heating and cooling systems as well as opening conditions for the double skin envelopes.

  11. Environmental Impact of Controlled-Source Explosions in Ethiopia (Project EAGLE): Surface Shaking, Ground Velocities, and Effects on Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Les, A.; Klemperer, S. L.; Keranen, K.; Khan, A.; Maguire, P.

    2003-12-01

    In January 2003, as part of the Ethiopia-Afar Geoscientific Lithospheric Experiment (EAGLE) we conducted a refraction and wide-angle reflection survey of the Main Ethiopian Rift. 757 RefTek "Texan" seismographs with vertical geophones were deployed in 400 km-long axial and cross-rift lines, with another 231 in a central 3D array 100 km in diameter. An 80-instrument passive array of intermediate and broadband sensors was active during our experiment. We recorded 19 borehole shots loaded in nominal 50-meter boreholes, 2 quarry shots, and 2 lake shots. The shots ranged in size from 50-5750 kg, with the most common shot size being 1 tonne. Prior to loading each shot-hole, we measured distances between shots and the nearest structure, typically un-reinforced mud-and-wood houses, occasionally concrete irrigation ditches and aqueducts. We then used semi-empirical formulae derived by Oriard (Hendron and Oriard, 1972) to calculate expected maximum and minimum bounds on ground velocity at these structures, and selected an appropriate shot size to keep the predicted velocity below the "threshold for cosmetic damage", or 2 inches per second, at the most vulnerable structure. The Oriard formulae are derived from measurements associated with blasting for mining and civil engineering purposes and may not accurately predict the ground velocity from the source depths and explosive type used in the EAGLE and other controlled-source experiments. A detailed, trace-by-trace analysis of maximum ground velocities at our closest seismographs can provide data that will be useful in planning future large-scale seismic experiments. Preliminary results from traces within 20 km of our borehole shots suggest that maximum recorded ground velocities were within or below the maximum-minimum range predicted by Oriard, and hence that larger shot sizes could have been used with acceptable risks. A lake shot fired at the optimum depth (84 m for a 1 tonne shot) produced ground velocities that exceeded

  12. Effective Pneumatic Scheme and Control Strategy of a Climbing Robot for Class Wall Cleaning on High-rise Buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Guanghua Zong; Jianwei Zhang; Houxiang Zhang

    2008-01-01

    A new kind of pneumatic climbing robot is presented to meet the requirements of glass-wall cleaning for high-rise buildings, which is totally actuated by pneumatic cylinders and attached to the glass wall with vacuum suckers. Using the pneumatic actuators the climbing robot can be made lightweight and dexterous. At the same time the movement driven by pneumatic actuators has the characteristic of passive compliance. In order to solve the problems of high speed movement for the Y cylinder and ...

  13. Sistema automatizado para la evaluación de la calidad en los laboratorios de diagnóstico con tecnología SUMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Rego

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available El Centro de Inmunoensayo (CIE es una institución dedicada a investigación-producción orientada al desarrollo y producción de reactivos e instrumentos para el diagnóstico médico, basados en técnicas inmunoenzimáticas que aprovechan la gran especificidad de la interacción antígeno-anticuerpo y las ventajas de las reacciones catalizadas por enzimas. Su línea principal es el Sistema Ultra Micro Analítico (SUMA, que consiste en una tecnología integrada por equipos y reactivos para la realización de los análisis inmunoenzimáticos a un bajo costo de ejecución, lo cual lo hace particularmente adecuado para los programas de prevención de la salud, en los que se requiere el procesamiento de un gran número de muestras. Con el objetivo de lograr la garantía de la calidad se han desarrollado durante más de una década diferentes sistemas de software que se han utilizado en el proceso de evaluación de la calidad en el trabajo de los laboratorios. Con el nombre de SAC 2.0, el CIE desarrolló un sistema para el control de la calidad que puede realizar el proceso evaluativo de forma totalmente automatizada, que ofrece prestaciones similares a los sistemas más avanzados que existen actualmente. En este trabajo se describen elementos considerados en su concepción, así como las ventajas obtenidas con la automatización, las cuales demuestran cómo la herramienta desarrollada constituye un componente de vital importancia para el adecuado funcionamiento de los laboratorios de la tecnología SUMA, ubicados en Cuba y en el exterior.

  14. Reactor building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The whole reactor building is accommodated in a shaft and is sealed level with the earth's surface by a building ceiling, which provides protection against penetration due to external effects. The building ceiling is supported on walls of the reactor building, which line the shaft and transfer the vertical components of forces to the foundations. The thickness of the walls is designed to withstand horizontal pressure waves in the floor. The building ceiling has an opening above the reactor, which must be closed by cover plates. Operating equipment for the reactor can be situated above the building ceiling. (orig./HP)

  15. Building America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brad Oberg

    2010-12-31

    IBACOS researched the constructability and viability issues of using high performance windows as one component of a larger approach to building houses that achieve the Building America 70% energy savings target.

  16. On The Supervision and Control of Energy Saving in Building Engineering%浅谈建筑工程节能质量监督与控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯博瀚

    2015-01-01

    The society paid more attention to the sustainable development strategy of energy conservation, the energy saving measures of building engineering and energy saving quality control are paid more and more attention by engineers. This paper expounded the common energy saving control points,construction steps and details of the construction of building engineering. Through the summary and sublimation of business knowledge to do such daily quality control and management work,do a job with skill and ease know the score.%建筑工程的节能措施与节能质量控制被越来越多的工程人员所重视。论文阐述了建筑工程常见的节能控制要点、施工步骤及细部节点构造。通过业务知识的总结与升华做到对日常节能质量控制和管理工作的心中有数、游刃有余。

  17. Serum beta2-microglobulin values among healthy Brazilians using a DPC IMMULITE® assay Valores de beta2-microglobulina em brasileiros saudáveis usando o sistema automatizado DPC IMMULITE®

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabíola Branco Filippin

    2005-02-01

    éias. MÉTODOS: Noventa e seis doadores de sangue saudáveis foram avaliados e os valores de Sb2M foram medidos por método enzima imunoensaio quimiluminescente usando analisador automatizado IMMULITE®. RESULTADOS: Os valores de Sb2M, estabelecidos por método estatístico não paramétrico, apresentaram-se entre 1.05 e 3.9 mg/ml, sendo que o limite superior obtido foi maior que o relatado em outros trabalhos. CONCLUSÃO: Este estudo apresentou novos valores, indicando que existe uma diferença significante entre os limites de referência de Sb2M disponibilizados para o IMMULITE® e os encontrados no presente trabalho, evidenciando a ocorrência de variações importantes entre diferentes populações e que novos valores devem ser considerados para brasileiros.

  18. A decade of work on organized labor and tobacco control: reflections on research and coalition building in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbeau, Elizabeth M; Delaurier, Gregory; Kelder, Graham; McLellan, Deborah; Sorensen, Glorian; Balbach, Edith D; Levenstein, Charles

    2007-01-01

    Labor unions can and should make strong allies in tobacco control efforts. Through much of the 1980s and 1990s, however, the organized labor and tobacco control communities rarely formed coalitions to achieve mutual gains. Recently, labor unions and tobacco control organizations have begun to work together on smoking cessation programs, smoke-free worksite policies, and increased insurance coverage for cessation treatments. This paper explores the historic and present-day intersections among organized labor and tobacco control advocates. We summarize research in this area and report on our recent programmatic efforts to promote collaboration between the labor and tobacco control communities. We discuss lessons learned with the aims of promoting deeper understanding among tobacco control and labor advocates of how each views tobacco control issues, and most importantly, stimulating further collaboration toward mutual gains in protecting workers' health.

  19. 古建筑的消防安全措施思考和建议%The Fire Control Safety Measures of Consideration and Suggestion of Ancient Buildings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏伟平; 郭航

    2014-01-01

    Chinese ancient buildings takes wood as the main material and the thicker spatial distribution, which makes fire threat become the main factors of ancient buildings. How to eliminate the ancient fire safety hazards has always been one of the fire workers concerns in China. This paper combines with the author's practical experience to discuss the fire control safety of ancient buildings.%我国古建筑多以木材为主要材料,加之空间分布上较密集,使得火灾成为威胁古建筑安全的主要因素。如何消除古建筑火灾安全隐患,一直是我国广大消防工作者所关心的问题之一。本文结合笔者的实际经验对古建筑的消防安全展开了探讨。

  20. Solar building

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Luxin

    2014-01-01

    In my thesis I describe the utilization of solar energy and solar energy with building integration. In introduction it is also mentioned how the solar building works, trying to make more people understand and accept the solar building. The thesis introduces different types of solar heat collectors. I compared the difference two operation modes of solar water heating system and created examples of solar water system selection. I also introduced other solar building applications. It is conv...

  1. 中央企业战略管控体系构建研究%Research on Building Strategic Management and Control System for Central Enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马力

    2012-01-01

    研究目的:战略管控体系建设是央企的当务之急,深受中央企业重视.本文根据中央企业的特点,从战略管控的本质、内涵和特点人手,分析了中央企业战略管控中存在的问题,提出了构建战略管控体系的原则和构建内容,建立了一套中央企业战略管控体系,为中央企业战略管控体系建设提供了理论依据和重要参考.研究结论:建立中央企业战略管控体系对提高战略管控能力、降低企业风险具有重要意义.中央企业应把握科学规律,根据企业集团战略管控特点,遵循系统论设计原理,综合考虑各要素、各层级和各主体之间的关系,构建一套适合企业发展的战略管控体系.中央企业应按照PDCA循环执行,通过实施反馈和效果评价,持续改进,不断完善,提高管控体系的适应性.%Research purposes: Building the strategic management and control system is an urgent work for the central enterprise and more attention is paid by the central enterprises. According to the characteristics of the central enterprises, and starting with the nature, the intension and features of the strategic management and control, this paper analyses the problems in the strategic management and control of the central enterprise and points out the principles and contents of building strategic management and control system to set up a set of strategic management and control system for central enterprises for providing the theoretic basis and important reference to building strategic management and control system for central enterprise.Research conclusions; To build the strategic management and control system for central enterprise is crucial to improving the enterprise ability in the strategic management and control and reducing the enterprise risk. According to the strategic management and control characteristics of the enterprise, the central enterprises should master the scientific rules, follow the systemic design

  2. 27 May 2010 - UCLA Chancellor G. Block signing the guest book with Coordinator for External Relations F. Pauss and visiting CMS control centre at building 354 with Collaboration Former Deputy Spokesperson B. Cousins and Deputy Spokesperson J. Incandela.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2010-01-01

    27 May 2010 - UCLA Chancellor G. Block signing the guest book with Coordinator for External Relations F. Pauss and visiting CMS control centre at building 354 with Collaboration Former Deputy Spokesperson B. Cousins and Deputy Spokesperson J. Incandela.

  3. Quasi-sliding Mode Control with Compensator for ATMD-buildings%ATMD结构基于补偿器的准滑模控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李志军; 邓子辰; 顾致平

    2012-01-01

    针对主动调谐质量阻尼器(active tuned mass damper,简称ATMD)控制系统用于结构振动控制工程中存在主动控制力偏大、控制系统鲁棒性较差的不足,基于线性二次型最优控制理论,设计了一种带有补偿器的滑模控制算法来计算ATMD系统的主动控制力.为了避免控制系统过大的颤振,提出一种含有饱和函数的指数趋近律,并且给出了相应准滑模控制器的设计方法.鉴于实际中会产生外部能量有限问题,引入了相应的饱和控制器.以一个单自由度结构模型为例进行了相应的数值分析,与相应的未含补偿器的指数趋近律方法设计的ATMD控制系统以及AMD和TMD控制系统的控制效果进行了对比.仿真结果表明,所提方法在保证控制系统较好鲁棒性和较小颤振的前提下,具有较好的控振效果.%Active tuned mass damper (ATMD) control systems for building structures have attracted considerable attention in recent years. This paper emphasizes on the combined application of the quasi-sliding mode control theory and the compensators theory to design and optimize the different parameters of the ATMD control scheme for getting the best results in the reduction of the building response under earthquake excitations. According to the linear quadratic optimal control theory, this paper designs a fixed-order compensator to make trade-offs between control efforts and specific response quantities of the structure. Existing sliding mode control method via exponential reaching law suffers, in our opinion, has the shortcoming that it is almost very difficult to avoid excessive flutter effect. Therefore the quasi-sliding mode control law involving saturation function is proposed. Considering the actuators are always of limited capacity in practice, this paper designs the saturated control law to be used when the needed control force exceeds the maximum control force of an actuator. Finally numerical simulations are given

  4. Demolition of a hospital building by controlled explosion: the impact on filamentous fungal load in internal and external air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouza, E; Peláez, T; Pérez-Molina, J; Marín, M; Alcalá, L; Padilla, B; Muñoz, P; Adán, P; Bové, B; Bueno, M J; Grande, F; Puente, D; Rodríguez, M P; Rodríguez-Créixems, M; Vigil, D; Cuevas, O

    2002-12-01

    The demolition of a maternity building at our institution provided us with the opportunity to study the load of filamentous fungi in the air. External (nearby streets) and internal (within the hospital buildings) air was sampled with an automatic volumetric machine (MAS-100 Air Samplair) at least daily during the week before the demolition, at 10, 30, 60, 90,120, 180, 240, 420, 540 and 660 min post-demolition, daily during the week after the demolition and weekly during weeks 2, 3 and 4 after demolition. Samples were duplicated to analyse reproducibility. Three hundred and forty samples were obtained: 115 external air, 69 'non-protected' internal air and 156 protected internal air [high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtered air under positive pressure]. A significant increase in the colony count of filamentous fungi occurred after the demolition. Median colony counts of external air on demolition day were significantly higher than from internal air (70.2 cfu/m(3) vs 35.8 cfu/m(3)) (P < 0.001). Mechanical demolition on day +4 also produced a significant difference between external and internal air (74.5 cfu/m(3) vs 41.7 cfu/m(3)). The counts returned to baseline levels on day +11. Most areas with a protected air supply yielded no colonies before demolition day and remained negative on demolition day. The reproducibility of the count method was good (intra-assay variance: 2.4 cfu/m(3)). No episodes of invasive filamentous mycosis were detected during the three months following the demolition. Demolition work was associated with a significant increase in the fungal colony counts of hospital external and non-protected internal air. Effective protective measures may be taken to avoid the emergence of clinical infections. PMID:12473466

  5. 建筑消防工程竣工验收综合评定体系%Multiple evaluation system of building fire control acceptance check

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马磊

    2012-01-01

    Based on the related research results and actual work, project management maturity model and fuzzy analytical hierarchy process has been integrated in one, to develop a new method, and build the evaluation system of fire control acceptance check, which can help guide the actual fire control acceptance check work.%在前人研究的基础上并结合实际工作,将项目管理成熟度模型与模糊层次分析法整合到一起,发展出新的综合性方法,建立新的建筑消防工程竣工验收综合评价体系,指导消防验收实际工作.

  6. Simulation of Game Equilibrium Cost Control of Green Building%绿色保温建筑的博弈平衡造价控制仿真

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡晓娟

    2016-01-01

    传统方法中对建筑的造价控制模型采用静态层次融合方法进行数学建模,随着建筑规模的扩大和用料成本的市场变动,导致对建筑工程造价的预估性能不好.提出一种基于博弈平衡控制的绿色保温建筑造价预测算法,实现对工程造价的成本控制.分析了绿色保温建筑的材料结构模型,对绿色保温建筑的混凝土墙面进行柔性造价与热应力梯度边界数值模拟,得到成本造价与绿色保温建筑生产效率约束关系函数.采用博弈平衡控制算法实现造价准确预测和评估.仿真结果表明,采用该模型能有效实现对建筑工程造价的预测和控制,精度较高,性能较好.%In the traditional method, the cost control model of the building uses the static level fusion method to carry on the mathematical modeling, with the construction scale and the cost of the market, the forecast performance is not good. This paper presents a new method of cost prediction of green building, which is based on the equilibrium of the game, and realizes the cost control of the project cost. The material structure model of green building is analyzed, and the thermal stress gradient boundary value of the concrete wall is simulated, and the relationship function of the cost and the production efficiency is obtained. Using the game balance control algorithm to realize the cost prediction and evaluation. The simulation results show that the model can effectively achieve the prediction and control of the construction cost, and the precision is high, and the performance is good.

  7. Building the capacity of family day care educators to promote children's social and emotional wellbeing: an exploratory cluster randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sims Margaret

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood mental health problems are highly prevalent, experienced by one in five children living in socioeconomically disadvantaged families. Although childcare settings, including family day care are ideal to promote children's social and emotional wellbeing at a population level in a sustainable way, family day care educators receive limited training in promoting children's mental health. This study is an exploratory wait-list control cluster randomised controlled trial to test the appropriateness, acceptability, cost, and effectiveness of "Thrive," an intervention program to build the capacity of family day care educators to promote children's social and emotional wellbeing. Thrive aims to increase educators' knowledge, confidence and skills in promoting children's social and emotional wellbeing. Methods/Design This study involves one family day care organisation based in a low socioeconomic area of Melbourne. All family day care educators (term used for registered carers who provide care for children for financial reimbursement in the carers own home are eligible to participate in the study. The clusters for randomisation will be the fieldworkers (n = 5 who each supervise 10-15 educators. The intervention group (field workers and educators will participate in a variety of intervention activities over 12 months, including workshops; activity exchanges with other educators; and focused discussion about children's social and emotional wellbeing during field worker visits. The control group will continue with their normal work practice. The intervention will be delivered to the intervention group and then to the control group after a time delay of 15 months post intervention commencement. A baseline survey will be conducted with all consenting educators and field workers (n = ~70 assessing outcomes at the cluster and individual level. The survey will also be administered at one month, six months and 12 months post

  8. The expert and statistical method of estimation the parameters of control actions on building networks under uncertainty conditions (rus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soldatenko T.N.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Known methods of definition the parameters of operating influences on engineering networks leave out of account the uncertainty at the organization of upkeep of buildings and their engineering networks. In these methods the interval before the next operating influence is considered as determined value or sometimes as a random variable. The urgency of the offered approach consists in the account of the actual conditions in management of engineering networks.The work purpose is decreasing in level of uncertainty at estimation the parameters of management of engineering networks. The specified interval is considered as fuzzy variable; the apparatus of fuzzy logic is implemented at calculations. The correction possibility for terms of carrying out of influences on engineering networks was estimated by means of expert poll. The level of confidence of expert estimations is characterized by the values of membership function of fuzzy value of the influence period. In the method the combination of the collected information on properties of change process of engineering network quality and results of expert poll is used. It allows to decrease uncertainty level at decision-making and to raise its validity. The offered approach got numerical approval on the estimation of reliability indicators of ventilation system compressor and showed the working capacity. On basis of these results the area and conditions of method application are determined.

  9. Laboratory Building.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrera, Joshua M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-03-01

    This report is an analysis of the means of egress and life safety requirements for the laboratory building. The building is located at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) in Albuquerque, NM. The report includes a prescriptive-based analysis as well as a performance-based analysis. Following the analysis are appendices which contain maps of the laboratory building used throughout the analysis. The top of all the maps is assumed to be north.

  10. Active mass damper system for high-rise buildings using neural oscillator and position controller considering stroke limitation of the auxiliary mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongu, J.; Iba, D.; Nakamura, M.; Moriwaki, I.

    2016-04-01

    This paper proposes a problem-solving method for the stroke limitation problem, which is related to auxiliary masses of active mass damper systems for high-rise buildings. The proposed method is used in a new simple control system for the active mass dampers mimicking the motion of bipedal mammals, which has a neural oscillator synchronizing with the acceleration response of structures and a position controller. In the system, the travel distance and direction of the auxiliary mass of the active mass damper is determined by reference to the output of the neural oscillator, and then, the auxiliary mass is transferred to the decided location by using a PID controller. The one of the purpose of the previouslyproposed system is stroke restriction problem avoidance of the auxiliary mass during large earthquakes by the determination of the desired value within the stroke limitation of the auxiliary mass. However, only applying the limited desired value could not rigorously restrict the auxiliary mass within the limitation, because the excessive inertia force except for the control force produced by the position controller affected on the motion of the auxiliary mass. In order to eliminate the effect on the auxiliary mass by the structural absolute acceleration, a cancellation method is introduced by adding a term to the control force of the position controller. We first develop the previously-proposed system for the active mass damper and the additional term for cancellation, and verity through numerical experiments that the new system is able to operate the auxiliary mass within the restriction during large earthquakes. Based on the comparison of the proposed system with the LQ system, a conclusion was drawn regarding which the proposed neuronal system with the additional term appears to be able to limit the stroke of the auxiliary mass of the AMD.

  11. Criticality safety control for source term reduction in Scrubber Glovebox of Building 232-Z. CSER 90-006, Addendum 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Criticality Safety Evaluation Report addendum extends the coverage of the original CSAR (90-006) about dismantling the ductwork in 232-Z to include cleanout of the Scrubber Glovebox, with an estimated residual Pu holdup of less than 200 grams. The procedures for keeping any materials inside or removed dry is retained as part of the qualification as a Limited Control Facility

  12. Nitrogen control of 13C enrichment in heterotrophic organs relative to leaves in a landscape-building desert plant species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J.; Gu, L.; Bao, F.; Cao, Y.; Hao, Y.; He, J.; Li, J.; Li, Y.; Ren, Y.; Wang, F.; Wu, R.; Yao, B.; Zhao, Y.; Lin, G.; Wu, B.; Lu, Q.; Meng, P.

    2015-01-01

    A longstanding puzzle in isotope studies of C3 plant species is that heterotrophic plant organs (e.g., stems, roots, seeds, and fruits) tend to be enriched in 13C compared to the autotrophic organ (leaves) that provides them with photosynthate. Our inability to explain this puzzle suggests key deficiencies in understanding post-photosynthetic metabolic processes. It also limits the effectiveness of applications of stable carbon isotope analyses in a variety of scientific disciplines ranging from plant physiology to global carbon cycle studies. To gain insight into this puzzle, we excavated whole plant architectures of Nitraria tangutorum Bobrov, a C3 species that has an exceptional capability of fixing sands and building sand dunes, in two deserts in northwestern China. We systematically and simultaneously measured carbon isotope ratios and nitrogen and phosphorous contents of different parts of the excavated plants. We also determined the seasonal variations in leaf carbon isotope ratios on nearby intact plants of N. tangutorum. We found, for the first time, that higher nitrogen contents in heterotrophic organs were significantly correlated with increased heterotrophic 13C enrichment compared to leaves. However, phosphorous contents had no effect on the enrichment. In addition, new leaves had carbon isotope ratios similar to roots but were progressively depleted in 13C as they matured. We concluded that a nitrogen-mediated process, hypothesized to be the refixation of respiratory CO2 by phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) carboxylase, was responsible for the differences in 13C enrichment among different heterotrophic organs, while processes such as fractionating foliar metabolism and preferentially loading into phloem of 13C-enriched sugars may contribute to the overall autotrophic-heterotrophic difference in carbon isotope compositions.

  13. Building America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brad Oberg

    2010-12-31

    Builders generally use a 'spec and purchase' business management system (BMS) when implementing energy efficiency. A BMS is the overall operational and organizational systems and strategies that a builder uses to set up and run its company. This type of BMS treats building performance as a simple technology swap (e.g. a tank water heater to a tankless water heater) and typically compartmentalizes energy efficiency within one or two groups in the organization (e.g. purchasing and construction). While certain tools, such as details, checklists, and scopes of work, can assist builders in managing the quality of the construction of higher performance homes, they do nothing to address the underlying operational strategies and issues related to change management that builders face when they make high performance homes a core part of their mission. To achieve the systems integration necessary for attaining 40% + levels of energy efficiency, while capturing the cost tradeoffs, builders must use a 'systems approach' BMS, rather than a 'spec and purchase' BMS. The following attributes are inherent in a systems approach BMS; they are also generally seen in quality management systems (QMS), such as the National Housing Quality Certification program: Cultural and corporate alignment, Clear intent for quality and performance, Increased collaboration across internal and external teams, Better communication practices and systems, Disciplined approach to quality control, Measurement and verification of performance, Continuous feedback and improvement, and Whole house integrated design and specification.

  14. Temperature and Humidity Control in Air-Conditioned Buildings with lower Energy Demand and increased Indoor Air Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paul, Joachim; Martos, E. T.

    2003-01-01

    Air-conditioning is not only a matter of temperature control. Thermal comfort and good indoor air quality are mainly a matter of humidity. Human health and well being may suffer seriously from inadequate humidity and/or too low temperatures in a room. A case study involving supermarket air......-conditioning and ventilation was carried out for the different climates of major cities in Spain. Such climates can be characterized as cool and dry, hot and dry, cool and humid and hot and humid. In this study, the indoor air temperature had to be maintained for all climates at 23oC with a relative humidity of 40......%. For indoor air temperature and humidity control, the use of an ice slurry (´Binary Ice´)was compared to conventional chilled water. The use of Binary Ice instead of chilled water makes the air handling and air distribution installation much simpler, recirculation of air becomes obsolete, and a higher portion...

  15. Building a web-based tool to support clinical decisions in the control of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae infections

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Kun; Qiu, Fasheng; Chen, Guantao

    2013-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC) are the agents of two common, sexually transmitted diseases afflicting women in the United States (http://www.cdc.gov). We designed a novel web-based application that offers simple recommendations to help optimize medical outcomes with CT and GC prevention and control programs. This application takes population groups, prevalence rates, parameters for available screening assays and treatment regimens (costs, sensitivity, and specificit...

  16. 利用PAC的教学楼智能化控制系统的设计%Design of the Intelligent Academic Building Control System Based on PAC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨洋; 李钟慎

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces an intelligent control system of academic building based on programmable automatic controller (PAC) and supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) configuration software. The upper computer u-ses SCADA and iFK configuration software that applies multi thread COM components and the lower computer adopts a Pacsystem Rx3i device, so that users can select and construct the module of the system flexibly. The Genius, Profibus DP and industrial ethernet bus protocol are adopted between the upper computer and lower computer. It communicates by bus network between the central control station and various points control rooms. The designed control system has both automatic and manual switching modes which can be choosed by touch screen.%基于可编程自动化控制器(PAC)和数据采集与监视控制(SCADA)等组态软件,设计教学楼的智能化控制系统.上位机采用SCADA和iFIX组态软件,应用多线程的COM组件;下位机采用Pacsystern Rx3i器件,用户可以灵活选择构建系统所使用的模块;上位机和下位机之间采用Genius,Profibus DP和工业以太网等总线协议,中央控制总站与各个分控室模块通过网络总线进行通信.设计的控制系统有自动和手动两种切换的模式,可通过触摸屏进行选择.

  17. 建筑防排烟设计若干问题的探讨%Some issues about smoke control and extraction design for buildings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖庆林

    2012-01-01

    针对建筑防排烟系统设计中的一些问题,如加压送风系统中一些参数与做法的确定、排烟量计算、自然排烟窗及一些特殊场所排烟设计等,列举了目前国内通行的一些做法,进行了分析讨论,并提出了个人的看法,供设计同行参考.%Aiming at some issues in smoke control system design for buildings, such as the determination of some parameters and practice in pressurizing air supply system, exhaust smoke rate calculation, design of natural exhaust windows, exhaust design for some special places, etc., lists the currently prevailing practice, and gives analyses and discussions. Puts forward the author's personal views for reference in design.

  18. Design of Building Energy Autonomous Control System with the Intelligent Object Energy Chain Mechanism Based on Energy-IoT

    OpenAIRE

    Sangmin Park; Sanguk Park; Jinsung Byun; Yeong Yu; Sehyun Park

    2015-01-01

    The development of the Internet of Things (IoT) technologies has enabled smart objects to communicate with each other, and various IoT methods and techniques have appeared accordingly. At this point in time, there is a growing need for big data-based energy-IoT technology that can reduce energy consumption. However, despite the emergence of these technologies for IoT, there is still a lack of control systems to surmount the energy efficiency problem of hyperconnected IoT applications. In this...

  19. Evaluation of building envelopes from the viewpoint of capability of controlling thermal environment; Onnetsu kankyo chosei noryoku ni yoru kenchiku gaihi no hyoka no kokoromi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umeda, K.; Ono, S. [Taisei Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Shukuya, M. [Musashi Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    The ability that architectural space improves the thermal environment in comparison with outdoor environment is called the `capability of controlling thermal environment.` As the value becomes higher, the indoor thermal environment is more improved. In this paper, the controlling capability of six building envelopes with different window systems was compared. The heat transfer in the wall and window system is approximated using a lumped mass model of heat capacity to obtain a heat balance equation and combined with the heat balance equation in indoor air for backward difference. The wall surface temperature and indoor air temperature in a calculation model are then calculated. A radiation absorption coefficient is used for mutual radiation on each wall. In the model, the adjoining room or first- and second-floor rooms were made the same in conditions as the model on the assumption that the one-side lighted office in an RC reference floor is in the non-illumination and non-airconditioning state. In summer, the controlling capability remarkably varies depending on the window system. For the window facing the south, the annual capability is more advanced than in other directions and the indoor thermal environment is improved on the average. 7 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Building a web-based tool to support clinical decisions in the control of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Kun; Qiu, Fasheng; Chen, Guantao

    2013-12-20

    Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC) are the agents of two common, sexually transmitted diseases afflicting women in the United States (http://www.cdc.gov). We designed a novel web-based application that offers simple recommendations to help optimize medical outcomes with CT and GC prevention and control programs. This application takes population groups, prevalence rates, parameters for available screening assays and treatment regimens (costs, sensitivity, and specificity), as well as budget limits as inputs. Its output suggests optimal screening and treatment strategies for selected at-risk groups, commensurate with the clinic's budget allocation. Development of this tool illustrates how a clinical informatics application based on rigorous mathematics might have a significant impact on real-world clinical issues. PMID:24564848

  1. 23rd June 2011 . US NASA Administrator General C. Bolden visiting the AMS control room with Collaboration Spokesperson S. Ting and CERN Director-General R. Heuer; Tree planting ceremony in front of building 946, Prevessin site, hosting the AMS control room (CERN-HI-1106159 01 -87)

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2011-01-01

    88-115: visiting CMS control centre in Meyrin with Collaboration Spokesperson-elect J. Incandela and on-shift scientists accompanied by Head of International Relations F. Pauss; 116-119: signature of photographs at the main building steps 120-136: with First Swiss Astronaut C. Nicollier at the main building steps.

  2. Notch signalling and proneural genes work together to control the neural building blocks for the initial scaffold in the hypothalamus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle eWare

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The vertebrate embryonic prosencephalon gives rise to the hypothalamus, which plays essential roles in sensory information processing as well as control of physiological homeostasis and behaviour. While patterning of the hypothalamus has received much attention, initial neurogenesis in the developing hypothalamus has mostly been neglected. The first differentiating progenitor cells of the hypothalamus will give rise to neurons that form the nucleus of the tract of the postoptic commissure and the nucleus of the mammillotegmental tract. The formation of these neuronal populations has to be highly controlled both spatially and temporally as these tracts will form part of the ventral longitudinal tract and act as a scaffold for later, follower axons. This review will cumulate and summarise the existing data available describing initial neurogenesis in the vertebrate hypothalamus. It has only recently been proposed that loss of Notch signalling in the developing chick embryo causes an increase in the number of neurons in the hypothalamus, highlighting an early function of the Notch pathway during hypothalamus formation. It is well known that the Notch signalling pathway through the inhibition of proneural genes is a key regulator of neurogenesis in the vertebrate central nervous system. Scarce studies have shown genes such as Ascl1 and Hes5 are expressed in the hypothalamus earlier than when the first mature neurons appear. The timing of the transcriptional repressors of the Notch signalling pathway and proneural activators will be analysed. We will discuss novel targets that start to unravel the mechanisms behind neurogenesis in the hypothalamus. Given the critical role that hypothalamic neural circuitry plays in maintaining homeostasis, it is particularly important to establish the targets downstream of this Notch/proneural network.

  3. Building Inclusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeanet Kullberg; Isik Kulu-Glasgow

    2009-01-01

    The social inclusion of immigrants and ethnic minorities is a central issue in many European countries. Governments face challenges in ensuring housing for immigrants, delivering public services, promoting neighbourhood coexistence and addressing residential segregation. The Building Inclusion proje

  4. Building Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... family's native language) is taught as the child's second language through reading, writing, speech, and use of residual ... that parents can use to help their child learn language. There are many types of building blocks, and ...

  5. Building a World-Class Safety Culture: The National Ignition Facility and the Control of Human and Organizational Error

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accidents in complex systems send us signals. They may be harbingers of a catastrophe. Some even argue that a ''normal'' consequence of operations in a complex organization may not only be the goods it produces, but also accidents and--inevitably--catastrophes. We would like to tell you the story of a large, complex organization, whose history questions the argument ''that accidents just happen.'' Starting from a less than enviable safety record, the National Ignition Facility (NIF) has accumulated over 2.5 million safe hours. The story of NIF is still unfolding. The facility is still being constructed and commissioned. But the steps NIF has taken in achieving its safety record provide a principled blueprint that may be of value to others. Describing that principled blueprint is the purpose of this paper. The first part of this paper is a case study of NIF and its effort to achieve a world-class safety record. This case study will include a description of (1) NIF's complex systems, (2) NIF's early safety history, (3) factors that may have initiated its safety culture change, and (4) the evolution of its safety blueprint. In the last part of the paper, we will compare NIF's safety culture to what safety industry experts, psychologists, and sociologists say about how to shape a culture and control organizational error

  6. Microsphere-based selective laser sintering for building macroporous bone scaffolds with controlled microstructure and excellent biocompatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yingying; Liu, Haoming; Shuang, Jiaqi; Wang, Jianglin; Ma, Jun; Zhang, Shengmin

    2015-11-01

    Fabrication of bulk biomaterials with controlled structures and excellent properties is increasingly important in tissue engineering, but remains a major challenge in the current stage. Herein we used selective laser sintering (SLS) to construct a series of three-dimensional (3D) bone scaffolds with uniform multi-scaled porosity, moderate mechanical properties as well as good biocompatibility. As starting architectural units for SLS, the pure microspheres of polycaprolactone (PCL) and the composite microspheres of PCL and hydroxyapatite (HA) were firstly synthesized via a modified solvent evaporation method, respectively. Our findings showed that the as-prepared microspheres exhibited the uniform size and monodispersity. Moreover, the microsphere-based 3D scaffolds generated by SLS technique showed a multi-scaled porous structure, and adequate mechanical features. Both in vitro and in vivo evaluations further demonstrated that the resultant SLS-derived scaffolds can not only manipulate multiple stem cell behaviors including promoting cell adhesion, supporting cell proliferation and inducing cell differentiation in vitro, but also showed an excellent histocompatibility and induced the vascularization of newly formed tissue in vivo. Consequently, our current study suggests a feasible and effective protocol for fabricating new biomimetic bone biomaterials via SLS technique, also paves a new way for other bulk biomaterials. PMID:26241919

  7. Building a World-Class Safety Culture: The National Ignition Facility and the Control of Human and Organizational Error

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, C T; Stalnaker, G

    2002-12-06

    Accidents in complex systems send us signals. They may be harbingers of a catastrophe. Some even argue that a ''normal'' consequence of operations in a complex organization may not only be the goods it produces, but also accidents and--inevitably--catastrophes. We would like to tell you the story of a large, complex organization, whose history questions the argument ''that accidents just happen.'' Starting from a less than enviable safety record, the National Ignition Facility (NIF) has accumulated over 2.5 million safe hours. The story of NIF is still unfolding. The facility is still being constructed and commissioned. But the steps NIF has taken in achieving its safety record provide a principled blueprint that may be of value to others. Describing that principled blueprint is the purpose of this paper. The first part of this paper is a case study of NIF and its effort to achieve a world-class safety record. This case study will include a description of (1) NIF's complex systems, (2) NIF's early safety history, (3) factors that may have initiated its safety culture change, and (4) the evolution of its safety blueprint. In the last part of the paper, we will compare NIF's safety culture to what safety industry experts, psychologists, and sociologists say about how to shape a culture and control organizational error.

  8. Molecular assembly of highly symmetric molecules under a hydrogen bond framework controlled by alkyl building blocks: a simple approach to fine-tune nanoscale structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanphibal, Pimsai; Tashiro, Kohji; Chirachanchai, Suwabun

    2016-01-14

    To date, molecular assemblies under the contribution of hydrogen bond in combination with weak interactions and their consequent morphologies have been variously reported; however, how the systematic variation of the structure can fine-tune the morphologies has not yet been answered. The present work finds an answer through highly symmetric molecules, i.e. diamine-based benzoxazine dimers. This type of molecule develops unique molecular assemblies with their networks formed by hydrogen bonds at the terminal, while, at the same time, their hydrogen bonded frameworks are further controlled by the hydrophobic segment at the center of the molecule. When this happens, slight differences in hydrophobic alkyl chain lengths (, , and ) bring a significant change to the molecular assemblies, thus resulting in tunable morphologies, i.e. spheres, needles and dendrites. The superimposition between the crystal lattice obtained from X-ray single crystal analysis and the electron diffraction pattern obtained from transmission electron microscopy allows us to identify the molecular alignment from single molecules to self-assembly until the morphologies developed. The present work, for the first time, shows the case of symmetric molecules, where the hydrophobic building block controls the hydrogen bond patterns, leading to the variation of molecular assemblies with tunable morphologies. PMID:26482133

  9. 基于供应链管理的房建工程企业成本控制探究%Study on cost control of housing building engineering enterprise on the basis of supply chain management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王瑞生

    2016-01-01

    The paper introduces contents of supply chain,value chain and housing building value chain. Combining with housing building indus-try status,it analyzes the concept of housing building cost control,describes specific strategies of supply chain management for housing building engineering enterprise,which will be good for promoting recycling development of supply chain,and promoting national economic development.%介绍了供应链、价值链、房建价值链的内含,结合房建行业的现状,分析了房建成本控制的思想,阐述了房建工程企业供应链管理的具体策略,有利于促进供应链的循环发展,从而推动国民经济的发展。

  10. Integrated Building Management System (IBMS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anita Lewis

    2012-07-01

    This project provides a combination of software and services that more easily and cost-effectively help to achieve optimized building performance and energy efficiency. Featuring an open-platform, cloud- hosted application suite and an intuitive user experience, this solution simplifies a traditionally very complex process by collecting data from disparate building systems and creating a single, integrated view of building and system performance. The Fault Detection and Diagnostics algorithms developed within the IBMS have been designed and tested as an integrated component of the control algorithms running the equipment being monitored. The algorithms identify the normal control behaviors of the equipment without interfering with the equipment control sequences. The algorithms also work without interfering with any cooperative control sequences operating between different pieces of equipment or building systems. In this manner the FDD algorithms create an integrated building management system.

  11. Energy Innovations for Healthy Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogucz, Edward

    2016-09-23

    Healthy buildings provide high indoor environmental quality for occupants while simultaneously reducing energy consumption. This project advanced the development and marketability of envisioned healthy, energy-efficient buildings through studies that evaluated the use of emerging technologies in commercial and residential buildings. For commercial buildings, the project evaluated energy consumption and user experiences with a prototype Personalized Environmental Controls Systems (PECS) that enable individuals to control of conditions in their immediate surroundings within a larger office suite. For residential buildings, the project evaluated a variety of domestic hot water (DHW) technologies. The project also included outreach and education concerning energy efficiency in buildings, including resources required for homebuilders to participate in DOE’s Builders Challenge.

  12. 加强工程质量控制确保高层建筑施工质量%Strengthen the engineering quality control to ensure the construction quality of high rise building

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊喜龙

    2015-01-01

    针对高层建筑的施工特点,介绍了高层建筑质量管理的要求,通过分析建筑工程施工质量控制中存在的问题,探讨了加强质量控制管理的对策,为提高工程的整体质量水平奠定基础。%According to the construction features of high rise building,this paper introduced the high-rise building quality management require-ments,through the analysis on the existing problems in building engineering construction quality control,discussed the countermeasures to strengthen the quality control management,laid foundation for improving the overall engineering quality level.

  13. Competence Building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borrás, Susana; Edquist, Charles

    The main question that guides this paper is how governments are focusing (and must focus) on competence building (education and training) when designing and implementing innovation policies. With this approach, the paper aims at filling the gap between the existing literature on competences...... on the one hand, and the real world of innovation policy-making on the other, typically not speaking to each other. With this purpose in mind, this paper discusses the role of competences and competence-building in the innovation process from a perspective of innovation systems; it examines how governments...... and public agencies in different countries and different times have actually approached the issue of building, maintaining and using competences in their innovation systems; it examines what are the critical and most important issues at stake from the point of view of innovation policy, looking particularly...

  14. Building Procurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Niclas

    2007-01-01

    ‘The procurement of construction work is complex, and a successful outcome frequently elusive’. With this opening phrase of the book, the authors take on the challenging job of explaining the complexity of building procurement. Even though building procurement systems are, and will remain, complex...... despite this excellent book, the knowledge, expertise, well-articulated argument and collection of recent research efforts that are provided by the three authors will help to make project success less elusive. The book constitutes a thorough and comprehensive investigation of building procurement, which...... evolves from a simple establishment of a contractual relationship to a central and strategic part of construction. The authors relate to cultural, ethical and social and behavioural sciences as the fundamental basis for analysis and understanding of the complexity and dynamics of the procurement system...

  15. Building Automation Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honeywell, Inc., Minneapolis, Minn.

    A number of different automation systems for use in monitoring and controlling building equipment are described in this brochure. The system functions include--(1) collection of information, (2) processing and display of data at a central panel, and (3) taking corrective action by sounding alarms, making adjustments, or automatically starting and…

  16. Building Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The report Building Bridges adresses the questions why, how and for whom academic audience research has public value, from the different points of view of the four working groups in the COST Action IS0906 Transforming Audiences, Transforming Societies – “New Media Genres, Media Literacy and Trust...... in the Media”, “Audience Interactivity and Participation”, “The Role of Media and ICT Use for Evolving Social Relationships” and “Audience Transformations and Social Integration”. Building Bridges is the result of an ongoing dialogue between the Action and non-academic stakeholders in the field of audience...

  17. 融入传感网技术的触摸屏楼宇照明控制器设计%The Design Of Touch-Screen Building Lighting Controller With Sensor Network Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦保波; 王宜怀; 姚丹丹

    2012-01-01

    Due to the shortage of the current building lighting management, such as extensive, power consumption, non-visual control interface, required manual inspection etc. We propose a fusion of sensor network technology with touch screen control and display of embedded intelligent building lighting control system design. It includes the control elements of group, single, time and handier. The system's core is Freescale's 32-bit microcontroller MCF52223 and the 8-bit microcontroller MC13211 which compiles the ZigBee specifications. We can achieve building lighting which is intelligent, fine and automation. And ihis system provides the technical plat- form for energy-saving and automatic searching of building control management. Practice shows that the system is modem tasseled building lighting intelligent control the fundamental solutions.%针对传统楼宇照明管理粗放、耗能、非可视化及需人工巡查等不足,提出了一种融合传感网技术的带有触摸屏控制与显示的嵌入式楼宇照明智能控制系统设计方案。包含了分组、节点、时段、手动等控制要素,以飞思卡尔32位MCF52223及8位MCl3211一Zigbee芯片为核心,实现了楼宇照明控制的智能化、精细化与自动化,为节能与自动巡查提供了技术平台。实践表明,该系统是现代统楼宇照明智能控制的根本解决方案。

  18. Building Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The report Building Bridges adresses the questions why, how and for whom academic audience research has public value, from the different points of view of the four working groups in the COST Action IS0906 Transforming Audiences, Transforming Societies – “New Media Genres, Media Literacy and Trust...

  19. Sustainable Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommerup, Henrik M.; Elle, Morten

    The scientific community agrees that: all countries must drastically and rapidly reduce their CO2 emissions and that energy efficient houses play a decisive role in this. The general attitude at the workshop on Sustainable Buildings was that we face large and serious climate change problems...

  20. The incredible years therapeutic dinosaur programme to build social and emotional competence in welsh primary schools: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evans Ceri

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background School interventions such as the Incredible Years Classroom Dinosaur Programme targets pupil behaviour across whole classrooms, yet for some children a more intense approach is needed. The Incredible Years Therapeutic Dinosaur Programme is effective for clinically referred children by enhancing social, problem-solving skills, and peer relationship-building skills when delivered in a clinical setting in small groups. The aim of this trial is to evaluate the effectiveness of the Therapeutic Programme, delivered with small groups of children at high-risk of developing conduct disorder, delivered in schools already implementing the Classroom Programme. Methods/Design This is a pragmatic, parallel, randomised controlled trial. Two hundred and forty children (aged 4-8 years rated by their teacher as above the 'borderline cut-off' for concern on the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, and their parents, will be recruited. Randomisation is by individual within blocks (schools; 1:1 ratio, intervention to waiting list control. Twenty schools will participate in two phases. Two teachers per school will deliver the programme to six intervention children for 2-hours/week for 18 weeks between baseline and first follow-up. The control children will receive the intervention after first follow up. Phase 1 comprises three data collection points - baseline and two follow-ups eight months apart. Phase 2 includes baseline and first follow-up. The Therapeutic Programme includes elements on; Learning school rules; understanding, identifying, and articulating feelings; problem solving; anger management; how to be friendly; how to do your best in school. Primary outcomes are; change in child social, emotional and behavioural difficulties. Secondary outcomes are; teacher and parent mental wellbeing, child academic attainment, child and teacher school attendance. Intervention delivery will be assessed for fidelity. Intention to treat analyses

  1. Recent advances in Corporate Real Estate Management: ëEntrepreneurial Cooperationí in restructuring, maintenance and control: an answer to the ëexplosiveí technological growth in building Industry?

    OpenAIRE

    R. van Nattem; A. Proveniers

    2011-01-01

    The Credit Crunch brings to light a renewed interest in the operational tasks of Corporate Real Estate Management (CREM): a so called ëEntrepreneurial Cooperationí (ëOndernemend Samenwerken) in restructuring, maintenance and control. This so called ëEntrepreneurial Cooperationí implies a renewed approach of the internal customer and also a renewed cooperation with the building contractors for restructuring, maintenance and control. It leads to supply chain optimization and also to new roles f...

  2. Building Letters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Cabinet是种十分吸引人却很简单的衬线字体,是由一名匿名字体设计师专门为Building Letters最新的资金筹集活动所设计的。这个Building Letters包中包含一个CDROM,有32种字体,以及一本专门设计的杂志和两张由Eboy和Emigre所设计的海报。字体光盘样例是由世界顶级的字体设计师们设计的.

  3. Model Building

    OpenAIRE

    Frampton, Paul H.

    1997-01-01

    In this talk I begin with some general discussion of model building in particle theory, emphasizing the need for motivation and testability. Three illustrative examples are then described. The first is the Left-Right model which provides an explanation for the chirality of quarks and leptons. The second is the 331-model which offers a first step to understanding the three generations of quarks and leptons. Third and last is the SU(15) model which can accommodate the light leptoquarks possibly...

  4. Building economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, D.O.(red.)

    Publikationen er på engelsk. Den omfatter alle indlæg på det fjerde internationale symposium om byggeøkonomi, der blev arrangeret af SBI for det internationale byggeforskningsråd CIB. De fem bind omhandler: Methods of Economic Evaluation, Design Optimization, Ressource Utilization, The Building...... Market og Economics and Technological Forecasting in Construction. Et indledende bind bringer statusrapporter for de fem forskningsområder, og det sidste bind sammenfatter debatten på symposiet....

  5. 搭设障蔽控制樟子松风蚀沙埋危害的效果%Control Effect on Wind Erosion and Sand Cover by Building Sand-Barrier for Pinus sylvestris var.mongolica Plantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    屈升银; 叶竹林

    2011-01-01

    The control effect on wind erosion and sand cover by building sand-barrier was studied by taking Pinus sylvestris var. Mongolica as planting tree species. The results showed that building sand-barrier could promote the survival rate of the plantation up to 100% , which was significantly higher than that of the control. There were also significant differences in the growth rate of the Pinus sylvestris var. Mongolica plantation between building the sand-barrier and the control. The experiment showed that building the sand-barrier could promote the average sapling height, basal diameter and crown growth by 55.4% , 66. 6% and 60.1% respectively compared to the control. Sand-barrier building provided the morphology construction of the Pinus sylvestris var. Mongolica saplings with much better environment that significantly reduced the phenomena such as trunk bending, wind throw and drying up of the brnaches and turning yellow of the leaves due to the wind damage.%以樟子松为对象探讨搭设沙障控制风蚀沙埋危害的效果.结果表明:搭设与未搭设沙障的造林保存率存在显著差异,搭设沙障可使造林保存率高达100%;搭设与未搭设沙障的生长量也存在显著差异,搭设沙障可使树高、地径、树冠生长量分别提高55.4%、66.6%和60.7%;搭设沙障为樟子松的形态建成创造了良好的环境条件,树干弯曲、风倒及枯黄现象明显减少.

  6. 关于构建监外执行罪犯防控机制的思考%Ponder over Building Prevention and Control System of Criminals outside Prison

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Prevention and control of criminals outside prison is a real need to build a harmonious society.At present,there are still plenty of shortcomings in our work on prevention and control of criminals outside prison.Therefore,we should improve the socialist legal system and tighten up the supervision to build the prevention and control system of criminals outside prison.%对监外执行罪犯的防控是构建和谐社会的现实需要。在当前的司法实践中,罪犯监外执行工作仍然存在一些问题,为此,应当通过完善立法、规范监外罪犯交付环节、加强督察等方式构建与完善监外执行罪犯防控机制。

  7. Data management for biofied building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Kohta; Mita, Akira

    2015-03-01

    Recently, Smart houses have been studied by many researchers to satisfy individual demands of residents. However, they are not feasible yet as they are very costly and require many sensors to be embedded into houses. Therefore, we suggest "Biofied Building". In Biofied Building, sensor agent robots conduct sensing, actuation, and control in their house. The robots monitor many parameters of human lives such as walking postures and emotion continuously. In this paper, a prototype network system and a data model for practical application for Biofied Building is pro-posed. In the system, functions of robots and servers are divided according to service flows in Biofield Buildings. The data model is designed to accumulate both the building data and the residents' data. Data sent from the robots and data analyzed in the servers are automatically registered into the database. Lastly, feasibility of this system is verified through lighting control simulation performed in an office space.

  8. Talking about building energy saving project cost and its cost control methods%浅谈建筑节能对工程造价的影响及其造价控制方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林廷森

    2012-01-01

    本文通过对建筑节能现状的分析,研究了福州海峡国际会展中心项目中使用的地下水地源热泵系统、冰蓄冷系统及太阳能光伏发电系统三项建筑节能工程的经济社会效益,同时阐述了建筑节能造价控制方法。%Based on the analysis of building energy saving,economic and social benefits of a groundwater source heat pump system used in the Fuzhou Strait International Convention and Exhibition Center,ice storage system and solar photovoltaic system three building energy-saving projects,also described building energy efficiency cost control methods.

  9. 21 June 2010 - TUBITAK Vice President A. Adli signing the guest book with CERN Director-General R. Heuer, visiting the ATLAS control room at Point 1 with Former Collaboration Spokesperson P. Jenni and CMS Control Centre, building 354, with Collaboration Spokesperson G. Tonelli. Throughout accompanied by Adviser J. Ellis.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2010-01-01

    21 June 2010 - TUBITAK Vice President A. Adli signing the guest book with CERN Director-General R. Heuer, visiting the ATLAS control room at Point 1 with Former Collaboration Spokesperson P. Jenni and CMS Control Centre, building 354, with Collaboration Spokesperson G. Tonelli. Throughout accompanied by Adviser J. Ellis.

  10. 智能建筑区门禁系统自动化识别技术分析%Analysis on Automatic Identification Technology of Intelligent Building Access Control System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张卉

    2015-01-01

    门禁系统是智能建筑区必备设施,可对建筑区提供安全防护、自动调控等多方面功能.指纹识别系统是人工智能改造的新系统,为门禁系统自动识别提供了科技化措施.本文分析了智能建筑发展趋势及指纹识别系统的基本构成,介绍了智能建筑门禁系统自动化识别技术的应用方法.%The access control system of intelligent building is a necessary facility, which provides security protection, automatic control and so on. Fingerprint identification system is a new artificial intelligence system, providing technological measures for the automatic identification of access control system. This paper analyzes the development trend of intelligent building and the basic structure of fingerprint identification system, introduces the application of automatic recognition technology in intelligent building access control system.

  11. Validação laboratorial de um método automatizado de dosagem da atividade de adenosina desaminase em líquido pleural e em líquido cefalorraquidiano Laboratorial validation of an automated assay for the determination of adenosine deaminase activity in pleural fluid and cerebrospinal fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Cristina Feres

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: A incidência global de tuberculose reforça a necessidade de melhores ensaios para o diagnóstico desta doença, principalmente da tuberculose extrapulmonar. O objetivo do trabalho foi validar o desempenho de um método automatizado para a determinação da atividade de adenosina desaminase (ADA no líquido pleural (LP e no líquido cefalorraquidiano (LCR, comparando-o com um método convencional (Giusti modificado. MÉTODOS: Selecionaram-se 134 amostras da rotina laboratorial: 94 de LP e 40 de LCR. Foram realizadas as determinações da atividade de ADA através dos dois métodos. Calculou-se a precisão inter- e intra-ensaios, análise de regressão linear, testes de concordância simples e médias das diferenças. RESULTADOS: Os coeficientes de correlação para as amostras de LP e LCR foram, respectivamente, 0,96 e 0,95. A precisão interensaio foi determinada pela média de 21 amostras replicadas em ensaios diferentes para 3 níveis de atividade: baixa, média e alta. Os coeficientes de variação em porcentagem (%CV foram, respectivamente, 5,9, 8,1 e 5,8 para amostras de LP; e 21,9, 18,6 e 13,8 para amostras de LCR, respectivamente. A precisão intra-ensaio em %CV foi, respectivamente, 1,3 e 11,7% para amostras de LP e LCR. A concordância entre os dois métodos em amostras de LP e LCR foi, respectivamente, 96,8% e 100%, considerando-se como valores de referência para o diagnóstico de TB 40 U/L (convencional e 30 U/L (automatizado em amostras de LP, e 9 U/L em amostras de LCR para os dois métodos. CONCLUSÕES: Os resultados validaram o método automatizado de determinação da atividade de ADA para o uso em amostras de LP e LCR como alternativa ao método convencional.OBJECTIVE: The incidence of tuberculosis worldwide has emphasized the need for better assays designed to diagnose the disease, principally the extrapulmonary form. The objective of the present study was to validate the performance of an automated method for the

  12. Analysis of passive systems as a tool for energy saving in buildings: solar control; Analisis de sistemas pasivos como herramienta para el ahorro de energia en edificaciones: Control solar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saravia, Maricela; Morillon Galvez, David [Instituto de Ingenieria, UNAM, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    A bioclimatic study of El Salvador is presented, with the purpose of using window eaves as elements of passive solar control and to determine the optimal angles of orientation, in order to diminish the thermal gains by direct solar radiation and to manage to get close to the comfort conditions. The former with the intention of integrating measures that help to obtain energy efficiency and comfortable buildings, for the conditions of warm humid climate, characteristic of a Central American country like El Salvador. Besides offering a document of consultation among the professionals dedicated to the design and as base of bioclimatic considerations that must have the construction regulations. As a conclusion the optimal angles of eaves for each orientation are presented and a quantitative estimation of the savings that would imply not to consume electrical energy in cooling systems using these elements as a protection to the direct solar radiation. [Spanish] Se presenta un estudio del bioclima de El Salvador, con el fin de utilizar aleros de ventana como elementos de control solar pasivo y determinar los angulos optimos por orientacion, para disminuir las ganancias termicas por radiacion solar directa y lograr acercar a las condiciones de confort. Lo anterior con el objeto de integrar medidas que coadyuven a lograr edificios energeticamente eficientes y confortables, para las condiciones de clima calido humedo, caracteristico de un pais centroamericano como El Salvador. Ademas de brindar un documento de consulta entre los profesionales dedicados al dise y como base de consideraciones bioclimaticas que debe tener el reglamento de construcciones. Como conclusion se presentan los angulos optimos de alero por cada orientacion y una estimacion cuantitativa del ahorro que implicaria el no consumir energia electrica en sistemas de enfriamiento utilizando estos elementos como una proteccion a la radiacion solar directa.

  13. 基于物联网的楼宇亮化联动控制系统的设计%DESIGN OF BUILDING LIGHTING LINKAGE CONTROL SYSTEM BASED ON INTERNET OF THINGS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周杰; 王宜怀; 陈爱兵; 李翠霞

    2012-01-01

    In view of the deficiencies of traditional building lighting such as manual powering and inspection, extensive management and single effect, etc. , a solution of building lighting linkage control is put forward in this paper. It is based on IOT technologies including the fused sensor network, 2. 5G/3G communications and WEB design, etc. The system is designed with Freescale 32-bit MCF52223 and 8 bit ZIGBEE-MC13211 chips, it realises the intelligentisation, diversification and automation of the building lighting control, provides a technical platform to energy conservation and automatic inspection, so is an effective solution to modern building lighting intelligent control. The paper elaborates the key issues concerning systems architecture, hardware design, software design, synchronised and linkage control, and makes a detailed analysis on relevant implementation methodology.%针对传统楼宇亮化人工上电、人工巡检、管理粗放、效果单一等方面的不足,提出融合传感网、2.5G/3G通信、Web设计等技术的物联网楼宇亮化联动控制解决方案.系统以飞思卡尔32位MCF52223及8位ZIGBEE-MC13211芯片为核心进行设计,实现楼宇亮化控制的智能化、多样化与自动化,为节能与自动巡查提供了技术平台,是现代楼宇亮化智能控制的有效解决方案.着重阐述系统的架构、硬件设计、软件设计、同步与联动控制涉及的关键问题,并对有关实现方法进行了细致分析.

  14. Tropical Zero Energy Office Building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reimann, Gregers Peter; Kristensen, Poul Erik

    2006-01-01

    The new headquarter for Pusat Tenaga Malaysia is designed to be a Zero Emission Office Building (ZEO). A full range of passive and active energy efficiency measures are implemented such that the building will need no more electricity than what can be produced via its own Building Integrated PV...... by daylight, supplemented by electric lighting during very dark and overcast periods. Extensive active energy efficiency measures are implemented in the building in order to reduce the need for electricity to an absolute minimum, without compromising the request for comfortable temperatures and adequate...... lighting. These measures include the use of high efficient lighting controlled according to demand, high efficiency pumps and fans, a high efficiency chiller, and use of energy efficient office equipment. The buildings PV system is connected to the grid. Solar electricity is exported to the grid during...

  15. Building America Expert Meeting Report: Hydronic Heating in Multifamily Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dentz, J.

    2011-10-01

    The topic of this expert meeting was cost-effective controls and distribution retrofit options for hot water and steam space heating systems in multi-family buildings with the goals of reducing energy waste and improving occupant comfort. The U.S. Department of Energy's Building America program develops technologies with the goal of reducing energy use by 30% to 50% in residential buildings. Toward this goal, the program sponsors 'Expert Meetings' focused on specific building technology topics. The meetings are intended to sharpen Building America research priorities, create a forum for sharing information among industry leaders and build partnerships with professionals and others that can help support the program's research needs and objectives. The topic of this expert meeting was cost-effective controls and distribution retrofit options for hot water and steam space heating systems in multifamily buildings with the goals of reducing energy waste and improving occupant comfort. The objectives of the meeting were to: (1) Share knowledge and experience on new and existing solutions: what works, what doesn't and why, and what's new; (2) Understand the market barriers to currently offered solutions: what disconnects exist in the market and what is needed to overcome or bridge these gaps; and (3) Identify research needs.

  16. Application of i-bus Intelligent Building Control System in Xianyang International Airport%i-bus智能建筑控制系统在咸阳国际机场的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘洁; 尚东卫

    2013-01-01

    简要介绍ABB i-bus®智能建筑控制系统的结构及特点,并通过该系统在西安咸阳国际机场T3航站楼项目的应用,阐述系统现场智能面板控制、中文触摸屏控制、光照度自动感应控制、中央图形化控制,以及与其他系统的集成。%A brief intro duction to the structure and characteristics of ABB i-bus®intelligent building control system is provided. The integrated functions of intelligent panel control, Chinese touch screen control, light illuminance automatic induction control and central graphical control integration with other systems are described through the application of the system in terminal building T3 of Xianyang international airport in Xi’ an.

  17. Deactivation of Building 7602

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has sponsored research and development programs in Building 7602 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) since 1984. This work focused on development of advanced technology for processing nuclear fuels. Building 7602 was used for engineering-scale tests using depleted and natural uranium to simulate the nuclear fuel. In April 1994 the DOE Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) sent supplemental FY 1994 guidance to ORNL stating that in FY 1995 and beyond, Building 7602 is considered surplus to NE programs and missions and shall be shut down (deactivated) and maintained in a radiologically and industrially safe condition with minimal surveillance and maintenance (S ampersand M). DOE-NE subsequently provided FY 1995 funding to support the deactivation activities. Deactivation of Building 7602 was initiated on October 1, 1994. The principal activity during the first quarter of FY 1995 was removal of process materials (chemicals and uranium) from the systems. The process systems were operated to achieve chemical solution concentrations needed for reuse or disposal of the solutions prior to removal of the materials from the systems. During this phase of deactivation the process materials processed and removed were: (1) Uranyl nitrate solution 30,178 L containing 4490 kg of uranium; (2) Nitric acid (neutralized) 9850 L containing less than 0.013 kg of uranium; (3) Organic solution 3346 L containing 265 kg of uranium; (4) Uranium oxide powder 95 kg; and (5) Miscellaneous chemicals. At the end of December 1994, the process systems and control systems were shut down and deactivated. Disposition of the process materials removed from the process systems in Building 7602 proved to be the most difficult part of the deactivation. An operational stand down and funding reductions at Y-12 prevented planned conversion of the uranyl nitrate solution to depleted uranium oxide powder. This led to disposal of the uranyl nitrate solution as waste

  18. Building energy analysis tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brackney, Larry; Parker, Andrew; Long, Nicholas; Metzger, Ian; Dean, Jesse; Lisell, Lars

    2016-04-12

    A building energy analysis system includes a building component library configured to store a plurality of building components, a modeling tool configured to access the building component library and create a building model of a building under analysis using building spatial data and using selected building components of the plurality of building components stored in the building component library, a building analysis engine configured to operate the building model and generate a baseline energy model of the building under analysis and further configured to apply one or more energy conservation measures to the baseline energy model in order to generate one or more corresponding optimized energy models, and a recommendation tool configured to assess the one or more optimized energy models against the baseline energy model and generate recommendations for substitute building components or modifications.

  19. Impact of tall buildings in environmental pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Hayati

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Today, tall building is a phenomenon that the world particularly large cities are facing. The tall buildings in order to exploit the land with having the negative affects in the environment create new problems including increasing congestion population, environmental pollution, reduce citizen access to fresh air and sunlight. However, regarding to population increasing and land shortage, tall buildings could not be avoided. This paper investigates the relationship of tall buildings with urban air pollution as well as the possible reducing of negative affects of tall building on environmental pollution with respect to geographical position, technicalrules, immunization, green space, direct of wind, appropriate distance to other buildings, design in terms of visibility and landscape and urban appearance were reviewed. The study showed that the tall buildings cause increasing the air pollution in large urban area due to changing in wind and its direction and also congestion of tall buildings as a pollution sources. Therefore some techniques to design the tall building must be considered to reduce the negative affects of the tall buildings on environmental pollution. Unfortunately the lack of the construction roles in term of environmental protection and also control of the rules in construction process causing the environmental pollution particularly air pollution. It is suggested that the re-evaluate of the rules with restricted control can improve the air quality in the large cities and also utilization of green spaces in floors and roofs of buildings as environmentally friendly buildings which are attempt to reduce environmental problems.

  20. 超高层钢结构建筑施工工艺控制要点%The construction technology control key points of super high-rise steel structure buildings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭锐; 刘刚彬

    2012-01-01

    This paper briefly introduced the present situation of super high-rise steel structure building,and elaborated in detail its construction technology,and combining with specific project example,this paper described the quality control key points of some key process in steel structure construction process,had significance to facilitate the construction level of future super high-rise steel structure buildings.%简要介绍了超高层钢结构建筑现状,对其施工工艺作了具体阐述,并结合具体工程实例,对钢结构工程施工过程中一些关键工序的质量控制要点进行了说明,对促进今后超高层建筑钢结构施工水平具有指导意义。

  1. The incredible years therapeutic dinosaur programme to build social and emotional competence in welsh primary schools: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Evans Ceri; Whitaker Christopher; Hutchings Judy; Bywater Tracey; Parry Laura

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background School interventions such as the Incredible Years Classroom Dinosaur Programme targets pupil behaviour across whole classrooms, yet for some children a more intense approach is needed. The Incredible Years Therapeutic Dinosaur Programme is effective for clinically referred children by enhancing social, problem-solving skills, and peer relationship-building skills when delivered in a clinical setting in small groups. The aim of this trial is to evaluate the effectiveness of...

  2. Building trust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'Activate' is the energy magazine for secondary schools and is part of the Education Programme which is managed on behalf of the British Nuclear Industry Forum by AEA Technology. activate is the flagship communication device between the British Nuclear Industry Forum's Education Programme and secondary schools in the UK. It was developed from a previous publication, Nuclear Bulletin. There is a need for the nuclear industry to build trust with teachers and students in the UK, where for a long time, everything that the industry has said, written or printed has been disregarded by school teachers as propaganda. Over the last few years the industry has put in a great deal of effort to position itself as a provider of educationally sound and socially acceptable information. 'Activate' was an evolution of this idea and there was a hole in the market for a lively, activity and article based magazine that could be used in the classroom. The target audience is principally teachers of science, mathematics and geography, but also includes teachers of art,, English and history with students of between 11 and 18. The results were very positive in that teachers appreciated the colourful and lively nature of activate and they felt that it provided information and opinions in an un biased and non-propagandist way. Their comments about layout, number of activities style of presentation were taken into account and during the summer of 1994 activate was remodelled ready for re launch in September. The feedback so far is good with more teachers signing up every week to receive their own free copy

  3. California commercial building energy benchmarking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinney, Satkartar; Piette, Mary Ann

    2003-07-01

    Building energy benchmarking is the comparison of whole-building energy use relative to a set of similar buildings. It provides a useful starting point for individual energy audits and for targeting buildings for energy-saving measures in multiple-site audits. Benchmarking is of interest and practical use to a number of groups. Energy service companies and performance contractors communicate energy savings potential with ''typical'' and ''best-practice'' benchmarks while control companies and utilities can provide direct tracking of energy use and combine data from multiple buildings. Benchmarking is also useful in the design stage of a new building or retrofit to determine if a design is relatively efficient. Energy managers and building owners have an ongoing interest in comparing energy performance to others. Large corporations, schools, and government agencies with numerous facilities also use benchmarking methods to compare their buildings to each other. The primary goal of Task 2.1.1 Web-based Benchmarking was the development of a web-based benchmarking tool, dubbed Cal-Arch, for benchmarking energy use in California commercial buildings. While there were several other benchmarking tools available to California consumers prior to the development of Cal-Arch, there were none that were based solely on California data. Most available benchmarking information, including the Energy Star performance rating, were developed using DOE's Commercial Building Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS), which does not provide state-level data. Each database and tool has advantages as well as limitations, such as the number of buildings and the coverage by type, climate regions and end uses. There is considerable commercial interest in benchmarking because it provides an inexpensive method of screening buildings for tune-ups and retrofits. However, private companies who collect and manage consumption data are concerned that the

  4. Cost Control and Project Cost Analysis of Intelligent Building under Internet of Things%物联网技术下智能建筑的成本控制与工程造价分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘鑫

    2015-01-01

    随着建筑行业的不断发展,人们对办公以及生活自动化需求的不断增长,智能建筑行业市场还在不断扩大,智能建筑物的结构、系统、服务和管理日趋复杂,相关的设计和施工成本的影响因素较大,对物联网技术下的智能建筑的成本控制以及工程造价的管理模型的设计越来越困难。本文提出一种基于智能建筑成本的约束参量贡献程度自适应加权的物联网技术下智能建筑的成本控制与工程造价预测模型,首先进行了成本控制的问题描述和工程造价的约束参量分析,然后进行物联网技术下智能建筑的成本控制与工程造价预测模型设计,提高了工程造价的预测和控制性能。数据分析实验结果表明,该方法能有效提高物联网技术下智能建筑的成本控制的精度和工程造价预测的准确性,降低了工程成本,提高施工进度和质量。%With the continuous development of the construction industry, people's need of automation in work and living also grows continually. As the industry market of intelligent building continues to expand, the structure, system, service and management of intelligent buildings are becoming more and more complex, adding that the effect factors of relevant design and construction cost are relatively large, the design for the model of cost control and management of intelligent buildings under the Internet of things turns to be more and more difficult. This paper presents a kind of cost control and project cost prediction model of intelligent building under the Internet of things based on the constraint parameter contri⁃bution degree adaptive weighting of intelligent building cost, firstly it makes analysis of the descriptions of the problems and the project cost constraint parameter, then under the Internet of things ,it conducts the design of intelligent buildings' cost control and project cost prediction model, thus to improve the

  5. Design/installation and structural integrity assessment under the Federal Facility Agreement for Bethel Valley Low-Level Waste Collection and Transfer System upgrade for Building 2026 (High Radiation Level Analytical Laboratory) and Building 2099 (Monitoring and Control Station) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document presents a Design/Installation and Structural Integrity Assessment for a replacement tank system for portions of the Bethel Valley Low Level Waste (LLW) System, located at the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. This issue of the assessment covers the design aspects of the replacement tank system, and certifies that the design has sufficient structural integrity and is acceptable for the storing or treating of hazardous and/or radioactive substances. The present issue identifies specific activities that must be completed during the fabrication, installation, and testing of the replacement tank system in order to provide assurance that the final installation complies with governing requirements. Portions of the LLW system are several decades old, or older, and do not comply with current environmental protection regulations. Several subsystems of the LLW system have been designated to receive a state-of-the-art replacement and refurbishment. One such subsystem serves Building 2026, the High Radiation Level Analytical Laboratory. This assessment focuses on the scope of work for the Building 2026 replacement LLW Collection and Transfer System, including the provision of a new Monitoring and Control Station (Building 2099) to receive, store, and treat (adjust pH) low level radioactive waste

  6. Building 774: open for business

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2015-01-01

    In July 2012, the demolition of Building 936 on the Prévessin site marked the start of the Building 774 project. On 23 February, less than three years later, the new 3900 m2 building was handed over to the BE department.   The brand new Building 774. (Credits: Francesco Soppelsa) Located near to the CERN Control Centre, Building 774 contains offices, laboratories and meeting rooms, as well as a huge public area consisting of a 104-seat auditorium, a changing room/shower area in the basement and a pleasant cafeteria open from 8 a.m. to 5 p.m., offering a wide range of refreshments including hot meals at lunchtime. “There were a few twists and turns during the construction of this building, but it all turned out well in the end!" says Michael Poehler, a member of the GS-SE group and the technical coordinator of the project. (Credits: Francesco Soppelsa) The 120 occupants of the building have just moved into their brand new home, bringing all the members of the...

  7. Avaliação da microestrutura e propriedades mecânicas de metais de solda obtidos por processos de soldagem manual e automatizado utilizado na soldagem de aço API 5L X80 Evaluation of microstructure and mechanical properties of weld metals obtained by manual and automated welding process used in the welding of API 5L X80 steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siderley Fernandes Albuquerque

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar as características da zona termicamente afetada (ZTA e a microestrutura e propriedades mecânicas de metais de solda de juntas soldadas do aço API 5L X80, obtidos para quatro diferentes procedimentos de soldagem utilizando processos manuais e automatizados. Para isto, chapas do referido aço foram soldadas por processo manual ao Arco Elétrico com Eletrodo Revestido (SMAW, utilizando 473 e 673 K como temperaturas de interpasses e o eletrodo celulósico AWS E8010-G como consumível; por processo ao Arco Elétrico com Arame Tubular (FCAW robotizado, utilizando o arame AWS E71T- 1C como metal de adição e argônio com 25%CO2 como gás de proteção; por processo a Arco Elétrico com Eletrodo de Tungstênio (GTAW mecanizado na raiz da solda, usando o arame ER70S-3 e argônio como gás de proteção. As análises microestruturais foram relacionadas com os resultados de ensaios de impacto Charpy nos metais de solda e com os perfis de microdureza Vickers ao longo da junta soldada. Os resultados indicaram maiores percentuais de Ferrita Acicular e maiores valores de resistência ao impacto nos metais de solda e uma menor extensão e granulometria da ZTA, associado ao procedimento de soldagem utilizando processo automatizado com maior velocidade de soldagem.The objective of this work was to evaluate the heat affected zone characteristics and weld metals microstructure and mechanical properties of API 5L X80 steel welded joints, obtained for four different welding procedures using manual and automated processes. For this, plates of this steel were welded by manual Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW process with interpasses temperatures of 473 e 673 K, and using AWS E8010-G electrode as filler metals; robotized Flux Cored Arc Welding (FCAW process, using AWS E71T-1C wire and Ar25%CO2 as consumable and mechanized Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW process, for the root pass using AWS ER70S-3 and Ar as consumable .The

  8. Application of an automated protocol for the analysis of the temporal parameters of the response of reaction tennis players during the execution of split-step and volley Aplicación de un protocolo automatizado para el análisis de los parámetros temporales de la respuesta de reacción en jugadores de tenis durante la ejecución de split-step y volea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Luis

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available

    This study is aimed to show the design and application process of an automated system to recording in real time the temporary parameters of tennis players reaction response during the execution of the technical-tactical movement called “split-step and second volley”. The knowledge about temporary characteristics of the action will be make used of identify the variables to cause in that and also to design an investigation to permit an improvement of the tennis players efficiency in this sequence of the play. In this way, the use of the technological system will allow a precise analysis of player’s motor response and the eminent information about the defined action
    KEY WORDS: Tennis, split-step and volley, automated system of measure, reaction response

    El propósito de este trabajo consiste en mostrar el proceso de diseño y la aplicación de un sistema automatizado de medida para el registro en tiempo real de los parámetros temporales de la respuesta de reacción en jugadores de tenis durante la ejecución de una acción técnico-táctica denominada “split-step y segunda volea”. El conocimiento generado en cuanto a las características temporales de la acción se empleará para identificar las variables que determinan la eficacia en la misma y diseñar una investigación que permita optimizar el rendimiento de los tenistas en esta secuencia del juego. Así, el empleo de este sistema tecnológico permitirá un análisis preciso de la respuesta motriz de los jugadores y la extracción de información relevante acerca de la acción definida.
    PALABRAS CLAVE: Tenis, split-step y volea, sistema automatizado de medida, respuesta de reacción.

  9. BUILDING 341 Seismic Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halle, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    The Seismic Evaluation of Building 341 located at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in Livermore, California has been completed. The subject building consists of a main building, Increment 1, and two smaller additions; Increments 2 and 3.

  10. Evaluación comparativa del método automatizado BACTEC MGIT 960 con el método de las proporciones para determinar susceptibilidad a drogas antituberculosas en Chile Comparative evaluation of automated BACTEC MGIT 960 for testing susceptibility of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to antituberculous drugs in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Piffardi F.

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Se comparó el método automatizado BACTEC MGIT 960 con el método de las proporciones (MP para la determinación de la susceptibilidad a drogas anti tuberculosas de 275 cepas de Mycobacterium tuberculosis aisladas de 270 pacientes en Chile entre 2001 y 2003. La concordancia del BACTEC MGIT 960 con el MP según las drogas estudiadas fue de: 97,0% para estreptomicina, 98,9% para rifampicina, 97,4% para isoniazida y 98,1% para etambutol. Los porcentajes globales de resistencia a drogas anti-TBC de las 275 cepas de M. tuberculosis estudiadas, determinados por el BACTEC MGIT960 y el MP fueron de 25,1% y 20,4% respectivamente. Esta diferencia no fue estadísticamente significativa. El BACTEC MGIT 960 dió como resistentes 17 cepas que fueron sensibles por el MP, sobrestimándose por este método la información de cepas resistentes. El BACTEC MGIT 960 en nuestra experiencia presentó una muy buena concordancia con el MP permitiendo un notable acortamiento en el tiempo de obtención de los resultados. Sin embargo, la mayor determinación de cepas resistentes por parte de este método requiere de nuevos análisis que permitan conocer los factores que inciden en este fenómenoThe automated BACTEC MGIT 960 system was compared with the method of proportion (MP for testing susceptibility of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to antituberculous drugs. 275 strains of M. tuberculosis isolated in Chile from 270 patients between 2001 and 2003 were tested. Concordance of BACTEC MGIT 960 with MP depending on the antituberculous drug tested was the following: 97.0% for streptomycin, 98,9% for rifampicin, 97,4% for isoniazid and 98,1% for ethambutol. Total resistance to antituberculous drugs of the 275 strains of M. tuberculosis tested varied from 20.4 % assessed by MP to 25.1% evaluated by BACTEC MGIT 960. These differences were not significant (p: ns; t test. BACTEC MGIT 960 yielded 17 strains as resistant. These same 17 strains were detected as sensitives by MP

  11. NRC new sustainable building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'Full text:' The National Research Council Institute For Fuel Cell Innovation is relocating to a purpose-built 71,343 sq. Ft. (6598 sq. M) Research, Testing, Evaluation, and Industry Incubation Facility in the spring of 2006. The new facility will contain Hydrogen-ready laboratories, the existing relocated Hydrogen Safe Environmental Test Chamber, a hydrogen vehicle maintenance bay, a hydrogen vehicle refuelling station, and the following demonstration projects and features: 1. A Ground Source Heat Pump: This long-proven natural-source heating and cooling technology to provide climate control for the new IFCI's atrium and galleria. It is being designed by Keen Engineering of North Vancouver, BC. 2. 5 KW Solid Oxide Fuel Cell System: Fuelled by natural gas and in the future, from biomass, the fuel cell will also produce approximately 15 kW of waste heat, which will be captured and used to supply heat for the building. The Solid Oxide Fuel Cell will be supplied by Fuel Cell Technologies in Kingston, ON. 3. LEED Building certification: Attaining LEED 'green building' certification is considered an important complement to the plans for the new NRC-IFCI, because it will provide respected third-party verification of government's commitment to efficient building design and construction. Project architects Bunting Coady of Vancouver, BC believe the IFCI has strong potential to earn gold LEED certification. 4. Photovoltaic hydrogen source for back-up power fuel cell system: A photovoltaic array will capture energy from sunlight to power an electrolyzer that will produce and store hydrogen for a PEM fuel cell emergency backup power system. The electrolyzer will be provided by Hydrogenics of Mississauga, ON. Photovoltaics are being designed and installed by the British Columbia Institute of Technology. (author)

  12. Based on the intelligent fire control system application problems and countermeasures of building fire were analyzed%基于建筑消防的智能消防系统应用问题及对策分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许利利

    2014-01-01

    Under the condition of the people's living standards continue to improve,building fire problem also gradually emerges,importance has become increasingly obvious.The development of science and technology changes with each passing day also extends to the field of building fire,intelligent fire control system began to gain popularity in the construction of safety facilities.But,as you can see,in developing the intelligent fire control system is not perfect,still exists many problems.This article will discuss some issues of intelligent fire in building fire control system,and puts forward relevant views and Suggestions.%在人民生活水平的不断提高的情况下,建筑消防问题也逐渐凸显出来,重要性已经越来越明显。科学技术日新月异的发展也延伸到了建筑消防领域,智能消防系统开始在建筑安全设施中得到普及。但是,可以看到,我国的智能消防系统发展不够完善,仍然存在很多问题。本文将就建筑消防中的智能消防系统问题展开探讨,并提出相关的意见和建议。

  13. The Control of Ground Surface Settlement in the Design of Foundation Pit Supporting around Shallow Foundation Buildings%浅基础建筑物相邻的基坑支护设计中地表变形控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘立东

    2012-01-01

    Through analyzing the effect of the design of one deep foundation pit supporting project on peripheral six-layer shallow foundation building in Yancheng city, in the accordance with the relevant existing national engineering codes, this paper considered the deformation of both soil and buildings a- round the foundation pit, and explored how to calculate and control the ground surface settlement around the foundation pit in order to ensure the safety of the surrounding buildings and meanwhile achieve opti- mal economic results.%通过对盐城一深基坑支护设计对周边六层浅基础建筑的影响分析,结合现有相关的国家规范,从基坑周边土体和建筑物变形两个方面综合分析,阐述了深基坑设计过程中,如何对支护周边地表沉降进行计算控制,以保证周边建筑物的安全,同时取得最优经济效益。

  14. Danish building typologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wittchen, Kim Bjarne; Kragh, Jesper

    The objective of TABULA is to develop a harmonised building typology for European countries. Each national building typology will consist of a set of residential model buildings with characteristic energy-related properties (element areas of the thermal building envelope, U-values, supply system...... efficiencies). The model buildings will each represent a specific construction period of the country in question and a specific building size. Furthermore the number of buildings, flats and the overall floor areas will be given, which are represented by the different building types of the national typologies....

  15. Integrating Responsive Building Elements in Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haase, Matthias; Amato, Alex; Heiselberg, Per

    2006-01-01

    energy strategies to develop guidelines and procedures for estimation of environmental performance of responsive building elements and integrated building concepts This paper introduces the ideas of this collaborative work and discusses its usefulness for Hong Kong and China. Special focus was put......There is a global need for a more sustainable building development. About 50% of energy is used in buildings indicating that buildings provide a considerable potential for operational energy savings. Studies were conducted with the following objectives: to perform a state-of-the-art review...

  16. 居住建筑设计中的噪声控制解析%Analysis of Noise Control in the Design of Residential Building

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张意东

    2014-01-01

    With the progress of city modernization in our co- untry, the complete elimination or reduce of the influence of noise polution to the residents in the design of residential building has become a major problem faced in the construction industry in this paper, the causes of noise polution in resid- ential buildings was analyzed, and discussed measures reduc- ing noise polution in residential architectural design.%随着我国现代化城市建设进程的不断推进,在居住建筑设计中彻底消除或减少噪音污染对住户的影响已成为建筑行业面临的主要问题。本文对居住建筑中产生噪音污染的原因进行了分析,并探讨了在居住建筑设计中减少噪音污染影响的措施。

  17. [Human resource capacity building on TB laboratory work for TB control program--through the experience of international TB laboratory training course for TB control at the Research Institute of Tuberculosis, JATA, Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiki, Akiko; Kato, Seiya

    2008-06-01

    mentioned, the course has been contributing to human resource capacity building including management of laboratory service to improve NTP in the resource-limited countries. Currently, expansion of technology transfer on culture examination for drug susceptibility test has been attempted to the resource-limited countries due to the occurrence of MDR-TB (Multi drug-resistant tuberculosis) and XDR-TB (Extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis) cases. However, since sputum smear examination is most effective method of detection of infectious TB, the writers believe it is still a core component of TB control, unless a new diagnostic tool that is practicable and effective in the resource-limited countries is developed. Therefore the course will keep focused on the smear examination as the basic curriculum. The course is highly appreciated by international experts and it is our responsibility to answer the expectation from them. PMID:18634453

  18. Building America Expert Meeting Report. Hydronic Heating in Multifamily Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dentz, Jordan [Levy Partnership, Inc., New York, NY (United States)

    2011-10-01

    This expert meeting was presented by the ARIES Collaborative, and discussed cost-effective controls and distribution retrofit options for hot water and steam space heating systems in multi-family buildings with the goals of reducing energy waste and improving occupant comfort.

  19. Reconocimiento automatizado de menas metálicas mediante análisis digital de imagen: un apoyo al proceso mineralúrgico. I: ensayo metodológico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berrezueta, E.

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Ore microscopy has traditionally been an important support to control ore processing, but the volume of present day processes is beyond the reach of human operators. Automation is therefore compulsory, but its development through digital image analysis, DIA, is limited by various problems, such as the similarity in reflectance values of some important ores, their anisotropism, and the performance of instruments and methods. The results presented show that automated identification and quantification by DIA are possible through multiband (RGB determinations with a research 3CCD video camera on a reflected light microscope. These results were obtained by systematic measurement of selected ores accounting for most of the industrial applications. Polarized light is avoided, so the effects of anisotropism can be neglected. Quality control at various stages and statistical analysis are important, as is the application of complementary criteria (e.g., metallogenetic. The sequential methodology is described and shown through practical examples.

    La investigación microscópica de menas metálicas ha sido, desde sus inicios, una importante herramienta para el control del proceso mineralúrgico. El volumen de las operaciones actuales es tal que este control es imposible por los métodos clásicos, pero la automatización del proceso por análisis digital de imagen, ADI, se ha visto retrasada, entre otras cosas, por la similar reflectancia, R, de menas importantes, por limitaciones instrumentales y metodológicas y por las dificultades que implica el anisotropismo, las cuales desaparecen evitando la polarización. Los resultados obtenidos muestran la viabilidad de la identificación y cuantificación automatizadas mediante ADI, a partir de medidas R con cámara vídeo 3CCD sobre microscopio de reflexión. Así lo corrobora el ensayo sistemático sobre las principales menas. Se describe la metodología secuenciada. Implica una puesta a punto rigurosa

  20. Hierarchical Control Strategy of Heat and Power for Zero Energy Buildings including Hybrid Fuel Cell/Photovoltaic Power Sources and Plug-in Electric Vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghiasi, Mohammad Iman; Aliakbar Golkar, Masoud; Hajizadeh, Amin

    2016-01-01

    to demonstrate the effectiveness and capability of the proposed control strategy during different operating conditions in the utility grid. Finally, the performance of the proposed controller is verified using hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) real-time simulations carried out in OPAL-RT technologies for a real...

  1. The Building Commissioning Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz, John A.; Casault, Rick

    This book discusses building commissioning, which is the process of certifying that a new facility meets the required specifications. As buildings have become more complex, the traditional methods for building start-up and final acceptance have been proven inadequate, and building commissioning has been developed, which often necessitates the use…

  2. Global building physics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    High ambitions are set for the building physics performance of buildings today. No single technology can achieve fulfilment of these ambitions alone. Integrated, multi-facetted solutions and optimization are necessary. A holistic, or ‘global’, technological perspective is needed, which includes all...... aspects of the building as defined in building engineering. We live in an international society and building solutions are developed across country borders. Building physics is a global theme. The International Association of Building Physics has global appeal. This brief article reports the keynote...

  3. Global Building Physics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    High ambitions are set for the building physics performance of buildings today. No single technology can achieve fulfilment of these ambitions alone. Integrated, multi-facetted solutions and optimization are necessary. A holistic, or “global”, technological perspective is needed, which includes all...... aspects of the building as defined in building engineering. We live in an international society and building solutions are developed across country borders. Building physics is a global theme. The International Association of Building Physics has global appeal. The keynote lecture and this brief paper...

  4. Analysis on inroads situation and control effect of cockroach at a residential building%某居民楼蟑螂侵害及防治效果调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹广庆; 周光智; 王治; 李平; 文瑜; 程绪浩

    2013-01-01

    目的 调查某部居民楼蟑螂侵害情况和防治效果.方法 用药激法调查蟑螂密度,化学防治采用奋斗呐滞留喷洒和优士灭蟑胶饵.结果 德国小蠊为绝对优势种,防治前不同房间平均密度为2.3 ~16.8只/间,施药后3d密度为0.1~1.3只/间,杀灭率为91.07%~ 97.67%,15 d后为0只/间,杀灭率为100%.结论 该住宅楼蟑螂侵害严重,滞留喷洒结合灭蟑胶饵、颗粒饵杀灭蟑螂效果显著,值得推广.%Objective To investigate cockroach invasion in room of a residential building, and observe the preventive and control effect. Methods Medication excite killing method was used for density investigation, 5 % alpha - cypermethrin( Fendona) wettable powder and gel bait for chemical control. Results Blattella germanica was the dominant species. The density was 2.3- 16. 8 pieces per room in different apartment before control,after using control method , the density was 0. 1-1. 3 pieces per room with the mortality rate of 91. 07% -91.61% three days later, and the density was 0 pieces per room with the mortality rate of 100% fifteen days later. Conclusion The cockroach invasion is serious at this residential building. The method of using remained spray and gel bait has high efficacy a-gainst cockroach and deserves to be recommended.

  5. The combination of exhaust port and smoke screen for smoke control in commercial building%商业建筑排烟口与挡烟垂壁组合控制烟气

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭增辉; 陆守香; 何其泽; 黎昌海

    2012-01-01

    利用足寸为38 m(长)×21 m(宽)×5.4m(高)的真实商业建筑火灾场景,使用3.0 MW真实柴油池火火源,研究排烟口与挡烟垂壁组合控制烟气时挡烟垂壁高度、排烟口位置和朝向等因素对烟气控制效果的影响.在火灾规模、排烟量和排烟系统启动时间都一定的情况下,挡烟垂壁的高度是影响烟气控制效果的关键因素.排烟口距火源越近烟气控制效果越好.排烟口的朝向对烟气控制效果的影响并不显著.%Using 3. 0 MW real diesel pool fire as the fire source, the impact of the height of smoke screen and the location and o-rientation of the exhaust port on the effect of smoke control in the real commercial building fire scene was studied, with the combination of exhaust port and smoke screen.. The size of building is 38 m(length) × 21 m(width) × 5. 4 mCheight). In the case of certain fire scale, emission of smoke and smoke ex-traction system start-up time, the height of smoke screen is a key factor influencing the effect of smoke control. The nearer exhaust port is away from the fire source, the better effect smoke control can get. The impact on the smoke control from the orientation of exhaust port is not significant.

  6. Retrofitting Listed Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents a case study where the energy demand for a listed building constructed in 1900 is reduced. Many older buildings are listed and have restrictions that include the entire building or that include only its exterior. For the building presented, only its exterior facade is listed...... of the local urban environment and therefore listed. The reduced energy demand, related to individual measures, is estimated and building physics requirements are addressed together with the economic options for evaluating the profitability....

  7. Study of the production of the radiopharmaceutical {sup 18}F-FLT in automated system: contribution for process validation; Estudo da producao do radiofarmaco FLT-{sup 18}F em sistema automatizado: contribuicao para a validacao do processo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanette, Camila

    2013-07-01

    Radiopharmaceutical {sup 18}F-FLT is a thymidine nucleoside analogue and a promising tumor proliferation marker for PET images. The synthesis of this radiopharmaceutical is not simple, and often has low yields. This radiopharmaceutical has already been studied for some years; however, there is no production, nor are there clinical studies in Brazil. The study of the production process and its compliance with the guidelines of Good Manufacturing Practices (ANVISA) are of extreme importance. This study aimed to investigate the synthesis of this radiopharmaceutical, evaluate methods of quality control that will be used in future production routines, perform cytotoxicity studies, biodistribution studies and PET imaging in animals, thereby contributing to the development and elaboration of the process validation protocol and to the establishment of analytical methods to be used during production routines. Initially, we studied the synthesis and production of {sup 18}F-FLT, with the evaluation of three different temperatures of radiolabeling to check the behavior of the radiochemical yield and stability of the nal product. Studies of analytical methodology comprised the analysis of radionuclide identification, determination of chromatographic profiles, radiochemical purity, residual solvents, and pH. In vitro studies of internalization and cytotoxicity were also carried out. In in vivo studies, we evaluated the pharmacokinetics, biodistribution in healthy animals and in animals with tumor models, in addition to PET/CT images in animals with melanomas. The final product had high radiochemical purity and was stable for up to 10 hours after the synthesis, but got a relatively low radiochemical yield, as described in the literature. The tested analytical methods proved suitable for use in the quality control of {sup 18}F-FLT. In in vitro studies, {sup 18}F-FLT showed a significant percentage of binding to tumor cells, and the nonradiolabeled molecule was not considered toxic

  8. Optimization of Pre Engineered Buildings

    OpenAIRE

    B K Raghu Prasad; Sunil kumar

    2014-01-01

    Pre-engineered buildings have become quite popular in the last few years. The main advantages are speed of construction and good control over quality. However there is not much information on its economy. There are several parameters like the inclination of the gable, spans, bay spacing, which control the cost of the structure. In the present paper the above parameters are varied systematically and in each case the gable frame designed for the common loads DL, LL, EQ, and WL. ...

  9. Discussion on the Method of Building Urban GPS Control Network Based on GPS Technology%利用GPS技术建立城市GPS控制网的方法探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔丽华; 冯军

    2012-01-01

    Based on years of production experience of the author, this paper introduces the solution to the usual problems we will meet with when building city GPS control network using GPS technique, taking the GPS control network of Ledong County in Hainan as an example. It ensures through total quality control that the survey result of the city four - level GPS control network is in accordance with the current survey standard. It also discusses the accuracy of GPS control surveying.%笔者结合多年生产经验,以海南省乐东县GPS控制网为例,介绍了利用GPS技术建立城市GPS控制网时一些常见的问题及处理办法。通过全面的质量控制以确保城市D级GPS控制网测量成果符合现行测量规范的要求,讨论了GPS控制测量的精度等问题。

  10. 沿海消毒供应中心建筑设计与感染控制的探讨%Design and building of coastal central sterile supply department and study on infection control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙雪莹; 王岩; 邱素红; 高玉华

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨沿海医院消毒供应中心的建筑设计与感染控制.方法 遵循医院感染预防与控制的原则及国家法律、法规对医院建筑和职业防护的相关要求,进行充分论证,并结合国内外消毒供应中心建筑布局的优点,依照《医院消毒供应室验收标准》及《综合医院建筑规范》等国家相关标准,进行专业设计和施工;引进先进的消毒灭菌、空气层流净化设备;物品实行ERP系统信息化管理;分区以双扉式全自动清洗消毒器、灭菌器作隔离屏障;严格的人流、物流、气流管理.结果 拥有现代化、标准化、科学化及专业化的建筑设计,使整个操作流程形成相对封闭的不可逆的运行过程,控制了再次污染的机会,有效地控制医院感染,为医院各个临床科室的医疗安全提供了重要保证;各项质量监测指标均符合建筑设计标准与感染控制要求.结论 建筑设计符合现代化消毒供应中心标准要求,制定出合理的流程管理制度及质控措施,能有效控制医院感染.%OBJECTIVE To explore the design and building of central sterile supply department and the infection control. METHODS By following the hospital infection prevention and control and the principle of state laws and regulations on hospital buildings and the relevant requirement of occupational protection, the professional design and building were carried out through the complete demonstration and combining domestic and foreign architectural layout of the center of sterilization supply advantages in accordance with the national standards ' hospital sterilization supply& distribution acceptance standard' and the general hospital building codes; the advanced disinfection and laminar air purification equipments were introduced; the management of the items was performed by ERP information system; the partition was conducted by double hired type automatic washer disinfector, sterilizer was used as isolated

  11. Automated system for the management of the radiological safety in a radiopharmaceutical and labelled compounds production center; Sistema automatizado para la gestion de la seguridad radiologica un centro de produccion de radiofarmacos y compuestos marcados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amador B, Z.H. [Centro de Isotopos, Ave. Monumental y Carretera La Rada, Km. 3, Guanabacoa, Apartado 3415, Ciudad de La Habana (Cuba); Alvarez Builla de Sologuren, E. [Centro de Gestion de Informacion y Desarrollo de la Energia, Cale 20 No. 4111 e/47y 18A, Playa, Ciudad de La Habana (Cuba)]. e-mail: zabalbona@centis.edu.cu

    2006-07-01

    The establishment in the Center of Isotopes of Cuba of a managerial quality system in matter of radiological safety Y the accumulated operational experience, its constitute the foundations for the development of a system of management of the radiological safety organically structured, with the application of evaluative techniques of it management Y it integration in an automated system. The Visual Basic 5 platform for the programming of the 'SASR' system is used. The functions of each one of the 11 modules that integrate it are described. With this it can be carried out the registration of the data of the training Y the personnel's authorization, the checkup of the radioactive inventory of the installation, the annual upgrade of the registrations of the individual doses of those workers, the analysis of the state of the available equipment for magnitude to control, the radiological situation of the work positions, the public exposure by the gassy discharges, the experiences of the radiological events, the annual consolidation of the costs of the safety Y the evaluation of indicators Y of tendencies. A computer tool that facilitates the effective management of the radiological safety in a radioactive installation is obtained. (Author)

  12. Preoperational test report, vent building ventilation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifton, F.T.

    1997-11-04

    This represents a preoperational test report for Vent Building Ventilation Systems, Project W-030. Project W-030 provides a ventilation upgrade for the four Aging Waste Facility tanks. The system provides Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning (HVAC) for the W-030 Ventilation Building. The tests verify correct system operation and correct indications displayed by the central Monitor and Control System.

  13. Humidity and Buildings. Technical Paper No. 188.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutcheon, N. B.

    Modified and controlled relative humidity in buildings for certain occupancies is discussed. New criteria are used in determining the needs, desirability and problems associated with humidities in a building. Severe winter climate requires that special attention be given to the problems associated with increased indoor humidities during cold…

  14. Building POCS: An open source observatory control system for amateur telescopes used by the PANOPTES project for the detection of extrasolar planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, Wilfred T.; Walawender, Josh; Butterfield, Mike; Guyon, Olivier; Jovanovic, Nemanja; Panoptes Team

    2015-01-01

    The Panoptic Astronomical Networked OPtical observatory for Transiting Exoplanets Survey (PANOPTES, www.projectpanoptes.org) project is a citizen science project consisting of a wide network of low-cost imaging units built using commerically available products and working toward the identification of transiting exoplanets. The PANOPTES Observatory Control System (POCS) is a an open source software system designed to act as the control mechanism for the operation of the unit. POCS defines an Observatory class that is responsible for automated control of a commercially available equatorial mount, including image analysis and corresponding mount adjustment to obtain a percent-level photometric precision. Also responsible for controlling the two digital cameras and the archiving of 5 GB of nightly data, the Observatory class works via a state machine and in conjuction with a configurable target object scheduler, local environmental monitoring, and an inter-task messaging system for total hardware and software control. POCS is written in modern python and attempts to adhere to best practices within the astropy and scipy communities. An overview of the system is presented, along with key technical challenges and design considerations due to the open source and citizen science oriented aspect of PANOPTES.

  15. Moisture dynamics in building envelopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peuhkuri, R.

    2003-07-01

    The overall scope of this Thesis 'Moisture dynamics in building envelopes' has been to characterise how the various porous insulation materials investigated performed hygro thermally under conditions similar to those in a typical building envelope. As a result of the changing temperature and moisture conditions in the exterior weather and indoor climate the materials dynamically absorb and release moisture. The complexity of the impact of these conditions on the resulting moisture transport and content of the materials has been studied in this Thesis with controlled laboratory tests. (au)

  16. ICT Enhanced Buildings Potentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansson, Per

    2007-01-01

    The paper describes and gives example on how Information and Communication, ICT, can and will enhance and support the building functional systems defined from client and end-user needs and requirements. The building systems may be derived from functional requirements on buildings such as usability...... and security on highest level with sub-systems definitions on lever levels. Building functional sub-systems may be defined for user comfort, indoor-climate, evacuation, space configuration, aesthetics, O&M etc. These building systems are supported by Information and Communication Technology, ICT, and building...... with focus on virtual building models support, new services and user environment definitions and development, virtual spaces and augmented reality, intelligent building components, application ontologies, and ICT systems integration to illustrate ICT enhanced buildings potentials and R&D needs.  ...

  17. Sustainable Buildings in Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elle, Morten

    2007-01-01

    The first attempts to build sustainable buildings in Denmark were typically located on the countryside. The basic idea was to create buildings that were independent of the technical infrastructure. District heating has, however, been the dominating solution to heating in buildings in Denmark......, and the focus on sustainable building have gradually turned from special houses on the countryside to normally looking houses in the urban fabric, integrated in the technical infrastructure. Some new built urban areas in Denmark will, however, not have to be supplied with district heating – these developments...... are going to consist of passive houses. The first sustainable buildings were built by their users, and the user – building interaction still play a decisive role for the performance of the present sustainable buildings. The users have to understand how the building functions. Urban design is essential...

  18. 建筑企业财务成本控制问题研究%Study on the Financial Cost Control of Building Enterprise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马汶汐

    2014-01-01

    Financial cost control is one of the core contents of construction enterprise. The effect of financial cost control is directly related to the economic benefits of enterprises. Through financial cost control, waste phenomenon in the enterprise can be reduced and prohibited, so as to establish a conservation-minded society.%财务成本控制是建筑企业核心内容之一,财务成本控制的效果直接关系到企业的经济效益,通过财务成本控制可以减少和禁止企业中的浪费现象,建立节约型社会。

  19. 承包方建设工程项目施工成本控制%Construction Cost Control of Contractor Building Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴桃英; 林生峰

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces the composition of constr-uction cost and the main influence factors to the construction project construction cost, and analyzes the basis of contractor control the construction project cost, final y summarizes the control requirements and specific control measures for con-struction cost of contractor departments and personnel.%本文介绍了施工成本的构成、影响建设工程项目施工成本的主要因素,分析了承包方对施工项目成本控制的依据,总结出对承包方部门及人员施工成本控制的要求以及控制的具体措施。

  20. 高层建筑电梯井内增压效应及防排烟措施%Study on Pressure Distribution in Elevator Shaft of a High-rise Building and Smoke Control Measures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李镇裕; 梁栋; 褚燕燕

    2016-01-01

    Based on smoke-control theory in high-rise buildings, principles of air-supply pressure design are proposed to improve smoke control system to prevent the coupling impact on smoke propagation of piston effect and wind effect, etc. Through the analysis of simulating cases on air movement in shafts with elevator operation, the relationship between poison effect and pressurization has been verified to make sure of the law of some pressurizations, including impetus pressurization pin, traction pressurization pout and static pressure difference p1-p2 and p3-p4. Through the analysis of pressure fluctuation in elevator shafts, pressure characteristic model of vertical flow in the shafts has been established, which could be applied to optimize pressure design of smoke prevention and control system in modern buildings and provide theoretical basements for the development of elevator evacuation strategies.%根据高层建筑烟控理论,提出了耦合“活塞风效应”的防排烟系统送风压力设计原则。通过模拟电梯运动的活塞效应对火灾烟气流动的影响,分析推动力增压pin、牵引力增压pout,及各流段之间的静压差p1-p2,p3-p4的变化规律,并根据压差波动,划分电梯井内纵向气流压力特性,建立电梯井内压力分布模型,研究结果为优化现代建筑的防排烟系统压力设计和制定电梯协同疏散策略提供了理论基础。

  1. Applied building physics

    CERN Document Server

    Hens, Hugo S L C

    2012-01-01

    The energy crises of the 1970s, persisting moisture problems, complaints about sick buildings, thermal, visual and olfactory discomfort, and the move towards more sustainability in building construction have pushed Building Physics to the forefront of building innovation. The societal pressure to diminish energy consumption in buildings without impairing usability acted as a trigger to activate the whole notion of performance based design and construction. As with all engineering sciences, Building Physics is oriented towards application, which is why, after a first book on fundamentals this s

  2. 公立医院如何进行内部控制体系建设%Discussion on internal control system building in public hospital

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王爱青; 费才华; 董欣; 肖俏

    2015-01-01

    With the deepening development of healthcare reform and the implementation of internal control regulation of administrative institute, stricter requirement has been put forward for public hospital internal control. According to the internal control regulation of administrative institute and based on the situations of public hospital, the existing internal control system needs to be completed. Taking Peking Union Medical College Hospital budget management system as an example, how to complete the existing institution has been discussed. And taking continuous education training as an example, how to complete internal control by flow diagram and form an integrated internal control system which can combine with institution and flow diagram has been presented. Key points on establishing internal control system in public hospital also have been analyzed.%随着医改的深入和2014年《行政事业单位内部控制规范》(以下简称《规范》)的实行给公立医院提出了更高的要求,公立医院必须按照新的《规范》进行内部控制体系的建设,在进行内部控制制度体系建设时,需结合本医院内部控制的特点,参照《规范》的要求,与原有的内部控制制度对比后进行补充和完善。文章以“北京协和医院预算管理办法”为例进行说明和阐述,应如何参照《规范》对原有制度进行修订。并且以北京协和医院继续教育项目为例进行说明,如何通过流程图的建立加以内部控制,形成制度和流程图相互补充的完整的内部控制体系。同时笔者还提出建立公立医院内部控制体系需重点注意的几方面问题。

  3. Analysis of Theoretical Calculation Method of Blasting Cut Height in Demolishing Building by Controlled Blasting%楼房爆破缺口高度理论计算方法分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林大能; 邓新文

    2001-01-01

    In this paper,the development of study on blasting cut hight calculation in demolishing building by controlled blasting is introduced.Based on energy conversion theory,the criteria determing minimum blasting cut height are given.The criteria are simplfied in terms of theory of progression.The practica lmethod of calculating blasting cut hei ght is given.The analysis of practical examplesi llustrated that the practicalc alulation method is of practical signifi cance for demolishing building by contro lled blasting.%介绍了爆破缺口高度的研究现状,以能量转化理论为基础给出了确定爆破缺口最小范围的判据,借助级数理论对判据进行了简化,得出了爆破缺口高度实用理论计算方法。通过实例计算分析,证明了文中的实用理论计算方法对工程实践有指导意义。

  4. 浅谈监理在建筑防水工程中的主要监控措施%The Main Control Measures of the Supervision of Building Waterproofing Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭兵

    2014-01-01

    Building waterproof technology plays a functional role in protection of housing construction, That the housing construction can ensure al parts to be not subjected to various water leakage is directly related to the use of housing function, quality of life of owners and living environment. This paper di-scussed some supervision measures of quality control of wate-rproof engineering including basement waterproof, floor wat-erproof and building surface waterproof.%建筑防水技术在房屋建筑中发挥功能保障作用,房屋建筑所有部位能否保证免受各种水的侵入而不渗漏,直接关系到房屋的使用功能、生活质量和人居环境。本文着重谈了监理对地下室防水工程、屋面防水和楼面防水质量控制的一些监理措施。

  5. Technologies used for research in intelligent buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolková, Zuzana; Matušov, Jozef; Mokrý, Marián

    2016-06-01

    The efficient use of primary energy and their impact on the environment is influenced in several ways. The key is implementation of modern low-energy structures and technologies in building construction, the use of high energy sources such fossil fuels and renewable energy, the optimal management, appropriate choice of sources of heat and cold. Optimal control of energy consumption in buildings and premises may be an appropriate choice of sources of heat and cold. Energy sources should be in addition to high efficiency and meet the requirement of minimizing the emission load environment. All this can be achieved by implementing the construction of intelligent buildings. University of Žilina in the project Research Centre of the University of Žilina decided to build such building. Use of this building will be addressing many research activities at the university with links to industry.

  6. Building the Korogwe Laboratory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Jakob; von Seidlein, Lorenz; Richard, Jean Pierre

    2011-01-01

    An illustrated description of the building of a biomedical research laboratory in Korogwe, Tanzania.......An illustrated description of the building of a biomedical research laboratory in Korogwe, Tanzania....

  7. Building Design & Construction - Sustainability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2003-11-01

    Offers a brief history of green building; presents the results of a specially commissioned survey; and analyzes the chief trends, issues, and published research, based on interviews with dozens of experts and participants in green building.

  8. Robotic buildings(s)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bier, H.H.

    2014-01-01

    Technological and conceptual advances in fields such as artificial intelligence, robotics, and material science have enabled robotic building to be in the last decade prototypically implemented. In this context, robotic building implies both physically built robotic environments and robotically supp

  9. Better Buildings Challenge Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2011-06-01

    The Better Buildings Challenge is a national leadership initiative calling on corporate chief executive officers, university presidents, and state and local leaders to make a significant commitment to building energy efficiency.

  10. Requirements for existing buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund; Wittchen, Kim Bjarne

    2012-01-01

    This report collects energy performance requirements for existing buildings in European member states by June 2012.......This report collects energy performance requirements for existing buildings in European member states by June 2012....

  11. Integrated Building Health Management

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Abstract: Building health management is an important part in running an efficient and cost-effective building. Many problems in a building’s system can go...

  12. Allegheny County Building Footprints

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains photogrammetrically compiled roof outlines of buildings. All near orthogonal corners are square. Buildings that are less than 400 square feet...

  13. Buildings interoperability landscape - Draft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardin, Dave B. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stephan, Eric G. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wang, Weimin [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Corbin, Charles D. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Widergren, Steven E. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Buildings are an integral part of our nation’s energy economy. The advancement in information and communications technology (ICT) has revolutionized energy management in industrial facilities and large commercial buildings. As ICT costs decrease and capabilities increase, buildings automation and energy management features are transforming the small-medium commercial and residential buildings sectors. A vision of a connected world in which equipment and systems within buildings coordinate with each other to efficiently meet their owners’ and occupants’ needs, and where buildings regularly transact business with other buildings and service providers (such as gas and electric service providers) is emerging. However, while the technology to support this collaboration has been demonstrated at various degrees of maturity, the integration frameworks and ecosystems of products that support the ability to easily install, maintain, and evolve building systems and their equipment components are struggling to nurture the fledging business propositions of their proponents.

  14. A participatory and capacity-building approach to healthy eating and physical activity – SCIP-school: a 2-year controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elinder Liselotte Schäfer

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Schools can be effective settings for improving eating habits and physical activity, whereas it is more difficult to prevent obesity. A key challenge is the “implementation gap”. Trade-off must be made between expert-driven programmes on the one hand and contextual relevance, flexibility, participation and capacity building on the other. The aim of the Stockholm County Implementation Programme was to improve eating habits, physical activity, self-esteem, and promote a healthy body weight in children aged 6–16 years. We describe the programme, intervention fidelity, impacts and outcomes after two years of intervention. Methods Nine out of 18 schools in a middle-class municipality in Sweden agreed to participate whereas the other nine schools served as the comparison group (quasi-experimental study. Tailored action plans were developed by school health teams on the basis of a self-assessment questionnaire called KEY assessing strengths and weaknesses of each school’s health practices and environments. Process evaluation was carried out by the research staff. Impacts at school level were assessed yearly by the KEY. Outcome measures at student level were anthropometry (measured, and health behaviours assessed by a questionnaire, at baseline and after 2 years. All children in grade 2, 4 and 7 were invited to participate (n=1359 of which 59.8% consented. The effect of the intervention on health behaviours, self-esteem, weight status and BMIsds was evaluated by unilevel and multilevel regression analysis adjusted for gender and baseline values. Results Programme fidelity was high demonstrating feasibility, but fidelity to school action plans was only 48% after two years. Positive and significant (p Conclusions School staff has the capacity to create their own solutions and make changes at school level on the basis of self-assessment and facilitation by external agents. However these changes were challenging to sustain over

  15. How to build and evaluate an integrated health care system for chronic patients: study design of a clustered randomised controlled trial in rural China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenxi Tang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: While integrated health care system has been proved an effective way to help improving patient health and system efficiency, the exact behaviour model and motivation approach are not so clear in poor rural areas where health human resources and continuous service provision are urgently needed. To gather solid evidence, we initiated a comprehensive intervention project in Qianjiang District, southwest part of rural China in 2012. And after one-year's pilot, we developed an intervention package of team service, comprehensive pathway and prospective- and performance-based payment system. Methods: To testify the potential influence of payment interventions, we use clustered randomised controlled trial, 60 clusters are grouped into two treatment groups and one control group to compare the time and group differences. Difference-in-differences model and structural equation modelling will be used to analyse the intervention effects and pathway. The outcomes are: quality of care, disease burden, supplier cooperative behaviour and patient utilisation behaviour and system efficiency. Repeated multivariate variance analysis will be used to statistically examine the outcome differences. Discussion: This is the first trial of its kind to prove the effects and efficiency of integrated care. Though we adopted randomised controlled trial to gather the highest rank of evidence, still the fully randomisation was hard to realise in health policy reform experiment. To compensate, the designer should take efforts on control for the potential confounders as much as possible. With this trial, we assume the effects will come from: (1 improvement on the quality of life through risk factors control and lifestyles change on patient's behaviours; (2 improvement on quality of care through continuous care and coordinated supplier behaviours; (3 improvement on the system efficiency through active interaction between suppliers and patients. Conclusion

  16. How to build and evaluate an integrated health care system for chronic patients: study design of a clustered randomised controlled trial in rural China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenxi Tang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: While integrated health care system has been proved an effective way to help improving patient health and system efficiency, the exact behaviour model and motivation approach are not so clear in poor rural areas where health human resources and continuous service provision are urgently needed. To gather solid evidence, we initiated a comprehensive intervention project in Qianjiang District, southwest part of rural China in 2012. And after one-year's pilot, we developed an intervention package of team service, comprehensive pathway and prospective- and performance-based payment system.Methods: To testify the potential influence of payment interventions, we use clustered randomised controlled trial, 60 clusters are grouped into two treatment groups and one control group to compare the time and group differences. Difference-in-differences model and structural equation modelling will be used to analyse the intervention effects and pathway. The outcomes are: quality of care, disease burden, supplier cooperative behaviour and patient utilisation behaviour and system efficiency. Repeated multivariate variance analysis will be used to statistically examine the outcome differences.Discussion: This is the first trial of its kind to prove the effects and efficiency of integrated care. Though we adopted randomised controlled trial to gather the highest rank of evidence, still the fully randomisation was hard to realise in health policy reform experiment. To compensate, the designer should take efforts on control for the potential confounders as much as possible. With this trial, we assume the effects will come from: (1 improvement on the quality of life through risk factors control and lifestyles change on patient's behaviours; (2 improvement on quality of care through continuous care and coordinated supplier behaviours; (3 improvement on the system efficiency through active interaction between suppliers and patients

  17. 某地铁控制中心复杂高层建筑结构设计%Structural Design of A Subway Control Center Complex High-rise Building

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵伟; 田予东; 戴玉买; 叶飞

    2015-01-01

    某地铁控制中心高度为158m,地下3层,地上主体结构39层,裙楼5层,属于超高层建筑,控制大厅设置在裙楼一楼,局部抽柱转换做梁上转换;主楼35、36层外框架柱缩进2.1m,37、38层外框架柱缩进1.8m,主楼外框柱在此处做了两次转换。本工程采用混合结构体系,结构形式为框架-混凝土核心筒体系,主楼外框架采用钢管混凝土柱,裙楼柱采用型钢混凝土柱,针对本工程的设计难点,采用PKPM-PMSAP和ETABS两种空间有限元软件进行计算分析,对基础设计、裙楼设计、主塔楼设计、加强层、转换层设计等方面的设计思路和措施进行了阐述和分析。通过研究分析,本工程采取了合理的设计方法和构造措施,解决了本工程中的设计难点,达到了技术先进、经济合理、安全适用的设计目标。%The height of a subway’s control center is 158m, with underground 3 floors, above-ground main structure 39 floors and a podium building of 5 floors, which belongs to an ultra high-rise building. The control hall is on the first floor of the podium building and partial removal column transformation is beam transformation. The external frame column of the main building’s 35 and 36 floors indents 2.1m, while 1.8m indentation for 37 and 38 floors, two transformations at here. The Project uses a hybrid structure, that is, frame-concrete core structure. The concrete-filled steel tube column is used for the main building’s external frame, steel-concrete column for the podium. For the design difficulties, PKPM-PMSAP and ETABS, two kinds of space finite element softwares, are applied to calculate. And this paper analyzes the design ideas and measures of foundation design, podium building design, main tower building design, reinforcement layer, transformation layer, etc.. By studying, this project uses reasonable design methods and structural measures, resolves design difficulties of the

  18. Development of energy-efficient comfortable ventilation systems with air quality guided volume flow control and continuous monitoring of the window opening status. Part 1. Use of the LuQaS triple sensor for air quality guided volume flow control of mechanical ventilation systems in domestic buildings. Research project; Entwicklung energieeffizienter Komfortlueftungsanlagen mit luftqualitaetsgefuehrter Volumenstromregelung und kontinuierlicher Erfassung des Fensteroeffnungszustandes. Teilbericht 1. Einsatz des LuQaS-Triple-Sensors zur luftqualitaetsgefuehrten Volumenstromregelung von mechanischen Lueftungsanlagen in Wohngebaeuden. Forschungsprojekt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grossklos, Marc; Ebel, Witta; Knissel, Jens

    2011-05-15

    The report presents the preparatory work on the research project of the above title. The first chapter presents a status report on air quality monitoring inside rooms and evaluates the projects so far in which the LuQaS air quality sensor was used. The second chapter is a documentation of preliminary measurements using the LuQaS sensor in two passive residential buildings and several individual measurements for sensor calibration. It was found that in apartments with mechanical ventilation, the sensor reflects the user activities; further, the measured values indicate signal changes also in the off-air of the building, so that control via central sensors in the ventilation and off-air systems appears feasible. The third chapter discusses control strategies for air quality control. Apart from a discussion of control unit types, operating regimes, methods to determine rated values, and additional control functions, the effects of threshold value control with different threshold limit values and volume flow changes on the air quality of a model building was simulated. The results prove the expectation that the air quality inside a building will be influenced positively by air quality control. Theoretical investigations of the DrD method will be presented in another part-report of the project.

  19. Building the ISS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石继忠; 李秀霞

    2007-01-01

    Have you seen people building houses?To build a house,you need workers.They use their hands,tools and machines to put everything together. Building the ISS is almost the same.The difference is that the workers are astronauts.They

  20. Future Green Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Drysdale, David; Lund, Henrik;

    Efficient buildings are essential for an affordable Danish energy supply in 2050. The purpose of this report is to describe the contribution and role of the building sector in a 100% renewable energy future, as well as the transitions that are necessary in the building sector to support this chan...

  1. Marine Building Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Westby, Ola

    2006-01-01

    This textbook is all about building of ships, platforms and other offshore installations. The geometry and functions of systems and structures are explained as an introduction to management and technology at shipyards and building sites. Both loadbearing structures, outfitting and installation of accommodation are included. Project management, production planning, cost calculations, building methods, discipline knowledge (welding, painting, insulation, mechanical, piping etc.), fabrication te...

  2. Building with History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Douglas-Jones, Rachel; Adams, Charlotte; Green, Adrian;

    2014-01-01

    on the thermal and energetic properties of historic buildings, as distinct from their social meaning and use. A similar separation between the physi- cal building and its social use is inherent in methodologies such as energy audits that constitute key devices through which buildings are institution- ally...

  3. Design and build of fieldbus-based control systems for ENEL thermoelectric plants; Sistemi di controllo con bus di campo. Applicazioni in impianti termoelettrici

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazzola, G. [Automazione e Robotica, Cesi (Italy); Prandoni, W. [Business Unit Processi per la Generazione, Milan (Italy)

    2000-06-01

    The intention to start first plant-wide control applications based on fieldbus in ENEL (Electric Power Production Company) combined cycle plants demands to define appropriate requirements for design, planning, implementation, technical management and maintenance of control systems. One of the first needs is to express, in the bid specifications for Dc san other plant components, those requirements necessary on one side to guarantee the same levels of performance and reliability of traditional systems, and on the other side to ensure the improvement of the operations of installation and commissioning and of management of normal and abnormal plant behaviour, which are among the main benefits expected from this new technology. The definition of such requirements appears to be complex due to the variety and lack of a homogenous approach of the different market solutions, and also because a real experience of systems of considerable size is still missing. The memory introduces the results and problems met in the requirement specification phase, and the activity of definition of a pilot control system for demineralized water production of Fusina power plant. [Italian] In vista delle prime applicazioni negli impianti ENEL a ciclo combinato della tecnologia a bus di campo si presenta la necessita' di esprimere, nelle specifiche di acquisizione del Dcs e dei componenti, i requisiti necessari da un lato a garantire i medesimi livelli di prestazione e sicurezza dei sistemi tradizionali, dall'altro ad assicurare il miglioramento delle operazioni di installazione e delle strategie di conduzione e manutenzione dell'impianto, che sono come i ritorni piu' promettenti di questa nuova tecnologia. L'articolo presenta le principali problematiche emerse e l'attivita' di definizione di un'esperienza pilota su un impianto in esercizio nella centrale termoelettrica di Fusina.

  4. Smart Buildings: Business Case and Action Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehrlich, Paul; Diamond, Rick

    2009-04-01

    General Services Administration (GSA) has been a pioneer in using Smart Building technologies but it has yet to achieve the full benefits of an integrated, enterprise-wide Smart Building strategy. In July 2008, GSA developed an initial briefing memorandum that identified five actions for a Smart Buildings feasibility study: (1) Identify and cluster the major building systems under consideration for a Smart Buildings initiative; (2) Identify GSA priorities for these clusters; (3) Plan for future adoption of Smart Building strategies by identifying compatible hardware; (4) Develop a framework for implementing and testing Smart Building strategies and converged networks; and (5) Document relevant GSA and industry initiatives in this arena. Based on this briefing memorandum, PBS and FAS retained consultants from Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Noblis, and the Building Intelligence Group to evaluate the potential for Smart Buildings within GSA, and to develop this report. The project has included extensive interviews with GSA staff (See Appendix A), a review of existing GSA standards and documents, and an examination of relevant GSA and industry initiatives. Based on interviews with GSA staff and a review of GSA standards and documents, the project team focused on four goals for evaluating how Smart Building technology can benefit GSA: (1) Achieve Energy Efficiency Mandates--Use Smart Building technology as a tool to meet EISA 2007 and EO 13423 goals for energy efficiency. (2) Enhance Property Management--Deploy enterprise tools for improved Operations and Maintenance (O&M) performance and verification. (3) Implement Network as the Fourth Utility--Utilize a converged broadband network to support Smart Building systems and provide GSA clients with connectivity for voice, data and video. (4) Enhance Safety and Security--Harmonize Physical Access Control Systems (PACS) with Smart Building Systems.

  5. A model predictive control strategy for the space heating of a smart building including cogeneration of a fuel cell-electrolyzer system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sossan, Fabrizio; Bindner, Henrik W.; Madsen, Henrik;

    2014-01-01

    that the predictive energy replacement strategy reduces the operating costs of the system and is able to provide a larger amount of regulating power to the grid. In the paper, we also develop a novel dynamic model of a PEM fuel cell suitable for micro-grid applications. The model is realized applying a grey....... In the proposed setup, heat is provided by conventional electric radiators and a combined heat and power generation system, composed by a fuel cell and an electrolyzer. The energy replacement strategy is formulated using model predictive control and mathematical models of the components involved. Simulations show...

  6. Control de gestión para procesos de apoyo hoteleros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Alejandra Ferrer

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Con base en el análisis de propuestas sobre indicadores para el control de gestión hotelera y la búsqueda empírica respecto a su aplicación en hoteles de máxima categoría ubicados en Maracaibo (Venezuela, se sistematizan los indicadores pertinentes para las gerencias de mantenimiento, seguridad, recursos humanos, sistemas y control financiero. En la experiencia de los hoteles predominan indicadores financieros tradicionales de eficiencia y oportunidad; éstos son complementados con el aporte de los autores estudiados y por las autoras con otras medidas de eficiencia y calidad. Además del control presupuestario, se destaca el uso de indicadores expresados en unidades físicas, tomando al huésped como cliente primario. Los índices hoteleros resultantes pueden ser adaptables a organizaciones similares, de acuerdo a su naturaleza, a los cambios internos y en el entorno, los cuales exigen flexibilidad y capacidad de adaptación. A pesar del uso de sistemas automatizados para el control de los procesos básicos en los hoteles, existen limitaciones tecnológicas para la recopilación y sistematización de información relativa a los procesos de apoyo.

  7. Modeling and Simulation of Multi-Room Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.W.U. Perera

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Buildings are one of the largest energy consumers in the world which accounts for nearly 40% of the total global energy consumption. In the countries where cold climate conditions predominate, space heating is the key contributor to the increased energy consumption. Today there is a growing trend to use Building Energy Management Systems (BEMS to control the energy consumption of buildings in an efficient manner. BEMS require a good heating model of the building to be integrated for better control purposes. This article refers to the development of different types of physics based buillding heating models, regarding single-zone, multi-floor and multi-room buildings. They address the propriety of each model in building heating control concerning the prediction accuracy and the prediction time. These models are verified for a residential building having three floors. According to the results, the multi-floor model is recognized to have the best qualifications obliged as a model for control.

  8. Optimal Control Strategy on the Centralized Control Type Emergency Evacuation System of Super High-rise Building%超高层建筑集中控制型应急疏散系统最优控制策略研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    全蜀

    2013-01-01

    本文以目前我国在建结构第一高楼天津高银117大厦所采用的集中控制型应急疏散系统为对象,研究建筑中应急疏散系统的最优控制策略。该系统利用最优控制理论中的自适应蚁群算法,将公共区域疏散指示标志灯进行通讯整合,实现集中控制。%This paper takes the centralized control type emer-gency evacuation system of Tianjin high silver 117 building, China’s first high-rise structure currently in construction, as o-bject, researches the optimal control strategy of building eme-rgency evacuation system. The system uses adaptive optimal c-ontrol theory of ant colony algorithm, integrates the communi-cation of evacuation indicator lights in public area, to realize the centralized control.

  9. WASTE HANDLING BUILDING ELECTRICAL SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.C. Khamamkar

    2000-06-23

    The Waste Handling Building Electrical System performs the function of receiving, distributing, transforming, monitoring, and controlling AC and DC power to all waste handling building electrical loads. The system distributes normal electrical power to support all loads that are within the Waste Handling Building (WHB). The system also generates and distributes emergency power to support designated emergency loads within the WHB within specified time limits. The system provides the capability to transfer between normal and emergency power. The system provides emergency power via independent and physically separated distribution feeds from the normal supply. The designated emergency electrical equipment will be designed to operate during and after design basis events (DBEs). The system also provides lighting, grounding, and lightning protection for the Waste Handling Building. The system is located in the Waste Handling Building System. The system consists of a diesel generator, power distribution cables, transformers, switch gear, motor controllers, power panel boards, lighting panel boards, lighting equipment, lightning protection equipment, control cabling, and grounding system. Emergency power is generated with a diesel generator located in a QL-2 structure and connected to the QL-2 bus. The Waste Handling Building Electrical System distributes and controls primary power to acceptable industry standards, and with a dependability compatible with waste handling building reliability objectives for non-safety electrical loads. It also generates and distributes emergency power to the designated emergency loads. The Waste Handling Building Electrical System receives power from the Site Electrical Power System. The primary material handling power interfaces include the Carrier/Cask Handling System, Canister Transfer System, Assembly Transfer System, Waste Package Remediation System, and Disposal Container Handling Systems. The system interfaces with the MGR Operations

  10. Building Order in the Building Company Organization

    OpenAIRE

    Krivdová, Magdaléna

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the thesis is to describe an organization of a building order, and to show its key phases. The individual phases of how a order is completed in a company are shown on practical examples. The first two chapters deal with the current situation of today's construction industry; consequently, the reasons for introducing the principles of project management into the construction business practice are mentioned. The third chapter is devoted to the description of a building order. It...

  11. Measurement, Prediction And Simulation Methods of Moisture Content In Buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Esmaeilpour, Mehrnoush

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT: This thesis represented some information on prediction and controlling of moisture content in buildings. Extreme disclosure to moisture is not only a common cause of major damage to building materials, it also can lead to unhealthy indoor living environments. So predicate and control moisture content provides a durable and long-term performance building with energy efficiency. Different methods (mechanical, simulation and graphical) for predicating and controlling the moisture cont...

  12. Net zero energy buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieminen, J., Email: jyri.nieminen@vtt.fi

    2012-06-15

    Two net zero apartment buildings with basically similar architecture have been built in Finland, in Kuopio (latitude 62.90) and in Jaervenpaeae (latitude 60.50). The aim was to test the possibilities to build zero energy buildings at high latitudes. The Kuopio case is a student hostel and the Jaervenpaeae case a home for elderly people. The total energy demand in the buildings are 102 MWh for Kuopio and 94.3 for Jaervenpaeae corresponding to 48 and 45 and kWh/gross-m2. The buildings utilise district heat and are connected to the local grid. The renewable energy production bases in the Kuopio case on solar heat and photovoltaics. The Kuopio building has been finished in 2010 and the Jaervenpaeae building in 2011. (orig.)

  13. Commercial Buildings Characteristics, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-29

    Commercial Buildings Characteristics 1992 presents statistics about the number, type, and size of commercial buildings in the United States as well as their energy-related characteristics. These data are collected in the Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS), a national survey of buildings in the commercial sector. The 1992 CBECS is the fifth in a series conducted since 1979 by the Energy Information Administration. Approximately 6,600 commercial buildings were surveyed, representing the characteristics and energy consumption of 4.8 million commercial buildings and 67.9 billion square feet of commercial floorspace nationwide. Overall, the amount of commercial floorspace in the United States increased an average of 2.4 percent annually between 1989 and 1992, while the number of commercial buildings increased an average of 2.0 percent annually.

  14. Energy intelligent buildings based on user activity : A survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, Tuan Anh; Aiello, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Occupant presence and behaviour in buildings has been shown to have large impact on heating, cooling and ventilation demand, energy consumption of lighting and appliances, and building controls. Energy-unaware behaviour can add one-third to a building's designed energy performance. Consequently, use

  15. The Application of Intelligent Building Technologies to Space Hotels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawkes, S.

    This paper reports that over the last few years Intelligent Building technologies have matured and standardised. It compares the functions of command and control systems in future large space facilities such as space hotels to those commonly found in Intelligent Buildings and looks at how Intelligent Building technologies may be applied to space hotels. Many of the functions required in space hotels are the same as those needed in terrestrial buildings. The adaptation of standardised, low cost, Intelligent Building technologies would reduce capital costs and ease development of future space hotels. Other aspects of Intelligent Buildings may also provide useful models for the development and operation of space hotels.

  16. Large-scale horizontally aligned ZnO microrod arrays with controlled orientation, periodic distribution as building blocks for chip-in piezo-phototronic LEDs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhen; Li, Haiwen; Zhou, Lianqun; Zhao, Dongxu; Wu, Yihui; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Wei; Li, Chuanyu; Yao, Jia

    2015-01-27

    A novel method of fabricating large-scale horizontally aligned ZnO microrod arrays with controlled orientation and periodic distribution via combing technology is introduced. Horizontally aligned ZnO microrod arrays with uniform orientation and periodic distribution can be realized based on the conventional bottom-up method prepared vertically aligned ZnO microrod matrix via the combing method. When the combing parameters are changed, the orientation of horizontally aligned ZnO microrod arrays can be adjusted (θ = 90° or 45°) in a plane and a misalignment angle of the microrods (0.3° to 2.3°) with low-growth density can be obtained. To explore the potential applications based on the vertically and horizontally aligned ZnO microrods on p-GaN layer, piezo-phototronic devices such as heterojunction LEDs are built. Electroluminescence (EL) emission patterns can be adjusted for the vertically and horizontally aligned ZnO microrods/p-GaN heterojunction LEDs by applying forward bias. Moreover, the emission color from UV-blue to yellow-green can be tuned by investigating the piezoelectric properties of the materials. The EL emission mechanisms of the LEDs are discussed in terms of band diagrams of the heterojunctions and carrier recombination processes.

  17. WASTE TREATMENT BUILDING SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    F. Habashi

    2000-06-22

    The Waste Treatment Building System provides the space, layout, structures, and embedded subsystems that support the processing of low-level liquid and solid radioactive waste generated within the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). The activities conducted in the Waste Treatment Building include sorting, volume reduction, and packaging of dry waste, and collecting, processing, solidification, and packaging of liquid waste. The Waste Treatment Building System is located on the surface within the protected area of the MGR. The Waste Treatment Building System helps maintain a suitable environment for the waste processing and protects the systems within the Waste Treatment Building (WTB) from most of the natural and induced environments. The WTB also confines contaminants and provides radiological protection to personnel. In addition to the waste processing operations, the Waste Treatment Building System provides space and layout for staging of packaged waste for shipment, industrial and radiological safety systems, control and monitoring of operations, safeguards and security systems, and fire protection, ventilation and utilities systems. The Waste Treatment Building System also provides the required space and layout for maintenance activities, tool storage, and administrative facilities. The Waste Treatment Building System integrates waste processing systems within its protective structure to support the throughput rates established for the MGR. The Waste Treatment Building System also provides shielding, layout, and other design features to help limit personnel radiation exposures to levels which are as low as is reasonably achievable (ALARA). The Waste Treatment Building System interfaces with the Site Generated Radiological Waste Handling System, and with other MGR systems that support the waste processing operations. The Waste Treatment Building System interfaces with the General Site Transportation System, Site Communications System, Site Water System, MGR

  18. Design of Control System for High rise Buildings Glass wall Cleaning Robot%玻璃幕墙清洗机器人爬壁运动控制系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘永平; 张世一; 蔺卡宾

    2015-01-01

    针对高层建筑玻璃幕墙清洗问题,开发了一种双层结构玻璃幕墙清洗机器人,对机械人本体结构及爬壁运动控制系统进行设计,以 FPGA 芯片为核心,对控制系统各部分硬件进行设计选型,并编写上位机控制软件。采用模糊 PID 算法对步进电机实现闭环控制,利用 Matlab 软件对步进电机进行了仿真分析。仿真结果表明,机器人运行状态稳定,具有较高的实用性。%To solve the problem of glass wall cleaning for high rise buildings,this research de-veloped a kind of glass curtain wall cleaning robot with a double layer structure,and designed the ro-bot structure and wall climbing motion control sys-tem.The various hardware components of the con-trol system are designed with FPGA chip at the core,and the host control software is written at the same time.Fuzzy PID algorithm is used to a-chieve closed loop control of the stepper motor, and the motor is analyzed with Matlab.Simulation results indicates that the robot’s running status is stable and has high practicability.

  19. Technical Building Systems (TBS) – differences between new and existing buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wittchen, Kim Bjarne; Griffiths, Will

    2015-01-01

    The Directive uses the term “technical building system” in the Recitals and Articles 1, 2, 8 and 11. It is Article 8 that calls for minimum standards for energy performance, installation, dimensioning, adjustment and control. These standards are obligatory in existing buildings, and they refer to...

  20. 基于控制营销理念的药品流通渠道构建策略%The Strategy of Building Drug Distribution Channel based on the Marketing Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜南岚; 谢海燕; 覃兆波

    2012-01-01

    The pharmaceutical distribution market emphasized the "terminal" ,so more and more manufacturers pay attention to the management of circulation channel, which is the need of controlling the Circulation Cost, reducing the price of drugs, also is the need of expanding the market, improving the competitiveness of products.The paper introduces the concept of drug circulation channel and marketing control, and then analyzes the cur- rent situation and problems. Finally, the paper elaborates the strategies to build a drug distribution channels from three aspects: Strategic, management and technology.%在强调以"终端为王"的药品流通市场,众多生产厂家越来越重视药品流通渠道的管理,这既是控制流通成本、降低终端药品价格的需要,也是扩大市场、提高产品竞争力的需要。全文首先介绍了药品流通渠道及"控制营销"的概念,然后分析了药品流通渠道的现状及问题,最后从战略、管理、技术三个方面阐述了药品流通渠道构建策略。

  1. 地铁列车运行引起建筑物二次辐射噪声执行标准探讨%Implementation of Standards to Control Secondary Radiation Noise on Buildings Caused by Metro Train Operation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    辜小安; 谢咏梅; 刘扬

    2012-01-01

    The paper analyzes the China's urban rail transit environmental impact assessment, especially the suitability of reference standard for control of building secondary radiation noise caused by train operation. According to the principles and definitions of secondary radiation noise, it discusses relevant standards and evaluation of the amount for proper control of the secondary radiation noise caused by the operation of urban train.%分析我国城市轨道交通环境影响评价中,关于列车运行引起的建筑物二次辐射噪声参考标准的适宜性,并根据二次辐射噪声原理和定义,探讨了城市轨道交通列车运行引起的建筑物二次辐射噪声宜执行的相关标准及评价量。

  2. Control analysis of GPS location in high-rise building construction%高层及超高层建筑工程的GPS定位控制分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩漪

    2014-01-01

    GPS positioning control technology now has more and more application in the design and construction of high-rise building project of the scope of application,so on and GPS positioning technology is more extensive,the past should be used for GPS mapping the military industrial control,now converted to civilian technology,it has become an important symbol of electrons across the technology of our country into the high-tech field.%GPS定位控制技术现在已经越来越多的应用在高层及超高层建筑工程的设计及施工当中了,因此对与GPS定位技术的应用范畴就广泛的多了,以往应用于军工产业的GPS定位控制,现在转变为民用技术,这种跨越已成为我国电子技术进入高科技领域的重要标志。

  3. Building for animal production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to limit the radiation dose to persons working with animal husbandry in severe fallout situations, it was considered necessary to make an inventory of the Swedish livestock buildings as to number, location, use and size. These data as well as data on geometry of buildings, building material and thickness of the material in walls and roofs are given in the present work. On the basis of the mentioned data, calculations were made of the shielding factors of different types of livestock buildings. The collected data can also be used in preparedness planning in relation to housing facilities for livestock and location and size of animal production in situations of crises or war. The calculations show shielding factors for different types of livestock buildings of normal ground area within the range of 0.18-0.71. The higher value indicates a fairly poor shielding effect. The inventory and the calculations show that in those regions in Sweden where the main part of the livestock is managed, the types of buildings are, however, characterized by radiation shielding factors of 0.3-0.4. Calculation were also made of the radiation level inside the buildings following decontamination of roofs or of surrounding ground. Ground decontamination only, i.e., removal of the upper contaminated surface layer, will reduce the radiation level inside the building. For most buildings the radius of the surrounding area to be decontaminated has to be 15-30 times larger than the width of the building in order to achieve a 50 percentage reduction of the radiation level inside the building. For buildings of medium or large size and with thick walls the radiation contribution from the roof is greater than the radiation from the ground, and regardless of the size of the ground areas decontaminated the radiation level inside these buildings will only be reduced by 20-30%. 15 refs, 11 figs, 14 tabs

  4. Status quo of AIDS control institutions and their capacity building in Health Ⅸ Project provinces/regions%卫九项目省(自治区)艾滋病防治机构和能力建设现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    项炯; 王德斌; 杨续兵; 洪倩

    2011-01-01

    Objective To analyze status quo of AIDS control institutions and their capacity building in Health Ⅸ Project provinces/regions. Methods A descriptive analysis was made of the data obtained from the final evaluation of the AIDS/STD control subcomponent of Health Ⅸ Project. Results First, in the past years, AIDS control leading groups were set up in project provinces/regions, cities and counties and the number of departments participating in the leading groups was increasing year after year. Second, various types of equipment and devices which were worth ten millions of yuan were secured for management and disease control purpose, and as a result, the network of AIDS diagnosis and screening at all levels was greatly improved and more HIV surveillance points were placed.Third, information technology was applied in an increasingly extensive way as a tool to verify HIV related testing and management in CDCs, hospitals and laboratories of blood centers. Fourth, managerial and technical staffs working for AIDS/STDs control in project provinces/regions improved their knowledge and skills by participating in conferences, training courses and study tours ( exceeding totally 280 000 persons/days). Conclusion Remarkable improvement has been achieved in AIDS control institutions in relation to their capacity building in Health Ⅸ Project provinces/ regions, which will greatly push forward AIDS control work in other related provinces/regions.%目的 了解卫九项目省(自治区,下同)艾滋病防治机构与能力建设现状.方法 利用卫九项目艾滋病(AIDS)/性病(STD)预防控制子项目终末评估调查数据进行描述性分析.结果 近年来,项目省、市、县各级全面成立了艾滋病防治领导小组,参与领导小组的成员部门数逐年上升;项目省得到了价值数千万元的各类防治与管理设备,各级艾滋病确证与初筛实验室网络建设得到了很好的发展,艾滋病病毒(HIV)监测哨点设置明显增多;

  5. Modelling the affordance in the field of green building

    OpenAIRE

    Bona, Audrey

    2016-01-01

    The energetic performance of sustainable buildings is significantly lower than expected and therefore the impact of user behaviour becomes a crucial element. Different solutions are implemented to achieve predicted performance; these range from information i.e. user guides, to the influence of user behaviour through building automation reducing the users’ control. The possibility of designing more efficient buildings without altering the relationship between the user and the building, and wit...

  6. User perspectives on outdoor noise in buildings with operable windows

    OpenAIRE

    Goins, John; Chun, Chungyoon; Zhang, Hui

    2012-01-01

    Recent research suggests that buildings with operable windows in general, and mixed-mode (MM) buildings in particular can provide improved thermal comfort and control opportunities for users. Yet, there have been concerns about outdoor noise sources like traffic or construction noise when windows are opened. Concerns like these may hinder the installation of operable windows in buildings. This paper examines 23,000 office building occupants' perspectives on noise from both sealed and naturall...

  7. Optimization of Pre Engineered Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B K Raghu Prasad

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Pre-engineered buildings have become quite popular in the last few years. The main advantages are speed of construction and good control over quality. However there is not much information on its economy. There are several parameters like the inclination of the gable, spans, bay spacing, which control the cost of the structure. In the present paper the above parameters are varied systematically and in each case the gable frame designed for the common loads DL, LL, EQ, and WL. The quantity in each case is obtained and finally the structure which regulates the lowest quantity of steel is recommended.

  8. Building perservation practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilegaard, Marie Kirstine

    of architects and planners is primarily to reconcile the conservation prospects with the future use of buildings and sites. They intermediary the site through selections of the narratives, and in practice the restoration or transformation projects becomes a communication of the selected story, utilized...... planning? In this paper I will focus on the communication of the architects working with building preservation and planning, how they communicate the building, the interventions and the storytelling in practice. The methods used by the architects are based on a practice, where some skills are learned...... through education, such as documentation of buildings and the restoration as a way of communicating the architect's intervention on the building, meanwhile the communication of the buildings history is seen as a "natural" skill and the methods are not questioned in the practice. The storytelling has today...

  9. Sustainable Building Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Ole

    2009-01-01

    Energy-savings in the existing building stock have becomes a main goal in national and international policies. Often focus is on building-renovations, whereas the potential of sustainable building operation to a large extent has been neglected. Nevertheless, international research as well...... as practical experiences from Danish housing estates indicates that there are large potentials for energy savings by focusing on the operation of the buildings. We suggest that in order to achieve sustainability in the existing housing, renovation and operations should be seen as integrated parts...... building operation as an 'umbrella' for various ways of reducing flows of energy, water and waste in the daily operation of the buildings, for instance by regular monitoring the consumption, by using 'green accounting', by applying policies for sustainability etc. The paper is based on case studies...

  10. Capacity Building in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Adam McCarty

    2001-01-01

    This report is the outcome of a study commissioned to examine the capacity building needs in Vietnam, and is a supplementary document to the Asian Development Bank's Country Operational Strategy for Vietnam. Vietnam's needs in terms of capacity building are particularly important given that is it a transitional economy and also one with little institutional experience in dealing with the international donor community. This paper examines the international awareness of capacity building and ca...

  11. Development of Ecological Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrius Keizikas

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The article presents research on ecological buildings and their influence on the constructional sphere. The aim of the paper is to reveal the essence of ecological architecture showing substantial progress and its potential to stimulate architectural and technological growth. The article also describes relations between the ideas of ecological buildings and the ‘passive house’ concepts and aspects of development as well as describes the possibilities of improving building sustainability and energy efficiency. Article in Lithuanian

  12. Building valve amplifiers

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Morgan

    2013-01-01

    Building Valve Amplifiers is a unique hands-on guide for anyone working with tube audio equipment--as an electronics hobbyist, audiophile or audio engineer. This 2nd Edition builds on the success of the first with technology and technique revisions throughout and, significantly, a major new self-build project, worked through step-by-step, which puts into practice the principles and techniques introduced throughout the book. Particular attention has been paid to answering questions commonly asked by newcomers to the world of the valve, whether audio enthusiasts tackling their first build or

  13. Healthy Buildings '88

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Healthy Buildings '88 Conference focuses on the technical solutions and functional requirements contributing to Healthy Buildings for people to live and work in. The main object of the Conference is to give architects, consultants, real-estate owners and manufacturers of building materials recommendations on choice of materials and choice of systems and on how to combine materials and systems. The program includes overview lectures, plenary symposia with invited speakers, workshops, poster presentations and an exhibition of scientific, educational and technical material. One part of the conference is devoted to the problem of radon in residential buildings

  14. Sick building syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjandra Y. Aditama

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Sick building syndrome describes a number of mostly unspesific complaints of some occupants of the building. The exact pathophysiological mechanism remains elusive. It is a multi factorial event which may include physical, chemical, biological as well as psycological factors. In many cases it is due to insufficient maintenance of the HVAC (heating, ventilation, air conditioning system in the building. Sign and symptoms can be uncomfortable and even disabling, which may include mucus membrane irritation, neurotoxic symptoms, asthma like symptoms, skin complaints, gastrointestinal symptoms and other related symptoms. There are various investigation methods to diagnose sick building syndrome, and on site assessment of the building is extremely useful. Prevention through a proactive air quality monitoring program is far more desirable than dealing with an actual sick building. Indoor air and the sick building symdrome serves as a paradigm of modern occupational and environmental medicine. (Med J Indones 2002; 11:124-31Keywords: indoor air pollution, sick building syndrome, building related illness

  15. Hybrid Simulation of Building and Air-conditioning System for Controller Development%用于控制器开发的建筑空调混合仿真系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张文彬; 晋欣桥; 杜志敏; 范波

    2011-01-01

    It is not convenient to program and debug the control logic on TRNSYS platform.Combined with MATLAB toolbox and LABVIEW virtual instrument development environment,the time can be shorten to develop the control strategy.Based on TRNSYS-based building and air conditioning systems simulation module,LABVIEW and MATLAB-based control system simulation module,the hybrid simulation system is setup and validated.The results show that the hybrid simulation system not only has the same accuracy as the simulation only using TRNSYS,but also it can be more convenient than the simulation only using TRNSYS.%对于暖通的仿真软件TRNSYS而言,其平台的控制模块具有开发难度大、调试不方便的特点,如果结合MATLAB工具箱和LABVIEW虚拟仪器开发环境建立控制仿真系统,则可以大大加快控制策略的开发和调试。本文在建立了基于TRNSYS的建筑和空调系统仿真模块和基于LABVIEW和MATLAB的控制系统仿真模块的基础上,建立了混合仿真系统,并对其进行了测试。测试结果表明,混合仿真系统的仿真精度与全数字仿真基本相同,但其应用于控制开发的便利性大大提高了。

  16. SmartBuildings. Implementation of demand-side-management systems; SmartBuildings. Implementierung von Lastmanagementsystemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jungwirth, Johannes; Saenger, Florian; Grahovac, Milica [TU Muenchen (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Energiewirtschaft und Anwendungstechnik; Roessel, Timm; Schneegans, Jakob; Herzog, Simon [TU Muenchen (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Bauklimatik und Haustechnik; Mikulovic, Vesna [Siemens Building Technologies Headquarters, Zug (Switzerland)

    2012-07-01

    A transition to flexible consumer load can contribute significantly to the integration of renewable energies. Precisely controllable electrical consumers from the building sector (heating, ventilation, air conditioning) are applicable for demand-side-management by using the thermal inertia of the building. In order to incentivize a load shift scenarios of flexible electricity rates are developed. Flexible users can shift their operation to times of lower prices and therefore minimize their electricity costs. Within a simulation of the building and the building services the impact of modified operation mode on thermal comfort of the room is analyzed and times of operation are optimized. The implementation of resulting theoretical potential of a load shift in a real building necessitates a simulation model of the building. Since the creation of these models is very complex, universally applicable adaptive models of the buildings are developed. After a training process those adaptive models have acquired the skill to predict the building behaviour. Now they are able to forecast effects of various modes of operation and provide a cost-optimized operation schedule for building technology. Neural networks used to build adaptive models deliver promising results. However, initial measurements and training periods are to be optimized. (orig.)

  17. Code Compliant School Buildings Boost Student Achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald B. Lumpkin

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Much of the focus in the literature in raising student achievement has included parental involvement, principal leadership, quality of instruction, students’ socioeconomic status, curriculum, and use of technology. Limited empirical research relates the condition of the school building as a variable that affects student achievement. Furthermore, there is no research that has examined the impact of building codes on achievement outcomes in the state of Florida. This research determined whether academic achievement of 4th-, 8th-, 9th-, and 10th-grade students as measured by the mathematics and reading subtests of the Florida Comprehensive Achievement Test (FCAT increased in new school buildings compliant to the 2000 Florida State Requirements for Educational Facilities. A causal-comparative design determined whether the independent variables, old and new school building influenced student achievement as measured by students’ FCAT mathematics and reading subtest scores. The control group was two cohorts of 4th-, 8th-, 9th-, and 10th-grade students who attended school in old buildings. The experimental group was two cohorts of 4th-, 8th-, 9th-, and 10th-grade students who attended school in new buildings. Transition from an old school into a new school was the treatment. Two hypotheses were formulated for testing and the research question for the inquiry was whether the percentage of students passing the FCAT mathematics and reading subtests increases after transitioning from an old school building into a new 2000 UBC (Uniform Building Code compliant facility.

  18. ANALYSES AND INFLUENCES OF GLAZED BUILDING ENVELOPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Jordan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of an analytical study of the functioning of glazing at two different yet interacting levels: at the level of the building as a whole, and at that of glazing as a building element. At the building level, analyses were performed on a sample of high-rise business buildings in Slovenia, where the glazing"s share of the building envelope was calculated, and estimates of the proportion of shade provided by external blinds were made. It is shown that, especially in the case of modern buildings with large proportions of glazing and buildings with no shading devices, careful glazing design is needed, together with a sound knowledge of energy performance. In the second part of the article, the energy balance values relating to selected types of glazing are presented, including solar control glazing. The paper demonstrates the need for a holistic energy approach to glazing problems, as well as how different types of glazing can be methodically compared, thus improving the design of sustainability-orientated buildings.

  19. Balancing Hydronic Systems in Multifamily Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruch, Russell [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, Chicago, IL (United States); Ludwig, Peter [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, Chicago, IL (United States); Maurer, Tessa [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2014-07-01

    In multifamily hydronic systems, temperature imbalance may be caused by undersized piping, improperly adjusted balancing valves, inefficient water temperature and flow levels, and owner/occupant interaction with the boilers, distribution, and controls. The imbalance leads to tenant discomfort, higher energy use intensity, and inefficient building operation. This research, conducted by Building America team Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, explores cost-effective distribution upgrades and balancing measures in multifamily hydronic systems, providing a resource to contractors, auditors, and building owners on best practices to improve tenant comfort and lower operating costs. The team surveyed existing knowledge on cost-effective retrofits for optimizing distribution in typical multifamily hydronic systems, with the aim of identifying common situations and solutions, and then conducted case studies on two Chicago area buildings with known balancing issues in order to quantify the extent of temperature imbalance. At one of these buildings a booster pump was installed on a loop to an underheated wing of the building. This study found that unit temperature in a multifamily hydronic building can vary as much as 61°F, particularly if windows are opened or tenants use intermittent supplemental heating sources like oven ranges. Average temperature spread at the building as a result of this retrofit decreased from 22.1°F to 15.5°F.

  20. Avances en la regulación y control del estado térmico del horno alto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babich, A.

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available An automated system of direction (SAD for the control of the thermal state of the hearth of the blast furnace is used, taking into account the interrelation existing between the pig iron temperature and its silicon content. By the magnitude of the thermal exergy of the process, which determines the heat work capacity the variations in the heating of the hearth can be valued and carried out the necessary control and regulation actions, such as the variations in the pulverized coal injection and in the sinter/coke relation in the melting bed of the blast furnace.

    Se utiliza un sistema automatizado de dirección (SAD para el control del estado térmico del crisol del horno alto, teniendo en cuenta la relación que existe entre la temperatura del arrabio y su contenido de silicio. Por la magnitud de la exergía térmica del proceso, que determina la capacidad de trabajo del calor, se pueden valorar las variaciones de calentamiento del crisol y realizar las acciones necesarias de control y regulación, como son las variaciones en la inyección de carbón pulverizado y en la relación sinterizado/coque en el lecho de fusión del horno alto.

  1. Drying kinetics of some building materials

    OpenAIRE

    Moropoulou, A.; M Karoglou; Giakoumaki, A.; Krokida, M. K.; Maroulis, Z. B.; G.D. Saravacos

    2005-01-01

    Moisture is one of the most deteriorating factors of buildings. The deteriorating effect of moisture occurs mainly during the drying phase, and not in the wetting phase. Appropriate parameters of the drying kinetics are required for the building materials. Environmental factors, such as air temperature, air humidity, and air velocity affect drying. An experimental air dryer of controlled drying air conditions was used to investigate the drying performance of 4 stone materials, 2 bricks and 7 ...

  2. Dynamic simulation of a high efficiency building

    OpenAIRE

    Dot Bardolet, Núria

    2009-01-01

    The dynamic simulation of the heat transfer between buildings and their environment is situdied through the software TRNSYS. First, a very simple building is considered and the energy demand for heating evaluated through TRNSYS is compared with that obtained by apllying the Italian Standard UNI TS 11300-1:2008. This excersise has the purpose of verifying the correct use of the simulation program. Then, the annual energy demand for heating, cooling and humidity control, with reference to a wel...

  3. Improving building technologies with a sustainable strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Carneiro, Paulo; Jerónimo, Alina; Silva, Vitor; Cartaxo, Fernando; Faria, Paulina

    2016-01-01

    In recent years it has been noticed the progressive disappearance of vernacular sustainable building technologies all over the world mainly due to a strong urban rehabilitation process with modern technologies not compatible with ancient knowledge. Simultaneously new dwellings are needed all over the world and in this sense it was decided to study an ecological and cost-controlled building technology of monolithic walls that can combine the use of low carbon footprint materials, such as earth...

  4. Naturalism in“To build a Fire”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李锦

    2014-01-01

    The short story“To build a Fire”by Jack London tells about the relationship between man and nature. Involving such themes as fear, death, and the individual versus nature,‘‘To Build a Fire’’is a naturalistic work of fiction in which Jack London depicts human beings as subject to the laws of nature and controlled by their environment and their physical makeup.

  5. Building-block selectivity of polyketide synthases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Grace F; Khosla, Chaitan

    2003-04-01

    For the past decade, polyketide synthases have presented an exciting paradigm for the controlled manipulation of complex natural product structure. These multifunctional enzymes catalyze the biosynthesis of polyketide natural products by stepwise condensation and modification of metabolically derived building blocks. In particular, regioselective modification of polyketide structure is possible by alterations in either intracellular acyl-CoA pools or, more commonly, by manipulation of acyl transferases that act as the primary gatekeepers for building blocks.

  6. Moisture Dynamics in Building Envelopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peuhkuri, Ruut Hannele

    2003-01-01

    and moisture conditions in the exterior weather and indoor climate the materials dynamically absorb and release moisture. The complexity of the impact of these conditions on the resulting moisture transport and content of the materials has been studied in this Thesis with controlled laboratory tests. The first...... part of the Thesis consists of a theory and literature review on the moisture storage and transport processes (Chapter 2), on the non-Fickian moisture transport (Chapter 3)and on the methods for determining the moisture properties (Chapter 4). In the second part, the conducted experimental work......The overall scope of this Thesis "Moisture dynamics in building envelopes" has been to characterise how the various porous insulation materials investigated performed hygrothermally under conditions similar to those in a typical building envelope. As a result of the changing temperature...

  7. Buildings for Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asian Regional Inst. for School Building Research, Colombo (Sri Lanka).

    The quarterly review for October and December 1967 of the Asian Regional Institute for School Building Research at Colombo, Ceylon--(1) reviews two main activities of a cost and space utilization study and a report of the workshop of the directors and UNESCO experts on regional educational buildings, (2) describes a method for determining teacher…

  8. Building a Better Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navah, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Kids love to build robots, letting their imaginations run wild with thoughts of what they might look like and what they could be programmed to do. Yet when students use cereal boxes and found objects to make robots, often the projects look too similar and tend to fall apart. This alternative allows students to "build" robots in a different way,…

  9. Building: Food for thought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efraïm Rodríguez

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The sculpture presented by Efraïm Rodríguez for the conference is titled “pequeño arquitecto” (The Little Architect, a figure which represents a child building a tower with pieces of classical children’s block building toys; the child itself is built out of the same sculpted materials.

  10. Building Numbers from Primes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhart, Jerry

    2009-01-01

    Prime numbers are often described as the "building blocks" of natural numbers. This article shows how the author and his students took this idea literally by using prime factorizations to build numbers with blocks. In this activity, students explore many concepts of number theory, including the relationship between greatest common factors and…

  11. Electromagnetically shielded building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This invention relates to a building having an electromagnetic shield structure well-suited for application to an information network system utilizing electromagnetic waves, and more particularly to an electromagnetically shielded building for enhancing the electromagnetic shielding performance of an external wall. 6 figs

  12. School Building Defect Pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahli M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In providing a conducive learning environment for the student, the school building must be in good condition. This paper is evaluating the existing condition of primary school building in Sarawak, Malaysia. It focuses on building defects pattern for school building. The primary data collection is from the school building condition survey with involvement of 24 primary schools. The schools have been selected using simple random sampling and stratified sampling (of school age as the variable of selection. The reporting method is based on Condition Survey Protocol (CSP 1 Matrix. Data analysis covers descriptive and inferential statistics. The analysis carried out found that the overall 4,725 defects have been identified. The building defect pattern is mainly on Ground Level of 3,176 defects, the highest number of defects components found on walls (798. 16.2% defects are cracks from 11 common defects and most of all the highest score of defects based on age of the building were the building in the range of 11 to 20 years.

  13. Integrated Building Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per

    In the first half of the 20th century, HVAC systems and artificial lighting were developed to meet indoor comfort needs. Before the introduction of mechanical systems, climate - not building style or appearance - was the major determinant of building form. Comfort was achieved through passive means...

  14. Heat loss from Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Kenneth; Næraa, Rikke

    1997-01-01

    Determination of heat loss coefficients for buildings in Denmark. The coefficient are determined for 15 building groups and 3 year intervals. They are based on the BBR-registre and assumptions of U-values(W/K*m2)and computed in a simple spreed sheet model.The results are used in the REVEILLE...... project for calculations in the SESAM model....

  15. Body-building

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    正In recent years, more and more people spare no pains to join in the body-building group. People begin to take part in various fitness clubs or fitness centers in their spare time. This shows body-building has become an indispensable part of many people’s life.

  16. Building a Data Warehouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Elliott

    2002-01-01

    Describes how to build a data warehouse, using the Schools Interoperability Framework (www.sifinfo.org), that supports data-driven decision making and complies with the Freedom of Information Act. Provides several suggestions for building and maintaining a data warehouse. (PKP)

  17. LARGE BUILDING RADON MANUAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report summarizes information on how bilding systems -- especially the heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system -- inclurence radon entry into large buildings and can be used to mitigate radon problems. It addresses the fundamentals of large building HVAC syst...

  18. Dancing building prevents collapse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visscher, R.

    2007-01-01

    In future, anybody caught inside a building during an earthquake need no longer fear the roof collapsing on them. Thanks to the use of composite materials, all the building will do is dance along, riding the waves of the earthquake. At least, according to Professor Ir. Adriaan Beukers of the Aerospa

  19. Energy Performance of Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per

    2007-01-01

    emissions in the coming years. By approving the Energy Performance in Buildings Directive the European Union has taken a strong leadership role in promoting energy efficiency in buildings in Europe, and the Directive will be the most powerful instrument developed to date for the building sector in Europe...... programme (ECCP) was established in June 2000 to help identify the most environmentally cost-effective measures enabling the EU to meet its target under the Kyoto Protocol, namely an 8% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions from 1990 levels by 2012. Energy use in buildings accounts for almost half of all CO......-effective energy saving potential of between 22% and 40% of the energy consumption in the sector by the year 2020. The paper presents the European approach to improve sustainability in the building sector, which has a very high potential for considerable reduction of energy consumption and green house gas...

  20. CERN's newest building

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Vernède

    2011-01-01

    With a growing number of users looking for offices, the shortage of space has become acute, particularly for physicists. Building 42, inaugurated on Friday 11 February, offers almost 300 new work-spaces and a particularly pleasant working environment.   Mauro Dell’Ambrogio, the Swiss State Secretary for Education and Research (left), Rolf Heuer , CERN Director-General (centre), and Mark Muller, President of the Government of the Republic and Canton of Geneva and Head of the Department of Construction and Information Technology (right) at the opening of Building 42 on 11 February, 2011.   Construction work for the new Building 42 began in January 2009, thanks to support from the Swiss foundation FIPOI (Fondation des immeubles pour les organisations internationales). After two years of work, the building, an extension of Building 40, is ready to accommodate physicists from around the world who have come to work on the LHC. "We had more than 25 external contractors working...